VN-100 User Manual - VectorNav Technologies

VN-100 User Manual - VectorNav Technologies
Embedded Navigation Solutions
VN-100 User Manual
Firmware v2.0.0.0
Document Revision 2.02
VectorNav Technologies
10501 Markison Road
Dallas, Texas 75238
United States of America
Contact Info
Phone
+1 512 772 3615
Email
[email protected]
Website www.vectornav.com
VN-100 User Manual
UM001
Document Information
Title
Subtitle
Document Type
Document Number
Document Status
VN-100 User Manual
Inertial Navigation Modules
User Manual
UM001 v2.02
Released
VectorNav Technical Documentation
In addition to our product-specific technical data sheets, the following manuals are available to assist
VectorNav customers in product design and development.



VN-100 User Manual: The user manual provides a high-level overview of product specific
information for each of our inertial sensors. Further detailed information regarding hardware
integration and application specific use can be found in the separate documentation listed
below.
Hardware Integration Manual: This manual provides hardware design instructions and
recommendations on how to integrate our inertial sensors into your product.
Application Notes: This set of documents provides a more detailed overview of how to utilize
many different features and capabilities offered by our products, designed to enhance
performance and usability in a wide range of application-specific scenarios.
Document Symbols
The following symbols are used to highlight important information within the manual:
The information symbol points to important information within the manual.
The warning symbol points to crucial information or actions that should be followed to avoid
reduced performance or damage to the navigation module.
Technical Support
Our website provides a large repository of technical information regarding our navigation sensors. A list
of the available documents can be found at the following address:
http://www.vectornav.com/support
If you have technical problems or cannot find the information that you need in the provided documents,
please contact our support team by email or phone. Our engineering team is committed to providing
the required support necessary to ensure that you are successful with the design, integration, and
operation of our embedded navigation sensors.
Technical Support Contact Info
Email: [email protected]
Phone: +1.512.772.3615
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Table of Contents
1 Introduction
5
1.1 PRODUCT DESCRIPTION
5
1.2 FACTORY CALIBRATION
5
1.3 OPERATION OVERVIEW
5
1.4 PACKAGING OPTIONS
7
1.5 VN-100 PRODUCT CODES
8
2 Specifications
9
2.1 VN-100 SURFACE-MOUNT DEVICE (SMD) ELECTRICAL
9
2.2 VN-100 RUGGED ELECTRICAL
12
2.3 VN-100 SURFACE-MOUNT DEVICE (SMD) DIMENSIONS
14
2.4 VN-100 RUGGED DIMENSIONS
15
2.5 ABSOLUTE MAXIMUM RATINGS
15
2.6 SENSOR COORDINATE SYSTEM
16
3 VN-100 Software Architecture
17
3.1 IMU SUBSYSTEM
17
3.2 NAVSTATE SUBSYSTEM
19
3.3 NAVFILTER SUBSYSTEM
20
3.4 VECTOR PROCESSING ENGINE
20
3.5 COMMUNICATION INTERFACE
26
3.6 COMMUNICATION PROTOCOL
27
4 Basic Communication
28
4.1 SERIAL INTERFACE
28
4.2 SPI INTERFACE
28
4.3 SYSTEM ERROR CODES
32
4.4 CHECKSUM / CRC
33
5 User Configurable Binary Output Messages
35
5.1 AVAILABLE OUTPUT TYPES
35
5.2 CONFIGURING THE OUTPUT TYPES
35
5.3 BINARY OUTPUT MESSAGE FORMAT
40
5.4 BINARY GROUP 1 – COMMON OUTPUTS
44
5.5 BINARY GROUP 3 – IMU OUTPUTS
48
5.6 BINARY GROUP 5 – ATTITUDE OUTPUTS
52
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6 System Module
56
6.1 COMMANDS
56
6.2 CONFIGURATION REGISTERS
60
6.3 STATUS REGISTERS
77
6.4 FACTORY DEFAULTS
78
6.5 COMMAND PROMPT
79
7 IMU Subsystem
81
7.1 IMU MEASUREMENT REGISTERS
81
7.2 IMU CONFIGURATION REGISTERS
83
7.3 FACTORY DEFAULTS
90
7.4 COMMAND PROMPT
91
8 Attitude Subsystem
93
8.1 COMMANDS
93
8.2 MEASUREMENT REGISTERS
95
8.3 CONFIGURATION REGISTERS
105
8.4 FACTORY DEFAULTS
108
9 Hard/Soft Iron Estimator Subsystem
109
9.1 CONFIGURATION REGISTERS
109
9.2 STATUS REGISTERS
110
9.3 FACTORY DEFAULTS
111
9.4 COMMAND PROMPT
112
10 Velocity Aiding
116
10.1 OVERVIEW
116
10.2 CONFIGURATION REGISTERS
120
10.3 STATUS REGISTERS
121
10.4 INPUT MEASUREMENTS
122
10.5 FACTORY DEFAULTS
123
11 World Magnetic & Gravity Module
124
11.1 CONFIGURATION REGISTERS
124
11.2 FACTORY DEFAULTS
126
11.3 COMMAND PROMPT
127
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Introduction
1.1
Product Description
The VN-100 is a miniature surface mount high-performance Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) and
Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS). Incorporating the latest solid-state MEMS sensor
technology, the VN-100 combines a set of 3-axis accelerometers, 3-axis gyroscopes, 3-axis
magnetometers, a barometric pressure sensor and a 32-bit processor. The VN-100 is considered both
an IMU in that it can output acceleration, angular rate, and magnetic measurements along the X, Y, & Z
axes of the sensor as well as an AHRS in that it can output filtered attitude estimates of the sensor with
respect to a local coordinate frame.
1.2
Factory Calibration
MEMS inertial sensors are subject to several common sources of error: bias, scale factor, misalignments,
temperature dependencies, and gyro g-sensitivity. All VN-100 sensors undergo a rigorous calibration
process at the VectorNav factory to minimize these error sources. Compensation parameters calculated
during these calibrations are stored on each individual VN-100 and digitally applied to the real-time
measurements. VN-100 sensors are available with two calibration options:


1.3
Standard Calibration – single temperature point calibration at +25C, which typically holds
performance specifications when operating in an environment with a temperature range of
+15C to +35C.
Thermal Calibration – this option extends the calibration process over multiple temperatures to
ensure performance specifications are met over the full operating temperature range of -40C to
+85C.
Operation Overview
The VN-100 has a built-in microcontroller that runs a quaternion based Extended Kalman Filter (EKF),
which provides estimates of both the attitude of the sensor as well as the real-time gyro biases.
VectorNav uses a quaternion based attitude filter because it is continuous over a full 360 degree range
of motion such that there are no limitations on the angles it can compute. However, the VN-100 also
has a built-in capability to output yaw, pitch, and roll angles from the VN-100, in which the sensor
automatically converts from quaternions to the desired attitude parameter. Outputs from the VN-100
include:




Attitude:
o Yaw, Pitch, & Roll
o Quaternions
o Direction Cosine Matrix
Angular Rates:
o Bias-Compensated
o Calibrated X, Y, & Z Gyro Measurements
Acceleration:
o Calibrated X, Y, & Z Measurements
Magnetic:
o Calibrated X, Y, & Z Measurements
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Barometric Pressure
The VN-100 EKF relies on comparing measurements from the onboard inertial sensors to two reference
vectors in calculating the attitude estimates: gravity down and magnetic North. Measurements from
the three-axis accelerometer are compared to the expected magnitude and direction of gravity in
determining the pitch and roll angles while measurements from the three-axis magnetometer are
compared to the expected magnitude and direction of Earth’s background magnetic field in determining
the heading angle (i.e. yaw angle with respect to Magnetic North).
The VN-100 Kalman Filter is based on the assumption that the accelerometer measurements should
only be measuring gravity down. If the sensor is subject to dynamic motion that induces accelerations,
the pitch and roll estimates will be subject to increased errors. These measurements can be accounted
and compensated for by using the VN-100 Velocity Aiding Feature (See Section 10 for more
information).
The VN-100 filter relies on comparing the onboard magnetic measurements to Earth’s background
magnetic field in determining its heading angle. Common objects such as batteries, electronics, cars,
rebar in concrete, and other ferrous materials can bias and distort the background magnetic field
leading to increased errors. These measurements can be accounted and compensated for by using the
VN-100 Hard/Soft Iron Algorithms (See Section 9 for more information).
VectorNav has developed a suite of tools called the Vector Processing Engine (VPE™), which are builtinto the VN-100 and minimize the effects of these disturbances; however, it is not possible to obtain
absolute heading accuracies better than 2 degrees over any extended period of time when relying on
magnetometer measurements.
The VN-100 EKF also integrates measurements from the three-axis gyroscopes to provide faster and
smoother attitude estimates as well as angular rate measurements. Gyroscopes of all kinds are subject
to bias instabilities, in which the zero readings of the gyro will drift over time to due to inherent noise
properties of the gyro itself. The VN-100 EKF uses the accelerometer and magnetometer measurements
to continuously estimate the gyro bias, such that the report angular rates are compensated for this drift.
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Packaging Options
1.4
The VN-100 is available in two different configurations; a 30-pin surface mount device (VN-100 SMD)
and an aluminum encased module (VN-100 Rugged). The VN-100 surface mount device is well suited for
customers looking to integrate the VN-100 sensor at the electronics level while the VN-100 Rugged
provides a precision enclosure with mounting tabs and alignment holes for a more off-the-shelf solution.
1.4.1
Surface-Mount Package
For embedded applications, the VN-100 is available in a
miniature surface-mount package.
Features




Small Size: 22 x 24 x 3 mm
Single Power Supply: 3.2 to 5.5 V
Communication Interface: Serial TTL & SPI
Low Power Requirement: < 185 mW @ 3.3V
1.4.2
Rugged Package
The VN-100 Rugged consists of the VN-100 sensor installed
and calibrated in a robust precision aluminum enclosure.
Features






Precision aluminum enclosure
Locking 10-pin connector
Mounting tabs with alignment holes
Compact Size: 36 x 33 x 9 mm
Single Power Supply: 4.5 to 5.5 V
Communication Interface: Serial RS-232 & TTL
1.4.3
Surface Mount Development Kit
The VN-100 Development Kit provides the VN-100 surfacemount sensor installed onto a small PCB, providing easy access
to all of the features and pins on the VN-100. Communication
with the VN-100 is provided by USB and RS-232 serial
communication ports. A 30-pin header provides easy access to
each of the critical pins. The VN-100 Development Kit also
includes all of the necessary cabling, documentation, and
support software.
Features



Pre-installed VN-100 Sensor
Onboard USB->Serial converter
Onboard TTL->RS-232 converter
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30-pin 0.1” header for access to VN-100 pins
Power supply jack – 5V (Can be powered from USB)
Board Size: 76 x 76 x 14 mm
1.4.4
VN-100 Rugged Development Kit
The VN-100 Rugged Development Kit includes the VN-100
Rugged sensor along with all of the necessary cabling required
for operation. Two cables are provided in each Development
Kit: one custom cable for RS-232 communication and a second
custom cable with a built in USB converter. The Development
Kit also includes all of the relevant documentation and support
software.
Features







1.5
VN-100 Rugged Sensor
10 ft RS-232 cable
10 ft USB connector cable
Cable Connection Tool
CD w/Software Development Kit
User Manual, Quick Start Guide & Documentation
Carrying Case
VN-100 Product Codes
Table 1 - VN-100 Product Codes
VN-100 Options
Item Code
VN-100S
VN-100T
VN-100S-DEV
VN-100T-DEV
VN-100S-CR
VN-100T-CR
VN-100S-CR-DEV
VN-100T-CR-DEV
VN-C100-0310
VN-C100-0410
Sensor Packaging
Surface Mount Device
Surface Mount Device
Surface Mount Development Kit
Surface Mount Development Kit
Rugged Module
Rugged Module
Rugged Development Kit
Rugged Development Kit
VN-100 Rugged USB Adapter Cable
VN-100 Rugged Serial Adapter Cable
Calibration Option
Standard at 25C
Thermal -40C to +85C
Standard at 25C
Thermal -40C to +85C
Standard at 25C
Thermal -40C to +85C
Standard at 25C
Thermal -40C to +85C
N/A
N/A
VN-100 User Manual
Product Type
IMU/AHRS
IMU/AHRS
IMU/AHRS
IMU/AHRS
IMU/AHRS
IMU/AHRS
IMU/AHRS
IMU/AHRS
Cable
Cable
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Specifications
VN-100 Surface-Mount Device (SMD) Electrical
Figure 1 – Pin assignments (top down view)
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Table 2 – VN-100 SMD Pin Assignments
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Pin Name
GND
GND
GND
GND
TX2
RX2
TARE/
RESTORE
Type
Supply
Supply
Supply
Supply
Output
Input
Input
8
9
10
11
RESV
SYNC_OUT
VIN
ENABLE
N/A
Output
Supply
Input
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
TX1
RX1
RESV
RESV
SPI_SCK
SPI_MOSI
GND
SPI_MISO
RESV
NRST
Output
Input
N/A
N/A
Input
Input
Supply
Output
N/A
Input
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
SYNC_IN
SPI_CS
RESV
RESV
RESV
RESV
GND
RESV
GND
Input
Input
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Supply
N/A
Supply
Description
Ground.
Ground.
Ground.
Ground.
Serial UART #2 data output. (sensor)
Serial UART #2 data input. (sensor)
Normally used to zero (tare) the attitude.
To tare, pulse high for at least 1 μs. During power on or device reset, holding this
pin high will cause the module to restore its default factory settings. As a
result, the pin cannot be used for tare until at least 5 ms after a
power on or reset. Internally held low with 10k resistor.
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
Time synchronization output signal.
3.2 - 5.5 V input.
Leave high for normal operation. Pull low to enter sleep mode. Internally pulled
high with pull-up resistor.
Serial UART #1 data output. (sensor)
Serial UART #1 data input. (sensor)
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
SPI clock.
SPI input.
Ground.
SPI output.
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
Microcontroller reset line. Pull low for > 20 μs to reset MCU. Internally pulled
high with 10k.
Time synchronization input signal.
SPI slave select.
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
Ground.
Reserved for internal use. Do not connect.
Ground.
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VN-100 SMD Power Supply
The minimum operating supply voltage is 3.2V and the absolute maximum is 5.5V.
2.1.2
VN-100 SMD Serial (UART) Interface
The serial interface on the VN-100 operates with 3V TTL logic.
Table 3 - Serial I/O Specifications
Specification
Input low level voltage
Input high level voltage
Output low voltage
Output high voltage
2.1.3
Min
-0.5 V
2V
0V
2.4 V
Typical
Max
0.8 V
5.5 V
0.4 V
3.0 V
VN-100 SMD Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI)
Table 4 - Serial I/O Specifications
Specification
Input low level voltage
Input high level voltage
Output low voltage
Output high voltage
Clock Frequency
Close Rise/Fall Time
2.1.4
Min
-0.5 V
2V
0V
2.4 V
Typical
8 MHz
Max
0.8 V
5.5 V
0.4 V
3.0 V
16 MHz
8 ns
VN-100 SMD Reset, SyncIn/Out, and Other General I/O Pins
Table 5 - NRST Specifications
Specification
Input low level voltage
Input high level voltage
Weak pull-up equivalent resistor
NRST pulse width
Min
-0.5 V
2V
30 kΩ
20 μs
Typical
40 kΩ
Max
0.8 V
5.5 V
50 kΩ
Table 6 - SyncIn Specifications
Specification
Input low level voltage
Input high level voltage
Pulse Width
Min
-0.5 V
2V
100 ns
Typical
Max
0.8 V
5.5 V
Table 7 - SyncOut Specifications
Specification
Output low voltage
Output high voltage
Output high to low fall time
Output low to high rise time
Output Frequency
Min
0V
2.4 V
1 Hz
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Typical
Max
0.4 V
3.0 V
125 ns
125 ns
1 kHz
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VN-100 Rugged Electrical
Table 8 – VN-100 Rugged Pin Assignments
Pin
1
2
3
4
Pin Name
VCC
TX1
RX1
SYNC_OUT
5
6
GND
TARE/RESTORE
7
SYNC_IN
8
9
10
TX2_TTL
RX2_TTL
RESV
Description
+3.5V to +5.7V
RS-232 voltage levels data output from the sensor. (Serial UART #1)
RS-232 voltage levels data input to the sensor. (Serial UART #1)
Output signal used for synchronization purposes. Software configurable
to pulse when ADC, IMU, or attitude measurements are available.
Ground
Input signal used to zero the attitude of the sensor. If high at reset, the
device will restore to factory default state. Internally held low with 10k
resistor.
Input signal for synchronization purposes. Software configurable to
either synchronize the measurements or the output with an external
device.
Serial UART #2 data output from the device at TTL voltage level (3V).
Serial UART #2 data into the device at TTL voltage level (3V).
This pin should be left unconnected.
Figure 2 - VN-100 Rugged External Connector
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VN-100 Rugged Power Supply
The power supply input for the VN-100 Rugged is 4.5 to 5.5 V DC.
2.2.2
VN-100 Rugged Serial UART Interface
Table 9 - Serial I/O Specifications
Specification
Input low level voltage
Input high level voltage
Output low voltage
Output high voltage
Output resistance
Data rate
Pulse slew
2.2.3
Min
-25 V
Typical
-5.0 V
5.0 V
300 Ω
-5.4 V
5.5 V
10 MΩ
Max
25 V
1 Mbps
300 ns
VN-100 Rugged Reset, SyncIn/Out, and Other General I/O Pins
Table 10 - NRST Specifications
Specification
Input low level voltage
Input high level voltage
Weak pull-up equivalent resistor
NRST pulse width
Min
-0.5 V
2V
30 kΩ
20 μs
Typical
40 kΩ
Max
0.8 V
5.5 V
50 kΩ
Table 11 - SyncIn Specifications
Specification
Input low level voltage
Input high level voltage
Pulse Width
Min
-0.5V
2V
100 ns
Typical
Max
0.8V
5.5V
Table 12 - SyncOut Specifications
Specification
Output low voltage
Output high voltage
Output high to low fall time
Output low to high rise time
Output Frequency
Min
0V
2.4 V
1 Hz
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Typical
Max
0.4 V
3.0 V
125 ns
125 ns
1 kHz
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VN-100 Surface-Mount Device (SMD) Dimensions
Figure 3 – VN-100 PCB Footprint
* Measurements are in inches
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VN-100 Rugged Dimensions
Figure 4 - VN-100 Rugged Dimensions
* Measurements are in inches
2.4.1
Rugged Connector Type
The connector used on the VN-100 Rugged is a 10-pin Harwin M80-5001042. The mating connector
used on the cable assemblies provided by VectorNav for use with the VN-100 Rugged is a Harwin M804861005.
2.5
Absolute Maximum Ratings
Table 13 – SMD Absolute Maximum Ratings
Specification
Input Voltage
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Min
-0.3 V
-40 C
-40 C
Max
5.5 V
85 C
85 C
Table 14 – Rugged Absolute Maximum Ratings
Specification
Input Voltage
Operating Temperature
Storage Temperature
Min
-0.3 V
-40 C
-40 C
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5.5 V
85 C
85 C
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Sensor Coordinate System
2.6
2.6.1
Sensor Coordinate Frame
The VN-100 uses a right-handed coordinate system. A positive yaw angle is defined as a positive righthanded rotation around the Z-axis. A positive pitch angle is defined as a positive right-handed rotation
around the Y-axis. A positive roll angle is defined as a positive right-handed rotation around the X-axis.
The axes direction with respect to the VN-100 module is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 5 - VN-100 Coordinate System
2.6.2
North-East-Down Frame
The VN-100 velocity estimates can be output in the North-East-Down (NED) coordinate frame defined as
follows (NX, NY, NZ):




Right-handed, Cartesian, non-inertial, geodetic frame with origin located at the surface of
Earth (WGS84 ellipsoid);
Positive X-axis points towards North, tangent to WGS84 ellipsoid;
Positive Y-axis points towards East, tangent to WGS84 ellipsoid;
Positive Z-axis points down into the ground completing the right-handed system.
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VN-100 Software Architecture
The software architecture internal to the VN-100 includes four separate subsystems. These subsystems
are the IMU, the NavState, the NavFilter, and the Communication Interface. The high-level functions
performed by these subsystems are outlined below. This chapter describes the functions performed by
these subsystems in more detail and describes which of the various measurement outputs originate
from each of these corresponding subsystems.
Figure 6 - VN-100 Software Architecture
IMU
NavState
NavFilter
Comm
Interface
Downsamples
IMU sensors to
800 Hz
Calculates
orientation at
400Hz
Vector
Processing
Engine
Serial ASCII
Applies Factory
Calibration
Computes delta
angles
AHRS Kalman
Filter
Serial Binary
Applies User
Calibration
Computes delta
velocity
Hard/Soft Iron
Estimator
SPI
Applies User
Reference
Frame Rotation
World Magnetic
Model
Serial Command
Prompt
Applies User
Low-Pass
Filtering
World Gravity
Model
Applies Onboard
Calibration
Timestamps
Measurements
3.1
IMU Subsystem
The IMU subsystem runs at the highest system rate, described from this point forward as the “IMU
Rate” (default 800Hz). It is responsible for collecting the raw IMU measurements, applying a static, user,
and dynamic calibration to these measurements, and optionally filtering the individual sensor
measurements for output. Coning and sculling integrals also are calculated by the IMU subsystem at the
full IMU Rate. The IMU subsystem is also responsible for time stamping the IMU measurements to
internal system time, and relative to the SyncIn signal.
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Magnetometer
External
Magnetometer
Data
Raw
Magnetometer
Data
3.1.2
Raw
Accelerometer
Data
3.1.3
Raw Gyro Data
3.1.4
User
Magnetometer
Compensation
(Register 23)
User Reference
Frame Rotation
(Register 26)
Factory
Calibration
User Low-Pass
Filtering
(Uncompensated)
(Register 85)
User Low-Pass
Filtering
(Compensated)
(Register 85)
Uncompensated
Magnetometer
(uncompMag)
Onboard Hard/
Soft Iron
Compensation
(Register 44+47)
Compensated
Magnetometer
(magBody)
Accelerometer
Factory
Calibration
User
Accelerometer
Compensation
(Register 25)
User Reference
Frame Rotation
(Register 26)
User Low-Pass
Filtering
(Uncompensated)
(Register 85)
Uncompensated
Accelerometer
(uncompAccel)
User Low-Pass
Filtering
(Compensated)
(Register 85)
Compensated
Accelerometer
(accelBody)
Gyro
Factory
Calibration
User Gyro
Compensation
(Register 84)
User Reference
Frame Rotation
(Register 26)
User Low-Pass
Filtering
(Uncompensated)
(Register 85)
User Low-Pass
Filtering
(Compensated)
(Register 85)
Uncompensated
Angular Rate
(uncompGyro)
Gyro Filter Bias
Compensation
Compensated
Angular Rate
(angularRate)
Raw IMU Measurements
The raw IMU measurements are collected from the internal inertial MEMS sensors at the highest rate
available for each individual sensor. For the gyro and accelerometer, the measurements are downsampled to the IMU Rate.
3.1.5
Factory Calibration
Each VN-100 sensor is tested at the factory at multiple known angular rates, accelerations, and magnetic
field strengths to determine each sensor’s unique bias, scale factor, axis alignment, and temperature
dependence. The calibration coefficients required to remove these unwanted errors are permanently
stored in flash memory on each sensor. These calibration coefficients are applied to the raw IMU
measurements at the IMU Rate to correct for these known errors. For thermally calibrated units the
onboard temperature sensor is used to remove the measurement’s temperature dependence. The
output of the factory calibration stage are referred to as the calibrated (but un-compensated) IMU
measurements.
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User Calibration
The VN-100 provides the user with the ability to apply a separate user calibration to remove additional
bias, scale factor, and axis misalignments. The user calibration is applied after the factory calibration,
and can be used to fine tune the calibration of each of the sensors. The user calibration is optional and
in most cases not required for normal operation.
3.1.7
User Reference Frame Rotation
The user Reference Frame Rotation provides the user with the ability to apply a rigid body rotation to
each of the sensor outputs. This can be used to transform the coordinate system of the onboard
sensors into any other coordinate frame of the user’s choosing. Since this transformation is applied to
the IMU measurements prior to their use in the onboard attitude estimation algorithms, applying a user
Reference Frame Rotation will not only change the output coordinates for the IMU measurements, it
will also change the IMU body frame for all subsequent attitude estimation calculations.
3.1.8
User Low-Pass Filtering
The VN-100 also provides a means (see Register 85) to apply low-pass filtering to the output
compensated IMU measurements. It is important to note that the user low-pass filtering only applies to
the output compensated IMU measurements. All onboard Kalman filters in the NavFilter subsystem
always use the unfiltered IMU measurements after the User Reference Frame Rotation (Register 26) has
been applied. As such the onboard Kalman filtering will not be affected by the user low-pass filter
settings. The user low-pass filtering can be used to down-sample the output IMU measurements to
ensure that information is not lost when the IMU measurements are sampled at a lower rate than the
internal IMU Rate.
3.1.9
Timestamp Measurements
All onboard measurements captured by the IMU subsystem are time stamped relative to several internal
timing events. These events include the monotonically increasing system time (time since startup), and
the time since the last SyncIn event. These timestamps are recorded with microsecond resolution and
~10 microsecond accuracy relative to the onboard temperature compensated crystal oscillator (TCXO).
The onboard oscillator has a timing accuracy of ~20ppm over the temperature range of -40C to +80C.
3.1.10 Coning & Sculling
The IMU subsystem is also responsible for computing and accumulating the coning and sculling
integrals. These integrals track the delta angle and delta velocity accumulated from one time step to
another. The coning and sculling integrals are reset each time the delta angle and/or delta velocity are
outputted (asynchronously) or polled from the delta theta and velocity register (Register 80). Between
output or polling events, the coning and sculling integration is performed by the IMU subsystem at the
IMU Rate.
3.2
NavState Subsystem
The NavState subsystem generates a continuous, reliable stream of low-latency, low-jitter state outputs
at a rate fixed to the IMU sample rate. The state outputs include any output (such as attitude, which is
not directly measureable by the IMU) and hence must be estimated by the onboard Kalman filters. The
NavState runs immediately after, and in sync with the IMU subsystem, at a rate divisible into the IMU
Rate at a rate referred to as the NavState Rate (default 400Hz). The NavState decouples the rate at
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which the state outputs are made available to the user from the rate at which they are being estimated
by the onboard Kalman filters. This is very important for many applications which depend on lowlatency, low-jitter attitude measurements as inputs to their control loops. The NavState guarantees the
output of new updated state information at a rate fixed to the IMU Rate with very low latency and
output jitter. The NavState also provides the ability for the VN-100 to output estimated states at rates
faster than the onboard Kalman filters (which may be affected by system load and input measurements
availability).
3.2.1
NavState Measurements
The measurements shown below are calculated by the NavState subsystem and are made available at
the NavState Rate (default 400 Hz).
NavState Outputs
Attitude
(Yaw, Pitch, Roll, Quaternion, DCM)
Delta Angle
Delta Velocity
3.3
NavFilter Subsystem
The NavFilter subsystem consists of the Vector Processing Engine (VPE™) and its collection of Kalman
filters and other calculations that run at a lower rate than the NavState (default 200Hz). This includes
the attitude estimation filters, measurement uncertainty estimation, adaptive filtering & tuning logic, as
well as the onboard HSI filter. When necessary, the reference vectors are also updated using onboard
magnetic and gravitational models, for use in the filters.
NavFilter Outputs
Attitude Uncertainty
Gyro Filter Bias
Mag & Accel Disturbance Estimation
Onboard Magnetic Hard & Soft Iron
Estimation
World Magnetic & Gravity Model
3.4
Vector Processing Engine
The Vector Processing Engine (VPE) is a collection of sophisticated algorithms which provide real-time
monitoring and simultaneous estimation of the attitude as well as the uncertainty of the input
measurements used by the attitude estimation algorithm. By estimating its own input measurement
uncertainty the VPE is capable of providing significantly improved performance when compared to a
traditional statically tuned EKF AHRS attitude estimation algorithm. The estimated measurement
uncertainty is used too in real-time at the NavFilter rate (default 200 Hz) adaptively tune the attitude
estimation Kalman filter. This adaptive tuning eliminates the need in most cases for the user to perform
any custom filter tuning for different applications. It also provides extremely good disturbance rejection
capabilities, enabling the VN-100 in most cases to reliably estimate attitude even in the presence of
vibration, short-term accelerations, and some forms of magnetic disturbances.
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Adaptive Filtering
The VPE employs adaptive filtering techniques to significantly reduce the effect of high frequency
disturbances in both magnetic and acceleration. Prior to entering the attitude filter, the magnetic and
acceleration measurements are digitally filtered to reduce high frequency components typically caused
by electromagnetic interference and vibration. The level of filtering applied to the inputs is dynamically
altered by the VPE in real-time. The VPE calculates the minimal amount of digital filtering required in
order to achieve specified orientation accuracy and stability requirements. By applying only the minimal
amount of filtering necessary, the VPE reduces the amount of delay added to the input signals. For
applications that have very strict latency requirements, the VPE provides the ability to limit the amount
of adaptive filtering performed on each of the input signals.
3.4.2
Adaptive Tuning
Kalman filters employ coefficients that specify the uncertainty in the input measurements which are
typically used as “tuning parameters” to adjust the behavior of the filter. Normally these tuning
parameters have to be adjusted by the engineer to provide adequate performance for a given
application. This tuning process can be ad-hoc, time consuming, and application dependent. The VPE
employs adaptive tuning logic which provides on-line estimation of the uncertainty of each of the input
signals during operation. This uncertainty is then applied directly to the onboard attitude estimation
Kalman filter to correctly account for the uncertainty of the inputs. The adaptive tuning reduces the
need for manual filter tuning.
3.4.3
VPE Heading Modes
The VectorNav VPU provides three separate heading modes. Each mode controls how the VPE interprets
the magnetic measurements to estimate the heading angle. The three modes are described in detail in
the following sections.
Absolute Heading Mode
In Absolute Heading Mode the VPE will assume that the principal long-term DC component of the
measured magnetic field is directly related to the earth’s magnetic field. As such only short term
magnetic disturbances will be tuned out. This mode is ideal for applications that are free from low
frequency (less than ~ 1Hz) magnetic disturbances and/or require tracking of an absolute heading. Since
this mode assumes that the Earth's magnetic field is the only long-term magnetic field present, it cannot
handle constant long-term magnetic disturbances which are of the same order of magnitude as the
Earth's magnetic field and cannot be compensated for by performing a hard/soft iron calibration. From
the sensor's perspective a constant long-term magnetic disturbance will be indistinguishable from the
contribution due to the Earth's magnetic field, and as such if present it will inevitably result in a loss of
heading accuracy.
If a magnetic disturbance occurs due to an event controlled by the user, such as the switching on/off
of an electric motor, an absolute heading can still be maintained if the device is notified of the
presence of the disturbance.
To correctly track an absolute heading you will need to ensure that the hard/soft iron distortions
remains well characterized.
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Absolute Heading Mode Advantages

Provides short-term magnetic disturbance rejection while maintaining absolute tracking of the
heading relative to the fixed Earth.
Absolute Heading Mode Disadvantages


If the magnetic field changes direction relative to the fixed Earth, then its direction will need to
be updated using the reference vector register in order to maintain an accurate heading
reference.
Hard/Soft iron distortions that are not properly accounted for will induce heading errors
proportional to the magnitude of the hard/soft iron distortion. In some cases this could be as
high as 30-40 degrees.
Relative Heading Mode
In Relative Heading mode the VPE makes no assumptions as to the long term stability of the magnetic
field present. In this mode the VPE will attempt to extract what information it reasonably can from the
magnetic measurements in order to maintain an accurate estimate of the gyro bias. The VPE will
constantly monitor the stability of the magnetic field and when it sees that its direction is reasonably
stable, the VPE will maintain a stable heading estimate. Over long periods of time under conditions
where the magnetic field direction changes frequently, in Relative Heading mode it is possible for the
VN-100 to accumulate some error in its reported heading relative to true North. In this mode the VPE
will not attempt to correct for this accumulated heading error.
Relative Heading mode does not assume that the Earth's magnetic field is the only long-term magnetic
field present. As such this mode is capable of handling a much wider range of magnetic field
disturbances while still maintaining a stable attitude solution. Relative Heading mode should be used in
situations where the most important requirement is for the attitude sensor is to maintain a stable
attitude solution which minimizes the effect of gyro drift while maintaining a stable and accurate pitch
and roll solution. Since the Relative Heading mode assumes that other magnetic disturbances can be
present which are indistinguishable from the Earth's field, Relative Heading mode cannot always ensure
that the calculated heading is always referenced to Earth's magnetic north.
Use the Relative Heading mode for applications where the stability of the estimated heading is more
important than the long-term accuracy relative to true magnetic North. In general, the Relative
Heading mode provides better magnetic disturbance rejection that the Absolute Heading mode.
Relative Heading Mode Advantages


Capable of handling short-term and long-term magnetic interference.
Can handle significant errors in the hard/soft iron while still maintaining a stable heading and
gyro bias estimate.
Relative Heading Mode Disadvantages

Unable to maintain heading estimate relative to true North in environments with frequent longterm magnetic field disturbances.
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Indoor Heading Mode
The Indoor Heading mode was designed to meet the needs of applications that require the enhanced
magnetic disturbance rejection capability of the Relative Heading mode, yet desire to maintain an
absolute heading reference over long periods of time. The Indoor Heading mode extends upon the
capabilities of the Relative Heading mode by making certain assumptions as to the origin of the
measured magnetic fields consistent with typical indoor environments.
In any environment the measured magnetic field in 3D space is actually the combination of the Earth’s
magnetic field plus the contribution of other local magnetic fields created by nearby objects containing
ferromagnetic materials. For indoor environments this becomes problematic due to the potential close
proximity to objects such as metal desk and chairs, speakers, rebar in the concrete floor, and other
items which either distort or produce their own magnetic field. The strength of these local magnetic
fields are position dependent, and if the strength is on the same order of magnitude as that of the
Earth’s magnetic field, directly trusting the magnetic measurements to determine heading can lead to
inaccurate heading estimates.
While in Indoor Heading mode the VPE inspects the magnetic measurements over long periods of time,
performing several different tests on each measurement to quantify the likelihood that the measured
field is free of the influence of any position dependent local magnetic fields which would distort the
magnetic field direction. Using this probability the VPE then estimates the most likely direction of the
Earth’s magnetic field and uses this information to correct for the heading error while the device is in
motion.
Indoor Heading Mode Advantages



Capable of handling short-term and long-term magnetic interference
Can handle significant errors in the hard/soft iron while still maintaining a stable heading and
gyro bias estimate.
Capable of maintaining an accurate absolute heading over extended periods of time.
Indoor Heading Mode Disadvantages

Measurement repeatability may be worse than Relative Mode during periods when the VPE
corrects for known errors in absolute heading.
Overview of Heading Modes
A summary of the different types of disturbances handled by each magnetic mode is summarized in the
table below.
Capabilities
Handle high frequency magnetic
disturbances greater than 1Hz?
Handle constant disturbances lasting
less than a few seconds?
Handle constant disturbances lasting
longer than a few seconds?
Absolute
Heading
Yes
Relative
Heading
Yes
Indoor
Mode
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
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Capabilities
Handle high frequency magnetic
disturbances greater than 1Hz?
Handle constant disturbances lasting
less than a few seconds?
Handle constant disturbances lasting
longer than a few seconds?
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VPE Adaptive Filtering and Tuning Settings
The VPE actively employs both adaptive filtering and adaptive tuning techniques to enhance
performance in conditions of dynamic motion and magnetic and acceleration disturbances. The VPE
provides the ability to modify the amount of adaptive filtering and tuning applied on both the
magnetometer and the accelerometer. In many cases the VPE can be used as is without any need to
adjust these settings. For some applications higher performance can be obtained by adjusting the
amount of adaptive filtering and tuning performed on the inputs. For both the magnetometer and the
accelerometer the following settings are provided.
Static Measurement Uncertainty
The static gain adjusts the level of uncertainty associated with either the magnetic or acceleration
measurement when no disturbances are present. The level of uncertainty associated with the
measurement will directly influence the accuracy of the estimated attitude solution. The level of
uncertainty in the measurement will also determine how quickly the attitude filter will correct for errors
in the attitude when they are observed. The lower the uncertainty, the quicker it will correct for
observed errors.



This parameter can be adjusted from 0 to 10.
Zero places no confidence (or infinite uncertainty) in the sensor, thus eliminating its effect on
the attitude solution.
Ten places full confidence (minimal uncertainty) in the sensor and assume that its
measurements are always 100% correct.
Adaptive Tuning Gain
The adaptive tuning stage of the VPE monitors both the magnetic and acceleration measurements over
an extended period of time to estimate the time-varying level of uncertainty in the measurement. The
adaptive tuning gain directly scales either up or down this calculated uncertainty.



This parameter can be adjusted from 0 to 10.
The minimum value of zero turns off all adaptive tuning.
The maximum value of 10 applies several times the estimated level of uncertainty.
Adaptive Filtering Gain
The adaptive filtering stage of the VPE monitors both the magnetic and acceleration measurements to
determine if large amplitude high frequency disturbances are present. If so then a variable level of
filtering is applied to the inputs in order to reduce the amplitude of the disturbance down to acceptable
levels prior to inputting the measurement into the attitude filter. The advantage of the adaptive filtering
is that it can improve accuracy and eliminate jitter in the output attitude when large amplitude AC
disturbances are present. The disadvantage to filtering is that it will inherently add some delay to the
input measurement. The adaptive filtering gain adjusts the maximum allowed AC disturbance amplitude
for the measurement prior to entering the attitude filter. The larger the allowed disturbance, the less
filtering that will be applied. The smaller the allowed disturbance, the more filtering will be applied.



This parameter can be adjusted from 0 to 10.
The minimum value of zero turns off all adaptive filtering.
The maximum value of 10 will apply maximum filtering.
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Keep in mind that regardless of this setting, the adaptive filtering stage will apply only the minimal
amount of filtering necessary to get the job done. As such this parameter provides you with the ability to
set the maximum amount of delay that you are willing to accept in the input measurement.
3.4.5
AHRS Kalman Filter
The AHRS Kalman filter consists of an EKF which nominally runs at the NavFilter Rate (default 200 Hz).
The AHRS Kalman filter simultaneously estimates the full quaternion based attitude as well as the time
varying gyro bias. The quaternion based attitude estimation eliminates any potential gimbal lock issues
incurred at high pitch angles, which can be problematic for Euler-angle based AHRS algorithms. The
real-time estimation of the gyro bias allows for the removal of small perturbations in the gyro bias which
occur over time due to random walk.
3.4.6
Hard/Soft Iron Estimator
The NavFilter subsystem also includes a separate EKF which provides real-time estimation of the local
magnetic hard and soft iron distortions. Hard and soft iron distortions are local magnetic field
distortions created by nearby ferrous material that move with the sensor (attached to the same vehicle
or rigid-body as the sensor). These ferrous materials distort the direction and magnitude of the local
measured magnetic field, thus negatively impacting the ability of an AHRS to reliably and accurately
estimate heading based on the magnetometer measurements. To remove the unwanted effect of these
materials, a hard & soft iron calibration needs to be performed, which requires rotating the sensor
around in multiple circles while collecting magnetic data for off-line calculation of the magnetic hard &
soft iron calibration coefficients. This calibration can be very time consuming, and might not be possible
for some applications.
Also available on the VN-100 is an onboard hard/soft iron estimator, which runs in the background
without requiring any user intervention. For many applications this simplifies the process for the end
user, and allows for operation in environments where the hard/soft iron may change slowly over time.
While the onboard hard/soft iron estimator runs in the background by default, it can be turned off by
the user if desired (Register 44).
3.4.7
World Magnetic Model
The world magnetic model (WMM) is a large spatial-scale representation of the Earth’s magnetic field.
The internal model used on the VN-100 is consistent with the current WMM2010 model, which consists
of a spherical-harmonic expansion of the magnetic potential of the geomagnetic field generated in the
Earth’s core. By default the world magnetic model on the VN-100 is turned off, allowing the user to
directly set the reference magnetic field strength.
Alternatively, the world magnetic model can be used to calculate the magnetic field strength for a given
latitude, longitude, altitude, and date, which is then subsequently used as the magnetic field reference
strength. Control of the world magnetic model is performed using the Reference Vector Configuration
register (Register 83).
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World Gravity Model
The world gravity model (WGM) is a large spatial-scale representation of the Earth’s gravity potential as
a function of position on the globe. The internal model used on the VN-100 is consistent with the Earth
Gravity Model (EGM96), which consist of a 12th order spherical-harmonic expansion of the Earth’s
geopotential. By default the world gravity model on the VN-100 is turned off, allowing the user to
directly set the reference gravity vector.
Alternatively the world gravity model can be used to calculate the gravity vector for a given latitude,
longitude, altitude, and date, which is then subsequently used as the gravity vector for attitude
calculations. Control of the world gravity model is performed using the Reference Vector Configuration
register (Register 83).
3.5
Communication Interface
The VN-100 provides three separate communication interfaces: two physically separate serial ports and
one SPI (Serial Perpherial Interface) bus.
3.5.1
Serial Interface
The serial interface consists of two physically separate bi-directional UARTs. Each UART supports baud
rates from 9600 bps up to a maximum of 921600 bps.
The VN-100 surface mount device offers both UARTS with 3V TTL voltage level inputs and outputs.
The VN-100 Rugged includes an onboard TTL to RS-232 level shifter, thus at the 10-pin connector one
serial port is offered with RS-232 voltages levels (Serial 1), while the other serial port (Serial 2) remains
at 3V TTL logic levels.
It is important to note that the ability to update the firmware using the onboard bootloader is only
supported on the serial port 1 interface. It is highly recommended that if serial port 1 is not used for
normal operation, a means of accessing it is designed into the product to support future firmware
updates.
3.5.2
SPI Interface
The SPI interface consists of a standard 4-wire synchronous serial data link which is capable of high data
rates up to 16 Mbps. The VN-100 operates as slave on the bus enabled by the master using the slave
select (SPI_CS) line. See section 4.2 for more information on the operation of the SPI interface.
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Communication Protocol
The VN-100 utilizes a simple command based communication protocol for both the serial and SPI
interfaces. For the serial interface an ASCII protocol is used for command and register polling, whereas
the SPI interfaces utilizes a binary protocol. Optionally the serial interface also provides support for
streaming real-time sensor measurements using binary output packets.
3.6.1
Serial ASCII
On the serial interface a full ASCII protocol provides support for all commands, and register polling. The
ASCII protocol is very similar to the widely used NMEA 0183 protocol supported by most GPS receivers,
and consists of comma delimited parameters printed in human readable text. Below is an example
command request and response on the VN-100 used to poll the attitude (register 8) using the ASCII
protocol.
Figure 7 - Example Serial Request
$VNRRG,8*4B
Figure 8 - Example Serial Response
$VNRRG,08,-114.314,+000.058,-001.773*5F
Section 6 provides a list of all commands and registers supported by each software subsystem on the
VN-100. For each command and register an example ASCII response is given to demonstrating the ASCII
formatting.
3.6.2
Serial Binary
The serial interface offers support for streaming sensor measurements from the sensor at fixed rates
using simple binary output packets. These binary output packets provide a low-overhead means of
streaming high-speed sensor measurements from the device minimizing both the required bandwidth
and the necessary overhead required to parse the incoming measurements for the host system. Section
5 provides a detailed overview on how to parse and configure the binary output messages on the serial
interface.
3.6.3
Serial Command Prompt
A simple command prompt is also provided on the serial interface which provides support for advanced
device configuration and diagnostics. The serial command prompt is an optional feature that is
designed to provide more detailed diagnostic view of overall system performance than is possible using
normal command & register structure. It is strictly intended to be used by a human operator, using a
simple serial terminal to type commands to the device using a serial terminal, and is not designed to be
used programmatically. Each software subsystem described in Section 6 provides information on the
diagnostic commands supported by the serial command prompt at the end of each subsystem section.
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Basic Communication
The VN-100 module supports two communication interfaces: serial and SPI. On the serial interface, the
module communicates over a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) and uses ASCII text
for its command and data format. On the SPI interface, the VN-100 module communicates as a slave
device on a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) data bus and uses a binary command and data format. Both
interfaces support the complete command set implemented by the module. A general overview of the
command format for each interface is given in the next two sections and formatting specific to each
command and associated parameters is provided in the protocol and register sections.
4.1
Serial Interface
On the serial interface, the VN-100 uses ASCII text for its command format. All commands start with a
dollar sign, followed by a five character command, a comma, command specific parameters, an asterisk,
a checksum, and a newline character. An example command is shown below.
$VNRRG,11*73
4.2
SPI Interface
The VN-100 supports a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) communication interface. The SPI interface
consists of synchronous serial communication interface where devices communicate in a master/slave
mode. The VN-100 operates as a slave while the device communicating with the VN-100 will act as a
master. The master provides a clock to the slave which synchronizes the data transfer to the rising and
falling edge of the clock signal. Due to its synchronous communication, high data transfer rates, and
master/slave operation, the SPI communication interface is ideal for board-level communication over
short distances since it doesn’t require a complex software protocol stack and is fairly straightforward to
program against on embedded devices.
4.2.1
SPI Hardware Requirements
Four hardware lines are required to implement a SPI interface with the VN-100; a clock (SPI_SCK), two
data lines (SPI_MOSI and SPI_MISO), and a slave select pin (SPI_CS). The master is responsible for
driving both the clock signal and the slave select lines. The slave select line should be pulled low when
the master wants to communicate with the slave. If multiple slave devices are used on the same bus,
then each slave will have its own dedicated slave select line, while sharing the clock and data lines. The
VN-100 will leave the SPI_MISO line in a high impedance state while the SPI_CS line is high, enabling
communication with other slave devices on the same SPI bus. When the master is finished
communicating with the slave the slave select line is pulled high. The clock line should idle high when
not in use. The SPI_MISO and SPI_MOSI pins should both transition between logic states on the falling
edge of the SPI_SCK clock signal. Data on both the SPI_MISO and SPI_MOSI should be sampled on the
rising edge of the SPI_SCK line. The VN-100 uses 3V digital logic for the SPI interface. If you are
interfacing with a 5V system, it is recommended that you use a logic level translation circuit to ensure
reliable communication.
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Figure 9 - SPI Master Settings
Slave Select
Clock Polarity
Clock Phase
Data Format
Byte Order
4.2.2
SPI Master Settings
Active Low
Idle High (CPOL=1)
Sample second clock edge (CPHA=1)
Most significant bit first (MSB)
Least significant byte first (little-endian)
Software Requirements
Communication with the VN-100 over SPI is conducted with multiple transactions. A transaction for the
purpose of this document is defined as a single operation, such as reading or writing to a register on the
VN-100 or issuing a command such as requesting a device reset. A single transaction consists to two
separate data packets sent to the VN-100. Each packet consists of a four byte header followed by a data
payload. The header for the packet differs depending upon whether it is a request packet or a response
packet. For each packet sent to the VN-100 the slave select line (SPI_CS) should be pulled low at the
beginning of the packet and pulled high at the end.
Figure 10 - Packet Headers
4-Byte Request Header (MOSI)
Command ID
Argument
0x00
4-Byte Response Header (MISO)
0x00
Command ID
Argument
4.2.3
0x00
0x00
SPI Example Commands
The sections that follow provided some example SPI transactions for the various types of commands
available on the VN-100.
SPI Read Register Example
Below is an example of a single transaction with the VN-100 to read register 5.
The first packet is the request packet and consists of the master sending out the MOSI line a four byte
header with no payload. The first byte in the header has the command ID of 1, which corresponds to a
read register request. The second byte is the argument. In the case of the read register command this
corresponds to the register ID, which in this case is register 5. The next two bytes are always zero in the
header. After this packet is sent the master should raise the slave select line (SPI_CS) and wait at least
50 microseconds before issuing the respond packet. During this time the VN-100 will process the read
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register request and place the requested data in its SPI output buffer. On the response packet the
master should clock in N bytes of zeroes on the MOSI line, where N is equal to 4 plus the size of the
register being read, which in this example is register 5 (4 bytes). The header for packets being received
from the VN-100 has a different structure with the first byte always being zero. The second and third
byte in the header is the command ID and the argument (register ID) of the response. The fourth byte in
the header is the error code. If an error occurred while attempting to service the request the VN-100
will issue a non-zero error code in this byte with no payload. In the payload of the response packet the
four bytes received correspond to the value of register 5 which in this case is 115200. As you can see
from the example multi-byte values are sent in little endian format with the least significant byte sent
first (0h01C200 = 115200).
SPI Write Register Example
Below is an example of a write register transaction. In this example the values of {1, 2, 1, 1} are being
written to the four fields in the VPE Control Register (Register 35).
In the case of writing to a register, the values to be loaded into the register are in the payload of the
request packet. The payload of the response packet contains the contents of the register after the write
register command has been processed. In the case that no error occurred the payload of the response
packet should be the same as the request. Because of this it is sufficient to just clock in only four bytes
on the response packet to verify that the write register took effect, which is indicated by a zero error
code.
SPI Read Register Example – Floating Point Registers
The above examples show a transaction involving reading a register with floating point values. In this
case Register 8 is read which contains the sensor attitude (Yaw, Pitch, & Roll). The floating point values
are stored as 32-bit IEEE floating point numbers in little endian byte order.
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SPI Write Settings Command Example
The above example shows an example transaction that consists of issuing a write settings command to
the VN-100. The different commands accepted by the VN-100 are listed in Section 6.1Error! Reference
ource not found..
SPI Transaction Error Example
The above example demonstrates what will happen when an error occurs during a transaction. In this
case the user attempted to write to a read-only register. The fourth byte of the response packet header
shows an Error ID of 8 was returned, which corresponds to an Invalid Register. The different error codes
are listed in Table 15.
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System Error Codes
In the event of an error, the VN-100 will output $VNERR, followed by an error code. The possible error
codes are listed in the table below with a description of the error.
Table 15 – Error Codes
Error Name
Hard Fault
Code
1
Serial Buffer Overflow
2
Invalid Checksum
Invalid Command
Not Enough Parameters
3
4
5
Too Many Parameters
Invalid Parameter
6
7
Invalid Register
Unauthorized Access
Watchdog Reset
8
9
10
Output Buffer Overflow
11
Insufficient Baud Rate
12
Error Buffer Overflow
255
Description
If this error occurs, then the firmware on the VN-100 has experienced a
hard fault exception. To recover from this error the processor will force
a restart, and a discontinuity will occur in the serial output. The
processor will restart within 50 ms of a hard fault error.
The processor’s serial input buffer has experienced an overflow. The
processor has a 256 character input buffer.
The checksum for the received command was invalid.
The user has requested an invalid command.
The user did not supply the minimum number of required parameters
for the requested command.
The user supplied too many parameters for the requested command.
The user supplied a parameter for the requested command which was
invalid.
An invalid register was specified.
The user does not have permission to write to this register.
A watchdog reset has occurred. In the event of a non-recoverable error
the internal watchdog will reset the processor within 50 ms of the error.
The output buffer has experienced an overflow. The processor has a
2048 character output buffer.
The baud rate is not high enough to support the requested
asynchronous data output at the requested data rate.
An overflow event has occurred on the system error buffer.
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Checksum / CRC
The serial interface provides the option for either an 8-bit checksum or a 16-bit CRC. In the event
neither the checksum nor the CRC is needed, they can be turned off by the user.
4.4.1
Checksum Bypass
When communicating with the sensor using a serial terminal, the checksum calculation can be bypassed
by replacing the hexadecimal digits in the checksum with uppercase X characters. This works for both
the 8-bit and 16-bit checksum. An example command to read register 1 is shown below using the
checksum bypass feature.
$VNRRG,1*XX
4.4.2
8-bit Checksum
The 8-bit checksum is an XOR of all bytes between, but not including, the dollar sign ($) and asterisk (*).
All comma delimiters are included in the checksum calculation. The resultant checksum is an 8-bit
number and is represented in the command as two hexadecimal characters. The C function snippet
below calculates the correct checksum.
Example C Code
// Calculates the 8-bit checksum for the given byte sequence.
unsigned char calculateChecksum(unsigned char data[], unsigned int length)
{
unsigned int i;
unsigned char cksum = 0;
for(i=0; i<length; i++){
cksum ^= data[i];
}
return cksum;
}
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16-bit CRC
For cases where the 8-bit checksum doesn't provide enough error detection, a full 16-bit CRC is
available. The VN-100 uses the CRC16-CCITT algorithm. The resultant CRC is a 16-bit number and is
represented in the command as four hexadecimal characters. The C function snippet below calculates
the correct CRC.
Example C Code
// Calculates the 16-bit CRC for the given ASCII or binary message.
unsigned short calculateCRC(unsigned char data[], unsigned int length)
{
unsigned int i;
unsigned short crc = 0;
for(i=0;
crc =
crc ^=
crc ^=
crc ^=
crc ^=
}
i<length; i++){
(unsigned char)(crc >> 8) | (crc << 8);
data[i];
(unsigned char)(crc & 0xff) >> 4;
crc << 12;
(crc & 0x00ff) << 5;
return crc;
}
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5
UM001
User Configurable Binary Output Messages
The VN-100 supports up to 3 separate user configurable binary output messages available on the serial
interface. Each message can be configured by the user to contain any of the available output
measurement types from the IMU, NavState, NavFilter, or the GPS subsystems. The device can be
configured to asynchronously output each message at a fixed rate based upon a divisor of the IMU
internal sampling rate (IMU Rate).
5.1
Available Output Types
All real-time measurements either measured or estimated by the VN-100 are available using the user
output messages. The different output types are organized into 3 separate output groups as shown
below.
Figure 11 - Binary Outputs
5.2
Common
IMU
Attitude
•TimeStartup
•TimeSyncIn
•YawPitchRoll
•Quaternion
•AngularRate
•Accel
•Imu
•MagPres
•DeltaTheta
•VPEStatus
•SyncInCnt
•Status
•UncompMag
•UncompAccel
•UncompAngularRate
•Temp
•Pres
•DeltaTheta
•DeltaVel
•Mag
•Accel
•AngularRate
•SatFlags
•Raw
•Status
•YawPitchRoll
•Quaternion
•DCM
•MagNed
•AccelNed
•LinearAccelBody
•LinearAccelNed
•YprU
Configuring the Output Types
Configuration of the 3 output messages is performed using the User Output Configuration Registers
(Register 75-79). There are 3 separate configuration registers, one for each available output message.
Section 5.2.3 describes in more detail the format for these registers. In each of these configuration
registers the user can select which output types they want the message to include by specifying the
OutputGroup and the OutputFields parameters.
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5.2.1
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OutputGroup
The OutputGroup parameter is a single byte where the bits select which output groups are active in the
message. The available output groups for the VN-100 are listed below.
Table 16 - Binary Output Groups
Name
Output Group 1
Output Group 3
Output Group 5
Bit Offset
0
2
4
Description
Common Group
IMU Group
Attitude Group
Output groups 2, 4, 6, & 7 are not used on the VN-100. The bits for these unused output groups must be
set to zero.
5.2.2
OutputFields
The OutputFields is an array of 16-bit words, with the array length equal to the number of active groups
in the OutputGroup. The OutputFields selects which output fields are active for each output group.
Below is a list of the available output fields for each output group.
Table 17 - Binary Output Fields
Bit
Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Group 1
Common
TimeStartup
Reserved
TimeSyncIn
YawPitchRoll
Quaternion
AngularRate
Reserved
Reserved
Accel
Imu
MagPres
DeltaTheta
VpeStatus
SyncInCnt
Group 3
IMU
ImuStatus
UncompMag
UncompAccel
UncompGyro
Temp
Pres
DeltaTheta
DeltaVel
Mag
Accel
Gyro
SensSat
Raw
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Group 5
Attitude
VpeStatus
YawPitchRoll
Quaternion
DCM
MagNed
AccelNed
LinearAccelBody
LinearAccelNed
YprU
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Setup the Configuration Register
Once you have determined the desired outputs for your output messages, you will need to configure the
User Output Message Configuration Registers (Register 75 – 77). These registers are described in detail
in Section 6.2.11, however for reference the format of the register is shown below.
Binary Output Register 1-3
75-77
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
These registers allow the user to construct a custom output message that contains a
Comment :
collection of desired estimated states and sensor measurements.
Size (Bytes): 6-22
Example Response: $VNWRG,75,2,4,1,8*XX
Offset
Name
Format
Unit
Description
0
AsyncMode
uint16
Selects whether the output message should be sent out on
the serial port(s) at a fixed rate.
0 = None. User message is not automatically sent out
either serial port.
1 = Message is sent out serial port 1 at a fixed rate.
2 = Message is sent out serial port 2 at a fixed rate.
3 = Message is sent out both serial ports at a fixed rate.
2
RateDivisor
uint16
Sets the fixed rate at which the message is sent out the
selected serial port(s). The number given is a divisor of the
ImuRate which is nominally 800Hz. For example to have
the sensor output at 50Hz you would set the Divisor equal
to 16.
4
OutputGroup
uint16
Selects which output groups are active in the message.
The number of OutputFields in this message should equal
the number of active bits in the OutputGroup.
6
OutputField(1)
uint16
Active output fields for the first active group.
4+2*N
OutputField(N)
uint16
Active output fields for the Nth active group.
Register ID :
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UM001
Example Case 1 – Selecting outputs from only the Common Group
For many applications you might be able to get by with only the output types available in the common
group. For these situations the configuration of the output message is simple. Suppose only the
following information shown below is desired.
Bit
Offset
0
3
5
Group 1
Common
TimeStartup
YawPitchRoll
AngularRate
For this example we will assume that the data will be polled using serial port 2 at 50 Hz.
To configure this output message you would send the following command to the VN-100.
$VNWRG,75,2,16,01,0029*XX
Now let’s dissect this command to see what is actually being set:
Field
Header
Command
Register ID
AsyncMode
RateDivisor
Value
$VN
WRG
77
2
16
OutputGroup
GroupField 1
01
0029
Checksum
XX
End Line
\r\n
Description
ASCII message header
Write register command
Register 75 (Config register for first output message)
Message set to output on serial port 2.
Divisor = 16. If the ImuRate = 800Hz then, the message output rate
will be (800 / 16 = 50 Hz).
Groups = 0x01. (Binary group 1 enabled)
Group 1 Field = 0x0029. In binary 0x0029 = 0b00101001.
The active bits correspond to the following active output fields:
Bit 0 – TimeStartup
Bit 3 – YawPitchRoll
Bit 5 - AngularRate
Payload terminator and checksum. XX instructs the VN-100 to
bypass the checksum evaluation. This allows us to manually type
messages in a serial terminal without needing to calculate a valid
checksum.
Carriage return and line feed. Terminates the ASCII message.
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Example Case 2 – Outputs from multiple Output Groups
This example case demonstrates how to select multiple output fields from more than one output group.
Assume that the following bold output types are desired:
Bit
Offset
0
1
2
3
4
Group 1
Common
TimeStartup
Group 3
IMU
Group 5
Attitude
UncompAccel
UncompAngularRate
Quaternion
MagNed
Also assume that you want the message to stream at 50 Hz over serial port 1.
To configure this output message you would send the following command to the VN-100.
$VNWRG,75,1,16,15,0001,000C,0014*XX
Now let’s dissect this command to see what is actually being set:
Field
Header
Command
Register ID
AsyncMode
RateDivisor
Value
$VN
WRG
75
1
16
OutputGroup
15
GroupField 1
0001
GroupField 2
000C
GroupField 3
0014
Checksum
XX
End Line
\r\n
Description
ASCII message header
Write register command
Register 75 (Config register for first output message)
Message sent on serial port 1.
Divisor = 16. If the ImuRate = 800Hz then, the message output rate
will be (800 / 16 = 50 Hz).
Groups = 0x15. In binary 0x15 = 0x00010101.
The active bits correspond to the following active output groups:
Bit 0 – Common
Bit 2 – Imu
Bit 4 - Attitude
Group 1 Field = 0x0001. In binary 0x0001 = 0b00000001.
The active bits correspond to the following active output fields:
Bit 0 – TimeStartup
Group 2 Field = 0x000C. In binary 0x000C = 0b00001100.
The active bits correspond to the following active output fields:
Bit 3 – UncompAccel
Bit 4 – UncompGyro
Group 3 Field = 0x0014. In binary 0x0014 = 0b00010100.
The active bits correspond to the following active output fields:
Bit 2 – Qtn
Bit 4 – MagNed
Payload terminator and checksum. XX instructs the VN-100 to
bypass the checksum evaluation. This allows us to manually type
messages in a serial terminal without needing to calculate a valid
checksum.
Carriage return and line feed. Terminates the ASCII message.
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5.3
UM001
Binary Output Message Format
The binary output message packets on the serial interface consist of a simple message header, payload,
and a 16-bit CRC. An example packet is shown below for reference. The header is variable length
depending upon the number of groups active in the message.
Header
Field
Byte Offset
Type
5.3.1
Sync
Groups
0
1
u8
u8
Group Field 1
2
3
u16
Payload
Group Field 2
4
5
u16
CRC
Payload
6
7
…
CRC
N
N+1
Variable
N+2
u16
Sync Byte
The sync byte is the first byte in the header. Its value will always be equal to 0xFA.
5.3.2
Groups
The group consist of a single byte which determines which message groups have been selected. The
user can select from a wide assortment of different output types, which are organized into 8 different
groups. The group byte acts as a bit field with each individual bit determining which binary groups are
active for the given packet. The various groups are shown below.
Name
Output Group 1
Output Group 3
Output Group 5
5.3.3
Bit Offset
0
2
4
Description
Common Group
IMU Group
Attitude Group
Group Fields
The group fields consist of N number of 16-bit bit fields that represent which output types have been
selected in the active binary groups. The number of group fields in the header will depend upon how
many groups are active in the message. The number of group fields present in the header will always be
equal to the number of active bits in the group byte. When parsing the binary packet you can count the
number of active bits present in the group byte, and then you can assume that this number of group
fields will be present in the header. For example if only binary group 1 is selected (Group Byte = 0x01),
then only one Group field will be present in the header, thus the header will be 4 bytes in length. If both
binary group 1 and 3 are active (Group Byte = 0x05), then two Group field elements will be present in
the header (4 bytes), thus the header in this case will be 6 bytes in length.
5.3.4
Payload
The payload will consist of the output data selected based upon the bits selected in the group byte and
the group field bytes. All output data in the payload section consist of the active outputs selected for
binary group 1, followed by the active outputs selected for binary group 2, and so forth. No padding
bytes are used between output fields.
5.3.5
CRC
The CRC consists of a 16-bit CRC of the packet. The CRC is calculated over the packet starting just after
the sync byte in the header (not including the sync byte) and ending at the end of the payload. More
information about the CRC algorithm and example code for how to perform the calculation is shown in
Section 4.4. The CRC is selected such that if you compute the 16-bit CRC starting with the group byte
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and include the CRC itself, a valid packet will result in 0x0000 computed by the running CRC calculation
over the entire packet. This provides a simple way of detecting packet corruption by simply checking to
see if the CRC calculation of the entire packet (not including the sync byte) results in zero.
5.3.6
Payload Length
When parsing the packet you will need to know the length of the payload (in bytes) in order to know
where the packet ends in the data stream. In order to reduce the overhead of the packet header length,
the length of the payload is not included in the header. Instead it should be derived based upon
determining the type of data present in the packet. All output data types are fixed length, thus the total
length of the payload can be determined based upon inspection of the group byte and the group field
bytes. In most applications you will likely only use a few binary output types, thus hard coding the
payload length in your parser is the easiest approach. If you want to develop a more generic parser that
can handle all available data output types supported by the VN-100, the easiest approach is to use a
table lookup.
Table 18 - Binary Output Payload Length In Bytes
Field 1
Field 2
Field 3
Field 4
Field 5
Field 6
Field 7
Field 8
Field 9
Field 10
Field 11
Field 12
Field 13
Field 14
Field 15
Field 16
Group
1
Group
3
Group
5
8
8
12
16
12
12
24
20
28
2
8
-
2
12
12
12
4
4
16
12
12
12
12
2
-
2
12
16
36
12
12
12
12
12
-
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5.3.7
UM001
Example Cases
To help you better understand how the binary protocol works, the next two sections provide an
overview of how the binary output packets are formed for two separate example cases.
Example Case 1
For example 1 we will assume that only binary group 1 is active, and only the yaw, pitch, and roll output
is active within this binary group. In this case the header will have the following form.
Field
Byte Offset
Byte Value
(Hex)
Type
Value
Sync
0
FA
u8
0xFA
Header
Group Group 1
Fields
1
2
3
01
08 00
u8
1
u16
8
Payload
YawPitchRoll
4
93
5
50
6
2E
7
42
float
0x422E5093
+43.578686 (Yaw)
8
83
9
3E
10
F1
11
3F
float
0x3FF13E83
+1.8847202 (Pitch)
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CRC
CRC
12
48
13
B5
14
04
15
BB
float
0xBB04B548
-2.0249654e-3 (Roll)
16
92
17
88
u16
0x9288
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Example Case 2
For the second example case we will assume that both binary group 1 and 3 are active. In binary group
1, the YawPitchRoll output is selected, and in binary group 3, the Temp output is selected.
Header
Field
Byte Offset
Byte Value
(Hex)
Type
Value
Sync
Group
1
01
Group 1
Fields
2
3
08 00
Group 3
Fields
4
5
01 00
0
FA
u8
0xFA
u8
0x01
u16
0x08
u16
0x01
Payload
Field
Byte Offset
Byte Value
(Hex)
Type
Value
6
A4
7
15
8
02
9
42
float
0x420215A4
+32.521133 (Yaw)
YawPitchRoll
10 11 12 13
4D DF EB 3F
float
0X3FEBDF4D
+1.8427521 (Pitch)
14
F6
CRC
15
1A
16
36
17
BE
float
0XBE361AF6
-1.7783722e-1 (Roll)
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18
BF
Temp
19 20
2D A4
21
41
float
0X41A42DBF
+20.522337 (Temp)
CRC
22 23
A8 3A
u16
0XA83A
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5.4
UM001
Binary Group 1 – Common Outputs
Binary group 1 contains a wide assortment of commonly used data required for most applications. All of
the outputs found in group 1 are also present in the other groups. In this sense, group 1 is a subset of
commonly used outputs from the other groups. This simplifies the configuration of binary output
messages for applications that only require access to the commonly used data found in group 1. For
these applications you can hard code the group field to 1, and not worry about implemented support for
the other binary groups. Using group 1 for commonly used outputs also has the advantage of reducing
the overall packet size, since the packet length is dependent upon the number of binary groups active.
Table 19 – Binary Group 1
5.4.1
Name
TimeStartup
Reserved
TimeSyncIn
YawPitchRoll
Quaternion
AngularRate
Reserved
Reserved
Accel
Imu
Bit Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
MagPres
10
DeltaTheta
VpeStatus
SyncInCnt
Reserved
Reserved
11
12
13
14
15
Description
Time since startup.
Reserved. Not used on the VN-100.
Time since last SyncIn trigger.
Estimated attitude as yaw pitch and roll angles.
Estimated attitude as a quaternion.
Compensated angular rate.
Reserved. Not used on VN-100.
Reserved. Not used on VN-100.
Estimated acceleration. (Body)
Calibrated uncompensated gyro and accelerometer
measurements.
Calibrated magnetic (compensated), temperature,
and pressure measurements.
Delta time, theta, and velocity.
VPE status.
SyncIn count.
Reserved. Not used on VN-100.
Reserved. Not used on VN-100.
Time Startup
The system time since startup measured in nano seconds. The time since startup is based upon the
internal TXCO oscillator for the MCU. The accuracy of the internal TXCO is +/- 20ppm (-40C to 85C).
TimeStartup
Byte Offset
Type
5.4.2
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
uint64
TimeSyncIn
The time since the last SyncIn trigger event expressed in nano seconds.
TimeSyncIn
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
uint64
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UM001
YawPitchRoll
The estimated attitude Yaw, Pitch, and Roll angles measured in degrees. The attitude is given as a 3,2,1
euler angle sequence describing the body frame with respect to the local North East Down (NED) frame.
This is equivalent to the YawPitchRoll field in group 5.
YawPitchRoll
pitch
yaw
Byte Offset
Type
5.4.4
0
1
2
3
4
5
float
6
7
roll
8
9
float
10
11
float
Quaternion
The estimated attitude quaternion. The last term is the scalar value. The attitude is given as the body
frame with respect to the local North East Down (NED) frame. This is equivalent to the Quaternion field
in group 5.
Quaternion
qtn[1]
qtn[2]
qtn[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.4.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
float
6
7
8
9
float
10
qtn[3]
11
12
float
13
14
15
float
AngularRate
The estimated angular rate measured in rad/s. The angular rates are compensated by the onboard filter
bias estimates. The angular rate is expressed in the body frame. This is equivalent to the AngularRate
field in group 3.
AngularRate
rate[1]
rate[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.4.6
0
1
2
3
4
float
5
6
7
rate[2]
8
9
float
10
11
float
Accel
The estimated acceleration in the body frame, given in m/s^2. This acceleration is equivalent to the
specific force in the body frame (as measured by the accelerometer) and thus includes gravity. This is
equivalent to the Accel field in group 3.
Accel
accel[1]
accel[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.4.7
0
1
2
float
3
4
5
6
accel[2]
7
float
8
9
10
11
float
Imu
The uncompensated IMU angular rate and acceleration measurements. The angular rate is given in
rad/s, and the acceleration is given in m/s^2. These measurements correspond to the calibrated angular
rate and acceleration measurements straight from the IMU. The measurements have not been
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corrected for bias offset by the onboard AHRS Kalman filter. These are equivalent to the UncompGyro
and UncompAccel fields in group 3.
rate[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.4.8
0
1
2
rate[1]
3
4
5
float
6
Imu
accel[0]
rate[2]
7
8
9
float
10
11
12
float
13
14
accel[1]
15
16
float
17
18
accel[2]
19
20
float
21
22
23
float
MagPres
The compensated magnetic, temperature, and pressure measurements from the IMU. The magnetic
measurement is given in Gauss, and has been corrected for hard/soft iron corrections (if enabled). The
temperature measurement is given in Celsius. The pressure measurement is given in kPa. The mag,
temp, and pres fields are all equivalent to the mag, temp, and pres fields in Group 3.
mag[0]
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
float
MagPres
mag[2]
mag[1]
3
4
5
6
float
7
8
9
10
11
float
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12
13
14
float
pres
15
16
17
18
19
float
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UM001
DeltaThetaVel
The delta time, angle, and velocity measurements. The delta time (dtime) is the time interval that the
delta angle and velocities are integrated over. The delta theta (dtheta) is the delta rotation angles
incurred due to rotation, since the last time the values were outputted by the device. The delta velocity
(dvel) is the delta velocity incurred due to motion, since the last time the values were outputted by the
device. These delta angles and delta velocities are calculated based upon the onboard conning and
sculling integration performed onboard the sensor at the IMU rate (default 800Hz). The integration for
both the delta angles and velocities are reset each time either of the values are either polled or sent out
due to a scheduled asynchronous ASCII or binary output. This is equivalent to the DeltaTheta and
DeltaVel fields in group 3 with the inclusion of the additional delta time parameter.
DeltaThetaVel
dtheta[0]
dtheta[1]
dtime
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
3
4
float
16
6
7
8
9
float
dvel[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5
17
18
10
dtheta[2]
11
12
float
13
14
15
float
DeltaThetaVel (continued)
dvel[1]
dvel[2]
19
20
21
float
22
23
float
24
25
26
27
float
5.4.10 VpeStatus
The VPE status bit field. This is equivalent to the VpeStatus field in group 5. See section 5.6.1 for
description of this bit field.
SolStatus
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
u16
5.4.11 SyncInCnt
The number of SyncIn trigger events that have occurred.
SyncInCnt
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
3
u32
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5.5
UM001
Binary Group 3 – IMU Outputs
Binary group 3 provides all outputs which are dependent upon the measurements collected from the
onboard IMU, or an external IMU (if enabled).
Table 20 – Binary Group 3
Name
ImuStatus
UncompMag
UncompAccel
UncompGyro
Temp
Pres
DeltaTheta
DeltaV
Mag
Accel
AngularRate
SensSat
Resv
5.5.1
Bit Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12-15
Description
Reserved for future use.
Uncompensated magnetic measurement.
Uncompensated acceleration measurement.
Uncompensated angular rate measurement.
Temperature measurement.
Pressure measurement.
Delta theta angles.
Delta velocity.
Compensated magnetic measurement.
Compensated acceleration measurement.
Compensated angular rate measurement.
Sensor saturation bit field.
Reserved for future use. Should be set to zero.
ImuStatus
Status is reserved for future use. Not currently used in the current code, as such will always report 0.
ImuStatus
Byte Offset
Type
5.5.2
0
1
u16
UncompMag
The IMU magnetic field measured in units of Gauss, given in the body frame. This measurement is
compensated by the static calibration (individual factory calibration stored in flash), and the user
compensation, however it is not compensated by the onboard Hard/Soft Iron estimator.
UncompMag
mag[1]
mag[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.5.3
0
1
2
3
4
float
5
6
7
mag[2]
8
9
float
10
11
float
UncompAccel
The IMU acceleration measured in units of m/s^2, given in the body frame. This measurement is
compensated by the static calibration (individual factory calibration stored in flash), however it is not
compensated by any form of dynamic calibration.
UncompAccel
accel[1]
accel[0]
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
float
3
4
5
6
7
float
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9
10
11
float
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5.5.4
UM001
UncompGyro
The IMU angular rate measured in units of rad/s, given in the body frame. This measurement is
compensated by the static calibration (individual factory calibration stored in flash), however it is not
compensated by any dynamic calibration such as the bias compensation from the onboard AHRS Kalman
filters.
UncompGyro
gyro[1]
gyro[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.5.5
0
1
2
3
4
5
float
6
7
gyro[2]
8
9
float
10
11
float
Temp
The IMU temperature measured in units of Celsius.
Temp
Byte Offset
Type
5.5.6
0
1
2
3
float
Pres
The IMU pressure measured in kiloPascals. This is an absolute pressure measurement. Typical pressure
at sea level would be around 100 kPa.
Pres
Byte Offset
Type
5.5.7
0
1
2
3
float
DeltaTheta
The delta theta (dtheta) is the delta rotation angles incurred due to rotation, since the last time the
values were output by the device. The delta angles are calculated based upon the onboard conning and
sculling integration performed onboard the sensor at the IMU sampling rate (nominally 800Hz). The
delta time (dtime) is the time interval that the delta angle and velocities are integrated over. The
integration for the delta angles are reset each time the values are either polled or sent out due to a
scheduled asynchronous ASCII or binary output. Time is given in sections. Delta angles are given in
degrees.
Fields
Byte Offset
Type
DeltaTheta
dtheta[0]
dtheta[1]
dtime
0
1
2
float
3
4
5
6
float
7
8
9
10
float
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11
12
13
14
15
float
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5.5.8
UM001
DeltaV
The delta velocity (dvel) is the delta velocity incurred due to motion, since the last time the values were
output by the device. The delta velocities are calculated based upon the onboard conning and sculling
integration performed onboard the sensor at the IMU sampling rate (nominally 800Hz). The integration
for the delta velocities are reset each time the values are either polled or sent out due to a scheduled
asynchronous ASCII or binary output. Delta velocity is given in meters per second.
Fields
Byte Offset
Type
5.5.9
DeltaVel
dvel[1]
dvel[0]
0
1
2
3
4
float
5
6
7
dvel[2]
8
9
float
10
11
float
Mag
The IMU compensated magnetic field measured units of Gauss, and given in the body frame. This
measurement is compensated by the static calibration (individual factory calibration stored in flash), the
user compensation, and the dynamic calibration from the onboard Hard/Soft Iron estimator.
Mag
mag[1]
mag[0]
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
3
4
float
5
6
mag[2]
7
8
9
float
10
11
float
5.5.10 Accel
The compensated acceleration measured in units of m/s^2, and given in the body frame. This
measurement is compensated by the static calibration (individual factory calibration stored in flash), and
the user compensation. This acceleration is equivalent to the specific force in the body frame (as
measured by the accelerometer) and thus includes gravity.
Accel
accel[1]
accel[0]
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
3
4
float
5
6
accel[2]
7
8
9
float
10
11
float
5.5.11 AngularRate
The compensated angular rate measured in units of rad/s, and given in the body frame. This
measurement is compensated by the static calibration (individual factor calibration stored in flash), the
user compensation, and the dynamic bias compensation from the onboard VPE Kalman filter.
AngularRate
gyro[1]
gyro[0]
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
float
3
4
5
6
7
float
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9
10
11
float
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5.5.12 SensSat
This field provides flags identifying whether any of the measurements are currently saturated.
SensSat
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
u16
Table 21 - SensSat Bit Field Description
Name
MagX
MagY
MagZ
AccX
AccY
AccZ
GyroX
GyroY
GyroZ
Pres
Reserved
Bit Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10-15
Description
Magnetometer X-axis is saturated.
Magnetometer Y-axis is saturated.
Magnetometer Z-axis is saturated.
Accelerometer X-axis is saturated.
Accelerometer Y-axis is saturated.
Accelerometer Z-axis is saturated.
Gyro X-axis is saturated.
Gyro Y-axis is saturated.
Gyro Z-axis is saturated.
Pressure measurement is saturated.
Reserved for future use.
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5.6
UM001
Binary Group 5 – Attitude Outputs
Binary group 5 provides all estimated outputs which are dependent upon the estimated attitude
solution.
Table 22 - Binary Group 5
Name
VpeStatus
YawPitchRoll
Quaternion
DCM
MagNed
AccelNed
LinearAccelBody
LinearAccelNed
YprU
Resv
5.6.1
Bit Offset
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9-15
Description
VPE Status
Yaw Pitch Roll
Quaternion
Directional Cosine Matrix
Compensated magnetic (NED)
Compensated acceleration (NED)
Compensated linear acceleration (no gravity)
Compensated linear acceleration (no gravity) (NED)
Yaw Pitch Roll uncertainty
Reserved for future use. Should be set to zero.
VpeStatus
The VPE status bitfield.
VpeStatus
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
u16
Table 23 - VpeStatus BitField
AttitudeQuality
Bit
Offset
0
GyroSaturation
GyroSaturationRecovery
2
3
1 bit
1 bit
-
MagDisturbance
4
2 bit
-
MagSaturation
AccDisturbance
6
7
1 bit
2 bit
-
AccSaturation
Reserved
KnownMagDisturbance
9
10
11
1 bit
1 bit
1 bit
-
KnownAccelDisturbance
12
1 bit
-
Reserved
13
3 bits
-
Name
Format
Unit
Description
2 bits
-
Provides an indication of the quality of the attitude
solution.
At least one gyro axis is currently saturated.
Filter is in the process of recovering from a gyro
saturation event.
A magnetic DC disturbance has been detected.
0 – No magnetic disturbance
1 to 3 – Magnetic disturbance is present.
At least one magnetometer axis is currently saturated.
A strong acceleration disturbance has been detected.
0 – No acceleration disturbance.
1 to 3 – Acceleration disturbance has been detected.
At least one accelerometer axis is currently saturated.
Reserved for internal use. May change state at run-time.
A known magnetic disturbance has been reported by the
user and the magnetometer is currently tuned out.
A known acceleration disturbance has been reported by
the user and the accelerometer is currently tuned out.
Reserved for future use.
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Table 24 - AttitudeQuality Field
Value
0
1
2
3
5.6.2
Description
Excellent
Good
Bad
Not tracking
YawPitchRoll
The estimated attitude Yaw, Pitch, and Roll angles measured in degrees. The attitude is given as a 3,2,1
Euler angle sequence describing the body frame with respect to the local North East Down (NED) frame.
YawPitchRoll
pitch
yaw
Byte Offset
Type
5.6.3
0
1
2
3
4
5
float
6
7
roll
8
9
float
10
11
float
Quaternion
The estimated attitude quaternion. The last term is the scalar value. The attitude is given as the body
frame with respect to the local North East Down (NED) frame.
qtn[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.6.4
0
1
2
qtn[1]
3
4
float
5
6
Quaternion
qtn[2]
7
8
9
float
10
qtn[3]
11
12
float
13
14
15
float
DCM
The estimated attitude directional cosine matrix given in column major order. The DCM maps vectors
from the North East Down (NED) frame into the body frame.
Fields
Byte Offset
Type
dcm[0]
0
1
2
dcm[1]
3
float
4
5
7
8
9
float
Fields
Byte Offset
Type
5.6.5
6
Dcm
dcm[3]
dcm[2]
10
11
12
float
25
26
float
14
dcm[4]
15
27
16
float
28
29
30
float
31
17
18
float
Dcm (continued)
dcm[7]
dcm[6]
24
13
dcm[5]
19
20
21
22
23
float
dcm[8]
32
33
34
35
float
MagNed
The current estimated magnetic field (Gauss), given in the North East Down (NED) frame. The current
attitude solution is used to map the measurement from the measured body frame to the inertial (NED)
frame. This measurement is compensated by both the static calibration (individual factory calibration
stored in flash), and the dynamic calibration such as the user or onboard Hard/Soft Iron compensation
registers.
MagNed
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mag[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.6.6
0
1
2
mag[1]
3
4
float
5
6
mag[2]
7
8
9
float
10
11
float
AccelNed
The estimated acceleration (with gravity) reported in m/s^2, given in the North East Down (NED) frame.
This measurement is attitude dependent, since the attitude is used to map the measurement from the
body frame into the inertial (NED) frame. If the device is stationary and the VPE Kalman filter is
tracking, the measurement should be nominally equivalent to the gravity reference vector in the inertial
frame (NED).
AccelNed
accel[1]
accel[0]
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
float
3
4
5
6
7
float
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8
9
10
11
float
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5.6.7
UM001
LinearAccelBody
The estimated linear acceleration (without gravity) reported in m/s^2, and given in the body frame. The
acceleration measurement has the gravity component removed using the current gravity reference
vector model. This measurement is attitude dependent, since the attitude solution is required to map
the gravity reference vector (known in the inertial NED frame), into the body frame so that it can be
removed from the measurement. If the device is stationary and the onboard VPE Kalman filter is
tracking, the measurement nominally will read 0 in all three axes.
LinearAccelBody
accel[1]
accel[2]
accel[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.6.8
0
1
2
3
4
float
5
6
7
8
9
float
10
11
float
LinearAccelNed
The estimated linear acceleration (without gravity) reported in m/s^2, and given in the North East Down
(NED) frame. This measurement is attitude dependent as the attitude solution is used to map the
measurement from the body frame into the inertial (NED) frame. This acceleration measurement has
the gravity component removed using the current gravity reference vector estimate. If the device is
stationary and the onboard VPE Kalman filter is tracking, the measurement nominally will read 0 in all
three axes.
LinearAccelNed
accel[1]
accel[0]
Byte Offset
Type
5.6.9
0
1
2
3
4
float
5
6
7
8
accel[2]
9
float
10
11
float
AngularRate
The estimated angular rotation rate reported in rad/s, given in the body frame. This angular rate
measurement has been bias compensated by the onboard VPE Kalman filter. If the device is stationary
(not rotating) and the onboard AHRS filter is tracking, the measurement nominally will read 0 in all three
axes.
AngularRate
rate[1]
rate[0]
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
3
4
float
5
6
7
rate[2]
8
9
float
10
11
float
5.6.10 YprU
The estimated attitude (Yaw, Pitch, Roll) uncertainty (1 Sigma), reported in degrees.
YprU
pitch
yaw
Byte Offset
Type
0
1
2
float
3
4
5
6
roll
7
float
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9
10
11
float
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6
UM001
System Module
6.1
6.1.1
Commands
Read Register Command
This command allows the user to read any of the registers on the VN-100 module (see Section 6 for the
list of available registers). The only required parameter is the ID of the register to be read. The first
parameter of the response will contain the same register ID followed by a variable number of
parameters. The number of parameters and their formatting is specific to the requested register. Refer
to the appropriate register Section contained in Section 6 for details on this formatting. If an invalid
register is requested, an error code will be returned. The error code format is described in Section 4.3.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command
SPI Response
6.1.2
Message
$VNRRG,5*46
$VNRRG,5,9600*65
01 05 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 01 05 00 80 25 00 00 (shown as hex)
Write Register Command
This command is used to write data values to a specified register on the VN-100 module (see Section 6
for the list of available registers). The ID of the register to be written to is the first parameter. This is
followed by the data values specific to that register. Refer to the appropriate register in Section 6 for
this formatting. If an invalid register is requested, an error code will be returned. The error code format
is described in Section 4.3.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command
SPI Response
Message
$VNWRG,5,9600*60
$VNWRG,5,9600*60
02 05 00 00 80 25 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 02 05 00 80 25 00 00 (shown as hex)
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6.1.3
UM001
Write Settings Command
This command will write the current register settings into non-volatile memory. Once the settings are
stored in non-volatile (Flash) memory, the VN-100 module can be power cycled or reset, and the register
will be reloaded from non-volatile memory. The module can always be reset to the factory settings by
issuing the Restore Factory Settings command or by pulling pin 7 (Tare/Restore) high during reset.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command
SPI Response
Message
$VNWNV*57
$VNWNV*57
03 00 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 03 00 00 (shown as hex)
Due to limitations in the flash write speed the write settings command takes ~ 500ms to complete. Any
commands that are sent to the sensor during this time will be responded to after the operation is
complete.
6.1.4
Restore Factory Settings Command
This command will restore the VN-100 module’s factory default settings and will reset the module.
There are no parameters for this command. The module will respond to this command before restoring
the factory settings.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command
SPI Response
6.1.5
Message
$VNRFS*5F
$VNRFS*5F
04 00 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 04 00 00 (shown as hex)
Tare Command
The tare command will have the module zero out its current orientation. The effect of this command in
2D magnetic mode will be to set only the yaw angle to zero. In 3D heading mode the VN-100 will set the
yaw, pitch, and roll angles to zero. In 3D heading mode the VN-100 will also now measure yaw, pitch,
and roll relative to the alignment of the respective X, Y, and Z axes in 3D space when the tare command
was received.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command
SPI Response
Message
$VNTAR*5F
$VNTAR*5F
05 00 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 05 00 00 (shown as hex)
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6.1.6
UM001
Reset Command
This command will reset the module. There are no parameters required for this command. The module
will first respond to the command and will then perform a reset. Upon a reset all registers will be
reloaded with the values saved in non-volatile memory. If no values are stored in non-volatile memory,
the device will default to factory settings. Also upon reset the VN-100 will re-initialize its Kalman filter,
thus the filter will take a few seconds to completely converge on the correct attitude and correct for
gyro bias. This command is equivalent in functionality to the hardware reset performed by pulling pin
21 (NRST) low.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command
SPI Response
6.1.7
Message
$VNRST*4D
$VNRST*4D
06 00 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 06 00 00 (shown as hex)
Firmware Update Command
This command is used to enter the boot loader for performing firmware updates. Upon receiving this
command on serial port 1, the VN-100 will enter into firmware reprogramming mode. The easiest
method of updating firmware is to use one of the VectorNav Firmware Update Tools. If you wish
however to incorporate the ability to update the firmware into your own system, the protocol and
procedure for updating the firmware is outlined in the AN013 Firmware Update Protocol application
note.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
Message
$VNFWU*XX
$VNFWU*XX
Firmware updates are only supported on serial port 1 (pin 12 & 13). If you plan on using either serial
port 2 or SPI as your primary means of communicating with the sensor, it is recommended that you also
provide support in your design to communicate with the sensor using serial port 1 to facilitate firmware
updates.
6.1.8
Serial Command Prompt Command
This command allows you to enter into the command prompt mode on either serial port. The command
mode supports a wide range of diagnostics and configuration options that go beyond the abilities of the
normal read/write configuration register interface.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
Message
$VNCMD*XX
$VNCMD*XX
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6.1.9
UM001
Asynchronous Output Pause Command
This command allows the user to temporarily pause the asynchronous outputs on the given serial port.
When paused, both the ASCII and the 3 binary asynchronous output messages will temporarily stop
outputting from the device on the serial port for which this command is received. The state of the
asynchronous output register and the binary output configuration registers will not be changed when
the asynchronous outputs are paused. This command is useful when you want to send configuration
commands to the VN-100, but do not want to deal with the additional overhead of having to parse a
constant stream of asynchronous output messages while waiting for the response to your configuration
commands. It is also useful when you want to type commands to the device from a serial command
prompt. The below example commands demonstrate how to pause and resume asynchronous outputs.
Example Command
Pause Async Outputs
Resume Async Outputs
Message
$VNASY,0*XX
$VNASY,1*XX
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Configuration Registers
6.2
6.2.1
User Tag Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Offset
0
UM001
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Name
Tag
User Tag
0
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
User assigned tag register. Any values can be assigned to this register. They will
be stored to flash upon issuing a write settings command.
20
$VNRRG,00,SENSOR_A14*52
Format
Unit Description
char
User defined tag register. Up to 20 bytes or characters. If a
string with more than 20 characters is given, then the string
will be truncated to the first 20.
Only printable ASCII characters are allowed for the user tag register.
Allowable characters include any character in the hexadecimal range of 0x20 to 0x7E, excluding 0x24
(‘$’), 0x2C (‘,’), and 0x2A (‘*’). The use any other character will result in an invalid parameter error code
returned. This restriction is required to ensure that the value set in the user tag register remains
accessible using both the SPI and serial ASCII protocols.
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6.2.2
UM001
Model Number Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
Product
Name
Model Number
1
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Model Number
24
$VNRRG,01,VN-100S-SMD*7E
Format
Unit Description
char
Product name. Max 24 characters.
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Access :
Read Only
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6.2.3
UM001
Hardware Revision Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
Revision
Hardware Revision Register
2
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Hardware revision.
4
$VNRRG,02,7*6A
Format
Unit Description
uint32
Hardware revision.
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Access :
Read Only
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6.2.4
UM001
Serial Number Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
SerialNum
Serial Number
3
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Access :
Serial Number
4
$VNRRG,03,0100015800*51
Format
Unit Description
uint32
Serial Number (32-bit unsigned integer)
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6.2.5
UM001
Firmware Version Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
Major
Version
1
Minor
Version
2
Feature
Version
3
HotFix
Firmware Version Register
4
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Firmware version.
4
$VNRRG,04,2.0.0.0*77
Format
Unit Description
uint8
Major release version of firmware.
Access :
Read Only
uint8
-
Minor release version of firmware
uint8
-
Feature release version of the firmware.
uint8
-
Hot fix number. Numbers above 100 are reserved for custom
firmware versions.
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6.2.6
Offset
0
4
UM001
Serial Baud Rate Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Command:
Name
Baud Rate
Serial Port
Serial Baud Rate
5
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Serial baud rate.
4
$VNWRG,05,115200*5D
Format
Unit Description
uint32
Serial baud rate.
uint8
Optional. The serial port to change the baud rate on.
If this parameter is not provided then the baud rate will be
changed for the active serial port.
1 – Serial Port 1
2 – Serial Port 2
Table 25 – Baud Rate Settings
Acceptable
Baud Rates
9600
19200
38400
57600
115200
128000
230400
460800
921600
The serial port parameter in this register is optional. If it is not provided, the baud rate will be changed
on the active serial port. The response to this register will include the serial port parameter if the
optional parameter is provided. If the second parameter is not provided then the response will not
include this parameter.
Upon receiving a baud rate change request, the VN-100 will send the response prior to changing the
baud rate.
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6.2.7
Offset
0
4
UM001
Async Data Output Type Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Command:
Name
ADOR
Serial Port
Asynchronous Data Output Type
6
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Asynchronous data output type.
4
$VNWRG,06,14*5C
Format
Unit Description
uint32
Output register.
uint8
Optional. The serial port to change the asynchronous data
type on. If this parameter is not provided then the ADOR will
be changed for the active serial port.
1 – Serial Port 1
2 – Serial Port 2
This register controls the type of data that will be asynchronously outputted by the module. With this
register, the user can specify which data register will be automatically outputted when it gets updated
with a new reading. Table 26 below lists which registers can be set to asynchronously output, the value
to specify which register to output, and the header of the asynchronous data packet. Asynchronous
data output can be disabled by setting this register to zero. The asynchronous data output will be sent
out automatically at a frequency specified by the Async Data Output Frequency Register (Section 0).
The serial port parameter in this register is optional. If it is not provided, the ADOF will be changed on
the active serial port. The response to this register will include the serial port parameter if the optional
parameter is provided. If the second parameter is not provided, the response will not include this
parameter.
Table 26 – Asynchronous Solution Output Settings
Setting
Asynchronous Solution Output Type
Header
0
1
2
8
Asynchronous output turned off
Yaw, Pitch, Roll
Quaternion
Quaternion, Magnetic, Acceleration and Angular
Rates
Magnetic Measurements
Acceleration Measurements
Angular Rate Measurements
Magnetic, Acceleration, and Angular Rate
Measurements
Yaw, Pitch, Roll, Magnetic, Acceleration, and Angular
Rate Measurements
Yaw, Pitch, Roll, Body True Acceleration, and Angular
Rates
Yaw, Pitch, Roll, Inertial True Acceleration, and
Angular Rates
IMU Measurements
Delta theta and delta velocity
N/A
VNYPR
VNQTN
VNQMR
10
11
12
13
14
16
17
19
30
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Formatting Section
VNMAG
VNACC
VNGYR
VNMAR
VNYMR
VNYBA
VNYIA
VNIMU
VNDTV
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6.2.8
Offset
0
4
UM001
Async Data Output Frequency Register
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Name
ADOF
Serial Port
Asynchronous Data Output Frequency
7
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Asynchronous data output frequency.
4
$VNRRG,07,40*5C
Format
Unit Description
uint32
Hz
Output frequency.
uint8
Optional. The serial port to change the asynchronous data
type frequency on. If this parameter is not provided then the
ADOF will be changed for the active serial port.
1 – Serial Port 1
2 – Serial Port 2
Table 27 - ADOR Data Rates
Acceptable
Data Rates (Hz)
1
2
4
5
10
20
25
40
50
100
200
The serial port parameter in this register is optional. If it is not provided, the ADOF will be changed on
the active serial port. The response to this register will include the serial port parameter if the optional
parameter is provided. If the second parameter is not provided, the response will not include this
parameter.
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6.2.9
Synchronization Control
Register ID :
Comment :
Offset
0
1
2
4
8
9
10
12
16
UM001
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Name
SyncInMode
SyncInEdge
SyncInSkipFactor
RESERVED
SyncOutMode
SyncOutPolarity
SyncOutSkipFactor
SyncOutPulseWidth
RESERVED
Synchronization Control
32
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Contains parameters which allow the timing of the VN-100 to be synchronized with
external devices.
20
$VNRRG,32,3,0,0,0,3,0,0,500000,0*5B
Format
Unit Description
uint8
Input signal synchronization mode
uint8
Input signal synchronization edge selection
uint16
Input signal trigger skip factor
uint32
Reserved for future use. Defaults to 0.
uint8
Output synchronization signal mode
uint8
Output synchronization signal polarity
uint16
Output synchronization signal skip factor
uint32
ns
Output synchronization signal pulse width
uint32
Reserved for future use. Defaults to 0.
SyncInMode
The SyncInMode register controls the behavior of the SyncIn event. If the mode is set to COUNT then
the internal clock will be used to control the IMU sampling. If SyncInMode is set to IMU then the IMU
sampling loop will run on a SyncIn event. The relationship between the SyncIn event and a SyncIn
trigger is defined by the SyncInEdge and SyncInSkipFactor parameters. If set to ASYNC then the VN-100
will output asynchronous serial messages upon each trigger event.
Table 28 – SyncIn Mode
Mode
COUNT
IMU
ASYNC
Pin
SYNC_IN
SYNC_IN
SYNC_IN
Value
3
4
5
Description
Count number of trigger events on SYNC_IN (pin 22).
Start IMU sampling on trigger of SYNC_IN (pin 22).
Output asynchronous message on trigger of SYNC_IN (pin 22).
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SyncInEdge
The SyncInEdge register controls the type of edge the signal is set to trigger on. The factory default
state is to trigger on a rising edge.
Table 29 – SyncInEdge Mode
Value
0
1
Description
Trigger on rising edge
Trigger on falling edge
SyncInSkipFactor
The SyncInSkipFactor defines how many times trigger edges defined by SyncInEdge should occur prior to
triggering a SyncIn event. The action performed on a SyncIn event is determined by the SyncIn mode.
As an example if the SyncInSkipFactor was set to 4 and a 1 kHz signal was attached to the SyncIn pin,
then the SyncIn event would only occur at 200 Hz.
SyncOutMode
The SyncOutMode register controls the behavior of the SyncOut pin. If this is set to IMU then the
SyncOut will start the pulse when the internal IMU sample loop starts. This mode is used to make a
sensor the Master in a multi-sensor network array. If this is set to IMU_READY mode then the pulse will
start when IMU measurements become available. If this is set to AHRS mode then the pulse will start
when attitude measurements are made available. Changes to this register take effect immediately.
Table 30 – SyncOutMode
Mode
NONE
IMU_START
IMU_READY
AHRS
Value
0
1
2
3
Description
None
Trigger at start of IMU sampling
Trigger when IMU measurements are available
Trigger when attitude measurements are available
SyncOutPolarity
The SyncOutPolarity register controls the polarity of the output pulse on the SyncOut pin. Changes to
this register take effect immediately.
Table 31 – SyncOutPolarity
Value
0
1
Description
Negative Pulse
Positive Pulse
SyncOutSkipFactor
The SyncOutSkipFactor defines how many times the sync out event should be skipped before actually
triggering the SyncOut pin.
SyncOutPulseWidth
The SyncOutPulseWidth field controls the desired width of the SyncOut pulse. The default value is
500,000 ns (0.5 ms).
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6.2.10 Communication Protocol Control
Communication Protocol Control
Read /
Write
Comment : Contains parameters that controls the communication protocol used by the VN-100.
Size (Bytes): 7
Example Response: $VNRRG,30,0,0,0,0,1,0,1*6C
Offset Name
Format Unit
Description
Provides the ability to append a counter or time to the end of
0
SerialCount
uint8
the serial asynchronous messages.
Provides the ability to append the status to the end of the
1
SerialStatus
uint8
serial asynchronous messages.
Provides the ability to append a counter to the end of the SPI
2
SPICount
uint8
packets.
Provides the ability to append the status to the end of the SPI
3
SPIStatus
uint8
packets.
4
SerialChecksum
uint8
Choose the type of checksum used for serial communications.
Choose the type of checksum used for the SPI
5
SPIChecksum
uint8
communications.
6
ErrorMode
uint8
Choose the action taken when errors are generated.
Register ID :
30
Firmware :
1.0.0.0
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Serial Count
The SerialCount field provides a means of appending a time or counter to the end of all asynchronous
communication messages transmitted on the serial interface. The values for each of these counters
come directly from the Synchronization Status Register (Register 33).
With the SerialCount field set to OFF a typical serial asynchronous message would appear as the
following:
$VNYPR,+010.071,+000.278,-002.026*60
With the SerialCount field set to one of the non-zero values the same asynchronous message would
appear instead as:
$VNYPR,+010.071,+000.278,-002.026,T1162704*2F
When the SerialCount field is enabled the counter will always be appended to the end of the message
just prior to the checksum. The counter will be preceded by the T character to distinguish it from the
status field.
Table 32 – SerialCount Field
Mode
NONE
SYNCIN_COUNT
SYNCIN_TIME
SYNCOUT_COUNT
Value
0
1
2
3
Description
OFF
SyncIn Counter
SyncIn Time
SyncOut Counter
SerialStatus
The SerialStatus field provides a means of tracking real-time status information pertaining to the overall
state of the sensor measurements and onboard filtering algorithm. As with the SerialCount, a typical
serial asynchronous message would appear as the following:
$VNYPR,+010.071,+000.278,-002.026*60
With the SerialStatus field set to one of the non-zero values, the same asynchronous message would
appear instead as:
$VNYPR,+010.071,+000.278,-002.026,S0000*1F
When the SerialStatus field is enabled the status will always be appended to the end of the message just
prior to the checksum. If both the SerialCount and SerialStatus are enabled then the SerialStatus will be
displayed first. The counter will be preceded by the S character to distinguish it from the counter field.
The status consists of 4 hexadecimal characters.
Table 33 – SerialStatus
Value
0
1
Description
OFF
VPE Status
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SPICount
The SPICount field provides a means of appending a time or counter to the end of all SPI packets. The
values for each of these counters come directly from the Synchronization Status Register.
Table 34 – SPICount Field
Mode
NONE
SYNCIN_COUNT
SYNCIN_TIME
SYNCOUT_COUNT
Value
0
1
2
3
Description
OFF
SyncIn Counter
SyncIn Time
SyncOut Counter
SPIStatus
The AsyncStatus field provides a means of tracking real-time status information pertaining to the overall
state of the sensor measurements and onboard filtering algorithm. This information is very useful in
situations where action must be taken when certain crucial events happen such as the detection of gyro
saturation or magnetic interference.
Table 35 – SPIStatus
Value
0
1
Description
OFF
VPE Status
SerialChecksum
This field controls the type of checksum used for the serial communications. Normally the VN-100 uses
an 8-bit checksum identical to the type used for normal GPS NMEA packets. This form of checksum
however offers only a limited means of error checking. As an alternative a full 16-bit CRC (CRC16-CCITT
with polynomial = 0x07) is also offered. The 2-byte CRC value is printed using 4 hexadecimal digits.
Table 36 – SerialChecksum
Value
1
3
Description
8-Bit Checksum
16-Bit CRC
SPIChecksum
This field controls the type of checksum used for the SPI communications. The checksum is appended to
the end of the binary data packet. The 16-bit CRC is identical to the one described above for the
SerialChecksum.
Table 37 – SPIChecksum
Value
0
1
3
Description
OFF
8-Bit Checksum
16-Bit CRC
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ErrorMode
This field controls the type of action taken by the VN-100 when an error event occurs. If the send error
mode is enabled then a message similar to the one shown below will be sent on the serial bus when an
error event occurs.
$VNERR,03*72
Regardless of the state of the ErrorMode, the number of error events is always recorded and is made
available in the SysErrors field of the Communication Protocol Status Register.
Table 38 – ErrorMode
Value
0
1
2
Description
Ignore Error
Send Error
Send Error and set ADOR register to OFF
Example Async Messages
The following table shows example asynchronous messages with the AsyncCount and the AsyncStatus
values appended to the end.
Example Type
Async Message with
AsyncCount Enabled
Async Message with
AsyncStatus Enabled
Async Message with
AsyncCount and
AsyncStatus Enabled
Message
$VNYPR,+010.071,+000.278,-002.026,T1162704*2F
$VNYPR,+010.071,+000.278,-002.026,S0000*1F
$VNYPR,+010.071,+000.278,-002.026,T1162704,S0000*50
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6.2.11 Binary Output Register 1
Binary Output Register 1
75
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
This register allows the user to construct a custom binary output message that contains a
Comment :
collection of desired estimated states and sensor measurements.
Size (Bytes): 6-22
Example Response: $VNRRG,75,0,0,00*5D
Offset
Name
Format
Unit Description
0
AsyncMode
uint16
Selects whether the output message should be sent out on the
serial port(s) at a fixed rate.
0 = None. User message is not automatically sent out either serial
port.
1 = Message is sent out serial port 1 at a fixed rate.
2 = Message is sent out serial port 2 at a fixed rate.
3 = Message is sent out both serial ports at a fixed rate.
2
RateDivisor
uint16
Sets the fixed rate at which the message is sent out the selected
serial port(s). The number given is a divisor of the ImuRate which
is nominally 800Hz. For example to have the sensor output at
50Hz you would set the Divisor equal to 4.
4
OutputGroup
uint16
Selects which output groups are active in the message. The
number of OutputFields in this message should equal the number
of active bits in the OutputGroup.
6
OutputField(1)
uint16
Active output fields for the first active group.
4+2*N
OutputField(N)
uint16
Active output fields for the Nth active group.
Register ID :
See section 5.2 for information on the format for the Groups and Group Fields.
The size of this register is variable depending upon the number of group fields present. When writing to
this register you must provide the same number of group fields as there are bits active in the group byte.
If this condition is not met, the unit will respond with an invalid parameter error code on a write register
attempt.
The maximum size of a binary packet must not exceed 600 bytes. If you attempt to specify an output
group and output fields for a packet with a length greater than 600 bytes (including the header and
CRC), you will receive an invalid parameter error when writing to this register.
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6.2.12 Binary Output Register 2
Binary Output Register 2
76
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
This register allows the user to construct a custom binary output message that contains a
Comment :
collection of desired estimated states and sensor measurements.
Size (Bytes): 6-22
Example Response: $VNRRG,76,0,0,00*5E
Offset
Name
Format
Unit Description
0
AsyncMode
uint16
Selects whether the output message should be sent out on the
serial port(s) at a fixed rate.
0 = None. User message is not automatically sent out either serial
port.
1 = Message is sent out serial port 1 at a fixed rate.
2 = Message is sent out serial port 2 at a fixed rate.
3 = Message is sent out both serial ports at a fixed rate.
2
RateDivisor
uint16
Sets the fixed rate at which the message is sent out the selected
serial port(s). The number given is a divisor of the ImuRate which
is nominally 800Hz. For example to have the sensor output at
50Hz you would set the Divisor equal to 4. If you are polling the
message, set the divisor to 1.
4
OutputGroup
uint16
Selects which output groups are active in the message. The
number of OutputFields in this message should equal the number
of active bits in the OutputGroup.
6
OutputField(1)
uint16
Active output fields for the first active group.
4+2*N
OutputField(N)
uint16
Active output fields for the Nth active group.
Register ID :
See section 5.2 for information on the format for the Groups and Group Fields.
The size of this register is variable depending upon the number of group fields present. When writing to
this register you must provide the same number of group fields as there are bits active in the group byte.
If this condition is not met, the unit will respond with an invalid parameter error code on a write register
attempt.
The maximum size of a binary packet must not exceed 600 bytes. If you attempt to specify an output
group and output fields for a packet with a length greater than 600 bytes (including the header and
CRC), you will receive an invalid parameter error when writing to this register.
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6.2.13 Binary Output Register 3
Binary Output Register 3
77
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
This register allows the user to construct a custom binary output message that contains a
Comment :
collection of desired estimated states and sensor measurements.
Size (Bytes): 6-22
Example Response: $VNRRG,77,0,0,00*5F
Offset
Name
Format
Unit Description
0
AsyncMode
uint16
Selects whether the output message should be sent out on the
serial port(s) at a fixed rate.
0 = None. User message is not automatically sent out either serial
port.
1 = Message is sent out serial port 1 at a fixed rate.
2 = Message is sent out serial port 2 at a fixed rate.
3 = Message is sent out both serial ports at a fixed rate.
2
RateDivisor
uint16
Sets the fixed rate at which the message is sent out the selected
serial port(s). The number given is a divisor of the ImuRate which is
nominally 800Hz. For example to have the sensor output at 50Hz
you would set the Divisor equal to 4. If you are polling the message,
set the divisor to 1.
4
OutputGroup
uint16
Selects which output groups are active in the message. The number
of OutputFields in this message should equal the number of active
bits in the OutputGroup.
6
OutputField(1) uint16
Active output fields for the first active group.
4+2*N
OutputField(N) uint16
Active output fields for the Nth active group.
Register ID :
See section 5.2 for information on the format for the Groups and Group Fields.
The size of this register is variable depending upon the number of group fields present. When writing to
this register you must provide the same number of group fields as there are bits active in the group byte.
If this condition is not met, the unit will respond with an invalid parameter error code on a write register
attempt.
The maximum size of a binary packet must not exceed 600 bytes. If you attempt to specify an output
group and output fields for a packet with a length greater than 600 bytes (including the header and
CRC), you will receive an invalid parameter error when writing to this register.
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Status Registers
6.3
6.3.1
Synchronization Status
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example
Response:
Offset
Synchronization Status
33
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Contains status parameters that pertaining to the communication synchronization features.
12
$VNRRG,33,0,876695006,350671*5C
Name
Format
Unit
0
SyncInCount
uint32
-
4
SyncInTime
uint32
µs
8
SyncOutCount
uint32
-
Description
Keeps track of the number of times that the SyncIn trigger
even has occured. This register can be used to correlate
the attitude to an event on an external system such as a
camera or GPS.
It is also possible to have the value of this register
appended to each asynchronous data packet on the serial
bus. This can be done by setting the AsyncStatus field in
the Communication Protocol register to 1.
Keeps track of the amount of time that has elapsed since
the last SyncIn trigger event. If the SyncIn pin is connected
to the PPS (Pulse Per Second) line on a GPS and the
AsyncStatus field in the Communication Protocol Register
is set to 1, then each asynchronous measurement will be
time stamped relative to the last received GPS
measurement.
Keeps track of the number of times that the SyncOut
trigger event has occurred. This register can be used to
index subsequent measurement outputs, which is
particularly useful when logging sensor data.
Writing zero to the SyncInCount or the SyncOutCount will reset the status counter. Any other value
other than zero will not have an effect. The SyncInTime is read only and cannot be reset to zero.
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6.4
UM001
Factory Defaults
Settings Name
User Tag
Serial Baud Rate
Async Data Output Frequency
Async Data Output Type
Synchronization Control
Communication Protocol Control
Binary Output Register 1
Binary Output Register 2
Binary Output Register 3
Default Factory Value
NULL (Empty string)
115200
40 Hz
14 (YPR, Mag, Accel, Rates)
3,0,0,0,3,0,0,500000,0
0,0,0,0,1,0,1
0, 0, 0
0, 0, 0
0, 0, 0
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6.5
UM001
Command Prompt
The command prompt provides a fast and simple means of configuring and monitoring the status of the
sensor by typing commands to the unit using the serial port.
6.5.1
List Available Commands
Commands for the System subsystem can be accessed by typing in ‘system’ at the command prompt. To
view all available commands, type ‘system ?’. Below is a view of a terminal window showing a list of the
available commands.
system ?
System Module Commands:
Command:
-------info
comm
errors
reset
save
restore
6.5.2
Description:
----------------------------------------Device specific information such as serial number and firmware version.
Information on the communication interfaces.
Overview of the logged system errors.
Perform a software reset on the unit.
Save register settings to flash memory.
Restore register settings to their factory default state.
System Info
system info
--------------------------------
System Info
Hardware:
Product Model:
Serial Number:
MCU Serial Number:
Hardware Revision:
Form Revision:
VN-100S-SMD
100015800
34333639333247010035002A
7
0
Software:
Firmware Version:
Revision:
Build Number:
2.0.0.0
625
2228
---------------------------------
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.5.3
System Comm
system comm
----------------------
System Communication Interfaces
Communication Stats:
Serial Messages Parsed
Spi Messages Parsed
Max Serial RX Buffer Usage
Max Serial TX Buffer Usage
Max Spi RX Buffer Usage
Max Spi TX Buffer Usage
:
:
:
:
:
:
-----------------------
29
0
0
4
0
0
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Current Serial 1 TX Bandwidth Usage : 00.0
Current Serial 2 TX Bandwidth Usage : 49.3
Max Serial 1 TX Bandwidth Usage : 49.3
Max Serial 2 TX Bandwidth Usage : 50.5
Min Serial 1 TX Bandwidth Usage : 00.0
Min Serial 2 TX Bandwidth Usage : 48.1
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.5.4
System Errors
system errors
-------------------------------
System Errors
Hard Fault Exceptions
Serial Input Buffer Overflow
Serial Output Buffer Overflow
Serial Insufficient Bandwidth
Invalid Checksums
Invalid Commands
Input Error - Too Few Parameters
Input Error - Too Many Parameters
Input Error - Invalid Parameter
Input Error - Invalid Register
Input Error - Unauthorized Access
Input Error - Watchdog Reset
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
--------------------------------
0
0
0
0
6
2
0
0
0
0
2
0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
6.5.5
System Reset
system reset
6.5.6
System Save
system save
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7
UM001
IMU Subsystem
7.1
IMU Measurement Registers
7.1.1
IMU Measurements
This register provides direct access to the calibrated magnetometer, accelerometer, gyro, barometric
pressure, and temperature measurements available from the onboard IMU.
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Read
Response:
Offset
Name
0
MagX
4
MagY
8
MagZ
12
AccelX
16
AccelY
20
AccelZ
24
GyroX
28
GyroY
32
GyroZ
36
Temp
40
Pressure
IMU Measurements
54
Async Header : IMU
Access : Read Only
Provides the calibrated IMU measurements including barometric pressure.
44
$VNRRG,54,-00.1193,+00.2496,+00.4414,+00.009,+00.361,09.885,+00.001840,+00.027802,+00.021403,+17.5,+100.403*5F
Format
Unit
Description
float
Gauss Uncompensated Magnetic X-axis.
float
Gauss Uncompensated Magnetic Y-axis.
float
Gauss Uncompensated Magnetic Z-axis.
2
float
m/s
Uncompensated Acceleration X-axis.
2
float
m/s
Uncompensated Acceleration Y-axis.
2
float
m/s
Uncompensated Acceleration Z-axis.
float
rad/s Uncompensated Angular rate X-axis.
float
rad/s Uncompensated Angular rate Y-axis.
float
rad/s Uncompensated Angular rate Z-axis.
float
C
IMU Temperature.
float
kPa
Barometric pressure.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNIMU header.
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7.1.2
UM001
Delta Theta and Delta Velocity
Delta Theta and Delta Velocity
Register ID : 80
Async Header: DTV
Access : Read
Comment : This register contains the output values of the onboard coning and sculling algorithm.
Size (Bytes): 28
Example Response: $VNRRG,80,+0.099998,+000.005,+000.069,+000.125,+000.004,+000.032,-001.000*64
Offset
Name
Format
Unit
Description
0
DeltaTime
float
sec
Delta time for the integration interval
4
DeltaThetaX
float
deg
Delta rotation vector component in the x-axis.
8
DeltaThetaY
float
deg
Delta rotation vector component in the y-axis.
12
DeltaThetaZ
float
deg
Delta rotation vector component in the z-axis.
16
DeltaVelocityX
float
m/s
Delta velocity vector component in the x-axis.
20
DeltaVelocityY
float
m/s
Delta velocity vector component in the y-axis.
24
DeltaVelocityZ
float
m/s
Delta velocity vector component in the z-axis.
The Delta Theta and Delta Velocity register contains the computed outputs from the onboard coning
and sculling algorithm. The coning and sculling integrations are performed at the IMU sample rate
(nominally at 800Hz) and reset when the register data is output. If polling this register, the values will
represent the delta time, angles, and velocity since the register was last polled. If the Delta
Theta/Velocity data is selected for asynchronous output via the Async Data Output Type register
(Register 6, type 30), the integrals will be reset each time the data is asynchronously output at the
configured rate.
The delta time output contains the length of the time interval over which the deltas were calculated.
This can be used to check the interval time or to compute nonlinear “average” rates and accelerations
from the integrated values.
The delta theta is output as a principal rotation vector, defined as the product of the unit vector of the
principal rotation axis and the principal rotation angle in degrees. For small rotations, a typical use case
for delta angles, the principal rotation vector elements may be treated individually as rotations in
degrees about the individual sensor axes (in any Euler rotation sequence) with little error.
The delta velocity output provides the integration of the acceleration in the chosen frame, taking into
account the coupling effects of any simultaneous rotation experienced.
The coning and sculling algorithm can be configured to operate in multiple frames and with a variety of
compensations applied. See the Delta Theta and Delta Velocity Configuration register (Register 82) for
further details.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNDTV header.
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7.2
7.2.1
UM001
IMU Configuration Registers
Magnetometer Compensation
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Command:
Offset Name
0
C[0,0]
4
C[0,1]
8
C[0,2]
12
C[1,0]
16
C[1,1]
20
C[1,2]
24
C[2,0]
28
C[2,1]
32
C[2,2]
36
B[0]
40
B[1]
44
B[2]
Magnetometer Compensation
23
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Access: Read / Write
Allows the magnetometer to be compensated for hard/soft iron effects.
48
$VNRRG,23,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0*73
Format
Unit
Description
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
-
This register contains twelve values representing the hard and soft iron compensation parameters. The
magnetic measurements are compensated for both hard and soft iron using the following model. Under
normal circumstances this register can be left in its factory default state. In the event that there are
disturbances in the magnetic field due to hard or soft iron effects, then these registers allow for further
compensation. These registers can also be used to compensate for significant changes to the
magnetometer bias, gain, and axis alignment during installation. Note that this magnetometer
compensation is separate from the compensation that occurs during the calibration process at the
factory. Setting this register to the default state of an identity matrix and zero offset will not eliminate
the magnetometer gain, bias, and axis alignment that occur during factory calibration. These registers
only need to be changed from their default values in the event that hard/soft iron compensation needs
to be performed, or changes in bias, gain, and axis alignment have occurred at some point between the
times the chip was calibrated at the factory and when it is used in the field.
{ }
[
] {
}
} are components of the measured magnetic field. The {X, Y, Z} variables are
The variables {
the new magnetic field measurements outputted after compensation for hard/soft iron effects. All
twelve numbers are represented by single-precision floating points.
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7.2.2
UM001
Acceleration Compensation
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Command:
Offset Name
0
C[0,0]
4
C[0,1]
8
C[0,2]
12
C[1,0]
16
C[1,1]
20
C[1,2]
24
C[2,0]
28
C[2,1]
32
C[2,2]
36
B[0]
40
B[1]
44
B[2]
Accelerometer Compensation
25
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Allows the accelerometer to be further compensated for scale factor, misalignment, and
bias errors.
48
$VNRRG,25,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0*75
Format
Unit Description
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
-
This register contains twelve values representing the accelerometer compensation parameters. The
accelerometer measurements are compensated for changes in bias, gain, and axis alignment that can
occur during the installation of the chip on the customer’s board using the following model. Under
normal circumstances this register can be left in its factory default state. In the event that there are
significant changes to the accelerometer bias, gain, and axis alignment during installation, then these
registers allow for further compensation. Note that this accelerometer compensation is separate from
the compensation that occurs during the calibration process at the factory. Setting this register to the
default state of an identity matrix and zero offset will not eliminate the accelerometer gain, bias, and
axis alignment that occur during factory calibration. These registers only need to be changed from their
default values in the event that changes in bias, gain, and axis alignment have occurred at some point
between the times the chip was calibrated at the factory and when it is used in the field.
{ }
[
] {
}
The variables {AX,AY,AZ} are components of the measured acceleration. The {X, Y, Z} variables are the
new acceleration measurements outputted after compensation for changes during sensor mounting. All
twelve numbers are represented by single-precision floating points.
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7.2.3
UM001
Gyro Compensation
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Command:
Offset Name
0
C[0,0]
4
C[0,1]
8
C[0,2]
12
C[1,0]
16
C[1,1]
20
C[1,2]
24
C[2,0]
28
C[2,1]
32
C[2,2]
36
B[0]
40
B[1]
44
B[2]
Gyro Compensation
84
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Allows the gyro to be further compensated for scale factor, misalignment, and bias errors.
48
$VNRRG,84,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0*7E
Format
Unit Description
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
-
This register contains twelve values representing the gyro compensation parameters. The gyro
measurements are compensated for changes in bias, gain, and axis alignment that can occur during the
installation of the chip on the customer’s board using the following model. Under normal circumstances
this register can be left in its factory default state. In the event that there are significant changes to the
gyro bias, gain, and axis alignment during installation or during the life of the part; these registers allow
for further compensation. Note that this gyro compensation is separate from the compensation that
occurs during the calibration process at the factory. Setting this register to the default state of an
identity matrix and zero offset will not eliminate the gyro gain, bias, and axis alignment that occur
during factory calibration. These registers only need to be changed from their default values in the
event that changes in bias, gain, and axis alignment have occurred at some point between the times the
chip was calibrated at the factory and when it is used in the field.
{ }
[
] {
}
The variables {GX, GY, GZ}IMU are components of the measured angular rate. The {GX, GY, GZ}Comp
variables are the new acceleration measurements outputted after compensation for changes during
sensor mounting. All twelve numbers are represented by single-precision floating points.
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7.2.4
UM001
Reference Frame Rotation
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
C[0,0]
4
C[0,1]
8
C[0,2]
12
C[1,0]
16
C[1,1]
20
C[1,2]
24
C[2,0]
28
C[2,1]
32
C[2,2]
Reference Frame Rotation
26
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Allows the measurements of the VN-100 to be rotated into a different reference frame.
36
$VNRRG,26,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1*6A
Format Unit Description
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
-
This register contains a transformation matrix that allows for the transformation of measured
acceleration, magnetic, and angular rates from the body frame of the VN-100 to any other arbitrary
frame of reference. The use of this register allows for the sensor to be placed in any arbitrary
orientation with respect to the user’s desired body coordinate frame. This register can also be used to
correct for any orientation errors due to mounting the VN-100 on the user’s circuit board.
{ }
[
] { }
} are a measured parameter such as acceleration in the body reference frame
The variables {
} are a measured parameter such as acceleration in
with respect to the VN-100. The variables {
the user’s frame of reference. The reference frame rotation register thus needs to be loaded with the
transformation matrix that will transform measurements from the body reference frame of the VN-100
to the desired user frame of reference. It is crucial that these two frames of reference be rigidly
attached to each other. All nine numbers are represented by single-precision floating points.
The reference frame rotation is performed on all vector measurements prior to entering the VPE Kalman
filter. As such, changing this register while the attitude filter is running will lead to unexpected behavior
in the VPE filter output. To prevent this, the register is cached on startup and changes will not take
effect during runtime. After setting the reference frame rotation register to its new value, send a write
settings command and then reset the VN-100. This will allow the VPE Kalman filter to startup with the
newly set reference frame rotation.
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7.2.5
UM001
IMU Filtering Configuration
IMU Filtering Configuration
Register ID : 85
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Comment : Controls the level of filtering performed on the raw IMU measurements.
Size (Bytes): 15
Example Response: $VNRRG,85,0,4,4,4,0,0,3,3,3,0*79
Offset
Name
Format
Unit
Description
0
MagWindowSize
uint16
Number of previous measurements averaged for magnetic
measurements.
2
AccelWindowSize
uint16
Number of previous measurements averaged for
acceleration measurements.
4
GyroWindowSize
uint16
Number of previous measurements averaged for gyro
measurements.
6
TempWindowSize
uint16
Number of previous measurements averaged for
temperature measurements.
8
PresWindowSize
uint16
Number of previous measurements averaged for pressure
measurements.
10
MagFilterMode
uint8
Filtering mode for magnetic measurements.
See table below for options.
11
AccelFilterMode
uint8
Filtering mode for acceleration measurements.
See table below for options.
12
GyroFilterMode
uint8
Filtering mode for gyro measurements.
See table below for options.
13
TempFilterMode
uint8
Filtering mode for temperature measurements.
See table below for options.
14
PresFilterMode
uint8
Filtering mode for pressure measurements.
See table below for options.
This register allows the user to configure the FIR filtering what is applied to the IMU measurements. The
filter is a uniformly-weighted moving window (boxcar) filter of configurable size. The filtering does not
affect the values used by the internal filter, but only the output values.
WindowSize
The WindowSize parameters for each sensor define the number of samples at the IMU rate (default
800Hz) which will be averaged for each output measurement.
FilterMode
The FilterMode parameters for each sensor select which output quantities the filtering should be
applied to. Filtering can be applied to either the uncompensated IMU measurements, compensated
(HSI and biases compensated by onboard filters, if applicable), or both.
Table 39 - IMU Filtering Modes
Value
0
1
2
3
Description
No Filtering
Filtering performed only on raw uncompensated IMU measurements.
Filtering performed only on compensated IMU measurements.
Filtering performed on both uncompensated and compensated IMU measurements.
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7.2.6
UM001
Delta Theta and Delta Velocity Configuration
Delta Theta and Delta Velocity Configuration
Register ID : 82
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Comment : This register contains configuration options for the internal coning/sculling calculations
Size (Bytes): 6
Example Response: $VNRRG,82,0,0,0,0,0*65
Offset
Name
Format
Unit
Description
0
IntegrationFrame
uint8
Output frame for delta velocity quantities
1
GyroCompensation
uint8
Compensation to apply to angular rate
2
AccelCompensation
uint8
Compensation(s) to apply to accelerations
3
Reserved
uint8
Reserved for future use. Should be set to 0.
4
Reserved
uint16
Reserved for future use. Should be set to 0.
The Delta Theta and Delta Velocity Configuration register allows configuration of the onboard coning
and sculling used to generate integrated motion values from the angular rate and acceleration IMU
quantities. The fully-coupled coning and sculling integrals are computed at the IMU sample rate
(nominal 800 Hz).
IntegrationFrame
The IntegrationFrame register setting selects the reference frame used for coning and sculling. Note
that using any frame other than the body frame will rely on the onboard Kalman filter’s attitude
estimate. The factory default state is to integrate in the sensor body frame.
Table 40 – IntegrationFrame
Value
0
1
Description
Body frame
NED frame
GyroCompensation
The GyroCompensation register setting selects the compensation to be applied to the angular rate
measurements before integration. If bias compensation is selected, the onboard Kalman filter’s realtime estimate of the gyro biases will be used to compensate the IMU measurements before integration.
The factory default state is to integrate the uncompensated angular rates from the IMU.
Table 41 – GyroCompensation
Value
0
1
Description
None
Bias
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UM001
AccelCompensation
The AccelCompensation register setting selects the compensation to be applied to the acceleration
measurements before integration. If bias compensation is selected, the onboard Kalman filter’s realtime estimate of the accel biases will be used to compensate the IMU measurements before integration.
The factory default state is to integrate the uncompensated acceleration from the IMU.
Table 42 – AccelCompensation
Value
0
1
Description
None
Bias
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7.3
UM001
Factory Defaults
Settings Name
Magnetometer Compensation
Accelerometer Compensation
Gyro Compensation
Reference Frame Rotation
IMU Filtering Configuration
Delta Theta and Delta Velocity
Configuration
Default Factory Value
1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0
1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0
1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0
1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1
0,4,4,4,0,0,3,3,3,0
0,0,0,0,0
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7.4
UM001
Command Prompt
The command prompt provides a fast and simple means of configuring and monitoring the status of the
sensor by typing commands to the unit using the serial port.
7.4.1
List Available Commands
Commands for the System subsystem can be accessed by typing in ‘imu’ at the command prompt. To
view all available commands, type ‘imu ?’. Below is a view of a terminal window showing a list of the
available commands.
imu ?
Imu Module Commands:
Command:
-------info
meas
7.4.2
Description:
-------------------------------------------------------------------Imu specific information such as serial number and firmware version.
Current Imu measurement, and run-time statistics.
IMU Info
imu info
------------------------------
Imu Information
-------------------------------
Magnetometer - HSI Settings (Register 44)
Mode : Using Onboard
Magnetometer - User
+01.000 +00.000
+00.000 +01.000
+00.000 +00.000
HSI Calibration (Register 23)
+00.000 +00.000
+00.000 +00.000
+01.000 +00.000
Magnetometer - Onboard HSI Calibration (Register 47)
+01.000 +00.000 +00.000 -00.000
+00.000 +01.000 +00.000 -00.000
+00.000 +00.000 +01.000 -00.000
Accelerometer - User Calibration (Register 25)
+01.000 +00.000 +00.000 +00.000
+00.000 +01.000 +00.000 +00.000
+00.000 +00.000 +01.000 +00.000
Sensor Self Test: (performed at startup)
Mag
: Passed
Accel : Passed
Gyro : Passed
Pres : Passed
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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7.4.3
UM001
IMU Meas
imu meas
-----------------------------Current Sensor Measurements:
Mag X
: -000.866 [Gauss]
Mag Y
: +001.016 [Gauss]
Mag Z
: +002.365 [Gauss]
Acel X
: +004.178 [m/s]
Acel Y
: -000.637 [m/s]
Acel Z
: -008.927 [m/s]
Gyro X
: -000.417 [deg/s]
Gyro Y
: +000.668 [deg/s]
Gyro Z
: -001.102 [deg/s]
Temp
: +027.94 [C]
Temp Rate: +0.04 [C/min]
Pres
: +101.36 [kPa]
Imu Measurement
Current Sensor Noise:
Sensor
Units
Mag
mGauss
Accel
mg
Gyro
deg/s
Temp
C
Pres
Pa
(measured
X-Axis
+03.228
+01.854
+0.0631
+0.0026
+007.36
over last
Y-Axis
+02.934
+02.115
+0.0544
Minimum Sensor Noise:
Sensor
Units
Mag
mGauss
Accel
mg
Gyro
deg/s
Temp
C
Pres
Pa
(since startup)
X-Axis
Y-Axis
+02.877
+02.659
+01.785
+01.966
+0.0587
+0.0487
+0.0011
+006.13
-------------------------------
5 seconds)
Z-Axis
+04.159
+02.872
+0.0580
Z-Axis
+03.673
+02.599
+0.0537
Minimum Sensor Measurement: (since startup)
Sensor
Units
X-Axis
Y-Axis
Z-Axis
Mag
Gauss
-00.236
+00.244
+00.577
Accel
g
+00.414
-00.077
-00.949
Gyro
deg/s
-002.92
-005.33
-002.03
Temp
C
+27.83
Pres
kPa
+101.30
Maximum Sensor Measurement: (since startup)
Sensor
Units
X-Axis
Y-Axis
Z-Axis
Mag
Gauss
+00.000
+00.271
+00.611
Accel
g
+00.439
+00.000
+00.000
Gyro
deg/s
+002.02
+006.44
+000.00
Temp
C
+28.01
Pres
kPa
+101.38
Sensor Saturation Events: (since startup)
Sensor
X-Axis
Y-Axis
Z-Axis
Mag
0
0
0
Accel
0
0
0
Gyro
0
0
0
Pressure 0
Temp
0
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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8
UM001
Attitude Subsystem
8.1
Commands
8.1.1
Tare Command
The Tare command will have the module zero out its current orientation. The effect of this command in
2D magnetic mode will be to set only the yaw angle to zero. In 3D heading mode the VN-100 will set the
yaw, pitch, and roll angles to zero. In 3D heading mode the VN-100 will also now measure yaw, pitch,
and roll relative to the alignment of the respective Z, Y, and X axis in 3D space when the tare command
was received.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command (8 bytes)
SPI Response (8 bytes)
Message
$VNTAR*5F
$VNTAR*5F
05 00 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 05 00 00 (shown as hex)
Avoid switching magnetic modes after issuing a tare command as this can lead to unpredictable
behavior. If you need to issue a tare command, first set the magnetic mode, next issue a write settings
command, and then reset the device. After reset you can issue a tare command.
8.1.2
Known Magnetic Disturbance Command
This command is used to notify the VN-100 that a magnetic disturbance is present. When the VN-100
receives this command it will tune out the magnetometer and will pause the current hard/soft iron
calibration if it is enabled. A single parameter is provided to tell the VN-100 whether the disturbance is
present or not.
0 – No Disturbance is present
1 – Disturbance is present
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command (8 bytes)
SPI Response (8 bytes)
Message
$VNKMD,1*47
$VNKMD,1*47
08 01 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 08 01 00 (shown as hex)
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8.1.3
UM001
Known Acceleration Disturbance Command
This command is used to notify the VN-100 that an acceleration disturbance is present. When the VN100 receives this command it will tune out the accelerometer. A single parameter is provided to tell the
VN-100 whether the disturbance is present or not.
0 – No Disturbance is present
1 – Disturbance is present
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command (8 bytes)
SPI Response (8 bytes)
8.1.4
Message
$VNKAD,1*4B
$VNKAD,1*4B
09 01 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 09 01 00 (shown as hex)
Set Gyro Bias Command
This command will instruct the VN-100 to copy the current gyro bias estimates into register 74. After
sending this command you will need to issue the write settings command to save the state of this
register to flash memory. Once saved the VN-100 will use these bias estimates as the initial state at
startup.
Example Command
UART Command
UART Response
SPI Command (8 bytes)
SPI Response (8 bytes)
Message
$VNSGB*XX
$VNSGB*XX
0C 00 00 00 (shown as hex)
00 0C 00 00 (shown as hex)
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Measurement Registers
8.2
8.2.1
Yaw Pitch Roll
Register ID :
Comment :
Offset
0
4
8
UM001
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Name
Yaw
Pitch
Roll
Yaw, Pitch, and Roll
8
Async Header : YPR
Access : Read Only
Attitude solution as yaw, pitch, and roll in degrees. The yaw, pitch, and roll is
given as a 3,2,1 Euler angle rotation sequence describing the orientation of the
sensor with respect to the inertial North East Down (NED) frame.
12
$VNRRG,08,-114.008,+000.256,-001.823*57
Format Unit Description
float
deg
Yaw angle.
float
deg
Pitch angle.
float
deg
Roll angle.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNYPR header.
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8.2.2
Offset
0
4
8
12
UM001
Attitude Quaternion
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Name
Quat[0]
Quat[1]
Quat[2]
Quat[3]
Quaternion
9
Async Header : QTN
Access : Read Only
Attitude solution as a quaternion.
16
$VNRRG,9,-0.017386,-0.000303,+0.055490,+0.998308*4F
Format Unit Description
float
Calculated attitude as quaternion.
float
Calculated attitude as quaternion.
float
Calculated attitude as quaternion.
float
Calculated attitude as quaternion. Scalar component.
This register contains four values representing the quaternion vector. The quaternion provides a
redundant, nonsingular attitude representation that is well suited for describing arbitrary, large
rotations. The quaternion is a non-dimensional 4x1 unit vector with the fourth value as the scalar term.
The fields of this register are represented with fixed point precision for the serial protocol and 32-bit
floating point precision for the SPI protocol. This is a read-only register. All filtering and other
mathematical operations performed by the VN-100 are performed using quaternions. The quaternion
used by the VN-100 has the following form.
[ ]
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
( )
[ ]
Where
( )
{ } is the principal axis and
is the principal angle.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNQTN header.
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8.2.3
Offset
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
UM001
Yaw, Pitch, Roll, Magnetic, Acceleration, and Angular Rates
Yaw, Pitch, Roll, Magnetic, Acceleration, and Angular Rates
Register ID : 27
Async Header : YMR
Access : Read Only
Comment : Attitude solution, magnetic, acceleration, and compensated angular rates.
Size (Bytes): 48
Example Response: $VNRRG,27,+006.380,+000.023,-001.953,+1.0640,0.2531,+3.0614,+00.005,+00.344,-09.758,-0.001222,-0.000450,-0.001218*4F
Name
Format Unit
Description
Yaw
float
deg
Calculated attitude heading angle in degrees.
Pitch
float
deg
Calculated attitude pitch angle in degrees.
Roll
float
deg
Calculated attitude roll angle in degrees.
MagX
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in x-axis.
MagY
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in y-axis.
MagZ
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in z-axis.
2
AccelX
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in x-axis.
2
AccelY
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in y-axis.
2
AccelZ
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in z-axis.
GyroX
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in x-axis.
GyroY
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in y-axis.
GyroZ
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in z-axis.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNYMR header.
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8.2.4
Quaternion, Magnetic, Acceleration and Angular Rates
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40
44
48
UM001
Name
Quat[0]
Quat[1]
Quat[2]
Quat[3]
MagX
MagY
MagZ
AccelX
AccelY
AccelZ
GyroX
GyroY
GyroZ
Quaternion, Magnetic, Acceleration, and Angular Rates
15
Async Header : QMR
Access : Read Only
Attitude solution, magnetic, acceleration, and compensated angular rates.
52
$VNRRG,15,-0.017057,-0.000767,+0.056534,+0.998255,+1.0670,-0.2568,+3.0696,00.019,+00.320,-09.802,-0.002801,-0.001186,-0.001582*65
Format Unit
Description
float
Calculated attitude as quaternion.
float
Calculated attitude as quaternion.
float
Calculated attitude as quaternion.
float
Calculated attitude as quaternion. Scalar component.
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in x-axis.
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in y-axis.
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in z-axis.
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in x-axis.
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in y-axis.
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in z-axis.
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in x-axis.
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in y-axis.
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in z-axis.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNQMR header.
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8.2.5
UM001
Magnetic Measurements
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
MagX
4
MagY
8
MagZ
Magnetic Measurements
17
Async Header : MAG
Access : Read Only
Magnetometer measurements.
12
$VNRRG,17,+1.0647,-0.2498,+3.0628*66
Format
Unit
Description
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in x-axis.
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in y-axis.
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in z-axis.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNMAG header.
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8.2.6
UM001
Acceleration Measurements
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
AccelX
4
AccelY
8
AccelZ
Acceleration Measurements
18
Async Header : ACC
Access : Read Only
Acceleration measurements.
12
$VNRRG,18,+00.013,+00.354,-09.801*65
Format
Unit Description
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in x-axis.
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in y-axis.
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in z-axis.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNACC header.
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8.2.7
UM001
Angular Rate Measurements
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
GyroX
4
GyroY
8
GyroZ
Angular Rate Measurements
19
Async Header : GYR
Compensated angular rates.
12
$VNRRG,19,+0.002112,-0.000362,-0.000876*6C
Format
Unit
Description
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in x-axis.
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in y-axis.
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in z-axis.
Access :
Read Only
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNGYR header.
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8.2.8
Magnetic, Acceleration and Angular Rates
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
Name
MagX
MagY
MagZ
AccelX
AccelY
AccelZ
GyroX
GyroY
GyroZ
UM001
Magnetic, Acceleration, and Angular Rates
20
Async Header : MAR
Access : Read Only
Magnetic, acceleration, and compensated angular rates.
36
$VNRRG,20,+1.0684,-0.2578,+3.0649,-00.005,+00.341,-09.780,-0.000963,+0.000840,0.000466*64
Format Unit
Description
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in x-axis.
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in y-axis.
float
Gauss Compensated magnetometer measurement in z-axis.
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in x-axis.
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in y-axis.
2
float
m/s
Compensated accelerometer measurement in z-axis.
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in x-axis.
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in y-axis.
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in z-axis.
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNMAR header.
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8.2.9
UM001
Yaw, Pitch, Roll, True Body Acceleration, and Angular Rates
Yaw, Pitch, Roll, True Body Acceleration, and Angular Rates
239
Async Header : YBA
Access : Read Only
Attitude solution as yaw, pitch, roll and the inertial acceleration.
36
$VNRRG,239,-124.743,+001.019,-000.203,+00.019,-00.001,+00.039,+00.001665,Example Response:
00.000785,+00.000647*55
Offset
Name
Format
Unit
Description
0
Yaw
float
deg
Calculated attitude heading angle in degrees.
4
Pitch
float
deg
Calculated attitude pitch angle in degrees.
8
Roll
float
deg
Calculated attitude roll angle in degrees.
2
12
BodyAccelX
float
m/s
Linear acceleration estimate in the body X-axis. (no gravity)
2
16
BodyAccelY
float
m/s
Linear acceleration estimate in the body Y-axis. (no gravity)
2
20
BodyAccelZ
float
m/s
Linear acceleration estimate in the body Z-axis. (no gravity)
24
GyroX
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in the body X-axis.
28
GyroY
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in the body Y-axis.
32
GyroZ
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in the body Z-axis.
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNYBA header.
This register contains the true measured acceleration. The accelerometer measures both acceleration
and the effect of static gravity in the body frame. This register contains the true acceleration which does
not contain gravity and should measure 0 when the device is stationary.
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8.2.10 Yaw, Pitch, Roll, True Inertial Acceleration, and Angular Rates
Yaw, Pitch, Roll, True Inertial Acceleration and Angular Rates
240
Async Header : YIA
Access : Read Only
Attitude solution as yaw, pitch, roll and the inertial acceleration.
36
$VNRRG,240,-124.642,+000.993,-000.203,+00.009,-00.027,+00.084,-00.000479,00.000522,+00.000076*5F
Name
Format Unit Description
Yaw
float
deg
Calculated attitude heading angle in degrees.
Pitch
float
deg
Calculated attitude pitch angle in degrees.
Roll
float
deg
Calculated attitude roll angle in degrees.
Compensated acceleration estimate in the inertial NED X-axis. (no
2
InertialAccelX
float
m/s
gravity)
Compensated acceleration estimate in the inertial NED Y-axis. (no
2
InertialAccelY
float
m/s
gravity)
Compensated acceleration estimate in the inertial NED Z-axis. (no
2
InertialAccelZ
float
m/s
gravity)
GyroX
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in the body X-axis.
GyroY
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in the body Y-axis.
GyroZ
float
rad/s Compensated angular rate in the body Z-axis.
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset
0
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
You can configure the device to output this register at a fixed rate using the Async Data Output Type
register (Register 6). Once configured the data in this register will be sent out with the $VNYIA header.
This register contains the true measured acceleration. The accelerometer measures both acceleration
and the effect of static gravity in the body frame. This register contains the true acceleration which does
not contain gravity and should measure 0 when the device is stationary. The true acceleration provided
in this register is measured in the inertial frame. This means that an up/down movement will always
appear as an acceleration in the Z-axis on this register regardless of the orientation of the VN-100.
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Configuration Registers
8.3
8.3.1
VPE Basic Control
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
Enable
1
HeadingMode
2
FilteringMode
3
TuningMode
VPE Basic Control
35
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Provides control over various features relating to the onboard attitude filtering
algorithm.
4
$VNRRG,35,1,3,1,1*77
Format Unit Description
uint8
Enable / Disable the Vector Processing Engine (VPE).
uint8
Heading mode used by the VPE.
uint8
Filtering Mode used by the VPE.
uint8
Tuning Mode used by the VPE.
Table 43 – Enable
Value
0
1
State
DISABLE
ENABLE
Table 44 – HeadingMode
Value
0
1
2
Mode
Absolute Heading
Relative Heading
Indoor Heading
Table 45 - Filtering Mode
Value
0
1
Mode
OFF
MODE 1
Table 46 - Tuning Mode
Value
0
1
Mode
OFF
MODE 1
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8.3.2
UM001
VPE Magnetometer Basic Tuning
VPE Magnetometer Basic Tuning
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
BaseTuningX
4
BaseTuningY
8
BaseTuningZ
12
16
20
24
28
32
AdaptiveTuningX
AdaptiveTuningY
AdaptiveTuningZ
AdaptiveFilteringX
AdaptiveFilteringY
AdaptiveFilteringZ
Read /
Write
Provides basic control of the adaptive filtering and tuning for the magnetometer.
36
$VNRRG,36,5,5,5,3,3,3,4,4,4*68
Format Unit
Description
Base Magnetic Tuning X-Axis [0 - 10].
This sets the level of confidence placed in the magnetometer Xfloat
0 / 10
axis when no disturbances are present. A larger number
provides better heading accuracy, but with more sensitivity to
magnetic interference.
Base Magnetic Tuning Y-Axis [0 - 10].
This sets the level of confidence placed in the magnetometer Yfloat
0 / 10
axis when no disturbances are present. A larger number
provides better heading accuracy, but with more sensitivity to
magnetic interference.
Base Magnetic Tuning Z-Axis [0 - 10].
This sets the level of confidence placed in the magnetometer Zfloat
0 / 10
axis when no disturbances are present. A larger number
provides better heading accuracy, but with more sensitivity to
magnetic interference.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive tuning for X-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive tuning for Y-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive tuning for Z-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive filtering for X-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive filtering for Y-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive filtering for Z-Axis.
36
Firmware :
v1.0.0.0
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8.3.3
UM001
VPE Accelerometer Basic Tuning
VPE Accelerometer Basic Tuning
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset Name
0
BaseTuningX
4
BaseTuningY
8
BaseTuningZ
12
16
20
24
28
32
AdaptiveTuningX
AdaptiveTuningY
AdaptiveTuningZ
AdaptiveFilteringX
AdaptiveFilteringY
AdaptiveFilteringZ
Read /
Write
Provides basic control of the adaptive filtering and tuning for the accelerometer.
36
$VNRRG,38,5,5,5,3,3,3,4,4,4*66
Format Unit
Description
Base Accelerometer Tuning X-Axis [0 - 10].
This sets the level of confidence placed in the accelerometer Xfloat
0 / 10
axis when no disturbances are present. A larger number
provides better pitch/roll heading accuracy, but with more
sensitivity to acceleration interference.
Base Accelerometer Tuning Y-Axis [0 - 10].
This sets the level of confidence placed in the accelerometer Yfloat
0 / 10
axis when no disturbances are present. A larger number
provides better pitch/roll accuracy, but with more sensitivity to
acceleration interference.
Base Accelerometer Tuning Z-Axis [0 - 10].
This sets the level of confidence placed in the accelerometer Zfloat
0 / 10
axis when no disturbances are present. A larger number
provides better pitch/roll accuracy, but with more sensitivity to
acceleration interference.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive tuning for X-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive tuning for Y-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive tuning for Z-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive filtering for X-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive filtering for Y-Axis.
float
0 / 10
Level of adaptive filtering for Z-Axis.
38
Firmware :
v1.0.0.0
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8.4
UM001
Factory Defaults
Settings Name
VPE Basic Control
VPE Magnetic Basic Tuning
VPE Accelerometer Basic Tuning
Default Factory Value
1,1,1,1
4,4,4,5,5,5,5.5,5.5,5.5
6,6,6,3,3,3,5,5,5
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9
UM001
Hard/Soft Iron Estimator Subsystem
9.1
Configuration Registers
9.1.1
Magnetometer Calibration Control
Magnetometer Calibration Control
44
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Controls the magnetometer real-time calibration algorithm.
4
$VNRRG,44,1,2,5*69
Format Unit
Description
uint8
Controls the mode of operation for the onboard real-time
magnetometer hard/soft iron compensation algorithm.
HSIOutput
uint8
Controls the type of measurements that are provided as outputs
from the magnetometer sensor and also subsequently used in
the attitude filter.
ConvergeRate
uint8
Controls how quickly the hard/soft iron solution is allowed to
converge onto a new solution. The slower the convergence the
more accurate the estimate of the hard/soft iron solution. A
quicker convergence will provide a less accurate estimate of the
hard/soft iron parameters, but for applications where the
hard/soft iron changes rapidly may provide a more accurate
attitude estimate.
Range: 1 to 5
1 = Solution converges slowly over approximately 60-90 seconds.
5 = Solution converges rapidly over approximately 15-20 seconds.
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset
Name
0
HSIMode
1
2
Table 47 – HSI_Mode Field
Mode
HSI_OFF
HSI_RUN
Value
0
1
HSI_RESET
2
Description
Real-time hard/soft iron calibration algorithm is turned off.
Runs the real-time hard/soft iron calibration. The algorithm will continue using its existing
solution. The algorithm can be started and stopped at any time by switching between the
HSI_OFF and HSI_RUN state.
Resets the real-time hard/soft iron solution.
Table 48 – HSI_Output Field
Mode
NO_ONBOARD
USE_ONBOARD
Value
1
3
Description
Onboard HSI is not applied to the magnetic measurements.
Onboard HSI is applied to the magnetic measurements.
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9.2
9.2.1
UM001
Status Registers
Calculated Magnetometer Calibration
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset
Name
0
C[0,0]
4
C[0,1]
8
C[0,2]
12
C[1,0]
16
C[1,1]
20
C[1,2]
24
C[2,0]
28
C[2,1]
32
C[2,2]
36
B[0]
40
B[1]
44
B[2]
Calculated Magnetometer Calibration
47
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Calculated magnetometer calibration values.
48
$VNRRG,46,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0,1,0,0,0*70
Format
Unit
Description
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
-
Access :
Read Only
This register contains twelve values representing the calculated hard and soft iron compensation
parameters. The magnetic measurements are compensated for both hard and soft iron using the
following model.
{ }
[
] {
}
} are components of the measured magnetic field. The {X, Y, Z} variables are
The variables {
the new magnetic field measurements outputted after compensation for hard/soft iron effects.
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9.3
UM001
Factory Defaults
Settings Name
Magnetometer Calibration Control
Default Factory Value
1,3,5
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9.4
UM001
Command Prompt
The command prompt provides a fast and simple means of configuring and monitoring the status of the
sensor by typing commands to the unit using the serial port.
9.4.1
List Available Commands
Commands for the System subsystem can be accessed by typing in ‘hsi’ at the command prompt. To
view all available commands, type ‘hsi ?’. Below is a view of a terminal window showing a list of the
available commands.
hsi ?
Hard/Soft Iron Estimator Module Commands:
Command:
-------info
plotInput
plotOutput
Description:
-------------------------------------------------------------------Estimator state information and configuration settings.
Plot onboard HSI Input.
Plot onboard HSI Output.
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9.4.2 Info
hsi info
----------------- Hard/Soft Iron Estimator State Information
Magnetometer Calibration Control (Register 44):
-----------------
HsiMode: Run
OutMode: Use Onboard
ConvergeRate: 5
Magnetometer Calibration Status (Register 46):
LastBin: 0
NumMeas: 102
AvgResidual: 0.014
LastMeas: +0.599 +0.538
Bins[0]: 215
Bins[1]: 188
Bins[2]: 135
Bins[3]: 47
Bins[4]: 198
Bins[5]: 231
Bins[6]: 202
+2.910
Calculated Magnetometer Calibration (Register 47):
+00.966
+00.000
+00.000
+00.000
+00.966
+00.000
+00.000
+00.000
+00.966
-00.215
-00.179
-00.077
Num Measurements: 358
Filter Run Count: 358
Mag Uncertainty : 0.00
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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9.4.3 PlotInput
hsi plotinput
---------------------
HSI Estimator Magnetic Input Plot
----------------------
Uncalibrated XY
+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|
|
* * * | *
*
|
|
|
|
**** * * * *
***
|
|
|
| * *
*
*
|
** |
|
|
* * * *
*
|* *
*
|
|
|
*** ** *
*
* **
*
|
|
|
*** |
*
* * *
* |
**
*
|
|
*
|* *
** * *
|
*
* *
|*
*
|
|
*
|
*
*|
*
|
|
|
*
*|
* *
* |
*
**
*
|
+---------***-------+-----------*-------*----*--*-----*-----+----------*--------+
|
*
| *
*
*
*
|
**
|
|
* *
*
| *
*
***
|
|
* **
*
|
* |
* *
|
|
|
**
|
*
**
|
| *
*
|
|
*
* |
* * *
|
*
|
|
|
***
|
*|
*
* * *
|
*
|
|
*
|
*
*
|
*
|
*
* *
|
|
*
|
*
|
*
| *
*
|
|
*
**
|
| *
*
|
*
|
+---*-*-*-----------+---*---------------+--------*-----*----+*------*-------*---+
|
*
| *
|
*
| *
*
|
| *
*
* |
|
** | *
|
|
|
* *
** *
*|
*
|
*
|
|
*
** *
|
*
*
** *
* *
*
**
**
*
|
|
* *
|
*
* |
|
**
|
|
**
|
*
|
*
|
*
|
|
*
*
*
*
|
* |
*
|
|
**
|
|
*
* |
**
|
|
***
* *
|
|
*
|
***
|
+--------**--------*+-------------------+-------------------+-----***-----------+
|
**** *
|
*
*
* *
*
|*
**
|
|
* * * |
*
|
**
|
|
***
|
|
|
* *
|
|
* |
*
|
* *
|
|
|
*
| *
*
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
| *
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
Plot Center :
Plot Scale :
+0.000,
+1.042,
+0.000
+1.042
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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9.4.4 PlotOutput
hsi plotoutput
---------------------
HSI Estimator Magnetic Output Plot
---------------------
Calibrated XY
+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
** * *
*
*
|
|
|
|
*** * * * *
**
|
|
|
|
* *
* *
|
* *|
|
|
|
* * * *
*
| * *
*
|
|
|
| *** ***
*
* ***
*
|
|
|
***
*
** ** |*
|**
*
|
|
*
* *
** * * | *
** * *
| *
*
|
+-----------------*-+--*------*---------+-------------------+-------------------+
|
*
|
* *
*
* *
|*
*
|
|
**
|
* * | **
*
*
|
**
|
|
* *
|
*
| * *
*
|*
**
|
|
* * * | *
*
* * |
*
|
|
**
|
* *
|
|
*
|
|
|
*
* * |
* |
*
|
|
***
| *
*
|
* * ** |
|
|
**
|
|*
*
|
*
*
*
|
|
*
|
* *
*
|
*
|
*
*
|
+----------*----**--+-------------------+---*---*---------*-+---------------**--+
|
*** *
|
*
|
*
* | *
*
*
|
|
**
|
*
|
*
| *
*
|
|
*
*
|*
|
**
*
|
|
*
|
* * *** * | *
*
|
*
|
|
* ****
|
*
|* **
* * *
|**
** *
|
|
*
|
*
*
|
**
|
|
**
|
*
*
|
*
|
*
|
|
*
*
* *
|
*
*
|
|
*
*|
|
*
*
**
|
+-----------***--*--+--*----------------+----------*--------+-------------------+
|
***
|
*
|
*
| *
***
|
|
*
*|*
*| *
*
|
**
|
|
****|
|
|
**
|
|
* |
|
| ** *
|
|
|*
*
|
|
|
|
|
* |
*
*
|
|
|
|
*
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+-------------------+
Plot Center :
Plot Scale :
+0.000,
+0.946,
+0.000
+0.946
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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UM001
10 Velocity Aiding
Velocity aiding provides a method to increase performance of an AHRS sensor for applications where
the sensor is subjected to constant accelerations.
10.1
Overview
AHRS Fundamentals
An Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) is a sensor system that estimates the attitude of a vehicle
based upon the combined measurements provided by a 3-axis gyroscope, accelerometer, and
magnetometer. An AHRS sensor typically utilizes a Kalman filter to compute the 3D orientation of the
vehicle based upon the vector measurements provided from the accelerometer and the magnetometer.
The accelerometer measures the effect of both gravity and any acceleration due to body motion. The
magnetometer measures the influence of both the earth’s magnetic field and the influence of any
nearby magnetic fields created by nearby ferromagnetic objects. The gyroscope provides an accurate
short term measurement of the relative change in the orientation of the sensor however it is not
capable of providing a measurement of the orientation itself. The absolute accuracy of the heading,
pitch and roll solution for an AHRS is ultimately derived from the accuracy of the vector measurements
provided by the accelerometer and magnetometer.
AHRS Assumptions
Without any form of external compensation an AHRS does not have by itself any means of knowing how
it is moving relative to the fixed Earth. As such it does not have any means of knowing what the actual
acceleration of the body is. Since the accelerometer measures the effect of both gravity and the
acceleration due to motion, the standard AHRS algorithm has to make the assumption that the longterm acceleration due to motion is zero. With this assumption in place the AHRS know has sufficient
information to estimate the pitch and roll based upon the measurement of gravity provided by the
accelerometer. This assumption works very well for applications where the sensor does not experience
any long-term acceleration such as when it is used indoors or when used on a large marine vessel.
Applications that do experience long-term accelerations due to motion however will experience a
significant error in the pitch and roll solution due to the fact that the assumption of zero body
acceleration in the AHRS algorithm is constantly being violated.
The most common case where this acceleration becomes a significant problem for an AHRS is when it is
used on an aircraft operating in a banked turn. In straight and level flight the AHRS will provide an
accurate measurement of attitude as long as the long-term accelerations are nominally zero. When the
aircraft banks and enters a coordinated turn however, a long-term acceleration is present which due to
the centripetal force created by traveling along a curved path. This apparent force is what makes you
feel as if you are being pushed to the side when you drive around a corner in a car.
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Figure 12 - Measured Acceleration in Coordinated Turn
When an aircraft is in a banked turn the accelerometer will measure gravity plus this centripetal
acceleration which will result in a measurement vector that acts perpendicular to the wings of the
aircraft as shown in Figure 1. This will result in the AHRS estimating a roll angle of zero while the aircraft
is in fact in a banked turn and thus has a significant actual roll angle relative to the horizon.
If the AHRS however can obtain some knowledge of this actual motion relative to the fixed Earth then it
is possible for it to subtract out the effect of the centripetal acceleration, resulting in an accurate
estimate of attitude. By providing the AHRS with the known velocity or airspeed it is possible for the
AHRS to estimate the centripetal acceleration term based upon this velocity and the known body
angular rates.
Figure 13 - AHRS with Velocity Compensation
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The above figure accurately depicts quality of attitude solution provided by three separate types of
attitude estimators while operating in a coordinated turn. The flight display on the far left represents
the actual attitude which is derived from the flight simulator. Moving from left to right are three
separate types of attitude estimators shown in order based upon the accuracy of their derived solution.
The most accurate solution is proved by the Inertial Navigation System (INS). This type of estimator
incorporates the position and velocity measurements from a GPS along with the accelerometer, and
gyroscope in an optimal fashion to simultaneously estimate attitude and the position and velocity of the
vehicle. It provides the most accurate attitude estimate since it makes no assumptions regarding the
accelerometer measurements.
Measurement Sources for Velocity Aiding
Below are three common sources used for velocity aiding:
Airspeed Sensor
When an airspeed sensor is used for velocity aiding it is important to note which type of airspeed is
being used. Since the airspeed input is being used by the AHRS to estimate the centripical acceleration,
the airspeed used should be ideally close to the actual speed relative to the fixed earth. Normally
airspeed sensors measure the speed of the aircraft relative to the atmosphere, thus there will be a
difference between the speed relative to the fixed Earth and the speed given by the airspeed indicator,
equal to the speed of the atmosphere relative to the ground (wind speed). In high wind conditions this
can cause some increased error in the velocity aiding algorithm.
Speedometer
For automotive applications the speedometer measurement can be used to perform velocity aiding.
The speedometer measurement will provide the ground speed of the vehicle. There will be some small
loss due to fact that vertical speed is not included, however the effect will be minimal.
GPS
For most applications GPS provides an excellent source of velocity aiding for an AHRS.
recommended that you use a GPS receiver with at least a 5Hz update rate.
It is
10.1.1 Tuning for Higher Performance
In most situations the default tuning parameters for the velocity compensation will provide adequate
results without the need for manual adjustment. In the event that you have a case where you need
improved performance, there are tuning parameters provided in the Velocity Compensation Control
Register (Register 50) that provide a means to adjust the behavior of the compensation algorithm.
Velocity Tuning
The velocity tuning field in the Velocity Compensation Control Register (Register 51) provides a means to
adjust the uncertainty level used for the velocity measurement in the compensation estimation filter.
The default value is 0.1. A larger value places less trust in the velocity measurements, while a smaller
number will place more trust in the velocity measurement. If your velocity measurement is noisy or
unreliable increasing this number may provide better results. If you have a very accurate velocity
measurement then lowering this number will likely produce better results.
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Velocity Measurement Rate
The performance of the velocity compensation will be affected by both the accuracy of the velocity
measurements and the rate at which they are applied. To ensure adequate performance the velocity
should be provided at a rate higher than 1Hz. Best performance will be achieved with update rates of
10Hz or higher.
If you stop sending velocity measurement updates for any reason, the velocity compensation will
continue indefinitely using the last received velocity measurement. If you want to stop using while the
vehicle is still in motion, be sure to turn off the velocity compensation using the Mode field in the
Velocity Compensation Control Register (Register 51).
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Configuration Registers
10.2.1 Velocity Compensation Control
Velocity Compensation Control
51
Firmware : v1.1.140.4
Access : Read / Write
Provides control over the velocity compensation feature for the attitude filter.
8
$VNRRG,51,1,0.1,0.01*5A
Format
Unit
Description
uint8
Selects the type of velocity compensation performed by
the VPE. See the table below for available options.
VelocityTuning
float
Tuning parameter for the velocity measurement.
RateTuning
float
Tuning parameter for the angular rate measurement.
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset
Name
0
Mode
4
8
Table 49 - Velocity Compensation Modes
Value
0
1
Description
Disabled.
Body Measurement.
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Status Registers
10.3.1 Velocity Compensation Status
INTERNAL REGISTER
This register is not listed in the public User Manual. It is not recommended to supply this register to
customers unless there is a specific reason to do so.
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset
Name
0
x
4
xDot
8
accelOffset
20
omega
Velocity Compensation Status
52
Firmware : v1.1.140.4
Access : Read
Provides diagnostic status information for the velocity compensation algorithm.
8
$VNRRG,51,1,0.1,0.01*5A
Format
Unit
Description
float
m/s
Estimated velocity magnitude.
2
float
m/s
Estimated acceleration magnitude.
2
float[3]
m/s
Estimated acceleration offset.
float[3]
rad/s
Filtered angular rate.
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Input Measurements
10.4.1 Velocity Compensation Measurement
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Response:
Offset
Name
0
VelocityX
4
VelocityY
8
VelocityZ
Velocity Compensation Measurement
50
Firmware : v1.1.140.4
Access : Read / Write
Input register for a velocity measurement to be used by the filter to compensate for
acceleration disturbances.
12
$VNRRG,50,37.2,0,0*42
Format
Unit
Description
float
m/s
Velocity in the X-Axis measured in the sensor frame.
float
m/s
Velocity in the Y-Axis measured in the sensor frame.
float
m/s
Velocity in the Z-Axis measured in the sensor frame.
For Mode 1 (body measurement mode) the VN-100 will compute the vector length of the provided 3D
velocity vector and use this for velocity compensation. If you have a scalar measurement you can set
only the X-axis and set the Y & Z to zero.
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Factory Defaults
Settings Name
Velocity Compensation Control
Default Factory Value
1,0.1,0.01
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11 World Magnetic & Gravity Module
11.1
Configuration Registers
11.1.1 Magnetic and Gravity Reference Vectors
Register ID :
Comment :
Size (Bytes):
Example Command:
Offset Name
0
MagRefX
4
MagRefY
8
MagRefZ
12
AccRefX
16
AccRefY
20
AccRefZ
Magnetic and Gravity Reference Vectors
21
Firmware : 1.0.0.0
Magnetic and gravity reference vectors.
24
$VNWRG,21,1,0,1.8,0,0,-9.79375*56
Format
Unit
Description
float
Gauss X-Axis Magnetic Reference
float
Gauss Y-Axis Magnetic Reference
float
Gauss Z-Axis Magnetic Reference
2
float
m/s
X-Axis Gravity Reference
2
float
m/s
Y-Axis Gravity Reference
2
float
m/s
Z-Axis Gravity Reference
Access:
Read / Write
This register contains the reference vectors for the magnetic and gravitational fields as used by the
onboard filter. The values map to either the user-set values or the results of calculations of the onboard
reference models (see the Reference Vector Configuration register). When the reference values come
from the onboard model(s), those values are read-only. When the reference models are disabled, the
values reflect the user reference vectors and will be writable. For example, if the onboard World
Magnetic Model is enabled and the onboard Gravitational Model is disabled, only the gravity reference
values will be modified on a register write. Note that the user reference vectors will not be overwritten
by the onboard models, but will retain their previous values for when the onboard models are disabled.
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11.1.2 Reference Vector Configuration
Reference Vector Configuration
Register ID : 83
Firmware : v1.0.0.0
Access : Read / Write
Comment : Control register for both the onboard world magnetic and gravity model corrections.
Size (Bytes): 32
Example Response: $VNRRG,83,0,0,0,0,1000,0.000,+00.00000000,+000.00000000,+00000.000*4E
Offset
Name
Format
Unit
Description
0
UseMagModel
uint8
Set to 1 to use the world magnetic model.
1
UseGravityModel
uint8
Set to 1 to use the world gravity model.
2
Resv1
uint8
Reserved for future use. Must be set to zero.
3
Resv2
uint8
Reserved for future use. Must be set to zero.
4
RecalcThreshold
uint32
Maximum distance traveled before magnetic and gravity
models are recalculated for the new position.
8
Year
float
year
The reference date expressed as a decimal year. Used for
both the magnetic and gravity models.
12
**** 4 byte padding ***
16
Latitude
double
deg
The reference latitude position in degrees.
24
Longitude
double
deg
The reference longitude position in degrees.
32
Altitude
double
m
The reference altitude above the reference ellipsoid in
meters.
This register allows configuration of the onboard spherical harmonic models used to calculate the local
magnetic and gravitational reference values. Having accurate magnetic reference values improves the
accuracy of heading when using the magnetometer and accounts for magnetic declination. The VN-100
currently includes the EGM96 gravitational model and the WMM2010 magnetic model. The models are
upgradable to allow updating to future models when available.
The magnetic and gravity models can be individually enabled or disabled using the UseMagModel and
UseGravityModel parameters, respectively. When disabled, the corresponding values set by the user in
the Reference Vector register (see Section 15.1.1) will be used instead of values calculated by the
onboard model.
The VN-100 starts up with the user configured reference vector values. Shortly after startup (and if the
models are enabled), the location and time set in this register will be used to update the reference
vectors.
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Factory Defaults
Settings Name
Magnetic and Gravity Reference Vectors
Reference Vector Configuration
Default Factory Value
1,0,1.8,0,0,-9.793746
0,0,0,0,1000,0,0,0,0
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UM001
Command Prompt
The command prompt provides a fast and simple means of configuring and monitoring the status of the
sensor by typing commands to the unit using the serial port.
11.3.1 List Available Commands
Commands for the System subsystem can be accessed by typing in ‘refmodel’ at the command prompt.
To view all available commands, type ‘refmodel ?’. Below is a view of a terminal window showing a list
of the available commands.
refmodel ?
World Magnetic & Gravity Reference Model Commands:
Command:
-------info
calc
Description:
-------------------------------------------------------------------Information on the current available reference models.
Calculate the magnetic and gravity reference for a given position & time.
11.3.2 Info
refmodel info
------------
World Magnetic & Gravity Reference Model Information
World Magnetic Model
Status
Name
Order
Model Start Date
Model Expiration Date
:
:
:
:
:
Present
WMM2010
12
01/01/2010
01/01/2015
World Gravity Model
Status
Name
Order
Model Start Date
Model Expiration Date
:
:
:
:
:
Present
EGM96
12
01/01/1986
01/01/2100
------------
Magnetic and Gravity Reference Vectors (Register 21)
MagRefX
: +001.000
MagRefY
: +000.000
MagRefZ
: +001.800
GravityRefX : +000.000
GravityRefY : +000.000
GravityRefZ : -009.794
Reference Vector Configuration (Register 83)
UseMagneticModel : 0
UseGravityModel
: 0
RecalcThreshold
: 1000 meters
Year
: 0
Latitude
: +00.00000000 deg
Longitude
: +00.000000000 deg
Altitude
: +00000.000 m
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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11.3.3 Calc
refmodel calc
------------
World Magnetic & Gravity Reference Model Calculator
-------------
Enter latitude :
30
Enter longitude :
-94
Enter altitude :
100
Enter decimal year :
2014.5
Calculation Results
-----------------------------------------Latitude : +30.00000000 deg
Longitude : -094.00000000 deg
Altitude : +00100.000 m
Magnetic Reference Vector : +000.243, +000.008, +000.409 Gauss
Gravity Reference Vector : +000.000, +000.000, -009.793 m/s^2
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Please Read Carefully:
Information in this document is provided solely in connection with VectorNav Technologies, LLC (“VectorNav”)
products. VectorNav reserves the right to make changes, corrections, modifications, or improvements to this
document, and the products and services described herein at any time, without notice.
All VectorNav products are sold pursuant of VectorNav’s terms and conditions of sale.
No license to any intellectual property, expressed or implied, is granted under this document. If any part of this
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property contained therein.
Information in this document supersedes and replaces all information previously supplied.
The VectorNav logo is a registered trademark of VectorNav Technologies, LLC. All other names are the property of
their respective owners.
© 2014 VectorNav Technologies, LLC – All rights reserved
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