RC8660 User`s Manual

RC8660 User`s Manual
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
DoubleTalk RC8660
Lead-free Pb-free RoHS Compliant
CMOS, 3.3 Volt / 5 Volt
Voice Synthesizer Chipset
General Description
The RC8660 is a versatile voice and sound synthesizer, integrating
a text-to-speech (TTS) processor, audio recording and playback,
musical and sinusoidal tone generators, telephone dialer and A/D
converter, into an easy to use chipset. Using a standard serial or
8-bit bus interface, virtually any ASCII text can be streamed to the
RC8660 for automatic conversion into speech by the TTS processor.
The audio record and playback modes augment the TTS processor
for applications requiring very high voice quality and a relatively
small, fixed vocabulary, applications requiring special sounds or
sound effects, and/or the recording of voice memos. The audio
output is delivered in both analog and digital PCM audio formats,
which can be used to drive a speaker or digital audio stream.
The RC8660’s integrated TTS processor incorporates RC Systems’
DoubleTalk™ TTS technology, which is based on a unique voice
concatenation technique using real human voice samples. The
DoubleTalk TTS processor also gives the user unprecedented realtime control of the speech signal, including pitch, volume, tone,
speed, expression, articulation, and so on.
nunciation of virtually any character string to be redefined, or even
trigger the playback of tones, prerecorded messages and sounds
based on specific input patterns. All of these features can be programmed and updated via a standard serial port, even in the field
after the RC8660 has been integrated into the end-product.
Up to 7.5 MB of nonvolatile memory is included in the RC8660 for
the storage of up to 33 minutes of recorded messages and sound
effects. A programmable “greeting” message can be stored that is
automatically played whenever the RC8660 is powered up, allowing
a custom message to be played or the RC8660’s default settings to
be reconfigured. A user-programmable dictionary allows the pro-
The RC8660 is comprised of two surface-mounted devices. Both
operate from either a + 3.3 V or + 5 V supply and consume very little
power. Most applications require only the addition of a lowpass
filter/audio power amplifier to implement a fully functional system.
Functional Block Diagram
AN0–AN3
4
AMPIN
AMPOUT


ADTRG
RXD
TXD
CTS#
BRS0–BRS3
4
BRD
PIO0–PIO7
RDY#
STS#
PRD#
PWR#
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

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
8
2

2
SEL1–SEL5
AO0–AO1
AS0–AS1
TS0–TS1
SUSP0#–
SUSP1#
DAIN
XOUT

STBY#
DoubleTalk RC8660 User’s Manual Rev 06C
Revised 7/14/10
2
2
XIN
5
DAOUT
DACLK
DARTS#
1
© 2004 – 2010 RC Systems, Inc
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Features
Applications
•Integrated text-to-speech processor:
– High voice quality, unlimited vocabulary
– Converts any ASCII text into speech automatically
– Capable of very high reading rates
– Add/modify messages by simply editing a text file
– On-the-fly control of speed, pitch, volume, etc.
•Robotics
•Talking OCR systems
•ATM machines
•Talking pagers and PDAs
•GPS navigation systems
•Vending and ticketing machines
•On-chip recording, storage and playback of sound files:
– Record to chip via microphone
– Upload, download, and erase recordings and
sound files, even in the field
– Data logging mode allows analog quantities to be
sampled and stored for later retrieval
– Recording times from 2 min to 33 min available
•Remote diagnostic reporting
•Dial-up information systems
•Handheld barcode readers
•Electronic test and measurement
•Security systems
•Aids for the orally or visually disabled
•Tone generation:
– Three voice musical
– Dual sinusoidal
– DTMF (Touch-Tone) dialer
•Meeting federal ADA requirements
•On-chip A/D converter:
– Four channels, 8-bit resolution
– One-shot, continuous, single sweep, and
continuous sweep modes of operation
– Software and hardware triggering
– Support for external op amp
RC8660 Product Summary
Order
Number
•Analog and digital audio outputs
•Stop, pause, and resume controls
•Standard serial (UART) and 8-bit bus interfaces
•User programmable greeting and default settings
•Flexible user exception dictionary:
– Change the pronunciation of any input string based
on spelling and context
– Convert encrypted data into meaningful messages
– Trigger tone generation, recorded message playback,
voice parameter changes
Recording
Capacity *
Operating
Voltage
RC8660F1C
2 min
5V
RC86L60F1I
RC86L60F2I
RC86L60F3I
2 min
7 min
15 min
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
RC86L60F4I
33 min
3.3 V
* Based on 8 kHz sampling rate with ADPCM encoding
See Ordering Information for a complete list of package and temperature options.
•In-circuit, field programmable
•8 KB input buffer for virtually no-overhead operation
•Available in 3.3 V and 5 V versions
•Low power (typ @ 3.3 V):
– 3.8 mA active
– 700 µA idle
– 0.7 µA standby
2
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Typical Application Circuit
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RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Connection Diagrams


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RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
5
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Pin Descriptions
Pin Name
Type
Name and Function
IC0 – IC33
INTPUT/
OUTPUT
CHIPSET INTERCONNECTS: Interconnections between the RC8660 and RC46xx chips. IC0 connects to IC0,
IC1 to IC1, etc. IC30 – IC32 must have a 47 kΩ – 100 kΩ pullup resistor to VCC; IC33 must also have a resistor
in the case of the 33-minute version. No other connections should be made to these pins.
AO0
AO1
OUTPUT
ANALOG OUTPUT: Channels 0 and 1 digital to analog (D/A) converter outputs. The output voltage range is
0 V to AVREF and is normally biased at AVREF / 2. Output impedance is 10 kΩ typical. AO1 is reserved for
future use.
TS0
TS1
OUTPUT
TALK STATUS: Indicates whether a voice channel is active. These pins can be used to enable external devices
such as a transmitter, telephone, or audio amplifier. The pins’ polarity are programmable, and can be activated automatically or under program control. TS1 is reserved for future use.
INPUT
SUSPEND: Suspends audio output when Low, allowing playback to be paused. When High, playback
resumes at the point output was suspended. These pins affect only the corresponding AO pin; they do not
affect the digital audio DAOUT pin (use DARTS# to control DAOUT). During recording operations, SUSP0#
suspends recording when Low. SUSP0# can also be used to suspend the transfer of a file while a file is being
uploaded from recording memory. SUSP1# is reserved for future use. Connect these pins to a High level if
not used.
AS0
AS1
OUTPUT
AUDIO SYNC: Outputs a clock signal in synchronization with the updating of analog outputs AO0 and AO1.
The pin changes state whenever the corresponding D/A converter is updated. During recording, AS0 changes
state each time the A/D converter input is sampled. AS1 is reserved for future use.
DAOUT
OUTPUT
DIGITAL AUDIO OUTPUT: Provides the same 8-bit digital audio stream that is fed to the internal D/A converters. This pin can be programmed to be a CMOS or open-drain output. The communication protocol is
progammable, and can operate in synchronous or asynchronous mode.
DACLK
INPUT
DIGITAL AUDIO CLOCK: This pin is used to clock data out of the DAOUT pin and data into the DAIN pin in the
synchronous digital audio output mode. DACLK can be programmed to transfer data on either the rising edge
or falling edge of the clock. Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
DAIN
INPUT
DIGITAL AUDIO CONTROL INPUT: This pin is used to control the operation of the DAOUT pin in a multi-channel system. Reserved for a future product; connect this pin to a High level.
DARTS#
INPUT
DIGITAL AUDIO REQUEST TO SEND: A Low on this pin enables transmission from the DAOUT pin; a High
suspends transmission. DARTS# may be used in both the synchronous and asynchronous transfer modes.
Connect this pin to a Low level if not used.
SUSP0#
SUSP1#
PIO0 –
PIO7
INPUT/
OUTPUT
PERIPHERAL INPUT/OUTPUT BUS: Eight-bit bidirectional peripheral bus. Data is input from a peripheral when
PRD# is active. Status information is output when STS# is active. PIO0 – PIO7 also connect to the RC46xx
chip. Text, data and commands can be sent to the RC8660 over this bus.
STS#
OUTPUT
STATUS: Controls the transfer of status information from the RC8660 to a peripheral. Status information is
driven on the PIO0 – PIO7 pins when STS# is Low. STS# is active only when there is new status information.
PRD#
OUTPUT
PERIPHERAL READ: Controls the transfer of data from a peripheral to the RC8660. Data is read from the
PIO0 – PIO7 pins when PRD# is Low.
PWR#
INPUT
PERIPHERAL WRITE: Controls the writing of peripheral data to the RC8660. Data on the PIO0 – PIO7 pins is
latched in the RC8660 on the rising edge of PWR#. Sufficient time must be given for the RC8660 to process
the data before writing additional data — RDY# or Status Register bit SR.4 should be used for this purpose.
Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
RDY#
OUTPUT
READY: RDY# High indicates that the RC8660 is busy processing the last byte that was written over the Peripheral I/O Bus. Wait for RDY# to be Low before attempting to write more data. RDY# goes High briefly after
each write operation over the PIO0 – PIO7 bus, acknowledging receipt of each byte. If the RC8660’s input buffer becomes full as a result of the last write operation, RDY# will remain High until room becomes available.
Note that RDY# can also be read from Status Register bit SR.4.
AN0 – AN3
INPUT
A/D CONVERTER INPUTS: Analog to digital converter input pins. Analog signals sampled on these pins can
be read through the serial interface, or stored in recording memory. Leave any unused pins unconnected.
Table 1. Pin Descriptions
6
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Pin Name
Type
Name and Function
ADTRG
INPUT
A/D CONVERTER TRIGGER: Starts A/D conversion when hardware triggering is selected. Minimum Low pulse
width is 200 ns. Leave this pin unconnected if not used.
AMPIN
OUTPUT
A/D CONVERTER AMPLIFIER: Connecting an operational amplifier between these pins allows the input voltage
to all four A/D converter input pins to be amplified with one operational amplifier. Leave these pins unconnected if not used.
AMPOUT
INPUT
RXD
INPUT
TXD
OUTPUT
TRANSMIT DATA: Asynchronous serial data output used to read information out of the RC8660. This pin
changes from a CMOS output to an N-channel open-drain output if any of the SEL pins are High, allowing
multiple TXD pins to be wire-OR’d together in a multi-channel system.
CTS#
OUTPUT
CLEAR TO SEND: The CTS# pin is Low when the RC8660 is able to accept data. If the input buffer becomes
full as a result of the last byte received, CTS# will go High and remain High until room becomes available.
BRD
INPUT
BAUD RATE DETECT: BRD is used by the RC8660 to sample the host’s serial data stream in order to determine
its baud rate. BRD is normally connected to the RXD pin. The BRS0 – BRS3 pins affect the operation of BRD.
Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
BRS0 –
BRS3
INPUT
BAUD RATE SELECT: Programs the asynchronous serial port’s baud rate. Both the RXD and TXD pins are programmed to the baud rate set by these pins. Connecting BRS0 – BRS3 to a High level will allow the RC8660
to automatically detect the baud rate with the BRD pin. Connect these pins to a High level if not used.
STBY#
INPUT
STANDBY: A Low immediately terminates all activity and places the RC8660 in Standby mode. The RDY# and
CTS# pins are driven High, and the input buffer is cleared. During standby, the RC8660 draws the minimum possible current (0.7 µA typ @ 3.3 V), but it is not able to respond to any input pin except STBY# and
RESET#. Returning STBY# High causes the RC8660 to enter Idle mode (700 µA typ); the handshake lines are
re-asserted and the RC8660 will be able to accept input again. If the RC8660 entered standby due to a Sleep
Timer event, driving STBY# Low for tWSBL or longer then High will return the RC8660 to Idle mode.
RECEIVE DATA: Asynchronous serial data input used to send text, data and commands to the RC8660. Connect
this pin to a High level if not used.
STBY# is also used to restore the RC8660 to its factory default settings. To prevent this from happening
unintentionally, make sure that STBY# is High no later than 0.5 sec after RESET# goes High. See Appendix B
for additional information.
Connect this pin to a High level if not used.
SEL1 –
SEL5
INPUT
SELECT: Programs the channel pair that the RC8660 is to respond to in a multi-channel system. Connect
these pins to a Low level in single-channel systems.
RESET#
INPUT
RESET: A Low immediately terminates all activity and sets all pins, internal voice parameters and register settings to their default states. During power-up, RESET# must be held Low a minimum of 1 ms after VCC has
stabilized in the proper voltage range. All pins will be valid within 2 ms after reset.
ACLR#
INPUT
ANALOG CLEAR: A Low initializes the RC8660’s D/A and A/D converters. Connect ACLR# to RESET#.
XIN
INPUT
CLOCK INPUT/OUTPUT: These pins connect to the internal clock generating circuit. All timing for the RC8660
and RC46xx chips are derived from this circuit. Connect a 7.3728 MHz crystal between XIN and XOUT. Alternatively, an external 7.3728 MHz square wave may be applied to XIN.
XOUT
OUTPUT
VCC
POWER: + 5 V ± 0.5 V, + 3.3 V ± 0.3 V power supply connection.
VSS
GROUND: Connect these pins to system ground.
AVCC
ANALOG POWER: Power supply input for the D/A and A/D converters. Connect this pin to VCC.
AVSS
ANALOG GROUND: Ground input for the D/A and A/D converters. Connect this pin to VSS.
AVREF
ANALOG REFERENCE VOLTAGE: Reference voltage for the D/A and A/D converters. Connect this pin to VCC.
Caution: any noise present on this pin will appear on the AO pins and affect A/D converter accuracy.
NC
NO CONNECT: NC pins must remain unconnected. Connection of NC pins may result in component failure or
incompatibility with future product enhancements.
Table 1. Pin Descriptions (Continued)
7
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Ordering Information
The RC8660 is available in several voltage and temperature ranges and recording capacities. The ordering part number is formed by combining several fields, as indicated below. Refer to the “Valid Combinations” table, which lists the configurations that are planned to be supported
in volume. Other combinations may be available on a request basis.
All configurations include two surface-mount devices: the 100 pin RC8660FP or RC8660GP and 48 pin RC46xxFP. The R
­ C8660GP requires
30% less board space and is approximately half the thickness of the RC8660FP (see Package Information), but has a different pinout (see
Connection Diagrams). The RC8660FP package provides an easy migration path for designs incorporating the older RC8650 chipset (see Appendix A for a comparison of the RC8660 and RC8650). Only the RC46xxFP is affected by the voltage and recording capacity option chosen,
as can be seen in the “Chipset” column in the table below.
RC86L 60 F1C
TEMPERATURE RANGE
C
I
= Commercial (0 °C to + 70 °C)
= Industrial (–40 °C to + 85 °C)
RECORDING MEMORY CAPACITY
1
2
3
4
=
=
=
=
2 minutes (512 KB)
7 minutes (1,536 KB)
15 minutes (3,584 KB)
33 minutes (7,680 KB)
PACKAGE TYPE
F
G
= 100 pin 14 x 20 mm QFP & 48 pin 12 x 20 mm TSOP
= 100 pin 14 x 14 mm LQFP & 48 pin 12 x 20 mm TSOP
OPERATING VOLTAGE
Blank= 5 V ± 0.5 V
L
= 3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Valid Combinations
Order Number
Old Order No.
Voltage
Package
Rec Capacity
Temp Range
RC8660F1C
RC8660-1
5V
QFP + TSOP
2 min
0 °C to + 70 °C
RC8660G1C
RC86L60F1I
RC86L60F2I
RC86L60F3I
RC86L60F4I
RC86L60G1I
RC86L60G2I
RC86L60G3I
–
RC86L60-1
RC86L60-2
RC86L60-3
–
–
–
–
5V
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
3.3 V
LQFP + TSOP
QFP + TSOP
QFP + TSOP
QFP + TSOP
QFP + TSOP
LQFP + TSOP
LQFP + TSOP
LQFP + TSOP
2 min
2 min
7 min
15 min
33 min
2 min
7 min
15 min
0 °C to + 70 °C
–40 °C to + 85 °C
–40 °C to + 85 °C
–40 °C to + 85 °C
–40 °C to + 85 °C
–40 °C to + 85 °C
–40 °C to + 85 °C
–40 °C to + 85 °C
RC8660GP + RC4651FP
RC8660FP + RC46L51FP
RC8660FP + RC46L61FP
RC8660FP + RC46L71FP
RC8660FP + RC46L81FP
RC8660GP + RC46L51FP
RC8660GP + RC46L61FP
RC8660GP + RC46L71FP
RC86L60G4I
–
3.3 V
LQFP + TSOP
33 min
–40 °C to + 85 °C
RC8660GP + RC46L81FP
8
Chipset
RC8660FP + RC4651FP
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Functional Description
Versatile I/O
All data is sent to the RC8660 through its built in serial and/or
parallel ports. For maximum flexibility, including infield update
capability, use of the serial port is recommended whenever possible.
The RC8660 chipset includes a number of features that make it
ideally suited for any design requiring voice output. The RC8660’s
major features are described below.
The RC8660’s audio output is available in both analog and digital
formats. The analog output should be used in applications where
no further processing of the audio signal is required, such as driving a speaker or headphones (the output still needs to be filtered
and amplified, however). The digital output is for applications that
require further processing of the audio signal, such as digital mixing
or creating sound files for later playback.
Text-to-Speech Synthesizer
The RC8660 provides text-to-speech conversion with its integrated
DoubleTalk™ text-to-speech synthesizer. Any English text written
to the RC8660 is automatically converted into speech. Commands
can be embedded in the input stream to dynamically control the
voice, even at the phoneme level (phonemes are the basic sound
units of speech).
A greeting message can be stored in the RC8660 that is automatically spoken immediately after the RC8660 is reset. Most any of the
commands recognized by the RC8660 may be included as part of
the greeting message, which can be used to set up custom default
settings and/or play a prerecorded message or tone sequence. An
integrated nonvolatile memory area is also provided for storing a
custom pronunciation dictionary, allowing the pronunciation of any
character string to be redefined.
Recommended Connections
Power/Ground
Power and ground connections are made to multiple pins of the
RC8660 and RC46xx chips. Every VCC pin must be connected to
power, and every VSS pin must be connected to ground. To minimize
noise, the analog and digital circuits in the RC8660 use separate
power busses. These busses are brought out to separate pins and
should be tied to the supply as close as possible.
Audio Recording and Playback
Up to 33 minutes of recorded messages and sound effects can be
stored in the RC8660 for on-demand playback. Recordings are
stored in on-chip flash memory, providing zero-power message
storage. Additionally, the RC8660 can play 8-bit PCM and ADPCM
audio in real time, such as speech and/or sound effects stored in an
external memory or file system.
Make sure adequate decoupling is placed on the AVREF pin, as noise
present on this pin will also appear on the AO output pins and affect
A/D converter accuracy. In systems where the power supply is very
quiet, AVREF can be connected directly to VCC. Designs incorporating a switching power supply, or supplies carrying heavy loads,
may require filtering at the AVREF pin; a 150 Ω series VCC resistor in
combination with a 100 μF capacitor to ground should suffice.
Musical Tone Generator
Connect any unused input pins to an appropriate signal level (see
Table 1). Leave any unused output pins and all NC pins un­con­nect­ed.
An integrated, three-voice musical tone generator is capable of generating up to three tones simultaneously over a four-octave range.
Simple tones to attention-getting sounds can be easily created.
Chip Interconnects
Pins IC0 through IC33 and PIO0 through PIO7 must be connected
between the RC8660 and RC46xx chips. IC30, IC31, IC32, (and IC33
in the 33-minute version) must have 47 kΩ – 100 kΩ pullup resistors to VCC.
Touch-Tone Generator
The RC8660 includes an integrated DTMF (Touch-Tone) generator.
This is useful in telephony applications where standard DTMF tones
are used to signal a remote receiver, modem, or access the public
switched telephone network.
Clock Generator
The RC8660 has an internal oscillator and clock generator that can
be controlled by an external 7.3728 MHz crystal, ceramic resonator,
or external 7.3728 MHz clock source. If an external clock is used,
connect it to the XIN pin and leave XOUT unconnected. See Figure
1 for recommended clock connections.
Sinusoidal Tone Generator
A precision, dual sinusoidal tone generator can synthesize the tones
often used in signaling applications. The tone frequencies can be
independently set, allowing signals such as call-progress tones to
be generated.
Analog-to-Digital Converter
RC8660
RC8660
The four channel, 8-bit A/D converter can be used to monitor battery cell voltages, temperature, and other analog quantities. The
ADC can be programmed on the fly to convert any single channel,
or scan up to four channels repetitively. ADC data can be read via
the TXD pin, or stored in the RC8660’s recording memory. With
the appropriate signal conditioning, the ADC can be used for audio
recording to the recording memory.
XIN
15
XIN
XOUT
7.3728 MHZ
18PF
13
15
13
NC
EXTERNAL CLOCK
18PF
VCC
VSS
Figure 1. Clock Connections
9
XOUT
RC8660
RC Systems
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Interfacing the RC8660
The RC8660 contains both asynchronous serial and 8-bit bus
interfaces. All text, commands, tone generator and real-time audio
data, etc., are transmitted to the RC8660 via one of these ports.
For maximum flexibility, use of the serial port is recommended,
because not all RC8660 functions are supported through the bus
interface. In particular, index markers, firmware updates, certain
status information and A/D conversion are only supported through
the serial interface.
Serial Interface
The RC8660’s serial port is asynchronous and operates with 8 data
bits (LSB first), 1 or more stop bits, no parity, and any standard baud
rate between 300 and 115200 bps. Most modern microcontrollers
have at least one UART that can be used to connect to the RC8660.
TXD
CTS#
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
H
H
H
L
L
L
H
H
H
H
L
L
L
L
L
300
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
L
H
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
H
L
600
1200
2400
4800
9600
19200
Auto-detect
38400
57600
115200
Auto-detect
Note The measurement cycle ends when there have been no Highto-Low nor Low-to-High transitions on the BRD pin for 75 ms or
longer. Consequently, the RC8660 will ignore any data sent to it for
a period of 75 ms after the “lock-on” character has been received.
The CTS# pin is driven High during this time, and the acknowledgment character is not transmitted until the RC8660 is actually ready
to accept data. See Figure 3.
MICRO
10K *
TXD
35
L
If the measured bit period is determined to be a valid baud rate,
the RC8660 will acknowledge lock acquisition by transmitting the
ASCII character “l” (6Ch) on the TXD pin. (Note that nothing will be
transmitted if the baud rate has been programmed for a fixed rate.)
The baud rate will remain locked unless changed with the baud rate
command, or the RC8660 is reset.
30
29
28
11
7
36
Baud Rate
The automatic baud rate detection mechanism is enabled when the
BRS0 – BRS3 pins are all at a High logic level and the BRD pin is
connected to the RXD pin. The baud rate is determined by the shortest High or Low period detected in the input stream. This period
is assumed to be the bit rate of the incoming data; therefore, it is
important that there be at least one isolated “1” or “0” in the input
character. The CR character, 0Dh, is recommended for locking the
baud rate. The character is not otherwise processed by the RC8660;
it is discarded.
The serial port’s baud rate can be programmed using any of three
methods: pin strapping, auto-detect, and by command. Pin strapping sets the baud rate according to the logic levels present on the
BRS0 – BRS3 pins, as shown in Table 2. Auto-detect enables the serial port to automatically detect the baud rate of the incoming data.
BRD
RXD
BRS0
The baud rate command allows the baud rate to be changed at any
time, effectively overriding the first two methods.
Baud rate selection
BRS0
BRS1
BRS2
BRS3
BRS1
Table 2. Baud Rate Options
The CTS# pin should be used to control the flow of serial data to
the RC8660. It is not necessary to check CTS# before transmitting
every byte, however. All data is routed through a high speed 16-byte
buffer within the RC8660 before being stored in the primary buffer.
CTS# may be checked every eight bytes with no risk of data loss.
VCC
BRS2
All other settings
A typical microcontroller interface circuit is shown in Figure 2.
The circuit includes an external programming port, which allows
the RC8660 to be programmed in-circuit. Data files and firmware
updates can be downloaded from a PC to the RC8660 through this
port. Note that an external RS-232 transceiver chip will generally be
required, in order to convert the PC’s RS-232 voltage levels to the
RC8660’s logic levels.
RC8660
BRS3
RXD
38
CTS#
Start bit
* INSTALL FOR OPTIONAL
PROGRAMMING PORT
CTS
RXD
TXD
*
LSB
MSB
Baud rate validation (»75 ms)
6Ch
Figure 2. Serial Interface
Figure 3. Baud Rate Detection Timing
10
RC8660
RC Systems
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Status messages
Real-time status information is provided via the TXD pin. Status are
transmitted as one-byte messages, shown in Table 3. Each message
correlates to a status flag in the Status Register, shown in Table 5.
The specific character used, and whether it will be transmitted, are
functions of the V86 and STM bits in the Protocol Options Register.
For information about how to obtain reading-progress status, see
the Index Marker command description.
V86 = 0
Event
“B”
Output has started
Output has stopped
Buffer almost empty
(<100 bytes remaining)
“E”
–
Buffer almost full
(<100 bytes available)
–
Standby mode
confirmation
“S”
Baud rate lock
confirmation
“L”
V86 = 1
“s”
“t”
“e”
“f”
“p”
“l”
Requires
STM = 1
Figure 4. Multi-Channel System
Yes
Yes
SEL5
SEL4
SEL3
SEL2
SEL1
Channel
Pair
Activation
Code
Yes
L
L
L
L
L
All
–
Yes
L
L
L
L
L
L
L
H
H
L
2-3
4-5
C2h
C4h
L
.
.
H
L
.
.
H
L
.
.
H
H
.
.
H
H
.
.
L
6-7
.
.
60-61
C6h
.
.
FCh
H
H
H
H
H
Disabled
–
No
No
Table 3. Status Messages
Table 4. RC8660 Channel Addressing
Multi-channel system
functions normally. All other RC8660s on the bus disable themselves at the same time, although the contents of their input buffers
will not be affected. The 8 KB buffer within each RC8660 allows a
channel to be opened, accept messages (text and commands), then
be immediately closed — thereby allowing another channel to be
opened — while the first RC8660 processes the information it just
received.
Multiple RC8660s can be connected in a multi-channel configuration by wiring the RXD pins together and TXD pins together, as
shown in Figure 4. All communication is performed over the resulting RXD/TXD bus. Individual RC8660s are addressed through
a simple addressing scheme, shown in Table 4. Single-channel
systems should have all of the RC8660’s SEL pins connected to a
Low logic level. This permanently activates the RC8660 so that no
activation code is required, and configures the TXD pin as a CMOS
output. Note that if any of the SEL pins are connected to a High logic
level, the TXD output pin will be automatically configured to be an
open-drain, N-channel output.
To address a specific RC8660, issue the appropriate activation code.
For example, to address channel 4, transmit C4h. All subsequent
output will be accepted by the RC8660 configured for channel 4, and
ignored by all the others.
Note Table 4 refers to channel pairs, because each RC8660 can
potentially support two channels (AO0 and AO1). This feature may
be implemented in a future version of the RC8660.
Handshaking with each RC8660 in a multi-channel system is
simplified through a special interrogation mechanism. Instead of
monitoring each channel’s CTS# pin, any channel can instead be
queried by transmitting code C0h. In response, the active channel
will return an 8-bit status code on the TXD bus, as defined in Table
5. The Ready Status bit should be checked at least every 8 data bytes
in order to avoid data loss.
Each RC8660’s address is programmed through the strapping of its
SEL pins; the logic levels present on these pins determine which
activation code each RC8660 will respond to. When an RC8660
sees its activation code on the RXD bus, it becomes enabled and
11
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Bus/Printer Interface
The RC8660’s bus interface allows the RC8660 to be connected
to a microprocessor or microcontroller in the same manner as a
static RAM or I/O device, as shown in Figure 6. The microcontroller
controls all transactions with the RC8660 over the system data
bus using the RD and WR# signals. RD controls the reading of the
RC8660’s Status Register; WR# controls the transfer of data into the
RC8660. The Status Register bits and their definitions are shown
in Table 5.
START
READ STATUS
REGISTER
A registered bus transceiver is required for communication between
the RC8660 and microcontroller; two 74HC374s placed back to
back may be substituted for the 74HC652 shown in the figure. Prior
to each write operation to the RC8660, the host processor should
verify that the RC8660 is ready by testing the RDY status flag.
RDY = 1
?
NO
YES
The RC8660 can also be interfaced to a PC’s printer port as shown
in Figure 6. A 74HC374 can be used in place of the 74HC652, since
bidirectional communication is not necessary. Handshaking is performed automatically via the BUSY pin.
WRITE BYTE
TO RC8660
Because the RC8660 can take up to 15 µs to accept data written to it
(AC Characteristics, tYHWH parameter), software drivers should wait
for RDY to drop to 0 after a byte is written in order to avoid overwriting it with the next data byte. Not doing so could result in the loss
of data. Waiting for RDY to drop to 0 ensures that RDY will not falsely
show that the RC8660 is ready the next time the driver is called.
READ STATUS
REGISTER
NO
RDY = 0
?
If a system interrupt can occur while waiting for RDY to become 0,
or if RDY cannot otherwise be checked at least once every 8 µs, a
software timeout should be enforced to avoid hanging up in the wait
loop. The time RDY stays 0 is relatively short (8 µs min.) and can
be missed if the loop is interrupted. The timeout should be at least
15 µs, which is the maximum time for RDY to drop to 0 after writing
a byte of data. In non time-critical applications, the output routine
could simply delay 15 µs or longer before exiting, without checking
for RDY = 0 at all.
YES
NO
15 µs
TIMEOUT
?
YES
WRITE COMPLETE
Figure 5. Recommended Method of Writing Data Via the Bus
Interface
Figure 5 illustrates the recommended method of writing data to the
RC8660’s bus interface. This method should be used for writing all
types of data, including text, commands, tone generator and realtime audio data.
12
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
R
TS
R
RDY
AF
AE
STBY
R
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Status Register Bit
Description
SR.7 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Mask when polling the Status Register.
SR.6 = TALK STATUS (TS)
1 = Talking
0 = Idle
This bit is “1” when the RC8660 is producing output, “0” when output has ceased. The TS bit
is not affected by the TS Pin Control command, which affects only the TS pins.
SR.5 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Mask when polling the Status Register.
SR.4 = READY STATUS (RDY)
1 = Ready
0 = Busy
The RDY bit has the same meaning as the RDY# pin. The RC8660 sets RDY to “1” to indicate
that it is ready to receive data. RDY drops to “0” momentarily after each write operation over the
PIO bus, acknowledging receipt of each character.
SR.3 = ALMOST FULL (AF)
1 = Buffer almost full
0 = Buffer not almost full
This bit is “1” anytime there are less than 100 bytes available in the input buffer. AF is always
“0” in the real-time audio playback mode and when using the musical tone generator.
SR.2 = ALMOST EMPTY (AE)
1 = Buffer almost empty
0 = Buffer not almost empty
This bit is “1” anytime there are less than 100 bytes remaining in the input buffer. AE is always
“1” in the real-time audio playback mode and when using the musical tone generator.
SR.1 = STANDBY MODE (STBY)
1 = RC8660 is in Standby mode
0 = RC8660 not in Standby mode
This bit is “1” when the RC8660 has entered Standby mode. Standby mode is entered either by
setting the STBY# pin Low or by allowing the Sleep Timer to expire.
SR.0 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Mask when polling the Status Register.
Table 5. Bus Interface Status Register


Figure 6. Bus/Printer Interface
13


RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!


Figure 7. Method of Capturing Status Information for Driving External Circuitry
Analog Audio Output
Digital Audio Output
The analog output pins AO0 and AO1 are unfiltered, high impedance
outputs from the RC8660’s internal D/A converters. When using
these outputs, the addition of an external low-pass filter is highly
recommended. When laying out the printed circuit board, avoid
running digital lines near the AO lines in order to minimize induced
noise in the audio path. If space permits, run a guard ground next
to the AO traces.
The digital audio pin DAOUT delivers the RC8660’s audio signal as
a digital audio stream. The data format is 8-bit linear, offset binary,
where 80h = midscale. The DAOUT pin can be programmed for synchronous or asynchronous operation. The transfer format and clock
polarity are programmable in the synchronous mode.
The normalized sampling rate for all text to speech modes, sinusoidal generator, and DTMF generator is 80 kbs (10 kbytes/sec).
Because the prerecorded and real-time audio playback mode rates
are user programmable, their normalized rates will vary. See the Pin
Descriptions and Audio Control Register command description for
more information.
The circuit shown in Figure 8 is a low-pass filter/power amplifier
capable of delivering 1.1 W to an 8 Ω load when operating from a
+ 5 V power supply (power output will be less when operating from
+ 3.3 V). The amplifier’s shutdown pin can be controlled by the TS0
pin to minimize current drain when the RC8660 is inactive. See Typical Application Circuit for a similar circuit without a volume control.
Figure 8. Low Cost 3 kHz Low-Pass Filter/Power Amplifier
14

RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Electrical Specifications
­

‚
‚
‚



€






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Figure 9. Test Circuit
Absolute Maximum Ratings*
Supply voltage, VCC and AVCC
3.3 V devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 0.3 V to + 4.0 V
5 V devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 0.3 V to + 6.5 V
* WARNING: Stresses greater than those listed under “Absolute
Maximum Ratings” may cause permanent damage to the device.
This is a stress rating only; operation of the device at any condition
above those indicated in the operational sections of these specifications is not implied. Exposure to absolute maximum rating conditions for extended periods may affect device reliability.
DC input voltage, VI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 0.3 V to VCC + 0.3 V
Operating temperature, TA. . . . 0 °C to + 70 °C / – 40 °C to + 85 °C
Storage temperature, TS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . – 55 °C to + 125 °C
15
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
DC Characteristics
TA = 0 °C to + 70 °C / –40 °C to + 85 °C, VCC = AVCC = AVREF = 3.3 V / 5 V, VSS = AVSS = 0 V, XIN = 7.3728 MHz
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
Min
VIL
Input voltage, Low
VIH
VIA
Input voltage, High
Analog input voltage (AN0-3)
VHYR
Input hysterisis, RESET#
VOL
Output voltage, Low
VOH
Output voltage, High
IIL
Input load current
RO
Analog output resistance
(AO0, AO1)
ICC
Supply current
Typ
5 V ± 0.5 V
Max
Min
Typ
Unit
Max
– 0.3
0.2VCC
– 0.3
0.2VCC
V
0.7VCC
– 0.3
VCC + 0.3
AVREF
0.7VCC
– 0.3
VCC + 0.3
AVREF
V
V
0.2
1.8
0.2
1.8
V
0.5
VCC – 0.5
0.5
V
IOL = 1 mA
V
IOH = – 1 mA
± 5
µA
VIN = VSS to VCC
10
20
kΩ
7
1.2
0.8
22
2.5
20
mA
mA
µA
40
mA
VCC – 0.5
± 4
4
Active
Idle
Standby
10
20
3.8
0.7
0.7
14
1.5
15
Program (Note 1)
4
Test Conditions
30
All outputs open;
all inputs = VCC
or VSS; AVCC and
AVREF currents
included
1 Applies during internal programming operations: greeting message, dictionary, recording memory and microcode updates.
AC Characteristics
TA = 0 °C to + 70 °C / –40 °C to + 85 °C, VCC = AVCC = AVREF = 3.3 V / 5 V, VSS = AVSS = 0 V
External Clock Input Timing
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
fC
External clock input frequency
tWCL
tWCH
tCR
External clock input Low pulse width
External clock input High pulse width
External clock rise time
tCF
External clock fall time
Unit
Min
Nom
Max
Min
Nom
Max
7.2991
7.3728
7.4465
7.2991
7.3728
7.4465
MHz
60
60
67.8
67.8
40
40
67.8
67.8
18
15
ns
ns
ns
18
15
ns
5 V ± 0.5 V
Figure 10. External Clock Waveform
16
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Bus Interface Timing
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
tWSL
STS# pulse width Low
tDVSL
STS# Low to data valid
tDHSH
Data hold from STS# going High
tWRL
Min
Max
215
5 V ± 0.5 V
Min
Max
250
155
Unit
ns
150
ns
5
5
ns
PRD# pulse width Low
215
250
ns
tDVRH
Data setup to PRD# going High
85
40
ns
tDHRH
Data hold from PRD# going High
0
0
ns
tWWL
PWR# pulse width Low
380
250
ns
tDVWH
tDHWH
tYHWH
Data setup to PWR# going High
Data hold from PWR# going High
RDY# High from PWR# going High (Note 1)
– 2
15
– 2
15
µs
µs
µs
tWYH
RDY# pulse width High (Note 1)
15
8
15
8
1 Applies to the RDY# pin and RDY status flag.



Figure 11. Bus Interface Waveforms
17
µs
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Analog Audio Timing
Figure 12. Analog Audio Waveforms
Digital Audio Timing
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
Min
tCYC
tWCL
tWCH
tDVC
tDHC
DACLK cycle time
DACLK pulse width Low
DACLK pulse width High
DAOUT output delay time
DAOUT hold time
300
150
150
fS
Nom. TTS, sinusoidal and DTMF generators internal sampling rate
10
Max
5 V ± 0.5 V
Min
200
100
100
160
0
80
0
10
10
Figure 13. Digital Audio Waveforms
18
Max
10
Unit
ns
ns
ns
ns
ns
kHz
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Standby Timing
Symbol
3.3 V ± 0.3 V
Parameter
tWSBL
Min
Max
5 V ± 0.5 V
Min
Max
Unit
STBY# pulse width Low
To enter Standby mode
To exit Standby mode (Sleep Timer invoked; Note 1)
5
5
ms
380
250
ns
1 Monitor handshake lines to determine when Standby mode has terminated.
Figure 14. Standby Waveform
Reset Timing
Symbol
tWRS
tDRR
Parameter
Min
Max
Unit
RESET# pulse width Low
After power on / VCC stable
1
ms
During operation
3
µs
RESET# recovery delay
2
ms
Figure 15. Reset Waveform
19
Notes
Hold RESET# Low during power-up. STBY#
must be High no later than 0.5 sec after
­RESET# goes High.
RC8660 performs internal initialization; all outputs
will be floating. Do not attempt to send data to the
RC8660 during this period.
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Operating Modes
RC8660 Command Syntax
The RC8660 has five primary operating modes and two inactive
modes designed to achieve maximum functionality and flexibility
while consuming the least possible amount of power. The operating mode can be changed at any time by issuing the appropriate
command.
The RC8660 commands provide a simple yet flexible means of
controlling the RC8660 under software control. They can be used
to vary voice attributes, such as volume or pitch, to suit the requirements of a particular application or listener’s preferences. Commands are also used to change operating modes.
Note The RC8660 will not begin speaking or execute commands
until it receives a CR (0Dh) or NUL (00h) character — this ensures
that a complete contextual analysis can be performed on the input
text. If it is not possible for the application to send a CR or NUL at
the end of each text message, use the Timeout Delay command.
Commands can be freely intermixed with text that is to be spoken — allowing the voice to be dynamically controlled — or to
dynamically change operating modes, such as generating tones or
playing recorded messages, in the middle of a passage of text.
All RC8660 commands are composed of the command character
(CTRL+A by default), a parameter n comprised of an ASCII number
string, and an ASCII character that uniquely identifies the command.
Some commands simply enable or disable a feature of the RC8660
and do not require a parameter. The command format is:
The RC8660 does not make any distinction between uppercase and
lowercase characters. All data sent to the RC8660 is buffered in an
internal 8 KB input buffer, allowing additional text and commands to
be queued even while the RC8660 is producing output.
Text-To-Speech mode. By default, all text sent to the RC8660 is automatically translated into speech by the integrated DoubleTalk TTS
engine. TTS mode can be further subdivided into three translation
modes: Text, which reads text normally; Character, which reads
(spells) one character at a time; and Phoneme, which allows the TTS
engine’s phonemes to be directly accessed.
<command character>[<number string>]<ASCII character>
Commands are not case sensitive. If two or more commands are to
be used together, each must be prefaced with the command character. This is the only way the RC8660 knows to treat the subsequent
characters as commands, rather than text that is to be spoken. For
example, the following commands program pitch level 40 and volume level 7 (quotes and spaces shown for clarity purposes only):
Recorder mode. Any of the RC8660’s four ADC inputs can be used
to make audio recordings, such as voice memos. Analog voltages,
such as from a temperature transducer or battery, can be sampled
and recorded using the ADC’s one-shot mode. All recordings can be
retrieved via the serial port or played back on demand.
CTRL+A "40p" CTRL+A "7v"
The Command Character
The default RC8660 command character is CTRL+A (01h). The
command character itself can be spoken by the RC8660 by sending
it twice in a row: CTRL+A CTRL+A. This special command allows
the command character to be spoken without affecting the operation
of the RC8660, and without having to change to another command
character and then back again.
Recorded Audio Playback mode. This mode allows messages and
sound effects that have been recorded or downloaded into the
RC8660 to be played back on demand. PCM and ADPCM data
types are supported.
Real-Time Audio Playback mode. Data sent to the RC8660 is written directly to the RC8660’s audio buffer. This results in a high data
rate, but provides the capability of producing the highest quality
speech, as well as sound effects. PCM and ADPCM data types are
supported.
Changing the command character
The command character can be changed to another control character (01-1Ah) by sending the current command character, followed by
the new character. To change the command character to CTRL+D, for
example, send CTRL+A CTRL+D. To change it back, send CTRL+D
CTRL+A. It’s recommended to change the command character if the
text to be read contains characters which may otherwise be interpreted as command characters (and hence commands). The command character can be unconditionally reset to CTRL+A by sending
CTRL+^ (1Eh) to the RC8660.
Tone Generator modes. These modes activate the RC8660’s musical
tone generator, sinusoidal generator, or DTMF generator. They can
be used to generate audible prompts, music, signaling tones, dial
a telephone, etc.
Idle mode. To help conserve power in battery-powered systems, the
RC8660 automatically enters a reduced-power state whenever it is
inactive. Data can still be read and written to the RC8660 while in
this mode. Current draw is typically 700 µA @ 3.3 V.
Command Parameters
Command parameters are composed of ASCII number strings. The
RC8660 supports two types of parameters: absolute and relative.
Absolute parameters explicitly specify a parameter’s new value,
such as 9S or 3B. Relative parameters specify a displacement from
a parameter’s current value, not the actual new value itself.
Standby mode. This mode powers down the RC8660, where current
draw is typically only 0.7 µA. Standby mode can be invoked from
either the STBY# pin or with the Sleep command. Data cannot be
read from nor written to the RC8660 in this mode.
20
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
The first technique is the easiest way to fine tune word pronunciations — by tricking the RC8660 into the desired pronunciation.
Among the more commonly mispronounced words are compound
words, proper names (Sean), and foreign loan words (chauffeur).
Compound words can usually be corrected by separating the two
words with a space. Proper names and foreign words may require a
bit more creativity, so that “Sean” becomes “Shon,” and “chauffeur”
becomes “show fur.” Heteronyms (words with identical spelling but
different meanings and pronunciations) can also be modified using
this technique. For example, if the word read is to be pronounced
“reed” instead of “red,” it can simply be respelled as “reed.”
Relative parameters specify positive or negative displacements from
a parameter’s current value. For example, the Volume command
+ 2V increases the volume level by two (V + 2→V). If the current
volume is 4, the volume will increase to 6 after the command has
executed. The command – 2V will have a similar effect, except the
volume will be decreased by two. When operating on an RC8660
register (Punctuation Filter, Protocol Options, Audio Control and
ADC Control), relative parameters allow you to set (“+”) and clear
(“–”) individual register bits. For example, + 65G sets bits POR.0
and POR.6; – 16$ clears ADR.4.
If the value of a parameter falls outside the command’s range, the
value will either wrap around or saturate, depending on the setting
of the SAT bit of the Protocol Options Register. For example, if parameters are programmed to wrap, the current volume is 7 and the
command + 4V is issued, the resultant volume will be (7 + 4) – 10 =
1, since the volume range is 0-9. If parameters are programmed to
saturate, the resultant volume would be 9 instead.
Text Mode/Delay (T/nT)
This command places the RC8660 in the Text operating mode.
The optional delay parameter n is used to create a variable pause
between words. The shortest, and default delay of 0, is used for
normal speech. For users not accustomed to synthetic speech, the
synthesizer’s intelligibility may be improved by introducing a delay.
The longest delay that can be specified is 15. If the delay parameter
is omitted, the last set value will be used and the exception dictionary will be disabled. This feature is useful for returning from another
operating mode or disabling the dictionary (see Enable Exception
Dictionary command).
When writing application programs for the RC8660, it is recommended that relative parameters be used for temporarily changing
voice attributes (such as raising the pitch of a word), using absoluteparameter commands only once in the program’s initialization routine. This way, if the base value of an attribute needs to be changed,
it only needs to be changed in the initialization routine.
Character Mode/Delay (C/nC)
Command Execution Timing
This command puts the RC8660 in the Character operating mode.
The optional delay parameter n is used to create a variable pause
between characters. Values between 0 (the default) and 15 provide
pauses from shortest to longest, respectively. Values between 16
and 31 provide the same range of pauses, but control characters will
not be spoken. If the delay parameter is omitted, the last set value
will be used and the exception dictionary will be disabled.
Normally, RC8660 commands affect only the data that follows them
in the data stream (“deferred” mode). Some applications, however,
may need to change certain parameters (such as volume or voice
speed) and have the change take effect immediately. Execution timing can be manipulated in this manner with the setting of the RTC
bit of the Protocol Options Register. Issuing real-time parameter
changes does not affect commands already in the input buffer; they
will still be executed as they are encountered in the data stream.
Phoneme Mode (D)
This command disables the text-to-phonetics translator, allowing
the RC8660’s phonemes to be accessed directly. Table 6 lists the
phonemes that can be produced by the RC8660.
TTS Synthesizer
Using the TTS synthesizer couldn’t be simpler: simply write the text
to be read to the RC8660; the RC8660 does the rest. The RC8660
also includes a number of software commands that allow you to
modify the behavior of the TTS synthesizer, as described in this
section.
When concatenating two or more phonemes, each phoneme must
be delimited by a space. For example, the word “computer” would
be represented phonetically as
k ax m p yy uw dx er
Phoneme attribute modifiers
Translation Accuracy
The RC8660 supports seven phoneme attribute modifiers that can
be used in Phoneme mode and exception dictionaries. Table 7 lists
these tokens and their equivalent RC8660 commands.
Because the RC8660 must handle the highly irregular spelling
system of English, as well as proper names, acronyms, technical
terms, and borrowed foreign words, there inevitably will be words
that it will mispronounce. If a word is mispronounced, there are
three techniques for correcting it:
Applications of Phoneme mode
Phoneme mode is useful when the normal text-to-speech modes are
inappropriate for producing the desired voice effect. For example,
Phoneme mode should be used to change the stress or emphasis of
specific words in a phrase. This is because Phoneme mode allows
voice attributes to be modified on phoneme boundaries within each
word, whereas Text mode allows changes only at word boundaries.
This is illustrated in the following examples.
1) Spell the word phonetically for the desired pronunciation.
2) Redefine the way the word should be pronounced by creating
an exception for it in the RC8660’s exception dictionary. This
method allows words to be corrected without having to modify
the original text, and it automatically corrects all instances of
the word.
3) Use the RC8660’s Phoneme mode.
21
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
CTRL+A "d" CTRL+A "m" "//h aw
+<\\yy uw
s p \iy k
t uw
t
-\w ey .+/"
-/d>/eh r
\m iy
dh ae
Symbol
Note that Expression is disabled in this example, since the pitch
variations due to the internal intonation algorithms would otherwise
interfere with the pitch tokens. Compare this with the same phrase
produced in Text mode with Expression enabled:
CTRL+A "t" CTRL+A "e" "How dare you speak to
me that way!"
Phoneme mode is also useful in applications that provide their own
text-to-phoneme translation, such as the front end of a custom textto-speech system.
Phoneme
Symbol
A
AA
AE
AH
AW
AX
AY
B
CH
D
DH
DX
E
EH
EI
ER
EW
EY
F
G
H
I
IH
IX
IY
J
K
KX
L
M
Example
Word
das (Spanish)
cot
cat
cut
cow
bottom
bite
bib
church
did
either
city
ser (Spanish)
bet
mesa (Spanish)
bird
acteur (French)
bake
fee
gag
he
libro (Spanish)
bit
rabbit
beet
age
cute
ski
long
me
Phoneme
Symbol
N
NG
NY
O
OW
OY
P
PX
R
RR
S
SH
T
TH
TX
U
UH
UW
V
W
WH
Y
YY
Z
ZH
space
‘
,
.
Function
Equiv Cmd
nn
Set pitch to ‘nn’ (0-99)
/
\
+
–
>
Increase pitch m steps *
Decrease pitch m steps *
Increase speed 1 step
Decrease speed 1 step
Increase volume 1 step
+ mP
– mP
+ 1S
– 1S
+ 1V
nP
<
Decrease volume 1 step
– 1V
* Step size determined by nE command; m @ 2n
Table 7. Phoneme Attribute Modifiers
Example
Word
Speed (nS)
The synthesizer’s speech rate can be adjusted with this command,
from 0S (slowest) through 13S (fastest). The default rate is 5S.
new
rung
niño (Spanish)
no (Spanish)
boat
boy
pop
spot
ring
tres (Spanish)
sell
shell
tin
thin
stick
uno (Spanish)
book
boot
valve
we
when
mayo (Spanish)
you
zoo
vision
variable pause *
short pause
medium pause
long pause
Voice (nO)
The text-to-speech synthesizer has 11 standard voices and a number of individual voice parameter controls that can be used to independently vary the voice characteristics. Voices are selected with the
commands 0O through 10O, shown in Table 8. Because the Voice
command alters numerous internal voice parameters (articulation,
pitch, expression, tone, etc.), it should precede any individual voice
parameter control commands.
n
Voice Name
0
Perfect Paul (default)
1
2
Vader
Big Bob
3
Precise Pete
4
5
6
7
8
9
Ricochet Randy
Biff
Skip
Robo Robert
Goliath
Alvin
10
Gretchen
Table 8. Voice Presets
* Normally used between words; duration determined by nT command.
Table 6. DoubleTalk Phoneme Symbols
22
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Articulation (nA)
Punctuation Filter Register (nB)
This command adjusts the articulation level, from 0A through 9A.
Excessively low articulation values tend to make the voice sound
slurred; very high values, on the other hand, can make the voice
sound choppy. The default articulation is 5A.
Depending on the application, it may be desirable to limit the reading of certain punctuation characters. For example, if the RC8660
is used to proofread documents, the application may call for only
unusual punctuation to be read. On the other hand, an application
that orally echoes keyboard entries for a blind user may require that
all punctuation be spoken.
Expression (E/nE)
Expression, or intonation, is the variation of pitch within a sentence
or phrase. When expression is enabled (n > 0), the RC8660 attempts to mimic the pitch patterns of human speech. For example,
when a sentence ends with a period, the pitch drops at the end of the
sentence; a question mark will cause the pitch to rise.
The Punctuation Filter Register determines which punctuation characters will be spoken, and how number strings will be translated,
as shown in Table 9.
Effect on number strings
When the NM bit is 0, number strings will be read one digit at a time
(e.g., 0123 = “zero one two three”). Setting the NM bit to 1 forces
number strings to be read as numbers (0123 = “one hundred twenty
three”). Additionally, when NM = 1 and FM = 10 or 11, currency
strings will be read as they are normally spoken — for example,
$11.95 will be read as “eleven dollars and ninety five cents.” Setting
LZS = 1 disables leading zero suppression; number strings beginning with zero will always be read one digit at a time.
The optional parameter n determines the degree of intonation. 0E
provides no intonation (monotone), whereas 9E is very animated
sounding. 5E is the default setting. If the parameter is omitted, the
current (last set) value will be used. This is useful for re-enabling
intonation after a Monotone command.
Monotone (M)
This command disables all intonation (expression), causing the
RC8660 to speak with a monotonic voice. Intonation should be disabled whenever manual intonation is applied using the Pitch command or phoneme attribute modifiers. This command is equivalent
to the 0E command.
The default filter setting is 6B (Some punctuation, Numbers mode,
leading zero suppression enabled).
Formant Frequency (nF)
This command adjusts the synthesizer’s overall frequency response
(vocal tract formant frequencies), over the range 0F through 99F. By
varying the frequency, voice quality can be fine-tuned or voice type
changed. The default frequency is 50F.
R
R
R
R
LZS
NM
FM
FM
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Punctuation Filter Register Bits
PFR.7 – 4 = RESERVED (R)
Write “0” to ensure future compatibility.
PFR.3 = LEADING ZERO SUPPRESSION (LZS)
1 = Do not suppress leading zeroes
0 = Suppress leading zeroes
Pitch (nP)
This command varies the pitch over a wide range, which can be used
to change the average pitch during speech production, produce
manual intonation, or create sound effects (including singing). Pitch
values can range from 0P through 99P; the default is 50P.
PFR.2 = NUMBERS MODE (NM)
1 = Read number strings as numbers
0 = Read number strings as digits
Tone (nX)
PFR.1 – 0 = FILTER MODE (FM)
00 = All spoken
01 = Most spoken (all but CR, LF, Space)
10 = Some spoken ($%&#@=+*^|\<>)
11 = None spoken
The synthesizer supports three tone settings, bass (0X), normal (1X)
and treble (2X), which work much like the bass and treble controls
on a stereo. The best setting to use depends on the speaker being
used and personal preference. Normal (1X) is the default setting.
Table 9. Punctuation Filter Register
Reverb (nR)
This command is used to add reverberation to the voice. 0R (the default) introduces no reverb; increasing values of n correspondingly
increase the reverb delay and effect. 9R is the maximum setting.
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RC8660
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voice synthesizer
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A/D Converter
The output of the ADC is governed by the following equation. The
result n is transmitted via the TXD pin as an 8-bit value.
The integrated analog-to-digital converter can be used to monitor analog quantities, such as battery voltage or temperature. Data
logging and audio recording to the RC8660’s recording memory
are also possible through the ADC. Figure 16 is a functional block
diagram of the ADC input stage; Figure 17 illustrates the ADC in
operation.
n = 256 x VIN / AVREF(0 ≤ n ≤ 255)
ADC Control Register (n$)
The ADC has the following features:
The ADC Control Register controls the operation of the ADC. Table
10 lists the functions of each register bit. The default register setting
is 128$.
– Four channels, 8-bit resolution (± 2 LSB precision)
– One-shot, continuous, single sweep, and continuous sweep
modes of operation
– Selectable software or hardware triggering
– Support for external amplification/signal conditioning of all
four ADC channels
Operation of the ADC is not mutually exclusive of other RC8660
functions. The ADC can operate concurrently with text-to-speech,
tone generation, recording memory playback, etc. To start a conversion, simply write to the register with INH = 0. The effective sampling
rate in continuous mode is one-tenth the serial port baud rate (e.g.,
115200 baud = 11520 samples per second).
INH
AMP
TRG
CONT
SWP
R
CH
CH
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
ADC Control Register Bit
Description
ADR.7 = INHIBIT (INH)
1 = Stop A/D conversions
0 = Start A/D conversions
This bit must be “0” in order for the ADC to begin sampling the input channel(s); setting
it to “1” while the ADC is operating will cause all conversions to stop. This bit allows the
other register bits to be programmed without actually starting the ADC. INH automatically changes to “1” at the end of a conversion in one-shot mode. Default: “1.”
ADR.6 = EXTERNAL AMPLIFIER (AMP)
1 = Amp connected
0 = Amp not connected
Set this bit to “1” to use an operational amplifier connected between the AMPIN and AMPOUT pins. Connecting an op amp and enabling this function allows the voltage input to
each ADC input pin to be amplified with one op amp. Default: “0.”
ADR.5 = TRIGGER SOURCE (TRG)
1 = Hardware trigger (ADTRG pin)
0 = Software trigger
Setting this bit to “1” enables hardware triggering of the ADC. The ADC will not begin
operating until ADR.7 is set to “0” and the ADTRG pin changes from a High to a Low
level. When TRG is “0” the ADC will begin operating as soon as ADR.7 is set to “0.”
Default: “0.”
ADR.4 = CONTINUOUS MODE (CONT)
1 = Continuous mode
0 = One-shot mode
Setting this bit to “1” causes the ADC to operate continuously. If a single channel is selected for measurement (ADR.3 = 0), that channel will be read repeatedly. If sweep mode
is selected (ADR.3 = 1), the active input channels will be continuously read in a cyclic
fashion. Clearing this bit while the ADC is operating will stop the ADC. Default: “0.”
ADR.3 = SWEEP MODE (SWP)
1 = Sweep mode
0 = Single-channel mode
This bit determines whether a single channel or multiple input channels will be read.
When Sweep mode is selected, ADR.1 and ADR.0 determine which input channels will
be scanned. Default: “0.”
ADR.2 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Write “0” to ensure future compatibility.
ADR.1 – 0 = CHANNEL SELECT (CH)
These bits determine which input channel(s) will be read by the ADC. Default: “00.”
When ADR.3 = 0: When ADR.3 = 1:
00 = AN0 00 = undefined
01 = AN1 01 = AN0 – AN1 sweep
10 = AN2 10 = undefined
11 = AN3 11 = AN0 – AN3 sweep
NOTES:
1. The AMPOUT pin can be used as a fifth ADC input if an external op amp is not used. Set ADR.6 = 1 to select the AMPOUT pin for conversion.
2. When ADR.4 = 0 (one-shot mode), one sample will be returned via the TXD pin. When recording to recording memory, 16 samples will be written.
Table 10. ADC Control Register
24
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Figure 16. ADC Input Block Diagram
Figure 17. ADC Transfer Timing
25
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Recording & Playback
Message
The RC8660 includes built-in support for downloading, uploading,
playing, and erasing sound files through the serial interface. The
number of sound files is limited only by the amount of available
on-chip recording memory. With the addition of a microphone and
preamplifier, recordings can also be made directly to the recording memory through the RC8660’s A/D converter inputs. It is also
possible to utilize the recording memory for general-purpose, nonvolatile data storage; visit www.rcsys.com for more information.
Additionally, the RC8660 can play back 8-bit audio in real time,
such as speech and/or sound effects stored in an external memory
or file system.
Recording Memory File System
All file functions — play, download, upload and erase — require a
means of specifying the file to be operated on. The RC8660’s builtin file system allows sound files, whether downloaded or recorded
through the ADC, to be easily accessed.
Each sound file in memory is automatically assigned a unique file
number, or index, beginning with zero. The first file is file 0, the second is file 1, and so on. Referencing a sound file by its file number
is one way to select the file to be operated on. However, if files are
added and/or deleted from memory frequently, their file numbers
can become difficult to keep track of.
Code
Meaning
No_Error
0
No error
Invld_Cmd_Err
Com_Err
TmOut_Err
Erase_In_Prog
Corrupt_Err
Erase_Ok
Write_Err
Out_Mem_Err
CkSum_Err
Repair_In_Prog
(reserved)
Incompat_Err
Dup_Tag_Err
Not_Found_Err
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Invalid command error
Communications error
Comm. timeout error (> 10 sec)
Memory erase in progress
Memory corrupt error
Memory erased, no errors
Memory write error
Out of memory
Data checksum error
Memory repair in progress
Reserved
Incompatible sound library in memory
Duplicate tag in memory
File not found in memory
Rec_In_Prog
15
Recording in progress
Table 11. Recording Memory Result Codes
All RC8660 sound files contain a unique 16 bit “tag” that can also be
used to reference the file. The tag is assigned to the sound file when
it is created with the RCStudio software, or, in the case of recording
through the ADC, specified in the recording command. Tags can
range in value from 1 to 65534. A value of 0 is defined as a null tag,
and will be ignored. The setting of the TAG bit in the Protocol Options Register determines whether the tag value or file number will
be used when addressing a file in the recording memory.
and finally the tenth sound file at the original volume level (it is assumed that TAG = 0 in this example).
Erase Sound File (234L)
The command 234Lmmmmm deletes sound file mmmmm from
recording memory. The setting of the TAG bit in the Protocol Options Register determines whether m represents a file number or
tag. Note that all five m digits must be included in the command;
use leading zeroes if necessary. For example, the command CTRL+A
“234L00054” will erase sound file 54 from recording memory.
The recording memory functions described in this section each
return one or more result codes via the TXD pin. These codes are
summarized in Table 11.
During erasure, the CTS# pin will go High and one or more Erase_
In_Prog messages will be transmitted on the TXD pin. Completion
is indicated by CTS# going Low and the transmission of Erase_Ok
on the TXD pin. Note that this process can be lengthy, as the recording memory is also automatically defragmented after the file
has been deleted.
Play Sound File (n&)
This command plays the sound file specified by the parameter n. The
setting of the TAG bit in the Protocol Options Register determines
whether n represents the file number or tag value. For example,
CTRL+A "52&"
Download Sound File (236W)
plays file number 52 (actually the 53rd file) if TAG = 0, or the file
whose tag value equals 52 if TAG = 1.
This command initiates the download of an RC8660 sound file to the
RC8660’s recording memory. After issuing the command, simply
transfer the sound file. RCStudio can be used to create RC8660compatible sound (PCM) files from standard Windows wave and
MP3 files.
The playback volume can be adjusted with the Volume (nV) command. A volume setting of 5 will cause sound files to be played back
at their original volume level.
Text and/or commands may be freely intermixed with the playback
command. For example,
After the first 16 bytes of the sound file have been transferred, the
RC8660 verifies that there is sufficient space in its recording memory and that there is not already a file in memory with the same tag
(other than tag 0). No_Error will be transmitted if there are no errors,
and the RC8660 will load the rest of the file. At the completion of the
download, No_Error will be transmitted again, followed by the new
file’s 16-bit file number.
CTRL+A "11*" "Hello" CTRL+A "–3V" CTRL+A "3&"
CTRL+A "+3V" CTRL+A "9&"
plays the Touch-Tone “#” key and says “hello” at the current volume
setting, followed by the fourth sound file at a reduced volume level,
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RC8660
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voice synthesizer
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Upload Sound File (245L)
This command is used to upload a sound file or recording from
the RC8660’s recording memory. The command 245Lmmmmm
retrieves sound file mmmmm from memory; immediately upon
receipt of the command, the RC8660 will begin transmitting the file
via the TXD pin. The setting of the TAG bit in the Protocol Options
Register determines whether m represents a file number or tag.
Note that all five m digits must be included in the command; use
leading zeroes if necessary. For example, the command CTRL+A
“245L04236” will upload sound file 4236 from recording memory.
To suspend the transfer of the file, pull the SUSP0# pin Low, or issue
the Suspend (CTRL+P) command. To stop the transfer of the file,
issue the Stop (CTRL+X) command. The resulting file can be played
with the Real-Time Audio Playback command, or downloaded to
another RC8660 with the Download Sound File command.
M defines the tag that is to be associated with the recording. If
you do not want to use a tag, set m = 00000. Note that all five m
digits must be included in the command; use leading zeroes if
necessary. For example, the command CTRL+A "227L01234"
begins recording at 11 kHz rate with ADPCM compression, assigning a tag value of 1234 to the recording.
After the Record command has been transmitted to the RC8660,
the RC8660 will verify that there is space in the recording
memory and that there is not already a file with the same tag in
memory (other than tag 0). Assuming there are no errors, the
RC8660 will begin recording, transmitting Rec_In_Prog every
time 1,024 bytes have been written to the recording memory.
To stop or pause recording
1) To stop recording, issue the Stop (CTRL+X) command. The
RC8660 will transmit No_Error to acknowledge recording has
stopped, followed by the new recording’s 16-bit file number.
Because recordings are always stored after the last file in the
recording memory, the new recording’s file number will be one
less than the total number of files in memory.
Download Sound Library (223W)
This command is generally only found in sound libraries created
with RCStudio. It initiates the download of the sound library (a collection of sound files) to the RC8660. The entire recording memory
is automatically initialized as part of the download process. If you
have many sound files to download and maintain, placing them in
a sound library is preferrable to downloading each sound file individually with the Download Sound File command. RCStudio makes
it easy to create, manage, and download sound libraries composed
of standard Windows wave and MP3 files. See RCStudio’s help for
additional information regarding sound libraries.
2) To pause recording, pull the SUSP0# pin Low, or issue the
Suspend (CTRL+P) command. Recording resumes when the
SUSP0# pin is brought High, or when the Resume (CTRL+R)
command is issued.
Repair Recording Memory (218W)
If a recording is terminated prematurely, due to power loss during
recording, for example, the recording memory can become corrupt and only partially usable. If this should occur, the RC8660 will
respond with the Corrupt_Err message when recording memory
operations are attempted. This command repairs the memory so that
memory operations will work normally again, without resorting to
re-initializing the memory, which of course would result in the loss
of any and all recordings.
Initialize Recording Memory (214W)
This command formats the RC8660’s recording memory so that it
can be used for storing sound files. This must be done before the
initial use of the recording memory, unless a sound library has
been previously downloaded, which also initializes the recording
memory. The command can also be used as an “erase all files”
function, if desired.
During the repair process, the CTS# pin goes High and one or
more Repair_In_Prog messages are transmitted via the TXD pin.
Completion is indicated by CTS# going Low and the transmission
of No_Error from the TXD pin. This process can take a significant
amount of time, depending on the size of the recording memory and
number of recordings present.
During the initialization process, the CTS# pin will go High and one
or more Erase_In_Prog messages will be transmitted from the TXD
pin. Completion is indicated by CTS# going Low and the transmission of Erase_Ok from the TXD pin. Note that this process can take
some time, depending on the size of the recording memory.
Making a Recording
Real-Time Audio Playback (n#/n%)
Recording to the RC8660 requires setting up the A/D converter for
the desired recording mode and issuing the Record command.
This mode allows audio samples to be written to the RC8660’s
digital-to-analog converter via the serial and parallel ports. All data
sent to the RC8660 is routed directly to the RC8660’s internal 2 KB
audio buffer; the RC8660 then transfers samples from the buffer to
the DAC at the rate programmed by n. Because the audio data is
buffered within the RC8660, the output sampling rate is independent
of the data rate into the RC8660. Note that because of the relatively
high rate at which samples are pulled from the buffer, the RC8660’s
baud rate must be set to 115200 baud in order to prevent the audio
buffer from running out of data.
To begin recording
1) Program the ADC for the desired input channel (CH), SWP =
TRG = 0, and INH = 1. To record continuously, such as a voice
message, program CONT = 1. To record only 16 samples of the
input channel (data logging mode), program CONT = 0.
2) Issue the Record command nLmmmmm. N programs the desired sampling rate fs, where n = 155 – 617 / fs and 4 ≤ fs ≤ 11
kHz (0 ≤ n ≤ 99). To enable ADPCM compression (which reduces memory storage requirements by a factor of 2), add 128
to the value of n. Note that ADPCM compression is disabled in
data logging mode.
The RC8660 supports PCM and ADPCM audio data formats. The
ADPCM format is a compressed format which yields data files that
are half the size of PCM files, thereby reducing the required data
bandwidth and storage requirements. RC Systems’ RCStudio soft-
27
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
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ware can convert Windows wave and MP3 files to PCM and ADPCM
formats for use with the RC8660. Files that have been uploaded from
recording memory can also be played using this mode.
The musical tone generator is controlled with four, four-byte data
and command frames, called Initialize, Voice, Play, and Quit (Figure
18). With these, the volume, duration, and frequencies of the three
voices can be controlled.
Sound files created with RCStudio or uploaded from recording
memory with the Upload Sound File command include the appropriate playback command in the file’s header. To play a file, simply
transfer the file to the RC8660. If desired, the playback volume can
be adjusted before the file is transferred with the Volume (nV) command. A volume setting of 5 will cause the data to be played back at
its original volume level. To copy the sound file to another RC8660’s
recording memory, issue the Download Sound File command before transferring the sound file.
Initialize Command
The Initialize command sets up the tone generator’s relative amplitude and tempo (speed). The host must issue this command to
initialize the tone generator before sending any Voice frames. The
Initialize command may, however, be issued anytime afterward to
change the volume or tempo on the fly.
Initialize command format
The Initialize command consists of a byte of zero and three parameters. The parameters are defined as follows:
Tone Generators
The RC8660 contains three tone generators: musical, sinusoidal,
and DTMF (Touch-Tone).
KA
KTL
KTH
Musical Tone Generator
The range of the tempo KT (KTL and KTH) is 1-65,535 (1 – FFFFh);
the larger the value, the slower the overall speed of play. The amplitude and tempo affect all three voices, and stay in effect until
another Initialize command is issued. If the command is issued between Voice frames to change the volume or tempo on the fly, only
the Voice frames following the command will be affected.
The musical tone generator is capable of producing three tones
(voices) simultaneously, and works well in applications which require neither precise frequencies nor a pure (low distortion) output.
The output is a pulse train rich in harmonic energy, which sounds
more interesting than pure sinusoids in music applications. RCStudio includes a music score editor and compiler which greatly
simplifies the music-creation process.
Voice Frame
Voice frames contain the duration and frequency (pitch) information
for each voice. All Voice frames are stored in an 8 KB buffer within
the RC8660, but are not played until the Play command is issued.
If the number of Voice frames exceeds 8 KB in length, the RC8660
will automatically begin playing the data.
Note The musical tone generator output is available only from the
AO pins. Digital audio output from the DAOUT pin is not possible.
The musical tone generator is activated with the J command (no
parameter). Once activated, all data output to the RC8660 is directed
to the musical tone generator.
Voice frame format
Note The RC8660 expects the tone generator data to immediately
follow the J command; therefore, do not terminate the command
with a CR or NUL.
Byte
0
1
2
3
0
KA
KTL
KTH
Voice amplitude (1-255)
Tempo, low byte (0-255)
Tempo, high byte (0-255)
Voice frames are composed of three frequency time constant bytes
(K1-K3) and a duration byte (KD), which specifies how long the three
voices are to be played.
KD
K1
Initialize command
0
0
1
K2
K3
Voice frame
1
0
0
0
Quit command
Play command
Figure 18. Musical Tone Generator Command Formats
28
0
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
The relationship between the time constant Ki and the output frequency fi is:
Note
C
C#
D
D#
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
C
C#
D
D#
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
C-Mid
C#
fi = 16,768 / Ki
where fi is in Hertz and Ki = 4-255. Setting Ki to zero will silence
voice i during the frame.
KD may be programmed to any value between 1 and 255; the larger
it is made, the longer the voices will play during the frame.
The task of finding Ki for a particular musical note is greatly simplified by using Table 12. The tone generator covers a four-octave
range, from C two octaves below Middle C (Ki = 255), to D two
octaves above Middle C (Ki = 14). Ki values less than 14 are not
recommended.
For example, the Voice frame
24,64,0,0
plays Middle C using voice 1 (K1 = 64). Since K2 and K3 are zero,
voices 2 and 3 will be silent during the frame. The duration of the
note is a function of both the tempo KT and duration KD (24).
As another example,
48,64,51,43
plays a C-E-G chord, for a duration twice as long as the previous
example.
Choosing note durations and tempo
Table 13 lists the recommended KD values for each of the standard
musical note durations. This convention permits shorter (1/64th
note) and intermediate note values to be played accurately. This is
important when, for example, a thirty-second note is to be played
staccato, or a note is dotted (multiplying its length by 1.5).
Ki
255 (FFh)
241 (F1h)
228 (E4h)
215 (D7h)
203 (CBh)
192 (C0h)
181 (B5h)
171 (ABh)
161 (A1h)
152 (98h)
144 (90h)
136 (88h)
128 (80h)
121 (79h)
114 (72h)
107 (6Bh)
101 (65h)
96 (60h)
90 (5Ah)
85 (55h)
81 (51h)
76 (4Ch)
72 (48h)
68 (44h)
64 (40h)
60 (3Ch)
Note
D
D#
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
C
C#
D
D#
E
F
F#
G
G#
A
A#
B
C
C#
D
Ki
57 (39h)
54 (36h)
51 (33h)
48 (30h)
45 (2Dh)
43 (2Bh)
40 (28h)
38 (26h)
36 (24h)
34 (22h)
32 (20h)
30 (1Eh)
28 (1Ch)
27 (1Bh)
25 (19h)
24 (18h)
23 (17h)
21 (15h)
20 (14h)
19 (13h)
18 (12h)
17 (11h)
16 (10h)
15 (0Fh)
14 (0Eh)
Table 12. Musical Note Pitch/Ki Values
Using the suggested values, it turns out that most musical scores
sound best when played at a tempo of 255 or faster (i.e., KTH = 0).
Of course, the “right” tempo is the one that sounds the best.
Note Duration
Play Command
The Play command causes the voice data in the input buffer to begin
playing. Additional Initialize commands and Voice frames may be
sent to the RC8660 while the tone generator is operating. The TS0
pin and TS flag are asserted at this time, enabling the host to synchronize to the playing of the tone data. TS becomes inactive after
all of the data has been played.
KD
Whole
192 (C0h)
Half
Quarter
96 (60h)
48 (30h)
Eighth
Sixteenth
24 (18h)
12 (0Ch)
Thirty-second
6 (06h)
Table 13. Musical Note Duration/KD Values
Quit Command
The Quit command marks the end of the tone data in the input buffer.
The RC8660 will play the contents of the buffer up to the Quit command, then return to the text-to-speech mode that was in effect when
the tone generator was activated. Once the Quit command has been
issued, the RC8660 will not accept any more data until the entire
buffer has been played.
29
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Example Tune
voices were not to be played as long as the others during the beat.
The F-C-F notes in the first frame are held for 46 counts, while the
low F and C in the second frame are held for two additional counts.
Adding the duration (first and fifth) bytes together, the low F and C
do indeed add up to 48 counts (46 + 2), which is the standard duration of a quarter note.
The Basic program shown in Figure 19 reads tone generator
data from a list of DATA statements and PRINTs each value to the
RC8660. The astute reader may have noticed some “non-standard”
note durations in the DATA statements (cf. Table 13), such as the first
two Voice frames in line 260. According to the original music, some
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
230
240
250
260
270
280
290
300
310
320
330
OPEN "COM1:9600,N,8,1,BIN" FOR OUTPUT AS #1
PRINT #1,
' ensure serial port baud rate is locked
PRINT #1, CHR$(1);"J"; ' activate tone generator
READ B0,B1,B2,B3
' read a frame (4 bytes)
PRINT #1, CHR$(B0); CHR$(B1); CHR$(B2); CHR$(B3);
IF B0 + B1 + B2 + B3 > 0 THEN 130 ' loop until Quit
CLOSE #1
END
'
'
' Data Tables:
'
' Init (volume = 255, tempo = 86)
DATA 0,255,86,0
'
' Voice data
DATA 46,48,64,192, 2,0,64,192, 48,48,0,0, 48,40,0,0, 48,36,0,0
DATA 94,24,34,0, 2,24,0,0, 24,0,36,0, 24,0,40,0, 48,0,48,0
DATA 48,40,0,192, 46,36,0,0, 2,0,0,0, 48,36,0,0, 48,24,34,0
DATA 46,24,34,0, 2,0,34,0, 46,24,34,0, 2,24,0,0, 24,0,36,0
DATA 24,0,40,0, 48,0,48,0
'
' Play, Quit
DATA 0,0,1,1, 0,0,0,0
Figure 19. Example Musical Tone Generator Program
Sinusoidal Tone Generator
generate silence. Longer tones can be created by sending multiple
commands, back-to-back.
The sinusoidal tone generator generates two sinusoidal waveforms
simultaneously. Applications range from creating simple tones to
telephone call-progress tones, such as a dial tone or busy signal.
The frequency range is 0 to 4400 Hz with a resolution of 10 Hz.
DTMF Tone Generator
generates a 350/440 Hz tone pair (a dial tone) for 1 second.
The DTMF (Touch-Tone) tone generator generates the 16 standard
tone pairs commonly used in telephone systems. Each tone is 100
ms in duration, followed by a 100 ms inter-digit pause — more than
satisfying telephone signaling requirements (both durations can be
extended to 500 ms by setting the DDUR bit of the Protocol Options
Register). The DTMF generator is activated with the command n*,
where n is an ASCII number between 0 and 16. The mapping of the
command parameter n to the buttons on a standard telephone is
shown in Table 14.
If only one tone is to be generated, the other tone frequency may
either be set to 0, or the same frequency. Note, however, that due to
the additive nature of the tone generators, the output amplitude from
both generators running at the same frequency will be twice that
of just one generator running. Both frequencies may be set to 0 to
The “pause” tone can be used to generate longer inter-digit delays
in phone number strings, or to create precise silent periods in the
RC8660’s output. The generator’s output level can be adjusted with
the Volume command (nV). DTMF commands may be intermixed
with text and other commands without restriction.
The sinusoidal tone generator is activated with the command
nJaaaabbbb. N specifies the tone duration in 10 ms increments,
between 2 and 59999. A and b specify the frequencies of the two
generators. Note that all eight digits for a and b must be included in
the command. For example, the command
CTRL+A "100J03500440"
30
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
n
Button
0
0
.
.
9
10
.
.
9
*
11
#
12
13
14
15
A
B
C
D
16
pause
The Timeout parameter n specifies the number of 200 millisecond
periods in the delay time, which can range from 200 milliseconds to
3 seconds. The default value is 0Y, which disables the timer.
Sleep Timer (nQ)
The sleep timer is used to force the RC8660 into Standby mode after
a programmed time interval. For example, the RC8660 can power
down automatically if the user forgets to turn off the power at the end
of the day. An audible “reminder” tone can even be programmed to
sound every ten minutes to remind the user that the power was left
on, before shutdown occurs.
The sleep timer is stopped and reset whenever the RC8660 is active,
and begins running when the RC8660 enters Idle mode. In this way,
the RC8660 will not shut itself down during normal use, as long as
the programmed timer interval is longer than the maximum time the
RC8660 is inactive.
Table 14. DTMF Dialer Button Map
The command parameter n determines when Standby mode will be
entered. You can place the RC8660 in Standby mode immediately,
program the sleep timer to any of 15 ten-minute intervals (10 to 150
minutes), or disable the sleep timer altogether (Table 16).
RC8660 Control
Volume (nV)
Note that the delay interval is simply n x 10 minutes for 0 < n < 16.
Adding 16 to these values (16 < n < 32) also enables the reminder
tone, which sounds at the end of each ten minute interval. Programming n = 0 disables the sleep timer, which is the default setting.
Setting n = 16 forces the RC8660 to enter Standby mode as soon as
all output has ceased.
This is a global command that controls the RC8660’s output volume
level. 0V yields the lowest possible volume; maximum volume is
attained at 9V. The default volume is 5V. The Volume command can
be used to set a new listening level, create emphasis in speech, or
change the output level of the tone generators.
If the sleep timer is allowed to expire, the RC8660 will emit the ASCII
character “p” from the TXD pin and the STBY status flag will be set
to 1, just before entering Standby mode. This enables the host to
detect that the RC8660 has entered Standby mode.
Timeout Delay (nY)
The RC8660 defers translating the contents of its input buffer until
a CR or NUL is received. This ensures that text is spoken smoothly
from word to word and that the proper intonation is given to the
beginnings and endings of sentences. If text is sent to the RC8660
without a CR or NUL, it will remain untranslated in the input buffer
indefinitely.
Once the RC8660 has entered Standby mode, it can be re-awakened
only by a hardware reset or by driving the STBY# pin low for tWSBL
or longer, then High again. All of the RC8660 handshake signals
(BUSY, CTS#, and RDY#) are forced to their “not ready” states while
the RC8660 is in Standby.
The RC8660 contains a programmable timer that is able to force the
RC8660 to translate its buffer contents after a preset time interval.
The timer is enabled only if the Timeout Delay parameter n is nonzero, the RC8660 is not active (not talking), and the input buffer contains no CR or NUL characters. Any characters sent to the RC8660
before timeout will automatically restart the timer.
n
Delay
0
Indefinite (wait for CR/NUL)
1
2
.
.
200 milliseconds
400 milliseconds
.
.
15
3000 milliseconds (3 sec.)
n
Table 15. Timeout Delays
Delay
0
Sleep timer disabled
1
.
.
15
16
17
.
.
10 min
.
.
150 min
0 (immediate)
10 min w/reminder
.
.
31
150 min w/reminder
Table 16. Sleep Timer
31
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Download Exception Dictionary (247W)
Baud Rate (nH)
This command initializes the RC8660’s exception dictionary and
stores subsequent output from the host in the RC8660’s nonvolatile
dictionary memory. The maximum dictionary size is 16 KB.
The serial port’s baud rate can be programmed to the rates listed in
Table 17. If included as part of the greeting message, the command
will effectively override the baud rate set by the BRS pins.
Exception dictionaries must be compiled into the format required by
the RC8660 before they can be used. RCStudio, a Windows-based
application available from RC Systems, includes a dictionary editor
and compiler for performing this task. Dictionaries that have been
compiled with RCStudio include the download command in the file
header, simplifying the download process.
n
To download a dictionary, simply download the file to the RC8660.
After the first 12 bytes of the file have been transferred, the RC8660
will drive the handshake lines to their false (“not ready”) states.
This is done to prevent any more of the file from being transferred
while the RC8660 prepares the internal memory that will be used
to store the dictionary. At this time the RC8660 will transmit two
Erase_In_Prog messages (Table 11) followed by Erase_Ok via the
TXD pin, each approximately 0.25 sec apart.
After the Erase_Ok message has been transmitted, the handshake
lines will return to their true (“ready”) states, allowing the remainder
of the file to be transmitted. After the entire file has been transferred
the RC8660 will transmit the result code, normally No_Error.
Baud Rate
0
300
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
600
1200
2400
4800
9600
19200
Auto-detect
38400
57600
115200
11
Re-read BRS3 – BRS0 pins
Table 17. Programmable Baud Rates
Note It is not necessary to monitor the status messages sent from
the RC8660, because the handshake lines ultimately control the
timing of the download. The status messages are provided for informational purposes only.
TS Pin Control (nK)
The TS0 pin provides talk status information that can be used to
activate a transmitter, take a telephone off hook, enable an audio
power amplifier, etc., at the desired time. The pin’s mode and polarity
can be configured as shown in Table 18. The programming of the
TS0 pin does not affect the Status Register TS flag in any way. The
default setting is 1K.
Enable Exception Dictionary (U)
The exception dictionary is enabled with this command. If the
RC8660 is in Phoneme mode, or if an exception dictionary has not
been loaded, the command will have no effect. The exception dictionary can be disabled by issuing one of the mode commands D,
T, or C.). The dictionary is disabled by default.
If the TS0 pin is programmed Forced High or Forced Low, it will
remain in that state until changed otherwise. This feature can be
used to activate a transmitter, for example, before speech output
has begun. In the automatic mode, the TS0 pin is asserted as soon
as output begins; it will return to its false state when all output has
ceased. Note that because RC8660 commands work synchronously,
the TS0 pin will not change state until all text and commands, up to
the TS Pin Control command, have been spoken and/or executed.
Download Greeting Message (255W)
Anytime the RC8660 is reset, an optional user-defined greeting
message is automatically played. The message may consist of any
text/command sequence up to 234 characters in length. Modal
commands can be included, such as tone generator and audio
playback commands (refer to Table 22 for a list of the commands
that can be used in greeting messages). For example,
CTRL+A "3S" CTRL+A "2O" "ready"
programs the RC8660 to use voice speed 3, Big Bob’s voice, and
say “ready” whenever the RC8660 is reset.
n
RC Systems’ RCStudio software can create and download greeting messages for you. To download a greeting message created
with RCStudio, simply download the file to the RC8660. All of the
RC8660 commands required to initiate and terminate the download
are embedded within the greeting file, greatly simplifying the downloading process.
TS Pin Mode/Polarity
0
Automatic/Active Low
1
2
Automatic/Active High
Forced Low
3
Forced High
Table 18. TS Pin Control
32
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Protocol Options Register (nG)
Bit POR.7 (V86) programs the RC8660 to emulate RC Systems’
original V8600 voice synthesizer module. When this bit is set to
0, the TTS parameters and ranges are adjusted to match that of the
V8600. The serial port status messages (see Table 3) are also affected by the setting of this bit.
This command controls various internal RC8660 operating parameters. See Table 19 for the definition of each register bit. The default
register setting is 144G.
V86
SAT
DDUR
R50
TAG
RTC
R
STM
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Protocol Options Register Bit
Description
POR.7 = V8600 COMPATIBILITY (V86)
1 = Compatibility disabled
0 = Compatibility enabled
Emulates RC Systems’ V8600 voice synthesizer module when set to “0.” Overall voice
speed range and serial port status responses are adjusted to that of the V8600. Default: “1”
(in the V8600A module, this bit defaults to “0”).
POR.6 = SATURATE (SAT)
1 = Parameters saturate
0 = Parameters wrap
Determines whether command parameters wrap or saturate when their range has been exceeded. Default: “0.”
POR.5 = DTMF DURATION (DDUR)
1 = 500 ms
0 = 100 ms
Determines DTMF (Touch-Tone) generator burst duration. When set to “1,” tone bursts are
500 ms long; when “0,” 100 ms. Default: “0.”
POR.4 = RC8650 COMPATIBILITY (R50)
1 = Compatibility disabled
0 = Compatibility enabled
Emulates RC Systems’ RC8650 chipset when set to “0.” The RC8660’s command set is
adjusted to that of the RC8650, and RC8660-specific functions such as audio recording are
disabled. Default: “1.”
POR.3 = INDEX/TAG (TAG)
1 = Reference by tag
0 = Reference by index
Determines whether sound library files are referenced by their file number/index (“0”) or by
their tag value (“1”). Default: “0.”
POR.2 = REAL-TIME CONTROL (RTC)
1 = Real-time command processing
0 = Deferred command processing
Determines whether certain commands are processed in deferred mode (“0”) or real time
(“1”). The commands affected are: nA, nE, nF, nO, nP, nR, nS, nT, nV, and nX. All other
commands will be processed in deferred mode, regardless of this bit’s setting. Default: “0.”
POR.1 = RESERVED (R)
Reserved for future use. Write “0” to ensure future compatibility.
POR.0 = STATUS MESSAGES (STM)
1 = Enabled
0 = Disabled
Enables and disables the transmission of certain status messages from the TXD pin. Default: “0.”
Table 19. Protocol Options Register
33
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Audio Control Register (nN)
be transmitted to completion even if DARTS# goes High before the
sample has completed. Figure 20 illustrates the synchronous data
transfer mode; note how either DARTS# or DACLK can be used to
regulate the data flow.
The Audio Control Register determines whether the RC8660’s audio
will be delivered as an analog signal on the AO pins or as a serial
data stream on the DAOUT pin. See Table 20 for the definition of
each register bit. The default register setting is 0N (analog output).
In the synchronous mode, do not attempt to read the data at a rate
faster than 12 kbytes/sec (DACLK = 96 kHz). At clock rates above
this, the host should pause between reading each sample in order to
prevent the average transfer rate from exceeding 12 kbytes/sec.
In the digital audio modes, data is transferred from the DAOUT pin
in 8-bit linear, offset binary format (midscale = 80h). The DARTS#
pin can be used to regulate the flow of data — it must be Low for
transfers to begin. Once a transfer has begun, the current sample will
AM
TM
DPC
TF
TCP
BR
BR
BR
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
Audio Control Register Bit
Description
ACR.7 = AUDIO MODE (AM)
1 = Digital
0 = Analog
Set this bit to “0” to direct the audio stream to the AO pin (analog). Set the bit to “1” to
direct output to the DAOUT pin (digital). Default: “0.”
ACR.6 = TRANSFER MODE (TM)
1 = Synchronous
0 = Asynchronous
In the asynchronous transfer mode the data rate and timing are controlled by the internal bit rate generator (ACR.2 – 0). Data is output on the DAOUT pin and formatted as 1
start bit, 8 data bits (LSB first), and 1 stop bit.
In the synchronous transfer mode the data rate and timing are controlled by the host
with the DACLK pin. Data is output from the DAOUT pin as 8-bit data frames.
Default: “0.”
ACR.5 = DAOUT PIN CONTROL (DPC)
1 = Open-drain
0 = CMOS
Set this bit to “1” to configure the DAOUT pin as an open-drain output, or to “0” for a
CMOS output. The open-drain configuration should be used when wire-or’ing two or
more DAOUT pins together. Default: “0.”
ACR.4 = TRANSFER FORMAT (TF)
1 = MSB first
0 = LSB first
Set this bit to “1” to have the 8-bit data frames transmitted most-significant bit first,
or to “0” for least-significant bit first. Valid only in the synchronous transfer mode.
Default: “0.”
ACR.3 = TRANSFER CLOCK POLARITY (TCP)
1 = Rising edge
0 = Falling edge
Set this bit to “1” to clock data out of the DAOUT pin on the rising edge of the DACLK
pin, or to “0” to clock data on the falling edge. Valid only in the synchronous transfer
mode. Default: “0.”
ACR.2 – 0 = BIT RATE (BR)
000 = 2400
001 = 4800
010 = 9600
011 = 14400
100 = 19200
101 = 28800
110 = 57600
111 = 115200
These bits determine the bit rate used in the asynchronous transfer mode. Valid only in
the asynchronous transfer mode. Default: “000.”
NOTES:
1. ACR.6 – ACR.0 are valid only when ACR.7 = 1.
2. ACR.4 – ACR.3 are valid only when ACR.7 and ACR.6 = 1.
3. ACR.2 – ACR.0 are valid only when ACR.7 =1 and ACR.6 = 0.
Table 20. Audio Control Register
34
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!

 Figure 20. Synchronous Digital Audio Transfer Timing
will still be honored. The only way to restore command recognition
after the Zap command has been issued is to write CTRL+^ (1Eh) to
the RC8660 or perform a hardware reset.
Stop (CTRL+X), Skip (CTRL+Y)
The Stop command (18h) causes the RC8660 to stop whatever it
is doing and flushes the input buffer of all text and commands. The
Skip command (19h) skips to the next sentence in the buffer. See
note below.
Index Marker (nI)
Index markers are nonspeaking “bookmarks” that can be used to
keep track of where the RC8660 is reading within a passage of text.
The parameter n is any number between 0 and 255; thus, up to 256
unique markers may be active at any given time.
Suspend (CTRL+P), Resume (CTRL+R)
These commands (10h, 12h) provide the same functionality as the
SUSP0# pin, allowing TTS, playback, recording, and upload operations to be suspended and resumed via software control. Note that
the SUSP0# pin has priority over these commands; the Resume
command will be ignored if the SUSP0# pin is Low.
When the RC8660 has spoken the text up to a marker, it transmits
the marker number to the host via the TXD pin. Note that this value
is a binary number between 0 and 255, not a literal ASCII number
string as was used in the command to place the marker. This allows
the marker to be transmitted as a one-byte value.
NOTE The format of the Stop, Skip, Suspend and Resume commands is unique in that the command character (CTRL+A) is not
used with them. To be most effective, the states of the RC8660
handshaking signals should be ignored, which allows the RC8660
to react immediately even if its input buffer is full. These commands
cannot be used during real-time audio playback nor with the musical tone generator.
There is no limitation to how many index markers can be used in a
text string. The frequency depends on the resolution required by the
application. In Text mode, for example, one marker per sentence or
one marker per word would normally be used. In Phoneme mode,
markers can be placed before each phoneme to monitor phoneme
production, which is useful for synchronizing an animated mouth
with the voice. Markers may also be placed with tone generation and
recorded audio playback commands, if desired.
Reinitialize (@)
This command reinitializes the RC8660 by clearing the input buffer
and restoring the voice parameters and control registers to their default settings. The exception dictionary, recording memory, greeting
message, baud rate, nor TS pin control setting are affected.
Chipset Identification (6?)
This command returns RC8660 system information that is used
during factory testing. Eight bytes are transmitted via the TXD pin.
The only information that may be of relevance to an application is the
internal microcode revision number, which is conveyed in the last
two bytes in packed-BCD format. For example, 41h 02h is returned
if the version number is 2.41.
Zap Commands (Z)
This command prevents the RC8660 from honoring subsequent
commands, causing it to read commands as they are encountered
(useful in debugging). Any pending commands in the input buffer
35
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Interrogate (12?)
This command retrieves the current operating settings of the
RC8660. Table 21 lists the parameters in the order they are transmitted from the TXD pin, the command(s) that control each parameter,
and each parameter’s range. The parameters are organized as a byte
array of one byte per parameter, with the exception of the last two
parameters which are 16 bits each (low byte first).
Parameter
Mode
Cmd
C/D/T
PFR register
Formant freq
Pitch
Speed
Volume
Range
0=Char; 1=Phon; 2=Text
nB
nF
nP
nS
0-15
0-99
0-99
0-13
nV
0-9
Tone
Expression
Dict loaded
Dict status
Input buffer capacity
nX
nE
247W
C/T/U
–
0-2
0-9
0=not loaded; 1=loaded
0=disabled; 1=enabled
x256 bytes
Articulation
Reverb
TS pin control
POR register
ACR register
Rec memory capacity
Sleep delay
Timeout delay
Char mode delay
Text mode delay
Voice
ADR register
nA
nR
nK
nG
nN
–
nQ
nY
nC
nT
nO
n$
0-9
0-9
0-3
0-255
0-255
x64K bytes
0-31
0-15
0-31
0-15
0-10
0-255
Free recording memory
(16 bits) *
–
x256 bytes
# of files in recording
memory (16 bits)
–
0-65535
* Free recording memory will be reported as -1 if an RC8650 library is present, -2 if
the memory is corrupt. This number is the number of empty 256-byte blocks; there
can be up to 255 additional bytes available.
Table 21. Interrogate Command
36
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Command Summary
Command
Function
Greet & Dict 1
RT Execution 2
•
Articulation
•
nB
C/nC
D
E/nE
nF
nG
nH
nI
J
nJaaaabbbb
nK
Punctuation Filter Register
Character mode
Phoneme mode
Expression
Formant frequency
Protocol Options Register
Baud rate
Index marker
Musical tone generators
Sinusoidal tone generators
TS pin control
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
nLmmmmm
Record
nA
234Lmmmmm
245Lmmmmm
M
nN
nO
nP
nQ
nR
nS
T/nT
U
nV
214W
218W
223W
236W
247W
255W
nX
nY
Z
@
n*
n#/n%
n&
n$
n?
CTRL+P/R
CTRL+X/Y
•
•
•
•
Erase sound file
Upload sound file
Monotone
Audio Control Register
Voice
Pitch
Sleep timer
Reverb
Speed
Text mode/delay
Enable exception dictionary
Volume
Initialize recording memory
Repair recording memory
Download sound library
Download sound file
Download exception dictionary
Download greeting message
Tone
Timeout delay
Zap commands
Reinitialize
DTMF generator
Real-time PCM/ADPCM audio playback
Play sound file
ADC Control Register
Chipset ID/Interrogate
Suspend/Resume
Stop/Skip
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 These commands can be used in greeting messages and exception dictionaries.
2 These commands can be used in deferred and real-time execution modes, depending on the setting of the RTC bit.
Table 22. RC8660 Command Summary
37
•
•
•
•
n Range
n Default
0-9
5
0-15
0-31
–
0-9
0-99
0-255
0-11
0-255
–
1-59999
0-3
6
0
–
5
50
144
BRS pins
–
–
–
1
0-227
–
234
245
–
0-255
0-10
0-99
0-31
0-9
0-13
0-15
–
0-9
214
218
223
236
247
255
0-2
0-15
–
–
0-16
0-99
0-65534
0-255
6/12
–
–
–
–
–
0
0
50
0
0
5
0
–
5
–
–
–
–
–
–
1
0
–
–
–
–
–
128
–
–
–
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Exception Dictionaries
Symbol
Exception dictionaries make it possible to alter the way the RC8660
interprets character strings it receives. This is useful for correcting
mispronounced words, triggering the generation of tones and/or
the playback of prerecorded sounds, or even speaking in a foreign
language. In some cases, an exception dictionary may even negate
the need of a text pre-processor in applications that cannot provide
standard text strings. This section describes how to create exception
dictionaries for the RC8660.
The text-to-speech modes of the RC8660 utilize an English lexicon
and letter-to-sound rules to convert text it receives into speech. The
pronunciation rules determine which sounds, or phonemes, each
character will receive based on its relative position within each word.
The integrated DoubleTalk text-to-speech engine analyzes text by
applying these rules to each word or character, depending on the
operating mode in use. Exception dictionaries augment this process
by defining exceptions for (or even replacing) these built in rules.
#
A vowel: a, e, i, o, u, y
+
A front vowel: e, i, y
^
A consonant: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s,
t, v, w, x, z
*
One or more consonants
:
Zero or more consonants
?
A voiced consonant: b, d, g, j, l, m, n, r, v, w, z
@
One of: d, j, l, n, r, s, t, z, ch, sh, th
!
Exception dictionaries can be created and edited with a word processor or text editor that stores documents as standard text (ASCII)
files. The dictionary must be compiled into the internal binary format
used by the RC8660 before it can be used, however. The RCStudio
software, available from RC Systems, includes a dictionary editor
and compiler.
Exception Syntax
Exceptions have the general form
Definition
One of: b, c, d, f, g, p, t
%
A suffix: able(s), ably, e(s), ed(ly), er(s), ely,
eless, ement(s), eness, ing(s), ingly (must also
be followed by a non-alphabetic character)
&
A sibilant: c, g, j, s, x, z, ch, sh
$
A nonalphabetic character (number, space, etc.)
~
One or more non-printing characters (spaces,
controls, line breaks, etc.)
\
A digit: 0-9
|
One or more digits (commas are ignored)
`
Wildcard (matches any character)
Table 23. Context Tokens
L(F)R=P
which means “the text fragment F, occurring with left context L and
right context R, gets the pronunciation P.” All three parts of the exception to the left of the equality sign must be satisfied before the
text fragment will receive the pronunciation given by the right side
of the exception.
of speech, tones, and sound effects can be triggered from any input
text pattern. If no pronunciation is given, no sound will be given to
the text fragment; the text fragment will be silent.
A dictionary file may also contain comments, but they must be on
lines by themselves (i.e., they cannot be on the same line as an exception). Comment lines must begin with a semicolon character (;),
so the compiler will know to skip over them.
The text fragment defines the input characters that are to be translated by the exception, and may consist of any combination of
letters, numbers, and symbols. Empty (null) text fragments can be
used to generate sound based on a particular input pattern, without
actually translating any of the input text. The text fragment (if any)
must always be contained within parentheses.
An example of an exception is
C(O)N=AA
Characters to the left of the text fragment specify the left context
(what must come before the text fragment in the input string), and
characters to the right define the right context. Both contexts are optional, so an exception may contain neither, either, or both contexts.
There are also 15 special symbols, or context tokens, that can be
used in an exception’s context definitions (Table 23).
which states that o after c and before n gets the pronunciation AA,
the o-sound in cot. For example, the o in conference, economy, and
icon would be pronounced according to this exception.
Another example is
$R(H)=
Note that although context tokens are, by definition, valid only for
the left and right context definitions, the wildcard token may also be
used within text fragments. Any other context token appearing within
a text fragment will be treated as a literal character.
which states that h after initial r is silent, as in the word rhyme (the
$ context token represents any non-alphabetic character, such as a
space between words; see Table 23).
The right side of an exception (P) specifies the pronunciation that
the text fragment is to receive, which may consist of any combination of phonemes (Table 6), phoneme attribute modifiers (Table 7),
and commands (Table 22). Using the tone generator and prerecorded audio playback commands, virtually limitless combinations
Punctuation, numbers, and most other characters can be redefined
with exceptions as well:
(5)=S I NG K O
(CHR$)=K EH R IX K T ER
38
(Spanish five)
(Basic function)
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
The Translation Algorithm
This is an example of how not to organize a dictionary. The exception (RATING) will never be used because (RAT) will always match
first. According to these exceptions, the word rating would be pronounced “rat-ing.”
Algorithms within the DoubleTalk engine analyze input text a character at a time, from left to right. A list of pronunciation rules is
searched sequentially for each character until a rule is found that
matches the character in the correct position and context. The algorithm then passes over the input character(s) bracketed in the rule
(the text fragment) and assigns the pronunciation given by the right
side of the rule to them. This process continues until all of the input
text has been converted to phonetic sounds.
It can be beneficial to group exceptions by the first character of the
text fragments, that is, all of the A exceptions in one group, all the
B exceptions in a second group, and so on. This gives an overall
cleaner appearance, and can prove to be helpful if the need arises to
troubleshoot any problems in your dictionary.
In order to better understand how an exception dictionary works, it
is helpful to understand how the DoubleTalk text-to-speech engine
processes text.
Text Not Matched by the Dictionary
It is possible that some input text may not match anything in the
dictionary, depending on the nature of the dictionary. For example,
if a dictionary was written to handle unusual words, only those
words would be included in the dictionary. On the other hand, if a
dictionary defined the pronunciation for another language, it would
be comprehensive enough to handle all types of input. In any case,
if an exception is not found for a particular character, the English
pronunciation will be given to that character according to the built
in pronunciation rules.
The following example illustrates how the algorithm works by translating the word receive.
The algorithm begins with the letter r and searches the R pronunciation rules for a match. The first rule that matches is $(RE)^#=R
IX, because the r in receive is an initial r and is followed by an e, a
consonant (c), and a vowel (e). Consequently, the text fragment re
receives the pronunciation R IH, and the scan moves past re to the
next character: receive. (E is not the next scan character because it
occurred inside the parentheses with the r; the text fragment re as a
whole receives the pronunciation R IX)
Generally, the automatic switchover to the built in rules is desirable
if the dictionary is used to correct mispronounced words, since by
definition the dictionary is defining exceptions to the built in rules. If
the automatic switchover is not desired, however, there are two ways
to prevent it from occurring. One way is to end each group of exceptions with an unconditional exception that matches any context. For
example, to ensure that the letter “a” will always be matched, end
the A exception group with the exception (A)=pronunciation. This
technique works well to ensure matches for specific characters,
such as certain letters or numbers.
The first match among the C rules is (C)+=S, because c is followed
by an e, i, or y. C thus receives the pronunciation S, and processing
continues with the second e: receive.
(EI)=IY is the first rule to match the second e, so ei receives the
sound IY. Processing resumes at the character receive, which
matches the default V rule, (V)=V.
The final e matches the rule #:(E)$=, which applies when e is final
and follows zero or more consonants and a vowel. Consequently,
e receives no sound and processing continues with the following
word or punctuation, if any. Thus, the entire phoneme string for the
word receive is R IX S IY V.
If the exception dictionary is to replace the built in rules entirely, end
the dictionary with the following exception:
()=
This special exception causes unmatched characters to be ignored
(receive no sound), rather than receive the pronunciation defined
by the built in rules.
Rule Precedence
Since DoubleTalk uses its translation rules in a sequential manner,
the position of each exception relative to the others must be carefully
considered. For example, consider the following pair of exceptions:
Effect on Punctuation
Punctuation defined in the exception dictionary has priority over
the Punctuation Filter command. Any punctuation defined in the
dictionary will be used, regardless of the Punctuation Filter setting.
(O)+=OW
(O)=UW
The first exception states that o followed by e, i, or y is to be pronounced OW, the o-sound in boat. The second exception does not
place any restriction on what must come before or after o, so o in
any context will receive the UW pronunciation. If the exceptions were
reversed, the (O)+ exception would never be reached because the
(O) exception will always match o in any context. In general, tightlydefined exceptions (those containing many context restrictions)
should precede loosely-defined exceptions (those with little or no
context definitions).
Note If the dollar sign character ($) is defined within the text fragment of any exception, currency strings will not be read as dollars
and cents.
Character Mode Exceptions
Exceptions are defined independently for the Character and Text
modes of operation. The beginning of the Character mode exceptions is defined by inserting the letter C just before the first Character
mode exception. No exceptions prior to this marker will be used
when the RC8660 is in Character mode, nor will any exceptions past
the marker be used in Text mode. For example:
(RAT)=R AE T
(RATING)=R EY T IH NG
(R)=R
39
RC8660
RC Systems
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.
.
()=
(Text mode exceptions)
C
.
.
.
()=
(Character mode exceptions marker)
String parsing & decryption
Sometimes the data that we would like to have read is not available
in a “ready-to-read” format. For example, the output of a GPS receiver may look something like this:
(optional; used if built in rules are not to be used
in no-match situations)
$GPGGA,123456,2015.2607,N,...
The first 14 characters of the string consists of a fixed header and
variable time data, which we would like to discard. The following
exception ensures that the header will not be read:
(Character mode exceptions)
(optional; used if built in rules are not to be used
in no-match situations)
($GPGGA,``````,)=
Note how wildcard tokens are used for handling the time data
(8th – 13th characters), since the content of this field is variable.
Applications
The 15th – 16th (20) and 17th – 18th (15) characters represent the
latitudinal coordinate in degrees and minutes, respectively. The
three exceptions shown below handle the latitudinal component of
the GPS string. Note in the first exception how a null text fragment
is used in the appropriate position to generate the word “degrees,”
without actually translating any of the input characters.
The following examples illustrate some ways in which the exception
dictionary can be used.
Correcting mispronounced words
Correcting mispronounced words is the most common application
for exception dictionaries.
,\\()\\.=D IX G R IY Z , ,
(.)=M IH N IH T S , ,
(,N,)=N OW R TH
L AE T IH T UW D
S(EAR)CH=ER
$(OK)$=OW K EY
The first exception corrects the pronunciation of all words containing search (search, searched, research, etc.). As this exception illustrates, it is only necessary to define the problem word in its root
form, and only the part of the word that is mispronounced (ear, in
this case). The second exception corrects the word ok, but because
of the left and right contexts, will not cause other words (joke, look,
etc.) to be incorrectly translated.
The four exceptions together will translate the example string as
“20 degrees, 15 minutes, north latitude.” (Additional exceptions for
handling the seconds component, and digits themselves, are not
shown for clarity).
Heteronyms
Heteronyms are words that have similar spellings but are pronounced differently, depending on the context, such as read (“reed”
and “red”) and wind (“the wind blew” and “wind the clock”). Exceptions can be used to fix up these ambiguities, by including nonprinting (Control) characters in the text fragment of the exception.
No cussing, please
The reading of specific characters or words can be suppressed by
writing exceptions in which an alternate pronunciation is given.
(????)=
(????)=\015i \0130j10000000
Suppose a line of text required the word “close” to be pronounced
as it is in “a close call,” instead of as in “close the window.” The
following exception changes the way the s will sound:
The first example simply says nothing when the defined word is
encountered. A short 1 kHz tone is played in place of the word in
the second example, and the application is notified by transmitting
05h on the TXD pin. Exceptions such as these may be duplicated
for any number of words.
(\04CLOSE)=K L OW S
Note the CTRL+D character (\04) in the text fragment. CTRL+D is
a non-printing character, but the translation algorithms treat it as
they would any printing character. Thus, the string “\04close” will
be pronounced with the s receiving the “s” sound. “Close” without
the CTRL+D will be unaffected — the s will still receive the “z”
sound. It does not matter where you place the Control character in
the word, as long as you use it the same way in your application’s
text. You may use any non-printing character (except LF and CR)
in this manner.
When zero isn’t really zero
When reading addresses or lists of numbers, the word “oh” is often
substituted for the digit 0. For example, we might say 1020 North
Eastlake as “one oh two oh North Eastlake.” The digit 0 can be redefined in this manner with the following exception:
(0)=OW
Non-English languages
Acronyms and abbreviations
Dictionaries can be created that enable the RC8660 to speak in languages other than English. It’s not as difficult as it may seem — in
most cases all that is required is a pronunciation guide and a bit of
patience. If you don’t have a pronunciation guide for the language
you’re interested in, check your local library. Most libraries have
dictionaries for other languages that include pronunciation guides,
Acronyms and abbreviations can be defined so the words they represent will be spoken.
$(KW)$=K IH L AH W AA T
$(DR)$=D AA K T ER
$(TV)$=T EH L AX V IH ZH IX N
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RC8660
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be generated by the four control bits. Message strings would then
be assigned to each of these ASCII characters. For example, the
character “0” (corresponding to all four control bits = 0) would say,
“please insert quarter,” with the following dictionary entry:
which make it easy to transcribe the pronunciation rules into exception form. A good example of an exception dictionary for the Spanish language is included with RCStudio.
Language translation
Exception dictionaries even allow text written in one language to be
read by the RC8660 in yet another language, as long as the vocabulary is limited. The following exceptions demonstrate how this can
be done with three example Spanish/English words.
(0)=P L IY Z
IH N S ER T
K W OW R T ER
The Timeout timer should also be activated (1Y, for example) in
order for the “message” to be executed. Otherwise, the RC8660 will
wait indefinitely for a CR/NUL character that will never come. The
timer command can be included in the greeting message so that it
will be automatically executed after reset.
(GRANDE)=L AA R J
(BIEN)=F AY N
(USTED)=YY UW
Tips
The sense of translation can also be reversed:
Make sure that your exceptions aren’t so broad in nature that they do
more harm than good. Exceptions intended to fix broad classes of
words, such as word endings, are particularly notorious for ruining
otherwise correctly pronounced words.
(LARGE)=G RR A N D EI
(FINE)=B I EI N
(YOU)=U S T EI DH
Take care in how your exceptions are organized. Remember, an
exception’s position relative to others is just as important as the
content of the exception itself.
Play recordings from text
The playback of any recording stored in recording memory can be
triggered by text strings defined in the dictionary. Say for example
the words “good” and “morning” have been recorded and are accessed by indexes 3 and 7, respectively. The following exceptions
will cause the RC8660 to play “good morning” from the recording
memory when the text “good morning” is received.
Additional information and examples are included with RCStudio
and RCStudio’s online help.
If things don’t work as expected
On rare occasions, an exception may not work as expected. This
can occur when the built in pronunciation rules get control before
the exception does. The following example illustrates how this can
happen.
(GOOD)=\013&
(MORNING)=\017&
Because the recordings can be created from virtually any source, it
is easy to change the content, gender, language, etc. If the application’s vocabulary is limited and pre-defined, a sort of “pseudo-TTS”
system can be created using this method, concatenating words as
required to make complete sentences.
Suppose an exception redefined the o in the word “process” to
have the long “oh” sound, the way it is pronounced in many parts
of Canada. Since the word is otherwise pronounced correctly, the
exception redefines only the “o:”
Message macros
PR(O)CESS=OW
Certain applications may not be able to send text strings to the
RC8660. An example of such an application is one that is only able
to output a four bit control word and strobe. Sixteen unique output
combinations are possible, but this is scarcely enough to represent
the entire ASCII character set.
But to our dismay, the RC8660 simply refuses to take on the new
Canadian accent.
It so happens that the RC8660 has a built in rule which looks something like this:
You can, however, assign an entire spoken phrase to a single ASCII
character with the exception dictionary. By driving four of the data
bus lines of the bus interface (see Figure 6) and hardwiring the remaining four to the appropriate logic levels, virtually any set of 16
ASCII characters can be generated, which in turn can be interpreted
by the exception dictionary.
$(PRO)=P R AA
This rule translates a group of three characters, instead of only one
as most of the built in rules do. Because the text fragment PRO is
translated as a group, the o is processed along with the initial “pr,”
and consequently the exception never gets a shot at the o.
For example, by connecting the four control bits to DB0 through
DB3, DB4 and DB5 to VCC, DB6 and DB7 to ground and the strobe
to WR#, ASCII codes 30h through 3Fh (corresponding to the digits
“0” through “9” and the six ASCII characters following them) can
If you suspect this may be happening with one of your exceptions,
include more of the left-hand side of the word in the text fragment
(in the example above, (PRO)CESS=P R OW would work).
41
RC8660
RC Systems
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Package Information
100 Pin Plastic 14 x 20 mm QFP (measured in millimeters)
SEATING
PLANE
22.5
23.1
19.8
20.2
80
51
50
81
16.5
17.1
0.25
0.40
13.8
14.2
100
31
0.65
1
30
3.05
MAX
0.13
0.20
DETAIL A
0.00
0.20
0°
10°
SEE DETAIL A
0.40
0.80
RECOMMENDED PCB LAYOUT
0.65
14.6
0.40
1.8
20.5
42
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
100 Pin Plastic 14 x 14 mm LQFP (measured in millimeters)
SEATING
PLANE
15.8
16.2
13.9
14.1
75
51
0.15
0.25
50
76
15.8
16.2
13.9
14.1
100
26
0.50
1
25
1.70
MAX
0.09
0.20
DETAIL A
0.05
0.15
0.35
0.65
SEE DETAIL A
RECOMMENDED PCB LAYOUT
0.50
14.0
0.30
1.3
14.0
43
0°
8°
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
48 Pin Plastic 12 x 20 mm TSOP (measured in millimeters)
SEATING
PLANE
19.8
20.2
18.3
18.5
0.05
0.20
0.50
1
48
0.15
0.25
11.9
12.1
24
25
1.20
MAX
DETAIL A
0.12
0.18
SEE DETAIL A
0.40
0.60
0.80
RECOMMENDED PCB LAYOUT
0.50
0.30
1.5
18.1
44
RC8660
RC Systems
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now you’re talking!
RC8660 Evaluation Kit
Evaluation Kit Contents
The following components are included in the Double­Talk RC8660
Evaluation Kit:
The RC8660 Evaluation Kit comes with everything required to
evaluate and develop applications for the RC8660 chipset using a
Windows-based PC. The included RCStudio™ software provides
an integrated development environment with the following features:
•Printed circuit board containing the RC8660F1C chipset
•AC power supply
•Speaker
•Serial cable
•RCStudio™ development software CD
•Read any text, either typed or from a file
•Easy access to the various RC8660 voice controls
•Manage collections of sound files and store them in the RC8660
•Exception dictionary editor/compiler, and much more...
The evaluation board can also be used in stand-alone environments
by simply printing the desired text and commands to it via the onboard RS-232 serial or parallel ports.
Eval Board Outline
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45
RC8660
RC Systems
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Connector Pin Assignments & Schematics
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
AO0
9
AS0
1
NC
6
DSR
2
AO1
10
AS1
2
RXD
7
RTS
3
SP+0
11
SUSP0#
3
TXD
8
CTS
4
SP+1
12
SUSP1#
4
NC
9
NC
5
SP–0
13
DAOUT
5
GND
–
–
6
SP–1
14
DARTS#
7
TS0
15
DACLK
8
TS1
16
GND
Table 27. P101 Pin Assignments (RS-232 Serial Interface)
Table 24. P1 Pin Assignments (Audio Output & Control)
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
AN0
6
GND
2
GND
7
AN3
3
AN1
8
GND
4
GND
9
ADTRG
5
AN2
10
GND
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
GND
3
TXD
2
CTS#
4
RXD
Note: JP5-JP7 must be open in order to use the TTL interface
Table 28. P102 Pin Assignments (TTL Serial Interface)
Table 25. P2 Pin Assignments (A/D Converter)
Pin No.
Pin Name
Pin No.
Pin Name
1
STB#
14
GND
2
AFD#
15
DATA6
3
DATA0
16
GND
JP4
JP3
JP2
JP1
Baud Rate
4
ERROR#
17
DATA7
X
X
X
X
300
5
DATA1
18
GND
X
X
X
600
6
INIT#
19
ACK#
X
X
X
1200
7
DATA2
20
GND
2400
8
SLCTIN#
21
BUSY
4800
9
DATA3
22
GND
9600
10
GND
23
PE
19200
11
DATA4
24
GND
Auto-detect
12
GND
25
SLCT
X
38400
13
DATA5
26
RD#
57600
Table 29. P103 Pin Assignments (Printer/Bus Interface)
X
115200
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
Auto-detect
X
X
X
Auto-detect
Auto-detect
X
Auto-detect
Auto-detect (default)
Table 26. JP1-JP4 Jumper Assignments (Baud Rate)
46
47
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RC Systems
RC8660
voice synthesizer





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RC Systems
RC8660
voice synthesizer
49
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now you’re talking!
RC Systems
RC8660
voice synthesizer
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now you’re talking!
RC Systems
RC8660
voice synthesizer
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Appendix A: RC8660/RC8650 Product Comparison
Item
I/O Pins
RC8660
RC8650
Pin 11 BRS3: Fourth baud rate select pin
NC: No connection
Pin 38 CTS#: Goes High only when there is data in the
internal serial port overrun buffer
CTS#: Pulses High after each byte received
Pin 19 IC33: Chipset interconnect
NC: No connection
Pins 10, 89 – 92 SEL pins fully support multi-channel
applications
Memory
Input buffer 8 KB
2 KB
Greeting message Downloading of Greeting message does not affect exception dictionary
Recording memory 2 – 33 minutes recording time
Commands†
SEL pins not supported (connect to Low level)
Downloading of Greeting message erases exception dictionary (dictionary must be reloaded)
0 – 15 minutes recording time
Internal file system allows individual sound files
to be added and deleted in the field
No internal file system (entire sound library must
be re-downloaded for changes to take effect)
Record voice and analog data via ADC input
pins; play back and/or upload recordings via
serial port
Not supported
Download 247W
Dictionary
L (247W also supported in newer versions of the
firmware)
Formant Freq 0 – 99F (50F)
0 – 9F (5F)
Speed 0 – 13S (5S)
0 – 9S (1S)
Voice 0 – 11O (0O)
0 – 7O (0O)
Index Marker 0 – 255I
0 – 99I
Interrogate (12?) Returns same information as RC8650, plus
free space available and # of files in recording
memory
Execution timing Deferred or real-time, depending on POR.2
setting
Sinusoidal tone 0 – 4400 Hz frequency range; 10 ms – 600 sec
generator duration range; simplified command syntax
Suspend/Resume SUSP0# pin or by Suspend/Resume commands
Data File
Compatibility
Deferred only
0 – 2746 Hz frequency range; 23 ms – 16.5 sec
duration range
SUSP0# pin only
Greeting messages Compatible with RC8650 greeting files
Dictionaries Compatible with RC8650 dictionary files
Sound libraries Compatible with RC8650 and RC8660 library
files, but internal RC8660 file system is compatible only with RC8660 libraries
Sound files Can play both RC8650 and RC8660 sound files
in real-time playback mode, but POR.4 must
be set to “0” to play RC8650 ADPCM-encoded
files. Internal RC8660 file system is compatible
only with RC8660 sound files.
† In RC8650 Compatibility mode (POR.4 = “0”), the RC8660 uses the RC8650 command ranges and defaults.
51
Compatible with RC8650 library files only; individual sound file changes can be done only by
downloading the new library file in its entirety
Compatible with RC8650 sound files only
RC8660
RC Systems
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Appendix B: Restore Mode
The RC8660 has a special “Restore” mode1 which supports the
following functions:
Clearing the dictionary and greeting message
Use this procedure in the unlikely event that a dictionary or greeting
message you downloaded rendered the RC8660 inoperable.
•Restoration of the internal system software (firmware)
•Clearing the exception dictionary and greeting message
•Quick verification of the RC8660’s operation
1) While in Restore mode, set the STBY# pin Low and continue
holding it Low until a beep is heard from the speaker or headphones (approximately 3 seconds).
How to enter Restore mode
To enter Restore mode, perform the following steps. The procedure
is easiest to accomplish if pushbutton switches are connected to
the RESET# and STBY# pins, similar to that found on the RC8660
evaluation board.
2) Set STBY# High; you should hear the firmware version read
through the speaker or headphones. The dictionary and greeting
message are now cleared from memory.
1) Hold the RESET# and STBY# pins Low. If power is not yet applied and reset is generated automatically at power-up, only
STBY# needs to be held Low.
This procedure does not alter the RC8660 in any way; it simply allows you to determine if the RC8660 and audio amplifier circuitry
are working. If everything is functioning properly, you should hear
the RC8660 firmware version read from the speaker or headphones.
Verifying the RC8660’s operation
2) Set RESET# High (or simply apply power), while continuing
to hold the STBY# pin Low. After a minimum of 0.5 sec has
elapsed, set the STBY# pin High. One beep should be heard
from the speaker or headphones, indicating that the RC8660 is
in Restore mode.
1) While in Restore mode, set the STBY# pin Low momentarily,
then High again. Do not hold it Low too long, or the dictionary
and greeting message will be cleared from memory.
Restoring the RC8660’s firmware
1
Prior to version 3.30 of the RC8660 firmware, Restore mode
functioned quite differently. The firmware restoration process is the
same, but that’s where the similarity ends. To clear the dictionary and
greeting message, make sure that the RC8660 is in Idle mode, then
drive the STBY# pin Low for less than 250 ms. The dictionary and
greeting message will be immediately cleared, and the RC8660 will
announce the firmware version. The firmware version can also be
read programmatically with the Chipset ID (6?) command.
RC8660 firmware updates can be performed with RCLink, an application included with the RCStudio software. If an update failed
for one reason or another, the RC8660 may have been left in a
non-functional state. In such a case, use RCLink to download the
firmware while the RC8660 is in Restore mode. Make sure to set the
baud rate in RCLink to 9600, because the RC8660 only operates
at 9600 baud while in Restore mode, regardless of the state of the
BRS pins. Please contact RC Systems support to obtain the latest
firmware image file.
52
RC8660
RC Systems
voice synthesizer
now you’re talking!
Appendix C: Revision History
Revision 01 (March 23, 2006)
Revision 04 (January 21, 2009)
Updated to reflect new 33-minute part offering and newly-defined
IC33 pin. New functionality/commands added.
Updated to reflect changes to the Upload Sound File command and
how recordings terminate.
Specifications
Specifications
Added RC86L60F4I/G4I to product offerings.
Updated description of SUSP# pins in Table 1 to include Upload
Sound File activity.
Added 100-lead 14 x 14 mm LQFP package.
RC8660 Commands (Firmware v3.32)
Added –40 °C to + 85 °C industrial operating temperature range.
Updated Upload Sound File command description. The Suspend
command and SUSP0# pin can now be used to suspend a file’s
transfer. The resulting file now includes a header which allows
the file to be downloaded to another RC8660 with the Download
Sound File command, or played with the Real-Time Audio Playback
command.
Ordering Information
Revised part number system to include new LQFP package option, industrial temperature range option, and 33-minute recording
memory capacity option.
RC8660 Commands (Firmware v3.20)
Updated Making a Recording section. The RC8660 now transmits
the recording’s file number after the recording is completed.
Added “Execution Timing” section; updated for new real-time command execution mode.
Updated Table 19 (Protocol Options Register) to include RTC bit.
Revision 05 (March 18, 2009)
Added Suspend and Resume command descriptions.
Updated recording and real-time audio playback sections.
Changed “Rec memory capacity” in Table 21 (Interrogate command), from 16K blocks to 64K blocks.
Recording & Playback
Added Repair Recording Memory command.
Updated Table 22.
Updated Table 11 to include new memory status codes.
Package Information
Updated Real-Time Audio Playback section.
Added 100-lead 14 x 14 mm LQFP package.
Miscellaneous Functions
Added error codes to “Free recording memory” in Table 21 (Interrogate command).
Revision 02 (April 18, 2007)
Updated for new RC8660 die.
Specifications
Revision 06 (MaY 22, 2009)
Changed ICC supply current spec in DC Characteristics. Active current has been reduced by approximately 40%.
Rearranged several sections and updated TOC.
Ordering Information
Several part numbers previously available only in commercial grade
have been replaced with industrial grade parts.
Revision 03 (June 27, 2008)
Updated to reflect new Restore mode. Added Appendix B.
Specifications
Updated STBY# pin description in Table 1.
Ordering Information
Further clarification of the differences between the RC8660FP and
RC8660GP.
53
Specifications written in this publication are believed to be accurate, but are not guaranteed to be entirely free of error. RC Systems reserves the right to make
changes in the devices or the device specifications described in this publication without notice. RC Systems advises its customers to obtain the latest version
of device specifications to verify, before placing orders, that the information being relied upon by the customer is current.
In the absence of written agreement to the contrary, RC Systems assumes no liability relating to the sale and/or use of RC Systems products including fitness
for a particular purpose, merchantability, for RC Systems applications assistance, customer’s product design, or infringement of patents or copyrights of third
parties by or arising from use of devices described herein. Nor does RC Systems warrant or represent that any license, either express or implied, is granted
under any patent right, copyright, or other intellectual property right of RC Systems covering or relating to any combination, machine, or process in which such
devices might be or are used. RC Systems products are not intended for use in medical, life saving, or life sustaining applications.
Applications described in this publication are for illustrative purposes only, and RC Systems makes no warranties or representations that the devices described
herein will be suitable for such applications.
1609 England Avenue, Everett, WA 98203
Phone: (425) 355-3800 Fax: (425) 355-1098
www.rcsys.com
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