here
BiGuard 10
iBusiness Security Gateway Small-Office
BiGuard 2
iBusiness Security Gateway Home-Office
User’s Manual
Version Release 3.00 (FW:1.03)
BiGuard 2/10 User’s Manual
(Updated December 1, 2005)
Copyright Information
© 2005 Billion Electric Corporation, Ltd.
The contents of this publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part,
transcribed, stored, translated, or transmitted in any form or any means, without
the prior written consent of Billion Electric Corporation.
Published by Billion Electric Corporation. All rights reserved.
Disclaimer
Billion does not assume any liability arising out of the application of use of any
products or software described herein. Neither does it convey any license under its
patent rights nor the patent rights of others. Billion reserves the right to make
changes in any products described herein without notice. This publication is subject
to change without notice.
Trademarks
Mac OS is a registered trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.
Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows Me and Windows XP are
registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
2
Safety Warnings
Your BiGuard 2/10 is built for reliability and long service life. For your
safety, be sure to read and follow the following safety warnings.
•
Read this installation guide thoroughly before attempting to set up your BiGuard
2/10.
•
Your BiGuard 2/10 is a complex electronic device. DO NOT open or attempt to
repair it yourself. Opening or removing the covers can expose you to high
voltage and other risks. In the case of malfunction, turn off the power
immediately and have it repaired at a qualified service center. Contact your
vendor for details.
•
Connect the power cord to the correct supply voltage.
•
Carefully place connecting cables to avoid people from stepping or tripping on
them. DO NOT allow anything to rest on the power cord and DO NOT place the
power cord in an area where it can be stepped on.
•
DO NOT use BiGuard 2/10 in environments with high humidity or high
temperatures.
•
DO NOT use the same power source for BiGuard 2/10 as other equipment.
•
DO NOT use your BiGuard 2/10 and any accessories outdoors.
•
If you mount your BiGuard 2/10, make sure that no electrical, water or gas pipes
will be damaged during installation.
•
DO NOT install or use your BiGuard 2/10 during a thunderstorm.
•
DO NOT expose your BiGuard 2/10 to dampness, dust, or corrosive liquids.
•
DO NOT use your BiGuard 2/10 near water.
•
Be sure to connect the cables to the correct ports.
•
DO NOT obstruct the ventilation slots on your BiGuard 2/10 or expose it to direct
sunlight or other heat sources. Excessive temperatures may damage your
device.
•
DO NOT store anything on top of your BiGuard 2/10.
•
Only connect suitable accessories to your BiGuard 2/10.
•
Keep packaging out of the reach of children.
•
If disposing of the device, please follow your local regulations for the safe
disposal of electronic products to protect the environment.
3
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Overview
1.2 Product Highlights
1.3
1.2.1
Virtual Private Network Support
1.2.2
Advanced Firewall Security
1.2.3
Intelligent Bandwidth Management
Package Contents
1.3.1
BiGuard 10
1.3.1.1
Front Panel
1.3.1.2
Rear Panel
1.3.1.3
Rack Mounting
1.3.1.4
Cabling
1.3.2
BiGuard 2
1.3.2.1
Front Panel
1.3.2.2
Rear Panel
1.3.2.3
Cabling
Chapter 2: Router Applications
2.1 Overview
2.2 Bandwidth Management with QoS
2.2.1
QoS Technology
2.2.2
QoS Policies for Different Applications
2.2.3
Guaranteed / Maximum Bandwidth
2.2.4
Policy Based Traffic Shaping
2.2.5
Priority Bandwidth Utilization
2.2.6
Management by IP or MAC address
2.2.7
DiffServ (DSCP Marking)
2.3 Virtual Private Networking
2.3.1
General VPN Setup
2.3.2
Concentrator
4
Chapter 3: Getting Started
3.1 Overview
3.2 Before You Begin
3.3 Connecting Your Router
3.4 Configuring PCs for TCP/IP Networking
3.4.1
Overview
3.4.2
Windows XP
3.4.3
3.4.4
3.4.2.1
Configuring
3.4.2.2
Verifying Settings
Windows 2000
3.4.3.1
Configuring
3.4.3.2
Verifying Settings
Windows 98 / ME
3.4.4.1
Installing Components
3.4.4.2
Configuring
3.4.4.3
Verifying Settings
3.5 Factory Default Settings
3.6
3.5.1
Username and Password
3.5.2
LAN and WAN Port Addresses
Information From Your ISP
3.6.1
Protocols
3.6.2
Configuration Information
3.7 Web Configuration Interface
5
Chapter 4: Router Configuration
4.1 Overview
4.2 Status
4.3
4.4
4.2.1
ARP Table
4.2.2
Routing Table
4.2.3
Session Table
4.2.4
DHCP Table
4.2.5
IPSec Status
4.2.6
PPTP Status
4.2.7
System Log
4.2.8
IPSec Log
Quick Start
4.3.1
DHCP
4.3.2
Static IP
4.3.3
PPPoE
4.3.4
PPTP
4.3.5
Big Pond
Configuration
4.4.1
4.4.2
LAN
4.4.1.1
Ethernet
4.4.1.2
DHCP Server
WAN
4.4.2.1
DHCP
4.4.2.2
Static IP
4.4.2.3
PPPoE
4.4.2.4
PPTP
4.4.2.5
Big Pond
4.4.3
Bandwidth Settings
4.4.4
System
4.4.4.1
Time Zone
4.4.4.2
Remote Access
4.4.4.3
Firmware Upgrade
4.4.4.4
Backup / Restore
4.4.4.5
Restart
4.4.4.6
Password
4.4.4.7
System Log Server
4.4.4.8
E-mail Alert
6
4.4.5
4.4.6
Firewall
4.4.5.1
Packet Filter
4.4.5.2
URL Filter
4.4.5.3
LAN MAC Filter
4.4.5.4
Block WAN Request
4.4.5.5
Intrusion Detection
VPN
4.4.6.1
IPSec
4.4.6.1.1
IPSec Wizard
4.4.6.1.2
IPSec Policy
4.4.6.2
PPTP
4.4.7
QoS
4.4.8
Virtual Server
4.4.9
4.4.8.1
DMZ
4.4.8.2
Port Forwarding
Advanced
4.4.9.1
Static Route
4.4.9.2
Dynamic DNS
4.4.9.3
Device Management
4.5 Save Configuration To Flash
4.6 Logout
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
5.1 Basic Functionality
5.2
5.1.1
Router Won’t Turn On
5.1.2
LEDs Never Turn Off
5.1.3
LAN or Internet Port Not On
5.1.4
Forgot My Password
LAN Interface
5.2.1
Can’t Access BiGuard 2/10 from the LAN
5.2.2
Can’t Ping Any PC on the LAN
5.2.3
Can’t Access Web Configuration Interface
5.2.3.1
Pop-up Windows
5.2.3.2
Javascripts
5.2.3.3
Java Permissions
7
5.3
WAN Interface
5.3.1
Can’t Get WAN IP Address from the ISP
5.4 ISP Connection
5.5 Problems with Date and Time
5.6 Restoring Factory Defaults
Appendix A: Product Specifications
A.1 BiGuard 10 Product Specifications
A.2 BiGuard 2 Product Specifications
Appendix B: Customer Support
Appendix C: FCC Interference Statement
Appendix D: Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics
D.1 Network Basics
D.1.1
IP Addresses
D.1.1.1 Netmask
D.1.1.2 Subnet Addressing
D.1.1.3 Private IP Addresses
D.2
D.1.2
Network Address Translation (NAT)
D.1.3
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
Router Basics
D.2.1
What is a Router?
D.2.2
Why use a Router?
D.2.3
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
D.3 Firewall Basics
D.3.1
What is a Firewall?
D.3.1.1 Stateful Packet Inspection
D.3.1.2 Denial of Service (DoS) Attack
D.3.2
Why Use a Firewall?
8
Appendix E: Virtual Private Networking
E.1
What is a VPN?
E.1.1
E.2
VPN Applications
What is IPSec?
E.2.1
IPSec Security Components
E.2.1.1 Authentication Header (AH)
E.2.1.2 Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
E.2.1.3 Security Associations (SA)
E.2.2
IPSec Modes
E.2.3
Tunnel Mode AH
E.2.4
Tunnel Mode ESP
E.2.5
Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
Appendix F: IPSec Logs and Events
F.1
F.2
IPSec Log Event Categories
IPSec Log Event Table
Appendix G: Bandwidth Management with QoS
G.1 Overview
G.2 What is Quality of Service?
G.3 How Does QoS Work?
G.4 Who Needs QoS?
G.4.1
Home Users
G.4.2
Office Users
Appendix H: Router Setup Examples
H.1 VPN Configuration
H.1.1
LAN to LAN
H.1.2
Host to LAN
H.2 VPN Concentrator
H.3 Intrusion Detection
H.4 PPTP Remote Access by Windows XP
H.5 PPTP Remote Access by BiGuard
9
Chapter 1: Introduction
1.1 Overview
Congratulations on purchasing BiGuard 2/10 Router from Billion. Combining a
router with an Ethernet network switch, BiGuard 2/10 is a state-of-the-art device
that provides everything you need to get your network connected to the Internet
over your Cable or DSL connection quickly and easily. The Quick Start Wizard and
DHCP Server will get first-time users up and running with minimal fuss and
configuration, while sophisticated Quality of Service (QoS) and traffic management
features grant advanced users total control over their network and Internet
connection.
This manual illustrates the many features and functions of BiGuard 2/10, and even
takes you through the various ways you can apply this versatile device to your home
or office. Take the time now to familiarize yourself with BiGuard 2/10.
1.2 Product Highlights
1.2.1
Virtual Private Network Support
BiGuard 2/10 supports comprehensive IPSec VPN protocols for businesses to
establish private encrypted tunnels over the Internet to ensure data transmission
security among multiple sites, such as a branch office or dial-up connection. Up to 2
simultaneous IPSec VPN connections are possible on BiGuard 2/10, with
performance of up to 4Mbps.
1.2.2
Advanced Firewall Security
Aside from intelligent broadband sharing, BiGuard 2/10 offers integrated firewall
protection with advanced features to secure your network from outside attacks.
Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) determines if a data packet is permitted to enter
the private LAN. Denial of Service (DoS) prevents hackers from interrupting
network services via malicious attacks. In addition, BiGuard 2/10 firewall can be
configured to alert you via email should your network come under fire, offering both
tight network security and peace of mind.
10
1.2.3
Intelligent Bandwidth Management
BiGuard 2/10 utilizes Quality of Service (QoS) to give you full control over the
priority of both incoming and outgoing data, ensuring that critical data such as
customer information moves through your network, even while under a heavy load.
Transmission speeds can be throttled to make sure users are not saturating
bandwidth required for mission-critical data transfers. Priority types of upload data
can also be changed, allowing BiGuard 2/10 to automatically sort out actual speeds
for unmatched convenience.
1.3
Package Contents
1.3.1
BiGuard 10
BiGuard 10 iBusiness Security Gateway Small-Office
Bracket x 2 (for rack-mounting)
Screw x 4 (for rack-mounting)
Getting Started CD-ROM
Quick Start Guide
AC-DC Power Adapter (12VDC, 1A)
1.3.1.1 Front Panel
LED
Function
Power
A solid light indicates a steady connection to a power source.
Status
A blinking light indicates the device is writing to flash memory.
WAN
Lit when connected to an Ethernet device.
10/100M :
Lit green when connected at 100Mbps.
Not lit when connected at 10Mbps.
11
Link/ACT:
Lit when device is connected.
Blinking when data is transmitting/receiving.
LAN
Lit when connected to an Ethernet device.
1–8
10/100M :
Lit green when connected at 100Mbps.
Not lit when connected at 10Mbps.
Link/ACT:
Lit when device is connected.
Blinking when data is transmitting/receiving.
1.3.1.2 Rear Panel
2
3
1
Port
1
RESET
4
Meaning
After the device is powered on, press it to reset the device or restore to factory
default settings.
0-3 seconds: The Status LED will light
6 seconds above: restore to factory default settings (this is used when you
cannot login to the router.
LAN
2
1X — 8X
(RJ-45 connector)
3
WAN
4
DC12V
E.g. forgot the password)
Connect a UTP Ethernet cable (Cat-5 or Cat-5e) to one of the eight LAN ports
when connecting to a PC or an office/home network of 10Mbps or 100Mbps.
WAN 10/100M Ethernet port (with auto crossover support); connect
xDSL/Cable modem here.
Connect DC power adapter here.(DC12V Power)
12
1.3.1.3 Rack Mounting
To rack mount BiGuard 10, carefully secure the device to your rack on both sides
using the included brackets and screws. See the diagram below for a more detailed
explanation.
1.3.1.4 Cabling
Most Ethernet networks currently use unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling. The
UTP cable contains eight conductors, arranged in four twisted pairs, and terminated
with an RJ45 type connector.
One of the most common causes of networking problems is bad cabling. Make sure
that all connected devices are turned on. On the front panel of BiGuard 10, verify
that the LAN link and WAN line LEDs are lit. If they are not, check to see that you are
using the proper cabling.
1.3.2
BiGuard 2
BiGuard 2 iBusiness Security Gateway Home-Office
Getting Started CD-ROM
Quick Start Guide
Ethernet (CAT-5 LAN) Cable
AC-DC Power Adapter (12VDC, 1A)
13
1.3.2.1 Front Panel
LED
Function
POWER
A solid light indicates a steady connection to a power source.
STATUS
A blinking light indicates the device is writing to flash memory.
WAN
Lit when connected to an Ethernet device.
10/100M :
Lit green when connected at 100Mbps.
Not lit when connected at 10Mbps.
Link/ACT:
Lit when device is connected.
Blinking when data is transmitting/receiving.
LAN
Lit when connected to an Ethernet device.
1–8
10/100M :
Lit green when connected at 100Mbps.
Not lit when connected at 10Mbps.
Link/ACT:
Lit when device is connected.
Blinking when data is transmitting/receiving.
1.3.2.2
Rear Panel
2
1
14
3
4
Port
1
RESET
Meaning
After the device is powered on, press it to reset the device or restore to
factory default settings.
0-3 seconds: The Status LED will light
6 seconds above: restore to factory default settings (this is used when
you cannot login to the router.
2
LAN
Connect a UTP Ethernet cable (Cat-5 or Cat-5e) to one of the eight LAN
1X — 8X
(RJ-45 connector)
ports when connecting to a PC or an office/home network of 10Mbps or
3
WAN
4
DC12V
1.3.2.3
E.g. forgot the password)
100Mbps.
WAN 10/100M Ethernet port (with auto crossover support); connect
xDSL/Cable modem here.
Connect DC power adapter here.(DC12V Power)
Cabling
Most Ethernet networks currently use unshielded twisted pair (UTP) cabling. The
UTP cable contains eight conductors, arranged in four twisted pairs, and terminated
with an RJ45 type connector.
One of the most common causes of networking problems is bad cabling. Make sure
that all connected devices are turned on. On the front panel of BiGuard 2, verify that
the LAN link and WAN line LEDs are lit. If they are not, check to see that you are
using the proper cabling.
15
Chapter 2: Router Applications
2.1 Overview
Your BiGuard 2/10 Router is a versatile device that can be configured to not only
protect your network from malicious attackers, but also ensure optimal usage of
available bandwidth with Quality of Service (QoS). Alternatively, BiGuard 2/10 can
also be set to handle secure connections with Virtual Private Networking (VPN).
The following chapter describes how BiGuard 2/10 can work for you.
2.2 Bandwidth Management with QoS
Quality of Service (QoS) gives you full control over which types of outgoing data
traffic should be given priority by the router. By doing so, the router can ensure that
latency-sensitive applications like voice, bandwidth-consuming data like gaming
packets, or even mission critical files efficiently move through the router even under
a heavy load. You can throttle the speed at which different types of outgoing data
pass through the router. In addition, you can simply change the priority of different
types of upload data and let the router sort out the actual speeds.
2.2.1
QoS Technology
QoS generally involves the prioritization of network traffic. QoS is comprised of
three major components: Classifier, Meter, and Scheduler. Each of these
components has a distinct role in ensuring that incoming and outgoing data is
managed according to user specifications.
The Classifier analyses incoming packets and marks each one according to
configured parameters. The Meter communicates the drop priority to the Scheduler
and measures the temporal priorities of the output stream against configured
parameters. Finally, the Scheduler schedules each packet for transmission based on
information from both the Classifier and the Meter.
16
Scheduler
Meter
Classifier
Outbound
Inbound
2.2.2
QoS Policies for Different Applications
By setting different QoS policies according to the applications you are running, you
can use BiGuard 2/10 to optimize the bandwidth that is being used on your network.
VoIP
Normal PCs
Restricted PC
17
As illustrated in the diagram above, applications such as Voiceover IP (VoIP) require
low network latencies to function properly. If bandwidth is being used by other
applications such as an FTP server, users using VoIP will experience network lag
and/or service interruptions during use. To avoid this scenario, this network has
assigned VoIP with a guaranteed bandwidth and higher priority to ensure smooth
communications. The FTP server, on the other hand, has been given a maximum
bandwidth cap to make sure that regular service to both VoIP and normal Internet
applications is uninterrupted.
2.2.3
Guaranteed / Maximum Bandwidth
Setting a Guaranteed Bandwidth ensures that a particular service receives a
minimum percentage of bandwidth. For example, you can configure BiGuard 2/10 to
reserve 10% of the available bandwidth for a particular computer on the network to
transfer files.
Alternatively you can set a Maximum Bandwidth to restrict a particular application
to a fixed percentage of the total throughput. Setting a Maximum Bandwidth of 20%
for a file sharing program will ensure that no more than 20% of the available
bandwidth will be used for file sharing.
18
2.2.4
Policy Based Traffic Shaping
Policy Based Traffic Shaping allows you to apply specific traffic policies across a
range of IP addresses or ports. This is particularly useful for assigning different
policies for different PCs on the network. Policy based traffic shaping lets you better
manage your bandwidth, providing reliable Internet and network service to your
organization.
2.2.5
Priority Bandwidth Utilization
Assigning priority to a certain service allows BiGuard 2/10 to give either a higher or
lower priority to traffic from this particular service. Assigning a higher priority to an
application ensures that it is processed ahead of applications with a lower priority
and vice versa.
19
2.2.6
Management by IP or MAC address
BiGuard 2/10 can also be configured to apply traffic policies based on a particular IP
or MAC address. This allows you to quickly assign different traffic policies to a
specific computer on the network.
20
2.2.7
DiffServ (DSCP Marking)
DiffServ (a.k.a. DSCP Marking) allows you to classify traffic based on IP DSCP values.
These markings can be used to identify traffic within the network. Other interfaces
can match traffic based on the DSCP markings. DSCP markings are used to decide
how packets should be treated, and is a useful tool to give precedence to varying
types of data.
2.3 Virtual Private Networking
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) enables you to send data between two computers
across a shared or public network in a manner that emulates the properties of a
point-to-point private link. As such, it is perfect for connecting branch offices to
headquarter across the Internet in a secure fashion.
The following section discusses Virtual Private Networking with BiGuard 2/10.
2.3.1
General VPN Setup
There are typically three different VPN scenarios. The first is a Gateway to
Gateway setup, where two remote gateways communicate over the Internet via a
21
secure tunnel.
The next type of VPN setup is the Gateway to Multiple Gateway setup, where one
gateway (Headquarter) is communicating with multiple gateways (Branch Offices)
over the Internet. As with all VPNs, data is kept secure with secure tunnels.
The final type of VPN setup is the Client to Gateway. A good example of where this
can be applied is when a remote sales person accesses the corporate network over
a secure VPN tunnel.
VPN provides a flexible, cost-efficient, and reliable way for companies of all sizes to
stay connected. One of the most important steps in setting up a VPN is proper
planning. The following sections demonstrate the various ways of using BiGuard
2/10 to setup your VPN.
2.3.2
Concentrator
The VPN Concentrator provides an easy way for branch offices to connect to
headquarter through a VPN tunnel. All branch office traffic will be redirected to the
VPN tunnel to headquarter with the exception of LAN-side traffic. This way, all
branch offices can connect to each other through headquarter via the headquarter’
firewall management. You can also configure BiGuard 2/10 to function as a VPN
22
Concentrator:
Please refer to appendix H for example settings.
Local ID Type: Subnet
Local subnet: 192.168.3.0
Local mask: 255.255.255.0
Remote ID Type: Subnet
Remote subnet: 0.0.0.0
Remote mask: 0.0.0.0
Local ID Type: Subnet
Local subnet: 0.0.0.0
Local mask: 0.0.0.0
Remote ID Type: Subnet
Remote subnet: 192.168.3.0
Remote mask: 255.255.255.0
200.200.200.1
192.168.3.x
BiGuard 2
192.168.2.x
100.100.100.1
BiGuard 2
BiGuard 2
Local ID Type: Subnet
Local subnet: 0.0.0.0
Local mask: 0.0.0.0
Remote ID Type: Subnet
Remote subnet: 192.168.4.0
Remote mask: 255.255.255.0
201.201.201.1
192.168.4.x
Local ID Type: Subnet
Local subnet: 192.168.4.0
Local mask: 255.255.255.0
Remote ID Type: Subnet
Remote subnet: 0.0.0.0
Remote mask: 0.0.0.0
23
Chapter 3: Getting Started
3.1 Overview
BiGuard 2/10 is designed to be a powerful and flexible network device that is also
easy to use. With an intuitive web-based configuration, BiGuard 2/10 allows you to
administer your network via virtually any Java-enabled web browser and is fully
compatible with Linux, Mac OS, and Windows 98/Me/NT/2000/XP operating
systems.
The following chapter takes you through the very first steps to configuring your
network for BiGuard 2/10. Take a look and see how easy it is to get your network up
and running.
3.2 Before You Begin
BiGuard 2/10 is a flexible and powerful networking device. To simplify the
configuration process and increase the efficiency of your network, consider the
following items before setting up your network for the first time:
1. Plan your network
You may need a fully qualified domain name either for convenience or if you have a
dynamic IP address. See Chapter 2: Router Applications for more information.
2. Set up your accounts
Have access to the Internet and locate the Internet Service Provider (ISP)
configuration information.
3. Determine your network management approach
BiGuard 2/10 is capable of remote management. However, this feature is not active
by default. If you reset the device, remote administration must be enabled again. If
you decide to manage your network remotely, be sure to change the default
password to something more secure.
4. Prepare to physically connect BiGuard 2/10 to Cable or DSL modems and a
computer.
24
Be sure to also review the Safety Warnings located in the preface of this manual
before working with your BiGuard 2/10.
3.3
Connecting Your Router
Connecting BiGuard 2/10 is an easy three-step process:
1. Connect BiGuard 2/10 to your LAN by connecting Ethernet cables from your
networked PCs to the LAN ports on the router. Connect BiGuard 2/10 to your
broadband Internet connection via router’s WAN port.
2. Plug BiGuard 2/10 to an AC outlet with the included AC Power Adapter.
3. Ensure that the Power and WAN LEDs are solidly lit, and that on any LAN port that
has an Ethernet cable plugged in the LED is also solidly lit. The Status LED will
remain solid as the device boots. Once the boot sequence is complete, the LED will
shut off, indicating that BiGuard 2/10 is ready.
If the router does not power on, please refer to Chapter 5: Troubleshooting for
possible solutions.
25
3.4
Configuring PCs for TCP/IP Networking
Now that your BiGuard 2/10 is connected properly to your network, it’s time to
configure your networked PCs for TCP/IP networking.
In order for your networked PCs to communicate with your router, they must have
the following characteristics:
1. Have a properly installed and functioning Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC).
2. Be connected to BiGuard 2/10, either directly or through an external repeater hub
via an Ethernet cable.
3. Have TCP/IP installed and configured with an IP address.
The IP address for each PC may be a fixed IP address or one that is obtained from a
DHCP server. If using a fixed IP address, it is important to remember that it must be
in the same subnet as the router. The default IP address of BiGuard 2/10 is
192.168.1.254 with a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0. Using the default
configuration, networked PCs must reside in the same subnet, and have an IP
address in the range of 192.168.1.1 to 192.168.1.253. However, you’ll find that the
quickest and easiest way to configure the IP addresses for your PCs is to obtain the
IP addresses automatically by using the router as a DHCP server.
If you are unable to access the web configuration interface, check to see if you have
any software-based firewalls installed on your PCs, as they can cause problems
accessing the 192.168.1.254 IP address of BiGuard 2/10.
The following sections outline how to set up your PCs for TCP/IP networking. Refer
to the applicable section for your PC’s operating system.
3.4.1
Overview
Before you begin, make sure that the TCP/IP protocol and a functioning Ethernet
network adapter is installed on each of your PCs.
The following operating systems already include the necessary software
components you need to install TCP/IP on your PCs:
- Windows 95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP
26
- Mac OS 7 and later
- All versions of UNIX/Linux
If you are using Windows 3.1, you must purchase a third-party TCP/IP application
package.
Any TCP/IP capable workstation can be used to communicate with or through the
BiGuard 2/10. To configure other types of workstations, please consult the
manufacturer’s documentation.
3.4.2
Windows XP
3.4.2.1
Configuring
1. Select Start > Settings > Network Connections.
2. In the Network Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection and
select Properties.
27
3. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.
4a. To have your PC obtain an IP address automatically, select the Obtain an IP
address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically radio
buttons.
28
4b. To manually assign your PC a fixed IP address, select the Use the following IP
address radio button and enter your desired IP address, subnet mask, and default
gateway in the blanks provided. Remember that your PC must reside in the same
subnet mask as the router. To designate a DNS server, select the Use the following
DNS server and fill in the preferred DNS address.
5. Click OK to finish the configuration.
29
3.4.2.2
Verifying Settings
To verify your settings using a command prompt:
1. Click Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
2. In the Command Prompt window, type ipconfig and then press ENTER.
If you are using BiGuard 2/10’s default settings, your PC should have:
- An IP address between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.253
- A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0
30
To verify your settings using the Windows XP GUI:
1. Click Start > Settings > Network Connections.
2. Right click one of the network connections listed and select Status from the
pop-up menu.
31
3. Click the Support tab.
If you are using BiGuard 2/10’s default settings, your PC should:
- Have an IP address between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.253
- Have a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0
32
3.4.3
Windows 2000
3.4.3.1
Configuring
1. Select Start > Settings > Control Panel.
2. In the Control Panel window, double-click Network and Dial-up Connections.
33
3. In Network and Dial-up Connections, double-click Local Area Connection.
4. In the Local Area Connection window, click Properties.
34
5. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.
6a. To have your PC obtain an IP address automatically, select the Obtain an IP
address automatically and Obtain DNS server address automatically radio
buttons.
35
6b. To manually assign your PC a fixed IP address, select the Use the following IP
address radio button and enter your desired IP address, subnet mask, and default
gateway in the blanks provided. Remember that your PC must reside in the same
subnet mask as the router. To designate a DNS server, select the Use the following
DNS server and fill in the preferred DNS address.
7. Click OK to finish the configuration.
3.4.3.2
Verifying Settings
1. Click Start > Programs > Accessories > Command Prompt.
36
2. In the Command Prompt window, type ipconfig and then press ENTER.
If you are using BiGuard 2/10’s default settings, your PC should have:
- An IP address between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.253
- A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0
3.4.4
Windows 98 / Me
3.4.4.1
Installing Components
To prepare Windows 98/Me PCs for TCP/IP networking, you may need to manually
install TCP/IP on each PC. To do this, follow the steps below. Be sure to have your
Windows CD handy, as you may need to insert it during the installation process.
37
1. On the Windows taskbar, select Start > Settings > Control Panel.
2. Double-click the Network icon. The Network window displays a list of installed
components.
38
You must have the following installed:
- An Ethernet adapter
- TCP/IP protocol
- Client for Microsoft Networks
If you need to install a new Ethernet adapter, follow these steps:
a. Click Add.
39
b. Select Adapter, then Add.
c. Select the manufacturer and model of your Ethernet adapter, then click OK.
If you need TCP/IP:
a. Click Add.
40
b. Select Protocol, then click Add.
c. Select Microsoft. Æ TCP/IP, then OK.
If you need Client for Microsoft Networks:
a. Click Add.
41
b. Select Client, then click Add.
c. Select Microsoft. Æ Client for Microsoft Networks, and then click OK.
3. Restart your PC to apply your changes.
3.4.4.2
Configuring
1. Select Start > Settings > Control Panel.
42
2. In the Control Panel, double-click Network and choose the Configuration tab.
43
3. Select the name of your PC’s TCP/IP Network Interface Card (NIC) and click
Properties. TCP/IP > ASUSTeK is illustrated in the example below.
4. Select the IP Address tab and click the Obtain an IP address automatically
radio button.
44
5. Select the DNS Configuration tab and select the Disable DNS radio button.
6. Click OK to apply the configuration.
45
3.4.4.3
Verifying Settings
To check the TCP/IP configuration, use the winipcfg.exe utility:
1. Select Start > Run.
2. Type winipcfg, and then click OK.
46
3. From the drop-down box, select your Ethernet adapter.
The window is updated to show your settings. Using the default BiGuard 2/10
settings, your PC should have:
- An IP address between 192.168.1.1 and 192.168.1.253
- A subnet mask of 255.255.255.0
- A default gateway of 192.168.1.254
3.5 Factory Default Settings
Before configuring your BiGuard 2/10, you need to know the following default
settings:
Web Interface:
Username: admin
Password: admin
LAN Device IP Settings:
47
IP Address: 192.168.1.254
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
ISP setting in WAN site:
Obtain an IP Address automatically (DHCP Client)
DHCP server:
DHCP server is enabled.
Start IP Address: 192.168.1.100
End IP Address: 192.168.1.199
3.5.1
Username and Password
The default user name and password are "admin" and "admin" respectively.
If you ever forget your user name and/or password, you can restore your BiGuard
2/10 to its factory settings by holding the Reset button on the back of your router
until the Status LED begins to blink. Please note that doing this will also erase any
previous router settings that you have made. The Status LED will remain solid as the
device boots. Once the boot sequence is complete, the LED will shut off, indicating
that BiGuard 2/10 is ready.
3.5.2
LAN and WAN Port Addresses
The default values for LAN and WAN ports are shown below:
LAN Port
IP address
192.168.1.254
Subnet Mask
255.255.255.0
WAN Port
The DHCP Client is enabled to
automatically get the WAN port
configuration from the ISP.
DHCP server
function
Enabled
IP addresses for
distribution to
PCs
100 IP addresses continuing
from 192.168.1.100 through
192.168.1.199
48
3.6
Information From Your ISP
3.6.1
Protocols
Before configuring this device, you have to check with your ISP (Internet Service
Provider) to find out what kind of service is provided such as DHCP, Static IP, PPPoE,
or PPTP. The following table outlines each of these protocols:
DHCP
Configure this WAN interface to use DHCP client protocol to get an IP
address from your ISP automatically. Your ISP provides an IP address to
the router dynamically when logging in.
Static IP
Configure this WAN interface with a specific IP address. This IP address
should be provided by your ISP.
PPPoE
PPPoE (PPP over Ethernet) is known as a dial-up DSL or cable service. It
is designed to integrate the broadband services into the current widely
deployed, easy-to-use, and low-cost dial-up-access networking
infrastructure.
PPTP
If your ISP provides a PPTP connection, you can use the PPTP protocol
to establish a connection to your ISP.
Big Pond
The Big Pond login for Telstra cable in Australia.
If your account uses PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE), you will need to enter your login
name and password when configuring your BiGuard 2/10. After the network and
firewall are configured, BiGuard 2/10 will login automatically, and you will no longer
need to run the login program from your PC.
3.6.2
Configuration Information
If your ISP does not dynamically assign configuration information but instead uses
fixed configurations, you will need the following basic information from your ISP:
- An IP address and subnet mask
- A gateway IP address
- One or more domain name server (DNS) IP addresses
49
Depending on your ISP, a host name and domain suffix may also be provided. If any
of these items are dynamically supplied by the ISP, your BiGuard 2/10 will
automatically acquire them.
If an ISP technician configured your computer or if you configured it using
instructions provided by your ISP, you need to copy the configuration information
from your PC’s Network TCP/IP Properties window before reconfiguring your
computer for use with BiGuard 2/10. The following sections describe how you can
obtain this information.
This section uses illustrations from Windows XP. However, other versions of
Windows will follow a similar procedure. Have your Windows CD handy, as it may be
required during the configuration process.
1. Select Start > Settings > Control Panel.
2. Double-click the Network icon.
50
3. In the Network Connections window, right-click Local Area Connection and
select Properties.
4. Select Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) and click Properties.
51
5. If an IP address, subnet mask and a Default gateway are shown, write down
the information. If no address is present, your account’s IP address is dynamically
assigned. Click the Obtain an IP address automatically radio button.
6. If any DNS server addresses are shown, write them down. Click the Obtain DNS
server address automatically radio button.
52
7. Click OK to save your changes.
3.7 Web Configuration Interface
BiGuard 2/10 includes a Web Configuration Interface for easy administration via
virtually any browser on your network. To access this interface, open your web
browser, enter the IP address of your router, which by default is 192.168.1.254, and
click Go. A user name and password window prompt will appear. Enter your user
name and password (the default user name and password are "admin" and "admin")
to access the Web Configuration Interface.
53
If the Web Configuration Interface appears, congratulations! You are now ready to
configure your BiGuard 2/10. If you are having trouble accessing the interface,
please refer to Chapter 5: Troubleshooting for possible resolutions.
54
Chapter 4: Router Configuration
4.1 Overview
The Web Configuration Interface makes it easy for you to manage your network via
any PC connected to it. On the Web Configuration homepage, you will see the
navigation pane located on the left hand side. From it, you will be able to select
various options used to configure your router.
1. Click Apply if you would like to apply the settings on the current screen to the
device. The settings will be effective immediately, however the configuration is not
saved yet and the settings will be erased if you power off or restart the device.
2. Click SAVE CONFIG to save the current settings permanently to the device.
3. Click RESTART to restart the device. There are two options to restart the device.
- Select Current Settings if would like to restart using the current configuration.
- Select Factory Default Settings if you would like to restart using the factory
default configuration.
55
4. To exit the router’s web interface, click LOGOUT. Please ensure that you have
saved your configuration settings before you logout. Be aware that the router is
restricted to only one PC accessing the web configuration interface at a time. Once
a PC has logged into the web interface, other PCs cannot gain access until the
current PC has logged out. If the previous PC forgets to logout, the second PC can
access the page after a user-defined period (5 minutes by default).
The following sections will show you how to configure your router using the Web
Configuration Interface.
4.2 Status
The Status menu displays the various options that have been selected and a number
of statistics about your BiGuard 2/10. In this menu, you will find the following
sections:
- ARP Table
- Routing Table
- Session Table
- DHCP Table
- IPSec Status
- PPTP Status
- System Log
- IPSec Log
56
4.2.1
ARP Table
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) Table shows the mapping of Internet (IP)
addresses to Ethernet (MAC) addresses. This is a quick way to determine the MAC
address of your PC’s network interface to use with the router’s Firewall – MAC
Address Filter function. See the Firewall section of this chapter for more
information on this feature.
No.: Number of the list.
IP Address: A list of IP addresses of devices on your LAN.
MAC Address: The Media Access Control (MAC) addresses for each device on your
LAN.
Interface: The interface name (on the router) that this IP address connects to.
Static: Static status of the ARP table entry.
NO indicates dynamically-generated ARP table entries.
YES indicates static ARP table entries added by the user.
57
4.2.2
Routing Table
The Routing Table displays the current path for transmitted packets. Both static and
dynamic routes are displayed.
No.: Number of the list.
Destination: The IP address of the destination network.
Netmask: The destination netmask address.
Gateway/Interface: The IP address of the gateway or existing interface that this
route will use.
Cost: The number of hops counted as the cost of the route.
58
4.2.3
Session Table
The NAT Session Table displays a list of current sessions for both incoming and
outgoing traffic with protocol type, source IP, source port, destination IP and
destination port, each page shows 10 sessions.
No.: Number of the list.
Protocol: Protocol type of the Session.
From IP: Source IP of the session.
From port: source port of the session.
To IP: Destination IP of the session.
To port: Destination port of the session.
Sessions:
Filter: when the presented field is filled, please click Filter button.
From IP: please input the source IP you would like to filter.
From port: please input the source port you would like to filter.
To IP: please input the destination IP you would like to filter.
To port: please input the destination port you would like to filter.
First: To the first page.
Previous: To the previous page.
Next: To the next page.
Last: To the last page.
Jump to the session: please input the session number you would like to see and
press “GO”
59
4.2.4
DHCP Table
The DHCP Table displays a list of IP addresses that have been assigned to PCs on
your network via Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP).
No.: Number of the list.
IP Address: A list of IP addresses of devices on your LAN.
Device Name: The host name (computer name) of the client.
MAC Address: The MAC address of client.
60
4.2.5
IPSec Status
The IPSec Status window displays the status of the IPSec Tunnels that are currently
configured on your BiGuard 2/10.
Name: The name you assigned to the particular IPSec entry.
Enable: Whether the IPSec connection is currently Enable or Disable.
Status: Whether the IPSec is Active, Inactive or Disable.
Local Subnet: The local IP address or subnet used.
Remote Subnet: The subnet of the remote site.
Remote Gateway: The remote gateway IP address.
SA: The Security Association for this IPSec entry.
Action: Manually connect or drop the tunnel.
61
4.2.6
PPTP Status
The PPTP Status window displays the status of the PPTP Tunnels that are currently
configured on your BiGuard 2/10.
Name: The name you assigned to the particular PPTP entry.
Enable: Whether the PPTP connection is currently Enable or Disable.
Status: Whether the PPTP is Active, Inactive or Disable.
Type: Whether the Connection type is Remote Access or LAN to LAN
Peer Network: The Remote subnet for LAN to LAN as connection type.
Connect by: The remote address when connected.
Action: Manually drop the tunnel.
62
4.2.7
System Log
This window displays BiGuard 2/10’s System Log entries. Major events are logged
on this window.
Refresh: Refresh the System Log.
Clear Log: Clear the System Log.
Send Log: Send the System Log to your email account. You can set the email
address in Configuration > System > Email Alert. See the Email Alert section
for more details.
Save Log: Save the System log to a text file.
63
4.2.8
IPSec Log
This page displays the router’s IPSec Log entries. Major events are logged to this
window.
Refresh: Refresh the IPSec Log.
Clear Log: Clear the IPSec Log.
Send Log: Send IPSec Log to your email account. You can set the email address in
Configuration > System > Email Alert. See the Email Alert section for more
details.
Save Log: Save the IPSec log to a text file.
Please refer to Appendix F: IPSec Log Events for more information on log events.
64
4.3
Quick Start
The Quick Start menu allows you to quickly configure your network for Internet
access using the most basic settings.
Connection Method: Select your router’s connection to the Internet. Selections
include Obtain an IP Address Automatically, Static IP Settings, PPPoE
Settings, PPTP Settings, and Big Pond Settings.
4.3.1
DHCP
The following is information regarding your ISP that you will need to enter in order
to properly configure your Internet connection. If you select to Obtain an IP
Address Automatically, these will be automatically set for you, provided that your
ISP dynamically assigns an IP address.
65
4.3.2
Static IP
IP assigned by your ISP: Enter the assigned IP address from your IP.
IP Subnet Mask: Enter your IP subnet mask.
ISP Gateway Address: Enter your ISP gateway address.
Primary DNS: Enter your primary DNS.
Secondary DNS: Enter your secondary DNS.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
66
4.3.3
PPPoE
Username: Enter your user name.
Password: Enter your password.
Retype Password: Retype your password.
Connection: Select whether the connection should Always Connect or Trigger on
Demand. If you want the router to establish a PPPoE session when starting up and
to automatically re-establish the PPPoE session when disconnected by the ISP,
select Always Connect. If you want to establish a PPPoE session only when there
is a packet requesting access to the Internet (i.e. when a program on your computer
attempts to access the Internet), select Trigger on Demand.
Idle Time: Auto-disconnect the router when there is no activity on the line for a
predetermined period of time. Select the idle time from the drop down menu. Active
if Trigger on Demand is selected.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
67
4.3.4
PPTP
Username: Enter your user name.
Password: Enter your password.
Retype Password: Retype your password.
PPTP Client IP: Enter the PPTP Client IP provided by your ISP.
PPTP Client IP Netmask: Enter the PPTP Client IP Netmask provided by your ISP.
PPTP Client IP Gateway: Enter the PPTP Client IP Gateway provided by your ISP.
PPTP Server IP: Enter the PPTP Server IP provided by your ISP.
Connection: Select whether the connection should Always Connect or Trigger on
Demand. If you want the router to establish a PPTP session when starting up and to
automatically re-establish the PPTP session when disconnected by the ISP, select
Always Connect. If you want to establish a PPTP session only when there is a
packet requesting access to the Internet (i.e. when a program on your computer
attempts to access the Internet), select Trigger on Demand.
Idle Time: Auto-disconnect the router when there is no activity on the line for a
predetermined period of time. Select the idle time from the drop down menu. Active
if Trigger on Demand is selected.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
68
4.3.5
Big Pond
Username: Enter your user name.
Password: Enter your password.
Retype Password: Retype your password.
Login Server: Enter the IP of the Login server provided by your ISP.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
For detailed instructions on configuring WAN settings, please refer to the WAN
section of this chapter.
4.4
Configuration
The Configuration menu allows you to set many of the operating parameters of the
BiGuard 2/10. In this menu, you will find the following sections:
- LAN
- WAN
- Bandwidth Settings
- System
- Firewall
69
- VPN
- QoS
- Virtual Server
- Advanced
These items are described below in the following sections.
4.4.1
LAN
There are two items within this section: Ethernet and DHCP Server.
70
4.4.1.1
Ethernet
IP Address: Enter the internal LAN IP address for BiGuard 2/10 (192.168.1.254 by
default).
Subnet Mask: Enter the subnet mask (255.255.255.0 by default).
RIP: RIP v2 Broadcast and RIP v2 Multicast. Check to enable RIP.
4.4.1.2
DHCP Server
In this menu, you can disable or enable the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP) server. The DHCP protocol allows your BiGuard 2/10 to dynamically assign
IP addresses to PCs on your network if they are configured to automatically obtain
IP addresses.
To disable the router’s DHCP Server, select the Disable radio button, and then click
Apply. When the DHCP Server is disabled, you will need to manually assign a fixed
IP address to each PC on your network, and set the default gateway for each PC to
the IP address of the router (192.168.1.254 by default).
71
To configure the router’s DHCP Server, select the Enable radio button, and then
configure parameters of the DHCP Server including the IP Pool (starting IP address
and ending IP address to be allocated to the PCs on your network), DNS Server,
WINS Server, and Domain Name. These details are sent to each DHCP client when
they request an IP address from the DHCP server. Click Apply to enable this
function.
Fixed Host allows specific computer/network clients to have a reserved IP address.
IP Address: Enter the IP address that you want to reserve for the above MAC
address.
MAC Address: Enter the MAC address of the PC or server you wish to be assigned a
reserved IP.
Candidates: You can also select the Candidates which are referred from the ARP
table for automatic input.
Click the Apply button to add the configuration into the Host Table. Press the
Delete button to delete a configuration from the Host Table.
72
4.4.2
WAN
WAN refers to your Wide Area Network connection. In most cases, this means your
router’s connection to the Internet through your ISP.
Connection Method: Select how your router will connect to the Internet. Selections
include Obtain an IP Address Automatically, Static IP Settings, PPPoE
Settings, PPTP Settings, and Big Pond Settings. For each WAN port, the factory
default is DHCP. If your ISP does not use DHCP, select the correct connection
method and configure the connection accordingly. Configurable items will vary
depending on the connection method selected.
4.4.2.1
DHCP
Host Name: Some ISPs authenticate logins using this field.
MAC Address: If your ISP requires you to input a WAN Ethernet MAC, check the
checkbox and enter your MAC address in the blanks below.
DNS: If your ISP requires you to manually setup DNS settings, check the checkbox
and enter your primary and secondary DNS.
RIP: To activate RIP, select Send, Receive, or Both from the drop down menu. To
disable RIP, select Disable from the drop down menu.
MTU: Enter the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for your network.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
73
4.4.2.2
Static IP
IP assigned by your ISP: Enter the static IP assigned by your ISP.
IP Subnet Mask: Enter the IP subnet mask provided by your ISP.
ISP Gateway Address: Enter the ISP gateway address provided by your ISP.
MAC Address: If your ISP requires you to input a WAN Ethernet MAC, check the
checkbox and enter your MAC address in the blanks below.
Primary DNS: Enter the primary DNS provided by your ISP.
Secondary DNS: Enter the secondary DNS provided by your ISP.
RIP: To activate RIP, select Send, Receive, or Both from the drop down menu. To
disable RIP, select Disable from the drop down menu.
MTU: Enter the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for your network.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
74
4.4.2.3
PPPoE
Username: Enter your user name.
Password: Enter your password.
Retype Password: Retype your password.
Connection: Select whether the connection should Always Connect or Trigger on
Demand. If you want the router to establish a PPPoE session when starting up and
to automatically re-establish the PPPoE session when disconnected by the ISP,
select Always Connect. If you want to establish a PPPoE session only when there
is a packet requesting access to the Internet (i.e. when a program on your computer
attempts to access the Internet), select Trigger on Demand.
Idle Time: Auto-disconnect the router when there is no activity on the line for a
predetermined period of time. Select the idle time from the drop down menu. Active
if Trigger on Demand is selected.
IP Assigned by your ISP: If your IP is dynamically assigned by your ISP, select the
Dynamic radio button. If your IP assigns a static IP address, select the Static radio
button, and input your IP address in the blank provided.
MAC Address: If your ISP requires you to input a WAN Ethernet MAC, check the
checkbox and enter your MAC address in the blanks below.
DNS: If your ISP requires you to manually setup DNS settings, check the checkbox
and enter your primary and secondary DNS.
RIP: To activate RIP, select Send, Receive, or Both from the drop down menu. To
disable RIP, select Disable from the drop down menu.
MTU: Enter the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for your network.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
75
4.4.2.4
PPTP
Username: Enter your user name.
Password: Enter your password.
Retype Password: Retype your password.
PPTP Client IP: Enter the PPTP Client IP provided by your ISP.
PPTP Client IP Netmask: Enter the PPTP Client IP Netmask provided by your ISP.
PPTP Client IP Gateway: Enter the PPTP Client IP Gateway provided by your ISP.
PPTP Server IP: Enter the PPTP Server IP provided by your ISP.
Connection: Select whether the connection should Always Connect or Trigger on
Demand. If you want the router to establish a PPTP session when starting up and to
automatically re-establish the PPTP session when disconnected by the ISP, select
Always Connect. If you want to establish a PPTP session only when there is a
packet requesting access to the Internet (i.e. when a program on your computer
attempts to access the Internet), select Trigger on Demand.
Idle Time: Auto-disconnect the router when there is no activity on the line for a
predetermined period of time. Select the idle time from the drop down menu. Active
if Trigger on Demand is selected.
IP Assigned by your ISP: If your IP is dynamically assigned by your ISP, select the
Dynamic radio button. If your IP assigns a static IP address, select the Static radio
button. This will take you to another page for inputting the IP address information.
MAC Address: If your ISP requires you to input a WAN Ethernet MAC, check the
checkbox and enter your MAC address in the blanks below.
DNS: If your ISP requires you to manually setup DNS settings, check the checkbox
76
and enter your primary and secondary DNS.
RIP: To activate RIP, select Send, Receive, or Both from the drop down menu. To
disable RIP, select Disable from the drop down menu.
MTU: Enter the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for your network.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
4.4.2.5
Big Pond
Username: Enter your user name.
Password: Enter your password.
Retype Password: Retype your password.
Login Server: Enter the IP of the Login server provided by your ISP.
MAC Address: If your ISP requires you to input a WAN Ethernet MAC, check the
checkbox and enter your MAC address in the blanks below.
DNS: If your ISP requires you to manually setup DNS settings, check the checkbox
and enter your primary and secondary DNS.
RIP: To activate RIP, select Send, Receive, or Both from the drop down menu. To
disable RIP, select Disable from the drop down menu.
MTU: Enter the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for your network.
Click Apply to save your changes. To reset to defaults, click Reset.
A simpler alternative is to select Quick Start from the main menu. Please see the
Quick Start section of this chapter for more information.
77
4.4.3
Bandwidth Settings
Under Bandwidth Settings, you can easily configure both inbound and outbound
bandwidth.
WAN: Enter your ISP inbound and outbound bandwidth for WAN.
NOTE: These values entered here are referenced by QoS.
4.4.4
System
The System menu allows you to adjust a variety of basic router settings, upgrade
firmware, set up remote access, and more. In this menu are the following sections:
Time Zone, Remote Access, Firmware Upgrade, Backup/Restore, Restart, Password,
System Log Server and Email Alert.
78
4.4.4.1
Time Zone
BiGuard 2/10 does not use an onboard real time clock; instead, it uses the Network
Time Protocol (NTP) to acquire the current time from an NTP server outside your
network. Simply choose your local time zone, enter NTP Server IP Address, and click
Apply. After connecting to the Internet, BiGuard 2/10 will retrieve the correct local
time from the NTP server you have specified. Your ISP may provide an NTP server
for you to use.
To have BiGuard 2/10 automatically adjust for Daylight Savings Time, check the
Automatic checkbox.
4.4.4.2
Remote Access
79
To allow remote users to configure and manage BiGuard 2/10 through the Internet,
select the Enable radio button. To deactivate remote access, select the Disable
radio button. This function also enables you grant access from any PC or from a
specific IP address. Click Apply to save your settings.
NOTE: When enabling remote access, be sure to change the default administration
password to something more secure.
4.4.4.3
Firmware Upgrade
Upgrading your BiGuard 2/10’s firmware is a quick and easy way to enjoy increased
functionality, better reliability, and ensure trouble-free operation. To upgrade your
firmware, simply visit Billion’s website (http://www.billion.com) and download the
latest firmware image file for BiGuard 2/10. Next, click Browse and select the newly
downloaded firmware file. Click Upgrade to complete the update.
NOTE: DO NOT power down the router or interrupt the firmware upgrade while it is
still in process. Interrupting the firmware upgrade process could damage the router.
80
4.4.4.4
Backup / Restore
This feature allows you to save and backup your router’s current settings, or restore
a previously saved backup. This is useful if you wish to experiment with different
settings, knowing that you have a backup handy. It is advisable to backup your
router’s settings before making any significant changes to your router’s
configuration.
To backup your router’s settings, click Backup and select where to save the settings
backup file. You may also change the name of the file when saving if you wish to
keep multiple backups. Click OK to save the file.
To restore a previously saved backup file, click Browse. You will be prompted to
select a file from your PC to restore. Be sure to only restore setting files that have
been generated by the Backup function, and that were created when using the same
firmware version. Settings files saved to your PC should not be manually edited in
any way. After selecting the settings file you wish to use, clicking Restore will load
those settings into the router.
81
4.4.4.5
Restart
The Restart feature allows you to easily restart BiGuard 2/10. To restart with your
last saved configuration, select the Current Settings radio button and click
Restart.
If you wish to restart the router using the factory default settings, select Factory
Default Settings and click Restart to reboot BiGuard 2/10 with factory default
settings.
You may also reset your router to factory default settings by holding the Reset
button on the router until the Status LED begins to blink. Once BiGuard 2/10
completes the boot sequence, the Status LED will stop blinking.
4.4.4.6
Password
82
In order to prevent unauthorized access to your router’s configuration interface, it
requires the administrator to login with a password. You can change your password
by entering your new password in both fields. Click Apply to save your changes.
Click Reset to reset to the default administration password (admin).
4.4.4.7
System Log Server
This function allows BiGuard 2/10 to send system logs to an external Syslog Server.
Syslog is an industry-standard protocol used to capture information about network
activity. To enable this function, select the Enable radio button and enter your
Syslog server IP address in the Log Server IP Address field. Click Apply to save
your changes.
To disable this feature, simply select the Disable radio button and click Apply.
83
4.4.4.8
E-mail Alert
The Email Alert function allows a log of security-related events (such as System Log
and IPSec Log) to be sent to a specified email address.
Email Alert: You may enable or disable this function by selecting the appropriate
radio button.
Recipient’s Email Address: Enter the email address where you wish the alert logs to
be sent.
SMTP Mail Server: Enter your email account’s outgoing mail server. It may be an IP
address or a domain name.
Sender’s Email Address: Enter the email address where you wish the alert logs to be
sent by which address.
Mail Server Login: some SMTP servers may request users to login before serving.
Select Enable to activate SMTP server login function, disable to deactivate.
Username: Input the SMTP server’s username.
Password: Input the SMTP server’s password.
Alert via Email when: Select the frequency of each email update. Choose one of the
five options:
Immediately: The router will send an alert immediately.
Hourly: The router will send an alert once every hour.
Daily: The router will send an alert once a day. The exact time can be specified
using the pull down menu.
Weekly: The router will send an alert once a week.
When log is full: The router will send an alert only when the log is full.
84
4.4.5
Firewall
BiGuard 2/10 includes a full Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) firewall for controlling
Internet access from your LAN, and preventing attacks from hackers. Your router
also acts as a "natural" Internet firewall when using Network Address Translation
(NAT), as all PCs on your LAN will use private IP addresses that cannot be directly
accessed from the Internet. Please see the WAN configuration section for more
details.
You can find three items under the Firewall section: Packet Filter, URL Filter, and
Block WAN Request.
4.4.5.1
Packet Filter
85
The Packet Filter function is used to limit user access to certain sites on the Internet
or LAN. The Filter Table displays all current filter rules. If there is an entry in the
Filter Table, you can click Edit to modify the setting of this entry, or click Delete to
remove this entry, or click Move to change this entry’s priority.
When the entry is upper, the priority is higher.
To create a new filter rule, click Create.
ID: This is an identify that allows you to move the rule by before or after an ID.
Rule: Enable or Disable this entry.
Action When Matched: Select to Drop or Forward the packet specified in this filter
entry.
Direction: Incoming Packet Filter rules prevent unauthorized computers or
applications accessing your local network from the Internet. Outgoing Packet Filter
rules prevent unauthorized computers or applications accessing the Internet. Select
if the new filter rule is incoming or outgoing.
Source IP: Select Any, Subnet, IP Range or Single Address.
Starting IP Address: Enter the source IP or starting source IP address this filter rule
is to be applied.
End IP Address: Enter the End source IP Address this filter rule is to be applied. (for
IP Range only)
Netmask: Enter the subnet mask of the above IP address.
86
Destination IP: Select Any, Subnet, IP Range or Single Address.
Starting IP Address: Enter the destination IP or starting destination IP address this
filter rule is to be applied.
End IP Address: Enter the End destination IP Address this filter rule is to be applied.
(for IP Range only)
Netmask: Enter the subnet mask of the above IP address.
Protocol: Select the Transport protocol type (Any, TCP, UDP).
Source Port Range: Enter the source port number range. If you only want to specify
one service port, then enter the same port number in both boxes.
Destination Port Range: Enter the destination port number range. If you only want
to specify one service port, then enter the same port number in both boxes.
Helper: You could also select the application type you would like to apply for
automatic input.
4.4.5.2
URL Filter
The URL Filter is a powerful tool that can be used to limit access to certain URLs on
the Internet. You can block web sites based on keywords or even block out an entire
domain. Certain web features can also be blocked to grant added security to your
network.
URL Filtering: You can choose to Enable or Disable this feature.
87
Keyword Filtering: Click the checkbox to enable this feature. To edit the list of
filtered keywords, click Details.
Domain Filtering: Click the "enable" checkbox to enable filtering by Domain Name.
Click the "Disable all WEB traffic except for trusted domains" check box to allow web
access only for trusted domains.
Restrict URL Features: Click "Block Java Applet" to filter web access with Java Applet
components. Click "Block ActiveX" to filter web access with ActiveX components.
Click "Block Web proxy" to filter web proxy access. Click "Block Cookie" to filter web
access with Cookie components. Click "Block Surfing by IP Address" to filter web
access with an IP address as the domain name.
Exception List: You can input a list of IP addresses as the exception list for URL
filtering.
Enter a keyword to be filtered and click Apply. Your new keyword will be added to
the filtered keyword listing.
Domains Filtering: Click the top checkbox to enable this feature. You can also
choose to disable all web traffic except for trusted sites by clicking the bottom
checkbox. To edit the list of filtered domains, click Details.
88
Enter a domain and selected whether this domain is trusted or forbidden with the
pull-down menu. Next, click Apply. Your new domain will be added to either the
Trusted Domain or Forbidden Domain listing, depending on which you selected
previously.
Restrict URL Features: Use this to disable certain web features. Select the options
you want (Block Java Applet, Block ActiveX, Block Web proxy, Block Cookie, Block
Surfing by IP Address) and click Apply to save your changes.
You may also designate which IP addresses are to be excluded from these filters by
adding them to the Exception List. To do so, click Add.
89
Enter a name for the IP Address and then enter the IP address itself. Click Apply to
save your changes. The IP address will be entered into the Exception List, and
excluded from the URL filtering rules in effect.
4.4.5.3
LAN MAC Filter
90
LAN Mac Filter can decide that BiGuard will serve those devices at LAN side or not by
MAC Address.
Default Rule: Forward or Drop all LAN requests. (Forward by default)
Create: You can also input a specified MAC Address to be dropped or Forward
without depending on the default rule.
Rule: Enable or disable this entry.
Action When Matched: Select to Drop or Forward the packet specified in this filter
entry.
MAC Address: The MAC Address you would like to apply.
Candidates: You can also select the Candidates which are referred from the ARP
table for automatic input.
4.4.5.4
Block WAN Request
Blocking WAN requests is one way to prevent DDoS attacks by preventing ping
requests from the Internet. Use this menu to enable or disable function.
91
4.4.5.5
Intrusion Detection
Intrusion Detection can prevent most common DoS attacks from the Internet or from
LAN users.
Intrusion Detection: Enable or disable this function.
Intrusion Log: All the detected and dropped attacks will be shown in the system log.
92
4.4.6
VPN
4.4.6.1 IPSec
IPSec is a set of protocols that enable Virtual Private Networks (VPN). VPN is a way
to establish secured communication tunnels to an organization’s network via the
Internet.
4.4.6.1.1
IPSec Wizard
Connection Name: A user-defined name for the connection.
Interface: Select the interface the IPSec tunnel will apply to.
WAN1: Select interface WAN1
WAN2: Select interface WAN2
Auto: The device will automatically apply the tunnel to WAN1 or WAN2
depending on which WAN interface is active when the IPSec tunnel is being
established. Note. Auto only applies to Fail Over mode. For Load Balance mode,
please do not select "Auto". In Load Balance mode, Auto will be forced to WAN1
interface if Auto is selected.
Pre-shared Key: This is for the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol. IKE is used to
establish a shared security policy and authenticated keys for services (such as IPSec)
that require a key. Before any IPSec traffic can be passed, each router must be able
to verify the identity of its peer. This can be done by manually entering the
pre-shared key into both sides (router or hosts).
93
Connection Type:
There are 5 connection types:
(1)LAN to LAN: BiGuard would like to establish an IPSec VPN tunnel with remote
router using Fixed Internet IP or domain name by using main mode.
Secure Gateway Address (or Domain Name): The IP address or hostname of the
remote VPN device that is connected and establishes a VPN tunnel.
Remote Network: The subnet of the remote network. Allows you to enter an IP
address and netmask.
Back: Back to the Previous page.
Next: Go to the next page.
94
(2)LAN to Mobile LAN: BiGuard would like to establish an IPSec VPN tunnel with
remote router using Dynamic Internet IP by using aggressive mode.
Remote Identifier: The Identifier of remote gateway, all input value type will be
auto-defined as IP Address, FQDN(DNS) or FQUN(E-mail).
Remote Network: The subnet of the remote network. Allows you to enter an IP
address and netmask.
Back: Back to the Previous page.
Next: Go to the next page.
95
(3)LAN to Host: BiGuard would like to establish an IPSec VPN tunnel with remote
client software using Fixed Internet IP or domain name by using main mode.
Secure Gateway Address (or Domain Name): The IP address or hostname of the
remote VPN device that is connected and establishes a VPN tunnel.
Back: Back to the Previous page.
Next: Go to the next page.
96
(4)LAN to Mobile Host: BiGuard would like to establish an IPSec VPN tunnel with
remote client software using Dynamic Internet IP by using aggressive mode.
Remote Identifier: The Identifier of remote gateway, all input value type will be
auto-defined as IP Address, FQDN(DNS) or FQUN(E-mail).
Back: Back to the Previous page.
Next: Go to the next page.
97
(5)LAN to Host (for BiGuard VPN Client only): BiGuard would like to establish an
IPSec VPN tunnel with BiGuard VPN Client software C01 by using aggressive mode.
VPN Client IP Address: The VPN Client Address for BiGuard VPN Client, this value will
be apply on both remote ID and remote Network as single address.
Back: Back to the Previous page.
Next: Go to the next page.
After your configuration is done, you will see a Configuration Summary.
Back: Back to the Previous page.
Done: Click Done to apply the rule.
98
4.4.6.1.2
IPSec Policy
Click Create to create a new IPSec VPN connection account.
Configuring a New VPN Connection
99
Connection Name: A user-defined name for the connection.
Tunnel: Select Enable to activate this tunnel. Select Disable to deactivate this
tunnel.
Local: This section configures the local host.
ID: This is the identity type of the local router or host. Choose from the
following four options:
WAN IP Address: Automatically use the current WAN Address as ID
IP Address: Use an IP address format.
FQDN DNS(Fully Qualified Domain Name): Consists of a hostname and
domain name. For example, WWW.VPN.COM is a FQDN. WWW is the host name,
VPN.COM is the domain name. When you enter the FQDN of the local host, the
router will automatically seek the IP address of the FQDN.
FQUN E-Mail(Fully Qualified User Name): Consists of a username and its
domain name. For example, [email protected] is a FQUN. "user" is the username and
"vpn.com" is the domain name.
Data: Enter the ID data using the specific ID type.
Network: Set the IP address, IP range, subnet, or address range of the local
network.
Any Local Address: Will enable any local address on the network.
Subnet: The subnet of the local network. Selecting this option enables you
to enter an IP address and netmask.
IP Range: The IP Range of the Local network.
Single Address: The IP address of the local host.
Remote: This section configures the remote host.
Secure Gateway Address (or Domain Name): The IP address or hostname of
the remote VPN device that is connected and establishes a VPN tunnel.
ID: The identity type of the local host. Choose from the following three options:
Remote IP Address: Automatically use the remote gateway Address as ID
with ID type – IP Address.
IP Address: Use an IP address format.
FQDN DNS(Fully Qualified Domain Name): Consists of a hostname and
domain name. For example, WWW.VPN.COM is a FQDN. WWW is the host name,
VPN.COM is the domain name. When you enter the FQDN of the local host, the
router will automatically seek the IP address of the FQDN.
FQUN E-Mail(Fully Qualified User Name): Consists of a username and its
domain name. For example, [email protected] is a FQUN. "user" is the username and
"vpn.com" is the domain name.
100
Data: Enter the ID data using the specific ID type.
Network: Set the subnet, IP Range, single address, or gateway address of the
remote network.
Subnet: The subnet of the remote network. Selecting this option allows
you to enter an IP address and netmask.
IP Range: The IP Range of the remote network.
Single Address: The IP address of the remote host.
Gateway Address: The gateway address of the remote host.
Proposal:
Secure Association (SA): SA is a method of establishing a security policy
between two points. There are three methods of creating SA, each varying in
degrees of security and speed of negotiation:
Main Mode: Uses the automated Internet Key Exchange (IKE) setup; most
secure method with the highest level of security.
Aggressive Mode: Uses the automated Internet Key Exchange (IKE) setup;
mid-level security. Speed is faster than Main mode.
Manual Key: Standard level of security. It is the fastest of the three
methods.
Method: There are two methods of checking the authentication information, AH
(Authentication Header) and ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload). Use ESP for
greater security so that data will be encrypted and authenticated. AH data will be
authenticated but not encrypted.
Encryption Protocol: Select the encryption method from the pull-down menu.
There are several options: DES, 3DES, and AES (128, 192 and 256). 3DES and AES
are more powerful but increase latency.
DES: Stands for Data Encryption Standard. It uses a 56-bit encryption
method.
3DES: Stands for Triple Data Encryption Standard. It uses a 168-bit
encryption method.
AES: Stands for Advanced Encryption Standard. You can use 128, 192 or
256 bits as encryption method.
Authentication Protocol: Authentication establishes data integrity and ensures
it is not tampered with while in transit. There are two options: Message Digest 5
(MD5), and Secure Hash Algorithm (SHA1). While slower, SHA1 is more resistant to
brute-force attacks than MD5.
MD5: A one-way hashing algorithm that produces a 128−bit hash.
SHA1: A one-way hashing algorithm that produces a 160−bit hash.
Perfect Forward Secure: Choose whether to enable PFS using Diffie-Hellman
101
public-key cryptography to change encryption keys during the second phase of VPN
negotiation. This function will provide better security, but extends the VPN
negotiation time. Diffie-Hellman is a public-key cryptography protocol that allows
two parties to establish a shared secret over the Internet.
Pre-shared Key: This is for the Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol. IKE is
used to establish a shared security policy and authenticated keys for services (such
as IPSec) that require a key. Before any IPSec traffic can be passed, each router
must be able to verify the identity of its peer. This can be done by manually entering
the pre-shared key into both sides (router or hosts).
IKE Life Time: Allows you to specify the timer interval for renegotiation of the
IKE security association. The value is in seconds, e.g. 28800 seconds = 8 hours.
Key Life Time: Allows you to specify the timer interval for renegotiation of
another key. The value is in seconds e.g. 3600 seconds = 1 hour.
Netbios Broadcast: Allows BiGuard to send local Netbios Broadcast packet
through the IPSec Tunnel, please select Enable or Disable.
Click the Apply button to save your changes.
After you have created the IPSec connection, the account information will be
displayed:
Name: This is the user-defined name of the connection.
Enable: This function activates or deactivates the IPSec connection.
Local Subnet: Displays IP address and subnet of the local network.
102
Remote Subnet: Displays IP address and subnet of the remote network.
Remote Gateway: This is the IP address or Domain Name of the remote VPN device
that is connected and has an established IPSec tunnel.
IPSec Proposal: This is the selected IPSec security method.
For examples on how to apply IPSec to your network, see Appendix F: IPSec Logs
and Events.
4.4.6.2 PPTP
PPTP is a set of protocols that enable Virtual Private Networks (VPN). VPN is a way
to establish secured communication tunnels to an organization’s network via the
Internet.
PPTP function: Select Enable to activate PPTP Server. Disable to deactivate PPTP
Server function.
Auth. Type: The authentication type, Pap or Chap, PaP, Chap.
Data Encryption: Select Enable or Disable the Data Encryption.
Encryption Key Length: Auto, 40 bits or 128 bits.
Peer Encryption Mode: Only Stateless or Allow Stateless and Stateful.
IP Addresses Assigned to Peer Start from: 192.168.1.x: please input the IP assigned
range from 1 ~ 254 (except BiGuard 30’s LAN IP address with 192.168.1.254 as
BiGuard 30’s default LAN IP address and IP pool range of DHCP server settings with
100~199 as BiGuard 30’s default DHCP IP pool range.)
Idle Timeout “ ” Min: Specify the time for remote peer to be disconnected without
any activities, from 0~120.
Click Create to create a new PPTP VPN connection account.
103
Connection Name: A user-defined name for the connection.
Tunnel: Select Enable to activate this tunnel. Select Disable to deactivate this
tunnel.
Username: Please input the username for this account.
Password: Please input the password for this account.
Retype Password: Please repeat the same password as previous field.
Connection Type: Select Remote Access for single user, Select LAN to LAN for
remote gateway.
Peer Network IP: Please input the IP for remote network.
Peer Netmask: Please input the Netmask for remote network.
Netbios Broadcast: Allows BiGuard to send local Netbios Broadcast packet through
the PPTP Tunnel, please select Enable or Disable.
4.4.7
QoS
BiGuard 2/10 can optimize your bandwidth by assigning priority to both inbound
and outbound data with QoS. This menu allows you to configure QoS for both
inbound and outbound traffic.
104
The first menu screen gives you an overview of which WAN ports currently have QoS
active, and the bandwidth settings for each.
WAN Outbound:
QoS Function: QoS status for WAN outbound. Select Enable to activate QoS for
WAN’s outgoing traffic. Select Disable to deactivate.
Max ISP Bandwidth: The maximum bandwidth afforded by the ISP for WAN’s
outbound traffic.
WAN Inbound:
QoS Function: QoS status for WAN inbound. Select Enable to activate QoS for
WAN’s incoming traffic. Select Disable to deactivate.
Max ISP Bandwidth: The maximum bandwidth afforded by the ISP for WAN’s
inbound traffic.
Creating a New QoS Rule
To get started using QoS, you will need to establish QoS rules. These rules tell the
BiGuard 2/10 how to handle both incoming and outgoing traffic. The following
example shows you how to configure WAN Outbound QoS. Configuring the other
traffic types follows the same process.
To make a new rule, click Rule Table. This will bring you to the Rule Table which
displays the rules currently in effect.
105
Next, click Create to open the QoS Rule Configuration window.
Application: User defined application name for the current rule.
Packet Type: The type of packet this rule applies to. Choose from Any, TCP, UDP,
or ICMP.
Guaranteed: The guaranteed amount of bandwidth for this rule as a percentage.
Maximum: The maximum amount of bandwidth for this rule as a percentage.
106
Priority: The priority assigned to this service. Select a value from 0 to 6, 0 being
highest.
DSCP Marking: Used to classify traffic. Select from Best Effort, Premium, Gold
Service (High Medium, Low), Silver (H,M,L), and Bronze (H,M,L).
Address Type: The type of address this rule applies to. Select IP Address or MAC
Address.
For IP Address (default)…
Source IP Address Range: The range of source IP Addresses this rule
applies to.
Destination IP Address Range: The range of destination IP Addresses this
rule applies to.
Source Port Range: The range of source ports this rule applies to.
Destination Port Range: The range of destination ports this rule applies to.
Helper: You could also select the application type you would like to apply
for automatic input.
Click Apply to save your changes.
For MAC Address:
Source MAC Address: The source MAC Address of the device this rule
applies to.
Candidates: You can also select the Candidates which are referred from
the ARP table for automatic input.
107
Source Port Range: The range of source ports this rule applies to.
Destination Port Range: The range of destination ports this rule applies to.
Click Apply to save your changes.
Helper: You could also select the application type you would like to apply
for automatic input.
4.4.8
Virtual Server
In TCP/IP and UDP networks, a port is a 16-bit number used to identify which
application program (usually a server) incoming connections should be delivered to.
Some ports have numbers that are pre-assigned to them by the Internet Assigned
Numbers Authority (IANA), and these are referred to as "well-known ports". Servers
follow the well-known port assignments so clients can locate them.
If you wish to run a server on your network that can be accessed from the WAN (i.e.
from other machines on the Internet that are outside your local network), or any
application that can accept incoming connections (e.g. peer-to-peer applications)
and are using NAT (Network Address Translation), then you will usually need to
configure your router to forward these incoming connection attempts using specific
ports to the PC on your network running the application. You will also need to use
port forwarding if you want to host an online game server. The reason for this is that
when using NAT, your publicly accessible IP address will be used by and point to your
router, which then needs to deliver all traffic to the private IP addresses used by
your PCs. Please see the WAN Configuration section of this manual for more
information on NAT.
BiGuard 2/10 can also be configured as a virtual server so that remote users
accessing services such as Web or FTP services via the public (WAN) IP address can
be automatically redirected to local servers in the LAN network. Depending on the
requested service (TCP/UDP port number), the device redirects the external service
request to the appropriate server within the LAN network.
4.4.8.1
DMZ
The DMZ Host is a local computer exposed to the Internet. When setting a particular
internal IP address as the DMZ Host, all incoming packets will be checked by the
Firewall and NAT algorithms then passed to the DMZ host, when a packet received
108
does not use a port number used by any other Virtual Server entries.
Caution: Such Local computer exposure to the Internet may face a variety of
security risks.
Enable DMZ function:
Enable: Activates your router’s DMZ function.
Disable: Default setting. Disables the DMZ function.
DMZ IP Address: Give a static IP address to the DMZ Host when the Enable radio
button is selected. Be aware this IP will be exposed to the WAN/Internet.
Candidates: You can also select the Candidates which are referred from the ARP
table for automatic input.
Select the Apply button to apply your changes.
4.4.8.2
Port Forwarding
Because NAT can act as a "natural" Internet firewall, your router protects your
network from being accessed by outside users, as all incoming connection attempts
will point to your router unless you specifically create Virtual Server entries to
forward those ports to a PC on your network.
109
When your router needs to allow outside users to access internal servers, e.g. a web
server, FTP server, Email server or game server, the router can act as a "virtual
server". You can set up a local server with a specific port number for the service to
use, e.g. web/HTTP (port 80), FTP (port 21), Telnet (port 23), SMTP (port 25), or
POP3 (port 110). When an incoming access request is received, it will be forwarded
to the corresponding internal server.
Click Create to add a new port forwarding rule. There are two port forwarding
modes: Port Range Mapping and Port Redirection.
This function allows any incoming data addressed to a range of service port
numbers (from the Internet/WAN Port) to be re-directed to a particular LAN
private/internal IP address. This option gives you the ability to handle applications
that use more than one port such as games and audio/video conferencing.
110
Application: User defined application name for the current rule.
Helper: You could also select the application type you would like to apply for
automatic input.
Protocol type: please select protocol type
External Port: Enter the port number of the service that will be sent to the Internal
IP address.
Redirect Port: Enter a new port number for the service that will be sent to the
Internal IP address.
External Port Range: Enter the port number of the service that will be sent to the
Internal IP address.
Internal IP Address: Enter the LAN server/host IP address that the service request
from the Internet will be sent to.
Candidates: You can also select the Candidates which are referred from the ARP
table for automatic input.
NOTE: You need to give your LAN server/host a static IP address for the Virtual
Server to work properly.
Click Apply to save your changes.
Using port forwarding does have security implications, as outside users will be able
to connect to PCs on your network. For this reason, using specific Virtual Server
entries just for the ports your application requires, instead of using DMZ is
recommended.
111
4.4.9
Advanced
Configuration options within the Advanced section are for users who wish to take
advantage of the more advanced features of BiGuard 2/10. Users who do not
understand the features should not attempt to reconfigure their router, unless
advised to do so by support staff.
There are three items within the Advanced section: Static Route, Dynamic DNS and
Device Management.
4.4.9.1
Static Route
The static route settings enable the router to route IP packets to another network
(subnet). The routing table stores the routing information so the router knows
where to redirect the IP packets.
Click on Static Route and then click Create to add a routing table.
112
Rule: Select Enable to activate this rule, Disable to deactivate this rule.
Destination: This is the destination subnet IP address.
Netmask: This is the subnet mask of the destination IP addresses based on above
destination subnet IP.
Gateway: This is the gateway IP address to which packets are to be forwarded.
Interface: Select the interface through which packets are to be forwarded.
Cost: This is the same meaning as Hop.
Click Apply to save your changes.
4.4.9.2
Dynamic DNS
The Dynamic DNS function allows you to alias a dynamic IP address to a static
hostname, allowing users whose ISP does not assign them a static IP address to use
a domain name. This is especially useful when hosting servers via your WAN
connection, so that anyone wishing to connect to you may use your domain name,
rather than having to use a dynamic IP address that changes periodically. This
dynamic IP address is the WAN IP address of the router, which is assigned to you by
your ISP. Click Edit in the Dynamic DNS Settings Table to set related parameters for
a specific interface.
113
You will first need to register and establish an account with the Dynamic DNS
provider using their website,
Example: DYNDNS
http://www.dyndns.org/
(BiGuard 2/10 supports several Dynamic DNS providers , such as
www.zoneedit.com , www.orgdns.org , www.dhs.org , www.dyns.cx ,
www.3domain.hk , www.dyndns.org , www.3322.org )
Dynamic DNS:
Disable: Check to disable the Dynamic DNS function.
Enable: Check to enable the Dynamic DNS function. The following fields will be
activated and required:
Dynamic DNS Server: Select the DDNS service you have established an account
with.
Wildcard: Select this check box to enable the DYNDNS Wildcard.
Domain Name: Enter your registered domain name for this service.
Username: Enter your registered user name for this service.
Password: Enter your registered password for this service.
Click Apply to save your changes.
114
4.4.9.3
Device Management
The Device Management Advanced Configuration settings allow you to control your
router’s security options and device monitoring features.
Device Name
Name: Enter a name for this device.
Web Server Settings
HTTP Port: This is the port number the router’s embedded web server (for
web-based configuration) will use. The default value is the standard HTTP port, 80.
Users may specify an alternative if, for example, they are running a web server on
a PC within their LAN.
Management IP Address: You may specify an IP address allowed to logon and access
the router’s web server. Setting the IP address to 0.0.0.0 will disable IP address
restrictions, allowing users to login from any IP address.
Expire to auto-logout: Specify a time frame for the system to auto-logout the user’s
configuration session.
Example: User A changes HTTP port number to 100, specifies their own IP address
of 192.168.1.100 and sets the logout time to be 100 seconds. The router will only
allow User A access from the IP address 192.168.1.100 to logon to the Web GUI by
typing: http://192.168.1.254:100 in their web browser. After 100 seconds, the
device will automatically logout User A.
SNMP Access Control
SNMP Function: Select Enable to activate this function, Disable to deactivate this
function.
115
SNMP V1 and V2
Read Community: Input the string for Read community to match your SNMP
software.
Write Community: Input the string for Write community to match your SNMP
software.
Trap Community: Input the string for Trap community to match your SNMP software.
IP Address: Input the device IP address with SNMP software installed.
SNMP V3
Username: Input the Username for your SNMP software.
Password: Input the Password for your SNMP software.
Access Right: Select Read to allow your SNMP software to read the information.
Select Read/Write to allow your SNMP software to read and write the information.
4.5 Save Configuration To Flash
After changing the router’s configuration settings, you must save all of the
configuration parameters to flash memory to avoid them being lost after turning off
or resetting your router. Click Apply to write your new configuration to flash
memory.
4.6 Logout
To exit the router’s web interface, click Logout. Please ensure that you have saved
your configuration settings before you logout.
116
Be aware that the router is restricted to only one PC accessing the web configuration
interface at a time. Once a PC has logged into the web interface, other PCs cannot
gain access until the current PC has logged out. If the previous PC forgets to logout,
the second PC can access the page after a user-defined period (5 minutes by
default). You can modify this value using the Advanced > Device Management
section of the Web Configuration Interface. Please see the Advanced section of this
manual for more information.
117
Chapter 5: Troubleshooting
5.1 Basic Functionality
This section deals with issues regarding your BiGuard 2/10’s basic functions.
5.1.1
Router Won’t Turn On
If the Power and other LEDs fail to light when your BiGuard 2/10 is turned on:
- Make sure that the power cord is properly connected to your firewall and that the
power supply adapter is properly connected to a functioning power outlet.
- Check that you are using the 12VDC power adapter supplied by Billion for this
product.
If the error persists, you may have a hardware problem, and should contact
technical support.
5.1.2
LEDs Never Turn Off
When your BiGuard 2/10 is turned on, the LEDs turn on for about 10 seconds and
then turn off. If all the LEDs stay on, there may be a hardware problem.
If all LEDs are still on one minute after powering up:
- Cycle the power to see if the router recovers.
- Clear the configuration to factory defaults.
If the error persists, you may have a hardware problem, and should contact
technical support.
5.1.3
LAN or Internet Port Not On
If either the LAN LEDs or Internet LED does not light when the Ethernet connection
is made, check the following:
118
- Make sure each Ethernet cable connection is secure at the firewall and at the hub
or workstation.
- Make sure that power is turned on to the connected hub or workstation.
- Be sure you are using the correct cable. When connecting the firewall’s Internet
port to a cable or DSL modem, use the cable that was supplied with the cable or DSL
modem. This cable could be a standard straight-through Ethernet cable or an
Ethernet crossover cable.
5.1.4
Forgot My Password
Try entering the default User Name and Password:
User Name: admin
Password: admin
Please note that both the User Name and Password are case-sensitive.
If this fails, you can restore your BiGuard 2/10 to its factory default settings by
holding the Reset button on the back of your router until the Status LED begins to
blink. Then enter the default User Name and Password to access your router.
5.2
LAN Interface
Refer to this section for issues relating to BiGuard 2/10’s LAN Interface.
5.2.1
Can’t Access BiGuard 2/10 from the LAN
If there is no response from BiGuard 2/10 from the LAN:
- Check your Ethernet cable types and each connection.
- Make sure the computer’s Ethernet adapter is installed and functioning properly.
If the error persists, you may have a hardware problem, and should contact
technical support.
5.2.2
Can’t Ping Any PC on the LAN
If PCs connected to the LAN cannot be pinged:
119
- Check the 10/100 LAN LEDs on BiGuard 2/10’s front panel. One of these LEDs
should be on. If they are both off, check the cables between BiGuard 2/10 and the
hub or PC.
- Check the corresponding LAN LEDs on your PC’s Ethernet device are on.
- Make sure that driver software for your PC’s Ethernet adapter and TCP/IP software
is correctly installed and configured on your PC.
- Verify the IP address and the subnet mask of BiGuard 2/10 and the computers are
on the same subnet.
5.2.3
Can’t Access Web Configuration Interface
If you are having trouble accessing BiGuard 2/10’s Web Configuration Interface
from a PC connected to the network:
- Check the connection between the PC and the router.
- Make sure your PC’s IP address is on the same subnet as the router.
- If your BiGuard 2/10’s IP address has changed and you don’t know the current IP
address, reset the router to factory defaults by holding the Reset button on the back
of your router for 6 seconds. This will reset the router’s IP address to
192.168.1.254.
- Check to see if your browser had Java, JavaScript, or ActiveX enabled. If you are
using Internet Explorer, click Refresh to ensure that the Java applet is loaded.
- Try closing the browser and re-launching it.
- Make sure you are using the correct User Name and Password. User Names and
Passwords are case-sensitive, so make sure that CAPS LOCK is not on when
entering this information.
- Try clearing your browser’s cache.
1. With Internet Explorer, click Tools > Internet Options.
2. Under the General tab, click Delete Files.
120
3. Make sure that the Delete All Offline Content checkbox is checked, and click
OK.
4. Click OK under Internet Options to close the dialogue.
- In Windows, type arp –d at the command prompt to clear you computer’s ARP
table.
121
5.2.3.1
Pop-up Windows
To use the Web Configuration Interface, you need to disable pop-up blocking. You
can either disable pop-up blocking, which is enabled by default in Windows XP
Service Pack 2, or create an exception for your BiGuard 2/10’s IP address.
Disabling All Pop-ups
In Internet Explorer, select Tools > Pop-up Blocker and select Turn Off Pop-up
Blocker.
You can also check if pop-up blocking is disabled in the Pop-up Blocker section in
the Privacy tab of the Internet Options dialogue.
1. In Internet Explorer, select Tools > Internet Options.
2. Under the Privacy tab, clear the Block pop-ups checkbox and click Apply to
save your changes.
Enabling Pop-up Blockers with Exceptions
If you only want to allow pop-up windows with your BiGuard 2/10:
1. In Internet Explorer, select Tools > Internet Options.
2. Under the Privacy tab, click Settings to open the Pop-up Blocker Settings
dialogue.
3. Enter the IP address of your router.
4. Click Add to add the IP address to the list of Allowed sites.
5. Click Close to return to the Privacy tab of the Internet Options dialogue.
6. Click Apply to save your changes.
5.2.3.2
Javascripts
If the Web Configuration Interface is not displaying properly in your browser, check
to make sure that JavaScripts are allowed.
1. In Internet Explorer, click Tools > Internet Options.
2. Under the Security tab, click Custom Level.
122
3. Under Scripting, check to see if Active scripting is set to Enable.
4. Ensure that Scripting of Java applets is set to Enable.
5. Click OK to close the dialogue.
5.2.3.3
Java Permissions
The following Java Permissions should also be given for the Web Configuration
Interface to display properly:
1. In Internet Explorer, click Tools > Internet Options.
2. Under the Security tab, click Custom Level.
3. Under Microsoft VM*, make sure that a safety level for Java permissions is
selected.
4. Click OK to close the dialogue.
NOTE: If Java from Sun Microsystems is installed, scroll down to Java (Sun) and
ensure that the checkbox is filled.
123
5.3
WAN Interface
If you are having problems with the WAN Interface, refer to the tips below.
5.3.1
Can’t Get WAN IP Address from the ISP
If the WAN IP address cannot be obtained from the ISP:
- If you are using PPPoE or PPTP, you will need a user name and password. Ensure
that you have entered the correct Service Type, User Name, and Password.
Note that user names and passwords are case-sensitive.
- If your ISP requires MAC address authentication, clone the MAC address from your
PC on the LAN as BiGuard 2/10’s WAN MAC address.
- If your ISP requires host name authentication, configure your PC’s name as
BiGuard 2/10’s system name.
5.4 ISP Connection
Unless you have been assigned a static IP address by your ISP, your BiGuard 2/10
will need to request an IP address from the ISP in order to access the Internet. If
your BiGuard 2/10 is unable to access the Internet, first determine if your router is
able to obtain a WAN IP address from the ISP.
To check the WAN IP address:
1. Open your browser and choose an external site (i.e. www.billion.com).
124
2. Access the Web Configuration Interface by entering your router’s IP address
(default is 192.168.1.254).
3. The WAN IP Status is displayed on the first page.
4. Check to see that the WAN port is properly connected to the ISP. If a Connected
by (x) where (x) is your connection method is not shown, your router has not
successfully obtained an IP address from your ISP.
If an IP address cannot be obtained:
1. Turn off the power to your cable or DSL modem.
2. Turn off the power to your BiGuard 2/10.
3. Wait five minutes and power on your cable or DSL modem.
4. When the modem has finished synchronizing with the ISP (generally shown by
LEDs on the modem), turn on the power to your router.
If an IP address still cannot be obtained:
- Your ISP may require a login program. Consult your ISP whether they require
PPPoE or some other type of login.
- If your ISP requires a login, check to see that your User Name and Password are
entered correctly.
- Your ISP may check for your PC’s host name. Assign the PC Host Name of your ISP
125
account as your PC’s host name on the router.
- Your ISP may check for your PCs MAC address. Either inform your ISP that you
have purchased a new network device and ask them to use your router’s MAC
address, or configure your router to spoof your PC’s MAC address.
If an IP address can be obtained, but your PC cannot load any web pages from the
Internet:
- Your PC may not recognize DNS server addresses. Configure your PC manually
with DNS addresses.
- Your PC may not have the router correctly configured as its TCP/IP gateway.
5.5
Problems with Date and Time
If the date and time is not being displayed correctly, be sure to set it for your
BiGuard 2/10 via the Web Configuration Interface. Both date and time can be found
under Configuration > System > Time Zone.
5.6 Restoring Factory Defaults
You can restore your BiGuard 2/10 to its factory settings by holding the Reset button
on the back of your router until the Status LED begins to blink. This will reset your
router to its default settings.
126
Appendix A: Product Specifications
A.1 BiGuard 10 Product Specifications
Virtual Private Network
- IPSec VPN, supports up to 10 IPSec tunnels
- IPSec VPN performance is up to 20 Mbps
- PPTP VPN, support up to 4 PPTP tunnels
- PPTP VPN performance is up to 10 Mbps
- Manual key, Internet Key Exchange (IKE) authentication and Key Management
- Authentication (MD5 / SHA-1)
- DES/3DES encryption
- AES 128/192/256 encryption
- IP Authentication Header (AH)
- IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
- Dynamic VPN (FQDN) support
- Supports remote access and office-to-office IPSec Connections
Firewall
- Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) and Denial of Service (DoS) prevention
- Packet filter un-permitted inbound (WAN)/Inbound
- (LAN) Internet access by IP address, port number and packet type
- Email alert and logs of attack
- Intrusion detection
Content Filtering
- URL Filter settings prevent user access to certain sites on the Internet
- Java Applet/Active X/Cookie Blocking
127
Quality of Service Control
- Supports DiffServ approach
- Traffic prioritization and bandwidth management based-on IP protocol, port
number and IP or MAC address
Web-Based Management
- Easy-to-use WEB interface
- Firmware upgradeable via WEB interface
- Local and remote management via HTTP & HTTPS
Network Protocols and Features
- Web Diagnostics
- System Logs
- PPPoE, PPTP, Big Pond and DHCP client connections to the ISP
- NAT, static routing and RIP-2
- Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS)
- Virtual Server and DMZ
- DHCP Server
- NTP
Physical Interface
Ethernet WAN 1 ports (10/100 Base-T), support Auto- Crossover (MDI/MDIX)
Ethernet LAN 8 ports (10/100 Base-T) switch, support Auto- Crossover (MDI/MDIX)
Physical Specifications
Dimensions: 18.98" x 6.54" x 1.77" (482mm x 166 mm x 45mm, with Bracket)
9.84" x 6.54" x 1.38" (250mm x 166 mm x 35mm, non Bracket)
Power Requirement
Input: 12VDC, 1A
Operating Environment
- Operating temperature: 0 ~ 40 degrees Celsius
- Storage temperature: -20 ~ 70 degrees Celsius
- Humidity: 20 ~ 95% non-condensing
128
A.2
BiGuard 2 Product Specifications
Virtual Private Network
- IPSec VPN, supports up to 2 IPSec tunnels
- IPSec VPN performance is up to 4 Mbps
- PPTP VPN, support up to 4 PPTP tunnels
- PPTP VPN performance is up to 10 Mbps
- Manual key, Internet Key Exchange (IKE) authentication and Key Management
- Authentication (MD5 / SHA-1)
- DES/3DES encryption
- AES 128/192/256 encryption
- IP Authentication Header (AH)
- IP Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
- Dynamic VPN (FQDN) support
- Supports remote access and office-to-office IPSec Connections
Firewall
- Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) and Denial of Service (DoS) prevention
- Packet filter un-permitted inbound (WAN)/Inbound
- (LAN) Internet access by IP address, port number and packet type
- Email alert and logs of attack
- Intrusion detection
129
Content Filtering
- URL Filter settings prevent user access to certain sites on the Internet
- Java Applet/Active X/Cookie Blocking
Quality of Service Control
- Supports DiffServ approach
- Traffic prioritization and bandwidth management based-on IP protocol, port
number and IP or MAC address
Web-Based Management
- Easy-to-use WEB interface
- Firmware upgradeable via WEB interface
- Local and remote management via HTTP & HTTPS
Network Protocols and Features
- Web Diagnostics
- System Logs
- PPPoE, PPTP, Big Pond and DHCP client connections to the ISP
- NAT, static routing and RIP-2
- Dynamic Domain Name System (DDNS)
- Virtual Server and DMZ
- DHCP Server
- NTP
Physical Interface
Ethernet WAN 1 ports (10/100 Base-T), support Auto- Crossover (MDI/MDIX)
Ethernet LAN 8 ports (10/100 Base-T) switch, support Auto- Crossover (MDI/MDIX)
Physical Specifications
Dimensions: 10.43" x 6.93" x 1.73" (265mm x 176 mm x 44mm)
Power Requirement
Input: 12VDC, 1A
Operating Environment
- Operating temperature: 0 ~ 40 degrees Celsius
- Storage temperature: -20 ~ 70 degrees Celsius
- Humidity: 20 ~ 95% non-condensing
130
Appendix B: Customer Support
Most problems can be solved by referring to the Troubleshooting section in the
User’s Manual. If you cannot resolve the problem with the Troubleshooting chapter,
please contact the dealer where you purchased this product.
Contact Billion
Worldwide
http://www.billion.com/
131
Appendix C: FCC Interference Statement
This device complies with Part 15 of FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following
two conditions:
- This device may not cause harmful interference.
- This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may
cause undesired operations.
This equipment has been tested and found to comply within the limits for a Class B
digital device pursuant to Part 15 of the FCC Rules. These limits are designed to
provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in a commercial
environment.
If this equipment does cause harmful interference to radio/television reception,
which can be determined by turning the equipment off and on, the user is
encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of the following
measures:
- Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna.
- Increase the separation between the equipment and the receiver.
- Connect the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the
receiver is connected.
- Consult the dealer or an experienced radio/TV technician for help.
Notice:
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the user’s authority to operate the equipment.
132
Appendix D: Network, Routing, and Firewall Basics
D.1 Network Basics
D.1.1
IP Addresses
With the number of TCP/IP networks interconnected across the globe, ensuring that
transmitted data reaches the correct destination requires each computer on the
Internet has a unique identifier. This identifier is known as the IP address. The
Internet Protocol (IP) uses a 32-bit address structure, and the address is usually
written in dot notation.
A typical IP address looks like this:
198.25.12.8
The 32 bits of the address are subdivided into two parts. The first part of the address
identifies the network, while the second part identifies the host node or station on
the network. How the address is divided depends on the address range and the
application.
The five standard IP address classes each have different methods to determine the
network and host sections of the address, which makes multiple hosts on a network
possible. TCP/IP software identifies each address class by reading a unique bit
pattern that precedes each address type. Once the address class has been
recognized, the software can then correctly determine the addresses’ host section.
With this structure, IP addresses can uniquely identify each network and node.
D.1.1.1
Netmask
With each address class, the size of the two subdivided parts (network address and
host address) is implied by the class. A net mask associated with an IP address can
also express this partitioning. A net mask 32-bit quantity yields the network address
when combined with an IP address. As an example, the net masks for Class A, B,
and C are 255.0.0.0, 255.255.0.0, and 255.255.255.0 respectively.
Instead of dotted-decimal notation, the net mask can also be written in terms of the
number of ones from the left. This number is added to the IP address, following a
back slash (/). For example, a typical Class C address could be written as
133
192.168.234.245/24, which means that the net mask is 24 ones followed by 8 zeros.
(11111111 11111111 11111111 00000000).
D.1.1.2
Subnet Addressing
Subnet addressing enables the split of one IP network address into multiple physical
networks. These smaller networks are called subnetworks, and these subnetworks
can make efficient use of each address when compared to needing a different
network number at each end of a routed link. This technique is especially useful in
smaller network environments, such as small office LANs.
A Class B address provides 16 bits of node numbers, which enable 65,536 nodes.
Since most organizations don’t require such a large number of nodes, the free bits
can be reassigned with subnet addressing.
Multiple Class C addresses can be made from a Class B address. For example, the IP
address of 172.20.0.0 allows eight extra bits to use as a subnet address, since node
addresses are limited to a maximum of 255. The IP address of 172.20.52.212 would
be read as IP network address 172.20, subnet number 52, and node number 212.
Besides extending the number of available addresses, this technique also allows a
network manager to design an address scheme for the network by using different
subnets. This can be useful when trying to distinguish other geographical locations
in the network or other departments in the organization.
D.1.1.3
Private IP Addresses
When isolated from the Internet, the hosts on your local network may be assigned
IP addresses with no conflicts. However, the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority
(IANA) has reserved several blocks of IP addresses for private networks. These
include:
10.0.0.0 - 10.255.255.255
172.16.0.0 - 172.16.255.255
192.168.0.0 - 192.168.255.255
When assigning IP addresses to your private network, be sure to use IP addresses
from these ranges.
134
D.1.2
Network Address Translation (NAT)
Traditionally, multiple PCs that needed simultaneous Internet access also required a
range of IP addresses from the Internet Service Provider (ISP). Not only was this
method very costly, but the number of available IP addresses for PCs is limited.
Instead, BiGuard 2/10 uses a type of address sharing called Network Address
Translation to grant Internet access to several PCs on the same network through the
same Internet account. This method translates internal IP addresses to a single
address that is unique on the Internet. This unique address can either be fixed or
dynamic, depending on the type of Internet account, and the internal LAN IP
addresses may also be either private or registered addresses.
NAT also offers firewall-like protection to your network, since internal LAN
addresses are shielded from the public Internet. All incoming traffic to the public IP
address is handled by the router, which means added security for your network from
intruders. If a particular PC on your LAN requires access from outside PCs, you can
use port forwarding to accomplish this. For information on how to configure port
forwarding on BiGuard 2/10, refer to the Virtual Server section of Chapter 4:
Router Configuration.
D.1.3
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
If the PCs on a LAN require access to the Internet, each PC must be configured with
an IP address, a gateway address, and one or more DNS server addresses. Rather
than configuring each PC manually, you can instead configure a network device to
act as a Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server. PCs on the network can
automatically obtain IP addresses from a list of addresses stored on the DHCP server.
In addition, other information such as gateway and DNS address can also be
assigned with a DHCP server. When connecting to the ISP, BiGuard 2/10 also
functions as a DHCP client. BiGuard 2/10 can automatically obtain an IP address,
subnet mask, gateway address, and DNS server addresses if the ISP assigns this
information via DHCP.
D.2
D.2.1
Router Basics
What is a Router?
A router is a device that forwards data packets along networks. A router is
135
connected to at least two networks. Usually, this is a LAN and a WAN that is
connected to an ISP network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where
two or more networks connect. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to
determine the best path for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols to
communicate with each other and configure the best route between any two hosts.
Routers can vary in performance and scale, the types of physical WAN connection
they support, and the number of routing protocols supported. BiGuard 2/10 offers a
convenient and powerful way for small-to-medium businesses to connect their
networks.
D.2.2
Why use a Router?
While large bandwidth can easily and inexpensively be provided in a LAN, having
high bandwidth between a LAN and the Internet can be prohibitively expensive.
Because of this, Internet access is usually done through a slower WAN link, such as
a cable or DSL modem. To efficiently use this slower connection, a router acts as a
mechanism for selecting and transmitting data meant for the Internet. By using a
router, organizations can enjoy relatively inexpensive Internet access, while
maintaining a high-speed local area network.
D.2.3
Routing Information Protocol (RIP)
Routing Information Protocol (RIP) is an interior gateway protocol that specifies how
routers exchange routing table information. Routers periodically update each other
with RIP, changing their routing tables when necessary.
BiGuard 2/10 supports the RIP protocol. RIP also supports subnet and multicast
protocols. RIP is not required for most home applications.
D.3 Firewall Basics
D.3.1
What is a Firewall?
Firewalls prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks
connected to the Internet. All messages entering or leaving the intranet pass
through the firewall, which examines each message and blocks those that do not
meet the specified security criteria. With the functionality of a NAT router, the
136
firewall adds features that deal with outside Internet intrusion and attacks. When an
attack or intrusion is detected, the firewall can be configured to log the intrusion
attempt, and can also notify the administrator of the incident. With this information,
the administrator can work with the ISP to take action against the hacker. Against
some types of attacks, the firewall can discard intruder packets, thereby fending off
the hacker from the private network.
D.3.1.1
Stateful Packet Inspection
BiGuard 2/10 uses Stateful Packet Inspection (SPI) to protect your network from
intrusions and attacks. Unlike less sophisticated Internet sharing routers, SPI
ensures secure firewall filtering by intercepting incoming packets at the network
layer, and analyzing them for state-related information that is associated with all
network connections. User-level applications such as Web browsers and FTP can
make complex network traffic patterns, which BiGuard 2/10 analyzes by looking at
groups of connection states.
All state information is stored in a central cache. Traffic passing through the firewall
is analyzed against these states, and then is either allowed to pass through or
rejected.
D.3.1.2
Denial of Service (DoS) Attack
A hacker may be able to prevent your network from operating or communicating by
launching a Denial of Service (DoS) attack. The method used for such an attack can
be as simple as merely flooding your site with more requests than it can handle. A
more sophisticated attack may attempt to exploit some weakness in the operating
system used by your router or gateway. Some operating systems can be disrupted
by simply sending a packet with incorrect length information.
D.3.2
Why Use a Firewall?
With a LAN connected to the Internet through a router, there is a chance for hackers
to access or disrupt your network. A simple NAT router provides a basic level of
protection by shielding your network from the outside Internet. Still, there are ways
for more dedicated hackers to either obtain information about your network or
disrupt your network’s Internet access. Your BiGuard 2/10 provides an extra level of
protection from such attacks with its built-in firewall.
137
Appendix E: Virtual Private Networking
E.1
What is a VPN?
A Virtual Private Network (VPN) is a shared network where private data is
segmented from other traffic so that only the intended recipient has access. It
allows organizations to securely transmit data over a public medium like the
Internet. VPNs utilize tunnels, which allow data to be safely delivered to the
intended recipient.
Because private networks lack data security, IPSec-based VPNs employ encryption
technologies that protect a private network from data theft or tampering. These
private networks can be implemented over any type of IP network, which allows for
excellent flexibility.
E.1.1
VPN Applications
VPNs are traditionally used three ways:
- Extranets: Extranets are secure connections between two or more organizations.
IPSec-based VPNs are ideal for extranet connections, as they can be quickly and
inexpensively installed. Extranets are often used to securely share a company’s
information with suppliers, vendors, customers, or other businesses.
- Intranets: Intranets are private networks that connect an organization’s locations
together. These locations range from a headquarter, to branch offices, to a remote
employee’s home. Intranets are often used for email and for sharing applications
and files. A firewall protects Intranets from unauthorized access.
- Remote Access: Remote access enables mobile workers to access email and
business applications. Remote access VPNs greatly reduce expenses by enabling
mobile workers to dial a local Internet connection and then set up a secure
IPSec-based VPN communications to their organization.
E.2
What is IPSec?
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec) is a set of protocols and algorithms that provide
138
data authentication, integrity, and confidentiality as data is transferred across IP
networks. IPSec provides data security at the IP packet level, and protects against
possible security risks by protecting data. IPSec is widely used to establish VPNs.
There are three major functions of IPSec:
- Confidentiality: Conceals data through encryption.
- Integrity: Ensures that contents did not change in transit.
- Authentication: Verifies that packets received are actually from the claimed
sender.
E.2.1
IPSec Security Components
IPSec contains three major components:
- Authentication Header (AH): Provides authentication and integrity.
- Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP): Provides confidentiality, authentication,
and integrity.
- Internet Key Exchange (IKE): Provides key management and Security Association
(SA) management.
These components are discussed below.
E.2.1.1
Authentication Header (AH)
The Authentication Header (AH) is a protocol that provides authentication and
integrity, protecting data from tampering. It provides authentication of either all or
part of the contents of a datagram through the addition of a header that is
calculated based on the values in the datagram.
The AH can also protect packets from unauthorized re-transmission with anti-replay
functionality. The presence of the AH header allows us to verify the integrity of the
message, but doesn't encrypt it. Thus, AH provides authentication but not privacy.
ESP protects data confidentiality. Both AH and ESP can be used together for added
protection.
139
A typical AH packet looks like this:
Next
Payload
Header
Length
Reserved
SPI
Sequence Number
Authentication Data
E.2.1.2
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP)
Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) provides privacy for data through encryption.
An encryption algorithm combines the data with a key to encrypt it. It then
repackages the data using a special format, and transmits it to the destination. The
receiver then decrypts the data using the same algorithm. ESP is usually used with
AH to provide added data security.
ESP divides its fields into three components…
ESP Header: Placed before encrypted data, the ESP Header contains the SPI and
Sequence Number. Its placement depends on whether ESP is used in transport
mode or tunnel mode.
ESP Trailer: Placed after the encrypted data, the ESP Trailer contains padding that is
used to align the encrypted data.
ESP Authentication Data: This contains an Integrity Check Value (ICV) for when
ESP's optional authentication feature is used.
ESP provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality, which provides data
content protection, and protects against data tampering. A typical ESP packet looks
like this:
140
E.2.1.3
Security Associations (SA)
Security Associations are a one-way relationships between sender and receiver that
specify IPSec-related parameters. They provide data protection by using the
defined IPSec protocols, and allow organizations to control according to the security
policy in effect, which resources may communicate securely.
SA is identified by 3 parameters:
- Security Parameters Index (SPI), a locally unique value
- Destination IP Address
- Security Protocol: (AH or ESP, but not both)
There are several other parameters associated with an SA that are stored in a
Security Association database.
E.2.2
IPSec Modes
To exchange data between different types of VPNs, IPSec provides two major
modes:
- Tunnel Mode :
This mode is used for host-to-host security. Protection extends to the payload of IP
data, and the IP addresses of the hosts must be public IP addresses.
141
Transport Mode :
- This mode is used to provide data security between two networks. It provides
protection for the entire IP packet and is sent by adding an outer IP header
corresponding to the two tunnel end-points. Since tunnel mode hides the original IP
header, it provides security of the networks with private IP address space.
IP
E.2.3
AH/E
TC
Dat
Tunnel Mode AH
AH is typically applied to a data packet in the following manner:
E.2.4
Tunnel Mode ESP
Here is an example of a packet with ESP applied:
142
E.2.5
Internet Key Exchange (IKE)
Before either AH or ESP can be used, it is necessary for the two communication
devices to exchange a secret key that the security protocols themselves will use. To
do this, IPSec uses Internet Key Exchange (IKE) as a primary support protocol. IKE
facilitates and automates the SA setup, and exchanges keys between parties
transferring data. Using keys ensures that only the sender and receiver of a
message can access it. These keys need to be re-created or refreshed frequently so
that the parties can communicate securely with each other. Refreshing keys on a
regular basis ensures data confidentiality.
There are two phases to this process. Phase I deals with the negotiation and
management of IKE and IPSec parameters. This phase can be carried out in either
one of two modes: Main Mode or Aggressive Mode. Main mode utilizes three
message pairs that negotiate IKE parameters, establish a shared secret and derive
session keys, and exchange and provide identities, retroactively authenticating the
information sent. This method is very secure, but when using the pre-shared key
method for authentication, it is possible to use IDs other than the packets’s IP
addresses. Aggressive mode reduces this process to three messages, but parameter
negotiation is limited, identity protection is lacking except when using public key
encryption, and is more vulnerable to Denial of Service attacks.
Phase II, known as Quick Mode, establishes symmetrical IPSec Security
Associations for both AH and ESP. It does this by negotiating IPSec parameters,
exchange nonces to derive session keys from the IKE shared secret, exchange DH
values to generate a new key, and identify which traffic this SA bundle will protect
using selectors (IDi and IDr payloads).
The following is an illustration on how data is handled with IKE:
143
Appendix F: IPSec Logs and Events
F.1
IPSec Log Event Categories
There are three major categories of IPSec Log Events for your BiGuard 2/10. These
include:
1. IKE Negotiate Packet Messages
2. Rejected IKE Messages
3. IKE Negotiated Status Messages
The table in the following section lists the different events of each category, and
provides a detailed explanation of each.
F.2
IPSec Log Event Table
IKE Negotiate Packet Messages
Log Event
Send Main mode initial message of
ISAKMP
Send Aggressive mode initial
Explanation
Sending the first initial message of main mode (phase I). Done to exchange
encryption algorithm, hash algorithm, and authentication method.
Sending the first message of aggressive mode (phase I).
message of ISAKMP
Received Main mode initial
Received the first message of main mode.
message of ISAKMP
Send Main mode first response
message of ISAKMP
Received Main mode first response
message of ISAKMP
Send Main mode second message
Sending the first response message of main mode. Done to exchange
encryption algorithm, hash algorithm, and authentication method.
Received the first response message of main mode. Done to exchange
encryption algorithm, hash algorithm, and authentication method.
Sending the second message of main mode. Done to exchange key values.
of ISAKMP
Received Main mode second
message of ISAKMP
Received the second message of main mode. Done to exchange key
values.
144
Send Main mode second response
message of ISAKMP
Sending the main mode second response message. Done to exchange key
values.
Received Main mode second
Received the main mode second response message. Done to exchange
response message of ISAKMP
key values.
Send Main mode third message of
Sending the third message of main mode. Done for authentication.
ISAKMP
Received Main mode third
Received the third message of main mode. Done for authentication.
message of ISAKMP
Send Main mode third response
message of ISAKMP
Received Main mode third
response message of ISAKMP
Received Aggressive mode initial
Sending the third response message of main mode. Done for
authentication.\
Received the third response message of main mode. Done for
authentication.
Received the first message of aggressive mode.
ISAKMP Message
Send Aggressive mode first
Sending the first response message of aggressive mode. Done to
response message of ISAKMP
exchange proposal and key values.
Received Aggressive mode first
Received the first response message of aggressive mode. Done to
response message of ISAKMP
exchange proposal and key values.
Send Aggressive mode second
Sending the second message of aggressive mode. Done to exchange
message of ISAKMP
Received Aggressive mode second
ISAKP Message
Send Quick mode initial message
proposal and key values.
Received the second message of aggressive mode. Done to exchange
proposal and key values.
Sending the first message of quick mode (Phase II). Done to exchange
proposal and key values (IPSec).
Received Quick mode initial
message
Send Quick mode first response
message
Received the first message of quick mode (Phase II). Done to exchange
proposal and key values (IPSec).
Sending the first response message of quick mode (Phase II). Done to
exchange proposal and key values (IPSec).
145
Received Quick mode first
response message
Received the first response message of quick mode (Phase II). Done to
exchange proposal and key values (IPSec).
Send Quick mode second message
Sending the second message of quick mode (Phase II).
Received Quick mode second
Received the second message of quick mode (Phase II).
message
ISAKMP IKE Packet
Indicates IKE packet.
ISAKMP Information
Indicates Information packet.
ISAKMP Quick Mode
Indicates quick mode packet.
Rejected IKE Messages
NO PROPOSAL CHOSEN: No acceptable Oakley Transform
NO PROPOSAL CHOSEN: No acceptable Proposal in IPsec SA
NO PROPOSAL CHOSEN: PFS is required in Quick Initial SA.
NO PROPOSAL CHOSEN: PFS is not required in Quick Initial SA.
NO PROPOSAL CHOSEN: Initial Aggressive Mode message from %s but no connection has been configured
NO PROPOSAL CHOSEN: Initial Main Mode message received on %s:%u but no connection has been authorized
INVALID ID: Require peer to have ID %s, but peer declares %s
INVALID ID INFORMATION: Initial Aggressive Mode packet claiming to be from %s on %s but no connection has
been authorized
INVALID ID: Require peer to have ID %s, but peer declares %s
INVALID ID INFORMATION: Initial Aggressive Mode packet claiming to be from %s on %s but no connection has
been authorized
IKE Negotiated Status Messages
Received Delete SA payload and deleting IPSEC State (integer)
Received Delete SA payload: Deleting ISAKMP State (integer)
146
(Main/Aggressive) mode peer ID is (identifier string)
ISAKMP SA Established
IPsec SA Established
147
Appendix G: Bandwidth Management with QoS
G.1
Overview
In a home or office environment, users constantly have to transmit data to and from
the Internet. When too many are accessing the Internet at the same time, service
can slow to a crawl, causing service interruptions and general frustration. Quality of
Service (QoS) is one of the ways BiGuard 2/10 can optimize the use of bandwidth,
ensuring a smooth and responsive Internet connection for all users.
G.2
What is Quality of Service?
QoS is a feature that prioritizes and guarantees bandwidth to achieve optimal
service performance. QoS can maximize the use of available network bandwidth by
prioritizing time-sensitive traffic to avoid latencies and delays. By ensuring that
time-sensitive applications such as VoIP and streaming video get priority access to
bandwidth, users in both home and office environments can enjoy smooth and
responsive data transmission no matter which applications they are running.
If you’ve ever experienced slow Internet speeds due to other network users using
bandwidth-consuming applications like P2P, you’ll understand why QoS is such a
breakthrough for home users and office users. Billion makes itself unique by
integrating QoS in its routers for both inbound and outbound traffic.
QoS helps users manage bandwidth and effectively prioritize data traffic. It gives
you full control over the traffic of any type of data. Employed on DiffServ
(Differentiated Services) architecture, data traffic is given priority by the router;
ensuring latency-sensitive applications like voice and mission-critical data such as
VPN move through the router at lightning speeds, even under heavy load. You can
throttle the speed of different types of data passing through the router, limit the
speed of unimportant or bandwidth-consuming applications, and even distribute the
bandwidth for different groups of users at home or in the office. QoS keeps your
Internet connection smooth and responsive.
G.3
How Does QoS Work?
QoS employs three different methods for optimizing bandwidth:
148
-Prioritization: Assigns different priority levels for different applications, prioritizing
traffic. High, Normal and Low priority settings.
-Outbound and Inbound IP Throttling: Controls network traffic and allows you to
limit the speed of each application.
-DiffServ Technology: Manages priority queues and DSCP tagging through the
Internet backbone. Manages traffic among Ethernet, wireless, and ADSL interfaces.
G.4
Who Needs QoS?
QoS is ideal for home and office users who need to use a variety of real-time
applications like VoIP, on-line games, P2P, video streaming, and FTP simultaneously.
With QoS, you can optimize your bandwidth to accommodate several of these
applications without experiencing latency or service interruptions.
G.4.1
Home Users
Low latency is everything for gamers. Most home users feel frustrated when trying
to play an online game over a shared ADSL connection. Unfortunately, most routers
have no way of determining the importance of the packet at any given time. All the
traffic is treated equally, so a packet containing an "urgent" command may be
delayed. QoS gives you the ability to control the bandwidth. Using IP Throttling,
bandwidth limits can be enforced on a particular application or any system within
the LAN. Prioritization specifies which packets have priority and should not be
delayed, and which packets have lower priority and should be moved to the end of
the upload queue.
Suppose there are four students sharing a three-floor house with one single
broadband connection. Tom, a college freshman, is playing the online game with his
group members, while Mary, a sophomore student, is talking to her net pal via
Skype. Meanwhile, Jacky is downloading a movie file by using the P2P application
program. Sophia, however, is just trying to log on to the website to send her photos
to her family. As a result, the net speed slows to a crawl and affects everyone
sharing the Internet connection. QoS is designed for managing traffic flow and
bandwidth to solve this problem. You can first classify different applications (online
games, FTP, Skype, email) as shown in the table below. Then, you can manage and
prioritize the flow of bandwidth at different levels (e.g. 30% for games, 20% for
downloads, 10% for email, 20% for FTP, and 35% for others). QoS can be used to
identify different applications and assign priority to enable a smooth and responsive
149
broadband connection.
Application
Data Ratio (%)
Priority
On-line games
30%
High
Skype
5%
High
Email
10%
High
FTP
20%
Upload (High), Download (Normal)
Other
35%
G.4.2
Office Users
QoS is also ideal for small businesses using an office server as a web server. With
QoS control, web pages served to your customers can be given top priority and
delivered first so that it will not be impeded by email and office web browsing.
Here is a good example of how QoS can work in an office environment. A CEO is
holding a videoconference with international clients in the meeting room. However,
the streaming video and voice frequently lag. Sales people are talking to
international agencies via VoIP phone, while sending orders via email to vendors for
production. However, some staff are downloading MP3 music files, large-size photos
and watching video streaming online. Consequently, the Internet connection slows
down. This is why business users need QoS to manage data traffic. With QoS, the
network administrator can define and classify important packets; specify a
minimum guaranteed rate for each application, and ensure that important packets
have priority to ensure a good quality of broadband connection for the entire
organization.
Application
Data Ratio (%)
Priority
Videoconferencing
30%
High
VoIP
20%
High
Email
10%
High
150
FTP
10%
Upload (High), Download (Normal)
Other
30%
MP3 (Low), MSN (Normal)
151
Appendix H: Router Setup Examples
H.1 VPN Configuration
This section outlines some concrete examples on how you can configure BiGuard
2/10 for your VPN.
H.1.1
LAN to LAN
Branch Office
Head Office
Local
ID
IP Address
IP Address
Data
69.121.1.30
69.121.1.3
Network
Any Local Address
Any Local Address
IP Address
192.168.0.0
192.168.1.0
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
Remote
Secure Gateway Address(or
Hostname)
69.121.1.3
69.121.1.30
152
ID
IP Address
IP Address
Data
69.121.1.3
69.121.1.30
Network
Subnet
Subnet
IP Address
192.168.1.0
192.168.0.0
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
Proposal
IKE Pre-shared Key
12345678
12345678
Security Algorithm
Main Mode;
Main
ESP:
ESP
MD5
MD5
3DES
3DES
PFS
PFS
H.1.2
Host to LAN
153
Single client
Head Office
Local
ID
IP Address
IP Address
Data
69.121.1.30
69.121.1.3
Network
Any Local Address
Any Local Address
IP Address
0.0.0.0
192.168.1.0
Netmask
0.0.0.0
255.255.255.0
Remote
Secure Gateway Address(or
69.121.1.3
69.121.1.30
ID
IP Address
IP Address
Data
69.121.1.3
69.121.1.30
Network
Subnet
Single Address
IP Address
192.168.1.0
69.121.1.30
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.255
Hostname)
Proposal
IKE Pre-shared Key
12345678
12345678
Security Algorithm
Main Mode;
Main
ESP:
ESP
MD5
MD5
3DES
3DES
PFS
PFS
154
H.2 VPN Concentrator
Local ID Type: Subnet
Local subnet: 192.168.3.0
Local mask: 255.255.255.0
Remote ID Type: Subnet
Remote subnet: 0.0.0.0
Remote mask: 0.0.0.0
Local ID Type: Subnet
Local subnet: 0.0.0.0
Local mask: 0.0.0.0
Remote ID Type: Subnet
Remote subnet: 192.168.3.0
Remote mask: 255.255.255.0
200.200.200.1
192.168.3.x
192.168.2.x
BiGuard 2
Branch A
100.100.100.1
BiGuard 2
Branch B
BiGuard 2
Headquarter
Local ID Type: Subnet
Local subnet: 0.0.0.0
Local mask: 0.0.0.0
Remote ID Type: Subnet
Remote subnet: 192.168.4.0
Remote mask: 255.255.255.0
201.201.201.1
192.168.4.x
Local ID Type: Subnet
Local subnet: 192.168.4.0
Local mask: 255.255.255.0
Remote ID Type: Subnet
Remote subnet: 0.0.0.0
Remote mask: 0.0.0.0
Step 1: Go to Configuration > IPSec and configure the link from BiGuard 2/10
Headquarter to BiGuard 2/10 Branch A.
155
Step 2: Go to Configuration > IPSec and configure the link from BiGuard 2/10
Headquarter to BiGuard 2/10 Branch B.
Step 3: Go to Configuration > IPSec and configure the connection from BiGuard
2/10 Branch A to BiGuard 2/10 Headquarter.
156
Step 4: Go to Configuration > IPSec and configure the connection from the
BiGuard 2/10 Branch B to BiGuard 2/10 Headquarter.
Step 5: Click Save Config to save all changes to flash memory.
H.3 Intrusion Detection
Hacker
BiGuard Safe!!
Server Safe!!
DoS Attack
Intrusion Detection on
DoS Attack
Internet
DoS Attack
Hacker
Detected!
Dropped
DoS Attack
Hacker
157
Step 1: Go to Configuration > Firewall > Intrusion Detection and Enable the
settings.
Step 2: Click Apply and then Save Config to save all changes to flash memory.
H.4
PPTP Remote Access by Windows XP
Internet
Business Trip
Headquarter
Windows XP
PPTP Client
100.100.100.1
Internet
BiGuard &PPTP Server
Local subnet: 192.168.30.0
Local mask: 255.255.255.0
PPTP Tunnel
158
Public IP
Step1: Go to Configuration > VPN > PPTP and Enable the PPTP function, Click
Apply.
Step2: Click Create to create a PPTP Account.
159
Step3: Click Apply, you can see the account is successfully created.
Step4: Click Save Config to save all changes to flash memory.
Step5: In Windows XP, go Start > Settings > Network Connections.
160
Step6: In Network Tasks, Click Create a new connection, and press Next.
Step7: Select Connect to the network at my workplace and press Next.
161
Step8: Select Virtual Private Network connection and press Next.
Step9: Input the user-defined name for this connection and press Next.
162
Step10: Input PPTP Server Address and press Next.
Step11: Please press Finish.
163
Step12: Double click the connection, and input Username and Password that
defined in BiGuard PPTP Account Settings.
PS. You can also refer the Properties > Security page as below, by default.
164
H.5
PPTP Remote Access by BiGuard
Internet
Headquarter
100.100.100.1
200.200.200.1
Branch Office
Internet
BiGuard &PPTP Server
Local subnet: 192.168.30.0
Local mask: 255.255.255.0
PPTP Tunnel
BiGuard &PPTP Client
Step1: Go to Configuration > VPN > PPTP and Enable the PPTP function, Disable
the Encryption, then Click Apply.
Step2: Click Create to create a PPTP Account.
165
Step3: Click Apply, you can see the account is successfully created.
Step4: Click Save Config to save all changes to flash memory.
166
Step5: In another BiGuard as Client, Go to Configuration > WAN.
Step6: Click Apply, and Save CONFIG.
167
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement