ADAM-4500 Series
ADAM-4500 Series
Ethernet-enabled Communication
Controller with I/O Modules
User's Manual
Copyright Notice
This document is copyrighted, 1997, by Advantech Co., Ltd. All rights are
reserved. Advantech Co., Ltd., reserves the right to make improvements to the
products described in this manual at any time without notice.
No part of this manual may be reproduced, copied, translated or transmitted in
any form or by any means without the prior written permission of Advantech Co.,
Ltd. Information provided in this manual is intended to be accurate and reliable.
However, Advantech Co., Ltd. assumes no responsibility for its use, nor for any
infringements upon the rights of third parties, which may result from its use.
Acknowledgments
ADAM is a trademark of Advantech Co., Ltd.
IBM and PC are trademarks of International Business
Machines Corporation.
Edition 1.1
October 2006
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 System Overview.……..................…..................…….. 1-1
1.1 Introduction .........…................................….........….…………. 1-2
1.2 Features ..................….........................…….............…....…….. 1-3
1.3 ADAM-4501/4501D Controllers Specification………….……...1-7
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines..................….................…....... 2-1
2.1 System Requirements…………………………………....….......
2.2 Hardware Installation …………….....................……...............
2.3 System Wiring and Connections.....................……...............
2.4 Software Installation….................................……….................
2-2
2-3
2-5
2-12
Chapter 3 I/O Modules ..................................................…............. 3-1
3.1 System Hardware Configuration……………………...….........
3.2 Install Utility on Host PC………….………………..…...............
3.3 ADAM-4500 Series Utility Overview..………………….……....
3.4 Initialize Drive D to Default Settings……………….....…........
3.5 Configure IP Address and HTTP/FTP User/Password……...
3.6 Download and Run Application Program Automatically
After Boot Up ………………………………………………….....
3.7 Backup Drive D as Image File …………………………….......
3.8 Restore Drive D from Image File …........................…...........
3-2
3-2
3-6
3-11
3-15
3-18
3-23
3-27
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions..................…......... 4-1
4.1 FTP Server..................................................................…..........
4.2 HTTP Server................................................................…..........
4.3 Send Mail ………………………………........................…..........
4.4 Modbus/TCP Server ………………................…......................
4.5 Modbus/TCP Client ......………………….................…….........
4.6 Modbus/RTU Slave …………………………………......…….....
4.7 Modbus/RTU Master ………………………..................…….....
4.8 TCP Server and Client .……………………..................…….....
4-6
4-9
4-24
4-31
4-38
4-42
4-49
4-53
4.9 UDP Connection …..….……………………..................……..... 4-66
4.10 FTP Client ………………….………………..................……..... 4-75
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library ..…..................... 5-1
5.1 Introduction ………………………..............................…........... 5-2
5.2 Category of Function Libraries ..………................................. 5-7
5.3 Function Library Description ................................................. 5-12
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility .....................................…..................... 6-1
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application......…..................... 7-1
Appendix A COM Port Register Structure ......................…......... A-1
Appendix B RS-485 Network ……................................…............. B-1
Appendix C Grounding Reference ......................…..................... C-1
1
System Overview
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.1 Introduction
Standalone Data Acquisition and Control System
As the growth of PC-based technology, Advantech PC-based
Programmable Controllers have been widely applied in variety of
industrial automation applications. Shrunk from the original
ADAM-5510 series controller, the ADAM-4500 Series Controller
is a new series of stand-alone programmable communication
controller. It does not only support high memory capacity, userfriendly configuration tool, rich serial communication interfaces,
but also support Ethernet port available and original libraries on
specific models. Applying the ADAM-4500 Series Controller, the
C programmers would be able to handle any complex task easily.
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller is a compact-sized Ethernetenabled communication controller under x-86 CPU architecture. It
supports not only Ethernet interface but also 4 serial ports, which
lets ADAM-4500 Series Controller be very suitable for industrial
communication and control applications. The Ethernet-enabled
features include built-in HTTP Server, FTP Server and E-mail
functions. The modularized I/O design provides high flexibility for
versatile application requirements. ADAM-4500 Series Controller
also supports rich Modbus function libraries including
Modbus/RTU (Master and Slave) and Modbus/TCP (Server and
Client) function libraries.
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller includes following models:
-
ADAM-4501
-
ADAM-4501D
Ethernet-Enabled Communication Controller
with 8 DI/O
Ethernet-Enabled Communication Controller
with 8 DI/O and LED Display
1-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.2 Features
The system of ADAM-4500 Series Controller consists of two major
components: the main unit and I/O modules. The main unit
includes the communication ports, CPU ….and so on. The I/O
Module of ADAM-4501/4501D includes the 8 digital I/O channels.
Besides, the ADAM-4501D also includes 7-segment display to
show needed information.
1.2.1 Control flexibility with C programming
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller includes an 80188 CPU and a
built-in ROM-DOS operating system. It can be used in a way
similar to how one uses an x86 PC in the office. Programmers in
C can write and compile applications in Borland C 3.0 and
download to the ADAM-4500 Series Controller. Given the
prevalence of C language programming tools, this is a distinct
advantage for many users and can result in a very short learning
curve and very modest training expense requirements.
1.2.2 RS-232/485 communication ability
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller has four serial communication
ports, giving it excellent communication abilities. This facilitates its
ability to control networked devices. The communication ports of
different models are listed as below table.
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4/Prog
ADAM-4501/4501D
RS-232(Full modem signal)
RS-485
RS-485
RS-485/RS-232
Table 1-1 Communication Ports of ADAM-4501/4501D Controller
ADAM-4501/4501D COM1 is a dedicated RS-232 port, COM2 and
COM3 are dedicated RS-485 port, and the fourth communication
port is shared by COM4 and Programming port. It is a selectable
port by using jumper.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 1-3
Chapter 1 System Overview
These four ports allowed the ADAM-4501/4501D to satisfy diverse
communication and integration demands. Programming port is for
downloading or transferring executable programs from a host PC
to ADAM-4500 Series Controller. It can also be used as an RS232 communication port (Refer to section 2.2.1 to see how to
configure COM4 as Programming port or standard RS-232
communication port). Please refer to following figure to check the
location of COM ports.
Figure 1-1 ADAM-4501 Communication Ports
1-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.2.3 Versatile
Libraries
Protocols
of
Communication
Function
The communication protocol of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller
is user-defined and there are library functions of MODBUS/RTU
protocol and MODBUS/TCP protocol available for users. Of
course, users can implement ASCII-based command and
response protocol by themselves. The function libraries include
following protocols.
-
MODBUS/RTU Master Function for connecting to remote I/O
modules via RS-485 port
MODBUS/RTU Slave Function for connecting to HMI/SCADA
software via RS-485 port
MODBUS/TCP Server Function for connecting to HMI/SCADA
software via Ethernet port.
MODBUS/TCP Client Function for connecting to Ethernetenabled remote I/O modules via Ethernet port.
1.2.4 Built-in ROM and RAM disk for programming
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller has built-in Flash Memory and
SRAM for file downloading, system operation and data storage. It
provides 1MB file system (960 KB free for users to download
programs). There are also 640KB SRAM to provide the memory
needed for efficient application operation and file transfer.
Moreover, users are allowed to decide the battery backup memory
size up to 384KB in the SRAM.
1.2.5 Built-in real-time clock and watchdog timer
The micro-controller also includes a real-time clock and watchdog
timer. The real-time clock records events while they occur. The
watchdog timer is designed to automatically reset the
microprocessor if the system fails. This feature greatly reduces
the level of maintenance required and makes the ADAM-4500
Series Controller ideal for use in applications which required a
high level of system stability.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 1-5
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.2.6 Built-in Ethernet Port
The Ethernet port on ADAM-4500 Series Controller can perform
powerful function as following:
-
FTP Server and Client Function
Web Server Function
Send Mail Function
TCP and UDP Connection by Sockets
1-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.3 ADAM-4501/4501D Controllers Specification
1.3.1 System
• CPU: 16-bit microprocessor
• Memory:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1.5MB Flash memory
- 256KB system Disk (Drive C: Read Only)
- 256KB flash memory (Accessed by Function LIB)
- 1024KB file system, 960KB for user applications (Drive
D: Read/Write)
640KB SRAM
- up to 384KB with battery backup (Accessed by
Function LIB)
Operating System: ROM-DOS (MS-DOS 6.22 Compatible)
Real-time Clock: yes
Watchdog Timer: yes
RS-232 interface: COM1
RS-485 interface: COM2, COM3
RS-232/485 interface: Programming Port & COM4 (Select by
jumper setting)
LAN port x 1: 10/100Base-T
On-board I/O Capacity:
Digital Input 4 Channels
Dry Contact:
Logic level 0: Close to GND
Logic level 1: Open
Wet Contact:
Logic level 0: +2 V max.
Logic level 1: 4 V ~ 30 V
Digital Output 4 Channels
Open Collector to +40 V, 200 mA (maximum load)
1.3.2 RS-232 interface (COM1)
• Signals: TxD, RxD, RTS, CTS, DTR, DSR, DCD, RI, GND
• Mode: Asynchronous full duplex, point to point
• Connector: DB-9 pin
• Transmission speed: Up to 115.2 Kbps
• Max transmission distance: 50 feet (15.2 m)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 1-7
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.3.3 RS-485 interface (COM2 & COM3)
• Signals: DATA+, DATA• Mode: Half duplex, multi-drop
• Connector: Screw terminal
• Transmission speed: Up to 115.2 Kbps
• Max transmission distance: 4000 feet (1220 m)
1.3.4 RS-485/232 interface (COM4 and programming port)
• RS-232/485 Mode Selectable (Select by jumper setting)
• RS-232 Mode (Programming port): Full duplex, point to point
Signals: TxD, RxD, GND
• RS-485 Mode: Half duplex, multi-drop
Signals: DATA+, DATA• Connector: Screw terminal
• Transmission speed: Up to 115.2 Kbps
• Max transmission distance:
RS-232: 50 feet (15.2 m)
RS-485: 4000 feet (1220 m)
1.3.5 Power
• Unregulated +10 to +30 VDC
• Power consumption: 2.0 W (Typically)
1.3.6 Mechanical
• Case: ABS and PC
• Plug-in screw terminal block: two 9-pin plug in screw terminals
Accepts #14~22 AWG (0.6~1.6 mm2)
1.3.7 Environment
• Operating temperature: -10° to 70° C (14° to 158° F)
• Storage temperature: -25° to 85° C (-13° to 185° F)
• Humidity: 5 to 95 %, non-condensing
• Atmosphere: No corrosive gases
Note: Equipment will operate below 30% humidity. However, static
electricity problems occur much more frequently. Make sure you take
adequate precautions when you touch the equipment.
1-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.3.8 Dimensions
The following diagrams show the dimensions of the system unit and
an I/O unit. All dimensions are in millimeters.
Figure 1-2 ADAM-4500 Series Controller Dimension
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 1-9
Chapter 1 System Overview
1.3.9 LED Status
There are four LED lights on the ADAM-4500 Series. The PWR, RUN
and COMM LED can be controlled using ADAM-4500 Series library
LED OFF and LED ON (refer to section 5.3.1). BATT LED is the
battery status indicator. This LED will be on whenever the SRAM
backup battery is low.
1.3.10 ADAM-4500 Series Controller System Architecture
Figure 1-3 ADAM-4500 Series Controller System Architecture
1-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
2
Installation Guidelines
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
This chapter explains how to install an ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
A quick hookup scheme is provided that let you easily configure your
system before implement it into your application.
2.1 System Requirements
Before you start to install the ADAM-4500 Series Controller, make
sure the system requirements as below:
2.1.1
Host Computer Requirements
1. IBM PC compatible computer with 486 CPU (Pentium grade is
recommended).
2. Microsoft XP/2000/NT/98/95 or higher versions.
3. DOS version 3.31 or higher.
3. Borland C 3.0 for DOS.
4. At least 32 MB RAM.
5. 20 MB of hard disk space available
6. VGA color monitor.
7. 2x or higher speed CD-ROM.
8. Mouse or other pointing devices.
9. At least one standard RS-232 port (e.g. COM1, COM2).
10. One RS-485 card or RS-232 to RS-485 converter (e.g.
ADAM-4520) for system communication.
11. Hub or Switch for Ethernet connection.
2-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
2.2 Hardware Installation
2.2.1
Jumper Settings
This section tells you how to set the jumpers to configure your
ADAM-4500 Series Controller. It provides system default configuration
and your options for each jumper. There are four jumpers on the CPU
card:
JP2 is for the reset mode setting.
JP5 is for battery backup RAM setting.
JP6 & JP7 is for COM4 communication mode selection setting.
The following figure shows the location of the jumpers:
Figure 2-1 ADAM-4500 Series Jumper Definition
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-3
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
Reset Mode Setting
Jumper JP2 on the CPU card lets you configure the reset mode:
1. Watchdog timer reset mode: if watchdog timer is enable, it have
to be cleared at least once every 1.6 seconds, or the system will
reboot. Please refer section 5.3.1 to see how to use function
library to configure watchdog timer.
2. NMI (Non-maskable interrupt) reset mode: once the NMI is
activated, the system will reboot.
3. Non-reset mode: there is no reset mode set for system.
The default setting of watchdog timer is “watchdog timer reset mode“.
Jumper settings are shown below:
Figure 2-2 Jumper of Reset Mode
Battery Backup RAM Setting
Jumper JP5 on the CPU card lets you configure the battery backup for
SRAM is Enable or Disable. The default setting of battery backup is
“Enable”. Jumper settings are shown below:
Figure 2-3 Jumper of battery backup
2-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
COM4 Communication Mode Selection Setting
The communication mode of COM4 is setting by the Jumper JP6 and
JP7. Please refer to Figure 2-9 to set the communication mode. The
default setting of COM4 is Programming port (RS-232 mode) for
program download. You can also set COM4 as RS-485 mode. Jumper
settings are listed below:
Figure 2-4 Jumper of COM4 communication mode selection
2.3
System Wiring and Connections
This section provides basic information on wiring the power supply,
I/O units, communication port connection and programming port
connection.
2.3.1
Power Supply Wiring
Although the ADAM-4500 Series Controller is designed for using a
standard industrial unregulated 24 V DC power supply, they accept
any power unit that supplies within the range of +10 to +30 VDC . The
power supply ripple must be limited to 200 mV peak-to-peak, and the
immediate ripple voltage should be maintained between +10 and +30
VDC. Screw terminals +Vs and GND are for power supply wiring and
the wires used should be sized at least 2 mm.
Figure 2-5 ADAM-4500 Series Controller power wiring
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-5
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
2.3.2
I/O modules wiring
The system uses a plug-in screw terminal block for the interface
between I/O modules and field devices. The following information
must be considered:
1. The terminal block accepts wires from 0.5 mm to 2.5 mm.
2. Always use a continuous length of wire. Do not combine wires to
make them longer.
3. Use the shortest possible wire length.
4. Use wire trays for routing where possible.
5. Avoid running wires near high energy wiring.
6. Avoid running input wiring in close proximity to output wiring where
possible.
The figures below show how to connect external signals to I/O
connector of ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
2.3.1.1
ADAM-4501/4501D
Figure 2-6 Dry contact wiring for DI channel
2-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
Figure 2-7 Wet contact wiring for DI channel
Figure 2-8 Digital output wiring
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-7
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
2.3.3
System Network Connection
Network Connection for System Configuration and Download
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller has a Programming port. This port
(COM4) allows you to program, configure, and troubleshoot the
ADAM-4500 Series Controller from your host computer. The
Programming port has an RS-232 interface and only uses TX, RX,
and GND signals. The cable connection and the pin assignment are
as follows:
Figure 2-9 System Configuration Wiring
2-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
Note: We also provide a friendly cable for Programming port wiring.
Please refer following pictures to wire the Programming port.
Figure 2-10 Cable Configuration Wiring
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-9
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
RS-232 Network
Integration
Connection
for
System
Monitoring
and
Since the connection for an RS-232 interface is not standardized,
different devices implement the RS-232 connection in different ways.
If you are having problems with a serial device, be sure to check the
pin assignments for the connector. We provide one cable to transfer
RJ-48 (COM1 connector on ADAM-4500 Series Controller) to DB9.
The following figure shows the pin assignments of the DB9 connector
for the ADAM-4500 Series Controller COM1 RS-232 port.
Figure 2-11 Pin Assignment of COM1
RS-485 Network
Integration
Connection
for
System
Monitoring
and
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller provides RS-485 interfaces for
multi-drop network integration. The COM2 & COM3 are dedicated
RS-485 interface. The COM4 is an RS-232/485 selectable COM port.
They are able to support the Modbus/RTU master and slave functions.
2-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
Ethernet Network Connection
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller provides Ethernet interface (RJ-45
type) for network integration. Usually, you will need to prepare an
Ethernet switch like as ADAM-6520 or hub for connecting to other
network devices as following figure.
Figure 2-12 Ethernet Connection
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 2-11
Chapter 2 Installation Guidelines
2.4 Software Installation
ADAM-4500 Series Controller comes with a Utility CD, containing
ADAM Product Series Utilities as system configuration tool. While you
Insert the CD into the CD drive (e.g. D:) of the host PC, the Utility
software setup menu will start up automatically. Click the ADAM-4500
Series icon to execute the setup program, and there will be a Utility
executive program installed in your host PC. See Chapter 3 I/O
Configuration and Program Download for the detail operation.
2-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
3
Program Download
Chapter 3 Program Download
This chapter explains how to use the ADAM-4500 Series Utility to
configure and download application programs
3.1 System Hardware Configuration
Before the system configuration, you will need to setup the
environment as mentioned in Chapter 2.1: System Requirements.
3.2 Install Utility Software on Host PC
ADAM-4500 Series Controller comes with a Utility CD, containing
ADAM Product Series Utilities as system configuration tools.
1. Insert the ADAM Utility CD into the CD drive of the host PC, and
the Utility software setup menu will start automatically. Click the
“Install Utility” button to install ADAM Series Utility.
3-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
2. Click on the “ADAM-4500 Series Utility” to setup ADAM-4500
Series Utility.
3. There will be dialog window showing, and click the ‘Next” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-3
Chapter 3 Program Download
4. Choose the dictionary path for installing ADAM-4500 Series Utility,
and then click the “Next” button.
5. Set name for Program Folder and click the “Next” button.
3-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
6. Click the “Finish” button to complete the installation.
7. After the ADAM-4500 Series Utility has been installed, you will
find three directories under “C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM4500 Series Utility” directory as following:
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-5
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.3 ADAM-4500 Series Utility Overview
1. Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot. (Initial mode is for
configuration and download program into ADAM-4501 controller.
Always set Initial mode when downloading program. Normal
mode will automatically run the downloaded program in the
autorun.bat file when ADAM-4500 Series Controller boots up.
Refer to section 3.6 for more detail)
2. Execute Adam4500.exe under C:\Program Files\Advantech\ ADAM4500 Series Utility\Program. Select the COM Port on your PC
which you use to connect to ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
3-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3. Click the “Refresh Folder” button to display the files and directories
on the drive D of ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
4. Click the “Config ADAM” button to test digital input/output on
ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-7
Chapter 3 Program Download
5. Check if there is enough space for download this application to
disk on ADAM-4500 Series Controller (Refer to the status bar). If
the space is greater than 40KB, click the “Yes” button to continue.
6. Built-in example will be downloaded into the controller. You can
use this example to test the functionality of DIO on ADAM4501/4501D.
3-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
7. Click the “Launch Terminal” button for launching terminal emulation
function. You can type DOS command in the termination window
to communicate with ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
8. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button for configuring network
(such as IP address, Gateway and DNS), FTP/HTTP server
settings and performing system initialization function. (Refer to
section 3.4 and 3.5 for more detail)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-9
Chapter 3 Program Download
9. Click the “Advantech Image Worker” button for backup drive D as
image file or restore image file to drive D. (Refer to section 3.7 and
3.8 for more detail)
10. Click the “Download” button for downloading programs or files
from host PC (on the left window) to ADAM-4500 Series
Controller (on the right window).
3-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.4 Initialize the drive D: to default settings.
Following steps will show you how to initialize the drive D to default
settings for ADAM-4500 Series Controller. The drive D of ADAM-4500
Series Controller will return to initial files and settings after this
function is performed.
1. Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
2. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-11
Chapter 3 Program Download
3. Select “HTTPFTP Server” and click the “Go” button. (This means
both HTTP and FTP server will be initialized)
4.
There will be window showing “Warning”, click “Yes” to initialize
drive D. Please note that drive D will be formatted and all the files
on drive D will be lost. If you would like to backup the drive
contents, please refer to section 3.7.
3-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
5. You will find the initialization process is performing.
6. Click the “OK” button to finish the initialization process.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-13
Chapter 3 Program Download
7. The directory of drive D will be refreshed as following picture.
8. The FTP and HTTP Server file is under “WEBROOT” directory.
3-14 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.5 Configure IP address and ftp/http user/password settings.
Following steps will show you how to configure IP address and
users/password of FTP server and HTTP server for ADAM-4500
Series Controller. Please note the default IP address is “10.0.0.1”.
1. Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
2. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-15
Chapter 3 Program Download
3. Select “Static IP” and fill in the IP address and Gateway IP. Select
“Obtain DNS address automatically”. Click the “Update” button to
perform the configuration.
Note: Above settings is only an example. You have to configure the
network settings according to your network environment.
4. Click the “OK” button to finish the network configuration.
3-16 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
5. Fill in the user name, password and access right for FTP server
and HTTP server. Click the “Update” button to perform the
configuration.
Note: This utility can only let you configure one user for FTP server
and one user for HTTP server. If you would like to configure multiusers for FTP server and HTTP server, please refer to chapter 4.
6. Click the “OK” button to finish the configuration.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-17
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.6 Download and run the application program automatically after
boot up
ADAM-4500 series can automatically run program after boot up by
including the program in the autorun.bat file. Following steps will
demonstrate how to run dhcpstat.exe automatically after boot up.
1. Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
2. Download the program dhcpstat.exe (under C:\Program Files\
Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\Drive_D\Extension_
files) onto ADAM-4500 Series Controller by click the “Download”
button.
3-18 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3. Find the autorun.bat file under C:\Program Files\Advantech\
ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\Drive_D\Default_files on the left
window (on the Host PC). Right click the autorun.bat and choose
“Edit”.
4. Add “D:\DHCPSTAT.EXE” in the autorun.bat file. After finishing
editing, save the file and close the windows.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-19
Chapter 3 Program Download
5. Update modified autorun.bat file onto ADAM-4500 Series
Controller by choose the autorun.bat file in the left window and
click the “Download” button.
6. Click the “Launch Terminal” button for launching terminal
emulation function.
3-20 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
7. Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. (In Initial mode,
program listed in autorun.bat will not automatically run after boot
up. it will automatically run after boot up only in Normal mode)
.
8. Reboot the ADAM-4500 Series Controller and check the terminal
window to see if dhcpstat.exe has been executed correctly.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-21
Chapter 3 Program Download
Note: There is another easier way to set program run automatically
after boot up. You don’t need to modify the autorun.bat on the host PC
and download to ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
In this example, put the switch into Initial Mode. Download the
program dhcpstat.exe onto ADAM-4500 Series Controller (as shown
in step 2 of the previous method).
Then right click the program dhcpstat.exe on the right window and
choose “Set to AutoRun>>Adam-4500”. It will modify the autorun.bat
(this has the same effect as step 3~5 of the previous method)
After that, click the “Launch Terminal” button (as shown by steps 6 of
previous method). Put the switch into Normal mode and then reboot.
Now you should see the terminal window the same as steps 8 of
previous method.
3-22 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.7 Backup drive D as image file.
Following steps demonstrate how to backup drive D as image file.
1. Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
2. Click the “Refresh” button. You can see latest files in drive D of
ADAM 4500 Series Controller by the right window.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-23
Chapter 3 Program Download
3. Click the “Advantech Image Worker” button to perform the backup
function.
4. Click the “Backup Image” button.
3-24 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
5. There will be warning dialog window showing. Check if there is
10KB free space on drive D of ADAM-4500 Series Controller by
the status bar at the bottom of right window. If the size is greater
than 10KB, click the “Yes” button to continue.
6. Select where you want to save the image file and type the image
file name. Then click the “Save” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-25
Chapter 3 Program Download
7. Backup function will start to process.
8. Click the “OK” button to finish the backup process.
3-26 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
3.8 Restore the drive D from image file.
Following steps will demonstrate how to restore image file to drive D.
In this example, we will use the image file produced in section 3.7.
1.
Put switch into Initial mode and then reboot.
2. Click the “Advantech Image Worker” button to perform the restore
function.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-27
Chapter 3 Program Download
3. Click the “Restore Image” button.
4. There will be warning dialog window showing. Make sure all files
on drive D can be deleted. Also make sure there is 10KB free
space on drive D of ADAM-4500 Series Controller by the status
bar at the bottom of the right window. If everything is okay, click
the “Yes” button.
3-28 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 3 Program Download
5. Select the image file you want to reload. (Here we use the image
file created in 3.7) Click the “Open” button.
6. Restore function will start to process.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 3-29
Chapter 3 Program Download
7. Click the “OK” button to finish the restore process. Reboot the
ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
8. Click the “Refresh” button. Check the drive D has been restored
from the backup image file.
3-30 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
4
Guidelines for Network Functions
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
The network features of ADAM-4500 Series Controller are very rich. In
order to shorten the learning time about versatile network features, the
network functions will be present by step-by-step demonstration in this
chapter. The detail information of related functions, utilities and
applications are shown on later chapters. The sample programs can
also be found after ADAM-4500 Series Controller utility on ADAM CD
is installed.
Before you start to test the network functions, you have to configure
two files as following.
SOCKET.CFG: Text file contains related configuration command.
SOCKET.UPW: Text file contains user name and password.
SOCKETS Configuration Files: SOCKET.CFG, HOSTS
SOCKETS use two files in the D:\CFG directory (default) or any other
directory specified by the SOCKETS environment variable. These files
are SOCKET.CFG, the default start-up file, and HOSTS, the host
names file. If not found, SOCKETS uses the default SOCKET.CFG in
the D:\CFG directory.
SOCKET.CFG is a text file containing configuration commands.
Empty lines and lines starting with # are ignored. Commands are used
to specify protocol parameters like the IP address of the stack,
interface parameters like Packet Driver or Asyncronous Serial lines,
routes and various other parameters. Here is a simple example:
IP address demo
Set the IP address of this host to 192.6.1.1.
Interface pdr if0 dix 1500 5
Use Packet Driver, naming the interface ‘if0’, MTU=1500,
Receive buffers = 5
Route add default if0 router
Route all traffic to unknown destinations via ‘if0’ using ‘router’
as a gateway
TCP mss 1460
TCP Maximum Segment Size = 1460.
4-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
TCP window 2920
TCP Maximum window = 2920.
Start prntserv
Start printer server on PRN using default port of 10.
HOSTS is an optional file containing mappings of IP addresses in
dotted decimal notation to names.
Sample HOSTS file:
192.6.1.1 demo
192.6.1.2 router
192.6.1.3 server
SOCKET.CFG Samples
The following configuration file contains the minimum possible
commands for a valid configuration file: just one. This is to specify that
the interface should use a Packet Driver, the interrupt vector, which
must be searched for. It should use DIX encapsulation, have an MTU
of 1500 and have a maximum of 5 receive buffers. Since no IP
address is specified, BOOTP will be used and the required operating
parameters will be retrieved from a BOOTP server, which must be
available on the network.
SOCKET.CFG:
interface pdr if0 dix 1500 5
The following is a more typical example specifying a static IP address,
a Packet Driver interface, a default route, the TCP MSS and
WINDOW.
SOCKET.CFG:
# Sample configuration file
ip address 192.6.1.1
interface pdr if0 dix 1500 5
route add default if0 192.6.1.2
tcp mss 1460
tcp window 2920
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-3
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Format of "SOCKET.UPW"
This is the same file used for the HTTP and FTP server’s (FTPD.EXE)
permissions. This file consists of lines where each line contains a
user's information. A line starting with a # is considered a comment
and is ignored. Each line consists of four fields:
<Username> <Password> <Working Directory> <Permissions> [# comment]
z
Username: The name of this user. If it is *, it will be used when
the client does not specify a username.
z
Password: This user's password. If it is *, no password is
required
z
Working Directory: The user will only have access to this
directory and its subdirectories. If it is ‘/’, this user has access to
the whole system. HTTP_DIR can be referred to as ‘\’. If a
relative path is specified, it is appended to HTTP_DIR.
z
Permissions: When a user is granted both FTP and HTTP
permissions, the FTP permissions must appear first, otherwise
they will be ignored. Permission are listed below:
FTP Rights:
d
change directories
c
create/delete directories
w
write files
r
read files
HTTP Rights:
e
get files
p
post files
g
use CGI
m
use remote console
Fields should be separated by single spaces. If any field is missing the
entry is ignored. A comment may follow the last field (permissions) of
the line.
4-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Here are two example configuration files, which are used by the
following demonstrations:
SOCKET.CFG:
# Packet driver settings
ip address 192.168.1.4
interface pdr if0 dix 1500 10 0x60
# The following will cause SOCKETS to display IP status
ip address
# The following lines set TCP parameters
ip ttl 64
tcp mss 1460
tcp window 2920
SOCKET.UPW:
su su / drwcepgm
# su can do everything on whole system.
* * \guest rg
# everyone can read (FTP) and get (HTTP)
# from %HTTP_DIR%\guest
test1 test1 \ drep
# test1 can change directories and read files (FTP)
# test1 get and post files (HTTP) in %HTTP_DIR%\
ftp1 ftp1 \guest rd
# ftp1 can read files and change directories (FTP)
# in %HTTP_DIR%\guest
# ftp1 has no HTTP rights
http1 http1 / epgm
# http1 can get and post files, use CGI,
# and use remote console.
# http1 has no FTP rights
user1 user1 \user\user1 rdcw
# user1 has full FTP access rights to the
# directory %HTTP_DIR%\user\user1
# user1 has no HTTP rights
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-5
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.1 FTP Server
Utility: FTPD.EXE
System configuration:
- Running FTP server on ADAM-4500 Series Controller
- FTP Client program on host PC
1. Download FTPD.EXE (under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\
Drive_D\Extension_files on Host PC) onto drive D under
“Webroot” directory. (Put switch into Initial mode)
4-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
2. Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Type “cd
webroot” to enter “Webroot” directory. Type “ftpd /r” to run
FTPD.EXE at resident.
3. Connect to the FTP server on Host PC. (The IP Address of Host
PC and ADAM-4500 Series Controller should be in the same
domain)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-7
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4. Login FTP server by typing user name and related password
(user names and passwords are listed in SOCKET.UPW under
\ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source \Drive_D\Default_files\Conf)
5. Check the files under “Webroot” directory are correctly.
4-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.2 HTTP Server
<<Example 1>>
Example program: HTTPDEMO.EXE (without CGI function)
Source file: HTTPDEMO.C under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source
\Example\httpEx directory (refer to Page 4-14)
Utility: HTTPD.EXE
System configuration:
- Running HTTP server on ADAM-4500 Series Controller
- Using Web Browser to connect to the HTTP server on Host PC
1. Download HTTPD.EXE under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\
Drive_D\Extension_files onto drive D under “Webroot” directory.
(Put switch into Initial mode)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-9
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
2. Using HTTPDEMO.PRJ to Build HTTPDEMO.EXE (under \ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source\Example\httpEx) and download
HTTPDEMO.EXE onto drive D under “Webroot” directory.
4-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3. Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Type “cd
webroot” to enter “Webroot” directory. Type “httpd /r” to run
HTTPD.EXE at resident.
4. Type “httpdemo” to run HTTPDEMO.EXE.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-11
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5. Run IE on Host PC, type URL “http://10.0.0.1/index.htm” and
login in by entering user name and password.
Note: 10.0.0.1 is the default IP of ADAM-4500 Series Controller, and
refers to SOCKET.CFG under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\
Source\Drive_D\Default_files\Conf to get real IP address. You
can refer to SOCKET.UPW for user name and password.
6. You should be able to see ADAM-4500 Series Controller built-in
I/O board ID as shown by figure below.
4-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
The following figure is the software architecture of HTTP Server
function. The HTTP Server is built-in in the ADAM-4500 series
Ethernet Controller. Whenever users open the IE Browser to acquire
data from ADAM-4500 series controller through Internet or Intranet, it
will call up the existed web pages to provide a monitor and control
portal. All of the commands from the web page must be linked via a
CGI program to the C control program which handle the real
read/write action in I/O channels.
Basically, there are three steps in the process of Web Monitoring &
Control.
1. Registration: Register a HTML name for the web page you
designed
2. User login and invoke control program: After registration, users
can invoke local control program by login Server
3. Local I/O activated by local control program
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-13
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
HTTPDEMO.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <process.h>
#include "4500drv.h"
#include "CGI_Lib.h"
FILE *fp;
int number = 0;
int count = 1;
void ReplaceStr(char *ptr_str1, char *ptr_str2, int len_str);
void main(void)
{
char * homepage_name = "index.htm";
if(!Http_Server_Reg(homepage_name))
return;
printf("Program exiting...");
HttpDeRegister("index.htm");
}
int far Callback(HTTP_PARAMS far* psParams)
//implement your program/in this function
{
static char *ptr_OO = 0;
char *tmpStr = 0;
static char Htm_Content[] = "HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r\n"
//content of html //page, content=1
"Content-type: text/html\r\n\r\n"
//means refreshes every 1 second
"<html><META HTTP-EQUIV=""Refresh"" content=1>"
"<b>The extension board ID is OOOOOOO</b><p>"
"</html>";
4-14 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
number++;
printf("Refresh %d times...\n", number);
if (!ptr_OO)
ptr_OO = strstr(Htm_Content, "OOO");
sprintf(tmpStr, "0x%X", Get_BoardID());
ReplaceStr(ptr_OO, tmpStr, 7);
HttpSendData(psParams->iHandle, Htm_Content, strlen(Htm_Content));
return RET_DONE;
}
void ReplaceStr(char *ptr_str1, char *ptr_str2, int len_str) //replace string
{
int i;
for(i=0; i<len_str; i++)
ptr_str1[i] = 32;
for(i=0; i<strlen(ptr_str2); i++)
ptr_str1[i] = ptr_str2[i];
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-15
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
<<Example 2>>
Example program: ADAM.EXE (with CGI function)
Source file: ADAM.C and WEBADAM.htm under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source \Example\httpEx directory (refer to Page 4-21)
Utility: HTTPD.EXE
System configuration:
- Running HTTP server on ADAM-4500 Series Controller
- Using Web Browser to connect to the HTTP server on Host PC
1. Download HTTPD.EXE (under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\
Drive_D\Extension_files) onto drive D under “Webroot” directory.
(Put switch into Initial mode)
4-16 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
2. Using ADAM.PRJ to Build ADAM.EXE (under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\Example\httpEx) and download ADAM.EXE onto
drive D under “Webroot” directory.
3. Download WebAdam.HTM onto drive D under “Webroot” directory.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-17
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4. Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Type “cd
webroot” to enter “Webroot” directory. Type “httpd /r” to run
HTTPD.EXE at resident.
5. Type “adam” to run Run ADAM.EXE.
4-18 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
6. Run IE on Host PC, type the URL as “http://10.0.0.1/web
adam.htm” (Note: 10.0.0.1 is the default IP of ADAM-4500 Series
Controller, and refer to SOCKET.CFG under \ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\ Drive_D\Default_files\Conf to get the real IP
address. You can refer to SOCKET.UPW for user name and
password)
7. You can set the status for ADAM-4500 Series Controller built-in
I/O board (EB50) by IE and then click the “Submit” button.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-19
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
8. Then you can see if the EB50 status is correctly updated in
ADAM-4500 Series Controller Utility.
4-20 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
ADAM.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <io.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include "4500drv.h"
#include "CGI_Lib.h"
extern unsigned _stklen = 3000;
extern unsigned _heaplen = 2000;
int far Callback(HTTP_PARAMS far* psParams);
int returnVal(char *ptr_name, char *ptr_end);
int count = 1;
void main(void)
{
char * homepage_name = "Adam.htm";
if(!Http_Server_Reg(homepage_name))
return;
printf("Program exiting\n");
HttpDeRegister("Adam.htm");
}
int far Callback(HTTP_PARAMS far* psParams)
//implement your program in this function
{
char buf[200],*p,*ptr_val,*ppass;
int iQueryLen;
char Re_Htm_Content[400];
char *ptr_Re = Re_Htm_Content;
int numberbytes;
int DoVal, DIVal;
*buf = 0;
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-21
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
iQueryLen = _fstrlen(psParams->szQuery);
if (iQueryLen)
_fmemcpy (buf,psParams->szQuery, iQueryLen);
numberbytes = HttpGetData(psParams->iHandle, buf + iQueryLen, 200 iQueryLen);
if (numberbytes < 0)
{
if (numberbytes == (-WOULDBLK))
return RET_OK;
else
printf("wrong input value\n");
}
iQueryLen += numberbytes;
ptr_Re += sprintf(ptr_Re, "HTTP/1.0 200 OK\r\nContent-type:
text/html\r\n\r\n<html><h1>");
if (strncmp(buf,"DOValues=", 9) == 0) {
ptr_val = buf + 9;
if ((p = strchr(ptr_val,'&')) == NULL)
printf("Please click Submit button..\n");
printf("the DO val is 0x%x\n", returnVal(ptr_val, p));
SetDO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, returnVal(ptr_val, p));
}
ptr_Re += sprintf(ptr_Re, "<P><P><A
HREF=\"/WebAdam.htm\">Back</A>.</html>\n");
HttpSendData(psParams->iHandle, Re_Htm_Content, ptr_Re Re_Htm_Content);
return RET_DONE;
}
int returnVal(char *ptr_name, char *ptr_end)
{
int r_Val, buf_idx;
char buf_val[10];
memset(buf_val, 0, 10);
for(buf_idx=0; buf_idx<10; buf_idx++)
4-22 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
if(ptr_name == ptr_end)
break;
buf_val[buf_idx] = ptr_name[buf_idx];
}
sscanf(buf_val, "%X", &r_Val);
return r_Val;
}
WEBADAM.htm
<html>
<head>
</head>
<body>
<b>
<p><p><p><p>
Please enter I/O status in hexadecimal format and click Submit.
</b>
<form action="Adam.htm" method=post name="login1">
<table>
<tr>
<td align=right><input name="DOValues" type=text size=30
maxlength=50></td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>
<input name="submit" type=submit value="Submit">
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</body>
</html>
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-23
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.3 Send Mail
Example program: AMAIL.EXE, MAIL.TXT
Source file: ALARMMAIL.C under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source
\Example\mail directory
Utility: SENDMAIL.EXE, MAKEMAIL.EXE
ADAM-4500 series configuration:
1. Right click on the right window and choose “Make Directory” (Put
switch into Initial mode)
2. Type “Mail” to name the directory and click on the “OK” button.
This directory is for download related executives and files later.
4-24 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3. Create “MAIL.txt” on the left window (on the host PC). Edit the
content of this file. When you finish the editing, save the file on
Host PC. This file is the content file which will be sent by e-mail
later.
4. Download MAIL.txt onto drive D under “MAIL” directory.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-25
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5. Download MAKEMAIL.EXE and SENDMAIL.EXE under \ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source\Drive_D\Extension_files onto drive D
under “MAIL” directory.
6. Using AMAIL.PRJ to Build AMAIL.EXE (under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source\Example\mail) directory and download
AMAIL.EXE onto drive D under “WEBROOT” directory.
4-26 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
7. Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Type “cd mail” to
enter “Mail” directory. Type “amail” to run AMAIL.EXE. This
executive will execute MAKEMAIL.EXE to build e-mail content.
Type the DO output value to trigger the action to send e-mail.
8. The executive will execute SENDMAIL.EXE to send the e-mail
content created by previous step.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-27
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
9. Check the mailbox and it should receive the email correctly.
Note: The IP address of ADAM-4500 series should be at the same
domain with the IP address of mail server, which will help you
to send out the email from ADAM-4500 series. If you ask
another mail server whose IP address is not at the same
domain, the mail server will verify the IP address of the email
sending from and then stop to provide service for sending out
the email for ADAM-4500 series.
4-28 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
ALARMMAIL.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <process.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "4500drv.h"
int SendAlarmMail(void);
int MakeAlarmMail(void);
int count = 1;
void main(void)
{
unsigned long div, dov;
unsigned int tmpcnt;
if(!MakeAlarmMail())
{
printf("make mail fail..");
return;
}
while(1)
{
printf("Please input digital output values: ");
scanf("%X", &dov);
if(dov == 0x33)
return;
SetDO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, dov);
printf("DO value 0x%X, press any key to continue\n", dov);
getch();
GetDIO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, &div);
if(div == 0x000f)
{
if(!SendAlarmMail())
{
printf("send mail error..");
return;
}
}
}
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-29
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
int MakeAlarmMail(void)
{
char * arg_To = "[email protected]";
char * arg_From = "[email protected]";
char * arg_subject = "-s5510TCP";
char * arg_MailContent = "-bmail.txt";
char * arg_O_mail = "-omail.dat";
printf("Making Mail..\n");
if(spawnlp(P_WAIT,
"d:\\mail\\makemail.exe",
"d:\\mail\\makemail.exe",
arg_To,
arg_From,
arg_subject,
arg_MailContent,
arg_O_mail,
NULL)==-1)
{
return 0;
}
return 1;
}
int SendAlarmMail(void)
{
char * arg1 = "smtp.123.com";
char * arg2 = "mail.dat";
printf("send Alarm mail prepare..\n");
if(spawnlp(P_WAIT,"d:\\mail\\sendmail.exe","d:\\mail\\sendmail.ex
e",arg1,arg2,NULL)==-1)
{
return 0;
}
return 1;
}
Note: Please refer to Chapter 6 Page 6-10 and 6-11 to see more
detail about Mail Function.
4-30 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.4 Modbus/TCP Server
Example program: DEMOTS.EXE
Source file: DEMOTS.C under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source
\Example\DemoModbus directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
Modbus/TCP Server
Ethernet port
Modbus/TCP
Ethernet port
Software application on another PC (ex: OPC Server)
Modbus/TCP Client
This example uses ADAM-4500 Series Controller as Modbus/TCP
server, and a PC on the same Ethernet network is Modbus/TCP client.
ADAM-4500 Series Controller writes on-board DIO value to address
40001, and Modbus/TCP client application such as OPC Server or
ADAMVIEW read the value from that address. (Address 0 of share
memory represents the address 40001 of Modbus address)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-31
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to set IP address of
ADAM-4500 Series Controller (Put switch into Initial mode)
2. Build DEMOTS.EXE from DEMOTS.PRJ under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source\Example\DemoModbus directory and
download DEMOTS.EXE onto drive D under root directory.
4-32 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3. Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Under the root
directory, run DEMOTS.EXE. This will launch Modbus/TCP server
on ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
4. Launch Advantech Modbus TCP OPC Server.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-33
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5. Create New Device under Advantech Modbus TCP OPC Server.
Set the correct IP address according to step 1.
6. Right click on the new device you have just created and choose
“New Tag”.
4-34 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
7. Configure the Tag Property.
8. You can see the value of address 40001 from Modbus/TCP server
on ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-35
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
DEMOTS.C
#include "mod.h"
#include "4500drv.h"
#define DATASIZE 250
#define sizeofShareMem 4000
int count=0;
int main(void)
{
SOCKET Sock_4500;
int err_code;
unsigned int Share_Mem[sizeofShareMem];
unsigned int tmpcnt=0;
int tmpidx;
unsigned long div;
memset(Share_Mem, 0, sizeof(Share_Mem));
if((err_code=ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(502, 5000, 7,
(unsigned char *)Share_Mem, sizeof(Share_Mem)))!=0)
//first step
{
printf("error code is %d\n", err_code);
}
Timer_Init();
tmpidx = Timer_Set(1000);
printf("Server started, wait for connect...\n");
while(1)
{
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update(); //second step: return 0
//NO packet, return 1 has packet
if(tmArriveCnt[tmpidx])
{
Timer_Reset(tmpidx);
disable();
GetDIO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, &div);
4-36 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Share_Mem[0] = div;
//write DIO status to modbus address 40001
enable();
}
}
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Release();
return 0;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-37
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.5 Modbus/TCP Client
Example program: DEMOTC.EXE
Source file: DEMOTC.C under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source
\Example\DemoModbus directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
Modbus/TCP Client
Ethernet port
Modbus/TCP
DI
Ethernet port
ADAM-6051 Ethernet-based DIO module
Modbus/TCP Server
This example uses ADAM-4500 Series Controller as Modbus/TCP
client to connect to the ADAM-6051 (support Modbus/TCP protocol
and can be a Modbus/TCP server here), and read the DI value of
ADAM-6051 through Modbus/TCP communication.
4-38 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1. Build DEMOTC.EXE from DEMOTC.PRJ under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source\Example\DemoModbus directory and
download DEMOTC.EXE onto drive D under root directory. (Put
switch into Initial mode)
2. Put switch into Normal mode and then reboot. Run
DEMOTC.EXE (remember to add IP address of ADAM-6051) to
launch Modbus/TPC client on ADAM-4500 Series Controller. You
can get DI value of ADAM-6051 now.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-39
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
DEMOTC.C
#include "mod.h"
#define Server_Port 502
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
char * ServerIP;
SOCKET SO_4500;
unsigned char HostData[MAXDATASIZE];
int DataByteCount = 0;
int tmp;
unsigned int tmpcnt=0, tmpcnt1=0;
int errcode;
memset(HostData, MAXDATASIZE, 0);
if(argc==2)
{
ServerIP = argv[1];
}
else
{
printf("Please input Server IP.\n");
return 0;
}
if(ADAMTCP_Connect(&SO_4500, ServerIP, Server_Port)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_Connect()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
printf("Starting to send..\n");
while(1)
{
//Query Adam-6051 Server
if((errcode=ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01,
0x01, 0x01, &DataByteCount, HostData))<=0)
4-40 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
if(errcode==TCPTimeOut_Err)
perror("Time Out.\n");
else
printf("Error: Error Code is %d\n", errcode);
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
else
{
printf("Adam-6051 Channel 0 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
printf("%2X", HostData[tmp]&0x01);
}
printf("\n");
}
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<50000; tmpcnt++) //delay
{for(tmpcnt1=0; tmpcnt1<4; tmpcnt1++){}}
}
return 1;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-41
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.6 Modbus/RTU Slave
Example program: DEMORS.EXE
Source file: DEMORS.C under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source
\Example\DemoModbus directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
Modbus/RTU Slave
COM Port
Modbus/RTU
COM port
Software application on another PC (ex: OPC Server)
Modbus/RTU Master
This example uses ADAM-4500 Series Controller as Modbus/RTU
slave, and a PC on the same serial network is Modbus/RTU master.
ADAM-4500 Series Controller writes onboard DIO value to address
40001, and Modbus/RTU client application such as OPC Server or
ADAMVIEW read the value from that address. (Address 0 of share
memory represents the address 40001 of Modbus address)
4-42 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1. Build DEMORS.EXE from DEMORS.PRJ under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\DemoModbus directory and
download DEMORS.EXE onto drive D under root directory. (Put
switch into Initial mode)
2. Run DEMORS.EXE. ADAM-4500 Series Controller will launch
Modbus/RTU master and write DIO value to address 40001.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-43
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3. Launch Advantech Modbus OPC Server.
4. Create New Device under Advantech Modbus OPC Server. (Set
Address as 3 according to the configuration in DEMORS.C)
4-44 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5. Right click on the new device you have just created and choose
“New Tag”.
6. Configure the Tag Property.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-45
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
7. Click “Monitor” under menu “View” to see the value get from
ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
8. You can see the DIO value of ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
4-46 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
DEMORS.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include "4500drv.h"
#include "RTU.h"
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
#define sizeofShareMem 10
int count;
void main()
{
unsigned int Share_Mem[sizeofShareMem];
char cCh;
char LSR_State;
unsigned int tmpcnt, tmpcnt1;
unsigned long div;
if(Modbus_COM_Init(COM2, Slave, (unsigned long)9600,
NO_PARITY, DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
printf("error\n");
return;
}
printf("init success!!\n");
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(3, (unsigned char *)Share_Mem,
sizeof(Share_Mem));
//
{
//
printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
//
return;
//
}
printf("server started..\n");
while(1)
{
disable();
GetDIO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, &div);
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-47
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
Share_Mem[0] = div;
//write DIO status to modbus address 40001
enable();
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<50000; tmpcnt++) //delay
{for(tmpcnt1=0; tmpcnt1<8; tmpcnt1++){}}
}
}
4-48 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.7 Modbus/RTU Master
Example program: DEMORC.EXE
Source file: DEMORC.C under \ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source
\Example\DemoModbus directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
Modbus/RTU Master
COM Port
Modbus/RTU
DO
COM Port
ADAM-4056S RS-485 DIO module
Modbus/RTU Slave
This example uses ADAM-4500 Series Controller as Modbus/RTU
master to connect to the ADAM-4056S (support Modbus/RTU protocol
and can be a Modbus/RTU slave here), and the DIO value of ADAM4056S module can be controlled by ADAM-4500 Series Controller
through Modbus/RTU communication.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-49
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1. Build DEMORC.EXE from DEMORC.PRJ under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\DemoModbus directory and
download DEMORC.EXE onto drive D under root directory. (Put
switch into Initial mode)
2. Run DEMORC.EXE and you will find the connection is successful
as following figure. You will also find the LEDs of ADAM-4056S
periodically switch ON/OFF by the command from DEMORC.EXE.
4-50 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
DEMORC.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#include <time.h>
#include "RTU.h"
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
void main()
{
unsigned char HostData[MAXDATASIZE];
int cnt=0;
unsigned int tmpcnt=0, tmpcnt1=0;
if(Modbus_COM_Init(COM2, Master, (unsigned long)9600,
NO_PARITY, DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
printf("error\n");
return;
}
printf("init success!!\n");
while(1)
{
cnt++;
if(cnt%2==0)
{
HostData[1]=0x0f;
HostData[0]=0xff;
}
else
{
HostData[1]=0x00;
HostData[0]=0x00;
}
if(cnt==10)
cnt = 0;
//Set 4056S status
if(!ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils(COM2, 0x02, 0x11, 0x0c,
0x02, HostData))
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-51
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
printf("fail send..");
}
else
printf("Success!!\n");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<50000; tmpcnt++) //delay
{for(tmpcnt1=0; tmpcnt1<4; tmpcnt1++){}}
}
}
4-52 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.8 TCP Server and Client
Example program: TSERVER.EXE and TCLIENT.EXE
Source file: TCP_SERVER.C and TCP_CLIENT.C under \ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
TCP Client
Ethernet Port
Download program
Ethernet (TCP/IP)
Ethernet Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
TCP Server
This example uses one ADAM-4500 Series Controller as TCP client to
connect to another ADAM-4500 Series Controller (as TCP server).
They can exchange data between each other through TCP/IP
communication.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-53
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1. Put switch of the two ADAM-4500 Series Controllers into Initial
mode. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to set IP
address for TCP Server (ADAM-4500 Series Controller)
2. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to set IP address for
TCP Client (another ADAM-4500 Series Controller)
4-54 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3. Build TSERVER.EXE from TSERVER.PRJ under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP and download it onto drive D
of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the TCP server.
4. Build TCLIENT.EXE from TCLIENT.PRJ under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP directory and download it onto
drive D of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the TCP
client.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-55
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5. Put switch of the two ADAM-4500 Series Controllers into Normal
mode and reboot the two controllers. Run TSERVER.EXE on the
ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the TCP server.
6. Run TCLIENT.EXE (add IP address of TCP server which you set
in step 1 as parameter) on another ADAM-4500 Series Controller
which is the TCP client. You should see the data received.
4-56 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
TCP_SERVER.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#include <malloc.h>
#else
#include <mem.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "socket.h"
#define Errno errno
#define FALSE 0
#define TRUE 1
#define Host_Port 5510
#define Max_Conn 40
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
SOCKET remoteSocket[Max_Conn];
int WaitSocketCount[Max_Conn];
int socketTotal = 0;
int timeoutRelease = FALSE;
void ReleaseClient(int idx_so);
int main(void)
{
SOCKET Sock_4500, New_Conn;
struct sockaddr_in Host_addr;
struct sockaddr_in Client_addr;
int sin_size;
int hasConnect, hasMessage;
int maxSocket, sidx, New_Sidx, numbytes, sidx2;
char buf[MAXDATASIZE];
unsigned long pulArgp;
char *str;
int tmpcount=1;
if ((Sock_4500 = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, 0)) ==
INVALID_SOCKET)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-57
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
perror("socket");
exit(1);
}
Host_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
Host_addr.sin_port = htons(Host_Port);
Host_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;
memset(&(Host_addr.sin_zero), 0, 8);
if (bind(Sock_4500, (struct sockaddr *)&Host_addr, sizeof(struct
sockaddr)) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("bind");
exit(1);
}
pulArgp = 1;
if(ioctlsocket(Sock_4500, FIONBIO, &pulArgp))
{
perror("ioctlsocket");
exit(1);
}
if (listen(Sock_4500, 5) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("listen");
exit(1);
}
hasMessage = FALSE;
memset(WaitSocketCount, 0, sizeof(WaitSocketCount));
printf("Server started, wait for connect...\n");
while(1)
{
if (socketTotal > 0)
hasConnect = Host_WaitForClient(Sock_4500, 0);
else
hasConnect = Host_WaitForClient(Sock_4500, 5);
4-58 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
if(hasConnect)
{
printf("Receive client connect request...\n");
sin_size = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);
if ((New_Conn = accept(Sock_4500, (struct sockaddr *)&Client_addr,
&sin_size)) == INVALID_SOCKET)
{
perror("accept");
continue;
}
if (New_Conn != INVALID_SOCKET)
{
if (socketTotal < Max_Conn)
{
remoteSocket[socketTotal] = New_Conn;
New_Sidx = socketTotal;
socketTotal++;
}
else
{
if (send(New_Conn, "Connetion full, you are going to be
disconnected!\n", 50, 0) == SOCKET_ERROR)
perror("send");
closesocket(New_Conn);
printf("Connetion full, disconnect client!\n");
}
}
else
printf("(TCP) Invalid incoming socket!\n");
str = "Hello, world!\n";
if (send(remoteSocket[New_Sidx], str, strlen(str), 0) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
perror("send");
}
if(socketTotal>0)
{
for(sidx=0; sidx<socketTotal; sidx++)
{
hasMessage = Host_WaitForClient(remoteSocket[sidx], 0);
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-59
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
if(hasMessage)
{
if((numbytes=recv(remoteSocket[sidx], buf, sizeof(buf), 0)) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
ReleaseClient(sidx);
}
else
{
if(numbytes>0)
printf("Server receive: %s", buf);
if(tmpcount%2==0)
str = "ACK\n";
else
str = "A C K\n";
if(numbytes==0)
{
ReleaseClient(sidx);
}
else if(send(remoteSocket[sidx], str, strlen(str), 0) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
ReleaseClient(sidx);
}
memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
tmpcount++;
if(tmpcount>100)
tmpcount = 1;
WaitSocketCount[sidx] = 0;
}
}
else
WaitSocketCount[sidx]++;
if(WaitSocketCount[sidx]>10000)
{
timeoutRelease = TRUE;
4-60 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
ReleaseClient(sidx);
}
}
}
}
return 0;
}
int Host_WaitForClient(int WaitSocket, int i_iWaitMilliSec)
{
fd_set FdSet;
struct timeval waitTime;
FD_ZERO(&FdSet);
FD_SET(WaitSocket, &FdSet);
waitTime.tv_sec = i_iWaitMilliSec / 1000;
waitTime.tv_usec = (i_iWaitMilliSec % 1000)*1000L;
if (select(0, &FdSet, NULL, NULL, &waitTime) > 0)
return TRUE;
return FALSE;
}
void ReleaseClient(int idx_so)
{
int sidx, sidx2;
sidx = idx_so;
if(timeoutRelease)
{
if (send(remoteSocket[sidx], "Connetion timeout, you are going to be
disconnected!\n", 53, 0) == -1)
perror("send");
}
if(remoteSocket[sidx]!=INVALID_SOCKET)
{
if(closesocket(remoteSocket[sidx])!=0)
printf("Release client resource fail!");
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-61
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
for(sidx2 = sidx; sidx2<= socketTotal-1; sidx2++)
{
if(sidx2<socketTotal-1)
{
WaitSocketCount[sidx2] = WaitSocketCount[sidx2+1];
remoteSocket[sidx2] = remoteSocket[sidx2+1];
}
else if(sidx2==socketTotal-1)
{
WaitSocketCount[sidx2] = 0;
remoteSocket[sidx2] = NULL;
}
}
socketTotal--;
if(timeoutRelease)
printf("Connetion timeout, disconnect client %d!\n", sidx);
else
printf("Socket error, disconnect client %d!\n", sidx);
if(socketTotal==0)
printf("Wait for client connect...\n");
timeoutRelease = FALSE;
}
4-62 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
TCP_CLIENT.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#include <malloc.h>
#else
#include <mem.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "socket.h"
#define Errno errno
#define Server_Port 5510
#define MAXDATASIZE 100
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
SOCKET SO_4500;
int numbytes=0;
char buf[MAXDATASIZE];
struct hostent *he;
struct sockaddr_in Server_addr;
char *str1, *str2, *str;
int tmpcount=1;
str1 = "TCP\n";
str2 = "Client\n";
if (argc != 2)
{
fprintf(stderr,"usage: server hostname\n");
exit(1);
}
if ((he=gethostbyname(argv[1])) == NULL)
{
perror("gethostbyname");
exit(1);
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-63
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
if ((SO_4500 = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_STREAM, IPPROTO_TCP)) ==
INVALID_SOCKET)
{
perror("socket");
exit(1);
}
Server_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
Server_addr.sin_port = htons(Server_Port);
Server_addr.sin_addr = *((struct in_addr *)he->h_addr);
memset(&(Server_addr.sin_zero), 0, 8);
if (connect(SO_4500, (struct sockaddr *)&Server_addr,
sizeof(struct sockaddr)) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("connect");
exit(1);
}
while(1)
{
if ((numbytes=recv(SO_4500, buf, MAXDATASIZE-1, 0)) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("recv");
exit(1);
}
if(numbytes>0)
{
printf("Received: %s",buf);
memset(buf, 0, sizeof(buf));
if(tmpcount%2==0)
str = str1;
else
str = str2;
sleep(1);
if (send(SO_4500, str, strlen(str), 0) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
4-64 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
perror("send");
exit(1);
}
tmpcount++;
if(tmpcount>100)
tmpcount=1;
}
else
{
closesocket(SO_4500);
break;
}
}
return 0;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-65
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.9 UDP Connection
Example program: USERVER.EXE and UCLIENT.EXE
Source file: UDP_SERVER.C and UDP_CLIENT.C under \ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP directory
Hardware configuration: see figure below
Host PC
Download program
COM Port
COM Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
UDP Client
Ethernet Port
Download program
Ethernet (UDP)
Ethernet Port
Programming port
ADAM-4500 Series Controller
UDP Server
This example uses one ADAM-4500 Series Controller as UDP client
to connect to another ADAM-4500 Series Controller (as UDP server).
They can exchange data between each other through UDP
communication.
4-66 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
1. Put switch of the two ADAM-4500 Series Controllers into Initial
mode. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to set IP
address for Server (ADAM-4500 Series Controller)
2. Click the “Adam-4500 Configuration” button to set IP address for
Client (another ADAM-4500 Series Controller)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-67
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3. Build USERVER.EXE from USERVER.PRJ under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP and download it onto drive D
of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the UDP server.
4. Build UCLIENT.EXE from UCLIENT.PRJ under \ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source \Example\TCP and download it onto drive D
of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the UDP client.
4-68 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
5. Put switch of the two ADAM-4500 Series Controllers into Normal
mode and reboot the two controllers. Run USERVER.EXE on the
ADAM-4500 Series Controller which is the UDP server.
6. Run UCLIENT.EXE (add IP address of TCP server which you set
in step 1 as parameter) on another ADAM-4500 Series Controller
which is the UDP client. You can see the data sent from server.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-69
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
UDP_SERVER.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#include <malloc.h>
#else
#include <mem.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "socket.h"
#define Errno errno
#define FALSE 0
#define TRUE 1
#define Host_Port 5510
#define MAXBUFLEN 100
int main(void)
{
SOCKET Host_Sock;
struct sockaddr_in Host_addr;
struct sockaddr_in Client_addr;
int hasMessage = FALSE;
unsigned long pulArgp;
char buf[MAXBUFLEN];
int addr_len, numbytes;
char* ackmsg = "ACK";
if ((Host_Sock = socket(PF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_UDP))
== INVALID_SOCKET)
{
perror("socket");
exit(1);
}
Host_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
Host_addr.sin_port = htons(Host_Port);
Host_addr.sin_addr.s_addr = INADDR_ANY;
memset(&(Host_addr.sin_zero), 0, 8);
4-70 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
if (bind(Host_Sock, (struct sockaddr *)&Host_addr, sizeof(struct
sockaddr)) == SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("bind");
exit(1);
}
pulArgp = 1;
if(ioctlsocket(Host_Sock, FIONBIO, &pulArgp))
{
perror("ioctlsocket");
exit(1);
}
printf("wait for client send message...\n");
while(1)
{
hasMessage = Host_WaitForMessage(Host_Sock, 0);
if(hasMessage)
{
addr_len = sizeof(struct sockaddr);
if ((numbytes = recvfrom( Host_Sock, buf, sizeof(buf), 0,
(struct sockaddr *)&Client_addr, &addr_len)) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("recvfrom");
if (errno == EWOULDBLOCK)
printf("EWOULDBLOCK");
break;
}
buf[numbytes] = 0;
printf("got packet \"%s\" from %s\n", buf,
inet_ntoa(Client_addr.sin_addr));
if ((numbytes=sendto(Host_Sock, ackmsg, strlen(ackmsg), 0,
(struct sockaddr *)&Client_addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr))) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-71
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
{
perror("sendto");
break;
}
}
}
closesocket(Host_Sock);
return 0;
}
int Host_WaitForMessage(int serverSocket, int i_iWaitMilliSec)
{
fd_set FdSet;
struct timeval waitTime;
FD_ZERO(&FdSet);
FD_SET(serverSocket, &FdSet);
waitTime.tv_sec = i_iWaitMilliSec / 1000;
waitTime.tv_usec = (i_iWaitMilliSec % 1000)*1000L;
if (select(0, &FdSet, NULL, NULL, &waitTime) > 0)
return TRUE;
return FALSE;
}
4-72 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
UDP_CLIENT.C
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
#include <malloc.h>
#else
#include <mem.h>
#endif
#include <string.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include "socket.h"
#define Errno errno
#define BufferSize 100
#define Host_Port 5510
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
SOCKET SO_4500;
struct sockaddr_in Server_addr;
struct sockaddr_in From_Addr;
struct hostent *he;
char buf[BufferSize];
int numbytes;
unsigned int From_Size;
char* msg = "UDP Client Conneted!";
if (argc != 2)
{
fprintf(stderr,"usage: uclient xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx\n");
exit(1);
}
if ((he=gethostbyname(argv[1])) == NULL)
{
perror("gethostbyname");
exit(1);
}
if ((SO_4500 = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, IPPROTO_UDP)) ==
INVALID_SOCKET)
{
perror("socket");
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-73
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
exit(1);
}
Server_addr.sin_family = AF_INET;
Server_addr.sin_port = htons(Host_Port);
Server_addr.sin_addr = *((struct in_addr *)he->h_addr);
memset(&(Server_addr.sin_zero), 0, 8);
if ((numbytes=sendto(SO_4500, msg, strlen(msg), 0,
(struct sockaddr *)&Server_addr, sizeof(struct sockaddr))) ==
SOCKET_ERROR)
{
perror("sendto");
exit(1);
}
printf("sent %d bytes to %s\n", numbytes,
inet_ntoa(Server_addr.sin_addr));
From_Size = sizeof(From_Addr);
if ((numbytes = recvfrom( SO_4500, buf, sizeof(buf), 0,
(struct sockaddr *)&From_Addr, &From_Size)) == -1)
{
perror("recvfrom");
exit(1);
}
buf[numbytes] = 0;
printf("got Ack packet \"%s\" from %s\n", buf,
inet_ntoa(From_Addr.sin_addr));
closesocket(SO_4500);
return 0;
}
4-74 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
4.10 FTP Client
1. Put switch into Initial mode. Download FTP.EXE under \ADAM4500 Series Utility\Source\ Drive_D\Extension_files\WebRoot onto
drive D under “Webroot” directory.
2. Put switch into Normal mode and reboot. Type “cd webroot” to
enter “Webroot” directory. Run FTP.EXE (add the FTP address of
the FTP server you want to connect).
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 4-75
Chapter 4 Guidelines for Network Functions
3. Login FTP server by typing your username and password. Then
you can start to enter FTP command to use the FTP server.
4-76 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
5
Programming and Function Library
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.1 Introduction
User-designed ADAM-4500 Series Controller application programs
make use of ADAM-4500 Series library functions. To make the most
efficient use of ADAM-4500 Series Controller’s memory space, the
ADAM-4500 Series function library has been separated into 10
smaller libraries. Therefore, a user can link only those libraries needed
to run his application, and only those libraries will be included in the
compiled executable. The smaller the linked libraries, the smaller the
compiled executable will be.
5.1.1 Programming detail about the ADAM-4500 Series Controller
The operating system of ADAM-4500 Series Controller is ROM-DOS,
which is a MS-DOS equivalent system. It allows users to run
application programs written in assembly language as well as highlevel languages such as C or C++. Certainly, there will be some
limitations when running application programs in the ADAM-4500
Series Controller. In order to build successful applications, please
keep the following limitations and concerns in mind.
5.1.2 Mini BIOS functions
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller provides four serial communication
ports including programming port for connecting peripherals, so the
mini BIOS of ADAM-4500 Series Controller only provides 10 function
calls. Since the user’s program cannot use other BIOS function calls,
the ADAM-4500 Series Controller may not work as intended.
Additionally, certain language compilers such as QBASIC directly call
BIOS functions that are not executable in ADAM-4500 Series
Controller. The ADAM-4500 Series Controller mini BIOS function calls
are listed in the following table.
5-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Function
07h
10h
11h
12h
15h
16h
Sub-function
0eh
87h
88h
c0h
0
1
2
18h
19h
1ah
0
1
2
3
4
5
1ch
Task
186 or greater cd-processor esc instruct
TTY Clear output
Get equipment
Get memory size
Extended memory read
Extended memory size
PS/2 or AT style A20 Gate table
Read TTY char
Get TTY status
Get TTY flags
Print "Failed to BOOT ROM-DOS"
message
Reboot system
Get tick count
Set tick count
Get real time clock
Set real time clock
Get data
Set data
Timer tick
Table 5-1: ADAM-4500 Series Controller mini BIOS function calls
5.1.3 Converting program codes
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller has an 80188 CPU. Therefore,
programs downloaded into its flash ROM must be converted into
80186 or 80188 compatible codes firstly, and the floating point
operation must be set to Emulation Mode. For example, if you develop
the application program in Borland C, you will compile the program as
following picture.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-3
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Figure 5-1: Select “Advanced code generation”
Figure 5-2: Select “Emulation” and “80186” settings
5.1.4 Libraries Sized for Different Memory Modes
The ADAM-4500 Series function libraries support four memory models:
SMALL, MEDIUM, COMPACT and LARGE. You can use library files
sized according to your memory model. For example, if you use small
model you can link UTILITYS.LIB and LIOS.LIB to implement system
and low speed I/O module access functions. On the other hand, if you
use large model, you can link UTILITYL.LIB and LIOL.LIB.
5-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Figure 5-3: Select “Code generation”
Figure 5-4: Select “Small” Model while using *S.LIB
5.1.5 Limitations
Certain critical files are always kept in flash ROM, such as operating
system, BIOS, and monitoring files. The ADAM-4500 Series Controller
provides an additional 1MB flash disk as drive D. There is up to
960KB free space for user’s application program. As some additional
system files and network utilities for ADAM-4500 Series Controller is
distributed on drive D, the free space for user’s application program
should be less than 960KB. Besides, there are 256KB flash memory
and up to 384KB battery SRAM for user’s applications which can be
accessed by function library.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-5
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Warning: The free space of flash disk is not suitable for
frequently creating and deleting files such as periodic
data logging application because the DOS FAT file
system is probably destroyed by critical operations
while the disk is almost full. The better way is to take
the operations on battery backup SRAM.
5.1.6 Programming the watchdog timer
The ADAM-4500 Series Controller is equipped with a watchdog timer
function that resets the CPU or generates an interrupt if processing
comes to a standstill for any reason. This feature increases system
reliability in industrial standalone and unmanned environments.
If you decide to use the watchdog timer, you must write a function call
to enable it. When the watchdog timer is enabled, it must be cleared
by the application program at intervals of less than 1.6 seconds. If it is
not cleared at the required time intervals, it will activate and reset the
CPU, or generate a NMI (Non-Maskable Interrupt). You can use a
function call in your application program to clear the watchdog timer.
At the end of your program, you still need a function call to disable the
watchdog timer.
5-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.2 Category of Function Libraries
ADAM-4500 Series Controller has 10 categories of function libraries
as following:
-
Category A. System Functions (UTILITY*.LIB)
Category B. I/O Module Functions (HIO*.LIB)
Category C. Communication Functions (A4_COMM*.LIB)
Category D. MODBUS/RTU Functions (RTU*.LIB )
Category E. MODBUS/TCP Functions (MBTCP*.LIB)
Category F. Socket Functions (SOCKET*.LIB)
Category G. HTTP Functions (CGI_LIB*.LIB)
Note 1: These function libraries support Borland C 3.0 for DOS only.
Note 2: Please include all necessary ADAM-4500 Series function
libraries in your project file.
5.2.1 Category A: System Functions (UTILITY*.LIB)
adv_printf()
ADAMdelay
Get_BoardID
Get_NodeID
GetRTCtime
SetRTCtime
LED_init
LED_OFF
LED_ON
EraseSector
ProgramByte
ProgramSector
read_mem
Get_SysMem
Set_SysMem
Get_NVRAM_Size
Set_NVRAM_Size
write_backup_ram
read_backup_ram
Timer_Init
Timer_Reset
Timer_Set
Release_All
tmArriveCnt
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-7
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
WDT_clear
WDT_disable
WDT_enable
display_inti()
display_digit()
BatteryStatus()
Ver()
5.2.2 Category B: I/O Module Functions (HIO*.LIB)
InitDIFilter()
GetDIO()
SetDIO()
Ver_HIOLib()
5.2.3 Category C: Communication Functions: (A4_COMM*.LIB)
SIO_Open()
SIO_Close()
SIO_SetState()
SIO_RecvBytes()
SIO_SendBytes()
SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes()
SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf()
SIO_PurgeBuf()
SIO_MakeCheckSum()
SIO_MakeCRC16()
SIO_Carrier()
SIO_ClearBreak()
SIO_SetBreak()
SIO_GetLineStatus()
SIO_SetLineParams()
SIO_GetModemStatus()
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR()
SIO_ModemInitial()
SIO_ModemAutoanswer()
SIO_ModemCommand()
SIO_ModemCommand_State()
SIO_ModemDial()
SIO_ModemHandup()
Ver_COMLib()
5-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.2.4 Category D: MODBUS/RTU Functions (RTU*.LIB)
Modbus_COM_Init()
Modbus_COM_Release()
Error_Code()
ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils()
ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil()
ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs()
ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg()
ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus()
ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs()
ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs()
ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus()
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create()
Ver_RTU_Mod()
5.2.5 Category E: MODBUS/TCP Functions (MBTCP*.LIB)
Ver_TCP_Mod()
Modbus TCP Client Functions:
ReturnErr_code()
ADAMTCP_Connect()
ADAMTCP_Disconnect()
ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils()
ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil()
ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs()
ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg()
ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus()
ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs()
ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs()
ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus()
Modbus TCP Server Functions:
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create()
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update()
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Release()
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-9
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.2.6 Category F: Socket Functions (SOCKET*.LIB)
Socket function:
accept ()
bind ()
closesocket ()
connect ()
ioctlsocket ()
getpeername ()
getsockname ()
getsockopt ()
htonl ()
htons ()
inet_addr ()
inet_ntoa ()
listen ()
ntohl ()
ntohs ()
recv ()
recvfrom ()
select ()
send ()
sendto ()
setsockopt ()
shutdown ()
socket ()
Database function:
gethostbyaddr()
gethostbyname()
gethostname ()
getservbyport()
getservbyname()
getprotobynumber()
getprotobyname()
5-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.2.7 Category G: HTTP Functions (CGI_LIB*.LIB)
Socket function:
HttpRegister()
HttpDeRegister()
HttpGetData()
HttpSendData()
HttpSubmitFile()
HttpGetStatus()
HttpGetVersion()
GetStackPointer()
GetStackSegment()
SetStackPointer()
SetStackSegment()
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-11
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3 Function Library Description
5.3.1 System Functions (UTILITY*.LIB)
adv_printf
Syntax:
void adv_printf(char *pFormat, ...);
Description:
Print string to console. This function has the same usage as printf()
function. However, it has lower priority to be executed.
Parameter
The same as printf() of standard Borland C 3.0 library function.
Return value:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
adv_printf("Hello, this is for test.”);
}
Remarks:
If printf() function is put within while loop such as Modbus/RTU server
function, it will decrease the performance of server function due to
higher priority of printf(). So it is strongly recommended that uses
adv_printf() instead, which has lower priority than printf().
5-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMdelay
Syntax:
void ADAMdelay(unsigned short msec)
Description:
Delays program operation by a specified number of milliseconds.
Parameter
msec
Description
From 0 to 65535.
Return value:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
/* codes placed here by user */
ADAMdelay(1000); /* delay 1 sec. */
/* codes placed here by user */
}
Remarks:
ADAMDelay will possibly decrease the performance so it is
recommended to use for loop instead.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-13
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Get_BoardID
Syntax:
unsigned char Get_BoardID(void)
Description:
Gets the ID number of EB50 (built-in I/O board).
Parameter
None.
Return value:
The return value is the ID number of EB50 (built-in I/O board).
Remarks:
None.
5-14 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Get_NodeID
Syntax:
unsigned char Get_NodeID(void)
Description:
Gets the ID number of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
The ID number of the ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
int i, j;
unsigned char mID, found;
adv_printf("\n Welcome to ADAM4500 PC-Based Controller");
adv_printf("\n Scan I/O module ...");
adv_printf("\n ADAM4500 NodeID = %02Xh", Get_NodeID() );
/* Scan ADAM4500 Slot IO Module */
mID = Get_BoardID();
found=0;
if( mID == EB50_ID)
{
adv_printf("\n Slot = EB50");
found=1;
}
if(found == 0) adv_printf("\n Slot = None installed");
}
Remarks :
None
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-15
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
GetRTCtime
SetRTCtime
Syntax:
unsigned char GetRTCtime(unsigned char Time)
void SetRTCtime(unsigned char Time,unsigned char data)
Description:
GetRTCtime: Reads Real-Time Clock chip timer. A user can activate
a program on the date desired.
SetRTCtime: Sets date and time of the real-time clock.
Parameter
Time
data
Description
RTC_sec
RTC_min
RTC_hour
RTC_day
RTC_week
RTC_month
RTC_year
New contents.
the second
the minute
the hour
the day
day of the week
the month
the year
Return value:
The value requested by the user.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{unsigned char sec=0,min=0,hour=12;
adv_printf("Time %02d:%02d:%02d\n",GetRTCtime(RTC_hour),
GetRTCtime(RTC_min), GetRTCtime(RTC_sec));
adv_printf("Set current time 12:00:00\n");
SetRTCtime(RTC_sec,sec);
SetRTCtime(RTC_min,min);
SetRTCtime(RTC_hour,hour);
adv_printf("Time %02d:%02d:%02d\n",GetRTCtime(RTC_hour),
GetRTCtime(RTC_min), GetRTCtime(RTC_sec));
}
Remarks:
None.
5-16 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
LED_init
LED_OFF
LED_ON
Syntax:
void LED_init(void)
void LED_OFF(int which_led)
void LED_ON(int which_led)
Description:
Turns LED lights on and off. The LED I/O port must be initialized first.
It will take a little time for the light to stabilize following the signal for
the turning on and turning off of the light.
Parameter:
Parameter
which_led
Value
PWR
RUN
COMM
Description
The PWR LED
The RUN LED
The COMM LED
Return value:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
LED_init();
/* flash COMM led */
while(1)
{
LED_ON(COMM);
ADAMdelay(500);
LED_OFF(COMM);
}
}
Remarks:
None.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-17
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
EraseSector
ProgramByte
ProgramSector
Syntax:
unsigned short EraseSector( unsigned long ulBase )
unsigned short ProgramByte( unsigned long ulAddress, BYTE byte )
unsigned short ProgramSector( unsigned long ulAddress_s, unsigned
char far * SECTOR_DATA)
Description:
EraseSector: Erases a 64 KB sector of data in the 256 KB Flash
memory
ProgramByte: Programs a byte of information into the 256 KB Flash
memory. This feature supports data-logging or mass
information storage.
ProgramSector: Programs an entire 32 KB sector of data of the global
variable, SECTOR_DATA[], into 256 KB Flash
memory.
Parameter
ulBase
Description
User-determined address range to be erased,
taken from addresses in the range 0x80000L to
0xB0000L.
ulAddress
User–determined destination address for byte
transfer, taken from the range 0x80000L to
0xBFFFFL.
byte
The data user wants to write into the specific byte
in the Flash memory.
ulAddress_s
User-determined destination address in the Flash
memory, taken from addresses in the range
0x80000L to 0xB8000L.
SECTOR_DATA Pointer at the starting address in the origin memory
of the user's data array.
Return value:
1
Successful transfer to Flash memory.
0
Error (destination already occupied, excess address range,
or program error).
5-18 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
read_mem
Syntax:
unsigned char read_mem (int memory_segment , unsigned int i)
Description:
Reads far memory data, 256 KB Flash memory, from 0x80000L to
0xBFFFFL, where (the Absolute Address) = (SEG*16 + OFFSET). For
example, (0x800FFL) = (0x8000*16 + 0x00FF).
Parameter
memory_segment
i
Description
User-determined address taken from the range
0x8000 to 0xBF00.
Offset for use in location of memory taken from
the range 0x0000 to 0x0FFF.
Return value:
The value in memory storage at the indicated address.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
unsigned char sector[32768];
unsigned char data;
unsigned long addr,sector_num;
unsigned int i;
adv_printf("erase sector 0x80000L\n");
if(EraseSector(0x80000L))
adv_printf("erase succeed \n");
adv_printf("Write data(55) to 0x80000~0x80001\n");
data=55;
ProgramByte(0x80000L,data);
ProgramByte(0x80000L+1,data);
ProgramByte(0x80000L+2,data);
for(i=0;i<3;i++)
{
adv_printf("read%d data=%d\n",i,read_mem(0x8000,0x0000+i));
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-19
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
adv_printf("erase sector 0x80000L\n");
if(EraseSector(0x80000L))
adv_printf("erase succeed \n");
data = 1;
for(i=0;i<32768;i++)
*(sector+i)=data;
adv_printf("Write data(0x01) to 0x80000~0x87FFF\n");
ProgramSector(0x80000,&sector);
for(i=0;i<100;i++)
{
adv_printf("read%d data=%d\n",i,read_mem(0x8000,0x0000+i));
}
}
Remarks:
None.
5-20 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Get_SysMem
Set_SysMem
Syntax:
unsigned char Get_SysMem(unsigned char which_byte)
void Set_SysMem(unsigned char which_byte, unsigned char data)
Description:
Get_SysMem: Reads a byte from security SRAM.
Set_SysMem: Writes a byte to security SRAM. Security SRAM
supports 113 bytes for user storage of important
information.
Parameter
which_byte
data
Description
From 0 to 112, user-determined.
Value to be saved.
Return value:
Get_SysMem: Get the value in a byte of security SRAM.
Set_SysMem: None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
unsigned char data[4] = {1,2,3,4};
int i;
/* save current value */
for(i=10;i < 14;i++)
{
Set_SysMem(i, data[i-10]);
adv_printf("data=%d\n",Get_SysMem(i));
}
}
Remarks:
None
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-21
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Get_NVRAM_Size
Set_NVRAM_Size
Syntax:
unsigned char Get_NVRAM_Size(void)
void Set_NVRAM_Size(unsigned char sector)
Description:
Get_NVRAM_Size: Gets the size of battery backup RAM.
Set_NVRAM_Size: Sets the size of battery backup RAM.
(The unit is sectors, each sector is 4KB in size. Maximum size is 384
KB theoretically.)
Parameter
sector
Description
NVRAM size in 4 KB sectors, from 1 to 96 sectors.
Return value:
Get_NVRAM_Size: sector Number of sectors NVRAM size is set to,
from 1 to 96.
Set_NVRAM_Size: None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main()
{
unsigned char sector;
sector = Get_NVRAM_Size();
adv_printf(“Backup ram=%dKbyte\n”,sector*4);
/*Set Bacup ram 40Kbyte*/
Set_NVRAM_Size(10);
}
Remarks:
None.
5-22 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
write_backup_ram
read_backup_ram
Syntax:
void write_backup_ram(unsigned long index, unsigned char data)
unsigned char read_backup_ram(unsigned long index)
Description:
write_backup_ram : Writes a byte to battery backup memory.
read_backup_ram : Reads the value in backup RAM at index address,
maximum 384 KB total backup RAM, index = 0 –
393214
Parameter
index
data
Description
An index for data in the battery backup RAM, from 0
to 393214; maximum 384 KB battery backup SRAM
in total.
A byte of data that the programmer wants to write to
battery-protected SRAM.
Return value:
write_backup_ram: None.
read_backup_ram: The single-byte value in backup RAM at address
index.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main()
{
unsigned long addr;
unsigned char data;
/*write the data 0x55 into battery backup memory, index=10*/
data=0x55;
write_backup_ram(10,data);
adv_printf("data=%x\n",read_backup_ram(10));
}
Remarks:
None
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-23
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Timer_Init
Syntax:
int Timer_Init()
Description:
Initializes the timer built into the 80188 microprocessor. The return
value “0” means the initialization of the time was successful. The
return value “1” means the timer had already been initialized.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
0: Initialization was successful.
1: The timer had already been initialized.
Remarks:
None.
Example:
Refer to Release_All
5-24 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Timer_Reset
Syntax:
void Timer_Reset(int idx)
Description:
Reset the timer identified by the integer idx to its initial state.
Parameter
idx
Description
Timer index. (Timer ID)
Return value:
None.
Remarks:
None.
Example:
Refer to Release_All
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-25
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Timer_Set
Syntax:
int Timer_Set(unsigned int msec)
Description:
Requests a timer from the microprocessor and then sets the time
interval of the function. Timer intervals are set in 5 millisecond
increments. The function return value is an integer representing the ID
of the timer function when it is successful.
A return value “-1” means the request failed. Programmers should
consider whether an assigned timer has timed-out when programming
for timer functions.
The value of the variable tmArriveCnt[idx] (where idx is the timer ID)
can be checked to verify timer status. Value of 0 indicates that the
timer is still counting. Values other than 0 mean the timer has timedout.
Parameter
msec
Description
Time interval set, max. value is 65536.
Return value:
0~100 Function Succeed. Value represents the timer ID.
-1
Function failure.
Remarks:
Timer function calls in the ADAM-4500 Series are emulated as timer
functions in a PLC. Applications using timer functions will run less
efficiently if the more timer functions are running simultaneously in a
program.
Example:
Refer to Release_All
5-26 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Release_All
Syntax:
void Release_All()
Description:
Releases all timer resources of the ADAM-4500 Series system.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
None.
Remarks:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main()
{
int idx;
/* Initializes the timer built into the 80188 microprocessor */
Timer_Init();
/* Sets time interval of the timer to 1 second.
*/
idx=Timer_Set(1000);
/* Checks whether the timer has timed out
*/
while(tmArriveCnt[idx]==0)
{
/* user can attend to other tasks...
*/
adv_printf("test");
}
/* Resets the current timer to its initial state.
Timer_Reset(idx);
/* Releases all timer resources
*/
Release_All();
*/
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-27
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
WDT_clear
WDT_disable
WDT_enable
Syntax:
void WDT_clear(void)
void WDT_disable(void)
void WDT_enable(void)
Description:
WDT_clear:
Clear watchdog timer.
WDT_disable: Disable watchdog timer.
WDT_enable: Enable watchdog timer.
When the watchdog timer is enabled, it will have to be cleared at least
once every 1.6 seconds, or the system will automatically reboot. The
watchdog timer default value is “disable”.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
None.
Example:
#include "4500drv.h"
void main(void)
{
int i;
WDT_enable();
for(i=0;i<100;i++)
{
/*put your code in Here*/
WDT_clear();
/*put your code in Here*/
}
WDT_disable();
}
Remarks:
None
5-28 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
display_init
display_digit
Syntax:
void display_inti(unsigned char decode_mode)
int display_digit(unsigned char *data, unsigned char digit, unsigned
char len)
Description:
7-segment display setting
Display_init: Initialize all 7-segment displays.
Display_digit: Writes the numeric into the all 7-segment displays.
Parameter
decode_mode
data
digit
len
z
Description
Decode mode. (0 is No decode, 1 is Code B decode)
The display value.
There are five 7-segment LED displays. This
parameter determines which display is the starting
LED display. It can be 1~5.
Total number of LED diplays you want to control.
No Decode mode:
The bit D0~D7 are the corresponding LED segment.
For example: data 30(hex) can show the “1” of the LED character. (D5
/D4 are 1 and others are 0)
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-29
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
z
Code B Decode mode:
Above this table, 7-SEGMENT CHARACTER is the value showed on
LED displayed and REGISTER DATA is setting value. When the bit
D7 is “1” (bit4~bit6 can be arbitrary bumber), the value will be a
decimal point.
For example: data 3(hex) can show the number “3” of the LED
character. And data 83 can show the number “3. ” of the LED
character
Return value:
None.
Example:
Refer to C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility
\Source\Example\Basic_Function\ex1.C for this example
#include "4500drv.h"
#include "dos.h"
5-30 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
void
main(void)
{
unsigned char data[5] = {1,2,3,4,5} ;
int i;
display_init(1);
printf("please input 5 numbers (0 - 9):\n");
for (i=0; i<5 ;i++)
{
scanf("%d",&data[i]);
if (data[i]<0 || data[i] > 9)
{
printf("input error, exit");
exit(0);
}
}
display_digit(&data,1,5);
exit(0);
}
Remarks:
None.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-31
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
BatteryStatus
Syntax:
int BatteryStatus(void)
Description:
Check the power status of battery which is used by battery backup
SRAM.
Parameter
None.
Return value:
0
1
The power ststus of battery is almost run out. It is strongly
recommend to change a new battery.
The power status of battery is still normal.
Example:
None.
5-32 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Ver
Syntax:
void Ver(char *vstr)
Description:
Check Utility Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array of Utility Library version information
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of utility library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-33
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3.2 I/O Module Functions (HIO*.LIB)
InitDIFilter
Syntax:
void InitDIFilter(int iCh, unsigned int MIN_Lo_Width, unsigned int
MIN_High_Width)
Description:
Set time interval of digital filter for DI channel.
Parameter
iCh
MIN_Lo_Width
MIN_High_Width
Description
Channel no. (0 ~ 4)
Time interval of DI filter for Low state.
(5 ~ 65535 msec)
Time interval of DI filter for High state.
(5 ~ 65535 msec)
Return Value:
None.
Remarks:
Reference Data:
Time Interval
15 ms
30 ms
50 ms
Cut-off Frequency
50 Hz
20 Hz
12 Hz
5-34 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
GetDIO
SetDO
Syntax:
UCHAR GetDIO(UCHAR i_ucModuleID, UCHAR i_ucMode, UCHAR
i_ucChannel, ULONG * o_ulValue)
UCHAR SetDO(UCHAR i_ucModuleID, UCHAR i_ucMode, UCHAR
i_ucChannel, ULONG i_ulValue)
Description:
Read/Write the value of digital input /ouput channels.
Parameter
i_ucModuleID
i_ucMode
i_ucChannel
o_ulValue
i_ulValue
Description
Module ID.
SingleChannel or AllChannels.
SingleChannel: the channel you use.
AllChannels: don’t care.
DIO value read from module.
DIO value wrritten to module.
Return Value:
If success, return 0. If fail, returns a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Board_Not_Exist
-7
Remarks:
None
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-35
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Ver_HIOLib
Syntax:
void Ver_HIOLib(char *vstr)
Description:
Get HIO Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array of HIO Library version information.
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver_HIOLib(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
Remarks:
None.
5-36 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
DIO Example:
Refer to C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility
\Source\Example\Basic_Function\Ex2.C for this example
#include "4500drv.h"
void main()
{
int tmpCnt=0;
char c;
unsigned char type;
unsigned long div, dov;
char Ver_Str[30];
Ver_HIOLib(Ver_Str);
printf("The HIO library version is %s\n", Ver_Str);
/* ---- First scan for the existing IO modules -------*/
type = Get_BoardID();
/*----Show the module type of each slot on the screen ---*/
if( type == EB50_ID)
printf("IO slot is EB50\n");
else
printf("IO slot is Null\n");
printf("press any key to continue...\n");getch();
/*--- Digital I/O modules don't need to be initialized ---*/
/*---- Forever loop until the user press any key */
while(1)
{
tmpCnt++;
/*--- Set DO Value ------*/
printf("\n\nSet and Get All Channels Test:\n");
if((tmpCnt%2)==0)
dov=0;
else
dov=0xf;
if(SetDO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, dov)==0)
{
printf("Set DO value 0x%X, ", dov);
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-37
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
printf("press any key to continue..\n");getch();
if(GetDIO(EB50_ID, AllChannels, 0, &div)==0)
{
printf("DI value is 0x%X\n", div);
}
else
printf("Get DI failed\n");
}
else
printf("Set DO failed!\n");
printf("\n\nSet and Get Sigle Channel Test:\n");
if((tmpCnt%2)==0)
dov=0;
else
dov=1;
if(SetDO(EB50_ID, SingleChannel, 1, dov)==0)
{
printf("Set DO channel 1 value %X, ", dov);
printf("press any key to continue..\n");getch();
if(GetDIO(EB50_ID, SingleChannel, 1,
&div)==0)
{
printf("Channel 1 DI value is %x\n",
div);
}
else
printf("Get DI failed\n");
}
else
printf("Set DO failed!\n");
printf("press 'Q' to quit, the other key to continue..\n");
c=getch();
if( c == 'q' || c == 'Q')
break;
}
}
5-38 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3.3 Communication Functions (A4_COMM*.LIB)
SIO_Open
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_Open(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Initializes the COM port and interrupt service routine before other
function calls use the COM port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to initial (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, returns a negative number as follows:
COM_already_installed
-1
Err_Access_COM
-2
No_Such_Port
-3
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-39
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_Close
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_Close(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Release resource of the specific COM port. If a user calls the
SIO_Open function, the user must call this function to release the
COM port before the user's program terminates.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to release (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, returns a negative number as follows:
No_Such_Port
-3
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
5-40 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_SetState
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_SetState(UCHAR i_ucPort, ULONG i_ulBaudRate,
UCHAR i_ucParity, UCHAR i_ucDataBits, UCHAR i_ucStopBits)
Description:
Sets the parameters such as baud rate, parity, data bits and stop bits
for the specific COM port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ulBaudRate
i_ucParity
i_ucDataBits
i_ucStopBits
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
The Baud Rate number you want to set up.
The Parity you want to set up (see remarks).
The data bits you want to set up (see remarks).
The stop bits you want to set up (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
No_Such_Port
-3
COM_Not_Installed
-4
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucParity
i_ucDataBits
i_ucStopBits
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
NO_PARITY (0x00)
ODD_PARITY (0x08)
EVEN_PARITY (0x18)
DATA5 (0x00)
DATA6 (0x01)
DATA7 (0x02)
DATA8 (0x03)
STOP1 (0x00)
STOP2 (0x04)
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
No parity
Odd parity
Even Parity
5 Data Bits
6 Data Bits
7 Data Bits
8 Data Bits
1 Stop Bits
2 Stop Bits
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-41
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_RecvBytes
Syntax:
INT SIO_RecvBytes(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR i_ucMode, UINT
i_uinBytes, UCHAR * o_ucDataBuf)
Description:
This function call is employed to received string data from the specific
COM port. On success, this function call returns the total bytes has
been read from the specific COM port. On fail, function call returns a
negative value as error code.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucMode
i_uinBytes
o_ucDataBuf
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Decide to use Block mode or UnBlock mode.
(When using Block mode, program will block here
until i_uinBytes data is received. When using UnBlock
mode, program will not block and return the total
number of bytes data have been received directly.)
Number of bytes to be read.
A buffer for received data.
Return value:
If success, returns the total number of bytes read. If fail, return a
negative number as follows:
No_Such_Port
-3
Illegal_Setting
-5
RequestOverQueueSize
-6
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucMode
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Block_Mode (0x01)
UnBlock_Mode (0x02)
5-42 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Block mode
UnBlock mode
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_SendBytes
Syntax:
INT SIO_SendBytes(UCHAR i_ucPort, UINT i_uinBytes, UCHAR *
i_ucDataBuf)
Description:
To send character(s) to a specified COM port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_uinBytes
i_ucDataBuf
Description
The Port number you want to send (see remarks).
Number of bytes to be sent.
A buffer for sending data.
Return value:
If success, return the number of bytes have been sent. If fail, return a
negative number as follows
No_Such_Port
-3
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-43
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes
SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf
Syntax:
INT SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes(UCHAR i_ucPort)
INT SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes: Returns the number of bytes in input buffer.
SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf: Returns the number of bytes in output buffer.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes: If success, return the number of bytes data
in input buffer. If fail, return a negative
number as follows
No_Such_Port
-3
SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf:
If success, return the number of remaining
available bytes space in output buffer. If fail,
return a negative number as follows
No_Such_Port
-3
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
5-44 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_PurgeBuf
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_PurgeBuf(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR i_ucFlag)
Description:
User can clear input buffer and output buffer together with argument
i_ucFlag.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucFlag
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Decide which buffer you want to clear. You can
choose to clear input buffer or output buffer (see
remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
No_Such_Port
-3
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucFlag
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Clear_RXBuffer (0x01)
Clear_TXBuffer (0x02)
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Clear input buffer
Clear output buffer
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-45
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
COM Port Communcation Example 1:
Refer to C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\Example\Basic_Function\ExCOM.C for this example
#ifdef Product_5510
#include "5510drv.h"
#elif defined Product_4500
#include "4500drv.h"
#endif
#include <conio.h>
#include <dos.h>
#define DataLen50
#define RecvDataLen
30
void main()
{
UCHAR tmpCOM, Idx=0;
CHAR Data[DataLen];
UCHAR Mode=0;
//0=>Receive, 1=>Send
CHAR VerStr[30];
UCHAR RecvMode;
UCHAR nByte=0, nTotalByte=0;
printf("Arthur New COM Port Library Test 3.3\n");
printf("=================================\n\n");
Ver_COMLib(VerStr);
printf("Com Library Version: %s\n", VerStr);
printf("Enter receive mode( 1: Block mode, 0: unBlock mode):");
scanf("%d", &tmpCOM);
if(tmpCOM==0)
RecvMode=UnBlock_Mode;
else
RecvMode=Block_Mode;
#ifdef Product_5510
printf("Enter COM port selection( 1: COM1, 2: COM2, 3:
COM4)");
5-46 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
scanf("%d", &tmpCOM);
if(tmpCOM==1)
tmpCOM=COM1;
else if(tmpCOM==2)
tmpCOM=COM2;
else if(tmpCOM==3)
tmpCOM=COM4;
#elif defined Product_4500
printf("Enter COM port selection( 1: COM1, 2: COM2, 3: COM3,
4: COM4)");
scanf("%d", &tmpCOM);
if(tmpCOM==1)
tmpCOM=COM1;
else if(tmpCOM==2)
tmpCOM=COM2;
else if(tmpCOM==3)
tmpCOM=COM3;
else if(tmpCOM==4)
tmpCOM=COM4;
#endif
else
{
printf("Wrong selection!\n");
return;
}
printf("Opening COM Port with 57600 baud...\n");
if(SIO_Open(tmpCOM)!=0)
{
printf("error\n");
return;
}
if(SIO_SetState(tmpCOM, (unsigned long)57600, NO_PARITY,
DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
printf("Set State Error\n");
return;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-47
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_PurgeBuf(tmpCOM, Clear_RXBuffer);
SIO_PurgeBuf(tmpCOM, Clear_TXBuffer);
while(1)
{
if(Mode==0)
{
if(RecvMode==Block_Mode)
{
if(SIO_GetAvaiRecvBytes(tmpCOM)>=RecvDataLen)
{
if(SIO_RecvBytes(tmpCOM,
Block_Mode, RecvDataLen, Data)==RecvDataLen)
{
if(Data[RecvDataLen1]==0x0d)
{
Mode=1;
Idx=0;
}
else
{
printf("Error
Receive\n");
return;
}
}
else
{
printf("Error
Receive\n");
return;
}
}
else
{
//do something else here
}
}
5-48 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
else if(RecvMode==UnBlock_Mode)
{
while(nTotalByte<RecvDataLen)
{
if((nByte=SIO_RecvBytes(tmpCOM, UnBlock_Mode,
RecvDataLen, &Data[nTotalByte]))>=0)
{
nTotalByte+=nByte;
}
else
{
printf("Error
Receive\n");
return;
}
}
Mode=1;
Idx=0;
nTotalByte=0;
}
}
else
{
if(SIO_GetAvaiSendBuf(tmpCOM)>=RecvDataLen)
{
if(SIO_SendBytes(tmpCOM,
RecvDataLen, Data)==RecvDataLen)
{
Idx=RecvDataLen;
if(Data[Idx-1]==0x0d)
{
Mode=0;
Idx=0;
}
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-49
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
else
{
printf("Error Send\n");
return;
}
}
else
{
printf("do something send\n");
//do something else...
}
}
}
SIO_Close(tmpCOM);
}
5-50 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_MakeCheckSum
Syntax:
UINT SIO_MakeCheckSum(UCHAR * i_ucDataBuf, UINT i_uiLen)
Description:
Calculates the checksum of the string or data array (i_ucDataBuf).
Parameter
i_ucDataBuf
i_uiLen
Description
The string or data array for which a user wants to
calculate the checksum.
The length of the string or the data array.
Return value:
The checksum value of the data array buffer
Remarks:
None.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-51
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_MakeCRC16
Syntax:
UINT SIO_MakeCRC16(UCHAR * i_ucDataBuf, UINT i_uiLen)
Description:
Calculates the CRC 16-bit value of the string (i_ucDataBuf).
Parameter
i_ucDataBuf
i_uiLen
Description
The string which you want to calculate CRC code.
The length of string (i_ucDataBuf).
Return value:
The CRC16 code.
Remarks:
None.
5-52 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_Carrier
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_Carrier(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Detects the carrier signal of the specific COM port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return TRUE(1). If fail, return a non-positive number as
follows:
FALSE
0
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-53
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ClearBreak
SIO_SetBreak
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ClearBreak(UCHAR i_ucPort)
CHAR SIO_SetBreak(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
SIO_ClearBreak: Sets the specific COM port to clear BREAK signal.
SIO_SetBreak: Sets the specific COM port to send BREAK signal.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
5-54 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_GetLineStatus
SIO_SetLineParams
SIO_GetModemStatus
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_GetLineStatus(UCHAR i_ucPort)
CHAR SIO_SetLineParams(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR i_ucParams)
CHAR SIO_GetModemStatus(UCHAR i_ucport)
Description:
SIO_GetLineStatus: Reads line control register of specific COM port.
SIO_SetLineParams: Writes to line control register of specific COM
port.
SIO_GetModemStatus: Reads modem status register of specific COM
port.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucParams
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
UART register parameter (refer to Appendix A for the
16C550 UART register document).
Return value:
If success, return the UART register value (refer to Appendix A for the
16C550 UART register document). If fail, return a negative number as
follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-55
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR(UCHAR
i_ucL_R _Mode, UCHAR i_ucSignal)
i_ucPort,
UCHAR
Description:
Lower or raise the RTS/DTR signal.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucL_R_Mode
i_ucSignal
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Decide to raise or lower signal (see remarks).
Decide to set RTS or DTR signal (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucL_R_Mode
i_ucSignal
Value
COM1
RaiseSignal (0x01)
LowerSignal (0x02)
Signal_RTS (0x01)
Signal_DTR (0x02)
5-56 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
Raise signal
Lower signal
RTS signal
DTR signal
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemInitial
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemInitial(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Sets modem to initial status. Due to the ADAM-4500 Series system’s
construction, the modem can only be connected to COM1. This
function resets the modem to the initial state. The command has the
same effect as sending the ASCII command “atz” to the modem.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
Description
COM1
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-57
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemAutoanswer
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemAutoanswer(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Sets up modem to auto answer phone calls.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
5-58 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemCommand
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemCommand(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR * i_ucCmd
Str)
Description:
Sends an AT command string to the modem. For details, refer to the
AT command document provided by the manufacturer.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucCmdStr
Description
The Port number you want to use
Specifies command string, please refer to the AT
command document
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
Description
COM1
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-59
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemCommand_State
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemCommand_State(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Sets modem to command mode. In other words, this causes the
modem to escape from data mode to command mode. The modem
will delay at least 3 seconds before switching back to command mode.
This command has the same effect as sending the ASCII command
“+++” to the modem.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
5-60 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemDial
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemDial(UCHAR i_ucPort, UCHAR * i_ucTelenum)
Description:
Directs modem to connect to the specified telephone number.
Parameter
i_ucPort
i_ucTelenum
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
The phone number you would like modem to dial.
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
Description
COM1
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-61
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SIO_ModemHandup
Syntax:
CHAR SIO_ModemHandup(UCHAR i_ucPort)
Description:
Sets the modem to hand up the telephone. The command has the
same effect as sending the ASCII command “atho” to the modem.
Parameter
i_ucPort
Description
The Port number you want to use (see remarks).
Return value:
If success, return 0. If fail, return a negative number as follows:
Illegal_Setting
-5
Remarks:
Parameter
i_ucPort
Value
COM1
5-62 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
COM1
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
COM Port Communcation Example 2 (Modem):
Refer to C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series
Utility\Source\Example\Basic_Function\Ex4.C for this example
#include "4500drv.h"
int get_modem_response(char *buf)
{
long i;
int index;
unsigned char c;
index=0;
for(i=0;i<10000; i++)
{
/*--- Get the receiving string from the COM1 port ---*/
if(SIO_RecvBytes(COM1, UnBlock_Mode, 1, &c)>0)
buf[index++]=c;
if(
index >0 && c == '\r') /* end of command */
{
buf[index] =0;
adv_printf("Response : %s ",buf);
return(1);
}
}
return(0);
}
void main()
{
char c;
int result_code;
char buf[131];
int index;
long i;
long retry;
SIO_ModemInitial(COM1);
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-63
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
while(1)
{
adv_printf("---------- Main Menu ---------\n");
adv_printf("0: Exit. \n");
adv_printf("1: COM port setting. \n");
adv_printf("2: Dial. \n");
adv_printf("3: Set to auto-answer. \n");
adv_printf("4: Set BREAK. \n");
adv_printf("5: Hand up. \n");
adv_printf("\n Please select a item to implement...\n");
c=getch();
switch(c)
{
case '0':
return;
case '1':
/*--- Install the interrupt service routine for COM 1--*/
if(SIO_Open(COM1)!=0)
{
printf("error\n");
return;
}
if(SIO_SetState(COM1, (unsigned long)9600,
NO_PARITY, DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
printf("Set State Error\n");
return;
}
/*--- Show the data format on the screen ---*/
adv_printf("COM port is COM1, baud rate is 9600 bps,
data format is N,8,1\r\n");
break;
case '2':
/*--- Send prefix ---*/
SIO_ModemCommand(COM1, "AT");
/*--- Wait about 1 second--*/
retry=100000;
for(i=0;i<retry;i++)
{
i++;i--;
}
5-64 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
/*--- Clear the buffers of the transmitter and receiver--*/
SIO_PurgeBuf(COM1, Clear_RXBuffer);
SIO_PurgeBuf(COM1, Clear_TXBuffer);
/**--- Start to dial ---*/
/*--- Set DTR is ON(1). --*/
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR(COM1, RaiseSignal,
Signal_DTR);
/*--- Send the dialing command and phone number --*/
sprintf(buf,"886222184867");
SIO_ModemDial(COM1, buf);
adv_printf("Command : %s \n",buf);
/*--- Wait for the response from the other end --*/
if( get_modem_response(buf)== 1)
adv_printf("Response : %s \n",buf);
else
adv_printf("Response : %s \n","No response");
break;
case '3':
/*--- After one ring-bell, the phone is answered
automatically. */
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR(COM1, RaiseSignal,
Signal_DTR);
SIO_ModemAutoanswer(COM1);
adv_printf("Now is ready to get data...\n");
break;
case '4':
/* Set Break */
SIO_SetBreak(COM1);
adv_printf("Now set a break to modem...\n\n\n");
/*--- Wait about 0.3 second--*/
retry=30000;
for(i=0;i<retry;i++)
{
i++;i--;
}
SIO_ClearBreak(COM1);
adv_printf("Now clear the break ...\n\n\n");
break;
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-65
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
case '5':
/*--- Set DTR line OFF --*/
SIO_LowerRaise_RTS_DTR(COM1, LowerSignal,
Signal_DTR);
/*--- Wait about 0.3 second--*/
retry=30000;
for(i=0;i<retry;i++)
{
i++;i--;
}
/*--- Check whether DCD is off ---*/
/*
if(!(com_get_modem_status(0x3F8)&0x80))
break;
*/
/*--- Go to modem command state ---*/
SIO_ModemHandup(COM1);
retry=3;
do{
SIO_ModemHandup(COM1);
if(
get_modem_response(buf)== 1)
{
if( buf[0] ==0)
break;
}
adv_printf("retry %ld \n",4-retry);
}while(--retry);
adv_printf("Now is hand up...\n");
break;
}
}
}
5-66 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Ver_COMLib
Syntax:
void Ver_COMLib(char *vstr)
Description:
Get COM Port Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array of COM Port Library version
information.
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver_COMLib(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
Remarks:
None.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-67
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3.4 MODBUS/RTU Functions (RTU*.LIB)
Before using Modbus Functions, please read the Modbus Quick Start
below to understand how to use Modbus libraries :
Quick Start of MBTCP.Lib and MBRTU.Lib
Only two steps are needed to create a server or make a client query.
z
How to Create a Modbus TCP/RTU Server?
Modbus RTU Server:
Step 1: Use Modbus_COM_Init(...) function to initialize a COM port
for Modbus RTU Server.
Step 2: Use ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(...) to create Modbus
RTU Server.
Modbus TCP Server:
Step 1: Use ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(...) function to create a
Modbus TCP server.
Step 2: Call ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update(...) function periodically
to check if there is any client message and keep the server
alive.
z
How to Create a Modbus TCP/RTU Client?
Modbus RTU Client:
Step 1: Use Modbus_COM_Init(...) function to initialize a COM port
for Modbus RTU Client.
Step 2: Use ADAMModbusRTU_Read(...) to query data from server or
use ADAMModbusRTU_Write(...) to write data to server.
Modbus TCP Client:
Step 1: Use ADAMTCP_Connect(...) to make a connection to server.
Step 2: Use ADAMModbusTCP_Read(...) to query data from server or
use ADAMModbusTCP_Write(...) to write data to server.
z
Example: (Modbus RTU Server and Modbus RTU client)
Assume that we now need a Modbus RTU Server with valid address
in the range of 40001-40008. Before starting to create a server, we
need to define the slave ID for server
#define SlaveID
1
5-68 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
And second, we need to allocate a physical memory for address
40001-4008:
int ModbusAddr_Mem[8];
//ModbusAddr_Mem[0]=>40001,...,
//ModbusAddr_Mem[7]=>40008
Finally, we can create a server. The COM1 and Slave are used to
specify that the COM1 is used as slave mode and dedicated for server
use.
Modbus_COM_Init(COM1, Slave, (unsigned long)9600, NO_PARITY,
DATA8, STOP1);
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(SlaveID, (unsigned char
*)ModbusAddr_Mem,
sizeof(ModbusAddr_Mem));
But, how do we put the data to the address 40001-40008 for client
queries? Just simply put any data you want to the physical memory:
ModbusAddr_Mem[0]=0x1234; //40001=>0x1234
ModbusAddr_Mem[7]=0x4321; //40008=>0x4321
OK, we've learned the techniques of creating a server. Now, let's see
how to make query to get data at 40001-40008 from server. First,
define some needed information for querying server.
#define Read_StartAddr 40001 //query data start from address 40001
#define Read_EndAddr 40008 //query data end to address 40008
#define SlaveID
1
Second, we need to allocate a physical memory for query data.
unsigned char Resp_From_Server[16];
//8 registers from 40001 to 40008.
//Therefore, we need at least a 16-byte physical memory.
int RespByteCount;
//The total bytes of query data.
Finally, make a query. Unlike server programming, the mode is
defined as Master instead of Slave.
Modbus_COM_Init(COM1, Master, (unsigned long)9600, NO_PARITY,
DATA8, STOP1)
ADAMModbusRTU_Read(COM1, SlaveID, Read_StartAddr,
Read_EndAddr, &RespByteCount, Resp_From_Server);
Now, the RespByteCount should report this query has get 16 bytes
data. But, where is the data? The answer is quite simple as follows:
Resp_From_Server[0] ==> 40001 Hi byte
Resp_From_Server[1] ==> 40001 Lo byte
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-69
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
z
Example: (Modbus TCP Server and Modbus TCP client)
Assume that we now need a Modbus TCP Server with valid address
in the range of 40001-40008. Before starting to create a server, we
need to define some server information first such as the total numbers
of connections and the timeout setting.
#define TCP_Port 502
#define iTimeOut 3000
#define iConns 20
//502 is the standard port of modbus protocol
//3000 msec for timeout setting
//Only 20 client connections are avaliable
And second, we need to allocate a physical memory for address
40001-4008.
int ModbusAddr_Mem[8];
//ModbusAddr_Mem[0]=>40001,...,
//ModbusAddr_Mem[7]=>40008
Finally, we can create a server.
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(TCP_Port, iTimeOut, iConns, (unsigned
char*)ModbusAddr_Mem, sizeof(ModbusAddr_Mem));
while(1)
//put ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update() inside infinite loop
{
//for calling ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update() periodically.
if(ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update()==HasMessage)
//check if there is any client message
{
...
}
}
But, how do we put the data to the address 40001-40008 for client
queries? Just simply put any data you want to the physical memory.
ModbusAddr_Mem[0]=0x1234; //40001=>0x1234
ModbusAddr_Mem[7]=0x4321; //40008=>0x4321
OK, we've learned the techniques of creating a server. Now, let's see
how to make query to get data at 40001-40008 from server. First,
define some needed information for querying server.
#define Server_Port 502 //502 is the standard port of modbus protocol
#define Server_IP "10.0.0.1"
//the IP of server
#define iTimeOut 4000
//4000 msec for timeout setting
#define Read_StartAddr 40001 //query data start from address 40001
#define Read_EndAddr 40008 //query data end to address 40008
#define SlaveID
1
5-70 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Second, we need to allocate a physical memory for query data.
unsigned char Resp_From_Server[16];
//8 registers from 40001 to 40008. Therefore,
//we need at least a 16-byte physical memory.
int RespByteCount;
//The total bytes of query data.
And, a descriptor for socket connection is also needed:
SOCKET SO;
Finally, make a query.
ADAMTCP_Connect(&SO, Server_IP, Server_Port);
ADAMModbusTCP_Read(&SO, iTimeout, SlaveID, Read_StartAddr,
Read_EndAddr, &RespByteCount, Resp_From_Server);
Now, the RespByteCount should report this query has get 16 bytes
data. But, where is the data? The answer is quite simple as follows:
Resp_From_Server[0] ==> 40001 Hi byte
Resp_From_Server[1] ==> 40001 Lo byte
Above is the conpect how to use Modbus protocol, and we also
provide examples for reference, please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\
Example\ModbusAppEx
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-71
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Note:
Modbus libraries come from Modbus standard protocol, and every
function call can be mapped to a Modbus function. For example,
ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus function is mapped to Modbus Function
code 01 (Read Coil Status). The following is the list of supported
Modbus function codes:
Modbus Function Codes
01 Read Coil Status
02 Read Input Status
03 Read Holding Registers
04 Read Input Registers
05 Force Single Coil
06 Preset Single Register
15 Force Multiple Coils
16 Preset Multiple Registers
Related Modbus Libraries
ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus
ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus
ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus
ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus
ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs
ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs
ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs
ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs
ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil
ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil
ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg
ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg
ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils
ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils
ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs
ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs
Moreover, we also provide four advanced function calls for beginners.
The Modbus function (01, 02, 03, 04) can be simply integrated into
one “read” function as ADAMModbusRTU_Read (for Modbus RTU) or
ADAMModbusTCP_Read (for Modbus TCP).
The Modbus function (05, 06, 15, 16) can be simply integrated into
one “write” function as ADAMModbusRTU_Write (for Modbus RTU) or
ADAMModbusTCP_Write (for Modbus TCP).
However, programmers should notice that those four functions are a
little bit slower in performance than the original sixteen functions.
5-72 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Modbus_COM_Init
Syntax:
int Modbus_COM_Init(int Port, int iMode, unsigned long iBaud, int
iParity, int iFormat, int iStopBits)
Description:
Initial a COM port for Modbus/RTU connection.
Parameters
Port
iMode
iBaud
iparity
iFormat
iStopBits
Value
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Slave
Master
9600, etc …
NO_PARITY
ODD_PARITY
EVEN_PARITY
ONE_PARITY
ZERO_PARITY
DATA5
DATA6
DATA7
DATA8
STOP1
STOP2
Description
Initial COM1
Initial COM2
Initial COM3
Initial COM4
Modbus/RTU slave mode
Modbus/RTU master mode
The value of baud rate
No parity
Odd parity
Even parity
Parity=1
Parity=0
5 data bit
6 data bit
7 data bit
8 data bit
One stop bit
Two stop bits
Return value:
0
No error occurs.
1
COM_already_installed: COM port has been installed before.
2
Err_Access_COM: Error occurs when try to access COM port.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-73
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Example:
if(Modbus_COM_Init(COM2, Master, (unsigned long)9600,
NO_PARITY, DATA8, STOP1)!=0)
{
adv_printf("error\n");
return;
}
adv_printf("init success!!\n");
5-74 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Modbus_COM_Release
Syntax:
void Modbus_COM_Release(int Port)
Description:
Release the COM port of Modbus connection.
Parameters
Port
Value
1
2
3
4
Description
COM1
COM2
COM3
COM4
Return value:
None.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-75
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Error_Code
Syntax:
int Error_Code(void)
Description:
When following function call gets error return, this function can get the
exact error code for user:
ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils()
ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil()
ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs()
ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg()
ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus()
ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs()
ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs()
ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus()
Parameters
None.
Return value:
NULL
No exception error returned.
Erro Code
Exception error returned.
Error code:
91
Invalid Response
92
COM Port Initial or Mode Error
93
COM Port Time Out
Example:
Refer to ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils
5-76 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils(int iPort, int Slave_Addr,
CoilIndex, int TotalPoint, int TotalByte, unsigned char szData[])
int
Description:
“0F HEX” command of Modbus/RTU function code
Parameters
iPort
Slave_Addr
CoilIndex
TotalPoint
TotalByte
szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave address
Coil address
Quantity of coils
Byte count
Force Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
HostData[0]=0xf0;
if(!ADAMRTU_ForceMultiCoils(COM1, 0x02, 0x64, 0x08, 0x01,
HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
adv_printf("Success!!");
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-77
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iCoilIndex,
int i_iData)
Description:
“05 HEX” command of Modbus/RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iCoilIndex
int i_iData
Description
COM port number
Slave address
Coil address
Force Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ForceSingleCoil(COM1, 0x02, 0x65, 0))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
adv_printf("Success!!");
5-78 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iStartReg,
int i_iTotalReg, int i_iTotalByte, unsigned char i_szData[])
Description:
“10 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartReg
i_iTotalReg
i_iTotalByte
i_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave address
Starting Address
No. of Registers Hi
Byte Count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
HostData[0]=0x12;
HostData[1]=0x56;
HostData[2]=0x38;
HostData[3]=0x09;
if(!ADAMRTU_PresetMultiRegs(COM1, 0x02, 0x64, 2, 4, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
return;
}
else
adv_printf("Success!!");
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-79
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iRegIndex,
int i_iData)
Description:
“06 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iRegIndex
i_iData
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Register Address
Preset Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_PresetSingleReg(COM1, 0x02, 0x68, 0x1234))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
return;
}
else
adv_printf("Success!!");
5-80 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMModbusRTU_Write
Syntax:
bool ADAMModbusTCP_Write(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, unsigned long i_iStartAddr, unsigned long i_iEndAddr,
unsigned char i_szData[]);
Description:
Presets values or forces coils into a sequence of holding registers (4X
references) or a sequence of coilds(0X references).
Parameters
iPort
Slave_Addr
i_iStartAddr
i_iEndAddr
i_szData
Description
COM port number
Address ID of slave device (valid slave device
addresses id are in the range of 0-247 decimal)
The start address of slave device
The end address of slave device
The buffer of query data contents
Return value:
ADAMModbusRTU_Write() returns TRUE if it is successful. On an
error, a value of FALSE will be return and the function Error_Code()
can be used to get the last error.
Example:
please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\
Example\ModbusAppEx
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-81
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iStartIndex,
int i_iTotalPoint, int *o_iTotalByte, unsigned char o_szData[])
Description:
“01HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartIndex
i_iTotalPoint
o_iTotalByte
o_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Starting Address
No. of Points
Byte Count
Coil Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ReadCoilStatus(COM1, 0x02, 0x6E, 0x01,
&DataByteCount, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
{
adv_printf("Status: ");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<DataByteCount; tmpcnt++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmpcnt]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
5-82 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int
i_iStartIndex, int i_iTotalPoint, int *o_iTotalByte, unsigned char
o_szData[])
Description:
“03 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartIndex
i_iTotalPoint
o_iTotalByte
o_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Starting Address
No. of Points
Byte Count
Register Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ReadHoldingRegs(COM1, 0x02, 0x65, 0x01,
&DataByteCount, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
{
adv_printf("Status: ");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<DataByteCount; tmpcnt++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmpcnt]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-83
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int i_iStartIndex,
int i_iTotalPoint, int *o_iTotalByte, unsigned char o_szData[])
Description:
“04 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartIndex
i_iTotalPoint
o_iTotalByte
o_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Starting Address
No. of Points
Byte Count
Register Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ReadInputRegs(COM1, 0x02, 0x65, 0x01,
&DataByteCount, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
{
adv_printf("Status: ");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<DataByteCount; tmpcnt++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmpcnt]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
5-84 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus
Syntax:
bool ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus(int iPort, int i_iAddr, int
i_iStartIndex, int i_iTotalPoint, int *o_iTotalByte, unsigned char
o_szData[])
Description:
“02 HEX” command of Modbus RTU function code.
Parameters
iPort
i_iAddr
i_iStartIndex
i_iTotalPoint
o_iTotalByte
o_szData[]
Description
COM port number
Slave Address
Starting Address
No. of Points
Byte Count
Inputs Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs.
FALSE
Error occurs, call Error_Code() for exact error codes.
Example:
if(!ADAMRTU_ReadInputStatus(COM1, 0x02, 0x64, 0x08,
&DataByteCount, HostData))
{
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", Error_Code());
adv_printf("fail send..");
}
else
{
adv_printf("Status: ");
for(tmpcnt=0; tmpcnt<DataByteCount; tmpcnt++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmpcnt]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-85
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMModbusRTU_Read
Syntax:
bool ADAMModbusRTU_Read(int iPort, int Slave_Addr, unsigned
long i_iStartAddr, unsigned long i_iEndAddr, unsigned int
*o_iByteOfResp, unsigned char o_szResp[]);
Description:
Reads the On/OFF status of 0X/1X references(coils) or the binary
contents of 3X/4X references(registers) in the slave.
Parameters
iPort
Slave_Addr
Description
COM port number
Address ID of slave device (valid slave device
addresses id are in the range of 0-247 decimal)
i_iStartAddr
The start address of slave device
i_iEndAddr
The end address of slave device
i_iTotalPoint
The total number of coils/regs to be read
o_iByteOfResp The total bytes of the response data contents
o_szResp
The buffer of response data contents
Return value:
ADAMModbusRTU_Read() returns TRUE if it is successful. On an
error, a value of FALSE will be return and the function Error_Code()
can be used to get the last error.
Example:
please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\
Example\ModbusAppEx.
5-86 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create
Syntax:
void ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(int slave_addr, unsigned char *
ptr_mem, unsigned int size_of_mem)
Description:
Create Modbus/RTU Server function.
Parameters
slave_addr
ptr_mem
size_of_mem
Description
Slave address of Modbus/RTU Server
Share memory
Size of share memory
Return value:
None.
Example:
ADAMRTU_ModServer_Create(3, (unsigned char *)Share_Mem,
sizeof(Share_Mem));
adv_printf("server started..\n");
while(1)
{
if(predate != Share_Mem[0])
{
adv_printf("40001 is %X\n", Share_Mem[0]);
//strongly recommend use adv_printf() instead of
printf()
predate = Share_Mem[0];
}
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-87
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Ver_RTU_Mod
Syntax:
void Ver_RTU_Mod(char *vstr)
Description:
Check Modbus/RTU Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array of Modbus/RTU Library version
information
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver_RTU_Mod(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
5-88 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3.5 MODBUS/TCP Functions (MBTCP*.LIB)
Ver_TCP_Mod
Syntax:
void Ver_TCP_Mod(char *vstr)
Description:
Check Modbus/TCP Library version.
Parameter
vstr
Description
Pointer to array of Modbus/TCP Library version
information.
Return value:
None.
Example:
char library_ver[20];
void main(void)
{
Ver_TCP_Mod(library_ver);
adv_printf("The version of library is %s\n", library_ver);
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-89
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Modbus TCP Client Functions:
ReturnErr_code
Syntax:
int ReturnErr_code(void)
Description:
When following function call gets error return, this function can get the
exact error code for user.
ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils()
ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil()
ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs()
ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg()
ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus()
ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs()
ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs()
ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus()
Parameters
None.
Return value:
NULL
No error occurs.
Erro Code
Exception error returned.
Error code:
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
ILLEGAL FUNCTION
ILLEGAL DATA ADDRESS
ILLEGAL DATA VALUE
SLAVE DEVICE FAILURE
ACKNOWLEDGE
SLAVE DEVICE BUSY
NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE
MEMORY PARITY ERROR
5-90 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Example:
SOCKET SO_4500;
…
if(ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x11, 0x10,
&DataByteCount, HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus()\n");
adv_printf("err code is %d\n", ReturnErr_code());
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-91
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_Connect
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_Connect(SOCKET * SO, char * Target_IP, int
Target_Port)
Decription:
Connect to Modbus/TCP Server.
Parameters
SO
Target_IP
Target_Port
Description
A descriptor identifying an unconnected socket.
Modbus/TCP server IP.
Server port for the connection.
Return value:
TRUE
-1
-2
-3
No error occurs
Error occurs when gets the host name
The socket is invalid when initializes the socket
Error occurs when connects to Modbus/TCP server
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_Connect(&SO_4500, ServerIP, Server_Port)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_Connect()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
5-92 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_Disconnect
Syntax:
bool ADAMTCP_Disconnect(SOCKET * SO)
Description:
Disconnect to Modbus/TCP Server.
Parameters
SO
A descriptor identifying the connected socket to
Modbus/TCP server.
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
FALSE
There is error occurs
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_Connect(&SO_4500, ServerIP, Server_Port)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_Connect()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-93
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int CoilIndex, int TotalPoint, int TotalByte, unsigned char
szData[])
Description:
“0F HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
CoilIndex
TotalPoint
TotalByte
szData[]
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response from
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Coil address
Quantity of coils
Byte count
Force Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
HostData[1]=~0x33;
//force channel status to 0x3333
if(ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x21, 0x10, 0x02,
HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ForceMultiCoils()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
5-94 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int CoilIndex, int Data)
Description:
“05 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
CoilIndex
Data
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response from
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Coil address
Force Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x25, 1)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ForceSingleCoil()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-95
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int StartReg, int TotalReg, int TotalByte, unsigned char
Data[])
Description:
“10 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
StartReg
TotalReg
TotalByte
szData[]
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response from
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of registers
Byte count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
HostData[0]=0x07;
HostData[1]=0x00;
HostData[2]=0x07;
HostData[3]=0x00;
if(ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x19, 0x02, 4,
HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_PresetMultiRegs()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
5-96 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int RegIndex, int Data)
Description:
“06 HEX” command Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
RegIndex
Data
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response from
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Register address
Preset Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg(&SO_4500,
50,
0x07ff)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_PresetSingleReg()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
0x01,
0x19,
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-97
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMModbusTCP_Write
Syntax:
bool ADAMModbusTCP_Write(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, unsigned long i_iStartAddr, unsigned long i_iEndAddr,
unsigned char i_szData[]);
Description:
Presets values or forces coils into a sequence of holding registers (4X
references) or a sequence of coilds(0X references).
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
i_iStartAddr
i_iEndAddr
i_szData
Description
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
The maximum time of ADAMModbusTCP_Write()
Address ID of slave device (valid slave device
addresses id are in the range of 0-247 decimal)
The start address of slave device
The end address of slave device
The buffer of query data contents
Return value:
ADAMModbusTCP_Write() returns TRUE if it is successful. On an
error, a value of FALSE will be return and the function Error_Code()
can be used to get the last error.
Example:
please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\
Example\ModbusAppEx
5-98 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int StartIndex, int TotalPoint, int * ByteCount, char *
wData)
Description:
“01 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code
Parameter
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
StartIndex
TotalPoint
ByteCount
wData
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec) for the response
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of points
Byte count
Data
from
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
if(ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x11, 0x10,
&DataByteCount, HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadCoilStatus()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
else
{ adv_printf("Adam-4500 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
adv_printf("%2X", HostData[tmp]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-99
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int StartIndex, int TotalPoint, int * ByteCount, char *
wData)
Description:
“03 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
StartIndex
TotalPoint
ByteCount
wData
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration(msec unit) for the response from
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of points
Byte count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
//This
example
demonstrates
how
to
use
ADAMTCP_
ReadHoldingRegs() to query remote Modbus TCP module, such as
ADAM-5000/TCP. And it queries all channels of ADAM-5024 inserted
in Slot 3 on the ADAM-5000/TCP.
if((errno=ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x19,
0x08, &DataByteCount, HostData))<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadHoldingRegs()\n");
adv_printf("errno is %d\n", errno);
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
5-100 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
else
{
adv_printf("Adam-5024 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmp]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-101
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int StartIndex, int TotalPoint, int * ByteCount, char *
wData)
Description:
“04 HEX” command of Modbus TCP function code.
Parameter
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
StartIndex
TotalPoint
ByteCount
wData
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration(msec unit) for the response from
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of points
Byte count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
//This example demonstrates how to use ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs
to query remote Modbus TCP module, such as ADAM-5000/TCP. And
here it queries all chanels of ADAM-5024 inserted in Slot 3 on the
ADAM-5000/TCP.
if((errno=ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x19,
0x08, &DataByteCount, HostData))<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadInputRegs()\n");
adv_printf("errno is %d\n", errno);
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
5-102 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
else
{
adv_printf("Adam-5024 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
adv_printf("%02X", HostData[tmp]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-103
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, int StartIndex, int TotalPoint, int * ByteCount, char *
wData)
Description:
“02 HEX” command Modbus TCP function code.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
StartIndex
TotalPoint
ByteCount
wData
Desceription
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
Set duration (msec unit) for the response from
Modbus/TCP server
Slave address
Starting address
No. of points
Byte count
Data
Return value:
TRUE
No error occurs
0
Time out error when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
-1
Error occurs when send modbus query message to
Modbus/TCP server
-2
Error occurs when receive modbus query message
from Modbus/TCP server
Example:
//This example demonstrates how to use ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus
to query remote Modbus TCP module, such as ADAM-5000/TCP. And
here it queries ADAM-5051 inserted in Slot 1 on the ADAM-5000/TCP.
if(ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus(&SO_4500, 50, 0x01, 0x11, 0x10,
&DataByteCount, HostData)<=0)
{
perror("ADAMTCP_ReadInputStatus()\n");
ADAMTCP_Disconnect(&SO_4500);
return 0;
}
5-104 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
else
{
adv_printf("Adam-5051 Status: ");
for(tmp=0; tmp<DataByteCount; tmp++)
{
adv_printf("%2X", HostData[tmp]);
}
adv_printf("\n");
}
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-105
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMModbusTCP_Read
Syntax:
bool ADAMModbusTCP_Read(SOCKET * SO, int WaitMilliSec, int
Slave_Addr, unsigned long i_iStartAddr, unsigned long i_iEndAddr,
unsigned int *o_iByteOfResp, unsigned char o_szResp[]);
Description:
Reads the On/OFF status of 0X/1X references(coils) or the binary
contents of 3X/4X references(registers) in the slave.
Parameters
SO
WaitMilliSec
Slave_Addr
Description
The socket connected to Modbus/TCP server
The maximum time of ADAMModbusTCP_Read()
Address ID of slave device (valid slave device
addresses id are in the range of 0-247 decimal)
i_iStartAddr
The start address of slave device
i_iEndAddr
The end address of slave device
i_iTotalPoint
The total number of coils/regs to be read
o_iByteOfResp The total bytes of the response data contents
o_szResp
The buffer of response data contents
Return value:
ADAMModbusRTU_Read() returns TRUE if it is successful. On an
error, a value of FALSE will be return and the function Error_Code()
can be used to get the last error.
Example:
please refer the examples under
C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500 Series Utility\Source\
Example\ModbusAppEx.
5-106 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Modbus TCP Server Functions:
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(int Host_Port, unsigned long
waittimeout, unsigned int numberConns, unsigned char * ptr_mem, int
size_mem)
Description:
Create a Modbus/TCP Server.
Parameters
Host_Port
Waittimeout
NumberConns
ptr_mem
size_mem
Description
The port for Modbus/TCP server
Time out value, 0~0xffffffff milli-second
Maximum connections for client
Share memory
The size of share memory
Return value:
0
No error occurs
91
Invalid socket
92
Error occurs when associates a local socket address with a
socket
93.
Error occurs when sets up the socket mode
94
Error occurs when listens to the incoming socket
Example:
if((err_code=ADAMTCP_ModServer_Create(502, 5000, 20,
(unsigned char *)Share_Mem, sizeof(Share_Mem)))!=0)
{
adv_printf("error code is %d/n", err_code);
}
adv_printf("Server started, wait for connect...\n");
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-107
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update
Syntax:
int ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update(void)
Description:
Update the Modbus/TCP Server. The Modbus/TCP server needs to
be updated by calling ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update() function
continuously to keep server alive.
Parameters
None.
Return value:
1
New message has come in
0
No new message comes in
Example:
while(1)
{
iState = ADAMTCP_ModServer_Update();
//second step
if(iState) //if has message, show the data at address 40001
{
if(pre_data != Share_Mem[0])
{
adv_printf("40001 is %X\n", Share_Mem[0]);
//notice: printf() will decrease server performance
pre_data = Share_Mem[0];
}
}
}
5-108 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ADAMTCP_ModServer_Release
Syntax:
void ADAMTCP_ModServer_Release(void)
Description:
Release Modbus/TCP Server.
Parameters
None.
Returned value:
None.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-109
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.4.6 Socket Functions (SOCKET*.LIB)
TCP/IP SOCKETS API Overview
This section describes the SOCKETS API, which is compatible with
the BSD Sockets API and also the Winsock API. The definitions and
prototypes for the C environment are supplied in SOCKET.H, while
the implementation of the C interface is in SOCKET.C. The SOCKETS
API is implemented as a layer on top of the Compatible API (CAPI)
and provides an interface to the socket and name resolution facilities
provided by the Datalight DOS SOCKETS product. It also provides the
database functions of BSD Sockets and Winsock.
A socket is an end-point for a connection and is defined by the
combination of a host address (also known as an IP address), a port
number (or communicating process ID), and a transport protocol, such
as UDP or TCP. Two connected SOCKETS using the same transport
protocol define a connection. The API uses a socket handle,
sometimes referred to as simply a socket. The socket handle is
required by most function calls in order to access a connection. The
socket handle used is the same as a normal socket as used in CAPI.
A socket handle is obtained by calling the socket() function. A socket
handle can only be used for a single connection. When no longer
required, such as when a connection has been closed, the socket
handle must be released by calling closesocket(). Socket handles
are positive numbers greater than 63.
Types of Service
SOCKETS can be used with one of two service types:
SOCK_STREAM

(using TCP).
SOCK_DGRAM

(using UDP).
A stream connection provides for the bi-directional, reliable,
sequenced, and unduplicated flow of data without record boundaries.
No broadcast facilities can be used with a stream connection.
A datagram connection supports bi-directional flow of data that is not
guaranteed to be sequenced, reliable, or unduplicated. That is, a
process receiving messages on a datagram socket may find
messages duplicated, and, possibly, in an order different from the
order in which it was sent. An important characteristic of a datagram
connection is that record boundaries in data are preserved.
5-110 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Datagram connections closely model the facilities found in many
contemporary packet switched networks such as Ethernet. Broadcast
messages may be sent and received.
Establishing Remote Connections
To establish a connection, one side (the server) must execute a
listen() and and subsequent accept() and the other side (the client) a
connect(). A connection consists of the local socket / remote socket
pair. It is therefore possible to have a connection within a single host
as long as the local and remote port values differ. Each host in an IP
network must have at least one host address also known as an IP
address. When a host has more than one physical connection to an IP
network, it may have more than one IP address. An IP address must
be unique within a network. An IP address is 32 bits in length, a port
number 16 bits. A value of zero means “any” while a binary value of all
1s means “all.” The latter value is used for broadcasting purposes.
Using the sockaddr structure conveys the addresses (host/port) to be
used in a connection. A local association is performed by the bind()
function.
Using SOCK_STREAM and SOCK_DGRAM Services
When using the SOCK_STREAM service (TCP), bi-directional data
can be sent using the send() or sendto() functions and received using
the recv() or recvfrom() functions until one side performs a
shutdown(1) or shutdown(2) after which that side cannot send any
more data , but can still receive data until the other side performs a
shutdown(1), shutdown(2) or closesocket().
When using the SOCK_DGRAM service, datagrams can be sent
without first establishing a “connection”. In fact UDP provides a
“connectionless” service although the connection paradigm is used.
Blocking and Non-blocking Operations
The default behavior of socket functions is to block on an operation
and only return when the operation has completed. For example, the
connect() function only returns after the connection has been
performed or an error is encountered. This behavior applies to most
socket function calls, such as recv() and even send(), and especially
on SOCK_STREAM connections.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-111
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
In many, if not most applications, this behavior is unacceptable in the
single-threaded DOS environment and must be modified. This
modification can be accomplished by making all operations on a
socket non-blocking by calling ioctlsocket() with the FIONBIO option.
If a non-blocking operation is performed, the function always returns
immediately. If the function could not complete without blocking, an
error is returned with errno containing EWOULDBLOCK. This error
should be regarded as a recoverable error and the operation should
be retried, preferably at some later time.
Out of band data
TCP “out of band” or urgent data is not implemented. Setting the
MSG_OOB flag has no effect in recv(), recvfrom(), send() or
sendto(); it will simply be ignored. The SO_OOBINLINE option will
also be ignored and ioctlsocket() with the SIOCATMARK command,
will always return an argument value of 1.
Error Reporting
In general, the C functions implementing the SOCKETS API return a
value of SOCKET_ERROR if the return type is int and an error is
encountered, in which case, the actual error code is returned in a
common variable errno. ERR_RE_ENTRY is returned when the
SOCKETS kernel has been interrupted. This condition can occur only
when the API is called from an interrupt service routine. Programs
designed for this type of operation, such as TSR programs activated
by a real time clock interrupt, should be coded to handle this error by
re-trying the function at a later stage.
Other sources of Information
Many good books have been written on the Sockets API:
Pocket Guide to TCP/IP Sockets (C Version) by Michael J. Donahoo,
Kenneth L. Calvert
Windows Sockets Network Programming (Addison-Wesley Advanced
Windows Series) by Bob Quinn, et al; Hardcover
Internetworking with TCP/IP Vol. III Client-Server Programming and
Applications-Windows Sockets Version by Douglas E. Comer, David L.
Stevens (Contributor) ;Hardcover.
5-112 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
The Winsock 1.1 help file (WINSOCK.HLP) is also a very useful
source of information.
Porting Issues
When porting an application from another BSD Sockets environment
like Unix, Linux or Windows (Winsock), a number of issues must be
kept in mind. The most important one is that ROM-DOS is a singleuser, single-task, single-thread operating system. The use of blocking
calls will suspend the system until completion, which may imply an
indefinite time under abnormal or even normal conditions. In addition
no completion event such as a WSAAsyncSelect windows message
for Winsock or a Signal for Unix/Linux is available. Only applications
either using nonblocking operations or the select() function may be
ported successfully. Other applications must be adapted to follow
these guidelines.
Unlike Winsock and like BSD Sockets, an error number is returned in
the errno variable and is only valid directly after an API call. When
writing portable code to run on both SAPI and Winsock, a simple
#define can normally be used i.e.
#ifdef _Windows
#define Errno WSAGetLastError()
#else
#define Errno errno
#endif
.
.
if (Errno == WSAEWOULDBLOCK)
{
.
.
}
.
.
Like in Winsock both the WSAE... of Winsock and the E... error
definitions of BSD may be used e.g. WSAEWOULDBLOCK and
EWOULDBLOCK. The actual error numbers are the same as that of
Winsock, except in cases of DOS error code conflicts e.g.
WSAEINVAL has the same value as the DOS EINVAL. Always using
the symbolic value and not numeric values, will avoid potential
problems.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-113
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
The function gethostbyaddr() will always fail with errno ==
WSANO_DATA.
All the file/socket operations of BSD Sockets must be translated to the
*socket() versions as used in Winsock e.g. closesocket() instead of
just close().
In Linux/Unix a socket descriptor can be treated the same as a file
descriptor; not so for SAPI or Winsock.
For Winsock the WSAStartup() and WSACleanup() functions must be
called; make it conditional for portable code.
The "socket set" is defined differently for SAPI/Winsock on the one
hand and LINUX/UNIX on the other. Always use the FD_* macros for
portable code.
Function Reference
The following sections describe the individual functions of the
SOCKETS API.
5-114 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
accept
Syntax:
SOCKET accept ( SOCKET so, struct sockaddr *psAddress, int *p
iAddressLen )
Description:
Accepts a connection on a socket.
Parameters
so
psAddress
piAddrLen
A descriptor identifying a socket which is listening for
connections after a listen().
An optional pointer to a buffer which receives the
socket address of the connecting peer.
An optional pointer to an integer which contains the
length of the address psAddress.
Return Value
If no error occurs, accept() returns a value of type SOCKET which is
a descriptor for the accepted packet. Otherwise, a value of
INVALID_SOCKET is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
The integer referred to by iAddressLen initially contains the amount of
space pointed to by psAddress. On return it will contain the actual
length in bytes of the socket address returned.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
EINVAL
EMFILE
ENOBUFS
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
EWOULDBLOCK
The network subsystem has failed.
The *piAddressLen argument is too small
(less than the sizeof a struct sockaddr).
listen() was not invoked prior to accept().
The queue is empty upon entry to accept()
and there are no descriptors available.
No buffer space is available.
The descriptor is not a socket.
The referenced socket is not a type that
supports connection-oriented service.
The socket is marked as non-blocking and no
connections are present to be accepted.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-115
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Remarks
This function extracts the first connection on the queue of pending
connections on listening socket so, creates a new socket with the
same properties as so and returns a handle to the new socket. If no
pending connections are present on the queue, and the socket is not
marked as non-blocking, accept() blocks the caller until a connection
is present. If the socket is marked non-blocking and no pending
connections are present on the queue, accept() returns an error as
described below. Socket so remains listening.
The argument psAddress is a result parameter that is filled in with the
socket address of the connecting peer. The piAddressLen is a valueresult parameter; it should initially contain the amount of space
pointed to by psAddress; on return it will contain the actual length (in
bytes) of the socket address returned. This call is used with the
connectionbased SOCK_STREAM socket type. If psAddress and/or p
iAddressLen are equal to NULL, then no information about the remote
peer socket address of the accepted socket is returned.
See Also
bind(), connect(), listen(), select(), socket()
5-116 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
bind
Syntax:
int bind ( SOCKET so, const struct sockaddr * psAddress, int
iAddressLen )
Description:
Associates a local socket address with a socket.
Parameters
so
psAddress
iAddressLen
A descriptor identifying an unbound socket.
The socket address to assign to the socket. The
sockaddr structure is defined as follows:
struct sockaddr
{
u_short sa_family;
char sa_data[14];
};
The length of the name psAddress.
Return Value
If no error occurs, bind() returns 0. Otherwise, it returns
SOCKET_ERROR, and a specific error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EADDRINUSE
EFAULT
EAFNOSUPPORT
EINVAL
ENOBUFS
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The specified address is already in use. (See
the SO_REUSEADDR socket option under
setsockopt().)
The iAddressLen argument is too small (less
than the size of a struct sockaddr).
The specified address family is not supported
by this protocol.
The socket is already bound to an address.
Not enough buffers available, too many
connections.
The descriptor is not a socket.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-117
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Remarks
This routine is used on an unconnected datagram or stream socket,
before subsequent connect()s or listen()s. When a socket is created
with socket(), it exists in a name space (address family), but it has no
socket address assigned. bind() establishes the local association
(host address/port number) of the socket by assigning a local address
to an unnamed socket.
In the Internet address family, an address consists of several
components. For SOCK_DGRAM and SOCK_STREAM, the address
consists of three parts: a host address, the protocol number (set
implicitly to UDP or TCP, respectively), and a port number which
identifies the application. If an application does not care what address
is assigned to it, it may specify an Internet address equal to
INADDR_ANY, a port equal to 0, or both. If the Internet address is
equal to INADDR_ANY, any appropriate network interface will be
used; this simplifies application programming in the presence of
multihomed hosts. If the port is specified as 0, SOCKETS will assign a
unique port to the application. The application may use
getsockname() after bind() to learn the address that has been
assigned to it, but note that getsockname() will not necessarily fill in
the Internet address until the socket is connected, since several
Internet addresses may be valid if the host is multi-homed.
See Also
connect(), listen(), getsockname(), setsockopt(), socket().
5-118 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
closesocket
Syntax:
int closesocket ( SOCKET so )
Description:
Closes a socket.
Parameters
so
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
Return Value
If no error occurs, closesocket() returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
ENOTSOCK
EWOULDBLOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The descriptor is not a socket.
The socket is marked as nonblocking and
SO_LINGER is set to a nonzero timeout
value.
Remarks
This function closes a socket. More precisely, it releases the socket
descriptor so, so that further references to so will fail with the error
ENOTSOCK. If this is the last reference to the underlying socket, the
associated naming information and queued data are discarded.
The semantics of closesocket() are affected by the socket options
SO_LINGER and SO_DONTLINGER as follows:
Option
Interval
Type of
close
Wait for close?
SO_DONTLINGER
SO_LINGER
SO_LINGER
Don't care
Zero
Non-zero
Graceful
Hard
Graceful
No
No
Yes
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-119
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
If SO_LINGER is set (i.e. the l_onoff field of the linger structure is nonzero) with a zero timeout interval (l_linger is zero), closesocket() is
not blocked even if queued data has not yet been sent or
acknowledged. This is called a "hard" or "abortive" close, because the
socket's virtual circuit is reset immediately, and any unsent data is lost.
Any recv() call on the remote side of the circuit will fail with
ECONNRESET.
If SO_LINGER is set with a non-zero timeout interval, the
closesocket() call blocks until the remaining data has been sent or
until the timeout expires. This is called a graceful disconnect. Note
that if the socket is set to non-blocking and SO_LINGER is set to a
non-zero timeout, the call to closesocket() will fail with an error of
EWOULDBLOCK.
If SO_DONTLINGER is set on a stream socket (i.e. the l_onoff field of
the linger structure is zero), the closesocket() call will return
immediately. However, any data queued for transmission will be sent
if possible before the underlying socket is closed. This is also called a
graceful disconnect. Note that in this case SOCKETS may not release
the socket and other resources for an arbitrary period, which may
affect applications which expect to use all available sockets.
See Also
accept(), socket(), ioctlsocket(), setsockopt.
5-120 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
connect
Syntax:
int connect ( SOCKET so, const struct sockaddr * psAddress, int
iAddressLen )
Description:
Establishes a connection to a peer.
Parameters
so
psAddress
iAddressLen
Description
A descriptor identifying an unconnected
socket.
The socket address of the peer to which the
socket is to be connected.
The length of psAddress.
Return Value
If no error occurs, connect() returns 0. Otherwise, it returns
SOCKET_ERROR, and a specific error code is returned in errno.
On a blocking socket, the return value indicates success or failure of
the connection attempt.
On a non-blocking socket, if the return value is SOCKET_ERROR and
errno indicates an error code of EWOULDBLOCK, then your
application can either:
1. Use select() to determine the completion of the connection
request by checking if the socket is writeable, or
2. Use recv() until either no error or an error of EWOULDBLOCK is
returned.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EADDRINUSE
EADDRNOTAVAIL
EAFNOSUPPORT
ECONNREFUSED
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The specified address is already in use.
The specified address is not available from
the local machine.
Addresses in the specified family cannot be
used with this socket.
The attempt to connect was forcefully
rejected.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-121
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
EDESTADDREQ
EFAULT
EINVAL
EISCONN
EMFILE
ENETUNREACH
ENOBUFS
ENOTSOCK
ETIMEDOUT
EWOULDBLOCK
A destination address is required.
The iAddressLen argument is incorrect.
The socket is not already bound to an
address.
The socket is already connected.
No more file descriptors are available.
The network can't be reached from this host
at this time.
No buffer space is available. The socket
cannot be connected.
The descriptor is not a socket.
Attempt to connect timed out without
establishing a connection
The socket is marked as non-blocking and
the connection cannot be completed
immediately. It is possible to select() the
socket while it is connecting by select()ing it
for writing.
Remarks
This function is used to create a connection to the specified foreign
socket address. The parameter so specifies an unconnected
datagram or stream socket. If the socket is unbound, unique values
are assigned to the local association by the system, and the socket is
marked as bound. Note that if the address field of the psAddress
structure is all zeroes, connect() will return the error
EADDRNOTAVAIL.
For stream sockets (type SOCK_STREAM), an active connection is
initiated to the foreign host using psAddress (an address in the name
space of the socket). When the socket call completes successfully,
the socket is ready to send/receive data.
For a datagram socket (type SOCK_DGRAM), a default destination is
set, which will be used on subsequent send() and recv() calls.
See Also
accept(), bind(), getsockname(), socket() and select().
5-122 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
getpeername
Syntax:
int getpeername ( SOCKET so, struct sockaddr * psAddress, int *
piAddressLen )
Description:
Gets the socket address of the peer to which a socket is connected.
Parameters
so
psAddress
piAddressLen
Description
A descriptor identifying a connected socket.
The structure which is to receive the socket
address of the peer.
A pointer to the size of the psAddress
structure.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getpeername() returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The *piAddressLen argument is not large
enough.
The socket is not connected.
The descriptor is not a socket.
Remarks
getpeername() retrieves the socket address of the peer connected to
the socket so and stores it in the struct sockaddr identified by
psAddress. It is used on a connected datagram or stream socket.
On return, the piAddressLen argument contains the actual size of the
socket address returned in bytes.
See Also
bind(), socket(), getsockname().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-123
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
getsockname
Syntax:
int getsockname ( SOCKET so, struct sockaddr * psAddress, int *
piAddressLen )
Description:
Gets the local socket address for a socket.
Parameters
so
psAddress
piAddressLen
Description
A descriptor identifying a bound socket.
Receives the socket address (name) of the
socket.
A pointer to the size of the psAddress buffer.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getsockname() returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
ENOTSOCK
EINVAL
SOCKETS has detected that the network subsystem
has failed.
The *piAddressLen argument is not large enough.
The descriptor is not a socket.
The socket has not been bound to an address with
bind().
Remarks
getsockname() retrieves the current socket address for the specified
socket descriptor in psAddress. It is used on a bound and/or
connected socket specified by the so parameter.The local association
is returned. This call is especially useful when a connect() call has
been made without doing a bind() first; this call provides the only
means by which you can determine the local association which has
been set by the system.
5-124 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
On return, the piAddressLen argument contains the actual size of the
socket address returned in bytes.If a socket was bound to
INADDR_ANY, indicating that any of the host's IP addresses should
be used for the socket, getsockname() will not necessarily return
information about the host IP address, unless the socket has been
connected with connect() or accept(). A SOCKETS application must
not assume that the IP address will be changed from INADDR_ANY
unless the socket is connected. This is because for a multi-homed
host the IP address that will be used for the socket is unknown unless
the socket is connected.
See Also
bind(), socket(), getpeername().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-125
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
getsockopt
Syntax:
int getsockopt ( SOCKET so, int iLevel, int iOptname, char * pcOptval,
int * piOptlen )
Description:
Retrieves a socket option.
Parameters
so
iLevel
iOptname
pcOptval
piOptlen
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
The level at which the option is defined; the only
supported
levels
are
SOL_SOCKET
and
IPPROTO_TCP.
The socket option for which the value is to be
retrieved.
A pointer to the buffer in which the value for the
requested option is to be returned.
A pointer to the size of the pcOptval buffer.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getsockopt() returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
ENOPROTOOPT
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The piOptlen argument was invalid.
The option is unknown or unsupported. In
particular, SO_BROADCAST is not supported
on sockets of type SOCK_STREAM, while
SO_ACCEPTCONN,
SO_DONTLINGER,
SO_KEEPALIVE,
SO_LINGER
and
SO_OOBINLINE are not supported on
sockets of type SOCK_DGRAM.
The descriptor is not a socket.
5-126 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Remarks
getsockopt() retrieves the current value for a socket option
associated with a socket of any type, in any state, and stores the
result in pcOptval. Options may exist at multiple protocol levels, but
they are always present at the uppermost "socket'' level. Options
affect socket operations, such as whether an operation blocks or not,
the routing of packets, out -of-band data transfer, etc.
The value associated with the selected option is returned in the buffer
pcOptval. The integer pointed to by piOptlen should originally contain
the size of this buffer; on return, it will be set to the size of the value
returned. For SO_LINGER, this will be the size of a struct linger; for all
other options it will be the size of an integer.
If the option was never set with setsockopt(), then getsockopt()
returns the default value for the option.The following options are
supported for getsockopt(). The Type identifies the type of data
addressed by optval. The TCP_NODELAY option uses level
IPPROTO_TCP; all other options use level SOL_SOCKET.
Value
SO_ACCEPTCONN
SO_BROADCAST
Type
BOOL
BOOL
SO_DEBUG
SO_DONTLINGER
BOOL
BOOL
SO_DONTROUTE
SO_ERROR
BOOL
int
SO_KEEPALIVE
SO_LINGER
BOOL
struct linger*
SO_OOBINLINE
BOOL
SO_RCVBUF
SO_REUSEADDR
int
BOOL
SO_SNDBUF
SO_TYPE
int
int
TCP_NODELAY
BOOL
Meaning
Socket is listen()ing.
Socket is configured
for the transmission
of broadcast messages.
Debugging is enabled.
If true, the SO_LINGER
option is disabled.
Routing is disabled.
Retrieve error status
and clear.
Keepalives are being sent.
Returns the current linger
options.
Out-of-band data is being
received in the normal data
stream.
Buffer size for receives
The socket may be bound
to an address which is
already in use.
Buffer size for sends
The type of the socket (e.g.
SOCK_STREAM).
Default
FALSE
FALSE
FALSE
TRUE
FALSE
0
FALSE
l_onoff is 0
FALSE
1460
FALSE
1460
As created
Disables the Nagle algorithm FALSE
for send coalescing.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-127
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Calling getsockopt() with an unsupported option will result in an error
code of ENOPROTOOPT being returned from WSAGetLastError().
See Also
setsockopt(), socket().
5-128 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
htonl
Syntax:
u_long htonl ( u_long ulHostlong )
Description:
Converts a u_long from host to network byte order.
Parameters
ulHostlong
Description
A 32-bit number in host byte order.
Return Value
htonl() returns the value in network byte order.
Remarks
This routine takes a 32-bit number in host byte order and returns a 32bit number in network byte order.
See Also
htons(), ntohl(), ntohs().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-129
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
htons
Syntax
u_short htons ( u_short usHostshort )
Description:
Converts a u_short from host to network byte order.
Parameters
sHostshort
Description
A 16-bit number in host byte order.
Return Value
htons() returns the value in network byte order.
Remarks
This routine takes a 16-bit number in host byte order and returns a 16bit number in network byte order.
See Also
htonl(), ntohl(), ntohs().
5-130 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
inet_addr
Syntax:
unsigned long inet_addr ( const char * pc )
Description:
Converts a string containing a dotted address into an in_addr.
Parameters
pc
Description
A character string representing a number expressed
in the Internet standard ".'' notation.
Return Value
If no error occurs, inet_addr() returns an unsigned long containing a
suitable binary representation of the Internet address given. If the
passed-in string does not contain a legitimate Internet address, for
example if a portion of an "a.b.c.d" address exceeds 255, inet_addr()
returns the value INADDR_NONE.
Remarks
This function interprets the character string specified by the pc
parameter. This string represents a numeric Internet address
expressed in the Internet standard ".'' notation. The value returned is a
number suitable for use as an Internet address. All Internet addresses
are returned in network order (bytes ordered from left to right).
Internet Addresses
Values specified using the ".'' notation take one of the following forms:
a.b.c.d
a.b.c
a.b
a
When four parts are specified, each is interpreted as a byte of data
and assigned, from left to right, to the four bytes of an Internet
address. Note that when an Internet address is viewed as a 32-bit
integer quantity on the Intel architecture, the bytes referred to above
appear as "d.c.b.a''. That is, the bytes on an Intel processor are
ordered from right to left.
Note: The following notations are only used by Berkeley, and nowhere
else on the Internet. In the interests of compatibility with their software,
they are supported as specified.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-131
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
When a three part address is specified, the last part is interpreted as a
16-bit quantity and placed in the right most two bytes of the network
address. This makes the three part address format convenient for
specifying Class B network addresses as "128.net.host''.
When a two part address is specified, the last part is interpreted as a
24-bit quantity and placed in the right most three bytes of the network
address. This makes the two part address format convenient for
specifying Class A network addresses as "net.host''.
When only one part is given, the value is stored directly in the network
address without any byte rearrangement.
See Also
inet_ntoa()
5-132 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
inet_ntoa
Syntax:
char * inet_ntoa ( struct in_addr sIn )
Description:
Converts a network address into a string in dotted format.
Parameters
sIn
Description
A structure which represents an Internet host address.
Return Value
If no error occurs, inet_ntoa() returns a char pointer to a static buffer
containing the text address in standard ".'' notation. Otherwise, it
returns NULL. The data should be copied before another SOCKETS
call is made.
Remarks
This function takes an Internet address structure specified by the sIn
parameter. It returns an ASCII string representing the address in ".''
notation as "a.b.c.d''. Note that the string returned by inet_ntoa()
resides in memory which is allocated by SOCKETS. The application
should not make any assumptions about the way in which the memory
is allocated. The data is guaranteed to be valid until the next
SOCKETS API call, but no longer.
See Also
inet_addr().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-133
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ioctlsocket
Syntax:
int ioctlsocket ( SOCKET so, long lCmd, u_long * pulArgp )
Description:
Controls the mode of a socket.
Parameters
so
lCmd
pulArgp
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
The command to perform on the socket so.
A pointer to a parameter for lCmd.
Return Value
Upon successful completion, the ioctlsocket() returns 0. Otherwise, a
value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is
returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EINVAL
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network subsystem
has failed.
lCmd is not a valid command, or pulArgp is not an
acceptable parameter for lCmd, or the command is
not applicable to the type of socket supplied
The descriptor so is not a socket.
Remarks
This routine may be used on any socket in any state. It is used to get
or retrieve operating parameters associated with the socket,
independent of the protocol and communications subsystem. The
following commands are supported:
Command
FIONBIO
Semantics
Enable or disable non-blocking mode on the socket
so. pulArgp points at an unsigned long, which is
non-zero if non-blocking mode is to be enabled and
zero if it is to be disabled. When a socket is created, it
operates in blocking mode (i.e. non-blocking mode is
disabled). This is consistent with BSD sockets.
5-134 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
FIONREAD
Determine the amount of data which can be read
atomically from socket so. pulArgp points at an
unsigned long in which ioctlsocket() stores the
result. If so is of type SOCK_STREAM, FIONREAD
returns the total amount of data which may be read in
a single recv(); this is normally the same as the total
amount of data queued on the socket. If so is of type
SOCK_DGRAM, FIONREAD returns the size of the
first datagram queued on the socket.
SIOCATMARK Determine whether or not all out-of-band data has
been read. This applies only to a socket of type
SOCK_STREAM which has been configured for inline
reception
of
any
out-of-band
data
(SO_OOBINLINE). If no out-of-band data is waiting to
be read, the operation returns TRUE. Otherwise it
returns FALSE, and the next recv() or recvfrom()
performed on the socket will retrieve some or all of
the data preceding the "mark"; the application should
use the SIOCATMARK operation
to
determine
whether any remains. If there is any normal data
preceding the "urgent" (out of band) data, it will be
received in order. (Note that a recv() or recvfrom()
will never mix out-of-band and normal data in the
same call.) argp points at a BOOL in which
ioctlsocket() stores the result.
Compatibility
This function is a subset of ioctl() as used in Berkeley sockets. In
particular, there is no command which is equivalent to FIOASYNC,
while SIOCATMARK is the only socketlevel command which is
supported.
See Also
socket(), setsockopt(), getsockopt().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-135
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
listen
Syntax:
int listen ( SOCKET so, int iBacklog )
Description:
Establishes a socket to listen for incoming connection.
Parameters
so
iBacklog
Description
A descriptor identifying a bound, unconnected socket.
The maximum length to which the queue of pending
connections may grow.
Return Value
If no error occurs, listen() returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EADDRINUSE
EINVAL
EISCONN
EMFILE
ENOBUFS
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
An attempt has been made to listen() on an
address in use.
The socket has not been bound with bind() or
is already connected.
The socket is already connected.
No more file descriptors are available.
No buffer space is available.
The descriptor is not a socket.
The referenced socket is not of a type that
supports the listen() operation.
Remarks
To accept connections, a socket is first created with socket(), a
backlog for incoming connections is specified with listen(), and then
the connections are accepted with accept(). listen() applies only to
sockets that support connections, i.e. those of type SOCK_STREAM.
The socket so is put into "passive'' mode where incoming connections
are acknowledged and queued pending acceptance by the process.
This function is typically used by servers that could have more than
one connection request at a time: if a connection request arrives with
the queue full, the client will receive an error with an indication of
ECONNREFUSED.
5-136 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Compatibility
iBacklog is limited (silently) to 5. As in 4.3BSD, illegal values (less
than 1 or greater than 5) are replaced by the nearest legal value.
See Also
accept(), connect(), socket().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-137
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ntohl
Syntax:
u_long ntohl ( u_long ulNetlong )
Description:
Converts a u_long from network to host byte order.
Parameters
ulNetlong
Description
A 32-bit number in network byte order.
Return Value
ntohl() returns the value in host byte order.
Remarks
This routine takes a 32-bit number in network byte order and returns a
32-bit number in host byte order.
See Also
htonl(), htons(), ntohs().
5-138 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ntohs
Syntax
u_short ntohs ( u_short usNetshort )
Description:
Converts a u_short from network to host byte order.
Return Value
ntohs() returns the value in host byte order.
Parameters
usNetshort
Description
A 16-bit number in network byte order.
Remarks
This routine takes a 16-bit number in network byte order and returns a
16-bit number in host byte order.
See Also
htonl(), htons(), ntohl().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-139
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
recv
Syntax:
int recv ( SOCKET so, char * pcbuf, int iLen, int iFlags )
Description:
Receives data from a socket.
Parameters
so
pcBuf
iLen
iFlags
Description
A descriptor identifying a connected socket.
A buffer for the incoming data.
The length of pcBuf.
Specifies the way in which the call is made.
Return Value
If no error occurs, recv() returns the number of bytes received. If the
connection has been closed, it returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
ESHUTDOWN
EWOULDBLOCK
EMSGSIZE
EINVAL
ECONNABORTED
ECONNRESET
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The socket is not connected.
The descriptor is not a socket.
MSG_OOB was specified, but the socket is
not of type SOCK_STREAM.
The socket has been shutdown; it is not
possible to recv() on a socket after shutdown()
has been invoked with how set to 0 or 2.
The socket is marked as non-blocking and
the receive operation would block.
The datagram was too large to fit into the
specified buffer and was truncated.
The socket has not been bound with bind().
The virtual circuit was aborted due to timeout
or other failure.
The virtual circuit was reset by the remote
side.
5-140 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Remarks
This function is used on connected datagram or stream sockets
specified by the so parameter and is used to read incoming data.
For sockets of type SOCK_STREAM, as much information as is
currently available up to the size of the buffer supplied is returned. If
the socket has been configured for in-line reception of out-of-band
data (socket option SO_OOBINLINE) and out-of-band data is unread,
only out-of-band data will be returned. The application may use the
ioctlsocket() SIOCATMARK to determine whether any more out-ofband data remains to be read.
For datagram sockets, data is extracted from the first enqueued
datagram, up to the size of the buffer supplied. If the datagram is
larger than the buffer supplied, the buffer is filled with the first part of
the datagram, the excess data is lost, and recv() returns the error
EMSGSIZE.
If no incoming data is available at the socket, the recv() call waits for
data to arrive unless the socket is non-blocking. In this case a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned with the error code set to
EWOULDBLOCK. The select() call may be used to determine when
more data arrives.
If the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM and the remote side has shut
down the connection gracefully, a recv() will complete immediately
with 0 bytes received. If the connection has been reset, a recv() will
fail with the error ECONNRESET.
iFlags may be used to influence the behavior of the function
invocation beyond the options specified for the associated socket.
That is, the semantics of this function are determined by the socket
options and the iFlags parameter. The latter is constructed by or-ing
any of the following values:
Value
MSG_
MSG_OOB
Meaning
PEEK Peek at the incoming data. The data is copied
into the buffer but is not removed from the input
queue.
Process out-of-band data.
See Also
recvfrom(), ,recv(), send(), select(), socket()
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-141
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
recvfrom
Syntax
int recvfrom ( SOCKET so, char * pcBuf, int iLen, int iFlags, struct
sockaddr * psFrom, int * piFromlen )
Description:
Receives a datagram and store the source address.
Parameters
so
pcBuf
iLen
iFlags
psFrom
piFromlen
Description
A descriptor identifying a bound socket.
A buffer for the incoming data.
The length of pcBuf.
Specifies the way in which the call is made.
An optional pointer to a buffer which will hold the
source address upon return.
An optional pointer to the size of the psFrom buffer.
Return Value
If no error occurs, recvfrom() returns the number of bytes received. If
the connection has been closed, it returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
EINVAL
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
ESHUTDOWN
EWOULDBLOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The piFromlen argument was invalid: the
psFrom buffer was too small to accommodate
the peer address.
The socket has not been bound with bind().
The
socket
is
not
connected
(SOCK_STREAM only).
The descriptor is not a socket.
MSG_OOB was specified, but the socket is
not of type SOCK_STREAM.
The socket has been shutdown; it is not
possible to recvfrom() on a socket after
shutdown() has been invoked with how set to
0 or 2.
The socket is marked as non-blocking and
the recvfrom() operation would block.
5-142 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
EMSGSIZE
ECONNABORTED
ECONNRESET
The datagram was too large to fit into the
specified buffer and was truncated.
The virtual circuit was aborted due to timeout
or other failure.
The virtual circuit was reset by the remote
side.
Remarks
This function is used to read incoming data on a (possibly connected)
socket and capture the address from which the data was sent.
For sockets of type SOCK_STREAM, as much information as is
currently available up to the size of the buffer supplied is returned. If
the socket has been configured for in-line reception of out-of-band
data (socket option SO_OOBINLINE) and out-of-band data is unread,
only out-of-band data will be returned. The application may use the
ioctlsocket() SIOCATMARK to determine whether any more out-ofband data remains to be read. The psFrom and piFromlen parameters
are ignored for SOCK_STREAM sockets.
For datagram sockets, data is extracted from the first enqueued
datagram, up to the size of the buffer supplied. If the datagram is
larger than the buffer supplied, the buffer is filled with the first part of
the message, the excess data is lost, and recvfrom() returns the error
code EMSGSIZE.
If psFrom is non-zero, and the socket is of type SOCK_DGRAM, the
network address of the peer which sent t he data is copied to the
corresponding struct sockaddr. The value pointed to by piFromlen is
initialized to the size of this structure, and is modified on return to
indicate the actual size of the address stored there.
If no incoming data is available at the socket, the recvfrom() call waits
for data to arrive unless the socket is non-blocking. In this case a
value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned with the error code set to
EWOULDBLOCK. The select() call may be used to determine when
more data arrives.
If the socket is of type SOCK_STREAM and the remote side has shut
down the connection gracefully, a recvfrom() will complete
immediately with 0 bytes received. If the connection has been reset
recv() will fail with the error ECONNRESET.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-143
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
iFlags may be used to influence the behavior of the function
invocation beyond the options specified for the associated socket.
That is, the semantics of this function aredetermined by the socket
options and the iFlags parameter. The latter is constructed by or-ing
any of the following values:
Value
MSG_PEEK
MSG_OOB
Meaning
Peek at the incoming data. The data is copied into the
buffer but is not removed from the input queue.
Process out-of-band data.
See Also
recv(), send(), socket().
5-144 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
select
Syntax:
int select ( int iNfds, fd_set * psReadfds, fd_set * psWritefds, fd_set *
psExceptfds, const struct timeval * psTimeout )
Description:
Determines the status of one or more sockets, waiting if necessary.
Parameters
iNfds
psReadfds
psWritefds
psExceptfds
psTimeout
Description
This argument is ignored and included only for the
sake of compatibility.
An optional pointer to a set of sockets to be checked
for readability.
An optional pointer to a set of sockets to be checked
for writability
An optional pointer to a set of sockets to be checked
for errors.
The maximum time for select() to wait, or NULL for
blocking operation.
Return Value
select() returns the total number of descriptors which are ready and
contained in the fd_set structures, 0 if the time limit expired, or
SOCKET_ERROR if an error occurred. If the return value is
SOCKET_ERROR, errno contains the specific error code.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EINVAL
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The psTimeout value is not valid.
One of the descriptor sets contains an entry
which is not a socket.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-145
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Remarks
This function is used to determine the status of one or more sockets.
For each socket, the caller may request information on read, write or
error status. The set of sockets for which a given status is requested
is indicated by an fd_set structure. Upon return, the structure is
updated to reflect the subset of these sockets which meet the
specified condition, and select() returns the number of sockets
meeting the conditions. A set of macros is provided for manipulating
an fd_set. These macros are compatible with those used in the
Berkeley software, but the underlying representation is completely
different and the same as that used in Winsock.
The parameter psReadfds identifies those sockets which are to be
checked for readability. If the socket is currently listen()ing, it will be
marked as readable if an incoming connection request has been
received, so that an accept() is guaranteed to complete without
blocking. For other sockets, readability means that queued data is
available for reading or, for sockets of type SOCK_STREAM, that the
virtual socket corresponding to the socket has been closed, so that a
recv() or recvfrom() is guaranteed to complete without blocking. If the
virtual circuit was closed gracefully, then a recv() will return
immediately with 0 bytes read; if the virtual circuit was reset, then a
recv() will complete immediately with the error code ECONNRESET.
The presence of out-of-band data will be checked if the socket option
SO_OOBINLINE has been enabled (see setsockopt()).
The parameter psWritefds identifies those sockets which are to be
checked for writability. If a socket is connect()ing (non-blocking),
writability means that the connection establishment successfully
completed. If the socket is not in the process of connect()ing,
writability means that a send() or sendto() will complete without
blocking.
The parameter psExceptfds identifies those sockets which are to be
checked for the presence of out-of-band data or any exceptional error
conditions. Note that out -of-band data will only be reported in this way
if the option SO_OOBINLINE is FALSE. For a SOCK_STREAM, the
breaking of the connection by the peer or due to KEEPALIVE failure
will be indicated as an exception. If a socket is connect()ing (nonblocking), failure of the connect attempt is indicated in psExceptfds.
5-146 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Any of psReadfds, psWritefds, or psExceptfds may be given as NULL
if no descriptors are of interest.
Four macros are defined in the header file socket.h for manipulating
the descriptor sets. The variable FD_SETSIZE determines the
maximum number of descriptors in a set. (The default value of
FD_SETSIZE is 16, which may be modified by #defining
FD_SETSIZE to another value before #including socket.h.) Internally,
an fd_set is represented as an array of SOCKETs. The macros are:
FD_CLR(so, *psSet)
Removes the descriptor so from set.
FD_ISSET(so, *pSset) Nonzero if so is a member of the set, zero
otherwise.
FD_SET(so, *psSet)
Adds descriptor so to set.
FD_ZERO(*psSet)
Initializes the set to the NULL set.
The parameter psTimeout controls how long the select() may take to
comp lete. If psTimeout is a null pointer, select() will block indefinitely
until at least one descriptor meets the specified criteria. Otherwise,
psTtimeout points to a struct timeval which specifies the maximum
time that select() should wait before returning. If the timeval is
initialized to {0, 0}, select() will return immediately; this is used to
"poll" the state of the selected sockets.
See Also
accept(), connect(), recv(), recvfrom(), send().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-147
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
send
Syntax:
int send ( SOCKET so, const char * pcBuf, int iLen, int iFlags )
Description:
Sends data on a connected socket.
Parameters
so
pcBuf
iLen
iFlags
Description
A descriptor identifying a connected socket.
A buffer containing the data to be transmitted.
The length of the data in pcBuf.
Specifies the way in which the call is made.
Return Value
If no error occurs, send() returns the total number of characters sent.
(Note that this may be less than the number indicated by len.)
Otherwise, a value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific
error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EACCES
EFAULT
ENETRESET
ENOBUFS
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
ESHUTDOWN
EWOULDBLOCK
EMSGSIZE
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The requested address is a broadcast
address, but the appropriate flag was not set.
The pcBuf argument is not in a valid part of
the user address space.
The connection must be reset because
SOCKETS dropped it.
SOCKETS reports a buffer deadlock.
The socket is not connected.
The descriptor is not a socket.
MSG_OOB was specified, but the socket is
not of type SOCK_STREAM.
The socket has been shutdown; it is not
possible to send() on a socket after
shutdown() has been invoked with how set to
1 or 2.
The socket is marked as non-blocking and
the requested operation would block.
The socket is of type SOCK_DGRAM, and
the datagram is larger than the maximum
supported by SOCKETS.
5-148 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
EINVAL
ECONNABORTED
ECONNRESET
The socket has not been bound with bind().
The virtual circuit was aborted due to timeout
or other failure.
The virtual circuit was reset by the remote
side.
Remarks
send() is used on connected datagram or stream sockets and is used
to write outgoing data on a socket. For datagram sockets, care must
be taken not to exceed the maximum IP packet size of the underlying
subnets. If the data is too long to pass atomically through the
underlying protocol the error EMSGSIZE is returned, and no data is
transmitted.
Note that the successful completion of a send() does not indicate that
the data was successfully delivered.
If no buffer space is available within the transport system to hold the
data to be transmitted, send() will block unless the socket has been
placed in a non-blocking I/O mode. On non-blocking SOCK_STREAM
sockets, the number of bytes written may be between 1 and the
requested length, depending on buffer availability on both the local
and foreign hosts. The select() call may be used to determine when it
is possible to send more data.
iFlags may be used to influence the behavior of the function
invocation beyond the options specified for the associated socket.
That is, the semantics of this function are determined by the socket
options and the flags parameter. The latter is constructed by oring any
of the following values:
Value
MSG_DONTROUTE
MSG_OOB
Meaning
Specifies that the data should not be subject
to routing
Send out-of-band data
(SOCK_STREAM only)
See Also
recv(), recvfrom(), socket(), sendto().
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-149
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
sendto
Syntax:
int sendto ( SOCKET so, const char * pcBuf, int iLen, int iFlags, const
struct sockaddr * psTo, int iTolen )
Description:
Sends data to a specific destination.
Parameters
so
pcBuf
iLen
iFlags
PsTo
iITolen
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
A buffer containing the data to be transmitted.
The length of the data in pcBuf.
Specifies the way in which the call is made.
An optional pointer to the address of the target
socket.
The size of the address in to.
Return Value
If no error occurs, sendto() returns the total number of characters
sent. (Note that this may be less than the number indicated by len.)
Otherwise, a value of SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific
error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EACCES
EFAULT
ENETRESET
ENOBUFS
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
EOPNOTSUPP
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
The requested address is a broadcast
address, but the appropriate flag was not set.
The pcBuf or psTo parameters are not part of
the user address space, or the psTo
argument is too small (less than the sizeof a
struct sockaddr).
The connection must be reset because
SOCKETS dropped it.
SOCKETS reports a buffer deadlock.
The
socket
is
not
connected
(SOCK_STREAM only).
The descriptor is not a socket.
MSG_OOB was specified, but the socket is
not of type SOCK_STREAM.
5-150 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
ESHUTDOWN
EWOULDBLOCK
EMSGSIZE
ECONNABORTED
ECONNRESET
EADDRNOTAVAIL
EAFNOSUPPORT
EDESTADDRREQ
ENETUNREACH
The socket has been shutdown; it is not
possible to sendto() on a socket after
shutdown() has been invoked with how set to
1 or 2.
The socket is marked as non-blocking and
the requested operation would block.
The socket is of type SOCK_DGRAM, and
the datagram is larger than the maximum
supported by SOCKETS.
The virtual circuit was aborted due to timeout
or other failure.
The virtual circuit was reset by the remote
side.
The specified address is not available from
the local machine.
Addresses in the specified family cannot be
used with this socket.
A destination address is required.
The network can't be reached from this host
at this time.
Remarks
sendto() is used on datagram or stream sockets and is used to write
outgoing data on a socket. For datagram sockets, care must be taken
not to exceed the maximum IP packet size of the underlying subnets.
If the data is too long to pass atomically through the underlying
protocol the error EMSGSIZE is returned, and no data is transmitted.
Note that the successful completion of a sendto() does not indicate
that the data was successfully delivered.
sendto() is normally used on a SOCK_DGRAM socket to send a
datagram to a specific peer socket identified by the psTo parameter.
On a SOCK_STREAM socket, the psTo and iTolen parameters are
ignored; in this case the sendto() is equivalent to send().
To send a broadcast (on a SOCK_DGRAM only), the address in the to
parameter should be constructed using the special IP address
INADDR_BROADCAST (defined in socket.h) together with the
intended port number. It is generally inadvisable for a broadcast
datagram to exceed the size at which fragmentation may occur, which
implies that the data portion of the datagram (excluding headers)
should not exceed 512 bytes.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-151
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
If no buffer space is available within the transport system to hold the
data to be transmitted, sendto() will block unless the socket has been
placed in a non-blocking I/O mode. On non-blocking SOCK_STREAM
sockets, the number of bytes written may be between 1 and the
requested length, depending on buffer availability on both t he local
and foreign hosts. The select() call may be used to determine when it
is possible to send more data.
iFlags may be used to influence the behavior of the function
invocation beyond the options specified for the associated socket.
That is, the semantics of this function are determined by the socket
options and the iFlags parameter. The latter is constructed by or-ing
any of the following values:
Value
MSG_DONTROUTE
MSG_OOB
Meaning
Specifies that the data should not be subject
to routing.
Send out-of-band data (SOCK_STREAM only
Out of band data)
See Also
recv(), recvfrom(), socket(), send().
5-152 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
setsockopt
Syntax:
int setsockopt ( SOCKET so, int level, int optname, const char * optval,
int optlen )
Description:
Sets a socket option.
Parameters
so
level
optname
optval
optlen
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
The level at which the option is defined; the only
supported
levels
are
SOL_SOCKET
and
IPPROTO_TCP.
The socket option for which the value is to be set.
A pointer to the buffer in which the value for the
requested option is supplied.
The size of the optval buffer.
Return Value
If no error occurs, setsockopt() returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EFAULT
EINVAL
ENETRESET
ENOPROTOOPT
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network
subsystem has failed.
optval is not in a valid part of the process
address space.
level is not valid, or the information in optval
is not valid.
Connection
has
timed
out
when
SO_KEEPALIVE is set.
The option is unknown or unsupported. In
particular, SO_BROADCAST is not supported
on sockets of type SOCK_STREAM, while
SO_DONTLINGER,
SO_KEEPALIVE,
SO_LINGER and SO_OOBINLINE are not
supported on sockets of type SOCK_DGRAM.
Connection
has
been
reset
when
SO_KEEPALIVE is set.
The descriptor is not a socket.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-153
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Remarks
setsockopt() sets the current value for a socket option associated
with a socket of any type, in any state. Although options may exist at
multiple protocol levels, this specification only defines options that
exist at the uppermost "socket'' level. Options affect socket operations,
such as whet her expedited data is received in the normal data stream,
whether broadcast messages may be sent on the socket, etc.
There are two types of socket options: Boolean options that enable or
disable a feature or behavior, and options which require an integer
value or structure. To enable a Boolean option, optval points to a
nonzero integer. To disable the option optval points to an integer
equal to zero. optlen should be equal to sizeof(int) for Boolean options.
For other options, optval points to the an integer or structure that
contains the desired value for the option, and optlen is the length of
the integer or structure.
SO_LINGER controls the action taken when unsent data is queued on
a socket and a closesocket() is performed. See closesocket() for a
description of the way in which the SO_LINGER settings affect the
semantics of closesocket(). The application sets the desired behavior
by creating a struct linger (pointed to by the optval argument) with the
following elements:
struct linger
{
int l_onoff;
int l_linger;
}
To enable SO_LINGER, the application should set l_onoff to a nonzero value, set l_linger to 0 or the desired timeout (in seconds), and
call setsockopt(). To enable SO_DONTLINGER (i.e. disable
SO_LINGER) l_onoff should be set to zero and setsockopt() should
be called.
By default, a socket may not be bound (see bind()) to a local address
which is already in use. On occasions, however, it may be desirable to
"re-use" an address in this way. Since every connection is uniquely
identified by the combination of local and remote addresses, there is
no problem with having two sockets bound to the same local address
as long as the remote addresses are different. To inform SOCKETS
that a bind() on a socket should not be disallowed because the
desired address is already in use by another socket, the application
should set the SO_REUSEADDR socket option for the socket before
5-154 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
issuing the bind(). Note that the option is interpreted only at the time
of the bind(): it is therefore unnecessary (but harmless) to set the
option on a socket which is not to be bound to an existing address,
and setting or resetting the option after the bind() has no effect on this
or any other socket.
An application may request that SOCKETS enable the use of "keepalive" packets on TCP connections by turning on the SO_KEEPALIVE
socket option. If a connection is dropped as the result of "keep -alives"
the error code ENETRESET is returned to any calls in progress on the
socket, and any subsequent calls will fail with ENOTCONN.
The TCP_NODELAY option disables the Nagle algorithm. The Nagle
algorithm is used to reduce the number of small packets sent by a
host by buffering unacknowledged send data until a full-size packet
can be sent. However, for some applications this algorithm can
impede performance, and TCP_NODELAY may be used to turn it off.
Application writers should not set TCP_NODELAY unless the impact
of doing so is well-understood and desired, since setting
TCP_NODELAY can have a significant negative impact of network
performance. TCP_NODELAY is the only supported socket option
which uses level IPPROTO_TCP; all other options use level
SOL_SOCKET.
The following options are supported for setsockopt(). The Type
identifies the type of data addressed by optval.
Value
SO_BROADCAST
Type
BOOL
SO_DEBUG
SO_DONTLINGER
BOOL
BOOL
SO_DONTROUTE
SO_KEEPALIVE
SO_LINGER
BOOL
BOOL
struct linger *
SO_OOBINLINE
BOOL
SO_RCVBUF
SO_REUSEADDR
Int
BOOL
SO_SNDBUF
TCP_NODELAY
Int
BOOL
Meaning
Allow transmission of broadcast
messages on the socket.
Record debugging information.
Don't block close waiting for unsent
data to be sent. Setting this option is
equivalent to setting SO_LINGER
with l_onoff set to zero.
Don't route: send directly to interface.
Send keepalives
Linger on close if unsent data is
present
Receive out-of-band data in the
normal data stream.
Specify buffer size for receives
Allow the socket to be bound to an
address which is already in use.
(See bind().)
Specify buffer size for sends.
Disables the Nagle algorithm for
send coalescing.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-155
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
BSD options not supported for setsockopt() are:
Value
SO_ACCEPTCONN
SO_ERROR
SO_RCVLOWAT
SO_RCVTIMEO
SO_SNDLOWAT
SO_SNDTIMEO
SO_TYPE
IP_OPTIONS
Type
BOOL
Int
Int
Int
Int
Int
Int
Meaning
Socket is listening
Get error status and clear
Receive low water mark
Receive timeout
Send low water mark
Send timeout
Type of the socket
Set options field in IP header.
See Also
bind(), getsockopt(), ioctlsocket(), socket().
5-156 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
shutdown
Syntax:
int shutdown ( SOCKET so, int how )
Description:
Disables sends and/or receives on a socket.
Parameters
so
how
Description
A descriptor identifying a socket.
A flag that describes what types of operation will no
longer be allowed.
Return Value
If no error occurs, shutdown() returns 0. Otherwise, a value of
SOCKET_ERROR is returned, and a specific error code is returned in
errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EINVAL
ENOTCONN
ENOTSOCK
SOCKETS has detected that the network subsystem
has failed.
how is not valid.
The socket is not connected (SOCK_STREAM only).
The descriptor is not a socket.
Remarks
shutdown() is used on all types of sockets to disable reception,
transmission, or both. If how is 0, subsequent receives on the socket
will be disallowed. This has no effect on the lower protocol layers. For
TCP, the TCP window is not changed and incoming data will be
accepted (but not acknowledged) until the window is exhausted. For
UDP, incoming datagrams are accepted and queued. In no case will
an ICMP error packet be generated.
If how is 1, subsequent sends are disallowed. For TCP sockets, a FIN
will be sent. Setting how to 2 disables both sends and receives as
described above.
Note that shutdown() does not close the socket, and resources
attached to the socket will not be freed until closesocket() is invoked.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-157
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Comments
shutdown() does not block regardless of the SO_LINGER setting on
the socket. An application should not re-use a socket after it has been
shut down.
See Also
connect(), socket().
5-158 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
socket
Syntax:
SOCKET socket ( int af, int type, int protocol )
Description:
Creates a socket.
Parameters
af
type
protocol
An address format specification. The only format
currently supported is PF_INET,
which is the ARPA Internet address format.
A type specification for the new socket.
A particular protocol to be used with the socket, or 0 if
the caller does not wish to specify a protocol.
Return Value
If no error occurs, socket() returns a descriptor referencing the new
socket. Otherwise, a value of INVALID_SOCKET is returned, and a
specific error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
EAFNOSUPPORT
EMFILE
ENOBUFS
EPROTONOSUPPORT
EPROTOTYPE
ESOCKTNOSUPPORT
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
The specified address family is not
supported.
No more file descriptors are
available.
No buffer space is available. The
socket cannot be created.
The specified protocol is not
supported.
The specified protocol is the wrong
type for this socket.
The specified socket type is not
supported in this address family.
Remarks
socket() allocates a socket descriptor of the specified address family,
data type and protocol, as well as related resources. If a protocol is
not specified (i.e. equal to 0), the default for the specified connection
mode is used.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-159
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Only a single protocol exists to support a particular socket type using
a given address format. However, the address family may be given as
AF_UNSPEC (unspecified), in which case the protocol parameter
must be specified. The protocol number to use is particular to the
"communication domain'' in which communication is to take place.
The following type specifications are supported:
Type Explanation
SOCK_STREAM
SOCK_DGRAM
Provides sequenced, reliable, two-way,
connection-based byte streams with an outof-band data transmission mechanism. Uses
TCP for the Internet address family.
Supports
datagrams,
which
are
connectionless, unreliable buffers of a fixed
(typically small) maximum length. Uses UDP
for the Internet address family.
Sockets of type SOCK_STREAM are full-duplex byte streams. A
stream socket must be in a connected state before any data may be
sent or received on it. A connection to another socket is created with a
connect() call. Once connected, data may be transferred using send()
and recv() calls. When a session has been completed, a
closesocket() must be performed. Out-of-band data may also be
transmitted as described in send() and received as described in
recv().
The communications protocols used to implement a SOCK_STREAM
ensure that data is not lost or duplicated. If data for which the peer
protocol has buffer space cannot be successfully transmitted within a
reasonable length of time, the connection is considered broken and
subsequent calls will fail with the error code set to ETIMEDOUT.
SOCK_DGRAM sockets allow sending and receiving of datagrams to
and from arbitrary peers using sendto() and recvfrom(). If such a
socket is connect()ed to a specific peer, datagrams may be send to
that peer send() and may be received from (only) this peer using
recv().
See Also
accept(), bind(), connect(), getsockname(), getsockopt(), setsockopt(),
listen(), recv(), recvfrom(), select(), send(), sendto(), shutdown(),
ioctlsocket().
5-160 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
gethostbyaddr
Syntax:
struct hostent * gethostbyaddr ( const char * pcAddr, int len, int type )
Description:
Gets host information corresponding to an address.
Parameters
pcAddr
len
type
Description
A pointer to an address in network byte order.
The length of the address, which must be 4 for
PF_INET addresses.
The type of the address, which must be PF_INET.
Return Value
If no error occurs, gethostbyaddr() returns a pointer to the hostent
structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL pointer and a
specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND
WSATRY_AGAIN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
Authoritative Answer Host not found.
Non-Authoritative Host not found, or
SERVERFAIL.
Non-recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name, no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
gethostbyaddr() returns a pointer to the following structure which
contains the name(s) and address which correspond to the given
address.
struct hostent
{
char * h_name;
char ** h_aliases;
short h_addrtype;
short h_length;
char ** h_addr_list;
};
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-161
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
The members of this structure are:
Element
h_name
h_aliases
h_addrtype
h_length
h_addr_list
Usage
Official name of the host (PC).
A NULL-terminated array of alternate names.
The type of address being returned; for SOCKETS
this is always PF_INET.
The length, in bytes, of each address; for PF_INET,
this is always 4.
A NULL-terminated list of addresses for the host.
Addresses are returned in network byte order.
The macro h_addr is defined to be h_addr_list[0] for compatibility with
older software. The pointer which is returned points to a structure
which is allocated by SOCKETS. The application must never attempt
to modify this structure or to free any of its components. The
application should copy any information which it needs before issuing
any other SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
gethostbyname(),
5-162 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
gethostbyname
Syntax:
struct hostent * gethostbyname ( const char * pszName )
Description:
Gets host information corresponding to a hostname.
Parameters
PszName
Description
A pointer to the name of the host.
Return Value
If no error occurs, gethostbyname() returns a pointer to the hostent
structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL pointer and a
specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSAHOST_NOT_FOUND
WSATRY_AGAIN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
Authoritative Answer Host not found.
Non-Authoritative Host not found, or
SERVERFAIL.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name, no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
gethostbyname() returns a pointer to a hostent structure as
described under gethostbyaddr(). The contents of this structure
correspond to the hostname pszName.
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by SOCKETS. The application must never attempt to modify this
structure or to free any of its components. The application should copy
any information which it needs before issuing any other SOCKETS
API calls.
A gethostbyname() implementation must not resolve IP address
strings passed to it. Such a request should be treated exactly as if an
unknown host name were passed. An application with an IP address
string to resolve should use inet_addr() to convert the string to an IP
address, then gethostbyaddr() to obtain the hostent structure.
See Also
gethostbyaddr()
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-163
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
gethostname
Syntax:
int gethostname ( char * pszName, int iAddressLen )
Description:
Return the standard host name for the local machine.
Parameters
pszName
Description
A pointer to a buffer that will receive the host
name.
The length of the buffer.
iAddressLen
Return Value
If no error occurs, gethostname() returns 0, otherwise it returns
SOCKET_ERROR and a specific error code is returned in errno.
Error Codes
EFAULT
ENETDOWN
The iAddressLen parameter is too small
SOCKETS has detected that the network subsystem
has failed.
Remarks
This routine returns the name of the local host into the buffer specified
by the pszName parameter. The host name is returned as a nullterminated string. The form of the host name is dependent on the
SOCKETS configuration file. However, it is guaranteed that the name
returned will be successfully parsed by gethostbyname().
See Also
gethostbyname().
5-164 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
getprotobyname
Syntax:
struct protoent * getprotobyname ( const char * pszName )
Description:
Gets protocol information corresponding to a protocol name.
Parameters
pszName
Description
A pointer to a protocol name.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getprotobyname() returns a pointer to the protoent
structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL pointer and a
specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name, no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
getprotobyname() returns a pointer to the following structure which
contains the name(s) and protocol number which correspond to the
given protocol pszName.
struct protoent {
char * p_name;
char ** p_aliases;
short p_proto;
};
The members of this structure are:
Element
p_name
p_aliases
p_proto
Usage
Official name of the protocol.
A NULL-terminated array of alternate names.
The protocol number, in host byte order.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-165
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by the SOCKETS library. The application must never attempt to
modify this structure or to free any of its components. The application
should copy any information which it needs before issuing any other
SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
getprotobynumber()
5-166 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
getprotobynumber
Syntax:
struct protoent * getprotobynumber ( int number )
Description:
Gets protocol information corresponding to a protocol number.
Parameters
number
Description
A protocol number, in host byte order.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getprotobynumber() returns a pointer to the
protoent structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL
pointer and a specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name, no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
This function returns a pointer to a protoent struct ure as described
above in getprotobyname(). The contents of the structure correspond
to the given protocol number.
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by SOCKETS. The application must never attempt to modify this
struct ure or to free any of its components. The application should
copy any information which it needs before issuing any other
SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
getprotobyname()
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-167
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
getservbyname
Syntax:
struct servent * getservbyname ( const char * pszName, const char *
proto )
Description:
Gets service information corresponding to a service name and
protocol.
Parameters
pszName
proto
Description
A pointer to a service name.
An optional pointer to a protocol name. If this is NULL,
getservbyname() returns the first service entry for
which the pszName matches the s_name or one of the
s_aliases. Otherwise getservbyname() matches both
the pszName and the proto.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getservbyname() returns a pointer to the servent
structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL pointer and a
specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name, no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
getservbyname() returns a pointer to the following structure which
contains the name(s) and service number which correspond to the
given service pszName.
struct servent
{
char * s_name;
char ** s_aliases;
short s_port;
char * s_proto;
};
5-168 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
The members of this structure are:
Element
s_name
s_aliases
s_port
s_proto
Usage
Official name of the service.
A NULL-terminated array of alternate names.
The port number at which the service may be
contacted. Port numbers are returned in network byte
order.
The name of the protocol to use when contacting the
service.
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by the SOCKETS library. The application must never attempt to
modify this structure or to free any of its components. The application
should copy any information which it needs before issuing
any other SOCKETS API calls.
See Also
getservbyport()
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-169
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
getservbyport
Syntax
struct servent * getservbyport ( int port, const char * proto )
Description:
Gets service information corresponding to a port and protocol.
Parameters
Port
Proto
Description
The port for a service, in network byte order.
An optional pointer to a protocol name. If this is
NULL, getservbyport() returnsthe first service entry
for which the port matches the s_port. Otherwise
getservbyport() matches both the port and the proto.
Return Value
If no error occurs, getservbyport() returns a pointer to the servent
structure described above. Otherwise it returns a NULL pointer and a
specific error number is returned in errno.
Error Codes
ENETDOWN
WSANO_RECOVERY
WSANO_DATA
SOCKETS has detected that the
network subsystem has failed.
Non recoverable errors, FORMERR,
REFUSED, NOTIMP.
Valid name, no data record of
requested type.
Remarks
getservbyport() returns a pointer a servent structure as described
above for getservbyname().
The pointer which is returned points to a structure which is allocated
by SOCKETS. The application must never attempt to modify this
structure or to free any of its components. The application should copy
any information which it needs before issuing any other SOCKETS
API calls.
See Also
getservbyname()
5-170 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
5.3.7 HTTP Functions (CGI_LIB*.LIB)
CGI Application API (Server API)
Introduction
The SOCKETS web servers, HTTPD.EXE and HTTPFTPD.EXE,
provide both a Spawning Common Gateway Interface (CGI) and an
Extention API with the ability to extend the server to create dynamic
web pages, perform specialized tasks, etc. One of the extentions
provided is a Server Side Includes (SSI) interface using the CGI
interface, enabling a user to create web pages using HTML templates
with variable names, which is substituted in-time with specific values
The HTTPD Extension CGI works as follows: The extension has to
implement one function called the callback function. The server has a
number of functions that the extension may use, e.g. HttpSendData.
They are designed to give the extension sufficient control over any
http request.
Spawning CGI
An external program, indicated by the requested URL, is spawned. All
relevant information is passed as environment variables. The program
gets all input (e.g. posted data) from standard in and sends all
response through standard out.
This type of CGI is discouraged in favor of the Extension API.
The following CGI environment variables are supported:
CONTENT_TYPE
CONTENT_LENGTH
PATH, COMSPEC
REQUEST_METHOD
Enough free memory must be available when spawning a CGI
program, or no swapping or overlaying will be attempted. Since
COMMAND.COM uses all free memory, it follows that no CGI
program will be spawned if COMMAND.COM is the current
foreground program.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-171
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
CGI programs must be small and must execute reasonably quickly.
While a CGI program is executing, the HTTP server is effectively
blocked and cannot service any other requests. No console input or
output should be used. A CGI program is invoked by a URL containing
a path of /cgi-bin/<cgi-program> where <cgi-program> is the name of
an executable program which must be in the HTTP root directory or in
the path. Note that the "/cgi-bin/" part is stripped off and does not
represent a real directory. <Cgi-program> may be followed by a "?"
and a command line. On entry to the CGI program, the environment
variables listed above are set up and can be accessed.
If a command line is given, it can also be accessed in the normal way.
The CGI program generates a dynamic page by writing to STDOUT.
When the CGI program terminates, this output is sent to the remote
client (browser). The output can consist of a header and a body part
separated by an empty line. If the header contains a “Content-type:”
line, the content type will be set to that type and only the body will be
sent to the client. Otherwise all the output will be sent to the client
using content type “text/plain”. COMMAND.COM can be invoked as a
CGI program to perform simple DOS functions e.g. directory listings.
The following example performs a directory listing:
http://www.embedded-server.com/cgi-bin/command?/cdir
The next one performs a wide directory listing using a wild-card
specification:
http://www.embedded-server.com/cgi-bin/command?/cdir%20*.htm%20/w
Note the use of %20 to specify a space character.
Refer to the INDEX.HTM web page for an example of various ways of
calling CGI programs. The NUM.EXE program with source code
NUM.C, demonstrates the use of a header and body part building a
simple “page visited” web page:
printf("Content-type: text/html\n\n”
”<html>\n<h1>\nThis page has been visited %d times\n</h1>\n",
number);
printf("<P><P><A HREF=\"/index.htm\">Back</A>.</html>\n");
5-172 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Forms programming can be performed using either the GET or POST
methods. When GET is used, form data is copied to the command line
and is limited to 128 characters including the URL part. When the
POST method is used, the command line is also built. In addition,
form data are available from STDIN and is limited by disk space only.
See the forms programming example consisting of FORM.HTM,
FORM.EXE and FORM.C for examples of using both the GET and
POST methods. So that you may fully understand CGI programming,
this detailed explanation of the server operation is provided.
Whenever HTTPD receives a URL containing “/cgi-bin/”, it interprets
the rest of the URL as a DOS program to spawn and run to
completion. The full path parsed from the URL is used, implying that
the program should be in physical directory called “/cgi-bin/” or a
subdirectory
thereof.
E.g.
“program.exe”
should
be
in
“%HTTP_DIR%\cgi-bin\” if the request is “GET /cgibin/program.exe”.
While this “CGI program” is executing, the server can accept new
server connections, but will not respond to them before the CGI
program terminates. The CGI program can be any DOS program that
is small enough to fit into available memory. Since HTTPD is blocked
while the CGI program executes, user interaction should not be used
and the CGI program should complete in a reasonable time.
Operation on receiving a CGI URL:
If the CGI program name is followed by a "?", the rest of the line is
sent as a command line to the CGI program after converting all %n
combinations.
If a “Content-Type” header is encountered, the CONTENT_TYPE
environment variable is set to the given value and if a “ContentLength” header is encountered, the CONTENT_LENGTH environment
variable is set to the given value. The PATH and COMSPEC
environment variables are copied to the new environment and the
REQUEST_METHOD environment variable is set to either GET or
POST.
If the POST method is used, the rest of the HTTP message is copied
to a temporary file that is then re-directed to stdin. The stdout stream
is redirected to another temporary file. After completion of the request,
the temporary files are deleted. They will be created in the
%HTTPTMP% directory.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-173
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
The CGI program is now invoked. This program can check the
environment variables, access the command line and in the case of a
POST, read from stdin.
All output that should be passed back to the HTTP client (Browser) is
written to stdout. A single header line followed by an empty line,
containing “Contenttype:
content_type” may be pre -pended to the data. This line will be used
to set the content-type of the data being sent back. If such a header is
not found, the content type will be set to “text/plain”.
Overview of the Extention API
The SOCKETS HTTP servers (HTTPD/HTTPFTPD) provide a facility
to call functions in other modules which may be TSR or transient
programs.
These functions are referred to as “HTTPD extensions”. HTTPD or
HTTPFTPD must be loaded as a TSR using the /r switch. It provides
an API via software Interrupt 63Hex. The API can be located by
searching for a signature containing SockHTTPD starting 10 bytes
before the interrupt entry point and terminated by a 0 byte.
A CGI adapter is provided that simplifies the communication with the
server. It is located in a file called CGIADAP.C. The adapter finds the
signature and provides a C interface. It also intercepts the callback
function and performs a stack and context switch, which makes
implementing an extension much easier.
An HTTPD extension registers interest in a specific URL by calling the
HttpRegister() API specifying a “path”. Note that this path has nothing
to do with an actual file path on the server and will override any real
path that may be used for serving static pages. The HttpRegister()
function also specifies a Callback function to be called when the
actual request is received by HTTPD, a DWORD User ID to be used
in callbacks and whether requests should be allowed to overlap, i.e. a
new request can be received while still servicing a previous request or
requests.
5-174 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
The Callback function will be called when a request for the registered
path is received and as many times afterwards as is necessary to
complete the request. It is called with a parameter structure specifying
the reason for the request, the User ID, an HTTPD handle and values
specific to the reason for the callback, e.g. a pointer to the command
line on the initial callback. Other reasons for calling the Callback
function are to notify of new received data, connection closure by the
peer, readiness to accept more data and connection errors.
The callback must return a value to indicate that it is still busy
handling the request, has completed the request or wants to abort the
request with an error. The HTTPD handle will be constant and unique
from the first callback to the completion of the request.
While in the Callback function, data can be read from the peer or sent
to the peer and a file can be submitted to be sent to the peer.
Note: Extensions are responsible for sending all HTTP header fields
to clients.
The following extensions have been developed for functional and
demonstrational purposes.
SSI Interface
If you want to display the current date and time, or a certain CGI
environment variable in your otherwise static document, you can go
through the trouble of writing a CGI program that outputs this small
amount of virtual data. Or better yet, you can use a powerful feature
called Server Side Includes (or SSI).
Server Side Includes are directives which you can place into your
HTML documents to output such data as environment variables and
file statistics. For a detailed introduction, please visit
http://www.ora.com/info/cgi/ch05.html
A simple yet powerful interface is provided to perform Server Side
Includes (SSI) tasks. A user only has to implement one predefined
function and make use of only four API functions to unlock the power
of SSI. The working of the interface is described at the top of the
header file ssi.h.
To use, include ssicgi.c in your project and include ssi.h in your
source files. Take a look at ssi.c for a simple example.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-175
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
Extention API Examples
Five very simple examples are included to demonstrate the usage of
the Extention API. Source code is included, as well as make files.
Put all .htm and .exe files in the %HTTP_DIR% directory and start
HTTPD. Load all the cgi programs (you may use cgi.bat). All is in
place now and the examples may be accessed through index.htm.
The first four examples may operate in one of two modes:
z
As a TSR (resident) program: this is the default behavior. At this
stage unloading of the TSR is not supported. De-registration is
possible by loading the program again. This routine may be
repeated.
z
As a transient program: use ‘/t’ command line switch to activate.
This option will immediately spawn ‘command.com’. From this
pro mpt other cgi programs may be loaded. The program exits
when ‘command.com’ is exited by typing ‘exit’ at the prompt.
These programs are:
1. cgiecho A very simple program that accepts data from a user and
echoes it back nicely formatted. Get echoform.htm from the browser.
2. cgicount A page visit counter. Only updates between sessions if
transient (cgicount /t). Get num.htm from the browser.
3. cgiform Does the same as the old ‘fill out the form and submit’
utility. Get caform.htm from the browser.
SSI A very simple SSI implementation that demonstrates the SSI
interfaces. Template.htm is filled by some variables. Get ssi.htm from
the browser.
The fifth example, FFUR, (Form-base File Upload Receiver) is only a
transient program, but can easily be adapted to be similar to the rest.
It handles the upload of a file as a POST command by filling out
ffur.htm.
5-176 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
HTTPD Function Reference
CGIADAP.C is an interface program a user may utilize to implement
external extention CGI programs. This interface performs stack and
context switches, and provides ordinary C functions to access the http
server (HTTPD.exe).
The header file to use is CGIADAP.H.
The API may be used without using CGIADAP by making low level
calls which are detailed below. In this case the user must perform the
required stack and context switches if required.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-177
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
HttpRegister
Syntax:
int
HttpRegister(char
far
*szPath,
int
(far
*pfCallback)
(HTTP_PARAMS far *psHttpParams), int iFlags, DWORD dwUserID)
Description:
The HttpRegister() function registers an interest in a URL, providing a
callback function. The callback is guaranteed to only be called when
DOS can be called. The DOS critical handler will be disabled and all
critical errors will result in an access error without any user
intervention. Since the callback happens at interrupt time, it should
execute for as short a time as possible. After a done or error return,
no further callbacks will be generated for the current request.
Only one callback will be active at any time. Calling an API function
while executing the callback function will not result in another callback
before the current callback has returned.
Parameters
szPath
Description
Far pointer to the string identifying a URL. It should
be an exact match of the abs_path part of the URI
minus the leading '/'. For instance, If you want to
capture all http://myserver.com/cgi-bin/getpage.exe,
you should register 'cgibin/getpage.exe'.
pfCallback
Address of callback function.
Return values when returning from callback:
RET_OK not done, give me more upcalls
RET_DONE done, no more upcalls please
RET_ERR done, error
psHttpParams Far pointer to HTTP parameter block.
psHttpParams->iReason
Reason for callback:
R_NEWREQ New HTTP request. pszCommandLine points
to the command line passed in the URL. The
number contained in iValue specifies the HTTP
operation; RQ_GET for GET and RQ_POST for
POST.
R_INDATA - Input data available, iValue contains count.
R_OUTDATA - Can send output data, iValue contains count.
R_ENDDATA - Peer closed connection i.e. "end of input data"
R_CLOSED - Connection closed.
5-178 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
psHttpParams->iHandle
HTTPD handle, used in subsequent API calls for this request.
The user should not modify it. See HTAPIC.H for the other
definitions
iflags
dwUserID
Return value
0
<0
F_OVERLAP - Overlapped request (1),
non-overlapped request (0).
All other bits are reserved.
Value passed to HttpRegister(); this value is for use
by the extension, HTTPD does not modify it.
OK
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_REGISTER (0)
DS:SI
szPath
ES:DI
pfCallback
BX
iFlags
CX:DX
dwUserID
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
Note that the stack and the data segment on entry will be that of
HTTPD. Depending on the memory model used for the extension and
the amount of stack space required, it may be required to switch
stacks during the callback.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-179
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
HttpDeRegister
Syntax:
int HttpDeRegister(char far *pszPath)
Description:
The HttpDeRegister() function removes the interest in a URL. After
this call no more callbacks will be generated for this URL. Any
requests in progress will be terminated with an error to the peer. This
function must be called for all registrations made by a program before
terminating that program; otherwise the system will inevitably crash on
any subsequent request.
Parameters
pszPath
Description
Far pointer to URL to de-register.
Return value
0
<0
OK
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_DEREGISTER (1)
DS:SI
pszPath
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
5-180 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
HttpGetData
Syntax
int HttpGetData(int iHandle, char far *pcBuf, int iCount)
Description:
The HttpGetData() function can be called when a POST operation has
been indicated by the callback to get data sent to the server by the
client. If more data is expected and the extension is busy executing
the callback function, a 0 return should be made from the callback
indicating it is still busy and getting more data should be attempted at
the next callback.
Parameter
iHandle
pcBuf
iCount
Description
Handle passed in pfsHttpParams.
Far pointer to buffer to receive data.
Length of buffer.
Return value
>=0
<0
OK, number of bytes received.
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_GETDATA (2)
BX
iHandle
DS:SI
pcBuf
CX
iCount
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-181
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
HttpSendData
Syntax
int HttpSendData(int iHandle, char far *pcBuf, int iCount)
Description:
The HttpSendData() function is used to send data to the client. If the
return indicates that less than the requested number of bytes has
been sent and the extension is busy executing the callback function, a
0 return should be made from the callback indicating it is still busy.
Then an attempt to send more data should be made at the next
callback. All the required data should be sent to the client before an
HttpSubmitFile()
function
is
used.
After
HttpSubmitFile(),
HttpSendData() should not be called again.
Parameter
iHandle
pcBuf
iCount
Description
Handle passed in pfsHttpParams.
Far pointer to buffer with data to send.
Length of buffer.
Return value
>=0
<0
Number of bytes actually sent
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_SENDDATA (3)
BX
iHandle
DS:SI
pcBuf
CX
iCount
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
5-182 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
HttpSubmitFile
Syntax:
int HttpSubmitFile(int iHandle, char far *pszFileName)
Description:
The HttpSubmitFile() function is used to submit a file to be sent to the
client in response to a request. The file will be logically appended to
any data already sent using HttpSendData(). The file should not be
exclusively opened when it is submitted. After it is transmitted,
transmit upcalls will be issued normally. This gives the user the ability
to send any number of files on the connection with arbitrary data in
between.
Parameter
iHandle
pszFileName
Description
Handle passed in pfsHttpParams.
Far pointer to name of file to submit.
Return value
0
<0
OK
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_SENDFILE (4)
BX
iHandle
DS:SI
pszFileName
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-183
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
HttpGetStatus
Syntax
int HttpGetStatus(void)
Description:
The HttpGetStatus() function gets the number of connections to the
server. It must also be used as a polling function when the server is
running in passive mode to dequeue and handle pending requests.
Parameters
None.
Return value
>=0
<0
Number of connections to server.
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_GETSTATUS(6)
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
5-184 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
HttpGetVersion
Syntax
int HttpGetVersion(void);
Description:
The HttpGetVersion() function gets the version of the running HTTP
server.
Parameter
None.
Return value
>=0
<0
Version number.
One of the error messages (SEE HTAPIC.H)
Low level calling parameters
AH
APIF_GETVERSION (5)
Low level return parameters
Return code in AX.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-185
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
GetStackPointer
GetStackSegment
Syntax
int GetStackPointer (void)
int GetStackSegment (void)
Description:
The GetStackPointer and GetStackSegment functions get the current
Stack Pointer/Segment.
Parameters
None.
Return value
Current value of Stack Pointer/Segment.
5-186 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 5 Programming and Function Library
SetStackPointer
SetStackSegment
Syntax:
void SetStackPointer (int iPointer)
void SetStackSegment (int iSegment)
Description:
The SetStackPointer and SetStackSegment functions set the Stack
Pointer/Segment. The stack pointer for callbacks is by default set to
_SP - 1000, the first time the HTTP API is called. If you would need
space on the stack, or for some reason want to make it tighter, set the
stack pointer for callbacks manually. Be careful not to overwrite used
memory.
Parameters
iPointer
Description
Value to set Stack Pointer to.
Return value
None.
Constants and Definitions used by CGI API
Refer to HTAPIC.H.
SSI Definitions and functions
Refer to SSI.H.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 5-187
6
Sockets Utility
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
SOCKETS utilities make use of command-line parameters and/or
configuration files. Please be careful to note the name and location of
the configuration file used by the application you are working with. All
SOCKETS applications require that the kernel be loaded before the
application is run in order to function properly. You can find all these
SOCKETS utilities under C:\Program Files\Advantech\ADAM-4500
Series Utility\Source\Drive_D\Extension_files (Refer to image
below). When you need to use the utilities, remember to download the
execution file to ADAM-4500 Series Controller.
6-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
DHCPSTAT
DHCPSTAT displays the DHCP information for the machine.
Syntax
DHCPSTAT [r | v]
Options
r
force a renewal of the DHCP lease.
V
display the SOCKETS version information.
Example
DHCPSTAT
Î This will display all the DHCP information, such as IP address and
lease time.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 6-3
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
FTP
FTP is a file transmitting and retrieving client that runs in interactive or
batch mode.
Syntax
FTP server [options]
Options
/n
/v
/p=Port
/f=ScriptFile [ScriptParameters]
Remarks
Server
The name or IP address of a server you want to connect.
/n
Suppress progress indicator.
/v
Verbose output for troubleshooting.
/p=Port
Connect to a server port other than the standard FTP port number of 21.
/f=ScriptFile
A file containing commands for the client to send to the server upon
connection. Simple parameter substitution is performed, with the first element
of ScriptParameters accessible as “%1,” etc.
ScriptParameters
Parameters to pass into the ScriptFile.
Return Codes
0 Success
1 Parameter error
2 SOCKETS not loaded
3 User aborted
4 Transfer aborted
5 Error writing local file
6 Error reading local file
Other Server returned error response code; to find that error code, add 390 to
the response code returned by FTP. The result will always be greater than or
equal to 400 in this case.
6-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
Example
FTP /n FTP.cdrom.com /f=getfile.scr /.2/simtelnet/msdos DIRS.TXT
(The file GETFILE.SCR):
user anonymous
pass [email protected]
cd %1
binary
get %2
quit
FTP Commands
The commands entered at the FTP client can be interpreted and
translated to standard FTP commands to be sent to the server. The
FTP server might recognize more, or less, commands than the
standard list of commands as specified in RFC 959. The site
command is always server dependent. Some of the standard
commands are implemented differently in various servers. Useful
things to note are:
1. The put and get commands allow multiple file transfers by usage of
wild card characters. When getting files with paths or long names,
no translation of foreign file names is done. Specify a valid DOS
local_file name.
2. A short directory list (NLST) is obtained by ls and the long list with
dir.
3. Some of the commands can be abbreviated.
4. Some commands are aliases added for user comfort like bye, exit
and quit; get and mget; and put and mput.
5. The optional [local_file] parameter will, when specified, cause the
output of that command to be logged to a file. By specifying the file
as PRN you can get immediate printouts.
6. On some servers you might specify the optional [remote_file]
parameter as PRN or the printer output device to do remote
printing. (See also the site nopath command for the SOCKETS
FTP server.)
7. The F3 key and spacebar can be used to recall the last command
word by word. Below is a list of commands recognized by the
SOCKETS FTP client (some FTP servers might not offer all the
facilities):
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 6-5
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
Command
abort
append
ascii
binary
bye
cd directory
cwd directory
dele file
dir [file l directory [local_file]]
exit
get remote_file(s) [local_file]
image
ls [file l directory [local_file]]
lcd directory
ldir [file l directory]
list [file l directory [local_file]]
mget remote_file(s) [local_file]
mkdir remote_directory
mput local_file(s) [remote_file]
nlst [file l directory [local_file]]
pass [password]
pasv [on | off]
put local_file(s) [remote_file]
Pwd
quit
quote remote_command [args ...]
rmdir remote_directory
rnfr existing_filename
rnto new_filename
site sub-command
size file
shell
stat
System
type [i I a]
user [username]
verbose [ on | off ]
6-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Description
Cancel an incomplete transfer
"Put" a file at the server but append it if the file
exists
Synonym for type a
Synonym for type i
Synonym for quit
Synonym for cwd
Change server directory
Delete a server file
Synonym for list
Synonym for quit
Transfer a file from the server in the current
mode (type)
Synonym for type i
Synonym for nlst
Perform a local change directory
Give a local directory listing
Give a long directory listing
Synonym for get
Create a server directory
Synonym for put
Give a short names-only directory listing
Password for username
Report or change the status of the passive
transfer mode to enable firewall friendly file
transfers. (The SOCKETS FTP client always
tries to switch passive mode on at the start of a
session.)
Transfer a file to the server in the current mode
(type)
Print working directory at server
Terminate FTP session
Send a command to the server without any
interpretation
Remove (delete) a server directory
Rename a file, command 1 of 2
Rename a file, command 2 of 2
Send server specific commands
Report the file size in bytes as a 213 message
Shell to DOS for IFTP.EXE
Report the status of a transfer or active
connections
Return operating system information from the
server
Report or select the file transfer mode: image
(binary) or ASCII
Username to logon
Verbose mode reports more of the FTP
negotiations
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
HTTPGET
HTTPGET is a simple web client that can retrieve the contents of a
URL to a local file.
Syntax
HTTPGET [-p] [–s] [–v]URL
Options
-p=Port
-s=Server
-v
localfile
Remarks
Port
Use to specify a remote port other than 80 to connect to.
Server
Use to specify a server name if the URL doesn’t contain one.
-v
Display extra output for troubleshooting.
localfile
Rather than keeping the filename from the URL, the contents may be
saved to a named file.
Example
HTTPGET http://www.datalight.com/images/logohead.gif
HTTPGET –v http://www.datalight.com/images/logohead.gif logo.gif
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 6-7
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
IFSTAT
IFSTAT displays the status of the Interface and the version
information for SOCKETS.
Syntax
IFSTAT [i] [v]
Options
i
v
show the Interface status.
show the version information.
Example
IFSTAT v
Î This will display the SOCKETS version information
6-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
IPSTAT
The IPSTAT utility returns statistics on IP and memory. Use IPSTAT
to check for error conditions and memory problems.
Syntax
IPSTAT
Example
IPSTAT
The following will be displayed (The values may differ):
IP stats at 160F:04C8:
Total Packets
2671
Smaller than minimum size
0
IP header length too small
0
Wrong IP version
0
Unsupported protocol
0
Memory available
9016
Memory allocation failures
0
Memory free errors
0
Minimum stack observed
886
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 6-9
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
MAKEMAIL
MAKEMAIL packages the body text and any attachments for delivery
using the SENDMAIL application.
Syntax
MAKEMAIL –tToAddress –fFromAddress –sSubject –bBodyTextFile oOutputFileaAttachment
Options
ToAddress
The e-mail address of the recipient(s) of this mail. Additional recipients
are specified by repeated use of the –t parameter. If the ToAddress is
a name that can be resolved by either the DNS server or host file then
the @servername is not necessary.
FromAddress
Used to identify the sender of the message
Subject
The subject line of the e-mail message
BodyTextFile
The local file containing the body text of the e-mail message to deliver
OutputFile
The local file name in which to store the prepared file for delivery by
SENDMAIL.This file is overwritten if it already exists!
Attachment
The name of a local file to be binary attached to this e-mail message.
Multiple attachments are created by repeated use of the –a parameter.
Files are attached as MIME parts, encoded with the application/xuuencode content type.
Example
MAKEMAIL [email protected]
bmessage.txt –omail.dat
[email protected]
–sStatus
–
MAKEMAIL –tfred –tbarney –fwilma –sDinner –bmenu.txt –omail.dat
MAKEMAIL –tfred –fwilma –sBowling –bbody.txt –aStone.jpg –
aRock.jpg –omail.dat
6-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
SENDMAIL
SENDMAIL delivers e-mail messages packaged by the MAKEMAIL
application to an Internet mail server. SENDMAIL also creates a local
log file to indicate successful send or failures.
Syntax
SENDMAIL server file
Options
Server
The IP address or DNS name of the Internet mail server to receive the
message.
File
The file created by the MAKEMAIL utility to deliver.
Logging Format
Timestamp, Code String
Timestamp
Weekday Month Day Time Year
Code
Three digit integer: 000 means perfect success, 100-199 mean usage
error and 200-299 means TCP/IP error from server.
String
Human–readable explanation of the error code
Example
SENDMAIL mail.datalight.com mail.dat
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 6-11
Chapter 6 Sockets Utility
XPING
XPING starts a continuous string of pings until stopped by a keystroke.
Syntax
XPING ip address [interval]
Remarks
ip address This may be a numeric address or a name address.
Options
interval The time to wait between pings in clock ticks.
Example
XPING 10.0.0.1 20
Î This will ping the address of 10.0.0.1 every 20 clock ticks.
6-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
7
HTTP and FTP Server Application
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
HTTP Server
Overview
The SOCKETS HTTP server, HTTPD.EXE, is a small, fast, reliable
and extendable web server that can run as either an application or
TSR. Apart from the minimum required file download capability, the
following additional capabilities are provided:
1.
Remote Console Server -- ability to gain terminal-type access to
the server system, using a standard browser, without the need to
install any software on the browser computer.
2.
Authentication – Both system wide and directory wise
3.
CGI Extendibility – The ability to extend the server to create
dynamic web pages, perform specialized tasks, etc.
4.
A Server Side Includes (SSI) interface is provided using the CGI
interface, enabling a user to create web pages using HTML templates
with variable names substituted in - time with specific values.
5.
Ability to run as a background process.
6.
Flexibility to control physical parameters such as memory usage
and number of connections.
Server
The HTTP server is used to send static web pages existing as files on
the server or dynamically generated web pages to a remote client
(browser). Dynamic pages can be generated in two ways:
1.
Extension CGI. By calling an external CGI handler, the server
provides an API to external handlers. A Server Side Includes (SSI)
interface is provided as well, which makes it very easy to create
powerful interactive web pages.
Spawning CGI. By spawning programs with a relatively short
2.
execution time to generate the pages through a mechanism similar to
CGI, the basic mechanism used by CGI is that arbitrary programs can
be spawned from the web server with input as received from the
remote browser and output that can be sent to the browser.
The Remote Console Server accepts input from a remote client that is
fed to the keyboard buffer for use by an arbitrary program using it. It
also monitors the screen display buffer area and sends screen
information to the remote client.
7-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
The SOCKETS password file controls authentication. Authentication
is user specific and may also differ from directory to directory. It may
also be put off for either some or all users. See the section on
authentication.
The HTTP server can support multiple simultaneous sessions. The
GET and POST request methods are implemented as well as the
following MIME types: text/html, text/plain, image/gif, image/jpeg,
image/jpeg and application/octet-stream. The MIME type is
determined by the file extension.
Remote Console Server
Initialization
The client (browser) will initialize a remote session. An HTTP
connection will be made to the HTTP server. The downloaded page
will contain the applet that will automatically connect to the RCS on
TCP port 81. An example download page is supplied as
REMCON.HTM.
Almost any application e.g. a text editor can be run on the server. The
remote keyboard and display control the application as if they were
locally attached.
On the remote side, the Java Applet acts as a simple terminal
emulator that displays what it receives from the server and sends
what is entered from the keyboard to the server.
It is not required to have a real display adapter on the embedded
system server, only to have display buffer memory.
When a new connection is made, all the screen data, as well as the
cursor position, is sent to the client. Subsequently the RCS keeps a
watch on the video memory and cursor position and whenever a
change is detected, the RCS sends the changed data to the Java
applet.
Keyboard data received from the client is passed to the keyboard
buffer making it available as keyboard input for use by any application
executing on the server.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-3
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Remote Console Client
The remote console client exists as a Java 1.3.1 applet, supplied as
RC.JAR, and will function on any Java 1.3.1 compliant browser.
Please note that a security certificate has not been compiled into
RC.JAR so it is not compliant with versions of the Netscape browser
that require a security certificate to run Java applets. A DOS based
client using SOCKETS is also supplied as RCCLI.EXE. For additional
information about RC.JAR or RCCLI.EXE, please see the Utility
Description Chapter.
Extension CGI
The SOCKETS HTTP servers (HTTPD/HTTPFTPD) provide a facility
to call functions in other modules which may be TSR or transient
programs. These functions are referred to as “HTTPD extensions.”
For more information please see the “ROM -DOS Developer’s Guide”
section “CGI Application API.
Extension CGI Examples
Five very simple examples are included to demonstrate the
implementation of CGI. Source code is included.
Put all .htm and .exe files in the %HTTP_DIR% directory and start
HTTPD. Load all the cgi programs (you may use cgi.bat). All is in
place now and the examples may be accessed through index.htm.
The first four examples may operate in one of two modes:
As a TSR (resident) program: this is the default behavior. At this
stage unloading of the TSR is not supported. De -registration is
possible by loading the program again. This routine may be repeated.
As a transient program: use ‘/t’ command line switch to activate.
This option will immediately spawn ‘command.com’. From this prompt
other cgi programs may be loaded. The program exits when
‘command.com’ is exited by typing ‘exit’ at the prompt.
These programs are:
1. cgiecho
A very simple program that accepts data from a user
and echoes it back nicely formatted. Get echoform.htm from the
browser.
7-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
2. cgicount
A page visit counter. Only updates between sessions
if transient (cgicount /t). Get num.htm from the browser.
3. cgiform
Does the same as the old ‘fill out the form and submit’
utility. Get caform.htm from the browser.
4. SSI
A very simple SSI implementation demonstrating the
SSI interfaces. Template.htm is filled by some variables. Get ssi.htm
from the browser.
The fifth example, FFUR, (Form-base File Upload Receiver) is only a
transient program, but can easily be adapted to be similar to the rest.
It handles the upload of a file as a POST command by filling out
ffur.htm.
Passive Mode
The server may be run in passive mode by specifying a ‘/p’ command
line switch. When passive, the server will record network events but
only handle them once it is triggered by a CGI user.
Server Memory
The server’s memory usage may be controlled in two ways:
1. By specifying the amount of memory when going TSR.
2. By specifying the maximum number of connections the server will
allow.
Option 1 is the recommended option. Use Option 2 if you have
‘heavy’ web pages – usually the type where pages consist of frames
and many images, etc. Connections are generally reset when more
connections are attempted than the defined maximum. The client then
must retry to establish the lost connections, leading to a more
distributed load on the server.
Spawning CGI
An external program, indicated by the requested URL, is spawned.
All relevant information is passed as environment variables. The CGI
program gets all input (e.g. posted data) from standard in and sends
all response through standard out. Spawning CGI is discouraged in
favor of Extension CGI. For more information please see the “ROM DOS Developer’s Guide” section “CGI Application API.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-5
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Authentication
Default authentication matches the capabilities of the FTP server as
documented in the section “FTP Server” on page 217. A file called
"SOCKET.UPW" should exist in the SOCKETS (environment variable)
directory.
The default permission file controls remote console access. Each
listed user has a single -letter privilege code set if he has privilege to
use the Remote Console. The code should be missing if that user
does not have Remote Console privilege.
An additional authentication feature is implemented - htaccess. This
feature provides a per-directory permission override mechanism. It is
enabled using '/t' as command line switch. If htaccess is enabled, the
default mechanism may be skipped (but no default users or remote
console access will be available).
A file called HTACCESS (typically hidden) contains authentication
overrides to enable partial anonymous access or additional password
security to subdirectories, etc. If this feature is activated, the server
code will look for HTACCESS files in each directory starting from the
requested path and continuing upward in the directory structure
(assuming the root directory to be at the top) until an HTACCESS file
is found. If no file is found, then the default settings are used. An
anonymous access entry is available for the developer to specify that
some subdirectory is authorized for any user, although its parent
directory is password -protected. CGI scripts can also be controlled
via the HTACCESS mechanism.
7-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
HTTPD Program
The syntax for HTTPD is:
HTTPD [options] [<http_port>] [<rc_port>]
Any combination of these switches may be used. They should be
separated by at least one space.
Option
Description
/? /h
/r
/s
/t
/u
Display help screen
Run server in TSR mode
Display server status
Enable htaccess directory level
authentication
Unload if resident
/c
/d
/g
/p
/i=<InterruptNumber>
/m=<MemorySize>
/n=<MaximumConnections>
/a=<ScreenX>, <ScreenY>
Close listen
Do not start remote console
allow old type (spawning) CGI
Passive mode
Interrupt number for cgi API
Set memory size
Number of simultaneous connections
Set screen aspect
/v=<ScreenBufferSegment>[:
<ScreenBufferOffset>]
/k
Set video buffer address (hex)
Unload and abort all active connections
Remarks
ScreenX, ScreenY
The width and height of the screen area to serve for the remote console
session. These values default to 80 and 25, respectively.
ScreenBufferSegment, S creenBufferOffset
Together, a pointer to the top -left corner of the display memory to serve for
the remote console session. These values default to B000 and 0000
respectively, for monochrome display adapters and to B800 and 0000
respectively, for color display adapters.
MemorySize
The maximum amount of memory available to the server. The default value is
32K. The value of m can range from 8192 to 63472.
MaximumConnections
The maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed by the server.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-7
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
InterruptNumber
The interrupt number to access the CGI API.
http_port
HTTP port to listen on. This parameter defaults to the standard HTTP port
number of 80.
rc_port
Remote Console port to listen on. This parameter defaults to 81.
The “root” directory for web content is the current directory when
HTTPD is started. This can be changed by setting an environment
variable HTTP_DIR e.g.
SET HTTP_DIR=D:\SERVER\WEB
Format of "SOCKET.UPW"
This is the same file used for the HTTP and FTP server’s (FTPD.EXE)
permissions. This file consists of lines where each line contains a
user's information. A line starting with a # is considered a comment
and is ignored. Each line consists of four fields:
<Username> <Password> <Working Directory> <Permissions> [# comment]
z
Username: The name of this user. If it is *, it will be used when
the client does not specify a username.
z
Password: This user's password. If it is *, no password is
required
z
Working Directory: The user will only have access to this
directory and its subdirectories. If it is ‘/’, this user has access to
the whole system. HTTP_DIR can be referred to as ‘\’. If a
relative path is specified, it is appended to HTTP_DIR.
z
Permissions: When a user is granted both FTP and HTTP
permissions, the FTP permissions must appear first, otherwise
they will be ignored. Permission are listed below:
FTP Rights:
d
change directories
c
create/delete directories
w
write files
r
read files
7-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
HTTP Rights:
e
get files
p
post files
g
use CGI
m
use remote console
Fields should be separated by single spaces. If any field is missing the
entry is ignored. A comment may follow the last field (permissions) of
the line.
Format of "htaccess"
Any directory may contain this file, and serve as overrides to the
general permissions for the containing directory and all its subs until
another htaccess is found. This file consists of lines where each line
contains a user's information. A line starting with a # is considered a
comment and is ignored. Each line consists of three fields:
<Username> <Password > <Permissions> [# comment]
z
Username: The name of this user. If it is *, it will be used when
the client does not specify a username.
z
Password: This user's password. If it is *, no password is
required
z
Permissions: Operations allowed. Permission are listed below:
e - User may 'g et' files
p - User may 'post' files
g - User may use cgi
Fields should be separated by single spaces. If any field is missing
the entry is ignored. A comment may follow the last field (permissions)
of the line.
Note: If a default user is supplied, it should always appear first in the
list of users. Only users below the default user will be considered.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-9
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
FTP Server
FTPD is a file server that can run either as an application or as a TSR.
The name of the server as displayed in the banner is determined by
the HOSTNAME environment variable. If the environment variable is
not set, the name “Socket” is used. The user password file,
SOCKET.UPW, in the SOCKETS directory (indicated by the
SOCKETS environment variable) controls access.
A temporary file is created when a directory listing is requested. This
file is created in the current directory, but can be created in any
directory as specified in the FTPDIR environment variable.
FTPD Program
The syntax for FTPD is:
FTPD [options] [<ftp_port>]
Option
/? /h
/r
/s
Description
Display help screen
Run server in TSR mode
Display server status
/u
/c
/m=<MemorySize>
/n=<MaximumConnections>
/k
Unload if resident
Close listen
Set memory size
Number of simultaneous connections
Abort all active connections and unload
Remarks
MemorySize
The number of bytes of memory available to the server. This value defaults
to 32768.
MaximumConnections
The maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed by the server.
ftp_port
FTPD will listen on the listed port. This parameter defaults to the standard
FTP port number of 21.
7-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Configuration File
FTPD uses the standard SOCKET.UPW file for validating logins. The file is
composed of text lines, each representing a login name, password, and the
configuration to use for a session opened with those credentials. Space
characters separate the parameters in the file, which are in the following
format:
name password directory rights
The location of the username/password file to be used by the server is
specified by the environment variable SOCKETS as follows:
%SOCKETS% \SOCKET.UPW
If the variable SOCKETS is not specified, the following file is used:
\DL\SOCKETS\SOCKET.UPW
Configuration File Parameters
name
The login name of this record.
password
The password to authenticate a user trying to login as this name.
directory
The starting directory for this user.
rights
Up to four characters specifying which permissions this user is granted:
r means that this user has read access.
w means that this user has write access.
c means that this user has permission to make new directories.
d means that this user has permission to change to a directory other than his
starting location and subdirectories from the starting location.
Example Socket.upw
Admin admin c:\ drwc
Guest * c:\guest dr
Example Command Line
FTPD /m=40000 /r
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-11
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
FTP Server Commands
The following commands are recognised by the SOCKETS FTP
server:
Command
Abort
append
cwd directory
dele file
list [file l directory]
mkd remote_directory
nlst [file l directory]
pass [password ]
pasv [on | off]
retr remote_file
stor local_file
pwd
quit
rmd remote_directory
rnfr existing_filename
rnto new_filename
site [path I nopath]
site raw [interface]
site sub-command
size file
stat
system
type [i I a]
user [username]
Description
cancel an incomplete transfer
"put" a file at the server but append it if the file
exists
change server directory
delete a server file
give a long directory listing
create a server directory
gives a short names -only directory listing
password for username
report or change the status of the passive transfer
mode to enable firewall friendly file transfers. (The
SOCKETS FTP client always tries to switch
passive mode on at the start of a session.)
transfer a file from the server in the current mode
transfer a file to the server in the current mode
print working directory
terminate FTP session
remove (delete) directory
rename a file, command 1 of 2
rename a file, command 2 of 2
use full path description
open a session to a raw host using one of the raw
lines (interfaces) specified
command to be passed on to raw host
report the file size in bytes as a message prefixed
with 213
report the status of a transfer or active
connections
return operating system information from the server
report or select the file transfer mode image (binary)
or ASCII
username to logon
7-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Combined HTTP and FTP Server
HTTPFTPD is a combined HTTP and FTP server that can run either
as an application or as a TSR. By default, it processes normal HTTP
requests on port 80 and normal FTP requests on port 21. It also
serves a proprietary session displaying the contents of text -mode
display memory to the RC.JAR and RCCLI client applications. This
feature is commonly called the “remote console.” If the HTTPFTPD
server is loaded as a DOS TSR program, set the environment
variable, HTTP_DIR, to the location of the INDEX.HTML file; for
example, SET HTTP_DIR=C:\DL\ SOCKETS\SERVER
HTTPFTPD Program
The syntax for FTTPD is:
HTTPFTPD [options] [<http_port> [<ftp_port> [<rc_port>]]]
Any combination of these switches may be used. They should be
separated by at least one space.
Option
Description
/? /h
/r
/s
/t
Display help screen
Run server in TSR mode
Display server status
Enable htaccess directory level
authentication
Unload if resident
Close listen
Do not start remote console
Allow old type (spawning) CGI
/u
/c
/d
/g
/p
/i=<InterruptNumber>
/m=<MemorySize>
/n=<MaximumConnections>
/a=<ScreenX>, <ScreenY>
/v=<ScreenBufferSegment>[:
<ScreenBufferOffset>]
/k
Passive mode
Interrupt number for cgi API
set memory size
number of simultaneous connections
set screen aspec
set video buffer address (hex)
Abort all active connections and unload
Remarks
ScreenX, ScreenY
The width and height of the screen area to serve for the remote console
session. These values default to 80 and 25, respectively.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-13
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
ScreenBufferSegment, ScreenBufferOffset
Together, a pointer to the top-left corner of the display memory to serve for
the remote console session. These values default to B000 and 0000
respectively, for monochrome display adapters and to B800 and 0000
respectively, for color display adapters.
MemorySize
The maximum amount of memory available to the server. The default value is
32K. The value of m can range from 8192 to 63472.
MaximumConnections
The maximum number of simultaneous connections allowed by the server.
InterruptNumber
The interrupt number to access the CGI API.
http_port
HTTP port to listen on. This parameter defaults to the standard HTTP port
number of 80.
ftp_port
FTP port to listen on. This parameter defaults to the standard FTP port
number of 21
rc_port
Remote Console port to listen on. This parameter defaults to 81.
Configuration File
HTTPFTPD uses the standard SOCKET.UPW file for validating logins. The
file is composed of text lines, each representing a login name, password, and
the configuration to use for a session opened with those credentials.
Space characters separate the parameters in the file, which are in the
following format:
name password directory rights
The location of the username/password file to be used by the server is
specified by the environment variable SOCKETS as follows:
%SOCKETS% \SOCKET.UPW
If the variable SOCKETS is not specified, the following file is used:
\DL\SOCKETS\SOCKET.UPW
7-14 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Chapter 7 HTTP and FTP Server Application
Configuration File Parameters
name
The login name of this record.
password
The password to authenticate a user trying to login as this name.
directory
The starting directory for this user.
w means that this user has write access.
c means that this user has permission to make new directories.
d means that this user has permission to change to a directory other than his
starting location and subdirectories from the starting location.
e means that this user may 'get' files
p means that this user may 'post' files
g means that this user may use cgi
m means that this user may use Remote Console
Example Command Lines
HTTPFTPD /m=40000 /r
HTTPFTPD /a=80,25 /v=a000:0000 /r
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual 7-15
Appendix A
COM Port Register Structure
Appendix A COM Port Register Structure
This appendix gives a short description of each module’s registers.
For more information, please refer to the STARTECH 16C550 UART
chip data book. All registers are one byte. Bit 0 is the least significant
bit, and bit 7 is the most significant bit. The address of each register is
specified as an offset from the port base address (BASE), COM1 is
3F8h and COM2 is 2F8h.
DLAB is the “Divisor Latch Access Bit”, bit 7 of BASE+3.
BASE+0 Receiver buffer register when DLAB=0 and the operation
is a read.
BASE+0
Transmitter holding register when DLAB=0 and the
operation is write.
BASE+0 Divisor latch bits 0 - 7 when DLAB=1
BASE+1 Divisor latch bits 8-15 when DLAB=1.
Bytes BASE+0 and BASE+1 together form a 16-bit number, the
divisor, which determines the baud rate. Set the divisor as follows:
Baud rate
Divisor
Baud rate
Divisor
50
2304
2400
48
75
1536
3600
32
110
1047
4800
24
133.5
857
7200
16
150
768
9600
12
300
384
19200
6
600
192
38400
3
1200
96
56000
2
1800
64
115200
1
2000
58
x
x
A-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix A COM Port Register Structure
BASE+1
Interrupt Status Register (ISR) when DLAB=0
bit 0: Enable received-data-available interrupt
bit 1: Enable transmitter-holding-register-empty interrupt
bit 2: Enable receiver-line-status interrupt
bit 3: Enable modem-status interrupt
BASE+2
FIFO Control Register (FCR)
bit 0: Enable transmit and receive FIFOs
bit 1: Clear contents of receive FIFO
bit 2: Clear contents of transmit FIFO
bits 6-7: Set trigger level for receiver FIFO interrupt
Bit 7
0
0
1
1
Bit 6
0
1
0
1
FIFO trigger level
01
04
08
14
BASE+3
Line Control Register (LCR)
bit 0: Word length select bit 0
bit 1: Word length select bit 1
Bit 1
Bit 0
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
Word length
(bits)
5
6
7
8
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual A-3
Appendix A COM Port Register Structure
BASE+4
Modem Control Register (MCR)
bit 0: DTR
bit 1: RTS
BASE+5
Line Status Register (LSR)
bit 0: Receiver data ready
bit 1: Overrun error
bit 2: Parity error
bit 3: Framing error
bit 4: Break interrupt
bit 5: Transmitter holding register empty
bit 6: Transmitter shift register empty
bit 7: At least one parity error, framing error or break indication in
the FIFO
BASE+6
Modem Status Register (MSR)
bit 0: Delta CTS
bit 1: Delta DSR
bit 2: Trailing edge ring indicator
bit 3: Delta received line signal detect
bit 4: CTS
bit 5: DSR
bit 6: RI
bit 7: Received line signal detect
BASE+7
Temporary data register
A-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix B
RS-485 Network
Appendix B RS-485 Network
EIA RS-485 is the industry’s most widely used bidirectional, balanced
transmission line standard. It is specifically developed for industrial
multi-drop systems that should be able to transmit and receive data at
high rates or over long distances.
The specifications of the EIA RS-485 protocol are as follows:
z
Maximum line length per segment: 1200 meters (4000 feet)
z
Throughput of 10M baud and beyond -Differential transmission
(balanced lines) with high resistance against noise
z
Maximum 32 nodes per segment
z
Bi-directional master-slave communication over a single set of
twisted-pair cables
z
Parallel connected nodes, true multi-drop
ADAM-4500 Series Controller is fully isolated and use just a single set
of twisted pair wires to send and receive! Since the nodes are
connected in parallel they can be freely disconnected from the host
without affecting the functioning of the remaining nodes. An industry
standard, shielded twisted pair is preferable due to the high noise ratio
of the environment. When nodes communicate through the network, no
sending conflicts can occur since a simple command/response
sequence is used. There is always one initiator (with no address) and
many slaves (with addresses). In this case, the master is a personal
computer that is connected with its serial, RS-232, port to an ADAM
RS-232/RS-485 converter. The slaves are the ADAM-4500 Series
Controller. When systems are not transmitting data, they are in listen
mode. The host computer initiates a command/response sequence with
one of the systems. Commands normally contain the address of the
module the host wants to communicate with. The system with the
matching address carries out the command and sends its response to
the host.
B-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix B RS-485 Network
B.1
Basic Network Layout
Multi-drop RS-485 implies that there are two main wires in a segment.
The connected systems tap from these two lines with so called drop
cables. Thus all connections are parallel and connecting or
disconnecting of a node doesn’t affect the network as a whole. Since
ADAM-4500 Series Controller use the RS-485 standard, they can
connect and communicate with the host PC. The basic layouts that
can be used for an RS-485 network are:
Daisychain
The last module of a segment is a repeater. It is directly connected to
the main-wires thereby ending the first segment and starting the next
segment. Up to 32 addressable systems can be daisychained. This
limitation is a physical one. When using more systems per segment
the IC driver current rapidly decreases, causing communication errors.
In total, the network can hold up to 64 addressable systems. The
limitation on this number is the two-character hexadecimal address
code that can address 64 combinations. The ADAM converter, ADAM
repeaters and the host computer are non addressable units and
therefore are not included in these numbers.
Figure B-1: Daisychaining
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual B-3
Appendix B RS-485 Network
Star Layout
In this scheme the repeaters are connected to drop-down cables from
the main wires of the first segment. A tree structure is the result. This
scheme is not recommended when using long lines since it will cause
a serious amount of signal distortion due to signal reflections in several
line-endings.
Figure B-2: Star structure
Random
This is a combination of daisychain and hierarchical structure.
Figure B-3: Random structure
B-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix B RS-485 Network
B.2
Line Termination
Each discontinuity in impedance causes reflections and distortion.
When an impedance discontinuity occurs in the transmission line the
immediate effect is signal reflection. This will lead to signal distortion.
Especially at line ends this mismatch causes problems. To eliminate
this discontinuity, terminate the line with a resistor.
Figure B-4: Signal distortion
The value of the resistor should be a close as possible to the
characteristic impedance of the line. Although receiver devices add
some resistance to the whole of the transmission line, normally it is
sufficient to the resistor impedance should equal the characteristic
impedance of the line.
Example: Each input of the receivers has a nominal input impedance
of 18 k feeding into a diode transistor- resistor biasing network that
is equivalent to an 18 k input resistor tied to a common mode
voltage of 2.4 V. It is this configuration, which provides the large
common range of the receiver required for RS-485 systems!
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual B-5
Appendix B RS-485 Network
Figure B-5: Termination resistor locations
Because each input is biased to 2.4 V, the nominal common mode
voltage of balanced RS-485 systems, the 18 k on the input can be
taken as being in series across the input of each individual receiver. If
thirty of these receivers are put closely together at the end of the
transmission line, they will tend to react as thirty 36k resistors in parallel
with the termination resistor. The overall effective resistance will need to
be close to the characteristics of the line. The effective parallel receiver
resistance RP will therefore be equal to:
RP = 36 x 103/30 = 1200Ω
While the termination receptor RT will equal:
RT = RO / [1 - RO/RP]
Thus for a line with a characteristic impedance of 100 resistor RT =
100/[1 - 100/1200] = 110Ω
Since this value lies within 10% of the line characteristic impedance.
B-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix B RS-485 Network
Thus as already stated above the line termination resistor RT will
normally equal the characteristic impedance Zo. The star connection
causes a multitude of these discontinuities since there are several
transmission lines and is therefore not recommend.
Note: The recommend method wiring method, that causes a minimum
amount of reflection, is daisy chaining where all receivers tapped from
one transmission line needs only to be terminated twice.
B.3
RS-485 Data Flow Control
The RS-485 standard uses a single pair of wires to send and receive
data. This line sharing requires some method to control the direction of
the data flow. RTS (Request To Send) and CTS (Clear To Send) are
the most commonly used methods.
Figure B-6: RS-485 data flow control with RTS
Intelligent RS-485 Control
ADAM-4510 and ADAM-4520 are both equipped with an I/O circuit
which can automatically sense the direction of the data flow. No
handshaking with the host (like RTS, Request to Send) is necessary to
receive data and forward it in the correct direction. You can use any
software written for half-duplex RS-232 with an ADAM network without
modification. The RS-485 control is completely transparent to the user.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual B-7
Appendix C
Grounding Reference
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Field Grounding and Shielding Application
Overview
Unfortunately, it’s impossible to finish a system integration task at
one time. We always meet some trouble in the field. A
communication network or system isn’t stable, induced noise or
equipment is damaged or there are storms. However, the most usual
issue is just simply improper wiring, ie, grounding and shielding. You
know the 80/20 rule in our life: we spend 20% time for 80% work, but
80% time for the last 20% of the work. So is it with system
integration: we pay 20% for Wire / Cable and 0% for Equipment.
However, 80% of reliability depends on Grounding and Shielding. In
other words, we need to invest more in that 20% and work on these
two issues to make a highly reliable system. This application note
brings you some concepts about field grounding and shielding.
These topics will be illustrated in the following pages.
1.
Grounding
1.1
The ‘Earth’ for reference
1.2
The ‘Frame Ground’ and ‘Grounding Bar’
1.3
Normal Mode and Common Mode
1.4
Wire impedance
1.5
Single Point Grounding
2.
Shielding
2.1
Cable Shield
2.2
System Shielding
3.
Noise Reduction Techniques
4.
Check Point List
C-2 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C.1 Grounding
C-1.1 The ‘Earth’ for reference
Figure C-1: Think the EARTH as GROUND.
As you know, the EARTH cannot be conductive. However, all
buildings lie on, or in, the EARTH. Steel, concrete and associated
cables (such as lighting arresters) and power system were
connected to EARTH. Think of them as resistors. All of those
infinite parallel resistors make the EARTH as a single reference
point.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-3
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C-1.2 The ‘Frame Ground’ and ‘Grounding Bar’
Figure C-2: Grounding Bar.
Grounding is one of the most important issues for our system. Just
like Frame Ground of the computer, this signal offers a reference
point of the electronic circuit inside the computer. If we want to
communicate with this computer, both Signal Ground and Frame
Ground should be connected to make a reference point of each
other’s electronic circuit. Generally speaking, it is necessary to install
an individual grounding bar for each system, such as computer
networks, power systems, telecommunication networks, etc. Those
individual grounding bars not only provide the individual reference
point, but also make the earth our ground!
C-4 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-3: Normal mode and Common mode.
C-1.3 Normal Mode and Common Mode
Have you ever tried to measure the voltage between a live circuit
and a concrete floor? How about the voltage between neutral and a
concrete floor? You will get nonsense values. ‘Hot’ and ‘Neutral’ are
just relational signals: you will get 110VAC or 220VAC by measuring
these signals. Normal mode and common mode just show you that
the Frame Ground is the most important reference signal for all the
systems and equipments.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-5
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-4: Normal mode and Common mode.
• Ground-pin is longer than others, for first contact to power system
and noise bypass.
• Neutral-pin is broader than Live-pin, for reducing contact
impedance.
C-6 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C-1.4 Wire impedance
Figure C-5: The purpose of high voltage transmission
• What’s the purpose of high voltage transmission? We have all seen
high voltage transmission towers. The power plant raises the voltage
while generating the power, then a local power station steps down
the voltage. What is the purpose of high voltage transmission wires?
According to the energy formula, P = V * I, the current is reduced
when the voltage is raised. As you know, each cable has impedance
because of the metal it is made of. Referring to Ohm’s Law, (V = I *
R) this decreased current means lower power losses in the wire. So,
high voltage lines are for reducing the cost of moving electrical
power from one place to another.
Figure C-6: wire impedance.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-7
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C-1.5 Single Point Grounding
Figure C-7: Single point grounding. (1)
• What’s Single Point Grounding? Maybe you have had an
unpleasant experience while taking a hot shower in winter. Someone
turns on a hot water faucet somewhere else. You will be impressed
with the cold water! The bottom diagram above shows an example
of how devices will influence each other with swift load change. For
example, normally we turn on all the four hydrants for testing. When
you close the hydrant 3 and hydrant 4, the other two hydrants will
get more flow. In other words, the hydrant cannot keep a constant
flow rate.
C-8 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-8: Single point grounding. (2)
The above diagram shows you that a single point grounding system
will be a more stable system. If you use thin cable for powering these
devices, the end device will actually get lower power. The thin cable
will consume the energy.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-9
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C.2 Shielding
C-2.1 Cable Shield
Figure C-9: Single isolated cable
• Single isolated cable
The diagram shows the structure of an isolated cable. You see the
isolated layer which is spiraled Aluminum foil to cover the wires.
This spiraled structure makes a layer for shielding the cables from
external noise.
C-10 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-10: Double isolated cable
• Double isolated cable
Figure 10 is an example of a double isolated cable. The first isolating
layer of spiraled aluminum foil covers the conductors. The second
isolation layer is several bare conductors that spiral and cross over
the first shield layer. This spiraled structure makes an isolated layer
for reducing external noise. Additionally, follow these tips just for your
reference.
• The shield of a cable cannot be used for signal ground. The shield
is designed for carrying noise, so the environment noise will couple
and interfere with your system when you use the shield as signal
ground.
• The higher the density of the shield - the better, especially for
communication network.
• Use double isolated cable for communication network / AI / AO.
• Both sides of shields should be connected to their frame while
inside the device. (for EMI consideration)
• Don’t strip off too long of plastic cover for soldering.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-11
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C-2.2 System Shielding
Figure C-11: System Shielding
• Never stripping too much of the plastic cable cover. This is
improper
and
can
destroy
the
characteristics
of
the
Shielded-Twisted-Pair cable. Besides, the bare wire shield easily
conducts the noise.
• Cascade these shields together by soldering. Please refer to
following page for further detailed explanation.
• Connect the shield to Frame Ground of DC power supply to force
the conducted noise to flow to the frame ground of the DC power
supply. (The ‘frame ground’ of the DC power supply should be
connected to the system ground)
C-12 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-12: The characteristic of the cable
• The characteristic of the cable
Don’t strip off too much insulation for soldering. This could change the
effectiveness of the Shielded-Twisted-Pair cable and open a path to
introduce unwanted noise.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-13
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-13: System Shielding (1)
• Shield connection (1)
If you break into a cable, you might get in a hurry to achieve your goal.
As in all electronic circuits, a signal will use the path of least resistance. If we make a poor connection between these two cables we will
make a poor path for the signal. The noise will try to find another path
for easier flow.
C-14 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding Reference
Figure C-14: System Shielding (2)
• Shield connection (2)
The previous diagram shows you that the fill soldering just makes
an easier way for the signal.
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-15
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C.3 Noise Reduction Techniques
• Isolate noise sources in shielded enclosures.
• Place sensitive equipment in shielded enclosure and away from
computer equipment.
• Use separate grounds between noise sources and signals.
• Keep ground/signal leads as short as possible.
• Use Twisted and Shielded signal leads.
• Ground shields on one end ONLY while the reference grounds are
not the same.
• Check for stability in communication lines.
• Add another Grounding Bar if necessary.
• The diameter of power cable must be over 2.0 mm2.
• Independent grounding is needed for A/I, A/O, and communication
network while using a jumper box.
• Use noise reduction filters if necessary. (TVS, etc)
• You can also refer to FIPS 94 Standard. FIPS 94 recommends that
the computer system should be placed closer to its power source to
eliminate load-induced common mode noise.
Figure C-15: Noise Reduction Techniques
C-16 ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual
Appendix C Grounding Reference
C.4 Check Point List
• Follow the single point grounding rule?
• Normal mode and common mode voltage?
• Separate the DC and AC ground?
• Reject the noise factor?
• The shield is connected correctly?
• Wire size is correct?
• Soldered connections are good?
• The terminal screw are tight?
ADAM-4500 Series User’s Manual C-17
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement