Introduction

Introduction
NATIONAL CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL
HYDROSCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
One-Dimensional Channel Network Model
CCHE1D Version 3.0 – User’s Manual
Technical Report No. NCCHE-TR-2002-02
Dalmo A. Vieira and Weiming Wu
School of Engineering
The University of Mississippi
University, MS 38677
January 2002
NATIONAL CENTER FOR COMPUTATIONAL
HYDROSCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
Technical Report No. NCCHE-TR-2002-02
One-Dimensional Channel Network Model
CCHE1D Version 3.0 – User’s Manual
Dalmo A. Vieira
Research Associate
Weiming Wu
Research Assistant Professor
Document Revision Number: 44
The University of Mississippi
January 2002
Contents
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
1
Purpose
2
Applicability Statement
2
About CCHE1D
2
Background
2
Flow and Sediment Transport Modules
3
Integration and Support Software
4
Engineering Applications
4
New for Version 3.0
5
CCHE1D Programs
5
How to Use This Document
6
Related Documents
7
CHAPTER 2
Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
9
Introduction
10
Defining Channel Networks
11
Introduction
11
Performing Landscape Analysis
12
Digitizing a Channel Network
13
Contents
ii
Defining the River Geometry and Other Data
15
Computational Mesh Generation
16
Watershed Modeling
16
Performing Hydraulic and Sediment Transport
Computations
17
CHAPTER 3
Installing and Starting CCHE1D
18
Hardware and Software Requirements
19
Installation Procedure
19
CCHE1D files and programs
19
CCHE1D ArcView Extension File
20
CCHE1D Case Data Folder
20
The C1DDATA Environment variable
21
Starting CCHE1D
22
To Create a New CCHE1D Project
22
To Open an Existing CCHE1D Project
23
Some Notes
23
Using CCHE1D
24
CCHE1D Data Directory
24
CCHE1D Project
25
How to Move a CCHE1D Project to Another Location
25
Recommended Usage Behavior
27
CHAPTER 4
Landscape Analysis and Channel Network
Extraction
28
Introduction
29
Importing a DEM
29
To import a DEM file
29
Checking DEM properties
31
Contents
iii
To change the DEM colors
31
To create a new DEM colormap
32
Pre-Processing a DEM
32
Smoothing
32
Treatment of Depressions
33
Treatment of Flat Areas
33
The Pre-Processed DEM
34
Channel Network Extraction
34
How the channel network is extracted
34
Extraction Parameter Sets
35
Extracting the Channel Network
40
Watershed Delineation
42
Identifying the Watershed of Interest
42
Specifying the Watershed Outlet
42
Creating a Computational Channel Network
44
Channel Network Properties
45
Creating a Computational Channel Network
45
The CCHE1D Network Database
45
Introduction
45
Channel Network Logical Organization
46
Database Tables
47
CHAPTER 5
Channel Network Digitizing Interface
49
Introduction
50
Creating a Digitized Channel Network
51
Importing a Background Layer
52
Deleting a Background Layer
55
Digitizing a Channel Network
56
Contents
iv
Creating a Digitized Channel Network theme
56
Digitizing a Channel Network
56
Validating a Channel Network
62
Showing and Hiding Reach Numbers
62
Importing a Channel Network
63
Creating a Computational Channel Network
63
CHAPTER 6
Channel Network Analysis
Introduction
Creating the Channel Network Window
Defining Channel Reach Lengths
64
65
66
67
Introduction
67
Editing Channel Reach Lengths
67
Cross Section Data Management
69
Cross Section Geometry
Sediment Data Management
70
78
Introduction
78
Sediment Size Classes Definition
79
Bed Sediment Data
80
Bank Sediment Data
82
Hydraulic Structure Management
84
Importing Hydraulic Structure Data
84
Adding a Hydraulic Structure
85
Editing Hydraulic Structure Data
86
Removing a Hydraulic Structure from the Channel Network 86
Removing All Hydraulic Structures from the Channel Network
86
Computational Mesh Generation
Introduction
87
87
Contents
v
Automatic Generation
87
Manual Generation
88
CHAPTER 7
Performing Channel Flow Analysis
93
Introduction
94
The CCHE1D Channel Network Model
94
Specifying Simulation Parameters and Options
95
Specifying Output Options
96
Creating a Chart List
96
Editing a Chart Definition Table
98
Importing a Chart List
99
Removing a Chart List from the View
99
Displaying an Existing Chart List
100
Specifying Simulation Options
100
Simulation Parameters
100
Boundary Conditions File Type
101
Boundary Conditions File
102
Downstream Boundary Condition Type
103
Baseflow Computation Method
104
Flow Model Wave Type
104
Sediment Transport Computations
105
Monitor Points Output File Type
105
Chart Definition Table
106
Output Variables
106
Specifying Sediment Calculation Options
108
Sediment Transport Capacity Equation
108
Bank Stability Analysis
109
Bed Load Adaptation Length
109
Suspended Load Adaptation Coefficient
109
Wash Load Adaptation Length
110
Contents
vi
Mixing-Layer Thickness
110
Minimum Value for Mixing-Layer Thickness
110
Bed Material Porosity
110
Wash Load Size Classes
110
Starting the Flow Simulation
111
Running CCHE1D on a Remote Server
111
Running CCHE1D on the Local Computer
113
Visualizing Model Results
114
Using Text Files
114
Using Database Files
115
Charting Simulation Data Using Microsoft Excel
115
CHAPTER 8
Support for Watershed Analysis
118
Introduction
119
SWAT Watershed Model
119
Checking SWAT-GRASS settings
120
Starting SWAT-GRASS
120
Simulating Watershed Processes
121
AGNPS Watershed Model
122
APPENDIX A
References
123
APPENDIX B
Hydraulic Structure Input Data
125
Bridge Crossings
126
Culverts
128
Drop Structures
138
Measuring Flumes
139
APPENDIX C
Data File Formats
141
Contents
Digital Elevation Model Files
vii
142
ArcInfo ASCII Grid
142
GRASS ASCII Grid
143
“RAW” ASCII Grid
143
Cross Section Files
WZ Type
Bed Sediment Files
144
144
148
Spatially Constant Distribution
148
Spatially Varied Distribution
149
Bank Sediment Files
151
Sediment Size Classes Definition Files
154
Hydraulic Structures Files
155
Boundary Conditions Files
157
Upstream Boundaries (Flow Discharges)
157
Downstream Boundary (Downstream Stage File)
165
Baseflow Files
167
Colormap Files
170
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
Welcome to CCHE1D Channel Network model. CCHE1D is a
model for hydrodynamics and sediment transport in channel
networks. CCHE1D encompasses several aspects of the modeling
of a watershed system, but emphasis is given to the modeling
physical processes of the channels, such as free-surface flow
hydraulics, stream sedimentation and erosion, and bank stability
analysis.
This manual is the primarily piece of documentation on how to use
the CCHE1D software package in the modeling of a watershed
system. For detailed information on the technical aspects of the
model, please consult the companion Technical Manual and other
publications listed at the CCHE1D’s web site.
Contents
!
!
!
!
!
Purpose
Applicability Statement
About CCHE1D
How to Use This Manual
Related Documents
Chapter 1 Introduction
2
Purpose
The purpose of this manual is to provide users of CCHE1D with the
information necessary to use the modeling components and auxiliary tools
effectively. This manual explains how to use CCHE1D in the modeling of a
Watershed System. The topics in the manual follow the order tasks and
operations usually take place during the modeling process. The manual
assumes the user has no previous experience with CCHE1D, and gives stepby-step instructions for each operation.
A separate document entitled “CCHE1D Quick Start Guide” may be a better
manual for first time users. We recommend that you install CCHE1D on your
computer and then read the Quick Start Guide thoroughly, following the
procedures on your computer.
This manual does not cover the assumptions and methodology employed in
the development of the modeling components. For detailed information on
the theoretical background of the models, implementation procedures, and
program structure, please refer to the publications listed under Related
Documents.
Applicability Statement
This manual applies to CCHE1D version Beta 3.0 of November 2001. It
updates and supersedes any previous version of this manual. CCHE1D Beta
3.0 requires the ArcView GIS version 3.0a or later. Early versions of
ArcView 3.0 for the Windows environment require a patch available from the
Environmental Systems Research Institute that can be found at
http://www.esri.com/. CCHE1D does not work with ArcView 8.1.
About CCHE1D
Background
The CCHE1D modeling software was developed at the National Center for
Computational Hydroscience and Engineering (NCCHE) of the University of
Mississippi. The model was development in support of the Demonstration
Erosion Control (DEC) Project, an interagency cooperative effort among the
US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), the Natural Resources Conservation
Service (NRCS) and the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) of the US
Department of Agriculture. As an experimental project, COE and NRCS
installed a system of control structures, including low and high drop
structures, bank stabilization works, levees, flood retarding structures and rise
Chapter 1 Introduction
3
pipe structures, to reduce watershed and channel erosion, and have monitored
and measured flow discharge, stage, and sediment yield. NCCHE, in
cooperation with the USDA-ARS National Sedimentation Laboratory (NSL),
developed the flow and sediment routing computer models DWAVNET
(Diffusive WAVe model for channel NETworks, Langendoen, 1996) and
BEAMS (Bed and Bank Erosion Analysis Model for Streams, Li et al., 1996;
Zhang and Langendoen, 1997) as tools for the assessment of the performance
of erosion control structures and Best-Management Practices (BMPs).
The original models evolved to become CCHE1D, a more general model that
can be applied to a wider range of flow and sedimentation studies.
Flow and Sediment Transport Modules
Since 1998, a new one-dimensional numerical model for flow and sediment
transport in channel networks has been developed at the NCCHE, replacing
DWAVNET and BEAMS. The new model, renamed CCHE1D, includes the
diffusive wave and the dynamic wave model, which solves the full Saint
Venant equations. The new sediment transport model adopts a nonequilibrium transport approach and uses a coupled procedure to calculate nonuniform sediment transport, bed changes, and bed material sorting. Several
new features were added to make the model applicable to a wider range of
practical engineering problems. The new CCHE1D model also has a more
sophisticated graphical interface with a large number of new features.
The CCHE1D flow model simulates unsteady flows in channel networks
using either the diffusive wave model or the dynamic wave model, taking into
account the different characteristics of the flow in the main channel and in the
flood plains of a compound channel. The model also considers the influence
of hydraulic structures, including culverts, measuring flumes, bridge
crossings, and drop structures. The flow model can be used with or without
sediment transport calculations.
CCHE1D calculates the transport of non-uniform sediment in rivers and
streams using the non-equilibrium transport model. It computes deposition
and sedimentation amounts with the corresponding geometrical change of
channel cross sections, size composition of bed material (including sorting
and armoring processes), and bank erosion and channel widening processes.
CCHE1D provides multiple options for the computation of sediment-related
processes. For example, sediment transport capacity can be calculated by four
formulas (SEDTRA module, modified Ackers and White’s, modified
Engelund and Hansen’s, Wu et al’s formula). Other parameters such as bedmaterial porosity, non-equilibrium adaptation length, wash-load size range,
and mixing-layer thickness, can be calculated by different existing formulas,
as well. The implementation of these multiple options allows the user to
choose the most appropriate formulas for particular real-life problems, and
allows the model to be applied to a wider range of situations.
Chapter 1 Introduction
4
Integration and Support Software
CCHE1D includes a series of tools that are aimed at facilitating the integration
of modeling of channel processes to a watershed-scale study. CCHE1D
includes a complete graphical user interface (GUI) that is designed to simplify
its use and guide the user through the simulation process. The interface is a
part of a “Control Module” that also includes a database management system,
and facilities such as mesh generation, data format conversion filters, and data
interpolation.
CCHE1D also includes a current version of the landscape analysis model
TOPAZ (TOpographic PArameteriZation, Garbrecht and Martz, 1995), which
analyzes a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) to extract a channel network and
the corresponding subcatchments.
This new version of CCHE1D has also extensive modifications in the
facilities for data input and output, where more options are given for the
specification of boundary conditions and other user-supplied data, and for the
output and visualization of simulation results.
CCHE1D is under continuous development, and new features and
improvements to existing capabilities are underway.
Engineering Applications
CCHE1D version 3.0 incorporates a large number of modifications and
additions, which allow the model to be applied to a wider range of engineering
problems.
CCHE1D was developed taking into account the integration of channel flow
modeling with upland processes (watershed) modeling, and a series of
features were added to facilitate this integration. CCHE1D’s powerful
sediment transport routines allow the application of the model to both long
and short-term sedimentation studies. The model can be applied to the
determination of sediment yield and channel morphological evolution, and it
is especially useful in the evaluation of in-channel and upland remedial
measures. Its channel network capability allows the study a watershed as a
whole. When coupled with watershed modeling, CCHE1D can be a very
useful tool in the analysis of watershed-wide sedimentation problems,
especially in agricultural regions. The support for in-stream hydraulic
structures, such as grade control structures, flumes and culverts, makes the
model attractive to those interested in evaluating the effects of such structures
in the sedimentation process.
The hydrodynamic model is general and accurate, and can be applied to a
large variety of unsteady flow studies, from a single-reach, single-storm
simulation, to a complex network of channels, where thousands of
hydrographs are used.
Chapter 1 Introduction
5
New for Version 3.0
CCHE1D has gone through a major revision and improvement program,
which culminated with the release of version 3.0 of the modeling system. All
parts of the system have been modified to implement new features and
improve on existing ones.
The ArcView graphical interface has been redesigned. It now allows for a
more natural flow of operations, and gives the user more flexibility when
defining the simulation domain and prescribing input data. The CCHE1D
interface now contains the new “Channel Digitizing Module,” which allows
the user to sketch channel network based on reference images, such as maps
or photographs.
The Landscape Analysis module, in which a channel network is created based
on digital elevation data, has been also upgraded. It now utilizes the newest
version of the program TOPAZ, which has improved algorithms and more
efficient computer code. Data conversion operations are performed by
independent, optimized programs written in Fortran 90 and C languages.
The “Channel Network Analysis” module has been updated, and it now works
with channel networks created by either the “Landscape Analysis” or by the
new “Channel Digitizing” modules. New mesh-editing capabilities and
visualization options have been added.
The Channel Flow and Sediment Transport model has been entirely revised.
The flow model now accepts channel cross sections of any shape, and it is not
limited to prismatic channels anymore. Sediment transport computations can
be performed for sediment classes whose number and characteristics are
entirely defined by the modeler.
The model has been extensively tested for laboratory and real-life
applications. Currently, the model is limited to subcritical flows (although
local supercritical conditions are allowed).
Because some of the new features of version 3.0 are still under development
and testing, it is recommended that users visit the CCHE1D web page at
http://www.ncche.olemiss.edu/cche1d for current news and updates.
CCHE1D Programs
The CCHE1D channel network modeling system is a large software package
that includes several programs, most of them developed at the NCCHE. The
core of the package is the channel flow and sediment transport model that
performs the unsteady, continuous simulations. Another large program is the
landscape analysis model TOPAZ. Other programs include the graphical
interface and the visualization components, the mesh generator, database
manager, and a collection of tools for data conversions and transfers.
Chapter 1 Introduction
6
However, these programs were designed to work in the background, and a
typical user of the model should not have to worry about them. The CCHE1D
ArcView extension, entirely programmed in the Avenue language, manages
all programs of the system. All other programs are called by the CCHE1D
ArcView extension. The table below lists some characteristics of the most
important programs developed at the NCCHE.
Program
Name
Programming
Languages
Number
of
Routines
Source
Code
Lines*
Main Tasks
cche1d.exe
Fortran 77-90/ C
220
41044 Unsteady flow model with in-stream
hydraulic structures, non-uniform,
non-equilibrium sediment transport
model, bank erosion, and bank
stability analysis.
cche1d.avx
Avenue
248
42495 Operations Control, Database
Management, Graphical Interface,
Mesh Generation, Data conversions
and transfers (ArcView Extension)
tpz2c1d.exe
Fortran 90/ C
59
7956 Conversion of output from TOPAZ
to the CCHE1D relational database.
c1drst.exe
Fortran 90/ C
9
2132 Conversion of raster data files
among several formats.
net2shp.exe
Fortran 90/ C
9
2840 Conversion
of
TOPAZ’s
accumulated drainage area map to a
CCHE1D shapefile.
cche1dgeoref.avx
Avenue
25
1845 CCHE1D’s Image geo-referencing
extension. Associates an image to a
known coordinate system.
* – Includes comment and non-executable lines
How to Use This Document
This manual shows you how to install CCHE1D in your computer, and how to
use CCHE1D in the simulation of the channel processes of a watershed. As
mentioned before, it is recommended that you read the “CCHE1D Quick Start
Guide” before continuing with this manual.
In Chapter 2, you will learn what you can do with CCHE1D. That chapter
quickly demonstrates all CCHE1D capabilities and tools, so that you will
understand how CCHE1D can help you. We believe it is a good idea to see
how the program works by using it. Chapter 3 guides you through the
installation and setup procedure, and describes the basic procedures to start
using CCHE1D on your computer.
Chapters 4 to 8 give a more
Chapter 1 Introduction
7
comprehensive view of all operations and procedures, and it is where you will
learn about all you can do with CCHE1D.
Chapter 4 shows all aspects of the Landscape Analysis module. It shows you
how to generate a channel network and the corresponding subwatersheds from
a single source of data: a matrix of ground elevation data called Digital
Elevation Model, or DEM.
Chapter 5 shows another convenient method to create channel networks, in
which you can simply “draw” the channels on screen, using a digital map,
photograph, or any other image as reference. This should be you method of
choice if you intend to simulate just a couple of channels or if you do not have
good elevation data for your watershed.
Chapter 6 describes the Channel Network Analysis Module. You will learn
how you enter supplemental data such as channel cross-sections and hydraulic
structure data. You will see how you can use CCHE1D to transform the
channel network you digitized or extracted from a DEM into a computational
mesh for the channel flow and sediment transport models.
In Chapter 7, you will find out how to perform channel flow simulations. You
will see how to specify parameters and options and how to execute a flow and
sediment transport simulation with CCHE1D. You will learn how to specify
the output data from the model, and how to visualize results.
You can then review the examples of the Quick Start Guide, where CCHE1D
is applied in the simulation of unsteady flow in real watersheds. You will
learn CCHE1D very quickly, and soon you will be applying it to solve your
own problems.
Appendix A contains a list of references. Appendix B describes the input data
for the supported hydraulic structures. Appendix C documents the format of
all input files CCHE1D requires.
Related Documents
The documentation of CCHE1D is separated into publications designed to
fulfill the needs of different audiences. If you are new to CCHE1D, you may
want to start with the publication “One-Dimensional Channel Network Model
CCHE1D – Quick Start Guide,” which gives a quick overview of the
CCHE1D program through a series of example applications. The present
document, the CCHE1D User’s Manual, is the main documentation on the use
of the CCHE1D software, and it is primarily for users who will apply
CCHE1D to the simulation of a channel–watershed system. For a more
technical discussion of the CCHE1D Channel Network Model, and for
guidance on the modeling of flow and sediment transport in channels, please
consult the “One-Dimensional Channel Network Model CCHE1D – Technical
Manual.”
Chapter 1 Introduction
8
For a more detailed description of the implementation of the CCHE1D
interface programs, the report CCHE1D – Control Module Technical Manual
is also being updated for CCHE1D version 3.0.
In addition, the CCHE1D web site (http://www.ncche.olemiss.edu/cche1d)
lists a series of publications that discuss the development, testing, and
application of the model.
CHAPTER 2
Working With CCHE1D –
An Overview
This chapter will illustrate how a complete CCHE1D simulation
session works, so you can quickly familiarize yourself with the
software. You will follow the main steps of the watershed and
channel routing analysis, discovering how CCHE1D simplifies the
tasks and guides you through the process.
CCHE1D uses the Geographical Information System ArcView® to
provide a convenient graphical user interface. If you are already
familiar with ArcView, you just have to learn about the new
functionality CCHE1D provides. Otherwise, you may consider
reading and performing the exercises of the Quick Start Tutorial in
“Using ArcView GIS,” the user’s manual that came with your
copy of ArcView.
Contents
!
!
!
!
!
Starting CCHE1D
Creating Channel Networks
Entering Data
Performing a Channel Network Analysis for a Watershed
Program Capabilities and Limitations
Chapter 2 Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
10
Introduction
CCHE1D is an integrated package of landscape analysis, watershed and
channel network, hydraulic and sediment transport modeling. CCHE1D is
composed of several modeling components, tied together by a control module
that provides a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and manages all data sets and
operations.
CCHE1D uses the Geographic Information System ArcView as a front-end
interface. CCHE1D is an Extension to ArcView that provides the needed
functionality. When the CCHE1D Extension is active, a set of menus and
buttons is appended to the standard ArcView interface. These controls let you
perform all operations related to CCHE1D.
The GUI is very dynamic. Menus and buttons only appear when they are
needed. They are tied to the type of operation you are performing. The
interface is composed of three groups of controls: a menu bar at the top, a line
of buttons, and a second line of special buttons called Tools. Usually, the
buttons correspond to entries of the menu bar. They provide a more
convenient way of accessing the most frequently used options. The tools have
a special behavior: only one tool is active at a time. A tool requires your
interaction on a map or on a table for the operation to take effect.
When you start to work with CCHE1D, a new Project is created. A Project is
the collection of all data related with a particular watershed study. It contains
interactive maps, tables, and images. CCHE1D distinguishes several types of
maps and tables. They are called Documents. Usually, a set of specialized
functions is available for each type document.
Chapter 2 Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
11
You will use CCHE1D to perform different types of analyses and operations
that will generate new data, including database tables, maps, and images. The
CCHE1D Project file does not store the data, which are stored in separate
files. The CCHE1D Project stores only references to these files. However, it
stores data related to all operations you perform, to keep track of the analyses
you make and the new files that are created in the process.
When you finish a session of CCHE1D, you should save the Project file, so
you can continue your work later. The Project file has the extension .apr.
The remainder of this chapter will give you a tour of the CCHE1D
functionality. It follows the order a channel analysis work is carried out,
introducing all the important features of CCHE1D.
Defining Channel Networks
Introduction
CCHE1D is an unsteady-flow hydrodynamic model for channel networks. Its
graphical interface is designed to facilitate the process of creating a suitable
channel network for the simulation, and to help the modeler provide the data
that describe the channel properties.
The model can be applied to a single channel, or to a network of hundreds of
channel links. In addition, CCHE1D can be used in conjunction with a
watershed model, which would provide the required boundary conditions
(inflows and sediment loads), or stand-alone, which inputs provided by the
user.
CCHE1D provides two methods that can be used to create a channel network
that represents the study area. You must decide which method to use based on
the type of input data you have available, the type of study, the size and
complexity of the computational domain, and other factors.
The first method, here called “Landscape Analysis,” uses terrain elevation
data to define a network of channels that approximate the real channels of a
watershed. If a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is available for the area to be
studied, CCHE1D can automatically extract a channel network based on the
given elevation data. This method is convenient for complex channel
networks, and it is very advantageous if the CCHE1D simulation is to be
coupled with a watershed (rainfall-runoff-erosion) simulation.
The second method for the creation of a channel network is by digitizing the
channels based on a map, photograph, satellite imagery, or any image or
illustration that could be scanned into a computer file. In this method, you can
delineate the channels by simply following the reference image with the
mouse (“heads-up digitizing”). CCHE1D algorithms convert the drawing into
a logical description of the channel network. If the image is referenced to a
Chapter 2 Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
12
known coordinate system, all distances, such as channel lengths, can be also
inferred from the digitizing procedure.
The CCHE1D Image Geo-referencing Extension can be used to associate a
reference image to a known coordinate system. You can simply enter the
coordinates for a couple of points, or you can use an already referenced map,
GIS, or image layer as reference.
Performing Landscape Analysis
If CCHE1D is being used as part of a watershed-wide numerical analysis, the
first task is to define a network of channels and subdivide the watershed into
smaller regions, according to the distribution of channels within the
watershed.
CCHE1D is capable of creating both the channel network and the
corresponding subwatersheds automatically. It uses the model TOPAZ
(TOpographic PArameteriZation, Garbrecht and Martz, 1995), and all it needs
is a Digital Elevation Model that contains the watershed you are interested in
studying. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is a matrix of equally spaced
ground elevation values describing the terrain topography.
You can control the final appearance of the channel network (channel density,
minimum channel lengths, and subwatershed areas) by specifying the values
for two calibration parameters:
! The minimum length of source channels (channels without tributaries).
! The minimum upstream drainage area necessary to maintain a permanent
channel.
Either you can use the same values of these two parameters for the entire
DEM, or you can specify up to five regions within the DEM with different
parameter values.
After the initial computations are performed, CCHE1D displays a map with
all the channels extracted from the DEM. In most cases, the DEM will cover
more than one watershed. You can use this map to identify the watershed of
interest and specify the location of its outlet.
Once the channels and subwatersheds are defined, CCHE1D builds the
CCHE1D Network Database. The database stores all information about
channels and subwatersheds, and it is made of tables. Each table stores the
properties of a certain entity such as nodes, reaches, and subwatersheds.
Some tables store indices that are used to establish relationships with other
tables of the database.
Chapter 2 Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
13
When the channel extraction and subwatershed delineation process is
concluded, CCHE1D displays the channel network within the selected
watershed.
From here, you would create a computational channel network, in which you
would define the position of the computational nodes and provide geometry,
hydraulic structure, and sediment-related data.
Digitizing a Channel Network
A convenient alternative to the “Landscape Analysis” procedure is to simply
“draw” a channel network in the CCHE1D interface, and then provide
geometrical data, such as channel lengths, cross section geometry, etc.
CCHE1D has a “Channel Network Digitizing Interface,” which allows you to
create a channel network of any level of complexity in minutes.
You can display any reference image on-screen, and use it as a background for
while you define the position of the channels with the mouse. Aerial
photographs, satellite imagery, digital maps, or any other scanned image can
be used as reference. Once you have the channels visible on screen, you can
simply active the digitization tool and follow the channels with your computer
mouse.
Chapter 2 Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
14
After the “drawing” of the channels is finished, CCHE1D algorithms analyze
the drawing and convert it into a logically defined channel network. If your
reference image is associated with a known coordinate system, CCHE1D will
automatically use real-life distances for each channel segment.
The digitizing procedure gives you better control when generating the channel
network. The precision of the channel disposition is dependent only on the
quality of your reference image and on your ability to visually recognize the
channels and mark their location using the computer mouse.
CCHE1D’s graphical editing tools give you good flexibility when editing or
correcting the digitized channels.
The automated process yields data that is equivalent to those generated by the
Landscape Analysis algorithms, with the exception that there is no definition
of the watershed contour. After you are satisfied with the digitized channel
network, you would proceed to create the computational channel network,
where you would define the position of the computational nodes, and provide
all the required data for the channel simulation.
Chapter 2 Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
15
Defining the River Geometry and Other Data
After you have a channel network defined, you must provide data to describe
the geometry of channels, hydraulic roughness, and sediment data, if sediment
transport is to be considered. CCHE1D has a unified “Channel Analysis
Module” that works with channel networks created from DEM’s or digitized
through its graphical interface.
A new interactive map, simply named Channel Network (followed by a
number) provides the interface and graphical tools that will guide you and
help you during the process. The new window appears with you select the
Create Computational Network option of the Channel-Network menu.
NOTE: CCHE1D 3.0 integrates all editing capabilities into a single window
simply called “Channel Network.” This window replaces the Computational
Channel Network and the Hydraulic Structures Manager windows of
previous versions of CCHE1D. You can create as many Channel Networks as
wish, inside a single project.
Channel Cross-Section Data
Now that you have finished the channel network creation process, you can
start to enter information about the channel cross sections. You must define
the cross section geometry through a series of points of known elevations,
which may include optional floodplains. Bed and bank sediment properties
are considered as part of cross sectional data. You can also specify variable
hydraulic roughness across the channel and floodplains.
CCHE1D version 3.0 allows you to define cross sections of arbitrary shapes.
You do not have to enter cross section information for all nodes in the
network, but CCHE1D requires that you provide data for all nodes at the
beginning and end of every channel link. CCHE1D will supply the
information for the remaining nodes using interpolation.
Cross Section Interpolation
CCHE1D has sophisticated interpolation routines that can generate synthetic
cross section geometries at locations where measurements are not available.
The interpolation routines preserve the overall shape of the cross sections,
considering the location of the channel banks, and the geometry of the
floodplains. The programs establish “master cords” that connect the key
points of the cross section, such as bank toes and overbank stations. The
interpolation routines also consider the geometry of in-stream structures.
Hydraulic Structures
CCHE1D supports the modeling of flow and sediment transport through four
types of structures: culverts, bridge crossings, drop structures and measuring
flumes. You can add hydraulic structures to the channel network through the
interactive map of the graphical interface, or by defining their location and
Chapter 2 Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
16
properties in a data file. Complete property editing tools are also available in
the graphical interface.
Computational Mesh Generation
After you have entered the cross section data and the eventual hydraulic
structures, you can start the process of creating a computational mesh for the
flow and sediment transport models. CCHE1D provides automated tools to
help you during the process.
Auto-generating a Channel Network
CCHE1D’s Channel Network Analysis module inspects the channel network
and determines improvements to create a computational network that is
adequate to the flow routing model. This analysis module consists of a series
of pre-defined rules, tuned to the simulation models of CCHE1D, which
determine the number and location of new nodes to be added to the channel
network.
You can ask CCHE1D to create the computational network for you by
choosing the Autogenerate option of the Channel-Network menu. CCHE1D
will display the new nodes with a different color, so you can identify which
nodes were added by the automatic procedure.
Editing the Channel Network
The GUI of the Channel Network window has a series of tools that allow you
to interactively add or remove nodes to the computational network. You can
just click at the point where you want to insert a node, and CCHE1D will take
care of everything. You can enter the cross section data for the new node, or
you can let CCHE1D use its interpolation routines to supply the needed
information. Similarly, you can remove nodes added interactively or by the
Autogenerate function. However, you cannot remove whole channel links or
certain types of nodes, such as channel junctions and subwatershed inflow
locations.
Watershed Modeling
CCHE1D was designed to be independent of the watershed model used for the
rainfall-runoff simulations. You can use models such as SWAT – Soil and
Water Assessment Tool, or AGNPS-2000, for example, for the modeling of
watershed processes and the determination of water and sediment runoff of
naturally delineated subwatersheds. SWAT and AGNPS are continuous time,
distributed parameters models that simulate hydrology, erosion, and water
quality processes.
Chapter 2 Working with CCHE1D – An Overview
17
Currently, the interface to the watershed model SWAT is made through the
Blackland SWAT-GRASS interface (Srinivasan et al, 1996). The SWATGRASS program uses the GRASS GIS to perform all the spatial analyses and
extract properties for each subwatershed. Input data for SWAT consists of the
DEM, subwatershed map, land-use map, soil map, and data about climate and
agricultural practices. CCHE1D automatically exports the DEM and
Subwatershed raster maps. It also helps the user in specifying the additional
data layers. CCHE1D then starts the SWAT-GRASS command-line interface,
from which you can control the simulation of the watershed processes.
SWAT will output a time series of water and sediment runoff for each
subwatershed, which will be used as boundary conditions for the channel flow
and sediment transport computations performed by CCHE1D. CCHE1D has
not been tested with newer versions of SWAT, which includes an ArcViewbased graphical interface. You are expected to convert output results from
SWAT to the watershed-based boundary conditions data format of CCHE1D.
If you decide to use AGNPS, you can use the channel network and
subwatershed data generated by CCHE1D directly in the AGNPS simulation.
The procedures for channel network generation in both models should be
identical. CCHE1D now can import the simulation results of AGNPS
directly, and use them as boundary conditions for the channel simulations.
Performing Hydraulic and Sediment Transport
Computations
When you are satisfied with the channel network displayed in the Channel
Network Window, you can perform flow routing and sediment transport
simulations. The GUI has a menu labeled Simulation, from which you can
enter the required information and control the simulation runs.
CCHE1D reduces the amount of information you have to supply. It needs
only the following:
! Control Parameters and model options;
! Boundary Conditions File;
! Definition of Output Data.
CCHE1D provides a sophisticated and interactive system for the specification
of the model output data. Because a long-term continuous simulation of flow
and sediment transport can generate a large amount of output data, CCHE1D
lets you specify, before you start the simulation, what charts you want to see
when the computer run is finished. Then you can import the results file into
your favorite plotting package to visualize the results.
CHAPTER 3
Installing and Starting CCHE1D
This chapter discusses the hardware and software requirements
needed to run CCHE1D and describes how to install and set up
CCHE1D on your system.
This chapter also describes the several methods to start the
CCHE1D graphical interface and modeling system, and how to
setup a case study for the analysis of channel flow and
sedimentation processes.
In addition, this chapter presents some general guidelines
regarding the use of the CCHE1D software.
Chapters that follow will discuss each phase of the modeling
process in detail.
Contents
!
!
!
!
Hardware and Software Requirements
Installation Procedure
Starting CCHE1D
Using CCHE1D
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
19
Hardware and Software Requirements
CCHE1D is a collection of FORTRAN and C programs that are managed by a
Graphical User Interface for the ArcView GIS system, which is programmed
in a proprietary objected-oriented language called Avenue.
CCHE1D uses ArcView to perform many tasks. ArcView is not used merely
as an interface. All database management and channel analysis operations are
performed within ArcView. CCHE1D requires ArcView version 3.0a or later
and it does not require any of ArcView extensions, such as Spatial Analyst or
Dialog Designer.
CCHE1D is distributed in the form of executable programs for the Microsoft
Windows operating system. However, CCHE1D programs can be compiled
for most systems, including most Unix variants. To this date, CCHE1D was
not tested on Macintosh systems.
Hardware requirements for CCHE1D are the same as those for ArcView 3.x.
Because CCHE1D and ArcView must run simultaneously, it is recommended
that a minimum of 128 MB of RAM be available for good overall
performance.
Installation Procedure
CCHE1D files and programs
CCHE1D is distributed as a single, self-extracting file named cche1d-v3xxxx.exe which contains the programs and pertinent data for the installation
of CCHE1D on Windows 95, NT 4.0, 98, Me, and 2000 systems. CCHE1D
has not yet been tested on Windows XP, however, all recommendations for
Windows 2000 systems should apply.
CCHE1D uses ArcView during the installation process, thus the installation of
the programs will fail if ArcView is not present or if it has not been installed
correctly.
To install CCHE1D on your system, double-click on the cche1d-v3xxxx.exe file icon, and follow the instructions for the installation. By
default, CCHE1D installs its programs in a folder named C:\NCCHE\CCHE1D.
You can override this setting by providing a new folder using the Browse
button, when prompted. Make sure you take note of the new folder because
you will need it later. Do not install the software in locations that contain
spaces in their names (e.g. C:\Program Files) because ArcView is not
fully compliant with Microsoft Windows standards, and it may have problems
accessing files in folders that contain spaces in their path.
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
20
Because the program is updated frequently, please read the detailed
installation instructions that are available with the distribution of the software
for the most up to date installation information.
For Unix systems, follow the instructions provided with the CCHE1D file
distribution.
CCHE1D ArcView Extension File
The CCHE1D installation program places the CCHE1D extension file
cche1d.avx in the location defined by the environment variable AVEXT.
Usually, this location is set by ArcView to be AV_GIS30\ARCVIEW\EXT32.
Alternatively, ArcView allows extensions to be installed into a user-defined
folder. If you want to install it in a user-dependent folder, you can do so, as
long as you set the environmental variable USEREXT to the folder where you
installed the file. Keep in mind that if you choose this alternative, the
CCHE1D installation programs will not be able to update or uninstall the
software. The user will be responsible for managing the installed versions in
use. See the ArcView documentation for more details.
CCHE1D Case Data Folder
For CCHE1D version 3.0, the use of a “Case Data Folder” is optional, but it is
a convenient method to organize CCHE1D data sets and avoid problems
accessing data later. If such folder is defined, CCHE1D will store the data for
each test case into a directory structure under this folder, by default.
The Case Data Folder can be created either before or after the installation of
the program. For new users of CCHE1D, it is recommended that such folder
be created.
If more than one user shares your computer, your system administrator can
decide if CCHE1D-related data will be stored into a separate folder for each
user, or if all users will share the same folder. Do not use spaces in the path to
this folder (e.g. C:\My Documents\Cche1d) because ArcView has
problems dealing with file names that contain spaces.
To setup the CCHE1D Case Data Folder, follow these two steps:
1. Create a folder on the location you decide to store all CCHE1D test case
data. Do not use spaces in the name or path to this folder.
2. Define an Environment Variable (named C1DDATA) to indicate
CCHE1D to use that folder as the default location for test case data. You
can override this location and choose a different one when creating new
test cases.
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
21
The C1DDATA Environment variable
In order to define a folder as CCHE1D’s default Case Data Folder, you must
set the environment variable C1DDATA, before you create a new Test Case.
Please follow the instructions below, according to the operating system of the
computer you are using. Note that if this variable is set incorrectly, CCHE1D
will simply ignore this setting.
Windows 2000 systems
On Windows 2000 systems, open the Windows Control Panel and doubleclick on the Systems icon. Select the Advanced tab, and then Environment
Variables button. Add the following variable:
C1DDATA
Cche1dDataDir
where Cche1dDataDir is a directory that will contain all your CCHE1D test
cases, for example C:\Projects\Rivers\Modeling. When you use
CCHE1D in the simulation of a watershed/channel system, CCHE1D stores
the information created during the simulation into a directory structure under
the Cche1dDataDir directory. This directory may be unique for each user.
Your system administrator may help you setup different values for each user.
Windows NT 4.0 systems
On Windows NT systems, open the Windows Control Panel and double-click
on the Systems icon. Select the Environment tab and add the following
variable:
C1DDATA
Cche1dDataDir
where Cche1dDataDir is a directory that will contain all your CCHE1D test
cases, for example C:\Projects\Rivers\Modeling. When you use
CCHE1D in the simulation of a watershed/channel system, CCHE1D stores
the information created during the simulation into a directory structure under
the Cche1dDataDir directory. This directory may be unique for each user.
Your system administrator may help you setup different values for each user.
Windows 95/98/98SE systems
On these Microsoft Windows systems, you must add the following line to the
autoexec.bat file:
set C1DDATA=Cche1dDataDir
where Cche1dDataDir is a directory that will contain all your CCHE1D test
cases, for example C:\Projects\Rivers\Modeling. When you use
CCHE1D in the simulation of a watershed/channel system, CCHE1D stores
the information created during the simulation into a directory structure under
the Cche1dDataDir directory.
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
22
Unix Systems
Environment variables are usually defined in a file that is read during login
(.login, .profile, .cshrc, etc). Usually the variables are set with the
setenv command, as follows:
setenv C1DHOME InstallDir
setenv C1DDATA Cche1dDataDir
where InstallDir is the CCHE1D installation directory.
Cche1dDataDir is a directory that will contain all your CCHE1D test cases.
When you use CCHE1D in the simulation of a watershed/channel system,
CCHE1D stores the information created during the simulation into a directory
structure under the Cche1dDataDir directory. This directory can be different
for each user of the same computer.
Starting CCHE1D
As stated before, CCHE1D requires ArcView GIS program version 3.0 or
later to work1. In a more strict sense, ArcView must be started first, and then
the CCHE1D extension should be activated to enable the CCHE1D
functionality.
For version 3.0, however, a new automated system has been implemented,
which allows CCHE1D to be started as any Windows program.
To Create a New CCHE1D Project
To start CCHE1D to create a new test case, you can start CCHE1D like any
other windows program:
1. Double-click on the CCHE1D icon on your Windows desktop. If you do
not see the icon, use the Start Menu as usual for any Windows program.
CCHE1D is the Programs/NCCHE group. On newer versions of
Windows, the CCHE1D icon is also available from the task bar, usually at
the bottom of the desktop.
2. You will see ArcView starting, and then the CCHE1D banner is displayed.
You will then be prompted to enter a “Project Case Name.” You can
navigate your computer and define a location for the new CCHE1D
project, if desired. Otherwise, simply provide a short case name (not more
than eight characters) and press OK.
1
You can use the CCHE1D channel flow and sediment transport model directly from
command-line, provided you supply all the input data according to the specifications in the
appendices of this manual.
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
23
If you prefer to start ArcView first, or if you already have ArcView running,
you can start CCHE1D by enabling its Extension:
1. In ArcView’s File menu, select Extensions. You must have ArcView’s
main window (the “Project” window active to see this option).
2. Scroll down the list of extensions available on your computer, and select
CCHE1D. A black checkmark appears. Press the OK button. If you
cannot see the CCHE1D extension in the list, the software was not
installed correctly. Make sure the extension file cche1d.avx is installed
in the proper directory.
3. If there is already an ArcView project opened, the CCHE1D banner is
displayed, and you are prompted to enter a “Project Case Name.” You can
navigate your computer and define a location for the new CCHE1D
project, if desired. Otherwise, simply provide a short case name (not more
than eight characters) and press OK.
4. If there is no project open, use the “New Project” option of the File menu.
The CCHE1D banner is displayed, and you are prompted to enter a
“Project Case Name.” You can navigate your computer and define a
location for the new CCHE1D project, if desired. Otherwise, simply
provide a short case name (not more than eight characters) and press OK.
5. Save the new ArcView project, as usual.
To Open an Existing CCHE1D Project
You can open an existing CCHE1D project simply by double-clicking the
ArcView Project file icon. The ArcView file has extension .apr and is
located inside the folder with the same name (without the extension). On
Windows systems, the icon also appears in the “Documents” or “Recent
Documents” part of the Windows Start menu.
Alternatively, you can start ArcView and use the Open Project option of the
File menu.
Some Notes
CCHE1D cannot work unless you provide the case name. If you cancel the
creation of the test case, the project is closed, but the extension remains active.
Simply use the “New Project” option to create a new CCHE1D Project. Once
a case name is defined, CCHE1D creates a directory with the same Case
Name at specified location. The default value for this location is given by the
environmental variable C1DDATA, which was also defined at the time of the
software installation. If that variable was not defined, CCHE1D follows
ArcView rules for the location of new files.
It is very important to always save the ArcView project. If you are already
familiar with ArcView you know that ArcView project files (extension .apr)
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
24
do not store the data such as tables, graphics, etc., but only references to other
files in the computer system. If you forget to save the project file, references
to the files may be lost.
You can save the CCHE1D–ArcView project files in any location in your
computer. However, due to some limitations of ArcView handling file names
under Windows systems, it is recommended that you avoid:
1. Saving the project files in network-mounted storage devices;
2. Saving files with spaces anywhere in the path to the file (e.g.
C:\My Documents\CCHE1D\myprj.apr). ArcView does not open
project files that contain a space anywhere in the path to the file.
3. Saving files where the path is likely to change.
If you receive a message saying that any environmental variables are not
defined, you can do so at the moment the new project is created. However, it
is important that you or the systems administrator for you computer review the
installation procedure, because these variables should be correctly defined
before you start using CCHE1D.
Using CCHE1D
CCHE1D Data Directory
A CCHE1D simulation uses and generates a large amount of data that cannot
be stored in a single file. A complete simulation requires the user to provide
several types of data. Each step of the analysis generates additional data that
must be stored. A typical CCHE1D project that includes sediment transport
could contain about 100 data files. CCHE1D projects that require more than
50 MB of storage are not uncommon. Luckily, CCHE1D’s control module
manages most of the data operations, and the user does not have to worry
about database operations and intermediate data files. Since the CCHE1D
interface works under the ArcView GIS, it must comply with the requirements
of that software and it is subject to some limitations ArcView imposes.
If you are already familiar with ArcView, you know that all user actions are
saved to an “ArcView Project” file, but the bulk of the data such as maps and
tables are stored into separate files. This Project file stores references to the
files that contain the data. For each new project you start, CCHE1D will
create a directory (or folder as they are called under Microsoft Windows)
where all the data will be stored. This directory is called the Case Directory,
and it is shown on the title bar of the application. This directory contains the
ArcView Project file and several subdirectories that help organize the data
files CCHE1D creates.
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
25
A common problem with this approach is that if one of the files is deleted or if
it is moved to another location in the computer hard disk, problems will arise
when the Project is opened for use again.
In order to minimize the problem, CCHE1D follows a procedure that is
common in GIS applications, where the user is encouraged to keep all data
under a pre-defined directory (folder) structure. For this reason we
recommend that you define a CCHE1D Data directory (C1DDATA).
It is highly recommended that you keep a CCHE1D project in the same
location during its existence. Moving or deleting files can lead to problems,
and the CCHE1D will malfunction if some of the data is lost.
CCHE1D Project
Being a customized ArcView application, a case study performed with
CCHE1D is equivalent to any ArcView project. Thus, familiarity with
ArcView, although not required, is a plus. CCHE1D does not disable any of
the ArcView functions. You can use most of the ArcView functionality
concurrently with CCHE1D. Only a few features are blocked because
CCHE1D programs require some properties remain unchanged during the
existence of the project.
Remember to save your project file frequently, before and after important or
time-consuming operations. If you use the program but you fail to save the
project when you are done, data will be lost. CCHE1D version 3.0 now
automatically saves the project file after important, automated operations are
performed, but you are still responsible for saving the project frequently.
Because CCHE1D is a complex program, an important amount of data is
saved to the Project file. If this data is lost, recovery can be difficult.
How to Move a CCHE1D Project to Another
Location
Although not recommended, it is often necessary to move the CCHE1D files
to another location on your computer or to a different computer. Like any
other ArcView project, you may have to manually edit the project (.apr) file
in order to update new file paths inside the project file. CCHE1D does not
have any extra requirement when moving projects. Therefore, if you are
experienced with ArcView projects, you should not have any problem.
Follow these general guidelines when moving a CCHE1D project:
1. Copy the whole directory structure to another location. Start from the top
directory, the one that has the same name as the Test Case and the .apr
file.
2. Make a backup copy of the .apr file.
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
26
3. Open the .apr file in any text editor, such as Notepad, Wordpad, or
similar program. If possible, avoid Notepad and choose a better editor
because Notepad is too slow and the .apr files are usually large.
4. Observe that the .apr file contains hardcoded paths to each of the data
files referenced by the project. You must update each and every
occurrence of these file names. Edit the path to each file, substituting the
old value for the new, correct ones.
For example, if the “BlueRiver” project and directory was originally
created inside the folder
C:\Projects\Modeling\MyCases\
and you are moving the BlueRiver directory inside
D:\Reports\Data
you should see inside the .apr file lines like:
Path:
"c:/projects/modeling/mycases/blueriver/extrnet1/blueriver_nodes.dbf"
or
S:
"c:\\projects\\modeling\\mycases\\blueriver\\simul\\blueriver_mp_df.txt"
You must edit every occurrence of this type of data line to match the new
location of the files. Therefore, the lines above should be changed to:
Path:
"d:/reports/data/blueriver/extrnet1/blueriver_nodes.dbf"
and
S:
"d:\\reports\\data\\blueriver\\simul\\blueriver_mp_df.txt"
Note that there are many instances similar to those above, and every one
should be updated, but a couple of search and replace operations should be
sufficient.
5. Double-click the edited .apr file and check if the project opens correctly.
If a file path is wrong, CCHE1D will not be able to find that file, and a
dialog will popup so you can specify the correct location for that file. If
CCHE1D continues to ask for many files, you must have made a mistake.
Cancel everything, do not save the new project, and review the file
editing.
If the file paths are edited correctly, the project file should open and work
correctly. If you are moving the project to another computer, ensure that both
CCHE1D and ArcView are correctly installed.
If you had other ArcView extensions active (intentionally or accidentally) in
the original computer, but these extensions are not available in the new
computer, you will be prompt for their location. You can press Cancel when
prompted.
Chapter 3 Installing and Starting CCHE1D
27
Recommended Usage Behavior
This section summarizes some good practices that will help managing the
operation of the program and its data.
! Set the CCHE1D Data Directory to a hard disk mounted on your
computer. Make sure the directories where you plan to store CCHE1D
data contain no spaces in their names. This is a limitation of ArcView that
may cause problems when trying to access files. Avoid network-mounted
disks. Set it to a folder that is unlikely to change. If the computer
supports a multi-user environment, consider a separate data directory for
each user, making sure the Environment Variables are set accordingly.
! Decide where you are going to store the project files and be consistent.
Remember that to each Project file corresponds a directory (folder) in the
C1DDATA directory. When you delete a project file, remember also to
delete the corresponding directory structure. Also, avoid storing project
files in directories that contain spaces in their names (e.g.
C:\My Documents\My CCHE1D Projects). ArcView may fail to
open the project if there are spaces somewhere in the path to the file or in
the file name itself (e.g. “Blue River.apr”).
!
!
!
!
!
Assign clear, meaningful Case names. It is also a good idea to save your
project with the Case name to clarify the relation between project and data
directory.
Do not add extraneous data to CCHE1D documents (Views, Tables, etc).
Avoid modifying the main Channel Network Views (most damaging
actions are already blocked), since they can interfere with the behavior of
the interface. If you want to add data that is not required by CCHE1D do
so by creating standard views and tables.
Do not delete components created by CCHE1D from the Project. If you
delete a View or a Table from the project, CCHE1D could malfunction.
Do not move or delete files inside the Case data directory. The only files
you can remove are simulation results inside the simul subdirectory.
Do not activate ArcView extensions that are not necessary for the
CCHE1D simulation. Activating extensions uses precious memory and
computer resources, and slows down the system.
CHAPTER 4
Landscape Analysis and
Channel Network Extraction
In the chapter “Working with CCHE1D – An Overview,” you were
introduced to the CCHE1D modeling system. You saw how
CCHE1D performs several tasks, and how it enforces a welldefined sequence of actions so that the graphical interface can
guide you and help you along the way.
This chapter will take you through the process of Landscape
Analysis and Channel Network Extraction, where you will learn
how to create a channel network from a Digital Elevation Model,
or DEM.
Alternatively, you can proceed to the next chapter, “Channel
Network Digitizing Interface,” to learn how to create a channel
network by digitizing the position of channels displayed on the
computer screen.
Contents
In this chapter you will learn how to:
! Import and Pre-process a DEM.
! Extract a channel network
! Define a watershed
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
29
Introduction
This chapter describes the CCHE1D’s implementation of a method to create
channel networks and define the corresponding drainage basins based on the
analysis of elevation data, in the form of a Digital Elevation Model (DEM).
CCHE1D utilizes an external program called TOPAZ for the spatial analysis,
but it provides a complete graphical interface for this procedure. Although
several other programs are used in this procedure, all tasks are managed from
the CCHE1D interface, which controls the external programs.
After a channel network is defined, CCHE1D converts the results from the
spatial analysis into a relational database that stores all the relevant
information. This database will be automatically updated during the whole
simulation processes, so that you do not have to worry about complex data
preparation operations that take place behind the scenes.
Importing a DEM
In order to create a channel network with the corresponding subwatersheds,
you must have a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) imported into the CCHE1D
Project. CCHE1D supports the following formats for the DEM file:
! ArcInfo ASCII File – This file is usually created with the command
GRIDASCII in Arc-Info or exported as ASCII raster from ArcView, but
you can create a file in this format using a text editor or by using a
program you wrote for this purpose.
! GRASS ASCII File – You can export a DEM from GRASS GIS using the
command r.to.ascii. The file is similar to the ArcInfo ASCII file,
except for the header information.
! RAW ASCII File – Similar to the formats above, except there is no header
at the beginning of the file. You must provide the required data in a
separate file, or interactively, via the CCHE1D interface.
For a complete description of the file formats, please refer to Appendix C.
To import a DEM file
1. Make sure the CCHE1D extension is active. Select the Project window by
clicking on it.
2. Choose the option Import DEM from the Channel Network menu.
3. In the dialog that appears, select the type of DEM file that corresponds to
the file you have, and click OK.
4. A file selection dialog appears. Browse the directory structure to find the
directory that contains the file you want to import. By default, the dialog
shows only files with extension .dem. If your file has a different
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
30
extension, select ‘All Files (*.*)’ to see all the files in the selected
directory.
5. Double click on the file you want to import.
6. If you are importing a file in RAW format (no header), you will be asked
if you will provide the additional information interactively or through a
CCHE1D header file. The header file contains coordinates, cell size, and
other data normally present in the file header. This option can be used to
directly import DEMs prepared for the landscape analysis model TOPAZ.
If you choose to provide the data interactively, a dialog will appear so you
can type in the data.
CCHE1D will import the DEM file and display it on a window. The DEMs
you import are named “Raw DEM” followed by a number. They appear in
the Project window, under the icon DEMs
. You may import up to 9
DEMs into a project. You cannot access the DEM elevation values from this
window. Therefore, you cannot query of modify the DEM from within
CCHE1D. You can use the ArcView Network Analyst® Extension for this
purpose.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
31
Checking DEM properties
You can see the properties of the imported DEM by clicking on the Properties
button
, or by selecting Properties from the DEM menu. A dialog box
appears showing information about the DEM.
To change the DEM colors
CCHE1D creates an image representing the DEM. The image has 256 predefined colors. The default color scheme uses earth tone colors commonly
used to represent ground elevations. You can select another color scheme:
1. Double-click on the legend area in the DEM window.
2. In the Dialog that appears, select a different colormap. Click OK.
You can use the standard ArcView’s imagery display capabilities by selecting
the ‘Legend Editor.’ Refer to the ArcView user’s manual for more
information.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
32
To create a new DEM colormap
You can create your own colormap to display DEMs within CCHE1D. Create
a file containing 256 entries of Red, Green, and Blue (RGB) triplets that
identify each color in the colormap. CCHE1D will map the elevations to the
specified colors. You must copy the file to the CCHE1D installation directory
tree, inside the directory lib/colormaps. Consult Appendix C to learn
about the format of the colormap file.
Pre-Processing a DEM
Once you have a DEM imported, you can Pre-Process the DEM. Preprocessing is required because a channel network cannot be extracted from a
DEM if the it contains depressions without an outlet for the surface flow. Pits
and depressions must be filled to the elevation of their local outlets. Flat areas
in the DEM are usually due to its limited vertical resolution, and may lead to
flow paths that deviate from the actual conditions. Flat areas are eliminated
by imposing a relief that is based on the terrain form of the surrounding areas.
You can control some options and parameters of the pre-processing. The preprocessing algorithms modify the elevation of some DEM cells. Therefore,
the final appearance of the extracted channel network may vary, depending on
the options used. You may wish to try the different options and verify their
influence in the extracted channel network.
CCHE1D uses the landscape analysis model TOPAZ (TOpographic
PArameteriZation) to pre-process the DEM and extract the channel network.
For information about the algorithms, assumptions and limitations of the
model please see Garbrecht and Martz, 1995.
After you import a DEM, select Pre-Process from the DEM menu. A series of
dialog boxes will ask you about all the pre-processing options and parameters.
When you are finished selecting the options, CCHE1D will call TOPAZ to
pre-process the DEM.
Smoothing
You may want to smooth the DEM before pre-processing it. Smoothing is
accomplished by performing a weighted-average in a moving 3 by 3 cell
window. You may specify different weights for the central cell, the crosscells and the diagonal cells. In addition, the smoothing procedure can be
repeated several times by specifying the number of passes.
To smooth the DEM:
1. Click Yes when the smoothing option dialog appears.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
33
2. In the dialog that follows, enter the number of smoothing passes and the
weights for the center cell, cross-cells and diagonal cells. Valid values are
integers in the range 0 to 100.
Treatment of Depressions
TOPAZ’s depression analysis algorithm identifies and delineates all closed
depressions in the DEM. It assumes all depressions are spurious and it
essentially modifies the DEM by increasing elevations within a depression to
a level where an outlet can be defined.
There are, however, two approaches used in accomplishing the depression
filling. According to user's choice, the depressions can be either entirely filled
until the lowest depression outlet is found, or existing narrow blockages are
breached, so that an outlet is created.
The first option models the natural formation of ponds. The water fills the
depression until a certain elevation is reached. An outlet is found and the
water reassumes its flow downstream. The second option assumes that as in
nature depression features are often breached (valleys, gullies), but the breach
is too narrow to be registered by the coarse resolution of the DEM. The
breaching option avoids the filling of large areas, which can be the result of
poor DEM definition due to its resolution or inherent errors.
To select the depression treatment option:
1. From the drop-down menu, select either:
!
Fill Depressions Entirely
!
Breach Narrow Blockages
2. If you opt for breaching narrow depressions, specify the breaching length
to either one or two cell widths in the dialog that follows.
Treatment of Flat Areas
TOPAZ eliminates flat areas inherent to the DEM and those created by
depression filling by increasing the elevation of selected cells by very small
increments. The algorithm assumes that these areas are not flat in nature, and
they are the result of the low vertical resolution of the DEM, which is
typically one foot or one meter.
The elevations within the flat area are inferred from the rising and falling
terrain surrounding it. The purpose of this treatment is to eliminate ambiguity
when defining flow lines across these areas. The flow is forced to take the
shortest path, flowing away from rising terrain, towards the flat area outlet.
This algorithm is always applied, and there are no options or calibration
parameters.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
34
The Pre-Processed DEM
When the DEM is pre-processed, a new window is displayed, showing the
elevations of the modified DEM. You can use the colormap to compare the
new ground elevations with those of the original (raw) DEM. You cannot
access the individual elevation values from this window. Each pre-processed
DEM is named “Processed DEM” followed by a number. The name appears
at the top of the window, and in the Project Manager window, under the icon
DEMs. You can have 10 processed DEMs within a CCHE1D project.
You can verify the options used in the pre-processing phase by using the
Properties option of the DEM menu, or by using the
button when a preprocessed DEM window is selected.
In addition, the main menu bar shows a menu labeled Channel Network. You
will use them in the next step of the analysis of the watershed system: the
extraction of a channel network.
Channel Network Extraction
How the channel network is extracted
After a DEM is pre-processed to eliminate sinks and flat areas, you can use
CCHE1D to extract all channels from the DEM. The channel network
extraction algorithms of TOPAZ use only the DEM and two user-defined
parameters to define all channels and subwatersheds. CCHE1D provides a
convenient interface to guide you in defining the parameters.
The process of channel network extraction is entirely based on the analysis of
raster maps. First, the DEM is scanned, and for each cell, the direction of the
steepest downward slope to an adjacent cell is determined. The information is
stored in another raster map. Then another algorithm determines the upstream
drainage area for each of the raster cells. Starting at the DEM borders and
cells that do not receive inflow from their neighbors, flow paths are traced and
the drainage area for each cell is accumulated. The resulting raster already
shows all the potential channels. However, most channels are very short and
do not have upstream drainage area large enough to provide run-off to form a
real, permanent channel.
Therefore, there is a need of specifying what the minimum drainage area to
form a channel should be. This value is a function of soil characteristics,
vegetation cover, terrain slope, and climatic conditions. This minimum area
value is called Critical Source Area (CSA), and you must define it.
The numerical processing of the DEM can produce channels that are very
short in length. They may represent valley indentations, and in most cases are
gully outlets and other features not normally considered as part of a channel
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
35
network. This threshold length of channels is called Minimum Source
Channel Length (MSCL).
These two parameters control the appearance of the drainage network, and
they can be used for calibration purposes. You will input their values using
the CCHE1D GUI.
Once the extraction parameters are known, the drainage area raster is reduced
to reflect only the channels that meet the user-specified Critical Source Area
and Minimum Source Channel Length.
At this point you have all channels present in the DEM that satisfy the
conditions you specified through the set of CSA and MSCL parameters.
There is no definition of watersheds, only channels.
Extraction Parameter Sets
CCHE1D helps you define the parameters for the extraction of the channel
network. You can create one or more sets of parameters, and then apply them
to one or more pre-processed DEMs. In this way, you can see how the
different parameters influence the appearance of the extracted channel
network. Alternatively, you can apply the same set of parameters to more
than one DEM.
When you have a pre-processed DEM in the Project, you can access the
functions that control an internal database that stores the parameters for the
extraction of the channel network.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
36
Select a Processed DEM window. From the menu labeled Channel-Network,
choose the option Extraction Parameters. You will see a drop-down menu
that displays options to add, remove, edit, or view a set of parameters. You
will use these to define the parameters. Later, you will use one of these sets to
extract the channel network.
The same set of parameters should be applied to regions of uniform drainage
properties. If the DEM covers an area with different drainage characteristics,
the landscape must be subdivided into regions of similar properties. The user
should provide a raster file the same size of the DEM, whose values identify
the distinct regions.
Adding a Parameter Set
CCHE1D will guide you through the process of creating a set of parameters to
control the channel extraction process. CCHE1D displays several dialog
boxes where you define all the options and parameters. To create a parameter
set:
1. Select a Processed DEM window. Choose Parameters from the ChannelNetwork menu.
2. In the dialog that appears, choose Add a Parameter Set.
3. Enter a name for the parameter set you will create. The name can be of
any length, but a maximum of 30 characters is recommended. You will
use this name to identify the parameter set later.
4. A new dialog will be displayed:
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
37
Spatially Constant means that you are going to specify a single pair of
CSA and MSCL values for the entire DEM. Spatially Varied means that
you are going to subdivide the DEM into regions, and you will specify
different pairs of CSA and MSCL values for each of those regions.
5a. If you have chosen the Spatially Constant option, you may enter the values
for the extraction parameters in the dialog that follows.
Critical Source Area – CSA: The minimum drainage area in hectares to
form a permanent channel. A smaller value will generate a denser channel
network. The network will show more channels. A greater value will
reduce the number of channels in the network. Since they have a greater
drainage area, the channels represented in the network correspond to the
larger channels of the watershed.
Minimum Source Channel Length – MSCL: The minimum length of the
channels in the network. The extraction algorithms may create many very
short channels, sometimes with length of the size of a DEM raster cell.
You can eliminate these small channels by specifying a minimum channel
length.
CCHE1D provides default values for both parameters. Since these
parameters are a function of the watershed characteristics, use the default
values as a starting point.
The pictures below shows two channel networks extracted from the same
DEM. The first network was extracted with a CSA value of 7.02 hectares.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
38
The second one was extracted with a CSA value of 15.00 hectares. The
MSCL was the same for both channel networks: 130 meters.
5b. If you have chosen the Spatially Varied option, you will be asked the
number of areas with distinct parameter values you want to define for the
DEM. Choose a number of regions between 2 and 5, then press OK.
CCHE1D will display a dialog box for each of the regions you will create.
Enter the values for the CSA and MSCL parameters for each of these
regions.
After you entered the parameters for all regions, the following message
will be displayed:
Parameter Distribution Raster File:
!
Import
!
Create
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
39
Choose Import and press OK. The option to interactively create a
parameter distribution file is not yet available for this version of CCHE1D.
You can create this file using any GIS program, or create it yourself with a
text editor or a simple custom-made program. You can learn about the
format of this file in Appendix C.
In the dialog that will appear, select the format for the raster file you are
going to import, then press OK.
Select the raster file that describes the regions you are specifying. You
can navigate the directory tree by clicking on the directory names, on the
right-hand side of the dialog. Double-click on the raster file you want to
use.
Note: The parameter distribution raster file must have the same number of
rows and columns of the DEM raster you are going to use to extract the
channels.
5. In the dialog that follows, choose the minimum Strahler Order of the
channels to remain in the network. If 1 is chosen, no channels are
removed. If 2 is the number selected from the GUI, first order channels
will be eliminated and the lowest channel order in the network will be 2.
CCHE1D uses the Strahler channel ordering system to classify the
channels. In this system, channels without a tributary are classified as of
order one. When two channels of the same order meet at a junction, the
channel downstream of the junction is said to be one order higher that the
incoming channels. If a junction has incoming channels of different
Strahler orders, the channel downstream of the junction has the same order
of the incoming channel with the higher order.
You can remove lower order channels from the network after it is
extracted from the DEM. The distinction between using this option and
selecting higher values for the extraction parameters is that lower-order
channels are still considered when defining the subwatersheds. The
number of subwatersheds is consistent with the original number of
channels in the extracted network. Since often the flow in lower-order
channels is relatively small, its routing by the channel flow model can be
regarded as unnecessary, and will be carried out by the watershed model.
In order to save computing time and resources, you can remove some
channels from the network. Note that the outflow of the subwatersheds
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
40
corresponding to the removed channels is still considered as point inflows
to the channel network.
7. A dialog will inform you that you finished creating a parameter set.
Editing a Parameter Set
You can edit a parameter set at any time. You can change any of the
parameter values. CCHE1D will display the current values in the input fields.
Just edit the desired fields in the dialogs that appear. To edit a parameter set:
1. Select a Processed DEM window. From the Channel-Network menu,
choose Parameters.
2. Choose Edit a Parameter Set in the dialog that follows, and then press OK.
3. Select one of the existing sets from the list, and then press OK.
4. Inform if you want to convert the set being edited from Spatially Varied to
Spatially Constant, or vice-versa.
5. Modify the values you want in the dialogs that appear. Press OK to
confirm the values displayed on the dialog. Press Cancel to abort editing.
Note that Cancel refers to the current dialog. Data entered in previous
dialogs were considered as valid edits to the set. You can verify the
contents of your Extraction Parameter Set using the option
View Existing Set from the Parameters entry of the Channel-Network
menu.
Removing a Parameter Set
You may want to discard a parameter set you created:
1. Choose Remove Existing Set in the dialog that appears after you choose
Parameters from the Channel-Network menu.
2. Select the set using the name you gave when the set was created, then
press OK.
3. Confirm the removal in the dialog that follows.
Viewing a Parameter Set
To view the contents of a parameter set, you should:
1. Choose Parameters from the Channel-Network menu, then select the
option View Existing Set in the dialog that appears and press OK.
2. Press OK when finished.
Extracting the Channel Network
After you have defined at least one set of parameters for the extraction of the
channel network, you can use the option Extract Channels to perform the
extraction operation.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
41
1. Select the Processed DEM from which you want to extract the channel
network.
2. Choose Extract Channels form the Channel-Network menu.
3. In that dialog that appears, choose a parameter set using the name you
gave when it was created. Press OK.
4. Confirm the launch of the extraction operation in the dialog that follows.
CCHE1D calls the TOPAZ-DEDNM module to analyze the DEM and extract
the channel network. When the operation is complete, CCHE1D displays the
channel network in its raster form. You can see the individual raster cells that
form all the channels that met the conditions imposed by the extracted
parameters CSA and MSCL.
You must now identify the watershed of interest in the displayed image, and
select the position of the watershed outlet.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
42
Watershed Delineation
Identifying the Watershed of Interest
When the extraction of the channel network is finished, CCHE1D will display
the Watershed Outlet Selection map. The map shows the raster cells that
represent all channels in the area covered by the DEM. Most likely, the map
will show channels that belong to more than one watershed. You can use this
map to identify the watershed you want to analyze. You must then specify the
location of the watershed outlet.
Specifying the Watershed Outlet
Once you locate on the Watershed Outlet Selection window the watershed you
want to study, you must specify the location of the watershed outlet.
1. Make the Watershed Outlet Selection window active by clicking on it.
2. Use the Zoom
and Pan
tools to locate the raster cell you want as
the watershed outlet. Zoom in so you can see the individual cells.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
3. Select the Watershed Outlet Selection Tool
43
by clicking on it.
4. Click on the square representing the raster cell you want to select as the
watershed outlet.
5. In the dialog that appears, confirm the location (shown in row and column
numbers from the north and west boundaries) by pressing the OK button.
Once you specify the outlet, CCHE1D will restart TOPAZ to perform the
following tasks:
! Delineate the watershed that drains to the location you selected.
! Discard all channels that do not belong to that watershed of interest.
! Define all channels and subwatersheds within the watershed of interest.
! Eliminate lower-order channels, if so required.
! Define nodes at beginning of channels, junctions, and points of inflow
where channels were removed.
! Define the connectivity among nodes, channel links, and subwatersheds.
! Create and export the CCHE1D Network Database.
! Create and export auxiliary images, tables, etc.
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
44
The Watershed Outlet Selection window is closed after you select the
.
watershed outlet, but it remains in the Project, under the icon Channels
You can open it again to modify the position of the watershed outlet, for the
same extracted network.
A new window labeled Extracted Channel Network will appear and show the
channel reaches and nodes of the extracted network. Associated with the new
window are new menus and buttons that will allow you to manage the input of
data needed for the flow and sediment transport simulations.
The subwatersheds that correspond to the network channels are displayed in
another window.
CCHE1D uses different colors to identify the
subwatersheds. You can double-click the legend area of the window to open
the ‘Legend Editor’ and modify the colors CCHE1D used in the map.
As part of the channel extraction process, two auxiliary maps are created and
stored within the Project. They are not automatically displayed on screen, but
can be accessed using the Project window. To display the maps you should:
1. Make the Project window active by clicking on it.
2. Select the icon labeled Rasters
3. You will see two documents listed in the Project window:
! Flow Paths. The Flow Paths map shows the direction of flow for each
raster cell. This map is converted from a raster file TOPAZ creates to
extract the channel network. Using the flow direction for each cell,
CCHE1D creates lines showing flow paths for the entire surface of the
watershed.
! Channel Raster Cells. The Channel Raster Cells map contains all
cells that compose the channels within the watershed, regardless of the
eventual removal of lower-order channels.
4. Select the map you want to open and press the Open button in the Project
window, or double-click on the name of the map.
When the landscape analysis is finished, CCHE1D creates a new database to
store the information about the channel, nodes, and subwatersheds.
Additional data needed for the flow and sediment transport simulations will be
added to this database. The database is automatically imported into the
CCHE1D Project.
Creating a Computational Channel Network
After you select the watershed outlet, CCHE1D displays the Extracted
Channel Network window. This window shows a channel network in which
you can see several types of nodes (source, junctions, watershed outlet, etc.).
This channel network is the starting point for the creation of the
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
45
Computational Channel Network you will be using for your channel flow and
sediment transport simulations.
Channel Network Properties
Use the Properties option of the Channel-Network menu to see a history of the
creation process of a channel network. Using this option, you can know how
the channel network was created. CCHE1D displays a list of all important
properties and parameters related to the current channel network.
Because you may have several DEMs, several pre-processing options, and a
combination of several input parameters, you may not know exactly how you
created the channel network you see. Use the Properties option for this
purpose. You can also use the
button, as a shortcut.
Creating a Computational Channel Network
The Extracted Channel Network is an intermediate step in the creation of the
computational network for the channel model. It is always stored within the
project, in the Channels group
. A Computational Channel Network is
a modification of the Extracted Channel Network, in which you enhance the
description of the channels and provide supplemental data for the simulations.
You can create many Computational Channel Networks from a single
Extracted Channel Network.
To
create
a
Computational
Channel
Network,
use
the
Create Computational Network option in the Channel-Network menu.
Chapter 6, Channel Network Analysis, describes how to proceed with the
creation of computational channel networks.
The CCHE1D Network Database
Introduction
The Landscape Analysis module of CCHE1D consists of a series of
algorithms applied to data sets stored in raster format. These rasters are large
arrays containing integer values that represent a certain characteristic for each
quadrilateral cell. This method of storage is efficient when the information is
continuous, such as a DEM, where for each cell there is a known elevation
value. When it comes to a channel network, for example, the number of cells
necessary to represent the channels is rather small compared to the total
dimension of the raster array. Besides, a raster array cannot easily store
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
46
logical information, such as for example the connectivity between nodes and
channel reaches. For these reasons, once the channel extraction procedure is
finished, all the relevant information is converted into a relational database.
This database is composed of many tables that store data related to a certain
entity. The Node table, for example, stores the node coordinates, the
relationship among nodes, and a series of indices that relates this table to other
tables in the database, hence the denomination “relational.” This model of
storage provides an efficient method to retrieve and correlate information, and
reduces the amount of storage requirements.
The creation of this database is made within the channel extraction module,
for computational efficiency. The database consists of a series of seven
tables, which describe the channel network and the corresponding
subwatersheds.
The database is designed so that more tables can be added to describe
information not yet available at the time that the database is created. Channel
cross section data and hydraulic structure data such as for culverts and drop
structures, are good examples.
As output from the channel network extraction and watershed delineation
process, six relational tables are created to logically represent the channel
network, the subwatersheds, and all the pertinent data.
Channel Network Logical Organization
Nodes and Channels
The channel network is logically organized into the following entities:
“Nodes,” “Reaches,” “Links,” and “Channels.”
A “Node” is a point in the network that represents a special feature. They
mark beginning and end of channel segments, the location of channel
junctions, point inflow, and hydraulic structures. They may also represent
points in a computational mesh that represents the channel network, where
flow and sediment transport variables will be computed.
The remaining entities indicate segments of channel. A “Reach” is any
channel segment between two nodes. Logically, each Reach has a Node at
each end. It has properties such as length and slope, and has a graphical
representation: a line segment used in constructing the network maps.
A “Link” is a logical entity, whose main purpose is to organize the numerical
computation of flow in the network. A Link can assume two types: a
container of Reaches or a representation of single hydraulic structure.
A “Channel” represents the natural division of the network into channels. The
presence of hydraulic structures does not affect its logical definition. When
the channel network is extracted from a DEM, Channels and Links are
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
47
identical. Only when hydraulic structures are added to the network they will
differ.
Only Nodes and Reaches have “visible” representations that are displayed in
maps. For a more detailed explanation about the logical entities of a
CCHE1D channel network, please consult the publication “CCHE1D –
Control Module Technical Manual.”
Subwatersheds and Incremental Areas
The definition of subwatersheds is performed by TOPAZ, which identifies the
drainage area for each channel segment in the network. Subwatersheds should
correspond to the segments called Channel, as defined above. However, the
extracted network may have its lower-order channels removed. The removal
of channels does not affect the definition of the subwatersheds, so there will
be more subwatersheds than Channels. The difference is exactly the number
of channels that were removed from the network. The removal of channels
creates additional nodes in the network. They represent the drainage area of
the subwatershed associated with the removed channel. The nodes provide a
location where the outflow of this subwatershed is to be taken into account
during the flow and sediment transport simulations.
In CCHE1D, a subwatershed encompasses the drainage areas from the rightand left-hand sides of the channels, including the raster cells occupied by the
channel itself. TOPAZ separates the contributing areas into Left, Right,
Channel, and Source areas, so that a better description of the terrain and its
properties can be used in the rainfall-runoff simulation. For the routing of
flow and sediment, however, it is more convenient to subdivide further each
subwatershed along the channel, in order to have a better distribution of
inflows into the channels. A database table keeps the relationship between
CCHE1D and TOPAZ subwatersheds.
CCHE1D divides the subwatersheds into portions called Incremental Areas.
Incremental Areas are drainage areas that correspond to Reaches, the
segments of channel between two nodes. The purpose of incremental areas is
mainly computational. They provide easy means of subdividing the outflow
from a subwatershed among all nodes of its channel. When the network is
extracted from a DEM, Incremental Areas coincide with the Subwatersheds,
except for first Strahler order channels. First order channels have two
incremental areas: one that encompasses the region that drains into the node at
the beginning of the channel (the Source node), and a second area that
represents the drainage downstream of that point, down to the node at the
subwatershed outlet.
Database Tables
All data describing the channel network and its subwatersheds are stored into
seven tables. All tables can be opened for viewing. They can be accessed
Chapter 4 Landscape Analysis and Channel Network Extraction
48
from the Project window, under the icon Database
. Each table is
named according to the convention:
Extracted Channel Network: + name + Database Table.
The following figure illustrates how the tables describe the channel network
topology.
CHANNEL NETWORK TOPOLOGY
Channel
Link
Reach
Node
Incremental
Area
CCHE1D
Subwatershed
TOPAZ
Subwatershed
Database Record Relationships
One to One
One to Many
One to Zero or One
CHAPTER 5
Channel Network Digitizing
Interface
In the previous chapter, you learned how to create a channel
network from digital elevation data. This chapter shows how you
can create a similar channel network by simply sketching it with
the computer mouse, using a map, photograph, or any other image
as reference.
CCHE1D provides a series of tools that help you define the
channel network, and its algorithms automatically convert your
“drawing” into a database that contains the necessary data to define
the channel network for the computer models.
Contents
!
!
!
!
!
Introduction
Importing a Background
Digitizing a Channel Network
Validating a Channel Network
Creating a Computational Channel Network
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
50
Introduction
CCHE1D now includes a “Channel Network Digitizing Module” that allows
you to create a channel network by simply “drawing” it with the mouse and
your computer screen.
You can use any image (photographs, scanned maps, etc.) or any GIS
coverage (shapefiles, grids, etc.) as reference while you digitize each channel
you see in the picture. If you have a good aerial photograph, for example, you
can use the digitizing interface to get an accurate representation of the
channels. If you know the coordinates of a few points visible in your image,
you can use CCHE1D’s Image Geo-referencing Utility to associate your
image with a known coordinate system. When you digitize the channels, the
real-life dimensions can be directly used in your simulation.
Even if you do not have good quality imagery to use as reference, the Channel
Network Digitizing Module is extremely useful when creating channel
networks. From a single straight channel to a complex channel network with
hundreds of links, the CCHE1D digitizing interface allows you to create a
working channel network in minutes. You can simply sketch some channels
and provide the measurements yourself.
In either case, CCHE1D algorithms analyze your drawing and convert it to a
complete CCHE1D channel network, creating all the required data entries in
the CCHE1D database.
The main disadvantage of this method when compared with the “Landscape
Analysis” procedure of the previous chapter is that channel digitizing does not
give you the watershed delineation maps and other data useful to watershed
modeling. However, you can still use watershed model results in conjunction
with digitized channel networks. You should simply supply the watershed
simulation results in one the data formats described in the Boundary
Conditions Files section of Appendix C – Input Data Files.
All features of the CCHE1D interface work with channel network created
with both the “Landscape Analysis” and the “Channel Digitizing” methods.
This chapter discusses the process of creating a CCHE1D channel network
using the Channel Network Digitizing Module.
NOTE: The channel digitizing capability is still under development. It was
included in the current Beta release because we feel that, although the
implementation is not complete and there are some known issues, this tool is
very useful for the creation of simple, stand-alone channel networks. It is also
very convenient when only channel simulations are needed. Please contact
the NCCHE for information on the latest software updates if you intend to use
the channel digitizing functions.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
51
Creating a Digitized Channel Network
CCHE1D provides a specialized window with a number of tools that allow
you to create a digitized channel network. Having the Project Window active
(the Project Window is the main ArcView window, where you can see all the
documents of the project), follow the procedure below:
1. Choose the Digitize Channel Network option from the Channel-Network
menu.
2. Answer if you want to add a background layer. If you answer Yes, you
will be prompted for the type of layer, and for the data file that contains
the background theme. Go to the next section of this manual to learn
about importing background layers.
3. Answer if you want to start the channel digitizing procedure now or if you
want to do it later.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
52
Importing a Background Layer
You can import a background layer (an image, a feature theme, or a grid
theme) to use as reference when digitizing channel networks. The use of a
background layer is not required, but it is recommended.
If you have access to any type of imagery that displays your watershed and
channels of interest, you should benefit from it when defining your channel
network.
You can use any image format supported by ArcView GIS. You can use
images in about a dozen different formats, and you can import layers created
by other GIS and CAD systems.
Because ArcView is modular, and many of its features are distributed through
independent extensions, you may have to buy, install, or at least, activate such
extensions before importing a background layer. CCHE1D will ask you if
you want to activate any of the extensions already installed on your computer.
Besides the obvious advantage of having a visual reference for digitizing, the
use of background layer allows you to create a channel network whose
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
53
dimensions match those of the real world. For that to happen, you must
ensure your image is georeferenced, that is, there is a known relationship
between the image and a known coordinate system. Many images are
distributed with georeferencing information attached. Some images have this
information inside the data file (GeoTiff, for example), but it is common to
have image files accompanied by a small data file called the “world file,”
which contains the coordinates of the image edges in a pre-defined coordinate
system.
CCHE1D provides a simple, add-on utility called the CCHE1D Image Georeferencing Extension, that allows you to use ArcView to create the georeferencing data. This utility uses the “world file” approach, which allows
most image data files to be associated with a coordinate system you choose.
NOTE: If you want to use a georeferenced image, make sure the image
already has the necessary referencing data BEFORE you import into
CCHE1D.
To import a background image into CCHE1D, follow the procedure below:
1. Activate the “Channel Network Digitizing View.” This type of document
can be found in the Channels group
in the Project Window.
2. Select Import Background from the Channel-Network menu.
3. Select a File Type in the dialog that appears. The current options are
Image, Feature (shapefile), Grid, and CAD File. CCHE1D will enable the
Spatial Analyst and CAD Reader extensions, if they are available in your
computer.
4. If you selected Image, you will be asked if you want to enable any of the
image support extensions. Some file formats require the activation of an
extension module so that ArcView can read them. Answer Yes to see a
list of available extensions currently installed on your computer.
5. Select the file that contains the background layer you want to import.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
54
Depending on the type of the file you plan to import, you may have to enable
an extension. For image files, you do not need an extension if your files are in
one the formats below:
! BMP
! BSQ, BIL and BIP
! Sun rasterfiles
! Controlled Image Base (CIB)
! ERDAS
! GRID
! IMPELL Bitmaps (Run-length compressed files)
! TIFF, TIFF/LZW compressed
You need to load specialized extensions in order to be able to import the
following file formats:
! ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) and Compressed ARC Digitized
Raster Graphics (CADRG)
! IMAGINE
! JPEG
! MrSID
! National Image Transfer Format (NITF)
! TIFF 6.0
Consult the ArcView documentation if you have your data in a format not
listed above.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
55
NOTE: For convenience, you can import more than one background image,
which allows you to create mosaics or to superimpose more than one layer.
You can turn on and off the display of each layer, as well as determine the
order the images are displayed. The images must be georeferenced to the
same coordinate system, or they will not display correctly. Check the current
Projection settings for the current Channel Network Digitizing View (in the
Properties entry of the View menu), if necessary.
Deleting a Background Layer
You can remove any background layer you have imported, following the
procedure below:
1. Activate the “Channel Network Digitizing View.”
2. Select Delete Background from the Channel-Network menu.
3. Select the layer name in the dialog that appears. You can select more than
one layer for deletion. Press OK to delete the selected layers.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
56
Digitizing a Channel Network
Creating a Digitized Channel Network theme
In order to start digitizing a channel network, you must first create an empty
Digitized Channel Network theme.
1. Select the desired “Channel Network Digitizing View.”
2. Use the New Channel Network option of the Channel-Network menu. A
new theme named “Digitized Channels” will appear.
You cannot create more than one Digitized Channel Network in a digitizing
view. You must delete the channel network using the Delete Channel Network
option of the Channel-Network menu.
The digitized channel network is displayed with thin lines of a randomly
selected color. You can edit the line thickness and line color by doubleclicking on the Digitized Channels theme legend.
Digitizing a Channel Network
The first thing to keep in mind while digitizing a channel network is that your
“drawing” will be converted into a logically defined channel network, with
nodes and channel reaches organized into a pre-defined numbering system
required by the CCHE1D flow and sediment transport models. This
conversion process is entirely automatic, but it requires that you follow a
couple of “rules” when digitizing the channels. If one of these rules is broken,
the channel digitizing algorithms will not understand how to put together your
channel network
The rules are simple and easy to understand, but if you ignore them, the
CCHE1D algorithms will not be able to create the computational channel
network the model requires.
New tools are currently under development to guide you and help you identify
errors when digitizing the channel network.
“Heads-up digitizing”, where you see the results on you computer screen,
requires patience and attention. With a bit of practice, you will be able to
create accurate channel networks, with a minimal amount of errors. You
should practice with a small channel network, paying attention on how to
define channel junctions.
The Channel Digitizing Tool
You will “draw” each channel of your network using the “Digitize Channel”
. The behavior of this tool is modeled after similar drawing tools of
tool
ArcView and other drawing packages. In order to digitize a channel:
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
57
1. With a Channel Network Digitizing View active, verify if the Channel
Network is already open for editing: if the theme visibility button for the
“Digitized Channels” theme is surrounded by a dashed line, you can start
editing. Otherwise, select the Start Editing Network option of the ChannelNetwork menu.
2. Make sure the “Digitized Channels” theme is active, and then click on the
“Digitize Channel” tool
to activate it.
3. Click on the map with the left mouse button, at the point you want to start
digitizing a channel.
4. Move the mouse to the location where you want to define the next point in
the channel (always downstream of the preceding point). Click again with
the left mouse button.
5. Proceed to the next point.
6. Double-click the left mouse button to end the channel line.
7. To stop editing, select the Stop Editing Network option of the ChannelNetwork menu.
Channel Digitizing Rules
Just by following the instructions of the previous section, you will be able to
define a single-channel and continue the process of creating the input data for
the channel simulation. In order to create a channel network, however, you
must follow a couple of basic rules, so that CCHE1D can understand how the
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
58
channels interconnect and then generate the input data for the flow and
sediment transport model.
Rule 1: Always digitize the channels in the downstream direction. Start
from the upstream boundary point, and follow the channel downstream.
CCHE1D will not be able to determine the position of channel junctions if
you digitize a channel upstream.
Rule 2: Always digitize the main channel of the watershed system first.
Identify what is the longest and largest channel of your system, and digitize
that channel first. Then digitize the main tributaries, leaving the smaller
channels for last.
Rule 3: When digitizing a tributary, always overshoot and cross the main
channel to define the junction point. This is, perhaps, the most import rule,
and the main source of undetermined channel networks. When approaching
the end of a tributary, make sure you always overshoot and cross the receiving
channel so that the point the two lines cross each other become the junction
point. The overshoot will be automatically deleted by the digitizing tool.
Breaking any of these rules will result in undetermined channel networks,
where channels do not connect to each other in an acceptable way. Although
some editing can correct most problems, sometimes it is hard to identify the
source of errors.
Main Editing Tools
Several editing tools can be used during the channel digitizing process. Some
tools are standard ArcView tools you may already be familiar with, and some
are particular to CCHE1D’s channel digitizing module. This section describes
the most useful tools, but it does not cover all the resources available for
editing.
Zoom and Pan
While digitizing, it is usually necessary to zoom-in into a particular region to
better see the details present in the background layer. A close-up view also
increase the accuracy when positioning the points that describe the channels.
and Pan
tools at any moment. Just remember
You can use the Zoom
to click again on the “Digitize Channel”
tool to continue the channel
digitizing.
However, the most convenient feature is the possibility of zooming and
panning while digitizing:
1. At any moment, click and hold on the right mouse button to pop-up a
menu.
2. Select the desired function (zoom-in, zoom-out, pan). Release the mouse
button.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
59
Using this procedure is necessary when digitizing long channels, which do not
fit in the window when zoomed-in.
Adding, Moving, and Removing Digitized Points
After you finish digitizing a channel segment, you can go back and edit its
internal points to improve the quality of the digitizing. Sometimes it is very
difficult to follow channels accurately; therefore, you should use this
procedure to improve your network.
1. Make sure the “Digitized Channels” is open for editing.
. The cursor will change to a white
2. Activate the “Vertex Editing” tool
triangular arrow.
3. Click on the channel segment you want to edit. You should see each
digitized point marked with a square.
4. To add a point: move the cursor over the channel line. When you see the
cursor change from an arrow to a “encircled plus-sign,” click with the left
mouse button. A new point will be added.
5. To move a point: move the cursor over a digitized point. When you see
the cursor change from an arrow to a cross, click with the left mouse
button, hold, and move the cursor to another position. You will see the
new position of the channel segments while you move the mouse. Release
the button at the desired location.
6. To delete a point: move the cursor over a digitized point. Press the Delete
key on your keyboard.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
60
You can undo the last editing operation by clicking the right mouse button to
bring the pop-up menu. Select Undo Feature Editing. Alternatively, you can
press CTRL-Z, or use Undo Feature Editing from the Edit menu.
TIP: When digitizing channels, get first a rough approximation of the channel
planform, but locate channel junctions with precision. You cannot edit the
position of channel junctions. Save the digitized lines, and then use the
editing tools to add detail to the digitized lines. Add more points where
necessary, and move existing ones to match the reference image better.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
61
Deleting a Channel from the Channel Network
NOTE: This tool is currently under development. It will allow you to select a
channel reach and delete it from the channel network.
Meanwhile, current Alpha and Beta Testers can remove a channel segment
successfully if they have basic knowledge of shapefile editing within
ArcView, which is very user-friendly and mimics popular drawing software.
If you remove a tributary, you must restore the receiving into a continuous
channel segment. When you add a tributary, the receiving channel is split at
the location of the junction. After removing a tributary, you must combine the
two segments into a single segment to “undo” the channel split. Otherwise,
the analysis algorithm will detected the location of the former junction, but
one channel would be missing.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
62
To manually remove a tributary:
1. Start editing the Digitized Channel Network.
2. Use ArcView’s “Pointer” tool
to select the channel segment to be
removed.
3. Use the Delete Features option of the Edit menu, or simply press the
Delete key.
4. Carefully identify and select the two channel reaches of the receiving
channel, upstream and downstream of the junction with the channel you
, and select one of the
just removed. Activate the “Pointer” tool
channel segments. Hold the Shift-key and click on the other segment.
The selection markers (black squares) should encompass both segments.
5. Use the Union Graphics option of the Edit menu.
6. Stop editing, save the changes, and then use the Validate Channel Network
option of the Channel-Network menu to see if it reports any errors.
If the Validate function reports any error, visually inspect the channel network
for channel segments that are not correctly “attached” to the channel network.
Contact the model developers for an updated version of the CCHE1D
interface or to get instructions on how to solve a particular problem.
Validating a Channel Network
CCHE1D provides a tool that performs a preliminary inspection of the
channel network and detects eventual errors. The validation algorithms try to
assemble a logical description of the network, considering flow direction,
location of channel confluences, etc., based on the array of points you created
during the digitizing process.
Channel network validation is the first step used to check if the digitized
network conforms to the requirements of the channel model.
After you finish editing a channel network, stop editing and save your
changes. You can then use the Validate Channel Network option of the
Channel-Network menu to see if it reports any errors.
NOTE: This tool is still under development, and in its current stage, it does
not report exactly where the problem is and how to remedy it. Please consult
the model developers for an updated version of the interface.
Showing and Hiding Reach Numbers
As part of the process of channel network validation, CCHE1D establishes a
computational sequence in which the flow and sedimentation equations will
be solved by the model. This sequence is used in creating and numbering
computational nodes and channel reaches.
Chapter 5 Channel Network Digitizing Interface
63
You can display the reach numbers by selecting the Show Reach Numbers
option of the Channel-Network menu. To remove the reach numbers, use the
Hide Reach Numbers option that appears at the same position in the menu.
Importing a Channel Network
If you already have a digitized channel network, for example, inside another
CCHE1D project, and you want to use it in the current project, you can use
the Import Channel Network option of the Channel-Network menu:
1. Activate the Channel Network Digitizing View
2. Select Import Channel Network in the Channel-Network menu.
3. In the dialog that follows, navigate your computer and find the desired
channel network. Digitized channel networks are stored in folders named
diginetX, where X is a sequence number. Channel network files have
the suffix _digit in their names.
4. Press OK to import the file.
You cannot import a new channel network if you already have a channel
network present in the current Channel Network Digitizing Window. Delete
the old network first, and then use the import function.
Digitized channel network files are named according to the following
convention: casename_digit.shp, where casename is the name you
provided when you started a CCHE1D project. Digitized networks are in
shapefile format, therefore, a single channel network is saved into three files,
with extensions shp, shx, and dbf. You must always keep the three files
together, or CCHE1D will not be able to import the channel network.
Creating a Computational Channel Network
When you have finished digitizing you network, you can then proceed to the
creation of a Computational Channel Network, which is an enhanced
description of the channels for the numerical simulations. You can create
many Computational Channel Networks from a single Digitized Channel
Network.
Computational Channel Networks are stored in the project, in the Channels
group
.
To create a Computational Channel Network from your digitized network, use
the Create Computational Network option, in the Channel-Network menu.
CHAPTER 6
Channel Network Analysis
In the previous chapters, you saw the process of creating a basic
channel network, either by extracting it from a DEM, or by
interactively digitizing it, based on a map or photograph. Now you
will learn how CCHE1D helps you create the computational
network you will use in the flow and sediment transport
simulations.
CCHE1D can create the computational channel network
automatically for you. However, you can define the position of the
computational nodes using the CCHE1D graphical interface.
CCHE1D will continuously display the changes in the network in a
special window.
In this chapter, you will also learn how to input supplemental data,
such as cross section information, and the location and
specifications of hydraulic structures.
Contents
!
!
!
!
!
!
Introduction
Defining Channel Reach Lengths
Cross Section Data Management
Sediment Data Management
Hydraulic Structure Management
Computational Mesh Generation
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
65
Introduction
In this section, you will learn how to prepare the input dataset for the channel
flow routing and sediment transport simulations. CCHE1D provides many
features to help the user prepare the input data for the flow routing and
sediment transport simulations. The input data for the simulation models can
be classified into three categories:
! Channel Network Definition – Describes the channel network elements,
such as channel segments, nodes, location of hydraulic structures,
subwatersheds, etc.
! Supplemental Data – Includes all the data that is not a part of the channel
network description, such as channel geometry data, hydraulic structure
characteristics, bed and bank material description, etc.
! Simulation Parameters – Comprises user-defined options and parameters
for the numerical simulations.
CCHE1D is able to automatically create the channel network and the
corresponding subwatersheds. It also creates a logical description of all the
network elements and their mutual relationships. The simulation models,
however, usually require a more detailed topological schematization of the
simulation domain. This spatial discretization depends on characteristics of
the numerical analysis methods. For the flow simulation, the channel network
is represented by one-dimensional channel segments and by nodal points. The
simulation models impose certain conditions for the number, size, and
distribution of these elements. CCHE1D is designed to automatically define a
computational mesh that adequately describes the channel network, ensuring
that the numerical simulation will meet the minimum requirements of
accuracy and stability.
When a channel network is created, it has already defined all the channel
segments and some nodal points. The nodal points represent special features
in the network, such as channel junctions, points of inflow, structure locations,
etc. For the numerical analysis, however, more nodes are necessary to
adequately describe the characteristics of the simulation domain. CCHE1D
provides capabilities for the addition of nodes to the channel network.
CCHE1D performs an analysis of the network layout and selectively adds
nodes to improve the computational mesh characteristics. This analysis
considers the length of channel segments, the positioning of hydraulic
structures, and channel cross-section properties. Therefore, to begin the
channel network analysis, cross-section and hydraulic structure data must be
available.
CCHE1D provides a convenient interface for entering, editing, checking, and
visualizing the input data. CCHE1D tries to minimize the input work by
performing some tasks automatically.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
66
Creating the Channel Network Window
The Extracted Channel Network and the Channel Network Digitizing
windows have a menu labeled Channel-Network where the entry
Create Computational Network can be found. Selecting it produces a new map
window where the computational mesh will be created.
To create the computational network:
1. Select the Extracted Channel Network window or the Channel Network
Digitizing window that contains the channel network you want to use in
the simulations.
2. Choose Create Computational Network, from the Channel-Network menu.
A new window appears, showing a replica of the channel network you had
selected. This channel network displayed in this window will be the starting
point for the supply of cross section, hydraulic structures, and sedimentrelated data. It will also allow you to generate the computational network to
be used by the flow and sediment transport model.
You can use the option Properties from the Channel-Network menu to display
information about the present channel network. CCHE1D traces the
properties back to the network extraction process, and displays which DEM
was used, what were the pre-processing options, and all the parameters
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
67
concerning the channel network extraction. You can also thee the channel
network properties by clicking on the corresponding button:
.
The Channel Network window presents four menus that contain most of the
tool available for providing supplemental data, creating the computational
mesh, and controlling the channel simulation. The following sections will
discuss each of these tools in detail.
Defining Channel Reach Lengths
Introduction
The first task you should perform when you start creating the computational
channel network is to review the channel configuration you already have, and
ensure all channels describe adequately the real-life situation you want to
model.
One of the main sources of errors is the use of incorrect channel lengths. If
you created your channel network through the “Landscape Analysis”
procedure, by analyzing elevation data, you must understand that the channel
network is simply an approximation of reality, given by mathematical
algorithms. The channels in real-life may differ considerably. The quality of
the channel network extraction is entirely dependent on the quality of your
DEM. Because DEMs do not have high resolution, the extracted channels do
not consider channel meandering, for example.
If you created the channel network by digitizing it from an image, the errors
depend on the scale of the reference image, image distortions, the precision of
the digitizing process (in part, a function of your patience), and the accuracy
of the geo-referencing process that associates positions in the image to a
location of known coordinates.
CCHE1D provides a tool that allows you to edit the length of each channel
segment in the network. When you create the computational channel network,
the lengths are those computed from the DEM analysis or from the digitizing
procedure.
Editing Channel Reach Lengths
You can use two different procedures to edit channel reach lengths. In both
cases, the image displayed in the channel network window will not change.
Only the length value stored in the CCHE1D database is relevant to the flow
and sediment transport model.
To edit the length of channel reach interactively, follow these steps;
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
68
1.
2.
3.
4.
Activate the Select Channel Reach tool
.
Click on the channel reach you want to edit.
From the Channel-Network menu, choose the option Edit Selected Reach.
Provide the new reach length in the dialog that appears. The dialog
displays the current length.
5. Confirm the editing operation in the dialog that appears.
If you want to edit the length for several channel segments at one time, you may
prefer to edit the “Channel Reach Database Table” directly. Keep in mind that
contiguous channel segments may not appear in sequence in the database table.
Therefore, always double-check to see if you are editing the correct record by
comparing the selection in the table to what is selected in the channel network
window. Also, make sure you have the correct table, in case you have more than
one channel network. Follow the procedure below:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Select the Channel Reaches theme.
3. Use the Table option from the Theme menu, or use the “Open Theme
Table” button
.
4. Having the Channel Reach Table open, use the Start Editing option of the
Table menu.
5. Use
to start editing channel lengths. You can see the selected reach in
the map and in the table.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
69
6. When finished, use the Stop Editing option from the Table menu, and press
Yes to save the edits.
Make sure you do not modify other properties in the channel reach table,
because you can damage the database associations and make the current
channel network useless.
Cross Section Data Management
CCHE1D version 3.0 introduces a new and more general system for definition
of channel data that, combined with an improved graphical interface, permit a
better description of the channel properties, potentially increasing the quality
of the numerical simulations. Channel properties are given at certain locations
along the channels, usually where surveys have been conducted. In CCHE1D
cross section data include:
! Geometry: defined by specifying the coordinates for a series of points that
define the dimensions of the main channel and optional left and right flood
plains.
! Bed Sediment material: including physical properties and grain size
distribution for the main channel and optional flood plains.
! Bank Sediment material: consisting of properties of the sediment at the
left and right channel banks.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
70
Bed sediment data are not required, unless you want to perform simulations
that include sediment transport and channel morphology changes. Bank
sediment data are required for bank stability analysis.
Usually, field data are available only at a limited number of sites, but the
model requires cross section data at every computational node, where the flow
and sediment transport equations are solved. CCHE1D’s cross section
management module will help you generate all the input data the model
requires.
A series of sophisticated interpolation routines generate synthetic cross
sections with all the data, including geometry, bed and bank sediment
properties, and hydraulic roughness. The minimum requirement is that you
provide these properties at the beginning and end of every channel link (a
tributary, or a channel segment between tributaries). Of course, the more data
you provide, the more accurate the description of the natural characteristics of
the channel. You should let CCHE1D use its interpolation programs only
when and where data are not available, and not as a timesaving feature.
Cross Section Geometry
In order to define the geometry of the channels for the computer simulation,
you must create one or more input data files that contain the geometric
characteristics of the channels at several locations of the channel network.
Channel geometry is defined by a series of distance-elevation points.
Distances are considered normal to the flow at the particular cross section.
For each cross section, a variable number of points can be used. The
minimum number of points is four, if there are no floodplains and eight if both
floodplains are present. Usually, a number between eight and twenty points is
adequate for the description of any cross section shape.
You must also indicate the location within the cross section where the channel
banks start and end, that is, the points that define the bank toes, and the points
that divide the main channel from the floodplains.
Besides the actual geometry, hydraulic roughness is also part of the CCHE1D
cross section. You specify roughness through Manning’s coefficients, which
may vary across the channel.
CCHE1D also allows the specification of regions of the cross section where
there is no flow. It is a convenient means of modifying the cross section
shape, as in the simulation of construction work, or making the model ignore
regions where flow velocities are negligible, etc.
As stated before, CCHE1D uses interpolation to supplement surveyed cross
section data, so you are not required to specify the channel geometry for every
node in the network. However, you must provide the channel geometry at the
beginning and at the end of each channel link.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
71
The current version of CCHE1D requires you to specify the cross section
geometry in data files, whose format is described in detail in Appendix C.
You can decide if all your cross sections are given in a single data file, or if
you want to group those in several files.
If you want to change the geometry for a particular node, or add new cross
section data, you can simply create a new file and use the cross section import
option. The new data will override any previous definition.
Importing Cross Section Geometry Data
You can use the Import option of the Cross-Section menu to specify the name
of a file containing the cross section geometry data. This file may contain the
cross section data for any number of nodes.
The Cross Section data files must match the computational channel network
you have prepared. Usually, the cross section files should be created after you
have the basic channel network defined. Of course, you can modify the
channel network, and CCHE1D will take care of updating the data, using its
interpolation routines when necessary.
A good practice is to provide the cross section data after a basic channel
network is defined. If the channel network was created from a DEM through
the “Landscape Analysis” process already described in this manual, you can
prepare the cross section file(s) for that network configuration. Refinements
to the network can be made a posteriori. Note that some modifications to the
channel network can cause a mismatching between the nodes of the network
and the data in the cross section file. However, you can always edit the data,
or in the worst-case scenario, delete everything and import the cross section
data files again.
Node Number versus Node ID Code
When you create a file containing cross section geometry, you must establish
the connection between a cross section survey and a node in the channel
network. For that you would usually use the “Node Numbers.” Node
Numbers are automatically defined by CCHE1D. They are used by the model
when solving the flow and sediment transport equations, and are defined
according to some rules imposed by the numerical scheme. They are in
sequence, starting from tributaries from the left bank at the downstream end of
the watershed. The watershed outlet always has the highest node number. All
model output data are referenced by node numbers You should not worry
about the node numbers, since they are automatically generated by the
CCHE1D interface.
After you have defined a channel network, you can see the node numbers by
using the Show Node Numbers option of the Channel-Network menu, when the
Channel Network view is selected.
The disadvantage of using node numbers is that, if you modify the channel
network by adding or removing nodes before you import an already prepared
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
72
cross section file, the channel geometry may be associated to an incorrect
node. As a compromise, you have the option of associating the surveyed
cross sections to “Node ID Codes.” Node ID codes are used by the CCHE1D
interface only. Node ID codes are simply indices used in database-related
operations, and there is no guarantee of sequence or continuity. The
advantage is that these numbers are immutable, and they remain valid while a
particular node is not removed from the channel network. You can see the
Node ID Codes in the Nodes database table, which can be opened using the
tool while the Nodes theme is selected.
When importing a file, you can specify if the association between survey data
and nodes is to be established via “Node Numbers” or “Node ID Codes.” For
now, it is more convenient to use Node Numbers when creating data files.
Note that the same data file can be imported with either Node Number or
Node ID Code association. The reason why the CCHE1D now offers the
Node ID Code option is that when a channel network is digitized or extracted
from a DEM the two numbers coincide, representing the same node.
Therefore, if you have modified the channel network before importing the
cross section data files, you can still do so, by choosing the Node ID Code
option. This way, the geometry data sets will be associated according to the
numbering that existed before you start editing the channel network. A
practical example near the end of this Manual will clarify the two options.
To import cross section data from a file
If you have the cross section data in a data file, be sure the file matches the
extracted channel network you have before attempting to import the file.
1. Select the Channel Network window.
2. Select the option Import from the Cross-Section menu.
3. In the dialog that appears, select Geometry and press OK.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
73
4. In the dialog that follows, specify if the reference numbers in the data file
should be interpreted as Node Numbers or Node ID Codes.
5. Specify a file name in the File Selection dialog that follows.
When cross sections are imported from a file, CCHE1D verifies each one for
errors and inconsistencies. Currently, CCHE1D checks for a limited number
of errors that may be introduced. If any errors are found, a message is
displayed and the operation is interrupted. You must correct the errors in the
original data file and then import it again.
Interactive Editing of Cross Section Geometry Data
Due to the new and more complex system for definition of cross section
geometry, the current version of CCHE1D does not yet support interactive
data editing, as in version 2.0. A new spreadsheet-like interface will be
developed for future updates of the CCHE1D interface.
However, you can modify cross sectional properties by simply creating a
small data file with the new geometry, or by editing the database tables
directly, as shown in the next section.
Editing the Cross Section Geometry Data Tables
If you want to modify the cross section data for a particular node, you may
want to use the Start Editing Table option, available from the Cross-Section
menu. To edit records in the table, you should first understand how the
CCHE1D database is organized; otherwise, you may damage that part of the
database.
CCHE1D implements a relational database, where all data are stored in tables.
Because each cross section has a variable number of points that define its
geometry, it is necessary to use two tables to store all data (a table cannot have
a variable number of columns). Therefore, you may need to edit two tables.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
74
This section describes two different editing operations, which can be used as a
demonstration for more elaborated editing tasks.
Modifying the coordinates of a single cross section point
Suppose you realize a single point in a certain cross section has a wrong
elevation value. You can easily change this value by locating it in the right
table, and then typing in the correct value.
1. Select the Channel Network window.
2. Choose Start Editing Table in the Cross-Section menu, and then select
Geometry in the dialog that follows.
3. Choose Cross Section ProfileTable (CP) in the dialog that follows.
4. A table will appear containing the point coordinates of all cross sections.
Now you must identify the cross section point you want to edit.
5. Select the Channel Network window, activate the Channel Reaches theme,
and use the “Open Theme Table” button
.
, and click on the desired node. Notice
6. Activate the Select Node tool
the corresponding records in the Node and Cross Section Profile Tables
are also highlighted.
7. Choose the cell-editing tool
. Click on the value you want to edit. Use
the Tab key to move horizontally to different fields of the same cross
section record. Use the Enter key to move vertically in the table.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
75
8. When you finish editing the data, click again on the Channel Network
window to make it active.
9. Choose Stop Editing Table from the Cross-Section menu.
10. Confirm your edits by typing Yes in the dialog that appears.
Deleting a single point of a certain Cross Section
Deleting a cross section point is a type of operation that requires editing two
data tables. First, you must edit the Cross Section ProfileTable (CP) to remove
the record that contains the point to be removed. Then, you must edit the
Cross Section Table (CS) to update the information about the changed profile
of that cross section.
The procedure follows like the previous example. However, you cannot
simply remove a record (line) from the Cross Section ProfileTable. Note that
the third column of this table is named “Point Index.” This index is used so
that the model knows the sequence for each point of the cross section. Index 1
is the left-most point of the cross section. If you remove one point, the
remaining points to the right the removed point must have their indices
reduced by one. Therefore, you may have to edit several records in the
Cross Section ProfileTable.
By inspecting the Cross Section Table (CS), you will see that the removal of a
single point may have a large impact in the record for the cross section you
are editing. You must alter the total number of points of the cross section, and
it is likely that the indices that mark the bank toe and overbank positions will
also change by one, depending on the type of cross section shape and on the
location of the removed point. For example, if you removed a point at the
main channel, the indices for the right bank toe and right overbank point
would be reduced by one, while the indices for the left overbank and bank toe
would remain unchanged.
Although the process is simple and quick for a user with good understanding
of the cross section format and the corresponding database entries, it may not
be convenient for a beginner. For this reason, creating a small data file with
new cross section geometry, by cutting and pasting from another file or by
following the instructions in Appendix C, may be the easiest and safest method
to update cross section data.
Checking for Nodes with Missing Geometry Data
CCHE1D provides a handy tool to verify which nodes require specification of
cross section geometry, but still do not have cross section data record assigned
to them. To view these nodes:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Show Missing from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Choose Geometry in the dialog that follows.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
76
All nodes that still require definition of cross section geometry will be
highlighted in a different color (bright red, by default).
Cross Section Geometry Visualization Options
A series of new visualization is available with CCHE1D 3.0. You can plot the
cross section profile, plot the cross section outline in plan view, on the
Channel Network window, and use different markers to identify cross
sections according to type, origin, shape, etc.
Plotting Cross Section Geometry
CCHE1D has a simplified support for plotting cross sections. The purpose of
these plotting tools is not to generate high-quality plots, but to provide a quick
and convenient sketch of the cross section shape to help you locate potential
errors.
To plot the profile of a cross section:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Activate the Select Node tool
.
3. Click on the desired node.
4. Choose the option Plot Selected from the Cross-Section menu. You can
use the button
, instead of using the menu.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
77
You can plot the cross section downstream of the current node by using the
button. If a node does not have yet a cross section defined, a warning
message appears, allowing you to continue to the next node downstream.
Displaying the Cross Section Plan View
You can plot the plan view of each cross section in the Channel Network
window. Simply use the Display Plan View from the Cross-Section menu. To
hide the plan view, use Hide Plan View from the same menu.
Once the plan view is visible, you can edit the legend of the “Cross Section”
theme of the Channel Network window. Double-click on the legend and
chose a new option.
Removing All Cross Section Geometry Data
You can remove all the cross section geometry data for a certain channel
network.
To remove all cross section geometry data:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Delete All from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Choose Geometry in the dialog that appears.
This option does not remove the sediment data assigned to the current channel
network.
Exporting Cross Section Geometry Data
You can export the cross section geometry data from a Channel Network to a
text file similar to those used to import cross section data into CCHE1D.
Please see Appendix C – Data File Formats for more information. The current
version supports cross section data in the WZ format.
To export cross section geometry data:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Export from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Specify if only user-supplied data will be included in the exported file, or
if data for all nodes (including interpolated cross sections) should be
output.
4. Specify if channel reach lengths should be included in the output file. The
current length of the channel reach immediately downstream of a node
will be used, and 0.0 is used for nodes at the end of channel links.
Otherwise, 0.00 is used for all nodes.
5. Specify an output file name in the dialog that follows.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
78
Sediment Data Management
Introduction
In CCHE1D, sediment-related data is managed in a manner similar to that
used for cross section geometry data. Therefore, the graphical user interface
treats sediment data as part of the cross sectional (or nodal) data. In fact, all
functions discussed in the previous section are also available for channel bed
and bank sediment data. You can import data files, edit the tables directly,
and use the information tools. However, you have a more complete set of
editing tools, which allow you to enter or edit bed sediment data directly from
the interface, through a series of specialized dialogs.
CCHE1D requires that bed and bank sediment data be furnished at the
beginning and end of each channel link. All source nodes require sediment
data. At confluences, where three nodes share the same location, sediment
data must be provided for the three nodes, that is, the end of each tributary
channel, and the node at the beginning of the receiving channel downstream.
Bed sediment data is required only if sediment transport computations will be
performed. If no channel bank sediment data are entered, the bank erosion
and stability analysis procedures of CCHE1D will be disabled. Bank erosion
and mass failures can be important sources of sediment in some watershed
systems. You must use your engineering expertise to judge their relative
importance, before “simplifying” the problem by ignoring the bank erosion
process.
Both channel bed and bank sediment data are described by the grain size
composition and a number of other parameters. The sediment size
composition is given as percent fractions for a number of sediment classes you
must also define. These sediment classes will be used by the sediment
transport module of CCHE1D, which requires that the both the bank and bed
sediment compositions be defined using the same set of classes. In this way,
it is possible to correctly transfer sediment eroded from the banks to the
channel bed, where the sediment is transported further or deposited.
Of course, you must first define the sediment size classes you are going to use
in the computations, and then provide the fractions for each of these classes at
the different locations of the domain. The definition of these classes must be
done with extreme care, and previous experience with modeling of sediment
transport is usually required. Note that these classes should be able to handle
sediment sizes present both in the channel bed and in the banks.
The interface, however, does not enforce the order you use to define the
sediment size classes and the size fractions at the several nodes. You can
provide the sediment size classes, the bed sediment data, and the bank
sediment date in any order. Just be sure they are compatible and well defined.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
79
Sediment Size Classes Definition
Older versions of CCHE1D used a predefined set of nine classes, ranging
from silt, to sand, to gravel. These built-in classes were somewhat limited
because in some cases better simulation results could be obtained if more
classes were used. Furthermore, the user would have to carefully convert
sediment survey data (sieve curves) to the CCHE1D size classes.
Starting with version 3.0, CCHE1D allows you to define your own sediment
size classes, with a maximum number of classes set to 20. Of course, you
may want to assume the sediment to be uniform in size, and define a single
class.
Sediment size classes are defined by three diameters, and the specific gravity
for each class. You should define the “Representative Diameter,” and the
upper and lower limits for each class. There are several definitions of
representative diameter suggested in the literature. CCHE1D lets you decide
how the representative diameter is defined. Please consult the CCHE1D
Technical Manual to understand exactly how this diameter is used in the
sediment transport equations.
Importing the Sediment Size Classes Definition
To define the sediment size classes, prepare a data file following the
instructions present in the section of Appendic C: Sediment Size Classes
Definition Files. After you have created this file, follow the procedure below:
1. Select the Channel Network window.
2. Select the option Import from the Cross-Section menu.
3. In the dialog that appears, select Sediment Size Class Definition and press
OK.
4. Specify a file name in the File Selection dialog that follows. For a
complete description of the file format, please consult the Appendix C.
Removing the Sediment Size Classes Definition
You can discard the Sediment Size Class Definition table for a certain channel
network by following the procedure below:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Delete All from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Choose Sediment Size Class Definition in the dialog that appears.
This option does not remove the bed and bank sediment data assigned to each
node of the current channel network.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
80
Bed Sediment Data
For the supply of channel bed and bank sediment data, you can still create
data files outside the CCHE1D interface and use the Import functions, but if
you prefer, you can simply type the required properties in the dialogs.
Usually, a combination of both methods is the best way to go.
Importing Bed Sediment Data
The procedures available for providing bed sediment data mirror those
available used in the input of cross section geometry, which were already
explained.
If you have the bed sediment data in a computer file, be sure the file matches
the channel network you have before attempting to import the file. In
addition, data in this file must be compatible with the Sediment Size Class
Definition you are going to use in the sediment transport computations.
1. Select the Channel Network window.
2. Select the option Import from the Cross-Section menu.
3. In the dialog that appears, select Bed Sediment and press OK.
4. Specify a file name in the File Selection dialog that follows. For a
complete description of all data formats for bed sediment data, please read
Appendix C.
Entering Bed Sediment Data
You can input bed sediment data interactively using the tools available from
the GUI associated with the Channel Network window. You can select a
node and then enter the required data through a dialog. To enter data in this
manner, you should:
1. Make the Extracted Channel Network window active by clicking on it.
2. Click on the Select Node tool
.
3. Click on the node you want to select. If selected, the color of its symbol
should change. To remove the selection, click on the
button or use
the option Clear Selected Features from the Theme menu.
If you select a junction, a new dialog will pop-up. You must specify for
which node you want to enter data. There are three nodes at a junction.
They represent the end of the incoming channels, and the beginning of the
outgoing channel, downstream of the junction. You must provide bed
sediment information for all three nodes.
4. From the Cross-Section menu, choose Add at Selected Node. A new
dialog will appear. Choose the Bed Sediment option.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
81
5. A data entry dialog follows. Enter the sediment properties as prompted.
Press OK when ready, and continue the data entry in the dialogs that
follow.
6. Press OK to confirm the data entry, or Cancel to abort the operation.
Editing Bed Sediment Data
You can modify the bed data for any node in the network, using the
interactive editing capabilities. Follow the steps below:
1. Make sure the Channel Network window is active.
2. Click on Select Node tool
.
3. Click on the node you want to select. The color of the node symbol
changes when the node is selected. To clear a selection, use the button
or the option Clear Selected Features from the Theme menu.
If you selected a junction, specify for which node at the junction you want
to edit the cross section properties.
4. From the Cross-Section menu, choose Edit at Selected Node, and then Bed
Sediment in the dialog that follows. A new dialog will appear.
Retype the values for the data fields you want to modify. CCHE1D
displays the current value for each field. Use the Tab key to move from
one field to the next.
5. Press OK to confirm the editing, or Cancel to abort the operation.
Editing the Bed Sediment Data Table
CCHE1D provides access to the Bed Sediment Table for editing of more than
one record at a time. However, this procedure is not recommended unless you
are experienced with CCHE1D and you understand how the database is
designed. For efficiency, CCHE1D stores only unique records. A single
record may store information that is shared by many nodes in the network. By
directly editing the table, you may introduce unwanted modifications to the
database. Also, be reminded that the Bed Sediment database table is
associated with the Sediment Grain Distribution table through a series of
indices. If there is a mismatched index, the tables may become unusable.
If you still want to edit the table, use the Start Editing Table option, available
from the Cross-Section menu, and specify Bed Sediment in the dialog that
appears. To edit records in the table, follow the directions of the section
Editing the Cross Section Geometry Data Tables. Do not add or remove
records. Do not edit the index fields.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
82
Checking for Nodes with Missing Bed Sediment Data
CCHE1D provides a handy tool to verify which nodes require specification of
bed sediment properties, but still do not have bed sediment data assigned to
them. To view these nodes:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Show Missing from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Choose Bed Sediment in the dialog that follows.
All nodes that still require definition of bed sediment properties will be
highlighted in a different color.
Removing All Bed Sediment Data
You can remove all bed sediment data for a certain channel network by
following the procedure below:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Delete All from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Choose Bed Sediment in the dialog that appears.
This option does not remove the bank sediment data assigned to each node of
the current channel network, or the sediment size classes definition table.
Bank Sediment Data
For the specification of bank properties and sediment data, CCHE1D provides
the same functions available for the management of bed sediment data. All
the functions are essentially similar, but they are described here for
completeness.
Importing Bank Sediment Data
The methods for providing bank sediment data are essentially similar to those
available for the management of bed sediment data.
You can provide the information on channel bank material by preparing a data
file with a text editor. You can also import a database file containing the data.
Please read Appendix C to learn about the options and formats for bank
sediment data.
If you have the bank sediment data in a data file, be sure the file matches the
extracted channel network you have before attempting to import the file.
1. Select the Channel Network window.
2. Select the option Import from the Cross-Section menu.
3. In the dialog that appears, select Bank Sediment and press OK.
4. Specify a file name in the File Selection dialog that follows.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
83
Entering Bank Sediment Data
You can input channel bank sediment data interactively. You can select a
node and then enter the required data through a dialog. To enter data in this
manner, you should:
1. Make the Channel Network window active by clicking on it.
2. Click on the Select Node tool
.
3. Click on the node you want to select.
4. From the Cross-Section menu, choose Add at Selected Node. A new
dialog will appear. Choose the Bank Sediment option.
5. Data entry dialogs follow. Enter the requested information.
6. Press OK to confirm the data entry, or Cancel to abort the operation.
Editing Bank Sediment Data
You can modify the bank data for any node in the network, using the
interactive editing capabilities. Follow the steps below:
1. Make sure the Extracted Channel Network window is active.
2. Click on the Select Node tool
.
3. Click on the node you want to select.
4. From the Cross-Section menu, choose Edit at Selected Node, and then
Bank Sediment in the dialog that follows. A new dialog will appear.
Retype the values for the data fields you want to modify. CCHE1D
displays the current value for each field. Use the Tab key to move from
one field to the next.
5. Press OK to confirm the editing, or Cancel to abort the operation.
Editing the Bank Sediment Data Table
CCHE1D provides access to the Bank Sediment Table for editing of more
than one record at a time. However, this procedure is not recommended for
inexperienced users. The Bank Sediment table is also associated with the
Sediment Size Fractions database table. Editing of this table may introduce
errors and may render the data table unusable.
If you still want to edit the table, use the Start Editing Table option, available
from the Cross-Section menu, and specify Bank Sediment in the dialog that
appears. To edit records in the table, follow the directions of the section
Editing the Cross Section Geometry Data Tables. Do not add or remove
records. Do not edit the index fields.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
84
Checking for Nodes with Missing Bank Sediment Data
CCHE1D provides a handy tool to verify which nodes require specification of
bank sediment properties, but still do not have bank sediment data assigned to
them. To view these nodes:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Show Missing from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Choose Bank Sediment in the dialog that follows.
All nodes that still require definition of bank sediment properties will be
highlighted in a different color.
Removing All Bank Sediment Data
You can remove all bank sediment data for a certain channel network by
following the procedure below:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Delete All from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Choose Bank Sediment in the dialog that appears.
This option does not remove the bed sediment data assigned to each node of
the current channel network, or the sediment size classes definition table.
Hydraulic Structure Management
CCHE1D provides special tools to help you specify the location of and enter
data about hydraulic structures. CCHE1D allows you to:
! Import a file containing data for one or more hydraulic structures.
! Interactively select the location for a hydraulic structure and provide the
necessary data.
! Edit data related to an existing structure.
! Remove a selected hydraulic structure from the channel network.
! Remove all hydraulic structures from the channel network.
The Hydraulic Structure functions are available when the Channel Network
window is active.
Importing Hydraulic Structure Data
You may choose to create a data file containing the data pertinent to one or
more hydraulic structures. All the necessary information should be contained
in this file. All types of structures can be included, in no particular order.
You must provide the coordinates of the location of the structure in the same
coordinate system in use by the Channel Network window. It should be the
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
85
same coordinate system of the Digital Elevation Model from which the
channel network was extracted, or the coordinate system used when digitizing
the channel network. A drawback of this method is that the coordinates must
coincide with the location of the channel. You can use the zoom-in feature of
the Channel Network window to get the coordinates of a point in the channel
network with precision, and then use them in the structures data file.
You cannot add hydraulic structures at confluences or at the beginning of
channels. The only exception is the watershed outlet, where measuring
flumes are acceptable. If you try to import a structure, and there is already
another structure at that location, CCHE1D will give an error message.
Therefore, you cannot modify hydraulic structure properties by importing a
new data file. You still can import hydraulic structure files at any time,
provided there is no previous structure, confluence, or other special features at
the location of the new structures.
The format for the hydraulic structure data file is described in detail in
Appendix C.
To import hydraulic structures from a data file:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose Import from the Hydraulic-Structure menu.
3. In the dialog that appears, navigate the directory tree and select the file
containing hydraulic structure data.
4. Double-click on the file name to select the file.
Adding a Hydraulic Structure
Perhaps the most convenient method of inserting hydraulic structures in the
channel network is to use the interactive tool in the Channel Network
window.
1. Zoom-in on the part of the channel network where you want to insert a
hydraulic structure.
2. Select the Add Structure tool
by clicking on it.
3. Click on the location you want to insert a structure.
4. Confirm the insertion by choosing Yes in the dialog that follows.
5. In the dialog that appears, choose Yes if you want to provide the
characteristics of the hydraulic structure now. You can specify the data
later.
6. If you chose Yes in the previous dialog, choose the type of the structure
from the drop-down menu.
7. Enter data for all the required fields. All fields must be completed. For
explanation on the meaning of each data entry, please refer to Appendix B.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
86
After you specify the data for the structure, the node is represented on the map
by a special symbol, according to the structure type. The legend on the lefthand side of the map shows the meaning of the symbol. If you add a structure
but do not enter the data, the structure is marked with a symbol indicating the
type is unknown.
Editing Hydraulic Structure Data
You can edit the data of any hydraulic structure in the channel network. To
edit the data for a structure:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the Select Structure tool
.
3. On the channel map, click on the structure you want to edit. A message
confirming the selection is displayed.
4. Choose Edit at Selected from the Hydraulic-Structure menu.
5. Inform if you want to change the current type of the hydraulic structure. If
you choose yes, select a new type for that structure in the dialog that
follows.
6. Edit the fields you want. Use the Tab key to move from one field to the
next.
7. Press OK to confirm the editing.
Removing a Hydraulic Structure from the
Channel Network
NOTE: This option is not yet available in some Beta-Testing versions.
You can remove any hydraulic structure from the channel network.
remove a structure:
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the Remove Structure tool
To
.
3. On the channel map, click on the structure you want to remove.
4. Confirm the removal by pressing OK in the dialog that appears.
Removing All Hydraulic Structures from the
Channel Network
NOTE: This option is not yet available in some Beta-Testing versions.
You can remove all bed sediment data for a certain channel network by
following the procedure below:
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
87
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Choose the option Delete All from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Choose Bed Sediment in the dialog that appears.
This option does not remove the bank sediment data assigned to each node of
the current channel network, or the sediment size classes definition table.
Computational Mesh Generation
Introduction
The numerical flow routing in a channel network requires a well-defined set
of computational nodes. A channel network, as extracted from a Digital
Elevation Model or digitized through the CCHE1D interface has very few
nodes. The nodes only identify the beginning of channels and channel
junctions. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of these features makes the
resulting network inadequate for numerical computations. The flow model
imposes restrictions on channel lengths and on the uniformity of their
distribution in the network. The presence of confluences and hydraulic
structures significantly affects the length of channel reaches. The channel
network, as extracted from a DEM, shows great variations in reach lengths.
In order to have a channel network that is suitable for the numerical
computations, many new nodes have to be defined. CCHE1D has a Channel
Network Analysis module that inspects the channel network and determines
improvements to create a computational network that is adequate to the flow
routing model. This analysis module consists of a series of pre-defined rules,
tuned to the simulation models of CCHE1D, which determine the number and
location of new nodes to be added to the channel network.
CCHE1D provides tools to orient the user through this process of
computational grid generation. Besides the automatic procedure with the
built-in rules, CCHE1D lets you add or remove nodes interactively, by simply
clicking on the channel network map. This way, you can fine tune the
computational mesh, and add nodes at points of interest, such as for example
locations where measurements are available.
Automatic Generation
Built-in Rules
The current version of CCHE1D has a set of rules that analyze the channel
network. They determine where extra nodes should be added in order to
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
88
create a computational mesh that satisfies the accuracy and convergence
requirements of the channel model.
The first rule to be applied is the verification of variations in flow crosssectional area. For locations where the flow area changes significantly,
CCHE1D adds extra nodes, so that the variation in area is reduced to
acceptable values.
CCHE1D analyzes all channels to determine if the lengths of channel reaches
are reasonably uniform. A large variation in the length of successive
computational reaches can negatively affect the quality of the numerical
simulations. CCHE1D adds nodes to the network to make the distribution of
reach lengths more uniform.
Finally, CCHE1D inspects the neighborhood of channel junctions and
hydraulic structures. Specialized algorithms compute the flow properties at
these locations, and CCHE1D makes sure the computational network satisfies
some special requirements.
Auto-generating the Computational Network
To let CCHE1D create a computational channel network using the built-in
rules:
1. Make the Channel Network window active by clicking on it.
2. From the Channel-Network menu, choose Autogenerate.
3. Confirm to start the automatic generation of the computational network.
CCHE1D will analyze the channel network and add the nodes it considers as
necessary. You will see new nodes appearing, while the process continues.
The channel network map shows the new nodes identified by a different
symbol. The legend on the left-hand side of the map shows the new node type
“Auto Added.”
Note: If you want to manually specify the position of a new node, you should
do that before you use the Auto-generate function. CCHE1D will consider the
position of the added node, as well as its cross section geometry, when
creating new computational nodes in the Auto-generate analysis. This is
especially important if you specify the cross section properties for the
manually added nodes.
Manual Generation
CCHE1D provides an interface that allows you to interactively add or remove
nodes of the computational network. You can use the Add Node tool
to
insert a node at a point of special interest to you, such as a location where you
want to have the flow properties computed, for example. You can also use
this tool to improve the computational mesh, in case the algorithms of
CCHE1D create a computational mesh that you consider inadequate at a
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
89
certain location of the computational domain. Similarly, Add Nodes tool
lets add several nodes at the selected reach. You can use the Remove Node
tool
, if your experience with numerical models tells you a node previously
added is no longer necessary.
Adding a Node to the Channel Network
You can add nodes either before or after the Auto-generate procedure.
To add a node to the computational network:
1. Make sure the Channel Network window is active.
2. Activate the Add Node tool
.
3. Zoom-in to the region where you want to add a node.
4. On the channel network map, click at the location you want the node
inserted.
5. If CCHE1D displays a message indicating it cannot identify the channel to
insert a node, zoom-in even further on the location of the new node to
specify the node location with greater precision.
6. Confirm the location of the new node in the dialog that follows.
Nodes created at user specified locations are identified by a distinct symbol on
the channel network map. The map legend shows the node type “User
Added.”
Adding Several Nodes to a Channel Reach
You can add several nodes at a channel reach (in between two existing nodes)
tool. The new nodes are inserted at equal distances.
using the Add Nodes
To add a number of nodes to a channel reach:
1. Make sure the Channel Network window is active.
2. Activate the Add Nodes tool
.
3. Zoom-in to the region where you want to add a node.
4. On the channel network map, click at the reach where you want insert
nodes.
5. If CCHE1D displays a message indicating it cannot identify the channel to
insert a node, zoom-in even further on the location of the new node to
specify the node location with greater precision.
6. Enter the number of nodes to be added to the current reach. Nodes will be
added at equal distances.
Removing a Node from the Channel Network
You can remove nodes that were previously added, either manually, or by the
Autogenerate function. Note that you cannot delete source nodes (at the
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
90
beginning of channels), confluence nodes, and nodes that receive inflow from
subwatersheds, in case your channel network was created through the
“Landscape Analysis” procedure. In addition, you cannot remove hydraulic
structures using this tool.
To remove a node to the computational network:
1. Make sure the Channel Network window is active.
2. Activate the Remove Node tool
.
3. Zoom-in to the region where you want to remove a node.
4. On the channel network map, click at the node you want to remove.
5. If CCHE1D displays a message indicating it cannot identify a single node,
zoom-in even further.
6. Confirm the removal of the node in the dialog that follows.
Adding a Background Layer to a Channel Network
You can one or more images, feature themes (shapefile or grid), or a CAD
layers to the channel network to use as a reference layer for mesh editing or
visualization. The data layer must be referenced to the same coordinate
system used to generate the channel network, otherwise it may not display
correctly.
To add a background layer to a channel network:
1. Make sure the Channel Network window is active.
2. Choose Import Background from the Cross-Section menu.
3. Select a File Type in the dialog that appears. The current options are
Image, Feature (shapefile), Grid, and CAD File. CCHE1D will enable the
Spatial Analyst and CAD Reader extensions, if they are available in your
computer.
4. If you selected Image, you will be asked if you want to enable any of the
image support extensions. Some file formats require the activation of an
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
91
extension module so that ArcView can read them. Answer Yes to see a
list of available extensions currently installed on your computer.
5. Select the file that contains the background layer you want to import.
Depending on the type of the file you plan to import, you may have to enable
an extension. For image files, you do not need an extension if your files are in
one the formats below:
! BMP
! BSQ, BIL and BIP
! Sun rasterfiles
! Controlled Image Base (CIB)
! ERDAS
! GRID
! IMPELL Bitmaps (Run-length compressed files)
! TIFF, TIFF/LZW compressed
You need to load specialized extensions in order to be able to import the
following file formats:
! ARC Digitized Raster Graphics (ADRG) and Compressed ARC Digitized
Raster Graphics (CADRG)
! IMAGINE
! JPEG
! MrSID
! National Image Transfer Format (NITF)
! TIFF 6.0
Consult the ArcView documentation if you have your data in a format not
listed above.
Chapter 6 Channel Network Analysis
92
NOTE: For convenience, you can import more than one background image,
which allows you to create mosaics or to superimpose more than one layer.
You can turn on and off the display of each layer, as well as determine the
order the images are displayed. The images must be georeferenced to the
same coordinate system, or they will not display correctly. Check the current
Projection settings for the current Channel Network Digitizing View (in the
Properties entry of the View menu), if necessary.
Deleting a Background Layer
You can remove any background layer you have imported, following the
procedure below:
1. Activate the Channel Network view.
4. Select Delete Background from the Channel-Network menu.
5. Select the layer name in the dialog that appears. You can select more than
one layer for deletion. Press OK to delete the selected layers.
CHAPTER 7
Performing Channel Flow
Analysis
In the previous chapters, you learned how to create a
computational channel network and how to input all the necessary
data for a flow simulation. This chapter shows you how to enter
options and parameters for the simulation of flow and sediment
transport in the channel network you created.
In this chapter, you will specify all the run parameters and data
files and you will learn how to perform the flow and sediment
transport simulations using the CCHE1D channel network model.
You will also learn how to specify how output data are saved, and
how to inspect and visualize the results of the simulation.
Contents
!
!
!
!
!
!
Introduction
Specifying Simulation Parameters and Options
Specifying Visualization Options
Starting the Flow Simulation
Exporting Visualization Data
Charting with Microsoft Excel
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
94
Introduction
The simulation of flow and sediment transport in a network of channels
requires the assembly of a large database. The database includes data from
various sources, including the output of other modeling components, which is
stored using different techniques, such as tables, raster images, and vector
graphics. The exchange of information between modeling programs implies
resource-consuming data format conversions. Another hurdle is the fact that
the output of one modeling component does not usually provide all the input
requirements of another. Extra effort must be spent in complementing the
necessary information so that two or more programs can be used
simultaneously or sequentially.
CCHE1D simplifies the modeling task since it controls the flow of
information among the models, guiding you through the process of data
preparation and substantially reducing the amount of data you have to handle.
CCHE1D eliminates the tedious task of gathering data describing the channel
network. Channel and subwatershed characteristics can be readily extracted
from a Digital Elevation Model. CCHE1D can create the computational mesh
automatically. It defines all nodal points and more importantly, the logical
relationships between the basic watershed elements: nodes, channel reaches,
and subwatersheds. You have seen that CCHE1D also helps in the input of
additional data such as cross sections, channel roughness, and hydraulic
structure characteristics. It does not only provide a convenient interface with
graphical feedback, but it integrates the new data to the existing database.
CCHE1D takes care of logically connecting the new data to the various
watershed elements.
CCHE1D organizes all data so that they are readily available for the
simulation models. Data format conversions and consistency checks are part
of the process. The CCHE1D relational database is gradually built so that all
information is consistent, correct, and complete.
For the simulation of flow routing in a channel network using CCHE1D, it
suffices to provide the boundary conditions and a couple of parameters.
CCHE1D provides the graphical user interface to guide you through this
process. The CCHE1D interface controls the simulation models, performing
all data input automatically.
The CCHE1D Channel Network Model
The CCHE1D channel network model computes unsteady flows using either
the Dynamic or Diffusion Wave approaches. The model is able to account for
the influence of in-stream hydraulic structures. CCHE1D calculates nonequilibrium, non-uniform sediment transport and the resulting channel bed
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
95
changes and bed material sorting. The model also simulates channelwidening processes through bank erosion and stability analysis algorithms. It
offers four sediment transport capacity formulas and a variety of methods for
the computation of parameters such as bed material porosity, mixing layer
thickness, movable bed roughness coefficient, and the adaptation length for
non-equilibrium transport, which allows the model to be applicable to a wider
range of real-life problems.
The use of CCHE1D requires a certain level of expertise from the part of the
user. In fact, the user of this program is the real “modeler” who must describe
a physical domain in such a way that a numerical solution of the flow and
sediment transport equations is stable and accurate.
Before applying the model to the study of any flood and/or transport study,
one must read the CCHE1D Technical Manual carefully to understand how
CCHE1D models the physical phenomena, and especially to become familiar
with the assumptions and limitations that are present in the model. Although
the CCHE1D model has been considerably improved in order to handle a
large variety of flow conditions that typically occur in nature, there could be
situations where the underlying hypotheses of the model were not satisfied,
and the model could yield inaccurate or even erroneous results. It is
responsibility of the user to employ this sophisticated tool in a reasonable,
scientifically sound way. The CCHE1D interface certainly facilitates the use
of the model, but engineering sense is still required.
The CCHE1D interface and control module have functions that help eliminate
most errors in data preparation. However, if a channel model run is
interrupted due to an error, the problem is usually related to inconsistency in
the input data. The user must be particularly careful when specifying
boundary and initial condition data, to ensure they are physically reasonable
and fully compatible with the channel network used in the study. Pay special
attention to the node and subwatershed numbers.
Specifying Simulation Parameters and Options
When you are satisfied with the network created in the Channel Network
window, the flow routing simulations can begin. Of course, you must have
the flow (and optionally sediment) inflows to use as boundary conditions for
the simulation. The interface also asks for a set of parameters and options that
control the flow and sediment transport computations.
The Channel Network window has a menu labeled Simulation, from which all
operations are controlled.
Before you specify the detailed options of a simulation run, you must think
about what type of output you want to have when the simulation is complete.
Because a channel network simulation of unsteady flow can generate
hundreds of megabytes of output data, CCHE1D does not provide a
“standard” data output. Instead, CCHE1D lets you decide what type of data it
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
96
will write to disk for analysis. It requires you to plan ahead so that the output
of simulation results is efficient and adequate for your analysis.
Because the output options are very important for a successful analysis,
CCHE1D provides a series of tools that help you tailor the output according to
your needs and preferences. Once that is taken care of, you can specify the
rest of the options and start the simulation run.
Specifying Output Options
CCHE1D provides a very powerful system for the specification of the type
and frequency of output of results from the channel model. The system allows
the user to choose which variables will be output, for which nodes, and at
which frequency.
You will define a series of Monitor Points, locations at which data from the
numerical simulation will be saved. The system is designed so that you can
simply specify the charts you want to see when the simulation has ended.
CCHE1D provides four basic types of charts:
! Nodal Time Series;
! Longitudinal Profiles;
! Cross Sectional Profiles;
! Sediment Size-Class Data.
An interactive, map-based interface allows you to click at map locations to
define the output for that particular node or channel reach. You start the
procedure by creating a “Chart Definition List.” This list is in fact a part of
the CCHE1D database that is automatically connected to a map layer for easy
editing and visualization. A single chart list can contain the definition of an
unlimited number of datasets, from which charts can be easily created. You
can create, edit, import and export any number of chart lists.
Creating a Chart List
A Chart Definition List stores the definitions for output datasets from which
charts (x-y plots) can be prepared after the simulation is complete. Create a
new chart list following the steps below:
1. To create a new Chart List, use the option Create Chart List from the
Simulation menu.
2. Note that a new map layer (theme) appears in the Channel Network
window. Click on “Chart Definition 1” on the map legend to activate that
theme. Note also that two new tools are now active:
. These tools
will be used to add nodes or longitudinal profiles to the chart list.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
97
3. Select the “Add Node to Chart List” tool
and then click on any node.
You will be prompted to select a data type that will correspond to the
selected node. The options are:
! Nodal Time Series
! Cross Section Geometry
! Sediment Size Class Data
Nodal Time series will create a dataset in which a set of variables will be
created for that node. You will decide in a moment which variables and at
which output frequency.
Cross Section geometry creates a dataset that allows you to plot the cross
section geometry at a defined time frequency.
Sediment Size Class Data creates a dataset that contains some properties
related to each of the bed sediment size fractions, for that node, also at a
user-defined frequency.
4. Enter the output frequency for this output dataset, in number of time steps.
You just added that particular node to the output list. Just before you start
a simulation run, you will define which variables to output.
5. You can define several nodes at once by using the specifying longitudinal
profiles along which data are saved according to your requirements.
Select the “Add Profile to Chart List” tool
to create a new profile
dataset.
6. Click on the node where you want the profile to start (upstream end). A
large light blue circle marks the initial node.
7. Click on a node where you want your profile to end. NOTE: the second
node must be downstream of the first node, following the flow path
determined by the channels. The second node may be in a different
channel link, provided there is direct path between the two nodes. Provide
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
98
an output frequency (in number of time steps) in the dialog that appears.
All nodes in the prescribed longitudinal profile will be highlighted.
There are several predefined classifications for the Chart Definition themes.
Double-click on the theme name to see the options. The figure below shows
the theme with a legend of type “Chart Type.”
Editing a Chart Definition Table
You can edit an existing Chart Definition Table by performing the following
steps, which are standard ArcView procedure for editing tables.
Changing Output Frequencies
1. Make the Chart Definition theme active by clicking on its legend. Use the
Table entry from the Theme menu, or use the “Open Theme Table” button
.
2. Having the Chart Definition Database Table open, use the Start Editing
option of the Table menu.
3. Use
to start editing table cells. NOTE: You are allowed to change
only the Frequency field using this procedure. If a node belongs to a
Profile chart, be sure you change the frequency for ALL nodes of that
profile.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
99
4. When finished, use the Stop Editing option from the Table menu, and press
Yes to save the edits.
Removing Nodes from Chart List
You can remove some nodes from the chart list, provided you follow a couple
of rules:
1. Edit the theme itself, and not only its table, as in the previous subsection.
2. If you plan to remove a profile, be sure to remove all its nodes.
Follow the steps below to edit the Chart List theme.
1. Select the Chart Definition theme you want to edit.
2. Use the Start Editing option of the Theme menu to start editing the theme.
3. Carefully select the graphics representing the nodes you want to remove.
4. Use the delete key to remove nodes from the chart list.
5. When finished, use the Stop Editing option from the Table menu, and press
Yes to save the edits.
Importing a Chart List
You can import an existing Chart List into the current project by performing
the following steps:
1. Activate the Import Chart List entry from the Simulation menu.
2. Browse you computer and look for Chart Definition files. They are named
<projname>_md_<number>.shp and are always stored in the simul
subdirectory inside the CCHE1D case directory, which is always
displayed at the top of the ArcView window. Choose the table you want
to import. NOTE: Make sure the Chart List you are importing is
compatible with the current channel network.
NOTE: If the chart list is already present in the current project but not
displayed in the channel network view, follow the instructions of the section
Displaying an Existing Chart List.
Removing a Chart List from the View
To remove a Chart List from the Channel Network view:
1. With the Channel Network view active, select Remove Chart List from the
Simulation menu.
2. Select the desired Chart List from the list that appears.
3. Confirm the removal by pressing OK.
NOTE: The chart list remains inside the CCHE1D project. You can display it
again following the steps of the section Displaying an Existing Chart List.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
100
Displaying an Existing Chart List
If you already have a Chart List inside the CCHE1D project, you can display
it in the Channel Network view using the Display Chart List entry from the
Simulation menu:
4. With the Channel Network view active, select Display Chart List from the
Simulation menu.
5. Select the desired Chart List (identified by number) from the list that
appears.
NOTE: Only chart lists that are already present in the CCHE1D project
appear in the list. To import a chart list into the project, see the section
Importing a Chart List.
Specifying Simulation Options
You will use the General Parameters entry of the Simulation menu to define
the options and parameters for the flow simulation. CCHE1D will display a
series of dialogs where you can enter or modify the current or default settings.
All parameters must be defined. You can view and modify your settings at
any time using this same menu option. The older selection is always
displayed, with few exceptions. Default choices are marked with an asterisk
after option name:
The simulation parameters are the same for all Channel Network windows of
your CCHE1D project. If you have more than one channel network, be
advised that changes you make to simulation parameters also affect the other
channel networks. Always review all the parameters before you start a new
simulation run. Be careful when specifying which Chart List must be used for
each run.
This following section will explain all options in the order they are asked.
Simulation Parameters
To start the specification of parameters and options, having the Channel
Network selected, click on General Parameters in the Simulation menu.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
101
A series of small dialogs will appear. You must cycle through all options to
ensure changes take effect.
First, you will be asked to supply the parameters for the next run of CCHE1D.
A data input dialog is displayed, where you are required to provide two
numbers:
Number of Storm Events to Simulate. This is the number of storm events for
which the simulation will be performed. This maximum value for this number
is the total number of storm events present in the Boundary Conditions file,
which you must also provide. The Boundary Conditions file is usually the
output of a rainfall-runoff simulation performed by a watershed processes
model. You can also provide the inflow hydrographs based on measured data
or other hydrologic method.
Time Step Size. This is the time step size in minutes to be used by the
CCHE1D flow and sediment transport model. This value must obey the
requirements imposed by the numerical scheme employed by CCHE1D.
Please consult CCHE1D’s technical manual for more information on how to
determine an adequate time step size for your simulation.
After you provide both numbers, press OK to continue. You will now specify
the type of Boundary Conditions file you are going to supply.
Boundary Conditions File Type
You must specify the type of Boundary Conditions file you are going to
supply to the flow and sediment routing models. CCHE1D supports different
types of input files so that you can use the most convenient method for your
particular case. The boundary condition files contain a series of hydrographs
(and optionally sediment data) for several nodes or subwatersheds, for one or
more storm events.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
102
Boundary Conditions files are grouped into two distinct types:
! Triangular Hydrographs
! Time-Discharge Hydrographs
Triangular Hydrographs describe a storm event through a series of maximum
and minimum discharges that occur at specified times. In summary, for each
node or subwatershed where inflow is specified, a base discharge, a peak
discharge, a time to reach the peak discharge, and the total duration of the
hydrograph is given.
Time-Discharge hydrographs allow the specification of inflow hydrographs of
any shape by providing a succession of time-discharge pairs at each point of
inflow. CCHE1D uses linear interpolation to determine inflow discharges at
the various time instances of the simulation.
Both types support the specification of inflow either using node numbers or
subwatershed numbers. The latter is useful in case an integrated WatershedChannel analysis in being performed with the help of a rainfall-runoff model.
Appendix C – Data File Formats contains detailed information on how to
prepare the boundary condition files.
Boundary Conditions File
After you inform of which type your boundary conditions file is, you must
specify the name and location of that file. Use the file selection dialog that
appears to browse your computer and select the Boundary Conditions file you
want to use. Press OK to go to the specification of the type of the downstream
boundary condition. Boundary condition files usually have the extension .bc
or .txt, but any extension can be used.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
103
If you already had specified a boundary conditions file, CCHE1D will show
the name of the file and ask if the same file should be used for the current
simulation run.
Downstream Boundary Condition Type
The numerical solution of the flow equations requires you to specify a
boundary condition at the downstream end of the channels. In the case of
CCHE1D channel networks, a water level must be specified at the watershed
outlet. Channel reaches that end at a junction are automatically taken care by
CCHE1D’s internal computational methods.
There are three options to choose from:
! Open downstream boundary
! User-specified stage time-series
! User-specified constant stage
! User-specified stage-discharge curve
The first option is an automatic procedure that is useful in case stage
information is not available.
CCHE1D implements a non-reflective
downstream boundary condition that adjusts the water level at the watershed
level according to current flow conditions.
Alternatively, you can specify a time-series of stages, if that data are
available. If this option is chosen, you must provide a data file containing
time-stage pairs, from which CCHE1D will derive the stage at different times
via interpolation. See Appendix C – Data File Formats for information on how
to prepare such file.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
104
If your channel network ends at a location where the water surface elevation is
fairly constant, such as a reservoir, you can specify the water surface
elevation, in meters, in the dialog that follows.
Baseflow Computation Method
The numerical solution of the flow equations requires you to specify initial
conditions (discharges and stages) for every node in the computational
network. CCHE1D provides an efficient method in which constant baseflow
discharges are given or assumed, from which steady water surface profiles can
be computed using the Standard-Step Method. CCHE1D steady water surface
profiles also consider the hydraulics of in-stream structures, and the
mathematical background is essentially similar to that employed by steady
flow one-dimensional models such as HEC-RAS, for example.
There are two options to choose from:
! Automatic;
! User-specified discharges;
The first option is an automatic procedure that determines discharges for each
channel reach based primarily on drainage areas. The method was developed
for small watersheds in Northern Mississippi, and it is not expected to be
accurate or even adequate for any watershed configuration. The method is
provided as a tool for preliminary model runs.
The best method is to specify baseflow amounts for each source channel
(channel segments that do not have tributaries). CCHE1D can automatically
determine the discharge at the remaining channels by accumulating given flow
rates. See Appendix C – Data File Formats for information on how to prepare a
baseflow file.
Flow Model Wave Type
CCHE1D implements two distinct wave models for the computation of
unsteady flows. The diffusion wave model is a simplified approach, which
can be about 10% faster to execute, may be more stable in some cases, but can
yield less accurate results in some situations. The dynamic wave model
solves the complete Saint-Venant equations, and it is applicable to a wider
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
105
range of flow conditions. Results can be expected to be more accurate,
although the diffusion wave model is able to produce similar accuracy for a
large variety of river flows. Please consult CCHE1D’s Technical Manual for
more information on the choice of the wave model.
Sediment Transport Computations
If your case contains sediment data, you will be prompted if the sediment
transport computations are to be performed in the current run of the model.
You can choose to disable the sediment transport simulation, even if you have
provided the sediment data. This option is useful in the first runs of a
simulation case. Disabling sediment transport will significantly reduce the
total simulation time. You may want to simulate a rigid bed condition first,
and verify if the input data are correct, if the computational mesh is
satisfactory, etc. To disable sediment transport computations, simply answer
No in the dialog that appears. If you have not provided sediment related data,
CCHE1D informs you that sediment computations are automatic disabled.
Monitor Points Output File Type
The simulation model generates a huge amount of data that simply cannot be
stored. That is why you are asked to create the Chart Lists where variables
representing flow, bed characteristics, and channel geometry properties will
be stored for nodes you select, at the time intervals you determine. CCHE1D
saves the output data into text files, which can be directly imported into
plotting or spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft Excel, Tecplot, etc.
CCHE1D writes one file for each Nodal Time Series, Longitudinal Profile,
Cross Section Geometry, or Sediment Size Class Dataset chart defined in the
list. Files are written in the simul directory, inside the Case directory that is
displayed at the title bar of the interface window.
File names are built according to the following convention:
Nodal time series:
<casename>_mp_run<N>_ts_<Node>.txt
Cross section geometry time series:
<casename>_mp_run<N>_cs_<Node>.txt
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
106
Longitudinal Profile time series:
<casename>_mp_run<N>_prf_<NodeUS>-<NodeDS>.txt
Sediment Size Class Data:
<casename>_mp_run<N>_sz_<Node>.txt
Chart Definition Table
After the type of chart is defined, you must choose which Chart List you are
going to use for the current run. Note that you can create several lists that
contain different output options. You can also import lists and modify them to
suit your needs. Keep in mind the chart lists are based on node numbers,
which change with modifications of the computational mesh.
Output Variables
You have defined which types of plots you would like to see when the
simulation is complete (time series, longitudinal profiles, etc.). Now you must
define what variables you would like to plot. A series of variable lists are
presented, according to your definitions of the chart list.
Initially a list of variables available for Nodal Time Series is displayed. Note
that these variables will be saved for all nodes for which you requested a timeseries chart. The frequency for each chart will vary according to the
specifications contained in the chart list, but the same variables will be output
for all charts. Select the variables from the list, using the SHIFT key while
clicking, to select more than one variable.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
107
You can use different variables for your Longitudinal Profiles charts from
those save for the Time Series charts. A separate list is displayed if the Chart
List contains profile charts. If sediment transport is enabled, the lists of
variables contain also data related to sediment and channel morphology.
For Sediment Size Class related data, a list with different variables, all related
to sediment transport, is displayed.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
108
This concludes the prescription of options for the CCHE1D channel network
model. The simulation does not start until you select Start Channel Simulation
in the Simulation menu. See the next section for information on sediment
transport related options and parameters offered by CCHE1D.
Specifying Sediment Calculation Options
If sediment data has been previously provided, CCHE1D you have access to a
series of options related to the simulation of sediment transport and bank
stability analysis. Use the entry Advanced Parameters to change these
options. For all parameters, there is also a default option (marked with a *)
that is adopted unless you explicitly modify it through the interface dialogs.
Because CCHE1D is under continuous development, options under this
category change from time to time. Please contact NCCHE for support in
case this manual does not correspond exactly to your copy of CCHE1D.
Please read carefully the CCHE1D Technical Manual to find out about the
meaning of each option, to learn how to use them, and to understand the
impact they may have on the computed sediment transport and morphological
changes.
Sediment Transport Capacity Equation
CCHE1D offers four different sediment transport capacity equations you can
choose from:
! Modified Engelund-Hansen
! Modified Ackers and White
! Wu et al., 1998
! SEDTRA Module (Laursen, Yang, Meyer-Peter and Müller)
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
109
If you select the SEDTRA module, you must enter a value for the parameter x
for the determination of the diameter used in the determination of incipient
motion conditions. The default value for x is 0.5.
If the Wu et al. formula is used, you must define a value for the coefficient χ
that accounts for vegetation effects. The default value is 1.0, meaning no
correction for the presence of vegetation.
Please consult the CCHE1D Technical Manual for detailed information on the
implementation of the above equations. Keep in mind that each equation will
yield different results, and not all equations may be applicable to a particular
problem.
Bank Stability Analysis
After you choose a sediment transport capacity equation, you can disable the
Bank Erosion and Stability Analysis of CCHE1D. If it is disabled, CCHE1D
will not compute bank erosion and potential bank mass failures.
Bed Load Adaptation Length
The bed load adaptation length is one of the most important parameters in the
numerical computation of sediment transport using the non-equilibrium
approach. The method used to define this parameter can affect the magnitude
of transport that occurs in a channel, and it can influence the numerical
stability of the solution. Please consult CCHE1D’s Technical Manual for a
discussion on this parameter. Currently, CCHE1D offers four approaches for
the determination of the adaptation length:
! Function of Alternate Bar Length
! Function of Dune Height
! Function of Reach Length
! User-specified value.
The default option is “Function of Alternate Bar Length.”
Suspended Load Adaptation Coefficient
The Suspended Load Adaptation Coefficient α, which is used to calculate the
adaptation length, can be determined by either:
! Armanini and di Silvio Method (1998), or
! User-specified value
The default option for this parameter is a constant value of 0.5. Please consult
the CCHE1D Technical Manual for more information on the subject.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
110
Wash Load Adaptation Length
You may specify a value for this parameter. The default is length is infinitely
large, which is specified by its inverse value, zero.
Mixing-Layer Thickness
CCHE1D offers four approaches for the computation of the mixing-layer
thickness.
! Related to Dune Height
! Related to Grain Size
! Related to Flow Depth
! Constant Value
Again, consult the Technical Manual for detailed information on the subject.
Minimum Value for Mixing-Layer Thickness
You can adjust the minimum value for the mixing layer thickness in case you
have selected one of the automated procedures for its determination, in the
previous dialog.
Bed Material Porosity
CCHE1D provides three options for the determination of the porosity of the
bed material:
! Komura and Simmons (1967)
! Han and Wang (1981)
! User-specified value
Wash Load Size Classes
CCHE1D provides two methods to define which sediment size classes are
considered as wash load:
! Automatic (function of Suspension Number)
! User-specified number of size classes
This concludes the entry of options and parameters for the simulation models.
Remember that the simulation does not start until you choose
Start Channel Simulation from the Simulation menu.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
To
edit
any
111
of
the parameters you entered, simply click the
Advanced Parameters option again. The dialogs will show the values you
provided before. Edit the desired fields and press OK in each dialog.
Starting the Flow Simulation
Once you have all parameters, input files, and options defined as explained in
the previous sections, you can start the flow simulation. CCHE1D will use
the channel network as displayed in the Channel Network window. CCHE1D
will gather the necessary data and transfer them to the simulation models.
The CCHE1D software distribution for version 3.0 does not include the flow
and sediment transport model, which resides on the NCCHE computer
servers. When you are ready to perform a simulation, you will activate the
NCCHE Data Transfer Utility, which will transfer the data between your
computer and the NCCHE server, and control the simulation.
Note: Model developers and some research collaborators may have a version
of the CCHE1D model installed on their local computers. For these users, the
graphical interface still maintains the option of running the model on the same
computer the interface is installed. For most users, this option will be either
disabled, or will report an error if executed.
Running CCHE1D on a Remote Server
Starting a Remote Simulation
To perform a simulation on the NCCHE server assigned to you, follow these
steps:
1. Make sure you have a live Internet connection.
2. Make the Channel Network window active.
3. Click on Start Remote Server Simulation in the Simulation menu.
CCHE1D will prepare all input files and then start the NCCHE’s Data
Transfer Utility. This program performs the following tasks:
! Manages the Internet connection with the NCCHE server, and
authenticates the user;
! Transfers input files from your computer to the NCCHE server;
! Starts the simulation run on the NCCHE server;
! Queries the status of the computer run (queued, started, percentage of
completion, finished, etc.);
! Transfers model results (output files) back to your computer.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
112
All operations are performed with your explicit consent. The CCHE1D
interface determines what are the files to be transferred, and the Data Transfer
Utility will work only with these files.
To start a new run:
1. Make the Data Transfer Utility window active.
2. Press the Setup Connection button to establish a connection to the
NCCHE server.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
113
3. Provide your Username and Password in the dialog that follows. Make
sure Remote NCCHE Server is selected, if you are outside the NCCHE
computer domain. Only users within the NCCHE computer network
should select the option Local NCCHE Server.
4. Press the Upload Files button to transfer the input files to the server.
5. Press the Start New Simulation button to start the simulation on the remote
server.
After you start the simulation, you may exit the Data Transfer Utility. You
can also close the CCHE1D interface. The simulation will continue on the
server.
Every time you use the Start Remote Server Simulation option, a run number
is incremented, allowing you to save files from different simulations within
your project, for easy comparison.
Checking the Status of a Remote Simulation
To check the status of a simulation, stop it, or download output results, use the
Start Data Transfer Utility option of the Simulation menu. Do not use the
Start Remote Server Simulation option until a previous run has finished, and
you have downloaded the results to your computer.
You can check the status of the run at any time, by pressing the
Check Progress button in the Data Transfer Utility. If you just start the
utility, use the Setup Connection button to re-enter you Username and
Password.
If you realize you made a mistake, you can interrupt the simulation using the
Stop Simulation button. When the simulation is complete, you can request
that the simulation results be transferred back to your computer. Use the
Download Files button to retrieve the output data. You should be able to
download output files before the run is finished, but these files will be
incomplete.
After you verify the simulation results are safe on your computer, you should
delete all data files present on the NCCHE server by pressing the
Remove Files From Server button. Storage space is limited, and all CCHE1D
users share it. As an act of courtesy, please remove the data files from the
NCCHE server as soon as possible.
Running CCHE1D on the Local Computer
If you have a copy of the CCHE1D channel model program installed on your
computer, you can start a simulation on your computer following these steps:
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
114
1. Make the Channel Network window active.
2. Click on Start Channel Simulation (Local Computer) in the Simulation
menu.
3. Confirm the launching of the simulation programs by clicking Yes in the
dialog that follows.
CCHE1D will start the channel modeling components to perform the
simulation according to the parameters you defined. A console window will
be displayed, where you can see the status, warning or error messages issued
by the models.
You cannot perform any operation within CCHE1D interface while the
channel model is running. The console window will disappear and you will
regain control when the simulation is completed.
When the simulation is finished, you will have the simulation results
available. You can then proceed to inspect your results.
IMPORTANT: Alpha and Beta testing versions of CCHE1D give the user the
option to execute or skip a “database check,” before the run has started. You
can safely skip this check only if you did not edit the channel network and did
not edit cross section, hydraulic structure, or sediment properties. Changes in
run options parameters made through the Simulation menu do not require
updating the database. If you are not sure, or if this is the first run of the
model, do not skip the database check.
Visualizing Model Results
Limitations of the plotting capabilities of ArcView (such as a maximum of 50
data points) do not allow CCHE1D to plot visualization results within the
CCHE1D-ArcView interface. CCHE1D 1.0 and 2.0 provided support for
database (dbf) files, but because of performance issues with large datasets, the
support for database files has been discontinued. If you have a particular
interest in saving modeling results for use with relational databases, contact
the model developers for more information.
Using Text Files
For larger cases, or when you want the data saved at high frequencies, saving
each plot to a separate text file is the more efficient and convenient method to
save and visualize CCHE1D results. CCHE1D creates a file for each chart
you have defined in the selected Chart List. The files are stored inside the
directory named simul, inside the Case directory. Files are named
according to the following convention:
<casename>_run<N>_ts_<Node>.txt
for time series data
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
<casename>_run<N>_cs_<Node>.txt
115
for cross section geometry
data
<casename>_run<N>_sz_<Node>.txt
for data related to each
sediment size class.
for longitudinal
profiles
These files contain simulation results organized into columns. Each variable
selected in the interface is stored as a column of data. The first columns
contain simulation time and date information. Each line contains the values of
the selected variables at a certain instant in time. The first line of the file
contains the name of the variable that corresponds to each column.
Spreadsheet and plotting programs can directly open this file. Tab characters
separate values in the same line.
<casename>_run<N>_prf_<NodeUS>-<NodeDS>.txt
Using Database Files
The current version does not support anymore model output in database files.
Transfers of data for charting using the Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)
protocol is no longer supported because database queries and data transfers
via DDE slowed down the plotting procedure, and the preparation of plotting
files with thousands of points would take several minutes.
Charting Simulation Data Using Microsoft Excel
This section summarizes the basic procedure for plotting using Microsoft
Excel, using the example described in the CCHE1D Quick Start Guide. You
can follow the steps describe below to create a chart in minutes.
We are going to show how to open this file into the electronic spreadsheet
program Microsoft Excel, and plot time-series results.
1. In Microsoft Windows, use the Windows Explorer to browse your
computer to the simul folder where the results are stored.
2. Locate a Time Series data file (e.g. efr1_mp_run1_ts-40.txt).
3. Click with the right mouse button, and choose the “Open With…” option.
On Windows 95/98/NT, you may have to press the SHIFT key for this
option to appear in the menu. Choose Microsoft Excel from the list that
appears. Excel should open, displaying the contents of the data file.
4. Alternatively, if you have Excel already running, you can simply Open the
output file (select Text Files as file type in the Excel dialog). Excel should
display the “Text Import Wizard.” Choose “Delimited” in the first panel.
Click “Next.” Make sure “Tab” is select as the delimiter, in the next
panel. Click “Finish” to complete importing the file.
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
116
5. Once the file is open, you should see a single numeric value in each Excel
cell. If all contents appear in the first column of the spreadsheet, try
importing the file again.
You can now select data to plot and use Excel charting options to quickly
create your time series plots. The fastest method is described here:
1. Select columns “Sim_Time” and “Discharge” by clicking on the labels at
the top (hold the CTRL key to select the second column).
2. Click on the Chart Wizard icon, in the Excel toolbar, or choose Chart from
Excel’s Insert menu.
3. In the dialog that follows, select “XY (Scatter) as chart type. Choose a
subtype and click “Next.”
4. Edit chart options or press “Finish” to see your chart.
Note that CCHE1D does not impose any limitation on the creation of charts.
You have the choice of plotting different variables in the same chart, or time
instances of the same variable along the profile, for any range you choose.
You can also combine results from different worksheets, simply by selecting
the desired worksheet when specifying plot ranges. You can also combine
Chapter 7 Performing Channel Flow Analysis
117
different data sets by importing worksheets from another workbook. You can
use Excel’s on-line help to get more information on charts, or you can refer to
one of the many books on the subject to get familiar with all the possibilities
Excel offers.
CHAPTER 8
Support for Watershed Analysis
This chapter discusses some features inside CCHE1D that support
watershed simulations. Watershed models such as SWAT or
AGNPS can be used to compute surface runoffs that are employed
as boundary conditions for the CCHE1D channel analysis model.
The watershed models are not distributed with CCHE1D. You
must have Blackland GRASS and SWAT installed on your
computer to use some features of this chapter.
Newer versions of CCHE1D can directly use the output of AGNPS
as boundary conditions.
Contents
!
!
!
!
!
Introduction
SWAT Watershed Model
Checking SWAT-GRASS settings
Starting SWAT-GRASS
Simulating Watershed Processes
Chapter 8 Support for Watershed Analysis
119
Introduction
Early versions of this modeling system envisaged a tight integration with
watershed modeling, which would include a common interface from which
the whole procedure could be managed. Some tools were built into CCHE1D
as an initial step toward that goal.
Recently, the Landscape Analysis part of the CCHE1D was updated to
improve compatibility for those users who elect the watershed model AGNPS2001as their watershed-modeling tool. Newer versions of CCHE1D are
capable of importing results from AGNPS directly.
SWAT Watershed Model
SWAT – Soil and Water Assessment Tool, is a comprehensive modeling
system for the computation of water, sediment and pollutant runoffs from
primarily agricultural watersheds.
SWAT can be used along with the CCHE1D environment to simulate rainfallrunoff and erosion processes. SWAT can estimate water and sediment runoffs
for each natural subwatershed, as defined by the Landscape Analysis
programs described in Chapter 4. These values are in turn used as boundary
conditions for the numerical simulation of in-channel transport and erosion–
deposition phenomena.
SWAT utilizes a GIS interface to infer a large number of properties for each
of the subwatersheds. Currently, GRASS GIS is necessary for these
operations. CCHE1D integrates SWAT into its system by providing means of
starting the SWAT-GRASS GIS interface, and transferring data available to
CCHE1D to that program, simplifying its use.
CCHE1D cannot provide all the necessary data for the SWAT watershed
simulation. You must provide what CCHE1D cannot supply. In addition, you
must be familiar with SWAT and its GRASS interface in order to perform the
watershed simulations.
This section assumes you are familiar with the SWAT-GRASS interface. For
information on SWAT-GRASS programs and documentation, contact the
Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Blackland Research Center, Temple,
Texas.
On-line information is available at http://www.brc.tamus.edu/swat for SWAT,
and http://brcsun15.tamu.edu/blgrass/ for Blackland GRASS.
Chapter 8 Support for Watershed Analysis
120
Checking SWAT-GRASS settings
CCHE1D provides a simple mechanism to check if the SWAT-GRASS
settings are compatible with the settings stored by CCHE1D. CCHE1D
attempts to automatically transfer data to the SWAT-GRASS system, in order
to facilitate starting the watershed simulation process.
Similar to CCHE1D, SWAT and GRASS require the data for a simulation to
be stored into a pre-defined directory structure. Those programs will search
for data that is stored at that specific location. You must specify those storage
directories from the SWAT-GRASS interface.
CCHE1D can inquire and find out what those settings are. You will know,
from the CCHE1D interface, if your SWAT-GRASS settings are compatible
with your current CCHE1D settings. CCHE1D will not attempt to modify
these settings, since they may affect the correct operation of the SWATGRASS system.
After the completion of the Landscape Analysis section, open the Extracted
Network n: Subwatersheds window. Use the Grass Database Defaults option
of the Watershed menu. You will see a report containing the values of
SWAT-GRASS default location variables. If values are not available, you
may not have SWAT-GRASS installed correctly on your system. Try to start
the Blackland GRASS interface and then set the variables according to the
instructions for SWAT-GRASS, then try again.
This option should display the contents of the following GRASS variables:
! GISBase,
! GISDBase,
! Location,
! Mapset.
Important: In order to start a simulation with SWAT-GRASS, you must first
use that program to define the Location and Mapset variables, which contain
the physical location where the new data will be stored. CCHE1D will use
these settings to export data to the SWAT-GRASS system.
The Grass Database Defaults option is provided as a convenient means for
checking the GRASS variables. You cannot modify SWAT-GRASS setting
from the CCHE1D interface.
Starting SWAT-GRASS
The first time you want to start SWAT-GRASS for a watershed simulation,
you must do it outside the CCHE1D interface.
Please verify the
documentation on SWAT-GRASS, and initialize the system by defining the
Database Default values, using the GRASS interface.
Chapter 8 Support for Watershed Analysis
121
Having the default location variables defined in the SWAT-GRASS program,
you can use CCHE1D to prepare the SWAT simulation for you.
1. Check if the SWAT-GRASS variables are correct, using the
Grass Database Defaults option of the Watershed menu.
2. Use Run SWAT option to start Blackland GRASS, and follow the
instructions.
Depending on whether it is the first time you try to start SWAT, CCHE1D
will try to export data already available to the SWAT-GRASS system.
Currently, CCHE1D exports the Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and the
Subwatershed raster map. CCHE1D also inquires about Soil and Land
Use raster maps.
CCHE1D will try to move the maps to the required locations. Currently,
the CCHE1D to SWAT export functions require that all data be available
in GRASS ASCII format. Future versions will support the conversion
from additional formats.
3. When the SWAT-GRASS interface appears, open a shell window, using
the SWAT Shell option from the SWAT menu of the SWAT-GRASS
program.
4. In the window that appears, type c1dswat.bat. For the versions of
SWAT-GRASS tested with CCHE1D, it is necessary to include the .bat
extension when typing the command.
The program c1dswat.bat should take care of importing the available
data into SWAT-GRASS. Please use the GRASS functionality to verify if
the imported data layers are available and correct.
Note that the CCHE1D functionality that starts SWAT-GRASS is aimed at
facilitating the data transfer process. You can use the SWAT-GRASS system
independently of the CCHE1D interface.
Simulating Watershed Processes
For the simulation of watershed processes using SWAT, please refer to the
“SWAT/GRASS Interface Users Manual” (Srinivasan et al., 1996). SWAT
requires a collection of raster maps, and additional data that is stored in a
relational database and other data files.
The simulation of watershed process is a complex, time-consuming procedure.
The SWAT-GRASS interface tries to guide the modeler through the process
by outlining the main tasks and by using the GRASS GIS to provide spatial
analysis capabilities. Currently, there is no ArcView interface for SWAT
model.
CCHE1D attempts to export the data available within the CCHE1D project,
and then starts the SWAT interface developed for the GRASS GIS.
Preparation of input data and control of the watershed model are performed
exclusively by that interface.
Chapter 8 Support for Watershed Analysis
122
A new version of SWAT is being developed, which is able to export runoff
data in the format employed by CCHE1D. Current public releases of SWAT
do not contain the capability of directly exporting data to the CCHE1D
channel models. Please contact the CCHE1D developers for the latest
information.
AGNPS Watershed Model
At the time this manual was written, new tools for a better integration with
AGNPS were being development. CCHE1D now uses a version of TOPAZ
that is fully compatible with AGNPS, so that channel networks and
subwatersheds created through the CCHE1D interface can be immediately
used by the AGNPS programs. In addition, the CCHE1D channel network
flow and sediment model is now able to directly import and convert the output
of a AGNPS simulation, and use the computed water and sediment runoffs as
boundary conditions for the channel simulation. The chapter, “Performing
Channel Flow Analysis” discusses this option in more detail.
APPENDIX A
References
Ackers, P. and White, W.R. (1973) Sediment transport: A new approach and analysis, J.
of Hydraulics Division, ASCE, Vol. 99, No. Hy11, pp. 2041-2060.
Armanini, A. and di Silvio, G. (1988) A one-dimensional model for the transport of a
sediment mixture in non-equilibrium conditions, J. of Hydraulic Research, Vol. 26,
No.3.
Arnold, J.G., Allen, P.M., Bernhardt, G. (1993) A comprehensive surface-groundwater
flow model, Journal of Hydrology, 142, 47–69.
Engelund, F. and Hansen, E. (1967) A monogragh on sediment transport in alluvial
streams. Teknisk Vorlag, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., ESRI (1996a) Using ArcView GIS,
ESRI, Redlands, California.
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., ESRI (1996b) Avenue. Customization
and Application Development for ArcView, ESRI, Redlands, California.
Garbrecht, J. and Martz, L.W. (1995) An automated digital landscape analysis tool for
topographic evaluation, drainage identification, watershed segmentation and
subcatchment parameterization, Report No. NAWQL 95-1, National Agricultural
Water Quality Laboratory, USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Durant,
Oklahoma.
Komura, S. and Simmons, D.B. (1967) River-bed degradation below dams, J. Hydr. Div.,
ASCE, 93(4), pp. 1-13
Langendoen, E.J. (1996) Discretization diffusion wave model, Tech. Rep. No. CCHE-TR96-1, Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of
Mississippi.
Langendoen, E.J. (1997) DWAVNET: Modifications to Friction Slope Formulation and
Solution Method, Tech. Rep. No. CCHE-TR-97-1, C Center for Computational
Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Mississippi.
Appendix A References
124
Meyer-Peter, E. and Müller, R. (1948) Formulas for bed-load transport, Report on Second
Meeting of IAHR, Stockholm, Sweden, 39-64.
Srinivasan, R., Byars, B.W., Arnold, J.G (1996) SWAT/GRASS Interface Users Manual,
version 96.2, Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Blackland Research Center,
Temple, Texas.
Vieira, D.A., Langendoen, E.J., Bingner, R.L. (1997) FRAME – A Modeling
Environment for Watershed Processes, In Proc. Conference on Management of
Landscapes Disturbed by Channel Incision, Oxford, MS, 709-715.
Vieira, D.A. (1997) FRAME – Control Module Technical Manual, Tech. Rep. No.
CCHE-TR-97-7, National Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering,
The University of Mississippi.
Vieira, D.A., Langendoen, E.J., Bingner, R.L. (1998) The FRAME Project: Integrating
Watershed and Channel Processes Modeling Using GIS Technology, In Proc.
Eighteenth Annual ESRI’s User Conference, San Diego, CA, on CD-ROM.
Vieira, D.A., Langendoen, E.J., Bingner, R.L. (1998) FRAME – An Integrated Modeling
System of Channel and Landscape Processes, In Proc, First Interagency Hydrologic
Modeling Conference, Las Vegas, NV.
Vieira, D.A., Wu, W., Khan, A., and Wang, S.S.Y. (2000) Channel Network Routing of
Flow and Sediment in Agricultural Watersheds, Watershed Management 2000,
American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston, VA.
Vieira, D.A., Wu, W., and Wang, S.S.Y. (2001) Modeling of Sedimentation Processes in
Channel Networks, In Proc., 7th Federal Interagency Sedimentation Conference,
Reno, NV, (accepted for publication).
Wu, W. and Vieira, D.A. (2000) One-dimensional channel network model CCHE1D 2.0
– Technical manual, Tech. Rep. No. NCCHE-TR-2000-1, National Center for
Computational Hydroscience and Engineering, The University of Mississippi.
Wu, W., Vieira, D.A., and Wang S. S. Y. (2000) New capabilities of the CCHE1D
Channel Network Model, In Proc. ASCE’s 2000 Joint Conference on Water
Resources Engineering and Water Resources Planning and Management,
Minneapolis, MN.
Wu, W., Wang, S.S.-Y. and Jia, Y. (2000) Nonuniform Sediment Transport in Alluvial
Rivers, accepted for publication by IAHR Journal of Hydraulic Research.
Zhang, Y., Langendoen, E.J. (1998) An Introduction to BEAMS, Tech. Rep. No. CCHETR-98-2, Center for Computational Hydroscience and Engineering, The University
of Mississippi.
APPENDIX B
Hydraulic Structure Input Data
This appendix describes the data required for the modeling of
hydraulic structures in a channel network. CCHE1D supports four
types of structures: Bridge Crossings, Culverts, Drop Structures,
and Measuring Flumes.
This section explains how the physical characteristics of the
structures are described in the model. It discusses the meaning of
each property, and the selection of values for parameters and
coefficients.
Contents
!
!
!
!
Bridge Crossings
Culverts
Drop Structures
Measuring Flumes
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
126
Bridge Crossings
Bridge
Opening
Bridge
Pier
1
Side Slope
Opening
Invert
Pier
Width
Opening
Bottom Width
The following are the required entries to define the geometry of these types of
structures:
! Upstream Bridge Invert: This entry specifies the elevation of the channel
invert at the upstream side of the bridge.
! Bridge pier loss coefficient: This entry specifies the drag coefficient to be
used in calculating pier losses in the momentum equations.
The following pier loss drag coefficients can be used:
Square piers
2.00
Semi-circular piers
1.33
! Bridge pier shape coefficient: This entry specifies the pier shape
coefficient, K, for use in Yarnell’s energy equation for Class A flow.
Typical pier shape coefficients are given in the following table:
Pier Description
Semicircular nose and tail
Twin-cylinder piers with diaphragm
Twin-cylinder piers without diaphragm
90° triangular nose and tail
Square nose and tail
Illustration
Pier Shape
Coefficient
0.90
0.95
1.05
1.05
1.25
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
!
!
!
127
Bridge opening side slopes: This entry is used to specify the side slopes of
the trapezoidal channel under the bridge. It represents the number of
horizontal units for each vertical unit in the channel side slope.
Bridge opening bottom width: This entry specifies the total bottom width
of bridge opening. Any bottom width obstructed by bridge piers should be
included in this value. The pier width obstruction will be subtracted out
during the analysis.
Bridge pier width: This entry specifies the total width of obstructions
(piers).
NOTE: For better results, always supply the channel geometry at the
computational nodes upstream and downstream of a hydraulic structure.
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
128
Culverts
CCHE1D supports both pipe and box culverts. The following are the required
entries to define the geometry of these types of structures:
! Number of culverts in a cross section: This data entry allows you to
specify the number of identical culverts that exist at the cross-section. All
culverts must be identical; they must have the same cross-sectional shape,
upstream invert elevation, downstream invert elevation, roughness
coefficient, and inlet shape.
! Length: The culvert length is measured along the centerline of the culvert.
The culvert length is used to determine the slope of the culvert.
! Rise or diameter: This entry specifies the inside diameter of a pipe culvert,
or the inside height of a box culvert.
! Span: Specifies the inside width of the box culvert. For a pipe culvert, this
value corresponds to the inside diameter. Most box culverts have
chamfered corners on the inside. These chamfers are ignored by the
special culvert method in computing the cross sectional area of the culvert
opening. Some manufacturers’ literature contains the true cross-sectional
area of each size box culvert, considering the reduction in area caused by
the chamfered corners. If you wish to consider the loss in area due to
chamfers, then you should reduce the box culvert opening width. You
should not reduce the box culvert height, because the program uses the
culvert height to determine the submergence of the culvert inlet and outlet.
Culvert
Height
Upstream, Downstream
Culvert Invert
Culvert Opening Width
Box culvert cross-section
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
129
Pipe Culvert Diameter
Upstream, Downstream
Culvert Invert
Pipe culvert cross-section
!
!
!
!
!
!
Downstream invert: Specifies the culvert invert elevation at the
downstream opening. Culverts with adverse (negative) slopes are not
allowed. Therefore, the downstream invert elevation must be equal to, or
less than, the upstream invert elevation.
Upstream invert: Specifies the culvert invert elevation at the upstream
opening. The upstream invert elevation must be equal to, or greater than,
the downstream invert elevation.
Downstream superelevation: This entry is the difference between the
downstream culvert invert and the immediate thalweg elevation (see
figure).
Upstream superelevation: This entry is the difference between the
upstream culvert invert and the immediate thalweg elevation (see figure).
Surface roughness (Manning’s): Specifies the Manning’s roughness
coefficient to be used in friction loss calculations.
Entrance loss coefficient: Specifies the culvert entrance loss coefficient to
be used to compute the head loss at the culvert entrance.
NOTE: For better results, always supply the channel geometry at the
computational nodes upstream and downstream of a hydraulic structure.
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
130
Upstream Culvert Invert
Section View
Downstream Culvert Invert
Upstream
Superelevation
Downstream
Superelevation
Upstream Thalweg
Downstream Thalweg
Longitudinal View
The following table lists some suggested values for culvert entrance loss
coefficients.
Type of Culvert and Design Entrance
Reinforced Concrete Pipe Culvert
Projecting from fill, socket pipe end
Projecting from fill, square cut pipe end
End-section conforming to fill slope
Mitered to conform to fill slope
Concrete Pipe with Headwall or Headwall and Wingwalls
Socket end of pipe
Rounded entrance
Square cut end of pipe
Corrugated Metal Pipe
Headwall, square edge
Headwall and wingwalls, square edge
End-section conforming to fill slope
Mitered to conform to fill slope
Projecting from fill (no headwall)
Box Culvert (headwall parallel to embankment-no wingwalls)
Rounded edges
Square edge on three edges
Box Culvert (wingwalls at 30o to 75o to barrel)
Rounded crown edge
Square edge crown
Box Culvert (wingwalls at 10o to 25o to barrel)
ke
0.20
0.20
0.50
0.70
0.10
0.10
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.50
0.70
0.80
0.20
0.50
0.20
0.40
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
131
Type of Culvert and Design Entrance
ke
Square edge crown
Box Culvert (wingwalls parallel to culvert)
Square edge crown
0.50
0.70
Entrance loss coefficients, ke, for pipe and box culverts (Bureau of Public
Roads, 1958)
!
Chart number and Scale number: These entries specify the chart number
and scale number. The FHWA chart number and scale number refer to a
series of nomographs published in 1965 by the Bureau of Public Roads
(now called the Federal Highway Administration). These nomographs
allowed the inlet control headwater to be computed for different types of
culverts operating under a wide range of flow conditions. These
nomographs, and others constructed using the original methods, were
published in 1985 (FHWA, 1985). The following tables list the FHWA
chart and scale numbers for pipe culverts and box culverts.
For Pipe Culverts:
Description
Chart
Number
Scale
Number
Concrete Pipe Culvert
Square edge entrance with headwall (see figure)
1
1
Groove end entrance with headwall (see figure)
1
2
1
3
Headwall (see figure)
2
1
Mitered to conform to slope (see figure)
2
2
Pipe projecting from fill (see figure)
2
3
3
1
3
2
Groove end entrance, pipe projecting from fill (see
figure)
Corrugated Metal Pipe Culvert
Concrete Pipe Culvert, Beveled Ring Entrance
Small bevel (see figure)
b/D = 0.042
a/D = 0.063
c/D = 0.042
d/D = 0.083
Large bevel (see figure)
b/D = 0.083
a/D = 0.125
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
132
c/D = 0.042
d/D = 0.125
FHWA chart and scale numbers for pipe culverts (FHWA, 1985)
Culvert inlet with headwall and wingwalls (FHWA Chart 1 and Chart 2)
Culvert inlet mitered to conform to slope (FHWA Chart 2)
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
Culvert inlet projecting from fill (FHWA Chart 1 and Chart 2)
c
b
a
D = diameter
Culvert inlet with beveled ring entrance (FHWA Chart 3)
d
133
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
134
For Box Culverts:
Description
Box Culvert with Flared Wingwalls (see figure)
Wingwalls flared 30o to 75o
Wingwalls flared 90o to 15o
Wingwalls not flared (sides extended straight)
Box Culvert with Flared Wingwalls and Inlet
Top Edge Bevel (see figures)
Wingwall flared 45o, inlet top edge bevel =
0.43D
Wingwall flared 18o to 33.7o, inlet top edge
bevel = 0.083D
Box Culvert, 90o Headwall, Chamfered or
Beveled Inlet Edges (see figure)
Inlet edges chamfered ¾ inch
Inlet edges beveled ½ in/ft at 45o (1:1)
Inlet edges beveled 1 in/ft at 33.7o (1:1.5)
Box Culvert, Skewed Headwall, Chamfered or
Beveled Inlet Edges (see figure)
Headwall skewed 45o, inlet edges chamfered ¾
Inch
Headwall skewed 30o, inlet edges chamfered ¾
Inch
Headwall skewed 15o, inlet edges chamfered ¾
Inch
Headwall skewed 15o to 45o, inlet edges beveled
Box Culvert, Non-Offset Flared Wingwalls, ¾
Inch Chamfer at Top of Inlet (see figure)
Wingwalls flared 45o (1:1), inlet not skewed
Wingwalls flared 18.4o (3:1), inlet not skewed
Wingwalls 18.4o (3:1), inlet skewed 30o
Box Culvert, Offset Flared Wingwalls, Beveled
Edge at Top of Inlet (see figure)
Wingwalls flared 45o (1:1), inlet top edge bevel
= 0.042D
Chart
Number
Scale
Number
8
8
8
1
2
3
9
1
9
2
10
10
10
1
2
3
11
1
11
2
11
3
11
4
12
12
12
1
2
3
13
1
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
Wingwalls flared 33.7o (1:5:1), inlet top edge
bevel = 0.083D
Wingwalls flared 18.4o (3:1), inlet top edge
bevel = 0.083D
13
3
13
4
FHWA chart and scale numbers for box culverts (FHWA, 1985)
Headwall
Side Bevel, b
Bevel Angle
90 degres
B
Plan view
D/12 min.
Section view
Top Bevel, d
Bevel Angle
D
Inlet side and top edge bevel with 90o headwall (FHWA Chart 10)
Angle of wingwall flare
Plan view of box culvert
Flared wingwalls (FHWA Chart 8 and Chart 9)
135
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
D/12 min.
Section view
Top Bevel, d
Bevel Angle
D
Inlet top edge bevel (FHWA Chart 9)
Skew Angle
Headwall
B
Plan view
Side Bevel, b
Inlet side and top edge bevel with skewed headwall (FHWA Chart 11)
136
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
137
Flared Wingwall
Equal Flare Angles
B
Plain view
D/12 min.
Section view
D
Non-offset flared wingwalls (FHWA Chart 12)
Flared Wingwall
Equal Flare Angles
B
Plain view
Wingwall Offset
D/12 min.
Section view
Top Bevel, d
Bevel Angle
D
Offset flared wingwalls (FHWA Chart 13)
NOTE: For better results, always supply the channel geometry at the
computational nodes upstream and downstream of a hydraulic structure.
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
138
Drop Structures
The following are the required entries to define the geometry of drop
structures:
! Bottom Width: Specifies the bottom width of the drop structure.
! Loss Coefficient: A coefficient used to compute head losses at the drop
structure.
! Length: The drop structure length is measured along the centerline of the
structure.
! Side Slopes: This entry is used to specify the side slopes of the trapezoidal
channel in the structure. It represents the number of horizontal units for
each vertical unit in the structure side slope.
! Upstream Invert: This entry specifies the elevation of the channel invert at
the entrance of the structure.
NOTE: For better results, always supply the channel geometry at the
computational nodes upstream and downstream of a hydraulic structure.
Upstream invert
1
Side slope
Bottom width
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
139
Measuring Flumes
The following are the required entries to define the geometry of these types of
structures:
! Surface Roughness: Specifies the Manning’s roughness coefficient to be
used in friction loss calculations.
! Length: The measuring flume length is measured along the centerline of
the structure.
! Compound Cross Section: This entry specifies if the measuring flume
cross section is composed or not. Use 1 (one) for compound cross
sections and 0 (zero) for triangular cross sections.
Triangular Section
!
Compound Section
Upstream Invert Elevation: Specifies the invert elevation at the upstream
end of the measuring flume.
! Measuring Section Elevation: Specifies the elevation of the flume invert at
the measuring section.
! Downstream Superelevation: This entry is the difference between the
downstream flume invert and the immediate thalweg elevation.
! Upstream Superelevation: This entry is the difference between the
upstream measuring flume invert and the immediate thalweg elevation.
! Number of Segments in Rating Curve: Number of segments in the
Discharge vs. Flow Depth curve. This entry must be a number between 1
and 4. For each measuring flume, a Discharge Vs Flow Depth Curve must
be given. The curve is an exponential function of the form Error!
Objects cannot be created from editing field codes. and may be split
into up to four segments.
For each segment in the Rating Curve the three parameters below must be
provided:
! Break Point Depth: A depth that defines the ending point of a segment in
the rating curve.
! Coefficient: Value of the coefficient in the exponential function.
! Exponent: Value of the exponent in the exponential function.
Appendix B Hydraulic Structure Input Data
140
Discharge
Q4
Q3
Q2
Q1
h1
h2
h3
h4
Depth
h1 Break Point First Segment
h2 Break Point Second Segment
h3 Break Point Tird Segment
h4 Break Point Fourth Segment
Discharge vs. Flow Depth
NOTE: For better results, always supply the channel geometry at the
computational nodes upstream and downstream of a hydraulic structure.
APPENDIX C
Data File Formats
This appendix describes the formats for the input files used by
CCHE1D. Examples of these files are given in the distribution of
the CCHE1D software.
These files are used to help the user provide input data for the
model. All files described here are imported via the CCHE1D
ArcView interface.
Contents
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
Digital Elevation Model Files
Cross Section Geometry Files
Bed Sediment Files
Bank Sediment Files
Sediment Classes Definition Files
Hydraulic Structures Files
Boundary Conditions Files
Baseflow Files
Colormap Files
Appendix C Data File Formats
142
Digital Elevation Model Files
ArcInfo ASCII Grid
GIS files can be created using the GIS software ArcInfo or ArcView, which
can convert the data from files in other formats such as the USGS DEM file.
In ArcInfo, use the GRIDASCII command to export the grid to an ASCII file.
In ArcView, use the Export Grids Option in the File Menu.
You can also create this type of file using a text editor, following the
specifications below.
The ASCII Grid files are composed of two parts: the header and the cell
values. The header has the following parameters that can be written in any
order:
! ncols: Total number of columns in the DEM.
! nrows: Total number of rows in the DEM.
! xllcorner: East-West coordinate for the lower left corner of the DEM.
! yllcorner: North-South coordinate for the lowest left corner of the DEM.
! cellsize: Size of the DEM cell.
! nodata_value: The value assigned to cells for which there is no data
available.
The cell elevation values are written immediately after the header. The values
are given in a row-oriented fashion starting from the upper left corner cell.
The elevation values are integer numbers separated by spaces or the end-ofline characters.
The following is an example of a DEM in ArcInfo ASCII Grid format:
ncols 4
nrows 5
xxllcorner 231435
yyllcorner 3790995
cellsize 30
nodata_value –9999
100 105 110 96
98 100 104 98
98 102 102 99
102 103 104 102
100 99 101 101
IMPORTANT: The CCHE1D 2.0 releases of August 2000 or earlier require
DEM files be written with a single elevation value per line, due to
programmatic restraints of the program frmxtr. Newer versions do not have
this limitation.
Appendix C Data File Formats
143
GRASS ASCII Grid
DEM files can also be manipulated using the public domain GRASS GIS.
Raster files can be exported with the command r.out.ascii to create a text file.
The ASCII file contains a header and the cell values. The header has the
following parameters that can be written in any order:
! north: North edge of the DEM
! south: South edge
! east: East edge
! west: West edge
! cols: Number of columns in the DEM.
! rows: Number of rows in the DEM.
The cell elevation values are written immediately after the header. The values
are given in a row-oriented fashion starting from the upper left corner cell.
The elevation values are integer numbers separated by spaces or the end-ofline characters.
The following is an example of a DEM in ArcInfo ASCII Grid format:
north:
3797055.00
south:
3790995.00
east:
240675.00
west:
231435.00
rows:
202
cols:
308
100
105
110
96
98
100
104
98
98
102
102
99
.........
.........
“RAW” ASCII Grid
The RAW ASCII grid format was implemented in CCHE1D to directly
support the format for input of DEMs to the model TOPAZ. It consists of a
text file containing an array of elevation values, row-first order, written as one
value of elevation per line starting at the top left corner (Northwest). There is
no header information, but you will be prompt to provide some data about the
DEM.
Appendix C Data File Formats
144
Cross Section Files
CCHE1D Version 3.0 introduced a new, more general system for the
definition of channel cross sections, in which a variable number of points can
be used to provide a more detailed cross sectional shape.
Cross section data can be input in a single or multiple data files, which are
imported into CCHE1D from its Avenue interface.
CCHE1D channel cross-sections are subdivided into a main channel and two
optional floodplains.
Channel roughness is specified via Manning’s
coefficients, with values that can vary within each of the subdivisions.
The cross sectional shape is given by a series of points which define a position
coordinate and the channel bed elevation. In future versions, CCHE1D will
support a variety of data formats, but the current version implements only the
“WZ” type, in which points are defined by a distance across the channel
(considered normal to the flow) and by a elevation value.
Regardless of input file type, CCHE1D requires that the Source Nodes, the
End of Link Nodes and the Junction Nodes of the channel network have cross
section data defined by the user. Cross section data for internal nodes are
either defined by the user or automatically defined by CCHE1D through
interpolation. Cross section files usually have the extension .cs, although the
use of such extension is not required.
WZ Type
Cross sections are defined by a number of points with known distances from a
local reference and known elevations. The user must also specify which
points separate the channel bed from its banks (Bank Toe points), and what
are the flood plains edges (Overbank points). The figure below illustrates the
cross section definition for CCHE1D.
Left flood plain
Right flood plain
∆xj
LFP edge
RFP edge
nj
j
Left bank toe
j+1
Main channel
Right bank toe
Appendix C Data File Formats
145
Cross section point distances start from the left bank or floodplain. All
distances must be in meters. Overbank and Bank Toe points are defined as
indices, considering the left-most point as index 1.
In the previous figure, four points that define the cross section shape would
have the following indices:
Left overbank point (left floodplain edge):
6;
Left bank toe point:
8;
Right bank toe point:
13;
Right overbank (right floodplain edge):
15.
The total number of point in the example above is 20.
NOTE 1: Although a large number of points could be used in defining the
cross sectional geometry, it is recommended that the user do not use more
than 20 points per cross-section. This number should be sufficient to define
the main geometric features, and the use of more points will considerably
increase the computational time, without increasing the quality of the
simulation.
NOTE 2: Because of the current bed stability algorithms implemented into
CCHE1D, it is not recommended that many points be added at the channel
banks (between the overbank and bank toe points). A single extra point near
the middle of the channel bank should suffice. Complex bank shapes, with
multiple slopes, can degrade the quality of the bank stability analysis.
File Format
Although the cross section file format has been designed to be flexible and
convenient, it is not a free-format file, and the user should carefully follow the
specification given in this section. Use spaces to separate the several fields.
There is no rigid definition for column widths, so the number of spaces used
as separation is not relevant.
The number of entries per line must be obeyed. If a required number is
missing, or if there are extra data, errors will occur when the file is imported
by CCHE1D.
You can insert comment lines at the beginning of the file, or in between data
sets. Blank lines are also accepted. You can also add comments at the end of
data lines.
Comments must start with the characters “#” or “!”
The first non-comment entry in the WZ cross section file must be the
identifying tag:
CROSS SECTION BY NODES
that identifies the file as a cross section file. This string is not case-sensitive.
Appendix C Data File Formats
146
The second entry must be the file type identifier:
WZ
After that, any number of cross sections can entered in the file. Note that is
not necessary to explicitly specify the number of cross sections the file
contains.
Each cross section data record should be written in the following format.
Node Number
Channel Reach
Length
Number of Points
in Cross Section
Index of Left
Overbank
Index of Left
Bank Toe
Index of Right
Bank Toe
W-Coordinate
Z-Coordinate
Manning’s
Roughness
Flow Blockage Flag
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
---
W-Coordinate
Z-Coordinate
Manning’s
Roughness
Flow Blockage Flag
(point 1)
(point N)
Index of Right
Overbank
Each set of data for each cross section must be written in N+2 data lines,
where N is the total number of points in the current cross section.
The first line contains the Node Number and the length of the channel reach
immediately downstream of this section.
The node number is used to assign this data set to a certain node in the
channel network. See the User Manual for the explanation on the distinction
between “Node Numbers” and “Node ID Codes” before importing a cross
section file. In You must have the channel network already defined before
you define this value.
If Channel Reach Length is given as 0.00 (zero), the channel reach length will
be that determined by the CCHE1D interface when the channel network was
created. Use this entry to override values determined by the interface (from
graphics or from the DEM). You can specify measured reach length values,
which should be more accurate than those obtained by the CCHE1D interface.
The second line contains the five numbers. The first number is the number of
points in the current cross section. The remaining are the indices that give the
location of the Overbank and Bank Toe points that define the three regions of
the cross section. These values should be carefully specified so that the
correct cross section shape is used by the model.
A number of lines equal to the number of cross section points specified in line
2 should follow. Each of these lines should contain four numbers, which are
the distance across the channel, the elevation, a Manning’s roughness
coefficient for the segment to the right of the current point, and a flow
blockage flag.
Appendix C Data File Formats
147
The flow blockage flag must be the integer numbers 1 or 0. The number 1
indicates flow is allowed in the segment to the immediate right of the current
point. If the value 0 is used the flow model will not allow flow through that
part of the cross section.
Negative values can be used for cross-section coordinates, and the cross
section records do not have to be in any particular order. However, the node
numbers must be present in the channel network.
Spaces should be used to separate numbers. The number of spaces between
numbers is irrelevant.
Appendix C Data File Formats
148
Bed Sediment Files
CCHE1D provides an alternative method for entry of bed sediment data: you
can prepare a file with the bed sediment data for the channel network, instead
of using the GUI tools.
A variable file format allows you to specify the data without having to create a
large data file with a text editor. CCHE1D 3.0 does not currently support dbf
files for bed sediment data, which will be reintroduced later.
Bed Sediment files usually have the extension .sb, although the use of such
extension is not required.
The Bed Sediment ASCII file was designed to offer flexibility. There are two
variants of the same file, which are identified by certain keywords. The
format for these files is flexible, but they are not free-format files. You can
enter comment lines by placing either a # or a ! at the beginning of the line.
In addition, at any data line, everything following these special characters is
considered a comment. Blank lines are also disregarded.
Spatially Constant Distribution
You can specify a single set of properties, and CCHE1D will assign this set of
properties to all nodes of the channel network. The file must contain the tag
BED SEDIMENT
as its first non-comment entry. The second non-comment line must contain
the tag
SPATIALLY CONSTANT
The third non-comment line must be the number of sediment size classes.
This number must match the number of size classes defined in the Sediment
Size Classes Definition file.
BED SEDIMENT
SPATIALLY CONSTANT
No. SIZE CLASSES
Cross Section Type
Bed_Porosity
Fraction Class 1
Fraction Class 1
Fraction Class 1
Non-Erodibility_Flag
Fraction Class 2
Fraction Class 2
Fraction Class 2
Max_Erosion_Depth
-------------------
Fraction Class N
Fraction Class N
Fraction Class N
The Cross Section Type indicates the type of geometry, and it is a string that
can assume of the values:
!
MC – Main Channel Only;
!
MCLF – Main Channel and Left Floodplain;
!
MCRF – Main Channel and Right Floodplain;
Appendix C Data File Formats
!
149
MCLFRF or MCRFLF – Main Channel, Left and Right Floodplains.
Bed Porosity is given in non-dimensional form.
The Non-Erodibility Flag is used to suppress erosion for a certain cross
section. A value of 1 indicates the cross section is erodible. Use 0 (zero) if
the cross section is of rigid bed.
The Maximum Erosion Depth allows the specification of a non-erodible
sub-surface. It is given as a distance relative to the initial channel bed, and it
represents the maximum erosion depth allowed below the initial thalweg
elevation. Use a large number for unlimited erosion.
The last three lines are the sediment size fractions for the Main Channel, Left
Floodplain, and Right Floodplain. Note that the last two lines should be
present according to the cross section type defined in the fourth line.
Spatially Varied Distribution
If the bed sediment properties vary across the channel network, you can use
the “SPATIALLY VARIED” version. In this variant form, data are specified
for nodal points. You do not have to specify properties for all nodes in the
network. However, you are required to specify properties for nodes of type:
! Source (code 0)
! Junctions (code 2)
! End of Channels (code 3)
The format is similar to the Spatially Constant version, except several sets of
bed properties are specified, with node number preceding each set. The
following is the data file format specification.
The first three non-comment lines should contain the identifying tags and the
number of sediment size classes used in this file, which should match the
number defined in the Sediment Size Classes Definition file.
BED SEDIMENT
SPATIALLY VARIED
Number of Size Classes
For each cross section:
Node Number
Bed_Porosity
Fraction Class 1
Fraction Class 1
Fraction Class 1
Cross Section Type
Non-Erodibility_Flag
Fraction Class 2
Fraction Class 2
Fraction Class 2
Max_Erosion_Depth
-------------------
Fraction Class N
Fraction Class N
Fraction Class N
Appendix C Data File Formats
150
Please see the section on the Spatially Constant Bed Sediment file for
explanation on each entry of this file. Below is an excerpt of a Bed Sediment
file, spatially varied, with cross sections without floodplains.
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
GOODWIN CREEK WATERSHED
BED SEDIMENT DATA
STANDARD 9 SEDIMENT SIZE CLASSES
CHANNEL NETWORK: CCHE1D 3.0, 81 NODES, 136 SUBWATERSHEDS
MODIFIED FROM VERSION 2.0, REVISED SEP 2000
OCTOBER 2000
CONVERTED TO VERSION 3.0 FORMAT; AUGUST 2001
# FILE IDENTIFIERS:
BED SEDIMENT
SPATIALLY VARIED
! Identifies file type (Do not modify this line)
# Identifies spatial distribution of bed properties
9
! Number of sediment size classes used
1
0.400
0.000
MC
1
0.000
!BED 10 – source
9999.990
0.041
0.232
0.083
0.064
0.094
0.252
0.234
0.400
0.000
MC
1
0.000
!BED 10 – end
9999.990
0.041
0.232
0.083
0.064
0.094
0.252
0.234
0.400
0.000
MC
1
0.000
!BED 10 – source
9999.990
0.041
0.232
0.083
0.064
0.094
0.252
0.234
0.400
0.000
MC
1
0.000
!BED 10 – end
9999.990
0.041
0.232
0.083
0.064
0.094
0.252
0.234
0.400
0.000
MC
1
0.000
!BED 14 – source
9999.990
0.025
0.226
0.100
0.064
0.098
0.251
0.236
3
4
5
6
Appendix C Data File Formats
151
Bank Sediment Files
CCHE1D provides a flexible data format for the supply of Bank Sediment
properties. Bank sediment data are easily specified using one of the four
variants of ASCII files CCHE1D supports. Similar to the Bed Sediment data,
you can specify a single set that will be applied to all nodes, or you can
provide data on a node-to-node basis. There is the additional option of
determining if the properties of the left and right channel banks differ or not.
The format for these files is flexible, but they are not free-format files. You
can enter comment lines by placing either a # or a ! at the beginning of the
line. In addition, at any data line, everything following these special
characters is considered a comment. Blank lines are also disregarded.
Spatially Constant Distribution
The first non-blank, non-comment line must be the file identifier
BANK SEDIMENT
If you want to specify the same set of parameters for all nodes, specify
SPATIALLY CONSTANT
as the second non-comment line in the data file. The third non-comment data
line must have either of the following characters:
BANKS EQUAL
or
BANKS DIFFER
If you choose BANKS EQUAL, the set will have parameters that are valid for
both banks. If you use “BANKS DIFFER” the set will have separate entries for
the left and right channel banks.
The fourth data line must contain the number of sediment size classes used to
describe the sediment size composition, and it must match the value defined in
the Sediment Size Classes Definition file.
Bank sediment data are then given in two data lines if BANKS EQUAL has
been specified. The properties will be applied to both the left and right banks.
If BANKS DIFFER has been specified, four lines of data are necessary. The
first two lines are the properties for the left bank, while the remaining lines
describe the bank in the right-hand side of the channel. In summary, the data
file should have the following format:
Appendix C Data File Formats
152
BANK SEDIMENT
SPATIALLY CONSTANT
BANKS EQUAL or BANKS DIFFER
Number of Size Classes
Bulk Density
Critical
Shear Stress
Porosity
Shear Stress
Coefficient
Cohesion
Friction
Angle
Fraction
1
Fraction
Class 2
---
---
---
Fraction
Class N
Class
where:
Bulk Density indicates the bank sediment Bulk Density,
Critical Shear Stress indicates the Critical Shear Stress applied to bank
erosion,
Porosity indicates the bank material porosity,
Shear Stress Coefficient indicates the Shear Stress Coefficient,
Cohesion indicates the Cohesion Coefficient,
Friction Angle indicates the Friction Angle Coefficient, and
Fraction Class 1 to Fraction Class 9 are percent fractions for each of
the sediment classes.
Spatially Varied Distribution
If the bank sediment properties vary across the channel network, you can use
the “SPATIALLY VARIED” keyword and provide data for several nodes in the
network. You are not required to provide data for all nodes, but you must
enter data for all nodes of type:
! Source (code 0)
! Junctions (code 2)
! End of Channels (code 3)
The format is similar to the Spatially Constant version, except several sets of
bank properties are specified, with node number preceding each set. The
general file format in the following page.
Appendix C Data File Formats
153
BANK SEDIMENT
SPATIALLY CONSTANT
BANKS EQUAL or BANKS DIFFER
Number of Size Classes
Node Number
Bulk Density
Critical
Shear Stress
Porosity
Shear Stress
Coefficient
Cohesion
Friction
Angle
Fraction
1
Fraction
Class 2
---
---
---
Fraction
Class N
Class
An excerpt of the data file for Goodwin Creek, distributed with CCHE1D,
which uses the keyword “BANKS EQUAL” is given below as an example. This
file is distributed with CCHE1D, and should be in the tutorial directory of
the program distribution.
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
GOODWIN CREEK WATERSHED
BED SEDIMENT DATA
STANDARD 9 SEDIMENT SIZE CLASSES
CHANNEL NETWORK: CCHE1D 3.0, 81 NODES, 136 SUBWATERSHEDS
MODIFIED FROM VERSION 2.0, REVISED SEP 2000
OCTOBER 2000
CONVERTED TO VERSION 3.0 FORMAT; AUGUST 2001
# FILE IDENTIFIERS:
# Properties Vary from node to node;
# Properties for Right and Left Banks are the same:
BANK SEDIMENT
SPATIALLY VARIED
BANKS EQUAL
9
!File Type Identifier
!Properties vary from node to node
!Left and Right Banks share the same properties
!Number of sediment size classes
1
2000.0
4.50
0.42
1.10
32000.0
20.0
0.391 0.211 0.177 0.160 0.018 0.027 0.015 0.001 0.000
3
2000.0
4.50
0.42
1.10
32000.0
20.0
0.391 0.211 0.177 0.160 0.018 0.027 0.015 0.001 0.000
4
2000.0
4.50
0.42
1.10
32000.0
20.0
0.391 0.211 0.177 0.160 0.018 0.027 0.015 0.001 0.000
5
2000.0
4.50
0.42
1.10
32000.0
20.0
0.391 0.211 0.177 0.160 0.018 0.027 0.015 0.001 0.000
6
2000.0
4.50
0.42
1.10
32000.0
20.0
0.391 0.211 0.177 0.160 0.018 0.027 0.015 0.001 0.000
Appendix C Data File Formats
154
Sediment Size Classes Definition Files
The Sediment Classes Definition Table (SD) must be provided by the
modeler. It contains the definition of the variable number of sediment classes
used by CCHE1D. The number of size classes must match the number of size
fractions specified in the Bank and Bed Sediment Tables.
The Sediment Classes Definition file usually uses the extension .sd, although
the use of the extension in the file name is not required.
You can enter comment lines by placing either a # or a ! at the beginning of
the line. In addition, at any data line, everything following these special
characters is considered a comment. Blank lines are also disregarded.
The first, non-blank, non-comment line must be the tag
SEDIMENT CLASS DEFINITION
For each sediment size class, a line must be entered containing the
Representative Diameter, the Lower Limit Diameter, the Upper Limit
Diameter, and the Specific Gravity for each sediment size class. CCHE1D
will define a sediment size class for each line present in this file. Note that all
bed and bank sediment data must be provided according to the number of
classes defined in this file. The general format of this file is:
SEDIMENT CLASS DEFINITION
Representative Diameter
Lower Limit Diameter
Upper Limit Diameter
Specific
Gravity
Note that all diameters should be given in millimeters. Below is an example
of a sediment class definition file that uses 9 classes.
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
GOODWIN CREEK WATERSHED
SEDIMENT SIZE CLASSES DEFINITION
This file defines 9 size classes, which are based on those originally
used by the SEDTRA module of CCHE1D
SEDIMENT CLASS DEFINITION
# Repres_Diam
0.0160
0.0400
0.1270
0.4580
1.2970
2.8280
5.6570
13.4540
33.3630
Lower_Limit
0.0100
0.0250
0.0650
0.2500
0.8410
2.0000
4.0000
8.0000
22.6270
! String that identifies file type
Upper_Limit
0.0250
0.0650
0.2500
0.8410
2.0000
4.0000
8.0000
22.6270
50.0000
Spec_Gravity
2.6500
2.6500
2.6500
2.6500
2.6500
2.6500
2.6500
2.6500
2.6500
#---------------------- End of File ------------------------------
Appendix C Data File Formats
155
Hydraulic Structures Files
The Hydraulic Structure File is used to supply data for several structures, in a
manner similar to the cross section geometry and sediment data files.
Otherwise, it may be easier to use the Add Structure tool of the graphical user
interface.
In this file, the user can specify data for the four different types of structures
supported by CCHE1D: bridge crossings, culverts, drop structures and
measuring flumes.
The Hydraulic Structures File is in ASCII format. The order of the structures
in the input file is not important.
See the Appendix B for a complete description of the required data for each
structure, the meaning of each property and values for parameters and
coefficients. The following is an example of a Hydraulic Structure File:
2
!---->
Total Number of hydraulic structures
!
!
!
HYDRAULIC STRUCTURES DATA FILE
REVISED: September, 1997
THIS FILE: November 20, 1997
!
!
!
!
!
!
THIS IS NOT A FREE-FORMAT FILE.
FIRST LINE OF THIS FILE MUST CONTAIN THE TOTAL NUMBER OF HYDRAULIC
STRUCTURES
COMMENTS START WITH AN EXCLAMATION MARK, BLANK LINES ARE ALLOWED
NO COMMENT OR BLANK LINES ALLOWED WITHIN DATA ENTRIES OF THE SAME STRUCTURE
STRUCTURE DATA ENTRIES MUST BE IN THE CORRECT ORDER
! TEMPLATE FOR BRIDGE CROSSINGS
! =============================
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
BRIDGE No. X - COMMENTS
bridgecrossing
!Structure Type
xxxxxx.xx
!X-Coordinate
xxxxxxx.xx
!Y-Coordinate
xx.xx
!Upstream bridge invert
x.xx
!Bridge pier loss coefficient
x.xx
!Bridge pier shape coefficient
x.xx
!Bridge opening side slopes
x.xx
!Bridge opening bottom width
x.xx
!Bridge pier width
! TEMPLATE FOR DROP STRUCTURES
! ============================
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
!
DROP STRUCTURE No. 1 - COMMENTS
dropstructure
!Structure Type
xxxxxx.xx
!X-Coordinate [ST_XC]
xxxxxxx.xx
!Y-Coordinate [ST_YC]
xx.xx
!Drop Structure Bottom Width [DR_DRBW]
x.xx
!Drop Structure Loss Coefficient [DR_DRLC]
x.xx
!Drop Structure Length [DR_DRLN]
x.xx
!Drop Structure Side Slopes [DR_DRSS]
xx.xx
!Drop Structure Upstream Invert [DR_ELDIU]
! CULVERTS
Appendix C Data File Formats
! ========
!
CULVERT No. 1 - NEAR STATION 6
culvert
!Structure Type
236640.00
!X-Coordinate
3795720.00
!Y-Coordinate
8
!Chart number
1
!Scale number
0.25
!Entrance loss coefficient
0.012
!Surface roughness (Manning's)
1
!Number of culverts in a cross section
24.84
!Length of culvert
2.44
!Rise or diameter of culvert
1.83
!Span of culvert
90.15
!Downstream culvert invert
90.30
!Upstream culvert invert
0.15
!Downstream superelevation
0.15
!Upstream superelevation
! MEASURING FLUMES
! ================
!
MEASURING FLUME No. 1 - At the waterhsed outlet
measuringflume
!Structure Type
231600.00
!X-Coordinate [ST_XC]
3791700.00
!Y-Coordinate [ST_YC]
4
!Number of segments in rating curve [MF_NOSG]
0.055
!Break point 1st segment [MF_BPQH1]
35.749
!Coefficient 1st segment [MF_CFQH1]
2.583
!Exponent 1st segment [MF_EXQH1]
0.100
!Break point 2nd segment [MF_BPQH2]
23.000
!Coefficient 2nd segment [MF_CFQH2]
2.431
!Exponent 2nd segment [MF_EXQH2]
1.252
!Break point 3rd segment [MF_BPQH3]
16.886
!Coefficient 3rd segment [MF_CFQH3]
2.297
!Exponent 3rd segment [MF_EXQH3]
99.999
!Break point 4th segment [MF_BPQH4]
17.946
!Coefficient 4th segment [MF_CFQH4]
2.025
!Exponent 4th segment [MF_EXQH4]
0.012
!Surface Roughness (Manning's n) [MF_MANN]
8.5344
!Length of flume [MF_STATLN]
1
!Compound cross section [MF_ICMP]
67.0560
!Elevation upstream invert [MF_ELSIU]
66.8853
!Elevation measuring flume [MF_ZST]
0.00
!Downstream Superelevation [MF_SEDS]
1.00
!Upstream Superelevation [MF_SEUS]
156
Appendix C Data File Formats
157
Boundary Conditions Files
Upstream Boundaries (Flow Discharges)
CCHE1D provides two groups of data files for the supply of flow discharge
boundary condition data, which translate into several types because of their
flexible options. The flow and sediment transport models require the
prescription of flow discharges and sediment loads at several nodes. You
must specify these discharges and loads for all “source nodes”, that is, nodes
at the beginning of every channel. You can also specify them for interior
nodes, except for nodes at channel junctions and at hydraulic structures.
Watershed-Oriented versus Node-Oriented
The specification of boundary conditions can be either watershed-oriented or
node-oriented. The watershed-oriented approach is useful if the boundary
conditions come from a rainfall-runoff simulation. Usually the watershed
model estimates daily triangular hydrographs as well as sediment loads from a
storm event for each subwatershed. CCHE1D can assign the outflow of the
several subwatersheds to the corresponding nodes in the channel network.
CCHE1D combines several hydrographs if more than one subwatershed
contributes to a certain node. CCHE1D also distribute the outflow among
several nodes, in case of long subwatersheds that are drained by a channel
present in the channel network. CCHE1D defines Incremental Areas for each
subwatershed, based on the position of the computational nodes along the
channel that drains the subwatershed in question.
In the node-oriented approach, the boundary conditions data are directly
referenced to nodes in the channel network. This approach is more
convenient for simpler channel networks, or when the information comes
from field measurements or other hydrologic method. In this approach, the
user-given values are directly enforced to nodes in the network. You can see
the section “How to create a boundary conditions file” in this chapter for more
information on how the CCHE1D node numbering system works.
Triangular Hydrographs versus Time Series
The CCHE1D channel network model requires that the boundary conditions
(flow discharge at upstream ends and water level at the watershed outlet) be
known at any time instance of the simulation. For that purpose, CCHE1D
supports two methods for the specification of time-dependent discharges:
triangular hydrographs and time series.
Triangular Hydrographs assumes the discharge at a certain location varies
linearly with time. A typical flood hydrograph is described by a “Base Flow
Discharge” and a “Peak Discharge,” both in cubic meters per second. The
Appendix C Data File Formats
158
Discharge
specification also requires a Time to Peak Discharge, and the Total Duration
of the storm, both in hours. The figure below illustrates a typical triangular
hydrograph.
Peak
Disch
Base
Flow
Time to
Peak
Duration
Time
Discharge
This format is useful if daily amounts must be converted to continuous
hydrographs.
The time series approach requires the specification of discharges at known
time instances. Linear interpolation is used to determine the discharge value
at any time. The figure below illustrates the approach.
Q2
Q4
Q1
T1
T2
T3 T 4
T3
Tn
Time
Appendix C Data File Formats
159
CCHE1D Data Files
The current version of CCHE1D supports only text files (standard ASCII
character set). File formats of version 1.0 (watershed-oriented, text and
unformatted files) are no longer supported. Those formats were legacy of
older versions of NCCHE models, and were too limited to be of practical use
with newer versions of CCHE1D.
The newer CCHE1D Upstream Boundary Conditions files (often identified by
the extension .bc) can be a combination of the major file type groups
described above. You can create input files of the following types:
! Triangular Hydrographs, Watershed-Oriented
! Triangular Hydrographs, Node-Oriented
! Time Series, Watershed-Oriented
! Time Series, Node-Oriented
Triangular Hydrograph Files
The triangular hydrograph discharge boundary condition file is composed of a
header followed by blocks of water and sediment inflow data.
Although the file format is flexible, it is not a free-format file. Data must be
written according to these specifications. File lines are used as basis for the
separation of entries. If the format requires all data to be input in a single line,
do not split that line. Conversely, if a data element must appear in a new line,
ensure there is a proper line separation. Although there are differences in the
definition of line termination between Unix and Windows platforms, the user
should not worry about that, provided file transfers between the two platforms
perform the necessary conversions.
CCHE1D accepts comment lines, which are identified by the ‘#’ character at
the beginning of the line. Comments can added to any data line. The program
ignores characters that follow the ‘#’sign. Blank lines are allowed.
The Triangular Hydrograph file format is shown in the next page. The file
header contains three required entries: File Type Code, File Subtype Code,
and Number of Storm Events. The first two entries identify the type of file. A
storm event is a collection of simultaneous hydrographs
The highlighted data block in the diagram corresponds to each storm event,
that is, the block is repeated for each storm event in the data file. Each storm
event may have several hydrographs (time-dependent inflow at different
points of the channel network). The minimum number of hydrographs in a
“storm event” equals to the number of upstream open boundaries (source
channels) in the channel network. The last line in the “storm event” data
block is in fact a series of lines in the same format. Each line describes an
inflow hydrograph at a certain location of the channel network.
Appendix C Data File Formats
160
# Optional comment or blank lines
File Type = 4
File Sub Type
Number of Storm Events
# Optional comment or blank lines
Storm Year
Storm Month
Storm Day
Storm
Minute
Storm Hour
Storm Second
Number of Inflow Points
Number of Sediment Size Classes
Time Unit
Water Discharge Unit
Sediment Load Unit
Maximum Hydrograph Duration
Reserved Entry
Reserved Entry
# Optional comment or blank lines
Inflow point
ID
Base Flow
Discharge
Peak
Discharge
Time to
Peak
Duration
Load
Sediment
Class 1
Load
Sediment
Class 2
..
Load
Sediment
Class N
The first three entries should appear only once, at the beginning of the file.
File Type: For Triangular Hydrograph files, File Type is an integer
value set to 4.
File Sub Type: An integer value that identifies if the file is WatershedOriented or Node-Oriented. File Sub Type is set to 1 if inflow discharges are
given for Subwatersheds. File Sub Type is set to 2 if inflow is given for Node
Numbers.
Number of Storm Events: Indicates the number of storm events in the
file. The boundary conditions file must contain a number of storm event
datasets (surrounded by a thicker border in the diagram) that corresponds to
this number.
Each storm event has its own header. The following entries appear at the
beginning of each storm event.
Storm Year, Storm Month, Storm Day, Storm Hour, Storm Minute,
Storm Second: Integers that define the date and time of each storm event.
For inflow given as triangular hydrographs, hydrographs at all locations start
simultaneously, and time is computed started at the date and time given.
Number of Inflow Points: The number of inflow points given in the
file, for the current storm event.
Number of Sediment Size Classes: The number of sediment size
classes used to describe the sediment load for the current storm event. Note
Appendix C Data File Formats
161
that this number may be smaller than the number of size classes used in the
computation. However, the class definitions must match so that sediment
loads are correctly assigned as boundary conditions for the solution of the
transport equation. If input for smaller diameter classes is zero, make sure to
add 0.00 for each size classes without sediment load.
Time Unit: Integer identifying the unit for time variables. For triangular
hydrograph files it applies to the variables Time to Peak and Duration. The
acceptable values are:
1 seconds
2 minutes
3 hours
Discharge Unit: Integer that identifies the unit for water
discharge variables. For triangular hydrographs it applies to Base Flow
Discharge and Peak Discharge.
1 Cubic meters per second (m3/s)
Water
Sediment Load Unit: Integer that indicates the unit for sediment load.
Currently, the only supported value is:
1 kilograms
Maximum
Hydrograph
hydrographs. Set to 1.
Duration:
Not applicable for triangular
Reserved Entry: Reserved for implementation. Set to 1.
Hydrograph Records: Each storm event must contain a number triangular
hydrographs that corresponds to the value given in the variable Number of
Inflow Points. All data for a certain triangular hydrograph must be given
in a single line. You cannot split the data into more than one line, or the file
will not be read correctly. Each triangular hydrograph record contains the
following variables:
Integer that identifies either the node or the
subwatershed to which the current hydrograph corresponds. If File Sub
Type is 1, this variable should be a valid subwatershed number. If File Sub
Type is 2, this entry should contain a node number.
Inflow
Point
ID:
Base Flow Discharge: Floating-point number that specifies the Base
Flow Discharge, in water discharge units, of inflow to particular node or from
a particular subwatershed. A value of 0.00 can be specified.
Peak Discharge: Floating-point number that contains the peak discharge
for the triangular hydrograph, in water discharge units. This value can be set
to 0.00 to indicate there is no inflow that corresponds to the current node or
watershed.
Time to Peak:
Floating-point number that indicates the time, in Time
Units, for the occurrence of the Peak Discharge, from the beginning of the
storm event.
Appendix C Data File Formats
162
Duration:
Floating-point number that contains the Duration of the
hydrograph, in Time Units.
Load Sediment Class 1: Floating-point number containing the sediment
load, in Sediment Load Units, that corresponds to the sediment size class
number one, used in the simulation. Use 0.00 if there is no inflow that
corresponds to this class.
Load Sediment Class N: Sediment load for sediment size class N, where
N is the Number of Sediment Size Classes given in the header of the
storm event. It may not be equal to the number of size classes used in the
simulation. Note that if there is no inflow for Size Class Number 2, for
example, you must enter 0.00 so that the sediment loads are not assigned in
error.
Input of the daily sediment load
CCHE1D allows you to specify sediment loads for any number of sediment
classes. The sediment transport model converts the supplied mass in
kilograms into discharges (mass fluxes) in cubic meters per second. However,
each size class is defined according to the Sediment Size Classes Definition
file. You are responsible for ensuring the sediment loads specified in these
boundary condition files are compatible with the sediment size classes used by
the model during the simulation.
Time Series Hydrograph Files
In situations where a watershed rainfall-runoff simulation was not carried out,
or for simpler channel networks, or for situations where measure data are
available, it may be more convenient to specify the inputs directly for each
node.
In the current version, time series hydrographs are only Node-Oriented.
Watershed-oriented time series are not supported.
Time-series boundary conditions files are essentially similar to the Triangular
Hydrograph files described in the previous section. The following diagram
describes the format of the file. Again, this file is not a free-format file,
although it is flexible to allow for comment and blank lines.
The first three entries should appear only once, at the beginning of the file.
File Type: For Time Series files, File Type is an integer value set to 3.
File Sub Type: An integer value stating the file is Node-Oriented. File
Sub Type is always set to 2 for time series files (inflow discharges are given
for computational nodes)
Number of Storm Events: Indicates the number of storm events in the
file. The boundary conditions file must contain a number of storm event
datasets (surrounded by a thicker border in the diagram) that corresponds to
this number.
Appendix C Data File Formats
163
# Optional comment or blank lines
File Type = 3
File Sub Type = 2
Number of Storm Events
# Optional comment or blank lines
Storm Year
Storm Month
Storm Day
Storm Hour
Storm Minute
Storm Second
Number of Inflow Points
Number of Sediment Size Classes
Time Unit
Water Discharge Unit
Sediment Load Unit
Maximum Hydrograph Duration
Reserved Entry
Reserved Entry
# Optional comment or blank lines
Time 1
Node
Number
Water Discharge
Load Sediment
Class 1
Load Sediment
Class 2
….
Load Sediment
Class N
Water Discharge
Load Sediment
Class 1
Load Sediment
Class 2
….
Load Sediment
Class N
……
Time T
Node
Number
Each storm event has its own header. The following entries appear at the
beginning of each storm event.
Storm Year, Storm Month, Storm Day, Storm Hour, Storm Minute,
Storm Second: Integers that define the date and time of each storm event.
This is the starting date for the simulation of the storm event.
Number of Inflow Points: The number of inflow points given in the
file, for the current storm event.
Number of Sediment Size Classes:
The number of sediment size
classes used to describe the sediment load for the current storm event. Note
that this number may be smaller than the number of size classes used in the
computation. However, the class definitions must match so that sediment
loads are correctly assigned as boundary conditions for the solution of the
transport equation. If input for smaller diameter classes is zero, make sure to
add 0.00 for each size classes without sediment load.
Time Unit: Integer identifying the unit for time variables. For triangular
hydrograph files it applies to the variables Time to Peak and Duration. The
acceptable values are:
1 seconds
2 minutes
Appendix C Data File Formats
3
164
hours
Water Discharge Unit:
Integer that identifies the unit for water
discharge variables. For triangular hydrographs it applies to Base Flow
Discharge and Peak Discharge.
1 cubic meters per second (m3/s)
Sediment Load Unit: Integer that indicates the unit for sediment load.
Currently, the only supported value is:
1 cubic meters per second (m3/s)
2 kilograms per second (kg/s)
Maximum Hydrograph Duration: Contains the duration of the longest of
the hydrograph in this storm event. This will be used to signal the end of
input corresponding to a storm event and to compute the duration of the
simulation to ensure the complete storm is routed through the channel
network.
Reserved Entry: Reserved for future implementation. Set to 1.
Discharge Records:
Each storm event contains sets of
discharges that are made of a line containing a Time followed by
Number of Inflow Points lines that contain water discharges and
sediment loads at that time, for each of the inflow points. Note that you can
have any number of time-discharges sets, but each set must contain the same
number of inflow points. Use zeros if there is no inflow at a particular node.
Inflow
Load Sediment Class 1: Floating-point number containing the sediment
load, in Sediment Load Units, that corresponds to the sediment size class
number one, used in the simulation. Use 0.00 if there is no inflow that
corresponds to this class.
Load Sediment Class N: Sediment load for sediment size class N, where
N is the Number of Sediment Size Classes given in the header of the
storm event. It may not be equal to the number of size classes used in the
simulation. Note that if there is no inflow for Size Class Number 2, for
example, you must enter 0.00 so that the sediment loads are not assigned in
error.
How to create a boundary conditions file
Creating a boundary conditions file for a channel network is not hard, since
CCHE1D has all the necessary data organized into its database. Use the
following procedure to gather the data about the channel network and the
corresponding subwatersheds:
1. Locate, in the Channel Network window, all source nodes. You can use
CCHE1D to add node numbers to the channel network map, or use any of
ArcView’s standard features to query the database, join tables, create
customized legends, etc. One of the easiest ways is to use the Identify tool
Appendix C Data File Formats
165
. Zoom-in on the node of interest, select the tool, and click on the
source node. Write down the values of the fields “Node ID” and
“CCHE1D Node Number.” For example, for the first tributary near the
watershed outlet, the source node has CCHE1D Node Number equal to 1,
and the Node ID is also equal to 1.
2. Repeat step 1 for each source node, or any node for which you would like
to specify inflow.
3. In the Project window, select the Database icon
. Look for the table
entitled “Channel Network #: Subwatershed Database Table,” then click
the Open button. Look for the total number of records in this table, which
can be seen in a data field in ArcView’s main menu, just below the line of
buttons. The first number is the number of records currently selected, and
the second number is the total number of records in the table, that is, the
total number of subwatersheds. Write down that second number.
4. Click the name of the field “DS Nd ID” to select it. This column contains
ID numbers for all nodes located at the outlets of subwatersheds. Click
the Sort Ascending option in the Field menu, or use the corresponding
button. Now you have the table sorted according to the node IDs that
receive inflow for subwatersheds.
5. Locate node IDs in the “DS Nd ID” column that correspond to each node
ID you wrote down in step 1. Note that for many nodes there is more than
one record. Some nodes receive the contribution from more than one
subwatershed, and each record (line) in the table represents a
subwatershed. Write down the “CCHE1D No.” of these subwatersheds.
For example, if for the Node ID equal to 1 you see two records, whose
CCHE1D watershed numbers are 129 and 130, this means that the outflow
of both subwatersheds are combined and prescribed as inflow at node 1 of
the channel flow model. If you already have the inflow hydrograph at that
location, you can prescribe it as the outflow of either watershed.
Assuming you have the values for the triangular hydrographs (Base Flow,
Peak Discharge, Duration, and Time to Peak Discharge), you are ready to
create the Boundary Conditions File. Using any text editor, create a file
according to the format given at the beginning of this section.
Downstream Boundary (Downstream Stage File)
CCHE1D requires that a value of water surface elevation (stage) be given at
the downstream end of the channel network (the watershed outlet). There are
several ways of providing this condition.
The most convenient method is to let CCHE1D handle the downstream
boundary using an automatic, non-reflective boundary condition. You can
specify that in the graphical user interface.
Appendix C Data File Formats
166
If a measuring flume is placed at the watershed outlet, CCHE1D will utilize
its characteristics to determine the water level as a function of the current
discharge.
Downstream Stage Time Series
In some cases, it is necessary to specify the water surface elevation as a
function of time, according to known information. CCHE1D allows you to
create a data file that contains a time series of water surface elevations. The
Downstream Stage Time Series file can be used only in the simulation of
single storm events. Multiple storm event simulations are not supported.
The file Downstream Stage Time Series file must attend the following
specification:
# Optional comment or blank lines
File Type Code = 1
Maximum duration
Number of Source Channels
# Optional comment or blank lines
Simulation Time 1
Water Surface Elevation (Stage)
………
Simulation Time n
Water Surface Elevation (Stage)
File Type Code: an integer indicating the file type, always set to 1.
Maximum Duration: Floating-point containing the maximum duration, in
seconds, for which stage information is given. If the storm event is longer
than the given maximum duration, the last provided value of stage is kept
constant until the simulation ends.
Simulation Time:
Floating-point containing the simulation time, in
seconds, for the current given stage.
Water Surface Elevation (Stage):
Floating
point
containing
elevation value, in meters.
Stage-Discharge Curve
Another method for the specification of water stage at the watershed outlet
consists in specifying a Stage-Discharge curve. During the simulation of a
hydrograph, CCHE1D will enforce a water surface elevation as a function of
the current discharge through the outlet boundary. You can construct a curve
by specifying any number of pairs of stage-discharge values.
The Stage-Discharge Curve file must attend the following specification:
Appendix C Data File Formats
167
# Optional comment or blank lines
Number of Stage-Discharge Points
# Optional comment or blank lines
Water Discharge
Water Surface Elevation (Stage)
………
Water Discharge
Water Surface Elevation (Stage)
File Type Code: an integer indicating the file type, always set to 1.
Number of Stage-Discharge Points: Integer indicating the number of
Stage-Discharge points used to describe the rating curve.
Water Discharge: Floating-point containing the water discharge, in cubic
meters per second, for the current given stage.
Water Surface Elevation (Stage):
Floating
point
containing
elevation value, in meters.
Baseflow Files
CCHE1D provides several methods for the definition of Baseflow, a small
water discharge that is always maintained in the channels. One of the options
consists in specifying base flow discharges for each of the channels of the
network
You can use the file described in this section to specify what is the baseflow
discharge for each channel. You should give a discharge only for “Source
Channels,” that is, channels that do not receive inflow from other tributaries.
CCHE1D will compute the baseflow discharge for channels that have
tributaries by accumulating the given discharges of the source channels.
The channels are identified by the “Computational Sequence” number, found
in the Channel Links Database Table, in the Database group. This way, the
baseflow file can be used for different configurations of the Channel Network
The following table describes the format for the baseflow file.
Appendix C Data File Formats
168
# Optional comment or blank lines
File Type Code = 1
Water Discharge Unit = 1
Number of Source Channels
# Optional comment or blank lines
Channel Number 1
Baseflow Discharge
………
Channel Number n
Baseflow Discharge
File Type Code: an integer always set to 1.
Water Discharge Unit: an integer always set to 1, discharges in cubic
meters per second (m3/s).
Number of Source Channels: Number of source channels in the channel
network. These are channels that do no have other channels at their upstream
end (no tributaries). These channels always have a node with code 0 at the
upstream end (see Nodes Database Table).
These entries are followed by Number of Source Channels lines
containing:
Channel Number:
Equal to the Computational Sequence field in the
Channels Database Table.
Baseflow Discharge:
Floating-point number indicating the Baseflow
Discharge for the current channel.
A simple method to help the visualization of the numbering sequence is given
below. The method uses standard ArcView capabilities, therefore, you can
consult the ArcView documentation to learn more about using database tables
and map labels.
1. Open the Channel Reaches and the Channel Links Database Tables.
2. Join the Channel Links Database Table to the Channel Reaches
Database Table using the field “US ND ID” as common field: i) select
the field by clicking on its name on the two open tables; ii) Make the
Channel Reaches Database Table active by clicking on its top bar; iii)
choose Join from the Table menu.
The Channel Links Database Table should close automatically, and all its
fields should appear inside the Channel Reaches Database Table, added to
the right of the original fields. Make sure you join the Channel Links table to
the Channel Reaches table, and not the other way around. Search the
ArcView on-line help for “joining tables” if you need help here.
Appendix C Data File Formats
3.
169
Now, open the Channel Network map, and make the Channel Reaches
theme active.
4. Go to the Theme menu, and choose the option named Auto-Label.
5. A new dialog appears. Choose the field to be used when labeling. Using
the drop-down box and select “Comp Seq,” that is, the Computational
Sequence used by the model. Press OK. If you do not see that field in
the list, make sure you had the Channel Reaches theme selected before
you used the Auto-Label option, and that the table join was made
correctly.
The map should show numbers indicating the order which link should be
computed. Use these numbers when creating the Baseflow file.
Appendix C Data File Formats
170
Colormap Files
You can specify a new color scheme for displaying DEMs within CCHE1D.
Colors are specified using RGB (red, green and blue) values.
The colormap file consists of 256 RGB triplets that define the colors to be
assigned to the different elevations. The first triplet defines the color for the
lowest elevation in the DEM; the 256th entry defines the color for the highest
elevation.
The colormap file must contain exactly 256 lines. The file must have the
extension .map and must be copied into the CCHE1D installation directory
tree, in the colormaps directory.
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement