Atari Faicon030 Owner`s manual

Atari Faicon030 Owner`s manual
Contents
Contents
Part I: Getting Started
1. The Faicon030, 1-\
Introduction, 1-\
Standard Features, 1- 1
Opt ions, 1-2
Using This Manual, 1-2
Part I: Getting Started, 1-2
Part II: Us ing the Desktop, 1-3
Part III: Appendixes, Glossary,and Index, 1-3
Special Notations, 1-4
Setting Up Your System, 1-5
Preparing a Workspace, 1-5
Connect ing the Mouse, 1-5
Connecting the Monitor,1-6
The Monitor Adapter Block, 1-6
Connecting the Power Cable, 1-6
Starting Your System, 1-7
Booting from a Hard disk, 1-7
Booting from a Floppy Disk, 1-8
Connecting Peripheral Devices, 1-9
Connecting a SCSI Device, 1-9
Contents
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
System Or ientation, 1- 1 1
Front Panel, 1- 1 1
Right Side Panel, 1- 12
Rear Panel, 1- 13
Left Side Panel, 1- 14
2. Using Your Computer, 2- 1
Learning the Fundamentals, 2- 1
How a Computer Works, 2- 1
Memory, 2- 1
System Memory, 2-2
Storage Memory, 2-2
Operating System, 2-4
Graphics Environment Manager, 2-4
Getting Acquainted w ith Your Computer, 2-4
The Screen Display-G E M Desktop, 2-4
The Mouse, 2-5
How the Mouse Works, 2-5
The Keyboard, 2-5
The Floppy Disk Drive, 2-7
Formatting a Floppy D isk, 2-7
Write Protecting a Floppy Disk, 2-9
ii
Contents
Contents
Part II: Using the Desktop
3. The G E M-Desktop
Basic Desktop Skills, 3-1
Using the Mouse, 3- 1
Holding the Mouse, 3-2
Moving the Pointer, 3-2
Selecting, 3-2
Selecting an Icon, 3-2
Dragging, 3-3
Dragging an Icon,3-3
Selecting Multiple Icons, 3-4
Using the Rubber-band Box, 3-5
Using Shift-clicking, 3-5
Combining Rubber-banding and Shift-clicking, 3-6
Controlling the Pointer with Keystroke Combinations,3-6
Moving the Pointer with Keystrokes, 3-7
Selecting with Keystrokes, 3-7
Dragging with Keystrokes, 3-8
Windows, 3-8
Opening and Closing a Window, 3-9
Scrolling a Window, 3- 10
Sizing a Window, 3-11
Moving a Window, 3-12
The Top Window, 3-12
Using Menus and Pop-ups,3-13
Opening a Menu, 3-13
Opening a Pop-up, 3-14
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
4. A Guided Tour of the Desktop,4-1
The Menu Bar, 4-1
Desk Menu,4-2
Desktop Info, 4-2
Control Panel, 4-2
File Menu, 4-3
Open, 4-3
Show Information,4-4
Search,4-5
Delete, 4-6
Create Folder,4-6
Close Directory, 4-7
Close Top Window,4-7
Bottom to Top,4-7
Select all Items, 4-7
Set File Mask,4-8
Format Floppy Disk, 4-9
View Menu, 4-9
Show as Icons or Show as Text, 4- 10
Sorting by Name!Date/Size{fype,4- 10
Size to Fit,4- 1 1
Set Color and Style,4-11
Options Menu,4-12
Install Icon,4-13
Install Application, 4- 17
Install Devices,4-22
Set Preferences,4-23
Read .INF File, 4-24
Desktop Configuration,4-25
Save Desktop, 4-26
iv
Contents
Contents
Desk Accessories,4-27
The Control Panel, 4-27
A bout...,4-28
Setup ...,4-28
Advanced Setup Options,4-3 1
Open C PXs ...,4-33
C PX Info, 4-33
Unload C PX..., 4-34
C PXs,4-34
General Setup, 4-34
Status,4-34
Audio Feedback,4-35
Chip Select,4-35
Sound,4-35
Keyboard Response,4-35
Double-click Response,4-36
Modem Setup,4-36
Serial Port Selector,4-37
Baud Rate,4-37
Parity, 4-37
Bits/Char,4-38
Stop Bits,4-38
Flow Control,4-38
Printer Setup, 4-39
Printer Type,4-39
Color, 4-39
Pixels/line,4-40
Quality, 4-40
Paper, 4-40
Contents
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Falcon030 Owner's Manual
Port, 4-40
Color Setup, 4-41
True Color, 4-42
Sound Setup,4-42
Window Colors, 4-42
Configure C PXs, 4-44
Accelerator, 4-45
5. Desktop Management,5-1
Working with Directories,Folders,and Files,5- 1
Identifying a Directory,Folder,or File,5-1
Displaying a Directory or Folder, 5-2
Files and Filenames,5-2
Pathnames,5-5
Opening a File,5-6
File Selector,5-7
Opening a Data File,5- 10
File and Folder Management,5- 1 1
Copying Files and Folders, 5- 12
Name Conflict During Copying,5-13
Moving Files and Folders,5-13
Renaming Files and Folders,5-14
Deleting Files and Folders,5- 14
Updating a Directory, 5-15
6. MuitiTOS,6- 1
The Advantages of MultiTOS,6- 1
New Features,6-2
Multitasking,6-2
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Contents
Contents
Expanded Desk Menu, 6-3
Adoptive Menu Bars, 6-3
Foreground and Background Applications, 6-3
More Desktop Control, 6-4
Ease of Use, 6-4
Launching Applications, 6-4
Running an Application in the Foreground, 6-5
Running an Application in the Background, 6-5
Part III: Appendixes, Glossary, and Index
A. Pointer Control & Quick Reference, A-I
B. Advanced Hard Disk Utilities, B-1
Parking and Unparking the Read/Write Heads, B-1
Parking Drive Heads on All Units, B-2
Unparking the Drive Heads
Installing and Removing the Hard Disk Driver File, B-3
Installing the Hard Disk Driver File, B-4
Removing the Hard Disk Driver File, B-4
Bypassing the Hard Disk Driver File, B-5
Formatting and Partitioning the Hard Disk, B-5
Formatting, B-5
Partitioning, B-7
Selecting a Unit to Partition, B-8
Selecting a Partitioning Scheme, B-9
Creating a Customized Partitioning Scheme, B-9
Selecting a Preset Partitioning Scheme, B-ll
Contents
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Erasing the Contents of a Logical Drive, B- l l
Extending the System Wide Folder Limit, B-1 2
Marking Bad Sectors, B-13
Organizing and Maintaining your Hard Disk, B- 1 5
Backing Up the Hard Disk, B-1 6
Optimizer Programs, B-1 6
Extended Partition Schemes, B- 16
Other Advanced Hard Disk Utilities Disk Files, B-18
C. Troubleshooting and Maintenance, C- l
Troubleshooting, C-l
The Computer Will Not Start Up, C-l
No Desktop, C-2
Software Problems, C-2
Bombs, C-3
The Hard Disk Drive, C-3
Optional Internal Hard Disk, C-4
Common Problems, C-4
Identifying and Replacing Corrupted Data, C- 5
Error Messages, C-6
Preventive Maintenance, C-1 3
Caring for the Computer, C-13
Caring for Floppy Disks, C-1 3
Caring for the Mouse, C- 1 3
A Final Note, C-14
D . Falcon030 Specifications, D-l
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Contents
Contents
E. Connector Specifications, E-l
DSP Connector, E-I
SCSI Connector, E-l
Serial Port, E-2
Parallel Port, E-3
Monitor Connector, E-4
SCC Connector, E-S
Enhanced Joystick, E-8
MIDI Port, E-9
F. Customer Support, F- l
Glossary
Index
Contents
ix
Part I: Getting Started
Part I: Getting Started
1
The Faicon030
Introd uction
Congratu lations on the purchase of your Atari computer. The Falcon030 i s a
state-of-the-art personal computer, offering uncompromised performance and
affordability. Comb i n i ng a fast m icroprocessor architecture with digital signal
processing and true-color graphi c s capabil i ties, the Falcon030 i s an ideal p latform
for today's appl i cations, such as multimedia, desktop publ i shing, graphic arts,
games, and educational software.
Your Faicon030 is ava i l able w i th the following standard features and options.
Standard Featu res
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 6MHz 68030 m icroprocessor
32MHz Motorola 5600 1 Digital Signal Processor ( D S P )
1 MB , 4 M B , o r 1 4M B of Random Access Memory ( R A M )
Video color palette o f 2 6 2 , 1 44 ( 6 5 , 5 3 6 simultaneous) colors
l .44M B PC-compatible i n ternal floppy diskette drive
An array of ports which include: SCSI, RS232, Parallel , RF, V i deo, MIDI,
Cartridge, LAN, M icrophone, Headphone, Joystick (expanded) , and DSP
The Fai con030
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
•
The Atari M u l t iTOS pre-emptive multitaski ng operat ing environment
•
A control panel that allows you to customi ze the different features of your
desktop
•
A sophisticated desktop that displays your favorite executable fi les as
smart icons, wbich you can l ink to a directory, resource files, and custom
setups
Options
•
•
1 6MHz 6888 1 /2 Floating Point Unit ( FP U )
Internal hard d i s k drive
Usi ng Th is Man u al
Thi s manual i s d i vided i nto several parts, which explain in clear, nontechnical
language how to use your computer and i t s operating env ironment. After you
become more fami liar with your computer, this manual w i l l conti n ue to be a
helpful guide for individual procedures and specific i n formation. Below i s
summary o f the manual ' s contents.
Part I: Gett i n g Started
Chapter 1 , The Falcon030, provi des a l i st of your compute r ' s standard features,
and ava i l able options. Th i s chapter also gives you simple d i rections for setti ng u p
t h e computer and connecting peripheral s .
Chapter 2 , Using Your Computer, explains a n umber of fundamental concepts,
which hel p you understand how a computer works . Th i s chapter
also i ntroduces you to the keyboard, mouse, and floppy disk dri v e .
1 -2
The Falcon030
Part f: Getting Started
Part I I: Usi ng the Desktop
Chapter 3, The GEM-Desktop, teaches you how to do basic tasks on the
desktop, such as mov i ng the cursor and working w i th w i ndows.
Chapter 4, A Guided Tour of the Desktop, i ntroduces you to all the desktop's
menus, commands, and features. T h i s chapter also explains how to customize
your desktop envi ronment using the Control Panel and its various CPX modules.
Chapter 5, Desktop Management, teaches you how to work w it h d i rectories,
folders, and files. This chapter also tells you how to develop and maintain an
efficient desktop environment.
Chapter 6, Advanced Desktop Features, i ntroduces you to M u l t iTOS, your
computer's advanced pre-emptive m u lt itasking environment.
Part I I I: Appe n d i xes , G l ossary , and I ndex
Appendix A, Cursor Control Quick Reference, describes the cursor actions that
you can control u s i ng the mouse or keyboard.
Appendix B, Advanced Hard Disk Utilities, describes the features of the
Advanced H ard D isk U t i l ities ( HO X ) program.
Appendix C, Troubleshooting and Maintenance, offers solutions to problems
you may encounter w h i le setting up or operati ng your computer. This appendix
also provides guidelines for proper maintenance of your system.
Appendix D, �oecifications, summarize s your system's major features and
requirements.
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Appendix E, Connector Specifications, gives speci fications for the v arious
ports and connectors on the system.
Appendix F, Customer Support, tel l s you where to find more i nformation
about your Atari computer and other Atari computer products.
Glossary defines common technical terms used in this manual as they relate
to your computer.
Index helps you locate terms and procedures used or explained i n the
manual .
S pecial Notations
This manual uses speci al notations to communicate i nformation efficiently.
Foll o w i ng are examples of the spec ial notat ions as they appear throughout
this manual.
Characters enclosed in square brackets ( [ ]) represent keys on the keyboard.
For example, when t h i s gu ide i n structs you to press [ Return ] , you should
press the Return key on the keyboard.
When a procedure req u i res you to use two or more keys at the same t ime, the
keys are grouped together (e . g . , [ Control] [ Xl ) .
Notes: These contain useful hints and other information relevant to the topic
being discussed.
Cautions: These alert you to potential problems and suggest ways to avoid
those problems.
F i lenames are capitali zed. For example, the NEWDE S K . IN F and
DES K ICN.RSC fi les are located on your compute r ' s Language disk.
1 -4
The Faicon030
Part I: Getting Started
Part and chapter titles are enclosed in quotation marks and/or appear in bold­
face type (e.g., Chapter 1, The Falcon030, and Part I: Getting Started).
Selectable i tems appear i n a different font than standard text. For example,
desktop commands, such as Open, Cancel, and OK.
Setti ng Up Your System
Setting up the Falcon030 i s easy. Use the information in this secti on to set up
your system and any peripheral dev ices.
P repari ng a Wo rkspace
Before going any further, take a moment to prepare a workspace for your
computer. S tart by fi nding a flat, stable surface area near an electrical outlet.
The surface area should be able to support the weight of the computer, and
any dev ice that you want to connecting to i t . Be sure to protect the system
from dust, grease, extreme temperatures, prolonged exposure to d i rect
s u n l i ght, and high humidity. U se a surge protector to protect the computer
agai nst damage caused by abnormal flows of e lectricity.
C o n n ecti n g the Mouse
Note.: We recommend that you purchase a mouse pad to use with your A tari
mouse. A mouse pad provides a clean, even sUiface that prevents dust and dirt
ji'om collecting inside the mouse.
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Faicon030 Owner's Manual
There is a 9-pin plug w i th two rows of holes on the end of the mouse cord. T h i s
'
plug fi ts i nto t h e joyst ick/mouse port i n one di rection o n l y , so y o u don ' t need to
worry about making a wrong connection.
The mouse connects to the system through the joystick/mouse port, w h i ch i s one
of two ports located underneath the keyboard. (The other port underneath the
keyboard is a dedicated joystick port . ) You can identi fy the mouse port by i t s
icon located on t h e bottom of t he keyboard.
Co n n ecti ng the M o n itor
S i nce there are a variety o f moni tors available for u se w i th the Fa\con030, you
should consu l t the setup i nstructions that come w i th your particu l ar monitor.
The M onito r Adapter Block
Before y o u c a n use a monitor w it h t h e Falcon030, y o u need t o purchase the
correct monitor adapter block. The monitor adapter block a ll ows you to use a
variety of monitors w i th the Falcon030. The monitor block is easy to use.
Connect one end of the block to the monitor's v i deo adapter cable and the other
end to the V i deo port. For more information about the monitor adapter block,
contact an Atari dealer.
Co n n ecti n g the Powe r Cable
After you connect the monitor and mouse, use the fol lowing instructions to
connect the power cable.
1 . Connect t he power cabl e ' s female end to the three-pronged socket on the back of the
system.
2. Pl ug the power cable's male end i n to a power source, such as a surge protector
plugged into a power outlet.
1 -6
The Fa icon030
Part I: Getting Started
Starting you r System
Now that you've connected the monitor, mouse, and power cord, you ' re ready to
start (or boot ) your system. The term boot comes from the word bootstrap.
Bootstraps allow you to p u l l on a boot, just l i ke booti ng a computer allows you to
start your computer's operating system (more on t h i s later).
The ROM c h i ps i nside your computer contai n the operat ing system, so you don ' t
need a system disk t o start your computer ( see Chapter 2,Using Your Computer
for more i n formation ) . A lthough, you can have the computer to read additional
start u p i n format ion, such as the desktop fi les, from a disk.
You can store start u p i n formation on a hard disk or a floppy disk, such as the
Language disk that comes with the computer. In e i ther case, i f the startup files are
available, the computer reads them during bootup.
Note: Ifyou want to learn more about your computer before going further, skip to
Chapter 2, Using your Computer, then return to this section when you are ready
to start the system.
The fol l o w i ng sections tel l you how to boot u p your computer. I f you want to
connect a printer, external drive, or another peripheral device to your computer
now, read Connecting a Peripheral Device (later i n t h i s chapter), before going
any further. I f you are not connecting any devices, use the following i n formation
to boot u p your computer.
Start i n g fro m a Hard D i s k
Your hard d i sk contains fi les w h ich a l low i t to boot u p the operating system and
display the desktop.
The Fa icon030
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Falcon030 Owner's Manual
U se the fol lowing steps to boot up from the hard disk:
1 . S w itch on any peripherals attached t o the system .
2. S w i tch on the computer and t h e monitor.
While the computer is starting the operating system and checking the system
memory, you' l l see the Atari logo on the upper left portion of the screen. You w i l l
a l so see a bar displayed across the screen. When the system completes the
memory test, the bar starts to shrink. The startup process waits for the bar to
shrink completely before going on. This provides a necessary t imeout for some
external peripherals. If there are n o external peripherals attached to the computer,
press any key to abort the t i me out. Afterwards , the system displays the desktop.
Note : If the computer cannot find the neededjlles on the hard disk during bootup, it
loads the default desktop, which does not display any hard disk icons. If this occurs,
shut off
the desktop , see Appendix C, Troubleshooting and Maintenance.
Starti ng fro m a Floppy D i s k
I f your system doesn ' t contain a hard disk, you'l l want to boot the system w i th a
copy of the Language disk in drive A. The Language disk contains fi les that the
computer reads when it starts the operating system. For example, the Language
disk contains DES K I CON.RSC, the icon resource file, and NEWDES K. INF,
which allows you to custom i ze the layout of the desktop area.
Note: As a precaution you should make a working copy of the Language disk. Use
the working copy instead of the original disk. See Copying Files and Folders in
Chapter S, Desktop Management,for information on copying disks.
Use the fol lo w i ng steps to boot up your system from a floppy startup disk:
1 -8
The Fai con030
Part I: Getting Started
1 . With the comp uter turned off, i nsert the work ing copy of the Language d i s k into
drive A.
2. S w itch on any perip herals attached to the system.
3. S w itch on the system.
Note: If you are booting the computer from the Language disk and the desktop fails
to appear, shut down the computer. Make sure the disk is correctly inserted in drive
A , and all cables are properly and securely connected. Start the system again. If the
desktop still fails to appear, see Appendix C, Troubleshooting and Maintenance.
Co n n ecti n g Peri p h e ral Devi ces
Peripheral devices ( e . g . , printers, external hard d i sks, etc . ) announce their
presence to the computer by sending electron ic s ignals. In some cases, peripheral
dev ices share memory with the computer. In general, you should connect and
switch on all peripheral devices before booting up your computer. U s i ng t h i s
procedure ensures that a l l t h e connected peripheral devices i n i t i a l i ze properly.
See Precautions i n the fol lowing sect ion for more i n formation on connecting
peripheral devices.
Con necting a S C S I Device
The SCSI ( p ronounced scuzzy) data transfer protocol is popul ar among peri pheral
manufacturers and is employed by many different types of dev ices.
Use the following steps to connect a SCSI device:
1 . S h ut down the com p uter and all peri p herals.
2. Connect one end of the SCSI dev ice's interface cable to the port labeled S C S I I I on
the back p anel of the comp uter.
3. Connect the other end of the i nterface cable to the p ort on the SCSI device.
Note: The cable required may diff
The Falcon030
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
sure you have the right cable.
4. Connect the power cable to the power jack on the back of the device.
5. Insert the three-pronged plug i n to a grounded wall outlet or power strip.
6. Set the SCSI !D Sw itch accord i n g to the fol l owing g uidel i nes:
a) If the device is a hard disk, it M U ST be set to O. Other hard disks ( i f presen t )
M U ST be s e t i n sequence ( e . g . , 0, 1, 2, 3, etc . ) . N o two hard d isks c a n h a v e the
same setting.
b) [f you are using other devi ces with a hard d isk , use the d i rections above to set the
hard disk, skip a n umber, then set the remaining dev ice(s) i n sequence (e . g . , 0, 1, 2,
3 , l ], 5 , 6, 7) .
c ) If there are no hard disks in the daisy-chain (more on t h i s late r ) , start at 0 ami set
any additional dev ices in seq uence.
Note : A lways read the documentation accompanying your SCS I device, or software,
before you set the SCSI ID switch.
Daisy-chaining
Daisy-chaining is a way to connect more than one peripheral dev ice to a s i ng le
port. The first dev ice in the chain connects to the computer, and the rest of the
devices i n the chain connect to each other. For e xample, dev ice A would connect
to the computer, device B would connect to dev ice A. If you are daisy -chaining a
device to the Falcon030, see the manual suppl ied with the dev ice for more
detai led i n format ion.
Precautions
Be sure to observe the fol lowing precautions w hen using any S C S I dev ice w ith
your computer.
•
•
A lways sw itch on the S C S I device before switching on the computer.
D isconnect the SCSI dev ice from the computer, before attempting any
modifications to the dev ice.
1 -1 0
The Fai con030
Part I: Getting Started
System Orientation
Thi s gu ide makes frequent references to various system components and features.
Taki ng a few m inutes to fam i l i arize yoursel f with the layout of your system w i l l
save you time when using your computer and t h i s manual .
Fro nt Panel
Fol lowing i s an i l l ustration and description o f the features o n the front panel of
Figure
/-1.
The Front Panel
-- Standard keyboard with function keys and numeric keypad
The Fa icon030
1 ·1 1
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Mouse port, underneath the keyboard, connects Atari mouse.
(The M ouse port i s not v is i ble in Figure I - I . )
R i g ht Side Panel
Fol l ow i ng i s a n i l l ustration and descript ion o f the features o n the right side pane l .
Figure
1-2.
The Right Side Panel
-- 1.44MB PC-compati ble h igh-density floppy disk drive
1 -1 2
The Fai con030
Part I: Getting Started
Rear Pan e l
Fol lowing is an i l lustration and brief description of the features v isible on the rear
pane l .
DSP
Microphone
Headphone SCSI II
Figure
1-3.
Printer
Video
TV
Power Switch
Modem
LAN
Power Jack
Reset Button
The Rear Panel
- Digital S ignal Processing (DSP) port provides an interface to the digital audio
chips and the internal DSP for direct input/output of h igh-speed digital
signals.
-- Headphone: M ini-stereo output j ack connects headphones or external speakers
for sound output.
M icrophone: M ini-stereo input accepts a signal from a microphone, or a stereo
system .
The Faicon030
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
�-
SCS I II port w ith DMA connects SCS I dev ices to the system.
-- T V (RF modulator) p l ug allows you to connect the computer to a TV set .
- - V i deo port connects a variety of monitor types.
-- Pri nter ( parall e l ) port connects printers, scanners, or other parallel devices.
�.
Modem ( RS232C) port connects a modem or another serial dev ice.
-- LAN high-speed LocaITal k-ca1compatible port allows you to network your
Fa1con030 w i th other computers.
Power swi tch turns on the power to the system.
Power jack connects the power cord.
Reset sw i tch cold-boots the system when depressed.
Left Side Panel
. The fol l ow i ng i s an i l l ustration and descri pt ion o f the features o n the left side
pane l .
1 -14
T h e Faicon030
Part I: Getting Started
MIDI Ports
Cartridge Slot
Joystick Ports
MIDI In and MIDI Out{fhru ports connect other MIDI devices to the
computer. (For more information on MIDI see the fol lowing Note . )
Cartridge slot accepts program cards, hardware interfaces, etc. The system
recognizes the cartridge slot as drive C.
Joystick ports (2) connect a joysti c k to the computer.
Note: Musical Instrument Digitallntelface or MIDI ports allow you to connect
your system with other MIDI devices, such as electronic keyboards, sophisticated
tape recorders and a host of other electronic devices that communicate using the
MIDI standard.
The Faicon030
1 -1 5
fJart I:
Getting ::5tarted
2 Using Your Computer
Learn i ng The Fu ndamentals
This section i s designed t o teach you about basic computer-related concepts and
technologies. More avanced computer users may w i sh to skip this section and go
directly to Part II: Using the Desktop.
H ow a Com p uter Wo rks
A computer processes i nstructions to perform a task. Two examples of
instructions are the operating system i n struct ions on your compute r ' s Read Only
Memory ( ROM) chip, and the i nstructions i n an executable program contained on
a disk. Your computer rece i ves these i n struct ions as e l ectronic signals which it
then stores as data. The processing and storing of data ( sets of e l ectronic signals
grouped together) i s handled by a system of e l ectronic components and i n tegrated
c i rcuits.
Memory
A compute r ' s memory capac ity is measured in bytes. Computer l anguage is based
on the binary number system; the smallest data u n i t is one B Inary digiT, or B IT.
Groups of 8 bits are cal led bytes. A k i l obyte i s 1,024 bytes ; a megabyte is 1,024
k i l obytes .
Using Y o u r Computer
2-1
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Your computer uses two types of memory, system memory and storage memory.
System Mem ory
System memory consists of m icroch ips i nside you r computer. The computer uses
system memory as a temporary work area in which to load and run program s , and
a way of storing i mportant i nformation, so that i t can be accessed quickly.
There are two types of system memory, Read Only Memory( ROM) and Random
Access Memory ( R A M ) .
You cannot write i nformation i n to a ROM storage area. The i nformation i n R O M
i s permanent, and cannot b e erased. R O M chips inside your computer contain
operating system i nformation.
Random Access Memory (RAM), consists of memory chips i nside your computer
that store data while the computer is running. When you-turn off the computer, a l l
t h e i nformation i n R A M is erased. R A M i s the compute r ' s chalkboard. The
computer can quickly and efficiently access programs and data files written i n to
RAM. To permanently save i nformation stored i n R A M , you must transfer the
i nformation from RAM i nto storage memory.
Storage Mem ory
S torage memory i s located on storage dev ices. These dev ices i n c lude floppy
disks, standard hard disks, hard disks in removable cartridges, and C D- RO M
discs.
Hard Disks
Because of the hard d i s k ' s h igh storage capacity and fast access time, many
programs prefer to run off a hard disk.
2-2
Using Your Computer
Part I: Getting Started
The Falcon030 is available with an optional internal hard disk, which is ready to
work, as soon as you boot up the system.
The hard disk is divided into partitions, which appear on the desktop as drive
icons (See Desktop Elements in Part II: Using the Desktop, Chapter 3, The
GEM-Desktop, for more information on drive icons.) Partitions store
information independently although they are not physically separate devices.
Floppy Disks
Floppy disks store programs and the information you create (data). Floppy disks
store different amounts of data depending on the type of floppy disk; single-sided
floppy disks store 357,376 bytes, double-sided floppy disks store 726,0 1 6 bytes,
and high-density floppy disks store 1 ,458, 1 76 bytes of data. Information on a
floppy disk is read from the disk into RAM, modified if desired, and later saved
back to the disk from R A M .
Your computer's 3.5 inch l .44M B drive uses 3 .5 inch high-density, double
density, or single-sided diskettes. Each diskette consists of a 3.5 inch rectangular
plastic casing holding a circu l ar sheet (disk) of coated material. This material is
the magnetic media which holds the data read by the disk drive. Its accessibl e
section is protected by a sliding metal s l eeve. Most floppy disks also have a
write-protect sliding tab. (For inform ation on floppy disks, see The Floppy Disk
Drive l ater in this chapter.)
CD-ROM Discs
CD-ROM discs store information that can be read into R A M for processing.
Because C D-ROM disks use a read-onl y format, you c annot write any additional
data onto a CD-ROM disc.
Using Your Computer
2-3
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
Ope rating Syste m
Every computer needs an operating system to carry out even the most basic
functions. For example, TOS (your compute r ' s operating syste m ) controls the
way your computer handles tasks l ike reading from and wri t i ng to disks,
translating mouse movement i nto on-screen cursor movement, and displaying
i nformation on the screen .
G raph i cs E nv i ro n m e nt Manager
The Graphics Env i ronment Manager ( G EM), i s a n i m portant part o f TOS . G E M
provides a graph i c i nterface for t h e computer. This a l l o w s a screen display o f
information as graphic i mages ( e . g . , picture icons a n d w i ndow s ) , as wel l a s
letters , numbers, a n d symbols. For i n formation on TOS , see Part II: Using the
Desktop.
Getti ng Acquai nted with You r
Computer
After your computer i s run n i n g and displaying the desktop, you ' l l probably
wonder what to do next. U se the i n formation contained i n this section to get
better acquai nted w ith various parts of your computer system.
The Screen D i splay-G E M Desktop
When you start your system, the computer reads the startup i n formation from the
hard d i sk or the startup floppy d i sk and l oads that i nformation i nto R A M .
Afterwards, t h e desktop appears on your screen .
2-4
Using You r Computer
Part I:
Gettmg �tarted
The GEM Desktop i s the starti ng point for almost everyt h i ng you do w ith the
computer. The basi c desktop contains two floppy disk icons, four hard disk icons
(if you have a hard disk), and a trash can icon on the left edge of the screen, a
menu bar at the top of the screen , and a pointer. ( The second floppy icon is for
help i n cop y i ng operations.) For more i nformation on the Desktop, see Part II:
Using the Desktop.
The M o u se
The mouse allows you control the movement of the pointer. U si ng the mouse, you
can position the pointer anywhere on the desktop.
How the Mouse Works
The mouse consi sts of several basic parts. The housing, which contains the mouse
components, has two buttons on top. These buttons are referred to as the left and
right mouse buttons. The mouse hall i n s i de the mouse rol l s when you move the
mouse. The movement of the mouse ball is translated i nto the movement of the
cursor by motion sensors i n side the housing. For more i n formation on the mouse,
see Using the Mouse in Part II: Using the Desktop, Chapter 3, The GEM­
Desktop.
The Keyboard
The computer 94-key keyboard i s s i m i l ar to a conventional typewri ter keyboard
i n its basic design and function. For e xample, [ Return ] acts l i ke the carriage
return lever (or key) on a typewriter. Pressing [ Return ] moves the cursor down
the screen .
Most keys automatically repeat when held down. ( For information o n chang i ng
the rate of automati c repeat, see Control Panel i n Part II: Using the Desktop,
Using Your Computer
2-5
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Chapter 4, A Guided Tour of the Desktop.
LI
1
_____
____
,
-
Figure 2-1. The Keyboard
The a lphan umeric keys (letters, n umbers, and symbols) have the same function as
s i m ilar keys on a typewriter. For example, pressing [S] produces s and pres s ing
[ S h i ft ] [S] produces S. Pressing [Caps Lock] toggles (switches back and forth)
between upper and lower case letters.
There are several keys on the computer's keyboard that perform special functions
not found on a typewriter.
For example, you can use [ Control], [Alt], and [ Shift] in conjunction w ith some
other key to produce a secondary function or code. To do so, you hold down one
or more of these keys w hile pressing the other key (like using S HIff on a
typewriter).
Along the top of the keyboard are ten function keys labeled FI through F lO.
Software applications often assign special functions to these keys.
2-6
Using Your Compu ter
Part I: Gettmg Started
The four arrow keys move the cursor i n the d i rection indicated by the arro w . The
cursor is a movable graphic screen symbol (often an arrow, block, or vertical
l i ne) that marks where the next action takes place.
Note: The presence of a text cursor indicates that the computer is ready for you to
type something.
The numeric keypad is an alternate method for entering numbers and math
symbol s, producing the same effect as typing the number or symbol from the
keyboard. [ Enter] acts as [ Return ] .
T h e Floppy Disk D rive
Your computer' s h igh-density floppy d i sk dri ve is format-compatible with MS­
DOS version 3 . 2 and later. T h i s secti on teaches you how to use the floppy disk
drive.
Formatting a Floppy Disk
You must format a new floppy disk before you can store programs and data on
the d i sk . Formatting prepares a floppy disk by completely erasing the d i sk ' s
contents, checking for damage t o the magnetic media, and setti n g patterns i n
p l ace t o h o l d i n format i on.
Floppy d isks formatted by your computer are format compatible with MS-DOS
computers. Th i s means information wri tten to a floppy d i sk formatted on your
computer can be read by M S - DOS computers and v ice versa.
The Fa\con030 ' s h igh-density floppy disk drive can use h igh-density, double­
s i ded, or s i ng le-sided disks. However, a s i ngle-sided disk should not be formatted
as double-sided disk, and a double-sided disk should not be formatted as h igh-
Using Your Computer
2-7
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
density disk. Disks used for dens it i es or storage beyond
thei r rating are not dependable.
You can reformat previously used floppy disks. S ince formatting erases all
information on a disk, i t is sometimes more effic ient to reformat a floppy disk
than to delete all of a floppy disk's files. However, do not format a disk one way
and then reformat it a d i fferent way l ater.
Caution: Formatting a floppy disk permanently erases all information on the
disk. Before you format any floppy disk, be sure to copy any data you want to
save.
Use the fol lowing steps to format a disk.
1.
Start the computer. After the screen displays the desktop, insert the floppy disk into
the floppy disk drive.
2. Select the F o r m a t F lo ppy Dis k c o m m a n d f r o m the File m e n u. The
Copy/Format dialog box appears.
Note: Both the Copy and Format operations are combined in one dialog box
so you can format and then copy disks without returning to the desktop after
formatting. If you select the Format option and decide to copy a disk
instead, click on COPY. You can also click on FORMAT after initiating a
disk copy operation if you must format a disk first.
3.
If you wish the disk to have a label, type in the label. Select a density setting,
depending on how you want to format the disk.
4.
Select
OK.
The floppy disk drive begins formatting the disk. The indicator bar
displays formatting progress.
5.
When the formatting
capacity in bytes.
2-8
Using Your Computer
is
completed, an
alert
m essage d isplays the
disks
formatted
Part I: Getting Started
Caution: If the formatted disk does not have a reported capacity of
1,458,176 bytes (high-density), 726,016 bytes (double-sided), or 357,376
bytes (single-sided), the disk may be defective. If this is the case, try
formatting the disk again. If the problem persists, discard the bad disk and
use another disk.
6. To return to t h e d e s k top, s e l e c t Cancel. Or repeat t h e form att i n g proc e s s w i th
another blank, unformatted floppy dis k .
Note : If you try to use a disk with o u t first formatting it, the comp u ter
displays an alert box. The alert box tells you that the disk drive is not
respondin g , and to p lease check the disk drive , or insert a correctly
formatted disk into the drive. Then you must select Retry (with a formatted
disk) or Cancel to tell the drive whether or not to attempt to read that disk.
W rite-P rotecting a Floppy Disk
Write-protecting a floppy disk prevents i nformation from stored on the magnetic
media.
Most floppy disks have a small write-protect tab in their pl astic casing. You
cannot write to, format, or erase a write-protected disk. It is a good idea to write­
protect disks containing important i nformation so you do not i nadverten t l y erase
information from the disk, especi a l l y when copying disks with a one-drive
system. You can move the write-protect tab back to the u nprotected position at
any time.
Note : Some commercial program disks may not have write-protect tabs. These
disks are permanently write-protected and do not have tabs.
Using Your Computer
2-9
Pa rt II: Using the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
3 The GEM Desktop
Basic Desktop Ski l ls
U s i ng the Desktop i s easy. The fol lo w i ng i nformation and tutorials w i l l help
fami l i arize you w i th the elements of the desktop. Readers already fami li ar w i th
TOS ' s basic desktop app l i c ations may w i sh to skip d i rectly to Chapter 4, A
Guided Tour of the Desktop.
Most of the basic desktop tasks, such as selecting an i tem, or open i ng a window,
etc . , are easiest to accomp l i s h when u sing the mouse. If you are not currently
u si ng a mouse, see Controlling the Pointer Using Keystroke Combinations,
l ater i n this chapter. Afterwards, return to thi s section and substi tute the
references to the mouse w i t h the appropriate keystroke comb i nations .
Note: Before going any further place the Language disk, o r your working copy of
the Language disk, in drive A .
U s i ng t h e Mo use
Using the mouse, you can move the pointer anywhere o n the desktop. In addition
to movi ng the poi n ter, the mouse a l lows you to do basic desktop tasks, such as
selecting, mov i ng, and copyi ng.
The GEM Desktop
3-1
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Holding the Mouse
P lace your hand over the mouse. Gently grasp the mouse between your thumb and
outer fingers. If you ' re left-handed, you ' l l probabl y want to rest your m iddle
finger on the left mouse button. If you are right handed, your i ndex finger should
rest on the left mouse button . I f neither of these positions
feel s right, then choose a posi tion that i s comfortable for you.
There are several techniques i n v o l ved in u s i ng the mouse. B y mastering these few
simple techn iques, you can eas i l y do basic desktop tasks.
Movi n g the P o i nter
The first basic task y o u need t o l e arn i s h o w t o move the pointer. Moving the
poin ter is easy . Just move the mouse and the pointer w i l l fol low. You ' l l find that
you can move the pointer across the entire screen by rol l i ng the mouse over a
smal l surface area.
Selecti ng
Selec t i ng an i tem t e ll s the computer you want to use the i t . When an i tem i s
selected i t h ighlights, which means i t d i splays on the desktop i n d i fferent c o lors
from your norm a l desktop colors. You can select one i tem or a group of i tems.
Both procedures are di scu ssed in the sections that fol low.
3-2
The GEM Desktop
Part 1/: Using the Desktop
Selecting an Icon
There are t w o types o f icons: desktop icons a n d w i ndow icons. Desktop i cons
incl ude floppy and hard disk drive icons, printer and cartri dge icons, and the trash
can icon. W i ndow icons include folder and fi l e icons ( w h i c h can be displayed as
e ither text or icons ) .
Take a moment to practice selec t i ng an i c o n . Move t h e pointer over t h e drive A
icon. Then, click the left mouse button once (thi s is cal led s i ngle-c licking). If
you ' ve done it right, the dri ve A icon i s selected, and appears h i g h lighted. Move
the pointer away from the icon, and c l i ck on an empty area on the desktop to
deselect the icon.
Singl e-clicking and Double-clicking
S i ngle-c li c k i ng selects and h ig h lights. You have already used s ingle-c l icking to
h ighlight the drive A icon. Double-cl i c k i ng combi nes two s i ngle-click actions i n
quick succession to both select a n d start a process, s u c h a s ope n i ng a fil e or
d i rectory.
Note: Use the Control Panel to adjust the responsiveness of the left mouse button
to your clicking speed. For more information , refer to Control Panel in Chapter
4, A Guided Tour of the Desktop.
Now practice double-cl i ck i ng . Move the pointer over the dri ve A icon. Double­
c lick on the icon and the drive A d irectory appears in a w indow on the screen . To
close the d i rectory, c l ick on the Close button i n the upper left corner of the
w indow. For more i nformation on the C lose button , see Windows, l ater i n this
chapter.
D ragg i ng
Draggi ng w ith the mouse i s easy. A l l you need to do is select an i te m and move
the mouse whi le holding down the left mouse button . The selected object(s)
fol l o w the movement of the mouse.
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3-3
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
When you ' ve dragged the objects to the desi red location, release the left mouse
button to end the process. You need to drag to perform copy, move, or delete
operations.
If you drag a fil e icon or icons to a new destination and release the left mouse
button, the associated file or files w i l l be copied, moved, or deleted, depending
on the operation performed.
Dragging an Icon
When you drag icons from one location t o another, a ghost outline o f a l l selected
icons follows the poi nter from the original location to the dest ination. The poi nter
shape also changes from a poi nter to an out I ine of a hand until you release the left
mouse button.
Practice draggi ng an icon now by mov i ng the desktop icons i n to different
configurations. I f you accidenta l l y drag one icon on top of another icon, a special
w indow called a dialog box will d i splay. Select Cancel. The d ialog box
di sappears, and the moved icon returns to the pos ition it occupied before you
moved it.
Selecti ng M u lti p l e Ico ns
Sometimes you want to select more than one icon a t a t ime to perform delete,
copy, move, or other operations. There are t wo ways to select multiple icons .
The first w a y is u sing the rubber-band b o x t o select icons that are grouped
together on the desktop or in a w i ndow .
Use the poi nter t o create a box on the screen around the icons y o u w i sh t o select.
The box is cal led a rubber-band box , because i t expands or contracts when you
drag the pointer.
3-4
The GEM Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
You can use shift-cl icking to select multiple icons i n d i v iduall y i n stead of hav i ng
to select items that are physically grouped together. The selected icons do not
have to be in sequence on a l ist, or near each other on the desktop. Both methods
of selecting multiple icons can be used on desktop or w i ndow i cons.
Using the R ubber-band Box
Whenever you drag the pointer, a rubber-band box appears on the screen . The
first corner of the rubber-band box is created wherever the pointer is positioned
on the screen. The box expands i n the d i rection of poi nter movement.
Fol low these steps to practice se lect ing multiple icons w ith the rubber band box :
1 . Position the pointer above and to the left of the drive
A icon. Try not to touch the
nearby menu heading. If the menu drop s down, j ust retract the menu and try again.
2. Now drag the pointer down and to the right. The rubber-band box appears and exp ands
with the pointer.
3. Surround the drive
A and icon with the rubber-band box. Release the pointer. The icon
h ig h l ights.
4. Move the pointer to a clear area of the desktop and click the left mouse button to
deselect the icons .
U s i ng S h ift-cl icking
S h i ft-cl i c k i ng lets you select m u ltiple items that are not next t o each other on the
desktop, or in sequence in a w indow.
To practice select i ng by shift-c l ic k i ng, use the fol lo w i ng steps to select the drive
A and B icons :
1 . First, select the drive A icon.
The GEM Desktop
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
2. Now hold down [ S h i ft] and position the pointer over the drive B icon. Cl ick the left
mouse button. Both the drive A and drive B icons are now high l i gh ted .
Note: You must hold down [Shift] until all desired icons are selected. Once
you release [Shift] , no further icons can be added to the selected group. If
you attempt to select an icon after you release [Shift] , all previously
selected icons will be deselected.
3. Move the pointer to a clear area of the desktop and click the left mouse button to
deselect the icons.
Combining Ru bber-banding and S hift-clicking
You can combine rubber-banding and shift-c l i c k i ng to select a group of icons,
then deselect any icons you don ' t want in the group.
Follow these steps to practice comb i n i ng the two methods of selec t i ng multiple
icons:
1 . First, use rubber-banding to select both drive icons.
2. Now use shift-cl icking to deselect the drive A icon. Only the drive B icon i s
h ighl ighted.
3. Use sh ift-clicking to reselect the drive A icon. Both icons are again highl ighted.
4. Move the pointer to a clear area of the desktop and cl ick the mouse button to deselect
the icons.
Contro l l i n g the Poi nter with Keystroke
Co m b i nations
You can control the poi nter, move, select, copy, etc . , u s i ng keystroke
combinations instead of the mouse.
3-6
The GEM Desktop
Part /I: Using the Desktop
To use keystroke combinations, hold down the first key l isted and press the
second key (or i f three keys are l i sted, hold down the first two keys and press the
third key ) .
Note: Refer to Appendix A, Pointer Control and Quick Reference,Jor a quick
reference chart listing the keystrokes for controlling the pointer.
Moving the Pointer with Keystrokes
Your screen is d i v ided i nto tiny sections or p i x e l s . When you u se keystroke
combi nations to move the pointer, the pointer moves e i t her one p i xe l at a t ime or
in m u l t i p l e p i xel jumps. [Alt] [ S hift] combined w i t h any arrow key moves the
pointer one pixel in the direction of the arrow. U se this combi n at ion for
fine positioning.
Selecting with Keystrokes
U s i ng the keystroke combination [Alt] [ I n sert] performs the same functi on as
c licking the left mouse button. To perform a keystroke double-cl ick, hold down
[AIt] and quickly press [ Insert] twice.
Foll o w these instructions to practice selecting and i n i t i ating a procedure using
keystroke combinations:
1 . Position the pointer over the drive A icon.
2. Press [Alt] [Insert ] . The drive A icon h ighl ights. You have selected the drive A icon.
Now move the pointer to an open area of the desktop and press [Alt] [Insert] again to
deselect the drive A icon.
3. To practice keystroke double clicking (selecting and open ing the drive A window i n
one maneuver), reposition t h e pointer over t h e drive A icon. Hold down [A It] and
quickly press [ I nsert] twice. A window opens and d isplays the contents of the d i sk in
drive A.
The GEM Desktop
3-7
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
4. To close the open window, position the pointer over the small box in the upper left hand
corner of the window and press [ A l t] [Insert]. The window closes.
Drag g i ng with Keystrokes
To drag with keystroke combinations, press [Alt] [ I n sert] combined with any
arrow key to drag a selected icon or group of icons i n the d i rection of the arrow.
The poi n ter m ust be pos it ioned over the selected icon or group of icons for
successful dragging.
Wi ndows
Most of the desktop activ i ty takes p l ace i n w indows. W i ndows are smal l screens
w i t h i n the l arger screen display. There are two types of w indows, general
program w i n dows and desktop w indows. The basic d i fference i s that desktop
w indows d i sp lay more i n formation than general w indows. Figure 3 - \ , below, i s
a n example o f a desktop w i ndow .
Drive Identifier
File Mask
�...
Close Button
i n 47 i teMs .
0
Full Button
{»
ESPRIT
o
Information Line
GDOS . S V S
o
... ox
¢
Scroll Bars
Figure 3 - 1 . Window Elements
3-8
The GEM Desktop
Resize Button
Part II: Using the Desktop
The Drive Identifier appears in the center of a w i ndow ' s move bar. rt shows the
drive letter of the open dri ve, in this case hard d i sk drive C.
The File Mask tells you what type of fi les are displayed i n the w i ndow. You can
set the File Mask to d i splay all the fil e s in a directory, or you can set up
restrictions on the types of fi les displayed. The w i ndow di splays an icon for each
folder in the directory , and for every fi le i n the d i rectory that matches the fi le
mask setting. For more detai led i nformation on sett i ng the File Mask, see Set File
Mask in Chapter 4, A Guided Tour of the Desktop.
The Information Line d i splays the B ytes U sed ( total n u mber of bytes of disk
space used by the contents of the d i rectory ) , and I tems (the number of fi les and
folders residing within the directory ) . If some i tems are selected, the numbers
refer only to the selected items. The other elements of a w indow are explained in
the following tutorial sect ions.
On the right and bottom sides of the w indow there are scroll bars that a l l ow you
to view portions of the w i ndows contents, when a l l of the contents are not v i sible.
There are several buttons for contro l ling the w i ndow. The Close button closes the
w indow when you c l ick on it. The Full button resizes the w indow so that it u ses
the ful l screen. The Resize button allows you to drag a w indow to size .
Ope ning and C l osing a Window
D irectory w i ndows can be opened in several ways by using the poi nter and left
mouse button. You can practice openi n g a w i ndow now. First, make sure the
Language disk i s i n drive A , then double c l i c k on the drive A i con.
You have opened a w i ndow by double c l icking on a desktop icon. The contents of
the Language disk now appear in the drive A d i rectory w i ndow.
The GEM Desktop
3-9
Falcon030 O wner's Manual
Note: !f the drive A icon highlights but the window does not open , the computer
has not recognized your click as a double-click, but only as a single-click. Move
the pointer to a clear area of the desktop and click once to deselect the icon . Try
again, and remember that double clicking can be a bit tricky at first. Just keep
practicing.
Leave the drive A d i rectory w indow open for now; you w i l l use it in the next
exercise .
Scrolling a Window
Sometimes a single d irectory contains too many i tems to display in a window at
one time. When t h is occurs, some d i rectory i tems rem a i n undisplayed , or h idden.
You can v i e w the hidden i tems by usi ng the scro l l bars.
The scro l l bars along the bottom and right edges of the w indow let you scro l l the
window horizonta l l y ( right and l eft) or verticall y (up and down ) .
I f a directory contains more items than w i l l fit i n the w indow, a portion of the
scro l l bar w i l l be shaded. The scroll box shows the current position and s ize of
the w indow relative to the total directory display. If there is shaded area above or
below the scroll box, more of the directory is avai lable by scroll ing the w i ndow
in the direction of the shaded area.
Practice scroll ing a w indo w . Use the dri ve A directory w i ndow that is sti l l open .
For t h is e xercise, use t h e scroll bars to find L I N E S . PR G , a program that y o u w i l l
b e usi n g i n t h e n e x t exercise.
Scroll by positioning the pointer over the scro l l arrow that i ndicates the direction
of the h i dden contents . C li c k once. Now cl ick once on the opposite arrow to
return t o the original window display. The contents of the window scroll by one
space.
Now scro l l , one w i ndow displ ay at a time, by positioning the poin ter over the
shaded area of the scro l l bar. C lick once. The previousl y displayed item s are now
3-1 0
The GEM Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
h idden , and the screen d isplays previously h idden items.
Note: You can also scroll using the up and down arrow keys to the right of the
m.ain keyboard.
Try scroll i n g entries continuously by positioning the pointer over the scroll arrow
that i ndicates hidden items. Hold down the left mouse button.
Note: You can also skip over some o{ a directory ' s contents by dragging the
scroll box to a new position in the scroll bar. The window now displays the
contents of that portion of the directory.
When you have found L I N ES .PRG, leave the w indow open and go on to the next
exercise.
Sizing a Window
Sizing a window is especially useful when you want to display more than one
w indow on the desktop at a time. Practice sizing a w i ndow by first opening the
program L I N ES.PRG using the techniques you have already learned.
The Lines program displays a group of l ines moving across the screen. When you
open LINES .PRG i t uses the ful l w indow. So you can practice resizing a window
by reduci n g the size of the Lines w i ndow.
First find the size box i n the lower right corner of the w indow. Move the pointer
over the size box and u se draggi n g to move the size box up and to the left. An
outline of the window follows the pointer movement. Release the left mouse
button w he n the w indow outline i s about half of the original w i ndow size .
Then locate a n d select the Ful l button i n t h e upper right corner of t h e screen .
Selecting t h e ful l box expands a window to fi l l t h e entire screen.
Just for fun , take a moment to explore the L ines program. Press [Clr Home] and
you w i l l see the group of l ines reduced to a s i ngle object. The l i nes are now
erasing themselves as they go along. Pressing [Clf Home] toggles the erase mode
on and off.
The GEM Desktop
3-1 1
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
You can i ncrease or decrease the l ine segments of the object by pressing a
n umber key on the keypad. Try press i ng the number keys unt i l you find a shape
that you l ike.
There are other ways of contro l l i n g the L i nes program , w h ich you w i l l l earn
about l ater.
If you select the Fu l l box agai n . The w indow returns to the most recent size and
position. Con t inue to practice s i z i ng the w indow. Drag the s ize box down towards
the bottom of the screen to lengthen the w i ndow, up to shorten the w i ndow, right
to w iden it, or left to narrow it. When you have fi n i shed prac t i c i ng, leave the
w indow open for the next e xerc i se.
Movi ng a Window
You can use the move bar to move a w indow to any screen posi t i o n below the
menu bar.
F i rst, position the pointer over the shaded move bar. Drag the w i ndow to a new
posi tion on the screen, then release the mouse button. The window d i splays i n i t s
new pos i tion.
Let ' s work w i t h the Lines program some more. S tart w i th the shape you made i n
t h e prev ious exercise. N o w add more shapes b y press i ng [ * ] on t h e keypad. I f you
want fewer shapes press [ f ] . Finally, press [+] to bri ng the shapes c loser together,
or press [ - ] to split the shapes further apart . Press [ C l r Home] if you want L i nes
to erase the l i ne s as they move along. When you ' re done , c lose the L i nes w i ndow
by c l icking on the C lose box .
The Top Wi ndow
When you have more than one w indow open at a t i me, the w i ndow i n fron t is the
top w i ndow. You can identify which w indow is the top w indow by l ooking at the
move bar. Only the top w i ndow ' s move bar is shaded.
3-1 2
The GEM Desktop
Part 11: Using the Desktop
Make any w i ndow the top wi ndow by position i ng the pointer anywhere on the
w i ndow and c l icking the left mouse button.
Open w indows may overlap. I f they do, the top w i ndow is al ways completely
displ ayed. Top a part l y hidden, bottom w i ndow by pos i t i on i ng the poi nter
anywhere on the w i ndow and clicking the left mouse button . The bottom w indow
moves to the front of the other w i ndows .
M e n u s and Pop- u ps
Menus and pop-ups a l l o w you to select d i fferent options on the desktop or in the
Control Pane l CPXs. Menus, w hich display a ful l range of choices, usua l l y drop
down from the menu bar. If you select an item from a menu, a checkmark appears
beside the i tem. Pop-ups are smal ler, more specific menus act ivated by buttons.
Ope ning a M e n u
Each menu heading o n the menu bar has i t s own drop-down menu. I f you move
the pointer onto the menu bar near one of the headings that menu i mmediately
drops down and disp l ays i t s command options. Moving the pointer away from the
dropped menu to another menu heading causes the new menu to drop down, and
the pre v iously d i splayed menu to retract.
Note: A drop-down menu may have both active and inactive options. A ctive
options are in regular text and produce an action when selected. Inactive options
appear as lightened text. Selecting an inactive option causes the menu to retract.
Options with a check mark to the left of them are currently selected.
To retract a menu without selecting a command option, move the pointer outside
the menu and click on the desktop.
The GEM Desktop
3-1 3
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
Ope n i ng a Pop-up
Pop-ups appear as shadowed buttons when closed, and menus when open .
To open a pop-up, click o n a shadowed ( pop-up) button with the mouse. A pop­
up w i l l appear w ith a l i st of selectable items. The currently selected item is
indicated by a checkmark . C l icking on any item se lects that item. C l icking once
more on the selected item closes the pop-up. When you close a pop-up, the
current selection appears on the shadowed button.
3-1 4
The GEM Desktop
Part II:
4
Using the Desktop
A Guided Tour of the Desktop
The Men u Bar
The top edge o f the desktop contai n s the menu bar. The menu headings are Desk,
File, View, and Options. To see the commands w i th i n any menu heading, position
the pointer over the menu heading. The headi n g h i gh l i ghts and the menu d isplays
under the selected heading.
When the menu d i splays you can select an option. Options i n black text are active
and avai lable for use. Options in light text are i nact i ve . I nactive options are not
avai lable for use at the t i me you d i sp l ay the menu. ( See the specific opti on l ater
in this chapter for more i nformat i o n . )
M o s t o f t h e commands l i sted under t h e m e n u headings c a n b e selected b y u s i n g a
single keystroke. Each command ' s keystroke is l i sted in brackets to the right of
the command name. To i n iti ate the command, just press the key i ndicated. I t
saves a lot of t ime i f y o u memorize t h e keystrokes for the commands y o u use
frequently. You can change the assigned keystroke of a command, or assign a
keystroke to a command that does not have one. ( Refer to Desktop
Configuration in t h i s chapter. )
A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
4-1
Fafcon030 Owner's Manual
Desk M e n u
The Desk menu i s divided i nto sections of selectable menu i tems. The upper
section displays the name of the app l i cat ion you are c urrently u s i ng . Selecting
this menu i tem displays i nformati on about the app l i c ation.
The lower section contains a l i st selectable menu i tems that al low you to access
desk accessories, such as the Control Panel .
Note: Desk accessories are automatically loaded each time you start up the
system. Switching on the computer without active desk accessories ji·ees some
RAM and displays the desktop faster.
Fol lowing is a detai led description of the d i fferent sections of the Desk men u :
Desktop I nfo
When you di splay the Desk menu from the desktop, the top sect ion of the menu
l i sts the Desktop I n fo option. If you select Desktop I nfo, a w indow l isting G E M
and M u ltiTOS copyright data displays.
Co ntrol Panel
The Control Panel accessory (XCONTROL.ACC) a llows y o u to modify your
system ' s setup even w h i l e your work i ng inside another program. For detai led
information on the Control Pan e l , see Control Panel in Desk accessories, l ater
in t h i s chapter.
4-2
A Guided Tour of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
F i l e Me n u
The File menu contain s options for opening and c losing d i rectory w indows,
selecti ng all displayed fil e s and folders for an operation, deleting a fi l e or fol der,
creating a folder, formatting disks, and more. Thi s section explains i n deta i l each
Fi l e menu option.
Ope n
The Open command can be performed on a disk icon, cartridge icon, folder, file,
or printer icon.
First select the item you w i sh to ope n . Then select Open from the F i l e menu. The
result of the command depends upon w hich i con is h i gh l ighted:
Disk icon or folder The disk or folder d irectory window appears.
C a rt r i d g e i c o n ( d r i v e c) or e x e c u t a b l e fi l e . The desktop d i s appe ars and the
program runs.
Pri nter icon An alert box , w h i c h i n forms you that the i con you attem pted to
open is a printing dev ice, appears.
Data file If you have i nstalled an application that is l i nked to the
same document type as the data fi l e you are opening, the appl ication automati call y opens and loads the data fi l e . If no such appl ication is i nsta lled, a
dialog box displays, giving you the choices Show, Print, or Cancel. Show
displays the contents of the file on the screen as A S C I I characters. Prin t outputs
the contents of the file to a printer (if you h ave a printer connected
to your syste m ) , and Cancel cancel s the command.
Note: An alternative to using the Open menu command is to position the pointer
over the icon you wish to open and double-click the left mouse button.
A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
4-3
Faicon030 Owner 's Manual
S h ow I nformation
When you h i g h l ight a floppy disk, logical drive, folder, o r fi le icon and select the
Show I nfo opt ion , the screen displays information about the h i g h l i ghted i tem.
When you select Show I nfo for a floppy disk or logical drive icon, the Disk
Information dialog box displays the fol lowing information:
Drive 1 0 The dri ve 's letter identifier.
Disk Label The name you assi gned to the drive. ( Th is field may be blank . )
N u m be r o f Folders The total n u m ber o f fo l ders o n the d i s k or logical drive,
incl uding folders within folders.
N u m be r of F i l e s T h e t o t a l n u m be r of fi les o n t h e d i s k or l og i c a l d r i v e ,
including fi les within folders.
Bytes u sed The n u m be r of bytes used by a l l fi les and fo lders on the disk or
logical drive.
Bytes available The a v a i l a b l e storage space ( meas u red i n bytes) l e ft on the
disk.
Note: In the Disk Information dialog box, the numher of bytes used plus the
number of bytes availahle for a floppy disk or logical drive does not always equal
the exact total storage capacity. This is because the computer allocates space for
each file in fixed-size blocks, even if the file does not completely fill the last
hlock. The Bytes A vailahle information is an accurate indicator of available
unused storage space.
When you select Show Info for a file or folder, the File I nformation d ialog box
or Folder I n formation dialog box displays the fol lowing informat ion :
4-4
A Guided Tour of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
Path The top l i ne l ists the complete path of the fi le or folder. I f the path is too
long to d isplay on the l i ne , you can use the scroll arrows to reveal the hidden part
of the pathname.
Name The name of the fo lder o r fi l e . The text i nsert i o n c u rsor appe ars t o the
right of the name.
To change the name of a fi le or folder, press [ Esc ) to c lear the name l ine. Type i n
the n e w name, using eight characters or less. Type a period, then the three
character file extension ( usually not used i n folder names) .
Size S i ze, i n bytes of t h e fi le o r fol der. Folder s i ze i s the total n um ber o f bytes
used by all the fi les w i t h i n the folder.
Date The date the file or folder was l ast mod i fied.
Time The t i me the file or folder was l ast modified.
N u m ber of Folders The number of folders w it h i n the folder. This only applies
to folders .
N u m b e r of F i les The t o t a l n u m ber of fi l es w i t h i n the fo lder, i n c l u d i n g fi l es
within other folders.
Attri bute The two choices are Read Only, and Read/Write. If you want
to make sure a fi le remains intact and no changes are made to it, select Read
Only. You w i l l sti l l be able to display and copy the fi le, but you cannot modify or
delete i t . Read/Write allows you to read the fi le, change i t , or delete i t . The
Attribute field does not apply to folders .
Search
The Search command performs a fi le search on a floppy disk, logical drive, or
fol der. When you select Search , the Search File di alog box appears.
A Gu ided Tou r of the Desktop
4-5
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
You m ust set the parameters of the search by typing in the name of the fi l e for
which you are searching. You can also type i n part of a fi lename, and Search
matches the typed characters. For example, if you w i sh to search for al l files w ith
the extension . DOC, type a period, then type DOC. Search opens the wi ndow
contai n i ng the first . DOC file it finds and asks you if it should conti nue the
search. If you select OK, Search w i l l use the same w i ndow to show the next
. DOC fi le, and so on .
. W hen Search can find no more . DOC fi les, an alert box displays to let you know
that no more files are to be found.
Before selec t i ng Search, you should h ighlight the floppy disk, logical drive, or
folder upon wh ich you wish the search performed. If no i tem i s h ighlighted,
Search w i l l perform the command upon the active w i ndow . If there i s no open
wi ndow on the desktop and no highl ighted i tem, you cannot select Search from
the men u .
Note: The Search dialog hox may cover highlighted icons. Since the files found hy
Search are highlighted, the window information line displays the number of
matches.
De l ete
The Delete command de letes all h i g h l ighted files and folders. If you h i g h light a
floppy disk or logical drive icon and select Delete, all fi les and folders contained
on the corresponding drive w i l l be deleted.
C reate Folder
The Create Folder command creates a n e w folder i n t h e active w i ndow . When
you select this command, the New Fol der dialog box appears. Type in a name for
the folder, then select OK (or press [ Return ] ) . The name of the new folder
appears in the directory w i n do w .
4-6
A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
Part If: Using the Desktop
Note: Certain characters cannot be used within a folder name or extension.
For a list of illegal characters, see Files and Filenames in Chapter 5, Desktop
Management.
C lose Di rectory
The C lose D i rectory command c loses the top level of the active w indow. For
example, l et ' s say the top w indow i s a folder w i ndow, and that folder res ides i n
the m a i n d i rectory of drive C . W h e n y o u select Close Directory, t h e folder's
w indow closes, and t he main d i rectory w indow d i splays.
Note: You can also close a directory by selecting the close box in the window's
upper left corner.
C lose Top Window
The C lose Top W indow command completely closes the top w i ndow, i n c l uding
all levels of folder w i ndows and the m a i n d i rectory w indow. If w i ndows from
other floppy disks or logical drives are open on the desktop, the most recently
opened w i ndow becomes the active w i ndow.
Bottom to Top
The B ottom to Top command i s u sefu l when you have multiple, overlapping
w indows displayed on the desktop. When you select this command, B ottom to
Top brings the bottom w i ndow to the top of the stack and displays it as the active
w indow. The current top w indow is sent to the bottom of the stack.
Select Al l Items
The Select A l l Items command selects a l l fi les a n d folders i n the top window (see
Note ) . The fi les and folders that are h i dden, but would be shown by scroll ing, are
also selected. However, files that are in the directory but do not match the file
mask parameters are not selected. ( See Set File Mask in this chapter. )
A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
4-7
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Note: If the File Mask is
are selected.
*.*
(show all items), then all items , including allfolders ,
Set F i l e Mas k
The Set F i le Mask command allows you to choose the fi le type t o be di spl ayed i n
the active w i ndow. When you select t h i s command, the Set File Mask d ialog box
appears. You must fi l l in the file type parameters, both file name and fi le
extension.
For e xample, i f you want only those fi les beg i n n i ng w i t h the letters DESK to
appear i n the d i rectory l ist, you would press escape to c lear the Name l ine. Then
you would type D E S K * . * and select OK. The first asterisk after the word DESK
means that any fi le w i th characters i n the fi lename fol lo w i ng the letters D E S K
should b e d i splayed. T h e asteri s k i s known as a w i l d card character. ( S e e File
Specification in t h i s chapter). The period is the separation between the fil ename
and the file extension. The second asterisk means any file w i th a filename that
meets the parameters should be d i splayed no matter what extension the file has.
Setting the fil e mask as described here would d i splay files w i t h d i fferent
filenames and extensions, such as D E SKTOP. l N F and DESKACC. DOC, as long
as the fi lename begins w i th the characters DES K .
The default fi le mask parameter i s a n asterisk for the filename and a n asterisk for
the extension . Thi s means a l l fi les are displayed.
Note: A lthough all folders are visible during a file mask, you can use a file mask
to select folders with the same extension .
The parameters selected for the open w indow rem a i n i n effect as long as the
w i ndow remains open . Once you c lose the w i ndow, the parameters you chose are
cleared.
4-8
A Guided Tou r of the Desktop
Part 1/: Using the Desktop
Format Floppy Disk
Formatting prepares floppy d i sk s to accept data. You can format disks as e i ther
single-sided , double-sided, or h igh-dens ity. U sed disks can be reformatted.
A l l disks formatted w i th TOS are compatible w ith M S-DOS version 3 . 2 or l ater.
To format a floppy d i sk, insert the disk i nto a floppy disk drive. Select the floppy
disk icon, then select Format. For complete i nformation on formatting disks, see
Formatting a Floppy Disk in Chapter 2, Using Your Computer.
View M e n u
The V ie w menu lets you choose the way your computer displays files and folders.
You can view fi les and folders as icons or text. You can di splay those fi lenames
alphabetically by name (filename or e x tension), or numerical l y by date or file
size. To mod i fy the display , select the menu option you want. A check next to a
option indicates that option is selected.
Options selected from the View menu affect all directory w i ndows. You cannot
select one option for one w indow and a differen t option for another window.
Note: When you save your desktop , TOS saves all the View menu choices you
made to the NEWDESK.INF file on your startup drive. (See Save Desktop in this
chapter. )
A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
4-9
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
S h ow as Icons or Show as Text
The same d i rectory, with entries displayed both as icons and as text , is shown in
the fol lowing example.
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Icons and Text
When directory entries are shown as icons, different icons indicate different types
of files or folders. The window displays icons in horizontal rows across the
desktop. Y QU can choose the shape of desktop and window icons. See Install
Icon in this chapter.
When d i rectory entries are shown as text, the w indow displays the filename, fi le
size, and the date and t i me the fil e was l ast modified. A square icon to the left of
a filename indicates a folder. The window displays files and folders as vertical
text.
Note: A triangle symbol appearing next to a file name indicates a read-only file .
Files and fol ders displayed as text may be opened, copied, and deleted using the
same procedure used with icons.
Sorting by Name/Date/SizelType
It is sometimes necessary for you to have a list of your fi les and folders presented
in a certain order.
4-1 0
A G uided Tour of the Desktop
�
r-
�r;
Part II: Using the Desktop
Folders as a group are always l i sted first, fol lowed by files ( E xcept w i th the N o
Sort Option). You c a n sort y o u r fil e s a n d folders i n t h e fol lo w i ng way s :
Sort b y N a m e Displays files and folders alphabetically.
S o rt by Date D i sp l ays fi l e s and fol ders chronolog i c a l l y . The most rece n t l y
created o r rev ised fil e o r folder appears first.
Sort by Type L i sts fil e s alphabeticall y accord i ng to thei r e xten s i on type. F i l e s
with common extensions are grouped together i n alphabetical order by fi l ename.
Sort by Size List files in descending order according to thei r size.
No sort L i st files and folders according to the order in w h i ch a program w o u l d
recognize them.
Size to Fit
When you select Size To Fit, a l l i tems are di splayed i n horizontal rows starti ng
at the top of the w i ndow. Each row is only as w ide as the w i n dow and w i l l
automatically rearrange whenever the w indow i s res i zed.
)1
Set Color and Style
S e t color a n d style a l l o w s y o u to create a u nique desktop environment. Y o u can
u se Set Color and Style to choose a color and/or fil l pattern for both your desktop
and for opened w i ndows. When you select Set Color and Style, the Set Color
and Style dialog box appears.
Note: To modify the window display, the Window box must first be highlighted.
A Guided Tou r of the Desktop
4-1 1
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
To mod i fy your desktop environment, fol low these steps:
1 . H ig h l i gh t the Desktop box .
2. Position the pointer over the solid black Style square and cl ick once.
3. To select a color, pos ition your po inter over the desi red color on the color palette and
c l i ck once. The color d i splays in the Pre v i e w B o x . ( I f you are u s i n g a monochrome
mon i tor, pos ition your pointer anywhere on the black �ection of the color palette and
cI ick once . )
4. T o select a fi l l pattern, pos i t i o n y o u r pointer o v e r the desired fi l l pattern a n d c l i c k
once. The fi l l pattern d i splays over t h e color i n the Preview B o x .
5. N e x t h ighl ight t h e Wi ndow box and repeat Steps 2 through 4 t o mod i fy your w i ndow
d i splay.
6. Select OK to select the chosen options and exit Set Color and Style.
Options M e n u
The Options menu incl udes commands that a ll ow you to save your desktop
configurat ion, i nstal l icons, appl i cations, and devices, and print what i s displayed
on your screen . You can use the Set Preferences option under the Options menu
to switch confirmation dialog boxes on or off and set your screen resolution .
Note: When you sal'e your desktop ,TOS saves all the Options menu choices you
made to the NEWDESK.lNFfile on your startup disk. (See Save Desktop in this
chapter. ) Use Save Desktop to save changes made with Options menu commands.
4-1 2
A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
Part II:
Using the Desktop
I n stal l I co n
I nstal l Icon al lows you to choose the shape of your w i ndow and desktop icon s .
The DES K ICON. R S C fi le o n your C drive o r floppy startup disk contains a
collection of icon shapes. You access this fi le through In stal l Icon. Choose from a
variety of icons to create an interesti ng and entertai n i ng desktop.
You can a l so use I n stall Icon to c hange a floppy d i s k ' s or logical dri ve ' s icon
identi fier and icon labe l .
When you select I nsta l l Icon from the Options menu, the select icon type di alog
box d i splays. You can select either Desktop or Wi ndow. Desktop icons are :
dev ice icons ( pri nter, floppy d i s k drive, logical dri ve, and cartridge ) , and the trash
can icon. W i ndow icons are folder and file icons.
Desktop Icon
To i n stall a single desktop icon, fol l ow these steps:
1 . I f you are i nstal l i n g a floppy disk or logical drive icon, type the drive identifier letter.
Press [Tab ] .
2. Type in the name o f t h e floppy d i s k o r logical drive. Y o u c a n u s e u p t o 1 2 characters.
Th i s step is optional; you do not have to assign labels (names ) to your desktop icons.
3. Pos i t i on your pointer over the type of icon you wish to i n stal l : Drive. Trash Can. or
Printer ( see Using an Instal led Printer Icon later i n t h i s section ) . C l i c k the left
mouse button once.
4. U se the scro l l arrows to scro l l t h ro ugh your i con choice s . When the d e s i red icon
d i splays, select OK to instal l . The icon appears 011 your desktop.
A Gu ided Tou r of the Desktop
4-1 3
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
U se the fol l owing steps to assign an i con shape to a group of desktop items:
1 . From t h e desktop, u s e rubber-banding and/or sh ift-cl icking t o h ig h l ight t h e group o f
desktop items.
2.
Se lect I nsta l l Icon from the Options menu. The I n stal l Desk top Icon d i alog box
d i splays. The drive identifier, icon label, and currently assigned icon shape of the first
selected desktop item appears in the d ialog box.
3. I f the Drive box i s not h ighl ighted, pos i t ion your pointer over the Drive box and c l ick
the left mouse button once.
4. Use the scroll arrows to d i splay the desired icon shape. To assign that icon shape to
the first of the selected group of i tems, select OK. The second i tem of the selected
group d i splays in the dialog box.
Note: If you do not wish to assign a new icon shape to an item in the selected
group, select Skip when that item displays in the dialog hox. That item retains its
current icon shape.
When you fi nish selecting the final item in the group, the dialog box disappears.
The new icons for all selected i tems appear on your desktop.
Window Icon
There are two ways in which a window displays item s : text and icons. You can
assign icon shapes to w indow items that are currently displ ayed as text, but the
assigned icon shapes w i l l not disp l ay until Show as Icons ( under the View menu)
i s selected.
You can assign icon shapes to: a s i ngle window item ( fi le o r folder), a group of
w indow items, or a speci fi c fi le type.
To assign an icon shape to a single w indow item ( file or folder), or a group of
window items, fol low these steps :
4-1 4
A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
1 . Open the w i ndow con taining the desired w i ndow i tems. H i g h l ight a single d i splayed
window item or use rubber-banding to highlight a group of d i splayed w i ndow items.
2. Select I nsta l l Icon from the Options menu.
The Instal l Window Icons dialog box displays. The name of the first selected
desktop item appears in the dialog box. Either the File or Folder box is
h ighl ighted, designating the type of item displayed, and the icon currently
assigned to the item is d isplayed.
3 . U s e the scro l l arrow s to sc rol l t h ro ugh your icon choices. When the d e s i red icon
d i splays, select I nsta l l to assign the icon shape to the d i splayed item. The name of
the sel ected group ' s second item d i splays i n the d i a log box , along with that i tem ' s
current icon.
Note: If you do not wish to assign a new icon shape to an item in the selected
group, select Skip when that item ' s name and current icon displays in the dialog
box. That item retains its current icon shape. If you wish to remove the item ' s
currently assigned icon shape, select Remove. The default icon shape for that
item type is automatically assigned to that item.
When you have completed the selection process for the final item in the selected
group, the dialog box di sappears. The new icons for all selected i tems appear in
the w indow .
You can a l so assign an icon shape to a fi le type. After setting the parameters to
define the fi le type , all the fi les that match the selected parameters w i l l be
assigned the specified icon shape. Select the parameters the same way you would
set a file mask, typing in the parameters on the Name l ine of the Install Window
Icons dialog box. (See Set File Mask in this chapter.)
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
To assign an icon shape to a spec i fic file extension, fol l ow these steps:
1 . With a w i n d ow ope n , s e l e c t I n sta l l I c o n fro m the O p t i o n s m e n u . S e l e c t the
Window box from the d i alog box. The I n stal l Window Icons dialog box displays.
2. Type
*.
followed by the extension ( for example, * . FNT).
3. U se the scro l l arrows to d i splay the desired icon shape. To assign that icon shape t o
t h e fi l e s m a t c h i n g t h e s pe c i fi e d p a r a m e t e r s , s e l e c t I n st a l l . T h e d i a l o g b o x
d i sappears. A l l f i l e s t h a t match t h e s e l ected parameters w i l l be represented b y t he
selected icon .
Changing the Icon Identifier and Label
To enter a new icon identi fier and label for an icon, fol low these steps:
1 . H i g h l ight the icon you wish to change. Select I nsta l l Icon from the Options menu.
The Install Icon dialog box appears.
2. Type the new Icon ident ifier letter and press [Tab ] . If you wish to retain the c u rrent
drive identifier, press [Tab] to move the text insertion cursor to the Icon Label l i ne.
Note: The letters A and B are reserved for floppy disks, and the lowercase
letter c is reserved for the cartridge slot. Uppercase letters C through P
represent logical drives.
3. Press [Esc] to clear the Icon Label l i ne. Type in the new icon labe l . You can use up to
1 2 characters. Select OK.
Using an Instal l ed Printer Icon
An i n stal led printer icon helps you print files i n the same way as the Prin t
command o f the S how/Print dialog box ( see Opening a Data File i n Chapter 5,
Desktop Management. ) .
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A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
Drag and posi tion the desired fi les over the printer icon. I f you have a printer
properly connected to your system, the information from the fi le is sent to the
printer. ( Some fi les may print onl y coded or incomplete information . )
After insta l l ing a printer icon, use Save Desktop t o save the installation. The
next t i me you switch on your system, the printer icon appears on you r desktop.
I nstal l Appl ication
U sing Instal l App l i cation you can:
•
•
•
•
Link an application to data files with a specified extension. You can then
process those data files directly from a w indow, instead of opening the
application first.
Select an autoboot status for any application, so whenever you switch on your
computer, the application opens automatically.
Assign a function key to open any application.
Specify what default directory to use for any application. The assigned
default directory takes precedence over the defaults assigned by the Desktop
Configurations.
•
•
Specify a full path or a filename for an application. The specification takes
precedence over the defaults assigned by the Desktop Configuration.
Assign arguments to programs.
Arguments
When you open a program fi le, you are tel l ing the computer to fol low the
instructions in that file. The instructions w ithin the program file then take over
and run the show unt i l you exit from the program .
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Fa/con030 Owner 's Manual
Sometimes you need to give the program additional i n formation, such as what to
do with a data file. This additional i n formation is cal led an argument.
Most programs provide ways for the user to input arguments, such as an Open
File command in a word processing program. In fact, if you i nput the name of an
exi sting data fi l e in the Arguments l i ne, and you have your input parameters set i n
s u c h a w a y that t h e program c a n find t h e fi l e , t h e data fi le w i l l open automatically
when you open the word processing program.
B ut unless you work on one data file almost exclusively, other options such as
l inking an application to a data fi le type make arguments of t h i s kind c l umsy and
unnecessary.
Arguments are used most often w i t h u t i l i ty programs. These programs often need
complex add i tional i nstructions such as a code sequence to determ i ne which part
of RAM w i l l be used to contai n the program instructions. Detai led explanations
of the arguments needed, and the correct syntax for those arguments, w i l l be
i nc l uded i n the program ' s doc u mentat ion .
When you open the Install Application dial og box, the text insertion cursor i s
already o n t h e Arguments l i ne. S i mply type i n t h e arguments and press [ Ret u rn ] .
Remember to u s e S ave Desktop t o save the argument, otherw i se i t w i l l b e erased
when you switch off the computer.
Linking a Document Type to an Appl ication
Normal l y , the on l y way you can process a data fi le is to first open an appl ication
that can work with the type of data contained in the fi l e . Then you can open the
data fi le from w i t h i n the appl ication.
I f you attempt to open a data file directly from a w i ndow, a d ialog box disp l ays
inform i ng you that your options are to show or pri nt the fi l e , or cancel the
req uest. You cannot edit the data i n the file.
B u t you can u se Install App l ication to l i nk a data file type (determined by the
three character file extension) to an app l ication.
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A Guided Tour of the Desktop
Part If: Using the Desktop
Choose the file type most common l y used by the appl ication. After l i n k i n g the
appl i cation with the document type, the l inked appl ication automatical l y opens
when you open the document.
Note: You must pay particular attention to assigning correct default directories
and parameters to an application when linking a document type to an
application. This is especially true when you open the application ji'om its icon
on the desktop . Refer to the application ' s documentation for detailed information
on correct default directories and parameters.
To use Install Appl ication to l i n k an appl ication to a data fi l e type, fol low these
steps:
1 . D i sp l ay the w i ndow containing the application you w i sh to l i n k to a document type.
H ig h l i g h t the desired appl ication . Se lect I nsta l l A p p l ication from the Options
menu. The name of the selected appl ication appears i n the Install Application d ialog
box.
Note: You can select more than one application at once for this operation .
Highlight all the applications you wish to install, then open the Install
Application dialog hox. Ajter completing the operation on the first selected
application. the name of the second selected application appears in the
,
Install Application dialof{ hox.
2. Press [Tab] to move the t e x t i n sertion cursor to the Document type l i ne. Type in t h e
t h ree c h aracter f i l e e x te n s i o n o f t h e f i l e t y p e y o u w i s h t o l i n k t o t h e d i s p l a y e d
appl ication.
3. Select the appropriate Application type.
4. Choose a Default Directory and Parameter.
5. Select I nstal l to enter the selected settings.
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Fa/con030 Owner 's Manual
Note: When installing multiple applications, selecting Skip causes Install
Application to skip over the application identified on the Application name line.
All the current settings are retained.
Sel ecting a Default Directory
Every program that work s with support i ng fi les ( e . g . , resource files or help fi les)
needs a way to look for those fi les. Desktop Confi gurations tel l s your computer
which directory should be the default. This i s where the program accesses files if
the program assumes that they are not i nstalled.
Using Install Appl ication to ass i gn a default d i rectory to a specifi c app l ication
overrides the Desktop Configuration ' s assignment for that application.
You can set the default d i rectory to Top W i ndow, or Appl ication ( the directory
in w h ich the program res ides).
Some programs do not l ook for fi l es in any l ocation other than the default
d irectory. For these programs, select Top Wi ndow, and make sure that the
program file and a l l support i ng fi les are in the top w i ndow.
Sel ecting Parameters
B efore an open app l i cation can use a data fil e , it must first find and open the fi le.
Most programs enable you to search through a l l e x i st i ng d i rectories to l ocate and
open a desired fi le.
These programs h ave no preconcei ved ideas about the location of files. For these
programs you would choose Full Path, so the entire path name of the fi l e is used
when a file is opened.
Other programs already have pre-e x i sting partial paths . Th i s means that the
program contains a partial path name that it uses every time the program searches
for a file. A parti a l pathname con sists of the drive identi fier, and all appl icable
directories. On ly the file name and extension i s input for the search. All files
must be in the specified d i rectory, or they cannot be located.
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Part If: Using the Desktop
Check your program ' s documentation to determ i ne the program ' s default path,
and make sure all of your data files reside in the correct d i rectory.
Al ways try Full Path first. Then if necessary, experiment with other combi nations
until you fi nd one that works with your appl ication.
I nsta l l i ng an Appl ication to Open from a Function Keystroke
You can install any executable file ( program) to open from a function key ( L F 1 ]
through [ F I 0] at the top of the keyboard ) .
After y o u a s s i g n a function k e y to a program, y o u only h a v e t o press the assigned
fu nction key to open that program. The assigned key w i l l only open the program
from the des ktop. Once you are w i t h i n an app l i c ation, the function keys perform
the tasks assigned to them by the appl ication.
To assign a function key to open an applicati on, fol low these steps:
1 . H ighlight the application.
2. Select I nstal l Appl i cation from the Options menu.
3. Press [Tab] twice to move the text insertion cursor to the Install as l i ne.
4. Type the number of the function key you wish to assign to the application.
5. Select Instal l .
Installing an Application to Autoboot or Normal Boot Status
If you m a i n l y use your computer for a single purpose using one specific
app l ication ( such as a database, a word processor, or graphics program ) , it w i l l
save time i f you i nstall that appl ication t o autoboot. A n appl ication i nstalled to
autoboot status w i l l open automatically whenever you switch on your computer.
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Fol low these instructions to install an application to autoboot or to return an
application to normal stat u s :
1 . H i g h l ight t h e icon o r name of t h e app l i cation you w i s h t o i nstal l t o autoboot. Select
I n sta l l A p p l i ca t i o n from t h e Options men u . The I n s t a l l A p p l i c a t i o n d i a l o g box
displays.
2.
S e l e c t the B o o t S t a t u s : A u t o b o x . ( To r e s t o r e n o r m a l boot s t a t u s t o an
application installed to autoboot. selecrt he Boot Status : Normal box . )
3 . Select the appropriate Application type box.
4. Select I nstal l or press [ Return ] .
Remember t o use Save Desktop t o save the selected boot stat us, otherwise i t
w i l l b e erased when you switch off the computer.
I nstal l Devices
The I nstal l Devices command install s desktop icons for all hard disk partitions on
a l l properly configured dev ices. It also installs a cartridge icon i f a cartridge i s i n
the cartridge s l ot during startup.
U se the following steps to instal l devices:
1 . From the Options m e n u select I nsta l l Devices. Icons for a l l configured dev ices
appear on your desktop. Each icon has a unique drive identifier letter, and each device
icon is labeled DEVICE.
Note: You can change the shape of your desktop icons. See Install Icon in
this chapter.
2. Use the mouse to place the desktop icons where you want them to appear.
S e l e c t Save Desktop from t h e O p t i o n s m e n u . The S a v e Desktop D i a l og box
displays. Select OK.
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A Guided Tour of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
The Save Desktop command saves your desktop configuration i n a file cal led
NEWDES K .l N F. This file stores i n formation about wh ich icons have been
i nstal led and the location of each icon on the desktop. See Save Desktop i n this
c hapter.
Remove Desktop Icon
If you w ish to remove an icon from the desktop, fol low these steps:
1 . H ighl ight the icon you wish to remove.
2. Select Remove Desktop Icon from the Options menu. The icon d i sappears from
the desktop.
Note : If the highlighted icon represents a data or application file , a dialog box
displays and asks you whether you want to delete the file or just remove the icon .
Remember, the i nformation stored on the logical drive represented by a removed
hard disk i con is st i l l on the hard d i sk . To regain access to that i n formation, you
can: rei nstal l a hard disk icon for that l ogical drive, or press [AIt] and the drive
letter.
Set P references
The Set Preferences option lets you choose from a variety of different screen­
color options.TOS automatically detects which modes are compatible with your
mon i tor, and displays the avai l able choices. TOS w i l l not you select an
i ncompatible screen-color mode. Set Preferences also lets you select mon itor
resolutions, and whether or not you w i sh to have alert boxes d i splay during copy,
move, delete, and fi le overwrite operations.
When you select
Set Preferences, the Set Preferences d i al og box appears.
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Fa/con030 Owner 's Manual
The Set Preferences dialog box offers a ful l range of screen-color options for
several types of mon itors. U s i ng the Set Preferences Dial og box al l ows you to
choose a m u l t i tude of screen-colors and resolutions. Proper use of the settings
described below w i l l a l l ow you to get the best d i sp l ay on your monitor.
N u m be r of C o l o rs Le t s you c h oose between severa l d i ffere n t screen - c o l o r
options. W h e n choosing a setting remember that t h e screen takes longer to redraw
when it d i sp lays more screen-colors.
N u m ber of Col u m n s A l l ow s you to set the w idth of the screen d i s p l ay to 40 or
80 characters.
D o u b l e li nes/ I nterlace D i s p l ay s more l i ne s on some d i s p lays and prov ides
interlace on others.
Compat i b i l ity Modes Al l o w s you to cal l up another d i a log box w h i c h a l l o w s
y o u t o select from a l i st of several d i fferent screen resolutions and other options.
Read . I N F File
You can have more than one desktop information file o n your system, each
contai n i ng d i fferent i n format ion ( such as installed desktop icons and their
placement, and a l l View and Options menu options). The Read . I NF Fi le
command a l l ow s you to change to a different desktop env i ronment w ithout
having to transfer files or reboot .
T h e default N EWDES K . I N F fi l e i s i n t h e root d i rectory drive C . Y o u can name
the alternate desktop i n formation fi l e s anyth ing you l i ke, but the three character
extension must be . I N F.
W i t h the Read . I N F File command, you i n struct your Atari computer to read
i nformation from a spec i fied al ternate desktop information fi l e .
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A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
Foll ow these steps to use the Read . l N F F i l e command:
1 . Select Read . I N F F i l e from the Option me n u . The Select an INF File d i al og box
displays.
2. D i s p l a y and h i g h l i gh t the a l tern ate desk top i n formation fi l e . Select OK, or press
[Return ] . The new information is read into your computer.
Note : IlYou wish to save the current NEWDESK.lNF file hefore using the
READ .INF command, simply change the name of the current file NEWDESK.lNF
file . This allows you to save your desktop without losing your current setup.
Desktop Configu ration
W i t h the Desktop Configuration dialog box you c a n set the default directory and
i nput parameters for a l l appl ications, scrol l through assigned function keys, and
assign a s i ngle keystroke to various menu commands. The Desktop Configuration
dialog box also d i splays the amount of RAM currently ava i l able.
Most appl i cations use the default directory and i nput parameters d isplayed i n the
Desktop Configuration dialog box. The exceptions are appl ications that have been
assigned their own speci fi c default d i rectory and input parameters through the
Instal l Appl ications dialog box. You can find detai led information regardi ng
setti ng the default d irectory and i nput parameters under Install Applications i n
this chapter.
You can use the Function-keys Assignment to display the ful l pathname of each
program that has an assigned function key. U se the right and left scro l l arrows to
disp l ay h idden parts of the pathname, and the up and down arrow keys to scro l l
through t h e assigned function keys.
All menu commands can be assigned a keystroke. This enables you to bypass the
menu bar and init i ate the command by pressing a s i ngle key.
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Fa/con030 Owner 's Manual
Use the Define S i ngle Keystroke up and down arrows to scro l l through the menu
commands and the i r keystroke assignments. To change the keystroke of a
displ ayed menu command, type in the desired keystroke . To c lear a l l menu
command keystroke assignments, select Clear A l l .
After m a k i n g changes t o t h e Desktop Configuration dialog b o x , select OK to
confirm your choices. U se Save Desktop to save your selections, or they w i l l be
erased the next time you s w itch off your computer.
Save Desktop
You can rearrange the desktop icons and w i ndows to suit your personal
preferences and use the Save Desktop option to save the new arrangement. For
example, you might want to move the trash can icon, l ine up the disk i cons
horizontal l y , or have the startup screen display several open directory w i ndow s .
S a v e Desktop also saves Opt ion a n d View m e n u selections. T h e computer stores
saved configurations and menu selections in a N EWDES K . I N F fi le and places
this fi l e on your startup disk or hard disk dri ve root directory.
Arrange disk and trash can icons by draggi ng them to new positions on the
desktop. You may want to c lose all w in dows first to start with a clean desktop.
How you arrange your desktop w i l l depend on your needs, but i t ' s usual l y a good
idea to place the trash can icon away from the disk dri ve icons to protect agai nst
uni ntentionally dragg i ng fi les to the trash can i nstead of to a disk or logical drive
icon.
Arrange directory w i ndows on the desktop by ope ning, mov ing, and sizing
selected w i ndow s . You can have up to seven directory w indows open at once on
the desktop. Select opt ions from the View menu to determ ine how w indow items
(folders and files) are shown ( as text or as icons) and sorted ( by name, date, s ize,
or type ).
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Part II:
Using the Desktop
I f you show w indow items as text, you may want to narrow the w i ndows to show
only the i tem ' s name and extension.
If you leave the wi ndows open when you save the desktop, those w indows w i l l
open t o the same s i ze and pos ition the next time you switc h o n the computer. The
w i ndow which i s i n the foreground when you save the desktop w i l l be the
foreground w i ndow the next time you switch on the computer.
The s i ze and posi tion of c losed w i ndows i s also saved when you select Save
Deskt o p . The n e x t t i me you o p e n the w i n d o w , it w i l l o p e n to the s i ze and
position i t occupied on the desktop the last time it was opened.
Desk Accessories
The Control Panel i s a desk accessory that comes w ith your system.
The fol l ow i ng secti on describes the control panel and its uses.
The Co ntro l Panel
The Control Panel coordinates many smaller programs called control pane l
extensions (CPXs). The i n itial Control Panel screen displays the names of a l l
currently loaded CPXs. Y o u c a n open a CPX by pos i t ioning t h e pointer over the
desired CPX and double c l icking.
The Control Panel also contains a drop-down Opti on s menu. When no CPX i s
highlighted, the Options menu d i sp l ays t w o menu choices: About and Setup. Two
addit ional Options menu choices d i sp l ay when a CPX name in the main Control
Panel w indow is h i g h l i ghted. The three additional options are Open CPX, C PX
Info, and U nload CPX.
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To select an option, pos i t ion the poi nter over the Options menu. Then c l ick the
mouse button. The Options menu displ ays. Move the poi nter until the desired
option highl ights . C l ick the mouse button to select the h ighl ighted option .
Whenever you open a Control Panel o r CPX w i ndow , you are usual ly given the
fol lowing options : S ave, O K , or Cance l . C l i c k i ng on the close w i ndow box is the
same as selecting OK and then c losi ng the Control Panel .
Selecting Save pl aces the currently d isplayed setti ng i nformation i n a fi le o n the
startup disk. Your Atari computer reads this file duri ng startup and load in the
saved setti ngs. Select OK if you j ust w ish to change a setti ng for one session. The
Control Panel wi ndow closes, and the changes remain i n e ffect only until you
switch off your computer. The most recently saved set t i ngs w i l l be in effect then
next time you sw i tch on the computer.
Selecting Cancel al ways returns you to the mairi Control Panel w i ndow .
About. . .
When you select About, Control Panel i n formation (such as version n umber and
copyright date ) displays .
Setup . . .
You can use the Setup di alog box to change a CPX's status ( active/inact i ve ) ,
reload CPXs w ithout restarti ng your computer, set t h e amount of memory
reserved for basic CPX i n formation, and des ignate a CPX directory path. You can
also use the calendar and c lock to set the computer's t ime and date.
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A Guided Tou r of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
Gene r a l Setup
Acce l erator
Sound Setup
Figure 4-2 . The Control Panel
Date and Time
The computer uses the date and time to mark i ndiv idual fi les with the date and
time they were created or rev i sed. This feature is usefu l when you want to
determ ine which fi le was most recently changed or created.
You can use 1 2/24 Hour Time to set the Control Panel cloc k to 1 2 or 24 hour
time. Thi s does not affect the way fi les are dated, only the way the time i s
displayed i n the Control Panel w indow. T o set t h e clock o r calendar, fol l ow these
steps:
1 . O p e n the Control Panel. S e l ect Date or T i m e by pos i t i o n i n g the po inter over t h e
desired selection a n d c l icking the mouse button.
2. Press [ Left Arrow] to position the cu rsor i n the w indow, or press [ B ackspace] or [Esc]
to erase the window . [ Backspace] erases the characters i n the window one character at
a time. [Esc] erases the entire window.
3 . Type i n the desired t ime or date.
4 . C l ick on the new t i me or date.
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To change between 1 2 and 24 hour t i me , position the poi nter over the selection
box to the left of the word Time. Click the mouse button. B oth the 1 2 and 24 hour
selection boxes display. Move the pointer until the desired box is highl ighted.
C l ick the mouse button agai n .
CPX Mover and Reload CPXs
Only active CPXs are loaded during startup. A l l active CPXs appear in the main
Control Panel Window. I f you need to lise an i nacti ve CPX, YOll can use the CPX
Mover to change the status of the CPX from inactive to acti v e . Then when YOll
select Reload CPXs, the new l y act i ve CPX d i splays i n the main Control Panel
w i ndow.
You can also remove a CPX from the main Control Panel Wi ndow by changing
the status of the CPX from active to i nactive.
To change the status of a CPX, fol low these steps:
1 . Open the Control Panel. Select Setu p from the Options menu.
2. Select the CPX Mover. The CPX Mover w i ndow appears.
Figure 4-3. The CPX Mover Window
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A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
Part Jr' Using the Desktop
3 . Select the desired CPX by positioning your pointer over the name of the CPX and cl icking,
The CPX high l ights, and the appropriate operation appears i n the Move box ,
Note: You can select multiple CPXs for the move CPXs operation. Use shift­
clicking or rubber banding to highlight more than one CPX. If you use rubber
handing, the ruhher band box lVill not actually appear, but it still works the
same way.
4. Select the operation by clicking in the Move box.
If you have transferred a CPX from i nactive to active statu s, you must reload before
you can use the CPX. To Reload CPXs, fol l ow these steps :
1 . Open the Control Panel . Select Set u p from the Options menu.
2. Select Reload CPX. When the confirmati on dial og box appears, select OK.
Advanced Setup Options
Setting t h e M inimum N umber of S lots and t h e C P X Directory Path are advanced
features of the Setup dialog box. You w i l l probabl y use these options i n freq uently.
Minimum Num ber Of Slots
CPXs are stored i n an external memory device ( h ard disk or floppy d i s k ) . During
startup or reloadi ng, only basic i n formation about each active CPX ( such as the
CPX ' s name and icon) i s l oaded i nto R A M , When you actual l y open an acti ve CPX,
the bulk of the file is then loaded i nto RAM so you can use the CPX. When you c l ose
the CPX , the fil e i s erased from RAM until the next time you open i t
Note: CPXs with Resident status do not follow the above pattern , bllt are copied into
RAM at startup time.
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Your Atari computer has to know how much RAM to reserve for CPX basic
i n formation. When you set the M i nimum N u mber of S lots, you are telling the
computer to reserve enough RAM to be able to store basic i n formation for that
number of CPXs. I f the number of active CPXs at startup time exceeds the M i n imum
N umber of Slots, your computer reserves enough RAM for that number of CPXs. You
can select from 5 to 99 s lots.
To change the M in i mum N u mber of S lots, fol low these steps:
1 . Open the Control Panel . Select Setup from the Options men u .
2. U se the scro l l arrows t o d i splay the desired number of slots. Select OK or Save.
CPX Directory Path
The CPX D i rectory Path tel l s the Control Panel where to look for CPX fi les. You
probably want to store all of your CPX files i n one folder, and set the d i rectory path to
that fol der.
But i f you store CPX fi les i n more than one p l ace, the CPX Di rectory Path must be set
to the d i rectory that contai ns the CPX fi les you w i sh to use.
Note: If the CPX Directory Path is too long to display in the box, use the left and right
scroll arrows to display the hidden sections of the path.
To change the CPX D i rectory Path, fol low these steps :
1 . Open the Control Panel. Select Set u p from the Options menu .
2. C l ick anywhere o n the C P X Directory Path box. The F i l e Selector displays.
3 . Use the File Selector to select a new path . When you open a d i rectory, the d irectory name
is added to the File Selector ' s Directory l ine. When the desired d i rectory path i s d isplayed,
select OK. The new path appears i n the CPX Directory Path box.
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A Guided Tour of the Desktop
Part ll:
Using the Desktop
Ope n C PXs . . .
You can open a CPX by first highl igh ting the CPX on the Control Panel main
w i ndow, and then selecting Open CPXs from the Control Panel Opt ions menu. You
can also open a CPX by dou b l e cl icking on i t s box in the Control Panel m a i n w i ndow.
C PX I nfo . . .
When you highl ight a CPX and then select CPX I n fo from the Control Panel Options
menu, the CPX I n fo w i ndow di splays. The w i ndow conta i n s the selected C PX ' s
fi lename, version number, I D n umber, and Re�ident/Non Resident status.
F i l ename i s the C PX ' s actual fi lename as i t appears on the disk. Version and ID are
assi gned by the CPX ' s programmer. Two versions of the same CPX can have the
stlllle ID number. I n this case, o n l y the most recent version is l oaded.
If you have several versions of the same CPX, you can look at the version n umber to
determ i ne which i� the most recent vers ion.
You can use Configure CPXs ( see Configure C PXs i n this chapter ) to change the
res ident stat us of a CPX. You probably want most of your CPXs to have Resident: No
status. This means the b u l k of the program is stored in e x ternal mcmory ( hard or
flopp)' d i s k ) and only read into RAM when you open the CPX.
But if you have a CPX that you u se freq uent l y , you Ill ay w a l l t t o g i ve i t Re� i dent : Yes
, tatus. CPXs that have a Resident: Ye� status on start u p arc read d i n:et l y i n to R A M
and rema in there u n t i l you switch off t h e com puter. Rc�ident C P X s r u n a b i t more
q u i c k l y . but may lake up a great deal of R A M .
Note : When you change a CPX ' s status 10 Residenl : Y(' s . the .1 1e/IIIS chw/ge docs nol
ICIk(' effecl IInlif Ihc /lexl lime you slCln YOII{" s \'slem. The 01//1' limc a CPX cal/ he
inslalled inlo RAM with Residenl status is during startlll}. /1/ Ihe sante wa r. c/tanging
a
CPX ' s status ro Residc n l : No stalus does 1101 a ( " / / wlll" {"flI I O \ ' e it /i'otl/ RA M IIlIlif rou
switch off you,. 5 Vsll' m .
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Falcon030 Owner's Manual
U n load C P X . . .
Un load CPX does not change the status of the CPX to i nact i ve. I t simply removes a
CPX from the CPX l i st on the Control Panel main w i ndow. You can use Reload CPX
to p lace the CPX back on the l i st.
Note: You cannot unload a resident CPX.
C PXs
This section provides a general description of the CPXs that come w i th your
Atari computer. As CPXs are constantl y bei ng improved for your benefi t , the
descri ptions contained in t h i s section may not correspond exactly to the CPXs that
ship w i th your system.
G e n e ral Setu p
The General Setup CPX al lows you to set the keyboard response and repeat rate, the
mouse double c li c k response rate, and the audio feedback. It also allows you to toggle
on and off options, such as CPU Cache, Sound, and B Li TTER and di splay system
statistics such as the TOS version n umber and amount of avai l able R A M . Options are
selectable through buttons, sl iders, and pop-ups. The General Setup CPX is s l ightly
different for each system. Fo l lo w i ng i s a description of the General Setup CPX.
Status
Select t h e Status b o x to di splay the TOS version n umber, version date , a n d total the
number of avai lable bytes.
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A Guided Tour of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
Audio Feedback
The computer has two kinds of audio feedback, a c l ick signali ng each keystroke and a
bel l signa l i ng keyboard or mouse errors. To control audio feedback, select the key top
button or the bell button. A gray i m age means that the sound has been turned off. A
c lear i mage means that sound is turned on.
C hip Select
The Chip Select feature allows you to choose among the B l i tter and/or Cache options .
C l ick on t he status box below Chip S e l e c t . T h e current selection is i ndicated in the
pop-up by a checkmark. To change the curren t selection, move the pointer u n t i l the
desired selection h ig h l ights, and c l ick on that selection. That setting becomes the
current selection and the pop-up c loses. The new setti ng is displ ayed inside the
shadowed statu s box .
Sound
If you want a l l sound turned off, position the poi nter over the Sound button. Click the
mouse button. Move the poi nter until the word Off h igh l ights, and c l ick the mouse
button again .
Keyboard Respo nse
Every key on t h e computer keyboard responds w h e n pressed, and every key (except
[ S h i ft ] , [Control ] , [Esc], [ Caps Lock] and [ A l t ] ) repeats its character if held down .
The keyboard repeat controls how m uch time i t takes for the keys to repeat when they
are pressed, and how quickly they repeat after the repeat process begin s .
T h e upper sl ider controls h o w soon a key starts t o repeat. Moving t h e slider t o t h e left
makes the keys repeat sooner. Drag the s l i der to the desired position, then release the
mouse button .
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
The lower s l ider controls the speed at which the keys repeat. Move the s l ider to the
left to make the keys repeat faster. Drag the s l ider to the desired position, then re lease
the mouse button.
Test the new settings by turning the sound on, i f req u i red, and pre s s i ng [ Space B ar] .
You should hear a c l i ck each time you press the space bar. Li sten to the c l icks to
j udge the repeti tion speed of the keyboard.
Do u ble-Cl ick Response
Y o u c a n adjust your Atari compute r ' s response t o double cl icking. T o slow the
computer's response to double-c l icking, al lowing you to double-cl i ck more s l o w l y ,
select a numbered b o x nearer to t h e resting mouse icon . T o qu icken t h e c o m - puter's
response to double-c l i cking ( for fast double-c l icks), select a n umbered box nearer to
the running mouse icon.
After setting the double-cl ick response, you can test the setting by double-c l ic k i ng on
the Double-Cl ick Re sponse Test box . When you double-click at the set rate or faster,
the box w i l l briefly highl ight.
Modem Set u p
The serial port( s ) o n the computer are type RS232 serial ports . B y connecting a
modem to a serial port, you can comm unicate with other computers. You can also
connect a seri a l printer or any other RS232 device to the seri al port( s ) .
The Modem Setup CPX l e t s y o u configure t h e compute r ' s serial port ( s ) t o work with
your modem or other serial device. Refer to the manual suppl ied with your peripheral
for speci fic i n formation on which paramerers to choose. The parameters needed by
the computer w i th which you are commu nicating ( the remote device) i s known as the
commun ications protocol .
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A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
Part 1/: Using the Desktop
Serial Port Selecto r
The Serial Port Selector allows you to te l l the computer which of the avai lable serial
ports to recogn i ze as active. Select the port you are u s i ng for the connected modem.
Baud Rate
B aud rate is the speed at which data i s transmitted. Baud, the standard u n i t measure of
tran smission speed, i s the number of signal elements per second . The fastest rate
avai l able to you i s 1 9,200 baud; the sl owest is 50 baud. Set the baud rate to
accommodate both your modem and the remote computer's modem. (The baud rate
for bulletin board systems is usually l i sted along with the phone n u mber for the
board . )
T o set t h e baud rate, position t h e pointer over t h e Baud Rate box. C l i c k once and a
pop-u p appears. Use the up and down arrows to scro l l through the baud rate
selections. When the desired baud rate displays, move the poin ter to highlight the
desired rate. C l i c k the mouse button to select the highl ighted rate.
Parity
Whenever computers transmit data through telephone l i nes, there is a chance that
some of the i nformation w i l l become garbled due to imperfections and noise within
the l ines. Parity i s a error checking procedure that computers u se to exam i ne
i nformation and determ i ne w hether data was c leanly tran smitted.
The parity bit is added to a group of bits to make the total n umber of bits transmitted
odd or even . Transmi ssion errors can be identified w hen the number of bits in a group
does not match the parity chosen (odd or even ) . Depending on the modem and the
remote dev ice, you w i l l choose e ither None, Odd, or Even parity. ( Refer to the manual
supplied with your modem for sp ecific information .)
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Faicon030 Owner's Manual
To set the parity, position the pointer over the shaded Par i ty box . Cl i c k once and a
pop-up appears. Use the pointer to highlight the desired parity. Click the mouse
button to select the h i g h l ighted option.
Bits/C har
Each character i s stored i n memory a s o n e byte. Usual ly a byte i s made u p o f e ight
bits. Depending on bits per character u sed by the remote dev ice, you may need to
change the number of bits per character when transm i tt i ng through the R S 2 3 2 port.
To set the b its/char, posit i on the pointer over the shaded B its/Char box . Click once
and a pop-up appears. Use the pointer to highlight the des i red number of bits per
character. C l i c k the mouse button to select the highlighted option.
Stop Bits
The stop bit i ndicates the end of an asynchronous R S 2 3 2 character. You normally use
I stop bit, but you may need to u se 1 .5 or 2 stop bits. To set the number of stop bits,
position the pointer over the shaded Stop B i ts box. C lick once. Use the pointer to
high l i ght the desired number of stop bits. C lick the mouse button to select the
highl ighted option.
Flow Control
You can choose between two flow-control protocols: Xon/Xoff, and Rts/Cts. Flow
control protocols are procedures that allow your computer and the remote dev ice to
signal one another when to start or stop sending information. Choose the flow control
supported by the remote modem.
To select a Flow Control protocol, position the poin ter over the shaded Flow Control
box. C li c k once. Use the pointer to h ighligh t the desired flow control protocol . C l i c k
t h e mouse button t o select t h e highlighted option.
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A Guided Tou r of the Desktop
Part 1/: Using the Desktop
P rinter Setup
Any program may access the printer configurations set b y the Printer Setup CPX. For
example, the Print Screen option under the Options menu uses the pri nter setup
information. Other u t il ities or applications may not. Check the manuals supplied with
your programs to see i f a program can use the printer setup i nformation.
Note: You cannot configure an A tari SLM laser printer with the Install Printer dialog
box. Instead, refer to the A tari SLM Printer User' s Manual (supplied with the SLM
laser printer) for instructions on changing printer settings.
If you h ave both an S L M and dot-matrix or daisy wheel printer connected to your
computer you may be able to select the printer type within your application. I f not ,
you must turn off one of the printer driver programs.
To configure your printer, display the Printer Setup CPX w indow. Position your
poi nter over the shaded box representing the setting you w i sh to change. C lick the
mouse button. Move the pointer over the des i red setting. When the sett ing highl ights,
click the mouse button to select the highl ighted setting.
Printer Type
The choices are Dot (dot matrix printers) and Daisy (daisy wheel printers) . Select the
appropriate box for your printer.
Color
The choices are B /W (duochrome ) and Color. Select the appropriate box for your
printer.
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Pixels/Li ne
Only dot matrix graphics pri nters use t h e Pixel s/L i ne option . Pixel means pict ure
e lement. On dot matrix printers, a pixcl is a dot. Dot matrix pri nters print a certain
number of pixels per l i ne when pri n t i ng in graph ics mode . If you have an Atari dot
matrix graph ics printer, select 1 280. If you have an Epson , or Epson-compatible dot
matrix graph ics pri nter, select 960. Both values assume an eight-inch pri nted l i ne.
Qual ity
Only dot matrix pri nters use the Qual ity option. Select Draft for draft-qual i ty pri nting.
Se lect Final for letter or near-letter quality printing.
In Draft mode, the printer may make only one pass o f the print head when pri nting.
For darker pri nting, select F i n a l . Keep i n m i nd that i n Final draft mode the printer
genera l ly makes two passes of the print head, thus taking tw ice as long to pri n t the
page.
Note: Do not select Final if your printer does not support near·/etter quality printing.
Paper
I f y o u r printer feeds" paper automat i cally by m e a n s of a tractor o r s i ngle-sheet feeder,
select Feed. If your pri nter accepts only a sheet at a t i me which you must i n sert
manua l l y , select Single. The S ingle option p revents the printer from pri nting beyond
t he end of a page on documents longer than a single sheet.
Port
If you have a parallel pri nter, select Printer. Parallel pri nters connect to the port
marked Pri nter on the back of the computer. If you u se a serial pri nter, select
Mode m . Seri a l pri n ters connect to the port marked M odem ( t he R S 2 3 2 port) on the
back of the computer.
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A Guided Tou r of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
Note: For most serial printers, XonlXoffflow control is set to On. This setting enables
the printer to signal the computer to temporarily stop sending data so it can print
data it has already received. (See RS232 Configuration earlier in this chapter. )
Color Set u p
Depending on your moni tor type and the screen resolution you have selected, u p to
256 colors canbe used for dra w i ng at one t ime on you r screen.
You can choose the colors you w i s h touse from a palette of avail able colors.
Note: Not all A tari computers are capahle of displaying all the resolutions descrihed
in this section. Check your system's hardware specifications to find out which
resolutions it is capahle of displaying.
Color Setup allows you to choose which colors from the color palette you w i sh to
have available for use when you assign w indow colors. See W indow Colors i n this
c hapter.
Th ink of the color palette as a col lect ion of inks. The Color Display Box can d i splay
up to 1 6 colors at a t i me ( t h i s does not l im i t the n umber of colors your system i s
capable o f d i splay i ng ) .
Modi fy any p e n color according t o your personal taste by using t h e fol lo w i ng steps:
1 . Select one of the available pens by moving the pointer over the des i red pen and c l icking the
mouse button.
2. Use the RGB scroll bars to add or subtract a color from the pen . Changing the ratio of Red,
Green, and B l u e w i l l change the color of the h i g h l i g h ted pen. Repeat Steps I and 2 for
every pen you want to modify.
3. After you modify the color palette, select Save to permanently save the palette, OK to
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
select and use the new palette u n t i l you s w i tch off the syste m , Cancel to e x i t the Color
Setup CPX and return to the Control Panel menu ( no changes are saved) ,
o r Reload t o d i splay t h e most recently saved defaults.
Note: If you are setting colors while in the True Color mode, you wil/ notice a
blending effe ct as you move the R , C , and B control hars. This is normal, hecause the
True Color mode does not redraw every occurance of a particular shade, when that
shade is altered.
Note : You can restore the currently displayed color to the condition it was in before
you opened it by pressing [ UNDO} , or selecting reload.
True Color
The True Color mode al lows your system to d i splay thousands of colors, whether you
are using an ST, VGA, or telev i s ion as a display.
True color mode di splays such a w i de range of colors that some i mages displayed i n
True Color have a near photographic quality.
So u nd Set u p
The Sound Setup allows you to adj u st the vol ume of the CD q u a l ity sound output, and
the microphone input. U se the s l i ders to adj ust the sound output to headphones or
speakers.
W i n dow Col ors
Window Colors al lows you to assign colors and/or patterns to d i fferent e lements of
desktop w indows, depending on which type of disp l ay your system uses.
You can assign c o l ors a n d/or p a t t e r n s to each e leme n t i n a l l fo reg ro u n d and
background w i ndows.
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A Gu ided Tour of the Desktop
Part II: Using the Desktop
Even though the color palette contains thousands of colors, the number of available
colors depends on the selected resolution of the d i splay (on certai n mode l s ) and
w hether the display ' s output is color or duochrome. Refer to the hardware appendices
for the exact reso l ution(s) and color(s) your computer is capable of d i splaying.
You can choose several options (e.g., border, text, and fi l l ) for each w i ndow e lement.
B order allows you to choose the color of the narrow border that sur- rou n ds each
w i ndow elemen t . Use Tex t to choose the color of any text or icon ( as in the case of
the Ful l box) that appears w i t h i n the selected w i ndow element. Fill i s the background
color of the selected e lement, and you can also choose one of the eight fil l patterns
appearing d i rectly under the F i l l scrol l bar. The fil l color appears in the selected
pattern.
The Mode box allows you to toggle between having text appear directl y on the fil l
pattern , and having text appear w i t h i n a sol id background over the fil l pattern . When
you assign element colors to the foreground w i n dow and select Save
or OK, the new colors are di spl ayed the next t i me you open a w i ndow . Any wi ndow
that is already open does not reflect the new foreground w indow e lement colors.
Before you assign w indow element colors, choose the color set you w i sh to use. You
can: u se the factory assigned defaul t color set, press a function key ( l through 1 0) to
use a W indow Colors preassigned color set, or use Color Setup to create a custom
color set. U se the fol lowing steps to assign foreground and background w indow
element colors:
1 . Select a w indow element for color assignment. A box outlines the selected element.
2 . C l i c k and drag the appropriate scro l l box to assign Border, Text, and F i l l colors t o the
highlighted window element . C lick on the desired Fill Pattern.
3 . Sel ect the desired Mode. Repeat steps I t h rough 4 u n t i l al l the desire d colors have been
selected.
4 . Choose Save to permanently save the selected window element colors, OK to select and
use the current colors and/or patterns u n t i l you switch off the computer ( the next t i me you
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Falcon030 Owner 's Manual
start the computer, the most recently Saved colors and/or patterns appear., Select
Cancel
to exit W i ndow Colors and return to the Control Panel men u (no changes are saved).
Config u re C PXs
Configure C P X s a l l o w s y o u to change t h e name, choose t h e d i splayed text and icon
color, and change the RAM resident status of CPXs.
To configure a CPX, you m ust first d i splay the name of the desired CPX in the name
l i ne . U se the left and right scroll arrows to scro l l through the CPX l i st .
When t h e Configure C P X s w indow d isplays, t h e text insertion cursor i s already
positioned at the end of the CPX N ame l i ne.
To change the name of the displayed CPX, press [Esc ] to c lear the entire Name l ine,
or press [ Backspace] to erase one character at a time.
Then type in the new CPX name.
To select text and icon colors, use the appropriate scroll arrows to d i splay the
avai lable colors and/or patterns. The name and icon shown on the Name l ine displays
the color or pattern selection.
You can also set the RAM res i dent status of the selected CPX. Position the pointer
over the shaded RAM res ident box and c li c k the mouse button. A pop-up appears.
M ove the pointer to highlight the desired status. Click the mouse button to save the
highlighted selection.
When the desi red text/icon color selection displays, and the desired R A M res ident
status is selected, c l ick on OK or Save.
Note: RAM resident status takes effect only at start up time and when you change
resolutions.
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A Guided Tour of the Desktop
Part /I: Using the Desktop
Accel erator
The Accelerator CPX a l lows you to adjust the speed at which the on-screen pointer
responds to the movement of your mouse. The Accelerator also contains a screen
saver.
There are three mouse Accelerator settings: Off, Fast, and S uper Fast. Choose Off i f
you d o not w i sh to increase the response speed o f the pointer. Select Fast o r select
S u per Fast to i ncrease the pointer response speed.
To select a new pointer response speed, pos i t i on the pointer over the desired setting
and c l ick the mouse button.
The Screen Saver automatical l y darkens the screen after a set period of inacti v ity. To
acti vate the Screen Saver, select the Screen S aver box. When the Screen S aver is
act i v e , the Screen S aver Delay s l ider and the Modem Recognition icon appear as solid
objects on the screen. When the Screen S aver i s inacti v e , the Screen Saver Delay
sl ider and the Modem Recognition icon appear as outl ines.
When the Screen Saver is act ive, i t automatical l y darkens the screen after a period of
mouse and keyboard i nacti v i t y . You can set the n umber of m inutes of i nactivity in
two ways. You can use the c lock icons on e i ther s ide of the Screen Saver Delay s l i der
as scro l l arrows, or you can drag the scro l l bar. Release the mouse button when the
desired number di splays in the scro l l bar.
M odem Recognition a l lows you to choose whether or not you want the Screen Saver
to recognize modem act i v ity. I f the M odem Recognition i s on, the Screen Saver
recognizes modem act i v i ty and w i l l not activate . I f the M odem Recognition is off, the
Screen Saver ignores modem act i v i ty and act i vates after the set delay period of
keyboard and mouse act i v ity has passed.
A Gu ided Tou r of the Desktop
4-45
Part II: Using the Desktop
5
Desktop Management
Wo rki ng with D i rectori es , Fo lders ,
and Fi les
Directories and folders provide a way t o group files together for organization and
storage. Maintain i ng an organized folder and directory structure helps you locate
files and creates an efficient working environment, both for you and for your
computer.
A collection of information grouped together i s cal led a fi le. A program or
application fi l e contains i nstructions for the computer. A data file contains
infonnation to be used or edited by the program or appl ication.
Ide ntifyi ng a D i rectory , Fo lder, or F i l e
The root directory i s the first directory displayed when you open a disk icon. When
you open a root directory, only the Disk Identifier and file mask appear i n the
w indow ' s move bar. For example, the move bar of the root directory of drive A
would display the fol lowing:
A:\* . *
Desktop Management
5-1
Fa/con030 Owner 's Manual
When you open a folder, the fol de r ' s name is added to the move bar. If you opened
a fol der cal led LETTERS that resided in the root directory of drive A, the move bar
would display the fol lowing:
A :\LETTE RS\* . *
D i s p l ay i n g a D i recto ry o r Folder
You can view the contents of a directory o r folder by opening the icon, displaying
i ts contents.
To open a directory or folder, position the pointer over the desired icon, then
double-click the left mouse button or h ighlight the desired icon and select the
Open command from the File men u . Once the w i ndow displays, you can select
other fi les and folders from the list.
Directories and folders contain data fi les, program fi les, and other folders. If you
have a number of related fi les, you can place them inside one folder to keep them
together. You can also put folders and fi les within other folders. You can create a
folder using the Create Folder command. ( See File Menu, in
Chapter 4, A Guided Tour of the Desktop. )
Fi l es and F i l e n am es
There are two types of fi les. Executable fi les ( al so cal led programs or applications)
contain instructions for the computer to carry out. Most of the time the instructions
contained in executable fi les are used to work with information i n data fi les. A data
file is a collection of information that contains no instructions fot the computer.
You can place fi les in root directories and folders. I f you choose to display your
folders and files as i cons ( see View Menu, i n Chapter 4, A Guided Tour of the
Desktop. ) , you w i l l have as many icons i n a directory as you have folders and fi les
i n that directory. The name of the file or folder w i l l display under its icon.
5-2
Desktop Management
Part II: Using the Desktop
Filenames and Extensions
Files are identified by filenames. You can (must ) name the files you create, and you
can change the names of ex isting files.
The filename i s made up of two parts: the name and an optional three-character
extension. In the following example, the name is S A M PLE and the extension i s
.PRG.
SAM P L E . P RG
1
1
1
1
extension (optional ; a period ( . ) and up to th ree characters)
name ( mandatory ; up to eight characters)
The fol lowing characters cannot be used within a file name or extension:
Period ( . )
Quotation Marks
Forward slash (/)
Back slash (\)
Brackets ([ or ] )
Vertical Break Bar ( I )
Less-than Symbol « )
G reater-than symbol (»
Plus Sign (+)
Colon ( : )
Semicolon ( ; )
Comma ( , )
A�terisk ( )
Question Mark (?)
*
Filenames usually refer to the i nformation contained i n the file, such as TAXES for
tax information, or TAXES90, TAXES9 1 , and TAXES92 for a series of tax
information files.
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Fa/con030 O wner 's Manual
Some files must have specific extensions. For example, the .PRG extension tel l s
your computer that the file i s a n executable G E M application. If you remove the
extension .PRG from the filename, the computer w i l l not recognize the fi le as an
application.
Appl ications often use a specific fi le extension. This extension i s automatically
assigned to any file the appl ication creates. For example, word processors often use
. DOC or .TXT as an extension for documents. See the documentation suppl ied
with the appl i cation for more information.
Each of the fol lowing executable fil e types has a unique fi le extension by which it
can be recognized. These extensions should be used only for executable files:
. PRG, .TTP, .TOS, .GTP, .ACe, and .APP. Files w ith any of those extensions
cannot be opened i f the extension i s deleted or changed.
These six extensions and their defi n i tions are l i sted below:
. ACC A GEM Desktop accessory. The system accesses . ACC fi les which appear
under the Desk menu. U se accessories by selecting them from the Desk menu. You
can have up to six acti ve accessories on the system at a time .
. APP A G E M application. An .APP fi le is a G E M application and w i l l usua l l y
take advantage o f the G E M environment b y u s i n g windows, icons, a n d drop-down
menus .
. GTP A GEM-Takes-Parameters appl icati on ( see .TTP)
.PRG G E M appl ication. ( See . APP. )
.TOS A TOS application. A .TOS fi l e i s a non-GEM appl ication. I t does not use
the GEM environment and may not even use the mouse .
. TTP A .TTP (TOS-Takes-Parameters) application. A .TTP file i s a .TOS file that
expects some typed parameters (data that w i l l control the program ' s operation ) .
When you open a .TIP fi le, a n Open Appl ication dialog box appears requesting you
to enter some parameters. Consult the .TTP program ' s documentation for more
information.
5-4
Desktop Management
Part II: Using the Desktop
Note : When you sort files by type, they are arranged alphabetically by their
extensions.
Path nam es
A path name tell s the computer where to find a fi le or folder. Path names begin w ith
the appropriate drive identifier, and then l i st each appl icable folder, starting with
the folder residing i n the root directory (e.g., A :\ or B :\ etc . ) and ending w ith the
folder that contains the fi l e or folder.
The final element of a path name is the name and extension of the file or folder. The
move bar displays the complete pathname of the displayed file or folder.
Let ' s build an example. You have a fi le i n drive A which contains all 1 992 sales
and marketing reports for all sales regions. But you are interested i n finding the
July 6th sales report from the western sales region.
First you open the disk icon for floppy drive A . A w indow opens, di splaying drive
A ' s root directory. The move bar displays only the drive identifier and file mask.
The fi Ie mask i s the * . * fol lowing the backslash:
A:\* . *
Note: For a full explanation offile masks, please refer to Set File Mask. The
asterisks in the file mask above are known as wild card characters. Wild card
characters are explained in the section on File Specification in this chapter.
One of the items in the displayed root directory is a folder called SALES. When
that folder is opened, the name of the folder is added to the pathname. The
path name then consi sts of the D i sk Identifier and the folder name l i ke the example
be low:
A:\SALES\' . *
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
The w i ndow now di splays the contents of the SALES folder. One of the i tems in the
di splayed d i rectory is a folder called WESTERN. When that fol der is opened, the
name of the folder is added to the path name. Now the pathname looks l ike this:
A:\SALES\WESTERN\ *. *
In the displayed directory of the WESTERN folder you find the fi le you are look i ng
for, cal led JULY_6. DOC.
I f you opened that fil e from within an application, the following entire pathname
may display i n the move bar:
A:\SALES\WESTER N\J U LY_6 . DOC.
The fi l e mask i s replaced by the actual file name and extension.
Note : An underline character separates JULY from 6 . Since the space character is
an illegal character in file orfolder names, the underline character is sometimes
used to simulate a space.
Ope n i ng a F i l e
When you open a program file, the computer carries out the i nstructions contained
i n the file. Thi s is also cal led starting or running the program.
There are many ways to open a program file from the desktop. You can position
your pointer over the fil e ' s name or icon ( l ocated e ither in a w indow or on the
desktop) and double-cli ck the left mouse button. You can highl ight the file, then :
select the Open option under the File menu, o r press the assigned command key '
(the default command key for opening a file is (0)). You can also use an assigned
function key to open the program. ( See Open under File Menu in the previous
chapter. )
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Desktop Management
Part II: Using the Desktop
( Other methods of opening a program fi le are explained in the Instal l Application
section under Options menu in the previous chapter. )
File Selecto r
The File Selector is a spec ial dialog box that can only be accessed from within
a program. You will use the File Selector for loading and savi ng fi les. Many
appl ications programs use the File Selector dialog box ( see Figure 5 - 1 ).
FILE SELECTOR
Dirottory:
f : \EASYDRRW\lI . 6E1L_________
Se l ec t i Dn :
.,
�
_____ . __
* . �E"
_
_
_
M RUTO___ , __
[( 6E11 S YS_, __
---_ . ---- , -__- 1 ----_ . ____ 1 ---_ . _--
---- _ . _--
()
r--
Ii
DI:=J
r-()
�
Figure 5-1 . The File Selector Dialog Box
When you display the File Selector dialog box , the Directory field di splays the
current directory ' s pathname. The pathname consi sts of a disk identifier, folder
name(s), and a file specifier.
The Selection field shows the currently selected file ( i f one has been selected) and
can be edited l ike the Directory field.
The directory w indow shows the current directory ' s folders and fi les that can be
accessed by the application. The folders are l i sted fi rst i n the directory w i ndow, and
then all files are l i sted. ( For further i nformation on sorting see Sorting Files and
Folders i n this chapter. )
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Fa/con030 Owner 's Manual
If the directory contains more fi les than it can display in the window at one time,
scroll the w indow to view the hidden files. ( See Scrolling a Window, in Chapter
3, The GEM-Desktop . )
The drive selector shows the currently selected drive.
Note : When you make a change within the File Selector dialog hox, related fields
automatically show that change. For instance, If you change the drive with the
drive selector, the drive letter in the Directory field also changes.
Sel ecting A Fil e
Place the pointer o n the filename you wish to select. Select a file b y one o f these
methods:
•
Cl ick the left mouse button and select O.K.
•
Double-cl ick the left mouse button.
•
Enter the filename on the selection field, then select O.K.
Sel ecting A Directory
From the directory w i ndow, open a folder directory by selecting the folder name.
The current directory w indow ' s fol der appears at the top of the directory, marked
with a folder symbol. To close a folder d i rectory, select the close box button. The
current directory ' s pathname appears in the D irectory Field.
From the directory field, you can select a directory by typing that folder' s
pathname. T o d o this, erase the D i rectory Field, type the new pathname,and press
[ Return ] . The pathname contains a disk identifier, and may also contain folder
names and file specifications.
5-8
Desktop Management
Part II: Using the Desktop
Sel ecting a Drive
You can select a drive from the drive selector or the Directory l i ne.
To select a drive with the drive selector, position the pointer over the target drive ' s
letter. Cl ick the left mouse button t o view the drive ' s directory.
NOTe : The drive lerrer is parr of The disk drive idenTifier, which includes a lerrer
specifying a drive, a colon ( : ) , and a backslash (\).
The Fil e Specification
The fi le specification in the Directory field is a search criterion that may incl ude
letters, numbers, and special characters cal led w i l dcards (* and ?). The file
specification determi nes which files appear i n the directory wi ndow . B y editing the
file specification, you can choose which fi les or types of fi les to display.
The file specification is similar to a filename. It contains a mandatory name of up to
eight characters and an optional exten sion of up to three characters. A file
specification uses the asterisk (*) and the question mark characters as w i l dcards.
An asterisk in a file specification stands for all characters and combinations of
characters, and can replace an entire name or extension. For example, the file
specification *. * calls for the display of all filenames w ith a l l extensions.
Often, a fi le specification has an asterisk for the name , but specifies an extension.
For example, the fi le specification * . DOC shows all filenames with the . DOC
extension in the directory w i ndow. Thi s file specification would not show:
FINANCE .TXT
The asterisk must be the l ast character in the name or extension of a file
specification. For example, the file specification TA X*.DOC is val id, but the fi le
specification T*X.DOC i s not valid.
Desktop Management
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Falcon030 Owner's Manual
A question mark in a fi le specification replaces a s i ngle character. For example, the
file specification M EMO? LET specifies a l l files which begi n w i th MEMO, have
any character in the fifth position of the fil e ' s name, and which have the extension
.LET. This file specification would not display the files:
B I D . LET
M E M033.LET
MEM01 . DOC
The fil e specification ???????? ??? i s equivalent to * *
You can combine w i l dcards and characters. For example, ?IL* .T?T and F*.T* are
both valid file specifications w h ich would display FILE. TXT.
To change a file specification, edit the specification in the D i rectory field, then
update the directory w i ndow by pressing [ Return].
Ope n i ng a Data File
You can open the appl i cation fil e first ( see Opening a Program File i n thi s
section) and then open the data file using the File Selector. O r you can save a step
by using Install Application to l in k the data fil e type ( i dentified by the three­
character extension) to an application. I f the data file type i s l i n ked to an
app l i cation, you can use one of the four methods for opening a file (see Opening a
Program File i n this chapter) as i f you are opening the data fil e from the desktop.
The computer w i l l open the selected fil e .
Note: You can also open a file by dragging a data file over the icon for the program
file.
If you attempt to open a data fil e whose file type is not l inked to an application, the
S how/print dialog box displays.
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Desktop Management
Part 1/: Using the Desktop
Select Show to di splay the data file on screen. I f the fi le contains readable text, the
text displays. If the fi le is longer than one screen, the message -More- appears at the
bottom of each screen of text. You can scroll through the fil e in the fol lowing ways:
One screen at a time by pressing [Spacebar] or the left m o use butto n .
One half-screen a t a time by pressing [ D ] o r [ C ontrol] [ D ] .
O n e line at a time b y pressing [Return].
Note : You can only scroll forward. You cannot scroll back through text that you
have previously viewed.
If you press the left mouse button or [ S pace B ar] while scro l l i ng text by the screen
or half·screen, the screen continues to scrol l until it displays a ful l or half-screen,
beginning from where you last pressed the left mouse button. The End-of-File
message appears when the screen has di splayed the entire contents of the fi le. To
return to the desktop anytime before the End-of- File message appears, press the
right mouse button, [ Q ] , [Contro l ] [ C ] , or [ Undo ] .
Fi le and Folder Management
Copying, moving, deleting, and other fi le and folder operations a llow you to better
organize your disk space. If you maintain good file and folder organi zation, you
conserve disk space and create an effi c ient working environment.
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Copyi ng Fi l es and Fo lders
You can copy window i tems ( fi les and folders) onto a floppy disk, logical drive or
folder.
When you copy a folder, the subdirectory information and all the folder' s contents
(files and other folders) are copied to the new location.
To copy a w indow item, select the item and drag i t to its new position on the
desktop. You can drag a w indow item to another w i ndow, disk icon, or folder icon.
The i te m ' s destination icon w i l l highlight when the i tem i s positioned on top of the
destination icon.
Note: Ifyou drag a data file on top of an application, the application will run . The
data file will be used as a parameter and will open automatically.
When you begin a copy operation on a s i ngle or on multiple w indow items, the
Copy File(s) dialog box appears. You must select OK to continue the copy
procedure. Work i ng with a s i ngle floppy drive, you w i l l need to switch disks
occasionall y to complete the procedure. The computer provides alert dialog boxes
to tell you when to switch disks. The Copy File(s) d ialog box shows the name of the
destination folder, and d isplays each item ' s name as that item is copied.
Note: The Copy File(s) dialog box will not appear if the File Copies confirmation
option has been turned off. See Set Preferences for more information on the File
Copies confirmation option.
You can halt the copy operation by pressing [Undo] while the bee icon displays. On
a s i ngle disk drive system, press [Undo] w h i le the source disk i s in the drive. When
the Abort Operation dialog box appears, select Yes to halt the operation, or No if
you w ish to continue copying.
To copy an entire disk, drag the disk icon to the copy destination ( floppy disk,
logical drive, or folder). Copying a disk icon to a folder adds the contents of the
disk to the folder w i thout d isturbing the contents of the folder.
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Desktop Management
Part II: Using the Desktop
If the destination folder' s w indow i s open, copying a fil e or folder updates the
displayed d i rectory.
N am e Confl i ct D u ri ng Copy i ng
A name conflict occurs when you attempt to copy a w indow item to a floppy disk,
logical drive, or folder that already contains an i tem of the same name. Depending
on the File Overwrites confirmation setting (see Set Preferences in Chapter 4, A
Guided Tour of the Desktop.), the Name Conflict alert dialog box appears,
warning you that a name conflict occurred. I f you wish to replace the existing item
w i th the item of the same name, select Copy.
You could also choose to change the name of the window i tem you are copyi ng so a
name conflict does not occur when you continue the copy operation.
You can change the i tem ' s name from w ithin the Name Conflict alert dialog box.
The text i n sertion cursor i s already positioned at the end of the Cop y ' s Name l ine.
Press [ B ackspace] to clear the Cop y ' s Name l ine one character at a t i me, or press
[Esc] to clear the entire field. Now type in the new file or folder name and select
Copy or p ress [ Return] to continue the copy operation. The original i te m remains
intact, and the copied i tem appears in its destination under the new name. When
copyi ng multiple w indow i tems, select Skip if a name conflict occurs and you wish
to skip over that p arti c u l ar item, but you w ish to conti n ue the copy operation on the
other selected items.
Movi ng F i l es and Fo lders
Moving a w indow item allows you to transfer that item to a new location, deleting
the item from i ts i nitial location.
To move w indow items, high l i ght one or more items. Then hold down [Control] as
you click on and drag the i tems to a new location. The Move File(s) dialog box
appears, showing you the number of items involved in the Move operation.
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Falcon030 Owner's Manual
Select OK to complete the move. To cancel the move operation, select Cancel .
When you select OK, the Move File(s) dialog box shows the destination folder ( i f
there i s one) and the name o f the i tem moved.
You call halt a move operation in progress by pressing [ Undo] while the bee icon
displays. When the Abort Operation dial og box appears, select Yes to stop the
operation.
Re nam i ng Fi les and Fo lders
You can rename files and folders w ith the File Information dialog box . The Show
I nformation command di splays the File Information Dialog Box.
For more complete i n structions, ( see Show Information, i n Chapter 4, A Guided
our of the Desktop). Filenames can have from one to eight characters. Optional ly,
filenames are fol l owed by a period and a three-character extension. Folders can
have from one to eight characters, and usually do not have an extension.
Note: A s a general rule, you should avoid mod(fying the three-character extension.
A change in the extension may prevent the system or an application from using
program, resource , dota, and otherfiles correctly.
Deleti ng Fi les and Fo lders
You can delete unwanted w indow i tems to free up room on a disk or i n a folder.
There are two ways to delete w i ndow i tems. You can h ighlight the desired item and
drag it i nto the trash can icon on the desktop. The trash can icon highlights and the
Delete File( s ) dialog box d isplays. You can also highl ight the desired item and
choose Delete Item from the File menu or use an assigned keystroke for Delete.
When the Delete Folders/Items dialog box appears, you can confirm or cancel the
delete operation. To continue the operation and delete the i tem, select OK.
Note: If the Delete File(s) dialog box does not appear, the File Deletes
confirmation option has heen turned off. See Set Preferences for more information
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Desktop Management
Part II: Using the Desktop
on the File Deletes confirmation option.
You can halt a delete operation in progress by pressing [ Undo ] w h i le the bee icon
displays. Deleting files is a fast operation, so you must act qu ickly to halt the
process. When the Abort Operation dialog box appears, select Yes to stop the
delete operation. This w i l l not retrieve those files already deleted.
Note : You cannot delete a file if its read/write status is set at Read Only. Also, you
cannot delete a folder containing a Read Onlyflle. To change the read/write status
of a file, select the file. select Show I nfo ji om the File menu . and then select
Read/Write or Read Only.
'
U pdati ng a D i recto ry
Being able to update a displayed directory is useful when you are working with
floppy disks. I f you insert a disk into drive A and d i sp lay that disk ' s director-y, and
then remove that disk and insert a new disk into drive A, the window does not
automatically display the new disk's directory. You can update the directory
d i splayed in the w indow by pressing [ Esc ] . Your computer w i l l read the directory
of the disk that is currently in the drive, and display that directory in the window.
Displayed directories update automat ically after you copy, move, or delete a fi le or
folder, or copy or format a disk .
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Part II: Using the Desktop
6
MuitiTOS
M u ltiTOS i s Atari ' s exclusive multitasking environment. A multitasking
environment can run a number of programs simultaneously, which makes i t more
powerful and exciting to use than a conventional operating environment ( more on
this l ater) . Incorporating a l ist of features unparal leled by any other operating
system, M u l tiTOS i s a completely new and i nnovative way of interfacing with your
Atari computer.
The Advantages of M u ltiTOS
Using M u l tiTOS , you can u s e your computer and programs more efficiently. For
example, if you initiate a time-consuming process, such as a fil e compression
routine, you can run a word processor and type a letter, while the file compression
routine carries on in the background.
M u ltiTOS has an i nherent set of advantages over other multitasking operating
environments. For example, M u l tiTOS accompl ishes true pre-emptive multitasking,
dynamic prioritization, and memory protection.
M u ltiTOS ' s pre-emptive multitasking allows your computer to simultaneously run
programs that were not origina ll y designed to mu ltitask. Where other multitaski ng
environments force the user to manuall y allocate and reallocate system resources,
M u ltiTOS dynamical ly prioritizes system resources for each appl i cation.
MultiTOS
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Faicon030 Owner's Manual
MultiTOS ' s memory protection defines the memory boundaries of each active
program, which keeps one active program from i n terfering w ith another active
program ' s memory.
Using M u ltiTOS you can easily:
•
Run m ultiple programs and desk accessories simultaneously
•
Cut and paste i nformation between applications
•
Move, resize, and scro l l background w indows without leaving the current
( foreground) application
•
Monitor the use of system resources by any acti ve program, anytime
•
Keep track of all the active programs
New Featu res
M u l tiTOS offers a host of new features. However, users already fami l iar w i th TOS
w i l l find M u l ti TOS j ust as easy to use. Thi s section describes the new features
offered by MultiTOS.
M u ltitaski ng
The foremost feature o f MultiTOS i s its ability t o run multiple programs
simultaneousl y . Through memory allocation and memory protection, each program
running under M u l t iTOS can work concurrently, w ithout using memory designated
for another appl ication.
To provide the most effic ient use of system resources, MultiTOS ' s dynamic
prioritization constantly adjusts the amount of processing t ime al located to a
program. For example, i f there are many appl ications running on the desktop,
M ultiTOS al locates processing time to al low for al l tasks to run.
6-2
Mu ltiTOS
Part 1/: Using the Desktop
M u ltiTOS use Inter-Process Communications ( IPCs), such as messages, pipes, e tc . ,
t o pass i nformation. App l icatons that use the same I PCs c a n share information w ith
M ul t iTOS .
Expanded Desk M e n u
One of the first things you ' l l notice about M u ltiTOS i s its expanded desk menu.
The expanded desk menu not only l i sts the usual selectable items, but also l ists the
desktop and every active program as selectable i tems. The foreground application i s
i ndicated b y a checkmark.
Ad optive M e n u Bars
M u ltiTOS adopts the menu bar of whatever application i s running in the
foreground. When the foreground application doesn ' t have its own men u ,
M u l tiTOS uses t h e desktop ' s menu.
Fo reg ro u nd and Backg ro u n d App l i cat i o n s
M u ltiTOS allows you to have a foreground application and a number of
background applications runni ng simultaneously. The exact number of open
applications depends on the amount available memory. The foreground application
runs in the top w i ndow and a background application s run in the bottOm w indows.
Note: Whichever application is in the Joreground receives inputJrom the keyboard.
M u ltiTOS allows you to choose the top w indow by selecting or topping i t . For
more information on topping see Choosing the Foreground Application later in this
chapter. When you top a w i ndow, M u l tiTOS displays the menu associated w ith the
foreground appl ication, if that application has its own menu.
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Falcon030 Owner's Manual
Bottom w i ndows are act i ve , but cannot receive input from the keyboard unless they
are topped. Background processes can run independently, unti l they need i nput
from user ( see Running an Application in the Background, later in this chapter).
M u ltiTOS allows you to move, res ize, and scro l l bottom w indows w ithout topping
them.
More Desktop Control
M u ltiTOS gi ves you more control over the appearance o f the desktop. I t a l l ow s you
to manipulate w indows in the background, as well as the foreground. You can
move, resize, and scro l l any w i ndow, w i thout changing the foreground appl ication.
Ease of Use
Al though M u l tiTOS i s a versatile and powerful m u ltitasking environment, i t
maintains t h e easy-to-use functions establ i shed by its predecessor TOS . I n case you
need help, MultiTOS contains on-l i ne help menus that contain a w ide variety of
i n formation. To access the on-line help, just press [ He l p J .
Lau nch i ng Applications
To launch a program i n M u l tiTOS double-click on an executable program file i n a
directory folder, or on the desktop. (You can use variations of this method by
i nstal l i ng the application on the desktop. See Install Application in Chapter 4, A
Guided Tour of the Desktop.) Once you l aunch a program, you can leave the
program while i t i s running, and open another program.
M u lt iTOS al l ows you to open as many programs as the amount of avail able R A M
w i l l a llow.
6-4
Mu ltiTOS
Part //:
Using the Desktop
R u n n i ng an Appl i cation i n the Fo reg ro u nd
MultiTOS is a versatile operating system which offers several ways to easily
choose which appl ication runs i n the foreground.
The Desk menu di splays a l i st, which incl udes the foreground application
( designated by a checkmark) and every application running in the background. Any
application you select from the Desk menu becomes the new foreground
appl ication.
Selecting an appl ication from the Desk menu i s just one way to choose the
foreground appl ication.
Note : You can always access the desktop from any application by selecting Desktop­
in the Desk menu.
Toppi ng a bottom w indow i s another way of changing the foreground appl ication .
When you have multiple w i ndows open on the desktop, topping a bottom w i ndow
makes it the new top w indow , and causes the application responsible for the
w indow to become the foreground appl ication.
R u n n i ng an Appl icati o n i n the Backg ro u nd
You w i l l want to run some tasks, such as fi le compression or any other time­
consuming appl ication, in the background. Tasks that you run in the background
should not require frequent keyboard input, because only the foreground
application can receive i nput from the keyboard. Many applications after
implementing an initial set of commands run i ndependently of user i nput, until
they require more user input or finish the task at hand.
To run an application i n the background, just launch the app l ication in the
foreground using one of the techniques described earlier. I f necessary, enter any
required commands or arguments. Start the process, then choose another
MultiTOS
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Falcon030 Owner's Manual
foreground application. The background process conti nues until it requires input
from you, or unt i l it i s completed.
6-6
MultiTOS
Pa rt III: App endixes, Glossa ry,
a nd Index
Appendixes
A Pointer Control & Quick Reference
The fol lowing table l i sts mouse functions and keystroke combinations. You may
copy this page and post it near your computer for quick reference.
Action
Move poi nter.
Function Keystrokes
Mouse
Roll mouse in desi red
direction.
[Alt] any arrow key
moves pointer eight
pixels in the di rection
of the arrow.
[Alt] [Sh ift] a n y arrow
key moves pOinter
one pixel in the
d i rection of the arrow.
Select ite m .
Position poi nter on
ite m . Click left mouse
button .
Position pointer on
an ite m . Press [Alt]
[I nsert] .
Select and open ite m .
Position pointer on
ite m . Double-click
left mouse button .
Position pointer over
item and press [Alt]
[Insert] twice .
Drag ite m .
Select ite m . Hold
down left mouse
button . Roll mouse in
desired direction.
Position poi nter on
an ite m . Hold down
the [Alt] [I nsert] keys
and use arrow keys
to move the item.
Right button fu nctions.
Click right mouse
button .
Press [AIt]
[Clr Home] .
Poi nter Control & Quick Reference
A-1
Appendixes
B
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Thi s appendix contains information about the Atari Advanced Hard Disk Utili ties
disk. It applies to both the internal SCSI and external SCSI or ACSI hard disk
drives. The formatting information in Appendix B does not apply to IDE drives,
which are preformatted by the manufacturer.
This disk contains programs and files that allow you to:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Park and U npark the read write heads
Install or remove the hard disk driver file
Format and partition the hard disk
Erase the contents of a logical drive
Extend the system-wide folder limit
Mark bad sectors on the hard disk
Create an extended partition scheme
Parki ng and U n parki ng the
ReadIWrite Heads
Whenever you move your computer, you shou ld park the hard drive heads to
prevent damage to the hard disk and the data it contains. Parking the hard disk drive
heads moves the read/write heads of the drive away from the disk media.
Parked heads cannot damage the disk media during moving or shipp i ng. The Atari
Advanced Hard Disk U t i l ities include two types of head parking programs.
Advanced Hard Disk Util ities
B-1
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
One type parks the disk heads of all hard drives connected to your system. The
other parks the disk heads of individual u n i ts.
Caution : If you fail to close all hard disk windows before parking the drive
heads you may damage data on your hard disk.
Parki ng D rive Heads on Al l U n its
To park the hard disk drive heads on all hard disks connected to your system, run
S HIP.PRG from a floppy disk i n drive A.
Note: SHIP.PRG will not park the heads of a Megafde 44 Removable Hard Disk
Drive.
W i th a directory of the Atari Advanced Hard Disk Utilities disk di splaying, follow
these i nstructions to run S H IP.PRG.
1 . Open the H D X folder.
2. Close all other open w i ndows.
3. R u n S H I P.PRG.
4 . S witch off your hard disk units as soon as the desktop appears.
Parking Drive Heads on Selected U ni t s
To park a specific hard drive, you must select a physical unit to be parked. With
your hard disk util i ties disk in drive A or B, fol low these i nstructions to park the
heads on individual physical units:
1 . R u n t he H D X program .
2. Close all other open windows.
3. Select the Ship option on the Disk menu.
8-2
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Appendixes
4. A dialog box displays, asking you if the hard disk drive to be parked is an ACSI drive
or a SCSI drive. Select the appropriate drive type. Click on OK to continue.
5. When the Select physical u n i t e s ) d i alog box appears, select the physical un its that are
to have their heads parked. Select OK.
Note : You can select any physical unit connected to your system (formatted
or not). The unit number boxes of connected devices appear shadowed.
6. An alert box message appears on screen offering you a last chance to cancel the head
parking procedure. Select OK to park the heads.
7. A final alert box appears, i n structing you to turn off your hard d i s k . Select OK and
switch off the power to your disk drive(s).
Note : If you are preparing to move your entire system, switch offyour computer at
this time.
U n parki ng the D rive Heads
The next time you start your system the drive heads are automaticall y unparked.
I nstal l i ng and Removi ng the H ard
D isk D river Fi le
The H I N STALL.PRG program i n stall s or removes the hard disk driver file. The
hard disk driver allows you to start your system from your hard drive .
. Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
8-3
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
I nstal l i ng the H ard Disk D river
Display the directory o f the HINSTA L L folder. Fol low these steps t o install the
hard disk driver:
1 . Run H IN STALL.PRG.
2. Select I nstal l from the File menu.
3. Select a logical drive for the operation. You can only select logical drives t h at are
highl ighted in shadowed boxes. Select OK.
4. From the d i splayed dialog box, select OK to install the driver, or Cancel to abort the
operation.
Removi ng the H ard D i s k D river
Display the d i rectory o f the H I N STA L L folder. Follow these steps t o remove the
hard disk dri ver:
1 . Run HTNSTALL.PRG.
2. Select Remove from the File menu.
3. Selec t a l og i c al drive for the operat i o n . You can only select l og ical drives t h at are
highl ighted in shadowed boxes. Select OK.
4. From the d i splayed dialog box, select OK to install the driver, or Cancel to abort the
operation.
8-4
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Appendixes
Bypassing the H ard D i s k D river
A s a n alternative t o removing the hard disk driver, you can simply bypass the
driver.
To do so, perform a keyboard warm-boot or press the reset button. When the Atari
logo ( Fuj i ) appears, hold down [Alternate ] for a few seconds and the system
bypasses the hard disk driver.
Formatti ng and Partitio n i ng the
Hard Disk
Caution: The HDX Format and Partition options described in this chapter
completely erase all data on your hard disk. Back up all of your valuable files
before proceeding.
Formatt i n g
You w i l l probably never have t o reformat your hard disk. The hard disk has already
been formatted at the factory. Formatti ng the hard disk creates magnetic patterns
called tracks and sectors. The process also marks and logs bad sectors, areas on the
disk with surface damage or other i mperfections. Data stored in these areas could
be corrupted or lost. During hard disk operations, the computer avoids sectors
marked and logged as bad.
The formatting process also automat ical l y divides the hard disk into storage areas
call ed partitions or logical drives.
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
8-5
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
If your system contains an i nternal hard disk, it w i l l be preformatted by Atari .
Formatting erases al l information from a disk and prepares the disk to accept data.
You may need to format the hard disk if the factory format becomes erased due to
m i shandling or if the hard disk develops bad sectors.
Display the d i rectory of the HDX folder. Fol low these i nstructions to format a hard
di sk :
1 . Select H D X . PRG. Then select the Format option from the Disk menu.
2 . Read the alert mess age that appears on scre e n . If necessary, back up all your data
before proceeding. Select OK to cont i nue.
3. A d i alog box displays, asking you i f the hard d i s k drive to be formatted i s an A C S I
drive o r a SCSI drive. Select the appropriate drive type. Select OK to continue.
4 . Select a physical unit ( h ard disk drive) for formatting. I f you are formatting only the
i nternal hard disk, select U N I T O . I f you are formatting an a d d i t ional h ard d i s k ,
select a u n i t t h at corresponds to t h e h ard d i s k ' s D I P s w i tc h settings. (See your hard
d i s k d r i v e o w n e r ' s m a n u a l for i n formation about D I P s w i t c h s e t t i n g s . ) U n i t s i n
s hadowed boxes are the units that are connected t o your system.
II, S e l e c t The Phys i c a l Un i t I"
I
UNIT 0
II
UNIT 1
II
UNIT 2
II
UNIT Z
I
I
UNIT 4
II
UNIT 5
II
UNIT 6
II
UNIT 7
I
I
OK
I
I CANCEL I
Figure B . l : The S elect Physical Unit W indow
8-6
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Appendixes
Select OK to continue. A dialog box may appear, displaying a l ist of hard disk unit
types.
5. Select the hard disk type showing your drive ' s model name.
6. Select OK to continue.
7 . Read the alert message that appears on screen.
Select OK to format the unit. A message appears informing you that formatti ng i s
in progress.
Note : When the partitioning message disappears, the formatting operation is
complete.
When the formatting is complete, the Format option automatically i n it iates the
Markbad and Part i tioning options. To find out more about these functions, refer to
the sections on Marking Bad Sectors and Partition i ng.
The default partition quanti ty and size i s determined by the hard disk drive model.
Partiti o n i ng
I f your computer contains an internal hard disk drive, i t w i l l already be partitioned.
Partitioning a hard disk i s a process that divides the disk into sections. Setting a
partition size tel l s the hard drive how much storage capacity to assign to each
part ition. You can use the factory-set parti tion capaci t ies or change the storage
capacity of each partition to suit your fiie organization needs.
Part itioning divides your physical hard disk into data storage areas called logical
dri ves. Each l ogical drive i s pre-installed and w i l l automatically appear on your
desktop unless you repartition the disk.
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Partitioning allows you to store and access your data efficiently by a llowing you to
group files and folders in different logical drives.
Use the Partition option to create partitions in sizes best suited to your disk storage
needs. The Partition option lets you u se an editing menu to set the size of each
partition or select a suggested partitioning scheme w i thout having to reformat your
disk.
Note : When you repartition your hard disk, you must use the Install Devices
command to install desktop icons/or the logical drives.
Selecting a U n it to Partition
Display t h e H D X fol der. Fol low these instructions t o partition a hard disk:
1 . Select H DX . PRG from the HDX folder. Then select t h e Partition option from the
D i sk menu .
2. A d ialog b o x displays, a s k i n g y o u i f t h e hard d i s k dri v e to be formatted i s an A C S I
driv e o r a S C S I drive. Select t h e appropriate drive type. Select OK to cont i n ue. The
Select a physical unit dialog box displays.
3. S e l ec t a phys i c a l u n i t for part i t i o n i n g . To part i ti o n your hard d i s k , select the u n i t
n umber of t h e d e v i c e y o u w a n t t o parti t i o n . O n l y u n i ts i n shadowed boxes can b e
selected. Select OK to continue.
4. Select a partitioning scheme.
There are two ways to select a partitioning scheme. You can use the Choose a
Partition Scheme dialog box to choose from preset partitioning schemes. Or you
can use the Edit Partition Scheme dialog box to create a customized partitioning
scheme. The fol lowing sections ful l y describe each method.
8-8
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Appendixes
Selecti ng a Partiti o n i ng Scheme
After you select a physical u n i t for part i tioning, the Edit Part ition Scheme dialog
box di splays.
Use the Edit Partition Scheme dialog box to create a customized partitioning
scheme. If you w i sh to select a preset partitioning scheme, click on Menu to display
the Choose a Partition Scheme d ialog box.
From the Choose a Part ition Scheme dialog box you can click on the Edit box to
return to the Edi t Part i tion Scheme dialog box .
C reating a Custom ized Partitioning Scheme
The Edit Partition Scheme dialog box di splays information about the selected unit ' s
current partition scheme.
�I, E d i t par t i t i on sthel"le of the u n i t �II,
Total � of Par t i t i on (s) : 4
Mel"lory Left : 9Mb
�1
I 11 . 5Mb
�2
I 11 . 5Mb []IT]
�
�3
I 11 . 5Mb
�4
I 11 . 5Mb �
I¢ ME NU ImIDl
OK
�
f-
�
ro
II CANCEL IIEXPER T �
Figure B . 2 : The Edit Part ition Scheme Dialog Box
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
B·9
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
I n fonnation l ines appear at the top of the dialog box. The Total l ine d isplays the
current total number of partitions. The Left l ine displays the number of megabytes
on your disk that have not yet been assigned to any partition.
Each partition ' s size is d isplayed to the right of the partition number in the edit box .
M i n imum partition size i s I megabyte. Maximum part i tion size i s detenn ined by
the capacity of your hard disk. You can allocate a l l of the memory on your hard
disk to one part ition. For example, a 40 megabyte hard disk can have a s i ngle
partition containing all 40 megabytes of memory.
Use the scroll bar to scroll through partition boxes. To v iew the 28 parti t ions you
can click on the shaded area of the scroll bar to scroll through four partitions at a
time.
C lick on the partition box you wish to create or edit. Then click on the up and down
arrows to the right of the partition size box to i ncrease or decrease part ition size.
C licking on an unused box creates a new partition.
Note: There must be available bytes listed on the left line before you can increase
the size of any partition. 1 megabyte or more must appear in the left box before an
unused partition can be activated.
You can select Menu to display the Choose a Part i tion Scheme dialog box. This
dialog box allows you to choose preselected partitioning schemes.
To return to the most recent partition scheme, select U ndo. Selecting OK i n itiates
the partitioning process.
I f you want to return to the HDX.PRG main men u , select Undo.
The Expert option is shaded and cannot be selected u n less you have more than four
partitions. You need to use the Expert option only if you plan to use more than one
operati ng system. I f you are planning to use more than one operating system w ith
the same hard disk, see Extended Parti t i on Schemes.
8-1 0
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Appendixes
Selecti ng a P reset Partitio n i ng Scheme
The Choose a Partition Scheme dialog box appears when you select Menu from the
Edit Partition Scheme dialog box .
Choose a part i t i on sthene :
11-11-11-11
15- 15-7-7
OK
17-17-5-5
I CANCEL I I Ed i t o) I
Figure B . 3 : The Choose Partition Scheme Dialog B ox
The Choose a Part ition Scheme d i alog box provides a l i s t of suggested partitioning
schemes. Select the scheme you want from the l i st . Select Edit to return to the Edit
Part i tion Scheme box.
After you select a partitioning scheme, select OK to part ition the disk.
E rasi ng the Contents of a Log ical
D rive
You can erase a l l data from a selected logical drive w i th the Zero option of the
HDX program. Erasing (or zeroing) a logical drive is useful if you want to clear the
drive to make room for new data or if you want to erase damaged data from a
logical drive w i thout reformatting (and thus erasing) the ent i re hard disk.
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
8-1 1
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
D isplay a directory of the HDX folder. Follow these steps to erase the contents of a
logical drive.
1 . Select HDX.PRG. Then select the Zero option from the Disk men u .
2. Read t h e alert box t h a t appears on screen. Select OK t o continue.
3. Select a drive for zeroing from the Select the Logical Drive dialog box . Select OK to
continue.
4 . A n alert box appears giving you a final chance to quit the program before proceeding.
Select OK to continue.
Extend i ng the System-wide
Folder Li m it
You can run FOLDER I OO.PRG to extend the number of folders your system
recogni zes. Though most users w i l l be able to create as many folders as they w ish
without problems, you can still use FOLDR l OO.PRG to extend the folder l i m it even
further.
To use thi s program, display the AUTO folder directory on drive C contai n i ng the
FOLD R I OO.PRG file. Then change the 1 00 i n the filename to any value between
00 1 and 999 using the Show I nfo option from the F i le menu. The value you enter i s
the number o f folders beyond 4 0 you can now access. For example, t o extend the
l imit to 240 folders, you would change the filename to FOLDR240.PRG.
The FOLDR program must be stored in the AUTO folder of the startup disk
(part ition C on the hard disk if physical unit 0 is the startup disk).
8-1 2
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Appendixes
The new folder l imit takes effect when you reboot your system. During the boot
procedure, a message appears that shows how many extra folders you have
designated and how many bytes of R A M are allocated to the extra folders. Each
folder uses 1 32 bytes of RAM.
Marki ng Bad Sectors
Error messages stating that the data on your disk may be damaged m ight indicate
the presence of bad sectors on your disk. If such error messages frequently appear,
you should check your hard disk for bad sectors. This process identifies and flags
defective areas on the hard disk. Hard disks may develop defective spots after the
drive has been i n use. Once these spots have been logged w ith Markbad, they w i l l
not b e used for your hard disk operations.
The Atari Advanced Hard Disk Utilit ies disk includes two versions of M arkbad.
One version is run automatically during the H DX Format option. This version
operates on the ent i re selected physical unit and erases all data on the disk during
formatti n g .
The other version operates o n the selected logical drive when you r u n the H D X
Markbad option. This version helps you preserve data by lett i ng you deci de
whether or not to erase data containing bad sectors. Both versions of Markbad
display a l og of any bad sectors found. The cumulative tally of bad sectors in the
log appears during subsequent Markbad operations.
Note: You can use the HDX Markbad option on hard disks formatted with a
previous version of HDX.
Display the directory of the HDX folder. Fol low these steps to mark bad sectors on
selected logical dri ves:
1 . Select HDX.PRG. Then select the Markbad option from the Disk men u .
2. Select a logical drive from t h e Select t h e Logical Drive dialog box.
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
8·1 3
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
S e l ect the l o g i c a l d r i ve
C:
I
D:
I
E:
II
F:
I
5:
I
H:
I
I:
II
J:
I
�< �
I
L:
I
M:
II
N:
I
n:
I
P:
I
OK
I
I CANCEL I
Figure B .4 : The Select Logical Drive D ialog Box
Select OK to continue.
3 . While Markbad scans the logical dri v e for bad sectors, a message appears tel l i ng you
that the program i s mark i ng bad sectors. I f bad sectors are found i n a fi l e , s e l ec t a
course of action for the file from the Logical Drive M arkbad d i al o g box. T h i s box
d i splays the name of the fil e , the address location of the bad sector and c l uster i n the
logical drive, and your choices for a course of action.
Note: The Logical Drive Markbad dialog appears only when Markbadflags had
sectors in allocated clusters. An allocated cluster is a cluster that has heen
assigned to afile.
Select Delete File to erase the fi le or Skip Over Bad Sector to preserve the
undamaged portions of the file. Select Ig nore Bad Sector to leave the file
unchanged. ( Select I g nore Bad Sector i f you want to examine the file before
takin g action. )
I f bad sectors are found i n a subdirectory file, select a course o f action for the
subdirectory from the Logical Drive Markbad box. This box d isplays the name of
the subdirectory, its address location, and your choices for a course of action.
B-1 4
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Appendixes
4 . Select Delete D i rectory O n l y to d e l et e the d i rectory structure and save the
deleted d irectory files to the root directory. All files saved to the root d i rectory will be
named
TMPnnnn
where
nnnn
stands for the starting hexadecimal cl uster address of
the fil e . Select Delete Directory And F i les to delete the d i rectory structure and
a l l of its fi les. Select Ignore Bad Sector if you don ' t want to take any action at
all .
Note : If a bad sector is found in a lost cluster, an alert box appears giving
you the option of marking the cluster. A lost cluster is a segment of data that
is unaccounted for and inaccessible to the system.
5. When Markbad finishes scanning the disk, a Logical Drive Markbad tally box with the
total count of n e w l y fou n d bad sectors and the count of a l l p re v i o u s l y fo u n d bad
sectors appears.
Organ izi ng and Mai ntai n i ng you r
Hard Disk
The larger storage capacity of a hard d i sk means that careful folder and fi le
organization is more i mportant than ever. When planning and using your folder
structure, keep the fol lowing tips in mind.
•
•
•
U se folder names that describe the types of files i n the folders
Limit the number of files i n the root directory
Delete unwanted files to free up disk space for new files
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
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Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Backi ng U p the H ard Disk
I t i s i mportant to frequently back up your h ard disk data. Otherw ise, accidental ly
deleted or damaged fi les w i l l be lost forever. As a general rul e , i t is good practice to
back up new or modified files after each session at your computer.
To back up your data, regularly copy i mportant files or folders onto floppy d isks
and store them in a safe place. In addition to the copy option, you can use one of the
many hard disk backup programs avail able through your Atari dealer or Atari user
groups ( see Customer Support.)
Opti m i zer P rog rams
A n opt i m i zer program checks the structure of your hard disk and rearranges file8
and free space on the disk. The multiple sectors of each file are grouped together.
Contiguous free space is placed e ither at the top of the disk (to i ncrease the speed of
writing new files to the disk) or at the bottom of the disk (to i ncrease the speed of
accessing exist i ng fi les). Back up your data, then use a fi le optimizer program
regul arly to i ncrease the speed and effi c iency of your hard disk drive and to reduce
the possibili ty of data corruption and loss.
Use one of the many hard disk opti m i zer programs avai lable through your Atari
dealer or Atari user groups ( see Customer Support).
Exte nded Partition Schemes
Creati ng an extended partition scheme i s an option for advanced users. You w i l l
probably never need t o use this option i n the normal operation o f your computer.
8-1 6
Advanced Hard Disk Util ities
Appendixes
There are four slots on your hard disk that keep track of partition information. You
can fil l each slot with a standard partition, and have each partition represented on
your desktop by a logical drive. Or you can fill one of the four slots w it h an
extended partition to obtain more than four logical drives.
An e x tended partition i s subdiv i ded into more than one partition. This allows you to
have more than one logical drive representing that slot.
Note: To store system startup data the first partition must be a standard partition.
This partition is always assigned to the first slot. You cannot select the first slot to
contain the extended partition . You must use one of the three remaining slots to
contain your extended partition.
Supporting M u ltiTOS
as your primary operating system, HDX.PRG will
automaticall y choose slot number two to contain your extended partition.
However, if you plan to use more than one operating system, i t may be useful to
choose the specifics of the partition assignments. Some operating systems w i l l not
recognize an extended partition scheme. The partitions you use w i th these operating
systems must be standard partitions.
The Expert option of the Edit Partition Scheme dialog box allows you to choose
which slot w i l l contain the extended partition, and which of four slots will contain
standard partitions.
The Select the extended partition scheme dialog box displays the current extended
partition scheme. The Partition section on the left side of the dialog box shows the
partition number, size, and range of each partition.
The Extended Partition Range dialog box on the right side of the dialog box allows
you to choose which slot w i l l contain the extended partition scheme. The Extended
Partition Range dialog box displays each slot ' s range of partitions.
Advanced Hard Disk Util ities
8-1 7
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
All four slots of the Extended Partition Range box contain partition information.
The first slot contains partition one. The second slot contains the extended partition,
which i s subdivided as parti tions two through eight. The partitions included i n the
extended partition are al ways high l i ghted. The third slot includes partition nine, and
the fourth slot contains partition ten. Slots one, three and four contain standard
partitions.
O t h e r Ad v a n ce d H a rd D i s k U t i l i t i e s D i s k
F i les
•
•
•
•
8-1 8
HDX.RSC is a GEM resource file used by H D X.PRG.
WINCAP is a text file the includes information used by HDX.PRG.
HINSTALL.RSC is a GEM resource file used by H INSTALL.PRG.
S HDRIVER.RAW i s used with H INSTALL.PRG to create
SHDRIVER.SYS, the hard disk driver file that directs your system to start
from a hard disk.
Advanced Hard Disk Utilities
Appendixes
c
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
Trou bleshooti ng
I f you run i nto problems while operati n g your computer, don 't pani c . You can
probably fix i t yourself. This section describes some common problems and
suggests solutions.
Note : The most common and easily fixed problem is failure to switch on the power
to the computer. A lways check this first before exploring other possihilities.
The Compute r Wi l l Not Start U p
I f the power l ight will not come on or the screen stays dark, follow these steps:
1.
Shut down the computer and a l l attached periphera l s ( e . g . , external drives, printer
etc . ) .
2. Make sure t h e t h e power cable is securely fastened.
3. Check your wall socket or power strip by pl ugging i n a desk lamp or appliance.
4.
Switch on all peripheral s, then start up the Falcon030.
5. C h e c k t h e con trast adj u s t m e n t s on the m o n i tor. Turn u p the adj u s t m e n t k n o b i f
necessary.
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
C-1
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
No Desktop
I f the Power LED comes on, the screen brightens, but the desktop does not display,
you may have a bad desk accessory file i n your startup disk or folder.
To bypass the desk accessory, warm boot the system ( i .e . , press [ Control] [ Al t ]
[ Delete ) ) then hold down [Contro l ] for a few seconds after the Atari logo appears
on the screen.
The system warm boots, but bypasses the software (e.g., Auto folder, desk
accessories etc . ) Di sable the fi les that are suspect, then try starting up the system
agam.
Software P robl ems
I f you have problems with an app lication, i t may be that the software contains
imperfections ( bugs). Try clearing the memory by cold booting your system
( pressing [ Control ] , [ Alt], [ Right Shift ] , [ Delete D. Reopen the appl ication. If this
helps, i t may mean the application experienced a momentary fai lure.
If you stil l experience problems, make a new working copy of the appl ication from
the original appl ication disk onto a newl y formatted floppy disk. Try runni ng the
appl ication from the new copy.
If you are running the application from a hard disk, remove the questionable fi le
from the hard disk and copy i t again from the original application disk back onto
the hard disk. If this works, the problem is probably w ith the original working copy
of the appl ication fi le. If none of your disks work properly, you may need to replace
your original appl ication disk.
C-2
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
Appendixes
You may find that some older programs (especially games) do not run properly
with the Cache option turned on. If you think this may be the problem, make sure
the Cache option is off before running the program.
Bombs
Sometimes applications develop errors that are potentially damaging to the
computer's operating system. When such an error occurs, M ultiTOS detects the
error and terminates the program. In most cases, MultiTOS w i l l also clean up the
memory affected by the terminated program, and return to the desktop. However,
during extreme program fai lures, as a signal to you, M ultiTOS displays one or more
bombs across the screen and attempts to recover from the error.
To protect the computer' s operating system, i mmediately perform a keyboard cold­
boot when you see bombs displayed. If the problem recurs, discontinue using the
program.
The H ard D i s k D rive
Some symptoms i dentify the hard disk drive as the source of the problem. If you
have an external hard disk many problems can be easily remedied using the
Advanced Hard Disk Drive utilities.
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
C-3
Fafcon030 Owner's Manual
Optional I nternal I D E Hard Disk
I f your system contains a n I D E hard disk, the hard disk will require a different
formatting and partitioning procedure. The internal hard disk i s already prepared
for you and should be accessible immediately after starting the system. If the
system cannot recognize the hard disk for some reason, such as a corruption of data,
take the following steps to correct the problem :
Co m m o n P roblems
Use the fol lowing table to identify and correct common hard disk drive problems.
C-4
Problem
Suggested Solution
Hard disk drive icon C does not
appear when you switch on your
system .
If you are starting your system
from a floppy disk drive, make
sure the startup disk contains
A H D I . PRG i n the AUTO folder. If
you are starting your system from
the hard disk, A H D I . PRG m ust be
copied to the A UTO folder on
drive C. If you have A H D I . P RG i n
t h e proper folder and t h e system
sti l l does not display disk icon C ,
y o u may need t o reformat the
drive. (See Formatting in
Appendix B.)
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
Appendixes
Problem
Suggested Solution
The system will not start from
the hard d isk.
Run the hard disk driver
instal lation program
( H I NSTALL.PRG.) If the
problem continues, the hard d isk
should be backed up and
reformatted . (See I nternal I D E
Hard Disk i n this Chapter . )
An application program will not
start from the hard disk.
T h e program contains garbled
data or was not designed to start
from a hard disk.
Try starting your system from the
floppy disk drive with a working
copy of the program. Attempt to
run the program from the program
disk. If it sti l l will not run, contact
the prog ram's man ufacturer for
more i nformation.
Identify i n g and Replac i n g or E ras i ng
Co rru pted Data
If you sti l l have problems, your hard disk may have developed u nusable data.
Un usable data appears altered or is unusable. Try erasing individual bad fi les and
replacing them with val i d backups. If replacement is not possible, fol low these
steps to try and recover data:
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
C-5
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
1 . R u n the M arkbad option of the H D X program on the A tari A d v anced H ard D i s k
Uti l i t ie s d i s k ( a s described i n Marking Bad Sectors ) in each logical drive conta i n i n g
unreadable data. Recover a s much data as possible.
2. Back up the data recovered from the logical drive onto floppy d i sks.
3 . Erase all data i n t h e p ro b l em l og i c a l d r i v e ( s ) w i th t h e Zero option of t h e HDX
program and run Markbad on the logical drive again.
4.
Copy the data you backed up on to the logical drive.
If the main drive (drive C ) contains unreadable data, you may not be able to start
your system from the hard disk. U se a working copy of t h e Atari Advanced Hard
Disk Uti l i t ies as a floppy startup disk to start the system. Fol low the steps above,
then i nstall the hard disk driver as described in this appendix.
E rro r Messages
I f a n error message appears while you run one o f the Atari programs from the Atari
Advanced Hard Disk Util ities disk , the problem i s usually something eas i l y
remedied. I f you aren ' t sure what to d o when a n error message appears, read the
message carefully for a suggested solution. If there is no suggested solution, find
the message in the alphabetical l i st below and try the solution suggested.
Error Message
Bad Sector List is
corrupted !
[OK]
e-G
Program/
Option
HDX
Format
Partition
Zero
Markbad
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
Suggested Solution
See message.
Appendixes
Error Message
Programl
Option
Suggested Solution
Cannot create driver
destination !
[OK]
H I NSTALL
You r root d i rectory
may be file at full.
You need to delete
data to make room for
the driver file .Or, you r
root di rectory
may be corrupted .
If so, back up as much
data as you can and
reformat the d rive.
Can not find format
parameters for disk type
<disk type name>
[OK]
HDX
Make sure the orig i nal
WI NCAP file is on the
disk with HDX.
Can not find partition
scheme <selected partition
scheme>
[OK]
H DX
Jhis partition scheme
is not a Partition
recog nized by H DX .
Make s u r e you are
using your orig inal
WI NCAP fi le.
Cannot format <selected
u n it>! Try checking all
con nections and
reformatting.
[OK]
H DX
Format
Warn i n g : Do not
modify the W I NCAP
fi le. Doing so may
destroy the disk. Make
sure you r hard disk is
securely connected.
Then reformat the
drive.
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
C-7
Fafcon030 Owner's Manual
Error Message
Suggested Solution
Can not open drive
source file!
OK]
H I N STALL
I nstall
Make s u re the
S H D R IV E R . RAW file
is on the disk with
H I NSTALL. PRG.
Cannot partition <selected
unit>! Try reformatti ng.
[OK]
HDX
Partition
See message.
Can not read Bad Sector
List from the disk! Try
backing up the disk and
reformatting.
[OK]
HDX
Format
Partition
Zero
Markbad
See message.
Can not read Boot Sector
from the logical drive. Try
backi ng up the disk and
reformatting.
[OK]
HDX
Zero
Markbad
H I NSTALL
Install
See message.
Cannot read File Allocation
Table from the logical drive !
Try backing up the disk and
reformatting.
[OK]
H DX
Partition
Zero
Markbad
See message.
Can not read from di rectory !
Try reru n n i ng Markbad on
HDX
Markbad
See message.
this log ical drive when the
cu rrent M arkbad is
completed .
[OK]
c-s
Program/
Option
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
Appendixes
Program/
Option
Suggested Solution
Cannot read Root
Directory entries from the
logical drive ! Try backi ng
up the disk and
reformatting.
[OK]
HDX
Markbad
See message.
Cannot read Root Sector
from the disk ! Try backing
up the disk and
reformatting .
[OK]
HDX
Partition
H I N STALL
I nsta l l
Remove
See message.
Cannot save any more
files in the root directory !
Deleting the remaining lost
cl usters of the subdirectory
will free up disk space.
[OK] [CANCE L]
HDX
Markbad
When the Markbad
opti<?n fou nd a bad
sector in a subdirectory, you di rected
the program to save
the deleted di rectory's
files to the root
directory. There is
no more room i n the
root di rectory for the
files . E ither select OK
to delete the rest of the
directory's files or
select CANCEL to use
a disk util ity that can
recover the di rectory's
files.
Can not write Bad Sector
List to the disk! Try
backing up the disk and
reformatti ng.
[OK]
H DX
Format
Partition
Zero
Markbad
See message.
Error Message
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
C-9
Fafcon030 Owner's Manual
Error Message
C-1 0
Program/
Option
Suggested Solution
Cannot write Boot Sector
to the logical drive ! Try
backing up the disk and
reformatting
[OK]
H DX
Zero
I nstall
See message.
Can not write driver file to
destinatio n !
H I NSTALL
I nstall
H I NSTALL cannot
write to the root
di rectory of the d rive.
Try backing up the
hard disk and
reformatting it.
Cannot write Header to the
logical drive ! Try backi ng
up the disk and
reformatting.
[OK]
HDX
Zero
See Message.
Cannot write Root
Di rectory entries to the
logical drive ! Try backi ng
up the disk and
reformatting.
[OK]
H DX
Markbad
See message.
Can not write to Di rectory !
Try reru n ning M arkbad on
this logical drive when the
cu rrent Markbad is
completed .
[OK]
HDX
M arkbad
See message.
Driver file does not exist!
[OK]
H I N STALL
Remove
The driver file
S H D R I VE R .SYS has
not been i nstalled or
is missing.
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
Appendixes
Error Message
Program/
Option
Suggested Solution
File Allocation Table is
corrupted ! Try backing up
the logical d rive and
zeroing.
[OK]
HDX
Markbad
Back up the logical
drive, erase its data
with the H DX Zero
option , run Markbad ,
and restore your data.
Format parameters in the
root sector are corrupted !
Please reformat the disk.
[OK]
HDX
Partition
See message.
H DX . RSC
[OK]
HDX
The H D X . RSC file is
either missing o r
damaged . Copy
the HDX. RSC file
from the original Atari
Advanced Hard Disk
Util ities disk onto your
working copy of the
disk.
No menu items available
for this disk's capacity
[OK]
HDX
Partition
Use the Edit Partition
Scheme dialog box to
set partition sizes.
Not enough system
memory. Cannot conti nue.
[OK]
HDX
H I NSTALL
Reserved sectors are bad !
Try backi ng up the d isk and
reformatting it.
[OK]
H DX
Format
Partition
You r computer's
memory capacity is
too low to run these
prog rams . You need a
m i n i m u m of 5 1 2
ki lobytes of system
memory.
See message.
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
C-1 1
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Program/
Option
Error Message
Suggested Solution
Selected partition scheme
is for a bigger capacity
u n it. Please select another
one.
[OK]
HDX
Partition
See message.
Too many bad sectors to
record . Try backing u p
t h e d i s k a n d reformatting.
[OK]
HDX
M arkbad
See message.
Too many logical d rives !
You can not have more
than 1 4 logical drives .
[OK]
HDX
Format
Partition
You can not have more
than 1 4 log ical drives
on your system .
Repartition d isks as
necessary.
Unrecog nized boot sector!
Either this logical d rive's
boot sector is corru pted , or
another util ity was used to
partition this disk.
[OK]
HDX
Zero
Markbad
Before you can use
Zero or Markbad , you
must back up your
hard disk (if necessary)
and reformat with HDX
format.
W I NCAP file not fou nd !
Cannot conti n u e .
HDX
Copy the WI NCAP file
on the Advanced Hard
Disk Utilities disk to the
disk from which you are
running H DX.
You r system will have to
reboot when you quit H D X ,
for new disk i nformation to
take effect.
HDX
Format
Markbad
No action req u i red.
You r system will reboot
when you quit H DX , so
the disk parameters
you changed can take
effect. Any data in RAM
will be lost.
[OK]
C-1 2
,.
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
f
Appendixes
Preventive Mai ntenance
To ensure top performance from your Falcon030 computer system, follow the
guide l ines i n this section.
Cari n g fo r the Com p ute r
•
•
•
•
•
A void dusty or greasy work areas.
Keep all components out of direct sunlight.
A void smoking near the computer system.
Always switch off the system before cleaning it. Clean the outside of
components with a soft, s lightly damp, lint-free cloth only. Do not use
cleansers, abrasives, or solvents.
To ship or store the system, repack it i n the original factory packing
materials.
Cari n g fo r F l oppy D i sks
•
•
•
Do not i n sert or remove d isks while the floppy drive ' s busy light is l it.
Keep disks away from sources of magnetism ( such as monitors, televisions,
electric motors, and telephones).
Never touch or clean a disk's magnetic record i ng surface i nside the plastic
casing.
Cari ng for the Mouse
Your Atari mouse i s designed to l ast through years of use as long as i t ' s handled
properly. Follow these guide l ines for mouse care:
•
•
•
Don ' t drop the mouse.
Don ' t let the mouse hang by its tail .
Keep the surface on which y o u move the mouse smooth and clean.
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
C-1 3
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
C lean i ng the Mouse
You ' l l need to clean the mouse periodical ly to ensure its proper operation. Fol low
the steps below:
I.
Turn the mouse upside down i n your hand w ith its tail pointi ng toward you.
2.
Place two fingers on the arrows on e ither s ide of the rol ler opening on the
bottom of the mouse . Push down and away from you unti l the rol ler pane l pops
loose. Remove the panel .
3.
Holding one hand over the mouse, turn the mouse over s o the roller drops into
your hand.
4.
U se a soft, clean, dry c loth to w i pe the rol ler clean. DO NOT U S E cleani ng
fluid or a l int-creating tissue.
5.
Gentl y blow into the roller housing to get rid of dust.
6.
Replace the rol ler i n its housing. Reinsert the rol ler pane l , then push i t down
and backwards until it locks i n place.
A Fi nal Note
Your Falcon030 system is designed for low maintenance and high reliability. But
l ike anything electronic and mechanical , the equipment can break down.
C-1 4
Troubleshooting and Maintenance
Appendixes
I f you experience problems that appear serious, take the computer (or any other
component) to an authorized Atari service center. For the location of the nearest Atari
service center, contact your Atari dealer or Atari Customer Support. ( See Appendix F:
Customer Support),
Troubleshooting and Mai ntenance
C-1 5
Appendixes
D
Falcon030 Specifications
System Architecture
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Digital Signal Processor
•
•
•
•
Expansion Bus
•
•
CPU: Motorola 68030 operating at 1 6 MHz
3 . 84 MIPS performance at 1 6 MHz
On-chip demand-paged memory management
Separate on-chip 256-byte instruction and data
caches
Independent address and data buses for i ncreased
performance.
Pipeli ned architecture
B U S : 32-bit data; 32-bit address
FPU: Optional Motorola 6888 1 /2 operating at 1 6
MHz
RAM: 1 -, 4-, or 1 4- M B configurations
ROM: 5 1 2 K Byte internal; 1 28 K B yte external
cartridge
Motorola 5600 I DSP operating at 32 MHz
1 6 MIPS performance at 32 MHz
32 KWords of zero wait-state RAM
DSP connector allows easy connection of low-cost
1 9.2K baud fax/data modems, voice-mail systems,
direct-to-disk digital audio recorders, JPEG/MPEG
i m age compression, etc.
Internal direct processor slot for 386SX PC
emulation, DMA coprocessors, etc .
Optional processor socket for other coprocessors
Faicon030 Specifications
0-1
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
Sound
•
•
•
•
Graphics
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Standard Ports
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
0-2
Faicon030 Specifications
Eight 1 6-bit digital audio DMA record and
playback channels with up to 50-kHz sampling
rate.
S tereo 1 6-bit digital DMA audio output
S tereo 1 6-bit digital DMA audio input
SDMA soundlDMA coprocessor
S uper VGA: 640 x 480 256 colors
True color 1 6-bit mode: allows display of up to
65,536 colors.
Accepts external video sync signal to allow high­
quality genlocking
Overlay mode for easy video titling and special
effects
Optional overscan
262, 1 44 possible colors
,;
Hardware-assisted horizontal fine scrol ling
B LiTTER graphics coprocessor
SCSI I I port with Direct Memory Access ( DMA)
H igh-speed LocalTalk-compatible LAN port
Connector for analog RGB color (VGA or ST) or
composite video
RS232C serial port
B i-directional parallel printer port (also suitable for
image scanners)
Cartridge port ( 1 28 K Byte capacity)
M I DI IN / MIDI OUT
S tereo m icrophone input: m iniature stereo plug
S tereo audio out: miniature stereo plug
Two 9-pin joystick connectors
Two I S-pin enhanced digital/analog controller and
light pen connectors
Appendixes
Data Storage
•
•
•
User Interface
•
•
•
•
System Software
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
1 .44-MB floppy disk drive
MS-DOS format compatible
Optional internal IDE hard drive
Standard QWERTY keyboard layout; low-profi le,
scu lptured ergonomic design
94/5 keys; ten function keys; separate numeric and
cursor keypads
Keyboard processor to reduce CPU overhead
Two-button mouse supplied as standard
Pre-emptive multitasking with adaptive
prioritization ( MultiTOS)
I nter-process communication through MultiTOS
messages and pipes
Hierarchical file system with subdirectories and
pathnames
Icon-based graphical user i nterface with selfexplanatory command functions
On-line help
TOS operating system i n ROM
Multiple w indow user interface with icons and
drop-down menus
New Desk desktop and eXtensible Control panel
allows customization by llser
Faicon030 Specifications
0-3
Appendixes
E
Connector Specifications
DSP Con n ector
9
18
26
0 826 Female
• • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • • •
• • • • • • • •
1
10
19
SCS I Con nector
;0
\
2
SCSI I I Female
Pin
Signal
�
_
_
�
_- - -_
_
_
_
'
�
� � �_
�
_
�
__
__
__
__
__
__
__ _
__
_
}�
� 2
Pin
Signal
1 -1 0
GND
37
N o t Connected
11
+5V
38
+5V
1 2- 1 4
Not Con nected
39
Not Con nected
1 5-25
GND
40
GND
26
SCSI 0
41
ATN
27
SCSI 1
42
GND
28
SCSI 2
43
BSY
29
SCSI 3
44
ACK
30
SCSI 4
45
RST
31
SCSI 5
MSG
32
SCSI 6
46
47
33
SCSI 7
48
C/O
34
Parity
49
REQ
35-36
GND
50
I/O
SEL
Connector Specifications E-1
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
Serial Port
1 \• • • • •; 5
6
DB9 Male
E-2
Pin
Signal
1
Carrier Detect
2
Receive
3
Transmit
4
Data Termi nal Ready
5
GND
6
Data set ready
7
Request to Send
8
Clear to Send
9
Ring I ndicator
Connector Specifications
••••
9
Appendixes
Parallel Port
13
0825 Female
Pin
Signal
1
Strobe
2
Data 0
3
Data 1
4
Data 2
5
Data 3
6
Data 4
7
Data 5
8
Data 6
9
Data 7
10
Acknowledge
11
Busy
1 2- 1 6
Not Connected
17
Select
1 8-25
GN D
25
1
•••••••••••••
••••••••••••
14
Con nector Specifications E-3
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
Mon itor Con nector
1 0 \.
11
Pin
E-4
• •
•
•
• •
•
Signal
Pin
7 1
• .
• • • • • • • • •
0 8 1 9 Male
19
Signal
1
Red
11
GND
2
Green
12
Composite SynclVideo
3
Blue
13
Horizontal Sync
4
Mono/Overlay
14
Vertical Sync
5
GND
15
External Clock I n put
6
Red G N D
16
External SYNC Enable
7
Green G N D
17
+ 1 2V
8
Blue G N D
18
M1
9
Audio out
19
MO
10
GND
Connector Specifications
Appendixes
SCC Connector
7
5
3
a-pin Mini DIN Female RS - 422
Pin
1
Signal
Handshake Output (DTR RS 423)
2
Handshake I nput or External Clock
3
4
- Transmit Data
5
- Received Data
GND
Transm itted Data
6
+
7
General-pu rpose I n put
8
+
Receive
Connector Specifications E-S
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
E n hanced Joystick
�o
1
• • •
•
G
• • ••• •
15 • • • • •
11
'------'
081 5 Male
Port 8
Port A
Pin
E-G
Signal
Pin
Signal
1
UP 0
1
UP 1
2
DOWN 0
2
DOWN 1
3
LT 0
3
LT 1
4
RT O
4
RT 1
5
PADOY
5
PA D 1 Y
6
F I R E 0 / LIGHT G U N
6
FIRE 1
7
VCC (+5 VDC)
7
VCC
8
Not Con nected
8
Not Con nected
9
GND
9
GND
10
FIRE 2
10
FIRE 3
11
UP 2
11
UP 3
12
DOWN 2
12
DOWN 3
13
LT 2
13
LT 3
14
RT 2
14
RT 3
15
PADOX
15
PAD 1 X
Connector Specifications
Appendixes
M I D I Port
3 (') 1
5� 4
2
DIN 5 Female
MIDI
OUT
Pin
Signal
MIDI IN
Pin
Signal
1
Thru Transmit
1
Not Con nected
2
GND
2
Not Con nected
3
Thru Loop Return
3
Not Con nected
4
Out Transmit
4
In Receive
5
Out Loop Return
5
In Loop Return
Connector Specifications E-7
Appendixes
If
c
"_
_"
_o
_s_
om e_
S_
t_
r_
pp
_r_t
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
__
Atari Corporation welcomes inquiries about your Atari computer products. We also
provide technical assistance. Write to Customer Relations at an address l isted
below.
Atari user groups also provide outstanding assistance. To receive a l i st of Atari user
groups in your area, send a sel f-addressed, stamped envelope to an address below.
In the United States, write to:
Atari Corporation
Customer Relations
P. O. Box 6 1 657
Sunnyvale, CA 94088
In Canada, write to :
Atari ( Canada) Corp.
90 Gough Road
Markham, Ontario
Canada L3R 5 Y 5
I n the U nited K ingdom, write t o :
Atari Corp. ( U K ) Ltd.
P . O. Box 555
S lough
Berkshire SL2 5BZ
Please indicate U ser Group List, Technical Assistance, or the subject of your letter
on the outside of the envelope.
Customer Support F- 1
Glossary
G lossary
.ACC The desk accessory extension .
ACSI Atari Computer S ystem I n terface. ACSI is a hardware and software control
procedure used to connect dev ices to the computer's Hard Disk port ( DMA
channe l ) .
active w i ndow The w i ndow on G E M D e s ktop that i s curre n t l y a v a i l ab l e for
desktop operations such as selecting, copyi ng, mov i ng, and deleting i tems. The
act i ve window is the only w i ndow that you can scro l l , update, move, or resize.
alert box A dialog box designed to bring somet h i ng to your attention. Alert d i alog
boxes are punctuated with stop signs, question marks, or exclamation points .
. APP An execu�able GEM program fil e extension.
application A program written to solve a specific problem or produce a spec i fic
result, and can be executed by a computer. That i s , the computer i s appli ed to the
task. ( See program . )
back u p T o make a n archive copy o f a disk o r file. B acking u p disks ensures that
i nformation i s not lost if the disk is accidentally damaged or erased.
baud The standard unit of transmission speed of data through a modem, calculated
in signaling elements per second.
baud rate The speed at which data are tra n s m i tted from one source to another,
usual l y from one computer through a modem to another computer.
Glossary
1
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
bee i c o n The i c on d i s p l ayed o n s c reen w h e n e v e r the c o m p u te r , tran s fers or
retrieves information from the disk dri ve. You cannot proceed to another action
while the bee icon i s on screen.
bit The smal lest unit of computer data (a binary d i g i t ) . Eight b i t s equal one byte.
( See byte . )
boot I n itial system l oad procedure. I f the procedure for loading your system i s i n
R O M , booting is accomplished b y switching o n your system. ( See coldstart and
warmstart . )
boot disk A disk containing the system files needed t o boot a computer.
busy l i g h t The l ight on a disk drive i ndicating that the drive is reading from or
writing to a disk.
byte A u n i t of computer data. Each byte consists of e i ght b i t s , prov i d i n g 256
possible values. For example, the letter )\''Is stored i n memory as one byte. ( See bit
and kilobyte . )
cache A special coprocessing c irc u i t found i n m o s t Atari T O S comp uters t hat
greatly improves the speed operations.
C D - R O M drive A computer-contro l l e d de v ice that reads h i gh-capac i t y optical
discs and sends the output to the computer.
c l i c k To q u i c k l y p re s s and release a m o u se butto n . A c l i c k on the l e ft m o u se
button selects items on the desktop. ( See double-click and shift-cl i c k . )
clock/ca lendar The fi le-dating feature built i n t o t h e computer a n d set from the
Control Panel .
close box The sma l l box i n the u pper left corner o f an active w i ndow, u sed to
close the current window.
2
Glossary
Glossary
coldstart B ooting the computer by sw itch i ng the power off and on or p re s s i ng
[Control ] [ Al t ] [ Right Shift ] [ Delete ] . A coldstart can be initiated while the
computer is runni ng by switching off the power for 10 seconds, then switching it
back on. A coldstart complete l y i n i t ial izes the system. ( Compare to warmstart. )
confi g u re T o c u s t o m i ze the c o m p u ter system t o your prefe re nces b y set t i ng
colors, baud rate, confirmation, and so on.
control panel A desk acces sory used t o a l te r and set m a n y of the s y s te m ' s
features and options, such as the color palette, mouse and keyboard response, and
the cIock/calendar.
copy A command used to duplicate the information in a file, folder, or disk.
cu rrent directory The directory currently displayed in a w i ndow, as specified by
the pathname i n the move bar.
cu rsor A marker that appears on the screen to indi cate the pos i t i on of the next
action. Text cursors are usually e ither a bl inking block or a solid vertical line. The
mouse pointer is sometimes called a cursor.
d a i sywheel p r i nter A type of p r i n ter t h a t u s e s a rotat i n g whee l to i m pact
characters against a ribbon and onto the paper.
data file A col lection of i nformation used by an appl ication. Data fi le icons l ook
l ike sheets of paper with one folded corner.
defa u lt A value, opt ion, or setting that the computer automatically selects u n t i l
you direct it otherw ise. For example, items o n the desktop are shown a s icons, by
default, unless you change the option in the View menu.
desk accessory A n application loaded i nto memory from the startup d i sk when
you switch on your computer. Desk accessories can be accessed either directly from
the desktop or from an appl ication that uses the menu bar format. Desk accessory
files are ident ified by the . ACC extension.
Glossary
3
Faicon030 Owner's Manual
desktop The main screen for the computer. It incl udes (but is not l i m i ted to) the
menu bar, two disk icons, and the trash icon.
desti nation disk The disk that information i s written to during a copy procedure.
dia log box An i nterac t i ve message box that the computer uses to communicate
w ith you. To exit a dialog box, you must acknowledge the message or choose an
option.
directory A l i st of fi les. ( See current directory, root directory, and subdirectory . )
d i s k d rive The most common data storage dev ice. The computer uses the d i sk
drive to read information from or write information to a disk.
disk identifier The letter i n a pathname indicating which disk is i n use. The letter
is always fol lowed by a colon ( : ) and a backslash (\) . A disk identifier appears by
itself i n the move bar of a directory w indow when the root directory displays.
diskcopy A procedure that duplicates data from one disk to another disk.
DMA port A high-speed peripheral port for attaching a hard disk drive, C D ROM
drive, or other DMA dev ice to the computer. DMA i s an acronym for Direct
Memory Access. ( See- ACSJ. )
d o c u m e nt A c o l l e c t i o n of data you c reate or m o d i fy u s i n g an a p p l i c a t i o n .
Documents can contain text, graphics, o r both. Also cal led a fi le. ( See file.)
document type See extension.
dot matrix pri nter A t y pe o f p r i n t e r that for m s c h aracters and g ra p h i c s by
printing small dots.
dou ble-c l i c k Two q u ick c l icks on a mouse button. A doubl e - c l i c k on the l e ft
mouse button opens a fi le, disk, or folder.
4
Glossary
Glossary
double-sided Allowing use of both s ides of a disk. A double-sided disk has both
sides of i ts magnetic media certified as safe for storing data. A double-sided ( high­
density) disk can store up to 1 ,45 8 , 1 76 bytes of data. A double-sided disk drive can
read, write to, and format both s ingle- and double-sided disks. ( Compare to s ingle­
sided . )
drag T o move a n i tem o n the desktop. T o drag, point the mouse pointer a t a n i tem,
press and hold down the left mouse button, and move the mouse. While the i tem i s
being dragged, a ghost outline o f the item appears on the desktop.
drop-down menu A list of options that appears below a menu heading when you
touch the menu bar heading with the mouse pointer.
editable text field A dashed line i n a dialog box where you can type characters.
e x p a n s i o n c o n necto r An i n te r n a l connector t h a t perm i t s i n st a l l a t i o n o f
additional special ized hardware w i t h your computer. The signals provided i nclude a
direct extension of the m icroprocessor bus.
extension The characters to the right of the period in a filename. Extension s that
represent the file type are mandatory. An extension can have up to three characters
( letters and numbers ) . Some common extensions are .ACC, .APP, .PRG, .TOS,
.GTP, and .TTP.
file A collection of i n formati o n that can be stored on a d i sk or in the computer ' s
memory.
file selector A dialog box , opened from an application, that l ists fi les and folders.
The File Selector d ialog box can be accessed from the application.
file specification The search criteria used i n a fi le selector.
fi lename The name of a fi l e , made up of a m andatory name and an extension,
separated by a period. ( See extension and filename. )
Glossary
5
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
f l o p p y d i s k A m a g n e t i c m e d i u m u se d to store i n fo rm a t i on g e n e rated o n a
computer. The disk is made of material simi lar to audio tape.
folder A subdirectory for storing fi les and other fol ders . A folder appears as a
folder icon ( mani l a folder) on the desktop, or with a folder symbol ( small box ) next
to its name when shown as text.
format To set the c i rc u l ar p a t t e r n s on a floppy d i sk t h a t e n a b l e it t o store
information. Formatting erases a l l i n formation previously stored on the disk.
fu l l box The smal l box in the upper right corner of a w i ndow, used to change the
size of a w indow alternately between a smaller screen and a ful l-screen.
function keys The keys [ F I ] through [ F I 0 ] along the top edge of the computer
keyboard. Many appl ications use these keys to perform special actions.
GEM The portion of TOS that creates and manages all the w indows, icons, menus,
and graphics features of the computer. GEM i s an acronym for Graphics
Env i ronment Manager.
ha rd disk A dev ice used to store data on a magnetic surface . A hard d i sk drive
can store far more data than a floppy disk drive, and can read and write information
many times faster.
ha rdware The actual physical apparatus of your computer system. (Compare to
software . )
i con A picture on the desktop that represents a disk, file, folder, or procedure. The
disk icon looks like a fil i ng cabinet; the data file icon looks l ike sheets of paper
with one corner folded; the program fi le icon looks l ike a small desktop; the folder
icon l ooks like a manila folder; the trash icon looks l ike a trash can; and the bee
icon looks l ike a bee.
6
Glossary
Glossary
i nformation l i n e The l ine at the top of a d i rectory w i ndow i mmediately be low
the move bar, tel l ing how many bytes are used by the items l isted i n the directory,
and how many items there are.
i n itial ize To set the computer to its starting configuration.
i n put/output ( 1 /0) The com m u n i c a t i o n proc e s s that takes p l ace between the
computer and a peripheral device such as a disk drive or printer. Input is
information the computer rece ives ( that is, it is sent i n ) ; output is i n formation the
computer transmits ( that is, it i s sent out).
i nterface A n e lectron i c c o n n e c t i o n that a l l o w s c o m m u n i c a t i o n between the
computer and a peripheral.
kilobyte 1 ,024 bytes of data. ( See Byte . )
laser pri nter A high-speed, high-resol ution printer that electrophotograph ical l y
produces an i mage on paper. The Atari S L M804 i s a laser printer.
mega byte 1 ,024 k i l obytes of data. The abbre v i at i on for megabyte i s M B . ( See
kilobyte . )
memory The i nternal o r e xternal med i a that the computer uses t o store data and
programs. There are two kinds of computer memory: RAM ( Random Access
Memory) and ROM ( Read-Only M emory ) . RAM loses i ts data i f the power is
turned off; ROM retai ns its i nformation whether the computer has power or not.
menu bar A bar at the top of the desktop. When you first start up your system , the
headings on the menu bar are Desk, File, View, and Options. Other appl ication
programs may have different head i ngs in the menu bar.
M I D I A s t a n d a rd i n te rface d e s i g n ed to c o n n e c t a c o m p u t e r to a n u mb e r of
electronic musical dev ices. M I D I is an acronym for M usical I n strument Digital
Interface.
Glossary
7
Fa/con030 Owner's Manual
modem A device that enables you to connect your computer directly to telephone
lines in order to establish a communication link with other computers and on- l i ne
i nformation networks. Also, the port on the computer for connecting a modem or
other serial device. Modem is a contraction of MOdulatorlDEModulator.
monitor See video display.
m o u se A s m a l l , h a n d - m a n i p u l ated d e v i c e c o n nected to your comp uter that
controls the movement of a pointer on the desktop. As you slide the mouse, a small
roller on the bottom tracks the movements. The mouse has two buttons. The left
button is used for most desktop operation s . The right button is used with some
appl ications.
move To move files or folders from their original l ocations to a different folder
and/or disk .
move bar T h e b a r at the top o f a n act i ve w i ndow. Use the move b a r to drag a
window to a new location on the desktop.
MS-DOS M icrosoft Disk Operati n g System. An operating system used with I B M
PCs and compatibles. Floppy disks formatted o n your Atari computer are
compatible with PC systems using MS-DOS and 3--inch floppy drives.
Mu ltiTOS Atari ' s multitasking operating system.
name The ide n t i fy i n g name of a fi le. A name i s mandatory and can have u p to
eight characters ( letters and numbers) .
N E W D E S K . I N F The fi l e t h a t h o l d s y o u r c u s t o m i z e d d e s k t o p d a t a .
NEWDES K . I N F must be i n the root directory of the boot disk i n order for the
computer to read it during booting.
option A n i tem i n a drop-down menu that enables you to manipulate the desktop
and the elements on it.
8
Glossary
Glossary
parallel port An i n terface which accepts the s i m ul taneous transmissi on of more
than one bit. ( See serial port . )
parameter Data given t o a program that controls i ts operation.
path name The l i st of i tems that specifies the path through the subdirectories on
the disk to the current directory. A pathname consists of a disk identifier and a
string of folders separated by backslashes ( for example A:\document\text\). It may
also contai n a file specification.
peri pheral Any external device, such as a disk drive, monitor, or printer, that you
connect to your computer.
pixel A dot on the computer's v ideo display. Pixels are arranged i n a grid, and set
to 640 x 400 dots per grid. Pixel is short for picture e lement.
pOi nter The small i mage on the screen that moves when you move the mouse. The
mouse pointer is usually an arrow, but it may change to other shapes such as a bee
icon during certain procedures .
. PRG A GEM appl ication file extension.
p r o g ra m A detai l ed and e x p l i c i t set o f i n stru c t i o n s for accom p l i sh i ng some
purpose, expressed in a language that can be read by a computer. ( See also
Application. )
program file A fi l e that contains an appl ications program. The program fi le icon
looks l ike a small desktop. Double-click the left mouse button on a program file to
execute the program.
prompt Any symbol or message on screen indi cating that the computer is awai t i ng
input
from the u ser.
RAM The part of the computer' s memory used to write data to and read data from
a disk. When you work with your computer, the information displayed on the
monitor screen is i n RAM. RAM is an acronym for Random Access Memory.
Glossary
9
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
R G B The co l o r s i g n a l s that the c o m p u ter produces to c re ate i t s spe c i a l c o l o r
display. The combi nations of different i n tensities each o f red, green, and blue
enable you to create thousands of colors w ith most Atari TOS computers.
ROM The part of the computer ' s memory contain i ng the operati n g system. ROM
never changes, and retains its i n formation with or without power to the computer.
ROM is an acronym for Read-Only Memory.
root d i rectory The first d i re c tory d i s p l ayed w he n you open a d i s k . The root
directory is specified by the disk identifier alone (such as A :\).
RS232 An industry-standard connection for serial peripherals. The RS232 port on
the back of the computer i s l abeled Modem.'This port is sometimes referred to as
the serial port.
scroll Scroll ing allows different areas of a w indow to be displayed. You can scro l l
left, right, u p , o r down.
scroll bar One of two bars that border an active w indow on the bottom and right
edges. The scroll bars contai n the scroll arrows and are shaded if part of the
w indow ' s contents cannot be seen. The l arger the shaded portion, the greater the
percentage of the w indow ' s contents that is h i dden from view.
sector A section of a track on a hard or floppy disk. Sectors are usually 1 28 , 256,
5 1 2, or 1 024 bytes long. On a floppy disk, the sectors are 5 1 2 bytes long. ( See
track. )
select i n g C l i c k i n g t h e l eft m o u s e b ut t o n o n a n i c o n , fi l e , o r m e n u o p t i o n .
Selected icons and files h i g h light t o indicate the selection.
serial port An i nterface w hich accepts the transmission of data one bit at a t i me .
( See parallel port . )
sh ift-click Clicking w i th t h e mouse button whil e holding down t h e [Shift] key.
10
Glossary
Glossary
single-sided Allowing use of one side only of a floppy disk. A s ingle-sided disk
has only one side of its magnetic media certified as safe for storing data. A single­
s ided disk can store up to 357,376 bytes of data. A single-sided disk drive can read,
write to, and format only single-sided disks, or double-sided disks that have been
formatted as single-sided. ( Compare to double-sided.)
size box A smal l box at the l ower right corner of a window, u sed to change the
w i ndow ' s size or shape.
sizing The process of changing the size or shape of a w i ndow.
software The i nstructions u sed by your computer to process data. ( Compare to
hardware . )
sou rce d i s k T h e d i s k from w h i c h i n format i on i s copied d u r i n g a D i s kcopy
procedure.
start u p disk A disk that u s u a l l y contains desk accessories, applications, and a
desktop configuration ( DESKTOP.I N F) fi le. I nsert a startup disk in the floppy drive
before the computer is switched on.
s u b d i rect o ry A d i rectory i n s ide a d i rectory; often c a l l e d a fol der. ( S ee root
directory . )
.TOS The TOS application file extension.
track One of the c i rc u l ar sections of a disk that can store data. Each track is made
up of smaller sections called sectors. ( See sector.)
trash can GEM Desktop icon used to permanently delete fi les or folders from the
desktop .
.TIP The TOS-takes parameters fil e extension.
G lossary
11
Index
Index
A
Accelerator CPX 4-45 - 4-46
Active menu options 4- 1
Advanced Setup Options 4-3 1
CPX I nfo 4-33 - 4-34
M i n i mum number of slots 4-32
Open CPX
4-33
4-34
U nload CPX
A lphanumeric keys
2-5
Applications
arguments 4- 1 7 - 4- 1 8
assi g n i ng boot status 4-2 1 - 4-22
assi g n i ng to function key 4-2 1
foreground/background 6-3
launching ( m u ltiTOS) 6-4
l inking a document
type 4- 1 8 - 4- 1 9
selecting defaul t directory 4-20
selecti ng parameter 4-20
Appli c ation file 5- 1
Arguments 4- 1 7 - 4- 1 8
Arrow keys 3 -7 - 3-8
Assigning an appl ication to
a function key 4-2 1
Assigning boot status to an
appl ication 4-2 1 - 4-22
Atari SLM laser printer 4-39
Audio feedback 4-35
Autoboot 4-2 1 - 4-22
B
Baud rate 4-37
B IT 2- 1
B its per character4-38
Boot status 4-2 1 - 4-22
Booting
from floppy disk
1 -8
from hard disk
1 -7
Border color 4-43
Bottom to Top command 4-7
B yte 2- 1
B ytes used/available
4-4
c
Cache 4-35
Calendar 4-29
CD-ROM disc 2-3
Changing an icon identifier
and label 4- 1 6
Close button 3-8
Close Directory command 4-7
Close Top W indow command 4-7
Index
1
Falcon 030 Owner's Manual
video d i s p l ay A dev ice conta i n i n g a v ideo screen that you and your computer
use to communicate.
warmstart (warm-boot) Rebooting the computer by pressing the Reset button on
the back of the computer or pressing [ Control ] [Alt ] [Delete ] . A warmstart only
partially i n it ial izes the system. (Compare Coldstart . )
wildcard A question mark ( ? ) o r asterisk ( * ) character used i n a fi le specification
to specify the search criterion. ? 'feplaces one character; * 'replaces all characters to
the end of the first name or extension.
wi ndow The work area that the computer u se s to d i splay files and folders or to
run programs. Multiple w i ndows can be open on the desktop at one time.
write-protect To mechan i c a l l y prevent a d i sk from be ing formatted, erased, or
written to. To write-protect a disk, move the write-protect tab so you can see
through the notch.
12
Glossary
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
Color display 4-4 1 - 4-42
true color 4-42
Color p rinting
4-39
Color set
custom 4-44
preassigned 4-44
Color setup 4-39, 4-4 1 - 4-42
true color 4-42
Colors
w indow 4-43 - 4-44
Configuring CPXs 4-44
Control panel 4-2, 4-29
About 4-29
Advanced Setup
Options 4-3 1 - 4-32
CPX Mover 4-30 - 4-3 1
date 4-29 - 4-30
M inimum number of slots 4-32
Reload CPXs 4-30 - 4-3 1
Setup 4-29
time 4-29 - 4-30
Control panel extensions
Accelerator 4-45
Color Setup 4-4 1 - 4-42
Configure CPXs 4-44
General Setup 4-34 - 4-36
Modem Setup 4-37 - 4-38
Printer Setup 4-39 - 4-4 1
Sound Setup 4-42
Window Colors 4-42 - 4-44
Copy/Format dialog box 2-8
Copying
name confl ict 5 - 1 3
Copying disks 5- 1 2
Copying files 5 - 1 1 - 5- 1 2
2
Index
Copying folders 5- 1 1 - 5 - 1 2
CPX 4-28, 4-34
Accelerator 4-45 - 4-46
Color Setup 4-4 1 - 4-42
Configure CPXs 4-44
General Setup 4-34 - 4-36
Modem Setup
4-36 - 4-38
Printer Setup 4-39 - 4-4 1
reloading 4-30 - 4-3 1
Sound Setup 4-42
unloading 4-34
Window Colors 4-42 - 4-44
CPX Directory Path
4-32
Creating a Folder 4-6
Cursor speed 4-45
D
Data fi le 5 - 1
opening 5 - 1 0 - 5- 1 1
Date 4-29 - 4-30
Delete command 4-6
Deleting files 5 - 1 4 - 5 - 1 5
Deleti ng folders 5 - 1 4 - 5 - 1 5
Desk Accessories 4-27
Control Panel 4-27 - 4-34
Desk menu 4-2
Control Panel option 4-2
Desktop I nfo option 4-2
Desktop 2-4
arranging 4-25
expanded (multiTOS) 6-3 - 6-4
savi ng 4-23 - 4-26 - 4-27
Index
Desktop Configuration
command 4-25 - 4-26
Desktop Info 4-2
Directories 5 - 1 - 5-2, 5-5 - 5-6
root 5 - 1
selecting 5-8
updating
5- 1 5
Disk drives
selecting 5-9
Disks
CD-ROM disc 2-3
copying 5 - 1 2
floppy 2-3, 2- 1 0
floppy, write-protecting 2- 1 2
floppy, formatting 2-7
hard disk 2-2
Double-click response 4-36
Double-c l icking 3-3, 3- 1 0
Dragging 3-3 - 3-4
Drive icons 2-5
Drive identifier 3- 1 0
E
Extensions
.ACC
.APP
. PRO
.TOS
.TTP
5-3 - 5-4
5-4
5-4
5-4
5 -4
5-4
F
Features I - I - 1 -2
File management 5 - 1 1
Fi le mask 3-8, 5 - 1
File menu 4-3
Bottom to Top option 4-7
Close Directory option 4-7
Close Top Window option 4-7
Create Folder option 4-6
Delete option 4-6
Format Floppy Disk option 4-9
Open option 4-3
Search option 4-5
Select All I tems option 4-8
Set File Mask option 4-8 - 4-9
Show Info option 4-4 - 4-6
File Selector 5-7 - 5-8
File Selector dialog box 5-7
File Specification 5-9 - 5 - 1 0
Filename extensions 5-3 - 5-4
Filenames 5-2 - 5-4
Files 5 - 1 - 5-4, 5-7 - 5- 1 5
copying 5 - 1 1 - 5 - 1 2
de leting 5 - 1 4 - 5- 1 5
mov i ng 5- 1 3 - 5 - 1 4
opening 5-6 - 5-7
renaming 5- 1 4
selecti ng 5-8
types 5-2
Fill color 4-43
Fill patterns 4-43
Floppy disk 2-3, 2-7
capacity 2-9
formatting 2-7
Index
3
Fa/con030 Owner 's Manual
write protecti ng 2-9
Flow control 4-38
Folder management 5- 1 1
Folders 5- 1 - 5-2, 5 - 1 I - 5- 1 5
copying 5- 1 I - 5- 1 2
creating 4-6
deleti ng 5 - 1 4 - 5 - 1 5
extending l imit 8 - 1 3
mov i ng 5 - 1 3 - 5 - 1 4
renaming 5 - 1 4
Format Floppy Disk command 4-9
Foreground/Background (multiTOS) 6-3,
6-5
Formatting
floppy disk 2-7
hard diSK 8-5 - 8 - 7
Front panel 1 - 1 1
Function keys 2-6, 4-25
assigning appl ication 4-2 1
Fundamentals 2- 1
G
GEM 2-4
GEM Desktop 2-4
General Setup w i ndow 4-34
Graphics Envi ronment Manager 2-4
bad sectors 8 - 1 3 - 8 - 1 6
extended partition schemes 8 - 1 7 8- 1 9
formatting 8-5 - B - 7
icons 2 - 3
optimizing 8- 1 7
organi zi ng 8- 1 6 - 8 - 1 7
partit ioning 8-8 - 8- 1 2
partitions 2-3
Hard disk icons 3-2
Hard disk util i ties
bypassing hard disk driver 8-5
erasing logical drive 8 - 1 2
extendi ng folder l imit 8 - 1 3
insta l l ing hard disk driver8-3 - 8 -4
marking bad sectors 8 - 1 3 - 8 - 1 6
optimizer programs 8 - 1 7
parking drive heads 8-2 - B-3
parking Read/Write heads 8 - 1 8-2
removing hard disk drive 8-4
unparking drive heads B-2 - 8-3
unparking Read/Write heads 8 - 1 8-2
I
Icon
H
Hard disk 2-2
advanced utilities B - 1 - B - 1 9
backing u p 8 - 1 7
4
Index
disk 2-5
dragging 3-6
removi ng 4-23
selecting multiple 3-6
Inactive men u options 4- 1
I nformation l ine 3-8
Index
I nstall App l ication command 4- 1 7
I nstall Dev ices command 4-22 - 4-23
Install Icon command 4- 1 3 - 4- 1 6
changing icon identifier
and l abel 4- 1 6
Desktop icon 4- 1 3
Printer icon 4- 1 6
W indow icon 4- 1 4 - 4- 1 5
K
Keyboard 2-5
alphanumeric keys 2-5
arrow keys 3-7 - 3-8
function keys 2-6, 4-2 1 , 4-25
numeric keypad 2-7
response
4-35
selecti ng multiple icons 3-4
Keystroke combinations 2-6
dragging w ith 3-8
selecting w ith 3-7
K i lobyte
2- 1
L
Laser printer 4-39
Launch i ng appl ications ( multiTOS) 6-4
Left panel 1 - 1 4
Linking a document type to an
appl ication 4- 1 8 - 4- 1 9
Logical drive, erasi ng B - 1 2
M
Megabyte 2- 1
Memory 2- 1
RAM 2-2, 4-32
ROM 2- 1 - 2-3
storage 2-2
system 2-2
Menu bar 4- 1
act i ve options 4- 1
Desk menu 4-2
File menu 4-3
i nactive options 4- 1
Options menu 4- 1 2
View menu 4-9
Modem
flow control 4-38
parity 4-37
selecting serial port 4-37
setting baud rate 4-37
sett i ng bits per character 4-38
stop bits 4-38
Modem setup 4-36 - 4-39
Monitor
adapter block 1 -8
connecting 1 -8
Mouse 2-5
care and maintenance C- 1 3
connecting 1 -7
double-cl icking 2-6
dragging wi th 2-6
selecting w ith 2-5 - 2-6
s i ngle-cl icking 2-6
speed 4-45
Move bar 5- 1
Index
5
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
Mov i ng a CPX 4-30 - 4-3 1
Install Application option 4- 1 7
Moving a w i ndow 3- 1 2
Moving files 5 - 1 3 - 5 - 1 4
Moving folders 5 - 1 3 - 5 - 1 4
MS- DOS computers
floppy drives 2-7
format compatible 2-7
Mult itaski ng 6- 1
M u ltiTOS
advantages 6- 1
foreground/background 6-3, 6-5
new features 6-2
Install Devices option 4-22 - 4-23
Install Icon option 4- 1 3 - 4- 1 5
Read . l NF File option 4-24
Save Desktop option 4-26 - 4-27
Set Preferences option 4-23 - 4-24
N
arne conflict during copying 5 - 1 3
Naming files 5 - 1 4
Nam i ng folders 5- 1 4
umeric keypad 2-8
o
Open command 4-3
cartridge icon or fi le 4-3
data file 4-3
disk icon or folder 4-3
printer icon 4-3
Opening a data file 5- 1 0 - 5 - 1 1
Opening a fi le 5-6 - 5-7
Operat ing system (TOS) 2-4
Options menu 4- 1 2
Desktop Configuration
option 4-25 - 4-26
6
Index
P
Paper 4-40
Parallel printer 4-40
Parity 4-37
Parking
drive heads B-2 - B - 3
Read/Write heads 8 - 1 - 8-2
Partition i ng hard disk
8-8 - 8 - 1 2
extended parti tion
schemes 8 - 1 7 - 8 - 1 9
Pathnames 5-5 - 5-6
Peripherals, connecting I - I I - 1 - 1 2
Pixels 2-9
Pixels per l i ne 4-40
Power cable 1 -6
Print Screen command 4-39
Printer
color 4-39
parallel 4-40
port 4-40
serial 4-40
Printer setup 4-39
color 4-39
paper 4-40
pixels per l i ne 4-40
port 4-40
Index
printer type 4-40
quality 4-40
Program fi le 5 - 1
Q
Qual ity of pri nt 4-40
Quick Reference A- I
R
R A M 2-2, 4-32
Read .INF File command 4-24
Rear panel 1 - 1 3
Reloading a CPX 4-30 - 4-3 1
Remove Desktop Icon command 4-23
Right panel 1 - 1 2
ROM 2 - 1 - 2-3
Root directory 5 - 1
Rubber band box 3-5 - 3-6
s
S ave Desktop command 4-23, 4-26 - 4-27
Screen di splay 2-4
Screen saver 4-45
modem recogni tion 4-45
Scro l l bars 3-8 - 3 - 1 0
Scrolling a window 3 - L O - 3- 1 1
SCSI device, connecting 1 -9 - 1 - 1 0
Search command 4-5
Select A l l Items command 4-8
Selecting
default directory 4-20
directory 5-8
disk drive 5-9
file 5-8
icon 3-3
items w i th shift-click 3-5
multiple icons 3 -4
parameter 4-20
with rubber band box 3-5
with rubber band box
and shift-clicking 3 -6
Serial port 4-37
Serial printer 4-4 1
Set Color and Style
command 4- 1 1 - 4- 1 2
Set File Mask command 4-8
Set Preferences command 4-23 - 4-24
colors 4-24
columns 4-24
compatibility mode 4-24
double l ines 4-24
Set Preferences dialog box 4-24
Setting color 4-4 1 - 4-42
Setting modem 4-36 - 4-39
Setting printer 4-39 - 4-4 1
Setting sound 4-42
Setting up the system 1 -5
Setting w indow colors 4-42 - 4-44
S h i ft-c l icking 3-5
S how as Icons command 4- 1 0
Show as Text command 4- 1 0
Show Info command 4-4 - 4-6
Bytes avail able 4-4
Index
7
Falcon030 Owner's Manual
Bytes used
4-4
Disk Label 4-4
Drive I D 4-4
Number of Files 4-4, 4-5
Number of Folders 4-4, 4-5
Show/print dialog box 5- 1 0 - 5 - 1 1
S ingle-cl icking 3-3
S i ze to Fit command 4- 1 1
S izing a window 3- 1 1
SLM l aser printer 4-39
S lots
mini mum number 4-3 1
Sorting commands 4- 1 0 - 4- 1 1
No Sort 4- 1 1
Sort by Date 4- 1 I
Sort by Type 4- 1 I
Sound 4-35, 4-42
Sound setup 4-42
Sound Setup w i ndow 4-43
Starting your system 1 -7
Stop bits 4-38
Storage memory 2-2
System memory 2-2
System orientation I - I I
T
Text color 4-43
Time 4-29 - 4-30
Trash Can Icon 4-26
True color 4-42
8
Index
u
U pdating a directory
Using a printer icon
5- 1 5
4- 1 6
v
View menu 4-9
Set Color and Style 4- 1 1 - 4- 1 2
Show a s Icons option 4- 1 0
Show as Text option 4- 1 0
S ize to Fit option 4- 1 1
Sorting options 4- 1 0
w
Wi ldcards 5-9 - 5 - 1 0
Window Colors setup 4-42 - 4-44
Windows
c lose button 3-8
closing 3-9, 3- 1 0
drive identifier 3-8
fi le mask 3-8
information l ine 3-8
moving 3 - 1 2
opening 3-9
scrolling 3- 1 0 - 3- 1 1
sizing 3- 1 I
top window 3- 1 I
Workspace, preparing 1 -5
Write-protecting floppy disks 2-9
Write-protect tab 2-9
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