FED Stereo Stereoscopic Camera
FED Stereo
User manual
FED Stereo
Stereoscopic Camera
This text is identical to the one in the Instruction Manual, English version.
ATTENTION
When purchasing a stereoscopic cameras be sure to check it for completeness, be sure that there are
shop stamps, seller’s signature and date of sale in the Guarantee Certificate.
Prior to operate the camera, read through enclosed Operating Instruction carefully.
Keeping of all pointed in it rules will ensure the reliable operation of your camera.
ATTENTION!
To prevent double-exposition of the stereocouples it is necessary to cock shutter lever completely until
it stops.
1. General
The stereoscopic photography will discover for you a new world of exciting and creative activity.
Three-dimensional color pictures will produce for you a vivid effect of presence in scene. The
stereoscopic camera “FED-stereo” (hereinafter referred to as camera) is designed to permit the
amateurs to take stereoscopic photographs in quantity of 21 stereoscopic couples with the exposure
size of 24×30 mm on a standard 35 mm photographic film.
The camera is manufactured in two models: “FED-stereo M” and “FED B-O-Y stereo”, “FED B-OY stereo” differs by the following:
— more precise operation of the automatics and shutters;
— more precise matching of the pictures of both channels; depth scale of the best stereoscopic
view;
— another distance numbers on the distance scale;
— diaphragm number “5,6” with exposition time “B”,
— improved design of the film sensitivity setting mechanism.
Cameras may be manufactured with distance scales, expressed in
meters or in meters and reef.
Reversal and negative black-and-white or color film can be used
when taking stereoscopic photographs.
A photographer may use a developed reversal film to make
stereoscopic slides, the purchased or self-made stereoscopic frames
being used for this purpose. A negative film can he used to make
pictures on photographic paper to use them as photographs of a common type or stereoscopic couples.
Speaking a little about a stereoscopic photography. Two identical lenses in the camera permit a
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FED Stereo
User manual
photographer to make two discriminated flat images on a film, these two images forming a
stereoscopic couple which can be projected on a screen through use of the stereoscopic diascope
“ETUDE-stereo” thus producing a three-dimensional image picture.
In fact, a man sees the surrounding objects in as much as similar manner due to stereoscopic visual
perception of his own (see the diagram).
Physical nature of a stereoscopic visual perception is as follows. Either eye of a man projects,
through its crystalline lens, a flat image of the object seen onto its retina. Since the eyes are set apart
through a certain distance (basis), the two images of the object being viewed will be presented in a
discriminated form (BˈAˈ = BˈˈAˈˈ). Image discrimination is a result of the distance difference
regarding different points of the object being viewed.
This image discrimination is percepted by the optic cells of a man’s central nervous system in a
form of the shift of different points scattered in space and viewed in depth. The camera is provided
with a paired shutter-diaphragm unit arranged behind the camera lenses. The shutter is cocked and the
film is transported by means of a common release lever.
The camera is provided with interlocking for the release button and for the shutter cocking lever.
This provision is made to prevent a mis-operation of the film transport mechanism (overlap of the
stereospcopic couples).
Arrangement of the stereoscopic couples is shown in the figure. Provision is also made for
interlocking of the release button when the camera operates in an automatic mode under unfavorable
illumination condition. To permit fine setting of the exposure of a stereoscopic picture there is an
illuminated exposure-limiting frame within the field of vision of the viewfinder. The camera is
provided with a self-resetting counter of the stereoscopic couples. To facilitate the assembly
procedure, one of the exposure frames has a match mark.
2. Specification
Exposure size: mm 24×30
Automatic operation mode: exposure (s) and stop
ratio from 1/30 and 1: 2.8 — to 1/650 and 1:14
Manual operation mode: exposure, s 1/30 and B
Number or stereoscopic couples obtained:
minimum 21
Photograph basis: mm 63.4
Lens: Industar-81
Focal distance: 38 mm
Maximum relative aperture: 1:2.8
Focusing range, 1m to ∞ (infinity) — from 3.3ft
to ∞ (infinity)
Mounting dimensions threadless attachments:
27mm
Threaded attachments: mm M25.5 5 × 0 5
Shutter: aperture type
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Lens stop: from 1:2 8 to 1:11 at 1/30 exposure
and 1:5.6 at B
(“FED B-O-Y Stereo”)
Viewfinder
1:2.8 at “B” (“FED — Stereo M’) with
illuminated exposure-limiting frame
Synchronization with electronic pulse flash bulb:
“X” contact cell
Power source: SR44 type; 1.5 V
Stand seat mounting dimensions: 1/4ʺ
Weight of the stereoscopic camera, kg,
maximum: 0.8
FED Stereo
User manual
3. Delivery Set
Camera, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lens protective cap, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flash bulb clip lock, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power source cell SR44 pcs . . . . . . . . . . .
Cassette, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lens hood, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Long belt, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Short belt, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
Bushing for cell compartment (only for
camera “FED-stereo M”), pcs . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clasps, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clamps, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Case, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Protective box, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Operating instructions, copy . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Packing box, pcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1
2
10
1
1
1
1
4. Design of the Camera
Design of the camera is shown in Figs. 1 through 4.
01 — release button
02 — shutter cocking lever
03 — viewfinder window
04 — light port
05 — operation mode scale
06 — operation mode selector
07 — rear cover
08 — viewfinder eyepiece
09 — notice pocket
10 — film sensitivity conversion table
11 — rewinding head
12 — film sensitivity setting disk
13 — film sensitivity scale window
14 — range scale
15 — focus depth scale
16 — clip
17 — clip look
18 — stereoscopic couple counter
window
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FED Stereo
User manual
5. Preparing for Operation
Remove the camera from the case.
Unscrew the cover 21 (Fig. 4) and insert in its place the cell PII 53 so that the sign “+” on its body
is oriented outwards (for “FED-stereo” camera). Insert bushing 23 into the cell compartment. Insert the
cell SR44 into the bushing so that the sign “+” on its body is oriented outwards (for “FED-stereo M”).
Fit the cover back in place.
19 — transport mechanism release button
20 — stand attachment thread
21 — cell compartment cover
22 — cell (power source)
23 — bushing
CAUTION!
It is not allowed to use the cell SR44 for the camera “FED-stereo” and the cell PII 53 for the camera
“FED-stereo M” since this may increase errors of picture taking procedure.
Check the power source for its serviceability.
For this, set the mode selector 6 (Fig. 1) to position A. Turn the disk 12 (Fig. 3) to adjust the
sensitivity level for 800 units to ROCT/ISO scale, then turn the shutter lever 2 (Fig. 1) to cock the
camera shutter.
Direct the camera at some bright object (such as window or lamp) and gently depress the release
button. Interlocking action of the release button indicates that the power source has been fitted in its
compartment incorrectly or has become faulty.
Pull up the rewinding head 11 and, while holding it in this position remove the rear cover 7 from
the camera as shown in fig. 5 by solid arrows. Load the cassette 24 with a film in the camera and
release the rewinding head down.
Insert the head end of the film under the spring clamp of the receiving coil 25 (Fig. 6) and rotate the
receiving coil by its knurled part or turn the cocking lever to pull the film along as far as its perforated
edge catches the teeth of both rims of the transport reel.
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FED Stereo
User manual
24 — cassette loaded with film
25 — receiving coil
Fit the edge of the rear cover of the camera into a slot provided in the case from the side of the
cocking lever and, while turning it as shown by the dashed arrows in Fig. 5, press it tightly to the case
body until it clicks in place. When doing so, take care that the cover ribs do not touch the camera
shields. After ensuring that the camera is tightly closed, do as follows. To wind up the exposed part of
the film and to set the counter of the stereoscopic couples to position “1”, cock the shutter lever until
the cocking lever is interlocked. Now the camera is ready for taking pictures of the first stereoscopic
couple.
To facilitate handling of the camera, the shutter cocking lever has two position working positions
and transporting positions. As set to the working position, the end of the lever extends beyond the
shield of the camera. To shift the lever from the working position to the transporting position, press
gently its extending part.
Turn the disk 12 (Fig. 3) to set up the required film sensitivity index. Films sensitivity reference
table is given below.
ROCT units (before 1987)
16
22
32
45
65
90
130
180
250
350
500
700
ROCT/ISO units (after 1987)
16 — 20
25
32 — 40
50
64 — 80
100
125 — 160
200
250 — 320
400
500 — 640
800
When using a film with a sensitivity indicated in DIN system,
use the sensitivity conversion table 10 (Fig. 2) provided on the
rear cover of the camera.
6. Attaching Belts to the Case and to the Camera
The camera is equipped with a system of carrying belts (one long
belt and two short belts’, two clasps, clamps and stiff cover. Link
the belts as show in Fig. 7.
By suitably shifting the two clasps along the long belt, adjust
the camera for height so that the short belts are long well enough
to permit the camera to be held at the eyes level during
photographing. When carrying the camera in the case, the clasps
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FED Stereo
User manual
are pulled down along the long belt so that the short belts do not cause obstacles to placing the camera
in the case (Fig. 8).
Fasten the case with a zipper. As desired, a photographer may adjust the belts in other way to make
another combination of belts most convenient to his own taste as shown in Fig. 9.
7. Operating Procedure
7.1. Automatic Operation Mode
Remove the protective cap from the lenses. Set the mode selector 6 (Fig. 10) to
position “A”. Select an object for photographing and set the required distance
range rotating the range scale 14 (Fig. 3). While observing through the
viewfinder the exposure boundaries (those outlined by the illuminated
exposure-limiting frame 26), depress gently the release button. If the object
intended for photographing is l — 2 m (33 -6.6 ft3) away from the camera, the
exposure boundaries will be limited by the upper edge of the frame 27 by the
side edges of the frame 26 and by the lower edge of the viewfinder field of
vision (shown in Fig. 11 by a dash line). A stereoscopic effect in this case will
be enabled within the exposure part limited by the frame 27 and by the lower
edge of the viewfinder field of vision. The automatic mechanism of the camera
will assure the required picture taking procedure.
If illumination intensity is low, the release button will be interlocked and the shutter will not operate
(“low illumination’ interlocking).
CAUTION
Do not apply force when handling the camera with the
release button interlocked, because this may cause damage to
the camera. After taking picture of the first stereoscopic
couple and any other odd-number stereoscopic couple, push
once the cocking l ever to a stop. After taking picture of the
second stereoscopic couple and any other even-number
stereoscopic couple, push the cocking lever to a stop thrice,
the release button being interlocked during the first and the
second cocking cycles to prevent accidental overlap of the
exposures.
CAUTION. To ensure a failure-free operation of the camera, remember to check, before releasing the
button, that the shutter is cocked to a stop (the cocking lever is interlocked) Only then depress the
release button. If the release button remains interlocked in the automatic mode, it means that
illumination intensity is low. The counter of the stereoscopic couples indicates the number of the
stereoscopic couples photographed (black points and numerals) as well as interlocking of the cocking
lever because of being undercocked (red symbols without numerals).
7.2. Manual Operation Mode
28 — range scale index
29 — marks of the best stereo viewing range
A photographer may operate the camera in manual mode as desired or when the power source of the
camera is not available. In this case, set the mode selector 6 (Fig. 10) to any desired position, except
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FED Stereo
User manual
“A”. When setting the values “2.8” “4” and so on, the shutter executes the exposure of 1/30s with a
lens stop corresponding to the number set.
When photographing the objects which are well extended in depth or when photographing a series
of objects found afar at various distances, use the focus depth scale 15 ( Fig. 12).
The focus depth scale consists of two diaphragms which are symmetrically arranged relative to the
range scale index 28 (Fig. 12). When focusing the camera lenses, the focus depth scale indicates on the
range scale the maximum and the minimum distances from the camera within which limits of: the
image wilt be of good quality with any lens stop set during photographing.
For example, in Fig. 12 you may see that with the lens focused at 3m (10 ft ft) distance with the lens
stop set to 8, all the objects found within 2 to 5 m (6.6 -16.5 ft) away from the camera will produce a
sharp image on the film as developed. With the lens stop set to 16, the objects found within 1.5 m (5 ft)
to the point of infinity will produce a sharp image on the film.
White marks 29 on the focus depth scale indicate on the range scale distances from the camera to
objects found within the very close and the most remote shots when focusing the camera lens at the
required range. Within this range of distances, a stereoscopic effect will be the most expressive and the
very close to the natural perception, when viewing the stereoscopic. image. set up the best conditions
for the stereoscopic effect perception, it is desirable that boundaries of this range (boundaries of the
best stereoscopic viewing) are to be within the limits of the focus depth. From this point of view, the
most convenient combination of parameters, at photographing, is 6.5 m (21) ft) distance set with the
lens stop set to 5.6 m (or any larger number); in this case, indicated boundaries will mark the space of
objects found within 3 odd m (10 ft) to infinity and will coincide with boundaries of the sharp pictured
space.
A photographer may set the required lens stop number only when the camera is in the manual mode
of operation. However, it does not mean that one should refuse the automatic mode of operation.
Long-term practice of operation with the camera “FED-stereo” demonstrate that at any set of exposure
values and distances pictures, obtained by the camera, produce (when being viewed) the fully
perceptible three-dimensional image pictures of high quality.
NOTE
It should be noted that afore-said is only true when conditions of viewing of the stereoscopic image
imitate exactly conditions of natural observation of the photographed picture (for example, when
viewing stereoscopic pictures of the a stereoscope which lens focal length is equal to the lens focal
length of the camera or when viewing pictures on a screen through a stereoscope length of the distance
be equal to the doubled width of the image). Otherwise, the really visible limit of the best stereoscopicviewing may not coincide with the limit marked by white mark 29.
7.3 Operation of the Camera with Electronic Pulse Flash Bulb
30 — electronic pulse flash bulb
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FED Stereo
User manual
Remove the lock 17 from the clip 16 (Fig. 3) and insert there the electronic pulse flash bulb 30 (Fig.
13). To determine the required lens stop, use a calculator built in the flash bulb. Then use the selector 6
(Fig. 13) to set a lens stop according to the calculated value. Detailed description of the flash bulb
operation is given in the Operating Instructions for the flash bulb.
When using the pulse flash bulbs of old modifications (cable connected types), use a special
adapter.
IMPORTANT!
To obtain a quality stereoscopic image, the lens stops within 2.8 to 8 are recommended to be set.
7.4. Completion of the Camera Operation
When the counter indicates that 21
stereoscopic couples have been completed,
depress the button 19 (Fig. 14) to
disengage the film transport mechanism.
Shift aside the arm of the rewinding
head, rewind the film back into the
cassette (Fig. 14). Open the rear cover and
remove the cassette with the exposed film.
The film transport mechanism will be
engaged automatically as the shutter lever
is cocked initially.
8. Assembly of Stereoscopic Slides
To assemble the stereoscopic slides, arrange the photographed film in the same position it has been
previously arranged in the camera (Fig. 15a) with the picture image reversed. To fit the stereoscopic
couples into the frame, cut the couples and reverse them through 180 degrees as shown in Fig. 15b)
Fit the right exposure II and the left exposure II of the stereocouple into the plastic frames as
follows. The frame consisting of two half-frames of different colors (Fig. 16) should be split in two
pieces.
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FED Stereo
User manual
Insert the stereoscopic couples in one of the half-frames into the slots 3 (Fig. 16) and position them
so as shown in Fig. 15c.
To facilitate the assembly procedure it is recommended that the half-frames intended for the
stereoscopic couples should be of the same color.
Move the stereoscopic couple exposure within the slots 3 (Fig. 16) so as to arrange their edges
symmetrically to the half-frame windows. Then cover the half-frame 1 with the half-frame 2 and then
lock them together. To assure this requirement, before mounting the glasses wipe them with a piece of
flannel cloth. To remove fat stains, use a cotton wad moistened with alcohol or other. The stereoscopic
exposures should be also clean. To prevent finger imprints and/or scratches on the film exposures, do
not apply fingers, forceps or other tools within the zone of the picture image. It should be borne in
mind that the quality of a stereoscopic effect depends largely on the quality of the stereoscopic couples
assembly.
NOTE: The stereoscopic frames are not included in the camera delivery set. These frames should
be either purchased or made by a photographer using a solid cardboard for this purpose.
9. Some Helpful Hints
When taking pictures, a photographer should take into to account some specific features typical of the
stereoscopic exposure make-up procedure.
It is strongly recommended that the film exposure should include within its field of vision the
objects located at different distances relative to the camera and relative one to another, i.e. the scenes
with a deep background.
The least stereoscopic effect is produced by the pictures of a long shot (small-scale pictures). To
make such pictures more vivid, bring some picturesque features into the foreground of the scene such
as flowers, bushes, grass, etc. However, these features should not be located close to the exposure
edges (left or right side) they should be brought possibly close to the exposure center where the
stereoscopic effect of close shots is’ more stressed.
The best stereoscopic effect is produced when photographing the objects found within 2 to 10 m
(6.6 — 33 ft ) away from the camera.
Handle the camera with care, do not apply excessive force to it, protect it from dust.
When preparing the camera for operating, push the shutter cocking lever to a stop, otherwise the
lever will not return to its initial position which is an indication that the shutter has not been cocked.
Do not depress the release button until the film is completely transported. Rotation of the rewinding
head, as the shutter lever is being cocked, is an indication that the film is being transported normally.
When taken pictures with use of the light filters, pay a due regard to a ratio power of the filler in
use, the correction factor being introduced by suitably varying the film sensitivity degree.
The procedure for taking pictures in an automatic mode applies to most frequent medium
illumination of the objects (such as those that are seen age against the snowy background, sky or dark
green) introduce a correction factor by changing the degree of the film sensitivity by 1-2 division
(decreasing it for the first two cases and increasing it for the last case).
In order not to forget the actual sensitivity of the film loaded in the camera, it is recommended that
the sensitivity indicated on the film packing box should be cut out and placed in the pocket on the rear
cover of the camera where the sensitivity conversion table 10 is provided (Fig. 2).
Remember the actual value of the film sensitivity.
When taking pictures against a background of a light source, use a lens hood.
To extend the service life of the power cell, when taking pictures outdoors during freezing weather,
hide the camera under a coat (if temperature is below 0 degrees C) and take it out only when taking
pictures. If required, clean the optical surfaces of the lens and of the viewfinder by gently wiping them
with a piece of flannel cloth or with a cotton wad slightly moistened with alcohol. To remove dust, use
a brush.
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FED Stereo
User manual
10. Storage
The camera is a sophisticated optical mechanical device. It requires a careful handling and should be
kept clean. Protect the camera from humidity and sharp temperature variations. Keep the camera in the
case — with the protective caps fitted on its lens and shutter release if possible.
If he camera is kept inoperative for a long time, remove he power compartment and keep it separate
from the camera.
11. Troubles and remedies
Trouble
Cause
As set to automatic operation
The power cell is faulty —
mode, the camera shutter fails to polarity is set incorrectly when
operate even though the picture loading the cell
object is brightly illuminated.
— the power cell is exhausted
As the shutter lever is being
cocked, the film rewinding head
stands still.
— surface of the power cell or
contact in the cell compartment
has become oxidized
The film fails to be transported
due to its improper loading
Remedy
— remove the power cell from
the compartment, rearrange its
polarity and load it back (see
Fig. 10)
— replace the power cell with a
new one (Fig 10)
— brush slightly the surface of
the power cell or contacts in the
cell compartment
— Open the rear cover of the
camera and reload the film
properly (see Fig. 14)
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