Enterasys ANG-3000 User`s guide

Enterasys ANG-3000 User`s guide
X-Pedition™ Security Router
XSR-1805
User’s Guide
Version 5.0
9033723-07
ELECTRICAL WARNING: Only qualified personnel should perform installation procedures.
Notice
Enterasys Networks reserves the right to make changes in specifications and other information contained in this
document and its Web site without prior notice. The reader should in all cases consult Enterasys Networks to
determine whether any such changes have been made.
The hardware, firmware, or software described in this document is subject to change without notice.
IN NO EVENT SHALL ENTERASYS NETWORKS BE LIABLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO LOST PROFITS) ARISING
OUT OF OR RELATED TO THIS DOCUMENT, WEB SITE, OR THE INFORMATION CONTAINED IN THEM, EVEN
IF ENTERASYS NETWORKS HAS BEEN ADVISED OF, KNEW OF, OR SHOULD HAVE KNOWN OF, THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
Enterasys Networks, Inc.
50 Minuteman Road
Andover, MA 01810
 2003 Enterasys Networks, Inc.
All Rights Reserved
Printed in the United States of America
Part Number: 9033723-07 May 2003
ENTERASYS NETWORKS, ENTERASYS XSR and any logos associated therewith, are trademarks or registered
trademarks of Enterasys Networks, Inc. in the United States and other coutries. All other product names mentioned in
this manual may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.
XSR Documentation URL: http://www.enterasys.com/support/manuals
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Notice
The XSR complies with Title 47, Part 15, Class A of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
• This device may not cause harmful interference.
• This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
NOTE: The XSR has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a class A digital device, pursuant to Part 15 of
the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference when the XSR
is operated in a commercial environment. The XSR uses, generates, and can radiate radio frequency energy and if
not installed in accordance with the operator’s manual, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
Operation of the XSR in a residential area is likely to cause interference in which case you will be required to correct
the interference at your own expense.
WARNING: Modifications or changes made to the XSR, and not approved by Enterasys Networks may void the
authority granted by the FCC or other such agency to operate the XSR.
The XSR complies with Part 68 of the FCC rules and the requirements adopted by the Administrative Council for
Terminal Attachments (ACTA). A label on the circuit board of the Network Interface Module contains, among other
information, a product identifier in the format listed in the following table. If requested, this number must be provided to
the telephone company.
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XSR User’s Guide
Product
Product Identifier
NIM-T1/E1-xx, NIM-CT1E1/PRI-xx
US: 5N5DENANET1
NIM-BRI-U-xx
US: 5N5DENANEBU
A plug and jack used to connect the XSR to the premises wiring and telephone network must comply with the
applicable FCC Part 68 rules and requirements adopted by ACTA. Refer to the following table and installation
instructions for details.
Product
Jack Used
NIM-T1/E1-xx, NIM-CT1E1/PRI-xx
RJ48C
NIM-BRI-U-xx
RJ49C
Codes applicable to this XSR:
Product
Facilities Interface Code (FIC)
Service Order Code (SOC)
NIM-T1/E1-xx, NIM-CT1E1/PRI-xx
04DU9.BN, 04DU9.DN,
04DU9.1KN, 04DU9.1SN
6.0N
NIM-BRI-U-xx
02IS5
6.0N
If the XSR harms the telephone network, the telephone company will notify you in advance that it may need to
temporarily discontinue service. But if advance notice is not practical, the telephone company will notify you as soon
as possible. Also, you will be advised of your right to file a complaint with the FCC if you believe it is necessary.
The telephone company may make changes in its facilities, equipment, operations, or procedures that could affect the
operation of the XSR. If this happens, the telephone company will provide advance notice for you to make necessary
modifications and maintain uninterrupted service.
If you experience trouble with the XSR, for repair or warranty information, please contact Enterasys Networks, Inc., at
978 684-1000. If the XSR is causing harm to the telephone network, the telephone company may request that you
disconnect the XSR until the problem is solved. The XSR is not intended to be repaired by the customer.
Independent Communications Authority of South Africa
The XSR complies with the terms of the provisions of section 54(1) of the Telecommunications Act (Act 103 of 1996)
and the Telecommunications Regulation prescribed under the Post Office Act (Act 44 of 1958).
SS/366.01
TE-2002/190
APPROVED
APPROVED
TE-2002/195
APPROVED
XSR User’s Guide
iii
Industry Canada Notices
This digital apparatus does not exceed the class A limits for radio noise emissions from digital apparatus set out in the
Radio Interference Regulations of the Canadian Department of Communications.
Le présent appareil numérique n’émet pas de bruits radioélectriques dépassant les limites applicables aux appareils
numériques de la class A prescrites dans le Règlement sur le brouillage radioélectrique édicté par le ministère des
Communications du Canada.
EQUIPMENT ATTACHMENTS LIMITATIONS
“NOTICE: The Industry Canada label identifies certified equipment. This certification means that the XSR meets
telecommunications network protective, operational and safety requirements as prescribed in the appropriate Terminal
Equipment Technical Requirements document(s). The department does not guarantee the XSR will operate to your
satisfaction.
Before installing the XSR, you should ensure that it is permissible to be connected to the facilities of the local
telecommunications company. The XSR must also be installed using an acceptable method of connection. You should
be aware that compliance with the above conditions may not prevent degradation of service in some situations.
Repairs to certified equipment should be coordinated by a representative designated by the supplier. Any repairs or
alterations made by you to the XSR, or equipment malfunctions, may give the telecommunications company cause to
request you to disconnect the XSR.
You should ensure for your own protection that the electrical ground connections of the power utility, telephone lines
and internal metallic water pipe system, if present, are connected together. This precaution may be particularly
important in rural areas. Caution: You should not attempt to make such connections themselves, but should contact
the appropriate electric inspection authority, or electrician, as appropriate."
“NOTICE: The Ringer Equivalence Number (REN) assigned to each terminal device provides an indication of the
maximum number of terminals allowed to be connected to a telephone interface. The termination on an interface may
consist of any combination of devices subject only to the requirement that the sum of the ringer equivalence Numbers
of all the devices does not exceed 5."
Regulatory Compliance Information
Hereby, Enterasys Networks, Inc. declares that this XSR-1805 is compliant with essential requirements and other
relevant provisions of Directive 1999/5/EC.
Product Safety
The XSR complies with the following: UL
1950, CSA c22.2 No.950, 73/23/EEC, EN 60950, and IEC 950.
Use the XSR with the Advanced Power Solutions (APS61ES-30) power supply included with the branch router.
Enterasys Networks strongly recommends that you use only the proper type of power supply cord set for the XSR. It
should be a detachable type, UL listed/CSA certified, type SJ or SJT, rated 250 V minimum, 7 amp with groundingtype attachment plug. Maximum length is 15 feet (4.5 meters). The cord set should have the appropriate safety
approval for the country in which the XSR will be installed.
Class A ITE Notice
WARNING: This is a class A product. In a domestic environment this product may cause radio interference in which
case you may be required to take adequate measures.
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XSR User’s Guide
VCCI Notice
This is a class A product based on the standard of the Voluntary Control Council for Interference by Information
Technology Equipment (VCCI) V-3. If the XSR is used in a domestic environment, radio disturbance may arise. When
such trouble occurs, you may be required to take corrective actions.
VPN Consortium Interoperability
The VPN Consortium's (VPNC) testing program is an important source for certification of conformance to IPSec
standards. With rigorous interoperability testing, the VPNC logo program provides IPSec users even more assurance
that the XSR will interoperate in typical business environments. VPNC is the only major IPSec testing organization
that shows both proof of interoperability as well as the steps taken so that you can reproduce the tests.
BSMI (EMC) Statement - Taiwan
This is a Class A product. In a domestic environment it may cause radio interference in which case you may be
required to take adequate measures.
Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)
This product complies with the following: FCC Part 15 Class A; CSA C108.8, 89/336/EEC, EN 55022, EN 61000-3-2;
EN 61000-3-3; EN 55024; AS/NZS 3548, and VCCI V-3
XSR User’s Guide
v
Australian Telecom
N826
WARNING: Do not install phone line connections during an electrical storm.
WARNING: Do not connect phone line until the interface has been configured through local management. The service
provider may shut off service if an un-configured interface is connected to the phone lines.
WARNING: The NIM-BRI-ST cannot be connected directly to outside lines. An approved channel service unit (CSU)
must be used for connection to the ISDN network. In some areas this CSU is supplied by the network provider and in
others it must be supplied by you. Contact your service provider for details.
Enterasys Networks, Inc.
PROGRAM LICENSE AGREEMENT
BEFORE OPENING OR UTILIZING THE ENCLOSED PRODUCT,
CAREFULLY READ THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT.
This document is an agreement (“Agreement”) between the end user (“You”) and Enterasys Networks, Inc. on behalf
of itself and its Affiliates (as hereinafter defined) (“Enterasys”) that sets forth Your rights and obligations with respect to
the Enterasys software program (including any accompanying documentation, hardware or media) (“Program”) in the
package and prevails over any additional, conflicting or inconsistent terms and conditions appearing on any purchase
order or other document submitted by You. “Affiliate” means any person, partnership, corporation, limited liability
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controlled by, or is under common control with the party specified. This Agreement constitutes the entire
understanding between the parties, and supersedes all prior discussions, representations, understandings or
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BY INSTALLING OR OTHERWISE USING THE PROGRAM, YOU REPRESENT THAT YOU ARE AUTHORIZED TO
ACCEPT THESE TERMS ON BEHALF OF THE END USER (IF THE END USER IS AN ENTITY ON WHOSE
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ENTITY) AND THAT YOU AGREE THAT YOU ARE BOUND BY THE TERMS OF THIS AGREEMENT, WHICH
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IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS ABOUT THIS AGREEMENT, CONTACT ENTERASYS NETWORKS, LEGAL
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Program provided in this package subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement.
2) RESTRICTIONS. Except as otherwise authorized in writing by Enterasys, You may not, nor may You permit
any third party to:
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XSR User’s Guide
(i) Reverse engineer, decompile, disassemble or modify the Program, in whole or in part, including for
reasons of error correction or interoperability, except to the extent expressly permitted by applicable law and
to the extent the parties shall not be permitted by that applicable law, such rights are expressly excluded.
Information necessary to achieve interoperability or correct errors is available from Enterasys upon request
and upon payment of Enterasys’ applicable fee.
(ii) Incorporate the Program, in whole or in part, in any other product or create derivative works based on the
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transfer the Program, in whole or in part, except for a sale or other transfer of the hardware in which the
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(v) Remove any copyright, trademark, proprietary rights, disclaimer or warning notice included on or
embedded in any part of the Program.
3) APPLICABLE LAW. This Agreement shall be interpreted and governed under the laws and in the state and
federal courts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts without regard to its conflicts of laws provisions. You
accept the personal jurisdiction and venue of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts courts. None of the 1980
United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, the United Nations Convention on
the Limitation Period in the International Sale of Goods, and the Uniform Computer Information Transactions Act
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of certain technical products to certain countries, unless a license to export the Program is obtained from the U.S.
Government or an exception from obtaining such license may be relied upon by the exporting party.
If the Program is exported from the United States pursuant to the License Exception CIV under the U.S. Export
Administration Regulations, You agree that You are a civil end user of the Program and agree that You will use the
Program for civil end uses only and not for military purposes.
If the Program is exported from the United States pursuant to the License Exception TSR under the U.S. Export
Administration Regulations, in addition to the restriction on transfer set forth in Sections 1 or 2 of this Agreement,
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or such other countries as may be designated by the United States Government), (ii) export to Country Groups
D:1 or E:2 (as defined herein) the direct product of the Program or the technology, if such foreign produced direct
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product of the technology is a complete plant o r any major component of a plant, export to Country Groups D:1 or
E:2 the direct product of the plant or a major component thereof, if such foreign produced direct product is subject
to national security controls as identified on the U.S. Commerce Control List or is subject to State Department
controls under the U.S. Munitions List.
5) UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS. The enclosed Program (i) was developed solely
at private expense; (ii) contains “restricted computer software” submitted with restricted rights in accordance with
section 52.227-19 (a) through (d) of the Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights Clause and its
successors, and (iii) in all respects is proprietary data belonging to Enterasys and/or its suppliers. For Department
of Defense units, the Program is considered commercial computer software in accordance with DFARS section
227.7202-3 and its successors, and use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions set
forth herein.
XSR User’s Guide
vii
6) DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY. EXCEPT FOR THOSE WARRANTIES EXPRESSLY PROVIDED TO YOU
IN WRITING BY ENTERASYS, ENTERASYS DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EITHER EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
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APPLICABLE LAW, THEN ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES ARE LIMITED IN DURATION TO THIRTY (30) DAYS
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7) LIMITATION OF LIABILITY. IN NO EVENT SHALL ENTERASYS OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR
ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS,
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reasonably, in good faith and in a manner calculated to not unreasonably interfere with Yourr business. In the event
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breach of this Agreement, You shall promptly pay to Enterasys the appropriate license fees. Enterasys reserves the
right, to be exercised in its sole discretion and without prior notice, to terminate this license, effective immediately, for
failure to comply with this Agreement. Upon any such termination, You shall immediately cease all use of the Program
and shall return to Enterasys the Program and all copies of the Program.
9) OWNERSHIP. This is a license agreement and not an agreement for sale. You acknowledge and agree that
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implement reasonable security measures to protect such trade secrets and copyrighted material. All right, title and
interest in and to the Program shall remain with Enterasys and/or its suppliers. All rights not specifically granted to
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addition to any and all remedies available at law.
11) ASSIGNMENT. You may not assign, transfer or sublicense this Agreement or any of Your rights or
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transferees, successors and assigns as permitted by this Agreement. Any attempted assignment, transfer or
sublicense in violation of the terms of this Agreement shall be void and a breach of this Agreement.
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XSR User’s Guide
12) WAIVER. A waiver by Enterasys of a breach of any of the terms and conditions of this Agreement must be
in writing and will not be construed as a waiver of any subsequent breach of such term or condition. Enterasys’
failure to enforce a term upon Your breach of such term shall not be construed as a waiver of Your breach or
prevent enforcement on any other occasion.
13) SEVERABILITY. In the event any provision of this Agreement is found to be invalid, illegal or
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illegal or unenforceable such provision in any other jurisdiction.
14) TERMINATION. Enterasys may terminate this Agreement immediately upon Your breach of any of the terms
and conditions of this Agreement. Upon any such termination, You shall immediately cease all use of the Program
and shall return to Enterasys the Program and all copies of the Program.
DECLARATION OF CONFORMITY
Application of Council Directive(s): 89/336/EEC
73/23/EEC
Manufacturer’s Name:
Manufacturer’s Address:
European Representative Address:
Conformance to Directive(s)/Product Standards:
Equipment Type/Environment:
Enterasys Networks, Inc.
50 Minuteman Road
Andover, MA 01810
USA
Enterasys Networks Ltd.
Nexus House, Newbury Business Park
London Road, Newbury
Berkshire RG14 2PZ, England
EC Directive 89/336/EEC
EC Directive 73/23/EEC
EN 55022
EN 55024
EN 60950
EN 60825
Networking Equipment, for use in a Commercial
or Light Industrial Environment.
Enterasys Networks, Inc. declares that the XSR packaged with this notice conforms to the above directives.
XSR User’s Guide
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Table of Contents
About This Guide
Contents of the Guide ....................................................................................................... xxxi
Conventions Used in This Guide...................................................................................xxxiii
Getting Help ..................................................................................................................... xxxiv
Chapter 1 – Overview
Chapter 2 – Managing the XSR
Utilizing the Command Line Interface .................................................................................5
Connecting via the Console Port ....................................................................................5
Terminal Commands ............................................................................................... 6
Connecting via Telnet.......................................................................................................6
Connecting via SSH..........................................................................................................7
Accessing the Initial Prompt ...........................................................................................8
Managing the Session.......................................................................................................8
CLI Editing Rules..............................................................................................................8
Setting CLI Configuration Modes ................................................................................11
User EXEC Mode .................................................................................................... 13
Privileged EXEC Mode .......................................................................................... 13
Global Configuration Mode.................................................................................. 13
Exiting From the Current Mode ...................................................................................14
Mode Examples...............................................................................................................14
Observing Command Syntax and Conventions.........................................................14
CLI Command Limits ............................................................................................ 15
Describing Ports and Interfaces ....................................................................................16
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Supported Physical Interfaces.............................................................................. 16
Supported Virtual Interfaces................................................................................ 16
Supported Ports ..................................................................................................... 17
Numbering XSR Slots, Cards, and Ports .................................................................... 17
Setting Port Configuration Mode ........................................................................ 18
Setting Interface Type and Numbering....................................................................... 18
Configuration Examples ....................................................................................... 18
Entering Commands that Control Tables ................................................................... 21
Adding Table Entries ............................................................................................ 21
Deleting Table Entries ........................................................................................... 22
Modifying Table Entries ....................................................................................... 22
Displaying Table Entries....................................................................................... 23
Managing XSR Interfaces.............................................................................................. 23
Enabling an Interface............................................................................................. 23
Disabling an Interface ........................................................................................... 24
Configuring an Interface....................................................................................... 24
Displaying Interface Attributes ........................................................................... 24
Managing Message Logs............................................................................................... 25
Logging Commands .............................................................................................. 25
Performing Fault Management.................................................................................... 26
Fault Report Commands....................................................................................... 26
Using the Real-Time Clock ........................................................................................... 26
RTC/Network Clock Options.............................................................................. 26
RTC Commands..................................................................................................... 26
Managing the System Configuration .......................................................................... 27
Resetting the Configuration to Factory Default ........................................................ 27
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Using the Default Button....................................................................................... 28
Configuration Save Options..........................................................................................28
Using File System Commands.............................................................................. 29
Bulk Configuration Management.................................................................................29
Downloading the Configuration .......................................................................... 30
Uploading the Configuration ............................................................................... 30
Creating Alternate Configuration Files ............................................................... 31
Managing the Software Image ......................................................................................31
Creating Alternate Software Image Files ............................................................ 31
BootRom Upgrade Choices ................................................................................... 32
Pre-upgrade Procedures ........................................................................................ 32
Using the Bootrom Update Utility ....................................................................... 33
Local Bootrom Upgrade ........................................................................................ 35
Loading Software Images...................................................................................... 38
Software Image Commands.................................................................................. 39
Displaying System Status and Statistics ......................................................................39
Network Management through SNMP ..............................................................................40
Shaping Trap Traffic .......................................................................................................41
Accessing the XSR Through the Web ..................................................................................42
Network Management Tools ................................................................................................42
NetSight Atlas Router Services Manager v2.0............................................................42
Firmware Upgrade Procedures.....................................................................................42
Using the CLI for Downloads............................................................................... 42
Using SNMP for Downloads ................................................................................ 43
Fault Report .....................................................................................................................43
Auto-discovery................................................................................................................43
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Statistics ........................................................................................................................... 43
Alarm Management (Traps) ......................................................................................... 43
Software Image Download ........................................................................................... 44
Using SNMP Download with Auto-Reboot Option ......................................... 44
Chapter 3 – Managing LAN/WAN Interfaces
Overview of LAN Interfaces................................................................................................ 45
LAN Features......................................................................................................................... 45
Configuring the LAN ........................................................................................................... 46
MIB Statistics.......................................................................................................................... 47
Overview of WAN Interfaces .............................................................................................. 48
WAN Features........................................................................................................................ 48
Configuring the WAN .......................................................................................................... 49
Chapter 4 – Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
Overview ................................................................................................................................ 51
Features................................................................................................................................... 51
T1/E1 Subsystem Configuration ................................................................................. 52
Configuring Channelized T1/E1 Interfaces ...................................................................... 52
Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links.............................................................................................. 54
T1/E1 Physical Layer Troubleshooting ...................................................................... 55
T1/E1 Alarm Analysis .................................................................................................. 57
Receive Alarm Indication Signal (AIS - Blue Alarm) ....................................... 57
Receive Remote Alarm Indication (RAI - Yellow Alarm)................................ 58
Transmit Remote Alarm Indication (RAI - Yellow Alarm) ............................. 58
Transmit Sending Remote Alarm (Red Alarm)................................................. 58
Transmit Alarm Indication Signal (AIS - Blue Alarm) ..................................... 58
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T1/E1 Error Events Analysis ........................................................................................60
Slip Seconds Counter Increasing .......................................................................... 61
Framing Loss Seconds Increasing ........................................................................ 61
Line Code Violations Increasing .......................................................................... 61
Chapter 5 – Configuring IP
Overview .................................................................................................................................63
General IP Features................................................................................................................63
ARP and Proxy ARP.......................................................................................................65
BOOTP/DHCP Relay.....................................................................................................66
Broadcast ..........................................................................................................................66
Directed Broadcast ................................................................................................. 66
Local Broadcast ....................................................................................................... 67
ICMP .................................................................................................................................67
TCP....................................................................................................................................68
UDP...................................................................................................................................68
Telnet.................................................................................................................................68
SSH....................................................................................................................................69
Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) ............................................................................70
IP Interface .......................................................................................................................70
Secondary IP ....................................................................................................................70
Interface & Secondary IP ....................................................................................... 71
ARP & Secondary IP .............................................................................................. 72
ICMP & Secondary IP ............................................................................................ 72
Routing Table Manager & Secondary IP............................................................. 73
OSPF & Secondary IP............................................................................................. 73
RIP & Secondary IP ................................................................................................ 73
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Unnumbered Interface & Secondary IP.............................................................. 74
NAT & Secondary IP ............................................................................................. 74
DHCP & Secondary IP .......................................................................................... 74
VPN & Secondary IP ............................................................................................. 74
VRRP & Secondary IP ........................................................................................... 74
PPPoE & Secondary IP .......................................................................................... 75
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU).......................................................................... 75
Ping .................................................................................................................................. 75
Traceroute........................................................................................................................ 75
IP Routing Protocols ............................................................................................................. 76
RIPv1 and v2................................................................................................................... 76
Triggered-on-Demand RIP ........................................................................................... 77
How Triggered-on-Demand RIP Works ............................................................ 78
OSPF................................................................................................................................. 80
Static Routes.................................................................................................................... 82
Routing Priorities ........................................................................................................... 82
Default Network ............................................................................................................ 83
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)..................................................................... 83
Network Address Translation ...................................................................................... 84
Features ................................................................................................................... 84
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol.......................................................................... 85
VRRP Definitions ................................................................................................... 87
How the VRRP Works........................................................................................... 88
Different States of a VRRP Router....................................................................... 88
VRRP Features........................................................................................................ 90
Multiple Virtual IP Addresses per VR................................................................ 90
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Multiple VRs Per Router........................................................................................ 90
Authentication ........................................................................................................ 90
Load Balancing........................................................................................................ 90
ARP Process on a VRRP Router ........................................................................... 91
Host ARP ................................................................................................................. 91
Proxy ARP ............................................................................................................... 91
Gratuitous ARP....................................................................................................... 91
Traffic Process on a VRRP Router ........................................................................ 91
ICMP Ping................................................................................................................ 92
Interface Monitoring .............................................................................................. 92
Physical Interface and Physical IP Address Change on a VRRP Router........ 93
IETF MIBs Supported ............................................................................................................93
Configuring RIP Examples ...................................................................................................94
Configuring Unnumbered IP Serial Interface Example ...................................................96
Configuring OSPF Example .................................................................................................96
Configuring NAT Examples .................................................................................................97
Basic One-to-One Static NAT ........................................................................................97
Configuring Static Translation ............................................................................. 98
Network Address and Port Translation ......................................................................98
Configuring NAPT ............................................................................................... 100
Configuring VRRP Example...............................................................................................100
Router XSRa........................................................................................................... 100
Router XSRb .......................................................................................................... 101
Chapter 6 – Configuring PPP
Overview ...............................................................................................................................103
PPP Features .........................................................................................................................103
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Link Control Protocol (LCP)....................................................................................... 104
Network Control Protocol (NCP) .............................................................................. 105
Authentication.............................................................................................................. 105
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) ........................................................ 105
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP) .............................. 106
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Protocol (MS-CHAP)................................. 106
Link Quality Monitoring (LQM)................................................................................ 107
Multilink PPP (MLPPP) .............................................................................................. 107
IP Control Protocol (IPCP).......................................................................................... 108
IP Address Assignment ...................................................................................... 109
PPP Bandwidth Allocation/Control Protocols (BAP/BAPC)............................... 109
Configuring PPP with a Dialed Backup Line...................................................................110
Configuring a Synchronous Serial Interface ....................................................................111
Configuring a Dialed Backup Line ....................................................................................112
Configuring the Dialer Interface.................................................................................112
Configuring the Physical Interface for the Dialer Interface....................................112
Configuring the Interface as the Backup Dialer Interface.......................................113
Configuring BAP ..................................................................................................................114
Dual XSRs: One Router Using DoD with Call Request...........................................115
XSR1 Configuration............................................................................................. 115
XSR2 Configuration............................................................................................. 116
Dual XSRs: BAP Using Call/Callback Request ........................................................117
XSR1 Configuration............................................................................................. 117
XSR2 Configuration............................................................................................. 118
Chapter 7 – Configuring Frame Relay
Overview .............................................................................................................................. 121
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Virtual Circuits...................................................................................................... 121
DLCIs...................................................................................................................... 121
DTEs ....................................................................................................................... 123
DCEs ....................................................................................................................... 123
Frame Relay Features ..........................................................................................................123
Multi-Protocol Encapsulation ............................................................................................124
Address Resolution..............................................................................................................124
Dynamic Resolution Using Inverse ARP ..................................................................124
Controlling Congestion in Frame Relay Networks.........................................................125
Rate Enforcement (CIR) - Traffic Shaping .................................................................125
Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN)..................................................126
Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) ...............................................127
Link Management Information (LMI) ..............................................................................129
Sub-interface Support..........................................................................................................130
User Interfaces ......................................................................................................................130
Map-Class Configuration ............................................................................................131
Show Running Configuration.....................................................................................131
Displaying Statistics.............................................................................................................131
Reports and Alarms......................................................................................................131
Clear Statistics ...............................................................................................................131
Interconnecting via Frame Relay Network ......................................................................132
Configuring Frame Relay ...................................................................................................133
Multi-point to Point-to-Point Example......................................................................133
Chapter 8 – Configuring Dialer Services
Overview of Dial Services...................................................................................................137
Dial Services Features ..................................................................................................137
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Asynchronous and Synchronous Support....................................................................... 138
AT Commands on Asynchronous Ports ................................................................... 139
V.25bis over Synchronous Interfaces......................................................................... 139
DTR Dialing for Synchronous Interfaces.................................................................. 140
Time of Day feature ..................................................................................................... 140
Typical Use for Dial Services ...................................................................................... 140
Ethernet Backup ........................................................................................................... 140
Implementing Dial Services............................................................................................... 141
Dialer Profiles ............................................................................................................... 142
Dialer Interface ............................................................................................................. 142
Dialer Strings ................................................................................................................ 143
Dialer Pool..................................................................................................................... 143
Addressing Dialer Resources ..................................................................................... 143
Configuring Encapsulation......................................................................................... 143
ISDN Callback .............................................................................................................. 144
Configuring the Dialer Interface................................................................................ 148
Creating and Configuring the Dialer Interface ............................................... 149
Configuring the Map Class ................................................................................ 149
Configuring the Physical Interface for the Dialer Interface........................... 149
Sample Dialer Configuration ..................................................................................... 149
Configuring ISDN Callback ....................................................................................... 150
Point-to-Point with Matched Calling/Called Numbers ................................ 150
Point-to-Point with Different Calling/Called Numbers................................ 151
Point-to-Multipoint with One Neighbor .......................................................... 151
Point-to-Multipoint with Multiple Neighbors ................................................ 151
Overview of Dial Backup ................................................................................................... 152
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Dial Backup Features....................................................................................................152
Sequence of Backup Events ................................................................................................152
Link Failure Backup Example ............................................................................................154
Configuring a Dialed Backup Line....................................................................................154
Configuring the Dialer Interface.................................................................................154
Configuring the Physical Interface for the Dialer Interface....................................155
Configuring Interface as the Backup Dialer Interface .............................................155
Sample Configuration ..................................................................................................156
Overview of Dial on Demand/Bandwidth on Demand ................................................159
Answering Incoming ISDN Calls ......................................................................................160
Incoming Call Mapping Example ..............................................................................161
Node A (Calling Node) Configuration.............................................................. 161
Node B (Called Node) Configuration................................................................ 162
Node D (Calling Node) Configuration.............................................................. 163
Configuring DoD/BoD .......................................................................................................164
PPP Point-to-Multipoint Configuration ....................................................................165
Node A (Calling Node) Configuration.............................................................. 165
Node B (Called Node) Configuration................................................................ 166
PPP Multipoint-to-Multipoint Configuration ..........................................................167
Node A Configuration ......................................................................................... 167
Node B Configuration.......................................................................................... 168
PPP Point-to-Point Configurations ............................................................................169
Dial-in Routing for Dial on Demand Example................................................. 169
Dial-out Routing for Dial on Demand Example .............................................. 170
PPP Point-to-Multipoint Configurations...................................................................171
Dial-out Router Example..................................................................................... 171
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Dial-in Router Example ...................................................................................... 172
MLPPP Point-to-Multipoint Configuration ............................................................. 173
Node A (Calling Node) Configuration............................................................. 173
Node B (Called Node) Configuration............................................................... 174
MLPPP Point-to-Point Configurations ..................................................................... 176
Dial-in Router Example ...................................................................................... 176
Dial-out Router Example .................................................................................... 177
MLPPP Point-to-Multipoint Configurations............................................................ 178
Dial-out Router Example .................................................................................... 178
Dial-in Router Example ...................................................................................... 179
MLPPP Multipoint-to-Multipoint Configuration ................................................... 180
Node A Configuration ........................................................................................ 180
Node B Configuration ......................................................................................... 181
Switched PPP Multilink Configuration ........................................................................... 181
Bandwidth-on-Demand .............................................................................................. 181
Node A (Calling Node) Configuration............................................................. 182
Node C (Called Node) Configuration .............................................................. 183
Backup Configuration ........................................................................................................ 183
Backup Using ISDN..................................................................................................... 183
Node A (Backed-up Node) Configuration....................................................... 184
Node C (Called Node) Configuration .............................................................. 185
Configuration for Backup with MLPPP Bundle...................................................... 187
Node A (Backed-up Node) Configuration....................................................... 187
Node C (Called Node) Configuration .............................................................. 188
Configuration for Ethernet Failover.......................................................................... 189
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Chapter 9 – Configuring Integrated Services Digital Network
(ISDN)
ISDN Features.......................................................................................................................191
BRI Features...................................................................................................................192
PRI Features...................................................................................................................192
Understanding ISDN...........................................................................................................193
Basic Rate Interface.......................................................................................................193
Primary Rate Interface .................................................................................................193
B-Channels .....................................................................................................................194
D-Channel ......................................................................................................................194
D-Channel Standards ...................................................................................................195
D-Channel Signaling and Carrier Networks ............................................................195
ISDN Equipment Configurations ...............................................................................196
Bandwidth Optimization.............................................................................................197
Security...........................................................................................................................198
Call Monitoring.............................................................................................................198
ISDN Configuration.............................................................................................................199
BRI (Switched) Configuration Model ........................................................................200
PRI Configuration Model ............................................................................................202
Leased-Line Configuration Model .............................................................................204
More Configuration Examples...........................................................................................205
T1 PRI .............................................................................................................................205
E1 PRI .............................................................................................................................206
ISDN BRI ........................................................................................................................206
BRI Leased Line.............................................................................................................206
BRI Leased PPP .............................................................................................................206
BRI Leased Frame Relay ..............................................................................................207
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ISDN (ITU Standard Q.931) Call Status Cause Codes ................................................... 207
Chapter 10 – Configuring Quality of Service
Overview .............................................................................................................................. 213
Features................................................................................................................................. 214
Mechanisms to Provide QoS.............................................................................................. 214
Traffic Classification .................................................................................................... 214
Describing the Class Map ................................................................................... 216
Describing the Policy Map ................................................................................. 217
Queuing and Services.................................................................................................. 218
Describing Class-Based Weight Fair Queuing ................................................ 218
Configuring CBWFQ........................................................................................... 219
Describing Priority Queues ................................................................................ 219
Configuring Priority Queues ............................................................................. 220
Describing Traffic Policing.......................................................................................... 221
Configuring Traffic Policing .............................................................................. 221
Congestion Control & Avoidance.............................................................................. 223
Describing Queue Size Control (Drop Tail)..................................................... 223
Describing Random Early Detection................................................................. 223
Per Interface Configuration ........................................................................................ 225
Suggestions for Using QoS on the XSR..................................................................... 226
Configuring QoS on an Interface ...................................................................................... 226
Configuring QoS for Frame Relay .................................................................................... 227
Chapter 11 – Configuring the Virtual Private Network
VPN Overview .................................................................................................................... 231
Internet Security Issues ............................................................................................... 231
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How a Virtual Private Network Works .....................................................................233
Ensuring VPN Security with IPSec/IKE ..........................................................................234
Defining VPN Encryption ...........................................................................................236
Describing Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI) .....................................................................237
Digital Signatures..........................................................................................................237
Certificates .....................................................................................................................238
Machine Certificates for the XSR ................................................................................239
CA Hierarchies ..............................................................................................................239
Certificate Chains..........................................................................................................240
RA Mode ........................................................................................................................242
Pending Mode ...............................................................................................................242
Enroll Password ............................................................................................................243
CRL Retrieval ................................................................................................................243
Renewing and Revoking Certificates.........................................................................243
DF Bit Functionality.............................................................................................................243
VPN Applications ................................................................................................................244
Site-to-Site Networks....................................................................................................245
Site-to-Central-Site Networks .....................................................................................247
Client Mode ........................................................................................................... 248
Network Extension Mode (NEM) ...................................................................... 248
Remote Access Networks ............................................................................................249
Using OSPF Over a VPN Network ............................................................................250
OSPF Commands.................................................................................................. 251
Configuring OSPF Over Site-to-Site in Client Mode....................................... 251
Configuring OSPF Over Site-to-Site in Network Extension Mode ............... 254
Server...................................................................................................................... 255
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Client...................................................................................................................... 255
Configuring OSPF with Fail Over ..................................................................... 256
Server 1 .................................................................................................................. 256
Server 2 .................................................................................................................. 256
Client...................................................................................................................... 256
Limitations ............................................................................................................ 257
XSR VPN Features............................................................................................................... 258
VPN Configuration Overview .......................................................................................... 259
Master Key Generation ............................................................................................... 260
ACL Configuration Rules ........................................................................................... 261
Configuring ACLs ............................................................................................... 261
Selecting Policies: IKE/IPSec Transform-Sets.......................................................... 263
Security Policy Considerations .......................................................................... 264
Configuring Policy............................................................................................... 264
Creating Crypto Maps................................................................................................. 265
Configuring Crypto Maps .................................................................................. 265
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting Configuration ........................... 266
AAA Commands ................................................................................................. 266
Configuring AAA ................................................................................................ 267
PKI Configuration Options......................................................................................... 268
Configuring PKI................................................................................................... 269
PKI Certificate Enrollment Example ......................................................................... 269
Interface VPN Options ................................................................................................ 274
VPN Interface Sub-Commands.......................................................................... 274
Configuring a Simple VPN Site-to-Site Application...................................................... 275
Configuring the VPN Using EZ-IPSec ............................................................................. 278
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EZ-IPSec Configuration ...............................................................................................279
Configuration Examples .....................................................................................................281
XSR with VPN - Central Gateway..............................................................................281
XSR/Cisco Site-to-Site Example .................................................................................286
Cisco Configuration ............................................................................................. 286
XSR Configuration................................................................................................ 289
Interoperability Profile for the XSR ...................................................................................290
Scenario 1: Gateway-to-Gateway with Pre-Shared Secrets.....................................290
Scenario 2: Gateway-to-Gateway with Certificates .................................................293
Chapter 12 – Configuring DHCP
Overview of DHCP..............................................................................................................299
Features..................................................................................................................................300
DHCP Server Standards ..............................................................................................300
How DHCP Works...............................................................................................................301
DHCP Services .....................................................................................................................302
Persistent Storage of Network Parameters for Clients............................................302
Temporary or Permanent Network Address Allocation.........................................302
Lease ....................................................................................................................... 302
Assigned Network Configuration Values to Clients: Options ...............................303
Provisioning Differentiated Network Values by Client Class ................................303
BOOTP Legacy Support...............................................................................................303
Nested Scopes: IP Pool Subsets...................................................................................304
Scope Caveat..................................................................................................................305
Manual Bindings...........................................................................................................305
DHCP CLI Commands........................................................................................................306
DHCP Set Up Overview .....................................................................................................308
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Configuring DHCP Address Pools............................................................................ 308
Configuring DHCP - Network Configuration Parameters.................................... 308
Configuration Steps ............................................................................................................ 309
Create an IP Local Client Pool.................................................................................... 309
Create a Corresponding DHCP Pool......................................................................... 309
Configure DHCP Network Parameters .................................................................... 309
Enable the DHCP Server............................................................................................. 310
Optional: Set Up a DHCP Nested Scope .................................................................. 310
Optional: Configure a DHCP Manual Binding ....................................................... 310
DHCP Server Configuration Examples ............................................................................311
Pool with Hybrid Servers Example............................................................................311
Manual Binding Example ............................................................................................311
Manual Binding with Class Example........................................................................ 312
BOOTP Client Support Example ............................................................................... 312
DHCP Option Examples ............................................................................................. 313
Chapter 13 – Configuring Security on the XSR
Features................................................................................................................................. 315
Access Control Lists..................................................................................................... 316
Packet Filtering............................................................................................................. 316
LANd Attack ................................................................................................................ 316
Smurf Attack................................................................................................................. 317
Fraggle Attack .............................................................................................................. 317
IP Packet with Multicast/Broadcast Source Address............................................. 317
Spoofed Address Check .............................................................................................. 317
SYN Flood Attack Mitigation..................................................................................... 317
Fragmented and Large ICMP Packets ...................................................................... 318
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Fragmented ICMP Traffic.................................................................................... 318
Large ICMP Packets ............................................................................................. 318
Ping of Death Attack ............................................................................................ 318
Spurious State Transition.............................................................................................318
General Security Precautions .............................................................................................319
AAA Services........................................................................................................................320
Connecting Remotely via SSH or Telnet with AAA Service ..................................322
Firewall Feature Set Overview...........................................................................................325
Reasons for Installing a Firewall ................................................................................325
Types of Firewalls .........................................................................................................327
ACL and Packet Filter Firewalls......................................................................... 327
ALG and Proxy Firewalls .................................................................................... 327
Stateful Inspection Firewalls............................................................................... 328
XSR Firewall Feature Set Functionality ............................................................................329
Firewall CLI Commands.....................................................................................................334
Firewall Limitations.............................................................................................................339
Pre-configuring the Firewall...............................................................................................342
Steps to Configure the Firewall..........................................................................................342
Configuration Examples .....................................................................................................343
XSR with Firewall .........................................................................................................343
XSR with Firewall, PPPoE and DHCP .......................................................................346
XSR with Firewall and VPN........................................................................................348
Firewall Configuration for VRRP ...............................................................................356
Firewall Configuration for RADIUS Authentication and Accounting .................356
Configuring Simple Security.......................................................................................357
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Table of Contents
Appendix A – Alarms/Events and System Limits
System Limits....................................................................................................................... 359
Alarms and Events.............................................................................................................. 362
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports ........................................................................... 376
xxx
XSR-1805 User’s Guide
About This Guide
This guide provides a general overview of the XSR hardware and software
features. It describes how to configure and maintain the router. Refer to the
XSR CLI Reference Guide and the XSR Getting Started Guide for information not
contained in this document.
This guide is written for administrators who want to configure the XSR or
experienced users who are knowledgeable of basic networking principles.
Contents of the Guide
Information in this guide is arranged as follows:
ˆ Chapter 1, Overview, introduces key features of the XSR.
ˆ Chapter 2, Managing the XSR, describes the three methods of
managing the router along with the control commands and tools
available to accomplish that task.
ˆ Chapter 3, Managing LAN/WAN Interfaces, describes system
FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet and High Speed Serial features, how to
configure them, and MIB-II statistics collected for LAN interfaces.
ˆ Chapter 4, Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces, outlines XSR controller
features, and how to configure and troubleshoot them.
ˆ Chapter 5, Configuring IP, outlines a host of XSR IP protocol suite
features and routing their associated configuration commands.
ˆ Chapter 6, Configuring PPP, details XSR support for the PPP protocol
and how to configure it.
ˆ Chapter 7, Configuring Frame Relay, details how to set up Frame Relay
networks on the XSR.
ˆ Chapter 8, Configuring Dial Services and Back Up, details background
information about Dial Services and Dial Backup across a PSTN, and
the commands to configure these features.
ˆ Chapter 9, Configuring ISDN, outlines how to set up the Integrated
Services Digital Network protocol on the XSR for BRI, PRI and leased
line applications.
XSR User’s Guide
xxxi
Contents of the Guide
About This Guide
ˆ Chapter 10, Configuring Quality of Service, describes XSR support for
QoS, including Random Early Detection, tail-drop, DSCP, IP
precedence, traffic policing, priority and CBWFQ queuing.
ˆ Chapter 11, Configuring the Virtual Private Network, outlines XSR
support for Site-to-Site, Site-to-Central-Site, and Remote Access VPN
applications. Other supported functionality includes RADIUS
authentication, PKI authentication, NAT traversal, IP address
management, and dynamic routing over VPN (remote access only).
ˆ Chapter 12, Configuring DHCP, details the router’s support for the
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol including dynamic and
manual IP address allocation.
ˆ Chapter 13, Configuring Security, describes methods to protect the
router against hacker attacks and how to configure them.
ˆ Appendix A, Alarms and Events, lists the high, medium and low
severity alarms and events captured by the XSR.
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XSR User’s Guide
About This Guide
Conventions Used in This Guide
Conventions Used in This Guide
The following conventions are used in this guide:
NOTE
XSR User’s Guide
Notes supply additional helpful information,
provide a cross-reference to the source of more
information, or emphasize issues you should
consider when performing an action.
CAUTION
Cautions contain directions that can prevent you
from damaging the product or losing data.
WARNING
Warnings provide directions that you must
follow to avoid harming yourself.
Bold
Text in boldface indicates values you type using
the keyboard or select using the mouse (for
example, a:\setup). Default settings may also
appear in bold.
Italics
Text in italics indicates a variable, important new
term, or the title of a manual.
SMALL CAPS
Small caps specify the keys to press on the
keyboard; a plus sign (+) between keys indicates
that you must press the keys simultaneously (for
example, CTRL+ALT+DEL).
Courier font
Text in this font denotes a file name or directory.
+
Points to text describing CLI command.
FastEthernet
FastEthernet and GigabitEthernet references are
generally interchangeable throughout this guide.
xxxiii
Getting Help
About This Guide
Getting Help
For additional support related to the XSR, contact Enterasys Networks using
one of the following methods:
World Wide Web
http://www.enterasys.com
Phone
(978) 684-1000
1-800-872-8440 (toll-free in U.S. and Canada)
For the Enterasys Networks Support toll-free number in your country:
http://www.enterasys.com/support/gtac-all.html
Internet mail
[email protected]
FTP
ftp://ftp.enterasys.com
Login
anonymous
Password
your email address
Acquire the latest image
and Release Notes
http://www.enterasys.com/download
Additional documentation
http://www.enterasys.com/support/manuals
Forward comments or
suggestions
[email protected]
Before contacting Enterasys Networks for technical support, have the
following information ready:
ˆ Your Enterasys Networks service contract number
ˆ A description of the failure
ˆ A description of any action(s) already taken to resolve the problem
(e.g., rebooting the unit, reconfiguring modules, etc.)
ˆ The serial and revision numbers of all relevant Enterasys Networks
products in the network
ˆ A description of your network environment (layout, cable type, etc.)
ˆ Network load and frame size at the time of the problem
ˆ The XSR’s history (i.e., have you returned the device before, is this a
recurring problem, etc.)
ˆ Any previous Return Material Authorization (RMA) numbers
xxxiv
XSR User’s Guide
1
Overview
This chapter briefly describes the functionality of the XSR. Refer to the
following chapters in this manual for details on how to configure this
functionality and the XSR CLI Reference Guide for a description of associated
CLI commands and examples.
The following functionality is supported on the XSR:
ˆ System Management - The XSR’s resources can be managed via four
methods: the Command Line Interface (CLI) for full configuration,
performance and fault management; the Simple Network
Management Protocol (SNMP) including SNMP v1/v2c/v3 agent,
for remote monitoring; the NetSight Atlas Router Services Manager
application for firewall and ACL configuration; and the Web to
gather version information. These tools control the XSR’s many
hardware and software facilities. Also supported: SSH v2 server, full
configuration backup and restore, login banner, and a host of
proprietary and standard MIBs including Syslog, Configuration
Management, Configuration Change, TimedReset, Entity, Chassis
and Protocol MIBs (OSPF, RIP, Frame Relay, and PPP).
ˆ Ethernet Interfaces - The XSR 1800 Series’ two 10/100 Base-T
FastEthernet interfaces and XSR 3000 Series’ three 10/100/1000
BaseT GigabitEthernet interfaces handle the router’s LAN traffic
stream, with support for alarms and events, diagnostics, packet
filtering and statistics gathering, and Ethernet backup.
ˆ T1/E1 Interfaces - The XSR’s T1/E1 subsystem on a single NIM-based
I/O card handles the router’s WAN traffic with support for alarm
detection and signaling, diagnostics, line encoding, and a host of
other functionality.
XSR User’s Guide
1
Chapter 1
Overview
ˆ Serial Interface - The XSR’s NIM serial interface typically supports
protocols such as PPP. The serial interface provides both
asynchronous and synchronous protocol support.
ˆ PPP (WAN) -The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a standard
method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-topoint links. PPP defines procedures for the assignment and
management of network addresses, asynchronous and synchronous
encapsulation, link configuration, link quality testing, network
protocol multiplexing, error detection, and option negotiation for
such capabilities as network-layer address negotiation and datacompression negotiation. Also supported: PPPoE Client and subinterface monitoring, and Multilink PPP protocols as well as Dial on
Demand (DoD) and Bandwidth on Demand (BoD).
ˆ IP Protocol - IP supports interconnected systems of packet-switched
computer communication networks. It uses a 32-bit addressing
scheme where an IP address is represented by four fields, each
containing 8-bit numbers. Also supported: secondary IP addressing.
ˆ DHCP Server - The XSR supports DHCP Server on the trusted LAN to
provide IP addresses to computers on a customer's private LAN
segment.
ˆ Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address Translation
(PAT); Automatic NAT transversal extension enables VPN traffic to
connect through ISP or service provider network.
ˆ IP Routing - The XSR supports RIP and OSPF dynamic routing, a vital
function of the IP protocol. Stored in a routing table, routing
information is used by the XSR to determine the route for each packet
passing through the router. VRRP is also supported for default router
redundancy and load balancing.
ˆ Frame Relay - The XSR provides this fast-packet switching method for
wide-area networking. Acting as a DTE, the router encapsulates data
in a frame and transmits that data while serving as a source device.
When it is a destination device, it receives frames and deencapsulates them. The XSR’s implementation of Frame Relay
employs the User Network Interface (UNI) for PVC (DLCI)
connections with Committed Information Rate (CIR) traffic shaping
and BECN congestion control.
2
XSR User’s Guide
Chapter 1
Overview
ˆ Quality of Service - The XSR provides traffic classification using IP
Precedence and DSCP bits, bandwidth control via metered, policed
and prioritized traffic queues, and queue management utilizing Drop
Tail and Random Early Detection (RED).
ˆ Virtual Private Network - The XSR supports VPN tunnels using L2TP,
PPP or IPSec protected by DES, 3DES, RC4, MD5 or SHA-1
encryption. VPN tunnels are authenticated/authorized for
credentials using pre-shared keys or Public Key Infrastructure (PKI).
Also supported: DF Bit override, OSPF over VPN, and interaction
between firewall/NAT/VPN.
ˆ Security - In its firewall feature set, the XSR provides stateful firewall
protection against a variety of Denial of Service attacks, FTP and
H.323 ALG support, application command filtering for FTP, SMTP
and HTTP, firewall logging and authentication, and supports Access
Control Lists to manage network access. Also supported: AAA for
firewall, Console/Telnet and SSHv2 users.
ˆ Dialer Interface - Dial Services are a cost-saving alternative to the
leased line connection between two peers and they can be
implemented for different types of media for both inbound and
outbound connections.
ˆ Dial Backup - The dialed backup feature provides a backup link over a
dial line. The backup link is brought up when a failure occurs in a
primary link, and it is brought down when the primary link is
restored. This feature is supported for PPPoE to enable cable backup
over FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet sub-interfaces.
ˆ ISDN - The XSR’s BRI and PRI switched and leased lines set up and
tear down calls, usually under the control of the Dialer. The XSR’s
ISDN services BRI and PRI lines with a 1, 2 or 4 port Channelized
NIM card for PRI lines, 1 or 2 port BRI-S/T NIM card, or 1 or 2 port
BRI U NIM card. Also supported: bandwidth optimization through
DoD, BoD and BAP, security through caller ID, call monitoring, and
ISDN callback.
XSR User’s Guide
3
2
Managing the XSR
The XSR can be managed via three interfaces with varying levels of control:
the Command Line Interface (CLI) for full configuration, performance and
fault management; the Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) for
remote monitoring and firmware upgrades, and the Web for gathering
version information.
Utilizing the Command Line Interface
The Command Line Interface (CLI) is a widely used tool to access and control
configurable parameters of the XSR. You can access the CLI three ways:
ˆ Directly connect to the Console port via an asynchronous terminal
ˆ Over the network using Telnet or SSH via a LAN or WAN interface
Connecting via the Console Port
For ease of use when first setting up the XSR, you can directly connect the
Console port to an asynchronous terminal (via Microsoft’s HyperTerminal or
other program) with the following values: 8 data bits, no parity, 9600 bps, 1
stop bit, flow control - none. Because the Console port is wired as a DCE with
a DB-9 connector, a standard DB-9 straight-through null modem cable is
needed to attach a standard PC COM port to the Console port.
Although a login (admin) is required to make this connection, for additional
security you can later delete the admin user as well as disable Telnet sessions
through the Console.
Optionally, you can set up the Console port as a WAN interface for dial backup
purposes (refer to the following Caution). For directions, refer to the XSR
Getting Started Guide.
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CAUTION
When you enable the Console port as a WAN port, you can no longer
directly connect to it because is in data communication mode. Your only
access to the CLI will be to Telnet/SSH to an IP address of a configured
port. Also, if startup-config does not set up any of the ports properly
and sets up the console port as a serial port, you will no longer be able to
login and will have to press the Default button to erase the configuration.
Terminal Commands
If you want to display identification information about the current terminal
connection, issue the show whoami command. Refer to the XSR Getting Started
Guide for more information on commands.
Connecting via Telnet
Once the XSR is properly configured with a valid IP address, you can
remotely connect to the CLI via Telnet using the default user admin with no
password. Later, you can create users with the username command.
NOTE
The XSR supports a maximum of 25 users.
Although up to five concurrent Telnet/SSH and one Console sessions are
supported, if more than one session is running simultaneously (including the
Console session), only one session permits configuration changes. Any other
session could only view configuration settings. This prohibition applies to all
commands that make changes to the configuration and is limited to Global
mode. For example, if a user is in Global mode and another user tries to enter
Global mode, the second user will get the following error message:
XSR#config
Configuration is currently locked by user admin. Please try later.
Also, in order to ensure that an administrator can always login to the router,
one of the five permitted Telnet or SSH sessions is always reserved for the
administrator.
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That is, if the first four sessions are regular users, the fifth session will allow
only the administrator to login. But if one of the first four is logged in as
administrator, then the fifth session can be any user. You can also Telnet from
the XSR to a server by using the telnet ip_address command. It is a useful
utility for diagnostics. Be aware that the router will try to make a Telnet
connection for 70 seconds.
Connecting via SSH
Secure Shell (SSH v2) encrypts the link to the XSR so it is a more secure
alternative to Telnet for remote connections. To activate SSH, invoke the
following commands:
ˆ Create a host key pair with crypto dsa generate
ˆ Add an user with password and privilege level with aaa user,
password and privilege 15
ˆ Enable SSH access wth policy ssh
ˆ Enable local authentication with aaa client ssh
ˆ Load an SSH client application on your PC to connect with the XSR
ˆ Optionally, you can disable Telnet with ip telnet server disable
for higher security
ˆ Optionally, if you are enabling the firewall feature set you can
configure an Access Control List (ACL) to allow a single host SSH
access to the XSR by entering these commands:
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit tcp host 192.168.1.10 eq 22
XSR(config)#access-list 100 deny tcp any host 192.168.1.10 eq 22
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit ip any
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip access-group 100 in
PuTTY and other shareware programs are compatible with the XSR’s SSH
server.
Refer to the XSR Getting Started and CLI Reference guides for more details.
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Accessing the Initial Prompt
The CLI is protected by security. Before you can access EXEC mode, you must
enter a valid password. This mode lets you test basic connectivity of the XSR
but does not permit you to change or monitor the router’s configuration.
Access to enhanced commands is permitted only if you enter Privileged
EXEC mode by entering enable. You can logout at any time by entering exit
while in EXEC mode.
Refer to Table 1 for session limits.
Table 1 CLI Session Limits
Parameter
Limit
Total number of CLI Telnet/SSH sessions permitted
5
SSH sessions permitted with 32 MBytes of memory
1
Console sessions permitted
1
Number of Telnet sessions reserved for administrators
1
Terminal auto-logout timeout value (configurable)
1800 seconds
The show limits command defines all system software and memory limits
as well as values and memory utilized. Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide
for more details.
Managing the Session
A first-time CLI session is set up with default attributes; e.g., the session is set
to time out after 1800 seconds of idle time. You can reconfigure session values
such as create users, passwords, and login banners, and set Telnet and Web
access. Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for details about these commands.
CLI Editing Rules
To use the CLI efficiently, be aware of the following rules:
ˆ Case-sensitivity: CLI commands are not case-sensitive. For example,
you can enter either SHOW VERSION or show version to display the
XSR's software revision. But, some parameters may be case sensitive.
For example, entering snmp-server community public is different
from snmp-server community PUblic
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ˆ Command Abbreviation: You can abbreviate commands and keywords
to the minimum number of characters that define a unique
abbreviation. For example, you can abbreviate the hostname
command to hostn (but you cannot abbreviate to hos because other
commands also start with the letters hos).
ˆ Output Display: By default, output data are displayed one page at a
time if the data occupies more than one page. In this case, you can use
the spacebar to scroll down to the next page or press ENTER to scroll
down one line at a time. The default page size is 132 characters wide,
23 rows high and they are configurable in a range from 0 to 512
characters using the terminal command. Refer to the XSR CLI
Reference Guide for more information about the command.
ˆ Command Recall: Non-help commands are stored in the command
history list buffer up to the last 32 commands. You can recall and edit
previous commands using shortcut keys. For example:
Ctrl+p/Ctrl+n will list the previous/next command respectively
and can be applied repeatedly. The up-arrow or down-arrow keys
provide the same feature if your terminal supports these keys.
ˆ Tab Completion: Pressing the TAB key or CTRL+I completes a command.
In case of an ambiguous match, the word is completed up to the
character which leads to ambiguity. For example, hostname and
hostDos share the letters host, so tab completion completes the
“command” ho to host.
ˆ Carriage Return/Enter: Pressing the carriage return/ENTER key signals
the end of a CLI command.
ˆ Help Symbol: At any point you can enter the? character to prompt for
a list of possible commands/parameters at a particular mode.
ˆ Error: Proper error messages are displayed if the command could not
be issued due to syntax errors or invalid values made by the user.
Typing these characters will produce output as follows:
XSR#showFIioLLJl
XSR#showFIioLLJl
^
% invalid input detected at '^' marker
XSR#
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ˆ CLI Terminal Editing Command Keys: Refer to the following table for
these useful shortcuts.
Table 2 CLI Terminal Editing Commands
10
Command
Description
Ctrl + a
Move cursor to beginning of line
Ctrl + b
Move cursor back 1 character
Ctrl + c
Same as the CLI end command
Ctrl + d
Delete 1 character after cursor
Ctrl + e
Move cursor to end of line
Ctrl + f
Move cursor forward 1 character
Ctrl + h
Delete 1 character before cursor
Ctrl + I
Tab completion
Ctrl + k
Delete all characters after cursor
Ctrl + l
Echo current line
Ctrl + n
Next CLI command in history
Ctrl + p
Previous CLI command in history
Ctrl + r
Echo current line
Ctrl + u
Delete all characters before cursor
Ctrl + w
Delete 1 word before cursor
Ctrl + x
Delete all characters before cursor
Ctrl + y
Restores the most recently deleted item
Ctrl + z
Same as the CLI end command
Del
Delete a character
Esc + b
Move cursor back 1 word
Esc + d
Delete to end of word at cursor
Esc + f
Move cursor forward 1 word
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Setting CLI Configuration Modes
The CLI provides modes of operation permitting a subset of commands to be
issued from each mode. Also, you can issue any command and acquire any
mode if the command entered or mode acquired subscribes to the same parent.
For example, you can issue the interface serial command at Crypto Map
mode because both Serial Interface and Crypto Map modes subscribe to
Global (config) mode. Table 3 describes a few primary modes of operation.
Table 3 CLI Configuration Modes
Mode
Function
Access Method
Prompt
User
EXEC
Password-protected mode:
•Changes terminal settings
•Performs basic tests
•Displays system information
Login process
XSR>
Enter enable in User EXEC
XSR#
Privileged This mode:
EXEC
•Sets system operating values
•Shows configuration parameters
•Saves/copies configurations
Global
Sets system-wide values. Save changes Enter configure terminal XSR(config)#
after a reboot by copying the runningin Privileged EXEC
configuration to the startup-configuration.
Interface
Modifies/assigns port parameters on a
port-by-port basis.
Enter interface
interface-type <port#>
in Global mode
XSR(configif<xx>)#
Router
Sets RIP or OSPF parameters.
Enter router rip/ospf in
Global mode
XSR(configrouter)#
Refer to Figure 1 for a graphic example of configuration modes.
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Login
EXEC
enable
Privileged EXEC
show commands
5
configure
Global Configuration4
show commands 5
Controller cont-parameter
Interface if-type num1
Config-if
3
Controller
Router router-parameter 2
T1/E1
Config-Router
Figure 1 Sample Configuration Mode Tree
The footnotes below refer to command options cited in the illustration.
1
if-type can be one of the following: Serial, FastEthernet,
GigabitEthernet, BRI, loopback, Multilink, VPN, or Dialer
2
router-parameter can be: RIP or OSPF
3
controller can be one of the following: T1 or E1
4
Some attributes can be set at this level without acquiring other
modes. For example: access-list access-list-num [deny |
permit] [parameter [parameter…]]
5
Show commands can all be entered at EXEC, Privileged EXEC or
Global modes.
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User EXEC Mode
You enter User EXEC (or simply EXEC) mode after logging in. The following
sample commands can be entered in EXEC mode:
ˆ enable
ˆ ping
Privileged EXEC Mode
In order to make the changes to the configuration, you must enter PRIV EXEC
mode. Some configuration parameters specified in this mode apply to
XSR global settings such as the system clock.
Global Configuration Mode
In Global configuration mode you can configure many different resources
such as ports, interfaces, and routing tables. The following levels are provided
at the Global configuration level:
ˆ Interface Level: At this level you can modify/assign specific port
parameters on a port-by-port basis. You can enter this level by typing
interface interface-type <interface #> at the Global
configuration command prompt. For example, you can enter:
XSR(config)#interface gigabitethernet 3
The XSR-1850 will return the following prompt:
XSR(config-if<G3>)#
ˆ Router level: At this level you can configure parameters associated
with the RIP or OSPF protocols. You reach this level by typing router
[RIP, OSPF] in Global mode. For example, enter:
XSR(config)#router rip
The XSR-1850 will return the following prompt:
XSR(config-router)#
ˆ Several other levels are available in Global mode including AAA,
Class-Map, Crypto, Dialer, IP, and Map-Class. Many of these modes
have additional levels nested within them.
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Exiting From the Current Mode
Each of these commands exits from your mode but with different results:
ˆ Exit: In each mode exit quits from the current to previous mode
ˆ End: end always returns to Privileged EXEC from either Global or
sub-configuration mode
ˆ Ctrl-Z: Same as the end command
ˆ Be aware that you need not always exit from a mode if your current
and destination modes subscribe to the same parent in the mode tree.
Mode Examples
Consider the following examples to change configuration mode:
XSR>enable + Acquires Privileged EXEC mode
XSR#config terminal + Acquires Global configuration mode
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 1 + Acquires Interface mode
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.168.2.2.255.255.255.0
+ Sets up the IP address and subnet mask for this FastEthernet port
XSR(config-if<F1>)#exit + Quits Interface mode
XSR(config)#exit + Quits Global mode
XSR#disable + Quits Privileged EXEC mode
XSR> + Returned to EXEC mode by previous command
Observing Command Syntax and Conventions
The CLI command syntax and conventions use the notation described below.
Table 4 CLI Syntax
Convention
Description
xyz
Key word or mandatory parameters (bold)
[x]
[ ] Square brackets indicate an optional parameter (italic)
[x | y | z]
[ | ] Square brackets with vertical bar indicate a choice of values
{x | y | z}
{ | } Braces with vertical bar indicate a choice of a required value
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Table 4 CLI Syntax
Convention
Description
[x {y | z} ]
[{ | } ] Combination of square brackets with braces and vertical bars
indicates a required choice of an optional parameter
(config-if<xx>)
xx signifies the interface type; e.g., F1, G3, S2/1.0, D1, L0, BRI, PRI
(T1/E1), VPN, etc.
In the following example:
show interface [dialer | fastEthernet/gigabitethernet |
loopback | serial | bri | multilink | vpn {interface-number}]
ˆ show and interface are keywords
ˆ [dialer, fastEthernet, gigabitethernet, loopback, serial, bri,
multilink, vpn and {interface-number}] are optional parameters
Syntactically, each line begins with one or more command keywords followed
by a list of mandatory parameters (if any) and, lastly, a list or optional
parameters. For example the following command:
channel-group number timeslots range [speed {56 | 64}]
has a mandatory parameter value number, a mandatory parameter keyword
and value pair timeslots range, an optional parameter presented as a
keyword speed and value options of 56 or 64.
CLI Command Limits
CLI commands are bounded by the following:
ˆ Total number of characters in a command line/help message: 299
ˆ Total number of words in a command line: 127
ˆ Number of command history entries recalled: 31
ˆ Total number of characters in a prompt: 1023
ˆ Total number of characters in system name: 31
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Describing Ports and Interfaces
This section describes ports and interfaces, the rules for port identification,
and the association of port with interface.
Technically speaking, a port is a physical connector with some physical layer
values. XSR ports are: FastEthernet or GigabitEthernet, async and sync serial,
and T1/E1. An interface is a data and management plane comprising the
physical, link, and some part of the network layer. The terms are often used
interchangeably in this manual. FastEthernet ports are provided on the
XSR 1800 Series, and GigabitEthernet ports on the XSR 3000 Series routers.
The XSR supports multiple access types, including FastEthernet/ GigabitEthernet
LAN, Frame Relay and serial WAN access over Asynchronous, Synchronous,
T1/E1, and serial lines. Async and Sync access can be over permanent or dial lines.
Generally, Frame Relay and PPP are used for WAN access and PPPoE for WAN
access over a LAN. Dial access is provided by ISDN BRI and PRI.
Supported Physical Interfaces
ˆ FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet for LAN port consisting of Ethernet's
physical, Mac (Layer-2), and IP layer functionality.
ˆ Serial for Sync port/line consisting of a Sync port/line's physical,
Layer-2 (PPP) and IP layer functionality.
ˆ Serial for Async port/line consisting of an Async port/line's physical,
Layer-2 (PPP), and IP layer functionality.
ˆ Serial for T1/E1 channel group consisting of its physical, Layer-2 (PPP
or Frame Relay), and IP layer functionality.
Supported Virtual Interfaces
ˆ Interface dialer includes physical interfaces supporting dial
connectivity from the dial port/line's physical layer functionality
including dialing, Layer-2 (PPP), and IP layer functionality.
ˆ Sub-Interface for an NBMA network. An NBMA network has multiple
access over the same line but no broadcast capability. Examples of such
networks are Frame Relay, X.25, and ATM. One physical interface
comprises one or more sub-interfaces which in turn consist of one or
more circuits on the physical interface. Sub-interface examples and its
circuits are: one or more DLCIs forming a sub-interface, one or more
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X.25 PVC/SVCs forming a sub-interface and one or more VCs of ATM
forming a sub-interface. This interface shares its physical layer
functionality with other sub-interfaces, but each sub-interface has its
own layer-2 (PPP or Frame Relay) and IP layer functionality.
Supported Ports
ˆ
Single-channel ports: Fast- and GigabitEthernet, Sync and Async serial
ˆ Multiple-channel type ports: BRI, T1/E1
Numbering XSR Slots, Cards, and Ports
The syntax for slot, card, and port numbering on the CLI is:
slot#/card#/port#
These parameters indicate:
ˆ slot #: (motherboard is zero), (XSR 1800: 1/2, 3020/3150: 1/2, 3250: 0-2)
ˆ card #: NIM card number (FastEth: 1/2, GigaEth: 1-6 from left to right)
ˆ port #: NIM port numbers begin with zero
Slot 1
SECURITY ROUTERS
XSR-3250
NIM 1
Slot 2
NIM 2
NIM1
NIM2
Link
SYS
VPN
PWR
COM
COM
Slot 0
1000
TX
GBIC
10/100/1000
ETH1
10/100/1000
ETH2
ETH3
Motherboard
Figure 2 Slots on the XSR-3250
Slot, cards, and ports on the motherboard (Slot 0) are expressed as:
ˆ Slot 0, Card 1 or 2, Port 1 or 2: 0/1/1-4 or 1/1-4 and 0/2/1-4 or
2/1-4. The first 0 can be ignored
Slot, cards, and ports on the first XSR-3250 upper tray slot are expressed as:
ˆ Slot 1, Card 1 or 2, Port 1-4: 1/1/1-4 and 1/2/1-4
Slot, cards, and ports on the second XSR-3250 upper slot are expressed as:
ˆ Slot 2, Card 1 or 2, Port 1-4: 2/1/1-4 and 2/2/1-4
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Setting Port Configuration Mode
The configuration mode setting for ports on the XSR is as follows:
ˆ Single-channel ports are configured in Interface configuration mode.
ˆ Multi-channel ports are configured in Controller configuration mode.
A physical layer data stream is identified by channel using the
controller command, and this channel group is then configured
using the interface command.
Setting Interface Type and Numbering
Interface types and numbers are set as follows:
ˆ Physical-type interface and port numbers are similar. Interface types
are Serial BRI and PRI (T1/E1), or FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet.
ˆ Virtual Interfaces:
–
–
–
–
–
Dial - Range: 0 to 255, Interface type: Dialer.
VPN - Range: 0 to 255, Interface type: VPN tunnel/Dialer.
Multilink - Range: 1 to 32767, Interface type: VPN tunnel.
Frame Relay DLCI - Range: 16 to 1007, Interface type: Serial/FR.
Sub-interface: Each sub-interface correlates with a physical
interface, starting at 0. The sub-interface number is Port
number.sub-interface number for single channel serial, port
number.channelgroupnumber.subinterface number for multi-channel.
Configuration Examples
The following examples display minimal interface configuration:
ˆ FastEthernet Example
interface fastethernet 1 + Begins configuring interface/port 1
no shutdown + Enables the interface
ˆ T1 Example
controller t1 1/0 + Begins configuring controller on NIM card 1, port 0
channel-group 3 timeslots 1, 3-6, 12
+ Maps timeslots 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 12 to channel group 3
no shutdown + Enables the interface
!
interface serial 1/0:3 + Configures channel group 3 defined above
encapsulation ppp + Sets interface encapsulation type to PPP
no shutdown + Enables the interface
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ˆ T1-PRI (ISDN) Example
controller t1 1/0/0 + Begins configuring PRI NIM card 1, port 0
pri-group
+ Enables ISDN, sets all timeslots to map to channel groups on NIM
controller t1 1/0/0:23 + Maps T1 NIM to D-channel sub-interface
isdn switch-type primary-ni + Selects switch type
isdn pool-member 1 priority 100
+ Adds a prioritized pool member to sub-interface
ˆ Dialer Example
interface dialer 4 + Begins configuring dialer interface 4
ip address 11.1.2.2 255.0.0.0
+ Sets IP address/subnet on dialer port
dialer pool 5
+ Sets dialer 4 to use pool 5. Its members are physical ports
interface serial 2/0 + Configures serial interface on NIM card 2, port 0
encapsulation ppp + Sets interface encapsulation type to PPP
dialer pool member 5
+ Serial 2/0 is now a member of dialer pool 5 and will eventually be used by dialer 4
no shutdown + Enables the interface
!
interface serial 2/1 + Configures serial interface on NIM card 2, port 1
encapsulation ppp + Sets interface encapsulation type to PPP
dialer pool member 5
+ Serial 2/1 is now a member of dialer pool 5 and will eventually be used by dialer 4
no shutdown + Enables the interface
ˆ BRI-Dialer (IDSN) Example
interface dialer 0 + Configures dialer interface 0
ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0 + Sets IP address/subnet on port
encapsulation pp+Interface/Sub-interface Behavior
XSR interfaces and sub-interfaces, channels and channel-groups are added
and deleted differently depending on the particular interface. Interface
characteristics are as follows:
ˆ T1/E1 Controller - Creating a channel group adds a serial interface. For
example, when you issue the command controller t1 1/0, the XSR
automatically creates channel group 0 with all available timeslots
assigned to it. You can verify this by checking the running
configuration where the following entry is displayed:
interface serial 1/0:0
You can create other serial objects by creating more channel groups.
For example, by entering the following commands:
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channel-group 0 timeslots 1-10 speed 64
channel-group 1 timeslots 11-20 speed 64
the following interfaces are added:
interface serial 1/0:0
interface serial 1/0:1
You can delete those controller interfaces only by removing the
channel groups which automatically created them by entering:
no channel-group 0 +
no channel-group 1 +
This automatically deletes Serial port 1/0:0
This automatically deletes Serial port 1/0:1
To delete controller ports and all associated interfaces, you must
remove the entire controller:
no controller t1 1/0
ˆ PRI NIM - When configuring a PRI interface, a pri group is created as
follows:
controller t1 1/0
pri-group
Creating a PRI group adds a serial interface internally, but it is not
visible nor accessible to the user: interface serial 1/0:0 is not
displayed anywhere. But, the system resources associated with it
remain in use until the pri group is deleted as follows:
no pri-group
ˆ BRI NIM - When configuring a BRI interface, sub-interface
addition/removal differs if you are configuring a leased line or
switched connection.
Leased line: When configuring a leased line connection, serial
sub-interfaces are created and are visible to the user:
interface bri 2/1
leased-line 64 + This adds serial port 2/1:1
leased-line 64 + This adds serial port 2/1:2
These serial interfaces are removed by deleting the entire controller.
For example:
interface bri 2/2
no controller t1 2
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Switched: When configuring a switched BRI connection, three serial
sub-interfaces are automatically created when you enter:
interface bri 2/1
isdn switch-type basic-ni1
The following sub-interfaces are added:
interface serial 2/1:0
interface serial 2/1:1
interface serial 2/1:2
These serial sub-interfaces are removed with the no isdn
switch-type command as follows:
interface bri 2/1
no isdn switch-type +
This deletes serial ports 2/1:0, 2/1:1 and 2/1:2
Entering Commands that Control Tables
A number of CLI commands configure entries in tables such as arp and
access-list in the XSR. Two type of tables are configurable:
ˆ Single-instance table: The ARP table, for example, in which one table
contains many rows and each row is a complete entry. Entries are not
displayed in the same order they are entered.
ˆ Multiple-instance table: The Access-List table, for example, in which
there are multiple tables identified by number with each table
containing many rows and each row is a complete entry. Entries are
not displayed in the same order they are entered.
With few exceptions, you must be in Global mode before issuing table commands.
Adding Table Entries
Depending on the type of table configured, the parameter list can be optional
or required. For example the ARP table has three required parameters and
some optional values depending on the context. For example, using the
following command:
arp ip-address mac-address
you may type:
XSR(config)#arp 1.1.1.1 e45e.ffe5.ffee
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where arp is the command and type of table to be filled or modified, 1.1.1.1
is the IP address corresponding to the MAC address e45e.ffe5.ffee.
NOTE
ARP is a table type, as well as a command, that fills or modifies entries in
the ARP table.
A second example is entered as follows:
XSR(config)#access-list 1 deny any
where access-list is the command and the type of table to be filled or
modified, 1 is the ID of the table to be modified, deny is the type of operation
authorized and any is the host that should be denied.
Deleting Table Entries
There are two ways to delete an entry from a table depending on the table
type. For example, typing the following:
XSR(config)#no arp 1.1.1.1 e45e.ffe5.ffee
removes the arp entry related to row 1.1.1.1. where no is the command
that negates the previous operation and arp is the associated table type. A
second example is entered as follows:
XSR(config)#no access-list 1
removes access-list 1 where no is the command that clears the access-list.
Modifying Table Entries
For some tables, you must first remove the entry then add the same entry
with new values. For the ARP table the syntax is similar to the add command
where you enter the command and entry ID with a new value which replaces
the old value in the ARP table.
For example, typing the following:
XSR(config)#arp 1.1.1.1 e45e.ffe5.efef
XSR(config)#arp 1.1.1.1 e45e.ffe5.3434
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first creates an arp entry of 1.1.1.1 associated with MAC address
e45e.ffe5.efef. Then, this entry is modified to be associated with the new
MAC address e45e.ffe5.3434.
Displaying Table Entries
You can display ARP table, access-list table, gateway-type prefix table, IP
routing table, and others at privileged EXEC mode.
For example, enter show ip arp displays the following output:
XSR#show ip arp
Protocol
Address
Age(min) Hardware Address
Type Interface
Internet
192.168.12.16
0
0001.f4fe.2716
ARPA FastEthernet2
Internet
192.168.14.64
12
0001.f4ee.2764
ARPA FastEthernet2
Internet
192.168.12.40
18
00b0.d0fe.e292
ARPA FastEthernet2
Internet
180.180.180.1
59
0030.ee1f.ef61
ARPA FastEthernet2
Internet
192.168.12.1
8
00e0.631f.a45a
ARPA FastEthernet2
Internet
192.168.12.81
60
0030.85ff.ef61
ARPA FastEthernet2
Internet
192.168.12.17
44
0001.f4ef.2717
ARPA FastEthernet2
Managing XSR Interfaces
You must be in Interface mode before configuring XSR ports. To enter
Interface mode, type the following, for example:
XSR#configure terminal
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#
Ports can be enabled or disabled, configured for default settings, associated
tables, clock rate, priority group, and encapsulation, for example. Refer to the
XSR CLI Reference Guide for more details on Interface mode commands.
NOTE
All interfaces are disabled by default.
Enabling an Interface
The following command enables an interface.
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#no shutdown +
XSR User’s Guide
Enables serial interface 2
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Disabling an Interface
An interface can be administratively disabled with the shutdown command:
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#shutdown +
Disables interface
Configuring an Interface
You can configure an interface only after invoking Interface configuration
mode. Each interface can be configured with a set of interface-specific
commands. If you are unsure which commands are available, type ? to list
them for the particular port. Consider the following sequence of commands
to configure a GigabitEthernet interface:
XSR#config terminal
XSR(config)#interface gigabitethernet 2
XSR(config-if<G2>)#?
description + Text describing this interface
duplex + Manually set the duplex mode
exit + Quit interface configuration mode
help + Description of the interactive help system
ip + Interface Internet Protocol config commands
loopback + Configure interface for internal loopback
no + Negate a command or set its defaults
shutdown + Shutdown the selected interface
speed + Manually set the line speed
XSR(config-if<F1>)exit + Quit Interface mode
Displaying Interface Attributes
You can display the current settings of an interface when in Privileged EXEC
or Global configuration mode. For example, type:
XSR#show interface fastethernet 1
or:
XSR(config)#show interface serial 1/0
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Managing Message Logs
Messages produced by the XSR, whether alarms or events, as well as link
state changes for critical ports and a management authentication log, can be
routed to various destinations with the logging command. And by issuing
the no logging command, you can block messages to a site while permitting
transmission to others.
For normal operation, you should log only HIGH severity alarms which
indicate critical events and those requiring operator intervention. Be aware
that the XSR may drop MEDIUM, LOW, and DEBUG level alarms if the
system is too busy to deliver them. In that case, the following alarm will be
generated where XX is the number of messages:
“Logging Storm Encountered - discarded XX debug/low/medium messages”
Be aware that the DEBUG alarm level is used by maintenance personnel only.
The XSR serves the following logging destinations:
ˆ Syslog (to remote Syslog server over the network)
ˆ Console terminal
ˆ Monitor (up to five CLI sessions via Telnet)
ˆ Buffer (Log file in XSR’s RAM)
ˆ Buffer (log file) on CompactFlash card when persistent logging (after
power loss) is enabled for the firewall (see “Configuring Security on
the XSR” on page 311 for more information)
ˆ SNMP Trap (async notification by XSR to the SNMP Manager)
Logging Commands
Logging into individual destinations can be enabled or disabled based on
severity level of the message (high, medium, low and debug) using the
logging command. Note that entering logging medium sets that level for all
destinations. Also, you can display your logging configuration with the show
logging command and show or clear messages in the memory buffer with
the show logging history and clear logging commands, respectively.
The entire message history is lost when the XSR is powered down.
See “Alarms/Events and System Limits” on page 355 for a thorough listing of
XSR alarms/events and the XSR CLI Reference Guide for command details.
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Performing Fault Management
When a software problem causes the XSR’s processor to fail, the system
captures pertinent data, produces a Fault Report, and restarts the router
automatically. The Fault Report is useful in diagnosing the problem. The
router can store one Fault Report, retaining the first Fault Report in case of
multiple failures. It is stored in a special RAM memory area which is
preserved if the XSR is rebooted but lost if the router is powered down.
When the XSR automatically reboots after a crash, the following sample
message is logged:
<186>May 29 22:20:59 1.1.1.1 PLATF System warm boot from crash
Fault Report Commands
The show fault-report command displays the report. Refer to the XSR CLI
Reference Guide for more command details.
Using the Real-Time Clock
The XSR’s Real-Time Clock (RTC) is employed by other system software
modules to time-stamp events, alarms and is useful when no network clock
source is accessible. It is normally synchronized with a master clock source
over the network using the Simple Network Time Protocol (SNTP) but can
can also synchronize with the battery-supported RTC chip.
RTC/Network Clock Options
SNTP synchronizes the RTC with a network master clock but if there is no
network clock source the RTC clock is used on its own. The RTC maintains
the correct time with its battery even when the XSR is powered down.
RTC Commands
The real-time clock can be set with the clock set command. The universal
time can be viewed with show clock command. To set the SNTP server, use
the sntp-client server command. Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for
more command details.
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Managing the System Configuration
The XSR’s system configuration consists of three discrete types which are
described below. The configuration can also be reset to default settings, saved,
and uploaded or downloaded in bulk fashion.
ˆ Factory Default Configuration: These system parameters are set at the
factory. If you make configuration changes and do not save them or
the startup configuration file cannot be found, the XSR reverts to the
factory default configuration.
ˆ Startup Configuration: These system settings are used as the current
running configuration when you power up or issue the reload
command. The startup configuration is stored in non-volatile (Flash)
memory as the startup-config file. The file contains a version
number followed by a series of CLI commands. When the XSR
restarts, each CLI command in this file is read and executed.
ˆ Private Configuration: The private-config file contains SNMP v3
related commands. When the XSR restarts, each CLI command in this
file is read and executed. The file is updated or created when the
running configuration is saved to the startup configuration.
ˆ Running Configuration: These system settings, known as runningconfig, include a version number followed by accumulated
commands from startup-config and user revisions. Changes made
to the configuration are lost if you power cycle or reboot unless you
save it to startup-config using the copy or write command.
The XSR validates commands as they are entered and rejects with an error
message those commands which are invalid.
Resetting the Configuration to Factory Default
In situations where the XSR does not have valid software or is experiencing a
problem booting up, you can reset the router and return it to its factory
default settings by accessing Bootrom Monitoring Mode.
Enter Bootrom mode by simultaneously pressing the CTRL and C keys during
the first five seconds of system initialization. You can then access a menu
which allows system initialization from the factory default setting.
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide and XSR Getting Started Guide for more
details about Bootrom Monitoring Mode.
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Using the Default Button
You can also boot up from the factory default configuration by pressing the
default button on the rear panel, shown in Figure 3. Doing so will erase the
content in the startup configuration in Flash memory. After pressing the
default button, the XSR performs the following operations:
ˆ Processor is interrupted
ˆ Software enforces default configuration as running configuration
ˆ Software restarts the XSR
ˆ XSR restarts with default configuration
ˆ Original startup configuration in Flash is erased
ˆ Bootrom password is set to default
ˆ Fault report (if any) is cleared
ˆ Security-sensitive files are erased from Flash
ˆ Bootrom Monitor mode network parameters are set to defaults
ˆ Master encryption key is erased from non-volatile memory
ˆ Console connection restarts
WARNING
Pressing the Default button erases all files in Flash memory.
DEFAULT
CORD
SWITCH
ELAN 1
ELAN 2
COM
POWER
Figure 3 Default Button
Configuration Save Options
There are several options available regarding configuration:
ˆ If you want to make your running configuration the new startup
configuration, you can save it to Flash memory with the copy
running-config startup-config command.
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ˆ If you want to convert your startup configuration into the running
configuration, you can issue the reload command which reboots the
XSR and reloads the startup configuration.
ˆ If you want to save the startup configuration to a remote site using a
TFTP server, issue the copy startup-config tftp: command. See
the associated command below.
ˆ If you want to load the configuration manually from a remote site
using a TFTP server, issue the copy tftp: startup-config
command. Refer to “Bulk Configuration Management” on page 29
for more information about this and the previous command.
To view the running-config, use the show running-config command. To
view the startup-config, issue the more startup-config command.
For more command details, refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide.
Using File System Commands
A set of MS-DOS compatible commands are available for use in conjunction
with configuration files. The XSR has a file system residing in the XSR’s nonvolatile memory.
You can copy files with the copy command, remove files with the delete
command, display files with the more command, verify a packed software
image file with the verify command, and change and list directory contents
with the cd and dir commands, respectively.
For more command details, refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide.
Bulk Configuration Management
The XSR can be configured in one action by storing CLI commands as a script
in an ASCII file then transferring the file to the router remotely using TFTP or
locally from cflash:. There is a limitation in the size of the stored file,
though. If the file is larger than the limit, then the download operation will
abort producing an error message.
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Downloading the Configuration
Downloading transfers a script file remotely from a server to the XSR’s
startup configuration using TFTP or locally from cflash:. The ASCII-format
script can include comments delineated by an exclamation mark.
To perform the task correctly, the TFTP server must be running on a remote
device with the configuration file residing in the TFTP root directory of the
server. You can then enter the copy startup-config tftp: command in
EXEC mode to copy the configuration file from the server to the XSR.
Alternately, the file must first be loaded in cflash: then copied to flash:
with the copy cflash:startup-config flash:startup-config command.
NOTE
If you have inadvertently added errors to the CLI script file, the
restoration of startup-config will be stopped at the error line. So, any
commands after that line in startup-config are not executed.
For more command details, refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide.
Uploading the Configuration
An upload copies the XSR configuration file (or other files) to a system in a
CLI script format using TFTP. You can later retrieve the file with TFTP.
To perform the task correctly, the TFTP server must be running on a remote
device. You then enter the copy startup-config tftp: <tftp IP
addr>/filename command in EXEC mode to copy the file to the server. A
successful upload produces the following sample output:
XSR#copy startup-config tftp:
Address of remote host [0.0.0.0]: 10.10.10.10
Destination file name [startup-config]:
Copy 'startup-config' from Flash to server
as 'startup-config'(y/n) ? y
Upload to server done
File size: 976 bytes
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for more command details.
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Creating Alternate Configuration Files
The XSR permits you to create multiple configurations, a useful option if you
want to quickly select one of two configuration files stored in flash: or
cflash:, for example: startup-config and startup-configB. The file
named startup-config is used by the autoboot process. You can use any file
name for the alternate configuration.
To make an alternate configuration file available, rename startup-config to
startup-configA (for example), and startup-configB to startupconfig., using the rename command. Then issue the reload command to use
the new configuration.
Managing the Software Image
The XSR can store more than one software image in Flash.
Creating Alternate Software Image Files
The XSR lets you create multiple software images, a useful option if you want
to quickly select an alternate image. For example, you can create two software
image files: XSR1805_a.fls and xsr1805_b.fls. Begin the process by
issuing the boot system command to create a boot-config file containing
the name of your software file. Enter:
boot system XSR1805_b.fls
The boot-config file contains the file name - XSR1805_a.fls - used by the
autoboot process. By changing the file name inside boot-config, you will
boot from the alternate software file in Flash, XSR1805_b.fls:
NOTE
If the boot from Flash fails for any reason, the XSR will attempt to copy
the specified software file from the network based on the setting in
Bootrom mode. Refer to the following section for details.
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BootRom Upgrade Choices
There are two methods available to upgrade your Bootrom. If you use the
Bootrom Update Utility, you will need the updateBootrom.fls and
bootromX_xx.fls files. For more information on how to use these files to
perform your Bootrom upgrade, refer to the Using the Bootrom Update
Utility section.
If you do not use the Bootrom Update Utility, you must perform a two-step
procedure to upgrade from 1.xx to 2.xx Bootrom versions due to a change in
file format. To do so, you will need the bootrom_uncmp.fls and
bootromX_xx1.fls files. For more information on how to use these files to
perform your Bootrom upgrade, refer to the Local Bootrom Upgrade section.
Pre-upgrade Procedures
XSR firmware upgrades are infrequent but if you do so using Bootrom mode,
you must perform the following:
ˆ Make a DB-9 null modem serial link to a terminal (HyperTerminal,
Procomm, et al.) with 9600 bps, 8 bits, 1 stop bit, and no flow control.
ˆ Make an Ethernet connection at the first network interface (located
next to the power switch).
ˆ Connect to the FTP (default) or TFTP server on a host PC running
with a known user and password. Be sure you can access the latest
Bootrom binary file on the host computer, e.g., bootrom1_21.fls.
ˆ Optionally, if you have CompactFlash installed, you can download the
firmware file to cflash: then perform Step 1 (see below) followed by
the bu (lower-case u) command.
ˆ If you use the Cabletron TFTP/BOOTP Services application, which
does not recognize long file names, first shorten the Bootrom file
name to 8 characters or less with an extension, before beginning the
download (i.e.: bootnew.fls). Rename the file after the download.
ˆ Be aware that factory default Flash memory is limited to 8 Mbytes
and if congested may not be able to store a downloaded Bootrom.
Remove old firmware or other files before downloading.
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Using the Bootrom Update Utility
The Bootrom update utility upgrades the boot flash sectors of the on-board
Flash memory. This update tool functions similar to the bU command but also
can be executed from a Telnet session, allowing Bootrom updates to be
performed remotely. The utility runs as a standalone program and can
recognize both old (1.x) and new (2.01) versions of the Bootrom file format.
After you complete the Bootrom update, the XSR will reboot.
Note that screen-captured XSR text is displayed in Courier font. Userrequired input appears in larger, bold Courier font.
1
From a remote Telnet session, at a CLI prompt, configure the "bootconfig" file to your current software file residing in flash: (the default is
xsr1800.fls; if your Bootrom version is earlier than 1.16, the default
is xsr1805.fls). Enter:
XSR(config)#boot system xsr1800.fls
xsr1800.fls saved into flash:boot-config
2
Exit to EXEC mode and verify this setting by entering: more bootconfig. Be sure that at least 2 MBytes of flash file space is available
by entering the dir command. If file space is low, delete unnecessary
files. The following files are required (xsr1800.fls may be replaced
by the current software file):
XSR-1805#dir
Listing Directory flash:/
size
-------208
3244017
12
date
time
name
-----------------OCT-31-2002 09:34:16
startup-config
OCT-31-2002 09:32:46
xsr1800.fls
OCT-31-2002 09:31:32
boot-config
3,475,456 bytes free
6,727,680 bytes total
3
Using TFTP, transfer the latest Bootrom version from the network.
The target name must be bootrom.fls:
XSR-1805#copy
tftp://192.168.27.95/C:/tftpDir/bootrom2_01.fls
flash:bootrom.fls
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Copy 'tftpDir/bootrom2_01.fls' from server as 'bootrom.fls' into
Flash(y/n) ? y
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Download from server done
File size: 820136 bytes
4
Using TFTP, transfer updateBootrom.fls from the network:
XSR-1805#copy
tftp://192.168.27.95/C:/tftpDir/updateBootrom.fls
flash:updateBootrom.fls
Copy 'tftpDir/updateBootrom.fls' from server
as 'updateBootrom.fls' into Flash(y/n) ? y
!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Download from server done
File size: 667172 bytes
5
Copy boot-config to restore-boot-config:
XSR-1805#copy flash:boot-config flash:restore-boot-config
Copy 'boot-config' from flash: device
as 'restore-boot-config' into flash: device(y/n) ? y
copying file flash:boot-config -> flash:restore-boot-config
Copy OK: 12 bytes copied
12 bytes copied
6
Reconfigure boot-config to boot updateBootrom.fls:
XSR-1805(config)#boot system updateBootrom.fls
updateBootrom.fls saved into flash:boot-config
7
Display the current list of files and the contents of boot-config and
restore-boot-config to verify the transfers went smoothly:
XSR-1805#dir
Listing Directory flash:/
size
date
time
-------- ----------208
OCT-31-2002 09:34:16
3244017
OCT-31-2002 09:32:46
820136
OCT-31-2002 09:40:42
667172
OCT-31-2002 09:42:06
18
OCT-31-2002 09:44:10
12
OCT-31-2002 09:43:44
name
-------startup-config
xsr1800.fls
bootrom.fls
updateBootrom.fls
boot-config
restore-boot-config
1,984,512 bytes free
6,727,680 bytes total
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XSR-1805#more boot-config
updateBootrom.fls
XSR-1805#more restore-boot-config
xsr1800.fls
8
This is a critical step and all previous steps must be completed
accurately before proceeding. Reload and wait a couple of minutes.
You will lose your Telnet session as the system reboots. The XSR will
run updateBootrom.fls and update the Bootrom into the boot flash
sectors. Power must not be interrupted since a power failure or
interruption may render the XSR unusable. The file, restore-bootconfig, will be renamed to boot-config and updateBootrom.fls and
bootrom.fls will be removed before the router is rebooted again.
XSR-1805#reload
Proceed with reload (y/n) ? y
9
Verify that the system is up by remotely logging in via Telnet. Enter
show version and check the new Bootrom version.
Local Bootrom Upgrade
Due to the change in the format of the Bootrom file between version 1.x and
version 2.01, a transitional step is required when updating across these
versions only. This transitional step can be avoided by using the Bootrom
Update utility described above.
When you are running a 1.x version of the Bootrom and you try to upgrade to
version 2.01 of the Bootrom file, it will be rejected due to the change in format.
bootrom_uncmp.fls is a transitional, non-redundant Bootrom file that the
existing 1_x version bU command can recognize. By updating and rebooting
with this transitional version, you can subsequently use the new bU command
(which recognizes the new 2.01 format) to update the Bootrom to version 2.01.
Be aware that if you boot with bootrom_uncmp.fls, you will see the
following output on the screen:
"Danger!
Cannot find a good copy of Bootrom"
Once you have upgraded to version 2.01 with bootrom2_01.fls, you can
reboot and all subsequent Bootrom updates (which do not involve a change
in the bootFirst module) are power-safe.
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In summary, when upgrading 1.x to 2.x Bootrom versions only, you must run
the bU command twice - first with the bootrom_uncmp.fls file, then with the
upgraded Bootrom. Between upgrades you must reboot using bw..
To upgrade your firmware using the Local Bootrom Upgrade, perform the
following steps:
1
Power on the XSR by flipping the rear switch and observe the front
LEDs. When the system, VPN, console, NIM1 and NIM2 LEDs turn
off, immediately enter <Ctrl-C> on the terminal. If you miss this time
window, power off and try again. The Bootrom monitor menu should
appear as follows:
X-Pedition Security Router Bootrom
Copyright 2003 Enterasys Networks Inc.
HW Version: 9002854-02 REV0A Serial Number: 2854019876543210
CPU: IBM PowerPC 405GP Rev. D
VxWorks version: 5.4
Bootrom version: 1.21
Creation date: Nov 3, 2002, 11:16:44
Cold Start: SystemReset from powerup
Password:
Entering ROM monitor Type "h" for help
Using default Bootrom password The system is not secure!!!
Use "bp" to change password
XSR1800:
2
Type h or ? to display the command groups.
3
Type f to list the file command group.
4
Type n to list the network command group.
5
Using the np command, assign the following:
–
–
–
–
36
Local IP address (of the XSR).
Remote (host computer) IP address (The host must be on the
same subnet as the XSR).
DOS-style full path (without the file name) of the site of the
Bootrom file on the host computer.
The username and password to use when connecting to your FTP
server on the host computer.
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6
Verify the network boot values using the sn command. For example:
XSR: sn
Local IP address : 192.168.1.1
Remote IP address : 192.168.1.2
Remote file path : c:/XSR
Transfer Protocol : FTP
Ftp userid
: administrator
Ftp password
: anonymous
Local target name : XSR
Autoboot
: enabled
Quick boot
: no
Current 405 ethernet MAC address is: 00:01:f4:00:01:02
Current PCI ethernet MAC address is: 00:01:f4:01:01:03
7
Type b to list the boot command group.
8
Enter the bU command to transfer the Bootrom image file over FTP
and upgrade the Bootrom flash sectors to the latest version. Be sure
to enter the command with an uppercase U and follow the prompts.
WARNING
If the Bootrom file transfer is corrupted due to a network interruption,
this step may render the router unusable. If you suspect this has
happened, type n at the confirmation prompt to abort erasing and
replacing the Bootrom. Then, delete the file (type: rm bootrom1_21.fls,
for example) and re-issue the bU command to transfer the image
again.Here is a sample session:
XSR1800: bU bootrom_uncmp.fls
ftp RETR 192.168.1.2:c:/XSR1850/ bootrom_uncmp.fls into
flash bootrom_uncmp.fls
........ Saved 818448 bytes to flash: bootrom_uncmp.fls
Checking bootrom_uncmp.fls...
Updating bootrom with file, "bootrom_uncmp.fls".
Proceed with erasing current Bootrom in flash and replace with
bootrom_uncmp.fls? (y/n) y
*****************************************************
*
Do not interrupt or power down until complete! *
*****************************************************
Erasing 3 sectors at address=0xfff20000
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Programming 131072(0x20000) bytes at address 0xfff20000
Programming 131072(0x20000) bytes at address 0xfff40000
Programming 48299(0xbcab) bytes at address 0xfff60000
Verifying Bootrom flash sectors
Locking 3 Bootrom flash sectors
Second copy of Bootrom ...
Erasing 3 sectors at address=0xfff80000
Programming 131072(0x20000) bytes at address 0xfff80000
Programming 131072(0x20000) bytes at address 0xfffa0000
Programming 48299(0xbcab) bytes at address 0xfffc0000
Verifying Bootrom flash sectors
Locking 3 Bootrom flash sectors
Locking 8 Bootrom flash sectors
*****
Bootrom update completed.
*****
Do you want to remove the bootrom file bootrom_uncmp.fls? (y/n) y
Using default Bootrom password.
Use "bp" to change password
9
The system is not secure!!!
Reboot the XSR by entering bw.
10 Repeat Step 8 with: bU bootrom2_01.fls
11 Reboot the XSR again: bw
12 Your Bootrom in Flash memory is now updated and will be used
during the next power up sequence.
NOTE
For more information, consult the SSR boot Release Notes at:
http://www.enterasys.com/support/relnotes/rn_3033-05.pdf
Loading Software Images
If the XSR has a valid Bootrom but no valid firmware, the software can be
loaded from Bootrom Monitor mode using FTP. You also have the option of
copying the image remotely from a TFTP server, using the copy tftp:
flash: command, or locally from cflash:, using the copy cflash:
command. Be aware that should the transfer fail, the XSR may temporarily be
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without valid software in flash: and should not be reloaded or powered
down until a new image is downloaded. Also, the CLI session which initiated
the copy command is blocked during a TFTP download, with a character
repeatedly shown on screen to indicate a file transfer in progress.
Software Image Commands
You can view the status of the software image including such information as
the current firmware image filename, software release version, timestamp, and
size by issuing the show version command.
Use the boot system command to actively change the default file name of the
software image.
For more command details, refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide.
Displaying System Status and Statistics
The XSR’s numerous show commands, which are available in either
privileged EXEC or Global configuration mode, display a broad array of
system data such as:
ˆ System name, port types and their status, CPU card revision, Flash
memory and DRAM size, NIM cards and type, contact and system
hardware data, image in Flash, system location, and other values.
ˆ XSR statistics: buffer counters, packets and NIM card status.
To display available show commands, issue the show ? command.
Some system data such as the product type and serial number, hardware
revision number of the motherboard, and Ethernet port MAC addresses is
stored in IDROM, a discrete area in Flash memory. You can view these
parameters by issuing the show version command.
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for details about these commands.
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Network Management through SNMP
XSR system monitoring provides for the SNMP v1 agent (READ-ONLY)
including gets and limited sets and SNMP v3 gets and sets. Standard MIB II
modules are supported as well as Enterasys MIBs, as listed in the following
table. Proprietary MIBs are available via download at:
http://www.enterasys.com/support/mibs
Table 5 XSR Standard and Proprietary MIBs
MIB Module
Document
Comments
MIB-II
RFC-1212
The egpNeighTable and atTable MIBs are not supported.
Query ipNetToMediaTable for address translation data.
Evolution of the Interface
Group of MIB-II
RFC-1573
Translated to SMIv1. Supports ifStackTable only.
Upload/Download
Enterasys
Proprietary MIB: CTRON-DOWNLOAD-MIB
Chassis
Enterasys
Proprietary MIB: CHASSIS-MIB partially supported.
Entity
RFC-2737
Translated to SMIv1. EntPhysicalTable is supported only.
Tunnel
RFC-2667
The tunnelIf Table is supported when VPN is enabled.
SNMPv3 MIB: Framework
RFC-3411
Standard MIB
SNMPv3 MIB: MPD
RFC-3412
Standard MIB
SNMPv3 MIB: USM
RFC-3414
Standard MIB
SNMPv3 MIB: VACM
RFC-3415
Standard MIB
Timed-Reset
Enterasys
Proprietary MIB
Configuration Change
Enterasys
Proprietary MIB
Configuration Management
Enterasys
Proprietary MIB
Syslog Client
Enterasys
Proprietary MIB
SNMP Persistence
Enterasys
Proprietary MIB
In order to use SNMP to gather statistics or configure the device, first
configure the XSR’s SNMP agent with the snmp-server commands.
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Managing the XSR
Network Management through SNMP
Variables to be configured include: community name, traps, and host. SNMP v3
support includes options to specify an engineID, security values for users and
groups, and associated show commands. Also, the snmp-server view
command is an especially powerful tool to display SNMP objects either via
their SNMP term or numerical ID. SNMP v3 data is stored in the privateconfig file in Flash. Although SNMP is disabled by default, entering any
SNMP configuration command except snmp-server disable will enable the
SNMP server.
For a full description of SNMP commands, refer to the XSR CLI Reference
Guide. Also refer to NetSight Atlas Router Services Manager v2.0
documentation to query and change SNMP values. Because the SNMP
manager is disabled at boot-up, you must either manually enable the SNMP
manager using the CLI, or enable it in startup-config.
NOTE
The XSR allows a total of 20 read-only and 20 write-only communities.
Shaping Trap Traffic
Two controls are available to manage network traffic caused by SNMP traps.
The first, set by the snmp-server min-trap-spacing command, configures
minimum spacing between successive traps to ensure that they are spaced
without causing delay.
The second control defines the maximum number of traps that can be sent in
a given time window. The time window is a moving sum of the number of
traps sent to the network. If the number of traps sent in the previous windowtime is less than the value set by the snmp-server max-traps-per-window
command, then more traps can be sent.
Both methods work simultaneously and independently and only when both
are satisfied will a trap be sent. Otherwise, traps will be queued and sent as
soon as conditions satisfy both traffic shaping methods.
NOTE
The XSR permits a total of 20 trap servers.
XSR User’s Guide
41
Accessing the XSR Through the Web
Chapter 2
Managing the XSR
Accessing the XSR Through the Web
The XSR via a browser but provide a cursory display of hardware
configuration data to diagnose the router over the Web. Because the Web
server is disabled at boot-up, you must either manually enable the Web server
using the CLI, or enable it in startup-config.
The default Web server port is 80. Access to the XSR through the Web is not
password protected.
Network Management Tools
The following tools are useful to manage the XSR over the network.
NetSight Atlas Router Services Manager v2.0
XSR firewall and Access Control List(ACL) configuration can performed on
the NetSight Atlas Router Services Manager v2.0 application. For more
information, refer to the following URL:
http://www.enterasys.com/products/management/NSA-RSM-CD/
For NetSight Atlas documentation, refer to the following URL:
http://www.enterasys.com/support/manuals/netsight.html
Firmware Upgrade Procedures
A variety of tools provided by the XSR and Enterasys’ NetSight application
support the following procedures.
Using the CLI for Downloads
TFTP can be used to transfer system firmware to the XSR remotely. A TFTP
server must be running on the remote machine and the firmware image file
must reside in the TFTP root directory of the server when using the copy
tftp filename command.
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Managing the XSR
Network Management Tools
Using SNMP for Downloads
You can use an SNMP manager to download or upload firmware from a
remote server, and copy a configuration image file to the XSR. Only runtime/online mode downloads are supported. This requires setting the
ctDLNetAddress and ctDLFileName objects and issuing a ctDLOnLineDownLoad
defined in the CTRON-DOWNLOAD-MIB. For more details refer to the
following URL: http://www.enterasys.com/support/mibs
Fault Report
A fault report can be uploaded through TFTP. The mechanism to upload the
crash report is the same as the one used to upload configuration file. Refer to
“Performing Fault Management” on page 26 for more information.
Auto-discovery
The NetSight Gateway Management Tool can auto-discover an XSR on the
network using SNMP with the following MIB variables:
ˆ SysDesr
ˆ SysObjID
ˆ Sysuptime
NetSight also performs auto-discovery via ping using ICMP ping.
Statistics
For SNMP support, SNMP gets are supported as listed in Table 5. Also, refer
to NetSight Atlas Router Services Manager v2.0 to query and change SNMP
values.
Alarm Management (Traps)
The following events are supported by SNMP traps: link up, link down, warm
start, cold start, authentication error, and Entity Trap Configuration Change.
SNMP alarms are listed in Appendix A: “System Alarms and Events” on
page 357.
XSR User’s Guide
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Network Management Tools
Chapter 2
Managing the XSR
Software Image Download
The NetSight Remote Administrator application can download an image to
the XSR using TFTP. The software image download is initiated through
NetSight using an SNMP set command, which triggers a TFTP download
session initiated from the XSR.
NOTE
The XSR does not support an off-line download triggered by SNMP. That is,
when you use NetSight to download an image, a dialog box will pop up
with a check box titled Online download. If the box is unchecked, the SNMP
request will fail. See NetSight documentation for more information.
Using SNMP Download with Auto-Reboot Option
To use this option, you must first enter the following command in Global
mode to allow a user to reboot the XSR using SNMP:
XSR(config)#snmp-server system-shutdown
When a user employs NetSight to download an image, a dialog box will pop
up with a check box titled Auto reboot. If the box is checked, the XSR will be
rebooted remotely after the download ends. If the snmp-server systemshutdown command were not entered and the remote user chose the auto
reboot option, the request would fail.
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3
Managing LAN/WAN Interfaces
Overview of LAN Interfaces
The XSR supports two 10/100 Base-T FastEthernet ports on the XSR 1800
Series branch routers and three 10/100/1000 Base-TGigabitEthernet ports on
the XSR 3000 Series regional routers. All ports are capable of running in halfand full-duplex modes, and are ANSI/IEEE 802.3 and ANSI/IEEE 802.3u
compliant. These ports connect to an Ethernet network for LAN connectivity.
The Fast/GigabitEthernet interfaces perform the following functions:
ˆ Allow the XSR to connect to networks of speeds of 10 Mbps, 100
Mbps, or 1000 Mbps (using manual settings or auto-negotiation)
ˆ Monitor the status of the link: up or down
ˆ Allow you to issue interface/device configuration commands
through the Command Line Interface (CLI)
ˆ Accumulate MIB-II (RFC-1213) interface statistics regarding the
transmission and reception of bytes and packets
LAN Features
The XSR supports the following LAN interface features:
ˆ Alarms/events - For a complete list, refer to “Alarms/Events and
System Limits” on page 355 in this manual.
ˆ Duplex mode is set using the duplex command with the following
options:
–
–
–
XSR User’s Guide
Half - half-duplex
Full - full-duplex
Auto - auto-negotiation (default)
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Configuring the LAN
Chapter 3
Managing LAN/WAN Interfaces
ˆ Packet filtering - the interface will receive:
–
–
–
All broadcast packets
All multicast packets
Unicast packets which have the MAC addresses of the device
ˆ Maximum Receive Unit (MRU) - all frames less than or equal to 1518
bytes are accepted including the 4-byte FCS.
ˆ Oversized packets greater than 1518 bytes are not accepted.
ˆ Runt packets of 64 bytes or less are not accepted.
ˆ Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) - all frames less than or equal to
1518 bytes are accepted. MTU size is set using the ip mtu command.
ˆ Speed is enabled using the speed command with the following
options:
–
–
–
–
10 - 10 Mbps
100 - 100 Mbps
1000 - 1000 Mbps
Auto - Auto-negotiate (default)
ˆ Statistics - all MIB-II interface statistics are supported
ˆ Clear commands such as clear counters FastEthernet and
clear counters gigabitethernet, which reset the MIB-II counters,
and clear interface FastEthernet and clear interface
GigabitEthernet, which reset the interface counters and facilitate
interface troubleshooting.
Configuring the LAN
Enter the following commands to configure FastEthernet interface 1 on
network 192.57.99.32:
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.57.99.32 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
Enter the following commands to configure GigabitEthernet interface 2 on
network 192.168.57.12:
XSR(config)#interface gigabitethernet 2
XSR(config-if<G2>)#ip address 192.168.57.12 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<G2>)#no shutdown
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MIB Statistics
MIB Statistics
The following table reflects MIB-II (RFC-1213) port statistics collected by a
LAN interface.
Table 6 MIB-II Interface Statistics
Variable
Description
IfDescr
Description of the interface.
IfType
Type of the interface (set once, and never changed).
IfMtu
Size of the largest packet that can be sent/received on the interface,
specified in bytes.
IfSpeed
Estimate of the interface's current bandwidth in kilobits per second
(will be 10000 or 100000)
IfPhysAddress
Interface's address at its protocol sub-layer (the MAC address).
ifAdminStatus
Desired state for the interface.
ifOperStatus
Current operational status of the interface.
ifLastChange
Value of sysUpTime when the interface entered its current
operational state.
IfInOctets
Sum of octets received on the interface.
ifInUcastPkts
Sum of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered to a higher layer
protocol.
ifInNUcastPkts
Sum of non-unicast packets delivered to a higher layer protocol.
IfInDiscards
Sum of inbound packets discarded.
IfInErrors
Sum of inbound packets that contained errors.
IfOutOctets
Sum of octets transmitted on the interface
ifOutUcastPkts
Sum of subnetwork-unicast packets sent to the network.
ifOutNUcastPkts
Sum of non-unicast packets transmitted to the network.
IfOutErrors
Sum of outbound packets that could not be sent due to errors.
IfOutDiscards
Sum of outbound packets discarded.
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Overview of WAN Interfaces
Chapter 3
Managing LAN/WAN Interfaces
Overview of WAN Interfaces
The XSR supports as many as six serial cards (in an XSR-3250), each of which
can support four ports for a maximum of 24 serial ports. Each port is
individually configurable regarding speed, media-type, and protocol.
The Serial WAN interface performs the following functions:
ˆ Transmit packets given by the protocol layer onto a serial link.
ˆ Receive packets from a serial link and pass up to the protocol layer.
ˆ Allow CLI configuration commands to be issued.
ˆ Accumulate all MIB-II (RFC-1213) interface statistics regarding the
transmission and reception of bytes and packets.
WAN Features
The XSR supports the following WAN interface features:
ˆ Alarms/events - For a complete list, refer to “Alarms/Events and
System Limits” on page 355 in this manual.
ˆ Interfaces - The following interface types can be configured using the
media-type command:
–
–
–
–
–
–
RS232 (also known as V.28) (default)
RS422 (also known as RS-530)
RS449 (also known as V.36)
RS530A
V.35
X.21
ˆ Either Sync or Async mode is set by using physical-layer.
ˆ Encoding - On Sync interfaces, nrzi-encoding sets NRZI encoding
(NRZ encoding is the default).
ˆ Clocking speed - For Sync interfaces, an external clock must be
provided. Acceptable clock values range from 2400 Hz to 10 MHz.
For Async interfaces, the clock is internally generated and can be set
to the following values using clock rate:
–
–
48
2400 Kbps
4800 Kbps
XSR User’s Guide
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Managing LAN/WAN Interfaces
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Configuring the WAN
7200 Kbps
9600 Kbps (default)
14400 Kbps
19200 Kbps
28800 Kbps
38400 Kbps
57600 Kbps
115200 Kbps
ˆ Statistics - all MIB-II interface statistics are supported.
ˆ Clear commands such as clear counters serial and clear
interface serial facilitate interface troubleshooting.
ˆ Async mode commands such as databits, stopbits, and parity
provide configuration of the serial line.
ˆ Maximum Receive Unit (MRU) is 1504 bytes (including CRC).
ˆ Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) is 1504 bytes (including CRC).
Configuring the WAN
Enter the following commands to configure either a synchronous T1 or
asynchronous Serial interface. For more detailed information on the
commands used here, refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide and other chapters
in this manual.
The following example configures the synchronous T1 controller on NIM 1,
port 0 named Acme T1 with the non-default values of ESF framing and B8ZS
line encoding. It also specifies channel group 1 with mapped timeslots 1-5, 8
and 9, assigns the local IP address 192.168.1.1 to the channel group and sets
PPP encapsulation.
XSR(config)#controller t1 1/0
XSR(config-controller<T1/0>)#description T1 “Acme T1”
XSR(config-controller<T1/0>)#framing esf
XSR(config-controller<T11/0>)#linecode b8zs
XSR(config-controller<T11/0>)#channel-group 1 timeslots 1-5,8,9
XSR(config-controller<T11/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0:1
XSR(config-if<S1/0:1>)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<S1/0:1>)#encapsulation ppp
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Configuring the WAN
Chapter 3
Managing LAN/WAN Interfaces
XSR(config-if<S1/0:1>)#no shutdown
The following example configures the asynchronous serial interface on NIM
2, port 0 with the following non-default values: PPP encapsulation, RS422
cabling, 57600 bps clock rate, MTU size of 1200 bytes, no parity, 7 databits and
2 stopbits. It also assigns the local IP address 192.168.1.1 to the interface.
Although the XSR is not designed to be an access server, you can attach an
external modem to the serial port and accept async calls as long as the modem
is configured in “dumb mode” (AT commands are disabled).
XSR(config)#interface serial 2/0
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#physical-layer async
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#media-type rs422
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#clock rate 57600
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#ip mtu 1200
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#parity none
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#databits 7
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#stopbits 2
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#no shutdown
The following example configures the XSR to dial-out (async):
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#physical-layer async
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#clock rate 57600
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S2/0>)#interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer string 015081234567
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
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XSR User’s Guide
4
Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
Overview
The XSR provides a T1/E1 subsystem on a single NIM-based I/O card with a
maximum of two installed NIMs. Depending on the card type and series,
each card can support 1, 2 or 4 T1 or E1 physical ports.
You can select either T1, at 1.544 Mbps interface rate per port, or E1, at
2.048 Mbps interface rate per port. In both operational modes, the interface
can work either in full rate T1/E1 mode (the complete available line interface
rate is assigned to one user), fractional T1/E1 mode (only one channel group is
assigned, with less than the total available number of timeslots on a T1/E1
line configured per physical port) or in channelized mode (more than one
channel group is configured per physical port).
In fractional/channelized mode, up to 31 DS0 channels can be assigned on E1
interfaces and up to 24 DS0 channels can be assigned on T1 interfaces. The
rate (line speed) of basic channel (DS0) can be configured at 56 or 64 Kbps.
Features
The following features are offered on the T1/E1 interfaces:
ˆ Integrated CSU/DSU
ˆ Full-rate, channelized and fractional
ˆ Short and long haul symmetrical line interfaces with 100/120 ohm
impedance using RJ-45/48C or 49C connectors
ˆ Support for local and remote loopback
ˆ Support for an IP interface as a loopback (refer to the CLI Reference
Guide for an example)
ˆ Timing - line and internal
ˆ Framing - T1: SF, ESF; E1: CRC4, NO-CRC4
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Configuring Channelized T1/E1 Interfaces
Chapter 4
Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
ˆ Line encoding - T1: AMI, B8ZS; E1: AMI, HDB3
ˆ Data inversion
ˆ Loopback Tests - local, network line, network payload, inband FDL
ˆ Alarm detection - all levels of alarm/event detection and signaling
T1/E1 Subsystem Configuration
Each T1/E1 physical port is represented as a T1 or E1 controller. This is valid
for both full rate T1/E1 mode and fractional/channelized modes. Each T1/E1
physical port (line) can be configured to run in one of the following modes:
ˆ Full rate T1/E1 mode - full T1/E1 line bandwidth is used by one user
ˆ Fractional T1/E1 mode - only one Channel Group is assigned to one
T1/E1 physical line
ˆ Channelized T1/E1 mode - more than one Channel Group is
assigned to one T1/E1 physical line
For both fractional and channelized configurations, each configured Channel
Group, which might contain individual timeslots or ranges of timeslots, uses
only one of the available logical channels. All configured T1/E1 lines are
recognized by the system software as serial interfaces. That implies that all of
the available configuration procedures for interfaces are applicable. Each of
the serial interfaces can be configured to carry data traffic with PPP encoding.
Configuring Channelized T1/E1 Interfaces
Perform the following steps to set up a channelized T1/E1 port. This T1
example is similar to that for an E1 controller and associated port.
1
Specify the card/port address of the controller to be configured:
XSR(config)#controller t1 1/0
This command automatically adds a full-rate channel group on port 0
and acquires Controller mode. Alternatively, you can add a different
port and manually add a channel group using any of the 24 timeslots.
2
Specify the clock source for the controller.
XSR(config-controller<T11/0>)#clock source line
The clock source command determines which one of the circuits
provides the clocking signal.
3
Specify the controller's framing type:
XSR(config-controller<T11/0>)#framing esf
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4
Configuring Channelized T1/E1 Interfaces
Specify the controller's line encoding type:
XSR(config-controller<T11/0>)#linecode b8zs
5
Specify a channel group and map timeslots to the channel group by
entering the channel-group command.
XSR(config-controller<T11/0>)#channel-group 0 timeslots 1,3-5,8
The example specifies channel group 0 and maps timeslots 1, 3
through 5, and 8 to channel group 0.
NOTE
Each channel group is represented as a serial interface and is set
individually. Channel groups are created as shown above but to configure
them you must acquire Interface Serial mode as shown below.
6
Enter the no shutdown command to enable the line.
XSR(config-controller<T11/0>)#no shutdown
7
If IP routing is enabled, assign an IP address and subnet mask to
the channel group with the interface and ip address commands:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0:0
That is, NIM 1, port 0, and Channel group 0.
XSR(config-if<S1/0:0>)#ip address 10.1.16.2 255.255.255.0
8
Specify the encapsulation protocol to be used over this interface.
XSR(config-if<S1/0:0>)#encapsulation ppp
In this example PPP is used.
9
Add any additional configuration commands required to enable IP- or
PPP-related protocols and functionality.
10 Use the no shutdown and exit commands to enable the interface
and return to configuration mode. Repeat the previous steps to
configure more channel groups.
XSR(config-if<S1/0:0>)#no shutdown
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Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links
Chapter 4
Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links
This section describes general procedures for troubleshooting T1/E1 lines on
the XSR. The following flow diagram shows basic steps to perform.
Execute the
show controller t1 x
command
Is the line
administratively
down?
Yes
Use the following commands to
bring up the T1/E1 controller:
controller t1 x
no shutdown
No
Is the line up?
No
Loss of Signal/Loss of Frame
- refer to Figure 5
Yes
Is the line in
loopback mode?
Yes
Use the following commands to
turn loopback off:
controller t1 x
no loopback
No
Are there any
alarms?
Yes
Alarm analysis
- refer to Figures 6 and 7
No
Are there
any error
events?
Yes
Error Events analysis
- refer to Figure 8
If your T1/E1 controller still
does not function as desired,
contact your service/network provider
Figure 4 General T1/E1 Troubleshooting Flowchart
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Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links
As shown in Figure 4, three troubleshooting actions are defined:
ˆ T1/E1 Physical Layer (Layer 1) troubleshooting (loss of
signal/frame)
ˆ T1/E1 Alarm Analysis
ˆ T1/E1 Error Events Analysis
T1/E1 Physical Layer Troubleshooting
This section describes the techniques and procedures to troubleshoot T1/E1
Physical Layer problems. The troubleshooting flowchart below displays the
procedures described in the following section.
Loss of Signal
Loss of Signal/Loss of Frame
Use the following commands to
bring up the T1/E1 controller:
controller t1 x
framing {SF | ESF}
Loss of Frame
No
Is the
framing format
correct?
Yes
Are the cables
and connectors
ok?
Yes
No
Connect or
replace the
cable
Use the following commands to
change the LBO:
cablelength long
cablelength short
If your T1/E1 controller still
does not function as desired,
contact your service/network provider
Figure 5 T1/E1 Physical Layer (Layer 1) Troubleshooting Flowchart
The show controller command displays current controller parameters,
status and statistics data. Most T1/E1 errors are caused by incorrectly
configured lines including line coding, framing, and clock source parameters.
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Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links
Chapter 4
Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
When a T1/E1 controller (port) is created with an associated channel group, it
can exist in three states:
ˆ Administratively down:
If you do not enter the no shutdown command when you create the
controller (port) or enter the shutdown command for an already
created controller (port), you create all associated channel-groups on
that controller (port) but they are disabled.
ˆ Down:
If you enter the no shutdown command for the controller in
Controller mode, all associated channel groups are enabled on the
physical level but the controller senses an alarm on the line and will
not pass user data.
ˆ Up:
Only when the associated interface is enabled using the no shutdown
command in Interface mode does the channel-group become
operational. This is because there is one-to-one mapping between
channel groups and interfaces; if an interface is administratively
down so is its channel group - even if the controller port is up!
Follow these steps to restart the controller to correct this type of error:
1
Enter Controller mode. For example:
XSR(config)#controller t1 1/0
XSR(config-controller<T1/0>)#
2
Restart the controller:
XSR(config-controller<T1/0>)#no shutdown
If the T1/E1 controller and line are not up, ensure one of the following
messages appears in the show controller output:
ˆ Receiver has loss of frame (LOF), or
ˆ Receiver has loss of signal (LOS)
Complete the following steps if the receiver has loss of frame:
56
1
Ensure the framing format set on the port matches the framing format
of the line. If needed, change the framing format configuration.
2
Change the Line Build-Out (LBO) using cablelength long and
cablelength short commands. If needed, contact your service
provider for more details on LBO configuration.
XSR User’s Guide
Chapter 4
Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links
Complete the following steps if the receiver has a loss of signal:
1
Ensure the cable between the interface port and the T1/E1 service
provider equipment is connected correctly.
2
Check the cable integrity by looking for breaks or other physical
abnormalities in the cable.
3
Check the cable connectors.
T1/E1 Alarm Analysis
Perform the following steps to troubleshoot for various alarms that can occur
within the T1/E1 subsystem. The following troubleshooting flowchart
displays the procedures.
Alarm Analysis
Receive Remote Alarm
Indication (Yellow alarm)
- refer to Figure 7
If a Receive Alarm Indication
Signal (Blue alarm) is reported,
contact your service/network
provider
What kind of alarm is reported?
If a Transmit Sending Remote Alarm
(Red alarm) is reported, check
your settings at the remote end
Transmit Alarm Signal
(Blue alarm)
- refer to Figure 7
If a Transmit Remote Alarm
Indication (Yellow alarm) is
reported, check your
settings at the remote site
If your T1/E1 controller still
does not function as desired,
contact your service/network provider
Figure 6 T1/E1 Alarm Analysis Troubleshooting Flowchart (Part 1)
Receive Alarm Indication Signal (AIS - Blue Alarm)
1
XSR User’s Guide
Check that the framing format of the T1/E1 controller port matches
the framing format of the line provided by your service provider.
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Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
Receive Remote Alarm Indication (RAI - Yellow Alarm)
1
Insert an external loopback cable into the T1/E1 port.
2
Use the show controller command to check for alarms. To identify
the type of the alarm, analyze the log report of the XSR. If alarms are
reported, contact your service provider.
3
Remove the external loopback cable and the reconnect T1/E1 line.
4
Check the cabling.
5
Power cycle the XSR.
6
Connect the T1/E1 line to a different port and configure the port with
the same settings as the line. If the problem does not persist, then the
fault lies with the port. In this case, contact Technical Support for
assistance.
Transmit Remote Alarm Indication (RAI - Yellow Alarm)
1
Check the settings at the remote end to ensure that they match your
port settings.
2
Contact your service provider if the problem persists.
Transmit Sending Remote Alarm (Red Alarm)
1
Ensure the framing format configured on the port matches the
framing format of the line. If not, change the framing format on the
controller to match the format of the line.
2
Check the settings at the remote end and ensure that they match
your port settings.
3
Contact your service/network provider if the problem persists.
Transmit Alarm Indication Signal (AIS - Blue Alarm)
58
1
Ensure that the framing format configured on the port matches the
framing format of the line. If not, change the framing format on the
controller to match the format of the line.
2
Power cycle the XSR.
3
Connect the T1/E1 line to a different port. Configure the port with the
same settings as the line. If the problem persists, perform an external
loopback test on that port. If the problem persists, contact Technical
Support for assistance.
XSR User’s Guide
Chapter 4
Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links
Receive Remote Alarm Indication
(Yellow alarm) - see Figure 5
Transmit Alarm Indication Signal
(Blue alarm) - see Figure 5
Insert external loopback cable
in the port
No
Does framing on
the port match the
line setting?
No
Check the
cabling
Are there any
alarms?
Use the following
commands to set
framing:
controller t1 x
framing {SF | ESF}
Yes
Yes
Check the
settings on
the remote
end
Check the
cabling
Power
cycle the
XSR
Contact your
service/
network
provider
Connect
the T1/E1
line to a
different
port
Power
cycle the
XSR
Does the
problem
persist?
No
This problem is fixed
Yes
Connect
the T1/E1
line to a
different
port
No
Reconnect the
T1/E1 line to
the original
port
Does the
problem
persist?
Yes
Does the
problem
persist?
No
The port may be
defective
Yes
Perform
loopback
test
Perform
loopback
test
Error Events Analysis
- refer to Figure 7
Error Events Analysis
- refer to Figure 7
Figure 7 T1/E1 Alarm Analysis Troubleshooting Actions Flow (cont.)
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Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links
Chapter 4
Configuring T1/E1 Interfaces
T1/E1 Error Events Analysis
This section describes various error events that can occur on T1/E1 lines and
provides troubleshooting information to fix some of these errors. The show
controller command displays the status and statistics specific to the
hardware. This information is useful for diagnostic tasks.
All problems that can occur are captured by the underlying hardware and
reported by the show controller output. Here are some troubleshooting
steps you can perform with a flowchart displaying troubleshooting actions.
Error Events Analysis
Is the slip seconds
counter increasing?
Yes
Is the clock source
derived from the
network/line?
No
Use the following
commands to set
source clocking:
controller t1 x
clock source line
Use the command
below to verify the
error counter is still:
increasing:
controller x
No
Is the framing loss
seconds counter
increasing?
Yes
Is the framing type
correct?
No
Use the following
commands to set
framing:
controller t1 x
framing {SF | ESF}
IF T1, then change LBO:
cablelength {long | short}
Use the command
below to verify the
error counter is still:
increasing:
controller x
No
Yes
Is the line code violations
counter increasing?
Is the line coding
correct?
No
Use the following
commands to set
line coding:
controller t1 x
linecode {ami | b8zs}
IF T1, then change LBO:
cablelength {long | short}
Use the command
below to verify the
error counter is still:
increasing:
controller x
No
If your T1/E1 controller still
does not function as desired,
contact your service/network
provider
Figure 8 T1/E1 Error Events Analysis Troubleshooting Flowchart
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Troubleshooting T1/E1 Links
NOTE
Statistics displayed with the show controllers command are reset
every 24 hours. That is, once the port or line is created with the
controller command, the 24-hour timer starts.
Slip Seconds Counter Increasing
If slip seconds are present on the T1/E1 line, usually there is a clocking
problem. Complete the following steps to correct this problem:
1
Ensure the clock source is derived from the network (source clocking
extracted from the line).
2
Set the T1/E1 clock source from Controller mode if needed.
Framing Loss Seconds Increasing
If framing loss seconds are present on the T1/E1 line, usually there is a
framing problem. Perform the following steps to correct this problem:
1
Ensure the framing format configured on the controller port matches
the framing format of the line.
2
Set the T1/E1 framing mode from Controller mode if needed.
3
(T1 Only) Change the line build out (LBO) using the cablelength
long or cablelength short command if needed.
Line Code Violations Increasing
If line code violations are present on the T1/E1 line, usually there is a line
encoding problem. Perform the following steps to correct this problem:
XSR User’s Guide
1
Ensure the line coding format configured on the controller port
matches the framing format of the line.
2
Set the T1/E1 linecode mode from Controller mode if needed.
3
(T1 Only) Change the line build out (LBO) using the cablelength
long and cablelength short command if needed.
61
5
Configuring IP
Overview
This document describes the IP protocol suite functionality offered by the
XSR including:
ˆ General IP features (ARP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, TFTP, Telnet, SSH, NAT,
VRRP, et al.)
ˆ
IP routing (RIP, OSPF, static routing, triggered-on-demand RIP updates)
ˆ Applicable MIBs
ˆ Configuration examples
IP protocol, the main protocol of the TCP/IP suite, interconnects systems of
packet-switched computer communication networks. It transmits TCP, UDP,
and ICMP information as IP datagrams in a 32-bit addressing scheme where
an IP address is represented by four fields, each containing 8-bit numbers. IP
uses three types and five classes of addresses:
ˆ Unicast - destined for a single host
ˆ Broadcast - destined for all hosts on a given network
ˆ Multicast - destined for a set of hosts belonging to a multicast group
ˆ Class A, B, and C - used as a pool for unicast addresses
ˆ Class D - used for multicast addresses
ˆ Class E - reserved for future use
General IP Features
The following features are supported on the XSR:
ˆ Meets requirements for IPv4 routers - RFC-1812
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ˆ Ethernet 802.3 support of SNAP and DIX frame format
ˆ Internet Standard Subnetting Procedure (ISSP) - RFC-950
ˆ ARP - dynamic, static, and proxy ARP
ˆ IP subnet zero (always enabled)
ˆ Router ID is always enabled and calculated as the highest non-zero IP
address among all loopback interfaces or the highest non-zero IP
address of existing interfaces (configured interfaces) if no loopback
interfaces are configured. You can configure a loopback address for
the XSR to be used as the Router ID with the interface loopback
command.
ˆ BOOTP/DHCP relay
ˆ Broadcasting: Directed and UDP broadcast forwarding
ˆ ICMP
–
–
–
–
–
–
ICMP Router Discovery Protocol
Destination unreachable message
Time exceeded message
Parameter problem message
Redirect message
Echo or echo reply message
ˆ TCP
– Window and acknowledgement
– TCP maximum segment size
– Congestion control in TCP/IP
– TCP extensions for high performance
– TCP selective acknowledgement option
ˆ UDP
ˆ Telnet
ˆ SSH
ˆ TFTP
ˆ MTU
–
–
64
Path MTU discovery protocol: Support for external MTU
discovery (i.e., for data passing through the XSR). An ICMP MTU
size exceeded message is issued if large packets transit the XSR
with the “don't fragment” bit set. These packets are dropped per
RFC-1191. Also, the XSR does not originate MTU discovery, that
is, application data originating in the router.
Set MTU size per interface
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Chapter 5
Configuring IP
General IP Features
ˆ IP Interface
–
–
–
–
Numbered interfaces
Un-numbered interfaces on point to point links
NBMA support
- Point to multipoint networks
- Fully meshed networks
Secondary IP
ˆ Troubleshooting Tools
–
–
Ping
Traceroute
ˆ IP Routing
–
–
–
–
–
–
RIP
Triggered-on-Demand RIP updates
OSPF
Static routes
Default network
CIDR (IP classless)
ˆ Network Address Translation (NAT)
ˆ Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP): RFC-2338 and
Definitions of Managed Objects for the Virtual Router Redundancy
Protocol: RFC-2787
ARP and Proxy ARP
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) is a link-level protocol which provides a
mapping between the two different forms of addresses: 32-bit IP addresses
and hardware addresses used by the data link. The protocol dynamically
keeps entries in the ARP Table and can accept statically configured entries
according to RFC-826.
The arp command adds or deletes permanent entries to the ARP Table while
the arp-timeout command sets the duration for an ARP entry to stay in the
ARP table before expiring.
Proxy ARP, always enabled on the XSR, lets the XSR answer ARP requests on
one network for a host on another network. The router acts as a proxy agent
for the destination host, relaying packets to it from other hosts, as defined by
RFC-1027. It is configured with the ip proxy-arp command.
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NOTE
The XSR supports a total of 516 dynamic ARP entries, 128 ARP requests
pending, and 200 static ARP entries with the standard memory of 64
MBytes installed.
BOOTP/DHCP Relay
The Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP) is used by systems with no capability of
learning their IP addresses. BOOTP requests can be forwarded by routers, not
necessitating one server on each physical network. Normally, BOOTP/DHCP
requests are not forwarded, since they are local broadcasts which are not
designed to be forwarded, and they have an invalid nonroutable IP source
address, such as 0.0.0.x. But the agent replaces the destination address with a
helper address, and the source address with its own address, then forwards it.
You can set the helper address with the ip helper-address command.
When a BOOTP/DHCP response is received, the packet is sent to the
requester as a unicast IP packet, according to RFC-951, with clarifications in
RFC-1532.
NOTE
The XSR supports a total of 50 IP helper addresses per interface and 50 IP
(UDP) forward ports with standard memory (64 MBytes) installed.
Broadcast
A broadcast is a packet destined for all hosts on a given network as defined
by RFC-919 and RFC-922.
Directed Broadcast
An IP directed broadcast is a datagram sent to the broadcast address of a
subnet to which the sending device is not directly attached. The directed
broadcast is routed through the network as a unicast packet until it arrives at
the target subnet, where it is converted into a link-layer broadcast.
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The XSR supports directed broadcast using the ip directed-broadcast
command. For security purposes, restrictions can be set by defining and
applying an ACL and by restricting the protocols. There are two types of
directed broadcasts, described as follows:
ˆ A net-directed broadcast specifies a destination address with a host ID
of all 1s. For example, a Class A net-directed broadcast destination
address is netid.255.255.255 where the netid is the Class A
network ID. The XSR forwards it by default.
ˆ A subnet-directed broadcast also specifies a destination address with a
host ID of all 1s, but with a specific subnet ID. For example, a Class A
subnet-directed broadcast destination address is
netid.subnetid.255.255 where netid is the Class A network ID
and subnetid is the subnet. The XSR forwards it by default.
Local Broadcast
A local broadcast is a broadcast to a destination address of all ones 255.255.255.255. This broadcast should not be forwarded. It may be:
ˆ Consumed by the router, or,
ˆ Forwarded using UDP broadcast forwarding. UDP broadcast
forwarding is a feature that allows XSR to forward a UDP local
broadcast to one or more new destinations if the UDP port of the
datagram matches the configured one. The destination address is
replaced by a configured unicast address, and there is no change in
the source IP address (except BOOTP/DHCP relay). A total of 50
UDP broadcast forwarding entries is allowed in the table with
standard memory installed.
ICMP
The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) communicates error messages
and other conditions that require attention as defined by RFC-792.
ICMP messages are transmitted in IP datagrams and are usually acted on by
the IP layer or higher layer protocols (TCP/UDP). The XSR supports these
message types: ICMP router discovery, destination unreachable, time exceeded,
parameter problem, redirect, echo or echo reply.
The XSR also supports the ICMP Router Discovery Protocol (IRDP) which
dynamically discovers routes to other networks, as defined by RFC-1256.
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IRDP allows hosts to locate routers and can also infer router locations by
checking RIP updates. When the XSR operates as a client, router discovery
packets are generated. When the device operates as a host, router discovery
packets are received. The IRDP client/server implementation does not
actually examine or store full routing tables sent by routing devices, it merely
keeps track of which systems are sending such data.
Using IRDP, the XSR can specify both a priority and the time after which a
device should be assumed down if no further packets are received.
The XSR enables router discovery and associated values with the ip irdp
command. The router also supports the redirection of packets routed through
the same port they were received on with the ip redirect command.
TCP
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a transport layer language providing
a connection-oriented, reliable, byte-stream service described by RFC-793.
UDP
The User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a simple, datagram-oriented, transport
layer protocol where each operation by a process produces exactly one UDP
datagram, which causes one IP datagram to be sent. RFC-768 describes UDP.
Telnet
Telnet provides a general, bi-directional, 8-bit byte-oriented communications
facility that is always enabled on the XSR. It is a standard method by which
terminal devices and terminal-oriented processes interface, as described by
RFC-854. A Telnet connection is a TCP connection used to transmit data with
interspersed Telnet control data. Two entities compose a Telnet link:
ˆ A Telnet server is the host which provides some service
ˆ A Telnet user is the host which initiates communications
Telnet port (23) and server settings can be configured on the XSR with the ip
telnet port and ip telnet server commands. You can also configure
Telnet client service to other servers with the telnet ip_address command.
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for more information.
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SSH
The Secure Shell (SSH) protocol provides for safe remote login and other
network services on the XSR. Along with a user-supplied client, the SSHv2
server allows you to establish a secure connection, similar to that provided by
an inbound Telnet connection with an important exception.
Unlike Telnet, SSH encrypts the entire connection with the XSR to hide your
identity, provides data confidentiality via the negotiated choice of encryption
types such as 3DES, and offers message integrity through hashing using
SHA-1 or other algorithms such as MD5 or crypto library support for thirdparty encryption ciphers such as Blowfish, Twofish, AES, CAST and
ARCfour. Enabled (by default) on the CLI with the ip ssh server
command, SSH is further configured by specifying users, passwords,
privilege level and policy with the aaa user, password, privilege 15 and
policy commands, the idle timeout interval for your SSH session with the
session-timeout ssh command, and user authentication with the aaa SSH
command.
Upon configuring the XSR for the first time, you should generate a host key
pair with the crypto key dsa command, otherwise, if no key is generated,
the default key is used for any connection request. Generated host keys are
encrypted and stored in the hostkey.dat file within Flash where the file cannot
be read or copied. All SSH connection requests use the host keys stored in the
hostkey.dat file unless none have been generated or the content of the file is
corrupted in which case default keys are used to secure the connection.
NOTE
SSH is enabled by default on port 22. Be aware that with SSH enabled,
traditional facilities such as FTP, TFTP, and Telnet are not disabled so to
ensure system security, you must disable other communication services.
A number of SSH clients are commercially available. Enterasys recommends
the PuTTY client freeware as compatible and easy to configure. For step-bystep instructions on installing PuTTY and configuring SSH, refer to Chapter
13: Configuring Security on the XSR in the XSR User’s Guide.
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Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
TFTP is a bare bones file transfer protocol, as defined by RFC-1350, using
UDP to simplify transport with less overhead. The XSR provides TFTP client
functionality using the snmp-server tftp-server-list and copy <file>
commands. Always enabled on the router, it is useful to save and restore
configuration files and images.
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide and the Managing the XSR chapter in this
manual for more information.
IP Interface
IP interfaces are virtual circuits used to pass traffic between a physical port
and the XSR forwarder. IP interfaces have the following characteristics:
ˆ Numbered interfaces have IP addresses assigned to them.
ˆ The port can be pinged to monitor its status with the ping command.
ˆ Some routing protocols require the interface to have an IP address.
ˆ The interface <serial | fastethernet/gigabitethernet |
dialer | loopback dialer | vpn> command sets all XSR ports.
ˆ The XSR supports a total of 42 interfaces.
ˆ Un-numbered interfaces are not assigned IP addresses
–
–
Un-numbered interfaces may be used on point-to-point
networks. By default, the address used by the unnumbered
interface when it generates a packet is the router ID, which is the
address of the highest, non-zero configured loopback interface.
An unnumbered interface address can be configured to be the
address of a specified numbered interface. The ip unnumbered
command sets interface parameters on the XSR.
An un-numbered interface cannot be pinged to monitor its status.
Secondary IP
Enabling secondary IP allows multiple IP addresses to be configured on the
same physical network interface and multiple subnets to share one MAC
address. Secondary addresses are treated largely like primary addresses, but
not exactly the same, as explained below.
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Secondary IP can be used when there are insufficient host addresses on a
particular network segment. Configuring several subnets on the router interface
which connects the network segment allows you to combine these logical subnets
into one physical segment and make more host addresses available.
Interface & Secondary IP
The XSR supports seconday IP on Ethernet networks only. All other ports,
including loopback interfaces, support one IP address per interface only.
An XSR interface can support one primary IP address and multiple secondary
IP addresses. Including all XSR interfaces, the total of supported secondary IP
addresses allowed depends on the amount of the installed memory, although
at present ten secondary IP addresses are supported despite the memory size.
All system interfaces share the pool of secondary addresses. For example, if
FastEthernet 1 uses eight secondary addresses, FastEthernet 2 is allowed no
more than two secondary addresses.
Table 7
Installed Memory
Total Secondary IP
addresses Supported
16 MBytes
10
32 MBytes
10
64 MBytes
10
128 MBytes
10
Secondary IP is subject to the following rules:
ˆ Primary and secondary IP addresses on the same interface are not
allowed to exist in the same subnet, nor allowed to exist in the same
subnets already occupied by other interfaces.
ˆ Packets generated by the XSR, except the route update packet, are
always sourced by the IP address of the outgoing interface which is in
the same subnet as the IP address of the next-hop the packet should
be forwarded to.
ˆ All routers on the same segment should share the primary network
number or some protocols, such as OSPF, may not work properly.
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ˆ If any router on a network segment uses a secondary address, all
other devices on the same segment must also use a secondary address
from the same network or subnet. Inconsistent use of secondary
addresses on a network segment can quickly cause routing loops.
ˆ Configure the primary IP address before any secondary IP addresses
on the same interface. Conversely, before a primary address can be
removed, all secondary IP addresses should be removed.
ˆ You can configure OSPF, RIP or static routes on each primary and
secondary IP address.
ˆ A secondary IP address is configured using the ip address
<address> <mask> {secondary} command.
ARP & Secondary IP
For each IP address configured on the interface, including primary and
secondary IP addresses, the corresponding static ARP entry should be
maintained in the static ARP table. Primary and secondary IP addresses on
the same interface share the same MAC address of the interface.
When an ARP request is received, the destination IP address in the ARP
packet will be checked against the primary IP and all secondary IP addresses.
If found, an ARP reply will be sent back with the MAC address of the
interface. When sending an ARP request, the source IP address used in the
ARP packet should be on the same subnet as the destination IP.
ICMP & Secondary IP
When ICMP Echo packets are received by the XSR, the destination IP address
is checked against all configured IP addresses including primary and
secondary addresses. Any ICMP Echo packet addressed to the subnet
broadcast addresses will be dropped without returning a response.
ICMP Echo Replies are generated by swapping the destination and source IP
addresses in the received ICMP Echo packets.
By default, ICMP Echo packets generated by the XSR’s ping command will be
sourced by the IP address of the outgoing interface which is in the same
subnet as the IP address of the next-hop the ICMP packet should be
forwarded to.
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When ICMP Mask request packets are received, the destination IP address
will be matched against the entire subnet network associated with the
primary and secondary IP addresses. The matched IP address will then be
used as the source IP address of the reply packet.
Routing Table Manager & Secondary IP
If the interface is up, each primary and secondary IP address will have an
entry in the routing table as a directly connected route. If the interface is
rejected or the IP addresses configured on it are removed, the Routing Table
Manager (RTM) will remove the corresponding route entries in the table.
If any IP address, including primary and secondaries, is deleted or changed,
any static route based on the next hop reachable through that IP address will
be removed from the active routing table. And if the IP address is restored,
any static route previously removed will be restored in the active table.
OSPF & Secondary IP
In OSPF, HELLO messagees use the primary IP address as the source address.
Adjacencies are set up based on the primary IP address only. Designated
routers (DR) and back-up DRs use the primary IP as their IP addresses. The
virtual link uses the primary IP only, as well.
OSPF can be enabled on primary and secondary IP addresses but should be
enabled on the primary address first. Also, if OSPF is used for routing, all
OSPF-enabled secondary addresses of an interface should be configured in
the same OSPF area as the primary address to function properly.
OSPF can be selectively enabled on a secondary IP address as long as it is
already enabled on the primary IP address.
RIP & Secondary IP
If RIP is used for routing, route updates should be multicast or broadcast to
each subnet represented by both the primary and secondary IP addresses.
If an interface is configured with a secondary IP address and split horizon is
enabled, route updates learned from one specific network cannot be sent back
to the same physical network. Only one routing update is sourced per
network number if split horizon is disabled.
RIP can be selectively enabled on primary and secondary IP addresses.
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Unnumbered Interface & Secondary IP
If an unnumbered interface attempts to borrow an IP address from an
Ethernet interface upon which a secondary IP address is configured, only the
primary IP address can be borrowed. Also, sSecondary IP cannot be
configured on an unnumbered interface.
NAT & Secondary IP
Only the primary IP address on the specified interface is used for NAT.
DHCP & Secondary IP
DHCP operates in the same manner regardless if secondary IP addresses are
configured or not. Only one IP pool is employed even if multiple IP addresses
are configured on a single interface.
VPN & Secondary IP
Secondary IP addresses are not supported on VPN virtual interfaces.
Concerning secondary IP addresses assigned to physical interfaces, if an
interface constitutes the endpoint of a VPN tunnel, the primary IP address is
always used as that tunnel endpoint. For the trusted interface upon which
EZ-IPSec Network Extension Mode is running, only the SPD for the primary
IP address assigned to the internal interface will be created.
VRRP & Secondary IP
Multiple virtual IP addresses per Virtual Router (VR) are available to support
multiple logical IP subnets on a single LAN segment. Secondary IP interacts
with the XSR’s implementation of the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
(VRRP) as follows:
ˆ The primary physical IP address on an interface will be selected as a
VRRP primary IP address, which is used for VRRP advertisement.
ˆ If one of the virtual IP addresses of a VR is the real physical address
of the interface, all other virtual IP addresses of that VR must also be
the real physical addresses of that interface.
ˆ Conversely, if any virtual IP address is not the real physical address of
that interface, all virtual IP address of that VR cannot be the real
physical address of that interface.
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ˆ The XSR supports 11 IP addresses per VR (1 primary + 10 secondary)
ˆ With four VR's allowed per XSR, you can configure up to 44 virtual IP
addresses per XSR.
PPPoE & Secondary IP
Secondary IP is not supported on PPPoE interfaces.
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU)
MTU is the largest frame size allowed on an interface. It is dictated by the link
level limit on a particular port. Examples of link layer types are Ethernet
encapsulation and 802.3 encapsulation. MTU limits the bytes of data that can
be sent in an IP packet using the ip mtu command. Datagrams exceeding the
link layer's MTU must be fragmented. The default MTU size is 1500 bytes.
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for more information.
Ping
Ping is an important debugging tool for testing network layer connectivity
between a source and destination address. The source represents an IP
address on the XSR where the command is executed from. The destination
can be any IP address on the network, including an address on the same
device where a ping occurs.
The ping command also allows the packet size to be specified.
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for more information.
Traceroute
Traceroute is a vital debugging tool which reports the route IP datagrams
follow to a certain destination. Its output is a complete list of routers that a
specific datagram crosses to reach its destination, as well as the round time
trip between the XSR where the Traceroute program runs and each of these
routers. The traceroute command can be issued by the XSR.
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for more information.
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IP Routing Protocols
Routing is one of the most important functions of IP. Routing information,
which is stored in a routing table, is used by the XSR to determine the route
for each of the packets that pass through it. The following routing features are
supported on the XSR:
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
ˆ
RIP
OSPF
Static routes
Default network
CIDR (IP classless)
When you run multiple routing protocols, the XSR assigns a weight to each of
them. For more information, refer to “Routing Priorities” on page 82.
RIPv1 and v2
The Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is a distance-vector protocol based on the
Bellman-Ford algorithm to learn the shortest path between two points in a
network. RIP is used only on networks whose longest path is 15 hops or less and
is marked by the following limits on the XSR:
ˆ MD5 authentication not supported
ˆ Static redistribution permitted only
ˆ Total number of static routes, routes, interfaces, and RIP networks
limited depending on the size of installed memory
ˆ Distribution lists require an ACL to be configured
RIP uses request and response messages. Requests ask for all or part of the
routing table entries and responses can be sent for one of the following reasons:
ˆ Response to a specific query
ˆ Regular updates (unsolicited response)
ˆ Triggered updates caused by a route change
RIP specifications are RFC-1058 for RIPv1 and RFC-2453 for RIPv2. It is
supported on the XSR with the following features:
ˆ Set globally with the router rip and per interface with the network
commands: they support RIP on both LAN and WAN interfaces with
these default values: Receive RIPv1 and v2, Transmit RIPv1, no
redistribution, no filtering and Split Horizon with no poison.
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ˆ Redistribute static routes into RIP with the redistribute command.
ˆ Split horizon with poisoned reverse enabled with the ip splithorizon command.
ˆ Triggered updates delivered by default or disabled by the ip rip
disable-triggered-updates command.
ˆ Clear text authentication enabled by the ip rip authentication
mode command.
NOTE
RIP commands configured under Interface mode are independent of
enabling/disabling the RIP protocol.
ˆ RIP is configurable for:
–
Send only is set by issuing the no received interface command
to prevent RIP from receiving update packets on a specified port.
–
Receive only is set by issuing the passive interface command
to prevent RIP from sending update packets on a specified port.
ˆ Offset metric parameters - route metrics via RIP. Adding an offset to
an interface makes it a backup
ˆ Route filtering, in association with access lists, is enabled by the
distribute-list command.
ˆ A number of statistical display commands revealing RIP counters
including show ip traffic, show ip route, show ip protocols.
Triggered-on-Demand RIP
Triggered-on-demand RIP (defined in RFC-2091) is available for sending
routing updates on a PPP serial (WAN) port only. This feature updates the
XSR’s RIP routing table only when the topology changes or when a next hop’s
reachability is detected on the WAN side of the link.
This functionality reduces the on-demand WAN circuit’s routing traffic and
allows the link to be brought down when application traffic ceases. Regular
RIP updates would prevent the connection from being torn down when
application use ends. The following conditions govern the feature’s use:
ˆ RIP must be enabled.
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ˆ IP split horizon must be enabled (default). Whether poison is enabled
or not, triggered on demand will still send its updates with poison.
Triggered-on-demand RIP on the XSR is implemented by the following:
ˆ ip rip triggered-on-demand enables the functionality on a per
interface basis.
ˆ ip rip disable-triggered-updates, with the default enforced
(triggered updates enabled), invokes triggered updates in a timely
fashion as described by RFCs-1058 and 2453 (RIP and RIPv2
protocol). These commands work independently of each other.
NOTE
Triggered on demand operates on point-to-point Serial interfaces only.
ˆ ip rip max-retransmissions sets the number of retransmissions
to be sent.
ˆ ip rip polling-interval sets the polling period for triggered RIP
requests.
How Triggered-on-Demand RIP Works
To better understand when to configure triggered-on-demand RIP, consider
how it works. Routing updates are sent on the WAN in the following manner:
ˆ The full content of the routing database is sent when:
–
–
–
An update request has been received. The update is sent only to
the neighbor requesting it.
The XSR is first powered up. The update is sent through all
interfaces running triggered-on-demand RIP.
An interface is brought up. The update is sent only out the
interface which was brought up.
ˆ A partial update of the database is sent when:
–
–
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An interface is brought up. The new local route is advertised to
all other interfaces running triggered-on-demand RIP.
An interface is brought down. All routes reachable through the
interface that went down are advertised as unreachable to the
other interfaces running triggered-on-demand RIP.
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ˆ The latest changes are sent when:
–
The routing database is modified by new data. The latest changes
are sent through all interfaces running triggered-on-demand RIP.
RFC-2091 also specifies how packet types are handled:
ˆ An update request is defined as a request to a peer system to send its
entire routing database. It is sent:
– When the XSR is powered up;
– When an interface is brought up.
ˆ An update response is defined as a message containing zero or more
routes; it is retransmitted at periodic intervals until an update
acknowledge is received. It is sent:
–
–
–
–
–
In response to an update request. The first response contains no
routes. Other update responses will not be sent until an update
acknowledge is received. Then the routing database is sent.
At power up. The first update response will contain no routes.
When a port comes up. The first response contains no routes.
When a port is brought down.
When there is fresh routing information to be propagated.
ˆ Each update response packet sent to a peer is given a sequence number,
a 16-bit unsigned integer.
ˆ Responses must be received in order. Updates received with a
sequence number out of order is dropped. Packets are accepted if:
–
–
–
–
A sequence number is one more than the previous;
A sequence number is the same as the previous (occurs when the
ack for the previous was sent, but not received on the other side);
The sequence number is 0 (could occur at startup or when it
wraps around).
The response sequence number received will be saved and used
as a starting point.
ˆ Resynchronization occurs with every update response.
ˆ
An update acknowledgment is sent in answer to every update response.
The RFC delineates route persistency in the routing database as follows. Entries
learned from a triggered response on participating WAN interfaces are
permanent, unless certain events occur, in which case entries are marked as
unreachable and the hold-down timer started. These events are:
ˆ A circuit-down event has been received; all routes learned from that
next hop router are marked unreachable.
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ˆ An update packet with the flush flag set is received; all routes learned
from that next hop router are marked unreachable.
ˆ An excessive number of retransmissions of an update go
unacknowledged. All routes learned from that next hop router are
marked unreachable.
ˆ An update response for an expired route comes in. That route is
marked unreachable.
The XSR does not retain alternative routes as they are not needed for the
following scenarios:
ˆ Dialer and dialer backup connections, which are not both up at the
same time. Dialer backup is implemented only when the dialer
interface goes down (the best route is lost; the back up interface is
brought up, then an update request and reply are issued and the new
route installed).
ˆ Dial-on-demand connections.
Retransmissions are governed by the following conditions, among others:
ˆ The retransmission timer is a periodic timer set to 5 seconds.
ˆ A limit in the number of retransmissions will be set, after which the
routes learned through the specified circuit are marked as
unreachable. The maximum number of retransmissions is
configurable. The default value is 36.
ˆ After the maximum number of retransmissions has been reached,
requests will continue to be sent out with a polling interval whose
default value is 30 seconds. This value is also configurable. Polling
will continue until a response is received.
OSPF
The Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) routing protocol is a link-state protocol
as defined by RFC-2328. It supports a replicated database approach to routing
where each router has a copy of the database and contributes information to
the database describing the local environment of linked routers.
All routers piece together the data to obtain a current map of the network.
The shortest path is calculated using an algorithm based on information in
the database.
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OSPF is superior to RIP because as a link-state protocol, it converges faster
than RIP, a distance-vector protocol; OSPF’s longest path is not limited as is
RIP’s (to 15); OSPF supports subnets - a subnet mask is associated with each
advertised route. The XSR’s implementation of OSPF permits static route
distribution only and is limited by the size of installed memory for the
following functionality:
ˆ Total route ceiling
ˆ Total AS external (types 5 and 7)
ˆ Total LSA types 1 to 4
CAUTION
Your router must be installed within the network in such a way that the
above limits are not exceeded.
NOTE
OSPF does not learn neighbors over unnumbered WAN interfaces with
Firewall functionality enabled.
OSPF is supported on the XSR by the following features:
ˆ Set globally with the router ospf and per port with the network
<ip address> area commands: they support OSPF on LAN and
WAN interfaces with these defaults: no authentication, cost 10 (LAN)
or Serial (64), dead interval of 40 seconds, hello interval of 10 seconds,
priority 1, and 5-second retransmit interval.
ˆ Intra- and inter-area, and Type 1 and 2 external routing
ˆ Broadcast, point-to-point and point to multi-point models
ˆ Protocol enabled/disabled with the router ospf command
ˆ Area IDs identified and defined with the network command
ˆ Address ranges used by ABRs defined by area range command
ˆ OSPF priority with the ip ospf priority command
ˆ Cost to send a packet over interface with ip ospf cost command
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ˆ Cost for default route sent into a stub area with the area default
cost command
ˆ Stub and NSSA set with the area stub and area nssa commands
ˆ Opaque link state advertisement (LSA) option
ˆ Manual and automatic virtual links enabled with the area virtual
link command
ˆ MD5 authentication enabled per interface with the area
authentication and ip ospf message-digest-key commands
ˆ Incremental SPF is always enabled. SPF calculation can be changed
with the timers spf command
ˆ Hello wait intervals with the ip ospf dead-interval and ip ospf
hello-interval commands
ˆ Retransmission and link-state update intervals with the ip ospf
retransmit-interval and ip ospf transmit-delay commands
ˆ A host of statistical display commands including: show ip ospf
border routers, show ip ospf database, show ip ospf
interface, show ip ospf neighbor, show ip ospf virtual
links, show ip protocols, and show ip route
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for more information and this chapter for
a sample OSPF configuration.
Static Routes
Static routes are used when a dynamic route to a destination cannot be set up
or to specify what the XSR will route to. The XSR sets static routes with the ip
route command. Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for more information
and a sample static route configuration.
NOTE
The number of static routes is limited by the size of installed memory.
Routing Priorities
When you have enabled multiple routing protocols or set up static routes and
enabled dynamic routes, the XSR prioritizes these routes in the following
order - 10 is the highest priority. Priorities are not configurable.
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ˆ LOCAL 10
ˆ STATIC 9
ˆ OSPF INTRA 7
ˆ OSPF_INTER 6
ˆ OSPF_EXT 4
ˆ PREF_RIP 4
Default Network
The default network is used to specify candidates for the default route when a
default route (0.0.0.0) is not specified or learned. If the network specified by
the ip default-network command appears in the routing table from any
source (dynamic or static), it is flagged as a candidate default route and is
subject to being chosen as the default route for the XSR.
You may enter ip default-network multiple times. All candidate default
routes appear in the routing table preceded by an asterisk. If the network
specified is a subnet, default routing applies only to the classfull network. If a
directly connected interface is specified, RIP will generate a default route.
If the XSR has no interface on the default network, but it has a route to it, it
will consider this network as a candidate default route for itself. Route
candidates will be examined and the best one chosen based on administrative
distance and metric.
The gateway to the best default path will be named the gateway of last resort
for the router. The gateway of last resort is the gateway for the route used by
packets as the last possible alternative, when there is no route to the
destination, including a default route.
Refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide for more information and a sample
default route configuration.
Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR)
CIDR is an advanced addres scheme for the Internet allowing more efficient
allocation of IP addresses than the earlier A, B, and C address scheme. CIDR
currently uses prefixes anywhere from 13 to 27 bits. This allows for address
assignments that much more closely fit an organization's specific needs.
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CIDR addressing also enables route aggregation in which a single high level
route entry can represent many lower-level routes in the global routing
tables. This reduces the routing table size. The XSR supports CIDR which is
always enabled. The ip address <0-32> command implements CIDR.
Network Address Translation
Network Address Translation (NAT) maps IP address from one address realm
to another, providing transparent routing to end hosts. Using Port and
Address Translation (NAPT), the protocol provides a way for many users to
share one global IP address. NAT also enhances access security by only
allowing certain global addresses to access the private network.
NAT is limited in some respects: it requires additional processing in the fast
path which can impact packet delivery speed. Also, applications which
bundle the host IP address inside the payload do not interoperate with NAT
because the host IP address does not match the address on the IP header. A
special translation agent known as an Application Level Gateway (ALG) is
employed to allow such programs on a host in one address realm to
transparently connect to its counterpart running on a host in a different realm.
The XSR implements traditional NAT (RFC-3022). It has two forms:
ˆ Basic NAT - Hosts on the private network are mapped statically to
global addresses. There are two kinds of basic NAT:
–
–
One-to-one mapping - Each host is supplied a one-to-one mapping,
on the private network, to a global address. Hosts without
mappings are not NATted.
Pool mapping - A pool of global addresses is defined. Hosts on the
private network are mapped to global addresses on a first-come,
first-serve basis. Once a global address is selected, static mapping
is performed.
ˆ NAPT - Both the source address and source port of hosts on the
private network are translated. The global address is that of the
egress interface. Hosts on the private network all share the same
global address (based on the egress interface).
Features
The following NAT features are supported on the XSR:
ˆ Basic NAT - One-to-one mapping based on global (independent of
interface) static mapping table. Mapping is permanent and is deleted
only if the configuration is removed.
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ˆ Port and Address Translation (NAPT)
ˆ Standard Access Control Lists (1-99) only supported
ˆ Application Level Gateway (ALG):
– FTP
– ICMP
– Netbios over TCP and UDP
ˆ Multiple ISP - NAPT based on the egress interface
ˆ With NAPT, routing is not automatically filtered out. Use distribution
lists to ensure global networks are advertised out of external ports.
ˆ NAPT can be configured for VPN interfaces.
ˆ IPSec support
–
–
Out-bound packets are processed first by NAT, then forwarded to
IPSec for encryption.
In-bound packets are processed by NAT after IPSec decryption.
Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol
The Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP) provides redundancy and
load sharing of multiple IP default gateways on a single LAN without
requiring that LAN's hosts to run a routing protocol. VRRP configures
multiple IP routers on one broadcast LAN to form a single Virtual Router
(VR), which has both a unique virtual IP and virtual MAC address.
The advantage of this protocol is that hosts on a LAN can switch from one IP
router to another (in case of failure) without changing their routing
configuration or running additional protocols. Load balancing can also be
implemented by configuring multiple VRRP routers across multiple IP
routers, with each IP router being the master of a different virtual router.
VRRP is an alternative to dynamic types of router discovery such as proxy
ARP, RIP and IRDP in that it specifies a group of statically configured default
gateways on the client. For example, Figure 9 below shows a LAN topology
where XSRs 1 and 2 are VRRP routers (running VRRP) comprising one virtual
router (VRRP group). The IP address of the VR matches that of the Ethernet
interface of XSR1 (10.10.10.1).
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VR IP address: 10.10.10.1
XSR1
VR Master
10.10.10.1
ClientA
XSR2
VR Backup
10.10.10.2
ClientB
ClientC
Figure 9 Simple VRRP Topology
Because the VR uses the IP address of the physical Ethernet interface of XSR1,
XSR1 becomes the master VR, also known as the IP address owner. XSR1, as the
master VR, assumes the IP address of the VR and is responsible for
forwarding packets sent to this IP address.
Clients A, B, and C are configured with the default gateway IP address of
10.10.10.1.
XSR2 is a backup VR. If the master VR fails, XSR2 will take over as the master
VR and support the connected LAN hosts. When XSR1 comes back on line, it
assumes the role of master VR again.
Figure 10 illustrates a topology where VRs XSR1 and XSR2 split outgoing
traffic between them and provide full system redundancy. ClientA and
ClientB install a default route to XSR1’s VR IP address and ClientC and
ClientD install a default route to XSR2’s VR IP address. Both XSRs serve dual
master/backup roles.
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VR (Group 2)
VR (Group 1)
IP address: 10.10.10.1 IP address: 10.10.10.2
XSR2
XSR1
VR Master1/Backup2 VR Master2/Backup1
10.10.10.1
ClientA
10.10.10.2
ClientB
ClientC
ClientD
Figure 10 Load Balanced, Redundant VRRP Topology
VRRP Definitions
The XSR defines VRRP terms as follows:
VRRP Router - A router running the Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol. It
may participate in one or more VRs.
Virtual Router - An abstract object managed by VRRP that acts as a default
router for hosts on a shared LAN. It consists of a VR Identifier and a set of
associated IP address(es) across a common LAN. A VRRP router may back up
one or more VRs.
IP Address Owner - The VRRP router that has the VR's IP address(es) as real
interface address(es). This is the router that, when up, will respond to packets
addressed to one of these IP addresses for ICMP pings, TCP connections, etc.
VRRP Primary IP Address - An IP address selected from the set of real interface
addresses. One possible selection algorithm is to always select the first
address. VRRP advertisements are always sent using the primary IP address
as the source of the IP packet.
Virtual Router Master - The VRRP router that assumes the responsibility of
forwarding packets sent to the IP address(es) associated with the VR, and
answers ARP requests for these IP address. Note that if the IP address owner
is available, then it will always become the master.
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How the VRRP Works
Multiple IP routers on a single broadcast LAN comprise a single virtual
router, which has a unique virtual IP address and virtual MAC address. Hosts
on the LAN configure the VR as their default router (default gateway).
Devices that provide support for a VR form a VRRP group. The device acting
as the VR is designated the master of the group.
At any one time, only one of the routers acts as the VR, forwarding packets
from hosts on the LAN. If that router goes down, the VRRP provides a
method by which one of the other routers in the group can take over the
virtual IP address and MAC address in a timely manner.
When the VRRP is started, the IP router sends and receives VRRP
advertisements until a master is chosen. If the IP router does not become the
master, it continues to listen to advertisements from the master of the group.
If the IP router becomes the master of the group, it begins sending VRRP
advertisements and adds VRRP group information to the interface set. Once
added, any Ethernet frame for the virtual MAC address is received by the IP
router. Any ARP requests for the virtual IP address are responded to using
the virtual MAC address.
If the IP router ceases to be the group master, it removes the VRRP group
information from the system and continues to listen for VRRP advertisements
from the new master.
Different States of a VRRP Router
Underlying how VRRP operates are three states the VRRP router experiences:
initialize, backup, and master. Initialize is the first state and involves the
following steps:
ˆ A VRRP router checks the virtual IP address to learn if it is the master.
ˆ If it owns that address, it realizes it is the master and its priority is 255.
ˆ If the priority equals 255, the VRRP router advertises itself as the
master, broadcasts an ARP message to all IP addresses associated
with the VR’s IP address, starts the advertisement timer and
transitions to the master state.
ˆ If priority is less than 255, the VRRP router transitions to backup state.
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In the backup state, a VRRP router monitors the VR master to confirm it is
alive, does not respond to ARP requests or accept packets for the IP
address(es) associated with the VR, and discards packets destined for the
VR’s MAC address. If an advertisement is received that the priority equals 0,
then the VRRP router performs the following:
ˆ Advertises that it is the master VR,
ˆ Broadcasts an ARP message with the VR’s MAC address to all the IP
addresses associated with the VR’s IP address,
ˆ Starts the advertisement timer,
ˆ And transitions to the master state.
ˆ If an advertisement is received that has a higher priority, or a higher
IP address (if the priority is the same), then the VRRP router discards
the advertisement and remains as the master VR.
In the master state, a VRRP router performs as follows:
ˆ Responds to ARP requests or accepts packets for the IP address or
addresses associated with the VR,
ˆ Does not accept packets address to the IP address associated with the
VR if it is not the owner of the IP address,
ˆ Forwards packets destined for the VR’s MAC address.
If a shutdown event is received, the VRRP router advertises a 0 priority.
If an advertisement with a greater priority or higher IP address (if the priority
is the same) is received by the virtual master, it experiences the following:
ˆ Transitions to a backup state
ˆ Cancels the advertisement timer
If an advertisement is received with the priority lower than local priority, or
with a lower IP address if the priority is the same, then the VRRP router
discards the advertisement.
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VRRP Features
Multiple Virtual IP Addresses per VR
The XSR permits specifying multiple virtual IP addresses on the VR (up to 11)
to support multiple logical IP subnet on a LAN segment. This functionality is
specified by the vrrp <group> ip command.
The primary physical IP address in that interface will be selected as a VRRP
primary IP address, which is used for the VRRP advertisement. The
advertisement timer is set using the vrrp <group> adver-int command.
If the one of the virtual IP address of a VR is the real physical address of the
interface, then all other virtual IP addresses of that VR will also have to be the
real physical addresses of that interface.
Obversely, if any of the virtual IP addresses is not the real physical address of
that interface, then all of the virtual IP address of that VR cannot be the real
physical address of that interface.
Multiple VRs Per Router
The XSR supports multiples VRs per router as follows:
ˆ A maximum of four VRs are supported per router.
ˆ The scope of a VR is limited to a single LAN segment.
ˆ The VR ID can be reused in a different scope.
Authentication
The XSR supports one type of authentication - simple password
authentication - which is meant to avoid careless misconfiguration, not
provide security. It is invoked with the vrrp <group> authentication
command. Authentication is set per VR.
Load Balancing
The XSR provides load balancing according to the following rules:
ˆ Load balancing depends on how your network is designed.
ˆ Load balancing is supported by separate physical VRRP routers and
not supported on the same physical router which has two LAN ports
on the same LAN segment with the same subnet.
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ARP Process on a VRRP Router
Three types of ARP requests can be employed on a VRRP router: Host, Proxy
and Gratuitous ARP.
Host ARP
Host ARP performs according to the following rules:
ˆ When a host sends an ARP request for one of the VR IP addresses, the
master VR returns the virtual MAC address (00-00-5e-00-01-VRID).
ˆ The backup VR must not respond to the ARP request for one of the
VR IP addresses.
ˆ If the master VR is the IP address owner, when a host sends an ARP
request for this address, the master VR must respond with the virtual
MAC address, not the real physical MAC address.
ˆ For other IP addresses, the VRRP router must respond with the real
physical MAC address, regardless of master or backup.
Proxy ARP
ˆ If Proxy ARP is used on a VRRP router, then the master VRRP router
must advertise the VR MAC address for the VR IP address in the
proxy ARP message.
Gratuitous ARP
Gratuitous ARP behaves in the following manner on a VRRP router:
ˆ Each VR sends gratuitous ARP when it becomes the master with
virtual IP and MAC addresses. One gratuitous ARP is issued per VR
IP address.
ˆ To make the bridge learn the correct VR MAC address, the VR
masters send gratuitous ARP for every virtual IP address in the
corresponding VR every 10 seconds.
Traffic Process on a VRRP Router
Incoming traffic on a VRRP router is governed by the following rules:
ˆ Whether a VRRP router is in a master or backup state, it must receive
packets with a real physical MAC address as the destination MAC
address.
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ˆ The master VR must receive packets with a virtual MAC address as
the destination MAC address.
ˆ The backup VR must not receive any packets with the virtual MAC
address as the destination MAC address.
Outgoing traffic on a VRRP router is governed by the following rules:
ˆ Master VR - all traffic, including locally generated or forwarding traffic,
uses one of the virtual MAC addresses as the source MAC address
except VRRP protocol packets, which use the corresponding virtual
MAC address as the source MAC address. For example, if four VRs
occupy one interface, two are in a master and the others a backup state.
The VRRP router uses one of the virtual MAC addresses of the master
VRs as the source MAC address for all traffic transferring over this
interface, except VRRP protocol packets, which use the corresponding
virtual MAC address as the source MAC address.
ˆ Backup VR - all traffic will use a real physical MAC address as the
source MAC address. For example, If there are two VRs on one
interface and both are in the backup state. The VRRP router will use
the real physical MAC address of this interface as the source MAC
address for all traffic transferred over this interface.
ICMP Ping
RFC-2338 specifies that a VR master that is not the actual address owner
should not respond to an ICMP ping associated with the virtual IP address.
The vrrp <group> master-respond-ping command allows the VR master
to respond to an ICMP ping regardless of actual IP address ownership.
Interface Monitoring
This feature, invoked by vrrp <group> track, allows a different router to act
as the default gateway when a route through the local router is unavailable.
An interface of a VR (usually the intended master of the VR) is set to monitor
another interface on the same router, and will refrain from acting as the
master of the VR if the monitored interface is down. It lowers its VR priority
to 0, allowing another interface to become the VR master.
When the monitored interface comes up again, the interface of the VR will
increase its priority back to the original value, and may become the master VR
again if pre-emption is enabled with vrrp <group> preempt. You can
manually set the VR priority level with vrrp <group> priority.
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IETF MIBs Supported
When the actual IP address owner of the Virtual IP address releases the
master state of the VR, it will no longer be able to receive any IP packet
destined for that address even though the actual interface is still up. This may
cause routing packets to not reach this interface and cause this interface to be
considered down by other routers. To avoid this situation, when Interface
Monitoring is used, be sure that you configure Virtual IP addresses different
than the actual IP addresses of the interfaces.
Physical Interface and Physical IP Address Change on a VRRP Router
The VR will change to the initialize state regardless of the interface state, if you
configure a VR before configuring the physical IP address, and there will be a
conflict between the physical IP and VR IP address.
The VR will change to the initialize state regardless of the interface state, if you
change the physical IP address on that interface, and this change will also
create a conflict between the physical IP and VR IP address.
IETF MIBs Supported
The XSR supports the following standard MIB-II managed objects:
ˆ MIB-II RFC-1213: System, Interfaces, IP, ICMP, TCP, UDP, and SNMP
groups
ˆ RFC-1471: PPP LCP MIB (pppLqrExtnsTable and pppTests not
supported)
ˆ RFC-1473: PPP IP NCP MIB
ˆ RFC-1573: IfStackTable only
ˆ RFC-1724: RIPv2 MIB
ˆ RFC-1850: OSPF MIB
ˆ RFC-2115: Frame Relay DTE MIB
ˆ RFC-2667: Tunnel MIB
ˆ RFC-2737, Entity MIB Version 2: EntPhysicalTable
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ˆ SNMPv3 MIBs including:
–
–
–
–
RFC-3411 Framework
RFC-3412 MPD
RFC-3414 USM
RFC-3415 VACM
Configuring RIP Examples
The following example enables RIP on both FastEthernet interfaces and a
serial link of the XSR. The FastEthernet 2 interface is configured to be totally
passive (updates not sent or received).
The serial interface uses split horizon with poison reverse while the others use
split horizon (the default). Authentication mode text is used on Serial 1/0,
and the key string is Mexico:
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip address 192.169.1.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip address 192.5.10.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip split-horizon poison
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip rip authentication key-string Mexico
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip rip authentication mode text
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#router rip
XSR(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0
XSR(config-router)#network 192.169.1.0
XSR(config-router)#network 192.5.10.0
XSR(config-router)#passive-interface fastethernet 2
XSR(config-router)#no receive-interface fastethernet 2
The following RIP example sets an Access Control List (ACL) to allow packets
from the address of 192.168.1.xxx and 154.68.1.xxx (where xxx are any valid
numbers) only through the XSR's FastEthernet 1 port.
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XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip access-group 1 in
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip access-group 1 out
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type V35
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulate ppp
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip address 154.68.1.47 255.255.255.0
XSR(config)#router rip
XSR(config-router)#network 154.68.1.0
XSR(config-router)#network 192.168.1.100
XSR(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 1 permit 154.68.1.0 0.0.0.255
XSR#copy running-config startup-config
The following configuration sets up RIPv1 with Dynamic Host Configuration
Protocol (DHCP) Relay enabled. DHCP relay is used when no DHCP server
exists on the immediate network.
When a local client sends a DHCP request, the XSR relays this request to the
appropriate DHCP server specified by the helper-address. After the server
responds, the XSR relays this response back to the local client.
As described below, the XSR connects to the PSTN via a T1 connection with
12 associated channels comprising channel-group 0. This T1 channel group is
presented to the XSR as a serial port and is configured similarly.
The T1 (serial port) connection is unnumbered, indicating packets from the T1
interface will use the IP address of the Ethernet interface instead of its own.
XSR(config)#controller t1 0/2/0
XSR(config-controller<T2/0>)#channel-group 0 timeslots 1-12
XSR(config-controller<T2/0:1-12>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip helper-address 154.68.1.1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#interface serial 2/0:0
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#no shutdown
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XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#encapsulate ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#ip unnumbered fastethernet 1
XSR(config)#router rip
XSR(config-router)#network 192.168.1.100
XSR#copy running-config startup-config
Configuring Unnumbered IP Serial Interface Example
The following example configures an X.21-type, serial interface 1/0 as an
unnumbered serial interface. Serial 1/0 is directed to use the IP address of
FastEthernet port 1.
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type x21
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip unnumbered fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR#copy running-config startup-config
Configuring OSPF Example
The following is a sample configuration of OSPF which adds three networks
to OSPF areas including stub and NSSA areas, sets the retransmit interval on
interface FastEthernet 1 to 9 seconds, specifies the cost of sending traffic on
interface Serial 1/0 to 64, and redistributes static routes into OSPF:
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.168.1.100 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip ospf retransmit-interval 9
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet 2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip address 156.57.99.3 255.255.255.0
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type V35
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation ppp
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XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip address 154.68.1.47 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip ospf cost 64
XSR(config)#router ospf 1
XSR(config-router)#network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0.0.0.10
XSR(config-router)#network 154.68.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 0
XSR(config-router)#area 10 nssa default-information-originate
XSR(config-router)#network 156.57.99.3 255.255.255.0 area 1
XSR(config-router)#area 1 stub
XSR(config-router)#redistribute static
XSR#copy running-config startup-config
Configuring NAT Examples
Basic One-to-One Static NAT
The following example configures inside source address translation on the
XSR, as shown in Figure 11 below.
Inside
Outside
Request
NAT Table
SA: 10.1.1.1 Private: 10.1.1.1
DA: 172.20.1 Global: 200.2.2.1
10.1.1.1
After Translation
SA: 200.2.2.1
DA: 172.20.2.1
Internet
External
interface
Inside Interface
XSR
Reply after
reverse lookup
SA: 172.20.2.1
DA: 10.1.1.1
Reply
SA: 172.20.2.1 172.20.2.1
DA: 200.2.2.1
Figure 11 NAT Inside Source Translation
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The user at 10.1.1.1 opens a connection to host 172.20.2.1.
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2
The first packet the XSR receives from host 10.1.1.1 causes the
router to check its NAT table.
3
The XSR replaces the inside local source address of 10.1.1.1 with the
global IP address 200.20.2.1 and forwards the packet.
4
Host 172.20.2.1 receives the packet and responds to IP address
200.20.2.1.
5
The XSR receives the packet with the inside global destination IP
address 200.20.2.1, it looks in the table, and translates the
destination address to the inside local destination address 10.1.1.1.
Then it forwards the packet to 10.1.1.1.
Configuring Static Translation
Only one command is required to configure NAT because static NAT is
interface independent. Optionally, you can configure multiple entries in
the static translation table with the ip nat source static command.
XSR(config)#ip nat source static local-ip global-ip F Sets the
static translation
Network Address and Port Translation
The following example configures inside source address translation with
overload (NAPT) on the XSR, as shown in Figure 12.
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Inside
10.1.1.1
Request
SA: 10.1.1.1
DA: 172.20.2.1
Internal
interface
Reply after
reverse lookup
SA: 172.20.2.1
DA: 10.1.1.1
Outside
NAT applied to
this interface
After Translation
DA: 172.20.2.1
SA: 200.2.2.1
172.20.2.2
Internet
External
interface
200.20.2.1
NAPT Table
Protocol Inside local
IP addr:port
TCP 10.1.1.1:1729
TCP 10.1.1.1:1780
Reply
SA: 172.20.2.1 172.20.2.1
DA: 200.2.2.1
Inside global
IP addr:port
200.2.2.1:40450
200.2.2.1:40460
Outside global
IP addr:port
172.2.20.2:23
172.2.21.2:23
Figure 12 NAT Inside Source Translation with Overload (NAPT)
Inside source address translation with overload, as shown in figure
Figure 12, is configured as follows:
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1
The user at 10.1.1.1 opens a connection to host 172.20.2.1.
2
The first packet that the XSR receives from 10.1.1.1 prompts a check
of the NAPT table. If no translation entry exists and the address
10.1.1.1 must be translated, the XSR sets up a translation entry. So
the router replaces the inside local address 10.1.1.1 with the external
address 200.20.2.1 and forwards the packet.
3
Host 172.20.2.1 receives the packet and responds to IP address
200.2.2.1.
4
When the XSR receives the packet, it searches the NAPT table, using
the protocol, global address and port, and translates the address to
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the inside local address 10.1.1.1 and destination port 1789, then
forwards it to 10.1.1.1.
Configuring NAPT
The following steps are required to configure overloading of inside global
addresses. The example configures an access list to permit specified
traffic but is optional. All other traffic is implicitly denied.
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
+ Configures serial port and acquires Interface mode
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip nat source list 99 assigned overload
+ Specifies NAT translation rules on the interface
XSR(config)#access-list 99 permit ip 10.1.1.0 0.0.0.255
+ Adds ACL to permit IP traffic from the specified source
Configuring VRRP Example
The following example configures three VRRP groups to provide
forwarding redundancy and load balancing on VRRP routers XSRa and
XSRb as follows:
ˆ Group 1: the virtual IP address is 10.10.10.10, XSRa is the group
master with priority 120, the advertising interval is 3 seconds,
preemption is enabled with a 2-second delay, and authentication is
set with the text robo.
ˆ Group 5: XSRb is the group master with priority 200, the virtual IP
address is 10.10.10.50, the advertising interval is 30 seconds, and
preemption is enabled with a 2-second delay.
ˆ Group 100: XSRa is the group master with priority 85, the advertising
interval is 1 second (default), and preemption is off.
ˆ The WAN Serial interface 2/0 is tracked by FastEthernet interface 1
on each likely master VR.
Router XSRa
XSRa(config)#interface fastethernet 1/0
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 priority 150
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 preempt delay 2
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XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 track serial 2/0
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 authentication robo
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 adver-int 3
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 ip 10.10.10.10
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 priority 100
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 adver-int 30
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 ip 10.10.10.50
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 preempt delay 2
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 100 ip 10.10.10.100
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 100 priority 85
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#no vrrp 100 preempt
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 100 track serial 2/0
XSRa(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
Router XSRb
XSRb(config)#interface fastethernet 1/0
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 priority 100
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 preempt delay 2
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 authentication robo
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 adver-int 3
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 1 ip 10.10.10.10
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 priority 200
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 adver-int 30
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 ip 10.10.10.50
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 preempt delay 2
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 5 track serial 2/0
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 100 ip 10.10.10.100
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#vrrp 100 priority 65
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#no vrrp 100 preempt
XSRb(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
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Configuring PPP
Overview
The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP), referenced in RFC-1616, is a standard
method for transporting multi-protocol datagrams over point-to-point links.
PPP defines procedures to assign and manage network addresses,
asynchronous and synchronous encapsulation, link configuration, link
quality testing, network protocol multiplexing, error detection, and option
negotiation for network-layer address and data-compression negotiation.
PPP provides all these functions through its three main components:
ˆ An extensible Link Control Protocol (LCP) for establishing,
configuring, and testing the data-link connection.
ˆ A method for encapsulating multi-protocol datagrams.
ˆ A family of Network Control Protocols (NCPs) for establishing and
configuring different network-layer protocols.
When negotiation is complete, PPP becomes the pipe that carries the network
layer protocol data units (PDUs) in the information field of the PPP packet.
PPP offers high performance and error-free transmission of user traffic from
sender to receiver over a link.
PPP Features
The XSR PPP software module offers the following features:
ˆ IP datagram encapsulation over a data link connection
ˆ Synchronous and asynchronous communication modes
ˆ Multilink Protocol (MP) as defined by RFC-1990
ˆ IPCP Network Control Protocol
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ˆ Authentication of peer entities through:
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MSCHAP)
ˆ Link Quality Monitoring (LQM) procedures as defined by RFC-1989
–
–
–
ˆ VJ/IP header compression
ˆ No restriction on frame size; default is 1500 octets for the information
field - as defined by RFC-1661
ˆ Self-Describing Padding and FCS (16-bytes) as defined by RFC-1570
ˆ Outbound Dialing
ˆ 16-bit Fast Check Sequence
ˆ The following parameters are negotiated during link level
configuration (as defined by RFC-1471):
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Maximum size of the packet that can be received on a link (MRU)
Protocol to be used for authentication
Asynchronous Character Control Map (ACCM)
The protocol to be used for Link Quality Monitoring
FCS
Magic number
Padding
ˆ Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP/BACP) as defined by RFC-2125
Link Control Protocol (LCP)
The Link Control Protocol (LCP) handles the functions of establishing,
configuring and terminating the PPP link. These functions are as follows:
ˆ Establish, configure and terminate the PPP link.
ˆ Initiate authentication and link quality monitoring procedures, if set.
ˆ Initiate network layer configuration option negotiation procedures.
Link level configuration options to be negotiated with the peer are set on perlink basis. After the lower layer is operationally up, link establishment and
configuration negotiation is performed. If a configuration option is not
included in the LCP packet, the default value for that option is assumed. LCP
starts authentication and LQM procedures after the link is built. After the link
is authenticated successfully, configured NCP protocols are initiated.
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Network Control Protocol (NCP)
The Network Control Protocol (NCP) handles transmission and reception of
various network layer control packets and datagrams. NCP provides:
ˆ Sets up network layer control protocols over the established PPP link.
ˆ Transmits/receives network layer datagrams if the corresponding
NCP is successfully negotiated.
The configuration negotiation procedures are performed once the LCP
reaches the OPENED state.
Authentication
Authentication protocols, as referenced in RFC-1334, are used primarily by
hosts and routers to connect to a PPP network server via switched circuits or
dialup lines, but might be applied to dedicated links as well. The server can
use identification of the connecting host or router to select options for
network layer negotiations.
The authentication protocol used is negotiated with the peer entity via LCP
configuration options. If the authentication option is successfully negotiated,
the LCP module initiates authentication after link establishment. This module
performs authentication and the result is communicated to the LCP module.
If authentication succeeds, LCP informs NCP that the PPP link is operational.
If authentication fails, it closes the PPP link and generates an error message.
Password Authentication Protocol (PAP)
The Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) is a simple method for the peer
to establish its identity using a two-way handshake. PAP authentication
occurs only upon initial link establishment. After this phase is complete, the
peer repeatedly sends an ID/Password pair to the authenticator until
authentication is acknowledged or the connection closed.
PAP is not a strong authentication method because passwords are sent over a
circuit in the clear with no protection from playback or repeated trial and error
attacks. The peer controls the frequency and timing of authentication
attempts.
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PAP is most appropriate where a plaintext password must be available to
simulate a login at a remote host. In such a use, PAP provides a similar level
of security to the usual user login at the remote host.
Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)
The Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), as referenced in
RFC-1994, periodically verifies the identity of the peer using a 3-way
handshake. This occurs upon initial link establishment, and may be repeated
anytime after the link has been established.
After the link establishment phase is complete, the authenticator sends a
“challenge” message to the peer. The peer responds with a value calculated
using a “one-way hash” function.
The authenticator checks the response against its own calculation of the
expected hash value. If the values match the connection is accepted,
otherwise the connection is terminated. CHAP uses MD5 as its hashing
algorithm.
CHAP protects against playback attack with an incrementally changing
identifier and a variable challenge value. The use of repeated challenges is
intended to limit the time of exposure to any single attack. The authenticator
controls the frequency and timing of the challenges.
CHAP depends upon a secret known only to the authenticator and that peer.
The secret is not sent over the link. CHAP is most likely used where the same
secret is easily accessed from both ends of the link.
Microsoft Challenge Handshake Protocol (MS-CHAP)
MS-CHAP, referenced in RFC-2433, authenticates remote Windows
workstations, providing the functionality to which LAN-based users are
accustomed while integrating the encryption and hashing algorithms used on
Windows networks. MS-CHAP is closely derived from the PPP CHAP with
the exception that it uses MD4 as its hashing algorithm.
The MS-CHAP challenge, response and success packet formats are identical
in format to the standard CHAP challenge, response and success packets,
respectively. MS-CHAP defines a set of reason for failure codes returned in the
Failure packet Message Field.
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It also defines a new packet called Change Password Packet, which enables a
client to send a response packet based on a new password. An 8-octet
challenge string is generated using a random number generator. A change
password packet is sent in response to a failure packet from the peer that
contains the failure code for change password.
Currently, MS-CHAP authenticators do not send the name value field in the
challenge packet but construct the response packet with the first MS-CHAP
name/secret pair retrieved from the secret list. When MS-CHAP secrets are
not configured, a configure NAK will be sent with either CHAP (MD5) or
PAP protocol in response to a MS-CHAP Authentication protocol option in
the LCP request from the Windows system.
Link Quality Monitoring (LQM)
As referenced in RFC-1989, LQM defines a protocol for generating LinkQuality-Reports. These Report packets provide a mechanism to determine
link quality, but it is up to each implementation to decide when the link is
usable. LQM carefully defines the Link-Quality-Report packet format and
specifies reference points to measure all data transmission and reception.
LQM’s functionality includes:
ˆ Maintaining LQM statistics and sending them to the peer periodically
ˆ Determining link quality based on statistics received from the peer
ˆ Suspending traffic over the link, if that link quality is bad
ˆ
Monitoring suspended link quality by swapping LQM packets with peer
ˆ Restoring the link after quality reaches a desired level (set by
configuration)
Multilink PPP (MLPPP)
Multilink PPP (MLPPP), as referenced in RFC-1990, aggregates multiple
point-to-point links to form a group with higher bandwidth. Multilink is
based on an LCP option negotiation that permits the XSR to indicate to its
peer that it is capable of combining multiple physical links into a bundle.
LCP negotiation indicates the following:
ˆ The XSR can combine multiple physical links into one logical link
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ˆ The XSR can receive upper layer protocol data units (PDU)
fragmented using the multilink header and reassemble the fragments
into the original PDU for processing
ˆ The XSR can receive PDUs of size N octets where N is specified as
part of the option even if N is larger than the maximum receive unit
(MRU) for a single physical link
When a packet is transmitted over a multilink bundle it is encapsulated by a
multilink header, which includes information to allow the packets sent over
the links in the bundle to be sequenced.
Functionality provided by MLPPP on the XSR includes:
ˆ Learned number of fragments to be sent on each link and the bundle
ˆ Fragmentation/reassembly
ˆ Detection of fragment loss
ˆ Optimal buffer usage
ˆ MTU size determination
ˆ Management of MLPPP bundles
ˆ MIB support for network management
ˆ Up to four T1/E1 lines can be aggregated running MLPPP
IP Control Protocol (IPCP)
IPCP negotiates the following options, as referenced in RFC-1332:
ˆ The IP address of the system
ˆ The compression protocol to be applied on IP datagrams (Van
Jacobson Compressed TCP/IP)
Along with the above support, the following IPCP extension is also offered:
ˆ Primary and Secondary DNS and NBNS address
Once negotiation is successful, IPCP allows IP traffic over the established PPP
link. The negotiated IP addresses and MTU of the interface are passed on to
the higher layer (IP) to update its tables.
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IP Address Assignment
In PPP, IPCP configuration option type 3 corresponds to IP address
negotiation. This configuration option provides a way to negotiate the IP
address to be used on the local end of the link.
It allows the sender of the Configure-Request to state which IP address is
desired, or to request that the peer provide the information. The peer can do
this by NAKing the option, and returning a valid IP address. If the host wants
the peer to provide the IP address, it will mark the IP address field as
configuration option 0.
Upon receiving an IP-address Configure-Request with IP address field 0,
IPCP may allocate a valid IP address to the peer by sending a Configure-Nak
to the received Configure-Request or it may reject the Configure-Request.
PPP Bandwidth Allocation/Control Protocols (BAP/BAPC)
The XSR supports the PPP Bandwidth Allocation/Control protocols
(BAP/BACP) as a means of managing individual links of a multilink bundle
as well as specifying which peer is responsible for managing bandwidth
during a multilink connection.
This ability to dynamically change bandwidth during a multilink connection is
referred to as Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD). For more information on BoD,
refer to “Configuring Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)” on
page 187 and “Configuring Dialer Services” on page 135.
BAP/BACP, as defined by RFC-2125, is a flexible, robust method of managing
bandwidth between two peers. BAP does this by defining Call-Control
packets and a protocol that allows peers to co-ordinate actual bandwidth
allocation and de-allocation. Phone number values may be passed in the CallControl packets to minimize user configuration.
BAP/BACP provides the following benefits:
ˆ Allows multilink implementations to interoperate by providing call
control through the use of link types, speeds, and telephone numbers.
ˆ Controls thrashing caused by frequent raising/tearing down links.
ˆ Ensures that both ends of a link are told when links are
added/dropped from a multilink bundle.
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The BACP protocol must reach the Opened state using the standard PPP
mechanism as defined in RFC-1661. Once BACP reaches the Opened state on
a bundle, BAP may transmit packets through this PPP/MLPPP pipeline.
BAP datagrams are encapsulated by the PPP/MLPPP module and
transmitted across the link. Transmission and reception of BAP and BACP
packets is through the same interface procedures used by any other NCP
protocol pair.
Functionality provided by BAP/BACP is summarized as follows:
ˆ To add links:
–
–
–
–
Negotiate phone numbers over the bundles through BAP.
Agree with peer before trying to set up a call.
Check for available lines before agreeing to add a link.
Manage race conditions when both peers wish to add a link.
ˆ To delete links:
–
Agree with peer to tear down a link before disconnecting the call.
Configuring PPP with a Dialed Backup Line
You can configure PPP on the following types of physical interfaces:
ˆ Asynchronous serial
ˆ Synchronous serial
ˆ T1/E1
By enabling PPP encapsulation on physical interfaces, PPP can also be used
on calls placed by the dialer interfaces that use the physical interfaces. Refer
to Figure 13 for an example of an XSR configured with one backup dial line to
two different sites.
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Configuring a Synchronous Serial Interface
XSR
Primary link
Serial interface 1/1
Primary link
Serial interface 1/0
Backup link
PSTN
Site B
Central Site
Figure 13 XSR Configuration with One Backup Dial Line to Different Sites
Configuring a Synchronous Serial Interface
Perform the following steps to configure a synchronous V.35 serial interface to
communicate with PPP:
1
Enter interface serial <card/port> to specify the interface.
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
2
Enter the media-type for the interface (default: RS232).
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type v35
3
Enter encapsulation ppp to enable PPP encapsulation.
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation ppp
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Set the local IP address of this interface.
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0
5
Enter no shutdown to enable this interface.
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
Configuring a Dialed Backup Line
The following tasks must be performed to configure a Dialed Backup line:
ˆ Configure the dialer interface
ˆ Configure a physical interface to function as backup
ˆ Configure primary interfaces to use a backup interface
Configuring the Dialer Interface
For more details on configuring Dialer Services, refer to Chapter 7.
1
Enter interface dialer number to create the dialer interface.
The number range is 0 to 25.
2
Enter encapsulation ppp to enable PPP encapsulation.
3
Enter ppp auth <options> to set the type of authentication.
The authentication options are chap, pap, or ms-chap.
4
Enter ppp keepalive seconds to set the keepalive interval.
5
Enter ppp quality percentage to set the minimum LQM value on the
interface before it will go down.
6
Enter dialer pool number to specify the dialer pool.
The number range is 0 to 255.
7
Enable the interface by entering the no shutdown command.
Configuring the Physical Interface for the Dialer Interface
112
1
Enter interface serial card / port to specify the interface.
2
Enter encapsulation ppp to set PPP encapsulation.
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3
Enter media-type {RS232 | RS422 | RS449 | RS530A | V35 | X21} for
the cable your interface connects to.
The default media-type is RS232.
4
Enter no shutdown to enable the interface.
5
Enter ppp max-bad auth number to set the number of retries after
which the interface resets itself.
6
Enter dialer pool-member pool-number priority priority to assign the
interface as a member of the pool that the dialer interface will use.
Pool-number is a value ranging from 0 to 255 specifying the pool.
Priority is an optional value ranging from 0 to 255 that you can
configure to prioritize this pool-member within the pool.
7
Enable the interface by entering the no shutdown command.
Configuring the Interface as the Backup Dialer Interface
1
Enter interface serial card/port to specify the interface to back up.
2
Enter ip address ip-address mask to specify the IP address and
subnet mask of the interface.
3
Enter backup interface dialer number as the backup interface.
4
Enter backup delay enable-delay disable-delay to set the interval
between the physical interface going down and the backup being
enabled, and between the physical interface coming back up and the
backup being disabled.
5
Enter backup time-range start-time end-time to set the time of day
the backup interface should be enabled and disabled.
6
Enable the interface by entering the no shutdown command.
The CLI commands shown below are those used to configure the example
shown in Figure 13.
Configure interface dialer 0 to use dial pool 5:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 5
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
Configure interface dialer 1 to use dial pool 5:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp authentication chap pap
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 5
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
Configure serial port(s) for dial purposes and assign to dial pool 5:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/2
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#media-type v35
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#dialer pool-member 5
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#no shutdown
Configure the primary serial port 1/0 to use dialer 1 as its backup interface:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#ip address 100.100.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#backup interface dialer0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
Configure the primary serial port 1/1 to use dialer 2 as its backup interface:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/1
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#backup interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#no shutdown
Configuring BAP
The XSR is designed to provide Dial on Demand (DoD) functionality in
addition to BAP, which is essentially an enhancement of Bandwidth on
Demand (BoD). The router performs DoD when a dialer map and dialer group
values are configured as well as multilink PPP.
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One function central to DoD is the XSR’s ability to perform LAN route
spoofing, a means of maintaining routes in the routing table while keeping
unused lines physically down.
The router brings up a line only when it receives a data packet and tears it
down when idle timeout values are reached. Spoofing on the XSR is
applicable to the dial out router only. Additional configuration includes
specifying call/callback request (for BAP configurations) and load threshold
(BoD) values.
On the XSR, DoD automatically brings up the first link if the router is the
caller, and BAP negotiates raising the remaining links as they are needed.
The following tasks are required to configure BAP:
ˆ Set up PRI/BRI physical interfaces
ˆ Configure BAP values such as the load threshold and phone numbers
The following examples configure BAP, DoD, Call Request and Callback
Request features on connected XSRs.
Dual XSRs: One Router Using DoD with Call Request
The following example sets up BAP on connecting XSRs over PRI and BRI
interfaces with each capable of calling the other. The configurations are
complimentary except only one XSR will add or remove links.
XSR1 Configuration
1
Begin configuring XSR1 by setting up the T1 controller (PRI interface):
XSR1(config)#controller t1 1/0
XSR1(config-controller<T1-1/0>)#pri-group
XSR1(config-controller<T1-1/0>)#isdn bchan-number-order ascending
XSR1(config-controller<T1-1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR1(config-controller<T1-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 0
2
Configure BRI interface 2/0 with the basic-ni1 switch type and two SPIDs:
XSR1(config)#interface bri 2/0
XSR1(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-ni1
XSR1(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#isdn spid1 0337250001
XSR1(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#isdn spid2 0337250101
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XSR1(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#no shutdown
XSR1(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 0
3
Configure the Dialer 1 interface with a dialer pool:
XSR1(config)#interface Dialer1
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
4
Set up BAP on Dialer 1 by specifying the load-threshold (BoD), enabling
BAP, and configuring XSR1 to initiate the addition of a link. Note that the
load threshold is very low, ensuring that BAP will be enabled relatively
quickly when traffic starts to build.
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#multilink load-threshold 4
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink bap
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap call request
5
Complete Dialer 1 configuration by setting the idle timeout and dialergroup values for DoD:
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 4000
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 2
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ip address 99.99.1.2 255.0.0.0
6
Configure the dialer list and ACL for DoD:
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#access-list 102 permit icmp list 102
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer-list 2 protocol ip list 102
XSR2 Configuration
XSR2 is configured to accept incoming calls only.
1
Begin configuring XSR2 by setting up the T1 controller (PRI interface):
XSR1(config)#controller t1 1/0
XSR2(config-controller<T1-1/0>)#pri-group
XSR2(config-controller<T1-1/0>)#isdn bchan-number-order ascending
XSR2(config-controller<T1-1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR2(config-controller<T1-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 0
2
Configure BRI interface 2/0 with the basic-ni1 switch type and two SPIDs:
XSR2(config)#interface bri 2/0
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XSR2(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-ni1
XSR2(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#isdn spid1 0337250001
XSR2(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#isdn spid2 0337250101
XSR2(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#no shutdown
XSR2(config-if<BRI-2/0>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 0
3
Configure the Dialer 1 interface with a dialer pool:
XSR2(config)#interface Dialer1
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
4
Set up BAP on Dialer 1 by enabling BAP and adding BAP phone numbers
for XSR1 to call.
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink bap
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap number default 3101
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap number default 3102
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap number default 3103
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap number default 3104
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap number default 3105
XSR2(config-if<D1>)#ip address 99.99.1.1 255.0.0.0
Dual XSRs: BAP Using Call/Callback Request
The following example sets up BAP between two XSRs, with XSR1 configured
to perform Dial on Demand (DoD) and request additional links by sending a
callback request to XSR2, which also is configured with DoD and requests
additional links with call requests to XSR1.
XSR1 Configuration
XSR1(config)#controller e1 2/0
XSR1(config-controller<T1-2/0>)#pri-group
XSR1(config-controller<T1-2/0>)#no shutdown
!
XSR1(config)#interface Dialer1
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
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XSR1(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#multilink load-threshold 3
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink bap
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap number default 3200
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap callback request
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 2
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.2 1300
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR1(config)#access-list 102 permit icmp any any 8
XSR1(config)#dialer-list 2 protocol ip list 102
XSR2 Configuration
XSR2(config)#controller e1 2/0
XSR2(config-controller<T1-2/0>)#pri-group
XSR2(config-controller<T1-2/0>)#no shutdown
XSR2(config-controller<T1-2/0>)#dial pool-member 1
XSR1(config)#interface Dialer1
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink bap
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap number default 1301
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap number default 1300
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ppp bap call request
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 2
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.1 3200
XSR1(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
!
XSR1(config)#access-list 102 permit icmp any any 8
XSR1(config)#dialer-list 2 protocol ip list 102
Further description of MLPPP and configuration of its various applications
on the XSR can be found in “Configuring Dialer Services” on page 135 and
“Configuring Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)” on page 187 in
this manual, and the XSR CLI Reference Guide.
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Configuring Frame Relay
Overview
Frame Relay is a simple, bit-oriented protocol that offers fast-packet
switching for wide-area networking. It combines the statistical multiplexing
and port-sharing features of an X.25 connection with high speed and low
delay to provide high performance and less overhead. Frame Relay organizes
data into variable-length, individually addressed units known as frames
rather than placing them in fixed time slots for delivery over a packetswitched network where the data channel is occupied only for the duration of
the transmission.
Virtual Circuits
Frame Relay is based on the concept of the Virtual Circuit (VC) - a two-way,
always on, software-defined data path between two ports that acts as a
“private” line in the network. The XSR supports Permanent Virtual Circuits
(PVCs), multiplexing several PVCs in a single Frame Relay port, which
reduces the number of physical connections required to link sites. A Frame
Relay connection can be ordered with multiple PVCs connecting to different
remote site. Refer to Figure 14 for a typical network topology.
DLCIs
The Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) is a unique number assigned to a
PVC end point, essentially, the port to which the destination network is
attached. DLCIs can perform data “interleaving” from two or more devices
on a single channel known as statistical multiplexing. Data entering a Frame
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Relay switch are processed by the DLCI in three ways: frames are checked for
integrity, their associated DLCI is looked up in the DLCI table, and they are
relayed to their destination through the port specified in the table. If the
checks reveal errors or do not find the DLCI in the table, frames are discarded.
The frame-relay interface-dlci command maps a DLCI to a specified
Frame Relay sub-interface.
DLCIs
New York
Minneapolis
Frame Relay
(Packet Switching Network)
DLCIs
Toronto
Boston
Figure 14 Frame Relay Network Topology
From the perspective of the OSI reference model, Frame Relay is a highperformance WAN protocol suite that operates at the physical and data link
layers (1 and 2). Starting from a source site, variable-length packets are
switched between the various network segments until the destination is
reached.
Devices attached to a Frame Relay WAN fall into two categories: Data
Terminal Equipment (DTE) and Data Circuit-terminating Equipment (DCE).
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Frame Relay Features
DTEs
A DTE is a network end station, either the ultimate source or destination of
data through a Frame Relay network. A Frame Relay device can be a router,
bridge, terminal or PC. For example, the XSR acts as a DTE originating or
terminating device.
As a source device, a DTE encapsulates data in a Frame Relay frame and
transmits. As a destination device, a DTE de-encapsulates Frame Relay data
(strips the Frame Relay “header” from the packet) leaving only user IP data.
The frame-relay intf-type dte command assigns the device to the port.
DCEs
A DCE is an internetwork switching device located at your service provider’s
premises. DCEs provide network clocking and the switches which actually
transmit data across the WAN. In most cases, these are packet switches.
The connection between a DTE device and a DCE device consists of both
physical- and link-layer components. The physical component defines
mechanical, electrical, functional, and procedural specifications of the
connection between the devices while the link-layer component defines the
protocol that establishes the connection between the DTE and the DCE.
Frame Relay Features
The XSR supports the following Frame Relay features:
ˆ The router acts as a DTE device in the UNI (User Network Interface)
interface, supporting Frame Relay PVC connections. DCE
functionality is not supported.
ˆ 10-bit DLCI addressing using a 2-byte DLCI header. 3- and 4-byte
DLCI headers are not supported.
ˆ Rate enforcement (CIR) with automatic rate fallback via
traffic/adaptive shaping when the network is congested.
Automatically restores to normal rates when congestion is removed.
ˆ Congestion control by Backward Explicit Congestion Notification
(BECN). The XSR does not send packets with the BECN bit set.
ˆ The three standard LMIs: ILMI (FRF1.1) ANSI Annex D, CCITT
Annex A. Also supported: Auto LMI detect and None.
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ˆ Multi-protocol interconnect over Frame Relay - RFC-2427. Only IP is
supported.
ˆ RFC-2390 Frame Relay Inverse ARP.
ˆ Multiple logical interfaces over the same physical Frame Relay port
(sub-interfaces).
ˆ Quality of Service: standard FIFO queuing, or IP QoS on DLCIs.
ˆ Max PDU size of 1500 bytes.
ˆ Industry-standard CLI and statistics.
The XSR proscribes the following maximum configuration limits with
standard memory installed (64 Mbytes):
ˆ 30 Frame Relay interfaces or sub-interfaces per node.
ˆ 300 DLCIs per node.
ˆ 30 Frame Relay map-classes.
Multi-Protocol Encapsulation
XSR supports encapsulation of multiple protocols - a flexible way to carry
many protocols via Frame Relay. This method is useful when it is necessary to
multiplex/de-multiplex across one Frame Relay connection, as described by
RFC-2427, which defines a generic, end-to-end encapsulation mechanism for
devices to communicate many protocols over a single port.
Address Resolution
The XSR supports dynamic resolution via Inverse ARP to map virtual circuits
(DLCI) to remote protocol addresses, as defined in RFC-2390.
Dynamic Resolution Using Inverse ARP
Inverse ARP allows a network node to request a next hop IP address
corresponding to a given hardware address. Technically, this applies to Frame
Relay nodes that may have a Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI), the
Frame Relay equivalent of a hardware address, associated with an established
Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC), but do not know the IP address of the node
on the other side of the connection.
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Controlling Congestion in Frame Relay Networks
Controlling Congestion in Frame Relay Networks
While Frame Relay provides dedicated, logical channels throughout the
network, these channels share physical resources - links and Frame Relay
switches, for example. When a DLCI is provisioned, the network assigns a
Committed Information Rate (CIR), Committed burst (Bc) and Excess burst
(Be) values for the virtual circuit.
Both CIR and Bc values are guaranteed under normal conditions. Excess burst
bandwidth, though, is not guaranteed at all times. You can set the CIR rate on
the XSR with the frame-relay cir command.
Frame Relay network design assumes that not all users will need all of their
provisioned bandwidth all the time, and that any unused excess capacity can
be borrowed by other customers to send bursts of data exceeding their
Committed burst rate. In this environment, it is possible for multiple users to
contend for the same resources at the same time causing congestion.
If congestion does occur, Frame Relay provides several reactive mechanisms,
including explicit congestion notifications that inform end stations that
congestion exists on the network.
One issue with reactive congestion controls is that congestion has already
occurred. Although congestion is eventually cleared, frames may be lost and
response times reduced. This problem can be solved if network traffic is
limited to avoid congestion in the first place and that is accomplished with
enforced CIR for a PVC.
CIR enforcement also prevents a PVC from hogging all the bandwidth on the
access link - the connection between the access device and the Frame Relay
switch. Without this feature, one VC can use all the access-link bandwidth
before Frame Relay congestion techniques even start up.
Rate Enforcement (CIR) - Traffic Shaping
Traffic shaping is a high level switch to throttle output traffic to address
congestion on the network, enabled by the frame-relay traffic-shaping
command on the XSR. Adaptive shaping is the ability to further reduce CIR to
alleviate network congestion, enabled by the frame-relay adaptiveshaping command on the XSR.
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CIR is the minimum rate of service that a public Frame Relay provider
guarantees for a given PVC under normal conditions. Frame Relay provides
the ability to burst beyond the CIR if bandwidth is available.
You can transmit traffic at a rate exceeding the CIR using Excess Information
Rate (EIR), but excess traffic might be discarded in the event of congestion.
Traffic shaping prevents traffic from being sent in excess of a value such as
CIR, which considerably reduces the likelihood of network congestion.
Without this feature, one VC could use all the access-link bandwidth before
Frame Relay congestion techniques even begin.
Several other parameters work hand-in-hand with CIR in controlling traffic
flow. Committed burst (Bc) is the maximum number of bits that the network
attempts to deliver during a given period.
Bc differs from CIR - it is a number, not a rate. CIR is equal to the committed
burst divided by time interval Tc, expressed in the formula: CIR = Bc/Tc. The
frame-relay bc command sets outgoing committed burst size.
Excess burst (Be) is the maximum number of bits that you may send in excess
of Bc. Sent on a best-effort basis, these bits will likely be discarded during
congestion. The frame-relay be command sets outgoing excess burst size.
Another method of traffic shaping is the use of queues to limit surges that can
congest a network. Data is buffered and then sent to the network in regulated
amounts to ensure that traffic will fit within the promised traffic envelope for
the particular connection. Traffic shaping is also known as metering, shaping,
and smoothing.
Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN)
Forward Explicit Congestion Notification (FECN) sets a bit to inform the DTE
device receiving the frame that congestion was experienced in the path from
source to destination. A DTE device receiving frames with the FECN bit set
can request that higher-level protocols take flow-control action as
appropriate.
Receiving a frame with the FECN bit set indicates that the received frame
experienced congestion en route, and that a method to slow down the peer
shall be used. The XSR does not act upon receiving a frame with the FECN bit
set.
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Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN)
Backward Explicit Congestion Notification (BECN) sets a bit in frames
traveling the opposite direction of frames encountering a congested path. A
DTE device receiving frames with the BECN bit set can request that higherlevel protocols take flow control action as appropriate. Frames received with
the BECN bit set indicates that the transmit path is congested.
Congestion
Source DTE
Destination DTE
Switch B
BECN
FECN
Reduce Sent Traffic
Switch A
Ignored
Switch C
Figure 15 Congestion Notification
Using BECN bits to control the outbound flow of data is known as adaptive
shaping. This feature is disabled by default on the XSR. To activate the
feature, you must first enable traffic shaping on the interface. Second, you
must associate a map class with this interface, sub-interface or DLCI which
has the adaptive shaping parameter enabled.
Be aware that unless traffic shaping is enabled, BECN will not operate.
The following sample configuration shows how to activate BECN support:
XSR(config)#map-class frame-relay STG
XSR(config-map-class<STG>)#frame-relay
XSR(config-map-class<STG>)#frame-relay
XSR(config-map-class<STG>)#frame-relay
XSR(config-map-class<STG>)#frame-relay
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR User’s Guide
cir out 64000
bc out 8000
be out 8000
adaptive-shaping
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XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type V35
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation frame-relay
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#frame-relay lmi-type ansi
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#frame-relay traffic-shaping
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0.1 multi-point
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>)#frame-relay interface-dlci 16
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>)#class STG
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>#ip address 210.16.0.1 255.255.0.0
Under normal circumstances, a DLCI is authorized to transmit a number of
bits per an interval of time. The number of bits is composed of adding Bc and
Be values (8000, 8000 = 16000 bits). The interval allowed to transmit this
quantity of bits is based on the formula: Bc/CIR (8000/64000 = 125
milliseconds). So under normal non-congested conditions, this DLCI should
transmit up to 16000 bits every 125 milliseconds.
NOTE
When adaptive shaping is enabled and BECNs are received, the XSR
becomes congested and lowers the output rate on the DLCI. Other DLCIs’
throughput is not affected.
Upon receiving the first BECN, the Be amount is removed from the equation.
Now the DLCI can transmit 8000 bits every 125 milliseconds. If no more
BECNs are received within 3 seconds, 1/2 of the Be amount is added back
each 3-second interval until the Be is fully restored.
Upon receiving additional BECNs within three seconds, the CIR is reduced
by 7/8ths of the current CIR. Every three seconds that BECNs are received,
the CIR will be reduced by an additional 7/8ths of the new CIR value, until
the new CIR value is 1/2 of the original CIR value. One-half of the original
CIR is called the minimum CIR, a non-configurable parameter.
Once BECNs stop being received, the current CIR begins to recover the
original CIR at a rate of 1/16th of the original CIR every 3 seconds: 1/16th
facilitates a graceful, slower recovery in the hope of preventing network
thrashing when all devices start recovering from congestion. After CIR is
fully recovered, Be is reintroduced at a rate of 1/2 of Be every 3 seconds.
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Link Management Information (LMI)
Link Management Information (LMI)
A Frame Relay switch communicates with another Frame Relay switch or an
attached Frame Relay DTE device (e.g., the XSR) about the status of the PVC
connections through Link Management Information protocol (LMI).
LMI monitors the status of the connection and provides the following data:
ˆ Active/inactive interface - known as a keep alive or heartbeat signal.
ˆ The valid DLCIs defined for that interface.
ˆ The status of each DLCI (either New, Activate or Delete).
Three versions of the LMI specification as described below:
Protocol
Specification
ILMI, (OGOF)
Frame Relay Forum Implementation Agreement (IA)
FRF.1 superseded by FRF.1.1
Annex D (ANSI)
ANSI T1.617
Annex A (Q933a)
ITU Q.933
The protocol defined for the LMI provides a status inquiry message which the
the XSR can send, either as a keep alive message to inform the network that the
connection to the router is still up, or as a request for a report on the status of
the PVCs on that port. The network then responds with a status message,
either in the form of a keep alive response or full report on the PVCs.
An optional status update message lets the network unilaterally report a PVC
status change. An LMI status query provides for one-way querying and oneway response only, meaning that only the XSR can send a status inquiry
message, and only the network can respond with a status message. Using
status inquiries in this manner renders both sides of the interface unable to
provide the same commands and responses.
In contrast to the ILMI (which uses DLCI 1023), Annex D reserves DLCI 0 for
PVC status signaling. The current requirement in Annex A signaling is similar
to Annex D and also uses DLCI 0.
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Chapter 7
Configuring Frame Relay
NOTE
Be sure the same version of the management protocol resides at each end
of the Frame Relay link except for Auto.
Each version includes a slightly different use of the management protocol.
The XSR implements all three LMIs behaving as a DTE as well as auto, none
and default options using the frame-relay lmi-type command. Auto is the
fastest LMI type.
Sub-interface Support
The XSR implements Frame Relay as a multi-access media in which one
interface to the network - the physical connection - has one or more
destinations, namely, virtual connections. All virtual connections are grouped
with their corresponding physical connection. For this purpose, the XSR
groups one or more PVCs under separate sub-interfaces, which in turn are
associated with a single physical interface.
The frame-relay interface-dlci command assigns a DLCI to a subinterface. The class command assigns a map class to a DLCI on a subinterface.
User Interfaces
This section describes user interface functions including Frame Relay related
configuration, statistics and alarms.
All CLI commands are interpreted immediately by the XSR and become part
of the on-line running configuration. If a parameter in a Frame Relay map is
changed, the change is reflected automatically by Frame Relay devices which
reference this map. But new configuration changes are not saved into the
startup configuration file until you enter the copy running config startup
config command to copy the running configuration into the startup
configuration file within Flash memory.
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Displaying Statistics
Map-Class Configuration
The Map Class configures a common profile (characteristics) that can be applied
to PVCs, eliminating the need to configure parameters on all individual PVCs.
The map-class frame-relay command configures a Frame Relay map class.
Show Running Configuration
The show running-configuration command displays the running
configuration on the screen.
NOTE
Only those parameters different than default values are displayed.
Displaying Statistics
The following show commands display Frame Relay statistics:
ˆ show frame-relay lmi - displays global or interface LMI counters
ˆ show frame-relay map - displays DLCIs and remote nodes’ IP
addresses discovered by Inverse ARP.
ˆ show frame-relay traffic - displays Inverse ARP traffic statistics.
ˆ show frame-relay pvc - displays global or per interface, subinterface or DLCI data
Reports and Alarms
The Frame Relay-related alarms are described in Appendix A:
“Alarms/Events and System Limits” on page 355.
Clear Statistics
When it becomes necessary, you can strip the Inverse ARP Table and other
tables of Frame Relay statistics with the clear frame-relay inarp and
clear frame-relay counter commands. The clear frame-relay inarp
command deletes particular or global Frame Relay port data and the clear
frame-relay counter command deletes specific or global DLCI or Frame
Relay port data.
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Configuring Frame Relay
Interconnecting via Frame Relay Network
The following typical application uses Frame Relay to link remote branches to
the corporate network at the central sites via a Frame Relay network.
Frame Relay switch combines DLCIs from various
remote branch sites at 56 kbps into a single high
speed Frame Relay T1 interface with a large
number of DLCIs at the central sites.
Minneapolis
Houston
New York
Memphis
Frame Relay
Network
Chicago
Central Sites
Toronto
Boston
Branch Sites
ˆMedium speed FR links (32 - 128 kbps)
ˆ1-4 DLCIs linking one or more central sites on
different subnets
ˆAll DLCIs share characteristics (CIR, Bc, Be)
ˆIP traffic requires traffic prioritization,
bandwidth allocation
ˆBackup FR link using dial-up (ISDN or dialed
modem) PPP connections or encrypted tunnel
via Internet
ˆHigh speed FR link (clear channel T1/E1
links, may be channelized or fractional T3)
ˆMany DLCIs per link
ˆMay use sub-interfaces to connect to
multiple subnets, each spanning multiple
remote sites
ˆLink to many remote sites, may use FR
QoS templates to address different remote
sites
ˆIP traffic requires prioritization,
bandwidth allocation
ˆBackup solutions: separate central sites
via dial- in modem pools or ISDN
BRI/PRI with PPP, or via encrypted
tunnels over the Internet
Figure 16 Branch/Central Frame Relay Topology
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Configuring Frame Relay
Configuring Frame Relay
Multi-point to Point-to-Point Example
The following example configures the XSR in Austin to connect with XSRs in
Boston, Charlotte, and Denver using Frame Relay, as shown in Figure 17.
NOTE
This example is not designed for OSPF networks since the nodes have
mixed configurations. OSPF requires sub-interfaces to be set identically:
either all point-to-point or all multipoint to multipoint.
Austin
Boston
XSR
multipoint subnet 1
(10.10.10.1) to remote sites
Boston (dlc1: 16, CIR: 64Kbps
Charlotte (dlci: 17, CIR: 128Kbps)
point to point subnet 2
(10.10.11.1) to Denver
(DLCI: 20, CIR: 64Kbps)
XSR
10.10.10.4
point to point
dlci: 16
CIR: 64Kbps
Frame Relay
Network
XSR
Charlotte
Denver
10.10.11.2
point to point
dlci: 16
CIR: 64Kbps
XSR
10.10.10.3
point to point
dlci: 16
CIR: 128Kbps
Figure 17 Frame Relay Multipoint to Point-to-Point Topology
The following CLI commands enable the sample multipoint to point-to-point
configuration pictured above. At the Austin site, a multipoint network with a 64
Kbps PVC is configured to Boston and 128 Kbps PVC is configured to Charlotte.
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A point-to-point network with a 64 Kbps connection is also configured from
Austin to Denver. Boston, Denver, and Charlotte each are configured with
point-to-point networks with 64 Kbps, 128 Kbps, and 64 Kbps PVCs,
respectively.
On the Austin XSR, enter:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation frame-relay
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type v35
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#frame-relay traffic-shaping
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0.1 multipoint
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>#frame-relay interface-dlci 16
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>#class slowlink
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>#frame-relay interface-dlci 17
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-17>#class fastlink
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0.2 point-to-point
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.2>)#ip address 10.10.11.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.2>#frame-relay interface-dlci 20
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.2-20>#class slowlink
XSR(config)#map-class frame-relay slowlink
XSR(config-map-class<slowlink>)#frame-relay cir out 64000
XSR(config)#map-class frame-relay fastlink
XSR(config-map-class<fastlink>)#frame-relay cir out 128000
On the Boston XSR, enter:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation frame-relay
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#frame-relay traffic-shaping
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type v35
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0.1 point-to-point
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>#ip address 10.10.10.4 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>#frame-relay interface-dlci 16
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>#class slowlink
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>)#map-class frame-relay slowlink
XSR(config-map-class<slowlink>)#frame-relay cir out 64000
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On the Charlotte XSR, enter:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation frame-relay
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#frame-relay traffic-shaping
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type v35
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0.1 point-to-point
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>)#ip address 10.10.10.3 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>)#frame-relay interface-dlci 16
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>)#class fastlink
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>)#map-class frame-relay fastlink
XSR(config-map-class<fastlink>)#frame-relay cir out 128000
On the Denver XSR, enter:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#encapsulation frame-relay
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#frame-relay traffic-shaping
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#media-type v35
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0.1 point-to-point
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>#ip address 10.10.11.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>#frame-relay interface-dlci 16
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>#class slowlink
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/0.1-16>#no shutdown
XSR(config-subif<S1/0.1>)#map-class frame-relay slowlink
XSR(config-map-class<slowlink>)#frame-relay cir out 64000
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8
Configuring Dialer Services
This chapter details information about the XSR’s suite of dialer functionality:
ˆ Dial
ˆ Ethernet Failover
ˆ Backup Dialer
ˆ Dial on Demand (DoD)
ˆ Bandwidth on Demand (BoD)
ˆ Multilink PPP (MLPPP)
Overview of Dial Services
Dial Services provide network connections across the Public Switched
Telephone Network (PSTN). Networks are typically interconnected using
dedicated lines for Wide-Area Network (WAN) connections. Dial Services can
use modems, Integrated Service Data Network (ISDN) terminal adapters
(TAs), or integrated ISDN capabilities to establish low-volume, periodic
network connections over public circuit-switched networks.
Dial Services are a cost-saving alternative to a leased line connection between
two peers and they can be implemented for different types of media for both
inbound and outbound connections.
Dial Services Features
The XSR supports the following dialer features:
ˆ Asynchronous serial service through an external modem
ˆ Synchronous serial
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ˆ Addressing using numbered or unnumbered interfaces
ˆ Outbound connections
ˆ Time of day feature
ˆ PPP encapsulation
ˆ CHAP, MS-CHAP and PAP authentication and security
ˆ Callback
Modem
Modem
PSTN
XSR
XSR
Ethernet
Ethernet
Figure 18 Typical Dial Services Interconnection
Asynchronous and Synchronous Support
Synchronous and asynchronous interfaces can be configured for dialed
connections to one or more destination networks. When requested, the
XSR uses dialing commands to send the phone number of the destination
network to a modem. The modem then dials the destination modem and
establishes a connection. Refer to Figure 18.
Calls can be placed using the following methods:
ˆ AT commands on asynchronous ports
ˆ V.25bis over synchronous interfaces
ˆ DTR dialing for synchronous interfaces
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Asynchronous and Synchronous Support
AT Commands on Asynchronous Ports
On asynchronous ports, AT commands are used to establish and clear the call.
Refer to your modem documentation for a list of supported commands and
options. The modem should be configured to drive Data Carrier Detect and
Clear To Send CCITT V.24 signals and accept input of the Data Terminal
Ready signal set by the XSR.
V.25bis over Synchronous Interfaces
Dial services also support connections from the synchronous serial interface
to any modem that supports V.25bis. V.25bis supports two modes of
establishing or receiving calls: direct call and addressed call. Dial services
support connections using the addressed call mode and synchronous, bitoriented operation. The addressed call mode allows control signals and
commands to be sent over the modem interface to set up and terminate calls.
Devices used for dialing out must support certain hardware signals in
addition to V.25bis. When the XSR drops DTR, the device must disconnect
any calls that are currently connected. When the device connects to the
remote end, Data Carrier Detect (DCD) must be automatically asserted. For
many V.25bis devices, raised DCD requires a special cable to crossover DCD
and Data Set Ready (DSR) signals.
Table 8 lists V.25bis options. By default, the synchronous port will use V25bis.
The functions of these options are nation-specific, and they may have
different implementations. Refer to your modem documentation for a list of
supported commands and options.
Table 8 ITU-T V.25bis Options
XSR User’s Guide
Option
Description
:
Wait tone
<
Pause
=
Separator 3 - national use
>
Separator 4 - national use
P
Dialing to be continued in pulse mode - optional parameter
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Table 8 ITU-T V.25bis Options (Continued)
Option
Description
T
Dialing to be continued in DTMF mode - optional parameter
&
Flash - optional parameter
DTR Dialing for Synchronous Interfaces
Dialer interfaces also support connections from synchronous serial lines
through non-V.25bis modems. Routers connected by non-V.25bis modems use
data terminal ready (DTR) signaling only, which can be configured in the
dialer interface by issuing the dialer dtr command in Interface mode.
When using dialer dtr, the dial string is stored in the external device and
need not be passed to it.
Time of Day feature
A time of day feature can be configured when you use a dialer interface as a
dialed backup line for a primary leased line. When configuring the dialed
backup line on the primary interface you can issue the time-range command
to connect and disconnect the dial line during the day regardless of traffic on
the line or whether the primary line is still down.
Typical Use for Dial Services
Dial services provide WAN connectivity on an economical, as-needed basis,
either as a primary link or as backup for a non-dial serial link. Employing dial
backup involves setting up a secondary serial interface as a backup to a
primary serial interface. Dial services are employed solely for dial backup
purposes, as of this release.
Ethernet Backup
Failover support is available on FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet interfaces or
sub-interfaces where it is especially beneficial for PPPoE (DSL) redundancy.
The backup interface dialer command turns failover “on” while the
backup time-range and backup delay commands configure intervals to
keep the port up or delay bringing it up. See “Configuration for Ethernet
Failover” on page 186 for an example.
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Implementing Dial Services
Dial services are provided by dialer interfaces, which are defined as any
XSR interface capable of placing or receiving a call. You can implement Dial
Services by creating a dialer profile.
Refer to Figure 19 for a network perspective and Figure 20 for a logical view
of Dial Services.
16.1.2.0/24
XSR
Dialer
Profile
Serialasync
10.1.1.2/24
Boston
Serialsync
20.1.1.2/24
Hwood
Serialasync
6.1.1.2/24
Dallas
Serialsync
Serialasync
5.1.1.3/24
7.1.1.4/24
Austin
Maine
Figure 19 - Dial Services - Network View
Figure 19 illustrates a sample Dialer Profile which defines interface dialers in
five corporate locations served by the XSR.
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Dialer Profiles
Dialer profiles are comprised of virtual and physical interfaces which can be
bound together dynamically on a per-call basis. Dialer profiles can also be
configured as physical interfaces separate from the virtual configuration
required to make a connection.
This flexibility permits different dialer profiles to share XSR Serial interfaces.
Dialer profiles are efficient when physical resources number less than users
because a pool of resources can draw on the resources in the pool based on
typical use. Be aware that all calls going to or from the same destination
subnetwork use the same dialer profile.
A dialer profile consists of the following elements:
ˆ Dialer interface is a virtual WAN interface you can configure with data
that defines communications with destination subnetworks. The
dialer interface is not constantly connected to a remote device, but
dials the remote device whenever a connection is needed. To dial up
at the appropriate time requires configuring a dialer profile. It is
configured with the interface dialer command.
ˆ Dialer map class defines all line characteristics of calls to the
destination including the interval to wait for a dial signal. It is
specified with the map class dialer command.
ˆ IP address identifies the local side of the connection. It is configured
with the ip address command.
ˆ Dialer strings are phone numbers used to reach a destination. They are
set with the dialer string command.
ˆ Dialer pool is a virtual group of physical interfaces used to reach a
destination. Interfaces in a dialer pool are weighted by priority. It is
configured with the dialer pool command.
Dialer Interface
A dialer interface, which is a group of settings used by the XSR to connect to a
remote network, can include multiple dial strings. Each dial string, in turn,
can be associated with its own map class which defines all the characteristics
for any call to the specified dial string. Refer to dialer profiles of interface
dialer 0 which are illustrated in Figure 22 and Figure 23.
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Dialer Strings
Setting dialer strings is straightforward but their configuration is very
flexible. You can specify multiple dialer strings for the same dialer interface
and each dialer string can be associated with a different dialer map class.
Dialer Pool
Each dialer interface uses one group of physical interfaces called a dialer pool.
The physical interfaces in a dialer pool are called into use based on a priority
value for selection by the XSR. Again, Serial interfaces can belong to multiple
dialer pools, allowing a small number of resources to service a large number
of users. The disadvantage of this method is that all resources may be in use
when a user tries to access them.
Addressing Dialer Resources
There are two ways of setting up addressing on dialer resources, as follows.
ˆ Applying a Subnet to the Dialer Cloud - Each site linked to the dialer
cloud receives a unique node address on a shared subnet for use on
its dialer interface. This method is similar to numbering a LAN or
multipoint WAN and simplifies the addressing scheme and creating
static routes.
ˆ Using Unnumbered Interfaces - Similar to using unnumbered
addressing on leased line point-to-point interfaces, the address of
another interface on the XSR is borrowed for use on the dialer
interface. Unnumbered addressing takes advantage of the fact that
there are only two devices on the point-to-point link.
The routing table points to an interface (the dialer interface) and a next-hop
address. When building static routes for unnumbered interfaces the XSR must
be configured with the interface that finds the next-hop out.
Configuring Encapsulation
When a clear data link is established between two peers, traffic must be
encapsulated and framed for transport across the Dialer media.
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PPP is the encapsulation method of choice for Dialer Services because it
supports multiple protocols and is used for synchronous or asynchronous
connections. Also, PPP performs address negotiation and authentication and
is interoperable with different vendors.
ISDN Callback
ISDN callback funtionality, also known as dial-back, is a Dial on Demand
application to handle ISDN call charge billing. The benefit of this feature is, if
a caller contacts the XSR, the router will try to call back a pre-configured
number, and in the process reverse the associated charge. A maximum of 32
caller numbers can be set per Dialer port.
ISDN callback is supported for PPP or Multilink PPP traffic and can be
applied in a backup scenario if the retry number is set to 1.
Configured with the dialer caller <number> callback command, the
functionality employs caller ID screening with ISDN callback to accept calls
from a specified phone number. The XSR matches phone numbers starting
with the last digit.
Typically the ISDN switch does not provide the complete calling number,
only the local number (four to seven of the least significant digits).
NOTE
If the ISDN switch does not provide the calling number, callback will fail.
Callback can be configured in point-to-point or point-to-multipoint
applications with one or multiple neighbors. A neighbor in this context is
considered one hop away from the XSR.
Refer to “Configuring ISDN Callback” on page 148 for configuration
examples.
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16.1.2.0/24
IP
10.1.1.1/24
Interface Dialer0
Interface Dialer1
Map class
Map class
Dialer pool0
Dialer pool1
Serial0
Interface Dialer2
Dialer pool2
Serial1
Serial 3
Boston
5.1.1.1/24
20.1.1.1/24
10.1.1.2/24
Serial2
Serial 5
Serial 7
Serial 4
Hwood
20.1.1.2/24
Austin
Serial 8
5.1.1.3/24
Figure 20 Logical View of Dialer Profiles
Figure 20 illustrates how Interface Dialers interact with Map Classes, Dialer
Pools, Serial interfaces and three corporate sites served by the XSR. The
squares with darkened backgrounds are Dialer Profiles. Note how Serial
interfaces 0 - 4 and Boston and Hollywood are served by two Dialer Profiles.
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Network
10.1.1.1/8
Interface dialer 0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
encapsulation ppp
dialer string 4161234456 class Toronto
dialer string 9872312345 class Andover
dialer pool 6
20.2.2.2/24
Dialer Interface 1
30.3.3.3/24
Dialer Interface 2
map class dialer Andover
wait for carrier 30
map class dialer Toronto
wait for carrier 20
Dialer Pool 6
Dialer Pool 3
Serial 1/1
dialer pool member 6 priority 200
Serial 2/0
map class dialer NY
wait for carrier 50
Serial 2/1
Serial 1/2
dialer pool member 6 priority 140
Dialer Pool 9
Serial 2/2
Serial 1/3
Serial 1/0
Serial 2/2 is
shared by Dialer
Pools 3 and 9
Figure 21 Sample Dialer Topology
Figure 21 illustrates three Dialer Interfaces with three associated Dialer Pools.
Dialer Pool 6 supports two Serial interfaces of different priority “weighting”.
Dialer Pools 3 and 9 support three Serial interfaces with one interface - Serial
2/2 - shared between them.
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Network
10.1.1.1/8
Interface dialer 0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
encapsulation ppp
dialer string 4161234456 class Toronto
dialer string 9872312345 class Andover
dialer pool 6
Dialer profile for destination
4161234456 uses the map
class Toronto and one port
belonging to pool 6
map class dialer Toronto
wait for carrier 20
Dialer Pool 6
contains two ports:
Serial 1/1 and Serial 1/2
Serial 1/1 is preferred
(has a higher priority)
Serial 1/1
dialer pool member 6 priority 200
Serial 1/2
dialer pool member 6 priority 140
Figure 22 Dialer Profile of Destination (416) 123-4456
As illustrated in Figure 22 and Figure 23, Toronto and Andover Dialer Profiles
share similar parameters except phone numbers and values specifying the
interval to wait for a dial signal.
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Network
10.1.1.1/8
Interface dialer 0
ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
encapsulation ppp
dialer string 4161234456 class Toronto
dialer string 9872312345 class Andover
dialer pool 6
Dialer profile for destination
9872312345 uses the map
class Andover and one port
belonging to pool 6
map class dialer Andover
wait for carrier 30
Dialer Pool 6
contains two ports:
Serial 1/1 and Serial 1/2
Serial 1/1 is preferred
(has a higher priority)
Serial 1/1
dialer pool member 6 priority 200
Serial 1/2
dialer pool member 6 priority 140
Figure 23 Dialer Profile of Destination (987) 231-2345
Configuring the Dialer Interface
The following tasks need to be performed to configure a dialer profile:
ˆ Create and configure the dialer interface
ˆ Configure a map class (optional but distinguishes dialer profiles)
ˆ Configure a physical interface for the dialer interface
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Creating and Configuring the Dialer Interface
1
Enter interface dialer number to create the dialer interface.
The number range is 0 to 255.
2
Enter encapsulation ppp to enable PPP encapsulation.
3
Enter dialer pool number to specify the dialer pool.
The number range is 0 to 255.
4
Enter dialer string <dialstring> class <classname> to specify the
remote destination string to be used.
The string is normally a 10-digit telephone number.
Configuring the Map Class
1
Enter map-class dialer classname to create a map-class identifier.
This value must match the classname value you specified in the
dialer string command.
2
Enter dialer wait-for-carrier-time seconds to set the interval the
local modem waits to answer the call.
Configuring the Physical Interface for the Dialer Interface
1
Enter interface serial card/port to specify the interface.
2
Enter encapsulation ppp to set PPP encapsulation.
3
Enter dialer pool-member number priority <priority> to assign the
interface as a member of the pool that the dialer interface will use.
Priority is an optional value you can set to prioritize this poolmember in the pool ranging from 0 - 255. The number range is 0 - 255.
Sample Dialer Configuration
The CLI commands listed below are those used to configure dialer interface 0
in Figure 21.
Configure interface dialer 0 with two dial strings and map classes for each:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 0
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XSR(config-if<D0>)#ip address 10.1.1.1 255.0.0.0
XSR(config-if<D0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer pool 6
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer string 4161234456 class toronto
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer string 9872312345 class andover
XSR(config-if<D0>)#no shutdown
Configure a map-class named Toronto with a 20-second wait for the dial tone:
XSR(config)#map class dialer toronto
XSR(config-map-class)#dialer wait-for-carrier-time 20
Configure a map-class named Andover with a 30-second wait for the daily
tone:
XSR(config)#map class dialer andover
XSR(config-map-class)#dialer wait-for-carrier-time 30
Configure a backup link for dial purposes with priority 200:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/1
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#dialer pool 6 priority 200
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#no shutdown
Configure a backup link for dial purposes with priority 140:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/2
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#dialer pool 6 priority 140
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#no shutdown
Configuring ISDN Callback
The following CLI commands configure point-to-point and point-tomultipoint applications with single or multiple neighbors.
Point-to-Point with Matched Calling/Called Numbers
The following commands configure the called XSR with matched calling and
called phone numbers:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer caller 921 callback
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer string 6032217921
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
Point-to-Point with Different Calling/Called Numbers
The following commands configure the called XSR with different calling and
called phone numbers:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer caller 921 callback
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer string 6783234451
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
Point-to-Multipoint with One Neighbor
The following commands configure the called XSR with a callback number
that may or may not differ from the dial out number. Note that a dialer map
must be added to specify the particular number to be accepted.
XSR(config)#interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer caller 921 callback
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timer 0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.2 9053617921
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
Point-to-Multipoint with Multiple Neighbors
The following commands configure the called XSR with a callback number
that must match the dial out number. The first number specified, 9053617921,
will be used for callback.
XSR(config)#interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer caller 921 callback
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timer 0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.2 9053617921
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.3 9053617363
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
Overview of Dial Backup
The dialed backup feature provides a backup link over a dial line. The backup
link is brought up when failure occurs in a primary link, and is brought down
when the primary link is restored.
Dial Backup Features
ˆ User controllable delay when the link is activated for backup, and
when the link is deactivated, that is, brought down.
ˆ Dial backup is activated when the XSR detects link failure.
NOTE
Dial backup may not be activated if the XSR's link at local site is up and a
remote site’s link is down.
The XSR distinguishes one type of Link Failure:
ˆ When configured, a backup link will be activated on detection of
primary link failure.
Sequence of Backup Events
The following sequence of events occurs when a primary link fails and a
backup line fails:
150
1
A Primary Link fails.
2
A link failure is detected. This link is configured for backup, and is
monitored.
3
The Backup function is notified about link failure.
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4
With the interface down, all routes reachable through that interface
are removed from the routing table.
5
Backup function invokes the dialer to activate the configured (dial)
backup interface.
Activating the backup link can be delayed, if configured as such.
6
Backup link is up.
7
Backup link is activated.
8
Backup link is up, triggering the next action.
9
Static Backup route configured - the routing process searches its
configured Static Routing entries and installs the routes that can be
reached through the backup interface.
10 Dynamic route - the routing protocol (RIP) learns of new available
routes through the backup (dialer) interface and adds them to the IP
Routing and Forwarding Table.
11 Data starts passing over the backup link.
When the primary link is re-established the backup function will
notify the Dialer to bring down the dialer interface (bringing the
dialed line down).
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Link Failure Backup Example
Figure 24 illustrates a local link failure and the dial backup process.
XSR
1
2
Remote Site
3
Central Site
Figure 24 Backup Link Failure Example
Configuring a Dialed Backup Line
The following tasks must be performed to configure a dialed backup line:
ˆ Configure the dialer interface
ˆ Configure a physical interface to function as backup
ˆ Configure primary interfaces to use a backup interface
Configuring the Dialer Interface
Perform the following steps to configure the dialer interface:
152
1
Enter interface dialer number to create the dialer interface.
2
Enter encapsulation ppp to enable PPP encapsulation.
3
Enter dialer pool number to specify the dialer pool.
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Configuring a Dialed Backup Line
Configuring the Physical Interface for the Dialer Interface
Perform the following steps to set up the physical port for the dialer interface:
1
Enter interface serial card / port to specify the interface.
2
Enter encapsulation ppp to set PPP encapsulation.
3
Enter dialer pool-member pool-number priority priority to assign the
interface as a member of the pool that the dialer interface will use.
Priority is an optional value you can configure to prioritize this poolmember within the pool.
Configuring Interface as the Backup Dialer Interface
Perform the following steps to configure the port for the dialer backup
interface:
1
Enter interface serial card/port to specify the interface to back up.
2
Enter ip address ip-address mask to specify the IP address and
mask of the interface.
3
Enter backup interface dialer number as the backup interface.
4
Enter backup delay enable-delay disable-delay to set the interval
between the physical interface going down and the backup being
enabled, and between the physical interface coming back up and the
backup being disabled.
5
Enter backup time-range start-time end-time to set the time of day
the backup interface should be enabled and disabled.
The CLI commands shown below are those used to configure the example
shown in Figure 24.
Create interface dialer 1 to use dialer pool 6:
XSR(config)#interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 6
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
Configure backup serial port for dialing purposes:
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XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0)#dialer pool-member 6
XSR(config-if<S1/0)#no shutdown
Configure primary serial port to have interface dialer1 as its backup interface:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/1
XSR(config-if<S1/1)#backup interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<S1/1)#backup delay 5 10
XSR(config-if<S1/1)#backup time-range 10:00 22:55
XSR(config-if<S1/1)#no shutdown
The backup time-range command specifies the time the backup dial line
should be up. In the above example the parameters are 10:00 and 22:55,
meaning that at 10:00 the backup line should be activated and at 22:55 the
backup line should be deactivated. Enabling and disabling the backup
interface takes place regardless of the traffic on the link when using the
backup time-range command.
Sample Configuration
Figure 25 shows an example of two dialer interfaces used to back up two
separate serial lines using only one dial out line (serial interface 1).
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Dialer
Dialer Interface 1
Dialer Interface 2
IP
Dial Pool 1
XSR
PPP
PPP
PPP
Serial Interface
1/0
Serial Interface
1/1
Backup Dialer
Interface 2
Serial Interface
1/2
Backup Dialer
Interface 1
Leased line
XSRs
Site B
Leased line
Figure 25 Backup Dial Example
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The CLI commands shown below are those used to configure the example
shown in Figure 25:
Configure interface dialer 1 to use dial pool 5:
XSR(config)#interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 5
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
Configure interface dialer 2 to use dial pool 5:
XSR(config)#interface dialer2
XSR(config-if<D2>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer pool 5
XSR(config-if<D2>)#no shutdown
Configure backup serial port for dial purposes to belong to dial pool 5:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#dialer pool-member 5
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#no shutdown
Configure primary serial port to use dialer 1 as its backup interface:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/1
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#backup interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#backup delay 110
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#no shutdown
Configure primary serial port to use dialer 2 as its backup interface:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/2
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#backup interface dialer2
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#backup delay 1 10
XSR(config-if<S1/2>)#no shutdown
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Overview of Dial on Demand/Bandwidth on Demand
Overview of Dial on Demand/Bandwidth on Demand
The XSR’s Dial on Demand/Bandwidth on Demand applications provide
high-speed, available-when-needed dial services over point-to-point or
multipoint PPP ISDN connections. Different network topologies can be
configured for different applications - mainly under Dialer Interface
configuration mode - including the following:
ˆ Dial on Demand
–
–
–
–
–
PPP Point to Multipoint
PPP Multi to Multipoint
MLPPP Point to Multipoint
MLPPP Multi to Multipoint
Incoming Call Mapping
ˆ Switched PPP Multilink
–
Bandwidth on Demand
ˆ Backup
–
–
Backup using ISDN
Backup with MLPPP
The caveats below apply to the XSR’s support of switched multilink
connections:
ˆ They use the dialer and are set up in Dialer interface mode and must
include an ISDN interface or associated modem.
ˆ Configuring switched connections on a Serial line is unnecessary, the
process is performed automatically.
ˆ Leased-line connections are supported and must be configured in
Multilink interface mode.
ˆ Support on FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet ports is not available.
For more information on ISDN fundamentals, refer “Configuring Integrated
Services Digital Network (ISDN)” on page 187 and the XSR CLI Reference
Guide.
NOTE
Optional commands shown in sample configurations are preceded by an
exclamation point.
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Answering Incoming ISDN Calls
The XSR handles incoming ISDN calls as follows:
ˆ Always accepts incoming calls.
ˆ If there is only one dialer interface configured it will bind the
incoming call to that interface.
ˆ If there is more than one dialer interface configured, the XSR will
attempt to map the incoming call to only one of these interfaces based
on any of the following data passed by the ISDN switch:
–
–
Called number.
Calling number.
ˆ Mapping based on the called number is performed if the following
conditions are met:
–
–
The ISDN switch passes called number data to the XSR. Note that
not all types of switches can provide this information.
The called number is configured under the target dialer interface
using the dialer called command.
ˆ Mapping based on the calling number is performed if the following
conditions are met:
–
–
The ISDN switch passes the calling number to the XSR data. Note
that not all types of switches can provide this information.
The calling number is configured under the target dialer interface
using the dialer caller command.
ˆ Incoming calls may be mapped to a dialer interface based on the PPP
authenticated username if the following conditions are met:
–
–
The username must be configured under the dialer interface
using the dialer remote-name command.
Interface dialer 0 is configured with the desired PPP
authentication (e.g., ppp authentication pap).
ˆ In the case where a dialer interface is configured for multipoint
operation using the dialer map command, incoming calls are
mapped based on the calling number matching the dialer string set by
the map or on the PPP authenticated username matching the name set
by the dialer map command.
ˆ In the case where no dialer interface is found using the methods
described above, the XSR will display a high severity alarm stating
cannot bind inbound call and will disconnect the ISDN call.
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Incoming Call Mapping Example
This example, as shown in Figure 26, configures a node capable of handling
multiple call setup requests coming from different remote peers and maps
each incoming call to the correct IP interface (Dialer interface).
Node A
[XSR]
IP address 10.10.10.1
phone# 2300
name toronto
IP address 10.10.10.2
IP address 20.20.20.2
phone# 2400
ISDN
.
Node B
[XSR]
Connection
requests
Node D
[XSR]
IP address 20.20.20.4
phone# 2600
name boston
Figure 26 Incoming Call Mapping Topology
Node A (Calling Node) Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 25
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands define a dialer group, add a dialer pool, set a 25second idle timeout, and map BRI interface 1/0 to Dialer interface 1. The
dialer map command directs Node A to call Node B, specifying Node B’s IP
address and phone number as well as enables spoofing on the network.
Optionally, you can specify a clear text password be sent to the peer for PAP
authentication.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
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XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer pool 25
XSR(config-if<D1>)encapsulation ppp
! XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp pap sent-username toronto password q
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer-group 3
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer map ip 10.10.10.2 2400
XSR(config-if<D1>)ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 101 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP packets
up to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 3:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 3 protocol ip list 101
Node B (Called Node) Configuration
The following commands add two users to validate calls made from Node A.
This configuration employs the username/authentication method of mapping
incoming calls.
XSR(config)#username toronto privilege 0 password cleartext z
XSR(config)#username boston privilege 0 password cleartext y
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 22
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands configure Dialer inter 0 on BRI interface 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 0
XSR(config-if<D0>)encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D0>)ppp authentication pap
The following commands add a dialer pool and map BRI interface 1/0 to
Dialer interface 1. The dialer called command maps incoming Node A
calls to Node B’s 2400 number. Optionally, you can employ the dialer caller
method and specify a PPP authenticated username to map incoming calls.
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XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D1>)encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer called 2400
! dialer caller 2300
! dialer remote-name toronto
XSR(config-if<D1>)ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
The following commands add a dialer pool and map BRI interface 1/0 to
Dialer interface 2. The dialer called command maps incoming Node A
calls to Node B’s 2400 number. Optionally, you can employ the dialer caller
method and specify a PPP authenticated username to map incoming calls.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 2
XSR(config-if<D2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer called 2400
! dialer caller 2600
! dialer remote-name boston
XSR(config-if<D2>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D2>)#ip address 20.20.20.2 255.255.255.0
The following command shuts down the SNMP server to avoid saving
extraneous messages:
XSR(config)#snmp-server disable
Node D (Calling Node) Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 2
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands define a dialer group, add a dialer pool, set a 20second idle timeout, and map BRI interface 1/0 to Dialer port 1. The dialer
map command directs Node D to call Node B, specifying Node B’s IP address
and phone number as well as enables spoofing on the network. Optionally,
you can set a clear text password be sent to the peer for PAP authentication.
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XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer pool 2
XSR(config-if<D1>)encapsulation ppp
! ppp pap sent-username boston password orbitor
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer-group 7
XSR(config-if<D1>)dialer map ip 20.20.20.2 2400
XSR(config-if<D1>)ip address 20.20.20.4 255.255.255.0
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 106 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP packets
up to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)access-list 106 permit icmp any any 8
The following command maps ACL 1061 to dialer group 7:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 7 protocol ip list 106
Configuring DoD/BoD
The XSR supports Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD), the ability to dynamically
change bandwidth during a multilink connection. DoD/BoD is performed by
configuring the following on a multilink bundle:
ˆ The dialer idle timeout value to bring down an idle link when
triggered by interesting traffic specified by an Access Control List
(ACL). The link is brought down by the calling node.
ˆ The multilink load threshold to trigger the dialer to add or delete a link.
This feature is controlled by the calling node.
ˆ The minimum links value to maintain on the bundle. This feature is
controlled by the calling node.
ˆ Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) values to negotiate with the
peer to add or drop links.
For information on configuring BAP on Dialer interfaces, refer to
“Configuring PPP” on page 103.
An example of the XSR’s Dial on Demand functionality is illustrated in the
topology shown in Figure 27.
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IP address 10.10.10.2
IP address 20.20.20.2
phone# 2400
Node B
[XSR]
IP address 10.10.10.3
phone# 2500
IP address 10.10.10.1
phone# 2300
Node A
[XSR]
ISDN
.
Node C
[XSR]
IP address 10.10.10.4
IP address 20.20.20.4
phone# 2600
Node D
[XSR]
Figure 27 Dial on Demand Topology
NOTE
Configuration commands preceded by an exclamation point (!) are
optional.
PPP Point-to-Multipoint Configuration
In this configuration, only one of the peer nodes can initiate the setup of a
switched link when access-list defined data traffic is sent to the remote peer.
Node A (Calling Node) Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool and dialer group, and set the
Central Office switch type on BRI port 1/0. The commands also configure
Dialer interface 1 with spoofing enabled on Node A’s network, and set calls
out to Node B to terminate if the line is idle for 20 seconds.
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XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 25
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 25
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 3
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.2 2400
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
The following optional commands can be entered to add a second, similarly
configured, Dialer interface to the dialer group:
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
XSR(config)#interface dialer 2
XSR(config-if<D2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer pool 25
XSR(config-if<D2>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer-group 3
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer map ip 20.20.20.2 2401
XSR(config-if<D2>)#ip address 20.20.20.1 255.255.255.0
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring access list 101 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP
traffic up to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 3:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 3 protocol ip list 101
Node B (Called Node) Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 22
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
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The following commands add a dial pool and map BRI interface 1/0 to Dialer
interface 1. Optionally, you can employ the dialer called method to map
incoming Node A calls to Node B’s phone number and add a second Dialer
interface with similar mappings.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
! dialer called 2400
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
! XSR(config)#interface dialer 2
! XSR(config-if<D2>)#no shutdown
! XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer pool 22
! XSR(config-if<D2>)#encapsulation ppp
! XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer called 2401
! XSR(config-if<D2>)#ip address 20.20.20.2 255.255.255.0
PPP Multipoint-to-Multipoint Configuration
The following configuration sets both peer nodes to initiate the setup of a
switched link when access list-defined data traffic is sent to the remote peer.
The configuration of the two nodes is symmetrical, that is, both nodes can
make and receive calls.
Node A Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 25
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands define a dial group, add a dial pool, configure
Dialer interface 1 with spoofing enabled on XSR-Andover network, and set
calls out to XSR-Toronto to terminate if the line is idle for 35 seconds:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 25
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 35
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 3
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.2 2400
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring access list 101 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP
traffic up to 35 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 3:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 3 protocol ip list 101
Node B Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 22
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool and dialer group, and specify
MLPPP call destination Node A on Node B’s Dialer interface 1. If the line is idle
for 30 seconds, it is brought down.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 7
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 30
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.1 2300
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring access list 105 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP
traffic up to 30 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 105 permit icmp any any 8
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The following command maps ACL 105 to dialer group 7:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 7 protocol ip list 105
PPP Point-to-Point Configurations
The following sample configuration is a PPP point-to-point topology, as
illustrated in Figure 28.
172.22.80.4
XSR-Toronto
172.22.85.1
.
Switched line
172.22.85.2
XSR-Andover
172.22.96.1
Figure 28 Point-to-Point Topology
Dial-in Routing for Dial on Demand Example
The following commands configure dialer interface 1 with both PPP
authentication enforced and specifies the PPP authenticated username XSRAndover to map incoming calls to map incoming calls on XSR-Toronto:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 172.22.85.1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp authentication pap
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer remote-name XSR-andover
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
The following command configures authentication of the remote user:
XSR(config)#username XSR-andover password secret 0 code
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
Dial-out Routing for Dial on Demand Example
The following commands define a dial group, add a dial pool, specify a secret
password to be sent to the peer for PAP authentication, configure Dialer
interface 1 with spoofing enabled on XSR-Andover network, and set calls out
to XSR-Toronto to terminate if the line is idle for 20 seconds:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 172.22.85.2
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp pap sent-username XSR-andover password
secret 0 dolly
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 172.22.85.1 47410
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dial pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI interface 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 1:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 1 protocol ip list 101
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The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring access list 101 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP
traffic up to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
PPP Point-to-Multipoint Configurations
The following topology can be used for Dial on Demand applications only; it
cannot be used for Dialed Backup applications. Refer to Figure 29.
172.22.80.4
XSR-Toronto
172.22.85.1
Switched
line
172.22.85.2
Switched
line
172.22.85.3
XSR-Andover
172.22.95.2
Switched
.
line
172.22.85.4
XSR-Boston
172.22.96.2
XSR-Buffalo
172.22.97.2
Figure 29 PPP Point-to-Multipoint Topology
Dial-out Router Example
The following commands add a dialer pool and dialer group, specify a secret
password to be sent to the peer for PAP authentication, and specify three
MLPPP call destinations - XSR-Andover, XSR-Boston and XSR-Buffalo - on XSRToronto’s Dialer interface 1. Spoofing is enabled by the dialer map command.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 172.22.85.1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp pap sent-username XSR-toronto password
secret 0 xxgene
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 172.22.85.2 4710
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 172.22.85.3 89302
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 172.22.85.4 672783
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 1
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 1:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 1 protocol ip list 101
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 101 to pass Type 8 source and destination ICMP packets:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
Dial-in Router Example
The following commands configure Dialer interface 0 to enforce
authentication for incoming calls:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 0
XSR(config-if<D0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D0>)#ppp authentication pap
The following commands add a dialer pool and specify the PPP authenticated
username of XSR-Toronto calling in to Dialer interface 1:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 172.22.85.2
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer remote-name XSR-toronto
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The following commands add a dial pool and specifies the PPP authenticated
username XSR-Boston to map incoming calls to Dialer interface 2:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 2
XSR(config-if<D2>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D2>)#ip address 172.22.85.3
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer remote-name XSR-Boston
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following command sets remote user authentication:
XSR(config)#username XSR-toronto password secret 0 code
MLPPP Point-to-Multipoint Configuration
The following configuration, as illustrated in Figure 28, sets up a switched
MLPPP group (bundle) when Access List-defined data traffic is generated to a
remote site.
NOTE
Only peer Node A can initiate the MLPPP group setup.
Node A (Calling Node) Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member with the Central Office
switch type to BRI interface 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 25
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
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The following commands define a dialer group, add a dialer pool, enable
MLPPP, set a 20-second idle timeout, and map BRI interface 1/0 to Dialer
interface 1. The min-links command directs the XSR to maintain a
minimum of two links over the switched line. The dialer map command
directs Node A to call Node B, specifying Node B’s IP address and phone
number, as well as enables spoofing.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 25
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 3
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.2 2400
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
XSR(config-if<D1>)#multilink min-links 2
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 101 to permit all Type 8 source and destination ICMP traffic:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 3:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 3 protocol ip list 101
Node B (Called Node) Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member with the Central Office
switch type to BRI interface 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 22
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The commands below add a dialer pool and enable MLPPP on Dialer port 1:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
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MLPPP Point-to-Point Configurations
The following MLPPP point-to-point topology can be used for Bandwidth on
Demand applications, as illustrated by Figure 30. This example creates three
switched lines linking users on XSR-Toronto’s network with those on XSRAndover’s network.
172.22.80.4
XSRToronto
172.22.85.1
MLPPP
Switched
line
Switched
line
Switched
line
.
172.22.85.2
XSR-Andover
172.22.95.2
Figure 30 MLPPP Point-to-Point Topology
Dial-in Router Example
The following commands add a dialer pool and configure Multilink PPP on
XSR-Toronto’s Dialer interface 1:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 172.22.85.1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
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The following commands add a dialer pool member and specify the primaryni switch on XSR-Toronto’s T1 interface 2/3:
XSR(config)#controller t1 2/3
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/1>)#switch-type primary-ni
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/1>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/1>)#no shutdown
Dial-out Router Example
The following commands add a dialer pool and dialer group, specify the call
destination - XSR-Toronto - and configure Multilink PPP to bring up a
minimum of two links on XSR-Andover’s Dialer interface 1. Spoofing also is
enabled by the dialer map command.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 172.22.85.2
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
XSR(config-if<D1>)#multilink min-links 2
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 172.22.85.1 47410
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 1
The following commands add a pool member and configure the primary-ni
switch on T1 interface 2/3:
XSR(config)#controller t1 2/3
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#switch-type primary-ni
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#no shutdown
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 1:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 1 protocol ip list 101
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 101 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP traffic up
to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
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MLPPP Point-to-Multipoint Configurations
The following MLPPP point-to-multipoint topology can be used for BoD
applications, as illustrated by Figure 31. This example creates multiple
switched lines linking users on XSR-Toronto’s network with those on three
remote networks.
172.22.80.4
XSR-Toronto
172.22.85.1
MLPPP
MLPPP
MLPPP
.
Switched
line
Switched
line
Switched
line
172.22.85.2
Switched
line
Switched
line
172.22.85.3
XSR-Boston
XSR-Andover
172.22.95.2
172.22.96.2
Switched
line
172.22.85.4
XSR-Buffalo
172.22.97.2
Figure 31 MLPPP Point-to-Multipoint Topology
Dial-out Router Example
The following commands add a dialer pool and dialer group, and specify
three MLPPP call destinations - XSR-Andover, XSR-Boston and XSR-Buffalo on XSR-Toronto’s Dialer interface 1. Spoofing also is enabled by the dialer
map command.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 172.22.85.1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 172.22.85.2 47410
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 172.22.85.3 425688
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 172.22.85.4 987762
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 1
The following commands add a pool member and configure the primary-ni
switch on T1 interface 2/3:
XSR(config)#controller t1 2/3
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#switch-type primary-ni
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#no shutdown
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 1:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 1 protocol ip list 101
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 101 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP packets
up to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
Dial-in Router Example
The following commands add a dialer pool and configure PPP Multilink on
XSR-Andover’s Dialer interface 1:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 172.22.85.2
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a pool member and configure the primary-ni
switch on T1 interface 2/3:
XSR(config)#controller t1 2/3
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#switch-type primary-ni
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XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#dialer pool-member 1
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#no shutdown
MLPPP Multipoint-to-Multipoint Configuration
The following configuration, as shown in Figure 27, enables the setup of a
switched MLPPP group when access list-defined data traffic is sent to a
remote site. Both peer nodes can initiate and accept switched MLPPP calls.
Node A Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 25
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool and dialer group, and specify
MLPPP call destination Node B on Node A’s Dialer interface 1. If the line is idle
for 20 seconds, it is brought down.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 25
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 3
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.2 2400
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 101 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP packets
up to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 3:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 3 protocol ip list 101
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Node B Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 22
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool and dialer group, and specify
MLPPP call destination Node A on Node B’s Dialer interface 1. Spoofing also is
enabled by the dialer map command.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 3
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.1 2300
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 101 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP packets
up to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit icmp any any 8
The following command maps ACL 101 to dialer group 3:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 3 protocol ip list 101
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Switched PPP Multilink Configuration
Switched PPP Multilink Configuration
Bandwidth-on-Demand
This example configures multilink PPP over ISDN together with BoD as
shown in Figure 32.
IP address 10.10.10.3
phone# 2500
IP address 10.10.10.1
phone# 2300
Node A
[XSR]
ISDN
.
Node C
[XSR]
Figure 32 MLPPP Bandwidth on Demand Topology
Node A (Calling Node) Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 23
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands define a dialer group, add a dialer pool, enable
MLPPP, set a load threshold of 3 links, and map BRI interface 1/0 to Dialer
interface 1. The load-threshold command enables BoD by making the
XSR maintain three links over the switched line. The dialer map command
directs Node A to call Node C, specifying Node C’s IP address and phone
number as well as enables spoofing on the network.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 23
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer map ip 10.10.10.3 2500
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer-group 7
XSR(config-if<D1>)#multilink load-threshold 3
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer idle-timeout 20
The following command defines interesting packets for the dial out trigger by
configuring ACL 106 to pass all Type 8 source and destination ICMP packets
up to 20 idle seconds:
XSR(config)#access-list 106 permit icmp any any 8
The following command maps ACL 106 to dialer group 7:
XSR(config)#dialer-list 7 protocol ip list 106
Node C (Called Node) Configuration
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 2
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool, enable MLPPP, and map BRI
interface 1/0 to Dialer interface 1. The dialer called command maps
incoming Node A calls to its 2500 number:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 2
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer called 2500
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.3 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
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Backup Configuration
Backup Configuration
Backup Using ISDN
This example configures ISDN NIM cards (either BRI or T1/E1 configured for
PRI) to be used for backing-up other interfaces, as shown in Figure 33.
Node A
[XSR]
IP address 10.10.10.1
IP address 20.20.20.1
phone# 2300
IP address 30.30.30.1
IP address 40.40.40.1
IP address 10.10.10.3
IP address 20.20.20.3
phone# 2500/2501
ISDN
Primary leased
backup lines
.
Node C
[XSR]
IP address 30.30.30.3
IP address 40.40.40.3
Figure 33 Backup Topology Using ISDN
Node A (Backed-up Node) Configuration
The following commands set internal clocking and configure two channel
groups with three total timeslots on T1 sub-interface 1/2:0:
XSR(config)#controller t1 1/2/0
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#clock source internal
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#channel-group 1 timeslots 2
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#channel-group 0 timeslots 1
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 22
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
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Configuring Dialer Services
The following commands add a dialer pool, set Node C’s dialer number to
call, specify a clear text password sent to the peer for PAP authentication, and
map BRI interface 1/0 to Dialer interface 1.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer string 2500
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp pap sent-username toronto password ab
The following commands add a dialer pool, set Node C’s dialer number to
call, and map BRI interface 1/0 to Dialer interface 2:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 2
XSR(config-if<D2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer string 2501
XSR(config-if<D2>)#ip address 20.20.20.1 255.255.255.0
The following command configures backup Dialer interface 1 on Serial subinterface 2/0:0:
XSR(config)#interface serial 2/0:0
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#backup interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#ip address 30.30.30.1 255.255.255.0
The following command configures backup Dialer interface 2 on Serial subinterface 2/0:1:
XSR(config)interface serial 2/0:1
XSR(config-if<S2/0:1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S2/0:1>)#backup interface dialer 2
XSR(config-if<S2/0:1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0:1>)#ip address 40.40.40.1 255.255.255.0
Node C (Called Node) Configuration
The following command configures a Node A user for authentication:
XSR(config)#username toronto privilege 0 password cleartext z
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Backup Configuration
The following commands configure two channel groups with a total of three
timeslots on T1 sub-interface 1/2:0:
XSR(config)#controller t1 1/2/0
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#channel-group 1 timeslots 2
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#channel-group 0 timeslots 1
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>))#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 28
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
One of the following commands sets PAP authentication on Dialer interface 0:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 0
XSR(config-if<D0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D0>)#ppp authentication pap
The following commands add a dialer pool and specify the PPP authenticated
username Toronto to map incoming calls on Dialer interface 1:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 28
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer remote-name Toronto
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.3 255.255.255.0
The following commands add a dialer pool and map incoming Node A calls
to Node C’s 2500 number:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 2
XSR(config-if<D2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer pool 28
XSR(config-if<D2>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D2>)#dialer called 2501
XSR(config-if<D2>)#ip address 20.20.20.3 255.255.255.0
The following command configures Serial sub-interface 2/0:0:
XSR(config)#interface serial 2/0:0
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XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#ip address 30.30.30.3 255.255.255.0
The following command configures Serial sub-interface 2/0:1:
XSR(config)#interface serial 2/0:1
XSR(config-if<S2/0:1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S2/0:1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0:1>)#ip address 40.40.40.3 255.255.255.0
Configuration for Backup with MLPPP Bundle
Node A (Backed-up Node) Configuration
The following commands set internal clocking and configure two channel
groups with three total timeslots on T1 sub-interface 1/2:0:
XSR(config)#controller t1 1/2/0
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#clock source internal
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#channel-group 1 timeslots 2
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#channel-group 0 timeslots 1
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/2:0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 22
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool, enable MLPPP, specify Node A to
call Node C by entering Node C’s phone number, and map BRI interface 1/0
to Dialer interface 1. The min-links command directs the XSR to maintain a
minimum of two links over the switched line.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 22
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer string 2500
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
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XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
XSR(config-if<D1>)#multilink min-links 2
The following command configures Serial sub-interface 2/0:0:
XSR(config)#interface serial 2/0:0
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#backup interface dialer1
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#ip address 30.30.30.1 255.255.255.0
Node C (Called Node) Configuration
The following commands configure two channel groups with three total
timeslots on T1 sub-interface 0/2:0:
XSR(config)#controller t1 0/2/0
XSR(config-controller<T1-0/2:0>)#channel-group 1 timeslots 2
XSR(config-controller<T1-0/2:0>)#channel-group 0 timeslots 1
XSR(config-controller<T1-0/2:0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool member and set the Central Office
switch type on BRI port 1/0:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-net3
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 28
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
The following commands add a dialer pool, enable MLPPP, and map BRI
interface 1/0 to Dialer interface 1:
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<D1>)#dialer pool 28
XSR(config-if<D1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 10.10.10.3 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ppp multilink
The following commands configure Serial sub-interface 2/0:0:
XSR(config)#interface serial 2/0:0
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#ip address 30.30.30.3 255.255.255.0
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Configuration for Ethernet Failover
This example provides DSL backup (PPPoE) on a FastEthernet interface.
Dialer interface 57 is configured as the backup for FastEthernet sub-interface
2.1 - invoking the sub-interface enables PPPoE. Note that the IP address of the
PPPoE caller is negotiated over PPP and the MTU size is reset to 1492 bytes to
avoid Web access problems by PCs attached to the XSR.
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2.1
XSR(config-if>)#backup interface dialer 57
XSR(config-if>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if>)#ip address negotiated
XSR(config-if>)#ip mtu 1492
XSR(config-if>)#no shutdown
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Configuring Integrated Services
Digital Network (ISDN)
This chapter outlines how to configure the Integrated Services Digital
Network (ISDN) Protocol on the XSR in the following sections:
ˆ XSR ISDN features
ˆ Understanding ISDN
ˆ ISDN configuration topology
–
–
–
BRI
PRI
Leased line
ˆ ISDN configuration examples
–
–
–
–
–
–
T1 PRI
E1 PRI
ISDN BRI
BRI Leased
BRI Leased PPP
BRI Leased Frame Relay
ˆ Call Status Call Codes
ISDN Features
The XSR’s BRI interface and T1/E1 controller in PRI mode acts as a utility that
can set up and tear down calls under the control of higher level functionality,
usually the Dialer. The ISDN module expects to receive from the Dialer a full
description of the call to be placed and will accept incoming calls only if
screened by the Dialer. The XSR’s ISDN services BRI and PRI lines via the
following NIMs:
ˆ 1, 2 or 4 port Channelized NIM card for PRI lines.
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ˆ 1 or 2 port BRI-S/T NIM card.
ˆ 1 or 2 port BRI U NIM card.
BRI Features
ˆ Circuit Mode Data (CMD): Channels (DS0s or B’s)are switched by the
CO to the destination user for the duration of the call.
–
–
0utgoing calls supported for Backup, DoD/BoD.
Incoming calls routed to the correct protocol stack based on
called number/sub-address and calling number/sub-address.
ˆ Permanent B channel support, i.e., 56, 64, 112, 128, or 144 Kbps lease
line. Each BRI port can be configured for CMD or Leased-Line mode
of operation.
ˆ Supported switches: Net3 (ETSI) for international applications, NI1
and DMS100 for North American applications and NTT for Japan.
ˆ TEI auto-negotiated.
ˆ Q.921/Q.931 (Layer 2/Layer 3) configuration is set automatically by
selection of switch type.
PRI Features
ˆ Circuit Mode Data (CMD): Channels (DS0s or B’s) are switched by
the CO to the destination user for the duration of the call.
–
–
Outgoing calls supported for Backup, DoD/BoD.
Incoming calls routed to the correct protocol stack based on
called number/sub-address and calling number/sub-address.
ˆ Supported switches: Net5 (ETSI) for international applications; NI2,
5ESS, and DMS100 for North American applications; and NTT for
Japan.
ˆ Handling restart and maintenance modes automatically set.
ˆ Fixed TEI to 0.
ˆ Q921/Q931 (Layer 2/Layer 3) configuration is set automatically by
the selection of the switch type.
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Understanding ISDN
Understanding ISDN
Physically, an ISDN line is provisioned via unshielded twisted pair cable
which would, in the absence of ISDN service, be used for regular analog
telephone service or a T1/E1 connection.
Typically, numerous ISDN devices connect onto this single line through a
device known as an NT1 provided by the user in North America and by the
carrier most everywhere else. PRI service is terminated in the XSR’s T1/E1
NIM the same way as E1 or T1 service. BRI service is connected to the XSR’s
BRI-S/T NIM via a interface adapter known as NT1. The NT1 is provided by
the service provider. Only in North America do users have to provide their
own NT1. The BRI U NIM can be connected directly to incoming BRI lines in
North America as they include a built-in NT1.
Logically, ISDN consists of two types of communications channels: bearer
service B-channels, which carry data and services at 64 Kbps; and a single Dchannel (delta), which usually carries signaling and administrative
information which is used to set up and tear down calls. The transmission
speed of the D-channel depends on the type of ISDN service you've
subscribed to.
Available ISDN services include two categories: Basic Rate Interface (BRI)
service, which provides access to two B-channels and a 16 Kbps D-channel;
and Primary Rate Interface (PRI) service, which provides access to 23 Bchannels in North America and Japan and 30 B-channels in Europe and most
of Asia, and a 64 Kbps D-channel in both.
Basic Rate Interface
The XSR’s BRI NIM provides two BRI ports. Each port has two 64 Kbps Bchannels and one 16 Kbps D-channel. BRI is configured on the XSR by
interface bri sub-commands.
Primary Rate Interface
ISDN PRI is provisioned over T1 service in North America and Japan and
includes one 64 Kbps D-channel and 23 B-channels, and over E1 service
includes 30 B-channels in most other parts of the world.
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The number of B-channels is limited by the size of the standard trunk line
used in the region; T1 in North America and Japan and E1 most everywhere
else. Unlike BRI, PRI does not support a bus configuration, and only one
device can be connected to a PRI line - point-to-point service.
A single PRI connection is usually much less expensive than obtaining the
equivalent number of B-channels through multiple BRI connections. BRI and
PRI are used for the same applications, only the number of channels differ.
PRI is configured on the XSR by controller t1/e1 sub-commands.
B-Channels
The XSR’s B-channels are 56 or 64 Kbps “pipes” also known as DSOs. Bchannels typically form circuit-switched connections. Just like a telephone
connection, a B-channel connection is an end-to-end physical circuit that is
temporarily dedicated to transferring data between two devices. The circuitswitched nature of B-channel connections, combined with their reliability and
relatively high bandwidth, makes ISDN suitable for a range of applications
including video, fax, and data. They can be used to transfer any Layer 2 or
higher protocols across a link. The XSR employs PPP or Multilink PPP over
the switched BRI or PRI connections. For more information, refer to the PPP
and MLPPP chapters in this manual.
The router’s B-channels can also be configured as permanent or nailed-up
connections which are always up, as a leased-line application similar to the
channelized T1/E1 application.
D-Channel
The XSR’s D-channel is used for signaling, such as instructing the ISDN
carrier to set up or tear down a call along a B-channel, to ensure that a Bchannel is available to receive an incoming call, or to provide the signaling
information that is required for such features as caller identification. The Dchannel uses packet-switched connections, which are best adapted to the
intermittent but latency-sensitive nature of signaling traffic, thus accounting
for the vastly reduced call setup time of 1 to 2 seconds on ISDN calls (vs. 10 to
40 seconds using an analog modem).
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Understanding ISDN
Unlike the B-channel, which functions as a simple pipe for user data, the Dchannel is associated with higher level protocols, Layer 2: Q.921 and 3: Q.931
of the OSI model.
Q.931 is the call-control protocol component of this definition, although
various carriers tend to use variants. This Layer 3 signaling protocol is
transferred on the D-channel using Link Access Procedure-D-channel
(LAPD): Q.921, a Layer 2 HDLC-like protocol.
D-Channel Standards
The XSR supports several D-channel standards, which are enabled with the
isdn switch-type command. The accepted standards and some associated
switches are:
ˆ Europe/ International: basic-net3 for BRI and primary-net5 for PRI
ˆ Japan: basic-ntt for BRI and primary-ntt for PRI
ˆ North America: basic-ni1 and basic-dms100 switches for BRI and
primary-ni2, primary-5ess, and primary-dms100 for PRI
D-Channel Signaling and Carrier Networks
When the ISDN carrier receives a Q.931 instruction from a remote location,
for example, to set up a call, it triggers network switches to set up an end-toend 64 Kbps B-channel between the source and the destination directory
number signaled by Q.931. The carrier's network uses a different signaling
system though. Signaling between remote ISDN devices and the public voice
and data network switches occurs using D-channel protocols such as Q.931,
which in turn is converted into Signaling System No. 7 (SS7) signals within
the carrier's digital voice and data networks. With SS7, carriers are able to
maintain clear channel 64 Kbps connections by communicating signaling data
in a distinct channel. The switch at the destination side of the network then
communicates with the remote ISDN device using its D-channel protocol.
Unfortunately, SS7 is not always fully implemented, leading to occasional
limitations when ISDN links traverse multiple switches. For instance, if one
switch does not fully support SS7 ISDN features, call setup and signaling
messages must be sent in-band or through the same communications channel
as the bearer service. In other words, 8 Kbps of a 64 Kbps B-channel must be
reserved for signaling, thus reducing available bandwidth.
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This explains the 56 in switched-56 services, which also use 8 Kbps of a 64
Kbps channel for signaling. Any ISDN call that passes through at least one
network which lacks full SS7 signaling, must then limit its B-channel traffic to
56 Kbps. In such cases the ISDN equipment on both ends must be configured
to put only 56 Kbps of data onto their 64 Kbps link. As networks have
continued to modernize, the use of 56 Kbps connection has diminished.
The XSR automatically adapts to the speed of incoming calls, whether 56 or 64
Kbps. When dialing over ISDN in North America, users can set the call speed
by specifying 64 (default) or 56 Kbps. If the network can not connect at 64
Kbps, it will be rejected and the router will try to redial (if redial attempts are
set). If users wish to be sure that their calls will succeed, the XSR will request
all outgoing calls be set at 56 Kbps. Consult “Configuring Dialer Services” on
page 135 for more detailed information.
To support 56 Kbps, communications equipment at both ends must support a
rate adaptation scheme which pads bandwidth above 56 Kbps with blank data,
using such schemes as V.110 or V.120 rate adaptation. This feature is usually
required whenever an ISDN call originates in, is destined for, or passes
through the U.S., where 56 Kbps ISDN connections are not uncommon.
ISDN Equipment Configurations
In a BRI configuration, an ISDN adapter, also known as a Terminal Adapter
(TE), connects directly to NT1 network terminating equipment. This device is
provided by a service provider except in North America where users must
supply their own NT1 or order a BRI U-interface NIM with a built-in NT1.
The NT1 delimits between U and S/T reference points. The U reference point
represents the last section of the network that connects the Central Office with
a customer’s premises while the S/T reference point represents the customer
premises’ wiring. S/T is a point-to-multipoint wiring configuration, that is,
the NTI can be connected to as many as eight TEs that contend for the two B
channels. Most XSR applications are critical and require point-to-point
connections with the ISDN service to ensure that the B channels are available
in a timely fashion. International users are limited to ordering the S/T NIM as
it is the only approved device for connection to the network. North American
users can order U or S/T NIMs depending on wiring premises’ requirements.
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Understanding ISDN
Bandwidth Optimization
The XSR offers features which reduce call connection time and prevent
network overhead from triggering ISDN calls.
Dial-on-Demand (DoD) processes data calls strictly as needed, when
interesting packets must be passed to specific destinations.
Bandwidth-on-Demand (BoD) allocates ISDN bandwidth as efficiently as
possible to accommodate varying traffic loads. The first element of this
feature set is short-hold mode, which prevents links from forming in the
absence of data traffic, while simulating continuous connections.
For instance, suppose a remote workstation was connected to the corporate
LAN via ISDN, but no data was being sent because a user’s PC was idle. With
short-hold mode, in the absence of any data traffic the ISDN call would be
brought down, although from the user's perspective the link/route would
still be active, since any data transfer would automatically (and
transparently) bring up an ISDN call.
The second element of BoD directs that as traffic requirements increase or
decrease, B-channels can be added or subtracted to best accommodate the
load. This dynamic form of channel aggregation is often used by Multilink
PPP which aggregates channels across multiple B channels of one or more
BRI/PRI ports. The XSR implements this element of BoD with the multilink
load-threshold, multilink min-links, and bap set of commands.
To further make BoD work properly, the XSR also implements filtering and
protocol spoofing in order to prevent network overhead such as RIP updates
from needlessly bringing up the ISDN link. Although some of these frames
can be discarded without any negative consequences, most are required to
keep workstations and servers across the entire enterprise network
synchronized with one another.
The XSR filters unnecessary overhead by the use of Access Control Lists
specifying interesting packets, and by spoofing protocol overhead packets to
maintain the routes while keeping ISDN connection costs under control.
The XSR performs LAN spoofing where on demand calls spoof RIP or OSPF
updates - RIP updates are sent over the WAN only when changes to the
network occur and are piggy-backed with data traffic. The dialer map
command is used to enable spoofing.
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Security
Security is another important element of dial-up data communications, and
ISDN can support the security features of protocols running through it, as
well as its own unique mechanisms. ISDN, in addition to supporting the
standard authentication schemes of protocols riding on it (e.g. PPP's
PAP/CHAP protocols), enhances the security of dial-up connections with call
number identification.
With support for call number identification invoked by the isdn callingnumber command, the XSR enables the comparison of incoming callers' phone
numbers with a list of acceptable numbers. Calls can then be restricted to prescreened locations, a definite advantage especially when PAP/CHAP
authentication is unavailable.
Call Monitoring
Call monitoring is also an important element of the XSR’s ISDN service. Call
monitoring features are useful in terms of security, but also enable tracking of
call volume and logging of all connections so that administrators can
optimize the number of ISDN lines ordered. Given that ISDN costs are often
usage-related, this checking and recording also can prevent nasty surprises
that users might receive with the monthly phone bill. At the same time, usage
logs can provide managers with the justification required to add ISDN lines
as the need for additional bandwidth arises.
The show interface bri, show controllers bri, and show isdn service
commands display virtual and physical line attributes including B channel
idle warnings.
The show isdn history and show isdn active commands display Cause
Codes giving the reason why a call was disconnected. These codes are
detailed in Table 9 on page 203.
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ISDN Configuration
ISDN Configuration
PRI interfaces share the T1/E1 NIM card and all physical configuration
values the controller can configure. The pri-group command assigns the
channels (DS0s) of the T1/E1 port to ISDN module control. Interfaces are
configured one of two ways using the following commands:
ˆ The pri-group command ISDN switching.
ˆ The channel-group command for point-to-point connections.
The above commands are mutually exclusive: you can enter one or the other
per PRI interface, not both. On the E1 NIM, 30 channels are controlled by
ISDN, and 23 channels on the T1 NIM. Other PRI commands include:
ˆ bchan-number-order selects a channel from B1 (ascending) or
B23/B32 (descending).
ˆ calling-number configures an outgoing ISDN calling number.
ˆ switch-type specifies the Central Office ISDN switch type.
BRI interfaces utilize a BRI-S/T or UNIM card. From a software perspective,
S/T and U cards are equivalent and all features supported on both cards are
equivalent. The card type is significant during installation only. In North
America, the U card is connected directly to the ISDN service jack, the S/T
card requires an external NT1 device to be connected between the S/T card
and the service jack. Outside North America, only the S/T card is used with
very few exceptions.
The two basic modes of operation of the BRI card are: CMD switched mode
and leased line (permanent) mode. Leased line mode is configured similar to
T1/E1 channelized operation mode - commands are entered at Controller
configuration mode. BRI ISDN commands include:
ˆ answer1/2 adds a called number:subaddress to be screened.
ˆ calling-number adds a calling number included in outgoing calls.
ˆ spid1/2 sets a Service Profile ID string calling-number: subaddress.
ˆ switch-type selects the interface ISDN switch type.
ˆ leased-line sets a BRI interface to support leased lines.
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BRI (Switched) Configuration Model
Figure 34, shown below, illustrates how Dialer and BRI interfaces are
configured on the XSR’s BRI NIM card as well as how those interfaces
correlate to dialer and access lists, map classes, and dialer pools.
Dialer Profile
Defines the destination
e
l Lin
Dia
Dialer Pool M
Dialer Pool 2
priority
Dialer Pool 1
interface dialer 0
ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
encapsulation ppp and other protocol
commands
dialer string 5551000 class remNode1
dialer string 5551000 class remNode2
dialer pool 1
dialer-group 1
interface BRI 1/0
isdn switch-type basic-nil
isdn spid1 0555100001 5551000
isdn spid2 0555300001 5553000
dialer pool-member 1 priority 100
... more BRI commands
map-class dialer
Access List
Access List
priority
ne
l Li
D ia
Access List
Access List
Access List
priority
interface BRI 1/2
isdn switch-type basic-nil
isdn spid1 0555500001 5555000
isdn spid2 0555700001 5557000
dialer pool-member 1priority 100
... more BRI commands
l
Dia
interface dialer 1
ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
encapsulation ppp and other protocol
commands
ppp multilink over up to 4 B channels
dialer map ip 192.168.1.10 name HOME
212555756
dialer pool M
dialer-group 10
e
Lin
XSR
Dialer List 1
describes interesting
packets
interface BRI 1/1
isdn switch-type basic-nil
isdn spid1 0555200001 5552000
isdn spid2 0555400001 5554000
dialer pool-member 1 priority 100
... more BRI commands
Figure 34 Switched BRI Configuration Model
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ISDN Configuration
The following example adds a dialer pool and group, and two phone
numbers to the called node’s Dialer 0 port. It also configures a second dialer
pool and group, a Multilink PPP line to four B channels on the Dialer 1
interface, and maps the 192.168.1.10 network and phone number to BRI
interface 1/0, as well as adds a prioritized pool member and six SPIDs.
Finally, the example configures two more BRI interfaces with prioritized pool
members and two SPIDs each. You can add map class, dialer and access list,
BRI, and other protocol commands not shown in the example.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 0
XSR(config-if<D0>)#ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer string 5551000 class remNode1
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer string 5551000 class remNode2
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer-group 1
XSR(config-if<D0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface dialer 1
XSR(config-if<D1>)#ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D0>)#ppp multilink
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer map ip 192.168.1.10 name HOME 212555756
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer pool M
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer-group 10
XSR(config-if<D0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn switch-type basic-ni1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn spid1 0555100001 5551000
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#isdn spid2 0555300001 5553000
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 100
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#isdn switch-type basic-ni1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#isdn spid1 0555200001 5552000
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#isdn spid2 0555400001 5554000
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 90
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#no shutdown
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XSR(config)#interface bri 1/2
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/2>)#isdn switch-type basic-ni1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/2>)#isdn spid1 0555500001 5555000
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/2>)#isdn spid2 0555700001 5557000
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/2>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 80
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/2>)#no shutdown
For further explanation and more examples of Dialer interface and Multilink
PPP configuration, refer to “Configuring Dialer Services” on page 135 and
“Configuring PPP” on page 103.
PRI Configuration Model
Figure 35, shown below, configures Dialer and Serial interfaces on the
XSR’s PRI NIM card as well as describes how those interfaces correlate to
dialer and access lists, map classes, dialer pools, and channel groups.
XSR
controller t1 1/0/0
pri-group
controller 1/0/0:23 for T1 NIM
or
controller 1/0/0:15 for E1 NIM
Dialer Pool M
Dialer Pool 2
priority
Dialer Pool 1
interface dialer 0
ip address 111....
encapsulation ppp and other protocol
commands
dialer string 5551000 class remNode1
dialer string 5551000 class remNode2
dialer pool 1
dialer-group 1
priority
isdn switch-type primary-ni
isdn bchan-number-order
dialer pool-member 1 priority 100
dialer pool-member 1 priority 50
... more PRI commands
Dial Line
map-class dialer
Access List
Access List
Dialer List 1
describes interesting
packets
Access List
Access List
Access List
Figure 35 PRI Configuration Model
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ISDN Configuration
The following T1 example adds a dialer pool and group, and two dialer strings to
the node’s Dialer 0 port. It also sets all 23 B-channel timeslots, adds two
prioritized pool members, and maps the T1 NIM card to the 1/0/0:23 D-channel
sub-interface. You can add map class, dialer list and ACL commands not shown.
XSR(config)#interface dialer 0
XSR(config-if<D0>)#ip address 1.1.1.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<D0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer string 17574231234 class rem node1
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer string 17574235678 class rem node2
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer pool 1
XSR(config-if<D0>)#dialer-group 1
XSR(config-if<D0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#controller t1 1/0/0
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/0/0>)#pri-group
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/0/0>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#controller 1/0/0:23
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/0/0:23>)#
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/0/0:23>)#isdn switch-type primary-ni
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/0/0:23>)#isdn bchan-number-order ascending
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/0/0:23>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 100
XSR(config-controller<T1-1/0/0:23>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 50
Optionally, the following E1 commands set the Central Office switch type and
add prioritized pool members to E1 1/0/0:15 D-channel sub-interface:
XSR(config-controller<E1-0/0:15>)#isdn switch-type primary-net5
XSR(config-controller<E1-0/0:15>)#isdn bchan-number-order
XSR(config-controller<E1-0/0:15>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-controller<S1-0/0:15>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 100
XSR(config-controller<S1-0/0:15>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 50
Be aware that the isdn bchan-number-order command forces the PRI
interface to make outgoing calls in ascending or descending order. The
command is recommended only if your service provider requests it to lessen
the chance of call collisions.
The pri-group command enables ISDN and configures all timeslots to map
to channel groups on the PRI NIM card.
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Leased-Line Configuration Model
The BRI Leased Line application supports two basic modes: each B channel is
routed to a different destination or both B channels are bounded. Only one
BRI-specific command is needed for this application, leased-line, which
can be configured at 56, 64, 112, 128, or 144 Kbps.
NOTE
Be aware that two data streams are supported, one on each B channel, at
56 and 64 Kbps only, and one data stream is supported over the bounded
B1 + B2 or B1+B2+D line at 112, 128, or 144 Kbps only.
Figure 36 illustrates how a Leased Line application is configured on the
XSR’s BRI NIM card with either PPP or Frame Relay encapsulation.
IP
interface BRI 0/1/1
leased-line BRI 0/1/1 56 | 64
leased-line BRI 0/1/1 56 | 64
interface BRI 0/1/1
leased-line BRI 1/1 112|128|144
interface BRI 0/1/1:1
ip address 1.1.1.2
255.255.255.0
encapsulation ppp
interface BRI 0/1/1:2
ip address 1.1.1.3
255.255.255.0
encapsulation FR
interface BRI 0/1/2:1
... any serial interface
command
... any serial interface
command
... any serial interface command
Leased S/T or U BRI line
LL
B2
LL
B1
ip address 1.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
encapsulation FR
Leased S/T or U BRI line
Figure 36 BRI Leased Line Application
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More Configuration Examples
The following commands, as shown in Figure 36, add two leased lines on BRI
0//1/1 B-channels 1 and 2 with PPP and Frame Relay encapsulation on
either line. You can add other serial interface commands as needed.
XSR(config)#interface bri 0/1/1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#leased-line bri 0/1/1 56
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#leased-line bri 0/1/1 56
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface bri 0/1/1:1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1:1>)#ip address 1.1.1.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1:1>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1:1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config#interface bri 0/1/1:2
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1:2>)#ip address 1.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1:2>)#encapsulation frame relay
The following commands add a third, bundled B1/B2 line on BRI interface
0/1/1 and another lease line on BRI channel 0/1/2:1 with Frame Relay
encapsulation. You can add other serial interface commands as needed.
XSR(config)#interface bri 0/1/1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#leased-line bri 0/1/1 144
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if)#interface bri 0/1/2:1
XSR(config-if<BRI-0/1/2:1>)#ip address 1.1.1.3 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<BRI-0/1/2:1>)#encapsulation frame relay
More Configuration Examples
The following configuration examples cover T1/E1, PRI and BRI, and leaseline options on the XSR. For more details on Dialer and Multilink PPP
options, refer to “Configuring Dialer Services” on page 135 and “Configuring
PPP” on page 103.
T1 PRI
The following example configures a PRI connection on a T1 card:
XSR(config)#controller t1 1/2/3
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#pri-group
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#isdn switch-type primary-ni
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#isdn bchan-number-order descending
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XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#isdn calling-number 915086671234
XSR(config-controller<T1-2/3>)#no shutdown
E1 PRI
The following example configures a PRI connection on an E1 card:
XSR(config)#controller e1 1/2/2
XSR(config-controller<E1-2/2>)#pri-group
XSR(config-controller<E1-2/2>)#isdn switch-type primary-net5
XSR(config-controller<E1-2/2>)#isdn bchan-number-order descending
XSR(config-controller<E1-2/2>)#isdn no calling-number
XSR(config-controller<E1-2/2>)#no shutdown
ISDN BRI
The following example configures a non-leased line BRI connection:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#isdn switch-type basic-ni1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#isdn spid1 2200555 2200
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#isdn spid2 2201555 2201
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/1>)#dialer pool-member 1 priority 1
BRI Leased Line
The following example configures a leased-line BRI connection:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#leased-line 64
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#leased-line 64
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0>)#no shutdown
BRI Leased PPP
The following example configures a leased PPP connection on a BRI link:
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0:2
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:2>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:2>)#ip address 10.10.10.11 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:2>)#ppp keepalive
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Configuring Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
BRI Leased Frame Relay
The following example configures Frame Relay service over a multipoint
leased BRI connection. For more information on Frame Relay, refer to
“Configuring Frame Relay” on page 119.
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0:1
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:1>)#encapsulation frame-relay
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:1>)#frame-relay lmi-type none
XSR(config)#interface bri 1/0:1.1 multi-point
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:1>)#ip address 2.2.2.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:1>)#frame-relay interface-dlci 16
XSR(config-if<BRI-1/0:1-16>)#no shutdown
ISDN (ITU Standard Q.931) Call Status Cause Codes
The XSR supports the following Q.931 Cause Codes:
Table 9 Call Status Cause Codes
Code
Cause
0
Valid cause code not yet received
1
Unallocated (unassigned) number
2
No route to specified transit network (WAN)
3
No route to destination
4
Send special information tone/Channel unacceptable
5
Misdialed trunk prefix
6
Channel unacceptable
7
Call awarded and being delivered in an established channel
8
Prefix 0 dialed but not allowed
9
Prefix 1 dialed but not allowed
10
Prefix 1 dialed but not required
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Table 9 Call Status Cause Codes (Continued)
204
Code
Cause
11
More digits received than allowed, call is proceeding
16
Normal call clearing
17
User busy
18
No user responding
19
19 No answer from user
21
Call rejected
22
Number changed
23
Reverse charging rejected
24
Call suspended
25
Call resumed
26
Non-selected user clearing
27
Destination out of order
28
Invalid number format (incomplete number)
29
Facility rejected
30
Response to STATUS ENQUIRY
31
Normal, unspecified
33
Circuit out of order
34
No circuit/channel available
35
Destination unattainable
36
Out of order
37
Degraded service
38
Network (WAN) out of order
39
Transit delay range cannot be achieved
40
Throughput range cannot be achieved
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Table 9 Call Status Cause Codes (Continued)
Code
Cause
41
Temporary failure
42
Switching equipment congestion
43
Access information discarded
44
Requested circuit channel not available
45
Pre-empted
46
Precedence call blocked
47
Resource unavailable - unspecified
49
Quality of service unavailable
50
Requested facility not subscribed
51
Reverse charging not allowed
52
Outgoing calls barred
53
Outgoing calls barred within CUG
54
Incoming calls barred
55
Incoming calls barred within CUG
56
Call waiting not subscribed
57
Bearer capability not authorized
58
Bearer capability not presently available
63
Service or option not available, unspecified
65
Bearer service not implemented
66
Channel type not implemented
67
Transit network selection not implemented
68
Message not implemented
69
Requested facility not implemented
70
Only restricted digital information bearer capability is available
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Table 9 Call Status Cause Codes (Continued)
206
Code
Cause
79
Service or option not implemented, unspecified
81
Invalid call reference value
82
Identified channel does not exist
83
A suspended call exists, but this call identity does not
84
Call identity in use
85
No call suspended
86
Call having the requested call identity has been cleared
87
Called user not member of CUG
88
Incompatible destination
89
Non-existent abbreviated address entry
90
Destination address missing, and direct call not subscribed
91
Invalid transit network selection (national use)
92
Invalid facility parameter Mandatory information element is missing
95
Invalid message, unspecified
96
Mandatory information element is missing
97
Message type non-existent or not implemented
98
Message not compatible with call state or message type non-existent or not
implemented
99
Information element nonexistent or not implemented
100
Invalid information element contents
101
Message not compatible with call state
102
Recovery on timer expiry
103
Parameter non-existent or not implemented - passed on
111
Protocol error, unspecified
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Table 9 Call Status Cause Codes (Continued)
Code
Cause
127
Internetworking, unspecified
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10
Configuring Quality of Service
Overview
In a typical network, there are often many users and applications competing
for limited system and network resources. While resource sharing on a firstcome, first-serve basis may suffice when your network load is light, access
can freeze quickly when the network gets congested. Under these conditions,
a bandwidth-hungry application (large file transfer files, emails) may devour
most of the network bandwidth, depriving applications that send small-sized
packets (voice, telnet and other interactive applications) of their fair share of
bandwidth, and result in long delays causing applications to fail.
Quality of Service cannot magically provide all applications their requested
bandwidth, but it can help you identify your mission-critical, high priority
application traffic and give it preferential treatment (higher priority, higher
bandwidth or guaranteed bandwidth) relative to the rest of your network
traffic. In this way, critical applications will work under both normal and
congested conditions while less important and time-sensitive traffic will
continue to flow, perhaps at a lower rate than expected.
To configure QoS properly, you should consider the following:
ˆ Know the load on your network to decide if you need QoS processing
ˆ Know the programs running on your network to identify vital
applications that you need to protect, and determine how much
bandwidth you need to allocate to these applications
ˆ Determine how to classify traffic into different classes
ˆ Decide which queueing algorithms, congestion mechanisms, and
traffic options best satisfy your overall applications
ˆ Configure the XSR using the above criteria
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Features
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Configuring Quality of Service
Features
The XSR’s support of QoS module allows you to:
ˆ Classify traffic in different traffic flows using user-defined filters
based on packet headers and payloads
ˆ Meter and police traffic flows based on traffic policy
ˆ Prioritize time-critical traffic flows and ensure that packets from these
flows are serviced with bounded delay
ˆ Share output bandwidth in a fair manner between the number of
best-effort traffic flows
ˆ Manage queues using two queue management strategies: tail-drop or
Random Early Detection (RED)
ˆ Mark packets from a specific flow with DSCP or IP precedence values
QoS service on the XSR is proscribed by the following limits:
ˆ Traffic policy can be applied to output only
ˆ The maximum number of classes allowed is 64
ˆ The traffic policer cannot be configured for traffic flows assigned to
priority queues. Each priority queue is metered and policed by
default to guarantee it conforms to the scheduled traffic pattern
ˆ Priority and bandwidth commands are mutually exclusive; a traffic
flow is assigned to either queue, not both
ˆ Tail-drop (queue-limit) and RED (random-detect) are mutually
exclusive; a queue is managed by either mechanism, not both
Mechanisms to Provide QoS
This following section describes the general mechanisms the XSR employs to
support Quality of Service.
Traffic Classification
Before the XSR can apply QoS to traffic, it must differentiate between types of
traffic. The process is called Traffic Classification.
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The following table describes typical traffic classification:
Table 10 Traffic Classification
Classification
Criteria
Description
Additional
Comments
IP Precedence bits
in IP header (IP
only)
Simple classification for IP packets only. IP Precedence bits reside
inside the TOS byte of the IPv4 header and are 3-bits long,
providing up to 8 levels of QoS classes.
Simple, IP
traffic only
DSCP (DiffServ
Code Point) bits in
IP header (IP only)
Simple classification for IP packets only. This QoS signaling
method is defined by the IETF DiffServ group providing a
scalable QoS solution. It is 6-bits long and can provide 64
different traffic classes. DSCP overlaps with the IP Precedence
bits in the IP header and can be considered a super set of IP
Precedence.
Simple, IP
traffic only
Multiple-Field
Classification
This classification generally looks at the L3 header (source and
destination IP addresses), L4 header (TCP/UDP port numbers to
identify the nature of applications as FTP, Telnet, Web, etc.), and
in some cases, look at fields beyond the L4 header (e.g., to
differentiate Web access to certain Web pages from other Web
accesses), to narrow the classification and choose traffic from a
particular application.
Most
versatile
but CPU
intensive.
The XSR provides a class-based traffic classifier that creates traffic policies
and attaches them to interfaces, sub-interfaces, and virtual circuits such as
Frame Relay DLCIs. A traffic policy contains a traffic class and one or more
QoS features. A traffic class is used to classify traffic, while the QoS features in
the traffic policy determine how to treat the classified traffic. Traffic policy
cannot be applied to multilink PPP interfaces at this time.
NOTE
A Dialer interface is similar to a virtual interface in that only after it dials on
a resource from a dialer pool is it able to receive and send data. A policy
map applied to a dialer interface is automatically pushed to the resource
(Serial or ISDN interface) that the dialer called on. When the connection is
cleared, the policy map is automatically removed from the resource.
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You must perform three steps to configure a class-based classifier:
1
Define a traffic class with the class-map command.
2
Create a traffic policy by associating the traffic class with one or more
QoS features (using the policy-map command).
3
Attach the traffic policy to the port or DLCI with the service-policy
command.
A QoS policy-map for DLCI defines a set of complex rules to identify classes
of traffic and then applies service policies to them. Use the traffic-class-map to
group a set of simple rules to form a set of complex rules. You can define
complex rules with a combination of matching criteria and, at the same time,
not matching other criteria.
Describing the Class Map
The traffic class map builds complex rules with matching criteria. Multiple
rules can be specified by a given traffic class-map using the class-map
command, but all rules in the given class map must be configured to use the
same matching criteria:
ˆ match-any
ˆ match-all
The following traffic class map defines the match-all class-map abc. A packet
that satisfies the criteria defined in access-group 2 and has a DSCP value set
to 32 is considered a part of this traffic class. In a match-all class-map all
criteria must be met in order for the packet to be assigned to the class.
XSR(config)#access-list 2 permit 15.15.15.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#class-map match-all abc
XSR(config-cmap<abc>)#match access-group 2
XSR(config-cmap<abc>)#match ip dscp 32
In a match-any class-map, one or more criteria of the class-map must be met in
order for packets to be assigned to the class. For example, if class-map ABC
were a match-any class-map, packets arriving with a source address of
15.15.15.3, with Layer 3 protocol IP and DSCP value of 12 assigned, would be
classified as class ABC since it matches access-list 2.
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Describing the Policy Map
The policy statement in a QoS policy-map specifies how traffic defined by the
traffic class-map will be treated. Each class in policy-map has to be assigned
to one of the two types of queues: CBWFQ or Priority Queue. This includes
specifying the following:
ˆ The bandwidth command assigns traffic from this class to a Class- Based
Weight Fair Queue (CBWFQ) with the specified bandwidth. A CBWFQ
shares the output link with other CBWFQs on the same link in
proportion to its specified bandwidth or weight. During congestion,
queues are serviced (assigned bandwidth) in proportion to their weight.
When uncongested, a queue can borrow bandwidth from other queues.
ˆ The priority command assigns traffic from this class a Priority
Queue (PQ) and sets the parameter for the queue. Priority queues
provide guaranteed bandwidth - they always receive the bandwidth
requested. Priority class is not allowed to send more than its
guaranteed bandwidth and excess traffic is discarded. Unused
priority bandwidth is picked up by the class-default class.
For classes that are assigned to CBWFQ you can control the maximum rate of
traffic sent or received on a port as follows:
ˆ The police command controls traffic received by a queue by
defining the action taken for packets that conform or exceed the
specified rate. You may drop the packet, change its IP precedence or
DSCP setting, or forward it without modification.
Both CBWFQ and Priority Queues can control queue size and the type of
congestion avoidance mechanism, as well as mark packets as follows:
ˆ The set ip precedence, set ip dscp commands mark a packet by
setting the IP precedence or DSCP field. The Differentiated Services
Field is defined in RFCs-2474 and 2475.
ˆ The queue-limit command specifies or modifies the maximum
number of packets the queue can hold before tail drop for TCP/IP
traffic for a class policy configured in a policy map.
ˆ The random-detect command sets Random Early Detect (RED), a
congestion avoidance mechanism that slows traffic by randomly
dropping packets when congestion exists.
Traffic not assigned to a class in the policy-map is assigned to class-default
which is always created and assigned as a CBWFQ. Bandwidth for the classXSR User’s Guide
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default comprises whatever remains after all other classes are served. You can
configure class-default as any other CBWFQ, except that you cannot assign
bandwidth to it.
Queuing and Services
Once traffic has been classified, it is dropped into different queues so that
each class of traffic can be treated differently (priority, bandwidth etc.). The
following describes two queue types used in the XSR: Class Based Weight
Fair Queuing and Priority Queuing. They are mutually exclusive - only one
type of queue may be applied to one class. But, they may be mixed in a
policy-map when applied to different classes.
Describing Class-Based Weight Fair Queuing
The configured bandwidth of a class is the bandwidth delivered to the class
during congestion. The higher the bandwidth, the more likely the packet is
being transmitted under congested conditions. If there is no data on a
particular queue, then its share of the bandwidth will be divided and shared
among the active queues in proportion to their specified bandwidth.
CBWFQ specifies the exact amount of bandwidth to allocate for a specific
class, or queue, of traffic. Taking into account available bandwidth on the
interface, you can configure up to 64 classes and control distribution among
them. If excess bandwidth is available, it is divided among other CBWFQs in
proportion to their configured bandwidths.
When bandwidth is specified as an absolute number, it is used to calculate the
weight of the class. In such a case, the sum of bandwidth for all classes,
including priority classes, should not exceed the link bandwidth otherwise
the bandwidth for the default class will be zero causing a traffic blockage and
packet pileup in the queue.
NOTE
For each policy-map, only one type of bandwidth, percentage or absolute
bandwidth, can be used for all the CBWFQ classes inside the policy-map.
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Configuring CBWFQ
CBWFQ is configured using the bandwidth command. It provides a minimum
bandwidth guarantee during congestion. For example, policy-map keyser
guarantees 30 percent of the bandwidth to class sosay and 60 percent of the
bandwidth to class intrigue. If one class uses less of the requested share of
bandwidth, the excess bandwidth may be used by the other class.
XSR(config)#policy-map keyser
XSR(config-pmap<keyser>)#class sosay
XSR(config-pmap-c<sosay>)#bandwidth percent 30
XSR(config-pmap<keyser>)#class intrigue
XSR(config-pmap-c<intrigue>)#bandwidth percent 60
Describing Priority Queues
Priority Queues (PQ) extend absolute (strict) priority to certain traffic. Higher
priority packets are sent before lower priority packets, and lower priority
packets are sent before any non-priority packets.
Priority queuing ensures that applications which cannot tolerate much delay
(e.g., voice and video traffic) are serviced before non-time critical applications
(e.g., FTP).
Traffic assigned to priority queues is rate-limited so the queue’s presence
would not “starve” low priority packets and fair queues. The XSR supports
up to four priority queues per interface, labeled high, medium, low, and normal.
They are characterized by the following rules:
ˆ High priority queues are emptied before low priority queues.
ˆ PQ bandwidth is controlled using a traffic policer to rate-limit it
NOTE
If priority queues are configured to take up almost the entire bandwidth
of the interface or PVC, CBWFQ and control packets will get no actual
bandwidth and may be blocked.
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Configuring Priority Queues
The priority command configures priority queuing for certain packets
based on the traffic class. When you specify priority (using the following
commands) for a class, it takes a bandwidth argument affording maximum
bandwidth. The following commands configure priority queuing:
ˆ policy-map policy-name
ˆ class class-name
ˆ priority priority-level kbps [burst-size]
Be aware that bandwidth guarantees come into play when an interface is
congested, at which time traffic class guarantees bandwidth equal to the
specified rate. The priority command implements a maximum bandwidth
guarantee. If the priority class does not use its bandwidth, the excess
bandwidth may be used by CBWFQ. A rule of thumb for configuring PQs is
to assign time-sensitive traffic (voice and video) to PQs and other types (e.g.,
Telnet) to fair queues. Any traffic you do not specially assign (e.g., Email) is
automatically directed to the class-default queue. All (100%) of your traffic
should not be assigned to PQs - a smaller percentage of lower priority traffic
should be designated for fair queues of left unassigned for the default queue.
Internally, the priority queue uses a Token Bucket that measures the offered
load and ensures that the traffic stream conforms to the configured rate. Only
traffic that conforms to the token bucket is guaranteed low latency. Any
excess traffic is dropped even when the link is not congested.
The priority command also sets burst size, a network value used to
accommodate temporary bursts of traffic. The default burst value, which is
computed as 1 second of traffic at the configured bandwidth rate, is used when
the burst argument is not specified.
The XSR allows the priority queue size to grow as much as allowed by the
traffic meter.
The following example illustrates priority configuration options and how
they are invoked on a Frame Relay port. Begin by creating traffic class frost:
XSR(config)#class-map frost
XSR(config-cmap<frost>)#match access-group 10
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Assign the class frost to the priority queue:
XSR(config)#policy-map frame1
XSR(config-pmap<frame1>)#class frost
XSR(config-pmap-c<frost>)#priority high 20
XSR(config-pmap-c<frost>)#queue-limit 30
Describing Traffic Policing
While it is possible to precisely control the output rate of all traffic using
CBWFQ and priority queues with maximum link bandwidth, practically
speaking, this is rarely done. Typically, you identify certain critical
applications, assign QoS values and bandwidth to them, and let the
remainder of traffic take whatever bandwidth is left.
The XSR’s implementation of traffic policing provides this benefit:
ˆ Packet marking through IP precedence or DSCP value setting Packet marking partitions your network into multiple priority levels.
Configuring Traffic Policing
To successfully configure Traffic Policing, you must create a traffic class and
attach the traffic policy to an interface or DLCI. The police command
specifies the following options:
ˆ Bandwidth, burst and excess burst values
ˆ Action to take for traffic that conforms or exceeds the specified rate
This is how the policer works. It maintains two token buckets, one holding
tokens for normal burst and the other for excess burst. The policing algorithm
handles token refilling and burst checking.
Token buckets are refilled every time a new packet arrives. The specified
bandwidth and the interval between the arrival time of the new packet and
that of the previous packet are used to calculate the number of tokens to refill
the buckets. The formula is as follows:
Refill Token Bytes = (Bandwidth * Interval) / 8
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The bucket for holding tokens for normal burst is refilled first. If the
calculated Refill Token Bytes is enough to top the bucket for normal burst to the
burst value specified, the remainder of Refill Token Bytes are added to the
bucket for excess burst (refer to the formula below). Also, the number of
tokens for excess burst is also limited by the excess burst value specified in
the police command.
The packet length is checked against the token bytes available in the two
buckets. If the number of token bytes in the bucket for normal burst is larger
than the packet length, the conform-action applies to this packet; if the token
bytes for normal burst is not enough, but the number of token bytes for excess
burst is larger than the packet length, the exceed-action applies to this packet; if
neither of the token bytes for normal burst or excess burst is enough, the
violate-action applies to this packet.
In the following example, traffic policing is configured with an average rate of
8,000 bits per second, normal burst size of 2,000 bytes, and excess burst size of
4,000 bytes. Packets entering serial interface 1/0 are analyzed as to whether
packets conform, exceed, or violate specified parameters. Packets which
conform to parameters are sent, those which exceed parameters are set to a
DSCP value of 43 and sent, and those which violate parameters are dropped.
XSR(config)#class-map the_heat
XSR(config-cmap<the_heat>)#match access-group 2
XSR(config)#policy-map turf
XSR(config-pmap<turf>)#class the_heat
XSR(config-pmap-c<the_heat>)#bandwidth percent 30
XSR(config-pmap-c<the_heat>)#police 8000 2000 4000 conform-action
transmit exceed-action set-dscp-transmit 43 violate-action drop
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0
XSR(config-if<S1/0>)#service-policy output turf
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Congestion Control & Avoidance
Describing Queue Size Control (Drop Tail)
By using delay control and congestion avoidance, you can control the number of
queued up packets. If the outgoing queue is empty when a packet is ready to be
sent, the packet can be forwarded immediately to the line with minimal delay.
But, if there are 20 queued packets in the outgoing queue when the packet
arrives, the new packet must wait until the 20 queued packets are sent before
it can be sent.
Depending on the average packet size of the queued packets and the speed of
the link, this last packet could be delayed considerably. When the queue limit
is reached no new arriving packets are accepted in the queue and are
dropped. The limit of the queue is set by the queue-limit command as
shown in the following example:
XSR(config)#policy-map droptail
XSR(config-pmap<droptail>)#class the_heat
XSR(config-pmap-c<the_heat>)#queue-limit 50
Describing Random Early Detection
Random Early Detection (RED) is a congestion avoidance mechanism for
adaptive applications (e.g., TCP/IP) that adjusts bandwidth usage of the XSR
based on network conditions. TCP/IP uses a slow-start feature that initially
sends a few packets to test network conditions. If the acknowledgement
returns indicating no packet loss, TCP considers the network capable of
handling more traffic and increases its output rate. The protocol continues to
do so until it detects any packets dropped and not delivered, at which point it
considers the network congested and begins cutting back the output rate.
Because of TCP’s slow-start/fast-drop-off behavior when dealing with
congestion, the protocol’s performance is choppy when the node/network is
heavily loaded and the network does not assert congestion avoidance. This
occurs because when the node is congested and the outgoing queue fills up,
subsequent packets (very likely from multiple TCP sessions) are dropped, and
these in turn cause corresponding TCP sessions to dramatically cut output.
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After a short delay, all sessions try to ramp up using slow-start in a process
called Global Synchronization. The queue grows, congestion and packet
drops recur, and undesirable global synchronization repeats. The end result is
a distinctive “peak and trough” traffic pattern where the outgoing queue is
full just before packets are dropped, delay throughout the network is high
and varies by large margins.
RED attempts to avoid congestion by proactively dropping packets randomly
at an early sign of congestion (when the queue grows above a certain
threshold). Because packets are dropped randomly, all TCP/IP sessions will
be affected eventually and the treatment made fair to all sessions.
By dropping packets early - before it reaches its queue limit - RED starts to
“throttle” the traffic source before the queue grows too large. It helps limit
delay, which is proportional to the number of packets in the queue, and avoid
queue overflow and global TCP synchronization.
Drop Probability
The random-detect command includes three parameters to configure RED
for a queue: minimum threshold (MinThres), maximum threshold (MaxThres)
and maximum drop probability (MaxProb). The drop probability of a packet is
based on the average queue size and the three parameters mentioned earlier.
The calculation of the drop probability is pictured below.
1
MaxP
0
MinTh
MaxTh
Average Queue Size
Figure 37 RED Drop Probability Calculation
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In the following example, class bus has a minimum threshold of 460. RED will
start to randomly (with a probability between 0 and 1/10) discard packets
when its queue grows over 460 packets. It will start to discard each packet
when the queue holds more than 550 packets.
NOTE
Drop Tail and RED cannot be used on the same queue at the same time. queue-limit and random-detect are mutually exclusive. If random-detect is set on
a queue, queue-limit cannot be set on the same queue until RED is removed.
XSR(config)#policy-map ppwe
XSR(config-pmap<ppwe>)#class voip
XSR(config-pmap-c<voip>)#priority high 64 1000
XSR(config-pmap<ppwe>)#class bus
XSR(config-pmap-c<bus>)#bandwidth 168
XSR(config-pmap-c<bus>)#random-detect 460 550 10
Per Interface Configuration
QoS can be configured on both LAN and WAN interfaces. It can be enabled
on Frame Relay and PPP interfaces, and on a sub interface (Frame Relay
only). The following table illustrates the options:
Table 11 Configuration Options by LAN/WAN Interface
FastEth
Serial
PPP
MLPPP
Dialer
FR DLCI
CBWFQ
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Priority Queue
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Traffic Policing
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
Random Early Detect
Y
Y
Y
N
Y
Y
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Suggestions for Using QoS on the XSR
The XSR supports QoS on all interfaces (FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet, Serial,
and Frame Relay DLCI). But, you should enable QoS only on the data path
that actually requires it (generally on lower speed Frame Relay and PPP
interfaces) because QoS is fairly processor intensive and may adversely
impact router performance.
In a typical XSR environment, QoS may be enabled on the WAN link. The
following lists two configuration scenarios:
ˆ A standard office IP application, with no multi-media programs:
–
Enable PQ or CBWFQ
ˆ A complex office application, with multi-media applications:
–
–
–
Use high Priority Queue for VoIP traffic with a cap on bandwidth
it may consume
Use CBWFQ queue for interactive traffic - Telnet, Web access
Use CBWFQ with RED for remaining traffic
Additionally, if the WAN link is running Frame Relay, you may also enable
generic traffic shaping on Frame Relay to specify the Committed Information
Rate (CIR), FECN and BECN options to control link throughput.
Configuring QoS on an Interface
The following example configures Class1 with these characteristics: a
minimum of 200 Kbps of bandwidth are expected to be delivered to this class
in the event of congestion, and the queue reserved for this class can enqueue
40 packets before tail drop is employed to handle additional packets.
Class2 is specified with these characteristics: a minimum of 300 Kbps of
bandwidth are expected to be delivered to this class in the event of
congestion. For congestion avoidance, RED packet drop is used, not tail drop.
The default class is configured with a maximum of 20 packets per queue
which are enqueued before tail drop is used to handle additional packets.
Begin by creating Class1 and Class2 and matching their respective parameters:
XSR(config)#class-map class1
XSR(config-cmap<class1)#match access-group 136
XSR(config)#class-map class2
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XSR(config-cmap<class2>)#match ip precedence 2
Create the policy map:
XSR(config)#policy-map policy1
XSR(config-pmap-policy1>)#class class1
XSR(config-pmap-c<class1>)#bandwidth 200
XSR(config-pmap-c<class1>)#queue-limit 40
XSR(config-pmap<policy1>)#class class2
XSR(config-pmap-c<class2>)#bandwidth 300
XSR(config-pmap-c<class2>)#random-detect 34 56 3
XSR(config-pmap<policy1>)#class class-default
XSR(config-pmap-c<class-default>)#queue-limit 20
Apply the configuration to the interface:
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/1
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#service-policy output policy1
Configuring QoS for Frame Relay
The following example sets Serial interface 1/1 for Frame Relay with one
DLCI (100) which will support three types of traffic: voice that is assigned to a
priority queue with a bandwidth of 20 kbps, FTP that is assigned to fair queue
with 50 percent of the remaining bandwidth, and Class1 that is assigned to
class-default (and gets the other 50 percent). DLCI 100 sets CIR at 64 kbps (the
sum of all PQs and classes should not exceed the CIR of the DLCI).
When the connection is congested, priority traffic will get its bandwidth share
(smaller than the DLCI CIR) while all other classes share the remaining
bandwidth proportional to what was requested. Voice is rate limited to
20 Kbps and the interval over which it is enforced is equivalent to
burst/bandwidth size (2500 bytes/20 Kbps).
If no burst size is set, default burst size is used. Packets exceeding 20 Kbps are
dropped. Class1 and FTP are served after voice gets its share, but split the
remaining bandwidth equally.
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When there is no congestion each traffic class can use as much bandwidth as
is available, except the voice which is priority class and is rate-limited to a
maximum of 20 Kbps. BECN will adoptively reduce the CIR of the DLCI but
does not influence the parameters of the policy-map frame1.
Begin by creating three ACLs to define traffic classes:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit udp 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any
eq 3000
XSR(config)#access-list 102 permit tcp 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any
eq 3000
XSR(config)#access-list 103 permit ip any any
Create classification maps using a combination of ACLs or IP DSCP or
precedence bits to classify packets:
XSR(config)#class-map voice
XSR(config-cmap<voice>)#match access-group 101
XSR(config)#class-map ftp
XSR(config-cmap<ftp>)#match access-group 102
XSR(config-cmap<ftp>)#match ip dscp 18
XSR(config-cmap<ftp>)#match ip dscp 20
XSR(config)#class-map match-any class-1
XSR(config-cmap<class1>)#match access-group 103
Create a policy map consisting of one or more traffic classes and specify QoS
characteristics for each traffic class:
XSR(config)#policy-map frame1
XSR(config-pmap<frame1>)#class voice
XSR(config-pmap-c<voice>)#priority high 20 2500
XSR(config-pmap-c<voice>)#queue-limit 32
XSR(config-pmap-c<voice>)#set ip dscp 46
XSR(config-pmap<frame1>)#class ftp
XSR(config-pmap-c<frame1>)#bandwidth percent 50
XSR(config-pmap-c<frame1>)#police 30000 3000 6000 conformaction set-dscp-transmit 10 exceed-action set-dscp-transmit 12
violate-action set-dscp-transmit 14
XSR(config-pmap-c<frame1>)#random-detect 20 35 250
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Configure map class parameters and apply the policy to the ports:
XSR(config)#map-class frame-relay cc
XSR(config-map-class<cc>)#frame-relay cir 64000
XSR(config-map-class<cc>)#frame-relay adaptive-shaping becn
XSR(config-map-class<cc>)#frame-relay bc 8000
XSR(config-map-class<cc>)#frame-relay be 16000
XSR(config-map-class<cc>)#service-policy out frame1
!
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/1
XSR(config-if<S1/1>)#encapsulation frame-relay
XSR(config<S1/1>)#frame-relay traffic-shaping
XSR(config<S1/1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/1.1 point-to-point
XSR(config-subif<S1/1.1>)#frame-relay interface-dlci 100
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/1.1-100>)#frame-relay class cc
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/1.1-100>)#ip address 10.10.10.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-fr-dlci<S1/1.1-100>)#no shutdown
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Configuring the Virtual Private
Network
VPN Overview
As it is most commonly defined, a Virtual Private Network (VPN) allows two
or more private networks to be connected over a publicly accessed network.
VPNs share some similarities with Wide Area Networks (WAN), but the key
feature of VPNs is their use of the Internet rather than reliance on expensive,
private leased lines. VPNs boast tighter security and encryption features as a
private network, while taking advantage of the economies of scale and
remote accessibility of large public networks.
Internet Security Issues
All communication over the Internet uses the Transmission Control
Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP). They
convey packets from one computer to another through a variety of intermediate
computers and separate networks before they reach their destination.
The great flexibility of TCP/IP has led to its worldwide acceptance as the
basic Internet and intranet communications protocol. But, the fact that
TCP/IP allows traffic to pass through intermediate computers allows third
parties to interfere with communications in the following ways:
XSR User’s Guide
ˆ
Eavesdropping - Information remains intact, but its privacy is
compromised. For example, someone could learn your credit card
number, record a sensitive conversation, or intercept classified data.
ˆ
Tampering - Information in transit is changed or replaced and then sent
on to the recipient. For example, someone could alter an order for
goods or change a person's resume.
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ˆ
Impersonation - Information passes to a person who poses as the
intended recipient. Impersonation can take two forms:
–
–
Spoofing - A person can pretend to be someone else. For example,
a person can pretend to have the email address [email protected],
or a computer can identify itself as a site called www.acme.com
when it is not. This type of impersonation is known as spoofing.
Misrepresentation - A person or organization can misrepresent
itself. For example, suppose the site www.acme.com pretends to be
a furniture store when it is really just a site that takes credit-card
payments but never sends any goods.
Normally, users of the many cooperating computers that make up the
Internet or other networks don't monitor or interfere with the network traffic
that continuously passes through their machines. However, many sensitive
personal and business communications over the Internet require precautions
that address the threats listed above. Fortunately, a set of well-established
techniques and standards aggregated under Internet Protocol Security
(IPSec)/Internet Key Exchange (IKE) and the Public-Key Infrastructure
protocol (PKI) make it relatively easy to take such precautions.
The combined features of the above protocols facilitate the following tasks:
ˆ
Encryption and decryption promote confidentiality by allowing two
communicating parties to disguise information they share. The sender
encrypts, or scrambles, data before sending it. The receiver decrypts, or
unscrambles, the data after receiving it. While in transit, the encrypted
information is unintelligible to an intruder.
ˆ
Tamper detection ensure data integrity by permitting the recipient of
data to verify that it has not been modified in transit. Any attempt to
modify data or substitute a false message for a legitimate one will be
detected. A hash value is calculated by the sender every time data is
sent, and calculated when data is received, and both values are
compared.
ˆ
Authentication allows the recipient of information to determine its
origin — that is, to confirm the sender's identity by digitally signing a
message or by applying the challenge-response method.
ˆ
Nonrepudiation prevents the sender of information from claiming at a
later date that the information was never sent.
A later section of this chapter details the XSR’s security implementation.
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VPN Overview
How a Virtual Private Network Works
VPNs provide an advanced combination of tunneling, encryption,
authentication and access control technologies and services to carry traffic
over the Internet, a managed IP network or a provider's backbone.
Traffic reaches these backbones using any combination of access technologies,
including Ethernet, T1, Frame Relay, ISDN, or simple dial access. VPNs use
familiar networking technology and protocols. The client sends a stream of
encrypted packets to a remote server or router, except instead of going across
a dedicated line (as in the case of WANs), the packets traverse a tunnel over a
shared network.
The initial idea behind using this method was for a company to reduce its
recurring telecommunications charges that are shouldered when connecting
remote users and branch offices to resources at a firm’s headquarters.
Using this VPN model, packets headed toward the remote network will reach
a tunnel initiating device, which can be anything from an extranet router to a
laptop PC with VPN-enabled dial-up software. The tunnel initiator
communicates with a VPN terminator, or a tunnel switch, to agree on an
encryption scheme. The tunnel initiator then encrypts the package for
security before transmitting to the terminator, which decrypts the packet and
delivers it to the appropriate destination on the network.
The XSR provides Remote Access support for the connection of remote clients
and gateways in a topology where PPTP or L2TP protocols are employed. The
XSR also provides Site-to-Site tunnel support in a topology where routers
occupy each end of a connection. Site-to-site tunnels, also known as peer-topeer tunnels, employ IPSec as the main security provider.
The XSR’s site-to-site connectivity allows a branch office to divest multiple
private links and move traffic over a single Internet connection. Since many
sites use multiple lines, this can be a very useful application, and it can be
deployed without adding additional equipment or software.
The XSR supports 50 site-to-site tunnels or remote access clients with 32Mbytes of SDRAM DIMM installed and 200 tunnels/clients when upgraded
with the 64-Mbyte SDRAM DIMM.
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Ensuring VPN Security with IPSec/IKE
The key word in Virtual Private Networks is private. To ensure the security of
sensitive corporate data, the XSR relies chiefly on IPSec, the standard
framework of security protocols. IPSec is not a single protocol but a suite of
protocols providing data integrity, authentication and privacy.
Since IPSec is the standard security protocol, the XSR can be used to establish
IPSec connections with third-node devices including routers as well as PCs.
An IPSec tunnel basically acts as the network layer protecting all data packets
that pass through, regardless of the application or device.
The XSR makes it possible to control the type of traffic sent over a VPN by
allowing you to define group-based filters (Access Control Lists) which
control IP address and protocol/port services allowed through the tunnel. An
IPSec-based VPN also permits you to define a list of specific networks and
applications to which traffic can be passed.
Central to IPSec is the concept of the Security Association (SA). A primary
role of IKE is to establish and maintain SAs by its use of the IP Authentication
Header (AH) or Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP). An SA is a unidirectional logical connection between two communicating IP endpoints that
applies security to the traffic carried by it using the AH or ESP features listed
in a transform-set (described below).
The endpoint of an SA can be an IP client (host) or IP security gateway.
Providing security for the more typical scenario of bi-directional
communication between two endpoints requires the establishment of two
SAs (one in each direction). An SA is uniquely identified by the following:
ˆ
A 32-bit identifier of the connection
ˆ
The IP destination address
ˆ
A security protocol identifier (AH or ESP)
The IP Authentication Header (AH), defined in RFC-2402, checks for data
integrity, data origin authentication, and replay on IP packets using HMAC
with MD5 (RFC-2403), or HMAC with SHA-1 (RFC-2404).
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The IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), described in RFC-2406,
performs confidentiality in addition to integrity and authentication checks,
but it does not check the integrity of the IP header. As in AH, ESP uses HMAC
with MD5 or SHA-1 authentication (RFC-2403/2404); privacy is provided
using DES-CBC (RFC-2405), 3DES or AES encryption.
Two types of modes are defined in IPSec, tunnel and transport. At the packet
level, transport mode leaves the original IP header intact and inserts AH or
ESP headers after the original IP header as shown in Figure 38 below.
Original packet
After processing
IP
data
data
AH/ESP
IP
Can be encrypted
Figure 38 Transport Mode Processing
Tunnel mode adds a new IP header and encapsulates the original IP packet as
shown in Figure 39 below.
Original packet
After processing
New IP
IP
AH/ESP
data
IP
data
Can be encrypted
Figure 39 Tunnel Mode Processing
As shown above, AH authenticates the entire packet transmitted on the
network whereas ESP only covers a portion of the packet transmitted (the
higher layer data in transport mode and the entire original packet in tunnel
mode). The ramifications of this difference in the scope between ESP and AH
are significant.
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Using IPSec along with Network Address Translation (NAT) might be
problematic because while AH is used to ensure that the packet header is not
changed during transmission, NAT does the opposite - it changes the IP or
layer 4 (UDP or TCP) header. AH cannot be used when NAT must be crossed
to reach the other end of the tunnel. When only ESP is used, the XSR
automatically adds the UDP header which is required by NAT to operate
properly when an unroutable address (NAT traffic) is detected between
tunnel endpoints.
Arguably the most vital component of IPSec/IKE is the establishment of SAs
and key management. Although these tasks can be done manually, the
XSR deploys IPSec through a scalable, automated SA/key management
scheme known as the Internet Key Exchange (IKE), defined in RFC-2409. This
algorithm is the default automated key management, dynamic SA-creating
protocol for IPSec.
The XSR supports a global ceiling of 150 ISAKMP and 300 IPSec SAs with the
standard 32-Mbyte memory installed and 600 ISAKMP/1200 IPSec SAs with
the 64-Mbyte memory upgrade installed.
Defining VPN Encryption
To ensure that the VPN is secure, limiting user access is only one piece of the
puzzle; once the user is authenticated, the data itself needs to be protected as
well. Without a mechanism to provide data privacy, information flowing
through the channel will be transmitted in clear text, which can easily be
viewed or stolen with a packet sniffer. VPNs use some kind of cryptosystem
to scramble data into cipher text, which is then decrypted by the recipient.
The type of encryption available is highly varied but there are two basic
cryptographic systems: symmetric and asymmetric. Symmetric cryptography
tends to be much faster to deploy, are commonly used to exchange large
volumes of data between two parties who know each other, and use the same
private key to encrypt and decrypt data.
Asymmetric systems (public-key) are more complex and require a pair of
mathematically related keys - one public and one private (known only to the
recipient). This method is often used for smaller, more sensitive packets of
data, or during the authentication process.
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As a general rule, longer encryption keys are the strongest. The bit length of
the algorithm determines the amount of effort required to crack the system
using a brute force attack, where computers are combined to calculate all the
possible key permutations. The XSR offers several encryption schemes:
ˆ
Data Encryption Standard (DES): a 20-year old, thoroughly tested system
that uses a complex symmetric algorithm, with a 56-bit key, although it
is considered less secure than recent systems.
ˆ
Triple DES (3DES): uses three DES passes and an effective key length of
168 bits, thus strengthening security.
ˆ
Diffie-Hellman: the first public-key cryptosystem, is used to generate
asymmetric (secret) keys, not encrypt and decrypt messages.
ˆ
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES): the anticipated replacement for
DES, supports a 128-bit block cipher using a 128-, 192-, or 256-bit key.
ˆ
RSA signatures: an asymmetric public-key cryptosystem used for
authentication by creating a digital signature.
Describing Public-Key Infrastructure (PKI)
PKI is a scalable platform for secure user authentication, data confidentiality,
integrity, and non-repudiation. PKI can be applied to allow users to use
insecure networks in a secure and private way. PKI relies on the use of public
key cryptography, digital certificates, and a public-private key pair.
Digital Signatures
Encryption and decryption address eavesdropping, one of the three Internet
security issues mentioned at the beginning of this chapter. But encryption and
decryption, by themselves, do not address tampering and impersonation.
Tamper detection and related authentication techniques rely on a
mathematical function called a one-way hash (also called a message digest). A
one-way hash is a number of fixed length with the following characteristics:
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The hash value is unique for the hashed data. Any change in the data,
even deleting or altering a single character, results in a different value.
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The content of the hashed data cannot, for all practical purposes, be
deduced from the hash - which is why it is called one-way.
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It is possible to use your private key for encryption and public key for
decryption. Although this is not desirable when you are encrypting sensitive
data, it is a crucial part of digitally signing any data. Instead of encrypting the
data itself, the signing software creates a one-way hash of the data, then uses
your private key to encrypt the hash. The encrypted hash, along with other
information, such as the hashing algorithm, is known as a digital signature.
Certificates
A certificate is an electronic document used to identify an individual, server,
company, or some other entity and to associate that identity with a public key.
Like a driver's license, a passport, or other personal IDs, a certificate provides
proof of a person's identity. PKI uses certificates to address the problem of
impersonation. Certificates are similar to these familiar forms of ID.
Certificate Authorities (CAs) validate identities and issue certificates. They
can be either independent third parties or organizations running their own
certificate-issuing server software. At this time, the XSR supports the
Microsoft CA.
The methods used to validate an identity vary depending on the policies of a
given CA - just as the methods to validate other forms of identification vary
depending on who is issuing the ID and the purpose for which it will be used.
In general, before issuing a certificate, the CA must use its published
verification procedures for that type of certificate to ensure that an entity
requesting a certificate is in fact who it claims to be.
The certificate issued by the CA binds a particular public key to the name of
the entity the certificate identifies (such as an employee or server name).
Certificates help prevent the use of fake public keys for impersonation. Only
the public key certified by the certificate will work with the corresponding
private key possessed by the entity identified by the certificate.
In addition to a public key, a certificate always includes the name of the entity
it identifies, an expiration date, the name of the CA that issued the certificate,
a serial number, and other data. Most importantly, a certificate always
includes the digital signature of the issuing CA. The CA's digital signature
allows the certificate to function as a letter of introduction for users who know
and trust the CA but don't know the entity identified by the certificate.
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Machine Certificates for the XSR
Certificates are used by the IKE subsystem to establish SAs for IPSec
tunneling. Key information in the certificates is used to identify other IPSec
clients to the XSR and vice versa. In order to utilize certificates on the XSR you
must manually collect the certificates for one or more CAs (depending on
your configuration) and enroll a certificate for the router. Certificates for CAs
identified as CA certificates and certificates representing an IPSec client are
identified as IPSec client certificates.
The XSR uses the SCEP protocol to retrieve certificates for the XSR and any
CA that may exist in the XSR or peers certificate chain.
Certificate Revocation Lists (CRLs) are used to ensure that both the XSR and
any peer certificate are currently valid. CRLs list all certificates that have been
revoked by CAs before their natural expiration occurs. The XSR must
validated every IPSec certificate it uses against current CRL lists available
from CAs in the IPSec client certificates chain.
The XSR does not allow optional CRL checking mode other systems may
allow. CRLs are collected automatically by the XSR using information
available in the IPSec and CA certificates it has already collected.
Two methods are available to perform this collection:
ˆ
HTTP Get issues an HTTP-based request to collect the certificate.
ˆ
LDAP issues URL requests to collect CRLs.
Most CAs can be configured to use either or both of these CRL retrieval
mechanisms. The XSR automatically adjusts to use one method or the other
based on information stored in the certificates.
CA Hierarchies
In large organizations, it may be advantageous to delegate the responsibility
for issuing certificates to several different CAs. For example, the number of
certificates required may be too large for a single CA to maintain; different
organizational units may have different policy requirements; or it may be
important for a CA to be physically located in the same geographic area as the
people to whom it is issuing certificates.
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It is also possible to delegate certificate-issuing responsibilities to subordinate
CAs. The X.509 standard includes a model for setting up a hierarchy of CAs.
As shown in Figure 40, the root CA is at the top of the hierarchy. The root
CA's certificate is a self-signed certificate: that is, the certificate is digitally
signed by the same entity - the root CA - that the certificate identifies.
The CAs that are directly subordinate to the root CA have CA certificates
signed by the root CA. CAs under the subordinate CAs in the hierarchy have
their CA certificates signed by the higher-level subordinate CAs.
Root CA
Asia CA
Europe CA
Subordinate CA
Subordinate CA
Sales CA
Marketing CA
Subordinate CA
Subordinate CA
US CA
Subordinate CA
Admin CA
Subordinate CA
Certificate issued
by Admin CA
Figure 40 Sample Hierarchy of CAs
Certificate Chains
CA hierarchies are reflected in certificate chains. A certificate chain is series of
certificates issued by successive CAs. Figure 41 shows a certificate chain
leading from a certificate that identifies some entity through two subordinate
CA certificates to the CA certificate for the root CA (based on the CA
hierarchy shown in Figure 40).
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Root CA
CA certificate
signed by self
Trusted authority
Asia CA
Intermediate
Sales CA
Marketing CA
CA certificate
signed by
Root CA
authority
U.S. CA
Europe CA
CA certificate
Admin CA signed by
U.S. CA
Intermediate authority
Program
verifying the
certificate
Certificate
issued by
Admin CA
Figure 41 Certificate Chain Example
A certificate chain traces a path of certificates from a branch in the hierarchy
to the root of the hierarchy. In a certificate chain, the following occurs:
ˆ
Each certificate is followed by the certificate of its issuer.
ˆ
Each certificate contains the name of that certificate's issuer, which is
the same as the subject name of the next certificate in the chain.
In Figure 41, the Admin CA certificate contains the name of the CA
(that is, US CA), that issued that certificate. USA CA's name is also
the subject name of the next certificate in the chain.
ˆ
Each certificate is signed with the private key of its issuer. The
signature can be verified with the public key in the issuer's certificate,
which is the next certificate in the chain.
In Figure 41, the public key in the certificate for the U.S. CA can verify
the U.S. CA's digital signature on the certificate for the Admin CA.
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The XSR will automatically verify the certificate chain structure associated
with any IPSec client certificate once it manually collects certificates for all
CAs in the chain. This includes the chain that exists for the certificate enrolled
by the XSR and chains for any IPSec peer who will establish tunnels with the
router. They must be collected manually but they are automatically chained
together using information in the CA Client certificates. You do not have to
manually create these chains.
CA certificates are collected using the SCEP authentication mechanism and
stored in a local certificate database. The XSR's IPSec client certificate is
enrolled in a CA using the SCEP enroll command, and is stored in the local
certificate database. Certificates for peer IPSec clients are passed to the XSR
by IKE and are used to authenticate the peer then discarded.
RA Mode
Some CA implementations distribute the CA's operation/authentication of
clients to RA agents. The Microsoft CA implements its CA in such a fashion.
The XSR will automatically adjust to the CA's mode of operation: you need
not specify whether your CA uses RA mode or not. If your CA uses RA mode
you will notice more then one certificate for the CA after you authenticate
against the CA.
Pending Mode
Once you've authenticated against a CA that will be the parent CA in your
XSR certificate chain, you then enroll the XSR's IPSec client certificate against
the CA using the SCEP enroll command. Depending on how your CA
administrator has configured the CA, you may or may not immediately
receive your IPSec client certificate when you first enroll. If the CA has been
configured to use pending mode, the CA administrator must manually issue
or deny your request. The CA administrator may take certain steps to verify
that the enrollment request is valid such as calling the system administrator. If
so, this process may take a number of hours or days.
When pending mode is configured, the XSR will log that the operation in
pending, and will automatically poll for the certificate three times over fiveminute intervals. The number of polls and interval between polls is adjustable
using CLI commands under Crypto Identity Configuration mode. This
assumes that the CA administrator will issue or deny the XSR enrollment
request in a 15-minute window.
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DF Bit Functionality
Once retries are exhausted, the enrollment becomes invalid and you must
enroll again - each poll request and its result are logged in detail by the XSR.
Ask your CA administrator what these values should be set to.
Enroll Password
Another way to verify where the IPSec client enroll derives from is to have the
CA administrator issue a specific password for your enrollment. This can either
be done manually or through a Web page at the CA. If you are required to
provide a specific password for the enrollment you must use that password or
your enrollment will fail. If you are allowed to create your own password, be sure
to remember it because it is required if you ever wish to revoke a certificate.
CRL Retrieval
As mentioned earlier, a CRL must be retrieved for any IPSec client certificate
the XSR uses for authentication. This is done automatically by the
XSR whenever a new certificate is encountered and on a maintenance cycle
that by default occurs every 60 minutes. Depending on your CA's
configuration, you may want to adjust how frequently your maintenance task
runs. Ask your CA administrator what this value should be set to.
Renewing and Revoking Certificates
A certificate has a specific lifetime and will eventually expire. Additionally,
certificates can be revoked at the CA before their expiration time is reached.
When a certificate expires, the XSR must re-authenticate for CA certificates, or
re-enroll for its IPSec client certificate: this is not an automatic process.
Only the CA administrator can revoke a certificate - the password used to
create the certificate during enrollment is required to revoke it. Revoked
certificates will appear on the next CRL. Discuss these periods and strategies
with your CA administrator.
DF Bit Functionality
The XSR’s DF bit override feature with IPSec tunnels configures the setting of
the DF bit when encapsulating tunnel mode IPSec traffic. If the DF bit is set to
clear, the XSR can fragment packets regardless of the original DF bit setting.
The DF (Don't Fragment) bit within the IP header determines whether a
router is allowed to fragment a packet.
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This feature specifies whether the router can clear, set, or copy the DF bit in the
encapsulating header. It is available only for IPSec tunnel mode - transport
mode is not affected because it does not have an encapsulating IP header.
Typical enterprise configurations of DF bit include hosts which perform the
following functions:
ˆ
Use firewalls to block Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) errors
from outside the firewall, preventing hosts from learning about the
Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) size outside the firewall
ˆ
Set the DF bit in packets they send
ˆ
Use IP Security (IPSec) to encapsulate packets, reducing the available
MTU size
If your topology includes hosts which screen knowledge of the available
MTU size you can set the XSR to clear the DF bit and fragment the packet. See
“XSR with VPN - Central Gateway” on page 277 for a sample configuration.
NOTE
DF bit can be configured globally or per interface. If both levels are
configured, Interface will override Global mode. Also, it is supported on
any interface on which VPN can be configured.
VPN Applications
The XSR supports the following applications:
ˆ
Site-to-Site (Peer-to-Peer) - XSRs establish connections between each
other, ANG-1102/1105s, 7000s, or third-node devices via the Internet
based on certificates and pre-shared keys. While this is the simplest
tunnel to set up, it does not provide as rich a functionality set as a Siteto-Central Site tunnel.
ˆ
Site-to-Central-Site - XSRs, performing as tunnel servers with Client or
Network Extension Mode enabled, establish connections between each
other, ANG-1102/1105s or 7000s based on pre-shared key and
certificates. This type of tunnel offers several advantages over a Site-toSite tunnel including:
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Tunnel heartbeats are supported
Tunnel failover is consistently supported
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VPN Applications
Tunnels are more easily scalable in multiple router topologies
Network managment is more robust
Remote Access - XSR functions as a tunnel server, establishing dial-up
connections with clients over the Internet via local ISPs.
The XSR supports multiple combinations of the above applications and
includes auxiliary functionality such as:
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RADIUS authentication
PKI authentication
NAT traversal
IP address management
Dynamic routing over VPN (remote access only)
OSPF over VPN
DF Bit override on IPSec tunnels
Site-to-Site Networks
Site-to-site tunnels operate as point-to-point connections and are used to
leverage a relatively inexpensive connection to the Internet, replacing costly
leased lines. They are useful when connecting geographically dispersed
network segments where each segment contains servers and hosts. VPN
tunnels play the role of point-to-point links and are transparent from a
routing perspective.
Figure 42 shows a link between two XSR sites, but this architecture can be
extended to link many sites by creating a mesh topology.
Because routing data is exchanged over the established tunnels each site is
able to reach any other site. While it is extremely flexible for mesh networks,
site-to-site is also useful within a hub-and-spoke topology.
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XSR/
VPN Gateway
XSR/
VPN Gateway
Internet
Routing
updates
VPN tunnel
Routing
updates
Figure 42 VPN Site-to-Site Topology
It is important to note that routers/VPN gateways which terminate tunnels
cannot reside behind a NAT device because external addresses must be valid,
routable addresses. This factors into a site-to-site tunnel scenario where both
XSRs play an equivalent role and any VPN gateway can initiate a tunnel.
VPN gateways terminating a tunnel cannot run routing protocols, therefore
must solely rely on static routes. Only packets destined for networks behind
the peer will be encrypted and shipped via a tunnel. Other traffic will either
be dropped or forwarded to the Internet depending on your security policy.
Authentication for IPSec tunnels is performed using pre-shared keys or
certificates. Authentication using pre-shared keys is acceptable in this
application because the number of connected peers is relatively small.
Since the XSR uses IETF standards to build tunnels, it can link with other
vendor devices. Multi-protocol traffic can be exchanged over the tunnels, but
must first be encapsulated in the GRE protocol then encrypted using IPSec.
Refer to “Configuring a Simple VPN Site-to-Site Application” on page 271
and “Configuration Examples” on page 277 for detailed Site-to-Site setups.
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Site-to-Central-Site Networks
In a Site-to-Central-Site application, connecting nodes are not equivalent. One
node initiates a connection and the other accepts the connection. In practice, the
node initiating the connection represents the smaller entity and connects to the
bigger corporate network. Since the connection is always initiated by one site,
the initiating node can reside behind an ISP-operated NAT device. But, the
presence of NAT requires the IPSec modification known as NAT traversal.
Depending on the type of IP address management configured on the
connecting site of this application, site-to-central-site networks can be built
two ways, as shown in Figure 43.
Client Mode
XSR/VPN Gateway
Internal NAT/
DHCP server
ISP NAT
Private LAN
XSR/Central site tunnel server
Internet
VPN tunnel
Addressing on this LAN segment
is hidden from the corporate
network by NAT in the XSR
Corporate network
Routing
updates
DHCP server
Network Extension Mode
XSR/VPN Gateway
DHCP relay
DHCP server
Branch LAN
XSR/Central site tunnel server
ISP NAT
VPN tunnel
Addressing in this LAN segment
is an extension of addressing
used in the corporate network
Internet
Routing
updates
Corporate network
DHCP server
Figure 43 Site-to-Central-Site Topology
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Client Mode
In the Client scenario, a private LAN residing behind the XSR is hidden from
the corporate network. When the XSR connects to the Central site tunnel
server, the tunnel server assigns the router an IP address which can be chosen
from an internal pool kept by the tunnel server or from a DHCP server
located on the corporate network. Hosts residing on the private LAN obtain
IP addresses from a DHCP server running within the XSR.
Each session between a host on the private LAN and a server on the corporate
network is NAT-ed by a NAT device within the XSR. From the corporate
perspective the entire private LAN is represented as a single IP address. This
application is limited in that hosts on the private LAN are not visible from the
corporate network, so any session must be initiated from the hosts on the
private LAN. Another limitation is that the XSR's internal NAT operates only
on Layer-4 protocols such as TCP and UDP. NAT also employs a set of
modules - Application Level Gateway (ALG) - processing non-UDP/TCP
protocols such as ICMP and H323.
Routing updates are unidirectional - the Central site advertises segments
reachable in the corporate network, but the XSR does not advertise the
private LAN. After receiving a routing update, the XSR can leverage a
connection to the Internet for a VPN connection and access public services
located on the Internet such as Web servers.
A secure tunnel to the Central site tunnel server is established by means of
IETF ISAKMP Aggressive Mode with pre-shared keys or Main Mode using
certificates. The assignment of IP addresses requires the support of Config
Mode on the tunnel server and the XSR. Since Config Mode is not
standardized, using it may affect interoperability with third-party devices.
The Client application also supports the XSR’s EZ-IPSec technique and offloading administrator. Most configuration is performed on the Central site and
specified values are pushed to the connecting device during tunnel creation.
Network Extension Mode (NEM)
In the Network Extension scenario, as illustrated in Figure 43, the branch
LAN is visible from the corporate segment since addressing used on that
LAN augments addressing used on the corporation network. Hosts located
on the branch LAN obtain IP addresses from the main DHCP server located
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on the corporate network. In this application the XSR must support the DHCP
Relay protocol (RFC-3046) to extend hosts' DHCP requests for IP addresses.
An obvious limitation of this configuration is that hosts cannot obtain IP
addresses before a tunnel to the corporate network is created. A secure tunnel
to the tunnel server is established by means of IETF ISAKMP Aggressive
Mode transaction with pre-shared keys or Main Mode using certificates.
Remote Access Networks
In a Remote Access application, as shown in Figure 44, a client connects to the
corporate network in the same way as a dial-in user does. First, the client
connects to an ISP and is assigned an external IP address, which is used to
route packets over the Internet.
Then, the remote client initiates a tunnel to the XSR and is assigned an
internal IP address belonging to the corporate network. An IP address given
to the connecting client can be taken from an internally managed pool created
by a DHCP or RADIUS server located on the corporate network. After
connecting, the remote client operates as if directly connected to the corporate
LAN.
XSR/VPN Gateway
Internet
Corporate network
Server
Routing
updates
VPN tunnel
VPN Gateway
IP address assigned
by VPN Gateway
External address
assigned by ISP
RADIUS server DHCP server
Figure 44 VPN Remote Access Topology
Many protocols provide remote access functionality. Windows 95/98
supports remote access using PPTP with MPPE. Windows 2000 supports
L2TP over IPSec and proprietary solutions such as the Indus River Tunneling
Protocol IRTP (Enterasys Networks) are also available.
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Depending on the protocol, the remote access scenario may require user
authentication as well as machine authentication. A user database may be
located on the XSR itself or a RADIUS server. After a tunnel has been built,
the XSR may advertise routing information about the corporate network to
the client which can use this information to share a connection to the Internet
between secure tunnel and reach public services on the Internet.
XSR performs as a tunnel server, its role to authenticate connecting clients
and assign them IP addresses. Authentication can be performed in several
ways depending on the protocol used.
For PPTP, authentication is achieved by means of PPP-based authentication
methods such as MS-CHAP, EAP, PAP, and CHAP. It should be noted that
some of these methods are not secure because password and user IDs traverse
the Internet in clear-text. In the case of PPTP, the machine is not authenticated.
With L2TP over IPSec, before an L2TP connection can be established between
a client and the XSR, an IPSec connection must be created. The IPSec
connection is authenticated based on certificates installed on the connecting
device and in the XSR or pre-shared keys.
User authentication is PPP-based, but since the L2TP session is protected by
IPSec, any form of PPP authentication is secure.
Using OSPF Over a VPN Network
OSPF functions on the XSR to dynamically discover networks and adjust the
routing table when network connections fail. The VPN protocol provides
secure packet transport over the public network by the use of cryptographic
policies attached to XSR interfaces which secure selected flows of traffic.
When OSPF and VPN protocols are both employed over a network,
contradictions may arise. For example, OSPF may advertise that a particular
network segment is reachable but VPN policies may prohibit traffic destined
for that segment.
To avoid this problem, you must use care when configuring both protocols.
The following sections describe different VPN scenarios and how OSPF is
employed within them.
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OSPF Commands
The same OSPF commands available for configuration in
FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet or Serial Interface mode are available in
Interface VPN mode. They are:
ˆ
ip ospf authentication-key
ˆ
ip ospf cost
ˆ
ip ospf dead-interval
ˆ
ip ospf hello-interval
ˆ
ip ospf message-digest-key
ˆ
ip ospf priority
ˆ
ip ospf retransmit-interval
ˆ
ip ospf transmit-delay
Additionally, show ip ospf interface vpn is available in EXEC mode.
Configuring OSPF Over Site-to-Site in Client Mode
When the XSR is configured in a Client Mode, Site-to-Site application, it
creates an asymmetric connection with one side acting as the server and other
the client. The client initiates the tunnel upon node startup, requesting an IP
address from the server.
From the client’s point of view, the tunnel is a point-to-point connection; the
VPN (virtual) interface associated with the tunnel must be a point-to-point
connection. The server terminates connections from more than one client.
Each connected client is issued an IP address.
From the server’s point of view, connected tunnels form point-to-multipoint
links. Additionally, the server does not see a segment behind the client,
because in Client Mode NAT is employed inside the tunnel and all traffic
originated from trusted segment is NAT-ed to use an IP address assigned by
the server, as shown in Figure 45.
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Corporate network
F1
VPN 1
Server
VPN tunnel
F2
INTERNET
NAT
Point-to-multipoint interface.
Terminates, not initiates
tunnels
To another client
VPN 1
F2
Client
F1
Private segment invisible from server
Point-to-point interface.
This endpoint’s IP address
is assigned by the server.
The other tunnel endpoint’s
IP address is configured on
the server’s VPN interface.
Figure 45 Site-to-Site Client Mode Topology
In this scenario, you may use OSPF to advertise the corporate network’s
reachability via an established tunnel. OSPF can also monitor the health of a
VPN link.
Advertising these networks becomes extremely valuable when the client
connects to more than one server. In that case, the client will maintain two
VPN interfaces, expressed on the XSR as VPN 1 and VPN 2. Routes learned
by OSPF will instruct the IP routing engine which IP addresses are reachable
via the VPN 1 interface and which are reachable via the VPN 2 interface.
Based on the example shown in Figure 45, the following OSPF settings should
be applied to the interfaces.
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Server
ˆ
FastEthernet 1 interface: This is the trusted side of the network on the
XSR. It may consist of more than one IP segment. A network attached
to FastEthernet 1 will be advertised in an OSPF area.
ˆ
VPN 1 interface: OSPF is required here to establish adjacency with
connecting clients. From the point of view of OSPF, a set of connected
clients is treated as a point-to-multipoint network. Before exchanging
OSPF packets, the server must separately establish adjacency with each
connected client. If the server cannot establish OSPF adjacency with
them, it will not send OSPF updates to clients.
ˆ
FastEthernet 2 interface: OSPF must be disabled here because this is the
default, external connection to the Internet. The server should not
receive updates from the Internet nor pass along information about
private segments to the Internet.
Client
ˆ
VPN 1 interface: OSPF must be enabled on this interface to receive
updates from the server.
ˆ
FastEthernet 2 interface: OSPF should be disabled here for the same
reason it is disabled on the server.
ˆ
FastEthernet 1 interface: This is private, non-routable segment, usually
192.168.1.0/24. If OSPF is enabled on this interface it will be advertised
to the server. The server's IP routing table will learn a route to this
segment via the VPN interface connected to the client. But it is
unreachable because NAT is enabled. Be aware that if two clients
advertise the same private segment, e.g., 192.168.1.0/24, the server will
learn two routes, which seem to be the same destination, but in fact are
not. OSPF must then be disabled on F1.
If other clients connecting to the VPN 1 interface on the server do not have
OSPF coverage (i.e., Windows remote access clients), OSPF ignores them and
continues exchanging information with those clients which support OSPF.
On the client, a tunnel associated with interface VPN 1 is created by means of
the XSR’s EZ-IPsec functionality. EZ-IPsec automatically inserts SPDs on
FastEthernet interface 2 which specify that only traffic from and to the IP
address assigned by the server should be encrypted. There is no conflict
between SPDs and OSPF routing on this connection.
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The commands to configure this scenario are illustrated on page 277.
Configuring OSPF Over Site-to-Site in Network Extension Mode
Compared to Site-to-Site Client Mode configuration, Network Extension
Mode is more flexible at the cost of a more sophisticated configuration. As
shown in Figure 46, NAT is not used on the VPN interface at the client site as
it is in the Client Mode application. The trusted network behind the client is a
fully routable segment and may be reached from the server.
Corporate network
F1
VPN 1
Server
VPN tunnel
F2
INTERNET
VPN 1
Point-to-multipoint interface.
Terminates, not initiates
tunnels
To another client
F2
Point-to-point interface.
This endpoint’s IP address
is assigned by the server.
The other tunnel endpoint’s
IP address is configured on
the server’s VPN interface.
Client
F1
Segment is extension of corporate net
Figure 46 Site-to-Site Network Mode Topology
In this scenario, the VPN interface on the server may terminate a mix of
connections - some of which may be Client-type connections and others may
be Network Extension connections.
The following OSPF settings should be applied in this scenario:
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Server
Apply the same settings as in the site-to-site scenario using Client Mode.
OSPF is enabled on F1 and VPN 1 interfaces and is disabled on F2.
Client
ˆ
Similar to the Client Mode model, OSPF is enabled on VPN 1 and
disabled on FastEthernet 2.
ˆ
Additionally, OSPF is enabled on FastEthernet 1 because the route to
network FastEthernet 1 should be learned at the central site's network.
The tunnel associated with interface VPN 1 on the client is created by EZIPsec which automatically creates and attaches two sets of SPDs to interface
FastEthernet 2. The first set specifies that traffic to and from the IP address
assigned to the client by the server should be encrypted. The second set’s SPD
specifies that traffic originating from and destined for the segment attached to
FastEthernet 1 should be encrypted.
Network extension mode lets you add more segments attached to interface
F1. If those segments are advertised using OSPF, routes to those segments will
be known at the central site network. But, any traffic destined for those
segments will be dropped because security policy described by crypto maps
prohibits such traffic.
This situation may be addressed by extending crypto maps attached to both
the client and the server. An example of such a network extension is
illustrated in “XSR with VPN - Central Gateway” on page 277, where an
additional segment not directly attached to the client's trusted segment has IP
address 60.60.60.0/24.
NOTE
When OSPF is configured over a NEM tunnel to a central site XSR,
remote access Microsoft clients at the branch XSR must check the “Use
default gateway on remote network” box in the Advanced TCP/IP
Settings dialog in order to reach all subnets. This setting is located in the
Network Connections dialog by clicking Start/Connect To/Show all
connections/Virtual Private Network: <Your Remote Access Dialog>
/Properties/Networking tab/Internet Protocol [TCP/IP) box:
Properties/Advanced.
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Configuring OSPF with Fail Over
In this scenario, the client initiates two tunnels to two servers which are
connected on their trusted sites. With alternative paths to the trusted network
behind the server (via the client's two tunnels), OSPF learns two paths of
identical costs but uses the first learned path.
Should the tunnel serving that path become non-functional, OSPF
recalculates the routes and uses the alternate path. The interval between link
failure and the switch to the new route depends on the following OSPF
parameters set on the VPN interfaces:
ˆ
hello-interval - This specifies how often hello packets are sent to the
neighbor.
ˆ
dead-interval - This sets the peak interval which may elapse without
receiving hello packet from the neighbor before the link is declared
non-operational.
Setting those parameters low will generate more traffic on the link but
guarantees faster detection of link failure. As shown in page 253, OSPF is
enabled on the following interfaces:
Server 1
Interfaces FastEthernet 1 and VPN 1
Server 2
Interfaces FastEthernet 1 and VPN 1
Client
Interfaces FastEthernet 1, VPN 1 and VPN 2.
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Corporate network
F1
VPN 1
VPN Applications
Server 1
F1
VPN 1
Server 2
F2
F2
INTERNET
VPN 1
VPN 2
Client
F2
F1
Segment is extension of corporate network
Figure 47 OSPF Used with Failover
To test this configuration, attach an FTP server to the corporate network and
an FTP client to the client's network with the hello-interval set to 2 seconds
and dead-interval to 6 seconds on the VPN interfaces. Then initiates an FTP
transfer from the server to the client. During the transfer, intentionally break
the tunnel used for data transfer. After 6 seconds, OSPF will declare the link
non-operational and resume the FTP transfer.
Limitations
IPSec may also be used without configuring the VPN interface by applying
crypto maps to physical interfaces. In this application, IPSec is treated as a side
effect of data transmission through the interface. Since no virtual interface
(VPN1, e.g.) is applied to the IPSec connection, a routing protocol like OSPF
cannot be configured.
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As mentioned earlier, OSPF may advertise a network’s reachability but IPSec
policies may deny access to that network. To avoid that situation, you may
extend crypto maps attached to interfaces, but this requires prior knowledge
of networks advertised by OSPF, which renders OSPF’s dynamic network
discovery useless. In this case, OSPF is used only for monitoring the links and
providing alternate routes in case of link failure.
XSR VPN Features
The XSR supports the following VPN features:
ˆ
Site-to-Site (Peer-to-Peer) application
–
–
–
ˆ
ˆ
Remote Access application
–
Clients
- Windows XP and 2000 (L2TP); NT 4.0, 98, 98 SE, ME, and CE.
PPTP is available on all Windows clients
–
–
–
–
L2TP/IPSec protocols
SCEP: Certificate and PKI environment
- MS-CHAP v2, EAP user authentication:
- Username/Password (local database and RADIUS)
- SecurID (third-node plug-in)
- Certificates (embedded/smart cards) – Microsoft only
–
–
–
–
–
PPTP protocol
- MS-Chap V2, EAP user authentication
- Local Database and RADIUS
- SecurID (third-node plug-in)
- Certificates (embedded/smart cards) – Microsoft only
Encryption
–
–
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IPSec/IKE with pre-shared secrets
IPSec/IKE with certificates (PKI)
EZ-IPSec with PKI or pre-shared secrets:
- Network Extension Mode (NEM)
- Client mode
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), Triple Data Encryption
Standard (3DES), Data Encryption Standard (DES)
3DES acceleration available
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ˆ
Data integrity
–
ˆ
–
–
–
–
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP), Authentication Header
(AH) and IPComp
Tunnel and Transport mode
Diffie-Hellman Groups 1, 2 and 5
Mode Config for IP address assignment
NAT Traversal via UDP encapsulation
Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
–
–
–
–
–
ˆ
MD5 and SHA-1 algorithms
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
–
ˆ
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Microsoft Certificate Authority (CA) support
Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (SCEP)
Microsoft Simple Certificate Enrollment Protocol (MSCEP)
Chained CA support
CRL checking (Hypertext Transfer Protocol [HTTP] and
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol [LDAP])
Network Address Translation (NAT) protocol
–
–
Static NAT
NAPT
ˆ
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
ˆ
– DHCP Server
OSPF over VPN
ˆ
DF Bit override on IPSec tunnels
VPN Configuration Overview
IPSec configuration entails the following basic steps. First, decide what type
of VPN you want to configure from the following choices:
ˆ
Site-to-Site (Peer-to-Peer) using either pre-shared key or digital
certificate (PKI) authentication
ˆ
EZ-IPSec using Client or Network Extension mode
ˆ
Remote Access using either L2TP/IPSec or PPTP
Consider that in Site-to-Site applications, the XSR can act as a gateway, or
terminator, of the tunnel and also as the client, or initiator, of the tunnel. In
Remote Access applications, the router can only terminate connections.
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Next, perform the following:
ˆ
Generate a master key once on the XSR
ˆ
Define a Security Policy Database (SPD) by configuring crypto ACLs
which specify the type of traffic to be secured
ˆ
Specify policies - IKE and IPSec transform-sets which spell out
authentication, encryption, data integrity, policy lifetime, and other
parameters to use when negotiating IPSec Security Associations (SAs) with
IPSec peers.
ˆ
Create crypto maps to apply SPD, transform-sets and ACLs to an interface
ˆ
Configure authentication via AAA and/or PKI
ˆ
Set up optional auxiliary functions including RADIUS, IP address
assignment, and NAT.
ˆ
Optionally configure a VPN interface
Master Key Generation
The XSR stores sensitive data such as user names, passwords, and certificates.
Because retaining this data in the clear would pose a security risk, the XSR
uses a master encryption key to encode locally stored information. The router
is not supplied with master encryption key at the factory - you must
manually generate it before starting any VPN configuration. To do so:
ˆ
Enter crypto key master generate in Global configuration mode.
WARNING
The master encryption key is stored in hardware, not Flash, and you
cannot read the key - only overwrite the old key by writing a new one.
To ensure router security, it is critical not to compromise the key. There
are situations where you may want to keep the key, for example, to save
the user database off-line in order to later download it to the XSR. In
order to encrypt the user database, you need the same master key,
indicating the key designation with the master key specify
command.
Be aware that if the XSR is inoperable and you press the Default
button, the master key is erased and you must generate a new one.
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ACL Configuration Rules
Consider a few general rules when configuring ACLs on the XSR:
ˆ
Typically, two ACL sets are written, one set to filter IPSec/IKE traffic
(defined in crypto maps), and a simple set to filter non-IPSec traffic.
ˆ
When crypto maps and ACLs are configured on the same interface, the
XSR gives precedence to the crypto map, which is always consulted
before the ACL for both inbound and outbound traffic. If IPSec
encrypts or decrypts packets by virtue of a crypto map configuration,
then the ACL is ignored.
ˆ
ACLs entered independently are uni-directional but are rendered bidirectional when later associated with a crypto map through the match
address <acl #> command.
ˆ
A total of 500 ACL entries are permitted by the XSR with 64 MBytes of
RAM installed (99 ACL limit for IKE/IPSec).
Configuring ACLs
Three simple ACL examples illustrating various CLI options are detailed
below. Other crypto map ACLs, defined in greater detail, are configured later
in this chapter.
The first ACL example is fairly restrictive. It configures ACL 101 to permit
IKE (UDP port 500), GRE, and TCP traffic on any internal host to pass to host
141.15.6.17 (denying all other traffic) and ACL 102 to permit the same type of
traffic on host 141.15.6.17 to connect to any address (denying all other traffic).
The commands on FastEthernet port 2 set ACL 101 to filter inbound traffic,
and ACL 102 to filter outbound traffic. Some commands are abbreviated.
XSR(config)#acc 101 permit udp any host 192.168.2.17 eq 500
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit gre any host 192.168.2.17
XSR(config)#acc 101 permit tcp any host 192.168.2.17 estab
XSR(config)#access-list 101 deny ip any any
XSR(config)#acc 102 permit udp host 192.168.2.17 any eq 500
XSR(config)#access-list 102 permit gre host 192.168.2.17 any
XSR(config)#acc 102 permit tcp host 192.168.2.17 any eq 80
XSR(config)#access-list 102 permit ip host 192.168.2.17 any
XSR(config)#access-list 102 deny ip any any
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XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip access-group 101 in
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip access-group 102 out
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip address 141.154.196.87 255.255.255.192
If an XSR is configured as a VPN gateway, the external interface (FastEthernet
2, e.g.), can be made more restrictive by only allowing VPN protocols to pass
through and barring all other traffic:
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit esp any host 192.168.57.7
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit ah any host 192.168.57.7
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit udp any eq 500 host
192.168.57.7 eq 500
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit esp host 192.168.57.7 any
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit ah host 192.168.57.7 any
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit udp host 192.168.57.7 eq 500
any eq 500
XSR(config-if<F2>)#interface FastEthernet2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip access-group 100 in
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip access-group 101 out
The following ACL example is fairly open, configuring the XSR as a VPN
concentrator but allowing internal users access to the Internet. ACLs 101 and
102 are applied to the external interface - FastEthernet 2.
ACLs must be applied to the external interface of the XSR prior to the creation
of a VPN configuration. These ACLs would only be applied to an XSR
configured as a VPN concentrator that would also be used for Internet access.
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit udp any any eq 500
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit gre any any
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any any established
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq 1723
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq 1701
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit tcp any any eq 389
XSR(config)#acc 101 pe ip host <public interface address> any
XSR(config)#access-list 101 deny ip any any
XSR(config)#access-list 102 permit udp any any eq 500
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XSR(config)#access-list
XSR(config)#access-list
XSR(config)#access-list
XSR(config)#access-list
XSR(config)#access-list
XSR(config)#access-list
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102
102
102
102
102
102
permit gre any any
permit tcp any any
permit tcp any any
permit tcp any any
permit tcp any any
deny ip any any
eq
eq
eq
eq
80
1723
1701
389
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip access-group 101 in
XSR(config-<F2>)#ip access-group 102 out
Selecting Policies: IKE/IPSec Transform-Sets
IKE transform-sets are configured by the crypto isakmp proposal
command with the following parameters available:
–
–
–
–
–
Pre-shared key or RSA signatures public key authentication
3DES, AES, or DES encryption
Group 1, 2, and 5 Diffie-Hellman 768-, 1024-, and 1536-bit
MD-5 or SHA-1 hash algorithms
SA lifetimes
More than one IKE proposal can be specified on each node. When IKE
negotiation begins, it seeks a common proposal on both peers setting identical
parameters. Additional parameters related to IKE are configured using the
crypto isakmp peer command. Specified parameters are effective when a
peer address/subnet matches the IP address of the peer. The wildcard 0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 may be used to match any peer. Other configurable IKE values are:
–
–
–
–
–
IKE peer address/subnet
IKE proposal list
Mode-config options client or server
Main or aggressive IKE exchange mode options
NAT automatic, enabled or disabled options
Transform-sets used for IPSec are set with the crypto ipsec transform-set
command. You can choose AH, ESP, or IP compression values as follows:
–
–
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MD5-HMAC or SHA-HMAC hashing algorithms
COMP-LZS IP compression with the LZS compression algorithm
3DES, AES or DES encryption
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Security Policy Considerations
You should be aware of these considerations when configuring security policy:
ˆ
DES is a weaker form of encryption than 3DES and provides a lower
level of security than the newer algorithm. We recommend 3DES.
ˆ
Selecting any Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS) option will make each
generated key used in data encryption independent of previous keys. If
the key is compromised, the next key generated by Phase 2 exchange
cannot be determined by knowing the value of the previous key. This
comes at the cost of slightly lower performance.
ˆ
Two IPSec encapsulation modes - tunnel and transport - are supported
but the default, tunnel mode, is typically used with VPNs because it is
more inclusive.
Configuring Policy
The following example defines simple IKE Phase I, remote peer and IPSec
transform-sets. Configure the IKE proposal try1:
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp proposal try1
XSR(config-isakmp)#authentication pre-share
XSR(config-isakmp)#encryption aes
XSR(config-isakmp)#hash md5
XSR(config-isakmp)#group 5
XSR(config-isakmp)#lifetime 40000
Configure IKE policy for the remote peer, assuming that two other IKE
proposals (try2 and try3) have been configured:
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp peer 192.168.57.33/32
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#proposal try1 try2 try3
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#config-mode gateway
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#nat auto
Configure the IPSec transform set. You can specify both kilobyte and seconds
SA lifetime values or just one. Some commands are abbreviated.
XSR(config)#cry ips tr esp-3des-sha esp-3des esp-sha-hmac
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set pfs group1
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set sec lifetime kilobytes 500000
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set sec lifetime seconds 3000
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Creating Crypto Maps
Crypto maps filter and classify packets as well as define the policy to be applied
to those packets. Filtering/classifying affects the traffic flow on an interface
while policy affects the negotiation performed (via IKE) on behalf of that traffic.
IPSec crypto maps link definitions of the following:
ˆ
Which traffic should be protected by ACLs, set with match address.
ˆ
Which IPSec peers the protected traffic can be forwarded to by entering
set peer. These are peers with which an SA can be set up.
ˆ
Which transform-sets are acceptable with protected traffic configured
by using set transform-set.
ˆ
How keys and SAs are used.
ˆ
Which encapsulation type, tunnel or transport, should be used,
configured by entering mode.
ˆ
Which SAs should be sought for each source/destination host pair, set
with set security-association level per-host. This command
creates separate SAs per data stream. When it is off, each data stream
passes through the same SA.
Configuring Crypto Maps
Crypto maps are a collection of rules indexed by their sequence number. For a
given interface, certain traffic can be forwarded to one IPSec peer with specified
security applied to it, and other traffic forwarded to the same or a different
IPSec peer with different IPSec security applied.
To do so, create two crypto maps, each with the same map-name, but each with a
different seq-num. Crypto maps sharing a given map-name are searched in order
or seq-num. Sequence numbers are an anti-replay device used to reject duplicate
and old packets thus preventing an intruder from copying a conversation to
work out encryption algorithms.
The following crypto map highflow with sequence # 77 is correlated with the
specified transform-set and ACL 140 by the match command, which also
renders ACL 140 bi-directional. It is attached to a remote gateway, specifies
that only one SA be requested for each crypto map ACL permit entry, and
automatically accepts IPSec tunnel mode (when set peer is configured).
XSR(config)#access-list 140 permit ip 192.168.57.0 0.0.0.255
192.168.58.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#crypto map highflow 77
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XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-sha
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 40
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set peer 192.168.45.12
XSR(config-crypto-m)#no set security-association level per-host
Authentication, Authorization and Accounting Configuration
The XSR’s AAA implementation configures all authentication, authorization
and accounting characteristics of users (Remote Access) and peer gateways
(Site-to-Site). These characteristics include:
ˆ
Usernames and passwords for authentication
ˆ
Associated group name for authorization of network services
ˆ
IP addressing, including:
ˆ
– Virtual addresses from a local IP pool
– DNS (primary and secondary) for remote access clients
– WINS (primary and secondary) for remote access clients
Compression settings for remote access clients and site-to-site tunnels
ˆ
Encryption settings for PPTP remote access clients
ˆ
Configuration for standardized Authentication methods, that is,
RADIUS. In addition to all the necessary values for communicating
securely with a RADIUS server, the XSR allows you to specify a backup
RADIUS server for authentication failover.
AAA Commands
The following AAA commands are provided by the XSR:
ˆ
Configures authentication for users and groups with aaa user and aaa
group commands as well as the following sub-commands:
–
–
–
–
262
policy specifies SSH, Telnet, Firewall or VPN service for users
dns-server and wins server configure the IP addresses of
primary and secondary DNS and WINS servers to distribute to
remote access users and connecting XSRs.
ip pool associates a globally defined IP address pool (set with ip
local pool) with a user group. When a remote access user or
XSR connects, an IP address is distributed from this pool. Be
aware that if an AAA user is configured to use a static IP address
which belongs to a local IP pool, you must exclude that address
from the local pool.
l2tp/pptp compression commands enable compression on
L2TP and PPTP sessions, respectively, and pptp encrypt mppe
configures Microsoft Point-to-Point Encryption on a PPTP link.
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–
ˆ
ip address and group set the IP address and usergroup
assigned to the remote user.
Configures RADIUS, local or PKI databases with the aaa method
command as well as the following sub-commands:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
ˆ
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acct-port sets the UDP port for accounting requests.
address specifies the RADIUS server address with either a host
name or IP address.
attempts sets the total of consecutive login attempts that must
transpire before the RADIUS method's backup method is used.
auth-port specifies the UDP port for authentication requests.
enable initializes the current RADIUS server.
group specifies the name of an existing usergroup.
hash enable initializes the hash algorithm used for RADIUS.
key sets the shared secret used between the XSR and the server
daemon running on a RADIUS server.
qtimeout specifies the queue timeout.
retransmit specifies the number of RADIUS server
retransmissions sent to a server before timing out.
timeout sets the interval the XSR waits for the RADIUS server to
reply before retransmitting.
backup creates a name for a backup RADIUS server.
Configures pre-shared keys with aaa user and password
Configuring AAA
Pre-shared keys used in a Site-to-Site tunnel are configured using the aaa
user command with the following conditions applicable:
ˆ
The Username is the IP address of a peer
ˆ
The Password is the pre-shared key
To specify a user and password, enter the following commands:
XSR(config)#aaa user <xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx>
XSR(aaa-user)#aaa password ThISisMYShaREDsecRET
The following sample configuration creates user Jeremiah in the PromisedLand
usergroup, with DNS, WINS and MPPE encryption, and assigns IP local pool
remote_users for remote access:
XSR(config)#aaa group PromisedLand
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server primary 112.16.1.16
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server secondary 112.30.30.20
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XSR(aaa-group)#wins server primary 112.16.1.16
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server secondary 112.16.1.13
XSR(aaa-group)#ip pool remote_users
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp encrypt mppe 128
XSR(config)#aaa user Jeremiah
XSR(aaa-user)#password amen
XSR(aaa-user)#group PromisedLand
PKI Configuration Options
The XSR’s PKI implementation offers the following CLI commands to:
ˆ
Identify and configure attributes of Certificate Authorities using the
crypto ca identity mode's available commands:
–
enrollment http-proxy specifies SCEP requests to be directed
–
enrollment url - URL provided to access the CA (consult
though an intermediate proxy server.
–
–
–
ˆ
your CA administrator for this address). Any DNS names must
be manually converted and entered as IP addresses. (Not
acme.com but 192.168.1.1).
enrollment retry count sets the number of retries for pended
enrollment requests.
enrollment retry in period sets the interval between retries
for pended enrollment requests.
crl frequency sets the interval between runs of the CRL
maintenance task to update CRLs.
Collect a CA certificate from a Certificate Authority by entering crypto
ca authenticate. Note that you must verify the fingerprint of the CA
against provided information as part of this operation to assure that the
CA you access is the CA you expect.
ˆ
Enroll an IPSec client certificate for your XSR against an authenticated
CA by entering crypto ca enroll.
ˆ
Immediately update CRL lists by entering crypto ca crl request.
ˆ
Display various aspects of the crypto configuration using the following
show commands:
–
show crypto ca identity displays all configured CA
–
show crypto ca certificates displays all collected certificates
–
show crypto ca crls displays a list of applicable CRLs.
identities.
(CA Identities and IPSec client certificates).
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ˆ
Remove individual certificates using the following commands:
–
–
ˆ
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crypto ca certificate chain
no certificate - The serial number can be found in the show
crypto ca certificates command.
Remove CA identities and all associated CA and IPSec client
certificates by entering no crypto ca identity <ca name>.
Configuring PKI
The main steps to configure PKI are as follows:
ˆ
Obtain the CA name and URL
ˆ
Identify the CA, retrieve and authenticate the certificate
ˆ
Verify the root certificate was received
ˆ
Configure CA retrieval attributes and update CRLs
ˆ
Specify a host(s) for the CRL mechanism
ˆ
Enroll in an end-entity certificate
ˆ
Verify the end-entity certificate is valid
ˆ
Optional: change the enrollment retry period and count
For step-by-step instructions, refer to the following PKI Certificate example.
NOTE
If you have multiple CAs in a chained environment, you need only
identify each CA and obtain each CA certificate within the chain using
the crypto ca identity and crypto ca authenticate commands,
respectively, as illustrated in Step 2 on page 266.
PKI Certificate Enrollment Example
This PKI example illustrates authenticating to and enrolling with a Certificate
Authority (CA) for an end-entity certificate for the IPSec gateway. Local IPSec
uses end-entity certificates to establish SAs for IPSec connectivity. You must
authenticate against all CAs which may have provided certificates to any of
the remote systems that may be building IPSec links to the local system.
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1
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Begin by asking your CA administrator for your CA name and URL.
The CA’s URL defines its IP address, path and default port (80). You can
resolve the CA server address manually by pinging its IP address.
2
Be sure that the XSR time setting is correct according to the UTC time
zone so that it is synchronized with the CA’s time. For example:
XSR)#clock timezone -5 0
3
Specify the enrollment URL, authenticate the CA and retrieve the root
certificate. Check your CA Website to ensure that the printed fingerprint
matches the CA's fingerprint, which is retrieved from the CA itself, to
verify the CA is not a fake. If bona fide, accept the certificate, if not, check
to be sure the certificate is deleted and not stored in the CA database. In
certain situations you may need to specify a particular CA identity name.
Consult your administrator for more information.
XSR(config)#crypto ca identity PKItestca1
XSR(config-ca-identity)#enrollment url
http://192.168.1.33/certsrv/mscep/mscep.dll/
XSR(config-ca-identity)#exit
XSR(config)#crypto ca authenticate PKItestca1
Certificate has the following attributes:
Fingerprint: D423E129 81904CE0 1E6D0FE0 A123A302
Do you accept this certificate? [yes/no] y
4
Display your CA certificates to verify all root and associated certificates
are present. In the RA Mode example below, PKItestca1 is the root CA of
three certificates. Non-RA Mode CAs return one certificate only.
XSR(config)#show crypto ca certificates
CA Certificate - PKItestca1
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
6083684655030387331394927502614112809
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Engin, OU=Eng, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
Valid From:
Valid To:
2002 Jun
2004 Jun
4th, 12:40:46 GMT
4th, 12:48:15 GMT
Subject:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Eng, OU=Eng, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
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Fingerprint:
Certificate Size:
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D423E129 81904CE0 1E6D0FE0 A123A302
1157 bytes
RA KeyEncipher Certificate - PKItestca1-rae
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
458128935273366930063530
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Eng, OU=Eng, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
Valid From:
Valid To:
2002 Jul 24th, 20:45:14 GMT
2003 Jul 24th, 20:55:14 GMT
Subject:
MAILTO=SCEP, C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Enterasys Networks, OU=Eng, CN=Scep
Fingerprint:
Certificate Size:
F1279D63 AFFC3D93 48E5F311 73A1D16F
1695 bytes
RA Signature Certificate - PKItestca1-ras
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
458128729515158954573993
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Eng, OU=Eng, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
Valid From:
Valid To:
2002 Jul 24th, 20:45:13 GMT
2003 Jul 24th, 20:55:13 GMT
Subject:
MAILTO=SCEP, C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Enterasys Networks, OU=Eng, CN=Scep
Fingerprint:
Certificate Size:
5
91EB5A77 B5CA535A 077B65C5 65035615
1695 bytes
Set the CRL retrieval rate and download the latest CRL (optional).
XSR(config)#crl frequency 12
XSR(config)#crypto ca crl request PKItestca1
6
Add a static host to store IP addresses for use by the CRL mechanism.
XSR(config)#ip host CRLrepository 223.125.57.88
7
Enroll in an end-entity certificate from a CA for which you have previously
authenticated; e.g., PKItestca1.
The script will prompt you to enter and re-enter a challenge password
you create or is given to you by your CA administrator.
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Remember that if you create a password, save it so it can be used later in
case you need to revoke the CA. Respond yes to all questions. and jot
down the certificate serial number for comparison purposes.
XSR(config)#crypto ca enroll PKItestca1
%
% Start certificate enrollment
% Create a challenge password. You will need to verbally
provide this password to the CA Administrator in order to
revoke your certificate.
For security reasons your password will not be saved in the
configuration.
Please make a note of it.
Password:****
Re-enter password:****
Include the router serial number in the subject name (y/n) ? y
The serial number in the certificate will be: 3526015000250142
Request certificate from CA (y/n) ? y
You may experience a short delay while RSA keys are generated.
Once key generation is complete, the certificate request
will be sent to the Certificate Authority.
Use 'show crypto ca certificate' to show the fingerprint.
<186>Aug 29 7:11:1 192.168.1.33 PKI: A certificate was successfully
received from the CA.
8
Once the certificate is properly enrolled, issue the show ca
certificates command to display the end-entity and other certificates.
The first certificate shown, identified as being in ENTITY-ACTIVE state,
is the end-entity certificate. Compare the Subject ID to the serial number
earlier displayed by the enrollment script to verify its authenticity.
XSR#show crypto ca certificates
Certificate - issued by PKItestca1
State:
ENTITY-ACTIVE
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
75289387826578118934757
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Engineering, OU=Engineering, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
Valid From:
268
2002 Aug 29th, 15:51:58 GMT
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Valid To:
Subject:
3526015000250142
Fingerprint:
Certificate Size:
VPN Configuration Overview
2003 Aug 29th, 16:01:58 GMT
CN=Enterasys Networks X-pedition Series ABF37B67 7200CCDA 604CB10C D5AC7F49
1590 bytes
CA Certificate - PKItestca1
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
6083684655030387331394927502614112809
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Engineering, OU=Engineering, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
Valid From:
Valid To:
Subject:
2002 Jun 4th, 12:40:46 GMT
2004 Jun 4th, 12:48:15 GMT
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Engineering, OU=Engineering, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
Fingerprint:
Certificate Size:
D423E129 81904CE0 1E6D0FE0 A123A302
1157 bytes
RA KeyEncipher Certificate - PKItestca1-rae
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
458128935273366930063530
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Engineering, OU=Engineering, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
Valid From:
2002 Jul 24th, 20:45:14 GMT
Valid To:
2003 Jul 24th, 20:55:14 GMT
Subject:
MAILTO=SCEP, C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Enterasys Networks,
OU=Engineering, CN=Scep
Fingerprint:
F1279D63 AFFC3D93 48E5F311 73A1D16F
Certificate Size: 1695 bytes
RA Signature Certificate - PKItestca1-ras
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
458128729515158954573993
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=VPN Engineering, OU=Engineering, CN=PKI Test Certificate Authority
Valid From:
Valid To:
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2003 Jul 24th, 20:55:13 GMT
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Subject:
MAILTO=SCEP, C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Enterasys Networks, OU=Engineering, CN=Scep
Fingerprint:
91EB5A77 B5CA535A 077B65C5 65035615
Certificate Size: 1695 bytes
Optional. Change the enrollment retry count and period to a value
matching your CA administrator’s needs.
9
These values handle “non-pending” mode at the CA when a certificate
request could time out while waiting for a response. Six requests will be
issued every 10 minutes.
XSR(config)#enrollment retry count 6
XSR(config)#enrollment retry period 10
Interface VPN Options
Some configurations require the construct of virtual interfaces that represent
tunnels on the XSR. A virtual interface defined by the interface vpn
command often represents IPSec tunnels configured automatically by EZIPSec. A VPN interface can also be configured as a point-to-point or a point-tomulti-point interface with the following conditions:
ˆ
The interface vpn [#] point-to-point command applies to Siteto-Site or EZ-IPSec tunnels initiated by the XSR
ˆ
The interface vpn [#] multi-point command applies to an XSR
used as a gateway and tunnel terminator
VPN Interface Sub-Commands
The following sub-commands are available at VPN Interface mode:
ip firewall + Set of commands to configure the firewall
ip address-negotiated
+ Sets the VPN interface’s IP address to be negotiated
ip
ip
ip
ip
ip
address + Specifies an IP address on the VPN interface
multicast-redirect + Redirects multicast (RIP) to a unicast address
nat + Specifies NAT rules on the VPN interface
rip + Configures RIP routing on the VPN port
unnumbered
+ Enables IP processing on a serial port without assigning it an explicit IP address
ip split-horizon + Enables split horizon mechanism
ip ospf + Set of commands to configure OSP+ routing
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Configuring a Simple VPN Site-to-Site Application
tunnel + Names a site-to-site VPN tunnel
set heartbeat + Enables and configures tunnel connectivity monitoring
set protocol (ipsec) + Selects a tunnel protocol
set active + Brings the tunnel up
set user + Designates the user name when initiating a tunnel and obtains
credentials from the AAA subsystem
set peer + Sets the IP address of the peer
Configuring a Simple VPN Site-to-Site Application
The following main steps describe how to configure a simple Site-to-Site VPN
between two XSRs, as illustrated in Figure 48:
ˆ
Encrypt Branch-site traffic on the 63.81.66.0/24 network to Central site
networks (63.81.64.0/24, 63.81.68.0/24, 141.154.196.64/28)
ˆ
Set up IPSec/IKE policy with pre-shared keys
ˆ
Configure cryptographic algorithms (transform-sets) and IPSec mode
ˆ
Configure the VPN interface and crypto maps
Central Site
Branch Office
FastEthernet 2
1.1.1.1
FastEthernet 1
63.81.66.1
Internet
FastEthernet 2
1.1.1.2
XSR
XSR
FastEthernet 1
141.154.196.78
63.81.66.0/24
63.81.64.0/24 63.81.68.0/24
Figure 48 Site-to-Site Example
XSR User’s Guide
1
Generate a master encryption key as described in “Master Key
Generation” on page 256. This need only be done once on the router.
2
Begin Central Site configuration of all necessary physical and system
requirements, including physical IP addresses, routing (default route and
RIP or OSPF), and standard ACLs. This example offers numerous options.
3
Configure Access Lists 120, 130, and 140 to define the particular traffic to
be protected by the tunnel. The ACLs allow a range of IP addresses on
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the VPN. In the context of VPN configuration, permit means protect or
encrypt, and deny indicates don’t encrypt or allow as is.
XSR(config)#access-list 120 permit ip 141.154.196.64
0.0.0.63 63.81.66.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 130 permit ip 63.81.64.0 0.0.0.255
63.81.66.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 140 permit ip 63.81.68.0 0.0.0.255
63.81.66.0 0.0.0.255
4
Set up IKE Phase 1 protection by entering the following commands:
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp proposal Test
+ Designates ISAKMP proposal Test and acquires ISAKMP mode
XSR(config-isakmp)#authentication [pre-share | rsa]
+ Selects pre-shared key or certificates rsa-sig
XSR(config-isakmp)#encryption [aes | 3des | des]
+ Chooses encryption algorithm
XSR(config-isakmp)#hash [md5 | sha1]
+ Selects data integrity algorithm
XSR(config-isakmp)#group [1 | 2 | 5]
+ Chooses Diffie-Hellman group
XSR(config-isakmp)#lifetime <seconds>
+ Sets IKE lifetime value
5
Configure IKE policy for the remote peer. Multiple IKE proposals can be
configured on each peer participating in IPSec. When IKE negotiation
begins, it tries to find a common proposal (policy) on both peers with a
common proposal containing exactly the same encryption, hash,
authentication, and Diffie-Hellman parameters (lifetime does not
necessarily have to match).
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp peer 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
+ Configures the IKE peer IP address/subnet and acquires ISAKMP mode
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#proposal Test
+ Specifies proposal lists test1 and test2
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#exchange mode [main | aggressive]
+ Selects IKE main mode
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#nat-traversal [auto | enabled | disabled]
+ Selects NAT traversal setting
6
272
Create a transform-set which adds the specified encryption/data integrity
algorithms, 768-bit (Group 1) Diffie-Hellman, and your choice of an SA
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lifetime. You can specify an SA lifetime of seconds and kilobytes whichever value runs out first will cause a rekey.
XSR(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set esp-3des-sha esp-3des
esp-sha-hmac + Names transform-set with encryption and data integrity values
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set pfs group1 + Set P+S group number
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set security-association lifetime
[kilobytes | seconds] + Sets SA lifetime in either kilobytes or seconds
7
Configure three crypto map Test entries which correlate with specified
transform-sets and ACLs 140, 130 and 120, attach the map to a remote
peer, configure an independent SA for each traffic stream to a host, and
select your choice of IPSec mode. Crypto map match statements render
the associated ACLs bi-directional.
XSR(config)#crypto map Test 40
+ Adds crypto map Test, sequence #40
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-sha
+ Correlates map with the specified transform set
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 140
+ Applies map to ACL 140 and renders the ACL bi-directional
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set peer 1.1.1.2
+ Attaches map to peer
XSR(config-crypto-m)#mode [tunnel | transport]
+ Selects IPSec mode for XSR-to-XSR (tunnel) or host to XSR (transport)
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set security-association level per-host
+ Sets a separate SA for every traffic flow
XSR(config)#crypto map Test 20
+ Adds crypto map Test, sequence #20
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des esp-sha-hmc
+ Correlates map with the specified transform set
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 120
+ Applies map to ACL 120 and renders the ACL bi-directional
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set peer 1.1.1.3
+ Attaches map to peer
XSR(config-crypto-m)#mode [tunnel | transport]
+ Selects IPSec mode
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set security-association level per-host
+ Sets a separate SA for every traffic flow
XSR(config)#crypto map Test 30
+ Adds crypto map Test, sequence #30
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-des esp-sha-hmc
+ Correlates map with the specified transform set
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XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 130
+ Applies map to ACL 130 and renders the ACL bi-directional
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set peer 1.1.1.2
+ Attaches map to peer
XSR(config-crypto-m)#mode [tunnel | transport]
+ Selects IPSec mode
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set security-association level per-host
+ Sets a separate SA for every traffic flow
Configuring the XSR VPN interface is the last main task to perform to set
up the VPN.
8
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2
+ Adds FastEthernet port 2 and acquires Interface mode
XSR(config-if<F2>)#crypto map Test
+ Attaches Crypto Map to interface and acquires Crypto Map mode
XSR(config-crypto-m)#description “external interface”
+ Names the interface
XSR(config-crypto-m)#ip address 141.154.196.78 255.255.255.192
+ Adds IP address/subnet to interface
XSR(config-crypto-m)#no shutdown
+ Enables interface
Consult the XSR Getting Started Guide for another site-to-site configuration
example.
Configuring the VPN Using EZ-IPSec
The XSR’s VPN provides a simple, largely automatic, IPSec configuration
option called EZ-IPSec which predefines a variety of IKE and IPSec proposals
and transforms, combining those objects with dynamically-defined Security
Policy database rules.
This suite of IPSec and IKE policies, sorted by cryptographic strength, is
offered to the central gateway which selects one policy based on its local
configuration. EZ-IPSec also relies upon the IKE Mode Configuration
protocol to obtain an IP address from the central gateway.
EZ-IPSec is invoked using the crypto ezipsec command in Interface mode
to create a set of standard IPSec policies, relieving you of the complex manual
process. It enables dynamic routing over an IPSec tunnel:
ˆ
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ˆ
Configuring the VPN Using EZ-IPSec
Supporting RIPv2 and OSPF through the tunnel
The security policy automatically created by crypto ezipsec specifies
transform-sets for IPSec ESP using 3DES and AES encryption with SHA-1 and
MD5 integrity algorithms. Also, IPSec SA lifetimes are set to 100 MBytes and
3600 seconds - whichever value is reached first will cause a rekey.
EZ-IPSec configuration is comprised of two components:
ˆ
Enabling EZ-IPSec security policies and attaching to a network
interface using crypto ezipsec configured on any interface other
than FastEthernet/GigabitEthernet 1
ˆ
Defining a virtual interface (VPN) in point-to-point mode which
initiates a tunnel to a gateway XSR
EZ-IPSec Configuration
The commands below are used to configure a VPN interface on the XSR. The
set protocol ipsec command is needed to select the following modes:
ˆ
Client Mode. The virtual interface (interface vpn #) is assigned an
address using Mode Config and an IPSec security policy rule is
inserted into the external interface's SPD securing traffic to and from
that address. NATP is enabled on the VPN interface.
ˆ
Network Extension Mode. Same as client mode except NAPT is disabled
on the VPN interface and two crypto map entries are added to the
external interface SPD. One rule secures traffic to the virtual interface's
assigned address and the other secures traffic to the trusted network
interface which is assumed to be FastEthernet 1.
The commands below require manual configuration in conjunction with the
crypto ezipsec command:
ˆ
interface vpn [1 -255]
ˆ
ip address negotiated
ˆ
tunnel [Tunnel Name]
ˆ
set user [username | certificate]
ˆ
set peer [My Remote VPN Server Address]
ˆ
set protocol ipsec [client-mode | network-extension-mode]
For example, configure the following Network Extension Mode tunnel:
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XSR(config)#interface vpn 1 point-to-point
+ Sets VPN interface 1 to initiate a tunnel connection and acquires VPN interface
mode. You must always set a Point-to-Point tunnel at the remote site and Point-toMultipoint tunnel at the central site
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip address negotiated
+ Asks for dynamic virtual IP address assignment of this VPN interface by its peer
XSR(config-int-vpn)#tunnel Corporate
+ Names the site-to-site tunnel Corporate
XSR(config-tms-tunnel)#set user My_Remote_site
+ Indicates a pre-share key is being used. You must add an EZ-IPSec tunnel using
the password of this user in the AAA database
XSR(config-tms-tunnel)#set peer 200.10.20.30
+ Specifies the IP address of the remote peer
XSR(config-tms-tunnel)#set protocol ipsec network-extension-mode
+ Selects IPSec to initiate a NEM tunnel connection
NOTE
Pre-shared key proposals are used if a user name is supplied with a
tunnel. If no user name is supplied, EZ-IPSec verifies the XSR has one or
more valid certificates and it uses RSA signature authentication.
Most of the parameters shown below have been automatically entered by
EZ-IPSec. Be aware that they do not appear in the running-config file.
crypto isakmp peer 200.10.20.30/32
proposal ez-ike-3des-sha-psk ez-ike-3des-md5-psk
config-mode client
exchange-mode aggressive
nat-traversal automatic
crypto map ez-ipsec 100
match address 100
set peer 200.10.20.30
mode tunnel
set transform-set ez-esp-3des-sha-pfs ez-esp-3des-md5-pfs
set transform-set ez-esp-aes-sha-pfs ez-esp-aes-md5-pfs
set transform-set ez-esp-3des-sha-no-pfs ez-esp-3des-md5-no-pfs
set transform-set ez-esp-aes-sha-no-pfs ez-esp-aes-md5-no-pfs
crypto map ez-ipsec 101
match address 101
set peer 200.10.20.30
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Configuration Examples
Configuration Examples
XSR with VPN - Central Gateway
In this scenario, as illustrated in Figure 49, a Central VPN gateway is
configured to perform the following:
ˆ
Terminate NEM and Client mode tunnels
ˆ
Terminate remote access L2TP/IPSec tunnels
ˆ
Terminate PPTP remote access tunnels
ˆ
OSPF routing with the next hop corporate router on the trusted VPN
interface
ˆ
DF bit clear on the public VPN interface to handle large nonfragmentable IP frames
ˆ
OSPF routing over the multi-point VPN interface for other site-to-site
tunnels
ˆ
Assign the first IP address of the pool to the multi-point VPN interface.
Branch Office
Central Site
EZ-IPSec client
PPPoE
interface
FastEthernet 1
172.16.1.1
XSR
RoboPez
Terminates EZ-IPSec Client Mode
Terminates L2TP/IPSec clients
Internet
FastEthernet 2
141.154.196.87
XSR
Robo6
CA server
FastEthernet 1
10.120.112.6
Remote Access
Windows XP - L2TP/IPSec or PPTP Client
Figure 49 EZ-IPSec Client, XP Client and Gateway Topology
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Begin by setting the XSR system time via SNTP. This configuration is critical
for XSRs which use time-sensitive certificates.
XSR(config)#sntp-client server 10.120.84.3
XSR(config)#sntp-client poll-interval 60
Add ACLs to permit IP and UDP traffic:
XSR(config)#access-list 130 permit udp any any eq 500
XSR(config)#access-list 130 permit gre any any
XSR(config)#access-list 130 permit tcp any any est
XSR(config)#access-list 130 permit tcp any any eq 1723
XSR(config)#access-list 130 deny ip any any
Add ACLs for IP local pool/EZ-IPSec, Network Extension address and L2TP:
XSR(config)#access-list 110 permit ip any 10.120.70.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 120 permit udp any any eq 1701
XSR(config)#access-list 140 permit ip any 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 150 permit ip any 192.168.111.0 0.0.0.255
Define IKE Phase I security parameters with the following two policies:
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp proposal xp-soho
XSR(config-isakmp)#hash md5
XSR(config-isakmp)#lifetime 50000
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp proposal p2p
XSR(config-isakmp)#authentication pre-share
XSR(config-isakmp)#lifetime 50000
Configure IKE policy for the remote peer:
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp peer 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#proposal xp-soho p2p
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#config-mode gateway
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#nat-traversal automatic
Configure the following four IPSec SAs:
XSR(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set esp-3des-md5 esp-3des
esp-md5-hmac
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)no set security-association lifetime kilobytes
XSR(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set esp-3des-sha esp-3des
esp-sha-hmac
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Configuration Examples
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)set security-association lifetime kilobytes
10000
Configure the following four crypto maps to match ACLs 150, 140, 120, and 110:
XSR(config)#crypto map test 50
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-sha
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 150
XSR(config)#crypto map test 40
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-sha
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 140
XSR(config)#crypto map test 20
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-md5
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 120
XSR(config-crypto-m)#mode transport
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set security-association level per-host
XSR(config)#crypto map test 10
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-sha
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 110
Configure and enable the FastEthernet 1 interface:
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 10.120.112.0/24
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
Configure FastEthernet interface 2 with the attached crypto map test:
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#crypto map test
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip address 141.154.196.87 255.255.255.192
XSR(config-if<F2>)#access-group 130 in
XSR(config-if<F2>)#access-group 130 out
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
Configure the VPN virtual interface as a terminating tunnel server with IP
multicast redirection back to the gateway, add an OSPF network with cost
and disable the firewall:
XSR(config)#interface Vpn1 multi-point
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip multicast-redirect tunnel-endpoint
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XSR(config-int-vpn)#firewall disable
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip address 10.120.70.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip ospf priority 10
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip ospf network nbma
Add a default route to the next hop Internet gateway:
XSR(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 141.154.196.93
Define an IP pool for distribution of tunnel addresses to all client types:
XSR(config)#ip local pool test 10.120.70.0/24
Create hosts to resolve hostnames for the certificate servers for CRL retrieval:
XSR(config)#ip host parentca 141.154.196.89
XSR(config)#ip host childca2 141.154.196.81
XSR(config)#ip host childca1 141.154.196.83
Clear the DF bit globally:
XSR(config)#crypto ipsec df-bit clear
Enable the OSPF engine, VPN and FastEthernet 1 interfaces for routing:
XSR(config)#router ospf 1
XSR(config-router)#network 10.120.70.0 0.0.0.255 area 5.5.5.5
XSR(config-router)#network 10.120.112.0 0.0.0.255 area 5.5.5.5
Create a group for NEM and Client mode users:
XSR(config)#aaa group sohoclient
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server primary 10.120.112.220
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server primary 10.120.112.220
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#ip pool test
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp encrypt mppe 128
XSR(aaa-group)#l2tp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#policy vpn
Define a group for remote access XP users including DNS and WINs servers,
an IP pool, PPTP and L2TP values, and client VPN permission:
XSR(config)#aaa group XPusers
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server primary 10.120.112.220
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XSR(aaa-group)#dns server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server primary 10.120.112.220
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#ip pool test
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp encrypt mppe 128
XSR(aaa-group)#l2tp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#policy vpn
Configure the RADIUS AAA method to authenticate remote access users:
XSR(config)#aaa method radius msradius default
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#backup test
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#enable
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#group DEFAULT
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#address ip-address 10.120.112.179
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#key welcome
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#auth-port 1812
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#acct-port 1646
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#attempts 1
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#retransmit 1
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#timeout 5
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#qtimeout 0
Configure the branch office EZ-IPSec on the PPPoEe, FastEthernet subinterface 2.2, using certificates for authentication:
XSR(config)# interface FastEthernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)# interface FastEthernet 2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2.2
XSR(config-if)#crypto ezipsec
XSR(config-if)#enc ppp
XSR(config-if)#ip address negociated
XSR(config-if)#ip mtu 1492
XSR(config-if)#ip nat source assigned overload
XSR(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username pezhmon password pezhmon
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Configure the Network Extension Mode tunnel, site-to-site IPSec tunnel to
the central site XSR (Robo6).
XSR(config)#interface vpn 1 point-to-point
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip address neg
XSR(config-int-vpn)#tunnel Pipe
XSR(config-tms-tunnel)#set user certificate
XSR(config-tms-tunnel)#set protocol ipsec network
XSR(config-tms-tunnel)#set active
XSR(config-tms-tunnel)#set peer 141.154.196.86
XSR(config-int-vpn)# ip ospf cost 110
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip ospf priority 0
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip ospf network nbma
XSR(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 FastEthernet 2.2
Create hosts to resolve hostnames for the certificate servers for CRL retrieval:
XSR(config)#ip host parentca 141.154.196.89
XSR(config)#ip host childca2 141.154.196.81
XSR(config)#ip host childca1 141.154.196.83
Enable the OSPF engine, VPN (Central site pool) and FastEthernet 1 interfaces
for routing:
XSR(config)#router ospf 1
XSR(config-router)#network 10.120.70.0 0.0.0.255 area 5.5.5.5
XSR(config-router)#network 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 5.5.5.5
Consult the XSR Getting Started Guide for another NEM configuration
example.
XSR/Cisco Site-to-Site Example
The following Site-to-Site configuration connects a Cisco 2600 router with
internal/external IP addresses of 192.168.3.5/192.168.2.5 to a XSR with
internal/external IP addresses of 192.168.1.2/192.168.2.2. The commands are
displayed as they would appear when displayed in the configuration file.
Cisco Configuration
version 12.2
service timestamps debug uptime
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service timestamps log uptime
no service password-encryption
hostname Cisco2600
enable secret 5 $1$9ljt$kg86F7Y1vsa2Np0Zj5wDf1
enable password welcome
ip subnet-zero
ip host spatel 192.168.1.1
crypto isakmp policy 1
hash md5
authentication pre-share
group 2
lifetime 1200
crypto isakmp policy 20
hash md5
authentication pre-share
lifetime 1200
crypto isakmp key welcome address 192.168.2.2
crypto ipsec security-association lifetime seconds 1800
crypto ipsec transform-set esp-des-md5 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
crypto map regular 1 ipsec-isakmp
set peer 192.168.2.2
set security-association lifetime kilobytes 10000
set security-association lifetime seconds 7200
set transform-set esp-des-md5
set pfs group2
match address 110
fax interface-type fax-mail
mta receive maximum-recipients 0
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interface FastEthernet0/0
ip address 192.168.3.5 255.255.255.0
speed auto
half-duplex
no cdp enable
interface FastEthernet0/1
ip address 192.168.2.5 255.255.255.0
duplex auto
speed auto
no cdp enable
crypto map regular
ip
ip
ip
ip
ip
classless
route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.2.1
route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.2
http server
pim bidir-enable
access-list 110 permit ip 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255 192.168.1.0
0.0.0.255
dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit
dialer-list 1 protocol ipx permit
snmp-server group testgroup v3 auth
snmp-server community public RO
call rsvp-sync
mgcp profile default
dial-peer cor custom
line con 0
exec-timeout 0 0
line aux 0
line vty 0 4
password welcome
login
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XSR(config)#access-list 120 permit ip 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255
192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp proposal test
XSR(config-isakmp)#authentication pre-share
XSR(config-isakmp)#encryption des
XSR(config-isakmp)#hash md5
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp peer 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#proposal test
XSR(config)#cry ips trans esp-des-md5 esp-des esp-md5-hmac
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set pfs group2
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#no set security-association life kilo
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set security-association life secon 700
XSR(config)#crypto map test 20
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-des-md5
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 120
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set peer 192.168.2.5
XSR(config-crypto-m)#mode tunnel
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#crypto map test
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip address 192.168.2.2 255.255.255.0
XSR(config)#ip route 192.168.3.0 255.255.255.0 192.168.2.5
XSR(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.2.1
XSR(config)#snmp-server disable
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Scenario 1: Gateway-to-Gateway with Pre-Shared Secrets
This section describes how to configure the XSR according to the VPN
Consortium’s interoperability scenarios (http://www.vpnc.org/). The
following is a typical gateway-to-gateway VPN that uses a pre-shared secret
for authentication, as illustrated in Figure 50.
10.5.6.0/24
172.23.9.0/24
Gateway B
Gateway A
Internet
AL
10.5.6.1
AW
14.15.16.17
BW
22.23.24.25
BL
172.23.9.1
Figure 50 Gateway-toGateway with Pre-Shared Secrets Topology
Gateway A connects the internal LAN 10.5.6.0/24 to the Internet. Gateway
A's LAN interface has the address 10.5.6.1, and its WAN (Internet) interface
has the address 14.15.16.17.
Gateway B connects the internal LAN 172.23.9.0/24 to the Internet. Gateway
B's WAN (Internet) interface has the address 22.23.24.25. Gateway B's LAN
interface address, 172.23.9.1, can be used for testing IPsec but is not needed
for configuring Gateway A.
The IKE Phase 1 parameters used in Scenario 1 are:
ˆ
Main mode
ˆ
Triple DES
ˆ
SHA-1
ˆ
MODP group 2 (1024 bits)
ˆ
Pre-shared secret of “hr5xb84l6aa9r6”
ˆ
SA lifetime of 28800 seconds (eight hours) with no Kbytes rekeying
The IKE Phase 2 parameters used in Scenario 1 are:
ˆ
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ˆ
SHA-1
ˆ
ESP tunnel mode
ˆ
MODP group 2 (1024 bits)
ˆ
Perfect forward secrecy for rekeying
ˆ
SA lifetime of 3600 seconds (one hour) with no Kbytes rekeying
ˆ
Selectors for all IP protocols, all ports, between 10.5.6.0/24 and
172.23.9.0/24, using IPv4 subnets
This configuration assumes you have already set up the XSR for basic
operations (refer to the XSR Getting Started Guide). Also, you should have
generated a master key (see the XSR User Guide). To set up Gateway A for this
scenario, perform the following steps on the CLI:
1
Configure the Gateway A internal LAN network (AL):
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 10.5.6.1 255.255.255.0
2
Configure the Gateway A external LAN network (AW):
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet2
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 14.15.16.17 255.255.255.0
3
Configure a simple, wide-open access list to permit all traffic from the
source to the destination network:
XSR(config)#access-list 101 permit ip 10.5.6.0 0.0.0.255
172.23.9.0 0.0.0.255
4
Configure a default route:
XSR(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 14.15.16.1
5
Configure IKE Phase 1 policy:
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp proposal Safe
XSR(config-isakmp)#authentication pre-share
XSR(config-isakmp)#encryption 3des
XSR(config-isakmp)#hash sha
XSR(config-isakmp)#group 2
XSR(config-isakmp)#lifetime 28800
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Configure IKE policy Safe for the Gateway B remote peer. Optionally,
multiple IKE proposals can be configured on each peer participating in
IPSec.
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp peer 22.23.24.25 255.255.255.255
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#proposal Safe
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#config-mode gateway
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#exchange-mode main
7
Configure IKE Phase 2 settings by creating the transform-set Secure:
XSR(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set Secure esp-3des espsha1-hmac
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set pfs group2
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)#set security-association lifetime
seconds 3600
8
Configure the crypto map Highflow which correlates with transform-set
Secure and access list 101, and attach the map to the remote peer.
XSR(config)#crypto map Highflow 1
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set Secure
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 101
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set peer 22.23.24.25
9
Attach the crypto map Highflow to the Gateway A external interface (AW):
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#crypto map Highflow
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
10 Configure the pre-shared key. The username is the IP address of the peer
and the password is the pre-shared key.
XSR(config)#aaa user 22.23.24.25
XSR(aaa-user)#password hr5xb84l6aa9r6
11 Test the connection by pinging a PC on the 172.23.9.0 network from the
10.5.6.0 network. Alternately, pinging the PC from Gateway A, if
successful, will produce the output shown below. Be aware that for a ping
to traverse the tunnel, you must configure an ACL with the host source
and host destination IP addresses.
XSR#ping 172.23.9.5
Type escape sequence to abort
Reply from 172.23.9.5: 20ms
Reply from 172.23.9.5: 10ms
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Reply from 172.23.9.5: 10ms
Reply from 172.23.9.5: 10ms
Reply from 172.23.9.5: 10ms
Packets: Sent = 5, Received = 5, Lost = 0
You can also issue the following show commands to examine Phase 1 and
Phase 2 settings, respectively. When the tunnel is up, the commands will
display the following output:
XSR#show crypto isakmp sa
Connection-ID State Source
--------------------------4561
QM_IDLE 14.15.16.17
Destination
----------22.23.24.25
Lifetime
------28000
XSR#show crypto ipsec sa
14.15.16.0/24, ANY, 0 ==> 22.23.24.0/24, ANY, 0 : 92 packets
ESP: SPI=190d1f5f, Transform=3DES/HMAC-SHA, Life=3600S/0KB
Scenario 2: Gateway-to-Gateway with Certificates
The following is a typical gateway-to-gateway VPN that uses certificates for
authentication, as illustrated in Figure 51.
10.5.6.0/24
Gateway B
Gateway A
172.23.9.0/24
Internet
AL
10.5.6.1
AW
14.15.16.17
BW
22.23.24.25
BL
172.23.9.1
Figure 51 Gateway-toGateway with Certificates Topology
Gateway A connects the internal LAN 10.5.6.0/24 to the Internet. Gateway
A's LAN interface has the address 10.5.6.1, and its WAN (Internet) interface
has the address 14.15.16.17.
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Gateway B connects the internal LAN 172.23.9.0/24 to the Internet. Gateway
B's WAN (Internet) interface has the address 22.23.24.25. Gateway B's LAN
interface address, 172.23.9.1, can be used for testing IPsec but is not needed
for configuring Gateway A.
The IKE Phase 1 parameters used in Scenario 2 are:
ˆ
Main mode
ˆ
Triple DES
ˆ
SHA-1
ˆ
MODP group 2 (1024 bits)
ˆ
SA lifetime of 28800 seconds (eight hours) with no Kbytes rekeying
The IKE Phase 2 parameters used in Scenario 2 are:
ˆ
Triple DES
ˆ
SHA-1
ˆ
ESP tunnel mode
ˆ
MODP group 2 (1024 bits)
ˆ
Perfect forward secrecy for rekeying
ˆ
SA lifetime of 3600 seconds (one hour) with no Kbytes rekeying
ˆ
Selectors for all IP protocols, all ports, between 10.5.6.0/24 and
172.23.9.0/24, using IPv4 subnets
This configuration assumes you have already set up the XSR for basic
operations (refer to the XSR Getting Started Guide). Also, you should have
generated a master key (see the XSR User Guide). To set up Gateway A for this
scenario, perform the same steps as you would perform in Scenario 1, with
one exception.
In Step 5, for authentication, select RSA signatures as follows:
XSR(config-isakmp)#authentication rsa-sig
After completing all 11 steps to configure the VPN, obtain a Root CA and
personal certificate for this scenario by performing the following steps:
1
290
Begin by asking your CA administrator for your CA name and URL. The
CA’s URL defines its IP address, path and default port (80). You can
resolve the CA server address manually by pinging its IP address.
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Be sure that the XSR time setting is correct according to the UTC time
zone so that it is synchronized with the CA’s time. For example:
XSR)#clock timezone -7 0
3
Specify the enrollment URL, authenticate the CA and retrieve the root
certificate. Check your CA Website to ensure that the printed fingerprint
matches the CA's fingerprint, which is retrieved from the CA itself, to
verify the CA is not a fake. If bona fide, accept the certificate, if not, check
to be sure the certificate is deleted and not stored in the CA database. In
certain situations you may need to specify a particular CA identity name.
Consult your administrator for more information.
XSR(config)#crypto ca identity Hightest
XSR(config-ca-identity)#enrollment url
http://192.168.1.33/certsrv/mscep/mscep.dll/
XSR(config-ca-identity)#exit
XSR(config)#crypto ca authenticate PKItestca1
Certificate has the following attributes:
Fingerprint: D423E129 81904CE0 1E6D0FE0 A123A302
Do you accept this certificate? [yes/no] y
4
Display your CA certificates to verify all root and associated certificates
are present. In the RA Mode example below, Hightest is the root CA of
three certificates. Non-RA Mode CAs return one certificate only.
XSR(config)#show crypto ca certificates
CA Certificate - Hightest
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
6083684655030387331394927502614112809
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA,
L=Andover, O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Valid From:
2002 Jun 4th, 12:40:46 GMT
Valid To:
2004 Jun 4th, 12:48:15 GMT
Subject:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA,
L=Andover, O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Fingerprint:
D423E129 81904CE0 1E6D0FE0 A123A302
Certificate Size: 1157 bytes
RA KeyEncipher Certificate - Hightest-rae
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State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
458128935273366930063530
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA,
L=Andover, O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Valid From:
2002 Jul 24th, 20:45:14 GMT
Valid To:
2003 Jul 24th, 20:55:14 GMT
Subject:
MAILTO=SCEP, C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Enterasys Networks, OU=Sales, CN=Scep
Fingerprint:
F1279D63 AFFC3D93 48E5F311 73A1D16F
Certificate Size: 1695 bytes
RA Signature Certificate - Hightest-ras
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
458128729515158954573993
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA,
L=Andover, O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Valid From:
2002 Jul 24th, 20:45:13 GMT
Valid To:
2003 Jul 24th, 20:55:13 GMT
Subject:
MAILTO=SCEP, C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=Scep
Fingerprint:
91EB5A77 B5CA535A 077B65C5 65035615
Certificate Size: 1695 bytes
5
Enroll in an end-entity certificate from a CA for which you have previously
authenticated; e.g., Hightest.
The script will prompt you to enter and re-enter a challenge password
you create or is given to you by your CA administrator. Remember that if
you create a password, save it so it can be used later in case you need to
revoke the CA. Respond yes to all questions. and jot down the certificate
serial number for comparison purposes.
XSR(config)#crypto ca enroll Hightest
%
% Start certificate enrollment
% Create a challenge password. You will need to verbally
provide this password to the CA Administrator in order to
revoke your certificate.
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For security reasons your password will not be saved in the
configuration.
Please make a note of it.
Password:****
Re-enter password:****
Include the router serial number in the subject name (y/n) ?
y
The serial number in the certificate will be:
3526015000250142
Request certificate from CA (y/n) ? y
You may experience a short delay while RSA keys are
generated.
Once key generation is complete, the certificate request
will be sent to the Certificate Authority.
Use 'show crypto ca certificate' to show the fingerprint.
<186>Aug 29 7:11:1 192.168.1.33 PKI: A certificate was
successfully
received from the CA.
6
Once the certificate is properly enrolled, issue the show crypto ca
certificates command to display the end-entity and other certificates.
The first certificate shown, identified as being in ENTITY-ACTIVE state,
is the end-entity certificate. Compare the Subject ID to the serial number
earlier displayed by the enrollment script to verify its authenticity.
XSR#show crypto ca certificates
Certificate - issued by Hightest
State:
ENTITY-ACTIVE
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
75289387826578118934757
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Valid From:
2002 Aug 29th, 15:51:58 GMT
Valid To:
2003 Aug 29th, 16:01:58 GMT
Subject:
CN=Enterasys Networks X-pedition Series 3526015000250142
Fingerprint:
ABF37B67 7200CCDA 604CB10C D5AC7F49
Certificate Size: 1590 bytes
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CA Certificate - PKItestca1
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
6083684655030387331394927502614112809
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Valid From:
2002 Jun 4th, 12:40:46 GMT
Valid To:
2004 Jun 4th, 12:48:15 GMT
Subject:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Fingerprint:
D423E129 81904CE0 1E6D0FE0 A123A302
Certificate Size: 1157 bytes
RA KeyEncipher Certificate - Hightest-rae
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
458128935273366930063530
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Valid From:
2002 Jul 24th, 20:45:14 GMT
Valid To:
2003 Jul 24th, 20:55:14 GMT
Subject:
MAILTO=SCEP, C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover, O=Ent
Sys,OU=Sales, CN=Scep
Fingerprint:
Certificate Size:
F1279D63 AFFC3D93 48E5F311 73A1D16F
1695 bytes
RA Signature Certificate - Hightest-ras
State:
CA-AUTHENTICATED
Version:
V3
Serial Number:
458128729515158954573993
Issuer:
[email protected], C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover,
O=Ent Sys, OU=Sales, CN=PKI Certificate Authority
Valid From:
2002 Jul 24th, 20:45:13 GMT
Valid To:
2003 Jul 24th, 20:55:13 GMT
Subject:
MAILTO=SCEP, C=US, ST=MA, L=Andover, O=Ent
Sys, OU=Sales, CN=Scep
Fingerprint:
Certificate Size:
294
91EB5A77 B5CA535A 077B65C5 65035615
1695 bytes
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Configuring DHCP
Overview of DHCP
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) allocates and delivers
configuration values, including IP addresses, to Internet hosts. Consisting of
of two components, DHCP provides host-specific configuration parameters
from a DHCP Server to a host, and allocates network addresses to hosts.
Recent extensions to the DHCP protocol extends high-availability,
authenticated and QoS-dependent configuration of Internet hosts.
DHCP is based on the client-server model - a designated DHCP Server
allocates network addresses and delivers configuration values to dynamically
configured clients. Throughout this chapter, the term server refers to a host
providing initialization values via DHCP, and the term client refers to a host
requesting initialization values from a DHCP Server.
DHCP allocates IP addresses in two ways:
ˆ Dynamic allocation assigns an IP address to a client for a limited
interval - lease - (or until a client explicitly relinquishes its address).
ˆ Manual allocation involves a client IP address assigned by the
network administrator, with DHCP used simply to convey the
assigned address to the client.
DHCP messages are formatted similar to BOOTP messages to capture BOOTP
Relay Agent behavior and allow existing BOOTP clients to interoperate with
DHCP servers. DHCP is backward compatible with BOOTP (RFC-951).
Implemented as an improvement to BOOTP, DHCP differs from BOOTP by
its dynamically IP address allocation and lease definition capabilities.
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Features
The XSR offers the DHCP features:
ˆ Persistent storage/database of network values for network clients.
ˆ Persistent storage of network client lease states kept across reboot.
ˆ Temporary or permanent network (IP) address allocation to clients.
ˆ Network configuration parameter assignment to clients.
ˆ Provisioning of differentiated network values by Client Class
ˆ Persistent and user-controllable conflict avoidance to prevent
duplicate IP address including configurable ping checking.
ˆ Visibility of DHCP network activity and leases through operator
reports statistics and logs.
ˆ Nested scopes
DHCP Server Standards
The XSR supports the following:
ˆ DHCP Server as defined in RFC-2131, BOOTP Server and BOOTP
Relay as defined in RFC-951/RFC-1542, and BOOTP Client as defined
in RFC-1534: Interoperation Between DHCP and BOOTP (static BOOTP
only)
ˆ DHCP Server also supports RFC-2132: DHCP Options and BOOTP
Vendor Extensions and RFC-3004: User Class Option for DHCP.
ˆ DHCP Server and DHCP/BOOTP Relay services run on FastEthernet
ports only.
NOTE
If either DHCP/BOOTP Relay (using the ip helper-address command)
or DHCP Server is enabled on one FastEthernet port, you cannot also
configure the other service on the second FastEthernet port. The
XSR permits either one or the other service to operate, not both.
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How DHCP Works
How DHCP Works
DHCP’s client-server model defines a set of messages exchanged between
two systems. A simplified description client-server communications follows:
1
A client issues a broadcast message (DISCOVER) to locate available
DHCP Servers on its local subnet. This message may include
suggested values for the network address and duration of a lease.
Also, BOOTP relay agents may pass the message on to DHCP
Servers not on the same physical subnet.
2
A response (OFFER) is sent from a DHCP Server to the client with an
offer of configuration parameters including an available network IP
address, among others. Before the server actually allocates the new
address, it will check that the address is free by pinging it.
3
A client sends a message (REQUEST) to servers for one of the
following purposes:
– Requesting offered parameters from one server and implicitly
declining offers from all others,
– Confirming the correctness of a previously allocated address
after, for example, a system reboot,
– Extending the lease on a particular network address.
4
The selected server sends a message (ACK) to a client with
configuration parameters - a binding - including a committed network
address, client-identifier or hardware-address and commits its lease
to the binding database. Or, the server sends a message (NACK)
indicating the client’s idea of a network address is incorrect or the
client’s lease has expired.
5
The client performs a final check (ARPs the allocated network
address) on the parameters and at this point is configured.
6
The client may relinquish its lease on a network address by sending a
message (RELEASE) to the server identifying the lease with its client
identifier (hardware/network addresses). If the client used a client ID
when it got the lease, it will use the same identifier in the message.
Alternately, when a lease is near expiration, the client tries to renew it. If
unsuccessful in renewing by a certain period, the client enters a rebinding
state and sends a DISCOVER message to restart the process.
DHCP also sets various options/extensions to clients which are outlined in
“Assigned Network Configuration Values to Clients: Options” on page 299.
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DHCP Services
The DHCP services comprising the Bindings Database, leases, network
options, and Client Class configuration are described below.
Persistent Storage of Network Parameters for Clients
The first DHCP service is persistent storage of network parameters for
network clients, also known as the bindings database. The XSR directs the
Server to store a [key:value] entry for each client, where the key is some unique
identifier and the value contains configuration parameters for the client.
For example, the key might be the IP-subnet-number/hardware-address pair.
Alternately, the key might be the IP-subnet-number/hostname pair, allowing the
server to assign parameters intelligently to a DHCP client that has been
moved to a different subnet or has changed hardware addresses. DHCP
defines the key to be IP-subnet-number/hardware-address unless the client
explicitly supplies an identifier using the client identifier option. The XSR
stores host IP and client-hardware addresses, intervals, client-identifiers, and
client-names in the leases.cfg file.
Temporary or Permanent Network Address Allocation
The second DHCP service is temporary or permanent network (IP) address
allocation to clients. Network addresses are dynamically allocated simply by
a client requesting an address for an interval with the server guaranteeing not
to reallocate that address within the requested time and attempting to return
the same network address each time the client requests an address.
Lease
The period over which a network address is allocated to a client is called a
lease. A client may extend its lease with follow-up requests and may issue a
message to release the address back to the server when the address is no
longer needed. Also, a client may request a permanent assignment by asking
for an infinite lease. Even if it assigns permanent addresses, a server may
distribute lengthy but non-infinite leases to allow detection of a retired client.
In some environments network addresses must be reassigned due to the
exhaustion of available addresses. In this case, the allocation mechanism will
reuse addresses whose leases have expired. The server will use any available
data in the configuration data repository to choose an address for reuse.
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For example, the server may choose the least recently assigned address. As a
consistency check, the allocating server will also probe the reused address
before allocating the address - e.g., with an ICMP echo request - and the client
will also probe the newly received address - e.g., with ARP.
Assigned Network Configuration Values to Clients: Options
With the exception of IP address assignment to clients, the DHCP Server
provides a framework for passing configuration data to hosts on a TCP/IP
network. Configuration values and other control data are carried in tagged
data items which are stored in the options field of the DHCP message. The
data items themselves, also called options, are enabled on the XSR by the
options command specifying IP address, hex or ASCII string values.
Supported options are defined in the “Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
Commands” chapter of the XSR CLI Reference Guide.
RFC-1122 specifies default values for most IP/TCP configuration parameters.
Provisioning Differentiated Network Values by Client Class
One DHCP option - supported on the XSR by the client-class command groups clients into classes with differentiated configuration. A DHCP Server
selects appropriate parameters for the clients belonging to this class. For
example, a Client Class can configure all enterprise users in Accounting with
a different lease time than users in Marketing.
RFC-3004 defines the User Class (Client Class) option for DHCP.
BOOTP Legacy Support
The XSR provides backward compatibility with BOOTP clients. When
configured with a manual binding, it supplies a specified IP address to the
client as well as a TFTP server IP address and file name to download (with the
next-server command).
Refer to “BOOTP Client Support Example” on page 308 for more information.
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Nested Scopes: IP Pool Subsets
As mentioned earlier, one of the main functions of the DHCP Server is to
allocate IP addresses to clients. In that process, the DHCP Server works with
three scopes or resource sets responsible for aggregated DHCP attributes Pools or subnets, Client Classes, and Hosts. Scopes can be assigned other
attributes as well as IP addresses, and can nest these attributes hierarchically
much like files are organized in a directory tree. How these scopes interrelate
can be loosely illustrated as shown in Figure 52.
Pool (subnet)
192.168.57.0
Values are inherited
from outer scopes
Client Class
Elite
Values are inherited
from outer scopes
A nested scope may
override an outer
scope attribute
Host
lcurtis-xp
Attributes persist
at the Host level
Figure 52 DHCP Nested Scopes
The Pool scope in Figure 52 defines and manipulates IP addresses and
parameters. The Client Class scope manages sets of clients requesting DHCP
Server services. The Host scope controls DHCP user parameters.
When the DHCP Server surveys its clients by using the manual bindings of a
client-identifier or hardware-address, and host address, it generally inherits
attributes from an outer scope down to an inner scope. But, the DHCP Server
will override outermost attributes when they are found first at the Host scope.
For instance, if a domain-name is specified for lcurtis-xp in the Host scope and
another domain-name in the Pool scope for all clients on the 192.168.57.0
network, the DHCP Server will always select the Host scope attribute.
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Scope Caveat
Keep the following caveat in mind when configuring scopes: IP address pools
may not be configured to overlap. The following conditions apply:
–
–
IP local pools may have multiple DHCP Servers per subnet for
redundancy
Each DHCP Server should have a unique address pool that does
not overlap pools on other DHCP servers
For example, a correct IP range would be configured as follows:
On subnet 90.1.1.0/24, the DHCP Server A range can be from 90.1.1.1 to
90.1.1.150, and the DHCP Server B range can be from 90.1.1.151 to 90.1.1.254
Manual Bindings
An address binding is a mapping between the IP address and MAC address
or Client-ID of a client. You can manually assign the IP address of a client or
have it assigned automatically from a pool by a DHCP Server.
Manual bindings are IP addresses that have been manually mapped to the
MAC addresses of hosts recorded in the DHCP database. An unlimited
number of manual bindings are stored in the startup-config file.
Automatic bindings are IP addresses that have been automatically mapped to
the MAC addresses of hosts recorded in the DHCP database. Automatic
bindings are saved in persistent storage in the leases.cfg file.
Manual bindings are set up by first creating a host pool, then specifying the IP
address of the client and hardware-address or client-identifier. The hardware
address is the MAC address. The client identifier, which is required for
Microsoft clients (instead of a hardware address), is formed by concatenating
the media type and the MAC address of the client. To configure manual
bindings, perform the following steps:
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Enter ip dhcp pool <name> to create a name for the a DHCP Server
address pool and acquire DHCP pool configuration mode.
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2
Enter host address [mask | prefix-length] to specify the IP address
and subnet mask of the client.
The prefix length sets the number of bits that comprise the address
prefix. The prefix is an alternative to specifying the network mask of
the client. The prefix length must be preceded by a forward slash (/).
3
Perform one of the following actions:
– Specify a hardware address for the client. Enter:
hardware-address <hardware-address> <type> clientclass <name>
or
–
Specify the distinct identification of the client in dotted
hexadecimal notation; e.g., 01b7.0813.8811.66, where 01
represents the Ethernet media type. Enter:
client-identifier <unique-identifier> client-class
<name>
NOTE
Manual bindings can be added by performing steps 2 and 3 in any order.
But, when deleting a binding, enter the no form of the command (host,
hardware-address or client-identifier) entered first when created.
4
Optionally, specify the client name using any standard ASCII
character. Enter client-name <name>.
The client name should not include the domain name. For example,
the name acme should not be specified as acme.enterasys.com.
DHCP CLI Commands
The XSR offers CLI commands to provide the following functionality:
ˆ DHCP Server address pool(s) with related parameters and DHCP
options/vendor extensions. You can configure a DHCP address pool
with a name that is a symbolic string (e.g., Accounting) with ip dhcp
pool. Configuring a DHCP address pool also places you in DHCP
pool mode - (config-dhcp-pool)# - from which you can configure
pool parameters. The XSR supports adding 1000 network addresses
per pool and one DHCP pool per network.
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DHCP CLI Commands
ˆ Create manual bindings of IP addresses and client hardware
addresses - Manual bindings are comprised of:
host - the DHCP client’s IP address and subnet mask or prefix
length, entered with host
– hardware-address - the DHCP client’s MAC address and platform
protocol, entered with hardware-address, or
– client-identifier - the DHCP client’s unique marker is its combined
media type and MAC address, entered with client-identifier.
ˆ Delete client bindings from the DHCP Server. Clear ip dhcp
binding removes an automatic address binding from the DHCP
database; no host, no hardware-address or no client-id
remove manual bindings depending on which command was entered
first when the binding was created.
–
ˆ DHCP Server boot file(s) - The boot file is used to store a boot image
for the client. The boot image is often the operating system a client
uses to load. It is configured with bootfile.
ˆ Enable BOOTP Relay by configuring a destination address for UDP
broadcasts with ip helper-address.
ˆ Set domain name and DNS server - To put a client in the general group
of networks comprising the domain, use domain-name. To specify the
DNS server clients query when they need to correlate host names to IP
addresses, use dns-server.
ˆ Specify the NetBIOS server and node type for Microsoft clients DHCP clients query DNS servers when they must resolve host names
to IP addresses; enter an IP address of the NetBIOS MS WINS server
using netbios-name-server. The XSR supports four node types of
DHCP clients: broadcast, peer-to-peer, mixed, and hybrid. They can
be specified using netbios-node-type.
ˆ Configure a default router for the client - After a DHCP client has
booted, the client begins sending packets to its default router. The IP
address of the default router is required and should be on the same
subnet as the client. Set using default-router.
ˆ Configure the address lease time - IP addresses assigned by a DHCP
Server have a one-day lease - the interval during which the address is
valid. Specify with lease.
ˆ Set the number of ping packets and ping wait interval - the DHCP Server
pings an IP address twice before assigning a particular address to a
requesting client. If the ping is unanswered, the server assumes (with a
high probability) that the address is not in use and assigns the address to
the requesting client. Use ip dhcp ping packets to change the
number of ping packets the server should send to the IP address before
assigning the address.
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DHCP Set Up Overview
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Use ip dhcp ping timeout to specify the period the server must wait
before timing out a ping request.
ˆ Monitor and maintain DHCP Server services by issuing the following
show commands. Show ip dhcp bindings displays bindings data on
the DHCP Server including lease expiration dates. Show ip dhcp
conflict displays address conflicts found by a DHCP Server when
addresses are offered to the client. Show ip dhcp server
statistics is a useful catch-all command. Show ip local pool
shows a list of active IP local pools, excluded and in use IP addresses.
DHCP Set Up Overview
Configuring DHCP Address Pools
The DHCP Server is configured by performing the following:
ˆ Allocate one or more address pools for DHCP clients. These pools can
specify addresses on the local subnets of the router or external
subnets whose clients reach the DHCP Server using BOOTP Relay.
ˆ Exclude any addresses from these pools which must restricted and
map to the DHCP pool.
ˆ For each pool, define the set of DHCP network configuration
parameters to be supplied to clients.
ˆ Add manual (static) bindings to the DHCP pool configuration.
ˆ Enable the DHCP Server on a FastEthernet interface only.
Configuring DHCP - Network Configuration Parameters
The DHCP Server can supply network configuration parameters; e.g., the IP
address of the DNS Server to its clients.
A DHCP client may require a large set of configuration parameters. Likewise,
a network may contain a variety of different client types, each needing a
different (possibly unique) set of network parameters.
The XSR’s DHCP setup is minimized for elaborate configuration by the use of
scopes.
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Configuration Steps
Configuration Steps
Only four steps are required to minimally configure DHCP. They are:
ˆ Create an IP Local Client Pool
ˆ Create a Corresponding DHCP Pool
ˆ Configure DHCP Network Parameters
ˆ Enable the DHCP Server
Optionally, you can also:
ˆ Set up a DHCP Nested Scope
ˆ Configure a DHCP Manual Binding
These steps are described in the following sections.
Create an IP Local Client Pool
Begin DHCP configuration by specifying a pool of IP addresses for clients on
a local or remote subnet (set via BOOTP Relay Agent). For this example, the
local interface is assigned IP address 1.1.1.2 255.255.255.0.
1
Add global pool local_clients including the starting IP address of the
range and addresses that are unreachable to network clients:
XSR(config)#ip local pool local_clients 1.1.1.0/24
XSR(ip-local-pool)#exclude 1.1.1.249 6
Create a Corresponding DHCP Pool
2
Map this local pool to a DHCP pool by specifying the correct name:
XSR(config)#ip dhcp pool local_clients
Configure DHCP Network Parameters
3
On the pool just supplied to DHCP, define some attributes for network
clients. They include the lease duration (dynamic leases) of two hours
and 30 minutes, IP addresses of the default router and DNS server
(these IP addresses derive from the excluded address range on the
IP local pool), and the Enterasys.com domain name.
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#lease 0 2 30
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#default-router 1.1.1.249 1.1.1.250
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#dns-server 1.1.1.254
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XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#domain-name ets.enterasys.com
NOTE
Some values can also be configured for a Client-Class or Host scope.
Enable the DHCP Server
4
Initialize the DHCP Server on FastEthernet interface 2:
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2
XSR(config-if<F2>#ip dhcp server
Optional: Set Up a DHCP Nested Scope
5
Continue configuring local_clients by creating a named client-class
and using it to override the lease time. Clients presenting this name in
DHCP messages will get the shorter lease time but will continue to
receive dns-server and other values defined in the pool.
XSR(config)#ip dhcp pool local_clients
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#client-class class1
XSR(config-dhcp-class)#lease 0 0 30
6
Extend the client-class attributes to include the address of a
NetBIOS-name-server:
XSR(config-dhcp-class)#netbios-name-server 1.1.1.253
Optional: Configure a DHCP Manual Binding
7
Add a manual binding in the local_client pool:
XSR(config-dhcp-class)#host 1.1.1.7 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-dhcp-host)#hardware-address 1111.2222.3333 1
8
Add to the host scope by specifying the NetBIOS-node-type for this
particular host:
XSR(config-dhcp-host)#netbios-node-type h-node
9
Specify any numbered options. For example, setting DHCP option 28
specifies the broadcast address in use on the client's subnet:
XSR(config)#ip dhcp pool local_clients
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#option 28 ip 255.255.255.255
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DHCP Server Configuration Examples
DHCP Server Configuration Examples
The following examples configure DHCP with different options. For DHCP
implementations with firewall configured, refer to “Configuring Security on
the XSR” on page 311.
Pool with Hybrid Servers Example
In the following example, the single DHCP pool dpool is created and two
default routers defined: 168.16.22.100 (higher preference) and 168.16.22.101
(lower preference). The domain name enterasys.com is specified and a list of
two DNS servers defined - 168.16.33.102 (higher) and 168.16.33.103 (lower).
NetBIOS servers are specified as type hybrid - 168.16.44.103 (higher) and
168.16.44.104 (lower). Finally, the lease time for all clients is limited to 10 days.
XSR(config)#ip local pool dpool 168.16.22.0/24
XSR(config)#ip dhcp pool dpool
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#default-router 168.16.22.100 168.16.22.101
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#domain-name enterasys.com
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#dns-server 168.16.33.102 168.16.33.103
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#netbios-name-server 168.16.44.103 168.16.44.104
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#netbios-node-type h-node
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#lease 10
Manual Binding Example
In the following example, the single DHCP pool dpool is created with a
domain name enterasys.com. A host is defined with MAC address
00:f0:12:11:22:a1 in dotted decimal format and a manual binding is specified
by IP address 1.1.1.20 and mask 255.255.255.0.
The domain name for this host is specified as ent.com (this will override
enterasys.com specified for this pool).
XSR(config)#ip local pool dpool 1.1.1.0/24
XSR(config)#ip dhcp pool dpool
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#domain-name enterasys.com
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#hardware-address 00f0.1211.22a1
XSR(config-dhcp-host)#host 1.1.1.20 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-dhcp-host)#domain-name ent.com
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Manual Binding with Class Example
In the following example, the single DHCP pool dpool is created with the
domain name enterasys.com. A class engineering is defined. The domain name
for all hosts is ent.com. A host is defined with a MAC address in dotted
decimal format. A manual binding is specified by IP address 1.1.1.20 and
mask 255.255.255.0.
The domain name for this host is specified as indusriver.com (this will override
enterasys.com specified for this pool, and ent.com specified for the class).
XSR(config)#ip local pool dpool 1.1.1.0/24
XSR(config)#ip dhcp pool dpool
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#domain-name enterasys.com
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#client-class engineering
XSR(config-dhcp-class)#domain-name ent.com
XSR(config-dhcp-class)#hardware-address 00f0.1211.22a1
XSR(config-dhcp-host)#host 1.1.1.20 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-dhcp-host)#domain-name indusriver.com
BOOTP Client Support Example
In the following example, the XSR is configured to support a BOOTP client to
download an image file from a TFTP server. Configured within the DHCP
pool BOOTPdownload, the client is assigned a manual binding of host IP and
hardware addresses (or optionally, its client-id), the TFTP server’s IP address,
and the name of the file to be downloaded, acme.hex. Also, a static ARP entry
is configured.
XSR(config)#ip dhcp pool BOOTPdownload
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#host 192.168.1.33 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#next-server 192.168.1.234
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#bootfile acme.hex
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#hardware-address 0000.1d11.e829
XSR(config)#arp 192.168.1.33 0000.1D11.E829
When the MAC address 0000.1d11.e829 (BOOTP client) transmits a BOOTP
request, the DHCP server will respond with the IP address 192.168.1.33, the
boot file name acme.hex and the next-server IP address 192.168.1.234.
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DHCP Server Configuration Examples
DHCP Option Examples
The following sample DHCP option configurations illustrate the three types
of option parameters prompted for by the CLI: IP address, ASCII and hex. For
more examples, refer to the XSR User’s Manual.
The following example configures DHCP option 3, which lists the IP
addresses of four default routers on the DHCP client's subnet in descending
order of preference. This setting can also be configured by the DHCP
default-router command. Be sure to first exclude these addresses from the
IP local pool to prevent them from being allocated by the DHCP server.
XSR(config-dhcp-pool)#option 3 ip 192.168.57.90 192.168.57.26
192.168.57.54 192.168.57.78
The following example configures DHCP option 12, which specifies the host
name of a client which may or may not be qualified with the local domain
name. The option parameter is expressed in ASCII text but can also be
configured by the DHCP client-name command. The name should not
include the domain name.
XSR(config-dhcp-host)#option 12 ascii jonah
The following example configures DHCP option 29, which specifies that the
the client will perform subnet mask discovery using ICMP.
XSR(config-dhcp-host)#option 29 hex 01
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Configuring Security on the XSR
This chapter describes the security options available on the XSR including the
firewall feature set and methods to protect against hacker attacks.
Features
The following security features are supported on the XSR:
ˆ Standard and Extended Access Control Lists (ACL)
ˆ Protection against LANd attack: Destination IP equals Source IP
ˆ Protection against ICMP echo to directed subnet
ˆ Protection against UDP echo request to directed subnet broadcast
ˆ IP packet with multicast/broadcast source address
ˆ Spoofed address checking
ˆ SYN flood, FIN attack mitigation
ˆ TCP server resource release
ˆ ICMP traffic filtering based on IP data length, IP offset, IP
fragmentation bits including:
– Fragmented ICMP traffic
– Large ICMP packets
– Ping of Death attack
ˆ Filter TCP traffic with SYN, and FIN bits set
ˆ AAA services
ˆ Firewall feature set
NOTE
Activating any of the above features will affect system performance.
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Access Control Lists
Access Control Lists (ACL) impose selection criteria for specific types of
packets, which when used in conjunction with other functions can restrict
Layer 3 traffic through the XSR. They are configured as follows:
ˆ Standard access lists (1-99) restrict traffic based on source IP addresses
ˆ Extended access lists (100-199) filter traffic from source and destination
IP addresses, protocol type (ICMP, TCP, UDP, GRE, ESP, AH), port
number ((TCP, UDP), and type/code (ICMP)
To configure ACLs, you define them by number only then apply them to an
interface. Any number of entries can be defined in a single ACL and may
actually conflict, but they are analyzed in the order in which they appear in
the show access-lists command.
Input and output filters are applied separately and an interface can have only
one ACL applied to its input side, and one to its output side. Also, the ACL
netmask is complemented. For example, 0.0.0.255 indicates that the least
significant byte is ignored.
The XSR implementation of ACLs is limited by the following conditions:
ˆ The total number of ACL entries allowed is 500
ˆ For crypto maps and ACLs applied to the same interface, the XSR
gives precedence to the crypto map, which is always consulted before
the ACL on a port for both inbound and outbound traffic. If IPSec
encrypts or decrypts packets due to the crypto map configuration
then the ACL is ignored.
Packet Filtering
Packet filtering is configured via standard and extended access-list
commands. For more information, refer to the XSR CLI Reference Guide.
LANd Attack
Protection against LANd attacks is triggered when a packet arrives with the
IP source address equal to the IP destination address. This is an illegal IP
packet and it is discarded by the XSR when the protection is enabled with the
HostDos command. See the Firewall section for more details.
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Features
Smurf Attack
A “smurf” attack involves an attacker sending ICMP echo requests from a
falsified source (a spoofed address) to a directed broadcast address, causing
all hosts on the target subnet to reply to the falsified source. By sending a
continuous stream of such requests, the attacker can create a much larger
stream of replies, inundating the host whose address is being falsified.
The XSR protects against smurf attacks by turning off directed broadcast and
turning on checkspoofing. Refer to “Configuring IP” on page 63 and the XSR
CLI Reference Guide for more information on IP directed broadcast.
Fraggle Attack
A “fraggle” attack involves a UDP Echo-directed broadcast. It is similar to a
smurf attack but differs in that it uses UDP instead of ICMP packets.
The XSR protects against a fraggle attack by turning off directed broadcast
and turning on checkspoofing. Refer to “Configuring IP” on page 63.
IP Packet with Multicast/Broadcast Source Address
This type of attack involves an illegal IP packet. Because XSR interfaces are
programmed to discard these packets, no user configuration is necessary.
Spoofed Address Check
This feature allows spoofing of IP source addresses by checking the source
address of a packet against the routing table to ensure the return path of the
packet is through the interface it was received on.
SYN Flood Attack Mitigation
Also known as a Denial of Service (DoS) attack, this involves a hacker
flooding a server with a barrage of requests for access to unreachable return
addresses. Since the return addresses are unreachable, the connections cannot
be built and the ensuing volume of unresolved open connections eventually
overwhelms the server, causing service denial to valid requests. A SYN flood
attack against the XSR is defended by the router not checking transit packets.
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This feature is always enabled, and the maximum number of TCP sessions
allowed is set at run time, depending on the number of TCP applications
running, and the maximum number of sessions each of them could have. Any
connection attempt above this number is denied.
Fragmented and Large ICMP Packets
The XSR offers these features to filter ICMP traffic based on IP data length, IP
offset, and IP fragmentation bits. They apply to packets destined for the XSR.
Transit packets will not be checked.
Fragmented ICMP Traffic
This protection is triggered for ICMP packets with the “more fragments” flag
set to 1, or an offset indicated in the offset field. Such packets are dropped by
the XSR if the protection is enabled with the HostDoS command.
Large ICMP Packets
This protection is triggered for ICMP packets larger than a size you can
configure. Such packets are dropped by the XSR if the protection is enabled
with the HostDoS command.
Ping of Death Attack
This protection is triggered when an ICMP packet is received with the “more
fragments” bit set to 0, and ((IP offset * 8) + IP data length) greater than 65535.
As the maximum size for an IP datagram is 65535, this could cause a buffer
overflow. Such packets are always dropped automatically by the XSR.
Spurious State Transition
Protection against spurious state transition concerns TCP packets with Syn
and Fin bits set. This type of attack occurs when an intruder attempts to stall a
network port for a very long time, using the state transition from state
SYN_RCVD to CLOSE_WAIT, by sending a packet with both SYN and FIN
flags set to a host.
The host first processes the SYN flag, generates the ACK packet back, and
changes its state to SYN_RCVD. Then it processes the FIN flag, performs a
transition to CLOSE_WAIT, and sends the ACK packet back.
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General Security Precautions
The attacker does not send any other packet, and the state machine of the host
remains in CLOSE_WAIT state until the keep-alive timer resets it to the
CLOSED state. To protect against this attack the XSR checks for TCP packets
with both SYN and FIN flags set. With protection always enabled, these
packets are harmlessly dropped.
This feature is supported for packets destined for the XSR. Transit packets
will be checked.
General Security Precautions
To ensure security on the XSR, we recommend you take these precautions:
ˆ Limit physical access
ˆ Avoid connecting a modem to the console port
ˆ Download the latest security patches
ˆ Retain secured backup copies of device configurations
ˆ Plan all configuration changes and prepare a back-out procedure if
they go wrong
ˆ Keep track of all configuration changes made to all devices
ˆ Create a database that tracks the OS version, description of last
change, back-out procedure, and administrative owner of all routers
ˆ Avoid entering clear text passwords in the configuration script
ˆ Be sure to change all default passwords
ˆ Use strong passwords not found in the dictionary
ˆ Change passwords when the IT staff departs
ˆ Age passwords after 30 to 60 days
ˆ Grant the correct privilege levels to particular users only
ˆ Set reasonable timeouts for console and remote management sessions
ˆ If you must enable PPP on the WAN, use CHAP authentication
ˆ Disable all unnecessary router services (e.g., HTTP, if not used)
ˆ Write strict ACLs to limit HTTP, Telnet and SNMP access
ˆ Write ACLs to limit the type of ICMP messages
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ˆ Create ACLs to direct services to appropriate servers only
ˆ Enable packet filtering and attack prevention mechanisms
ˆ All only packets with valid source addresses to exit the network
ˆ If using SNMP, use strong community names and set read-only access
ˆ Minimize console logging to limit unnecessary CPU cycles
ˆ Use OSPF rather than RIP to take advantage of MD5 authentication
ˆ Control which router interfaces can be used to manage the XSR
ˆ Use an SNTP server on the DMZ to synchronize XSR clocks
ˆ Use syslog to send messages to a designated syslog server
AAA Services
The XSR provides Authentication, Authorization and Accounting (AAA)
services to validate and display data for AAA usergroups, users, and methods.
For Telnet/Console and SSH users, two authentication mechanisms are
available, as follows:
ˆ CLI database authentication - This is the authentication mode used for
Telnet/Console and SSH users by default. Users are authenticated
against the CLI database created by the username command. This
mechanism does not provide for RADIUS authentication.
ˆ AAA user database authentication - This mechanism allows
Telnet/Console and SSH users to use the AAA module which
provides further authentication by various AAA methods including
RADIUS. The aaa client telnet command switches all
Telnet/Console users to authenticate via the AAA user database. The
aaa client ssh command switches all SSH users to authenticate via
the AAA user database.
A few restrictions apply when switching Telnet/Console and SSH users to
authenticate via this mechanism, as follows:
ˆ No pre-existing privilege-15 admin user exists in the AAA database.
ˆ Before switching over to AAA for Telnet or SSH, at least one privilege
15 user with a Telnet/SSH policy must exist in the AAA database.
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AAA Services
ˆ Deleting the only privilege-15 user with Telnet or SSH policy is
disallowed to prevent any accidental loss of access to the XSR.
There are two types of default AAA methods, as follows:
ˆ The default AAA method for the AAA service. This is set using the
aaa method [local | pki | radius] default command. By
default, the local method is the default AAA method for the AAA
service.
ˆ The default AAA method for individual clients such as VPN, SSH,
Firewall, and Telnet. This is set on a per client basis via the client
{telnet | ssh | firewall | vpn} sub-command under the aaa
method command.
If the latter default is not specified for a client, the former default applies.
The method for performing AAA is configured with the top-level aaa method
command, which is sub-divided into acct-port, address, attempts, authport, backup, client, enable, group, hash enable, key, qtimeout,
retransmit, and timeout sub-commands. The default method for AAA
service is set to local by default. But if you wish, you can authenticate to a
RADIUS server or PKI database. Most of the AAA method sub-commands
are available for RADIUS service only (refer to “Firewall Configuration for
RADIUS Authentication and Accounting” on page 352 for details).
The AAA method sub-command client sets the default AAA method for any
of these client services: VPN, Telnet, Firewall or SSH. If you do not invoke this
command, the AAA service’s default method (set by aaa method [local |
pki | radius] default) will apply. For example, if the default method has
not been set for Telnet using the client telnet sub-command under aaa
method, then the default method for AAA service will be used.
Additional AAA method sub-commands acct-port and auth-port set
UDP ports for accounting and authentication requests, respectively.
AAA users can be added to AAA service with the top-level aaa user
command, which is sub-divided into group, ip address, password,
privilege, and policy sub-commands which set those users’ respective
attributes.
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While most of these parameters are self-explanatory, the policy value is
important in specifying which system each user will be allowed to access on
the XSR. The module options are: firewall, ssh, telnet, and vpn.. Their
intended functions are, as follows:
ˆ Telnet/Console: administrators and low-level Console users who will
use the standard serial connection application
ˆ SSH: users who will require a more secure Telnet-type connection
ˆ Firewall: users who will access the firewall
ˆ VPN: users who will tunnel in to the XSR
AAA users can be assigned to groups with the aaa group top-level
command, which is sub-divided into dns and wins server, ip pool, l2tp
and pptp compression, pptp encrypt mppe, privilege, and policy subcommands to set that group’s respective parameters. Any users not
specifically assigned to a group are added to the DEFAULT AAA group.
Policies can be set at both the user and group level but a user-level policy
overrides a user’s group-level policy.
Although AAA authentication is set by the service not the user, you can
override this rule by configuring a user with the @ ([email protected]). The
XSR checks if the @-configured user is configured before enabling the default
authentication service.
Refer to the following section to configure SSH or Telnet with AAA
authentication.
Connecting Remotely via SSH or Telnet with AAA Service
Perform the following commands to configure SSH or Telnet service:
1
Enter configure to acquire Configuration mode.
2
Enter crypto key master generate to create a master key.
3
Enter crypto key dsa generate to create a host key pair on the XSR.
When successful, this message will display: Keys are generated,
new connetions will use these keys for authentication
4
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If you wish to connect using SSH, perform the following steps,
otherwise skip to Step 15 for Telnet configuration.
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5
AAA Services
Install a freeware program such as PuTTY on your client device. If
you load PuTTY, enable these options for maximum ease of use:
– Click Session, Close window on exit, Never. See Figure 53.
– Click Terminal, Local echo, Force off.
– Click Terminal, local line editing, Force off.
– Click Connection, SSH, Don't allocate a pseudo-terminal.
Figure 53 PuTTY Exit Option
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Enter session-timeout ssh <15-35000> to set the idle timeout
period.
7
Optionally, if you want to tighten security on the XSR, enter ip telnet
server disable to deactivateTelnet.
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8
Enter aaa user <name> to create an authenticated user and acquire
AAA user mode.
9
Enter password <your password> for the newly created user.
10 Enter privilege 15 to set the highest privilege level for the user.
11 Enter policy ssh to enable SSH access for the user.
12 Enter exit to quit AAA user mode.
13 Enter aaa client ssh to enable AAA client SSH user authentication.
If you also want to enable Telnet, enter aaa client telnet. The XSR is
now ready to connect the remote login user.
14 Perform Steps 7-10.
15 Enter session-timeout telnet <15-35000> to set the idle timeout
period.
16 Optionally, if you want to tighten security on the XSR, enter ip ssh
server disable to deactivate SSH.
17 Enter policy telnet to enable Telnet access for the new user.
18 Enter exit to quit AAA user mode.
19 Enter aaa client telnet to permit the new user to employ Telnet.
The XSR is now ready to connect remote login users.
Remember to save your configuration after all edits.
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Firewall Feature Set Overview
Firewall Feature Set Overview
A firewall is defined generally as a set of related applications or a device
dedicated to protect the enterprise network. Placed at any entryway to a
corporation’s private network, a firewall examines all packets arriving from
the Internet and admits or bars traffic based upon its policies. A firewall may
also control inside access to destinations on the Internet or interior resources.
Fundamentally, a firewall monitors and filters network traffic. Depending on
your enterprise needs, you can set up a simple or more robust firewall. For
instance, application-level filtering can be matched to source/destination IP
addresses and port numbers for FTP, HTTP, or Telnet; protocol-level filtering
can be set on IP protocols such as OSPF, IGP or ICMP; and stateful filtering can
be applied to a session’s state.
Reasons for Installing a Firewall
The rationale for installing a firewall can include the following:
ˆ Provide a focal point for security decisions
ˆ Segment networks into discrete security zones
ˆ Enforce security policy between different security zones to protect
proprietary information from falling into the wrong hands
ˆ Enable users to safely connect to and conduct business over a public,
untrusted network (Internet):
–
–
Restrict undesirable traffic that may otherwise flow between
your internal hosts and the Internet
Protect internal networks from hostile and malicious attacks
ˆ Log network activity
ˆ Limit your exposure in case of a successful attack
Ideally, these network nodes should be checked daily for security holes, but
since that is impractical, the next best course is to run a firewall to block all
non-essential ports and cut the risk of attack. A firewall can be conceived as a
virtual wall through which “holes” or ports are opened to allow permitted
traffic through as shown in Figure 54 which illustrates a topology using the
XSR firewall feature set.
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Internet
External
Firewall
inspection
enabled
SMTP server
Policy DB
DMZ
XSR
Router
Firewall
inspection
enabled
HTTP server
Internal
Client
Figure 54 XSR Firewall Topology
There are many possible network configurations for a firewall. The figure
above shows a scenario with the firewall connected to the trusted network
(internal) and servers that can be accessed externally (via the DMZ).
The XSR firewall feature set inspects packets coming in from open ports and
either passes them on to the router or drops them based on policies defined in
the policy database which is configured using the XSR’s CLI.
In this example, the firewall acts as a shield for traffic coming in and out of the
external and DMZ networks. The internal interface does not have nor does it
need firewall inspection enabled because it is a trusted network.
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While this flexibility is useful, it emphasizes the fact that the shield is only as
effective as the intelligence of the policies. Functionally, the XSR’s policy
database defines the configuration and retains information about the sessions
currently allowed through the firewall.
Types of Firewalls
Generally speaking, there are three types of firewalls: Access Control List
(ACL) or Packet Filter, Application Level Gateway (ALG) or Proxy, and
Stateful Inspection. Each of these firewall types operate at different layers of
the TCP/IP network model, using different criteria to restrict traffic.
ACL and Packet Filter Firewalls
ACL and packet filter firewalls statically apply security policy to a packet’s
contents according to pre-configured rules you specify such as permitted or
denied source and destination addresses and port numbers. These firewalls
are scalable, easy to implement and widely deployed for simple Network
layer filtering, but they suffer the following disadvantages:
ˆ Do not maintain states for an individual session nor track a session
establishment protocol. Ports are usually always open or blocked
ˆ Do not examine application data
ˆ Do not work well with applications which open secondary data
channels using embedded port information in the protocol - “difficult
protocols” such as FTP and H.323 (video conferencing applications)
ˆ Cannot detect protocol-level problems and attacks
ˆ Less secure than stateful inspection or proxy firewalls
ALG and Proxy Firewalls
ALG or proxy firewalls filter packets at the top of the stack - Layer 5. They:
ˆ Act as an agent (proxy) between IP client and server transactions. A
proxy server often runs on dedicated, hardened operating systems
with limited functionality, offering less of a chance to be
compromised
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ˆ Filter bad packets and bad contents to protect internal hosts incapable
of protecting themselves against these attacks:
–
–
–
–
Bad packets (too long or too short)
Un-recognized commands (possible attack)
Legal but undesirable commands/operations (as set by policy)
Objectionable contents (content and URL filtering)
ˆ Drop incoming/outgoing connections such as FTP, gopher, or Telnet
applications at the proxy firewall first
ˆ Create two connections, one from the client to the firewall, the other
from the firewall to the actual server. This generates a completely
new packet which is sent to the actual server based on its data “read”
of the incoming packet and correct implementation of the
application's protocol. When the server replies, the proxy firewall
again interprets and regenerates a new packet to send to the client.
ˆ Build another layer of protection between interior hosts and the
external world forcing a hacker to first break into the proxy server in
order to launch attack on internal hosts
But the above advantages of an application or proxy firewall are offset by the
following weaknesses:
ˆ Higher overhead - because it is usually implemented at the Application
layer, additional processing is needed to transfer packets between the
kernel and the proxy application
ˆ Non-scalability - support for a new protocol or a new feature of an
existing protocol often lags by months or years
ˆ Non-transparency - proxy server users may discover the server bars an
application, forcing users to find alternatives
Stateful Inspection Firewalls
A stateful inspection firewall combines the aspects of other firewalls to filter
packets at the network layer, determine whether session packets are
legitimate and evaluate the payload of packets at the application layer.
It allows a direct connection between client and host, alleviating the lack of
transparency of ALGs. Also, it employs algorithms to recognize and process
Layer 5 data rather than run application-specific proxies.
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XSR Firewall Feature Set Functionality
Additionally, a stateful inspection firewall provides:
ˆ Inspection of a packet’s communication and application state acquired from past communication data throughout all layers. For
example, an FTP session’s PORT command can be saved to verify an
incoming FTP data connection
ˆ Dynamic filtering by opening ports only if the configured policy
permits and when the application requires it
ˆ The strongest security with the least processing overhead and fastest
performance because stateful inspection is implemented in the kernel
ˆ An Application Layer Gateway (ALG) to support applications which
dynamically allocate ports for secondary data streams. ALGs apply
stateful inspection to a difficult protocol such as FTP or H.323 by
tracking control messages between client and server and learning the
correct port number to open at the correct time.
ˆ Smart service filtering and blocking. For example, it blocks unauthorized commands to an Email server, avoiding possible attacks
ˆ More intelligent packet flooding attack prevention
ˆ The capacity to search for and reject non-forming packets
XSR Firewall Feature Set Functionality
The XSR’s firewall feature set provides the following functionality:
Stateful Firewall Inspection (SFI) - Stateful inspection is provided for TCP and
UDP packets and monitoring of all incoming and outgoing TCP/UDP sessions.
Incoming sessions must be explicitly allowed by configuring policy rules.
For TCP, sessions are created and deleted by monitoring TCP SYN/ACK/FIN
flags. Sessions for UDP are created based on packet flows with the first
outbound UDP packet creating the session. Inactivity for an interval deletes
the session.
Stateful inspection is available for user-defined applications as well as those
shown in Table 12. Enter the show ip firewall services command for
associated source and destination port ranges and TCP/UDP affiliations.
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Table 12 Pre-defined Services
ANY_TCP
ANY_UDP
AOL
AuthUDP
AudioCallCtrl
Bootp
Bootpc
Bootp_relay
DNSTCP
DNSUDP
Finger
FTP
H323
HTTP
ICAClient
ICABrowse
IdentD
IMAP
IMAPS
IRC
ISAKMP
KerberosAdmTCP
KerberosAdmUDP
KerberosTCP
KerberosUDP
klogin
L2TP
LDAP
Login
LotusNotes
Microsoft_ds
MSN
NetBIOS_ns
NetBIOS_tcp
NetBIOS_udp
NFSTCP
NFSUDP
NNTP
NTP_UDP
PCAnywhere
POP3
POP3S
PPTP
Radius
Radius_ACCT
RealAudio
RealPlayer
RealPlayerG2
RealPlayerUDP
Route
SMB_TCP
SMS
SMTP
SNMP
SNMP_TRAP
SSH
SSL
SysLog
T120
Telnet
TermServ
TFTP
TimeUDP
ULS
WhoIs
XDMCP
X11
Filtering non TCP/UDP packets - Non TCP and UDP IP packets are controlled
by a separate filtering mechanism and configured with a filter object. All non
TCP and UDP packets are dropped by default. In order to pass a particular IP
protocol packet through the firewall, you must configure a filter object for
that protocol with the correct source and destination addresses.
Application level commands - A special action option - Command Level Security
(CLS) - to filter inter-protocol actions within several protocols. The CLS
examines the message type produced by the application being filtered and
either passes or drops specific application commands. For example, FTP GETs
can be allowed but PUTs denied. These protocols are supported:
ˆ File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
ˆ Simple Mail Transport Protocol (SMTP)
ˆ Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
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Application Level Gateway - Support for FTP and H.323 version 2 protocols
Denial of Service (DoS) attack protection - Security for internal hosts against a
common set of DoS attacks when the firewall is enabled (globally and per
interface). The firewall also uses the XSR’s HostDoS feature to perform antispoofing - it enforces hostDos checkspoof for any firewall-enabled interface
regardless of the hostDoS checkspoof setting. Checkspoofing is perfomred by
validating the source IP address against the Routing table. If a packet is
received from an interface with a source IP address that is not routable
through this interface, it is considered spoofed and dropped. See the XSR CLI
Reference Guide for more information.
A high priority log is generated when DoS attacks are detected. The following
DoS attacks are covered:
ˆ Anti-Spoofing - In response to a spoof attack, the firewall drops all
packets with a source address belonging to an internal network when
received from an external interface. Packets from an internal interface
with a source address not in the network will also be dropped.
ˆ ICMP Flood - In response to ICMP echo requests that are received
from different source addresses at a very high rate, the firewall sets a
rate limit of ICMP echo requests processed per second.
ˆ Ping of Death - In response, fragmented echo requests are dropped.
ˆ Smurf attack - In response to a smurf attack where ICMP echo requests
with the directed broadcast address is the destination and the source
is any host, the firewall will filter echo requests to directed broadcasts
or all directed broadcast packets.
ˆ SYN Flood - In response to a continuous stream of TCP open packets
(SYN bit set) targeting an address, the firewall will limit the number
of half-open TCP connections and set a max rate of TCP links.
ˆ Tear drop - In response to receiving IP fragments that overlap, the
firewall will track fragments received for every session, detect bad
offsets and drop the entire packet (all fragments).
ˆ Christmas Tree - When a TCP packet is received with all flags set, TCP
packets with any two of the SYN, FIN or RST bits set are dropped.
ˆ LANd - In response to receiving a TCP SYNC packet with the same
source and destination address, the firewall will drop any packet
with same source and destination address.
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Alarm Logging - The XSR supports Console and Syslog logging and provides
session usage data using the allow-log/log options. If you want to enable
persistent logging which preserves logs after a system reboot, you must install
a CompactFlash memory card in the XSR. Logs stored in Flash are purged
during a system reboot unless the XSR senses the presence of CompactFlash.
Alarms - The XSR generates firewall alarms in the following categories:
ˆ TCP and UDP packets
–
–
–
–
Permitted connect and disconnect
Blocked connects and disconnects
Blocked data packet
Individual packet logging per user configured firewall policy (by
stipulating allow_log or log)
ˆ IP option Permit or Deny logs
ˆ Other Protocols Permit or Deny Logs
–
–
–
OSPF, ESP, RIP, GRE
ICMP
Broadcast, multicast
ˆ Specific FTP, HTTP and SMTP requests logs
ˆ Flooding attacks (TCP, UDP, ICMP) logs
ˆ Firewall start and restart
ˆ Failures (out of memory)
A sample Web access (port 80) permit alarm, which logs at level 4, displays:
FW: Permit: Port-2, Out TCP Con_Req, 10.10.10.10(1042) -> 192.168.1.200(80)
FW: TCP new session request. 10.10.10.10(1042) -> 192.168.1.200(80)
FW: Permit: Port-1, TCP Con_Est, 192.168.1.200(80) -> 10.10.10.10(1042)
FW: TCP connection closed 192.168.1.200(80) -> 10.10.10.10(1042)
A sample client open connection to the FTP server (port 21) alarm displays:
FW: Permit: Port-1, Out TCP Con_Req, 10.10.10.10(1056) -> 192.168.1.100(21)
FW: TCP new session request. 10.10.10.10(1056) -> 192.168.1.100(21)
FW: Permit: Port-1, TCP Con_Est, 192.168.1.100(21) -> 10.10.10.10(1056)
The IP addresses cited in firewall alarms are selected as follows:
–
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–
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If no syslog server is configured, alarms will contain the IP
address of the first circuit. FE1 will be checked first, then FE2,
then any WAN interface etc., until an IP address is obtained.
If no interfaces have been configured with an IP address, the
hostname will be used.
Authentication - AAA services provide secure access across the firewall
delineated by several levels: user, client and session. This release supports only
client authentication which verifies a remote host based on its IP address. All
firewall policy rules that specify allow-auth as the action check the source IP
address of the received packet in the auth cache before approving the session.
For the remote user, the XSR requires manual sign-on using Telnet to the
default port 3000 or another configured port. The user is prompted for a user
name and password, and those credentials are checked with either an
authentication server (RADIUS) or a local database on the XSR (see
Figure 55).
1
Telnet server
Internet
3
Firewall
2
4
Internal
DMZ
Authentication server
Servers
Figure 55 Authentication Process
Figure 55 illustrates the process by which a user accesses a server after
authentication by the XSR firewall, as explained below:
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A user Telnets to the firewall presenting a name and password.
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2
The XSR’s AAA functionality talks to an authentication server or
consults a local database based on the user’s credentials.
3
If authentication is successful, AAA informs the firewall engine of the
user’s source IP address and an authentication entry is created within
the firewall engine.
4
Policy rules specified for the firewall allow the user access to a server
after consultation with the firewall engine’s authentication cache.
Authentication failures are tracked using logs or traps and entries
time out after an inactive period. If authentication fails, all packets
that match policy rules with allow-auth for that source IP are dropped.
Firewall and NAT - On outgoing packets, stateful inspection is done before NAT
because NAT modifies the source address of all packets to that of the XSR and
policy rules are defined with respect to internal and external addresses. On
incoming packets, NAT is preformed before firewall inspection.
Firewall and VPN - VPN tunnels are implemented as virtual interfaces that
“sit” on physical interfaces. Stateful inspection is applied before encryption
and encapsulation on outgoing packets and after de-capsulation and
decryption on incoming packets.
ACLs and Firewall - Access Control Lists are available as a basic filter on a per
interface basis to pass or drop packets going in or out of a port. In the
outbound direction, a packet is subjected to firewall inspection before
filtering by an ACL. Inbound, a packet is filtered by an ACL then the firewall.
NOTE
Be aware that if the firewall is enabled on an interface, ACLs should not
be used on that interface so that all checks can be performed in one place.
Firewall CLI Commands
The XSR provides configuration objects which, used in policy rules, can be
specified at the CLI. These and other firewall commands are, as follows:
ˆ Network - Identifies a network or host. A network with a subnet
address or a host with an address and 32-bit mask is specified with ip
firewall network. The command also configures a network or host
residing on the trusted/internal or un-trusted/ external network.
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CAUTION
Use care not to overlap internal and external address ranges since internal
ranges take precedence over external ranges, and if an address exists in both
ranges, the internal address will be considered for policy matching. In
certain situations this may cause unexpected results, specifically if the other
address in a policy is also internal and you expect a match for a policy rule
to use that internal address against a wildcard such as ANY_EXTERNAL as
the second address. This rule will not be matched if the address you expect
to be part of ANY_EXTERNAL is also defined in an internal address range.
You can configure a network object from an internal address to any
address on the Internet as follows:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network Any_address 1.0.0.1 255.255.255.254
external or
XSR(config)#ip firewall network Internet 0.0.0.0 mask 0.0.0.0 external
ˆ Network group - Defines a group of network objects. You can group up
to ten network objects for simpler configuration referenced by a
single name with ip firewall network-group. The intrinsic, predefined ANY_EXTERNAL and ANY_INTERNAL groups are
maintained automatically by the firewall as long as you have defined
at least one other internal or external group.
ˆ Service - Specifies an application in terms of the protocol and source
and destination ports it uses with ip firewall service. Packets
with the source port in the specified range will match this service as
will packets with the destination port. TCP and UDP protocols are
supported. Intrinsic services for all ports are ANY_TCP for TCP port
ranges, and ANY_UDP for UDP port ranges.
ˆ Service group - Aggregates a number of service objects with ip
firewall service-group. Typically, the service-group name is the
specified application. Up to 10 service objects can be grouped.
ˆ Policy - Defines which applications can traverse the firewall and in
which direction with ip firewall policy. Packets which match
addresses and service are processed by these actions: allow, allow-auth,
reject, log, reject, cls, etc. Configuration must observe these rules:
–
–
–
XSR User’s Guide
Any address combination - You can define network addresses as
follows: external to internal, internal to external, and internal to
internal. External to external is not supported.
Rule order - Earlier entered rules take precedence.
Deny All for Unicast packets - The XSR firewall observes a DENY
ALL default policy. So, unless explicitly allowed, all packets are
dropped both ways.
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You should set a rule at the end of your configuration to handle
default behavior in a specific direction. For example, in order to
allow all packets from internal to external except for Telnet and
FTP packets, rules for these applications must be defined first.
Then you must define a rule allowing access to ANY_INTERNAL
source and ANY_EXTERNAL destination for any service. These
values are case-sensitive.
– Non-Unicast packet handling - Packets with broadcast or multicast
destination addresses are not allowed to pass in either direction they must be allowed explicitly.
– This rule makes it easy to deny access to IP broadcast/multicast
packets through the firewall but to allow access, you must issue
the ip firewall ip-broadcast or ip firewall ip-multicast
commands as well as set policy.
– IP Packets with options - Packets with options are dropped either
way by default. You must permit options explicitly either way.
ˆ Naming conventions - Any firewall object name must use these alphanumeric characters only: A - Z (upper or lower case), 0 - 9, - (dash), or
_ (underscore). Also, all firewall object names are case-sensitive.
–
ˆ TCP/UDP/ICMP Filter - Specifically filters TCP, UDP, or ICMP packets
and assigns an idle session timeout for their inspection, enter ip
firewall tcp, ip firewall udp, and ip firewall icmp.
ˆ Non-TCP/UDP Filter - Defines packet filtering of non-TCP and UDP
protocols with ip firewall filter. Because these packets are
dropped by default, to allow any other IP protocol packet to pass
through the firewall you must specify a filter object with the correct
source/destination IP address and IP protocol ID.
ˆ Java and ActiveX - Allows HTML pages with Java and ActiveX content
through the firewall with the ip firewall java and ip firewall
activex commands. Options include allowing from all or selected IP
addresses, or denying from any IP address.
ˆ System Filter - Specifies Interface mode filtering with the ip
firewall ip-options (for loose or strict routing through the
Internet, trace routes or record time stamps), ip-broadcast (for
DHCP, e.g.), and ip-multicast (for routing) commands.
ˆ Enable/Disable - Turns firewall on or off with ip firewall {enable |
disable}. The firewall is set per interface or globally and is disabled
on all interfaces, by default. If the firewall is globally disabled, a local
enable is ignored and if globally enabled, all interfaces are “on”
unless you specifically disable each interface. Enable displays in the
running-config file, but not disable.
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ˆ Load - Installs the completed firewall configuration in the XSR’s
inspection engine with ip firewall load. This command avoids
conflicts with existing sessions by clearing them. But, before doing so
you can perform a trial load to verify settings or configure
incrementally and check for errors between loads. You can view
modified settings before loading with show ip firewall config.
Also, the delay load option schedules a load and show ip firewall
general displays an outstanding delay and when it will run. Be
aware that you must copy the running-config to startup-config
file to save any changes. Commands entered at the CLI are not in the
configuration until the load command is invoked, so if you omit a
load and save the running- to startup-config file, the commands
you entered will not display. Several other show commands display
various objects that are in effect, that is, those that have been loaded
(refer to the following bullet).
CAUTION
Performing a load requires that you re-establish all TCP connections
including Telnet sessions and PKI links to the Certificate Authority. Also,
firewall configuration changes are blocked during a load delay.
ˆ Display Commands - A host of firewall show commands are available
to display firewall attributes for each firewall configuration
command. Also, show ip firewall config displays the as yet uncommitted configuration, show ip firewall sessions displays
dynamic TCP, UDP and ICMP session data, and show ip firewall
general displays summary system firewall statistics such as the
status of the firewall, protected and unprotected interfaces, sessions
counters, and number of DoS attacks.
ˆ Event Logging - Defines the event threshold for firewall values logged
to the Console or Syslog with ip firewall logging. You can set
eight severity levels ranging from 0 for emergency alarms down to 7
which cumulatively logs all firewall messages through 0, as follows:
–
–
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XSR User’s Guide
Level 0: Emergency
Level 1: Alert
Level 2: Critical - alarms such as failure to allocate memory during
initializiation are logged if system logging is enabled and firewall
logging is set to level 2 or higher
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Level 3: Error - abnormal and deny alarms are logged if system
logging is set at MEDIUM or HIGH and firewall logging is level 3
or higher
– Level 4: Warning - normal and permit alarms are logged if system
logging is set at LOW and firewall logging is level 4 or higher
– Level 5: Notice
– Level 6: Information
– Level 7: Debug
You can generate fewer firewall alarms by setting a low logging level
with the system logging command.
To further minimize alarms and overhead for the XSR, configure the
firewall alarm level to 0 with the ip firewall logging command.
This value is independent of the XSR logging priority, and taking this
action avoids generating firewall alarms that are later dropped
anyway by the XSR’s system alarm logging mechanism.
–
ˆ Authentication - Defines firewall authentication with idle timeout and
port range values with ip firewall auth. Also, the ip firewall
policy command applies authentication rules on a group basis.
Authentication entries for users are configured using the AAA
commands including aaa user and password, aaa group, aaa
policy, and aaa client. When configuring the firewall policy
group_name, be sure it matches the AAA group name.
When entering the telnet <address> <port-number> command,
the screen shown in Figure 56 appears. Be aware that configured
usernames and passwords must be less than 32 characters and can
include non-alphanumeric characters.
Please provide username and password.
Username:clarkkent
Password:******
Authenticated.
XSR>,186>Mar 4 22:56:20 10.10.10.20 CLI: User: clarkkent
logged in from address 10.10.10.10.
XSR>
Figure 56 Sample Telnet Screen
Be aware that a Telnet session left idle for more than one minute is
terminated by default. Set the idle timeout with session-timeout.
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Firewall Limitations
Consider the following caveats regarding firewall operations:
ˆ Gating Rules - Internal XSR gating rules, which order traffic filtering,
are stored in a temporary file in Flash. Because one gating rule exists
for each network source/destination expansion, a potentially
enormous number of rules can be generated by just a single firewall
policy. For example, when a large network that has an
ANY_INTERNAL group with 200 network addresses is used as the
source address, and another group of 10 network addresses is used as
the destination address, 2000 gating rules are defined for the policy.
Accordingly, a limit is applied to their total, depending on the
amount of installed RAM (Refer to Table 13). Also, be aware that each
bidirectional policy produces two gating rules per address pair.
Because gating rules must be unique, those policies which create
multiple gating rules when source or destination addresses are
network group objects will have a gating rule extension appended to
the actual policy name that was entered in the CLI command.
Firewall log messages specifying the policy name will display the
following, for example:
Log: TCP, Policy P_intExtFtp_0-2, 10.10.10.100(1033)->
20.20.20.100(21) where P-intExtFtp is the CLI policy name and
_0-2 is the gating rule extension.
ˆ Memory Limits - The number of permitted firewall objects are
constrained by the size of installed RAM in the XSR as follows:
Table 13 Firewall Limitations
XSR User’s Guide
Firewall Objects
XSR 1800
@32MB
XSR 1800
@64MB
XSR 18/3000
@128
XSR 3000
@256
Networks
20
400
600
1000
Services
50
400
600
1000
Network Groups
5
100
200
500
Service Groups
10
100
200
500
Policies
30
500
1000
3000
Filters
30
500
1000
3000
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Table 13 Firewall Limitations
Firewall Objects
XSR 1800
@32MB
XSR 1800
@64MB
XSR 18/3000
@128
XSR 3000
@256
Sessions
250
10000
20000
60000
Authentications
75
150
300
1000
Gating Rules
300
5000
10000
12000
External Hosts
250
5000
5000
20000
Fragment Table
50
100
200
600
FTP Requests
20
400
600
1000
UDP Requests
20
400
600
1000
Timers
20
100
200
200
Java & ActiveX
20
100
200
200
ˆ Session Timeouts - Idle timeout defaults for the three firewall session
types are enforced as follows:
–
–
TCP idle timeout sessions: 3600 seconds
UDP and ICMP idle timeout sessions: 60 seconds
ˆ Pre-defined Services - Some pre-defined firewall services may not work
with applications which use dynamic source ports greater than 1024.
As a workaround, specify a user- defined service to cover a wider
source port range.
ˆ SNMP - SNMP is not supported for configuration, data and traps.
ˆ ACL/Firewall - Access Control Lists (ACLs) are supported for security
on a per interface basis. Interface ACLs allow or drop packets
traversing the port in a specified direction (in or out). Heading
outbound, packets face firewall inspection before ACLs. Going
inbound, packets first face ACLs, followed by the firewall. So, if the
firewall is enabled on an interface, we recommend ACLs not be used
on that port so that all checks can be performed in one place.
ˆ Firewall/NAT - On outgoing packets, stateful inspection is preformed
before NAT. This is due to the fact that NAT modifies the source
address of all packets to the XSR’s address and policy rules are
defined with respect to internal and external addresses. On incoming
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packets, NAT is performed before firewall inspection. Firewall rules
are written using the actual addresses on the internal (even if they are
private IP addresses) and exterior networks, independent of whether
NAT is enabled on the interface.
ˆ Firewall/VPN - VPN tunnels are implemented as virtual interfaces
that sit on physical interfaces. Stateful inspection is applied before
encryption and encapsulation for outgoing packets and after deencapsulation and decryption for incoming packets.
ˆ Firewall and Un-numbered Interface - The firewall does not interoperate
with interface IP addresses - it is concerned with IP addresses in
packets that traverse an interface. So, if the firewall is enabled on an
un-numbered interface, it performs similarly as on a numbered one.
ˆ Firewall/VRRP - The firewall does not interoperate with the Virtual
Router Redundancy Protocol (VRRP). That is, if a switch-over occurs,
the firewall sessions and authentication cache will not automatically
switch over. If the firewall is enabled on a slave router, then all
sessions would have to be re-established. You would have to reauthenticate users for access to authentication-protected servers.
ˆ Load Sharing - If two or more firewall-enabled XSRs are connected,
load sharing is not supported. Each XSR would act as a discrete
firewall and monitor sessions that pass through it.
ˆ Secondary IP Address/Firewall - The firewall does not interoperate with
interface IP addresses, so, a secondary interface address has no affect
on firewall operations. Configure network objects for the secondary
address just as you would any primary IP address.
ˆ Firewall Authentication over VPN - Firewall authentication is not
supported over VPN tunnels.
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Pre-configuring the Firewall
We recommend you consider the following suggestions to set up the firewall:
ˆ Establish a security plan by:
–
–
–
–
–
Examining your network topology
Determining exactly what resources you want to protect
Deciding where on the network to enable the firewall and plan
on writing a Telnet or SSH policy for remote administration if
you are configuring an XSR located in the field
Making a list of internal addresses
Forming an inventory of desirable applications the firewall will
allow between protected and external networks
ˆ Look up official port numbers of well-known applications at:
http://www.iana.org/assignments/protocol-numbers
The show ip firewall session command also lists these numbers.
ˆ Refer to “Firewall Limitations” on page 335 before configuration
Steps to Configure the Firewall
Follow the procedure below to configure the firewall:
ˆ Specify the network objects
ˆ Specify network-group, service and service group objects
ˆ Specify policies for TCP and UDP. Remember, the order is important
and objects and names are case-sensitive
ˆ Specify filters for other protocols (ICMP, OSPF, ESP, etc.)
ˆ Set miscellaneous parameters such as:
–
–
–
–
–
–
TCP, UDP or ICMP session timeouts
Logging event-levels 0-7
Authentication service for users
Java and ActiveX filtering
IP options filtering on the interface such as time-stamps, route
recording, and loose or strict routing through the Internet
Multicast or broadcast filtering for routing and communications
protocol filtering
ˆ Perform a trial or delayed load to check for configuration errors
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ˆ Load the configuration in the firewall engine
ˆ Enable or disable the firewall:
–
–
System wide, or on
Individual interfaces or sub-interfaces
ˆ After the firewall is installed, check event logging to examine blocked
traffic for any missed applications rules
ˆ Use port scanning tools to ensure policies are properly implemented
Configuration Examples
The following sample configurations describe step-by-step how to set up
these firewall scenarios:
ˆ XSR with firewall on page 339
ˆ XSR with firewall, PPPoE, and DHCP on page 342
ˆ XSR with firewall and VPN on page 344
ˆ Firewall configuration for VRRP on page 352.
ˆ Firewall configuration for RADIUS authentication on page 352.
ˆ Simple security on page 353.
XSR with Firewall
In this scenario, the XSR acts as a router connecting a branch office to the
Internet, as illustrated in Figure 57. The branch office has two servers (Web
and Mail) accessible from the external world and an internal network of hosts
which are protected from the external world by the firewall. The Web and
Mail servers are part of the DMZ and considered internal by the XSR. Note
that some commands have been abbreviated.
This configuration, illustrated in Figure 57, provides private and dmz
networks with unlimited access between each other while protecting traffic to
and from the external interface only - this is done by enabling the firewall on
the external interface only. No policies are defined for traffic between private
and dmz networks. Also, all Java and ActiveX pages, IP options, IP broadcast
and multicast packets are banned.
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220.150.2.32/28
XSR
Frame Relay
Internet
S1
220.150.2.35
206.12.44.16/28
220.150.2.37
FE1
FE2
220.150.2.17
Internal
220.150.2.16/28
Web server
(HTTP)
220.150.2.19
220.150.2.36
DMZ
Mail server
(SMTP)
220.150.2.18
Figure 57 XSR with Firewall Topology
Begin by configuring network objects for private, dmz and Mgmt networks:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network dmz 220.150.2.16 mask
255.255.255.240 internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall network private 220.150.2.32 mask
255.255.255.240 internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall network Mgmt 220.150.2.35 mask
255.255.255.255 internal
Log only critical events:
XSR(config)#ip firewall logging event-threshold 2
Allow ICMP traffic to pass between private, dmz and EXTERNAL networks:
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter okICMP private ANY_EXTERNAL
protocol-id 1
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter ICMP1 dmz ANY_EXTERNAL protocol-id 1
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter ICMP2 ANY_EXTERNAL dmz protocol-id 1
Set policies between the dmz, external and Mgmt networks. Note that policy
objects and names are case-sensitive and you must cite network names exactly:
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy exttodmzhttp ANY_EXTERNAL dmz HTTP
allow bidirectional
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XSR(config)#ip firewall policy exttodmzsmtp ANY_EXTERNAL dmz SMTP
allow bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy TelnetSESS private Mgmt Telnet
allow bidirectional
Set a policy to allow any traffic to pass from private to EXTERNAL networks:
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy prvtoextprivate ANY_INTERNAL
ANY_EXTERNAL allow
Trial load the completed configuration into the firewall engine, and if
successful, load the configuration:
XSR(config)#ip firewall load trial
XSR(config)#ip firewall load
Complete LAN and WAN interface configuration:
XSR(config-if<F1>)#interface fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 220.150.2.35 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip address 220.150.2.17 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface serial 1/0:0
XSR(config-if<S1/0:0>)#ip address 206.12.44.16/24
XSR(config-if<S1/0:0>)#no shutdown
Globally enable the firewall. Even though you have configured and loaded
the firewall, only invoking the following command “turns on” the firewall.
Once enabled, if you are remotely connected, the firewall will close your
session. Simply login again.
XSR(config)#ip firewall enable
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XSR with Firewall, PPPoE and DHCP
In this scenario, shown in Figure 58, the branch office uses a private address
for its hosts. Access to the external networkis configured with PPPoE DSL
service on the FastEthernet 2 interface/sub-interface and DHCP set on the
FastEthernet 1 interface. A global IP address is available for a Web server and
a static NAT entry is set for them. Also, all Java and ActiveX pages, IP
options, IP broadcast and multicast packets are banned.
Policies apply to the private addresses as outbound filtering is performed
before NAT and inbound filtering after NAT. This is key because the firewall is
oblivious to the global IP address used. Some commands are abbreviated.
PPPoE/NAT/Firewall
XSR
10.10.10.1
Internet
FE2
FE1
Figure 58 XSR Firewall with PPPoE (DSL) and DHCP
Begin by configuring the LAN interfaces, enabling DHCP, and disabling the
firewall on both LAN interfaces:
XSR(config)#interface
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no
FastEthernet1
address 10.10.10.1 255.255.255.0
dhcp server
firewall disable
shutdown
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet2
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip firewall disable
XSR(config-if<F2>)#no shutdown
Enable the PPPoE interface with a negotiable IP address, adjusted MTU
packet size, PAP authentication, and NAT enabled:
XSR(config-if<F2>)#interface FastEthernet 2.1
XSR(config-if)#encapsulate ppp
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XSR(config-if)#ip address negotiated
XSR(config-if)#ip mtu 1492
XSR(config-if)#ip nat source assigned overload
XSR(config-if)#ppp pap sent-username b1jsSW23 “password is not
displayed”
XSR(config-if)#no shutdown
Attach a static route to the PPPoE interface and add a local IP pool:
XSR(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 FastEthernet2.1
XSR(config)#ip local pool myDhcpPool 10.10.10.0 255.255.255.0
Specify network objects including Mgmt and Ten for SSH and DHCP service:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network INT_NETS 10.10.10.0 mask
10.10.10.255 internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall network MY_EXT 1.0.0.0 255.255.255.254 external
XSR(config)#ip firewall network Mgmt 10.10.10.1 mask
255.255.255.255 internal
XSR(config)#Ip firewall network Ten 10.1.0.0 mask 255.255.0.0 internal
Set the policies and filters allowing Web, DNS, FTP, SSL, and ICMP traffic
between ANY_INTERNAL and ANY_EXTERNAL networks. Also write a
policy for DHCP and SSH access to the XSR. Be sure to install an SSHv2 client
on your connecting PC. Note that policy objects and names are case-sensitive
and you must cite network and protocol names exactly:
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy P_intExtHttp ANY_INTERNAL
ANY_EXTERNAL WWW allow
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy P_intExtDns ANY_INTERNAL
ANY_EXTERNAL DNSUDP allow
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy P_intExtFtp ANY_INTERNAL
ANY_EXTERNAL FTP allow
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy P_intExtHttps ANY_INTERNAL
ANY_EXTERNAL SSL allow
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy adminSSH ANY_INTERNAL Mgmt SSH allow
bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy allowDHCP Ten Ten Bootp allow
bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter F_ECHO_RESP ANY_EXTERNAL
ANY_INTERNAL protocol-keyword ICMP 0
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter F_ECHO_REQ ANY_INTERNAL ANY_EXTERNAL
protocol-keyword ICMP 8
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Trial load the completed configuration into the firewall engine, and if
successful, load the configuration:
XSR(config)#ip firewall load trial
XSR(config)#ip firewall load
Configure the DHCP pool, DNS server and related settings:
XSR(config)#ip dhcp pool myDhcpPool
XSR(config)#default-router 10.10.10.1
XSR(config)#dns-server 209.226.175.223
XSR(config)#domain-name BT_basement
XSR(config)#lease 1 3 15
Globally enable the firewall. Even though you have configured and loaded
the firewall, only invoking the following command “turns on” the firewall.
Once enabled, if you are remotely connected, the firewall will close your
session. Simply login again.
XSR(config)#ip firewall enable
XSR with Firewall and VPN
In this scenario, as illustrated in Figure 59, a head-end VPN gateway is
configured to perform the following:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
344
Terminate Network Extension Mode (NEM) and Client mode
tunnels
Terminate remote access L2TP/IPSec tunnels
Terminate PPTP remote access tunnels
Firewall inspection on the public VPN interface (the crypto map
interface)
Firewall inspection on the trusted VPN interface (the connection
to the corporate network)
OSPF routing with the next hop corporate router on the trusted
VPN interface
DF bit clear on the public VPN interface to handle large nonfragmentable IP frames
OSPF routing over the multi-point VPN interface for other siteto-site tunnels
Assign the first IP address of the pool to the multi-point VPN
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XSR
XSR
SSR
SSR-GLX19-02
FE2
Client
1
FE1
1
SSR-8
141.154.196.93
NEM
4
5
6
7
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
10/100BASE-TX
100-125~5A
200-240~3A
50-60 Hz
1000BASE-SX
2
10/100BASE-TX
2
3
4
5
6
7
2
3
4
5
6
7
SSR-HTX12-08
8
CONTROL MODULE
PWR
1
1
SSR-HFX11-08
8
10/100BASE-TX
8
3
4
7
8
1
2
5
6
100BASE-FX
PWR
SSR-PS-8
100-125~5A
200-240~3A
50-60 Hz
SSR-PS-8
96.96.96.7
141.154.196.106
XP PC
3
SSR-CM-2
6
7
4
5
2
3
CM CM/1
PS1 PS2
SSR-GSX11-02
SSR-HTX12-08
1
2
SSR-HTX12-08
1
1000BASE-LX
10/100BASE-TX
2
SSR-HTX12-08
Internet
XSR
10.120.84.0
96.96.96.0
Internet
router
10.120.112.0
172.16.1.0
Figure 59 XSR Firewall, VPN and OSPF Topology
Begin by setting the XSR system time via SNTP. This configuration is critical
for XSRs which use time-sensitive certificates.
XSR(config)#sntp-client server 10.120.84.3
XSR(config)#sntp-client poll-interval 60
Add four ACLs to permit IP pool, L2TP and NEM traffic:
XSR(config)#access-list 110 permit ip any 10.120.70.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 120 permit udp any any eq 1701
XSR(config)#access-list 140 permit ip any 172.16.1.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 150 permit ip any 192.168.111.0 0.0.0.255
Define IKE Phase I security parameters with the following two policies:
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp proposal xp-soho
XSR(config-isakmp)#hash md5
XSR(config-isakmp)#lifetime 50000
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp proposal p2p
XSR(config-isakmp)#authentication pre-share
XSR(config-isakmp)#lifetime 50000
Configure IKE policy for the remote peer:
XSR(config)#crypto isakmp peer 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0
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XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#proposal xp soho p2p
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#config-mode gateway
XSR(config-isakmp-peer)#nat-traversal automatic
Configure the following IPSec SAs:
XSR(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set esp-3des-md5 esp-3des espmd5-hmac
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)no set security-association lifetime kilobytes
XSR(config)#crypto ipsec transform-set esp-3des-sha esp-3des espsha-hmac
XSR(cfg-crypto-tran)set security-association lifetime kilobytes 10000
Configure the following four crypto maps to match ACLs 150, 140, 120, and 110:
XSR(config)#crypto map test 50
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-sha
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 150
XSR(config)#crypto map test 40
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-sha
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 140
XSR(config)#crypto map test 20
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-md5
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 120
XSR(config-crypto-m)#mode transport
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set security-association level per-host
XSR(config)#crypto map test 10
XSR(config-crypto-m)#set transform-set esp-3des-sha
XSR(config-crypto-m)#match address 110
Configure FastEthernet interface 1 to permit multicast packets in and out:
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet1
XSR(config-ifF1>)#ip address 96.96.96.7 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-ifF1>)#ip firewall ip-multicast in
XSR(config-ifF1>)#ip firewall ip-multicast out
XSR(config-ifF1>)#no shutdown
Configure FastEthernet interface 2 with the attached crypto map test:
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet2
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XSR(config-ifF2>)#crypto map test
XSR(config-ifF2>)#ip address 141.154.196.106 255.255.255.192
XSR(config-ifF2>)#no shutdown
Configure the VPN virtual interface as a terminating tunnel server with IP
multicast redirection back to the gateway, add an OSPF network with cost
and disable the firewall:
XSR(config)#interface Vpn1 multi-point
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip multicast-redirect tunnel-endpoint
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip address 10.120.70.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip firewall disable
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip ospf priority 10
XSR(config-int-vpn)#ip ospf network nbma
Add a default route to the next hop Internet gateway:
XSR(config)#ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 141.154.196.93
Define an IP pool for distribution of tunnel addresses to all client types:
XSR(config)#ip local pool test 10.120.70.0 255.255.255.0
Create hosts to resolve hostnames for the certificate servers for CRL retrieval:
XSR(config)#ip host parentca 141.154.196.89
XSR(config)#ip host childca2 141.154.196.81
XSR(config)#ip host childca1 141.154.196.83
Clear the DF bit globally:
XSR(config)#crypto ipsec df-bit clear
Enable the OSPF engine, VPN and FastEthernet 1 interfaces for routing:
XSR(config)#router ospf 1
XSR(config-router)#network 10.120.70.0 0.0.0.255 area 5.5.5.5
XSR(config-router)#network 96.96.96.0 0.0.0.255 area 5.5.5.5
Create a group for NEM and Client mode users:
XSR(config)#aaa group sohoclient
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server primary 10.120.112.220
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server primary 10.120.112.220
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#ip pool test
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XSR(aaa-group)#pptp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp encrypt mppe 128
XSR(aaa-group)#l2tp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#policy vpn
Configure DEFAULT group parameters including DNS and WINs servers, an
IP pool, PPTP and L2TP values, and client VPN permission:
XSR(config)#aaa group DEFAULT
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server primary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server primary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#ip pool test
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp encrypt mppe 128
XSR(aaa-group)#l2tp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#policy vpn
Define a group for remote access XP users including DNS and WINs servers,
an IP pool, PPTP and L2TP values, and client VPN permission:
XSR(config)#aaa group XPusers
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server primary 10.120.112.220
XSR(aaa-group)#dns server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server primary 10.120.112.220
XSR(aaa-group)#wins server secondary 0.0.0.0
XSR(aaa-group)#ip pool test
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#pptp encrypt mppe 128
XSR(aaa-group)#l2tp compression
XSR(aaa-group)#policy vpn
Configure the local AAA method for shared secret tunnels (NEM and client
mode tunnels):
XSR(config)#aaa method local
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#group DEFAULT
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#qtimeout 0
Configure the RADIUS AAA method to authenticate remote access users:
XSR(config)#aaa method radius msradius default
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#backup test
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XSR(aaa-method-radius)#enable
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#group DEFAULT
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#address ip-address 10.120.112.179
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#key welcome
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#auth-port 1812
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#acct-port 1646
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#attempts 1
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#retransmit 1
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#timeout 5
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#qtimeout 0
Define the Internet as all possible IP addresses:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network internet 1.0.0.0/32 external
Define the public VPN interface (crypto map):
XSR(config)#ip firewall network vpngateway 141.154.196.106 mask
255.255.255.255 internal
Define the private VPN interface (traditionally the FastEthernet 1 interface):
XSR(config)#ip firewall network f1 96.96.96.7 mask
255.255.255.255 internal
Define three trusted networks in the enterprise:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network trusted84 10.120.84.0 mask
255.255.255.0 internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall network trusted96 96.96.96.0 mask
255.255.255.0 internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall network trusted112 10.120.112.0 mask
255.255.255.0 internal
Specify remote trusted networks from NEM and Client mode tunnels:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network remote172 172.16.0.0 mask
255.255.0.0 internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall network remote192 192.168.0.0 mask
255.255.0.0 internal
Define the local pool network used for tunnel IP addresses:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network vsn 10.120.70.0 mask
255.255.255.0 internal
Define two networks to be used by OSPF:
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XSR(config)#ip firewall network ospf 224.0.0.5 224.0.0.6 internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall network ssr 96.96.96.1 mask
255.255.255.255 internal
Define the NetSight network management station:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network netsight 10.120.84.3 mask
255.255.255.255 internal
Build two network groups to collect remote and trusted networks into
manageable groups:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network-group trusted trusted84 trusted96
trusted112
XSR(config)#ip firewall network-group remote vsn remote172 remote192
Define service to support IPSec NAT traversal:
XSR(config)#ip firewall service nattraversal eq 2797 gt 1023 udp
Define service for ISAKMP:
XSR(config)#ip firewall service ike eq 500 gt 499 udp
Define service for L2TP tunnels:
XSR(config)#ip firewall service l2tp eq 1701 eq 1701 udp
Define service for RADIUS authentication:
XSR(config)#ip firewall service radiusauth gt 1023 eq 1645 udp
Define service for RADIUS accounting:
XSR(config)#ip firewall service radiusacct gt 1023 eq 1646 udp
Write policies allowing traffic through the public VPN interface (crypto map):
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy nattraversal internet vpngateway
nattraversal allow bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy PPTP internet vpngateway PPTP
allow bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy ike internet vpngateway ike allow
bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy l2tp internet vpngateway l2tp
allow bidirectional
Allow HTTP and LDAP CRL retrieval out of the public VPN interface:
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy pki vpngateway internet HTTP allow
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy ldap vpngateway internet LDAP allow
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Write policies permitting RADIUS and all TCp and UDP traffic from remote
VPN networks into the corporate networks:
XSR(config)#ip firewall
allow
XSR(config)#ip firewall
allow
XSR(config)#ip firewall
allow bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall
allow bidirectional
policy radiusauth f1a trusted radiusauth
policy radiusacct f1a trusted radiusacct
policy ANY_TCP remote trusted ANY_TCP
policy ANY_UDP remote trusted ANY_UDP
Allow IPSec (protocol 50) traffic from the Internet into the public VPN
interface:
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter ipsec internet vpngateway
protocol-id 50 bidirectional
Allow GRE traffic from the Internet into the public VPN interface:
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter gre internet vpngateway protocolid 47 bidirectional
Allow OSPF through the firewall (trusted VPN interface) to the next hop
corporate router:
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter ospf1 f1 ospf protocol-id 89
bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter ospf2 ssr ospf protocol-id 89
bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter ospf3 f1 ssr protocol-id 89
bidirectional
Permit ICMP traffic to flow from the trusted networks, through the VPN
tunnels, to the remote trusted networks, and back:
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter icmp1 trusted remote protocol-id
1 bidirectional
Allow any IP address on the Internet to send ICMP traffic to the public VPN
interface (the crypto map interface):
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter icmp2 vpngateway internet
protocol-id 1 bidirectional
Load the firewall configuration:
XSR(config)#ip firewall load
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Globally enable the firewall. Even though you have configured and loaded
the firewall, only invoking the following command “turns on” the firewall.
Once enabled, if you are remotely connected, the firewall will close your
session. Simply login again.
XSR(config)#ip firewall enable
Firewall Configuration for VRRP
This example briefly configures VRRP advertisements to be sent and received
on a FastEthernet interface. You must configure two networks and a filter for
the VRRP protocol (number 112). It is assumed you have already configured
the Virtual Router and backup VR within the specified IP address range.
Enable multicasting in both directions on FastEthernet interface 2:
XSR(config-if<F2>)#ip firewall ip-multicast both
Configure the IP address of the firewall networks internal2 and vrrp,
specifying a range between 80.0.0.1 and 80.255.255.254 and a multicasting
host at 224.0.0.18/32, respectively. Finally, add a policy allowing VRRP
advertisements to pass between private and external networks.
XSR(config-ifF2>)#ip address 80.0.0.1/8
XSR(config)#ip firewall network internal2 80.0.0.0 mask 255.0.0.0
internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall network vrrp 224.0.0.18 mask
255.255.255.255 internal
XSR(config)#ip firewall filter mult2 internal2 vrrp protocol-id 112
Firewall Configuration for RADIUS Authentication and
Accounting
The following sample configuration employs the RADIUS method for AAA
authentication. The commands in the section below configure Steel Belted
RADIUS (SBR) as the RADIUS method, the server’s IP address and encryption
key, its RADIUS authentication and accounting ports (per IANA), and all four
client services. Also configured are the backup RADIUS server msradius with
one login attempt specified before the backup is accessed and five retransmit
requests specified for service, and reconfigured queue and timeout values.
XSR(config)#aaa method radius sbr default
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#backup msradius
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XSR(aaa-method-radius)#address ip-address 10.10.10.1
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#key acevpnfqwe
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#client vpn
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#client telnet
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#client firewall
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#client ssh
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#auth-port 1812
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#acct-port 1813
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#attempts 1
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#retransmit 5
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#timeout 10
XSR(aaa-method-radius)#qtimeout 0
Configure RADIUS network objects:
XSR(config)#ip firewall network internal 10.10.10.0 mask
255.255.255.0 internal
Configure policies allowing RADIUS authentication and accounting:
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy radius internal internal
Radius allow bidirectional
XSR(config)#ip firewall policy RADIUSacct internal internal
Radius_ACCT allow bidirectional
Configuring Simple Security
The following configuration provides simple protection for the XSR. The
firewall feature set is not implemented.
First, perform standard port configuration:
XSR(config)#interface FastEthernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip address 192.168.10.1 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<F1>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#controller t1 0/2/0
XSR(config-controller<T1/2>)#no shutdown
XSR(config)#interface serial 2/0:0
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#encapsulation ppp
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#ip add 192.168.20.10 255.255.255.0
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#no shutdown
Formulate access lists of allowed and prohibited network addresses:
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XSR(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 1 permit 192.168.20.0 0.0.0.255
XSR(config)#access-list 2 permit host 192.168.9.32
XSR(config)#access-list 100 deny ip any host 192.168.1.15
XSR(config)#access-list 100 deny any host 192.168.1.15 any
XSR(config)#access-list 100 deny ip tcp host 192.168.1.15 any
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit ip 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 any
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit ip any 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255
Apply the access list to the network interfaces so that everything that is not
permitted will automatically be filtered out, by default.
XSR(config)#interface fastethernet 1
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip access-group 1 in
XSR(config-if<F1>)#ip access-group 1 out
XSR(config)#interface serial 2/0:0
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#ip access-group 1 in
XSR(config-if<S2/0:0>)#ip access-group 1 out
For security reasons, you can limit the traffic type to certain
ICMP/UDP/TCP/AH, ESP, and GRE ports. To use traffic type as a criteria,
enter the extended access-list command, with numbers ranging from 100
to 199. The standard access-list command employs numbers ranging from
1 to 99 and can filter traffic by source IP address(es) only.
Write ACLS to permit Telnet and HTTP sessions. When the access list is
applied to the port only, this type of traffic is allowed to pass through.
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit tcp any any eq 21
XSR(config)#access-list 100 permit tcp any any eq 80
Create a username with an encrypted password (using the secret option) that is
entered as clear text (using the 0 option).
XSR(config)#username larry password secret 0 larryj
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A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
This appendix describes the configuration and memory limits of the
XSR as well as system High, Medium and Low severity alarms and events
and Firewall/NAT alarms captured by the router.
System Limits
The XSR-1805 proscribes limits on the following configurable functions.
Table 14 XSR Limits
Function
@ 64 MB @128 MB
@ 32 MB
Dynamic ARP entries
516
2000
516
Max Unresolved ARP Requests
500
500
500
10000
12000
2000
Static routes
256
3500
50
Static ARPs
200
200
200
IP Helper addresses
50
50
50
Secondary IP addresses
10
10
10
Virtual IP addresses
44
44
44
UDP broadcast forwarding entries
50
50
50
OSPF LSA type 1
500
500
100
OSPF LSA type 2
500
500
100
OSPF LSA type 3
500
3500
100
Routing table entries
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Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 14 XSR Limits (Continued)
Function
@ 64 MB @128 MB
@ 32 MB
OSPF LSA type 4
500
3500
100
OSPF LSA type 5
750
3500
750
OSPF LSA type 7
250
250
250
ACL list entries
500
1000
500
Users
25
25
25
SNMP read-only communities
20
20
20
SNMP read-write communities
20
20
20
SNMP trap servers
20
20
20
SNMP users
25
25
25
SNMP groups
100
100
100
SNMP views
50
50
50
Interfaces
136
136
42
AAA sessions
300
1500
75 with Routing & VPN or 36
with VPN & Firewall
Authenticated tunnels
200
1000
50 with Routing & VPN or 24
with VPN & Firewall
IKE/IPSec tunnels (non-authenticated)
300
1500
75 with Routing & VPN or 36
with VPN & Firewall
ISAKMP SAs
600
3000
150 with Routing & VPN or
72 with VPN & Firewall
ISAKMP proposals
15
15
15 with Routing & VPN or 10
with VPN & Firewall
IPSec SAs
1200
3000
300 with Routing & VPN or
144 with VPN & Firewall
L2TP tunnels
300
1500
75 with Routing & VPN or 36
with VPN & Firewall
PPTP tunnels
255
255
75 with Routing & VPN or 36
with VPN & Firewall
Dialer pool size
48
48
16 with Routing & VPN or
Routing & Firewall
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System Limits
Table 14 XSR Limits (Continued)
Function
@ 64 MB @128 MB
@ 32 MB
Dialer map classes
192
192
64 with Routing & VPN or
Routing & Firewall
Frame Relay map classes
30
30
30 with Routing & VPN or
Routing & Firewall
RIP networks
300
300
31
Dynamic NAT sessions
4095
4095
NAT static one-to-one mappings
1000
1000
Firewall networks
400
600
Any firmware option: 20
Firewall services
400
600
Any firmware option: 50
Firewall network groups
100
200
5 with Routing & Firewall or
VPN & Firewall
Firewall service groups
100
200
10 with Routing & Firewall or
VPN & Firewal
Firewall policies
500
1000
10 with Routing & Firewall or
VPN & Firewal
Firewall filters
500
1000
30 with Routing & Firewall or
VPN & Firewal
10000
20000
250 with Routing & Firewall
or VPN & Firewal
Firewall authentications
150
300
75 with Routing & Firewall or
VPN & Firewal
Firewall Gating Rule Limits
3000
5000
150 with Routing & Firewall
or VPN & Firewal
Firewall sessions
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Alarms/Events and System Limits
Alarms and Events
The XSR exhibits the following alarm logging behavior:
Table 15 Alarm Behavior
When alarm logging is set to:
The XSR-1805 will log:
HIGH
HIGH severity alarms only
MEDIUM
MEDIUM and HIGH severity alarms
LOW
LOW, MEDIUM, and HIGH severity alarms
DEBUG
all alarms
Refer to the table below for all High severity alarms and events reported by
the XSR. All of the following messages are USER_LEVEL facility except for
those in bold and red text which are SECURITY_LEVEL.
Table 16 High Severity Alarms/Events
Module
Message
Description
WEB
Failed to enable Web server
HTTP server is not enabled properly - cannot accept client connection
WEB
Failed to enable Web server
HTTP server is not enabled properly - cannot listen to incoming
requests
WEB
Failed to enable Web server
HTTP server is not enabled properly - cannot set socket options
WEB
Failed to enable Web server
HTTP server is not enabled properly - cannot bind socket
WEB
Failed to enable Web server
HTTP server is not enabled properly - cannot listen to socket
Various
Interface <interface name>, changed
An interface link comes up
modules
state to up
Various
Interface <interface name>, changed
modules
state to down
T1E1
Receiver has Loss of Frame (Yellow
An interface link goes down
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is detecting OOF Alarm.
Alarm).
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Alarms and Events
Table 16 High Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Message
Description
T1E1
LOF alarm on receiver cleared.
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is not detecting OOF Alarm.
T1E1
Transmiting Remote Alarm (Yellow
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is transmitting remote alarm.
Alarm).
T1E1
Transmit Remote Alarm cleared.
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is not transmitting remote alarm.
SYNC_
The ISR could not be connected
The driver failed to connect the ISR to the BSP, therefore it will not be
DRIV
SYNC_
started
Init string parse failure
DRIV
SYNC_
The driver could not parse the initialization string and therefore it will
not be started
Unrecoverable error
The device has an un-recoverable error
OS initialization failure
The operating system failed to initialize the driver properly, therefore
DRIV
SYNC_
DRIV
SYNC_
the device cannot be started.
Device not found
DRIV
SNMP
The device could not be found on the PCI bus, so the driver cannot be
started
Failed to enable SNMP server
Failed to start SNMP server due to failed in the locking mechanism or
the message queue is full.
SNMP
Failed to disable SNMP server
Failed to start SNMP server due to failure in the locking mechanism.
PLATF
System reset from <reason>,
“Warm start, cold start with following reasons:
<warm|cold> start
- default config init “”dcfg””
- crash reset ”crsh””
- cli reset “”cli “”
- SNMP reset ”snmp””
- bootrom reset ”btrm””
- software checksum invalid “”cksm””
PLATF
Failed to initialize sysLog socket
Cannot create socket for sending syslogs
PLATF
Failed to bind to sysLog port 514
Cannot bind to port 514 for sending syslogs
ISDN
ISDN
ISDN
<BRI c/p>, SPID <spid string>
Displayed when BRI with North American switch types registers with
Registered (CES <1|2)
the central office successfully
<BRI c/p>, Unsolicited
Displayed when BRI with North American switch types registers with
SME_TERM_REGISTER_ACK
the central office but fails
<BRI c/p>, Registration Failed, Cause
Displayed when BRI with North American switch types registers with
<number>
the central office and fails. Cause 100: SPID configuration error, 41:
Network timeout and 1: Fit timeout
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Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 16 High Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Message
Description
ISDN
%s Layer 2 Terminal %d is DOWN
Q921 - LAP-D status, UP is normal operation. Terminal is 1 for PRI.
%s Layer 2 Terminal %d is UP
For BRI it may be 1 or 2. 1 for ETSI and NTT. For North America 1
and 2 if two SPIDs are configured.
ISDN
%s Outgoing Call to %s %s Timed Out
For basic-NET3 BRI, XSR-1805 was not able to activate the BRI line
for an outgoing call
ISDN
%s Switch Offers call for BUSY channel
Error condition!
%X
ISDN
Incoming Call <BRI | Serial
Incoming Call connected for test purposes and will be disconnected
card/port:channel> Connected to
within 30 seconds.
<calling no.> Unknown Call
ISDN
North American BRI Interface %d
Configuration error.
requires SPID configuration
ISDN
Call <BRI | Serial card/port:channel>
Test Call placed from the console.
Connected to <called_no.> Outgoing
test CALL
ISDN
Call <BRI | Serial card/port:channel>
Test call disconnected due to standard ISDN cause. E.g. 16: normal
Disconnected from <number>
clearing, 18: user does not answer.
<Outgoing test CALL | Unknown Call>
Cause <passed from central office>
ISDN
No Channel Available <destination
ISDN line was over subscribed.
name>
ISDN
_FILE _LINE Out of memory
Unable to allocate memory
ISDN
ISDN panic!!
Unable to create ISDN object
ISDN
_FILE _LINE Out of memory
Unable to allocate memory
ISDN
_FILE _LINE Out of memory
Unable to allocate memory
ISDN
_FILE _LINE unexpected value
Unexpected message received
ISDN
Interface BRI, changed state to up
Port has changed to UP state
ISDN
Interface BRI, changed state to down
Port has changed to DOWN state
Frame Relay
Serial a/b:d.e, started
Output from the no shutdown command
Frame Relay
Serial a/b:d.e, shutting down
The interface has been manually shut down
Frame Relay
Serial a/b:d.e, station UP, DLCI nnnn
The network reports station up.
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Alarms/Events and System Limits
Alarms and Events
Table 16 High Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Frame Relay
Message
Description
Serial a/b:d.e, station DOWN, DLCI
The network reports station up.
nnnn
Frame Relay
Serial a/b:d cannot establish LMI, port
The network has not been responding for 5 minutes - check
is down
connection.
Frame Relay
Serial a/b:d LMI - port DOWN
The LMI is reporting the port is Down.
Frame Relay
Serial a/b:d LMI - port UP
The network is reporting the port is Up.
Serial a/b:d.e Config Error Aggregate
Total configured CIR exceeds speed of link - cannot guarantee CIR
CIR nnnn greater than measured speed
and assist will not be operational.
Frame Relay
nnn - CIR Assist is DISABLED
ETH1_DRIV
The device is stuck in reset
The FastEthernet 2 chip on the motherboard is experiencing severe
problems, in that it cannot come out of reset. The FastEthernet 2
driver/interface cannot be started. This most likely cause of this alarm
is a hardware failure. When this alarm occurs, the FastEthernet
Interface 2 is not available.
ETH1_DRIV
The device TX/RX is stuck in reset
The FastEthernet 2 chip on the motherboard is experiencing severe
problems, in that either the transmitter or receiver cannot come out of
reset. The FastEthernet 2 driver/interface cannot be started. This
most likely cause of this alarm is a hardware failure. When this alarm
occurs, the FastEthernet Interface 2 is not available.
ETH1_DRIV
The ISR could not be connected
This is an internal configuration alarm that occurs because the
interrupt service routine (ISR) cannot be connected to the
FastEthernet 2 interface/driver. This alarm will cause the
FastEthernet 2 interface to be unavailable.
ETH1_DRIV
Init string parse failure
This is an internal configuration alarm that occurs because the driver
could not parse its initialization string. This alarm will cause the
FastEthernet 2 interface to be unavailable.
ETH1_DRIV
Unrecoverable error
The FastEthernet 2 chip on the motherboard is experiencing severe
problems, in that it has a catastrophic failure. This most likely cause
of this alarm is a hardware failure. When this alarm occurs, the
FastEthernet 2 interface is not available.
ETH1_DRIV
OS initialization failure
This is an internal configuration alarm that occurs because the
operating system initialization of the driver/interface cannot be
completed. This alarm will cause the FastEthernet 2 interface to be
unavailable.
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Alarms and Events
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 16 High Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Message
ETH1_DRIV
Device not found
Description
This alarm most likely occurs because of a hardware failure, and
means that the FastEthernet 2 chip cannot be found on the PCI bus
(of the motherboard). When this alarm occurs, the FastEthernet 2
interface is unavailable.
ETH0_DRIV
The device is stuck in reset
The FastEthernet 1 chip on the motherboard is experiencing severe
problems, in that it cannot come out of reset. The FastEthernet 1
driver/interface cannot be started. This most likely cause of this alarm
is a hardware failure. When this alarm occurs, the FastEthernet
Interface 1 is not available.
ETH0_DRIV
The ISR could not be connected
This is an internal configuration alarm that occurs because the
interrupt service routine (ISR) cannot be connected to the
FastEthernet 1 interface/driver. This alarm will cause the
FastEthernet 1 interface to be unavailable.
ETH0_DRIV
Init string parse failure
This is an internal configuration alarm that occurs because the driver
could not parse its initialization string. This alarm will cause the
FastEthernet 1 interface to be unavailable.
ETH0_DRIV
OS initialization failure
This is an internal configuration alarm that occurs because the
operating system initialization of the driver/interface cannot be
completed. This alarm will cause the FastEthernet 1 interface to be
unavailable.
CLI
CLI
Failed to create session for web access
Failed to start session for web.
Failed to create session for console
Failed to start session for web.
access
CLI
Failed to create session for telnet
Failed to start session for console.
access
CLI
Failed to create session for telnet
Failed to start session for Telnet.
access
CLI
Failed to enable Telnet server
Cannot start Telnet server because socket open failed.
CLI
Failed to enable Telnet server
Cannot start Telnet server because socket bind failed.
CLI
Failed to enable Telnet server
Cannot start Telnet server because socket listen failed.
CLI
Failed to enable Telnet server
Failed to enable Telnet server.
CLI Config mode released by user
When a user exits Configuration mode.
CLI
<username>
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Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Alarms and Events
Table 16 High Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
CLI
Message
Description
CLI Config mode released by user
When a user (unknown) exits Configuration mode.
<username>
CLI
CLI
CLI
CLI config mode released by startup-
Configuration mode is released when the startup-config script finishes
config
the execution.
User: <username> logged in from
When login process fails due to invalid user ID or password through
address <IP address>
telnet session in CheckLogin().
User: <username> logged in from
When login process fails due to invalid user ID or password through
console
console session in CheckLogin().
CLI
Failed to create CLI session
Insufficient memory at this time for data allocation.
CLI
User: <username> failed to log in
Occurs when the user tries to login to administrator reserved session
from address <IP address>
through Telnet and fails due to invalid login ID in IsUserAdmin()
CLI
CLI
CLI
CLI
Cannot open startup.cfg file! It may
Occurs when user can not open startup configuration file in
have not been generated yet.
RestoreRunningConfig( )
Could not seek to the end of startup.cfg
Could not move to the end of startup configuration file in
file! Startup.cfg not restored!
RestoreRunningConfig()
Could not get the size of startup.cfg file!
Size of startup configuration file could not be obtained in
Startup.cfg not restored!
RestoreRunningConfig()
Could not go to beginning of startup.cfg
In RestoreRunningConfig()
file! Startup.cfg not restored!
CLI
Could not allocate memory for
Out of memory in RestoreRunningConfig() during boot process
startup.cfg file! Startup.cfg not restored!
CLI
Could not read startup.cfg! Startup.cfg
Failed reading startup config during boot process
not restored!
CLI
CLI
Startup-config error at line <line
Startup-config encounters an error at the specified line in the
number>
configuration file
Running configuration can not be
Failed to restore configuration during boot process
restored successfully!
CLI
Failed to read CLI configuration files
Failure during boot process
CLI
Line <line #> too long in config file
The specific line from startup configuration is too long to be
<configuration file name> Skipping rest
processed during boot process
of file…
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Alarms and Events
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 16 High Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
CLI
Message
Description
CLI config mode released by user
Occurs when a user (unknown) exits the configuration mode
<username>
CLI
CLI
CLI
CLI Config mode locked by user
Occurs when another user is in Configuration mode and you trying to
<username>
get to configuration mode
CLI Config mode locked by startup-
Configuration mode is locked when the startup-config script finishes
config
execution
CLI Config mode released by user
Occurs when a user exits Configuration mode
<username>
CLI
Cannot delete the Admin
ASYNC_
The ISR could not be connected
DRIV
ASYNC_
The driver failed to connect the ISR to the BSP, therefore it will not be
started
Init string parse failure
DRIV
ASYNC_
Occurs when you try to delete the administrator account
The driver could not parse the initialization string and therefore it will
not be started.
Unrecoverable error
The device has an un-recoverable error
OS initialization failure
The operating system failed to initialize the driver properly, therefore
DRIV
ASYNC_
DRIV
ASYNC_
the device cannot be started
Device not found
The device could not be found on the PCI bus, so the driver cannot be
DRIV
started
Refer to the table below for all Medium severity alarms and events reported
by the XSR. All of the following messages are USER_LEVEL facility except for
those in bold text which are SECURITY_LEVEL.
Table 17 Medium Severity Alarms/Events
Module
T1E1
Message
Description
Not enough memory (Device: card
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
number).
T1E1
PCI device failure (Device: card
Error in initializing T1E1 HW card.
number).
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Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Alarms and Events
Table 17 Medium Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
T1E1
Message
Description
PCI device failure (Device/Port: card
Error in initializing T1E1 HW card.
number/port number).
T1E1
Not enough memory (Device: card
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
number).
T1E1
Not enough memory (Device/Port:
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
card number/port number).
T1E1
Internal system error (Device/Port:
Error in initializing T1E1 software.
card number/port number).
T1E1
Could not register with MIB2
Failed to register T1E1 subsystem with SNMP/MIB2 services.
(Device/Port: card number/port
number).
T1
T1
T1E1 PCI Init failed
Error in initializing T1E1 HW card.
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Transmit Pending Queue.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Transmit Done Queue.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Transmit Descriptors.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Receive Free Queue.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Receive Done Queue.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Receive Descriptors.
T1
T1
T1E1 PCI Init Failed.
Error in initializing T1E1 HW card.
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Transmit Pending Queue.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Transmit Done Queue.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Transmit Descriptors.
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Alarms and Events
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 17 Medium Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
T1
Message
Description
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Receive Free Queue.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Receive Done Queue.
T1
ERROR: Shared memory allocation
Error in allocating memory for T1E1 HW card.
failed for Receive Descriptors.
SNTP
SNTP request receive-timeout.
Failed to receive reply time from the server after one second.
SNMP
SNMP auth failure from <ip
SNMP requested received with invalid community name. The
address> <community>
community name with a max of 40 characters is displayed.
SNMP <trapType> trap. No route to
SNMP trap is added to retransmission queue because there is no
host <IP address>
route to the SNMP target server
SNMP
SNMP
SNMP
CLI config mode locked by SNMP
Process SNMP packet and begin to set values on a parameter under
user %s\n
config mode.
CLI config mode released by SNMP
SNMP finished setting value on a parameter under config mode.
user %s\n
SNMP
SNMP
SNMP <trapType> trap dropped due
Too many traps are sent at a time causing the SNMP trap queue to
to queue overflow
overflow. As a result, the oldest item in the trap queue were dropped.
No SNMP host is defined, traps are
SNMP trap is enabled but trap target server is not defined
queued
SNMP
SNMP
PPP
PPP
PPP
SNMP <trapType> trap dropped when
Failed to send snmp trap to the trap target server. The cause of failure is
trying to send, cause unknown
unknown
SNMP <trapType> trap. No route to
SNMP trap is added to retransmission queue because there is no route to
host <ip address>
the SNMP target server
PPP CHAP authentication failed while
Indicates that PPP CHAP authentication has failed while authenticating
authenticating remote peer's response
remote peer's response to the challenge.
PPP CHAP authentication failed while
Indicates that PPP CHAP authentication has failed while being
being authenticated by remote peer
authenticated by the remote peer.
PPP CHAP authentication success
Indicates that PPP CHAP authentication has passed while authenticating
while authenticating remote peer's
remote peer's response.
response
PPP
PPP CHAP authentication success
Indicates that PPP CHAP authentication has passed while being
while being authenticated by remote
authenticated by the remote peer.
peer
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Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Alarms and Events
Table 17 Medium Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Message
Description
PPP
PPP MS-CHAP authentication failed
Indicates that PPP MS-CHAP authentication has failed while
while authenticating remote peer's
authenticating remote peer's response to the challenge.
response
PPP
PPP MS-CHAP authentication failed
indicates that PPP MS-CHAP authentication has failed while being
while being authenticated by remote
authenticated by the remote peer.
peer
PPP
PPP MS-CHAP authentication
Indicates that ppp ms-chap authentication has passed while
success while authenticating remote
authenticating remote peer's response.
peer's response
PPP
PPP MS-CHAP authentication
Indicates that PPP MS-CHAP authentication has passed while being
success while being authenticated by
authenticated by the remote peer.
remote peer
PPP
PPP
PPP
PPP
PPP PAP authentication failed while
Indicates that PPP PAP authentication has failed while authenticating
authenticating remote peer
remote peer.
PPP PAP authentication failed while
Indicates that PPP PAP authentication has failed while being
being authenticated by remote peer
authenticated by the remote peer.
PPP PAP authentication success
Indicates that PPP PAP authentication has passed while authenticating
while authenticating remote peer
remote peer.
PPP PAP authentication success
Indicates that PPP PAP authentication has passed while being
while being authenticated by remote
authenticated by the remote peer.
peer
PPP
Line protocol on Interface <interface
A line protocol on an interface comes up
name>, changed state to up
PPP
Line protocol on Interface <interface
A line protocol on an interface goes down.
name>, changed state to down
PLATF
ISDN
Failed to set syslog rx buf to zero
Cannot set recv buffer to zero to discard received syslogs
Incoming Call <BRI | Serial
Incoming call connected to the shown channel.
card/port:channel> Connected to
<calling no.> <destination name>
ISDN
Call <BRI | Serial card/port:channel>
Test call disconnected due to standard ISDN cause. E.g. 16: normal
Connected to <called_no>
clearing, 18: user does not answer
<destination name>
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Alarms and Events
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 17 Medium Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
ISDN
Message
Description
Call <BRI | Serial card/port:channel>
Call disconnected, the cause is the standard ISDN cause. E.g. 16 normal
Disconnected from <number>
clearing, 18 User does not answer
<destination name> Cause <passed
from CO>
Frame
Serial a/b:d Config Good Aggregate
Total configured CIR is within 125% of the port measured speed - CIR
Relay
CIR nnn less than measured
assisting is enabled.
speed+D137 nnnn - CIR Assist is
ENABLED
ETH0_
PHY read operation time-out
DRIV
This alarm occurs because the PHY chip on the FastEthernet 1 interface
has experienced a time-out while processing a read request. When this
alarm occurs, the functionality of this interface may or may not be
affected. The interface will still be available, but it's functionality may be
diminished. The cause of this alarm is most likely HW failure.
ETH0_
PHY read operation unsuccessful
DRIV
This alarm occurs because the PHY chip on the FastEthernet 1 interface
has experienced an error (other than time-out) while processing a read
request. When this alarm occurs, the functionality of this interface may or
may not be affected. The interface will still be available, but its
functionality may be diminished. The cause of this alarm is most likely HW
failure.
ETH0_
PHY write operation time-out
DRIV
This alarm occurs because the PHY chip on the FastEthernet 1 interface
has experienced a time-out while processing a write request. When this
alarm occurs, the functionality of this interface may or may not be
affected. The interface will still be available, but its functionality may be
diminished. The cause of this alarm is most likely HW failure.
ETH0_
PHY write operation unsuccessful
DRIV
This alarm occurs because the PHY chip on the FastEthernet 1 interface
has experienced an error (other than time-out) while processing a write
request. When this alarm occurs, the functionality of this interface may or
may not be affected. The interface will still be available, but its
functionality may be diminished. The cause of this alarm is most likely HW
failure.
DIAL
Dial muxIoctl call fail
Indicates the failure of the serial driver of the physical interface connected
to the modem
DIAL
Modem on intf # is not responding
DIAL
Invalid init string for modem on intf #
Indicates that the modem is not connected or not powered on
Indicates that the modem does not recognize the initialization string;
check the modem specification for a proper setup
DIAL
372
Number busy for modem on intf #
Indicates that the remote site dialed number is busy
XSR User’s Guide
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Alarms and Events
Table 17 Medium Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Message
Description
DIAL
No dial tone for modem on intf #
Indicates that there is no dial tone for the modem PSTN line
DIAL
No carrier for modem on intf #
Indicates that the remote modem is not present at the location called by
the local modem
DIAL
DIAL
No answer for modem on intf #
Indicates that the remote modem is not configured for autoanswering.
Connection dropped for modem on
Indicates that the phone line connection is disconnected by the PSTN.
intf#s
DIAL
Hangup fail for modem on intf #
Indicates the failure of the disconnect from the phone line command to
the modem.
DIAL
Connection closed for modem on intf #
Indicates that the phone line disconnect command is successful.
DIAL
Dialup connection opened for modem
Indicates that the modem has successfully established a phone line
on intf #
connection with the remote site.
Failed to create session for Telnet
Telnet session could not be created at this time
CLI
access
CLI
Unrecognized parameter <parameter
Invalid parameters from initialization configuration file during boot
string> at line <line #> in <file>
process. This file is different from the startup.cfg
Refer to the table below for all Low severity alarms and events reported by
the XSR. All of the following messages are USER_LEVEL facility except for
those in bold text which are SECURITY_LEVEL.
Table 18 Low Severity Alarms/Events
Module
Message
Description
T1E1
Receiver has Loss of Signal (Red Alarm).
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is detecting LOS Alarm.
T1E1
LOS alarm on receiver cleared.
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is not detecting LOS Alarm.
T1E1
Receive Remote Alarm Indication (Yellow
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is detecting RAI Alarm.
Alarm).
T1E1
Receive RAI alarm cleared.
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is not detecting RAI Alarm.
T1E1
Receive Alarm Indication Signal (Blue Alarm).
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is detecting AIS Alarm.
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Alarms and Events
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 18 Low Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Message
Description
T1E1
Receive AIS cleared.
Indicates that T1/E1 physical port is not detecting AIS Alarm.
T1
Cablelength long failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Cablelength short failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Bert start failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Bert profile failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Bert abort failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
Clear controller counter failed for
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
slot/card/port.
T1
T1
Load channel failed for slot/card/port:channel.
Load command sent to driver returned an error.
Unload channel failed for
Unload command sent to driver returned an error.
slot/card/port:channel.
T1
T1
Start channel failed for slot/card/port:channel.
Start command sent to driver returned an error.
Delete channel interface failed for
Interface object delete could not be executed.
slot/card/port:channel.
T1
Create channel interface failed for
Interface object create could not be executed.
slot/card/port:channel.
T1
Clock source failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
CRC failed for slot/card/port:channel.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
FDL failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Framing failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Invert data failed for slot/card/port:channel.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Linecode failed for slot/card/port.
Configuration command sent to driver returned an error.
Loopback configuration failed for
Loopback command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
slot/card/port.
T1
Loopback stop failed for slot/card/port.
Loopback stop command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Load controller failed for slot/card/port.
Load command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Unload controller failed for slot/card/port.
Unload command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Start controller failed for slot/card/port.
Start command sent to driver returned an error.
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Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Alarms and Events
Table 18 Low Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Message
Description
T1
Stop controller failed for slot/card/port.
Stop command sent to driver returned an error.
T1
Bind controller failed for slot/card/port.
Bind command sent to driver returned an error.
Delete controller object failed for
T1E1 controller object delete could not be executed.
T1
slot/card/port.
T1
Create controller object failed for
T1E1 controller object create could not be executed.
slot/card/port.
SYNC_
Recoverable error
The device has hard recoverable error.
DRIV
SYNC_
Packets lost > 255 (RX overrun)
DRIV
PP
PLATF
The number of packets lost due to RX FIFO overrun has
exceeded 255.
Out of memory - frame dropped at port <port
When a frame is dropped at the specified port due to out of
number>
memory.
Need 'snmp-server system-shutdown' for
SNMP configuration does not allow reboots.
SNMP reboot
Frame
serial a/b:d.e, packet arrived on unconfigured
Relay
DLCI nnnn
ETH1_
Recoverable error
DRIV
Data is discarded
This alarm indicates that the FastEthernet 2 chip (of the
interface) has experienced a signficant, but recoverable
problem. The interface has already corrected the problem by
resetting itself.
ETH1_
Packets lost > 255 (RX overrun)
DRIV
The number of packet that this interface has lost (had to discard)
due to receive FIFO overrun is greater than 255. This alarm will
only occur once.
ETH0_
Recoverable error
DRIV
This alarm indicates that the FastEthernet 1 chip (of the
interface) has experienced a signficant, but recoverable
problem. The interface has already corrected the problem by
resetting itself.
ETH0_
Packets lost > 255 (RX overrun)
DRIV
The number of packets that this interface has lost (had to
discard) due to receive FIFO overrun is greater than 255. This
alarm will only occur once.
CLI
Login failed from address <IP address> due
Timeout error during login.
to timeout
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Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 18 Low Severity Alarms/Events (Continued)
Module
Message
Description
ASYNC_
Recoverable error
The device has hard recoverable error.
DRIV
ASYNC_
Packets lost > 255 (RX overrun)
The number of packets lost due to RX FIFO overrun has
DRIV
exceeded 255.
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
The XSR reports logging messages for firewall and NAT functionality as
listed below. Low system-level logging messages are classified at Levels 4 or 6
while Medium system-level alarms are classified at Level 3. The format codes
used in report descriptions are defined as follows:
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
%CMD - ACTIVEX, JAVA or CLS application commands
%IP1 - 192.168.1.1
%IP2 - 192.168.1.1->10.10.10.1
%IP_P2 - 192.168.1.1(12352)->10.10.10.1(21)
%IP_TC - 192.168.1.1 type 8 code 2
%IP2_ICMP - 192.168.1.1->10.10.10.1 type 8 code 0
%IP2_X - 192.168.1.1->10.10.10.1 protocol nn
%POL - Name of the firewall policy that causes this report
Table 19 Firewall and NAT Alarms
376
Severity
Report Text
0 - EMERG
Bad NAT entry pointer passed to freeAddrTransEntry()
0 - EMERG
Init: Failed to allocate memory for NAT cache
1 - ALERT
DHCP module resolved a new IP Address for NAT: %IP1
1 - ALERT
DHCP module resolved a new IP Mask for NAT: %IP1
1 - ALERT
DHCP module resolved a new router's IP address: %IP1
1 - ALERT
NAT: Attempt made to bypass NAT by a GRE packet, %IP2
1 - ALERT
NAT: Attempt made to bypass NAT, %IP_P2
XSR User’s Guide
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
Table 19 Firewall and NAT Alarms
Severity
Report Text
2 - CRIT
Init: Error reading NAT Mapper table
3 - ERROR
NAT: No NAT entry found, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
NAT: No NAT entry found, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
NAT: TCP reset, NAT port %d, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
UDP: NAT unable to forward packet, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
NAT table is full
4 - WARNING
NAT: TCP connection closed, freeing NAT port %d
4 - WARNING
Purging NAT Entry for port %d
5- NOTICE
NAT: Failed to send ARP Request packet to %IP1
5- NOTICE
NAT: Failed to send ARP Request packet to default router %IP1
0 - EMERG
Init: Failed to allocate external host memory
0 - EMERG
Init: Failed to allocate memory for auth host table
0 - EMERG
Init: Failed to allocate memory for Fragmentation cache
0 - EMERG
Init: Failed to allocate memory for FTP Request pool
0 - EMERG
Init: Failed to allocate memory for UDP Request pool
0 - EMERG
Init: Failed to allocate session memory
0 - EMERG
Init: Session Mgr Failed to create aging timer
0 - EMERG
Init: Session Mgr failed to create FloodCheck timer
1 - ALERT
Deny: TCP SYN backlog queue is full. %IP_P2
1 - ALERT
Deny: TCP SYN+ACK backlog queue is full. %IP_P2
1 - ALERT
Empty IP fragment
1 - ALERT
External Host pool exhausted
1 - ALERT
FTP PORT Command has bad IP Address %IP2
1 - ALERT
Init: Error reading ActiveX filter
XSR User’s Guide
377
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 19 Firewall and NAT Alarms
378
Severity
Report Text
1 - ALERT
IP fragment offset plus length exceeds the maximum IP datagram
length
1 - ALERT
IP fragment with negative fragmentation offset
1 - ALERT
Maximum fragments for a single IP packet reached
1 - ALERT
Session pool exhausted
1 - ALERT
TCP: Detected portscan. %IP_P2
1 - ALERT
TCP: Detected SYN Flood attack. %IP_P2
1 - ALERT
TCP: Duplicated session %IP_P2
1 - ALERT
TCP: External host already exists %IP_P2
1 - ALERT
TearDrop-like attack: invalid fragmentation offset value
1 - ALERT
UDP fragmentation attack: constructed payload larger than specified
in UDP header
1 - ALERT
UDP fragmentation attack: constructed payload less than specified in
the UDP header
1 - ALERT
UDP: Duplicated session %IP_P2
2 - CRIT
Init: Error reading ATE SR entries
2 - CRIT
Init: Error reading java filter
2 - CRIT
Init: Error reading selective IP ranges for ActiveX filtering
2 - CRIT
Init: Error reading selective IP ranges for Java filtering
2 - CRIT
Init: Error reading translation host entries
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for %d IP ranges for ActiveX Filters
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for %d IP ranges for Java Filters
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for ATEs, entries: %d
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for CLS Commands
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for CLS commands
XSR User’s Guide
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
Table 19 Firewall and NAT Alarms
Severity
Report Text
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for CLS Control module
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for gating rules
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for gating rules: %d
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for host ranges: %d
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for host table entries
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for host table entries: %d
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for secure host ranges: %d
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for security classes
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for security classes: %d
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for service rules: %d
2 - CRIT
Init: Failed to allocate memory for service tuples
3 - ERROR
Deny: UDP under Flood attack %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Authentication cache overflowed
3 - ERROR
Could not create timer event, error %d
3 - ERROR
Deny: ActiveX control %CMD, %IP2
3 - ERROR
Deny: Badly formed FTP PORT response, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: GRE packet, %IP2
3 - ERROR
Deny: ICMP %IP2
3 - ERROR
Deny: ICMP fragmented packet %IP2_X
3 - ERROR
Deny: ICMP message too short, length %d, %IP_TC
3 - ERROR
Deny: ICMP packet with bad checksum, %IP_TC
3 - ERROR
Deny: ICMP Unsolicited ICMP reply packet. %IP2_ICMP
3 - ERROR
Deny: ICMP unsupported packet %IP2_ICMP
3 - ERROR
Deny: java applet %CMD, %IP_P2
XSR User’s Guide
379
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 19 Firewall and NAT Alarms
380
Severity
Report Text
3 - ERROR
Deny: No filter for %s, %IP_2
3 - ERROR
Deny: No filter for ICMP, %IP_2
3 - ERROR
Deny: no matching filter, %IP2_ICMP
3 - ERROR
Deny: OSPF packet, %IP2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP Christmas Tree Packet, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP SYN+ACK packet blocked.
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP SYN+ACK packet without ever seeing SYN packet.
%IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP ACK packet, session not open %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP Con_Req %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP Conn IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP IN Con_Req - SYN Flood attack %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP Possible break-in attempt, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP Un-Auth host %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: TCP, no policy, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: UDP %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: UDP, no policy applies, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Deny: UDP, no policy, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Failed to allocate memory for a reply packet
3 - ERROR
Failed to install protected mode timer tick handler
3 - ERROR
ICMP Flood attack detected %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
Index of an inactive timer entry passed to osUntimeOut() call
3 - ERROR
Init: Failed to allocate memory for TimerEntries
3 - ERROR
Init: Failed to allocate memory for user authentication
XSR User’s Guide
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
Table 19 Firewall and NAT Alarms
Severity
Report Text
3 - ERROR
Internal error
3 - ERROR
IP fragment cache entry purged
3 - ERROR
IP header checksum does not match, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
osUnTimeOut() called with a bad index = %d
3 - ERROR
Received fragmented Packet without the initial fragment
3 - ERROR
TCP header checksum does not match, %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
TCP: ACK packet in the TCP three-way handshake sequence was
blocked. %s
3 - ERROR
TCP: Detected possible process table attack using sequence number
guessing. %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
TCP: Maximum allowed inbound connections exceeded from host
%IP_P2
3 - ERROR
TCP: Non-empty ACK packet in TCP three-way handshake sequence
%IP_P2
3 - ERROR
TCP: RST packet indicating non-existing service was blocked %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
UDP: Detected UDP Flood attack %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
UDP: Duplicated external host %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
UDP: Maximum allowed inbound connections exceeded from host
%IP_P2
3 - ERROR
UDP: new session request %IP_P2
3 - ERROR
UDP: Request Entry pool is empty
3 - ERROR
Unsupported ICMP packet %IP2_ICMP
4 - WARNING
%s session purged %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Bad FTP Entry
4 - WARNING
Badly formed FTP PORT command, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Cannot schedule any more timer events
XSR User’s Guide
381
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Table 19 Firewall and NAT Alarms
382
Severity
Report Text
4 - WARNING
CLS blocked FTP request, command: %CMD %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
CLS blocked HTTP request, command: %CMD %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
CLS blocked HTTP stray packet, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
CLS blocked SMTP request, command: %CMD %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
CLS blocked stray SMTP packet, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Could not allocate TCP buffer for H.323 connection. %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Deny: User Authentication packet, %IP2
4 - WARNING
FTP packet cannot be forwarded since no free NAT port available for
FTP
4 - WARNING
FTP Request pool is empty
4 - WARNING
IP fragment cache table is empty
4 - WARNING
Log: TCP, Policy %POL, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Log: UDP, Policy %POL, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Permit: ActiveX control %CMD, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Permit: Allow-log Filter %POL, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Permit: EGP packet, %IP2
4 - WARNING
Permit: GRE packet, %IP2
4 - WARNING
Permit: ICMP %IP2_ICMP
4 - WARNING
Permit: IGMP packet, %IP2
4 - WARNING
Permit: IGRP packet, %IP2
4 - WARNING
Permit: java applet %CMD, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Permit: OSPF packet, %IP2
4 - WARNING
Permit: TCP BGP packet, %IP2
4 - WARNING
Permit: TCP Con_Est, %IP_P2
XSR User’s Guide
Appendix A
Alarms/Events and System Limits
Firewall and NAT Alarms and Reports
Table 19 Firewall and NAT Alarms
Severity
Report Text
4 - WARNING
Permit: TCP Con_Req, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
Permit: UDP %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
TCP connection closed %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
TCP new session request %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
TCP Out-Of-Sequence table is full
4 - WARNING
UDP: Bad entry found in UDP Request cache table
4 - WARNING
UDP: Bad response, %IP_P2
4 - WARNING
UDP: Received Bad BOOTP Frame
4 - WARNING
UDP: Unsolicited Req. (Resp expected), Ext->Int: %IP2
4 - WARNING
UDP: Unsolicited Resp. (Req expected), %IP2
4 - WARNING
UDP: Unsolicited response, %IP_P2
6 - INFO
ECHO request from %IP1
6 - INFO
UDP: %d pending response, %IP_P2
XSR User’s Guide
383
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