Semantic Approaches in Natural Language Processing

Semantic Approaches in Natural Language Processing
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This book contains state-of-the-art contributions to the 10th
conference on Natural Language Processing, KONVENS 2010
(Konferenz zur Verarbeitung natürlicher Sprache), with a focus
on semantic processing.
The KONVENS in general aims at offering a broad perspective
on current research and developments within the interdisciplinary field of natural language processing. The central theme
draws specific attention towards addressing linguistic aspects
of meaning, covering deep as well as shallow approaches to semantic processing. The contributions address both knowledgebased and data-driven methods for modelling and acquiring
semantic information, and discuss the role of semantic information in applications of language technology.
Semantic Approaches in Natural Language Processing
10th Conference
on Natural Language Processing (KONVENS)
Semantic Approaches
in Natural Language Processing
Proceedings of the Conference
on Natural Language Processing 2010
Edited by
Manfred Pinkal
Ines Rehbein
Sabine Schulte im Walde
Angelika Storrer
The articles demonstrate the importance of semantic processing, and present novel and creative approaches to natural
language processing in general. Some contributions put their
focus on developing and improving NLP systems for tasks like
Named Entity Recognition or Word Sense Disambiguation, or
focus on semantic knowledge acquisition and exploitation with
respect to collaboratively built ressources, or harvesting semantic information in virtual games. Others are set within the
context of real-world applications, such as Authoring Aids, Text
Summarisation and Information Retrieval. The collection highlights the importance of semantic processing for different areas
and applications in Natural Language Processing, and provides
the reader with an overview of current research in this field.
universaar
Universitätsverlag des Saarlandes
Saarland University Press
Presses universitaires de la Sarre
Manfred Pinkal, Ines Rehbein, Sabine Schulte im Walde,
Angelika Storrer (Eds.)
Semantic Approaches
in Natural Language Processing
Proceedings of the Conference
on Natural Language Processing 2010
universaar
Universitätsverlag des Saarlandes
Saarland University Press
Presses universitaires de la Sarre
© September 2010 universaar
Universitätsverlag des Saarlandes
Saarland University Press
Presses universitaires de la Sarre
Postfach 151150, 66041 Saarbrücken
ISBN 978-3-86223-004-4 gedruckte Ausgabe
ISBN 978-3-86223-005-1 Online-Ausgabe
URN urn:nbn:de:bsz:291-universaar-124
Projektbetreuung universaar: Isolde Teufel
Gestaltung Umschlagseiten: Andreas Franz
Gedruckt auf säurefreiem Papier von Monsenstein & Vannerdat
Bibliografische Information der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek:
Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte
bibliografische Daten sind im Internet über <http://dnb.d-nb.de> abrufbar.
3
Contents
Preface
5
Long Papers
Querying Linguistic Corpora with Prolog
Gerlof Bouma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9
Rapid Bootstrapping of Word Sense Disambiguation Resources for German
Samuel Broscheit, Anette Frank, Dominic Jehle, Simone Paolo Ponzetto, Danny Rehl,
Anja Summa, Klaus Suttner and Saskia Vola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19
Presupposition Projection and Accommodation in Mathematical Texts
Marcos Cramer, Daniel Kuehlwein and Bernhard Schröder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29
Inkrementelle Koreferenzanalyse für das Deutsche
Manfred Klenner, Angela Fahrni and Don Tuggener
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37
Determining the Degree of Compositionality of German Particle Verbs by Clustering
Approaches
Natalie Kühner and Sabine Schulte im Walde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47
Noun Phrase Chunking and Categorization for Authoring Aids
Cerstin Mahlow and Michael Piotrowski . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57
Learning Meanings of Words and Constructions, Grounded in a Virtual Game
Hilke Reckman, Jeff Orkin and Deb Roy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
EXCERPT – Ein integriertes System zum informativen Summarizing und Within-DocumentRetrieval
Jürgen Reischer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
Using tf-idf-related Measures for Determining the Anaphoricity of Noun Phrases
Julia Ritz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
85
Natural Language Processing for the Swiss German Dialect Area
Yves Scherrer and Owen Rambow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
93
Short Papers
Clustering Urdu Verbs on the Basis of Related Aspectual Auxiliaries and Light Verbs
Tafseer Ahmed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Qualitative and Quantitative Error Analysis in Context
Christian Chiarcos and Julia Ritz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
POS-Tagging of Historical Language Data: First Experiments
Stefanie Dipper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117
Trainable Tree Distance and an Application to Question Categorisation
Martin Emms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Training and Evaluating a German Named Entity Recognizer with Semantic Generalization
Manaal Faruqui and Sebastian Padó . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Aufbau eines linguistischen Korpus aus den Daten der englischen Wikipedia
Markus Fuchs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
Detecting Vagueness in Two Languages and Two Domains
Viola Ganter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Transliteration among Indian Languages using WX Notation
Rohit Gupta, Pulkit Goyal and Sapan Diwakar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
Konstruktionsgrammatische Analyse von Gliederungsstrukturen
Harald Lüngen and Mariana Hebborn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
Productivity of NPN Sequences in German, English, French, and Spanish
Claudia Roch, Katja Keßelmeier and Antje Müller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Automatically Determining the Semantic Gradation of German Adjectives
Peter Schulam and Christiane Fellbaum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Analytic and Synthetic Verb Forms in Irish – An Agreement-Based Implementation in LFG
Sebastian Sulger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169
A Base-form Lexicon of Content Words for Correct Word Segmentation and Syntactic-Semantic
Annotation
Carsten Weber and Johannes Handl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
Starting a Sentence in L2 German – Discourse Annotation of a Learner Corpus
Heike Zinsmeister and Margit Breckle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
5
Preface
This proceedings volume contains all long and short papers presented at the 10th biennial conference on
Natural Language Processing KONVENS (Konferenz zur Verarbeitung natürlicher Sprache), which took
place on September 6-8, 2010 at Saarland University.
The papers represent a cross-section of recent research in the area of Natural Language Processing.
They cover a variety of topics, ranging from NLP applications such as Named Entity Recognition, Word
Sense Disambiguation or Part-of-Speech tagging of historical corpora to real-world applications like
authoring aids or text summarisation and retrieval. Due to the central theme of the 10th KONVENS,
Semantic Approaches in Natural Language Processing, a main focus of the contributions is on linguistic
aspects of meaning, covering both deep and shallow approaches to semantic processing, and foundational
aspects as well as applications.
The KONVENS is organised by the scientific societies DGfS-CL (German Linguistic Society, Special Interest Group “Computational Linguistics”), the GSCL (German Society for Computational Linguistics and Language Technology) and the ÖGAI (Austrian Society for Artificial Intelligence).
We would like to thank the Cluster of Excellence “Multimodal Computing and Interaction” at Saarland University as well as the DGFS-CL, whose funding made the conference possible. We would also
like to thank the members of the program committee as well as the members of the review board for
providing detailed and fair reviews in due time.
These proceedings are also available electronically from Saarland University Press (universaar) at
http://www.uni-saarland.de/de/campus/service-und-kultur/universaar/monographien.html.
Saarbrücken, September 2010
The editors
Program Committee:
Stephan Busemann
Brigitte Krenn
Manfred Pinkal
Ines Rehbein
Arndt Riester
Sabine Schulte im Walde
Caroline Sporleder
Manfred Stede
Angelika Storrer
Magdalena Wolska
Review Board:
Maya Bangerter
Ernst Buchberger
Stephan Busemann
Stefanie Dipper
Kurt Eberle
Christiane Fellbaum
Antske Fokkens
Anette Frank
Hagen Fürstenau
Alexander Geyken
Jeremy Jancsary
Bryan Jurish
Alexander Koller
Brigitte Krenn
Marco Kuhlmann
Lothar Lemnitzer
Harald Lüngen
Torsten Marek
Johannes Matiasek
Alexander Mehler
Friedrich Neubarth
Rainer Osswald
Sebastian Padó
Ulrike Padó
Alexis Palmer
Hannes Pirker
Olga Pustylnikov
Michaela Regneri
Arndt Riester
Josef Ruppenhofer
Bernhard Schröder
Caroline Sporleder
Manfred Stede
Stefan Thater
Harald Trost
Christina Unger
Martin Volk
Kay-Michael Würzner
Heike Zinsmeister
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
7
L ONG PAPERS
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
9
Querying Linguistic Corpora with Prolog
Gerlof Bouma
Department Linguistik
Universität Potsdam
Postsdam, Germany
[email protected]
Abstract
In this paper we demonstrate how Prolog can be
used to query linguistically annotated corpora, combining the ease of dedicated declarative query languages and the flexibility of general-purpose languages. On the basis of a Prolog representation of
the German Tüba-D/Z Treebank, we show how one
can tally arbitrary features of (groups) of nodes, define queries that combine information from different layers of annotation and cross sentence boundaries, query ‘virtual annotation’ by transforming
annotation on-the-fly, and perform data driven error analysis. Almost all code needed for these case
studies is contained in the paper.
1
Introduction
In recent years, there has been a strong increase in
the availability of richly annotated corpora and corpora of ever growing size. In tact with this, there is a
thriving research into ways of exploiting these corpora, where especially the conflicting constraints
posed by the desire for an expressive query formalism and the computational demands of querying a
large corpus form a driving tension. In this paper
we hope to contribute to this debate by advocating
the use of Prolog, a general-purpose language, to
query corpora. We will argue by means of a series of concrete examples that Prolog is declarative
enough to allow formulation of corpus queries in
an intuitive way, that it is flexible and powerful
enough to not constrain the computational linguist
wishing to get as much as possible out of a corpus,
and that on modern Prolog implementations, it is
fast enough to intensively use corpora of a million
tokens or more.
Before we turn to the examples that make up the
body of this paper, we briefly discuss what makes
Prolog a good language for corpus querying, but
also what its disadvantages are. It should be clear
from the outset, however, that we do not propose
Prolog per se to be used as a query tool for the
(non-programmer) general linguist who wants a
fully declarative corpus environment, including tree
vizualization, etc. Rather, our target is the advanced
corpus user/computational linguist who needs an
extendable query language and features beyond
what any specific dedicated query tool can offer,
that is, the type of user who will end up using a
general-purpose language for part of their corpus
tasks.
1.1
Why use Prolog?
Semi-declarativeness, non-deterministic search
Prolog is well-suited to write database-like queries
in (see e.g., Nilsson and Maluszynski (1998) for
a description of the relation between relational
database algebra and Prolog) – one defines relations between entities in terms of logical combinations of properties of these entities. The Prolog
execution model is then responsible for the search
for entities that satisfy these properties. This is one
of the main advantages over other general-purpose
languages: in Prolog, the programmer is relieved of
the burden of writing functions to search through
the corpus or interface with a database.
Queries as annotation Any query that is more
complicated than just requesting an entry from the
database is a combination of the user’s knowledge
of the type of information encoded in the database
and its relation to the linguistic phenomenon that
the user is interested in. Thus, a query can be understood as adding annotation to a corpus. In Prolog, a
query takes the form of a predicate, which can then
be used in further predicate definitions. In effect,
10
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
we can query annotation that we have ourselves
added.
The lack of a real distinction between existing annotation (the corpus) and derived annotation
(subqueries) is made even more clear if we consider the possibility to record facts into the Prolog
database for semi-permanent storage, or to write
out facts to files that can then later be loaded as
given annotation. This also opens up the possibility
of performing corpus transformations by means of
querying. Related to the queries as annotation perspective is the fact that by using a general-purpose
programming language, we are not bound by the
predefined relations of a particular query language.
New relations can be defined, for instance, relations
that combine two annotation layers (see also Witt
(2005)), or cross sentence boundaries.
Constraining vs inspecting
TIGERSearch
(König et al., 2003) offers facilities to give (statistical) summaries of retrieved corpus data. For
instance, one can get a frequency list over the POS
tags of retrieved elements. This is a very useful
feature, as it is often such summaries that are relevant. The reversibility of (well-written) Prolog
predicates facilitates implementing such functionality. It is possible to use the exact same relations
that one uses to constrain query matches to request
information about a node. If has_pos/2 holds between a lexical node and its POS-tag, we can use
it to require that a lexical node in a query has a
certain POS-tag or to ask about a given node what
its POS-tag is.
Scope of quantifiers and negation Query languages differ in the amount of control over the
scope of quantifiers and negation in a query (Lai
and Bird, 2004). For instance, Kepser’s (2003) firstorder-logic based query language allows full control over scoping by explicit quantification. On
the other hand, TIGERSearch’s query language
(König et al., 2003) is restrictive as it implicitly
binds nodes in a query with a wide scope existential quantifier. Queries like find an NP that does
not contain a Det node are not expressible in this
language.
In a general-purpose language we get full control
over scope. We can illustrate this with negation,
canonically implemented in Prolog by negation as
(Prolog) failure (written: \+). By doing lookup in
the database of subtrees/nodes inside or outside of a
negated goal, we vary quantifier scope: lookup(X),
\+ p(X) succeeds when X
does not have property p,
and \+ (lookup(X), p(X)) succeeds when there is
no X with p. A discussion of the implementation of
queries that rely on this precise control over scope
can be found in (Bouma, 2010).
1.2
Why not use Prolog?
Not so declarative Compared to dedicated query
languages, Prolog lacks declarativeness. The order
in which properties are listed in a query may have
consequences for the speed with which answers are
returned or even the termination of a query. The use
of Prolog negation makes this issue even worse. For
many queries, there is a simple pattern that avoids
the most common problems, though: 1) supply positive information about nodes, then 2) access the
database to find suitable candidates, and 3) check
negative information and properties that involve
arithmetic operations. Most of the examples that
we give in the next section follow this pattern.
Poor regular expression support Although
there are some external resources available, there is
no standardized regular expression support in Prolog. This contrasts with both dedicated query languages and with other high-level general-purpose
programming languages. However, for some uses
of regular expressions, there are good alternatives.
For instance, restricting the POS-tag of a node
to a known and finite set of POS-tags could also
be achieved through a disjunction or by checking
whether the POS-tag occurs in a list of allowed
POS-tags. These alternatives are typically easy and
fast in Prolog.
After these abstract considerations, we shall spend
the rest of the paper looking more concretely at
Prolog as a query language in a number of cases.
After that, in Section 4, we briefly discuss the speed
and scalability of a Prolog-based approach.
2
Exploiting the TüBa-D/Z corpus
In this section, we will demonstrate the flexibility
of our approach in a series of small case studies
on the TüBa-D/Z treebank of German newspaper
articles (Telljohann et al., 2006, v5). The treebank
has a size of approximately 800k tokens in 45k sentences, and contains annotation for syntax (topological fields, grammatical functions, phrases, secondary relations) and anaphora. We chose this treebank to be able to show a combination of different
annotation layers in our queries.
11
The section is rather code heavy for a conference
paper. By including the lion’s share of the Prolog
code needed to do the tasks in this section, we
intend to demonstrate how concise and quick to set
up corpus programming in Prolog can be.
2.1
Corpus representation
We take the primary syntactic trees as the basis
of the annotation. Following Brants (1997), we
store the corpus as collection of directed acyclic
graphs, with edges directed towards the roots of the
syntactic trees. A tree from the TüBa-D/Z corpus
is represented as a collection of facts node/7, which
contain for each node: an identifier (a sentence id
and a node id), the id of the mother node, the edge
label, its surface form, its category or POS-tag and
a list with possible other information. Below we
see two facts for illustration – a lexical (terminal)
node and a phrasal node that dominates it.1 Phrases
carry a dummy surface form ’$phrase’. Secondary
edges are represented as secondary/4 facts, and use
the sentence and node ids of the primary trees.
has_poscat(node(_,_,_,_,_,A_p,_),A_p).
is_under(A,B):has_mother(A,A_m,A_s),
is_phrasal(B),
has_nodeid(B,A_m,A_s).
is_under_as(A,B,A_e):is_under(A,B),
has_edge(A,A_e).
are_sentmates(A,B):has_sentid(A,A_s),
has_sentid(B,A_s).
is_phrasal(A):has_form(A,’$phrase’).
Actually looking up a node in the corpus involves
calling a term node/7, for instance by defining a
property of a node-representing variable and then
calling the variable: is_phrasal(A), A will succeed
once for each phrasal node in the corpus.
Transitive closures over the simple relations
above define familiar predicates such as dominance
(closure of is_above/2). In contrast with the simple
relations, these closures do look up (instantiate)
their arguments. In addition, has_ancestor/3 also
% node/7 SentId NodeId MotherId
%
Form Edge Cat Other returns a list of intermediate nodes.
node(153, 4, 503, die, -, art, [morph=asf]).
node(153, 503, 508, ’$phrase’, hd, nx, []).
% secondary/4 SentId NodeId MotherId Edge
secondary(153,503,512,refint).
By using the sentence number as the first argument
of node/7 facts, we leverage first argument indexing
to gain fast access to any node in the treebank. If
we know a node’s sentence number, we never need
to search longer than the largest tree in the corpus.
Since syntactic relations hold within a sentence,
querying syntactic structure is generally fast (Section 4). A tree and its full representation is given
in Figure 1. We will not use the secondary edges
in this paper: their use does not differ much from
querying primary trees and the anaphora annotation
(Section 2.4). We can define interface relations on
these facts that restrict variables without looking up
any nodes in the database by partially instantiating
them.
has_sentid(node(A_s,_,_,_,_,_,_),A_s).
has_nodeid(node(_,A_n,_,_,_,_,_),A_n).
has_mother(node(_,_,A_m,_,_,_,_),A_m).
has_form(node(_,_,_,A_f,_,_,_),A_f).
has_edge(node(_,_,_,_,A_e,_,_),A_e).
1 Coding
conventions: Most predicate names are VS(O)
sentences: has_edge(A,A_e) reads node A has edge label
Ae . Predicates defined for their side-effects get imperative
verbs forms. Variables A,B,C refer to nodes, and subscripts are
used for properties of these nodes. Variables that represent
updates are numbered A, A1, A2. Lists receive a plural-s. For
readability, we use the if-then-else notation instead of cuts as
much as possible.
has_ancestor(A,B):has_ancestor(A,B,_).
has_ancestor(A,B,AB_path):are_sentmates(A,B),
A, is_under(A,A1), A1,
has_ancestor_rfl(A1,B,AB_path).
has_ancestor_rfl(A,A,[]).
has_ancestor_rfl(A,B,[A|AB_path]):is_under(A,A1), A1,
has_ancestor_rfl(A1,B,AB_path).
With these basic relations in place, let us look at
determining linear order of phrases.
2.2
Linear order
As yet, linear order is a property of words in the
string (lexical nodes), that we may determine by
looking at their node ids (cf. Figure 1). Linear order
of phrases is not defined. We can define the position
of any node as its span over the string, which is
determined by the outermost members in the node’s
yield, that is, the members of the yield with the
minimum and maximum node id.2
2 fold/3 (left fold, aka reduce) and map/N are higher order predicates that generalize predicates to apply to list(s) of
arguments, familiar from functional programming (see e.g.,
Naish (1996)). Given that min/3 relates two numbers and their
minimum, the goal fold(min,Ns,M) succeeds if M is the lowest number in of the list Ns. Given that has_nodeid/2 relates
one node and its id, the goal map(has_nodeid,As,A_ns)
succeeds on a list of nodes As and a list of their corresponding
ids A_ns.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
12
SIMPX
VF
LK
MF
NF
NX
VXFIN
NX
SIMPX
PDS
VAFIN
Dieser
hat
NX
PX
NN
APPR
Auswirkungen
auf
NX
ART
NN
die Bereitschaft
,
MF
VC
NX
VXINF
NN
VVIZU
Therapieangebote anzunehmen
.
“This has effects on the willingness to accept therapy.”
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5,
6,
7,
8,
9,
500, ’Dieser’, hd, pds, [morph=nsm]).
501, hat, hd, vafin, [morph=’3sis’]).
502, ’Auswirkungen’, hd, nn, [morph=apf]).
508, auf, -, appr, [morph=a]).
503, die, -, art, [morph=asf]).
503, ’Bereitschaft’, hd, nn, [morph=asf]).
0, (’,’), --, ’$,’, [morph= --]).
504, ’Therapieangebote’, hd, nn, [morph=apn]).
505, anzunehmen, hd, vvizu, [morph= --]).
0, ’.’, --, $., [morph= --]).
secondary(153,503,512,refint).
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
node(153,
515,
506,
500,
507,
501,
513,
511,
502,
508,
503,
514,
512,
509,
504,
510,
505,
0, ’$phrase’, --, simpx, []).
515, ’$phrase’, -, vf, []).
506, ’$phrase’, on, nx, []).
515, ’$phrase’, -, lk, []).
507, ’$phrase’, hd, vxfin, []).
515, ’$phrase’, -, mf, []).
513, ’$phrase’, oa, nx, []).
511, ’$phrase’, hd, nx, []).
511, ’$phrase’, -, px, []).
508, ’$phrase’, hd, nx, []).
515, ’$phrase’, -, nf, []).
514, ’$phrase’, mod, simpx, []).
512, ’$phrase’, -, mf, []).
509, ’$phrase’, oa, nx, []).
512, ’$phrase’, -, vc, []).
510, ’$phrase’, hd, vxinf, []).
Figure 1: A tree from Tüba-D/Z and its Prolog representation.
spans(A,A_beg,A_end):yields_dl(A,Bs\[]),
map(has_nodeid,Bs,B_ns),
fold(min,B_ns,A_beg),
fold(max,B_ns,B_n_mx),
A_end is B_n_mx+1
The yield of a phrase is the combined yields of its
daughters. A lexical node is its own yield.
yields_dl(A,Bs):is_phrasal(A)
-> ( is_above(A,A1),
findall(A1, A1, A1s),
map(yields_dl,A1s,Bss),
fold(append_dl,Bss,Bs)
)
; % is_lexical(A)
Bs = [A|Cs]\Cs.
According to this definition, the span of the word
Auswirkungen in the tree in Figure 1 is 2–3, and
the span of the MF-phrase is 2–6.
It makes sense to store the results from spans/2
instead of recalculating them each time, especially
if we intend to use this information often. Using a
node’s span, we can define other relations, such as
precedence between phrasal and lexical nodes, and
edge alignment.
precedes(A,B):are_sentmates(A,B),
spans(A,_,A_end),
spans(B,B_beg,_),
A_end =< B_beg.
are_right_aligned(A,B):are_sentmates(A,B),
spans(A,_,A_end),
spans(B,_,A_end).
Although there are no discontinuous primary
phrases in Tüba-D/Z, the definition of precedence
above would be appropriate for such phrases, too.
Note, however, that in this case two nodes may be
unordered even when one is not a descendant of
the other. In TIGERSearch, precedence between
phrases is defined on both left corners (König et
al., 2003). It would be trivial to implement this
alternative.
2.3
Phrase restricted bigrammes
In the first task, we see a combination of negation
scoping over an existential quantifier in a query
and the use of a predicate to ask for a property
(surface form) rather than to constrain it. The task
is to retrieve token bigrammes contained in nonrecursive NPs, which are NPs that do not contain
other NPs. This requires a negation scoping over
the selection of a descendent NP node. Once we
have a non-recursive NP, we select adjacent pairs of
nodes from its ordered yield and return the surface
forms:
bigr_in_nonrec_NP(A_f,B_f):has_form(A,A_f),
has_form(B,B_f),
has_cat(C,nx),
has_cat(D,nx),
C, \+ has_ancestor(D,C),
yields_ord(C,Es),
nextto(A,B,Es).
13
holds between a node and its ordered yield. Ordering is done by decorate-sortundecorate.
Antecedent GF
yields_ord/2
yields_ord(A,Bs):yields_dl(A,Cs\[]),
keys_values(CnsCs,C_ns,Cs),
map(has_nodeid,Cs,C_ns),
keysort(CnsCs,BnsBs),
values(BnsBs,Bs).
2.4
der Stadt
der Nato
mehr als
die Nato
die beiden
141
138
136
125
107
6
7
8
9
10
on
oa
od
rest
Total
2411
236
162
589
3398
.03
-.09
-.06
168
46
16
62
292
-.18
.73
.08
173
20
19
45
257
-.03
.02
.38
rest
142
17
15
63
237
Total
2894
319
212
759
4184
on
oa
% decorate
od
% sort
% undecorate
The query succeeds 160968 times, that is, there
are 161k bigramme tokens in non-recursive NPs in
the corpus. There are 105685 bigramme types, of
which the top 10 types and frequencies are:
(1) 1
2
3
4
5
Pron. GF
der Welt
den letzten
die Polizei
ein paar
den USA
103
103
98
97
90
Combining annotation layers
As mentioned, the Tüba-D/Z corpus additionally
contains annotation of anaphora and coreference.
This annotation layer can be considered as a graph,
too, and may be stored in a fashion similar to the
secondary edges. The sentence and node ids in
the anaphor/5 facts are again based on the primary
trees.
% anaphor/4 SentId NodeId Rel SentIdM NodeIdM
anaphor(4, 527, coreferential, 1, 504).
anaphor(4, 6, anaphoric, 4, 527).
anaphor(6, 522, coreferential, 4, 512).
In addition, we have a convenience predicate that
links node/7 terms to the anaphora facts.
is_linked_with(A,Rel,B):has_nodeid(A,A_n,A_s),
has_nodeid(B,B_n,B_s),
anaphor(A_s,A_n,Rel,B_s,B_n).
A very basic combination of the two annotation layers allows us to formulate the the classic i-within-i
constraint (Hoeksema and Napoli, 1990).
% [ ... X_i ... ]_i
i_within_i(A,B):is_linked(A,_Rel,B),
has_ancestor(A,B).
The query returns 19 hits, amongst which (2):
Table 1: Cross tabulation of grammatical function
of pronoun-antecedent pairs from adjacent sentences, counts and association scores (PMI).
that the antecedent and pronoun have the same
grammatical function (Smyth, 1994, a.o.). As a
reflection of this preference, we might expect that
there is a trend for a pronoun and its antecedent in
the directly preceding sentence to have the same
grammatical function. The predicate ana_ant_gf/2,
defined below, returns the grammatical functions of
an anaphoric NP headed by a personal pronoun and
its NP antecedent if it occurs in the immediately
preceding sentence.
ana_ant_gf(A_e,B_e):has_edge(A,A_e,A_s),
is_under_as(A1,A,hd),
has_pos(A1,pper),
has_edge(B,B_e,B_s),
has_cat(B,nx),
is_linked_with(A,anaphoric,B),
B_s is A_s-1,
% B in sentence before A
A, A1, B.
The query succeeds just over 4k times. Table 1 summarizes the results. For the top-left cells, we’ve calculated pointwise association (PMI) between the
two variables. The rows on the diagonal have positive values, which means the combination occurs
more often than expected by chance, as expected
by the parallelism hypothesis.3 In Section 2.7, we
will revisit this task.
2.6
Coreference chains
Until now, we have used the anaphoric annotation
(2) [die kleine Stadt mit ihreni 7.000 Einwohnern]i as-is. However, we can also consider it in terms
the small town with its
inhabitants
of coreference chains, rather than single links between nodes. That is, we can construct equivalence
2.5 Grammatical function parallelism
classes of nodes that are (transitively) linked to
In anaphora annotation, links can be made between
each other: they share one discourse referent. Naïve
nodes that are not contained within one sentence –
3 This should not be taken as serious support for the hypotha coreference link could span the entire corpus. In
esis, though. The association values are small and there are
this task, we follow intra-sentential links. We will
other positive associations in the table. Also, we have not put a
try to find corpus support for the (not uncontested) lot of thought into how the annotation relates to the linguistic
claim that people prefer to interpret pronouns such
phenomenon that we are trying to investigate.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
14
construction of such classes is hampered by the occurrence of cycles in the anaphora graph. Therefore,
we need to check for each anaphoric node whether
its containing graph contains a cycle. If it does,
we pick any node in the cycle as the root of the
graph. Non-cyclic graphs have the (unique) node
with out-degree zero as their root. We use the Prolog database to record the roots of cyclic graphs,
so that we can pick them as the root next time we
come to this graph.
has_root(A,B):is_linked_with(A,A1),
( leads_to_cycle_at(A1,C)
-> ( B = C,
record_root(B)
)
; has_root_rfl_nocycles(A,B)
).
has_root_rfl_nocycles(A,B):is_recorded_root(A)
-> B = A
; is_linked_with(A,A1)
-> has_root_rfl_nocycles(A1,B)
; B = A.
The cycle check itself is based on Floyd’s tortoise
and hare algorithm, whose principle is that if a slow
tortoise and a fast hare traversing a graph land on
the same node at the same time, there has to be a
cycle in the graph. In our version, the tortoise does
not traverse already recorded root nodes, to prevent
the same cycle from being detected twice.
leads_to_cycle_at(A,B):is_linked_with(A,A1),
is_linked_with(A1,A2),
tortoise_hare(A1,A2,B).
tortoise_hare(A,B,C):\+ is_recorded_root(A),
( A = B % evidence of cycle
-> C = A
; ( is_linked_with(A,A1), % tort. to A1
is_linked_with(B,B1), % hare to
is_linked_with(B1,B2), %
B2
tortoise_hare(A1,B2,C)
)
).
Collecting all solutions for has_root/2, we find
20516 root and 50820 non-root referential expressions. The average coreference chain length is 3.48,
the longest chain has 176 mentions in 164 sentences.
2.7
Revisiting parallelism
Let us go back to pronoun-antecedent parallelism
with this alternative view of the anaphora annotation. In our first attempt, we missed cases where
a pronoun’s referent is mentioned in the previous sentence, just not in a node directly anaphorically linked to the pronoun. The coreference chain
Antecedent GF
Pron. GF
on
oa
od
rest
Total
4563
500
353
1312
6728
.02
-.07
-.05
367
85
43
134
629
-.13
.53
.21
392
48
47
115
602
-.02
.00
.34
rest
309
39
26
136
510
Total
5631
672
469
1697
8469
on
oa
od
Table 2: Cross tabulation of grammatical function
of pronoun-antecedent pairs from adjacent sentences, counts and association scores (PMI). Revisited.
view gives us a chance to get at these cases. Note
that now a pronoun may have more than one antecedent in the preceding sentence. The predicate
ana_ant_gf_rev/2 succeeds once for each of the
possible pairs:
ana_ant_gf_rev(A_e,B_e):has_edge(A,A_e,A_s),
is_under_as(A1,A,hd),
has_pos(A1,pper),
has_edge(B,B_e,B_s),
has_cat(B,nx),
A1, A,
B_s is A_s-1,
corefer(A,B).
Coreference between two given and distinct nodes
can be defined on has_root/2. That is, the definition
of coreference relies on a transformation of the
original annotation, that we are producing on-thefly.
corefer(A,B):has_root(A,B).
corefer(A,B):has_root(B,A).
corefer(A,B):has_root(A,C),
has_root(B,C).
Just like in our first attempt, we collect the results in
a table and calculate observed vs expected counts.
As could be expected, we get many more datapoints
(∼8.5k). Table 2 shows a similar picture as before:
small, positive associations in the diagonal cells.
3
Corpus inspection
With the techniques introduced thus far, we can
perform corpus inspection by formulating and calling queries that violate corpus well-formedness
constraints. A data-driven, large scale approach to
error mining is proposed by Dickinson and Meurers
(2003). Errors are located by comparing the analyses assigned to multiple occurrences of the same
15
string. A version of this idea can be implemented
in the space of this paper. Naïve comparison of all
pairs of nodes would take time quadratic in the size
of the corpus. Instead, we record the string yield
and category of each interesting phrasal node in the
database, and then retrieve conflicts by looking for
strings that have more than one analysis. First, an
interesting phrase is one that contains two or more
words, unary branching supertrees.
interesting_node(A,Bs):phrasal(A), A,
\+ is_alone_under(_,A),
Bs = [_,_|_],
% >= two nodes in yield
yields_ord(A,Bs).
is_alone_under(A,B):is_under(A,B), A, B,
\+ ( is_above(B,A1),
A1,
‘The good citizens produce less and less waste’
We also see borderline cases of particles that might
or might not be attached to their neighbours:
(6) Für Huhn ungewöhnlich saftig [MF auch sie]
for chicken remarkably juicy
also it
‘It, too, was remarkably juicy, for being
chicken.’
(7) Wahrscheinlich streift [NX auch sie] in diesem
Probably
roams
also she at this
Moment durch ihr Nachkriegsberlin.
moment through her post-war Berlin
‘Probably, she, too, roams through her post-war
Berlin at this moment.’
A1\=A ).
In (6), the node of interest is labelled MF for the
topological Mittelfeld. This is not a traditional constituent, but since Tüba-D/Z annotates topological
record_string_analysis(A,Bs):fields we also capture some cases where a string
map(has_form,Bs,B_fs),
is a constituent in one place and a non-constituent
fold(spaced_atom_concat,B_fs,String),
in another. Dickinson and Meurers (2003) intro( retract(str_analyses(String,Analyses))
-> insert_analysis(A,Analyses,Analyses1) duce dummy constituents to systematically detect
; insert_analysis(A,[],Analyses1)
a much wider range of those cases.
),
Finally, real errors include the following examassert(str_analyses(String,Analyses1)).
insert_analysis(A,Analyses,Analyses1):ple of an NP that should have been an AdjP:
Then, recording a string involves checking whether
we have already seen it before and, if so, whether
we have a new analysis or an existing one.
has_cat(A,A_c),
( select(A_c-As,Analyses,Analyses2)
-> Analyses1 = [A_c-[A|As]|Analyses2]
; Analyses1 = [A_c-[A]|Analyses]
).
Exhaustively running the two main queries asserts
364785 strings into the database, with averages of
1.0005 different categories per string and 1.1869
occurrences per string.
The query str_analyses(Str,[_,_|_]) succeeds
178 times, once for each string with more than one
analysis in the corpus. Far from all of these are true
positives. Common false positives are forms that
can be AdvPs (ADVX), NPs (NX) or DPs, such as
immer weniger ‘less and less’:
(3) das Flügelspiel fand [ADVX
the piano playing found
immer weniger] statt
less and less
place
‘The piano was played less and less often.’
(4) Japan importiert [NX immer weniger]
Japan imports
less and less
‘Japan imports fewer and fewer goods.’
(5) Die braven BürgerInnen produzieren [DP
Those good citizens
produce
immer weniger] Müll
less and less
waste
(8) [NX Drei Tage lang] versuchte Joergensen . . .
three days long tried
Joergensen
‘Joergensen tried for three days to . . . ’
(9) [ADJX Drei Tage lang] versuchten hier
three days long tried
here
Museumsarchitekten . . .
museum architects
‘Museum architects tried for three days to . . . ’
The proposal in Dickinson and Meurers (2003) is
more elaborate than our implementation here, but
it is certainly possible to extend our setup further.
We have shown that a basic but flexible query environment is quick to set up in Prolog. Prolog makes
a suitable tool for corpus investigation and manipulation because it is a general-purpose programming
language that by its very nature excels at programming in terms of relations and non-deterministic
search.
4
Performance
With ever growing corpora, speed of query evaluation becomes a relevant issue. To give an idea
of the performance of our straightforward use of
Prolog, Table 3 shows wall-clock times of selected
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
16
Task
# Solutions
Time
Loading & indexing corpus
Loading & indexing compiled corpus
lookup/1
yields_ord/2
spans/3
bigr_in_nonrec_NP/2
i_within_i/2
has_root/2
ana_ant_gf/2
ana_ant_gf_rev/2
record_str analyses/0
inconsistency/2
1741889
1741889
1741889
160968
19
50820
4184
8471
1
178
31s
3s
2s
81s
87s
80s
1s
5s
1s
9s
101s
1s
Table 3: Wall-clock times of selected tasks.
tasks.4
The uncompiled corpus of 45k sentences
(∼1.8M Prolog facts) loads in about half a minute,
but using precompiled prolog code – an option
many implementations offer – reduces this to 3 seconds. The bottom of the table gives the time it takes
to calculate the number of solutions for queries described in the previous section, plus lookup/1 which
returns once for each node in the corpus. As can
be seen, queries are generally fast, except for those
that involve calculating the yield. The use of memoization or even pre-computation would speed these
queries up. Memory consumption is also moderate:
even with record_str_analyses/0, the system runs
in around 0.5Gbytes of RAM.
As an indication of the scalability of our approach, we note that we (Bouma et al., 2010)
have run queries on dependency parsed corpora
of around 40M words (thus 40M facts). Loading
such a corpus takes about 10 minutes (or under
1 minute when precompiled) and uses 13GByte
on a 64bit machine. Because of first-argument indexing on sentence ids, time per answer does not
increase noticeably. We conclude that the approach
in this paper scales to at least medium-large corpora. Scaling to even larger corpora remains a topic
for future investigation. Possible solutions involve
connecting Prolog to an external database, or (as a
low-tech alternative) sequential loading of parts of
the corpus.
5
Conclusions
In this paper, we hope to have shown the merits
of Prolog as a language for corpus exploitation
with the help of a range of corpus tasks. It is a
4 Test
machine specifications: 1.6Ghz Intel Core 2 Duo,
2GBytes RAM, SWI-prolog v5.6 on 32-bit Ubuntu 8.04
flexible and effective language for corpus programming. The fact that most Prolog code needed for
our demonstrations is in this paper makes this point
well. Having said that, it is clear that the approach
demonstrated in this paper is not a complete replacement of dedicated query environments that
target non-programmers. In depth comparison with
alternatives – corpus query environments, generalpurpose language libraries, etc. – is beyond the
scope of this paper, but see Bouma (2010) for a
comparison of Prolog’s performance and expressiveness with TIGERSearch on number of canonical queries.
Future work will include the investigation of
techniques from constraint-based programming to
make formulating queries less dependent on the
procedural semantics of Prolog and the exploitation of corpora that cannot be fitted into working
memory.
Our studies thus far have resulted not only in
queries and primary code, but also in conversion
scripts, auxiliary code for pretty printing, etc. We
intend to collect all these and make these available
on-line, so as to help interested other researchers to
use Prolog in corpus investigations and to facilitate
reproducibility of studies relying on this code.
References
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In Proceedings of LREC 2010, pages 3585–3592,
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In Proceedings of the Fourth Linguistic Annotation
Workshop, pages 212–217, Uppsala.
Thorsten Brants. 1997. The NEGRA export format.
Technical report, Saarland University, SFB378.
Markus Dickinson and Detmar Meurers. 2003. Detecting inconsistencies in treebanks. In Proceedings of
the Second Workshop on Treebanks and Linguistic
Theories (TLT 2003), Växjö.
Jack Hoeksema and Donna Jo Napoli. 1990. A condition on circular chains: A restatement of i-within-i.
Journal of Linguistics, 26(2):403–424.
Stephan Kepser. 2003. Finite structure query - a tool
for querying syntactically annotated corpora. In Proceedings of EACL 2003, pages 179–186.
Esther König, Wolfgang Lezius, and Holger Voormann.
2003. Tigersearch 2.1 user’s manual. Technical report, IMS Stuttgart.
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Catherine Lai and Steven Bird. 2004. Querying and updating treebanks: A critical survey and requirements
analysis. In Proceedings of the Australasion Language Technology Workshop, Sydney.
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Prolog. Technical Report 96/2, Department of Computer Science, University of Melbourne, Melbourne,
Australia, February.
Ulf Nilsson and Jan Maluszynski. 1998. Logic, programming and Prolog. John Wiley & Sons, 2nd edition.
Ron Smyth. 1994. Grammatical determinants of ambiguous pronoun resolution. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 23:197–229.
Heike Telljohann, Erhard Hinrichs, Sandra Kübler, and
Heike Zinsmeister. 2006. Stylebook for the Tübingen treebank of written German (TüBa-D/Z). revised version. Technical report, Seminar für Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Tübingen.
Andreas Witt. 2005. Multiple hierarchies: New aspects of an old solution. In Stefanie Dipper, Michael
Götze, and Manfred Stede, editors, Heterogeneity
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Interdisciplinary Studies on Information Structure
(ISIS) 2, pages 55–86. Universitätsverlag Potsdam,
Potsdam.
18
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
19
Rapid Bootstrapping of Word Sense Disambiguation Resources for
German
Samuel Broscheit, Anette Frank, Dominic Jehle, Simone Paolo Ponzetto,
Danny Rehl, Anja Summa, Klaus Suttner and Saskia Vola
Department of Computational Linguistics
Heidelberg University
[email protected]
Abstract
This paper presents ongoing efforts on developing
Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD) resources for
the German language, using GermaNet as a basis.
We bootstrap two WSD systems for German. (i)
We enrich GermaNet with predominant sense information, following previous unsupervised methods to acquire predominant senses of words. The
acquired predominant sense information is used as
a type-based first sense heuristics for token-level
WSD. (ii) As an alternative, we adapt a state-ofthe-art knowledge-based WSD system to the GermaNet lexical resource. We finally investigate the
hypothesis of whether the two systems are complementary by combining their output within a
voting architecture. The results show that we are
able to bootstrap two robust baseline systems for
word sense annotation of German words.
1
Introduction
Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD), the task
of computationally determining the meanings of
words in context (Agirre and Edmonds, 2006;
Navigli, 2009), is a well-studied Natural Language
Processing (NLP) task. In comparison to other labeling tasks, WSD is highly challenging because
of the large amount of different senses that words
have in context, and the difficulty of discriminating them, given the fine-grained sense distinctions
offered by existing lexical resources.
If one relies on a fixed sense inventory, two
main approaches have been proposed in the literature: supervised and knowledge-based methods. Both methods crucially require language resources in the form of wide-coverage semantic
lexica or annotated data. While the most successful approaches to WSD are based on super-
vised machine learning, these require large training sets of sense-tagged data, which are expensive
to obtain. Knowledge-based methods minimize
the amount of supervision by exploiting graphbased algorithms on structured lexical resources
such as WordNet (Fellbaum, 1998). Following
the model of WordNet, wordnets have been developed for a wide range of languages (Vossen,
1998; Lemnitzer and Kunze, 2002; Pianta et al.,
2002; Atserias et al., 2004; Tufiş et al., 2004, inter
alia). Moreover, research efforts recently focused
on automatically acquiring wide-coverage multilingual lexical resources (de Melo and Weikum,
2009; Mausam et al., 2009; Navigli and Ponzetto,
2010, inter alia).
An alternative to supervised and knowledgebased approaches is provided by fully unsupervised methods (Schütze, 1992; Schütze, 1998;
Pedersen and Bruce, 1997, inter alia), also known
as word sense induction approaches: these merely
require large amounts of raw text, but do not deliver well-defined sense clusters, and therefore are
more difficult to exploit.
For supervised WSD methods, corpora such as
SemCor (Miller et al., 1993) and the ones developed for the SensEval (Mihalcea and Edmonds,
2004) and SemEval (Agirre et al., 2007) competitions represent widely-used training resources.
However, in the case of German, the development
of supervised WSD systems based on the sense
inventory provided by GermaNet (Lemnitzer and
Kunze, 2002) is severely hampered by the lack of
annotated corpora.
This lack of a sense-annotated corpus implies in turn that no predominant sense information is available for GermaNet senses, in contrast to WordNet, which offers Most Frequent
Sense (MFS) information computed from fre-
20
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
quency counts over sense annotations in SemCor.
As a result, no MFS baseline system can be produced for German data, and no MFS heuristics,
i.e. assigning the predominant sense in case no answer can be computed, is available. To overcome
these limitations, we propose to leverage existing
proposal for English and exploit them to bootstrap
new WSD resources for German. Our contributions are the following:
1. We enrich GermaNet with predominant sense
information acquired from large web-based corpora, based on previous work on unsupervised predominant sense acquisition for English
words. This allows us to automatically label
target words in context using the predominant
sense as a type-level first-sense heuristics.
2. We adapt a state-of-the-art knowledge-based
WSD system to tag words in context with
GermaNet senses. This system performs an
instance-based disambiguation based on contextual information, and allow us to move away
from the type-based first-sense heuristics.
3. We explore the hypothesis of whether the word
sense annotations generated by these two WSD
approaches are complementary, and accordingly experiment with combining their outputs
in a voting architecture.
The remainder of the paper is structured as follows. Section 2 presents how we adapted previous
proposals for finding predominant senses and performing graph-based WSD in English for German.
In Section 3 we present a gold standard we created
for German WSD and report our experiments and
evaluation results. Section 4 concludes the paper.
2
Rapid Bootstrapping of WSD
Resources for German
Our approach to develop WSD resources for German is two-fold. We first apply state-of-theart methods to find predominant senses for English (McCarthy et al., 2004; Lapata and Keller,
2007, Sections 2.1 and 2.2). Both methods are
language-independent and require minimal supervision. However, they do not make use of
the structured knowledge provided by the GermaNet taxonomy. Accordingly, in Section 2.3 we
move on and adapt the state-of-the-art graph-based
WSD system of Agirre and Soroa (2009) to use
GermaNet as a lexical knowledge base. Finally,
we propose to integrate the output of these methods in Section 2.4.
2.1
Using a Thesaurus-based Method
McCarthy et al. (2004) propose an unsupervised
method for acquiring the predominant sense of a
word from text corpora. Key to their approach is
the observation that distributionally similar words
of a given target word tend to be sense-related to
the sense of the target word. Thus, for a set of
distributionally similar words Nw of a target word
w, they compute semantic similarity according to
some WordNet similarity measure for each pair of
senses of w and senses of nj , for all nj ∈ Nw . The
WordNet-based semantic similarity scores (sss)
are weighted by the distributional similarity scores
(dss) of the respective neighbors:
prevalence score(w, si ) =
(1)
X
sss(si , nj )
X
dss(w, nj ) ×
sss(s0i , nj )
nj ∈Nw
s0i ∈senses(w)
where sss(si , nj ) =
max
sx ∈senses(nj )
sss(si , sx )
Choosing the highest-scoring sense for w yields
the predominant sense tailored to the domain of
the underlying corpus on which distributional similarity is computed. McCarthy et al. (2004) make
use of Lin’s (1998) method of constructing a thesaurus of distributionally similar words. Such a
thesaurus can be computed on the basis of grammatical relations or word proximity relations from
parsed or raw text corpora, respectively. Syntactic
relations were extracted with RASP (Briscoe et al.,
2006) from 90M words of the BNC (Leech, 1992).
WordNet-based semantic similarity was computed
using the jcn (Jiang and Conrath, 1997) and lesk
(Banerjee and Pedersen, 2003) measures.
The acquired predominant senses were evaluated against SemCor for the different parts of
speech, both at the type-level (measuring accuracy of predicting the predominant sense of words
within SemCor) and for tokens (measuring the accuracy of using the predominant sense as a first
sense heuristics in instance-based sense tagging).
For both evaluations, the predominant senses calculated perform well over a random baseline.
Compared to the most frequent sense computed
from SemCor, the predominant senses score lower.
For instance, for nouns using BNC and lesk they
report 24.7% random baseline, 48.7% predomi-
21
nant sense and 68.6% MFS accuracy. Verbs, adjectives and adverbs show the same pattern at
lower performance levels.
Computing predominant senses for German.
To acquire predominant sense information for
German using McCarthy et al.’s (2004) method,
we first need a large corpus for the computation
of distributional similarity. We select the German part of the WaCky corpora (Baroni et al.,
2009), deWAC henceforth, a very large corpus
of 1.5G words obtained by web crawling, additionally cleaned and enriched with basic linguistic annotations (PoS and lemma). For parsing
we selected a subcorpus of sentences (i) that are
restricted to sentence length 12 (to ensure good
parsing quality) and (ii) that contain target words
from GermaNet version 5.1 (nouns, adjectives and
verbs). From this subcorpus we randomly selected
sample sets for each word for parsing. Parsing
was performed using Malt parser (Hall and Nivre,
2008), trained on the German TüBa/DZ corpus.
The parser output is post-processed for special
constructions (e.g. prepositional phrases, auxiliary
constructions), and filtered to reduce dependency
triples to semantically relevant word pairs. The
computation of distributional similarity follows
Lin (1998), whereas semantic similarity is computed using Leacock & Chodorow’s (1998) measure, built as an extension of the GermaNet API of
Gurevych and Niederlich (2005).
Predominant sense scores are computed according to Equation 1. To determine optimal settings
of system parameters, we made use of a held-out
development set of 20 words. We obtained the best
results for this set using subcorpora for words with
20-200 occurrences in deWAC, a selection of up
to 200 sentences per word for dependency extraction, and restriction to 200 nearest neighbors from
the set of distributionally similar words for prevalence score computation.
We developed two components providing predominant sense annotations using GermaNet
senses: the computed predominant senses are included as an additional annotation layer in the
deWAC corpus. Moreover, we extended the GermaNet API of Gurevych and Niederlich (2005) to
return predominant senses, which implements a
baseline system for predominant sense annotation.
2.2
Using an Information Retrieval
Approach
Lapata and Keller (2007) present an information
retrieval-based methodology to compute sense
predominance which, in contrast to McCarthy et
al. (2004), requires no parsed text. Key to their
approach is to query an information retrieval system to estimate the degree of association between
a word and its sense descriptions as defined by
WordNet synsets. That is, predominant senses are
automatically discovered by computing for each
sense of a target word how often the word cooccurs with the synonyms of that sense. Let w
be a target word and SDsi the sense description
for si , namely the i-th sense of w. In practice,
SDsi is a set of words {w1 . . . wn } which are
strongly semantically associated with si , e.g. its
synonyms, and provide a context for sense ranking. The predominant sense is then obtained by
selecting the sense description which has the highest co-occurrence score with w:
ŝ = argmax df ({w} ∪ SDsi )
si ∈senses(w)
where df is a document frequency score, i.e. the
number of documents that contain w and words
from SDsi (which may or may not be adjacent), as
returned from queries to a text search engine. The
queries are compiled for all combinations of the
target word with each of its synonyms, and the frequencies are combined using different strategies
(i.e. sum, average or taking the maximum score).
Computing predominant senses for German.
We start with a German polysemous noun, e.g.
Grund and collect its senses from GermaNet:
nnatGegenstand.3
nnatGegenstand.15
nArtefakt.6305
nMotiv.2
{Land}
{Boden, Gewaesser}
{Boden, Gefaess}
{Motivation,
Beweggrund,
Veranlassung,
Anlass}.
We then compile the queries, e.g. in the case of the
nMotiv.2 sense the following queries are created
Grund
Grund
Grund
Grund
AND
AND
AND
AND
Motivation
Beweggrund
Veranlassung
Anlass
and submitted to a search engine. The returned
document frequencies are then normalized by the
document frequency obtained by querying the
synonym alone. Finally the senses of a word are
ranked according to their normalized frequency,
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
22
and the one with the highest normalized frequency
is taken as the predominant sense.
Lapata and Keller (2007) explore the additional
expansion of the sense descriptors with the hypernyms of a given synset. While their results show
that models that do not include hypernyms perform better, we were interested in our work in testing whether this holds also for German, as well
as exploring different kinds of contexts. Accordingly, we investigated a variety of extended contexts, where the sense descriptions include synonyms together with: (i) paraphrases, which characterize the meaning of the synset (PARA, e.g.
Weg as a ‘often not fully developed route, which
serves for walking and driving’); (ii) hypernyms
(H YPER, à la Lapata and Keller (2007)); (iii) hyponyms (H YPO) (iv) all hyponyms together in a
disjunctive clause e.g. “Grund AND (Urgrund OR
Boden OR Naturschutzgrund OR Meeresgrund
OR Meeresboden)” (H YPOA LL). The latter expansion technique is motivated by observing during prototyping that one hyponym alone tends to
be too specific, thus introducing sparseness. In order to filter out senses which have sparse counts,
we developed a set of heuristic filters:
• L OW FREQUENCY DIFFERENCE (F REQ ) filters
out words whose difference between the relative
frequencies of their first two synsets falls below
a confidence threshold, thus penalizing vague
distinctions between senses.
• L OW DENOMINATOR COUNT (D ENOM ) removes synsets whose denominator count is too
low, thus penalizing synsets whose information
in the training corpus was too sparse.
• L OW SYNSET INFORMATION COUNT (S YN )
filters out synsets whose number of synonyms
falls under a confidence threshold.
In our implementation, we built the information retrieval system using Lucene1 . Similarly
to the setting from Section 2.1, the system was
used to index the deWAC corpus (Baroni et
al., 2009). Due the to productivity of German
compounds, e.g. “Zigarettenanzündersteckdose”
(cigarette lighter power socket), many words cannot be assigned word senses since no corresponding lexical unit can be found in GermaNet. Accordingly, given a compound, we perform a morphological analysis to index and retrieve its lexical
1
http://lucene.apache.org
head. We use Morphisto (Zielinski et al., 2009), a
morphological analyzer for German, based on the
SMOR-based SFST tools (Schmid et al., 2004).
2.3
GermaNet-based Personalized PageRank
While supervised methods have been extensively
shown in the literature to be the best performing
ones for monolingual WSD based on a fixed sense
inventory, given the unavailability of sense-tagged
data for German we need to resort to minimally
supervised methods to acquire predominant senses
from unlabeled text. Alternatively, we also experiment with extending an existing knowledgebased WSD system to disambiguate German target words in context.
We start by adapting the WSD system from
Agirre and Soroa (2009, UKB)2 , which makes
use of a graph-based algorithm, named Personalized PageRank (PPR). This method uses a lexical
knowledge base (LKB), e.g. WordNet, in order to
rank its vertices to perform disambiguation in context. First, a LKB is viewed as an undirected graph
G = hV, Ei where each vertex vi ∈ V represents
a concept, e.g. a synset, and each semantic relation between edges, e.g. hypernymy or hyponymy,
corresponds to an undirected edge (vi , vj ) ∈ E.
Given an input context C = {w1 . . . wn }, each
content word (i.e. noun, verb, adjective or adverb)
wi ∈ C is inserted in G as a vertex, and linked
with directed edges to m associated concepts, i.e.
the possible senses of wi according to the sense
inventory of the LKB. Next, the PageRank algorithm (Brin and Page, 1998) is run over the graph
G to compute P R, the PageRank score of each
concept in the graph given the input context as:
P R(vi ) = (1 − d) + d
X
j∈deg(vi )
P R(vj )
|deg(vj )|
(2)
where deg(vi ) is the set of neighbor vertices of
vertex vi , and d is the so-called damping factor
(typically set to 0.85). The PageRank score is calculated by iteratively computing Equation 2 for
each vertex in the graph, until convergence below a given threshold is achieved, or a fixed number of iterations, i.e. 30 in our case, is executed.
While in the standard formulation of PageRank
the P R scores are initialized with a uniform distribution, i.e. |V1 | , PPR concentrates all initial mass
uniformly over the word vertices representing the
2
http://ixa2.si.ehu.es/ukb
23
context words in C, in order to compute the structural relevance of the concepts in the LKB given
the input context. Finally, given the PageRank
scores of the vertices in G and a target word w
to be disambiguated, PPR chooses its associated
concept (namely, the vertex in G corresponding to
a sense of w) with the highest PageRank score.
In order to use UKB to find predominant senses
of German words, we first extend it to use GermaNet as LKB resource. This is achieved by converting GermaNet into the LKB data format used
by UKB. We then run PPR to disambiguate target
words in context within a set of manually annotated test sentences, and select for each target word
the sense which is chosen most frequently by PPR
for the target word in these sentences.
2.4
System combination
All our methods for predominant sense induction are unsupervised in the sense that they do
not require any sense-tagged sentences. However,
they all rely on an external resource, namely GermaNet, to provide a minimal amount of supervision. McCarthy et al.’s (2004) method uses the
lexical resource to compute the semantic similarity of words. Lapata and Keller (2007) rely instead
on its taxonomy structure to expand the sense descriptors of candidate senses based on hypernyms
and hyponyms. Finally, UKB uses the full graph
of the lexical knowledge base to find structural
similarities with the input context.
All these methods include a phase of weak supervision, while in different ways. We thus hypothesize that they are complementary: that is, by
combining their sense rankings, we expect their
different amounts of supervision to complement
each other, thus yielding a better ranking. We accordingly experiment with a simple majority voting scheme which, for each target word, collects
the predominant senses output by all three systems
and chooses the sense candidate with the highest
number of votes. In case of ties, we perform a random choice among the available candidates.
3
Experiments and Evaluation
We evaluate the performance of the above methods both on the detection of predominant senses
and token-level WSD in context. For this purpose
we created a gold standard of sense-annotated sentences following the model of the SensEval evaluation datasets (Section 3.1). The most frequent
sense annotations are then used to provide gold
standard predominant senses for German words
as the most frequent ones found in the annotated
data. Accordingly, we first evaluate our systems
in an intrinsic evaluation quantifying how well
the automatically generated sense rankings model
the one from the gold standard sense annotations
(Section 3.2). In addition, the gold standard of
sense-annotated German words in context is used
to extrinsically evaluate each method by performing type-based WSD, i.e. disambiguating all contextual occurrences of a target word by assigning
them their predominant sense (Section 3.3). Finally, since UKB provides a system to perform
token-based WSD, i.e. disambiguating each occurrence of a target word separately, we evaluate its
output against the gold standard annotations and
compare its performance against the type-based
systems.
3.1
Creation of a gold standard
Given the lack of sense-annotated corpora for German in the SensEval and SemEval competitions,
we created a gold standard for evaluation, taking the SensEval data for other languages as a
model, to ensure comparability to standard evaluation datasets. The construction of our gold standard for predominant sense is built on the hypothesis that the most frequent sense encountered in a
sample of sentences for a given target word can be
taken as the predominant sense. While this is arguably an idealization, it follows the assumption
that, given balanced data, the predominant sense
will be encountered with the highest frequency.
In addition, this reflects the standard definition of
predominant sense found in WordNet.
We selected the 40 keys from the English
SensEval-2 test set3 and translated these into German. In case of alternative translations, the selection took into account part of speech, comparable ambiguity rate, and frequency of occurrence
in deWAC (at least 20 sentences). We ensure that
the data set reflects the distribution of GermaNet
across PoS (the set contains 18 nouns, 16 verbs
and 6 adjectives), and yields a range of ambiguity
rates between 2 and 25 senses for all PoS. For each
target word, we extracted 20 sentences for words
with up to 4 senses, and an additional 5 sentences
per word for each additional sense. This evalua3
http://www.d.umn.edu/˜tpederse/data.
html
24
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
tion dataset was manually annotated with the contextually appropriate GermaNet senses.
3.2
Modeling human sense rankings from
gold standard annotations
Experimental setting. The gold standard ranking of word sense we use is given by frequency of
senses in the annotations, i.e. the most frequently
annotated word sense represents the predominant
one, and so on. For each method, we then evaluate
in terms of standard measures of precision (P , the
ratio of correct predominant senses to the total of
senses output by the system), recall (R, the ratio of
correct predominant senses to the total of senses in
R
the gold standard) and F1 -measure ( P2P+R
). Since
all methods provide a ranking of word senses,
rather than a single answer, we also performed an
additional evaluation using the ranking-sensitive
metrics of precision at rank – P @k i.e. the ratio
of correct predominant senses found in the top-k
senses to the total of senses output by the system –
as well as Mean Reciprocal Rank – MRR, namely
the average of the reciprocal ranks of the correct
predominant senses given by the system.
Results and discussion. Tables 1 and 2 present
results for the intrinsic evaluation of the German
predominant senses. These are generated based on
the methods of McCarthy et al. (2004, MCC), Lapata and Keller (2007, LK), the frequency of sense
assignments of UKB to the sense-annotated test
sentences, and the system combination (Merged,
Section 2.4). In the case of LK, we show for the
sake of brevity only results obtained with the best
configuration (including counts from PARA, H YPER and H YPOA LL with no filtering), as found by
manually validating the system output on a heldout dataset of word senses. As a baseline, we use a
random sense assignment to find the predominant
sense of a word (Random), as well as a more informed method that selects as predominant sense
of a word the one whose synset has the largest size
(SynsetSize). Each system is evaluated on all PoS
and the nouns-only subset of the gold standard.
All systems, except LK on the all-words dataset,
perform above both baselines, indicating meaningful output. The drastic performance decrease
of LK when moving from nouns only to all PoS
is due to the fact that in many cases, i.e. typically
for adverbs and adjectives but also for nouns, the
GermaNet synsets contain none or few synonyms
to construct the base sense descriptions with, as
well as very few hyponyms and hypernyms to expand them (i.e. due to the paucity of connectivity in the taxonomy). Among the available methods, UKB achieves the best performance, since
it indirectly makes use of the supervision provided by the words in context. System combination performs lower than the best system: this is
because in many cases (i.e. 17 out of 40 words)
we reach a tie, and the method randomly selects
a sense out of the three available without considering their confidence scores. Following Lapata
and Keller (2007), we computed the correlation
between the sense frequencies in the gold standard
and those estimated by our models by computing
the Spearman rank correlation coefficient ρ. In the
case of our best results, i.e. UKB, we found that
the sense frequencies were significantly correlated
with the gold standard ones, i.e. ρ = 0.44 and 0.49,
p << 0.01, for nouns and all-words respectively.
3.3
Type and token-based WSD for German
Experimental setting. We next follow the evaluation framework established by McCarthy et al.
(2004) and Lapata and Keller (2007) and evaluate the sense ranking for the extrinsic task of performing WSD on tokens in contexts. We use the
sense rankings to tag all occurrences of the target
words in the test sentences with their predominant
senses. Since such a type-based WSD approach
only provides a baseline system which performs
disambiguation without looking at the actual context of the words, we compare it against the performance of a full-fledged token-based system, i.e.
UKB.inst, which disambiguates each instance of a
target word separately based on its actual context.
Results and discussion. The results on the
WSD task are presented in Table 3. As in the
other evaluation, we use the standard metrics of
precision, recall and balanced F-measure, as well
as the Random and SynsetSize baselines. We use
SynsetSize as a back-off strategy in case no sense
assignment is attempted by a system, i.e. similar to
the use of the SemCor most frequent sense heuristic for standard English WSD systems. In addition, we compute the performance of the system
using the most frequent sense from the test sentences themselves: this represents an oracle system, which uses the most frequent sense from the
gold standard to provide an upper-bound for the
performance of type-based WSD.
25
Random
SynsetSize
MCC
LK
UKB
Merged
Nouns only
P
R
F1
16.67 16.67 16.67
33.33 33.33 33.33
44.44 44.44 44.44
56.25 50.00 52.94
66.67 66.67 66.67
61.11 61.11 61.11
P
17.50
32.50
35.90
29.03
50.00
47.50
All words
R
F1
17.50 17.50
32.50 32.50
35.00 35.44
22.50 25.35
50.00 50.00
47.50 47.50
Table 1: Results against human sense rankings: precision/recall on exact, i.e. predominant-only, senses.
baseline
SynsetSize
MCC
LK
UKB
Merged
[email protected]
16.67
33.33
44.44
56.25
66.67
61.11
Nouns only
[email protected]
[email protected]
66.67 77.78
72.22 88.89
88.89 88.89
81.25 93.75
88.89 100.00
83.33 88.89
MRR
0.50
0.61
0.69
0.65
0.81
0.74
[email protected]
17.50
32.50
35.90
29.03
50.00
47.50
All words
[email protected] [email protected]
52.50 70.00
55.00 67.50
66.67 79.49
41.94 48.39
77.50 87.50
70.00 70.00
MRR
0.47
0.54
0.58
0.29
0.68
0.59
Table 2: Results against human sense rankings: precision @k and MRR on full sense rankings.
The WSD results corroborate our previous findings from the intrinsic evaluation, namely that: (i)
all systems, except LK on the all-words dataset,
achieve a performance above both baselines, indicating the feasibility of the task; (ii) the best results
on type-based WSD are achieved by selecting the
sense which is chosen most frequently by UKB for
the target word; (iii) system combination based on
a simple majority-voting scheme does not improve
the results, due to the ties in the voting and the relative random choice among the three votes. As
expected, performing token-based WSD performs
better than type-based: this is because, while labeling based on predominant senses represents a
powerful option due to the skewness of sense distributions, target word contexts also provide crucial evidence to perform robust WSD.
4
Conclusions and Future Work
We presented a variety of methods to automatically induce resources to perform WSD in German, using GermaNet as a LKB. We applied methods for predominant sense induction, originally
developed for English (McCarthy et al., 2004; Lapata and Keller, 2007), to German. We further
adapted a graph-based WSD system (Agirre and
Soroa, 2009) to label words in context using the
GermaNet resource.
Random
SynsetSize
MCC
LK
UKB
Merged
UKB.inst
Test MFS
Nouns only
P/R/F1
22.49
31.98
41.46
42.28
48.78
44.72
55.49
64.50
All words
P/R/F1
15.42
24.67
27.66
21.31
36.73
33.55
38.90
56.54
Table 3: Results for type- and token-based WSD
on the gold standard.
Our results show that we are able to robustly
bootstrap baseline systems for the automatic annotation of word senses in German. The systems
were evaluated against a carefully created gold
standard corpus. Best results were obtained by
the knowledge-based system, which profits from
its limited supervision by the surrounding context.
System integration based on majority voting could
not improve over the best system, yielding an overall performance degradation. We leave the exploration of more refined ensemble methods, e.g.
weighted voting, to future work.
26
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
While our evaluation is restricted to 40 words
only, we computed predominant sense rankings
for the entire sense inventory of GermaNet. We
will make these available in the form of a senseannotated version of deWAC, as well as an API to
access this information in GermaNet.
The present work is per-se not extremely novel,
but it extends and applies existing methods to create new resources for German. The annotations
produced by the WSD systems can serve as a basis for rapid construction of a gold standard corpus
by manually validating their output. A natural extension of our approach is to couple it with manual validation frameworks based on crowdsourcing, i.e. Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (cf. Snow et
al. (2008)). We leave such exploration to future
work.
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29
Presupposition Projection and Accommodation in Mathematical Texts
Marcos Cramer
Daniel Kühlwein
Mathematisches Institut
University of Bonn
Bonn, Germany
{cramer,kuehlwei}@math.uni-bonn.de
Abstract
This paper discusses presuppositions in mathematical texts and describes how presupposition
handling was implemented in the Naproche system for checking natural language mathematical
proofs. Mathematical texts have special properties
from a pragmatic point of view, since in a mathematical proof every new assertion is expected to
logically follow from previously known material,
whereas in most other texts one expects new assertions to add logically new information to the context. This pragmatic difference has its influence
on how presuppositions can be projected and accommodated in mathematical texts. Nevertheless,
the account of presupposition handling developed
for the Naproche system turned out to have equivalent projection predictions to an existing account
of presupposition projection.
1
Introduction
The special language that is used in mathematical
journals and textbooks has some unique linguistic features, on the syntactic, on the semantic and
on the pragmatic level: For example, on the syntactic level, it can incorporate complex symbolic
material into natural language sentences. On the
semantic level, it refers to rigorously defined abstract objects, and is in general less open to ambiguity than most other text types. On the pragmatic level, it reverses the expectation on assertions, which have to be implied by the context
rather than adding new information to it.
We call this special language the semi-formal
language of mathematics (SFLM), and call texts
written in this language mathematical texts. The
content of mathematical texts can be divided into
object level content (mathematical statements and
Bernhard Schröder
Fakultät für Geisteswissenschaften
University of Duisburg-Essen
Essen, Germany
[email protected]
their proofs) and meta level content (e.g. historical
remarks and motivation behind certain definitions
and one’s interest in certain theorems). For the rest
of the paper, we will focus on object level content
of mathematical texts.
Our work on presuppositions in mathematical
texts has been conducted in the context of the
Naproche project. The Naproche project studies
SFLM from the perspectives of linguistics, logic
and mathematics. A central goal of Naproche is to
develop a controlled natural language (CNL) for
mathematical texts and implement a system, the
Naproche system, which can check texts written
in this CNL for logical correctness using methods
from computational linguistics and automatic theorem proving.
The Naproche system first translates a CNL text
into a Proof Representation Structure (PRS). PRSs
are Discourse Representation Structures (DRSs,
(Kamp and Reyle, 1993)), which are enriched in
such a way as to represent the distinguishing characteristics of SFLM (Cramer et al., 2010). For every statement made in the text, the Naproche System extracts from the PRS a proof obligation that
gets sent to an automated theorem prover, in order to check that the claim made by the statement
follows from the available information (Cramer et
al., 2009).
In this paper we describe how the checking algorithm of Naproche had to be altered when expressions triggering presuppositions were added to
the Naproche CNL. Presuppositions also have to
be checked for correctness, but behave differently
from assertions in mathematical texts because of
their special pragmatic properties to be discussed
below.
30
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
Presuppositions
Losely speaking, a presupposition of some utterance is an implicit assumption that is taken for
granted when making the utterance. In the literature, presuppositions are generally accepted to be
triggered by certain lexical items called presupposition triggers. Among them are definite noun
phrases (in English marked by the definite article “the”, possessive pronouns or genitives), factive verbs (like “regret”, “realize” and “know”),
change of state verbs (“stop” and “begin”), iteratives (“again”) and some others.
Presupposition projection is the way in which
presuppositions triggered by expressions within
the scope of some operator have to be evaluated
outside this scope. The precise way in which
presuppositions project under various operators
has been disputed at great length in the literature (see for example Levinson (1983) and Kadmon (2001) for overviews of this dispute). The
DRS-based presupposition projection mechanism
that we came up with for dealing with presuppositions in mathematical texts turned out to be equivalent to Heim’s (1983) approach to presupposition
projection.
Presupposition accommodation is what we do
if we find ourselves faced with a presupposition
the truth of which we cannot establish in the given
context: We add the presupposition to the context,
in order to be able to process the sentence that presupposes it.
In mathematical texts, most of the presupposition triggers discussed in the linguistic literature,
e.g. factive verbs, change of state verbs and iteratives, are not very common or even completely
absent. Definite descriptions, however, do appear
in mathematical texts (e.g. “the smallest natural
number n such that n2 − 1 is prime”). And there
is another kind of presupposition trigger, which
does not exist outside mathematical texts: Function symbols. For example, the devision symbol
“/” presupposes that its second (right hand) argument is non-zero; and in a context where one is
working only with real and not with complex num√
bers, the sqare root symbol “ ” presupposes that
its argument is non-negative. As has been pointed
out by Kadmon (2001), the kind of presupposition trigger does, however, not have any significant influence on the projection and accommodation properties of presuppositions. For this reason,
we will concentrate on examples with definite de-
scriptions.
Although terminology is not used in a fully uniform fashion among linguists, we will make the
following distinctions suitable for our purposes.
We analyse noun phrases semantically into a determiner (here: “the”) and a restricting property.
Definite noun phrases referring to a single object
by a restricting property whose extension contains
exactly one object we call definite descriptions.
Definite noun phrases in the singular with restricting properties whose extension contains more than
one object get their referential uniqueness usually
by anaphoric reference to an object mentioned previously; they are called anaphoric definite noun
phrases. A mathematical example of an anaphoric
definite noun phrase is “the group” used to refer
to a group mentioned recently in the text. The example above (“the smallest natural number n such
that n2 − 1 is prime”) was an example of a definite
description.
The presupposition of a singular definite description with the restricting property F is that
there is a unique object with property F. This
presupposition can be divided into two separate
presuppositions: One existential presupposition,
claiming that there is at least one F, and one
uniqueness presupposition, claiming that there is
at most one F.
3
Proof Representation Structures
For the purpose of this paper, we provide a simplified definition of Proof Representation Structures, which is very similar to standard definitions
of Discourse Representation Structures. A fullfledged definition of Proof Representation Structures can be found in Cramer et al. (2010).
A Proof Representation Structure is a pair consisting of a list of discourse referents and an ordered list of conditions. Just as in the case of
DRSs, PRSs and PRS conditions are defined recursively: Let A, B be PRSs and d, d1 , . . . , dn discourse referents. Then
• for any n-ary predicate p (e.g. expressed
by adjectives and noun phrases in predicative
use and verbs in SFLM), p(d1 , . . . , dn ) is a
condition.
• ¬A is a condition, representing a negation.
• B ⇒ A is a condition, representing an assumption (B) and the set of claims made inside the scope of this assumption (A).
31
d1 , . . . , dm
c1
..
.
cn
Figure 1: A PRS with discourse referents
d1 , ..., dm , and conditions c1 , ..., cn .
• A is a condition.
• the(d, A) is a condition, representing a definite description with restricting property F,
where d is the discourse referent introduced
by this definite description and A is the representation of F.
Apart from the the-condition, which was also
absent from PRSs as they were defined in Cramer
et al. (2010), there are two differences between
this definition of PRSs and standard definitions
of DRSs: Firstly, the list of PRS conditions is
ordered, whereas DRS conditions are normally
thought to form an unordered set. Secondly, a
bare PRS can be a direct condition of a PRS.
Both of these differences are due to the fact that
a PRS does not only represent which information
is known and which discourse referents are accessible after processing some (possibly partial)
discourse, but also represents in which order the
pieces of information and discourse referents were
added to the discourse context.
Similar to DRSs, we can display PRSs as
“boxes” (Figure 1). If m = 0, we leave out the
top cell.
4
Checking PRSs without
presuppositions
In order to explain our treatment of presuppositions, we first need to explain how PRSs without
presuppositions are checked for correctness by the
Naproche system.
The checking algorithm makes use of Automated Theorem Provers (ATPs) for first-order
logic (Fitting, 1996).1 Given a set of axioms and a
conjecture, an ATP tries to find either a proof that
the axioms logically imply the conjecture, or build
a model for the premisses and the negation of the
conjecture, which shows that that they don’t imply
1
The checking algorithm is implemented in such a way
that it is easily possible to change the ATP used. Most of our
tests of the system are performed with the prover E (Schulz,
2002).
it. With difficult problems, an ATP might not find
any proof or counter-model within the time limit
that one fixed in advance. A conjecture together
with a set of axioms handed to an ATP is called a
proof obligation.
The checking algorithm keeps a list of firstorder formulae considered to be true, called
premises, which gets continuously updated during
the checking process. The conditions of a PRS are
checked sequentially. Each condition is checked
under the currently active premises. According to
the kind of condition, the Naproche system creates obligations which have to be discharged by
an ATP.
Below we list how the algorithm proceeds depending on the PRS condition encountered. We
use Γ to denote the list of premises considered true
before encountering the condition in question, and
Γ0 to denote the list of premises considered true
after encountering the condition in question. A
proof obligation checking that φ follows from Γ
will be denoted by Γ ` φ. For any given PRS
A, we denote by F I(A) the formula image of A,
which is a list of first-order formulae representing
the information introduced in A; the definitions of
F I(A) and of the checking algorithm are mutually
recursive, as specified below.
We first present the algorithm for PRS conditions that do not introduce new discourse referents. Next we extend it to conditions introducing discourse referents. In section 5, we extend it
further to conditions that trigger presuppositions.
(For simplifying the presentation, we treat formula
lists as formula sets, i.e. allow ourselves to use set
notation when in reality the algorithm works with
ordered lists.)
(1) For a condition of the form p(d1 , . . . , dn ),
check Γ ` p(d1 , . . . , dn ) and set Γ0 := Γ ∪
{p(d1 , . . . , dn )}.
(2) For
check Γ `
V a condition of the form ¬A, V
¬ F I(A) and set Γ0 := Γ ∪ {¬ F I(A)}.
(3) For a condition of the form B ⇒ A,
where no discourse referents are introduced
in A, check A with initial premise set Γ ∪
0
F I(B),
V and set Γ := Γ ∪ ∆, where ∆ :=
{∀~x( F I(B) → φ)|φ ∈ F I(A)} and ~x is
the list of free variables in F I(B).
(4) For a condition of the form A, where no discourse referents are introduced in A, check
32
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
A with initial premise set Γ, and set Γ0 :=
Γ ∪ F I(A).
For computing F I(A), the algorithm proceeds
analoguously to the checking of A, only that no
proof obligations are sent to the ATP: The updated
premise lists are still computed, and F I(A) is defined to be Γ0 − Γ, where Γ is the premise list before processing the first condition in A and Γ0 is
the premise list after processing the last condition
in A. This is implemented by allowing the algorithm to process a PRS A in two different modes:
The Check-Mode described above for checking
the content of A, and the No-Check-Mode, which
refrains from sending proof obligations to the ATP,
but still expands the premise list in order to compute F I(A).
For the cases (1) and (2), it is easy to see that
what gets added to the list of premises in the
Check-Mode is precisely what has been checked
to be correct by the ATP. In the cases (3) and (4),
it can also be shown that what gets added to the
set of premises has implicitly been established to
be correct by the ATP.
Special care is required when in conditions of
the form B ⇒ A or A, new discourse referents
are introduced in A. Let us first consider the simpler case of a condition of the form A that introduces new discourse referents; this corresponds
to sentences like “There is an integer x such that
2x − 1 is prime.”, i.e. sentences with an existential claim, which make the existentially introduced
entity anaphorically referencible by the later discourse. As would be expected, we need to check
Γ ` ∃x(integer(x) ∧ prime(2x − 1)) in this case.
But we cannot just add ∃x(integer(x)∧prime(2x−
1)) to the premise set, since the first order quantifier ∃ does not have the dynamic properties of
the natural language quantification with “there is”:
When we later say “x 6= 1”, the proof obligation
of the form Γ∪{∃x(integer(x)∧prime(2x−1))} `
x 6= 1 for this sentence would not make sense,
since the free x in the conjecture would not corefer with the existentially bound x in the axiom.
We solve this problem by Skolemizing (Brachman and Levesque, 2004) existential formulae before adding them to the premise list: In our example, we add integer(c) ∧ prime(2c − 1) (for
some new constant symbol c) to the premise list.
Later uses of x will then also have to be substituted by c, so the proof obligation for “x 6= 1” becomes Γ ∪ {integer(c) ∧ prime(2c − 1)} ` c 6= 1.
Given that the discourse referents introduced in A
become free variables in F I(A), we can require
more generally: For a condition of the form A
which
V introduces discourse referents, check Γ `
∃~x( F I(A)) (where ~x is the list of free variables
in F I(A)), and set Γ0 := Γ ∪ S(F I(A)). We
define S(F I(A)) (the Skolemized version of of
F I(A)) to be the set of formulae that we get when
we substitute each free variable used in some formula in F I(A) by a different new constant symbol, ensuring that the same constant symbol is
used for the same free variable across different formulae in F I(A).
In the case of conditions of the form B ⇒
A with A introducing new discourse referents,
we need the more general kind of Skolemization,
which involves introducing new function symbols
rather than new constant symbols: We proceed in
the same way as for the case when A doesn’t introduce new discourse referents, only that in the definition of Γ0 we replace ∆ by its Skolemized form
S(∆). S(∆) consists of Skolemized versions of
the formulae in ∆, where the Skolem functions are
chosen in such a way that any free variable appearing in more than one formula in ∆ gets replaced by
the same function across the different formulae in
which it appears.
5
Checking PRSs with presuppositions
Most accounts of presupposition make reference
to the context in which an utterance is uttered, and
claim that presuppositions have to be satisfied in
the context in which they are made. There are different formalisations of how a context should be
conceptualised. For enabling the Naproche checking algorithm described in the previous section to
handle presuppositions, it is an obvious approach
to use the list of active premises (which include
definitions) as the context in which our presuppositions have to be satisfied.
As noted before, assertions in mathematical
texts are expected to be logically implied by the
available knowledge rather than adding something
logically new to it. Because of this pragmatic peculiarity, both presuppositions and assertions in
proof texts have to follow logically from the context. For a sentence like “The largest element of
M is finite” to be legitimately used in a mathematical text, both the unique existence of a largest
element of M and its finiteness must be inferable
33
from the context.2
This parallel treatment of presuppositions and
assertions, however, does not necessarily hold for
presupposition triggers that are subordinated by a
logical operation like negation or implication. For
example, in the sentence “A does not contain the
empty set”, the existence and uniqueness presuppositions do not get negated, whereas the containment assertion does. This is explained in the following way: In order to make sense of the negated
sentence, we first need to make sense of what is
inside the scope of the negation. In order to make
sense of some expression, all presuppositions of
that expression have to follow from the current
context. The presuppositions triggered by “the
empty set” are inside the scope of the negation, so
they have to follow from the current context. The
containment assertion, however, does not have to
follow from the current context, since it is not a
presupposition, and since it is negated rather than
being directly asserted.
In our implementation, making sense of something corresponds to processing its PRS, whether
in the Check-Mode or in the No-Check-Mode. So
according to the above explanation, presuppositions, unlike assertions, also have to be checked
when encountered in the No-Check-Mode.
For example, the PRS of sentence (5) is (6).
(8) Γ ∪ {empty(c) ∧ set(c)} `
∀y(empty(y) ∧ set(y) → y = c)
(9) Γ ∪ {empty(c) ∧ set(c), ∀y(empty(y) ∧
set(y) → y = c)} ` ¬contain(A, c)
In order to get this, we need to use the nonpresuppositional formula image {contain(A, c)}
of the negated PRS: The non-presuppositional formula image is defined to be the subset of formulae
of the formula image that do not originate from
presuppositions. When implementing the checking algorithm for PRSs with presuppositions, we
have to use this non-presuppositional formula image wherever we used the formula image in the
original checking algorithm. The presupposition
premises which get pulled out of the formula image have to be added to the list of premises that
were active before starting to calculate the formula
image.
This pulling out of presupposition premises is
not always as simple as in the above example.
Consider for example sentence (10), whose PRS
is (11).
(10) There is a finite non-empty set M of natural
numbers such that the largest element of M
is even.3
(5) A does not contain the empty set.
(11)
(6)
empty(x)
)
set(x)
contain(A, x)
¬ the(x,
When the checking algorithm encounters the
negated PRS, it needs to find the formula image of
the PRS, for which it will process this PRS in NoCheck-Mode. Now the the-condition triggers two
presuppositions, which have to be checked despite
being in No-Check-Mode. So we send the proof
obligations (7) and (8) (for a new constant symbol
c) to the ATP. Finally, the proof obligation that we
want for the assertion of the sentence is (9).
(7) Γ ` ∃x(empty(x) ∧ set(x))
2
The remaining distinctive feature between assertions and
presuppositions is that the failure of the latter ones makes the
containing sentences meaningless, not only false.
M
finite(M )
non-empty(M )
set of nats(M )
the(x, largest elt(x, M ) )
even(x)
The Skolemized premise from the existential presupposition is largest elt(c, M ), which contains a
free occurence of the variable M , but should be
pulled out of the PRS introducing M , i.e. out of
the scope of M , in order to be added to the set
Γ of premises available before encountering this
3
The definite noun phrase “The largest element of M ”
can be read like a function depending on M . When, like in
our example, such functional definite descriptions are used as
functions on a variable that we are quantifying over, the presuppositions of the functional definite description can restrict
the domain of the quantifier to entities for which the presupposition is satisfied. Such a restriction of a quantifier is an
instance of accommodation (local accomodation in our account), which will be treated in section 7. In this section we
are interested in presupposition handling without accommodation, i.e. without restricting the domain of the quantifier in
this example. So the presuppositions of “the largest element
of M ” have to be fulfilled for any finite non-empty set M of
natural numbers.
34
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
sentence. Pulling this occurence of M out of the
scope of M would make the premise meaningless, so we need a more sophisticated approach to
pulling out presupposition premises:
According to the above account, we will check
the existential presupposition in question using the
proof obligation (12). Given that M does not appear in Γ (as it is a newly introduced discourse
referent), this is logically equivalent to having
checked (13), whose Skolemized form (14) will
be added to Γ (where skx is the new function symbol introduced for x when Skolemizing). This extended premise set is used to check the existential
claim of the sentence in (15).
(12) Γ ∪ {finite(M ), non-empty(M ), set of
nats(M )} ` ∃x largest elt(x, M )
(13) Γ ` ∀M (finite(M ) ∧ non-empty(M ) ∧
set of nats(M ) → ∃x largest elt(x, M ))
(14) ∀M (finite(M ) ∧ non-empty(M ) ∧ set
of nats(M ) → largest elt(skx (M ), M ))
(18)
x
⇒ the(y, mult inv(y, x) )
pos(x)
pos(y)
In our treatment of presupposition, computing the
presupposition (17) explicitly is not the central
issue; what we do instead is to justify the presupposition with the information locally available
when encountering the presupposition. In the example sentence, whose PRS is (18), the formula
image of the left PRS of the implication condition
({pos(x)}) is Skolemized and added to the set Γ of
premises available before encountering this sentence, so that the set of premises available when
encountering the the-condition is Γ ∪ {pos(c)}.
Hence the proof obligation for justifying the existential presupposition of the definite description
is (19). Having checked this is equivalent to having checked (20), i.e. having deduced Heim’s projected presupposition from Γ.
(19) Γ ∪ {pos(c)} ` ∃y mult inv(y, c)
(15) Γ ∪ {(14)} ` ∃M (finite(M ) ∧ non-empty
(M ) ∧ set of nats(M ) ∧ even(skx (M )))
6
Comparison to Heim’s presupposition
projection
Heim (1983) is concerned with the projection
problem, i.e. with “predicting the presuppositions
of complex sentences in a compositional fashion
from the presuppositions of their parts”. For us,
the projection problem only had indirect importance: The reason for our occupation with presupposition was to be able to check mathematical
texts containing presupposition triggers for correctness. This does involve checking that the presuppositions of every trigger are satisfied in the local context of the trigger, but it doesn’t necessarily
involve explicitly computing presuppositions for
complex sentences.
Given the sentence (16), Heim’s theory predicts
that the existential presupposition of the definite
description gives rise to the presupposition (17)
for the complex sentence.
(16) If x is positive, then the multiplicative inverse of x is positive.
(17) If x is positive, then x has a multiplicative
inverse.
(20) Γ ` ∀x (pos(x) → ∃y mult inv(y, x))
Also for presuppositions subordinated under
other kinds of logical operators, our theory is in
this way equivalent to Heim’s theory. This is
the sense in which one can say that our theory is
equivalent to Heim’s theory.4 On the other hand,
we arrive at these results in a somewhat different
way to Heim: Heim defines contexts in a semantical way as sets of possible worlds or, in her account of functional definite descriptions, as a set of
pairs of the form hg, wi, where g is a sequence of
individuals and w is a possible world, whereas we
define a context syntactically as a list of first-order
formulae.
7
Accommodation
One commonly distinguishes between global and
local accommodation. Global accommodation is
the process of altering the global context in such
4
Here we are comparing our theory without accommodation to Heim’s theory without accommodation. Heim calls
the projected universal presupposition for functional noun
phrases (as discussed in the previous section, cf. example
(10) with presupposition (13)) “unintuitively strong”, and
gives an explanation for this using accommodation. But this
universal presupposition is what her account without accommodation predicts, just as in our case. Cf. the justification for
the strong universal presupposition in footnote 3.
35
a way that the presupposition in question can be
justified; local accommodation on the other hand
involves only altering some local context, leaving
the global context untouched. It is a generally
accepted pragmatic principle that ceteris paribus
global accommodation is preferred over local accommodation.
In the introduction, we mentioned the pragmatic
principle in mathematical texts that new assertions
do not add new information (in the sense of logically not infereable information) to the context.
Here “context” of course doesn’t refer to our formal definition of context as a list of formulae. In
fact, if we take a possible world to be a situation in which certain axioms, definitions, and assumptions hold or do not hold, we can make sense
of the use of “context” in this assertion by applying Heim’s definition of a context as a set of
possible worlds. When mathematicians state axioms, they limit the context, i.e. the set of possible
worlds they consider, to the set where the axioms
hold. Similarly, when they make local assumptions, they temporarily limit the context. But when
making assertions, these assertions are thought be
logically implied by what has been assumed and
proved so far, so they do not further limit the context.
This pragmatic principle of not adding anything
to the context implies that global accommodation
is not possible in mathematical texts, since global
accommodation implies adding something new to
the global context. Local accommodation, on the
other hand, is allowed, and does occur in real
mathematical texts:
Suppose that f has n derivatives at x0
and n is the smallest positive integer
such that f (n) (x0 ) 6= 0.
(Trench, 2003)
This is a local assumption. The projected existential presupposition of the definite description
“the smallest positive integer such that f (n) (x0 ) 6=
0” is that for any function f with some derivatives
at some point x0 , there is a smallest positive integer n such that f (n) (x0 ) 6= 0. Now this is not valid
in real analysis, and we cannot just assume that it
holds using global accommodation. Instead, we
make use of local accommodation, thus adding the
accommodated fact that there is a smallest such integer for f to the assumptions that we make about
f with this sentence.
The fact that one has to accommodate locally
rather than globally does not, however, always
fix which context we alter when accommodating.
Consider for example sentence (21), used in a context where we have already defined a set Ax of real
numbers for every real number x.
(21) For all x ∈ R, if Ax doesn’t contain x1 , then
Ax is finite.
The question is whether we need to check the
finiteness of A0 in order to establish the truth of
(21), or whether the the finiteness of A0 is irrelevant. Since the use of x1 presupposes that x 6= 0,
which doesn’t hold for any arbitrary x ∈ R, we
have to locally accommodate that x 6= 0. But we
can either accommodate this within the scope of
the negation or outside the scope of the negation,
but still locally within the conditional. In the first
case, we have to establish that A0 is finite, whereas
in the second case we don’t.
Unlike the presupposition handling described in
the previous sections, local accommodation has
not yet been implemented into Naproche. Before
this can be done, we need some mechanism for
deciding which of a number of possible local accommodations is preferred in cases like the above.
8
Related Work
Presuppositions in mathematical texts have already been studied before: Zinn (2000) discusses
presuppositions and implicatures in mathematical
texts. His work on presuppositions focuses on the
presuppositions that are justified using information from proof plans. Since Naproche currently
doesn’t use proof plans, this kind of presupposition is not yet implemented in the Naproche CNL.
Ganesalingam (2009) describes an innovative
way of computing the presuppositions triggered
by mathematical function symbols (like −−1 ) and
the presuppositions given rise to by selective restrictions (e.g. the presupposition “x is a natural
number” of the utterance “x is prime”) from the
definitions where the corresponding function symbols or expressions were defined. Once Naproche
implements other presupposition triggers than just
definite descriptions, an algorithm similar to that
presented by Ganesalingam will be implemented
for computing presuppositions triggered by symbols or expressions defined in the text.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
36
9
Conclusion
In this paper we discussed the handling of presuppositions in the checking algorithm of the
Naproche system, and compared its projection
predictions to those of Heim (1983). We noted that
our projection predictions are equivalent to those
of Heim, despite the fact that we arrive at these
predictions in a different way.
Additionally, we considered accommodation in
mathematical texts, and noted that global accommodation is blocked by a pragmatic peculiarity of mathematical texts. Future work will involve implementing local accommodation into the
Naproche system.
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and M. Kohlhase (eds.). Proceedings of the Second
Workshop on Inference in Computational Semantics,
121-135.
37
Inkrementelle Koreferenzanalyse für das Deutsche
Angela Fahrni
Manfred Klenner
Don Tuggener
HITS gGmbH
Institut für Computerlinguistik Institut für Computerlinguistik
Heidelberg
Universität Zürich
Universität Zürich
Deutschland
Schweiz
Schweiz
{klenner, tuggener}@cl.uzh.ch
[email protected]
Abstract
Es wird ein inkrementeller Ansatz zur Koreferenzanalyse deutscher Texte vorgestellt. Wir zeigen
anhand einer breiten empirischen Untersuchung,
dass ein inkrementelles Verfahren einem nichtinkrementellen überlegen ist und dass jeweils
die Verwendung von mehreren Klassifizierern
bessere Resultate ergibt als die Verwendung von
nur einem. Zudem definieren wir ein einfaches
Salienzmass1 , dass annähernd so gute Ergebnisse
ergibt wie ein ausgefeiltes, auf maschinellem Lernen basiertes Verfahren. Die Vorverarbeitung erfolgt ausschliesslich durch reale Komponenten,
es wird nicht – wie so oft – auf perfekte Daten
(z.B. Baumbank statt Parser) zurückgegriffen.
Entsprechend tief sind die empirischen Ergebnisse. Der Ansatz operiert mit harten linguistischen Filtern, wodurch die Menge der Antezedenskandidaten klein gehalten wird. Die
Evaluierung erfolgt anhand der Koreferenzannotationen der TüBa-D/Z.
1
Einleitung
Empirische Untersuchungen zur Koreferenzresolution gehen oft von Vereinfachungen aus. Die
gängigsten Idealisierungen sind:
• Ausklammerung der Anaphorizitätsentscheidung (true mentions only)
• Nutzung einer Baumbank
– perfekte Bäume
– perfekte funktionale Information (grammatische Funktionen)
– perfekte
morphologische
Kategorisierungen
1
Die Schweizer Rechtschreibung kennt kein scharfes s.
Oft wird von sog. true mentions ausgegangen, man verwendet also nur diejenigen Nominalphrasen (NPen), die gemäss Gold Standard in
einer Koreferenzmenge sind. Die meisten nichtpronominalen Nominalphrasen sind aber nichtanaphorisch. Das Problem, diese von den anaphorischen zu unterscheiden, wird ausgeklammert.
Empirische Werte unter dieser Setzung liegen
etwa 15% zu hoch, vgl. (Klenner & Ailloud,
2009).
Es wird heutzutage nahezu ausschliesslich mit
statistischen Methoden (inkl. machine learning)
gearbeitet. Anaphernresolution wird dann meist
als paarweise Klassifikationsaufgabe aufgefasst.
Es werden unter anderem folgende Merkmale
(features) beim Trainieren eines supervisierten
Klassifizierers verwendet: die grammatischen
Funktionen der NPen, ihre Einbettungstiefe im
Syntaxbaum, die Wortklasse und die morphologischen Merkmale der Köpfe der NPen. Falls, wie
im Falle der TüBa-D/Z, eine Baumbank mit diesen
Spezifikationen vorhanden ist, ist die Versuchung
gross, auf reale Komponenten zu verzichten und
diese Goldstandardinformation zu nutzen.
Man findet auch wirklich kaum ein System, das
vollständig auf realen Modalitäten beruht, d.h. das
diese Merkmale mit einem Parser und einer Morphologie zu bestimmen versucht. Die Frage, wo
wir heute bei der Lösung der Probleme im Bereich
der Koreferenzresolution stehen, ist daher nicht
einfach zu beantworten. Es ist deswegen auch
schwierig, verschiedene Systeme zu vergleichen:
Wir (die Autoren dieses Beitrags eingeschlossen)
idealisieren gewissermassen aneinander vorbei.
Dabei sind mittlerweile auch für das Deutsche
Chunker und Parser verfügbar (z.B. Sennrich et
al., 2009).
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
38
Der vorliegende Beitrag ist vor allem dazu
gedacht, eine Baseline für das Deutsche
aufzustellen, die ausschliesslich auf realen
Vorverarbeitungskomponenten beruht:
Gertwol, GermaNet, Wortschatz Leipzig, Wikipedia
und einem Dependenzparser, der auf einer
manuell konstruierten Grammatik basiert, jedoch
eine statistische Disambiguierung durchführt.
Wir haben verschiedene empirische Szenarien
durchgespielt und sind zu dem Ergebnis gekommen, dass ein inkrementelles, mit harten Filtern
operierendes System zur Koreferenzanalyse
(Nominal- und Pronominalanaphern) die besten
Ergebnisse liefert.
Zur paarweisen Klassifikation der Antezedens-Anapher-Kandidaten
verwenden wir TiMBL, ein ähnlichkeitsbasiertes
Lernverfahren. Wir zeigen, dass ein einzelner
Klassifizierer schlechtere Ergebnisse liefert als
der Einsatz von vielen, auf die einzelnen Anapherntypen (Personal-, Possessiv-, Relativ- und
Reflexivpronomen, sowie Nomen) zugeschnittenen Klassifizierern. Dies gilt für beide Varianten:
die nicht-inkrementelle Variante und die inkrementelle (die mit einer Client-Server-Architektur
realisiert ist). Wir experimentieren mit verschiedenen Merkmalen, wie sie in der Literatur
diskutiert werden. Darüberhinaus erlaubt unser
inkrementelles Modell aber neue, koreferenzmengenbezogene Merkmale.
Eigentlich dazu gedacht unsere Baseline zu
definieren, stellte sich das von uns empirisch
definierte Salienzmass als beinahe ebenbürtige,
vor allem aber wesentlich einfachere und
schnellere Alternative zu dem Einsatz eines
Klassifizierer heraus.
Eine Demoversion unseres inkrementellen
Systems ist unter http://kitt.cl.uzh.ch/kitt/cores/
verfügbar.
2
Modelle zur Koreferenzresolution
Was ist das beste Modell zur Koreferenzanalyse?
Inkrementell oder nicht-inkrementell; ein Klassifizierer oder viele Klassifizierer; salienzbasiert
oder mittels maschinellem Lernen?
3
Salienz
Zur Modellierung von Salienz existiert eine Reihe
unterschiedlicher, aber miteinander verwandter
Ansätze. (Lappin & Leass, 1994) legen manuell
Gewichte für grammatikalische Funktionen fest
(das Subjekt erhält den höchsten Wert) und
begünstigen neben kurzer Entfernung zwischen
Antezedenskandidat und Anapher die Parallelität
von grammatikalischen Funktionen. Unser Mass
(siehe weiter unten) kann als eine empirische Variante dieser Idee interpretiert werden. (Mitkov,
1998) adaptiert und erweitert das Verfahren. Er
modelliert z.B. mit dem Givenness-Merkmal das
Thema-Rhema-Schema (z.B. ob eine NP die erste im Satz und somit Thema ist). Weiter wird
u.a. bestimmt, ob eine NP im Titel oder in einer
Überschrift vorkommt (Section Heading Preference), wie oft sie im Text vorhanden ist (Lexical
Reiteration) und ob sie von einer Menge bestimmter Verben fokussiert wird (Indicating Verbs).
Auch die Definitheit der NP wird berücksichtigt.
Seit diesen Pionierarbeiten hat sich in Bezug
auf die Salienzmodellierung nicht mehr viel getan.
Vielmehr wurde mit der Auswertung und Aufsummierung der Salienzwerte experimentiert (z.B.
statistische Verfahren etwa Ge et al., 1998).
Später wurden die Merkmale in Ansätze mit
maschinellem Lernen übernommen.
Wir haben mit einem rein korpusbasiertem
Salienzmass experimentiert, wobei die Salienz
einer NP durch die Salienz der grammatischen
Funktion gegeben ist, die die NP innehat. Die
Salienz einer grammatischen Funktion GF ist
definiert als die Anzahl der Anaphern, die als GF
geparst wurden, dividiert durch die Gesamtzahl
der Anaphern. Es handelt sich also um folgende
bedingte Wahrscheinlichkeit:
P(Y realisiert GF|Y ist eine Anapher).
Insgesamt 13 grammatische Funktionen
(oder Dependenzlabel) erhalten so eine Salienz,
darunter: Adverbiale (adv), Appositionen (appo),
direkte und indirekte Objekte, das Subjekt. Wie
erwartet ist das Subjekt mit 0.106 am salientesten,
gefolgt vom direkten Objekt.
Unser Salienzmass kann in Verbindung mit unserem inkrementellen Modell folgenderweise verwendet werden: Für jedes Pronomen wird das
salienteste Antezedens ermittelt. Dieses ist über
die Salienz der grammatischen Funktion des Antezedenskandidaten und – bei gleicher Funktion
– über seine Nähe zum Pronomen (i.e. der Anapher) eindeutig und sehr schnell bestimmbar. Für
Nominalanaphern eignet sich dieses Mass nur bedingt, da Nomen im Gegensatz zu den meisten Pronomen ja nicht in jedem Fall anaphorisch
sind (Salienz kennt aber keinen Schwellenwert,
was zur Auflösung viel zu vieler Nomen führen
würde).
39
3.1
Nicht-inkrementelles Modell
Die meisten Ansätze zur Koreferenzresolution sind sequentiell: erst wird ein Klassifizierer trainiert, dann werden alle (Test-)Paare
gebildet und dem Klassifizierer in einem Schritt
zur Klassenbestimmung (anaphorisch, nichtanaphorisch) vorgelegt.
In einem solchen
nicht-inkrementellen, paarweisen Verfahren sind
alle Entscheidungen lokal – jede Entscheidung
ist völlig unabhängig von bereits getroffenen Entscheidungen. Dies führt u.a. dazu,
dass nachträglich ein Koreferenzclustering
durchgeführt werden muss, bei dem alle Paare
in Koreferenzmengen zusammengeführt werden
und nach Möglichkeit Inkonsistenzen beseitigt
werden. Denn es entstehen (nahezu unvermeidbar) z.B. nicht kompatible Zuordnungen von
transitiv verknüpften Ausdrücken. So ist in der
Sequenz ’Hillary Clinton .. sie .. Angela Merkel’
jeder Name mit dem ’sie’ kompatibel, die beiden
Namen selbst hingegen nicht (da zwei nichtmatchende Eigennamen i.d.R. nicht koreferent
sein können). Trifft ein lokal operierender Klassifizierer für jedes Pronomen-Namen-Paar jedoch
eine positive Entscheidung, entsteht via Transitiviät eine Inkonsistenz (H. Clinton und A. Merkel
sind dann transitiv koreferent). Diese muss das
nachgeschaltete Clustering beseitigen, indem eine
der beiden Koreferenzentscheidungen (der beiden
Pronomen-Namen-Paare) rückgängig gemacht
wird. Es gibt verschiedene Clusteringansätze:
best-first (das wahrscheinlichste Antezedens),
closest-first (das am nächsten liegende), aggressive merging (alle positiven werden verknüpft).
Man kann diesen Clusteringschritt aber auch als
Optimierungsproblem auffassen, vgl. (Klenner,
2007) und (Klenner & Ailloud, 2009), wobei der
Klassifizierer Gewichte liefert und linguistische
motivierte Constraints die Optimierungsschritte
beschränken. Unser Clusteringverfahren arbeitet
mit einem Algorithmus aus dem Zero-One Integer
Linear Programming, dem Balas-Algorithmus
(Balas, 1965). Dabei werden die AntezedensAnapher-Kandidaten aufsteigend nach ihrem
Gewicht geordnet (Minimierung der Kosten ist
das Ziel) und von links nach rechts aufgelöst:
solange keine Constraints verletzt werden, wird
jedes Paar mit Kosten kleiner 0.5 koreferent
gesetzt. Verglichen mit einem aggressive merging
gewinnt man so 2-4 % F-Mass.
Ein weiteres Problem der paarweisen
Klassifizierung (ob inkrementell oder nichtinkrementell) ist das Fehlen globaler Kontrolle.
Obwohl z.B. Possessivpronomen in jeden Fall
anaphorisch sind (Ausnahmen sind in der TüBaD/Z sehr rar), kann man dies dem Klassifizierer
nicht als Restriktion jeder gültigen Lösung
vorschreiben. Es tritt sehr häufig der Fall ein, dass
Promomen vom Klassifizierer kein Antezedens
zugewiesen bekommen (d.h. kein Paar kommt
über die Schranke von 0.5%). Dies kann man im
nicht-inkrementellen Modell nachträglich durch
eine Forcierung von Koreferenz reparieren, indem
man den besten (d.h. am wenigsten) negativen
Kandidaten als Antezedens nimmt. Im Falle
eines inkrementellen Modells kann eine solche
Bindungsforderung direkt eingelöst werden.
3.2
Inkrementelles Modell
Im Gegensatz zum nicht-inkrementellen Ansatz
sind bei einem inkrementellen Ansatz die entstehenden Koreferenzmengen sofort verfügbar,
Klassifikationsentscheidungen werden nicht auf
einzelne Antezedenskandidaten, sondern auf die
gesamte Koreferenzmenge, bzw. einen prototypischen Stellvertreter bezogen. So etwa im obigen
Beispiel: entscheidet der Klassifizierer beispielsweise, dass ’sie’ eine Anapher zu ’Hillary Clinton’
ist, also die Koreferenzmenge [Hillary Clinton,
sie] eröffnet wird, dann wird die NP ’Angela
Merkel’ nicht wie im nicht-inkrementellen Fall
mit ’sie’ verglichen, sondern mit ’Hillary Clinton’
oder gar einem virtuellen Stellvertreterobjekt
der Koreferenzmenge, das die Eigenschaften der
ganzen Koreferenzmenge repräsentiert. So liefert
’Hillary Clinton’ eine semantische Restriktion
(Person, weiblich), aber keine morphologische.
Obgleich ’sie’ morphologisch ambig ist (z.B. Singular und Plural), kann es im Zusammenspiel mit
der Information ’weiblich’ auf den Singularfall in
der dritten Person restringiert werden.
Ein weiteres Problem nicht-inkrementeller
Ansätze ist, dass zu viele negative Beispiele
generiert werden (vgl. (Wunsch et al., 2009)
wo dieses Problem mittels Sampling gelöst
werden soll). Dies führt zu einer Verzerrung
des Klassifizierers, er erwirbt eine Präferenz zur
negativen Klassifikation. Auch dies kann mit
einem inkrementellen Modell abgemildert werden, denn pro Koreferenzmenge muss nur einmal
verglichen werden; die restlichen Elemente der
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
40
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
for
i=1
for
for
if
if
Cand
Cand
ordne
b
C
to laenge(I)
j=1 to laenge(C)
rj := repräsentatives, legitimes Element der Koreferenzmenge Cj
Cand := Cand ⊕ rj if kompatibel(rj , mi )
k= laenge(P) to 1
pk := k-tes, legitimes Element des Puffers
Cand := Cand ⊕ pk if kompatibel(pk , mi )
= {} then P := P ⊕ mi
6= {} then
Cand nach Salienz oder Gewicht
:= dasjenige e aus Cand mit dem höchsten Gewicht
:= erweitere(C,b,mi )
Figure 1: Inkrementelle Koreferenzresolution: Basisalgorithmus
Koreferenzmenge sind nicht erreichbar. Dies
reduziert die Menge der Paare insgesamt – sowohl
der positiven als auch der negativen (siehe die
Verhältnisangaben im Abschnitt ’Experimente’).
Die Paargenerierung wird durch Filter restringiert. Neben den naheliegenden morphologischen Bedingungen (z.B. Person-, Numerusund Genuskongruenz bei Personalpronomen), gibt
es semantische Filter basierend auf GermaNet
und Wortschatz Leipzig bei den Nominalanaphern. Die semantischen Filter sind sehr restriktiv, so dass viele ’false negatives’ entstehen, was
eine recht tiefe Obergrenze (upper bound) generiert (ein F-Mass von 75.31%, eine Präzision von
81.58% und eine Ausbeute von 69.95%). Zwei
Nomen sind semantisch kompatibel, wenn sie synonym sind, oder eines das Hyperonym des anderen ist. Nicht-kompatible Paare werden ausgesondert (das Prinzip von harten Filtern). Unsere
Experimente haben gezeigt, dass restriktive Filter
besser sind als laxe oder gar keine Filter.
Abbildung (Figure) 1 gibt den Basisalgorithmus
zur inkrementellen Koreferenzresolution wieder.
Seien I die chronologisch geordnete Liste von
Nominalphrasen, C die Menge der Koreferenzmengen und P ein Puffer, in dem NPs gesammelt werden, die nicht anaphorisch sind (aber vielleicht als Antezedens in Frage kommen); mi sei
die aktuelle NP und ⊕ repräsentiere Listenverkettung (genauer ’Hinzufügen eines Elements’). Für
jede NP werden anhand der existierenden Koreferenzpartition und dem Puffer (einer Art Warteliste)
Kandidaten (Cand) generiert (Schritte 2-7), denen dann entweder von einem Klassifizierer oder
über die Salienz ihrer grammatischen Funktion
ein Gewicht zugewiesen wird (Schritt 10). Der
Antezedenskandidat b mit dem höchsten Gewicht
wird ausgewählt und die Koreferenzpartition wird
um mi erweitert (Schritt 11 und 12). Je nachdem,
was b ist, heisst das, dass die Koreferenzmenge
von b um mi erweitert wird, oder dass eine neue
Koreferenzmenge bestehend aus mi und b eröffnet
wird. Falls keine Kandidaten gefunden wurden,
wird mi gepuffert, da es zwar selbst nicht anaphorisch ist, aber als Antezedens für nachfolgende
NPen verfügbar sein muss (Schritt 8). Pronomen
und (normale) Nomen müssen in einem Fenster
von 3 Sätzen gebunden werden (dies ist die Bedeutung von ’legitim’ in den Zeilen 3 und 6), Eigennamen können auch weiter zurück (auf Eigennamen) referieren (auch durch diesen Filter werden
’false negatives’ produziert und auch hier gilt, dass
ein liberales Setting zu schlechteren empirischen
Werten führt).
Die Kompatibilität zweier NPen (Schritte 4
bzw. 7) ist POS-spezifisch. Zwei Personalpronomen müssen z.B. im Numerus, Genus und
Person kongruieren, während zwei Nomen nur im
Numerus übereinstimmen müssen (’der Weg’ ..
’die Strecke’), jedoch semantisch kompatibel sein
müssen. Im Moment beschränkt sich dies auf eine
GermaNet-Abfrage (Synomyme und Hyponyme
sind erlaubt) und Wortschatz Leipzig (Synonyme).
Mit Blick auf die Paargenerierung (beim Machine Learning) lässt sich sagen: Die Anzahl der
generierten Paare verringert sich bei unserem Verfahren um eine durch die Anzahl und Grösse der
Koreferenzmengen bestimmten Betrag. Je mehr
NPen bei geringer Anzahl von Koreferenzmengen (aber grösser Null) in diesen Koreferenzmengen gebunden sind, desto weniger Paare werden generiert (siehe Abschnitt ’Experimente’ für
41
konkrete Zahlen). Der Grund: ein Anapherkandidat mi wird nur mit einem Element jeder Koreferenzmenge gepaart. Sei bei einem Fenster
von 3 Sätzen die Kardinalität von I = 10 (also 10
NPen) und C bestehe aus einer einzigen Koreferenzmenge, die 6 Elemente aus I enthalte, dann
wird m10 (die linear gesehen letzte zu integrierende NP) nur mit 5 NPen statt mit 9 gepaart:
einem Element der Koreferenzmenge und den 3
gepufferten. Auf diese Weise reduziert sich auch
die Anzahl der negativen Beispiele, da für jede
Koreferenzmenge (egal, ob mi dazu gehört oder
nicht) ja immer nur ein Glied betrachtet wird.
Das inkrementelle Verfahren gibt uns neue, koreferenzmengebezogene Merkmale an die Hand.
Wir können daher weitere, bislang in der Literatur
nicht verwendete Merkmale definieren:
• stammt der Antezedenskandidat aus dem
Puffer oder einer Koreferenzmenge?
• Anzahl der gefundenen Kandidaten
• Anzahl der momentanen Koreferenzmengen
• Neueröffnung einer Koreferenzmenge oder
Erweiterung einer bestehenden?
jedoch nach der Dekomposition ihre semantische
Klasse anhand des Kompositakopfes oft richtig
bestimmt werden kann.
Numerus, Genus und Person sind wesentlich
für das Ausfiltern von sicheren negativen Paaren.
Es gibt jedoch das Problem der Unterspezifikation und Ambiguität, z.B. bei den Pronomen ’sie’,
’sich’ und ’ihr’.
Die Named-Entity Erkennung ist musterbasiert
und benutzt eine grosse Liste von Vornamen
(53’000), wobei das Geschlecht zum Vornamen bekannt ist.
Wir haben zudem aus
der deutschen Wikipedia alle Artikel, deren
Suchterm ein Mehrwortterm ist, extrahiert (z.B.
’Berliner Sparkasse’) und, falls verfügbar, die
zugehörige Wikipediakategorie (und diese, falls
möglich, auf GermaNet abgebildet). GermaNet
bzw.Wortschatz Leipzig liefern Synonyme und
Hyponyme.
Pro3GresDe, ein hybrider Dependenzparser für
das Deutsche, der eine handgeschriebene Grammatik mit einer statistischen Komponente zur Disambiguierung kombiniert, liefert u.a. die grammatische Funktion von NPen.
5
(die folgenden Features beziehen sich auf die
ausgewählte Koreferenzmenge)
• wieviele Nomen hat die Koreferenzmenge?
• Kardinaliät der Koreferenzmenge
Unsere empirischen Ergebnisse zeigen, dass
der Nutzen dieser Merkmale vom Anapherntyp
abhängt.
4
Vorverarbeitung
Die Vorverarbeitung dient der Extraktion linguistischer (morphologischer, syntaktischer und semantischer) Beschreibungen, die beim Filtern von
Paarkandidaten bzw. als Merkmale beim Machine
Learning verwendet werden. Wir verwenden Gertwol (Lingsoft, 1994), den TreeTagger (Schmid,
1994), GermaNet (Hamp & Feldweg, 1997),
Wortschatz Leipzig (http://www.wortschatz.unileipzig.de), Wikipedia und den Parser Pro3GresDe
(Sennrich et al., 2009).
Neben der Bestimmung des Lemmas und der
morphologischen Kategorien, führt das Morphologieanalysetool Gertwol auch eine Nomendekomposition durch, was sehr hilfreich ist, da Komposita oft nicht in GermaNet gefunden werden,
Experimente
Die folgenden empirischen Ergebnisse beruhen
auf der TüBa-D/Z, einer Baumbank, die ebenfalls mit Koreferenzannotationen versehen wurde
(24’000 annotierte Sätze in unserer Version), vgl.
(Naumann, 2006). Als Klassifizierer verwenden wir das ähnlichkeitsbasierte Lernverfahren
TiMBL (Daelemans et al., 2004). Als Evaluationsmass wird nicht der MUC-Scorer verwendet, sondern der ECM bzw. CEAF aus (Luo, 2005). Beim
CEAF erfolgt zuerst eine Alinierung von Koreferenzmengen des Gold Standard mit den vom System gefundenen. Präzision ist dann die Anzahl
der richtigen Elemente pro alinierter gefundener
Menge durch die Anzahl der gefundenen, bei der
Ausbeute wird entsprechend durch die Anzahl der
tatsächlichen Elemente der Gold Standard Menge
geteilt. Der CEAF ist ein strenges Mass, da u.U.
auch in nicht alinierbaren Mengen richtige Paare
existieren. Der Vorteil: der CEAF ermittelt die
Güte der Koreferenzmengenpartitionierung.
Unser Ansatz ist filterbasiert, d.h. Paare, die
die Filter nicht passieren, werden als negativ klassifiziert. Darunter sind viele false negatives und
zwar vor allem im Bereich der Nominalanaphern.
Dies sei am Beispiel der ersten 5000 Sätze il-
42
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
Nomen
Personalpronomen
Relativpronomen
Possessivpronomen
Reflexivpronomen
Gesamt
System
F-Mass
72.70
60.42
56.25
56.06
55.68
-
Ohne Filterung
Präzision Ausbeute
69.53
76.17
62.05
58.88
57.91
54.68
57.35
54.82
57.11
54.32
-
F-Mass
62.61
58.86
55.97
55.81
54.16
75.31
53.86
Mit Filterung
Präzision Ausbeute
63.70
61.55
60.64
57.19
57.65
54.39
57.18
54.51
55.64
52.77
81.58
69.95
54.64
53.09
Figure 2: CEAF-Werte bei perfekten Einzelklassifikatoren des inkrementellen Systems für die ersten
5000 Sätze (in %). Wie gut wäre das System, wenn es einzelne Wortklassen perfekt auflösen wurde? Mit
Filterung heisst, dass nur die Paare perfekt ausgelöst werden, die entsprechende Filter passieren. Ohne
Filterung bedeutet, dass alle gemäss Gold Standard positiven Paare der jeweiligen Wortklasse perfekt
aufgelöst werden (die anderen Wortklassen werden vom realen System verarbeitet). Der Unterschied
zwischen mit und ohne Filterung bezeichnet die Güte der Filter pro Wortklasse, die Unterschiede zum
System, wie sehr die imperfekte Auflösung der Wortklasse das System drückt.
Verfahren
Nicht-inkrementell, ein Klassifizierer
Nicht-inkrementell, mehrere Klassifizierer
Inkrementell, ein Klassifizierer
Inkrementell, mehrere Klassifizierer
Salienz
F-Mass
44.04
49.35
50.66
52.79
51.41
Präzision
55.60
53.67
52.54
52.88
52.03
Ausbeute
36.48
45.69
48.93
52.70
50.82
Figure 3: CEAF-Werte der fünfachen Kreuzvalidierung (in %)
lustriert. In Abbildung (Figure) 2 werden die
oberen Schranken (upper bound) mit und ohne Filter aufgelistet. Die tatsächliche Performanz (im
gewählten Fold) des inkrementellen Systems mit
mehreren Klassifizierern ist: F-Mass = 53.86%,
Präzision = 54.64% Ausbeute = 53.09% Hätten
wir z.B. eine perfekte Nominalanphernresolution (die erste Zeile), dann könnten das System
unter sonst unveränderten Bedingungen (die anderen Anapherntypen werden weiterhin vom System aufgelöst), maximal 62.61% F-Mass erreichen (mit Filter); ohne Filter wären es 72.70%.
Dies zeigt zweierlei.
Nominalanaphern sind
tatsächlich das Problem, wie die 9% Differenz
zwischen Systemwert (53.86%) und perfektem
Wert (62.61%) zeigt. Daneben erklärt die abermalige 10% Differenz zur perfekten Auflösung
ohne Filter die insgesamt schlechte Performanz
von 53.86%: insgesamt 19% Performanzverlust
durch die Nominalanaphern. Im Vergleich zu
den Reflexivpronomen. Hier ist die Differenz nur
0.3% (54.16% - 53.86%) zur perfekten Auflösung
mit Filter und nur 1.8% zur perfekten Auflösung
ohne Filter (55.68% - 53.86%).
Wir beschreiben nun unsere Experimente
(fünffach kreuzvalidiert) zur Bestimmung des
besten Ansatzes zur Koreferenzresolution, vgl.
Abbildung (Figure) 3. Als Baseline dient ein
nicht-inkrementelles Verfahren, das, wie alle Varianten, bzgl. Merkmalauswahl (features des Klassifizierers) optimiert wurde. Wir unterscheiden zwischen der Verwendung von einem und
mehreren POS-spezifischen Klassifizierern.
Für das nicht-inkrementelle Verfahren mit nur
einem Klassifizierer hat sich folgende Merkmalsmenge als am performantesten erwiesen: Salienz
der NPen, grammatische Funktionen der NPen
und ob diese parallel sind, Wortklasse der Köpfe
der NPen und eine separate Kodierung der POSKombination, semantische Kompatibilität der
NPen, Die Häufigkeit der NPen im Segment, ob
der Antezedenskandidat der nächste kompatible
zur Anapher ist, ob sich die NPen in direkter Rede
befinden2 .
2
Dass hier Distanz nicht verwendet wird, liegt daran, dass
die Distanzmerkmale sich bei der Auflösung nominaler Anaphern als schlecht erwiesen haben. Da relativ viele nominale Paare bewertet werden müssen, schadet Distanz einem
Einzelklassifizierer, der alle Arten von Anaphern bewerten
43
Dieser Ansatz (mit einem F-Mass von 44.04%)
dient als erste Baseline.
Die Verwendung
mehrerer Klassifizierer (zweite Baseline) bringt
eine Verbesserung um über 5% F-Mass (auf
49.35%). Das liegt daran, dass die Merkmale unterschiedlichen Einfluss auf die POS-spezifischen
Klassifizierer haben.
Distanz kann z.B. für
Pronominalanaphern eingesetzt werden, bei den
Nominalanaphern bringt sie nichts. Folgende
Merkmalsmengen haben sich als am effektivsten
herausgestellt:
• Nominalanaphern: Häufigkeiten der NPen
im Segment, grammatische Funktionen
der NPen, semantische Kompatibilität,
Definitheit des Antezedenskandidaten, ob
sich der Anaphernkandidat in direkter Rede
befindet und ein Indikator für den Filter,
der das Paar generiert hat (Stringmatch,
GermaNet oder Wortschatz Leipzig).
• Personalpronomen: Distanz in Sätzen und
Markables, Salienz der NPen, Einbettungstiefe der NPen, Wortklasse der Köpfe
der NPen.
• Relativpronomen: Distanz in Markables,
Salienz der NPen, grammatische Funktion der NPen, Einbettungstiefe des Anaphernkandidaten, ob der Antezedenskandidat
der nächste kompatible zur Anapher ist.
• Reflexivpronomen: Distanz in Markables,
Salienz des Antezedenskandidaten, Wortklasse der Köpfe der NPen und Kodierung
der POS-Kombination, grammatische Funktionen, Einbettungstiefe der NPen, ob der
Antezedenskandidat der nächste kompatible
zur Anapher ist.
• Possessivpronomen: Salienz der NPen, Distanz in Sätzen, Einbettungstiefe der NPen,
grammatische Funktionen der NPen und ob
diese parallel sind, Wortklasse des Kopfs des
Anaphernkandidaten, ob der Antezedenskandidat der nächste kompatible zur Anapher ist.
Wie oben erwähnt wurde, können im inkrementellen Modell Merkmale definiert werden, die
sich auf die (entstehenden) Koreferenzmengen
beziehen. Insgesamt hat sich die Verwendung
dieser Merkmale als ambivalent herausgestellt:
muss.
Nicht für alle Klassifizierer sind sie hilfreich. Bei
der Verwendung nur eines Klassifizierers werden im inkrementellen Modell drei der erwähnten
Merkmale verwendet: Kardinalität der Koreferenzmenge, Anzahl der Nomen in der Koreferenzmenge, ob eine neue Koreferenzmenge eröffnet
wird. Ansonsten werden die gleichen Merkmale
wie im nicht-inkrementellen Modell verwendet.
Der Unterschied zu Baseline 2 ist mit 1.3% gering,
doch spürbar.
Bei der Verwendung mehrerer Klassifizierer
haben die Koreferenzmengen bezogenen Merkmale nur einen signifikanten Einfluss auf die Klassifizierer der Personal- und Possessivpronomen.
Die Anzahl vorhandener Koreferenzmengen wird
bei beiden verwendet, die Kardinalität der Koreferenzmenge zusätzlich bei den Personalpronomen.
Ansonsten werden auch hier die gleichen Merkmale wie im nicht-inkrementellen Verfahren verwendet.
Bei der Verwendung mehrerer Klassifizierer
werden, gegenüber Baseline 2, fast drei Prozentpunkte F-Mass dazugewonnen (52.79% vgl. mit
49.35%). Die Verbesserungen, die durch die
Verwendung mehrerer Klassifizierer erreicht werden, entsteht v.a. durch einen Anstieg der Ausbeute. Auffallend ist, dass das Verhältnis von
Präzision zu Ausbeute im inkrementellen Modell
ausgeglichener ist als im nicht-inkrementellen.
Bezüglich Laufzeit ist festzuhalten, dass die
nicht-inkrementellen Verfahren nicht nur mehr
negative, sondern auch mehr positive Instanzen
generieren, da alle Mentions aus den Koreferenzmengen für die Paargenerierung zugänglich sind.
Diese zusätzlichen positiven und negativen Instanzen erhöhen die Laufzeit beträchtlich. Im letzten Fold (etwa 5000 Sätze) der Kreuzvalidierung
z.B. generiert das nicht-inkrementelle Modell für
das Training 23024 positive und 109344 negative Instanzen. Das inkrementelle Modell hingegen erstellt nur 10957 positive und 76955 negative Paare. Das entspricht bei den positiven Instanzen einer Reduktion von über der Hälfte, bei
den negativen Instanzen um rund 30%. Da alle
Verfahren die gleichen Filter verwenden, gehen
in den inkrementellen Ansätzen keine true mentions verloren. Die Reduktion entsteht dadurch,
dass Paare nur mit einem Element der jeweiligen Koreferenzmengen gebildet werden. Auch
die Client-Server-Architektur des inkrementellen
Modells beschleunigt die Laufzeit, da die TiMBL-
44
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
Klassifizierer nicht für jede Klassifikation neu gestartet werden müssen.
Die letzte Zeile von Abbildung 3 gibt das Resultat der rein salienzbasierten Variante des inkrementellen Ansatzes wieder. Es schneidet erstaunlich gut ab und liegt mit 51.41% um 1.4%
unter der Bestmarke. Diese gute Performanz
bei der Einfachheit der Implementierung und der
im Vergleich enorm kurzen Laufzeit, sind gute
Argumente gegen die aufwändigere Implementation von Machine Learning Ansätzen. Dazu
kommt, dass die Optimierung von Merkmalsmengen in Machine Learning Ansätzen einerseits
nötig, andererseits aber auch zeitintensiv und die
Auswirkungen einzelner Merkmalsetzungen unvorhersehbar ist. Die erzielten Verbesserungen
aufgrund von Mutationen der Merkmalsmengen
können ausserdem linguistisch oft nur schwer
begründet werden, resp. entziehen sich der Intuition. Ein Argument für die Verwendung von ML
Verfahren ist aber die Behandlung von Bridging
Anaphern, die in unserem salienzbasierten Verfahren nicht aufgelöst werden.
6
Literaturdiskussion
Die Arbeit von (Soon et al., 2001) ist ein prototypisches, oft reimplementiertes (Baseline-)Modell
zur Anaphernresolution, das auf paarweiser Klassifikation und statistischen Verfahren basiert.
Eines der wenigen inkrementellen Modelle ist
(Yang et al., 2004). Im Gegensatz zum vorliegenden Modell gibt es in diesem Ansatz für’s Englische jedoch nur ein einziges echtes koreferenzmengenbezogenes Merkmal: die Anzahl der Elemente einer Koreferenzmenge.
Es gibt einige wenige Arbeiten zur Koreferenzresolution für das Deutsche, die meisten nutzen
die Koreferenzannotation der Baumbank TüBaD/Z. Uns ist kein System bekannt, das basierend
auf realen Vorverarbeitungskomponenten sowohl
Pronominal- als auch Nominalanaphernresolution
modelliert. Die sehr aufschlussreiche Untersuchung von (Schiehlen, 2004) ist ebenfalls auf
Pronominalanaphern beschränkt, zeigt aber wie
tief die empirischen Werte tatsächlich liegen,
wenn man reale Komponenten verwendet statt
einer Baumbank.
(Versley, 2006) hat – auf der Basis einer Teilmenge der TüBa-D/Z – zahlreiche Experimente
zur Nominalanaphernresolution durchgeführt
(z.B. verschiedene statistische Masse um z.B.
Selektionsrestriktionen zu modellieren). Sein
Befund, dass wenn Information aus GermaNet
verfügbar ist, diese dann statischer Information
überlegen ist, hat uns dazu inspiriert, GermaNet
durch Wikipedia und Wortschatz Leipzig zu komplementieren und auf statistische Berechnungen
zu verzichten.
Neben GermaNet und einem pattern-basierten
Ansatz, verwenden (Goecke et al., 2008) Latent Semantic Indexing bei der Nominalanaphernauflösung. Die empirische Analyse erfolgt anhand
eines kleinen, von den Autoren eigens annotierten
Korpus.
Modelle für Pronominalanaphern werden in
einer Reihe von Arbeiten aus Tübingen diskutiert.
Die empirischen Ergebnisse basieren auf Goldstandardinformation, so wird z.B. in (Wunsch et
al., 2009) eine perfekte Morphologie und funktionale Information der TüBa-D/Z Baumbank verwendet. Diese Arbeit versucht das Problem der
Übergenerierung von negativen Beispielen durch
Sampling zu lösen. Das vorliegende inkrementelle
Modell kann als Alternative dazu aufgefasst werden. Die Reduktion von Trainingsinstanzen ist ein
natürlicher Nebeneffekt unseres inkrementellen
Verfahrens.
7
Zusammenfassung und Ausblick
Es wurde ein Verfahren zur Koreferenzresolution für das Deutsche vorgestellt, das von realen
Verarbeitungsmodalitäten ausgeht und sowohl
Pronominal- als auch Nominalanaphern behandelt. Wir können festhalten, dass ein filterbasiertes inkrementelles Verfahren auf der Basis
anaphernspezifischer Klassifizierer am besten arbeitet. Überraschenderweise ist der Abstand zu
einem einfachen salienzbasierten System gering.
Die empirischen Werte sind mit knapp 52.79%
F-Mass nicht berauschend.
Schuld daran
sind Fehler in den Annotationen der TüBaD/Z (fehlende Annotationen bei Pronomen und
matchenden Named Entities), Fehler beim Vorverarbeiten (z.B. Morphologie) und die Unterspezifikation im Bereich der Nominalanaphern (z.B.
GermaNet-Lücken). Nominalanaphern bleiben
die grosse Herausforderung.
Unser inkrementelles Verfahren ermöglicht
eine natürliche Reduktion zu lernender Beispiele
beim Vektorgenerieren, es ermöglicht uns
darüberhinaus die Verwendung neuer Features
wie z.B. die Anzahl der Koreferenzmengen. Nicht
45
alle neuen Merkmalen helfen die Empirie zu
verbessern, und unterschiedliche Anapherntypen
profitieren von unterschiedlichen Merkmalen.
Unser Modell ist noch nicht ausgeschöpft.
Verbesserungen erwarten wir u.a. im Bereich der
Nominalanaphern. In jedem Fall aber liefert unser
System eine nicht geschönte Baseline für die Koreferenzresolution des Deutschen.
Danksagung
Die Arbeiten zu unserem Projekt werden vom
Schweizerischen Nationalfonds unterstützt (Nummer 105211-118108).
References
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Pronoun Resolution. Proc. of the 20th International
Conference on Computational Linguistics.
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and Martin Warin. 2009. A New Hybrid Dependency Parser for German. Proc. of the German Society for Computational Linguistics and Language
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Holger Wunsch and Sandra Kübler and Rachael
Cantrell. 2009. Instance Sampling Methods for Pronoun Resolution. Proc. of RANLP. Borovets.
Yannick Versley. 2006. A Constraint-based Approach
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
47
Determining the Degree of Compositionality of
German Particle Verbs by Clustering Approaches
Natalie Kühner and Sabine Schulte im Walde
Institut für Maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung
Universität Stuttgart
Germany
{kuehnene,schulte}@ims.uni-stuttgart.de
Abstract
This work determines the degree of compositionality of German particle verbs by two soft clustering approaches. We assume that the more compositional a particle verb is, the more often it appears in the same cluster with its base verb, after
applying a probability threshold to establish cluster membership. As German particle verbs are
difficult to approach automatically at the syntaxsemantics interface, because they typically change
the subcategorisation behaviour in comparison to
their base verbs, we explore the clustering approaches not only with respect to technical parameters such as the number of clusters, the number of
iterations, etc. but in addition focus on the choice
of features to describe the particle verbs.
1
Introduction
A multi-word expression (MWE) is a combination of two or more simplex words,1 covering compounds as well as collocations. From
a semantic point of view, multi-word expressions are either considered as idiosyncratic (Sag
et al., 2002; Villavicencio et al., 2005; Fazly
and Stevenson, 2008), i.e., non-compositional,
or alternatively the MWE compositionality is
assumed to be on a continuum between entirely compositional/transparent and entirely noncompositional/opaque expressions. We conform
to the latter view, and consider multi-word expressions as a composition of simplex words which
may or may not be entirely predictable on the basis of standard rules and lexica. This view is in
line with recent work on multi-word expressions,
1
Note that the definition of multi-words is not straightforward or agreed upon Lieber and Stekauer (2009a). Our
definition is one possibility among many, but has generally
been adopted by computational linguistics.
e.g., McCarthy et al. (2003; 2007), and also theoretical considerations about compositionality, cf.
Kavka (2009).
Addressing the compositionality of multi-word
expressions is a crucial ingredient for lexicography (concerning the question of whether to lexicalise a MWE) and Natural Language Processing applications (to know whether the expression
should be treated as a whole, or through its parts,
and what the expression means). We are interested in determining the degree of compositionality of one empirically challenging class of German multi-word expressions, i.e., German particle
verbs, productive compositions of a base verb and
a prefix particle. The work relies on a Studienarbeit by the first author (Kühner, 2010).
We propose two clustering approaches to address the compositionality of particle verbs. The
core idea is that the compositionality of the
multi-word expressions is determined by the cooccurrence of the particle verbs and the respective
base verbs within the same clusters. I.e., we assume that the more compositional a particle verb
is, the more often it appears in the same cluster
with its base verb. Note that our idea restricts the
compositionality of multi-word expressions to the
relationship between particle and base verb and
thus for the time being ignores the contribution of
the particle. As we are relying on soft clustering
approaches, cluster membership is represented by
a probability. We transfer the probabilistic membership into a binary membership by establishing a membership cut-off, i.e., only verbs above a
certain probability threshold are considered to be
cluster members.
German particle verbs are an empirical challenge because they are difficult to approach automatically at the syntax-semantics interface: they
48
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
typically change the subcategorisation behaviour
in comparison to their base verbs, cf. Section 2. Consequently, we explore the clustering
approaches not only with respect to technical parameters such as the number of clusters, the number of iterations, etc. but in addition focus on the
choice of features to describe the particle verbs.
The compositionality scores as predicted by the
clustering approaches are evaluated by comparison against human judgements, using the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient.
The remainder of the paper is organised as follows. Section 2 introduces the reader into German
particle verbs. Following an overview of the clustering approaches in Section 3, we then describe
the experiments (Section 4) and the results (Section 5).
2
German Particle Verbs
German particle verbs (PVs) are productive compositions of a base verb (BV) and a prefix particle, whose part-of-speech varies between openclass nouns, adjectives, and verbs, and closedclass prepositions and adverbs. This work focuses
on preposition particles.
Particle verb senses are assumed to be on a continuum between transparent (i.e. compositional)
and opaque (i.e. non-compositional) with respect
to their base verbs. For example, abholen ‘fetch’
is rather transparent with respect to its base verb
holen ‘fetch’, anfangen ‘begin’ is quite opaque
with respect to fangen ‘catch’, and einsetzen has
both transparent (e.g. ‘insert’) and opaque (e.g.
‘begin’) verb senses with respect to setzen ‘put/sit
(down)’. Even though German particle verbs constitute a significant part of the verb lexicon, most
work is devoted to theoretical investigations, such
as (Stiebels, 1996; Lüdeling, 2001; Dehé et al.,
2002). To our knowledge, so far only (Aldinger,
2004; Schulte im Walde, 2004; Schulte im Walde,
2005; Rehbein and van Genabith, 2006; Hartmann
et al., 2008) have addressed German particle verbs
from a corpus-based perspective.
This work addresses the degrees of compositionality of preposition particle verbs by clustering and then comparing the cluster memberships
of the particle and base verbs. Clustering particle
verbs and base verbs in turn requires the definition of empirical properties. This work relies on
an automatic induction of distributional features
from large-scale German corpus data, cf. Sec-
tion 4.1. While inducing the distributional information is not difficult per se, German particle verbs face an empirical challenge: In general, subcategorisation properties are a powerful
indicator of verb semantic relatedness and could
thus point us towards the strength of relatedness between particle and base verbs (Dorr and
Jones, 1996; Schulte im Walde, 2000; Korhonen et al., 2003; Schulte im Walde, 2006; Joanis et al., 2008, among others) because distributional similarity with respect to subcategorisation frames (even by themselves) corresponds to a
large extent to semantic relatedness. German particle verbs are difficult to approach automatically
at the syntax-semantics interface, however, because they typically change the subcategorisation
behaviour in comparison to their base verbs. For
example, even though anlächeln in example (1)2
taken from Lüdeling (2001) is strongly compositional, its subcategorisation properties differ from
those of its base verb; thus, automatic means that
rely on subcategorisation cues might not recognise
that anlächeln is semantically related to its base
verb. Theoretical investigations (Stiebels, 1996) as
well as corpus-based work (Aldinger, 2004) have
demonstrated that such changes are quite regular,
independent of whether a particle verb sense is
compositional or not.
(1)
Sie lächelt.
‘She smiles.’
*Sie lächelt [N Pacc ihre Mutter].
‘She smiles her mother.’
Sie lächelt [N Pacc ihre Mutter] an.
‘She smiles her mother at.’
We believe that there are basically two strategies to address the empirically challenging class of
multi-word expression from a semantic perspective: (i) avoid subcategorisation-based distributional features at the syntax-semantics interface, or
(ii) incorporate the syntax-semantics subcategorisation transfer into the distributional information,
cf. (Aldinger, 2004; Hartmann et al., 2008). This
paper adheres to strategy (i) and basically excludes
the notion of syntax from the distributional descriptions. For comparison reasons, we include an
experiment that incorporates syntactic functions.
2
Note that German particle verbs are separable, in contrast
to the class of German prefix verbs that share many properties
with the class of particle verbs but are inseparable (among
other differences).
49
3
Clustering Approaches: LSC and PAC
Two soft clustering approaches were chosen to
model the compositionality of German particle verbs, Latent Semantic Classes (LSC) and
Predicate-Argument Clustering (PAC). Using soft
clustering, each clustering object (i.e., the particle
and base verbs) is assigned to each cluster with
a probability between 0 and 1, and all probabilities for a certain verb over all clusters sum to
1. Cluster membership is then determined according to a probability threshold, cf. Section 4.2. In
the following, we introduce the two clustering approaches.
3.1
Latent Semantic Classes
The Latent Semantic Class (LSC) approach is an
instance of the Expectation-Maximisation (EM)
algorithm (Baum, 1972) for unsupervised training on unannotated data, originally suggested by
Mats Rooth (Rooth, 1998; Rooth et al., 1999). We
use an implementation by Helmut Schmid. LSC
cluster analyses define two-dimensional soft clusters which are able to generalise over hidden data.
They model the selectional dependencies between
two sets of words participating in a grammatical
relationship. LSC training learns three probability distributions, one for the probabilities of the
clusters, and a joint probability distribution for
each lexical class participating in the grammatical
relationship, with respect to cluster membership,
thus the two dimensions. In our case, one dimension are the verbs (particle and base verbs), and
one dimension are corpus-based features. Equation (2) provides the probability model for verb–
feature pairs (v and f , respectively). Note that in
our case the second dimension is crucial for the
cluster analysis, but for determining the compositionality of the particle verbs, we only consider
the cluster probabilities of dimension one, i.e., the
particle and base verbs. Table 1 presents an example cluster that illustrates the verb and the feature
dimensions, presenting the most probable verbs
and direct object nouns within the cluster. The
cluster is a nice example of compositional particle
verbs (verschicken, abschicken, zuschicken) clustered together with their base verb (schicken).
p(v, f ) =
X
p(c, v, f )
=
c∈cluster
p(c) p(v|c) p(f |c)
Predicate-Argument Clustering
Predicate-Argument Clustering (PAC) is an extension of the LSC approach that explicitly incorporates selectional preferences (Schulte im Walde et
al., 2008). The PAC model provides a combination
of the EM algorithm and the Minimum Description Length (MDL) principle (Rissanen, 1978),
and refines the second dimension by explicit generalisations based on WordNet (Fellbaum, 1998)
and the MDL principle. For example, instead of
high probabilities of the nouns Milch ‘milk’, Kaffee ‘coffee’, Tee ‘tea’ within dimension two of a
cluster, PAC might identify the generalising WordNet concept Getränk ‘beverage’. Note that with
PAC the second dimension only makes sense if
WordNet provides useful generalisation information concerning that dimension, which effectively
restricts the word class of the second dimension to
nouns.
The PAC model is estimated through the joint
probability of a verb v, a subcategorisation frame
type f , and the complement realisations n1 , ..., nk ,
cf. Equation (3). In addition to the LSC parameters in Equation (2), p(r|c, f, i) is the probability that the ith complement of frame f in cluster c is realised by WordNet (wn) concept r, and
p(n|r) is the probability that the WordNet concept r is realised by the complement head n. Table 2 presents an example cluster where dimension
two is a generalisation of WordNet concepts over
PP arguments. Dimension one contains the most
probable verbs in the cluster; dimension two is a
selection of the most probable concepts from different hierarchical levels, plus example instances.
As we are working on German data, we use the
German Wordnet, i.e., GermaNet (Kunze, 2000).
p(v, f, n1 , ..., nk ) =
X
p(c) p(v|c) p(f |c) ∗
c
k X
Y
p(r|c, f, i) p(ni |r) (3)
i=1 r∈wn
4
Clustering Experiments
To setup the clustering experiments, we need to
specify the linguistic parameters (i.e., the choice
of verbs and features), and the technical parameters, cf. Sections 4.1 and 4.2, respectively. The
evaluation is described in Section 4.3.
(2)
4.1
c∈cluster
X
3.2
Data
As corpus data basis, we relied on approx. 560
million words from the German web corpus
50
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
dimension 1: verbs
schicken
‘send’
verschicken
‘send’
versenden
‘send’
nachweisen
‘prove’
überbringen ‘deliver’
abonnieren
‘subscribe to’
zusenden
‘send’
downloaden ‘download’
bescheinigen ‘attest’
zustellen
‘send’
abschicken
‘send off’
zuschicken
‘send’
dimension 2:
Artikel
Nachricht
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direct object nouns
‘article’
‘message’
‘email’
‘letter’
‘child’
‘comment’
‘newsletter’
‘picture’
‘greeting’
‘soldier’
‘photo’
‘information’
Table 1: Example LSC cluster.
dimension 1: verbs
steigen
‘increase’
zurückgehen ‘decrease’
geben
‘give’
rechnen
‘calculate’
wachsen
‘grow’
ansteigen
‘increase’
belaufen
‘amount to’
gehen
‘go’
zulegen
‘add’
anheben
‘increase’
kürzen
‘reduce’
stehen
‘stagnate’
dimension 2: WN concepts over PP arguments
Maßeinheit
‘measuring unit’
e.g., Jahresende ‘end of year’
Geldeinheit
‘monetary unit’
e.g., Euro
‘Euro’
Transportmittel
‘means of transportation’
e.g., Fahrzeug
‘automobile’
Gebäudeteil
‘part of building’
e.g., Dach
‘roof’
materieller Besitz ‘material property’
e.g., Haushalt
‘budget’
Besitzwechsel
‘transfer of property’
e.g., Zuschuss
‘subsidy’
Table 2: Example PAC cluster.
deWaC (Baroni and Kilgarriff, 2006), after the corpus was preprocessed by the Tree Tagger (Schmid,
1994) and by a dependency parser (Schiehlen,
2003). The corpus portion contains more than
50,000 verb types (from verb-first, verb-second
and verb-final clauses), which we restricted to
those with a frequency above 1,000 and below
10,000, to avoid very low and very high frequent
types, as they notoriously produce noise in clustering. In addition, we made sure that all verbs
needed in the evaluation were covered, ending up
with 2,152 verb types (comprising both particle
and base verbs). The latter step, however, included
some low and high frequent verbs, as many particle verbs are low frequent, and many base verbs
are high frequent.
Concerning the feature choice, we relied on the
main verb argument types, covering subjects, direct objects and pp objects. I.e., we used as in-
put verb–noun pairs where the nouns were (a) subjects, or (b) objects, or (c) pp objects of the verbs.
We used the information separately and also (d)
merged without reference to the syntactic function, as we largely ignored syntax. The underlying assumption for this rather crude simplification refers to the observation that the selectional
preferences of particle verbs overlap with those
of semantically similar verbs, but not necessarily in identical syntactic functions, cf. Schulte
im Walde (2004). In comparison to (d), we (e)
merged the pairs, while keeping the reference to
the syntactic functions. The feature choice –more
specifically: comparing (d) with (e)– is based on
that in Schulte im Walde (2005). We wanted to
compare the individual argument types with respect to their potential in addressing particle verb
compositionality despite the syntax transfer hurdle. As direct objects and pp objects often re-
51
main the same function after the syntax-semantics
particle–base transfer, they were supposed to provide more interesting results than subjects, which
often fulfil more general roles. In addition, the
syntax-unmarked input was supposed to provide
better results than the syntax-marked input, because of the syntax transfer hurdle. The input variants are referred to as (a) subj, (b) obj, (c) pp, (d)
n-syntax, and (e) n+syntax. Table 3 lists the number of input tokens and types according to the feature choices.
input
subj
obj
pp
n+syntax
n-syntax
tokens
2,316,757
3,532,572
4,144,588
9,993,917
9,993,917
types
368,667
446,947
706,377
1,346,093
1,036,282
Table 3: Input data.
4.2
Method
The data were used for both LSC and PAC, with
minor formatting differences. There are basically
two input dimensions (verb and argument head)
as described in Section 3. When including the
function markers, they were added to the (second)
noun dimension, e.g., anfangen–Job ‘begin–job’
would become anfangen–obj:Job.
As we wanted to explore the clustering potential
with respect to various parameters, we varied the
number of clusters: 20, 50, 100, and 200. In addition, we varied the probability to determine cluster membership: 0.01, 0.001, 0.0005, and 0.0001,
thus directly influencing precision and recall, as
higher probability thresholds include less verbs
per cluster. All cluster analyses were trained over
200 iterations for LSC and 100 iterations for PAC,
evaluating the results after 50, 100 (and 200) iterations.
4.3
Evaluation
For the evaluation of the experiments, we relied on
a gold standard created by Hartmann (2008). She
had collected compositionality judgements for 99
German particle verbs across 11 different preposition particles, and across 8 frequency bands (5, 10,
18, 30, 55, 110, 300, 10,000) plus one manually
chosen verb per particle (to make sure that interesting ambiguous verbs were included). The frequency bands had been determined such that there
were approximately equally many particle verbs in
each range.
Four independent judges had rated the compositionality of the 99 particle verbs between 1
(completely opaque) and 10 (completely compositional). The inter-rater agreement was significantly high (W = 0.7548, χ2 = 274.65, df =
91, α = 0.000001), according to Kendall’s coefficient of concordance. The average ratings of
the judges per particle verb are considered as the
gold standard scores for our experiments. Table 4
presents a selection of the average scores for particle verbs with different degrees of compositionality. Note that there are ambiguous particle verbs,
whose scores are the average values of the compositionality scores for the different meanings.
particle verb
nachdrucken ‘reprint’
aufhängen
‘hang up’
ausschneiden ‘cut out’
vorgehen
‘go ahead’
‘approach’
abwaschen
‘do the dishes’
abschließen
‘close’
‘finalise’
nachweisen
‘prove’
anklagen
‘accuse’
zutrauen
‘feel confident’
umbringen
‘kill’
score
9.250
8.500
8.250
6.875
6.500
6.000
5.000
4.500
3.250
1.625
Table 4: Gold standard judgements.
The evaluation itself was performed as follows. For each cluster analysis and each probability threshold t, we calculated for each particle verb from the gold standard the proportion of
how often it appeared in a cluster together with
its base verb, in relation to the total number of
appearances, cf. Equation (4). The ranked list
of the cluster-based compositionality judgements
was then compared against the ranked list of gold
standard judgements, according to the Spearman
rank-order correlation coefficient. This correlation is a non-parametric statistical test that measures the association between two variables that
are ranked in two ordered series.
P
comppv =
≥ t ∧ p(bv, c) ≥ t
(4)
c p(pv, c) ≥ t
c p(pv, c)
P
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
52
The collection of the gold standard and the evaluation procedure were performed according to a
comparable evaluation task for English particle
verb compositionality in McCarthy et al. (2003).
The parametric tests are described in Siegel and
Castellan (1988).
5
Results
The correlation scores differ substantially according to the linguistic features and the parameters of
the cluster analyses. Furthermore, the probability
threshold that determined cluster membership directly influenced the number of particle verbs that
were included in the evaluation at all. We focus
on presenting the overall best results per feature
(group) in Tables 5 and 6 for LSC and PAC, respectively, and comment on the overall patterns.
The tables show
• the Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (corr),
• the coverage (cov), i.e., the proportion of gold
standard verbs included in the evaluation after
applying the probability threshold,
• the f-score (F1 ) of the correlation and coverage values as usually applied to precision and
recall; it indicates a compromise between the
correlation and the coverage, cf. Equation (5),
• the number of clusters,
• the number of iterations, and
• the membership threshold
The optimal probability threshold for cluster
membership is difficult to judge about, as that
value strongly depends on a preference for correlation vs. coverage. The lower the threshold, the
more particle verbs are included in the clusters, so
the recall (coverage) increases while the precision
(correlation) decreases. The tables list the best results according to the f-score, but if one wanted to
use the cluster analyses within an application that
incorporates particle verb compositionality values,
one would have to determine a favour for precision vs. recall, to identify the appropriate threshold. The best correlation results with an acceptable coverage of 50-60% go up to .433 (LSC, obj),
and .236 (PAC, n-syntax). In general, the coverage
is approx. 10-30% for a threshold of 0.01, 30-60%
for a threshold of 0.001, 40-70% for a threshold of
0.0005, and 50-80% for a threshold of 0.0001.
Overall, the best f-score values go up to .499
for LSC and .327 for PAC, and the PAC results
are in general considerably below the LSC results. The lowest f-scores go down to zero for
both clustering approaches, and sometimes even
reach negative values, indicating a negative correlation. In sum, our methods reach moderate correlation values, and considering that we have worked
with very simple distributional features that ignored other than some basic information at the
syntax-semantics interface, we regard this a reasonable result. The dependency of the correlation
scores on the clustering parameters, however, remains largely unclear.
of the best results.
2 ∗ corr ∗ cov
f −score =
corr + cov
5.1
5.2
(5)
Technical Parameters
The best results per feature (group) as listed in
the tables are reached with different numbers of
clusters (ranging from 20 to 200); with LSC, the
best results are obtained after all (i.e., 200) training iterations; with PAC, the best results are obtained sometimes after 50, sometimes after 100 iterations. So in the tables (and in general), there is
no clear tendency towards an optimal number of
clusters with respect to our task; concerning the
optimal number of training iterations, LSC seems
to profit most from the largest possible number of
iterations (so it might be worth testing even more
training iterations than 200), and PAC does not
seem to have a strong preference.
Linguistic Parameters
Concerning the linguistic features in the clustering, the picture differs with respect to LSC
vs. PAC. With LSC, direct object and pp object information is obviously valuable in comparing particle verbs with base verbs, despite the
transfer at the syntax-semantics interface, while
subject information is not very helpful, as expected. Comparing the unions of syntactic functions with the individual functions, LSC profits
more from the individual functions, while PAC
profits more from the unions. In both approaches,
the unmarked n-syntax condition outperforms the
marked n+syntax condition, as expected, but the
difference is not impressive.
Comparing LSC and PAC, we can identify various reasons for why the PAC results are considerably below the LSC results: (i) the dependency
53
input
obj
subj
pp
n+syntax
n-syntax
corr
.433
.205
.498
.303
.336
best result
cov f-score
.59
.499
.76
.323
.40
.444
.54
.388
.56
.420
analysis
clusters iter
100 200
50 200
20 200
50 200
100 200
membership
threshold
.0005
.0001
.0005
.0005
.001
Table 5: LSC results.
input
obj
subj
pp
n+syntax
n-syntax
best result
corr cov f-score
.100 .53
.168
.783 .05
.094
.275 .21
.238
.213 .61
.316
.236 .53
.327
analysis
clusters iter
100
50
20
50
200 100
20 100
200 100
membership
threshold
.0005
.01
.01
.0001
.001
Table 6: PAC results.
of selectional preferences on the subcategorisation
frames that represents a strength of PAC, does not
play an important role in our task (rather, the reference to syntactic functions is supposed to have
a negative influence on the prediction of compositionality, cf. Section 2); (ii) the high frequency
(base) verbs included in the training data have
a negative impact on cluster composition, i.e.,
many clusters created by PAC are dominated by
few high-frequency verbs, which is sub-optimal in
general but in our case has the additional effect
that many compositionality predictions are 1 because it is very likely that for a specific particle
verb also the base verb is in the cluster; (iii) the
generalising property of PAC that would have been
expected to help with the sparse data of the lexical
heads, does not improve the LSC results but rather
makes them worse.
Tables 7 and 8 present compositionality scores
from the best LSC and the best PAC cluster analyses (cf. Tables 5 and 6), and relates them to the
gold standard (gs) scores repeated from Table 4.
Furthermore, the number of clusters in which the
particle verb (pv), the respective base verb (bv)
and both appeared, is given. While the LSC system scores are of course not perfect, we can see
that there is a clear tendency towards higher overlap scores in the top half of the table, in comparison to the bottom half, even though the number of
clusters the particle verbs appear in differ strongly.
The only particle verb that clearly is not able to
subcategorise a direct object (i.e., vorgehen in both
of its senses) is also a clear outlier in the quality of
predicting the compositionality. In comparison to
the LSC results, the PAC system scores are obviously worse, the main reason being that the high
frequency base verbs appear in many of the 200
clusters, especially gehen and bringen.
In sum, the optimal clustering setup to predict
particle verb compositionality (with respect to the
best results in the tables, but also in more general)
seems to use LSC with direct object or pp object
information. On the one hand, the preference for
these functions is intuitive (as many particle verbs
as well as their base verbs are transitive verbs, e.g.,
anbauen ‘build, attach’, nachdrucken ‘reprint’,
umbringen ‘kill’), but on the other hand the gold
standard also includes many intransitive particle verbs (e.g., aufatmen ‘breathe’, durchstarten
‘touch and go’, überschäumen ‘foam over’) where
at least direct objects intuitively cannot help with
a compositionality rating.
5.3
Comparison with Related Work
McCarthy et al. (2003) predicted the degree of
compositionality of English particle verbs. Their
work is probably most closely related to our approach, and we adapted their evaluation method.
Their prediction relies on nearest neighbourhood,
assuming that the neighbours of particle verbs
should be similar to the neighbours of the respective base verbs. The definition of neighbourhood
is based on Lin’s thesaurus (Lin, 1998), and vari-
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
54
particle verb
nachdrucken ‘reprint’
aufhängen
‘hang up’
ausschneiden ‘cut out’
vorgehen
‘go ahead’
‘approach’
abwaschen
‘do the dishes’
abschließen
‘close’
‘finalise’
nachweisen
‘prove’
anklagen
‘accuse’
zutrauen
‘feel confident’
umbringen
‘kill’
pv
2
4
5
5
#clusters
bv both
5
1
18
4
3
3
18
1
score
gs
system
9.250 0.500
8.500 1.000
8.250 0.600
6.875 0.200
1
2
4
2
1
1
6.500
6.000
1.000
0.500
16
5
12
2
20
8
4
2
5
1
1
0
5.000
4.500
3.250
1.625
0.313
0.200
0.083
0.000
Table 7: LSC gold standard judgements and system scores.
particle verb
nachdrucken ‘reprint’
aufhängen
‘hang up’
ausschneiden ‘cut out’
vorgehen
‘go ahead’
‘approach’
abwaschen
‘do the dishes’
abschließen
‘close’
‘finalise’
nachweisen
‘prove’
anklagen
‘accuse’
zutrauen
‘feel confident’
umbringen
‘kill’
pv
0
3
3
47
#clusters
bv both
13
0
66
3
10
3
194
47
score
gs
system
9.250
–
8.500 1.000
8.250 1.000
6.875 1.000
1
63
9
98
1
48
6.500
6.000
1.000
0.762
66
11
7
11
56
35
7
190
24
5
0
11
5.000
4.500
3.250
1.625
0.364
0.455
0.000
1.000
Table 8: PAC gold standard judgements and system scores.
ous statistical measures for distributional similarity. The best result they achieve is a Spearman
rank correlation of 0.490, which is slightly but not
considerably better than our best results.
Concerning the feature choice to describe and
compare German particle verbs and their base
verbs (more specifically: comparing the unmarked
n-syntax with the marked n+syntax), we can compare our results with previous work by Schulte im
Walde (2005). Our work confirms her insight that
the differences between the two versions (with vs.
without reference to the syntactic functions) are
visible but minimal.
6
Conclusions
This work determined the degree of compositionality of German particle verbs by two soft cluster-
ing approaches. We assumed that the more compositional a particle verb is, the more often it appears in the same cluster with its base verb, after
applying a probability threshold to establish cluster membership. The overall best cluster analysis was reached by the simpler cluster approach,
LSC. It could predict the degree of compositionality for 59% of the particle verbs; the correlation with the gold standard judgements was .433.
Considering that we have worked with very simple distributional features that ignored other than
some basic information at the syntax-semantics interface, we regard this a reasonable result. We expect that if we extended our work by incorporating
the syntax-semantics transfer between particle and
base verbs, we could improve on the compositionality judgements.
55
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57
Noun Phrase Chunking and Categorization for Authoring Aids
Cerstin Mahlow and Michael Piotrowski
Institute of Computational Linguistics
University of Zurich
Switzerland
{mahlow,mxp}@cl.uzh.ch
Abstract
Effective authoring aids, whether for novice,
second-language, or experienced writers, require
linguistic knowledge. With respect to depth of
analysis, authoring aids that aim to support revising and editing go beyond POS-tagging but cannot
work on complete, mostly well-formed sentences
to perform deep syntactic analysis, since a text undergoing revision is in a constant state of flux. In
order to cope with incomplete and changing text,
authoring aids for revising and editing thus have
to use shallow analyses, which are fast and robust.
In this paper, we discuss noun phrase chunking
for German as resource for language-aware editing
functions as developed in the LingURed project.
We will identify requirements for resources with respect to availability, interactivity, performance and
quality of results. From our experiments we also
provide some information concerning ambiguity of
German noun phrases.
1
Introduction
In the LingURed project1 , we are implementing
functions to support writers when revising and editing German texts. For example, when a writer
chooses to use a different verb, the case of the noun
phrase governed by the verb may also have to be
changed; since the constituents of a German noun
phrase agree in case, number, and gender, the writer
must move through the noun phrase and make the
necessary adjustments for each word form. It frequently happens that writers forget to make some
or all of the required modifications since they are
focusing on the change in the verb – which may
also require other modifications in distant parts of
a sentence, such as the addition or deletion of a
separable prefix.
1 LingURed stands for “Linguistically Supported Revising
and Editing,” see http://lingured.info.
Functions operating on appropriate elements reduce cognitive load and prevent errors, or slips
(Norman, 1981), which is, in our view, preferable
to hoping that a grammar checker will catch all editing and revision errors afterwards (see (Mahlow
and Piotrowski, 2008; Piotrowski and Mahlow,
2009)). Note that we are not trying to make changes
fully automatically, but we rather want to provide
authors with “power tools” that help them make the
intended edits and revisions easier and less errorprone. Authors should be in control of the text
with functions helping to carry out their intentions
without forcing the author to concentrate on finding
the right (complex and long) sequence of low-level
character-based functions.
Authoring natural language texts thus benefits
from functions that operate on linguistic elements
and structures and are aware of the rules of the
language. We call these functions language-aware.
Our target group are experienced writers (with respect to their knowledge of German, their writing,
and their use of editors). Language-aware functions obviously require linguistic knowledge and
NLP resources on different levels, as outlined by
Mahlow et al. (2008).
NLP resources for use in an interactive editing
environment have to meet several requirements:
As we intend to support the writing process, the
resource has to be used interactively – we are not
interested in batch-mode systems that might be
useful for some post-processing. Therefore the
resource has to start and execute quickly – users
will not accept to wait more than a few seconds (see
(Good, 1981; Cooper et al., 2007)). As test bed we
use XEmacs, which is freely available; we intend
to distribute all functions freely to the community,
so all resources should be freely available, too.
The results of the resources have to be suitable for
further processing. The quality of the results has to
be high to actually support the authoring and not
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
58
posing new challenges to the author or introducing
errors.
Another factor influencing the design and implementation of language-aware editing functions are
characteristics of the respective language – here:
German. A desirable function (like pluralizing
NPs) may rely on automatic unambiguous extraction of linguistic elements and determination of
their morphosyntactic properties. If those elements
are entirely ambiguous, it may not be possible to
solve those ambiguities automatically at all – or
only by using deep syntactic and semantic parsing,
which is not possible during writing. Therefore it
might be necessary to put the author in the loop to
solve the ambiguity, which might be an easy task
for humans. However, in such situation it might
not be appropriate to implement such a function at
all since we force the author to carry out a new task
with completely different cognitive demands, thus
increasing the cognitive load – i.e., the function
would not fulfill what it was intended for: reducing
cognitive load.
In the rest of this paper we will concentrate on
a specific task – NP chunking and categorization –
to be used as base for a variety of editing functions.
In section 2 we will outline the requirements for a
chunker and give reasons for the development of
our own solution. We then show the details of our
implementation and report on some experiments
in section 3. Here we will also give some insights
on ambiguity of German NPs as relevant basis to
decide if implementation of the intended functions
is possible at all. We will comment on the quality of existing annotated corpora for German and
recommend to put some effort in updating them.
2
2.1
Noun phrase chunking for unrestricted
German text
Motivation
Mahlow and Piotrowski (2009) outline requirements for morphological resources used for specific
types of editing functions. In this paper we will
concentrate on chunking for use in (a) information
functions, (b) movement functions, and (c) operations.
A function for highlighting specific types of
phrases is an example of an information function;
an author may, for instance, call such a function to
identify potential stylistic or grammatical trouble
spots. A function for jumping to the next NP is an
example of a movement function; it requires detect-
ing the next NP after the current cursor position
and moving the cursor to the start of the first word
of this NP. A function for modifying the grammatical case of an NP is an example of an operation:
The author places the cursor on a noun and calls
the operation, indicating the desired case; the operation then calls a resource to extract the needed
information and makes the necessary changes to
the text.
Thus, we are interested in extracting chunks to
serve as resource for higher-level functions, we
are not interested in checking and correcting agreement or spelling of the elements of a chunk. For
information and movement functions, we have to
identify the words belonging to a certain type of
phrase – the usual task for a chunker. For this paper,
we take into account NPs as important structural
elements of natural-language text and thus a target
for information functions, movement functions, or
operations. For operations like pluralizing an NP,
changing the case of an NP, or replacing an NP
by a pronoun, we have to extract the NP and to
determine the category of the phrase, i.e., the morphosyntactic properties2 . For German NPs these
are case, number, gender, and definiteness3 .
2.2
Requirements
The requirements for our NP chunking resource
can be defined on the basis of general requirements
for NLP resources for language-aware editing functions and on the basis of the requirements for specific purposes:
Availability For LingURed, we use the XEmacs
editor4 , which is open-source. We aim to distribute all functions we implement as opensource, too. Therefore all involved resources
should be freely available.5
Performance The resources will be used in interactive functions and thus have to start and
execute quickly.
Programming Interfaces and Further Processing The results of the chunking will be used
in higher-level functions. Therefore they have
2 We refer to “morphosyntactic properties” as “category,”
while the process of determining this category is called “categorization.”
3 In this paper, we will not further discuss definiteness,
since it is relatively easy to determine.
4 http://xemacs.org
5 Unfortunately, as Mahlow and Piotrowski (2009) show,
we have to make some concessions if we want to use highquality resources.
59
to be delivered in a format suitable for further
processing. The chunker will take input from
and deliver results to a calling Emacs Lisp
function, so it should offer programming
interfaces to allow seamless integration.
Quality of Results The chunker should determine
all NPs and deliver the correct category (case,
number, and gender). The meaning of “all
noun phrases” obviously depends on the definition of noun phrase, which we will outline
in the next section.
2.3
Pragmatic definition of noun phrases
As for many linguistic terms, there are various definitions for the term noun phrase. For our purposes,
we consider as noun phrase as sequence of word
forms consisting of a noun preceded by one or
more adjectives and/or a determiner. Usually, this
type of NPs is called base NP, non-recursive NP,
noun kernel, or contiguous NP and follows the definition of the CoNLL-2000 chunking shared task
(Tjong Kim Sang and Buchholz, 2000). We do
not consider NPs consisting only of a single noun
here, since determining the category of a noun only
involves the morphological analyzer.
For example, in the sentence Der Traum vom
Essen ohne Reue beschert der Nahrungsmittelindustrie schöne Perspektiven. (‘The dream of eating
without regrets gives great prospects to the food
industry.’)6 , we would like to extract the NPs as
marked in example 1. In particular, we do not aim
to extract recursive NPs.
(1)
[NP Der Traum] [NP vom Essen] ohne
[N
Reue]
beschert
[NP
der
Nahrungsmittelindustrie] [NP schöne
Perspektiven] .
Note that we mark vom Essen as NP although
it contains a preposition. Since vom is a merged
word form consisting of a preposition (von) and a
determiner (dem), we will be able to split this word
form, strip the preposition, and thus get the NP dem
Essen.
We concentrate on extracting contiguous base
NPs for two reasons. First, there is a simple test to
determine what to include in an NP when considering changing case or number of an NP: All word
6 Unless stated differently, all examples are taken from a
corpus of the German newspaper “Der Tagesspiegel. Zeitung
für Berlin und Deutschland” from 2005 and 2006, consisting
of 2,235,726 word forms (133,056 sentences).
forms not affected by the change do not belong to
the NP. In German, it is possible to embed complex
phrases into an NP, as in eine für die Verhältnisse
hohe Qualität (‘a high quality with respect to the
circumstances’, literally: ‘a for the circumstances
high quality’):
(2)
[NP eine [PP für [NP die Verhältnisse] ] hohe
Qualität]
Applying our simple test, it would be necessary
to extract the discontinuous base NP eine hohe Qualität. Kübler et al. (2010) introduce the stranded
noun chunk (sNX) for the determiner eine to be
able to mark the desired NP. However, it involves
deep syntactic analysis to automatically annotate
such phrases correctly. And this involves the second reason to concentrate on contiguous NPs: In
the LingURed project, we are dealing with texts
in progress; the text is not finished and therefore
some parts of the texts will always be ill-formed,
incomplete, or inconsistent. These “three I’s,” as
Van De Vanter (1995, p. 255) calls them, hinder
deep syntactic analysis and make it very hard to
determine discontiguous NPs reliably.
Sequences of adjectives may be interrupted by
conjunctions (the STTS tag KON) or adverbs (ADV)
(including adjectives used adverbially). The role of
the determiner can be filled by definite determiners
(ART), indefinite determiners (ART), prepositions
with determiner (APPRART), possessive pronouns
(PPOSAT), attributive indefinite pronouns with and
without determiner (PIDAT and PIAT), and attributive demonstrative pronouns (PDAT). We do not
consider proper names as nouns. The following list
shows some examples:
(3)
[ART Eine] gemischte Crew
‘a mixed crew’
[ART der] transatlantischen Fusion
‘of the transatlantic fusion’
[APPRART beim] Sozialminister
‘at the minister of social affairs’
[PPOSAT unserem] zeitgeschichtlichen Bewusstsein
‘our sense of contemporary history’ (dative)
[PIDAT beide] Polizisten
‘both policemen’
[ART die] [PIDAT beiden] Polizisten
‘these two policemen’
[PIAT einige] Automobilhersteller
‘some car manufacturers’
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
60
[PDAT diese] heiklen Verfahren
‘these critical processes’
[PPOSAT seines] [ADV besonders] religiösen
[KON oder] [ADV besonders] homosexuellen
Gehalts
‘of its especially religious or especially homosexual content’
2.4
Related work
A number of chunkers for German are described
in the literature (e.g., (Schmid and Schulte im
Walde, 2000; Kermes and Evert, 2002; Schiehlen,
2002); see Hinrichs (2005) for an overview). However, all systems we know of are primarily intended
for batch processing, not interactive use. For example, the TreeTagger chunker (Schmid, 1995) is
frequently used for German, but it is not designed
to be used interactively and is thus not suitable for
our purposes.
Furthermore, since chunking is typically used in
applications such as information extraction or information retrieval, the focus is on the identification
of NPs, not on their categorization. Although many
noun chunkers make use of morphological information to determine the extent of chunks (see (Church,
1988; Ramshaw and Marcus, 1995; Schiehlen,
2002)), they usually do not deliver the category
of the NPs.
The exact definition of an NP also varies and
clearly depends on the intended application; for
example, the TreeTagger chunker uses a definition
similar7 to ours (Schmid and Schulte im Walde,
2000); YAC (Kermes and Evert, 2002), on the
other hand, is intended for corpus preprocessing
and querying and outputs recursive chunks.
After considering the common algorithms and
approaches and our specific requirements, we decided to implement our own NP chunker using lowlevel resources already used for other functions in
the LingURed project. We will describe our implementation and evaluation experiments in the next
section.
3
The NPcat Chunker
For the LingURed project, we decided to implement an NP chunker to identify NPs and determine
their categories according to the definition of NPs
given above. The implementation is called NPcat
7 However, besides noun chunks, it also outputs prepositional chunks (PCs). A PC consists of a preposition and an NP.
Since the NP is not marked explicitly, some post-processing
would be required to also extract these NPs.
and is based on part-of-speech tagging and morphological analysis.
For tagging we use the Mbt part-of-speech tagger
(Daelemans et al., 2010). Piotrowski and Mahlow
(2009) have shown that it can be integrated easily
into XEmacs. The quality of the tagging results
obviously depends on the quality of the training
corpus Mbt is trained on. We will discuss this issue
in section 3.2.1. For the work described in this
paper, we have trained Mbt on TüBa-D/Z (Tübinger
Baumbank des Deutschen/Schriftsprache), release
5 (Telljohann et al., 2009).
As a morphological resource we use GERTWOL
(Koskenniemi and Haapalainen, 1996). As Mahlow
and Piotrowski (2009) show, it is currently the only
morphological system for German available8 that
meets the requirements for integration into realworld applications and delivers high-quality results.
GERTWOL is shipped as shared library with a C
API for integration into applications.
Both Mbt and GERTWOL are already successfully used for other language-aware editing functions in the LingURed project.
3.1
Implementation details
NPcat uses three steps, executed successively, to
obtain the NPs and their categories:
1. Determine the POS of all word forms in a
(span of) text using Mbt.
2. Extract NPs matching our definition given in
section 2.3.
3. Categorize all elements of an NP using
GERTWOL and determine the possible categories of the NP (since the elements must
agree in case, number, and gender, this can be
described as the intersection of the categories
of the constituents).
As an example, let us consider the following
sentence: Nur wenn dieses strikte Verbot gelockert
werde, heiSSt es in einer Studie der DG-Bank, könne über eine bessere Aufklärung der Verbraucher
das brachliegende Potenzial konsequent erschlossen werden. (‘Only if this strict ban were lifted,
a study of DG-Bank says, the untapped potential
could systematically be exploited through better
counseling of consumers’). Mbt delivers the tags
8 It is not open source, but an academic license is available
for a reasonable fee.
61
presented in (4) below. Note that gelockert, DGBank and Potenzial are not in the lexicon, and the
unknown words case base was used to predict the
tags. We use the tags from the Stuttgart-Tübingen
Tagset (STTS) (Schiller et al., 1999).
(4)
[ADV Nur] [KOUS wenn] [PDAT dieses]
[ADJA strikte] [NN Verbot] [VVPP gelockert]
[VAFIN werde] [$, ,] [VVFIN heiSSt] [PPER es]
[APPR in] [ART einer] [NN Studie] [ART der]
[NN DG-Bank] [$, ,] [VMFIN könne] [APPR über]
[ART eine] [ADJA bessere] [NN Aufklärung]
[ART der] [NN Verbraucher] [ART das]
[ADJA brachliegende] [NN Potenzial]
[ADJD konsequent] [VVPP erschlossen]
[VAINF werden] [$. .]
The following NPs are then extracted from this
sentence:
(5)
a. dieses strikte Verbot
b. einer Studie
dieses
(
(" dieser " . [ PRON MASC SG GEN ])
(" dieser " . [ PRON NEU SG NOM ])
(" dieser " . [ PRON NEU SG ACC ])
(" dieser " . [ PRON NEU SG GEN ])
(" dieser " . [ DET MASC SG GEN ])
(" dieser " . [ DET NEU SG NOM ])
(" dieser " . [ DET NEU SG ACC ])
(" dieser " . [ DET NEU SG GEN ])
)
strikte
(
(" strikt " . [ ADJ FEM SG NOM POS ])
(" strikt " . [ ADJ FEM SG ACC POS ])
(" strikt " . [ ADJ PL NOM POS ])
(" strikt " . [ ADJ PL ACC POS ])
(" strikt " . [ ADJ MASC SG NOM POS ])
(" strikt " . [ ADJ NEU SG NOM POS ])
(" strikt " . [ ADJ NEU SG ACC POS ])
(" strikt " . [ ADJ FEM SG NOM POS ])
(" strikt " . [ ADJ FEM SG ACC POS ])
)
Verbot
(
(" Ver | bot " . [ N NEU SG NOM ])
(" Ver | bot " . [ N NEU SG ACC ])
(" Ver | bot " . [ N NEU SG DAT ])
(" ver | biet ~ en " . [ V PAST IND SG1 ])
(" ver | biet ~ en " . [ V PAST IND SG3 ])
)
Listing 1: Analyses for the word forms in dieses
strikte Verbot by GERTWOL
c. der DG-Bank
d. eine bessere Aufklärung
e. der Verbraucher
f. das brachliegende Potenzial
In the third step, the word forms in each NP are
analyzed morphologically by GERTWOL. For (5a),
GERTWOL delivers the analyses shown in listing 1.
We ignore the analyses for parts-of-speech that cannot be part of an NP – in this case, the pronoun
readings for dieser and the verb readings for Verbot.
With this information, NPcat tries to determine
the category of the NP. The elements of an NP have
to agree with respect to case, number, and gender.
The gender for Verbot is neuter, thus the readings
as feminine and masculine for the adjective and the
masculine reading for the determiner are excluded.
The readings for the determiner and the noun are
singular only, thus we can exclude the plural readings for the adjective. The values for gender and
number are thus: Neuter and singular. There are
only two corresponding readings for the adjective
(nominative and accusative singular neuter), both
readings are possible for the determiner and the
noun as well – so we get two possible categories
for the phrase dieses strikte Verbot: Nominative
singular neuter and accusative singular neuter.
From this example we can conclude: (a) As the
elements of a German NP agree with respect to
case, number, and gender, we can use the intersection of the categories of those word forms to
determine the category of the NP. (b) German NPs
can be ambiguous concerning their morphosyntactical properties. We will have a closer look at this
phenomenon in section 3.2.3.
3.2
Experiments
To evaluate the appropriateness of our approach,
we carried out some experiments. Some of these
experiments were also intended to get an impression of morphosyntactic features of German NPs,
in order to decide whether functions involving extracting NPs and determining their category can be
of any use at all. The quality of the results delivered by NPcat clearly depends on the quality of
the tagging and the quality of the morphological
analysis.
3.2.1 Quality of the tagging
We decided to use Mbt for tagging as it is opensource software and can be used interactively.
When using Mbt, it has to be trained on an annotated corpus. The currently available annotated
corpora for German with an appropriate size to be
used as training set are NEGRA, TIGER, and TüBaD/Z. Of these, TüBa-D/Z is being actively maintained and enhanced. However, all of these corpora
contain almost exclusively texts written according
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
62
to spelling rules before the 1996 spelling reform.
There seem to be some articles in the TIGER written according to current spelling rules. However,
this is not mentioned in the release notes. Both
NEGRA and TüBa-D/Z do not include texts written according to current spelling rules. Thus, these
corpora do not represent the current spelling and
are, strictly speaking, not suitable to be used as
resource for any application dealing with current
texts.
To our knowledge there is only one annotated resource available written in current German spelling:
The two small German corpora in the SMULTRON
treebank (Gustafson-Čapková et al., 2007). However, with around 520 sentences each9 , they are
too small to serve as a resource for training Mbt.
They also lack morphological information (there
is information on gender only) and thus cannot be
used as a gold standard for morphological analysis
and NP categories.
In the TIGER corpus, no difference is made between attributive indefinite pronouns with and without determiner. However, this distinction is essential for our definition of NPs: Word forms tagged
as PIAT (attributive indefinite pronoun without determiner) like kein (‘none’) cannot be preceded by
a determiner, whereas word forms tagged as PIDAT
(attributive indefinite pronoun with determiner) can
be preceded by a determiner, e.g., die beiden Polizisten (‘the two policemen’). PIAT-tagged word
forms, as well as PIDAT-tagged word forms can fill
the determiner slot. However, if there is a determiner preceding a PIDAT-tagged word form, it has
to be included into the NP, and the PIDAT-tagged
word form will then be inflected like an adjective.
Using TIGER will thus introduce errors in determining NPs.
We eventually decided to use TüBa-D/Z for training Mbt, since it is the largest corpus, it is actively
maintained, and differentiates between PIAT and
PIDAT.
3.2.2
Quality of noun chunks
Given a tagged text, how many of the NPs (as defined in section 2.3) are actually found by NPcat,
and how many of them are correct?
As noted above, this primarily depends on the
quality of the POS tagging – clearly, if a noun is
mistagged as a verb, our rules cannot find the cor9 7,416
tokens (529 sentences) taken from the novel “Sophie’s World” and 10,987 tokens (518 sentences) taken from
three business texts.
responding NP. The question is thus how well the
tagger is able to identify the constituents of NPs;
this question is not answered by general accuracy
numbers, but would require comparison to a gold
standard. While annotated corpora usually include
annotations for NPs or noun chunks, the underlying definition of noun chunks does not necessarily
correspond to our definition. We would thus have
to create a gold standard ourselves – something we
have not yet done at the time of this writing, thus
we cannot provide evaluation results for this aspect.
3.2.3
Categories of noun chunks
For our application, the categorization of NPs is the
most critical aspect, since writers should neither
be irritated by incorrect analyses nor bothered by
unnecessary queries from the system.
Evert (2004) showed that only about 7% of German nouns can be categorized unambiguously in
isolation. He found that around 20% of German
nouns can be categorized unambiguously when
taking into account some syntactical processing
– when using the left context of a noun, i.e., adjectives and determiners.
We ran NPcat on a corpus of articles from the
German newspaper “Der Tagesspiegel” from 2005
and 2006, consisting of 2,235,726 word forms
(133,056 sentences). NPcat found 516,372 NPs,
152,801 of them consisted of a single noun only
and were thus excluded after step 2. When looking
at unique NPs, we found 245,907 NPs, of which
45,029 were single nouns. Table 1 shows the categorization results for all NPs and for unique NPs
(excluding single nouns).
NPcat marks NPs as “unknown” in the following
cases:
• No agreement between the elements of a potential NP (e.g., alle Auto ‘all car’)
• Tags delivered by Mbt are wrong (e.g., kniend
‘kneeling’ tagged as noun)
• A word form is misspelt and thus not recognized by GERTWOL, although tagged correctly by Mbt (e.g., Rathuas instead of Rathaus ‘city hall’)
• The NP is correct, but some words are not
recognized by GERTWOL (e.g., schwächelnden ‘flagging’ in der schwächelnden USKonjunktur ‘of the flagging US economy’)
63
All NPs
Unique NPs
Total
Unknown
1 category
2 categories
3 categories
4 or more
363571
200878
16827 (4.63%)
14506 (7.22%)
136444 (37.53%)
71420 (35.55%)
181838 (50.01%)
94893 (47.24%)
7745 (2.13%)
4636 (2.31%)
20717 (5.70%)
15423 (7.68%)
Table 1: Categories of NPs
The results show that more than 35% of the NPs
can be categorized unambiguously, and for another
50% two categories are found.10 This is a quite satisfying result with respect to our ultimate purpose
of using NPcat as a resource for interactive editing
functions. These functions are intended to reduce
cognitive load and make editing and revising easier;
ambiguous intermediate results of NLP resources
may require interaction with the user, which could
be counterproductive.
Our experiment shows that no interaction is
needed in one third of all cases involving NPs. For
NPs with two categories (about half of all NPs),
the need for interaction depends on the desired
operation and the morphosyntactical properties (including inflection class) of the NP and cannot be
determined beforehand. To our knowledge, there
is currently no research on these properties of German NPs.11
For example, when pluralizing an NP, the plural
forms of the constituent words of the NP have to
be generated, preserving gender and case. For das
Konzerthaus (‘the concert hall’) we obtain two categories: NEU SG NOM and NEU SG ACC. The plural
forms of these categories share the same surface,
die Konzerthäuser – thus, even though the category
is ambiguous, no interaction with the user would
be needed in this case. 29,433 of all NPs (8.1%) in
our test corpus were categorized as NEU SG NOM
and NEU SG ACC.
For der Reparaturwerkstatt (‘to/of the garage’)
we obtain the two categories FEM SG GEN and FEM
SG DAT. The plural forms of these categories are
der Reparaturwerkstätten and den Reparaturwerkstätten – here, the user either has to identify the
category of the original NP or has to choose be10 It might be possible to reduce the number of ambiguous
NPs considering verb frames. However, this would involve
deeper syntactic analysis, for subordinate clauses the verb
might even not yet be written when the author calls an NPbased function.
11 There is an open field for further research questions like
the ratio between contiguous and discontiguous NPs or the ratio between simple and complex NPs, as one of the reviewers
proposed. Kübler et al. (2010) report some first insights concerning embedded adjective phrases in NPs within TüBa-D/Z.
More work in this area is clearly needed, but it is not in the
focus of this paper or the LingURed project as such.
tween the two possible plural NPs. 41,802 of all
NPs (11.5%) are categorized as FEM SG GEN and
FEM SG DAT.
On the basis of the experimental results and these
considerations, we believe it is reasonable to assume that no interaction is needed in more than
60% of all cases.
3.2.4 Quality of categorization
Finally, which quality can we expect for the categories of the identified NPs? The ambiguity of
NPs clearly influences the interaction with the user
when used in operations as shown above. However,
we need some confidence about the correctness of
the determined category of a certain NP, since users
should know whether they can trust the changes
made by operations based on NP chunking. If
the correctness is insufficient, users would have to
check – and possibly revise – all changes and there
would be no benefit in using such an operation.
To answer this question, we randomly chose two
samples – one from the unambiguous and one from
the two-fold ambiguous NPs of the unique NPs –,
each consisting of 384 NPs. The sample size n was
chosen to achieve a confidence level of 95% with a
5% error, according to the standard formula
n=
Z2σ 2
e2
where Z 2 = 1.96 for a confidence level of 95%, e
is the desired level of precision (we use a confidence interval of 5%), and σ 2 is the variance of
the population (we assume σ 2 = .25 for maximum
variability).
The samples were then manually checked. We
found that the categories for non-ambiguous NPs
were almost all correct; there were only two false
categories:
(6)
a.
b.
* deren Freundin: FEM SG GEN
‘whose girlfriend’
* deren Schwester: FEM SG GEN
‘whose sister’
In both cases, deren (‘whose’) was incorrectly
tagged as PDAT instead of as PRELAT. In fact, both
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
% Fully Correct Analyses
64
100
80
60
40
20
0
unambiguous 2-ambiguous
Figure 1: Percentage of completely correct analyses with a confidence interval of 5%
NPs are ambiguous with respect to case. This type
of problem may be reduced by improving the training of the tagger.
Incorrect categories for two-fold ambiguous NPs
are due to unusual analyses of the respective noun
by GERTWOL as listed in (7). If GERTWOL used
some kind of weighting, unlikely decompositions
like Flugzeuge < der Flug-Zeuge (7a) or Urteil <
der Ur-Teil (7b), or readings as nominalized verbs
like Hauptsätzen < das Haupt-Sätzen (7e) could be
avoided.
(7)
4
a.
* der Zivilflugzeuge: MASC SG NOM,
NEU PL GEN
‘(of) the airplanes’
b.
* seinem Urteil:
NEU SG DAT
‘his decision’
c.
* vielen StraSSenkämpfen: MASC PL
DAT, NEU SG DAT
‘many riots’
d.
* möglichen Punkten:
DAT, NEU SG DAT
‘possible points’
MASC PL
e.
* kurzen Hauptsätzen:
DAT, NEU SG DAT
‘short main clauses’
MASC PL
MASC SG DAT,
Conclusion
Interactive editing applications pose specific challenges to NLP resources, which sometimes differ
significantly from those posed by non-interactive
applications.
In this paper, we outlined requirements for an NP
chunker and categorizer to be used as resource for
language-aware editing functions to support authoring of German texts. Currently available chunkers
do not meet these requirements and we therefore
had to implement our own solution – NPcat – on the
basis of existing resources for tagging and morphological analysis. We showed that NPcat meets the
usual quality criteria for NP chunking of German
texts.
On the one hand, our experiments showed that
NPcat is able to categorize NPs with a high degree
of correctness. On the other hand, we found that
there is an urgent need to put effort in updating
existing annotated corpora for German – or creating new ones – to allow processing of current
texts written according to current spelling rules: It
is evident that the performance of a tagger trained
on text in the pre-1996 orthography is suboptimal
when applied to text written in the post-1996 orthography.
When we started the LingURed project, we argued that in the first decade of the 21st century
it is finally possible to successfully develop editing functions based on NLP resources. First attempts in the 1980s and 1990s were not successful,
since the NLP resources available at that time were
still immature and the limited computing power
made interactive NLP applications almost impossible. Since then, computers have become much
faster and provide for very fast execution of NLP
tools. However, while performance is no longer
a problem, NLP systems for German still do not
meet our expectations with respect to maturity and
quality of results. Mahlow and Piotrowski (2009)
have shown that the situation with respect to morphological analysis and generation for German is
disappointing: There is, in effect, only one system
available (GERTWOL), and it is not open source.
With respect to chunking, we find that the situation
is very similar.
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
67
Learning meanings of words and constructions, grounded in a virtual
game
Deb Roy
Jeff Orkin
Hilke Reckman
The Media Laboratory
The Media Laboratory
The Media Laboratory
MIT
MIT
MIT
USA
USA
USA
[email protected] [email protected] [email protected]
Abstract
We discuss the use of data from a virtual world
game for automated learning of words and grammatical constructions and their meanings. The language data is an integral part of the social interaction in the game and consists of chat dialogue,
which is only constrained by the cultural context,
as set by the nature of the provided virtual environment. This paper presents a preliminary exploration of syntactic and semantic aspects of the dialogue in the corpus. We show how simple association metrics can be used to extract words, phrases
and more abstract syntactic patterns with targeted
meanings or speech-act functions, by making use
of the non-linguistic context.
1
Introduction
The use of corpora has proven to be of great
value to natural language processing tasks. Parsers
for syntactic analysis, for example, have become
highly robust and fairly accurate. Advanced semantic processing, however, remains a great challenge. Although applications involving complex
use of natural language, such as question answering (Dang et al., 2007), have been shown to profit
from deep semantic processing and automated reasoning, a major bottleneck for such techniques,
now that several robustness issues have been addressed, appears to be a lack of world knowledge (Giampiccolo et al., 2007). This is not too
surprising, since the corpora used are nearly always either text-only or text with some level of,
usually task-specific, initially human, annotation.
Therefore NLP programs generally have no access
at all to non-linguistic context.
A way to get at meaning more naturally is
through grounded data and/or grounded interac-
tion, as our own knowledge of natural language
meanings is thought to be grounded in action and
perception (Roy, 2005). Viewing language as a
complex adaptive system which evolves in a community through grounded interaction can yield important new insights (e.g. (Steels, 2003)).
Whereas the techniques for real-world perception in computers are still rather limited, virtual
worlds are getting ever more complex and realistic, have many visitors, and do not share the
perceptual challenges. This offers great potential for data collection1 . Examples of virtual
word learning-through-interaction projects involving language and/or social behavior are ‘Wubble World’ (Hewlett et al., 2007) and ‘Agent
Max’ (Kopp et al., 2003).
Our research focuses on learning from data,
rather than through interaction, though the latter
may be possible in a later stage of the project.
We aim at developing algorithms that learn the
meanings of words and grammatical constructions in human language in a grounded way. Our
data consists of game-logs from the ‘Restaurant
Game’ (Orkin and Roy, 2007), which is an on-line
2-player game in which human players play the
roles of customer and waitress in a virtual restaurant. The dataset includes both what they do, and
what they say to each other (through chat). It is
thus a collection of episodes that take place in a
virtual restaurant, enacted by human players, and
it has already been shown that useful knowledge
about typical activities at restaurants can be extracted from these data. The intuition is that a human student of English starting from scratch (but
with some common sense knowledge about how
1
von Ahn & Dabbish (2004) were among the first to realize the potential of collecting human knowledge data on-line,
in a game setup, collecting a large image-labeling corpus.
68
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
things go in restaurants), could learn quite a bit
of English from studying these episodes; possibly enough to play the game. We try to computationally simulate such a learning process. One of
the overarching questions underlying this work is
what knowledge about language and how it works
is needed to extract knowledge about constructions and their meanings from grounded data.
Although the things people say and the things
people do tend to be closely related in the restaurant game scenes, the relation is not as straightforward as in some related work, where the data was
much more restricted, and the language part contained only descriptions (Gorniak and Roy, 2004)
or only directives (Fleischman and Roy, 2005;
Gorniak and Roy, 2005). The datasets of those experiments were designed purely for learning word
meaning, with each utterance being a nearly direct description of its accompanying action. The
Restaurant Game on the other hand was designed
for learning natural restaurant behavior, including
language, to animate artificially-intelligent characters who can play the game in a convincing,
human-like way, and therefore the interaction is
much more open-ended. This makes the learning
of language from our data a different type of challenge.
In this paper we first introduce The Restaurant Game in section 2, then we explain our main
method for extracting words based on their associations with objects in section 3. Next, in section 4,
we zoom in on the items on the menu, and extract
words and also multi-word units referring to them.
This in turn allows us to extract sentence patterns
used for ordering food (section 6). Finally we attempt to find words for food items that are not on
the menu, by using these patterns, and wrap up
with a concluding section.
2
The Restaurant Game
The restaurant theme was inspired on the idea of
Schank & Abelson (1977), who argued that the
understanding of language requires the representation of common ground for everyday scenarios.
Orkin & Roy (2007) showed in The Restaurant
Game Project that current computer game technology allows for simulating a restaurant at a high
level-of-detail, and exploit the game-play experiences of thousands of players to capture a wider
coverage of knowledge than what could be handcrafted by a team of researchers. The goal is au-
Figure 1: screen-shot from the Restaurant Game,
waitress’s perspective
tomating characters with learned behavior and dialogue. The ongoing Restaurant Game project has
provided a rich dataset for linguistic and AI research. In an on-line multi-player game humans
are anonymously paired on-line to play the roles
of customers and waitresses in a virtual restaurant (http://theRestaurantGame.net). Players can
chat with open-ended typed text, move around the
3D environment, and manipulate 47 types of interactive objects through a point-and-click interface. Every object provides the same interaction
options: pick up, put down, give, inspect, sit on,
eat, and touch. Objects respond to these actions in
different ways. For instance, food diminishes bite
by bite when eaten, while eating a chair makes
a crunch sound, but does not change the shape
of the chair. The chef and bartender are hardcoded to produce food items based on keywords
in chat text. A game takes about 10-15 minutes to
play. Everything players say and do is logged in
time-coded text files on our servers. Player interactions vary greatly, and while many players do
misbehave, Orkin and Roy (2007) have demonstrated that enough people do engage in common
behavior that it is possible for an automatic system
to learn statistical models of typical behavior and
language that correlate highly with human judgment of typicality.
Previous research results include a learned plannetwork that combines action and language in a
statistical model of common ground that associates relevant utterances with semantic context
and a first implementation of a planner that drives
AI characters playing the game (Orkin and Roy,
2009).
69
A total of 10.000 games will be collected, of
which over 9000 have been collected already. The
average game consists of 85 physical actions and
165 words, contained in 40 lines of dialogue.
Our analyses in this paper are based on a randomly selected set of 1000 games, containing a
total of 196,681 words (8796 unique words). This
is not a huge amount, but it yields fairly robust
results, because we are working with a coherent domain. Of course there will always be utterances that our system cannot make sense of,
because sometimes players talk about things that
have nothing to do with the game.
The dialogue is grounded in two (partially overlapping) ways. Not only is there a simulated physical environment with objects that can be manipulated in various ways, but also social patterns of
reoccurring events provide an anchor for making
sense of the dialogue.
3
Associations between objects and
words
The game contains a number of different objects,
and trying to find words that are used to refer to
these is a natural place to start. Let us start out
with a simple assumption and see how far it gets
us: We expect that objects are most talked about
around the times when they are involved in actions. This means we can measure association
strength in terms of relative co-occurrence. This is
how collocational, or more generally, collostructional strength is commonly measured (Stefanowitsch and Gries, 2003): How often do two things
co-occur compared to how often each of them occurs in total? The Chi square (χ2 ) value is a good
measure of that (Manning and Schütze, 2000).
Game logs were processed as follows. All actions between two lines of dialogue were treated
as one action block. All lines of dialogue between
two actions were treated as one dialogue block.
For each action block it was noted which objects
it contains, for each dialogue block which words
it contains. Then for each object its association
strength with each word was computed based on
the occurrence of that word in the blocks of dialogue immediately preceding the blocks containing the object. Preceding dialogue turned out to
work better than following dialogue, which might
be due to the nature of the corpus with relatively
many requests and directives. Only positive associations were taken into account, that is cases
where the observed co-occurrence was higher than
the co-occurrence that would be expected if words
and objects were distributed randomly over the
game. In other words, we compare the portion
that a word makes up in an object’s precedingblock-context to the portion it makes up in the total corpus. The phi value, derived from χ2 was
used as a metric of association strength. We applied basic smoothing (absolute discounting), and
required that items occur in at least 4 games in the
corpus, to be scored. This reduces noise created
by a particular player repeating the same atypical
thing a number of times in a game. Table 1 shows
all object types with their 5 most strongly correlated words in the preceding dialogue block.
We see that in spite of the simple approach,
many objects correlate most strongly with sensible words (we are at this point primarily interested
in referring words and phrases). Words for ordered food and drink items are picked up well,
as well as those for the menu, the bill, vase and
flowers. Some of the kitchen utensils such as
the pot and pan are not used often and systematically enough to give good results in this first
rough method. When objects are clustered on the
basis of their physical interactions, these objects
also fail to cluster due to sparse data (Orkin, 2007).
The furniture items seem to mostly associate with
words for items that are put on them. Looking into
the actions in some more detail seems to be needed
here, but remains for future work. Relevant context can of course extend beyond the preceding
block. We will use a modified notion of context
in the next sections.
Since the assumption we made about cooccurrence is so general, we expect it to apply to
other domains too: frequently used movable items
will most likely pair up with their referring words
quite well.
We have observed that in many cases sensible
words show up as (most) strongly associated with
the objects, but we have no way yet to determine
which are the referring ones, which are otherwise
related and which are unrelated. Some objects can
be referred to by different synonymous words such
as ‘bill’ and ‘check’. Others can be referred to by
a phrase of more than one word, such as ‘spaghetti
marinara’. We need to be able to distinguish those
cases. The issue is addressed in the following section.
70
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
object
WATER
T EA
C OFFEE
B EER
R EDW INE
W HITE W INE
S OUP
S ALAD
S PAGHETTI
F ILET
S ALMON
L OBSTER
C HEESECAKE
P IE
TART
M ENU
B ILL
VASE O F F LOWERS
B OWL O F F RUIT
B OTTLE O F WATER
B OTTLE O F W INE
B OTTLE O F B RANDY
B IN O F T RASH
P OT
PAN
M ICROWAVE
B LENDER
C UISINART
C UTTING B OARD
R EGISTER
E MPTY T EAC UP
E MPTY M UG
E MPTY G LASS
E MPTY W INE G LASS
E MPTY B OWL
E MPTY P LATE
E MPTY W INE B OTTLE
E MPTY WATER B OTTLE
E MPTY F RUIT B OWL
E MPTY C UTTING B OARD
E MPTY VASE
E MPTY B RANDY B OTTLE
E MPTY T RASH
BAR
C OUNTER
TABLE
C HAIR
S TOOL
P ODIUM
M ENU B OX
D ISH WASHER
S TOVE
F RIDGE
T RASH C OMPACTOR
BARTENDER
C HEF
word 1
water
tea
coffee
beer
red
white
soup
salad
spaghetti
steak
salmon
lobster
cheesecake
pie
tart
menu
bill
flowers
fruit
bottle
bottle
brandy
trash
hit
kitchen
microwave
blender
blender
trash
bill
tea
coffee
beer
wine
soup
enjoy
happened
bottle
fruit
pot
vase
brandy
trash
beer
soup
please
seat
young
check
pleae
microwave
w
cost
of
bartender
favor
phi w1
0.24
0.34
0.22
0.26
0.23
0.20
0.21
0.17
0.18
0.25
0.15
0.19
0.15
0.35
0.21
0.08
0.08
0.04
0.05
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.06
0.01
0.03
0.01
0.07
0.04
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.02
0.01
0.04
0.03
0.04
0.21
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.02
0.08
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.02
word 2
please
te
coffe
beers
wine
wine
vegetable
cobb
spagetti
filet
grilled
steak
cake
berry
nectarine
seat
check
these
fruits
water
wine
woman
garbage
pot
move
kitchen
give
dropped
pot
check
refill
check
water
red
finished
else
move
they’re
trash
lol
flowers
asl
woah
water
steak
water
sit
sup
bill
hold
kitchen
k
staff
wine
excuse
trick
phi w2
0.02
0.05
0.03
0.03
0.12
0.09
0.05
0.09
0.08
0.14
0.05
0.03
0.13
0.07
0.08
0.03
0.07
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.06
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.15
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.01
0.07
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02
word 3
glass
pie
cup
berr
redwine
whine
jour
cake
marinara
mignon
fish
thermador
cheese
cake
tarts
start
pay
flower
bowl
cold
brandy
cake
cops
stuck
fish
break
(
holding
stuck
thank
:D
cup
another
white
entree
dessert
invisible
walk
serious
board
flower
alcoholic
ew
wine
salad
wine
table
wine
else
dessert
theres
its
problems
go
alcoholic
ha
phi w3
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.04
0.02
0.04
0.08
0.05
0.03
0.08
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.04
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.14
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.02
word 4
thank
cup
tu
please
wines
red
de
cob
pasta
lobster
steak
cake
cherry
steak
coffee
please
thank
vase
vase
ass
$50
whiskey
lmao
wanna
an
staff
around
vase
wall
no
whenever
thanks
thanks
enjoy
yes
thank
wall
vodka
fish
fish
cost
whiskey
garbage
red
lobster
coffee
anywhere
bar
no
second
look
know
vase
the
doin
ass
phi w4
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.04
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.13
0.05
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
word 5
of
t
please
give
glass
degree
du
steak
steak
salad
idiot
salad
cheescake
tea
phi w5
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.02
0.03
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.05
0.02
soup
again
roof
serious
!
dead
road
bin
yup
off
ha
)
out
best
pay
bon
.
thirsty
glass
enjoy
anything
wonderful
cold
lol
best
they
told
flying
white
tart
soup
follow
boring
the
minute
that
in
top
water
mine
god
0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.01
0.1
0.05
0.03
0.03
0.01
0.02
0.01
0.0
0.00
0.01
0.00
0.01
0.01
Table 1: all objects types and their 5 most strongly associated words in the preceding dialogue block
4
Finding words and phrases referring to
items on the menu
We will now look in some more detail into the
food-items that are ordered (including drinks),
listed in table 2. In the present implementation
we tell the system which item types to look at, but
automatic object clustering does distinguish food
and drink items, too (Orkin, 2007). These items
are of interest for a number of reasons. Not only
is it highly relevant for the performance of automated characters to be able to recognize which
food-items are being talked about when, but they
are also interesting because they can be referred
to in various ways, and often by expressions consisting of more than one word. Furthermore, there
are a number of relevant dialogue acts involving
the words for these items, such as ordering. When
we can identify the expressions referring to these
items, that will also help us identify the environments that these expressions occur in and their
function or place in the game.
We will try to extract words and multi-word expressions referring to these objects. In order to
avoid all suspicion that we are reproducing the
scripted knowledge of the chef and the bartender,
we take a slightly different road than before. The
point where the customer orders an item is likely
to occur earlier than in the dialogue block directly
preceding the appearance of the item, or the moment he gets it. So if we want to bypass all interaction with the chef and bartender, it helps to
make a rough assumption about where in the game
the customer will order, rather than going by our
general assumption above. Whereas the above
assumption most likely applies to other domains
too, this one is a specific assumption based on human knowledge of restaurant scenarios. We can-
71
not make it too specific though, because all games
are different.
Every time the waitress puts down a food-item
on a table2 , all customer utterances between this
moment and the moment the customer first sat
down in the game are considered context for this
item. We will refer to this as the order-context for
the item. The order-context for an item type is
collected by joining the order-contexts of its instances. For the totals we add up the collected
order-contexts of all items, rather than taking the
totals of the whole corpus. This way we correct for anything that is counted double because
it is part of the order-context of more than one
item (order-contexts frequently overlap, as in most
games more than one item is ordered). The size of
this portion of the corpus, without the overlap, is
37,827 words.
4.1
Scoring words and multi-word sequences
Once more we find the most strongly associated
words for each item, yielding results similar (but
not identical) to table 1. We do the same for twoword and three-word sequences (bigrams and trigrams). For each item we accept the highest scoring word as a good word, assuming that in the
minimal case an item can be referred to by exactly
one single-word expression. To the extend that our
method works, this expression should then be the
one that scores highest. Next we accept bigrams
that score above a certain threshold if their composing words also score above a threshold (We
take phi > 0.02 as a threshold for both). Words
that occur in accepted bigrams, but had not been
accepted yet, are added to the list of accepted
words. Similarly, for trigrams we accept those that
score high (same threshold used) and of which the
composing bigrams have already been selected in
the previous step.3 The found sequences are presented in table 2.
The approach is somewhat conservative, so we
do miss some relevant words, such as ‘steak’ for
F ILET (which scored second among the words).
We expect that we can catch these later by showing that they occur in the same environments as
other food-item expressions. Similarly for the
2
We could make sure that it is the table the customer actually sits at, but since we only have one customer, the extra
administration this would require would probably come with
very little gain.
3
Looking at four-word sequences does not yield additional results if we require that their components have to have
been already accepted.
item type
WATER
T EA
unigrams
‘water’
‘tea’
C OFFEE
‘coffee’
B EER
‘beer’
R EDW INE
‘red’
‘red wine’
‘wine’
‘white’
‘white wine’
‘wine’
‘soup’
‘soup du’
‘du’
‘du jour’
‘jour’
‘vegetable’ ‘vegetable soup’
‘salad’
‘cobb salad’
‘cobb’
‘spaghetti’ ‘spaghetti marinara’
‘marinara’
‘filet’
‘mignon’ ‘filet mignon’
‘salmon’
‘grilled salmon’
‘grilled’
‘lobster’
‘lobster thermador’
‘thermador’
‘cheesecake’
‘cherry cheesecake’
‘cherry’
‘pie’
‘berry pie’
‘berry’
W HITE W INE
S OUP
S ALAD
S PAGHETTI
F ILET
S ALMON
L OBSTER
C HEESECAKE
P IE
TART
bigrams
trigrams
‘soup du jour’
‘tart’
‘nectarine tart’
‘nectarine’
Table 2: extracted words, bigrams, and trigrams
for the items on the menu
more general words ‘fish’ and ‘pasta’ for S ALMON
and S PAGHETTI respectively, that we saw in table 1.
These additionally turn out to have a less strong
presence in this part of the data. Presumably they
are not used that much in ordering, perhaps because customers, in this situation, tend to repeat
what they read on the menu.
4.2
Filtering referring expressions
We now have identified words and sequences that
can be involved in referring to food-items, but we
still don’t know which of these can be used by
themselves for this purpose, and which only as
part of a longer sequence. What we do next is to
score all words and the selected bigrams and trigrams together in such a way that we only count
bigrams where they are not part of one of the selected trigrams and only count the words where
they are not part of any of the selected bigrams
or trigrams. That is, we treat the bigrams and trigrams selected in the previous step as words, and
ignore their internal structure, so we can compare
the association scores of these ‘words with spaces’
to those of other words and in particular with those
of their composing words in other configurations.
The selected words and bigrams that still score
above the threshold now, can apparently refer independently to their associated food-items. This
give us the results shown in table 3.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
72
item type
WATER
T EA
C OFFEE
B EER
R EDW INE
W HITE W INE
S OUP
S ALAD
S PAGHETTI
F ILET
S ALMON
L OBSTER
C HEESECAKE
P IE
TART
referring expressions
‘water’
‘tea’
‘coffee’
‘beer’
‘red’ ’wine’
’red wine’
‘white’
’white wine’
‘soup’ ’jour’
‘vegetable soup’
’soup du jour’
‘salad’
’cobb salad’
‘spaghetti’
’spaghetti marinara’
‘filet’
’filet mignon’
‘salmon’
’grilled salmon’
‘lobster’
’lobster thermador’
‘cheesecake’
’cherry cheesecake’
‘pie’
’berry pie’
‘tart’
’nectarine tart’
Table 3: extracted referring expressions for the
items on the menu
There are two things in this table that are
counter-intuitive. Firstly, on the precision side,
‘jour’ appears to be used outside the expression
‘soup du jour’ to refer to S OUP, which is quite
odd. The most likely cause is that ‘du’ is relatively often written as ‘de’, although just not often enough for the whole alternative construction
to be picked up (16 times on a total of 79). This
issue can be resolved by applying spelling normalization, to recognize that the same word can have
different written forms, which will be important
to make the final system interact robustly, in any
case. As expected in a chat set-up, the spelling
is overall rather variable. The opportunities for
spelling normalization, however, are promising,
since we do not only have linguistic context but
also non-linguistic context to make use of. Nevertheless, the theme falls beyond the scope of this
paper.
Secondly, on the recall side, ‘wine’ does not
show up as a word that can independently refer to W HITE W INE. Actually, the whole wine
situation is a bit particular. Because the word
‘wine’ occurs prominently in the context of both
W HITE W INE and R EDW INE it doesn’t associate
as strongly with either of them as the words ‘red’
and ‘white’, which distinguish between the two.
In the present implementation our algorithm is not
aware of similarities between the two types of ob-
Figure 2: menu and specials board from the
Restaurant Game
jects, which could provide support for the idea
that ‘wine’ is used with the same meaning in both
cases. Recognizing and using such similarities remains for future work. It may not seem straightforward either that ‘red’ and ‘white’ can refer independently to their objects. What happens is that in
the data the word ‘wine’ can easily occur in a previous utterance of either the customer or the waitress, e.g. waitress: ‘would you like some wine?’,
customer:‘yes, red, please.’. Whether this can be
called independent reference is questionable, but
at its present level of sophistication, we expect our
extraction method to behave this way. Also, because of the medium of chat, players may tend to
keep their utterances shorter than they would when
talking, using only the distinctive term, when it
is clear from the context what they are talking
about4 . Also ’house red/white (wine)’ patterns (as
appear on the menu in figure 2) do occur in the
data but our method is not sensitive enough to pick
them up.5
In spite of the imperfections mentioned in this
step and the previous one (mainly recall issues),
we will see in the next section that the expressions
we extracted do give us a good handle on extracting patterns of ordering food.
4
Note that our hard-coded bartender does not respond to
the ambiguous order of ‘wine’ either, as the human designer
had the same intuition, that ‘red’ and ‘white’ are more reliable.
5
We are not concerned about not retrieving ’glass of’ construction, because we consider it not to be part of the core
referring expressions, but a more general construction that
applies to all cold drinks.
73
5
How to order
Now that we have a close to comprehensive collection of expressions referring to food-items, we
will use these to find the ‘constructions’ used for
ordering these. For each food-item being put on
the table, we record the most recent utterance that
contains one of its corresponding referring expressions. We replace this expression by the placeholder ‘<FoodItem>’, so that we can abstract
away from the particular expression or its referent, and focus on the rest of the utterance to find
patterns for ordering. Table 4 presents the utterance patterns that occurred more than once in a
condensed way.6
<FoodItem>
(and) (a/the/one/another/a glass of/more/some/my)
(and
(,) (please/plz) (.)
(a/the) <FoodItem>)
just (a/some) <FoodItem> please
yes (,) (a) <FoodItem> (please)
(and a) <FoodItem> ?
glass of/with a/2/um/then/sure <FoodItem>
<FoodItem> 2/too/to start/!
<FoodItem> is fine
a <FoodItem> would be great
where is my <FoodItem>
steak and <FoodItem>
i want
<FoodItem>
(and
a <FoodItem>)
i’d/i would like (to start with/to have) (a/the/some/a glass of) <FoodItem> (please) (.)
i will like <FoodItem>
i will start with <FoodItem>
i’ll take a <FoodItem>
<FoodItem>
(i think/believe) i’ll/i will/ill have (the/a)
(and
(please) (.)
a glass of <FoodItem>)
<FoodItem>
can/could i have/get (a/the/some/some more/a glass of)
(and
(please) (?)
(a) <FoodItem>)
may i have a/the/some <FoodItem> (please) (?)
may i please have a glass of <FoodItem> ?
please may i have the <FoodItem> ?
Table 4: condensed representation of orderutterances found more than once
There are 492 utterance patterns that occurred
more than once, plus another 1195 that occurred
only once. Those that occurred twice or more are
basically all reasonable ways of ordering food in a
restaurant (although some might be the renewal of
an order rather than the original one). The vast majority of the patterns that occurred only once were
also perfectly acceptable ways of ordering. Many
had substantial overlap with the more frequent patterns, some were a bit more original or contained
extra comments like ‘i’m very hungry’. We can
6
It is worth noting that 97 of the utterances consisted only
of ‘<FoodItem>’. They are included in the first generalized
pattern.
conclude that there is a lot of variation and that
here the extraction method shows a real potential
of outperforming hand-coding. As for recall, we
can be sure that there are patterns we missed, but
also that there will be many possible patterns that
do simply not occur in the data. To what extend
we will be able to recognize food orders in future
games, will largely depend on how successfully
we can generalize over the patterns we found.
We envision encoding the extracted linguistic
knowledge in the form of a construction grammar (e.g. (Croft, 2001)). The extracted patterns
could already be used as very course grained constructions, in which <FoodItem> is a slot to be
filled by another construction.7 At the same time
it is clear that there are many recurrent patterns
in the data that could be analyzed in more detail.
We show initial examples in the subsections 5.1
and 5.2. As for meaning, at utterance level, an important aspect of meaning is the utterance’s function as a dialogue act. Rather than describing what
happens, most utterances in this game are part of
what happens in a similar way as the physical actions are (Searle, 1965). Knowing that something
is being ordered, what is being ordered, and how
ordering acts fit into the overall scenario will be
extremely useful to a planner that drives AI characters.
5.1
Identifying coordination
If we look at sequences associated with ordering, we see that many of them contain
more than one <FoodItem> expression. These
tend to be separated by the word ‘and’. We
can support this observation by checking which
words are most strongly associated with order phrases that contain 2 or more instances
of ‘<FoodItem>’.The 10 most strongly associated words and their scores are:
‘and’(0.19),
‘de’(0.05), ‘,’(0.04), ‘minon’(0.04), ‘i’ll’(0.03), ‘&’(0.03),
‘dessert’(0.02), ‘the’(0.02), ‘with’(0.02), ‘n’(0.02).
The
word ‘and’ comes out as a clear winner.
Of course ‘coordination’ is a more general concept than is supported by the data at this point.
What is supported is that ‘and’ is a word that
is used to squeeze two <FoodItem> expressions
into a single order.
7
Lieven et. al. (2003) argue that young children continue
to rely on combining just two or three units well beyond the
two-word stage.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
74
5.2
Class-specific constructions
‘bees’(1),
Some of the variation we saw in table 4 is related
to there being different types and classes of items
that can be distinguished. Table 5 shows this for
some relevant classes. This can help us extract
more local constructions within the order-phrases
and tell the difference between them.
‘bread’(1),
‘pudding’(1),
‘trash’(1),
‘?’(1),
‘pizza’(1), ‘fight’(1), ‘cheescake’(1), ‘wime’(1), ‘wate’(1),
‘grilled’(1), ‘moment’(1), ‘beeer’(1), ‘here’(1), ‘...’(1),
‘spegetti’(1), ‘pasta’(1), ‘spagattie’(1), ‘win’(1), ‘thank’(1),
‘cold’(1), ‘main’(1), ‘broiler’(1), ‘marinara’(1), ‘u’(1),
‘h’(1),
‘refill’(1),
‘meni’(1),
‘brandy’(1),
‘acoke’(1),
‘um’(1),
‘cake’(1),
‘whiskey’(1),
‘soda’(1),
‘fun’(1),
‘offe’(1), ‘scotch’(1), ‘yours’(1)
class
C OLD D RINK
H OT D RINK
S TARTER
E NTREE
D ESSERT
trigram
‘a glass of’
‘glass of <FoodItem>’
‘glasses of <FoodItem>’
‘cup of <FoodItem>’
‘a cup of’
‘<FoodItem> and <FoodItem>’
‘<FoodItem> and <FoodItem>’
‘a <FoodItem> and’
‘<FoodItem> to start’
‘have the <FoodItem>’
‘the <FoodItem> and’
‘and the <FoodItem>’
‘<FoodItem> for dessert’
‘piece of <FoodItem>’
‘a piece of’
phi
0.06
0.06
0.05
0.07
0.06
0.03
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.07
0.05
0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
Table 5: some interesting classes of item types and
their most strongly associated trigrams with phi
scores
Here we hand-assigned classes and showed the
differences in language, but we could of course
start from the other end, and automatically cluster
item types on the basis of how they are ordered,
thus creating the classes.
6
Finding more words for food-items
It would be great if we could use the knowledge
about what ordering looks like, to identify situations where the customer orders something that is
not on the menu and figure out how to respond to
that (– a challenge because of sparse data).
We extracted the 30 environments of
‘<FoodItem>’, consisting of 2 words to the
left and 2 words to the right, that were most
strongly associated with ordering, and counted
what other words occurred in these environments
in the ordering parts of the games. These were the
words found, with the number of times they were
found in these environments:
‘yes’(69), ‘menu’(27), ‘steak’(16), ‘check’(5), ‘bill’(5),
‘coffe’(4), ‘spagetti’(3), ‘desert’(3), ‘dinner’(3), ‘cofee’(2),
‘seat’(2),
‘fillet’(2),
‘sit’(2),
‘more’(2),
‘dessert’(2),
‘you’(2), ‘no’(2), ‘coke’(2), ‘drink’(2), ‘bear’(2), ‘cute’(1),
‘vest’(1),
‘help’(1),
‘cheese’(1),
‘sweet’(1),
These first results look promising and it should
not be too hard to filter out misspellings of known
words, alternative ways of referring to known
food-items, and words that clearly refer to something else known (such as ‘menu’) (or are simply so frequent that they just have to have some
other function). Still, we conclude that the present
method on 1000 games is not yet sensitive enough
to confidently pick out other food-terms. Improving it remains for future work. This is, on the other
hand, a good point to recuperate expressions such
as ‘steak’, which we missed earlier.
7
Discussion/Conclusion
We have picked up all of the menu descriptions
for the food-items plus most of the sensible shorter
forms. This was good enough to identify patterns
of how to order these items.
Our extraction methods have so far been rather
human-guided. It would be interesting to see if
it is possible to design a more generalized procedure that automatically generates hypotheses
about where to look for associations, and what assumptions about the workings of natural language
it needs to be equipped with. One basic thing we
have used in this case, is the idea that linguistic
expressions can be used to refer to things in the
non-linguistic context. Another one that is very
relevant in The Restaurant Game is that utterances
are used as dialogue acts, with very strong parallels to physical actions.
We hope to have given an impression of the
richness of this dataset and the possibilities it offers. We argue that finding referring expressions
for concrete objects in a simple way is a good starting point in this kind of data to get a handle on
more abstract constructions, too.
Acknowledgments
‘fish’(1),
‘ea’(1), ‘glass’(1), ‘sphagetti’(1), ‘burger’(1), ‘manager’(1),
‘mignon’(1), ‘chat’(1), ‘cutlery’(1), ‘iyes’(1), ‘one’(1),
‘tab’(1), ‘bathroom’(1), ‘sieve’(1), ‘chesscake’(1), ‘selmon’(1), ‘med’(1), ‘question’(1), ‘fast’(1), ‘redwine’(1),
This research was funded by a Rubicon grant from
the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), project nr. 446-09-011.
75
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J. Orkin. 2007. Learning plan networks in conversational video games. Master’s thesis, Massachusetts
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J. Searle. 1965. What is a speech act? Perspectives
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L. Steels. 2003. Evolving grounded communication
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A. Stefanowitsch and ST Gries. 2003. Collostructions:
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
77
EXCERPT – Ein integriertes System zum informativen Summarizing und
Within-Document-Retrieval
Jürgen Reischer
Informationswissenschaft
Universität Regensburg
Regensburg, Deutschland
[email protected]
Abstract
Das experimentelle EXCERPT-System wird vorgestellt, das eine Suchmaschine zur Auswahl und
Ausgabe von Information innerhalb von Textdokumenten realisiert. Die Techniken des informativen
Summarizings werden auf ein System zum WithinDocument-Retrieval übertragen, das einen integrierten Ansatz zur suchbegriffs-basierten Extraktion relevanter Textinhalte und deren nutzergerechte Aufbereitung zu informativ-zusammenfassenden
Ergebnis-Einheiten bietet.
1
Einleitung
Angesichts des Umfangs textueller Information, die
uns täglich in elektronischer Form erreicht, sind
Systeme zur gezielten Suche und Auswahl von Information innerhalb von Dokumenten nach den
Bedürfnissen des Nutzers unverzichtbar. Umso erstaunlicher erscheint es daher, dass gerade Systeme wie WWW-Browser, PDF-Reader und selbst
Textverarbeitungen meist nur über einfachste Verfahren des Zusammenfassens oder Suchens von
Information verfügen. Kann für Ersteres noch das
ein oder andere Plugin installiert werden, so muss
sich der Nutzer im letzteren Falle mit rudimentären
Suchen-Kommandos zufrieden geben, die zumeist
nicht einmal die Eingabe mehrerer Suchbegriffe
erlauben (die Google-Buch-Suche stellt dabei eine Ausnahme dar). Bei der Suche nach benötigter
Information ist der Nutzer auch bei relativ kurzen
Dokumenten letztlich nicht gewillt, den gesamten
Text intellektuell auf die relevanten Inhalte hin zu
durchsuchen. Mit der zunehmenden Digitalisierung
immer umfangreicherer Dokumente wird sich dieses Problem weiter verschärfen. Die Aufgabe zur
Lösung des Problems kann nur darin bestehen, maschinelle Verfahren und Systeme zu entwickeln, die
den Nutzer bei der inhaltlichen Arbeit mit Texten
unterstützen.
Das hier vorgestellte experimentelle EXCERPT-
System1 zeigt einen Ansatz auf, der bei der Suche,
Auswahl und Ausgabe von Information aus (englischen) Dokumenten einen neuen Weg beschreitet:
Der Nutzer kann durch Angabe ein oder mehrerer Suchbegriffe thematisch relevante Textpassagen (Sätze/Absätze) aus Dokumenten ermitteln,
die dann nach den Vorgaben des Nutzers zu einer ’gerankten’ Liste von informativen Summarys
aus ein oder mehreren (Ab-)Sätzen zusammengefasst werden. Dies erlaubt dem Nutzer einen schnellen überblick über die ihn interessierenden Inhalte, die er inkrementell rezipieren kann, bis sein
Informationsbedarf gedeckt ist. In diesem Sinne
stellt das EXCERPT-System ein Art Suchmaschine für Textdokumente dar, die Textpassagen anhand von Suchbegriffen ermittelt und als summaryartige ’Snippets’ in einer gerankten Ergebnisliste
ausgibt. Real existierende Systeme zum WithinDocument-Retrieval sind rar: Hier ist vor allem das
ProfileSkim-System von Harper et al. (2004) zu
nennen, das die suchbegriffs-basierte Bewertung
und Selektion von Textpassagen unterstützt; auch
das TOP[OGRAPH]IC-System von Hahn und Reimer (1986) bietet eine vergleichbare Funktionalität.
Andere Arten von Passagen-Retrieval-Systemen
erlauben dem Nutzer hingegen keinen direkten Zugriff auf die Textinhalte und dienen hauptsächlich
dem übergeordneten Dokumenten-Retrieval (zur
Unterscheidung verschiedener Systemtypen vgl.
Stock, 2007). Im Gegensatz hierzu stehen zahlreiche Summarizing-Systeme mit unterschiedlichen
Zielsetzungen (vgl. die aktuelle Bibliografie in Radev, 2009). Am ehesten vergleichbar mit WithinDocument-Retrieval-Systemen sind nutzer- oder
topik-zentrierte Summarys, die nach Angabe von
Thematermen aus einem oder mehreren Dokumenten ein entsprechendes Summary zusammenstellen,
jedoch keine Suchmaschinen-Funktionalität anbieten.
1
EXpert in Computational Evaluation and Retrieval of
Passages of Text.
78
2
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
Konzeption und Realisierung
EXCERPT als integriertes Summarizing- und
Passagen-Retrieval-System legt den Fokus auf die
Suche und Extraktion informativer Textausschnitte im Sinne des informativen Summarizings und
Within-Document-Retrievals.2 Der Nutzer kann
mittels Suchbegriffen interessierende Textpassagen ermitteln, die nach Relevanz und Informativität sortiert ausgegeben werden.3 Konzeptionell lassen sich sowohl Summarizing als auch
Passagen-Retrieval als Formen der Informationsselektion begreifen, wobei Information aus Texten
nach bestimmten Kriterien selektiert wird: Bei der
Generierung von extraktiven Summarys werden
wichtige (thematisch informative, interessante, repräsentative) Sätze oder Absätze selektiert, beim
Retrieval von Information relevante (thematisch
auf die Suchbegriffe passende) Passagen. Summarizing wird dabei letztlich als Sonderfall des WithinDocument-Retrievals bei der Ermittlung und Extraktion relevanter Information betrachtet: Gibt der
Nutzer keine thematisch einschränkenden Suchbegriffe an, werden alle Sätze/Absätze des Textes als gleich relevant erachtet und die Passagen
ausschließlich gemäß ihrer Wichtigkeit beurteilt
(analog einem generischen, informativ-extraktiven
Summary).
Bei Angabe von einem oder mehreren Suchbegriffen werden die Passagen zusätzlich hinsichtlich
ihrer Relevanz bezüglich der Suchbegriffe bewertet und selektiert. Die Umsetzung dieses Ansatzes in ein lauffähiges System erfordert dabei die
Realisierung zweier wesentlicher Komponenten:
(i) ein Analysemodul, das den Text formal und inhaltlich im Hinblick auf Summarizing- und WithinDocument-Retrieval-Aufgaben analysiert; (ii) ein
Retrieval- und Ranking-Modul, das auf Basis des
analysierten Textes die Suchanfragen des Nutzers
bedient.
2.1
Formale und inhaltliche Textanalyse
Die Analyse eines Textes erfolgt formal und inhaltlich: Die formale Analyse umfasst vor allem
die Zerlegung des Textes in relevante Texteinheiten
und deren Normalisierung, die inhaltliche Analyse bezieht sich auf die semantischen Eigenschaf2
Zum Gegensatz indikative vs. informative Summarys vgl.
Borko und Bernier (1975).
3
Auf eine Diskussion des Informations- und Informativitätsbegriffs muss hier aus Platzgründen verzichtet werden;
zu Ersterem siehe Reischer (2006), zu Letzterem z. B. de
Beaugrande und Dressler (1981).
ten der Einheiten und deren thematische Zusammenhänge im Text.
Bei der formalen Analyse des Textes wird in
mehreren Schritten eine Strukturerkennung und
Normalisierung durchgeführt: Bei der Vorverarbeitung werden Quotationszeichen und Parenthesen vereinheitlicht (z. B. “-” zu “ - ” ), mehrfache Satzende-Zeichen reduziert (z. B. “??” zu
“?”) sowie bekannte Abkürzungen aufgelöst (z. B.
“Brit.” zu “british” expandiert, um die nachfolgende
Satzerkennung zu vereinfachen). Darauf aufbauend
können im nächsten Schritt Absätze anhand von
Leerzeilen bzw. “Carriage Return” und/oder “Line
Feed” erkannt werden. Der erkannte Absatz wird
anhand von Whitespace-Zeichen in Tokens zerlegt,
um anschließend die Satzerkennung durchführen
zu können: Als Satzende-Zeichen werden “?”, “!”
und “.” gewertet, nicht aber “;” und “:”. Für jeden Satz werden sämtliche Inhaltsterme normalisiert, wobei das WordNet-Lexikon zum Einsatz
kommt (Fellbaum, 1998): Regelmäßige Terme werden anhand einer Liste regulärer Flexionsmuster
deflektiert, unregelmäßige Terme über eine entsprechende Liste normalisiert. Alle in Bezug auf das
WordNet-Lexikon unbekannten Terme werden als
Komposita (ohne Leerzeichen) interpretiert und in
ihre Bestandteile zerlegt; sind auch die Bestandteile unbekannt, wird der Term als Neologismus
gewertet. Nach der Normalisierung der Satzterme
wird innerhalb jedes Satzes eine MehrworttermErkennung durchgeführt, die bekannte mehrteilige
lexikalische Ausdrücke (separiert durch Leerzeichen) mit Hilfe des WordNet-Lexikons zu einem
einzigen Term zusammenfasst (z. B. “President” +
“of” + “the” + “United” + “States” zu “President of
the United States”).4
Die erkannten Lemmata werden in einem Termindex verwaltet, der die Zuordnung jedes Terms
zu allen Sätzen, in denen er auftritt, enthält. Funktionswörter werden nicht weiter betrachtet, jedoch
in einem eigenen Index gespeichert, der für die
Ermittlung der Informativität einer Texteinheit
benötigt wird. Gänzlich ausselektiert werden so
genannte ’Void words’ wie “Mr.” oder “alas” usw.,
die aufgrund ihres beschränkten semantischen Gehalts vergleichbar hochfrequenten Inhaltswörtern
nicht weiter verarbeitet werden.
Für die semantisch-thematische Analyse des
Textes wird die inhaltliche Struktur einzelner Ter4
Aus Platzgründen kann hier auf die damit verbundenen
Probleme und den Erkennungsalgorithmus nicht eingegangen
werden (vgl. Reischer, 2010).
79
me oder Sätze im Hinblick auf deren Informativität untersucht. Die ermittelten Ergebnisse dienen
später als Parameter bei der Berechnung von Informativitäts-Bewertungen (’Scores’) für Sätze und
Absätze. Der semantische Wert oder Informationsgehalt von Termen und Sätzen lässt sich indirekt
anhand verschiedener Oberflächen-Merkmale des
Textes feststellen, die sich allesamt maschinell ermitteln lassen. Die folgenden Parameter wurden
zum Großteil aufgrund von Erkenntnissen der Literatur zum Summarizing ermittelt (Edmundson,
1969; Paice, 1990; Mittal et al., 1999; Goldstein et
al., 1999; Banko et al., 1999; Hovy, 2004), ergänzt
um linguistische Auswertungen eigener Korpora
zur Informativität von Texten:5
• Spezifität: Der Informationsgehalt von Termen und Sätzen kann an deren semantischer
Spezifität festgemacht werden. Bei Termen
dient zum einen ihre Frequenz im Text vs. der
Sprache als Indikator für ihren semantischen
Gehalt: Terme, die im Text häufig, in der Sprache (bzw. einem repräsentativen Referenzkorpus) hingegen selten auftreten, werden als informativer betrachtet (vgl. entsprechend das
tf•idf-Maß des Information-Retrievals; Salton und Buckley, 1988). Neologismen sind in
dieser Hinsicht semantisch am gehaltvollsten,
da sie in der Sprache bislang nicht aufgetreten sind. Individuenausdrücke (Eigennamen)
können unabhängig von ihrer Frequenz als
semantisch so spezifisch betrachtet werden,
dass sie nurmehr genau eine Entität bezeichnen (im Gegensatz zu Allgemeinbegriffen);
zudem wird Eigennamen ein besonderer Interessantheitswert zugesprochen (Flesch, 1948).
• Semantische Intensität: Steigerungsformen
von Adjektiven und partiell Adverben werden
als Indikator für semantisch aussagekräftige
Sätze verwendet (Mittal et al., 1999; Goldstein et al., 1999).Vergleiche durch Komparative und Wertungen durch Superlative weisen auf relevante Inhalte oder Erkenntnisse
hin, die für den Rezipienten von Interesse
sein können (“X is better than Y”, “the best
X is Y”). Im Gegensatz hierzu zeigen Terme wie “by the way” oder “alas” Sätze an,
5
Viele der genannten Parameter wurden durch die eigene
Auswertung von Texten bestätigt. Dies war insofern nicht zu
erwarten, als bisherige Untersuchungen nicht explizit auf die
Frage der Informativität von Sätzen bzw. Summarys abzielten.
Für eine detaillierte Darstellung aller Auswertungen muss auf
Reischer (2010) verwiesen werden.
die nur nebensächliche Information vermitteln wollen. In diesem Sinne stellen solche
Ausdrücke ’Malus’-Terme dar, wohingegen
Steigerungsformen als Bonusterme betrachtet
werden. Beide Sorten von Termen stehen in
einer vordefinierten und nutzererweiterbaren
Liste zur Verfügung.
• Informationalität: Informative Sätze sind vor
allem Aussagesätze, wohingegen Fragesätze
keine Information liefern, sondern gerade erfragen.6 Die Auswertung eines eigenen Korpus zur Frage der Informativität (vgl. Abschnitt 3) ergab, dass in der Menge der von
den Testpersonen als informativ beurteilten
Sätze kein einziger Frage- oder Befehlssatz
enthalten war; d. h. solche Sätze sind für
informative Summarys nicht geeignet (vgl.
Alfonseca und Rodrı́guez, 2003). Zusätzlich
wurden vor allem Aussagesätze innerhalb
von Aufzählungen als überdurchschnittlich
informativ gewertet. Als weiterer Faktor für
Informationalität wird der Anteil an Pronomen der 1. Person ermittelt: Sätze mit 1.Person-Pronomen werden offenbar als eher
meinungs- statt faktenorientiert wahrgenommen. Die Auswertung des genannten Korpus
ergab eine deutlich geringere Anzahl von Pronomen der 1. Person bei Sätzen, die als informativ beurteilt wurden.
• Topikalität: Thematisch zentrale Sätze geben
den informationellen Kern eines Textes wieder. Die Zentralität einer Aussage lässt sich
zum einen durch die inhaltliche Relationiertheit der Terme eines Satzes ermitteln: Je mehr
semantisch-lexikalische Relationen ein Term
aufweist, desto zentraler ist er für den Inhalt eines Textes. Der Grad der Relationiertheit von
Termen und Sätzen wird über das WordNetLexikon berechnet (vgl. den verwandten Ansatz zu lexikalisch-thematischen Ketten z. B.
in Barzilay und Elhadad, 1999). Zum anderen
wird die topikalische Relevanz eines Terms
durch seine Stellung im Satz ermittelt: Terme
(vor allem Nomen) in syntaktischer Subjektsoder Topikposition werden als thematisch zentraler erachtet als Terme in anderen Positionen (Subjekt-Prädikat- bzw. Topic-Comment6
Rhetorische Fragen könnten einen Informationswert besitzen; diese treten jedoch eher selten auf und sind formal
kaum von nicht-rhetorischen Fragen zu unterscheiden.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
80
Struktur). Tendenziell befindet sich das Subjekt/Topik eines Satzes in der ersten Hälfte der
Satzwörter, so dass die Position eines Terms
im Satz als Anhaltspunkt hierfür verwendet
werden kann.
• Positionalität: Sätze zu Beginn eines Absatzes
oder Abschnitts bzw. unmittelbar unterhalb
einer überschrift leiten in der Regel ein neues Thema ein und sind daher als inhaltlich
signifikant einzustufen (Baxendale, 1958; Edmundson, 1969).
• Innovativität: Als Indikator für nichtredundante (informative) Aussagen kann die
Anzahl erstmals (nicht erneut) auftretender
Terme in einem Satz/Absatz herangezogen
werden (von Weizsäcker, 1974). Zudem
deuten auch hier wieder Neologismen auf
spezifische neue Konzepte hin, die für den
Rezipienten von Interesse sein können (Elsen,
2004).
Aus Platzgründen kann hier nur grob auf den
Algorithmus zur Verrechnung der Parameter eingegangen werden: Die ermittelten Parameter werden
zu sieben Kategorien zusammengefasst, für die pro
(Ab-)Satz des Textes jeweils ein eigenes Ranking
(bezüglich der Parameter der Kategorie) durchgeführt wird. Die Ranking-Positionen aller Kategorien werden für jeden (Ab-)Satz gemittelt und
als Gesamt-Rankingwert betrachtet. Entsprechend
diesem Wert werden die (Ab-)Sätze zu möglichst
informativen Summarys zusammengefasst und ausgegeben (unter Beachtung ihrer thematischen Relevanz, sofern Suchterme vorgegeben wurden).
2.2
Retrieval und Ranking von Textpassagen
Die konzeptionelle Integration von PassagenRetrieval (im Sinne des Within-DocumentRetrievals) und Summarizings findet seine
Realisierung in der Art und Weise, wie der
Nutzer Information selektieren kann: Gibt er 0
Suchbegriffe an, werden alle Einheiten des Textes
grundsätzlich als relevant erachtet, da der Nutzer
keine thematische Einschränkung vorgegeben
hat; gibt er hingegen 1 bis N Suchterme an,
werden nur die entsprechend thematisch relevanten
Einheiten aus dem Text selektiert. In beiden
Fällen werden alle selektierten Einheiten mit ihren
Relevanzwerten in einer Liste gespeichert, von wo
aus sie zu größeren Ausgabeclustern (Summarys)
zusammengefasst und gemäß ihren Relevanz-
und Informativitäts-Bewertungen ausgegeben
werden. Zu diesem Zweck kann der Nutzer darüber
bestimmen, wie viele Einheiten im Sinne einzelner
Sätze oder Absätze zu einer Ausgabeeinheit
(’Cluster’) zusammengefasst werden sollen. Dies
entspricht in etwa informativen, summary-artigen
Text-’Snippets’ aus jeweils 1 bis M zuvor selektierten (Ab-)Sätzen, die zu Adhoc-Clustern verbunden
und ausgegeben werden. Die Suchmaschine für
Texte zeigt damit nicht nur wie gewohnt die
Fundstellen an, sondern fasst die gefundenen
Ergebnisse auf Wunsch zu Summarys bestimmter
Größe zusammen und gibt diese nach Relevanz
und Informativität sortiert aus (vgl. beispielhaft
Abb. 1 in Anhang A).
Der Sortierungsprozess für das Ranking
berücksichtigt sowohl die Relevanz- als auch
Informativitätswerte der erzeugten Ausgabecluster.
Diese kann man zum einen als nutzer- bzw.
topikzentrierte informative Summarys verstehen,
falls thematisch beschränkende Suchterme vorgegeben wurden; zum anderen handelt es sich um
generische informative Summarys, wenn durch
den Nutzer kein Thematerm angegeben wurde.7
Im ersten Schritt werden die Summarys dabei nach
Relevanz hinsichtlich der Suchbegriffe sortiert;
hat der Nutzer keine Suchterme angegeben, weil
er generische Summarys wünscht, werden alle
Summarys als gleich relevant erachtet. Im zweiten
Schritt erfolgt innerhalb gleich relevanter Summarys die Sortierung gemäß ihrer Informativität,
die zuvor bereits in der Analysephase für einzelne
Sätze und Absätze ermittelt wurde. Primär werden
die Ausgabecluster im Sinne von Summarys also
nach Relevanz, sekundär nach Informativität
gerankt.
Dem Nutzer steht hierbei eine Reihe von
Möglichkeiten zur Verfügung, wie er auf die Suche
nach Inhalten und deren Ausgabe Einfluss nehmen
kann. Im Hinblick auf die Retrieval-Funktionalität
kann sich der Nutzer zwischen Precision und Recall entscheiden: Sollen die gesuchten Begriffe
exakt innerhalb einer Passage gefunden werden
oder können die Passagen auch synonyme oder
semantisch relationierte Terme enthalten (z. B.
Hyp[er]onyme und Antonyme)? Im letzteren Falle werden entsprechend ermittelte Passagen umso niedriger im Hinblick auf das Ranking bewertet, je größer die semantische Distanz zwischen
7
Im einen Grenzfall bestehen die Summary-Cluster jeweils
nur aus einem einzigen Satz oder Absatz, im anderen Grenzfall
aus dem gesamten Text.
81
Such- und Textterm ist. Im Grenzfall treten die
Suchbegriffe im Text überhaupt nicht auf, sondern die gesuchten Konzepte werden über Synonyme oder thematisch relationierte Terme ermittelt (vage/thematische Suche). Im Hinblick auf
das Ranking der konstruierten Ausgabe-Cluster
(Summarys) stehen dem Nutzer verschiedene Optionen zur Wahl: Die konstruierten Ausgabecluster können aus einer oder mehreren, kontinuierlich oder (dis)kontinuierlich im Text aufeinander folgenden Einheiten bestehen. Wird pro Ausgabecluster nur jeweils genau ein Satz oder Absatz ausgegeben, entspricht dies der Ausgabegröße
herkömmlicher Dokumenten-Suchmaschinen, die
jeweils genau ein Treffer-Item pro Rangplatz ausgeben.8
Werden die Einheiten im Ausgabecluster in kontinuierlicher Originalreihenfolge präsentiert, kann
die Lesbarkeit und Kohärenz erhöht werden; die
beste Lesbarkeit ergibt sich dabei, wenn anstelle
von Sätzen ganze Absätze zu Ausgabeclustern zu
sammengefügt werden. Die inhaltliche Kohärenz
ist generell durch die thematisch selektive Extraktion von (Ab-)Sätzen gewährleistet. Die formale Kohäsion hingegen kann kaum verbessert werden, da dies einen Eingriff in die Originalstruktur der Sätze oder Absätze bedeuten würde (z. B.
durch Auflösung von Pronomen und Abkürzungen,
Entfernung konjunktional gebrauchter Adverben).
Vom Nutzer könnte dies jedoch als Manipulation des Originaltextes missverstanden werden, zumal er durch den Umgang mit Ergebnissen von
(Web-)Suchmaschinen gewohnt ist, dass die gefundenen Dokumente im Originalzustand präsentiert
werden (ansonsten entsteht womöglich der Eindruck von Zensur).
3
Evaluation
Um die Leistung des informativitäts-basierten
Ansatzes zum automatischen Summarizing und
Within-Document-Retrieval zu testen, wurde eine Evaluation durchgeführt. Hierfür wurden zum
einen zwei frei verfügbare Summarizing-Korpora
von Zechner (1995) und Hasler et al. (2003) verwendet, zum anderen zwei eigene Korpora erstellt,
die speziell im Hinblick auf Fragen der Informativität konzipiert wurden. Die Aufgabe bei der Bewertung von Texteinheiten in Bezug auf ihre In8
Da es sich bei EXCERPT um ein experimentelles System
handelt, stand die Frage der einfachen und gewinnbringenden
Nutzbarkeit (Bedienbarkeit) der angebotenen Parametrisierungsmöglichkeiten nicht im Zentrum des Interesses.
formativität folgte dabei einer Fragestellung von
Hovy: “Ask experts to underline and extract the
most interesting or informative fragments of the
text. Measure recall and precision of the system’s
summary against the human’s extract . . . ” (Hovy,
2004). Insgesamt wurden im eigenen Korpus 26
Texte verschiedener Textsorten von jeweils 13 Testpersonen hinsichtlich ihrer relevanten und informativen Sätze beurteilt: Von den 26 Texten wurden 10
für den generischen Summary-Modus (ohne Suchterme) auf informative Sätze hin bewertet, bei den
anderen 16 Texten wurden ein bis drei Suchbegriffe
vorgegeben, hinsichtlich deren die (i) relevantesten
und (ii) die daraus informativsten Sätze ermittelt
werden sollten citereischer:10. Zusammen mit den
13 Texten aus dem Zechner- und Hasler-Korpus
standen somit 23 Texte im Summarizing- und 16
Texte im Within-Document-Retrieval-Modus zur
Verfügung.9
Dabei wurde das Zechner-Korpus und partiell
das erste eigene Korpus zusammen mit bewerteten
Texten aus Vortests bei der Entwicklung und Kalibrierung des Systems verwendet; die anderen Korpora dienten als Testdatenmenge zur überprüfung
der Leistung von EXCERPT. Als einheitliches
Leistungsmaß für die beiden Modi des Summarizings und Within-Document-Retrievals wurde
das R-Precision-Maß verwendet (Baeza-Yates and
Ribeiro-Neto, 1999; Manning et al., 2008), das
den Anteil der vom System korrekt ermittelten
Sätze mit der Gesamtmenge der von den Testpersonen als signifikant (relevant und informativ) beurteilten Sätze in Beziehung setzt. Ein Satz wurde
dann als signifikant gewertet, wenn er von mehr
als der Hälfte bzw. drei Viertel der Bewerter als
relevant und/oder informativ beurteilt wurde (7/13
= 54% bzw. 10/13 = 77%).10 Im Within-DocumentRetrieval-Modus ergibt sich eine Performance von
etwa 0.75, d. h. drei von vier Sätzen wurden vom
System korrekt ermittelt. Auf einen Vergleich mit
9
In Anhang B findet sich ein Beispiel für einen bewerteten
Text aus dem eigenen Korpus mit zwei Suchbegriffen samt
den Wertungen auf Relevanz und Informativität.
10
Beim Zechner-Korpus wurden effektiv ebenfalls 13 Testpersonen gefragt; beim Hasler-Korpus waren es für sieben
Texte drei Personen, so dass hier lediglich die ZweidrittelMehrheit gebildet werden konnte. Das Konzept des Mehrheitsentscheids wurde gewählt, da das Maß der übereinstimmung
zwischen den Bewertern erwartbar niedrig war. Eine Mehrheitsentscheidung garantiert jedoch den besten Kompromiss bei der Auswahl von Texteinheiten, da hierdurch die
meisten Nutzer zufriedengestellt werden können. Der Anspruch eines ’idealen’ Summarys mit entsprechend hohen
übereinstimmungsraten bei Annotatoren ist m. E. von Grund
auf verfehlt.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
82
anderen Systemen musste mangels Verfügbarkeit
verzichtet werden. Im Summarizing-Modus hingegen konnte zudem ein Vergleichstest mit drei teils
kommerziellen Summarizern durchgeführt werden: dem Copernic, Intellexer- und SubjectSearchSummarizer.11 Dabei zeigte sich, dass EXCERPT
mit einer durchschnittlichen Gesamt-Performance
von ca. 0.55 am besten abschnitt, wobei die anderen Systeme im günstigsten Falle nicht über ca.
0.45 hinauskamen.
4
Fazit
Die Realisierung eines integrierten Summarizingund Within-Document-Retrieval-Systems mit Fokus auf der Selektion informativer Textpassagen ist
konzeptionell möglich und in ein reales Informationssystem umsetzbar. Die Performance des Systems übersteigt dabei die Leistung gängiger Summarizer, obgleich dies nicht der ursprüngliche Anspruch des Systems war. Als neuer Systemtyp zur
inhaltlichen Arbeit mit Texten stellt das EXCERPTSystem insoweit eine Innovation dar, als es eine Suchmaschine für Texte bietet, die zudem eine integrierte Summarizing-Funktionalität enthält.
Die Erkenntnisse aus dem Bereich des automatischen (informativen) Summarizings werden dabei mit eigenen Untersuchungen zur Informativität
von Texten kombiniert und auf Within-DocumentRetrieval-Aufgaben übertragen. Der Implementierungsaufwand ist dabei nur unwesentlich höher als
bei der Realisierung eines einfachen Rechercheoder Summarizing-Systems.
Der ideale Anwendungskontext für die Funktionalität des hier vorgestellten Informationssystems
sind Dokumenten-Suchmaschinen, die dem Nutzer
die sofortige Weitersuche und -auswahl von Textpassagen innerhalb eines Dokuments ermöglichen.
Darüber hinaus bieten Webbrowser, PDF-Reader
und Textverarbeitungen ein entsprechendes Umfeld, in dem Nutzer häufig nach spezifischer Information in Texten suchen müssen. Die Optimierung
auf informative Textpassagen erspart dem Nutzer
im Idealfall die Rezeption des gesamten Dokuments, da er inkrementell die wichtigsten Passagen angeboten bekommt. Die gleiche Technologie erlaubt auch nach entsprechender Anpassung
11
http://www.copernic.com/en/products/summarizer,
http://summarizer.intellexer.com, http://www.kryltech.com/
summarizer.htm (jeweils 20.4.2010). Eine ganze Reihe
weiterer Summarizer wurde in Betracht gezogen, diese
konnten jedoch aus verschiedenen Gründen nicht eingesetzt
werden (z. B. verweigerten manche Systeme die Installation).
der Parametrisierung die Ausgabe inhaltlich repräsentativer oder indikativer (anstelle informativer) Textstellen, die charakteristisch für den Inhalt
des gesamten Textes sind.
83
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
A. Beispiel-Suche
Abbildung 1: Beispiel-Suchanfrage an den Text aus Anhang B und die durch das EXCERPT-System
ermittelte Ausgabe in Form einer gerankten Liste von Summarys
B. Beispiel-Extrakt
Das folgende Extrakt entstammt einem Text aus
dem Evaluationskorpus zur Informativität von
Texten (Reischer, 2010). In Klammern stehen
die Satzindexe derjenigen Sätze, die von den
Testpersonen als relevant und informativ bezüglich
der Suchbegriffe “mammoth” und “elephant”
ermittelt wurden (die überschrift ist Satz [0]). Die
genauen Anzahlen der Wertungen für alle Sätze
finden sich nachstehend.
[5] There are talks on how to modify the DNA in an
elephant’s egg so that after each round of changes it would
progressively resemble the DNA in a mammoth egg. [6] The
final-stage egg could then be brought to term in an elephant
mother, and mammoths might once again roam the Siberian
steppes. [9] Mammoths, ice-age relatives of the elephant, were
hunted by the modern humans who first learned to inhabit
Siberia some 22,000 years ago. [12] They have already been
able to calculate that the mammoth’s genes differ at some
400,000 sites on its genome from that of the African elephant.
[14] But Dr. Schuster said a shortcut would be to modify the
genome of an elephant’s cell at the 400,000 or more sites
necessary to make it resemble a mammoth’s genome.
Anzahl Wertungen durch die Testpersonen je
Satz:
[0]: 3, [1]: 6, [2]: 3, [3]: 0, [4]: 3, [5]: 13, [6]: 12,
[7]: 0, [8]: 3, [9]: 10, [10]: 3, [11]: 4, [12]: 10, [13]:
3, [14]: 9, [15]: 6, [16]: 1, [17]: 4, [18]: 2, [19]: 2,
[20]: 2, [21]: 1, [22]: 1, [23]: 1, [24]: 1, [25]: 0,
[26]: 1, [27]: 0, [28]: 0, [29]: 1.
Sätze, die von mehr als der Hälfte der Bewerter
selektiert wurden, sind unterstrichelt; Sätze, die
entsprechend von drei Vierteln ausgewählt wurden,
sind unterstrichen.
Der
Volltext
findet
sich
unter
www.nytimes.com/2008/11/20/science
/20mammoth.html
(19.11.2008).
Die
vollständige Satzzerlegung kann beim Autor
nachgefragt werden.
85
Using tf-idf-related Measures
for Determining the Anaphoricity of Noun Phrases
Julia Ritz
Collaborative Research Centre 632 “Information Structure”
Universität Potsdam
Potsdam, Germany
[email protected]
Abstract
The study presented here tests the suitability of
measures based on term frequency (tf) and inverse document frequency (idf) for distinguishing anaphoric (i.e. discourse-given) from nonanaphoric noun phrases in English newswire using
a classifier. Results show these features can make
a significant contribution without relying on external, language-specific resources like hand-crafted
rules or lexical semantic networks.
1
Motivation
Tf-idf (term frequency times inverse document
frequency) is a shallow semantic measure of the
information content of a linguistic entity (e.g. a
word). It is commonly used in information retrieval, document management, and text summarization (Salton and Buckley, 1988; Neto et al.,
2000). The goal of this study is to investigate its
usefulness in determining the anaphoricity of noun
phrases (NPs) in discourse. This is, to the best of
my knowledge, a new field of application.
By anaphoricity, I mean an NP’s property of being either anaphoric, i.e. referring to a real-world
entity mentioned previously (in the left context),
or else non-anaphoric (a more detailed definition
is given in Section 3.1). Anaphoricity classification can serve as a first step in anaphora resolution:
the ruling out of non-anaphoric NPs helps limiting the search space and can thus improve a system’s quality and performance (Harabagiu et al.,
2001; Ng and Cardie, 2002; Elsner and Charniak,
2007; Uryupina, 2009; Rahman and Ng, 2009; Ng,
2010; Poesio et al., 2004; Kabadjov, 2007, the
latter two refer to definite descriptions). One of
the main challenges identified in previous work on
anaphoricity classification and anaphora resolu-
tion is the inaccuracy of methods that try to match
potential anaphor-antecedent pairs. Various strategies have been proposed, including matching the
complete NP strings, their respective heads, their
first or last tokens, etc. (Bergler, 1997; Soon et al.,
2001; Uryupina, 2003; Uryupina, 2009; Nissim,
2006). Relying on token boundaries, these methods typically have difficulties with compounding (Miami-based in Example 1), derivation (e.g.
event anaphors like (2)), and variations of names
(see Example 3).1
(1) Four former Cordis Corp. officials were
acquitted of federal charges related to the
Miami-based company’s sale of pacemakers,
including conspiracy to hide pacemaker
defects. Jurors in U.S. District Court in
Miami cleared Harold Hershhenson.
(2) Weatherford International Inc. said it
canceled plans for a preferred-stock swap.
Weatherford said market conditions led to
the cancellation of the planned exchange.
(3) A Coors spokesman said the company
doesn’t believe the move will reduce the
influence of Jeffrey Coors1 , Peter Coors2 or
Joseph Coors Jr.3 , who run the company’s
three operating units. “Pete2 and Jeff1 and
Joe Jr.3 have taken over the reins and are
doing most of the work.”
In contrast to this, I employ a matching based
on term2 frequency weighted by inverse document frequency. This method captures similarity
1
All examples and their annotations taken from the
OntoNotes corpus (Hovy et al., 2006)), slightly shortened.
2
By term, I mean an ngram of characters. In my experiments, term length was set to 4 characters as suggested by,
e.g., Taboada et al. (2009).
86
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
between strings, taking less account of exact token boundaries as it matches terms, i.e. parts of
strings, rather than tokens. At the same time, it
considers the informational content (or specificity)
of a string in context to the effect that it typically
ranks a) the contribution of function words, affixes, etc. lower than that of content words, and
b) the contribution of highly specific terms (occurring in few documents) higher than that of common terms (occurring in a large portion of the documents).
This paper represents an evaluation of this strategy in comparison to other matching strategies.
It is structured as follows: In Section 2, I will
introduce the features used for anaphoricity classification. Section 3 reports on the classification
experiments and their results. The proposed methods will be discussed in Section 4, and conclusions
are drawn in Section 5.
2
Tf-idf adapted for anaphoricity
classification
For each NP to be classified with respect to
anaphoricity, I calculate a set of features based on
tf-idf. Commonly, tf-idf of a term t in a document
d is calculated as in (4), with D the document collection, Dt the set of documents containing t, and
tft,d the number of times t is contained in document d (normalized to the total number of terms in
d).
|D|
tf idft,d = tft,d ∗ log(
)
(4)
|Dt |
For the special purpose of anaphoricity classification, I partition the text right before the mention
of the NP currently under investigation: Let X be a
text (i.e. one document) consisting of the characters x1 , ..., xn , and NP be a (noun) phrase starting
at character position k + 1. I then define tft,dk as
the relative frequency of t in dk (i.e. document d
up to position k). Subsequently, the increase of tf
after k is calculated as follows:
tft,dk = tft,d − tft,dk
(5)
To adapt to NPs as units of interest, I calculate
the sum (as well as the means) of each measure
(tft,d , tft,dk , tft,dk , tfidft,d , tfidft,dk , tfidft,dk , and
idf) across the NP. Let NPse be an NP starting at
character position s and ending at character position e. Then, the sum across this NP is defined
as
stf idfNPse ,ds =
e−l+1
X
tf idfti ,di
(6)
i=s
with l the predefined term length (here set to 4).
The means is calculated analogously. Calculating
the means of tf-idf across a phrase (here: an NP) is
a common method to obtain sentence relevances in
text summarization, cf. Bieler and Dipper (2008).
It should be noted that features based on tft,d
also take into account the right context of an
anaphor candidate. The right context usually is
not considered in anaphora resolution and related
tasks; however, it has been found helpful in manual annotation experiments (Stührenberg et al.,
2007).
3
3.1
Classification Experiments
Corpus and Annotation Scheme
As a test corpus, I used the Wall Street Journal section of OntoNotes (Hovy et al., 2006; Weischedel
et al., 2007).
The OntoNotes task of coreference annotation
is to “connect[...] coreferring instances of specific referring expressions, meaning primarily NPs
that introduce or access a discourse entity” (Hovy
et al., 2006). The scheme distinguishes two relations: APPOS for the linking attributive/appositive
NPs, and IDENT for other coreference links. The
definition of coreference includes coreference between individual objects (see Examples 1 and 3
in Section 1), activities, situations, states, or sets
of any of these, as well as event anaphora (Example 2), without further distinguishing different
types of coreference. It excludes (i.e. leaves unannotated) generic, underspecified, and abstract NPs
(in particular, references to the same type or concept, see dashed underlined NPs in Example 7), as
well as bridging relations.
(7) Medical scientists are starting to uncover a
handful of genes which, if damaged, unleash
the chaotic growth of cells that characterizes
cancer. Scientists say the discovery of these
genes in recent months is painting a new and
startling picture of how cancer develops.
As to annotation quality, Hovy et al. (2006) report
“average agreement scores between each annotator and the adjudicated results [of] 91.8%”.
87
I employed the syntax annotation for extracting noun phrases, and the coreference annotation
(‘IDENT relation’) for inducing the class of an NP:
anaphoric (AN) if it has an antecedent (i.e. an expression to its left referring to the same ID), or
else non-anaphoric (NON). Any unannotated NP
is considered non-anaphoric here.
3.2
Preprocessing and Settings
The documents were randomly split into a training
and an evaluation set, controlled with respect to
the number of NPs contained in each document.
Table 1 shows the numbers of AN and NON NPs
in the two sets, including the same information on
a subset of the data consisting of only those NPs
containing proper names (NNPs), for the purpose
of a more specific evaluation.
Set
Train
NPs
103,245
Test
13,414
TrainNNP
18,324
TestNNP
2,332
AN
NON
13,699
89,546
(13.27%)
1,828
(13.63%)
4,873
(86.73%)
11,586
(86.37%)
13,451
(26.59%)
649
(27.83%)
(73.41%)
1,683
(72.17%)
Table 1: Overview of Anaphoricity Distribution in
Training and Test Set, respectively.
The features serving as a comparison to tf-idfbased features are (i) exact match (abbreviated
as ‘exact’), a numeric feature counting the number of times the current NP has been previously
mentioned in exactly the same way (string identity), and (ii) matching head (abbreviated ‘head’),
another numeric feature counting the number of
times the lemma of the current NP’s head occurs
in the lemmatized context (disregarding their parts
of speech). The lemmatization was performed using TreeTagger (Schmid, 1994); here, the head is
the rightmost token directly dominated by the NP
node. Features describing the linguistic form (abbreviated ‘ling. form’) are all nominal features extracted from the parts of speech and syntactic annotation (or, in the case of pronoun and determiner
form, the actual surface form): these features include (i) the NP’s grammatical function (subject,
adverbial NP, etc.), (ii) its surface form (pronoun,
definite determiner, indefinite determiner, etc.),
(iii) whether it contains a name (NNP), and (iv)
–in the case of pronouns– morphological features
(person, number, gender, reflexivity).
3.3
Classification Experiments and Results
For training different classifiers and evaluating the
results, I used the data mining software WEKA
(Witten and Frank, 2005). C4.5 decision trees
were trained on the training set and the resulting
models were applied to the test set. The baseline was obtained by always assigning the majority class (NON), which results in an accuracy of
86.37%.
Classification results are shown in Tables 2 and
33 , showing the features’ performance in combination as well as in contrast to others. Table 2
documents an additive evaluation. Results in this
table show a significant improvement in accuracy
with the addition of each feature. Tf-idf-related
features especially improve the recall of finding
anaphoric NPs (more than twice as compared to
feature sets (1) and (2), and nearly twice the F
measure). Table 3 contains the results of a contrastive study of different features. The left part
of the table contains results based on all NPs; the
right part contains results based on a specific subgroup of NPs from the training and test set, respectively, namely those containing names (NNPs).
Results show that generally (left part of table), tfidf-related features alone do not perform any different from the baseline. On the NNP subset (right
part of table), however, they perform substantially
better than the baseline. From the leave-one-out
experiments, we see that in general, the exclusion
of any of the features has a similar effect (differences between these classifiers are not significant).
On the NNP subset, the exclusion of the feature
‘head’ seems to have the greatest impact (mirroring the common strategy of referring to a mentioned person using their last name).
In conclusion, all features presented have a certain overlap, but nevertheless perform best when
combined.
4
Discussion
4.1
Related Work
The task of anaphoricity prediction has been approached in previous studies: Uryupina (2003)
classifies noun phrases as ±discourse new at an
3
Abbreviations: Acc(uracy), P(recision), R(ecall), F
(measure), AN(aphoric), NON(anaphoric).
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
88
set
(0)
feature(s) used
majority class
acc
86.37%
(1)
exact
87.38%0
(2)
(1) + head
88.65%0,1
(3)
(2) + tf-idf feats
90.44%0,1,2
(4)
(3) + ling. form
93.20%0,1,2,3
P
0.00%
R
F
0.00%
value
0.00%
86.40%
59.40%
89.00%
82.10%
88.90%
69.70%
92.80%
78.20%
95.30%
100.00%
23.40%
97.50%
21.40%
99.30%
52.80%
96.40%
69.40%
97.00%
92.70%
33.60%
93.00%
33.90%
93.80%
60.10%
94.60%
73.60%
96.10%
NON
AN
AN
NON
AN
NON
AN
NON
AN
NON
Table 2: Classification results (additive evaluation).3
0
number n in superscript: significant improvement in accuracy compared to
feature set number n (McNemar test, level of significance: p<.05)
feats
exact
head
tf-idf
(0)
(3)
acc (all NPs)
single
leave-out
87.38%+,− 88.88%+,−
87.92%+,− 88.52%+,−
86.22%−
88.65%+,−
86.37%
90.44%
acc (NNPs only)
single
leave-out
83.45%+,− 83.36%+,−
84.43%+,− 82.85%+,−
77.06%+,− 84.73%+,−
72.17%
86.11%
Table 3: Classification results (contrastive evaluation).3
Comparison to baseline and feature set (3) in superscript.
+
-
significant improvement over baseline (0)
significant decline compared to (3)
(McNemar test, level of significance: p<.05)
accuracy of 81.12% on 3,710 NPs from the MUC7 corpus (5-fold cross-validation). Nissim (2006)
reports an accuracy of 93.1% (distinguishing old
vs. mediated/new NPs) on an evaluation set of
12,624 NPs from the Switchboard corpus, a corpus
of transcribed dialogues (the training set consisting of 40,865 NPs). Elsner and Charniak (2007)
present a discourse-new classifier with 82.63% accuracy on a test set of 2,505 NPs from the MUC-7
data. Kabadjov (2007) reports on discourse-new
classifiers for definite descriptions based on 1,848
NPs from the GNOME corpus (museum and pharmaceutical domain) and 4,842 NPs from the VPC
corpus (Wall Street Journal). He experiments with
different classification algorithms; the best results
are 86.9% accuracy (10-fold cross-validation).
Yet, it should be noted that none of the results
are directly comparable due to differences in the
data as well as the annotation schemes.
Finally, as to the related field of coreference resolution, Yang et al. (2004) have used tf-idf (with a
term being a token) as a factor for weighting tokens in the comparison of mention-pairs (i.e. an
anaphor and its potential antecedent). Experimental results with different string distance metrics,
however, do not indicate an improvement of overall performance in the F-measure when using tf-idf
as a weighting factor in these metrics as compared
to when using a binary weighting.
4.2
Complexity
An algorithm for calculating the measures presented in Section 2 is given in Figure 1.4 It performs in linear time (O(n) with n the number of
characters in the corpus) given that hashes have
4
Hashes are denoted by a capital letter followed by the
key(s) in brackets, e.g. X(k1 , k2 ).
89
linear access time.5 The number of different terms
is l|Σ| (with term length l, and alphabet Σ), and can
be significantly limited by converting characters
to lowercase and mapping special characters to a
specific character, e.g. underscore (‘ ’). The corresponding code could be inserted after the lines
indicated by ‘*’ in Fig. 1.
#1st pass
l:=4; #initialize term length l
D:=0; #initialize file counter D
for each Document di in the corpus
#count document
D++;
p:=1; #initialize character position p
while p + l in di
#sequentially cut into terms t of length l
t:=substring(di , p, l);
#*insert string normalization (optional)*
#initialize count array where necessary
C(t, di ):=0 unless defined;
#save number of previous mentions
#(i.e. annotate t with C(t, di ))
A(t, di , p):=C(t, di );
#count current mention
C(t, di )++;
#count documents containing t
#(only on first mention of t)
E(t)++ if (C(t, di ) =1);
p++;
end; #end while
end; #end for each;
#2nd pass
for each Document di in the corpus
for each noun phrase NPse in di
sum:=0; #initialize sum
#from NP’s starting position. . .
p:=s;
#. . . to start of last term
while p <= e − l + 1
t:=substring(di , p, l);
#*insert string normalization (optional)*
#get annotation of t at p,
#calculate tf-idf from it
#and add it to the current sum
sum+=(get(t, di , p)/p)*log(D/E(t));
#calculate sum of other measures
...
end; #end while
#average by the number of terms in NPse
a:=sum/(e − s − l + 2);
#annotate sum and means to NPse
S(di , s, e):=sum;
M (di , s, e):=a;
end; #end for each
end; #end for each
Figure 1: Algorithm for calculating tf-idf-based
measures4
4.3
Error Analysis
The results from a classification using all features
were re-annotated to the corpus and imported into
the corpus interface ANNIS (Chiarcos et al., 2009;
Zeldes et al., 2009), where they can be queried and
viewed in context, including links to antecedents
(where antecedents exist). The total number of
classification errors is 912 (corresponding to an error rate of 6.80%). 559 (4.17% of all NPs) were
misclassified as NON and 353 NPs (2.63% of all
NPs) as AN. An error analysis of a 10% sample
is presented in Table 46 . The first column contains the absolute number of errors in the sample,
the second contains a confidence interval estimating the minimal and maximal benefit that a solution for this error class would achieve: E.g. there
are 16 anaphors in the ‘NON’ sample that have a
semantic relation to the context, amounting to an
estimated maximum of 40.41% in the whole test
set. In the best-case scenario (with a perfectlyperforming semantic component at hand), the error rate among NON NPs (4.17%) could be reduced by 40.41% to 2.48%. All other parameters unchanged, the overall error rate would be
5.11% (2.48% in the category NON + 2.63% in
AN ). This means, theoretically, the classifier’s accuracy could be improved to 94.89%.7 Among the
first error group, NPs misclassified as NON, the
largest subgroup is one where at least one of the
tokens of anaphora and antecedent are identical.
The classifier typically failed because these tokens
a) make up a rather small proportion of the NP (see
second Example ‘sites’ in first group (named ‘similarity’), Table 4), or b) are hardly specific (e.g.
the heads in the market, this year). This subgroup
also contains many deictic references, i.e. references to temporal, spacial or personal aspects of
the utterance situation, which can be resolved independently from the previous text.
Among the second group of errors, NPs misclassified as AN, there is a considerable proportion of entities that are – if not anaphoric – at
least related to the context (via bridging or a more
vague reference to the situation described in the
context). A second subgroup is deictic reference
again, which is resolvable via the situational context of the utterance. These two subgroups to-
5
The complexity of the second pass also depends on the
maximal depth c of NP embedding in the corpus (O(c ∗ n)).
In practice, however, c will be of little consequence, as we
ignore material outside NPs in this pass.
6
Abbreviations: abs - absolute number, ci - confidence
interval (α < 0.05).
7
This estimation disregards the fact that semantic similarity may well hold between non-coreferent entities.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
90
misclassified as non
abs ci
20 [23.16%;48.24%]
7
[3.84%;21.16%]
6
[2.61%;18.79%]
6
[2.61%;18.79%]
6
[2.61%;18.79%]
4
2
2
2
1
[0.38%;13.82%]
[0%;8.88%]
[0%;8.88%]
[0%;8.88%]
[0%;5.26%]
56
(16
[16.73%;40.41%]
misclassified as an
abs ci
7
[6.75%;33.25%]
6
4
[5.30%;28.98%]
[3.10%;19.76%]
4
[3.10%;19.76%]
4
3
1
6
[3.10%;19.76%]
[1.24%;15.90%]
[0%;7.23%]
[5.30%;28.98%]
35
(10
(8
[13.60%; 43.54%]
[8.94%; 36.77%]
relation anaphora - antecedent (examples in brackets)
similarity (though marginal or unspecific to the respective text), e.g. identical
heads (the coast - the eastern coast of Texas; four potential sites for its operations - sites in Austin, Texas; Colorado Springs, Colo.; Middletown, N.Y.; and
Phoenix, Ariz), 9 of these [6.45%;25.69%] are deictic references (references
to location, time, or interlocutors of the respective utterance situations, like the
coming year - next year; the country - this country)
variations of proper names (Frank W. Terrizzi - Mr. Terrizzi; U.S. Memories
Inc. - U.S. Memories)
annotation errors, 5 [1.43%;16.37%] of them possessive relations
(Times magazinei - the magazinei(correct) ’s executive editori(incorrect) )
head noun more specific than antecedent (Friday’s action - Friday’s big drop;
My language - my English)
head noun more general (black skimmers - the shimmering fish, knocking share
prices down - the action)
synonymous anaphor (U.K. trade figures - The trade and CBI reports)
abbreviation (the recently formed Resolution Trust Corp. - the RTC)
antecedent is cataphoric (it)
variations of dates (Oct. 19, 1987, - October ’87)
switch to or from direct speech (”My language ...” - the [...] guide)
(first 10% of 559)
of these are semantically related: synonyms, hypernyms, hyponyms)
NPs mistaken for anaphors
annotation errors (non-maximal projections, including 3 embedded genitive
anaphors (Fridayi - Fridayi(missing) ’s fall) and 2 NPs where the antecedent
was mentioned in an apposition)
generic (the dollar has been strong)
bridging relation to referent(s) in the context (member of the same
set/aggregation), e.g. an $89.6 million Navy contract - a $75.5 million Navy
contract
vaguely anaphoric to the general situation described in the context
(If the dollar stays weak, [...] that will add ...; the economy’s slower growth
this year [...] So it’s a very mixed bag.; ... )
deictic (‘we’ in direct speech, ‘earlier this year’)
expletive (‘it seems to me’ etc.)
cataphoric (As she calculates it, the average stock...)
other similarities (such sentiment - The market sentiment, Black Monday Monday)
(first 10% of 353)
of 35 are pronouns)
of 35 occur in direct speech)
Table 4: Error analysis of a sample of the classification errors.7
91
gether have been categorized in the literature as
discourse-new hearer-old (Prince, 1981; Prince,
1992), mediated (Nissim et al., 2004) or accessible (Dipper et al., 2007; Riester et al., 2010). Publicly available resources taking this category into
account remain a desideratum.
In either group, there is a small proportion of
annotation errors (presumably an embedding issue
of the XML linearization of the original annotations).
5
Conclusion and Outlook
Anaphoricity classification significantly profits
from tf-idf-related features.
In contrast to other features (head match, etc.),
they can be obtained without preprocessing the
data (lemmatising, head identification). Results
on name anaphors suggest that a classification is
feasible even in the absence of the other features.
This makes tf-idf-related features promising for
scarcely-resourced languages;
a cross-linguistic evaluation remains to be done.
Regarding further improvements to the measures, also calculating the maximum of tf-idf
across an NP might be helpful.
Finally, a finer-grained annotation to train on,
with one or more categories in between anaphoric
and non-anaphoric (e.g. the category accessible,
see previous section for references), could lead
to a theoretically better-motivated classification
model of anaphoricity.
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I would like to thank everyone who helped write
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93
Natural Language Processing
for the Swiss German dialect area
Yves Scherrer
LATL
Université de Genève
Genève, Switzerland
[email protected]
Abstract
This paper discusses work on data collection for
Swiss German dialects taking into account the continuous nature of the dialect landscape, and proposes to integrate these data into natural language
processing models. We present knowledge-based
models for machine translation into any Swiss German dialect, for dialect identification, and for multidialectal parsing. In a dialect continuum, rules
cannot be applied uniformly, but have restricted validity in well-defined geographic areas. Therefore,
the rules are parametrized with probability maps
extracted from dialectological atlases.
1
Introduction
Most work in natural language processing is
geared towards written, standardized language varieties. This focus is generally justified on practical
grounds of data availability and socio-economical
relevance, but does not always reflect the linguistic
reality. In this paper, we propose to include continuous linguistic variation in existing natural language
processing (NLP) models, as it is encountered in
various dialect landscapes.
Besides continuous variation on the geographical
axis, dialects represent some interesting challenges
for NLP. As mostly spoken language varieties, few
data are available in written form, and those which
exist do not follow binding spelling rules. Moreover, dialect use is often restricted to certain social
contexts or modalities (diglossia), reducing further
the availability of resources.
In contrast, two facts facilitate the development
of NLP models for dialects. First, dialects are generally in a historic and etymological relationship
with a standardized language variety for which linguistic resources are more readily accessible. Sec-
Owen Rambow
CCLS
Columbia University
New York, USA
[email protected]
ond, many dialects have been studied systematically by dialectologists, and these results can be
exploited in a computational setting. The work presented here is applied to Swiss German dialects;
this dialect area is well documented by dialectological research and is among the most vital ones
in Europe in terms of social acceptance and media
exposure.
This paper introduces ongoing work on a rulebased system that accounts for the differences between Standard German and the Swiss German
dialects, using rules that are aware of their geographical application area. The system proposed
here transforms morphologically annotated Standard German words into Swiss German words depending on the dialect area. The obvious use case
for these components is (word-by-word) machine
translation, which will be described in section 5.1.
We also present two other applications that indirectly rely on these components, dialect identification (Section 5.2) and dialect parsing (Section
5.3).
We will start by presenting some related work
(Section 2) and by giving an overview of the particularities of Swiss German dialects (Section 3).
In Section 4, we present original work on data collection and show how probabilistic maps can be
extracted from existing dialectological research and
incorporated in the rule base. Then, the applications introduced above will be presented, and the
paper will conclude with the discussion of some
preliminary results.
2
Related work
Several research projects have dealt with dialect
machine translation. The most similar work is the
thesis by Forst (2002) on machine translation from
Standard German to the Zurich Swiss German di-
94
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
alect within the LFG framework. Delmonte et al.
(2009) adapt recent statistical machine translation
tools to translate between English and the Italian
Veneto dialect, using Standard Italian as a pivot
language. In contrast, we are interested in handling
a continuum of dialects.
Translation between dialectal variants can be
viewed as a case of translation between closely
related languages. In this domain, one may cite
works on different Slavic languages (Hajic et al.,
2003) and on the Romance languages of Spain
(Corbí-Bellot et al., 2005).
Dialect parsing models have also been developed
in the last years. Chiang et al. (2006) build a synchronous grammar for Modern Standard Arabic
and the Levantine Arabic dialect. Their approach
is essentially corpus-driven on the Standard Arabic side, but includes manual adaptations on the
dialect side. Vaillant (2008) presents a factorized
model that covers a group of French-based Creole
languages of the West-Atlantic area. His model
relies on hand-crafted rules within the TAG framework and uses a numeric parameter to specify a
particular dialect.
With the exception of Vaillant (2008), the cited
papers only deal with one aspect of dialect NLP,
namely the fact that dialects are similar to a related
standardized language. They do not address the
issue of interdialectal variation. Vaillant’s factorized model does deal with several related dialects,
but conceives the different dialects as discrete entities which can be clearly distinguished. While
this view is probably justified for Caribbean creoles spoken on different islands, we argue that it
cannot be maintained for dialect areas lacking major topographical and political borders, such as
German-speaking Switzerland.
One important part of our work deals with bilingual lexicon induction. For closely related languages or dialects, cognate words with high phonetic (or graphemic) similarity play a crucial role.
Such methods have been presented in various contexts, e.g. by Mann and Yarowsky (2001), Koehn
and Knight (2002), or Kondrak and Sherif (2006).
Scherrer (2007) uses similarity models based on
learned and hand-crafted rules to induce Standard
German – Bern Swiss German word pairs.
Dialect identification has usually been studied
from a speech processing point of view. Biadsy et
al. (2009) classify speech material from four Arabic
dialects plus Modern Standard Arabic. They first
run a phone recognizer on the speech input and
use the resulting transcription to build a trigram
language model. As we are dealing with written
dialect data, only the second step is relevant to
our work. Classification is done by minimizing
the perplexity of the trigram models on the test
segment.
An original approach to the identification of
Swiss German dialects has been taken by the
Chochichästli-Orakel.1 By specifying the pronunciation of ten predefined phonetic and lexical cues,
this web site creates a probability map that shows
the likelihood of these pronunciations in the Swiss
German dialect area. Our model is heavily inspired
by this work, but extends the set of cues to the
entire lexicon.
Computational methods are also used in dialectometry to assess differences between dialects with
objective numerical measures. The most practical
approach is to compare words of different dialects
with edit distance metrics (Nerbonne and Heeringa,
2001). On the basis of these distance data, dialects
can be classified with clustering methods. While
the Swiss German data described here provide a
valid base for dialect classification, this task is not
the object of this paper.
3
Swiss German dialects
The German-speaking area of Switzerland encompasses the Northeastern two thirds of the Swiss
territory. Likewise, about two thirds of the Swiss
population define (any variety of) German as their
first language.
It is usually admitted that the sociolinguistic configuration of German-speaking Switzerland is a
model case of diglossia, i.e. an environment in
which two linguistic varieties are used complementarily in functionally different contexts. In Germanspeaking Switzerland, dialects are used in speech,
while Standard German is used nearly exclusively
in written contexts.
Despite the preference for spoken dialect use,
written dialect use has become popular in electronic
media like blogs, SMS, e-mail and chatrooms. The
Alemannic Wikipedia2 contains about 6000 articles, among which many are written in a Swiss
German dialect. However, all this data is very het1 http://dialects.from.ch
2 http://als.wikipedia.org; besides Swiss German, the Alemannic dialect group encompasses Alsatian,
South-West German Alemannic and Vorarlberg dialects of
Austria.
95
Standard German
u
au
u
ü
k (word-initial)
l
nd (word-final)
Swiss German
ue
uu [u:]
ü
i
ch [x]
u
ng [N]
Validity Region
all
except Unterwalden
South (Alpine)
South (Alpine), Basel
except Basel, Graubünden
Bern
Bern
Example
gut → guet
Haus → Huus
(Haus →) Huus → Hüüs
müssen → miesse
Kind → Chind
alt → aut
Hund → Hung
‘good’
‘house’
‘must’
‘child’
‘old’
‘dog’
Table 1: Phonetic transformations occurring in Swiss German dialects. The first column specifies the
Standard German graphemes. The second column presents one possible outcome in Swiss German; the
area of validity of that outcome is specified in the third column. An example is given in the fourth column.
erogeneous in terms of the dialects used, spelling
conventions and genres. Moreover, parallel corpora are virtually non-existent because need for
translation is weak in a diglossic society.
The classification of Swiss German dialects is
commonly based on administrative and topographical criteria. Although these non-linguistic borders
have influenced dialects to various degrees, the resulting classification does not always match the
linguistic reality. Our model does not presuppose
any dialect classification. We conceive of the Swiss
German dialect area as a continuum in which certain phenomena show more clear-cut borders than
others. The nature of dialect borders is to be inferred from the data.3
Swiss German has been subject to dialectological research since the beginning of the 20th century.
One of the major contributions is the Sprachatlas
der deutschen Schweiz (SDS), a linguistic atlas that
covers phonetic, morphological and lexical differences. Data collection and publication were carried
out between 1939 and 1997 (Hotzenköcherle et al.,
1962 1997). The lack of syntactic data in the SDS
has led to a follow-up project called Syntaktischer
Atlas der deutschen Schweiz (SADS), whose results are soon to be published (Bucheli and Glaser,
2002). Besides these large-scale projects, there also
exist grammars and lexicons for specific dialects,
as well as general presentations of Swiss German.
Swiss German dialects differ in many ways from
Standard German. In the following sections, some
of the differences in phonetics, lexicon, morphology and syntax are presented.
3 Nonetheless,
we will refer to political entities for convenience when describing interdialectal differences in the following sections of this paper.
3.1
Phonetic dialect differences
Table 1 shows some of the most frequent phonetic transformations occurring in Swiss German
dialects. Note that our system applies to written
representations of dialect according to the Dieth
spelling conventions (Dieth, 1986). As a consequence, the examples are based on written dialect
representations, with IPA symbols added for convenience in ambiguous cases. The Dieth rules are
characterized by a transparent grapheme-phone correspondence and are generally quite well respected
– implicitly or explicitly – by dialect writers.
The SDS contains two volumes of phonetic data,
amounting to about 400 maps.
3.2
Lexical dialect differences
Some differences at the word level cannot be accounted for by pure phonetic alternations. One
reason are idiosyncrasies in the phonetic evolution
of high frequency words (e.g. und ‘and’ is reduced
to u in Bern dialect, where the phonetic rules would
rather suggest *ung). Another reason is the use of
different lexemes altogether (e.g. immer ‘always’
corresponds to geng, immer, or all, depending on
the dialect).
The SDS contains five volumes of lexical data,
although large parts of it concern aspects of rural
life of the 1940s-1950s and are thus becoming obsolete. The Wörterbuch der schweizerdeutschen
Sprache4 contains a much broader spectrum of lexical data, but its contents are difficult to access.
Word lists published on the internet by dialect en4 The
Wörterbuch der schweizerdeutschen Sprache is a
major lexicographic research project (Staub et al., 1881 ).
Work started in 1881 and is scheduled to be fully achieved
by 2020. Unfortunately, most of this work is not available
in digital format, nor with precise geographical references.
These issues are currently being addressed for the Austrian
dialect lexicon in the project [email protected] (Wandl-Vogt, 2008).
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
96
Standard
West
Wallis
East
Central
Graubünden
1st Pl.
-en
-e
-e
-ed
-id
-end
2nd Pl.
-t
-et
-et
-ed
-id
-end
3rd Pl.
-en
-e
-end, -und
-ed
-id
-end
Table 2: Indicative plural suffixes of regular verbs
in different Swiss German dialects. The first row
shows the Standard German endings for comparison.
thusiasts certainly offer smaller coverage and lower
quality, but can present an interesting alternative to
extend lexical coverage.
3.3
Morphological and morphosyntactic
dialect differences
Swiss German inflectional paradigms are generally
reduced with respect to Standard German. Translation into Swiss German requires thus a set of
morphosyntactic rules that insert, remove or reorder words in a sentence. For example, the lack
of preterite tense in Swiss German requires all
preterite sentences to be restructured as present
perfect sentences. Similarly, the lack of genitive
case gives rise to different syntactic structures to
express possession. In contrast, Swiss German has
clitic and non-clitic pronouns, a distinction that is
not made in written Standard German.
On a purely morphological level, one can mention the verb plural suffixes, which offer surprisingly rich (and diachronically stable) interdialectal
variation, as illustrated in Table 2. Minor interdialectal differences also exist in noun and adjective inflection.
In derivational morphology, the most salient
dialect difference concerns diminutive suffixes:
Swiss German has -li (or -ji / -i in Wallis dialect)
instead of Standard German -chen and -lein.
Volume 3 of the SDS deals with morphology in
the form of about 250 maps. Many morphosyntactic features of Swiss German are also investigated
in the SADS survey.
4
Georeferenced transfer rules
The system proposed here contains sets of phonetic, lexical, morphological rules as illustrated in
the examples above. Some of these rules apply
uniformly to all Swiss German dialects, but most
of them yield different outcomes (variants) in different dialect regions. For example, the phonetic
rule governing the transformation of word-final nd will have four distinct variants -nd, -ng, -n, -nt
(the -nd variant has been mentioned in Table 1).
Each variant is linked to a probability map that
specifies the areas of its validity. We refer to a rule,
its associated variants and probability maps as a
georeferenced transfer rule.
The maps for the georeferenced rules are extracted from the SDS. Currently, the system contains about 100 phonetic rules based on about 50
SDS maps. This corresponds to a fairly complete
coverage. Lexical rules are currently limited to
some high-frequency function words that are referenced in the SDS (about 100 rules). Morphological coverage is complete for regular inflection
patterns and corresponds to about 60 rules. Some
morphosyntactic and syntactic rules using unpublished SADS material have been added for testing
purposes, but coverage is so far very limited.
4.1
Map generation
The SDS consists of hand-drawn maps on which
different symbols represent different dialectal variants. Figure 1 shows an example of an original
SDS map.
In a first preprocessing step, the hand-drawn map
is digitized manually with the help of a geographical information system. The result is shown in
Figure 2. To speed up this process, variants that
are used in less than ten inquiry points are omitted.
This can be justified by the observation by Christen
(1998) that many small-scale variants in verbal morphology have disappeared since the data collection
of the SDS in the 1940s and 1950s, while largescale variants have not. We also collapse minor
phonetic variants which cannot be distinguished in
the Dieth spelling system.
The SDS maps, hand-drawn or digitized, are
point maps. They only cover the inquiry points
(about 600 in the case of the SDS), but do not provide information about the variants used in other
locations. Therefore, a further preprocessing step
interpolates the digitized point maps to obtain surface maps. We follow Rumpf et al. (2009) to create
kernel density estimators for each variant. This
method is less sensible to outliers than simpler linear interpolation methods. The resulting surface
maps are then normalized such that at each point
of the surface, the weights of all variants sum up to
97
1. These normalized weights can be interpreted as
conditional probabilities p(v | t), where v is a variant and t is the geographic location (represented as
a pair of longitude and latitude coordinates). Figure
3 shows the resulting surface maps for each variant.
Surface maps are generated with a resolution of
one point per square kilometer.
Formally, the application of a rule is represented
as follows:
Ri j (wk ) = wk+1
Figure 1: Original SDS map for the transformation
of word-final -nd. The map contains four major
linguistic variants, symbolized by horizontal lines
(-nd ), vertical lines (-nt), circles (-ng), and triangles (-n) respectively. Minor linguistic variants
are symbolized by different types of circles and
triangles.
where Ri represents the rule which addresses the ith
phenomenon, and Ri j represents the jth variant of
rule Ri . The result of applying Ri j to the word form
wk is wk+1 . The maps define probability distributions over rule variants at each geographic point t
situated in German-speaking Switzerland (we call
this set of points GSS), such that at any given point
t ∈ GSS, the probabilities of all variants sum up to
1:
∀i ∀ ∑ p(Ri j | t) = 1
t∈GSS
5
j
Three applications
The phonetic, lexical and morphological rules presented above allow to transform Standard German
words into words of a specific Swiss German dialect. This rule base can be utilized in several NLP
applications. The following sections will discuss
the three tasks machine translation, dialect identification and dialect parsing.
5.1
Figure 2: Digitized version of the map in Figure 1.
Machine translation
Machine translation of a Standard German sentence
begins with a syntactic and morphological analysis. Every word of the sentence is lemmatized (including compound word splitting), part-of-speech
tagged and annotated with morphological features.
The goal of this preprocessing is to take advantage
of existing Standard German analysis tools to reduce ambiguity and to resolve some specific issues
of German grammar like noun composition.5
Then, each annotated word is translated. Starting
with the base form of the Standard German word,
lexical rules are used to build a new Swiss German
base form. If no lexical rule applies, the phonetic
rules are used instead.
5 For
Figure 3: Interpolated surface maps for each variant
of the map in Figure 2. Black areas represent a
probability of 1, white areas a probability of 0.
the time being, we perform this analysis simply by
looking up word forms in a Standard German lexicon extracted
from the Tiger treebank. Work is underway to merge the
output of parsers like BitPar (Schmid, 2004) or Fips (Wehrli,
2007), part-of-speech taggers like TnT (Brants, 2000), and
morphological analyzers like Morphisto (Zielinski and Simon,
2008) in order to provide accurate and complete annotation.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
98
For example, the Standard German word nichts
‘nothing’ triggers a lexical rule; one variant of this
rule, valid in the Northeast, yields the form nünt.
In contrast, no lexical rule applies to the Standard
German word suchen-VVFIN-3.Pl.Pres.Ind ‘they
search’, which therefore triggers the following phonetic rules in Graubünden dialect:
– u → u (not ü )
– u → ue
– e → a (in diphthong)
and results in the stem suach-.
The georeferenced morphological rules represent a morphological generator for Swiss German:
given a Swiss German base form and a set of morphological features, it creates an inflected dialectal form. In the above example, the Graubünden
dialect suffix -end is attached, resulting in the inflected form suachend.
This approach of analyzing and recreating word
forms may sound overly complicated, but allows generalization to (the morphological part of)
morpho-syntactic restructuring like the transformation of preterite tense verbs into past participles.
Similarly, it is easy to account for the fact that
more Swiss German nouns build their plural with
an umlaut than in Standard German.
The target dialect is fixed by the user by selecting
the coordinates of a point t situated in Germanspeaking Switzerland.6 As illustrated above, the
rules are applied sequentially, such that a Standard
German word w0 yields an intermediate form w1
after the first transformation, and the final Swiss
German form wn after n transformations.
The probability resulting from the application of
one rule variant Ri j transforming string wk to wk+1
is read off the associated variant map at that point
t:
Note however that in transition zones, several
variants of the same rule may apply. All rule applications are thus potentially ambiguous and lead to
multiple derivations.7 Among multiple derivations,
we choose the one that maximizes the probability.
The translation model presented here does not
account for morphosyntactic adaptations and word
reordering. While this word-by-word approach
is sufficient in many cases, there are some important (morpho-)syntactic differences between
Standard German and Swiss German (see section
3.3). Therefore, additional syntactic rules will provide context-dependent morphological and phonetic adaptations as well as word reordering in
future versions of our system.
5.2
Dialect identification
Dialect identification or, more generally, language
identification is commonly based on distributions
of letters or letter n-grams. While these approaches
have worked very well for many languages, they
may be unable to distinguish related dialects with
very similar phoneme and grapheme inventories.
Moreover, they require training corpora for all dialects, which may not be available.
As an alternative, we propose to identify entire
words in a text and find out in which regions these
particular forms occur. This approach is similar
to the Chochichästli-Orakel, but instead of using a
small predefined set of cues, we consider as cues all
dialect words that can be generated from Standard
German words with the help of the transfer rules
presented above. To do this, we first generate a list
of Swiss German word forms, and then match the
words occurring in the test segment with this list.
We obtained a list of lemmatized and morphologically annotated Standard German words by extracting all leaf nodes of the Tiger Treebank (Brants
p(wk → wk+1 | t) = p(Ri j | t) s.t. wk+1 = Ri j (wk )
et al., 2002). Word forms that appeared only once
in the corpus were eliminated. These Standard GerA derivation from w0 to wn , using n transfer
man words were then translated with our system. In
rules, yields the following probability:
contrast to the machine translation task, the target
n−1
∗
dialect was not specified. All potentially occurring
p(w0 → wn | t) = ∏ p(wk → wk+1 | t)
dialect forms were generated and stored together
k=0
with their validity maps.
The number n of rules in a derivation is not known
For example, the suchen example yielded one
in advance and depends on the structure of the
single form suachend when restricted to a point
word.
in the Graubünden dialect area (for the translation
6 Points
are specified in the Swiss Coordinate System, either numerically or through a web interface based on Google
Maps. The nichts example above assumed a point in the
Northeast, while the suchen example assumed a point in the
Southeast (Graubünden).
7 We did not encounter cases where multiple derivations
lead from the same Standard German word to the same Swiss
German word. In that case, we would have to sum the probabilities of the different derivations.
99
task), but 27 forms when the target dialect was not
specified (for the dialect identification task).
At test time, the test segment is tokenized, and
each word of the segment is looked up in the Swiss
German lexicon. (If the lookup fails, the word is
skipped.) We then produce a probability map of
each Swiss German word wn by pointwise multiplication of all variant maps that contributed to
generating it from Standard German word w0 , in
the same way as in the machine translation task
illustrated above.
Note that a dialect form can be the result of
more than one derivation. For example, the three
∗
derivations sind-VAFIN → si (valid only in West∗
ern dialects), sein-PPOSAT → si (in Western and
∗
Central dialects), and sie-PPER → si (in the majority of Swiss German dialects) lead to the same
dialectal form si. In these cases, we take the pointwise maximum probability of all derivations D(w)
that lead to a Swiss German word form w:
∀
t∈GSS
p(w | t) = max p(d | t)
d∈D(w)
Once we have obtained a map for each word of
the segment, we merge them according to the following formula: The probability map of a segment
s corresponds to the pointwise average of the probabilities of the words w contained in the sequence:
p(s | t) =
∑w∈s p(w | t)
|s|
This is thus essentially a bag-of-words approach
to dialect identification that does not include any
notion of syntax.
5.3
Dialect parsing
A multidialectal parser can be defined in the following way: a source text, not annotated with its
dialect, is to be analyzed syntactically. The goal
is to jointly optimize the quality of the syntactic
analysis and the dialect region the text comes from.
The exact implementation of dialect parsing is
an object of future research. However, some key
elements of this approach can already be specified.
Constituent parsers commonly consist of a grammar and of a lexicon. In a multidialectal parsing
setting, the grammar rules as well as the lexicon
entries have to be linked to probability maps that
specify their area of validity. The lexicon built for
the dialect identification task can be reused for parsing without further modifications. For the grammar
however, more work is needed. A Swiss German
Paragraphs (Wikipedia)
Sentences (Wikipedia)
Sentences (Non-Wiki.)
Word-based
52.2%
31.3%
41.4%
Trigram
86.7%
67.8%
44.4%
Table 3: F-measure values averaged over all six
dialects.
grammar can be built by extracting a Standard German grammar from a treebank and manually modifying it to match the syntactic particularities of
Swiss German (Chiang et al., 2006). In this process, the syntactic machine translation rules may
serve as a guideline.
Instead of directly annotating each syntactic rule
with a dialect parameter (Vaillant, 2008), we indirectly annotate it with a map containing its probability distribution over the dialect area.
6
Evaluation
6.1
Dialect identification
In terms of annotated resources for evaluation, dialect identification is the least demanding task: it
requires texts that are annotated with their respective dialect. Such data can be extracted from the
Alemannic Wikipedia, where many Swiss German
articles are annotated with their author’s dialect.
We extracted about ten paragraphs of text for
six dialect regions: Basel, Bern, Eastern Switzerland, Fribourg, Wallis and Zurich. The paragraphs
amount to a total of 100 sentences per region.8 The
surfaces of these six regions were defined using political (canton) boundaries and the German-French
language border.
The dialect identification system scored each
paragraph s with a probability map. We calculated
the average probability value for each of the six
regions and annotated the paragraph with the region
obtaining the highest value:
∑t∈Region p(s | t)
Region(s) = arg max
Region
|Region|
We tested entire paragraphs and single sentences,
and repeated both experiments with a simple trigram model trained on Wikipedia data of similar
size. The results of these tests are summarized in
Table 3 (first two rows).
8 The
choice of the dialects and the size of the corpus was
largely determined by the data available. The average sentence
length was 17.8 words per sentence.
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
We suspected that the outstanding results of the
trigram model were due to some kind of overfitting. It turned out that the number of Swiss German
Wikipedia authors is very low (typically, one or two
active writers per dialect), and that every author
uses distinctive spelling conventions and writes
about specific subjects. For instance, most Zurich
German articles are about Swiss politicians, while
many Eastern Swiss German articles are about religious subjects. Our hypothesis was thus that the
n-gram model learned to recognize a specific author and/or topic rather than a dialect.
In order to confirm this hypothesis, we collected
another small data set from various web resources
(not from Wikipedia, 50 sentences per dialect).9
Table 3 (last row) indeed confirms our suspicion.
The performance of the trigram model dropped by
more than 20 percent (absolute), while the wordbased model surprisingly performed better on the
second test set than on the Wikipedia data. One
possible explanation is the influence of Standard
German spelling on the Wikipedia data, given that
many Swiss German articles are translations of
their Standard German counterparts. However, we
have not thoroughly verified this claim.
While our dialect identification model does not
outperform the trigram model, recent adaptations
show promising results. First, the dialect annotation based on average probability values penalizes large and heterogeneous regions, where a highprobability sub-region would be cancelled out by
a low-probability sub-region. Using maximum instead of average could improve the dialect annotation. Second, not all derivations are equally relevant; for example, word frequency information can
provide a crucial clue to weighting derivations.
6.2
Machine translation and parsing
For the evaluation of the machine translation task,
we might again resort to data from Wikipedia. As
said above, many articles are translations from Standard German and can serve as a small parallel (or
at least comparable) corpus. In addition, we plan
to extract Swiss German text from other sources
and have it translated it into Standard German.
Current translation evaluation metrics like
BLEU or TER only use binary measures of word
match. Given the importance of phonetic transfor9 The gold dialect of these texts could be identified through
metadata (URL of the website, name and address of the author,
etc.) in all but one case; this information was checked for
plausibility by the authors.
mations in our approach, and given the problems
arising from lacking spelling conventions, finergrained metrics might be needed in order to account
for different degrees of word similarity.
While the machine translation system has not
been evaluated yet, a prototype version is accessible on the Web.10
For parsing, the data requirements are even more
demanding. Syntactically annotated Swiss German
dialect texts do not currently exist to our knowledge, so that a small evaluation tree bank would
have to be created from scratch.
7
Conclusion
We have presented an approach to natural language
processing that takes into account the specificities
of Swiss German dialects. Dialects have too often been viewed as homogeneous entities clearly
distinguishable from neighbouring dialects. This
assumption is difficult to maintain in many dialect
areas. Rather, each dialect is defined as a unique
combination of variants; some variants may be
shared with adjacent dialects, others may act as
discriminating features (isoglosses). Our approach
reflects this point of view by modelling an entire
dialect continuum.
The data for our model come from dialectological research. Dialects may be among the few language varieties where linguistically processed material is not significatively costlier to obtain than
raw textual data. Indeed, data-driven approaches
would have to deal with data sparseness and dialectal diversity at the same time. While processing
dialectological data is tedious, we have proposed
several tasks that allow the data to be reused.
This paper reflects the current status of ongoing
work; while data collection is fairly complete, evaluating and tuning the proposed models will be a
high priority in the near future.
Besides presenting a novel approach to NLP
tasks, we argue that dialectological research can
also profit from this work. Dialectological research
has traditionally suffered from lack of dissemination among laymen: dialect atlases and lexicons
are complex pieces of work and often difficult to
access. Dynamic models of dialect use could bring
dialectological research closer to a large audience,
especially if they are freely accessible on the internet.
10 http://latlcui.unige.ch/~yves/
101
Acknowledgements
Part of this work was carried out during the first
author’s stay at Columbia University, New York,
funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation
(grant PBGEP1-125929).
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S HORT PAPERS
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
105
Clustering Urdu verbs on the basis of related aspectual auxiliaries and
light verbs
Tafseer Ahmed
Department of Linguistics
Universität Konstanz
Germany
[email protected]
Abstract
The paper describes work done on Urdu aspectual auxiliaries/ light verbs. The frequencies of
main verb-auxiliary and main verb-light verb sequences are obtained by shallow processing of an
Urdu corpus. The normalized data corresponding
to each of the main verbs is used for clustering
(unsupervised learning) of Urdu verbs. It gives
four major clusters of verbs that are hierarchally
arranged. The inspection of the verbs in these clusters show that most of the verbs in a cluster share
some common semantic property and these clusters
correspond to semantic classes of the verbs. Some
other properties about auxiliary/light verbs are also
found in this analysis.
1
Introduction
Urdu is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in Pakistan
and India. It is closely related to Hindi with same
grammatical structure but differences in script and
vocabulary. In Urdu, we find sequences of verbs in
which the main verb is followed by another verb
(Schimdt, 1999). The following-verb can be an
auxiliary, a modal or a light verb. Consider these
examples.
(1)
TrEn A-I
train come-Perf.F.SG
’The train came.’
(2)
TrEn A
rah-I
train come Prog-F.SG
’The train was coming.’
(3)
TrEn A
ga-I
train come go-F.SG
’The train had come.’
(thI)
Past.F.SG
thI
Past.F.SG
(thI)
Past.F.SG
All of the above examples have tense auxiliaries
at the last position. The tense auxiliary can follow
the main verb or the verb-verb sequence. However, we are not interested in tense auxiliaries. In
this paper, we are interested in the verbs like rah
’stay’ (used for progressive) and jA ’go’ (use for
completion).
Siddiqui (1971) and Hook (1974) provided a
list of verbs that follow main verbs. The verbs
are: dE ’give’, lE ’take’, A ’come’, jA ’go’, DAl
’insert’, paR ’fall’, rah ’stay’, beTH ’sit’, cuk (for
completion), sak (for ability), pA ’get’, kar ’do’,
hO ’be’, uTH ’rise’, cAH ’want’, dE ’give’, rakH
’put’, ban ’get make’, lag ’touch/hit’, nikal ’come
out’, Tahar ’stop’ and cal ’move’.
As mentioned earlier, this list does not contain a
single type of verbs. The list includes auxiliaries
e.g. rah for progressive, modals e.g. cAH for want
and light verbs e.g. jA for completion. We present
all of these in a single list, because in the latter part
of this paper we argue that some of the auxiliaries
especially the progressive auxiliary rah ’stay’ are
correlated to certain semantic classes of the verb.
Hence, we need to study the behavior of all of these
verbs irrespective of their syntactic properties. We
use the term V2 for all of these verbs throughout
this paper. Many writers e.g. Butt (1995) distinguish between aspectual auxiliaries and light verbs,
but we use the same term V2 for all these verbs.
There is no significant work on the semantic verb
classes of Urdu. There are few references to some
verb classes such as ingestives (Saksena 1982) and
the intransitive verbs that allow optional ne (Butt
1995).
The modals and aspectual auxiliaries can follow any verb, but it is not the case for light verbs.
Consider the following example.
(4)
a. gARI
cal dI
vehicle.F.SG move give.Perf.F.SG
’The vehicle started moving.’
b. *gARI
ruk dI
vehicle.F.SG stop give.Perf.F.SG
’The vehicle stopped.’
106
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
The light verb dE ’give’ is not used with the verb
ruk ’stop’. Hence, each light verb is compatible
with some, and does not occur with the verbs of
other semantic classes.
Our experiment tests the hypothesis and investigates whether there is a correlation between the
progressive marker and certain verb class(es).
There is an important syntactic issue in the processing of V2 verbs. Each V2 verb governs the
morphological form of the main verb preceding it.
Different morphological forms of the previous verb
correspond to different syntactic/semantic interpretation of the V2 following it.
Consider the example of jA ’go’. It can be interpreted as passive marker, completion marker or
continuity marker on the basis of the form of the
main verb preceding it. If the (preceding) main
verb is in perfective form, jA is considered as the
passive marker. If the main verb is in root form, jA
is considered as the completion marker and if the
imperfective form of the main verb is used, it is considered as a continuity marker. See the following
examples.
(5)
sEb
kHA-yA
apple.M.Sg eat-Perf.M.Sf
gayA
go.Perf.M.Sg
’Apple was eaten.’
(6)
sEb
pak
apple.M.Sg ripe
’Apple had ripen.’
(7)
(Passive)
gayA
go.Perf.M.Sg
(Completion)
vuh sEb
kHA-tA
3SG apple eat-Impf.M.Sg
gayA
go.Perf.M.Sg
’He kept on eating the apples.’
ity)
(Continu-
The aim of our experiment is to analyze the corpus to get some empirical results about V2 verbs
and the related issues introduced above. What is
the behavior of these V2 verbs related to different
verbs and different classes of verbs? Can we find
verb classes based on distribution of V2 verbs with
the main verb?1
1
There are certainly other features like subcategorization
frame and alternations that can be used in verb clustering,
however we tried to find out how much can be done solely on
the basis of these (V2) verbs.
2
Experiment
In the above section, we presented a hypothesis
that there is a semantic relation among many of V2
verbs and the main verbs. In this experiment, we try
to find empirical evidence for this hypothesis. The
experiment has two parts. The first part provides
the frequency of each V2 verb corresponding to
each main verb. These frequencies can tell us about
the syntactic/semantic properties of V2 verbs. The
second part of the experiment tries to cluster the
(main) verbs on the basis of frequencies of V2
verbs associated with them. Can we find semantic
classes on the basis of V2 verb frequencies?
It is not easy (and possible with limited resources) to employ deep parsing methods to perform this experiment. For Urdu, there is no tree
bank available. Similarly, no sizable POS tagged
corpus is available. Moreover, no morphological
analyzer is publicly available that is easily integratable with other applications. Hence, it is necessary
to use shallow methods to perform this experiment.
We plan to count the occurrence of the main verb
followed by the V2 verb. The main verb can be in
one of the different morphological forms as Urdu
verb is inflected on the basis of number, gender
and/or person agreement. As we are not able to
use a morphological analyzer, we planned to obtain
data only for those V2 verbs that are followed by
the (uninflected) root form of the main verb.2 There
are 12 such V2 verbs that are preceded by the root
form of the main verb. We use these verbs in our
experiment. The list of these verbs is present in
table 1.
A list of Urdu (main) verbs is obtained from
Humayoun’s (2006) online resources. As most of
the Urdu verbs are in form of noun/adjective + verb
complex predicate e.g. intizAr ’wait’ kar ’do’ (for
’wait’), there are less than thousand simple verbs
e.g. gir ’fall’ in Urdu. The used verb list contains
these simple verbs only.
There is a potential problem in using the root
form of main verb without deep processing. The
masculine singular perfective form of a verb is form
identical to its root causative form. For example,
the verb gir ’(get) fall’ has perfective form girA
used for masculine singular agreement. The root
form of the corresponding causative verb is girA
’(make) fall’. (The perfective form of this causative
2
The native speaker knowledge tells that these V2 verbs
are most frequently used in Urdu. So, it can be assumed that
we do not lose much data.
107
verb girA is girAyA for masculine singular agreement.) Hence, we remove all such verb-causative
pairs that introduce this form ambiguity.
As we use the V2 verbs that are preceded by
the root form of the main verb, we do not need to
search the other morphological forms of the main
verb. However, we do need to find different morphological forms of V2 verbs immediately following the root form of the main verbs. For this purpose, we manually generated all the morphological
forms of these twelve V2 verbs.
As a corpus, we processed 7337 documents
having 14,196,045 tokens.
The documents
are obtained from CRULP’s (www.crulp.org)
Urdu corpus and websites www.urduweb.org and
www.kitaabghar.com.
The documents of the corpus are processed one
by one. The text of each document is divided into
sentences on the basis of sentence breakers. Each
word of these sentences is matched with the list of
the main verbs. If the word is found in Urdu verb
list, the next word is matched with the (inflected)
words in the V2 verb list. If it is also found, we
increase the count of that verb-V2 combination. To
make the data better for normalization, the count
of each main verb in imperfective form is also calculated.
After the processing of all the documents of the
corpus, we got a table having counts of verb-V2
combinations. We selected 183 verbs for further
processing. These are the verbs for which the sum
of all the counts is greater than 20.
These data is to be normalized for further processing. The count of each verb-V2 combination is
divided by the sum of counts of all combinations
for that verb (plus counts of imperfective forms).
This gives normalized frequencies of the combination that can be compared in further processing.
The normalized frequency table for some verbs
is given in table 1. As the sum at denominator
includes the count of imperfective forms, the frequencies in each column (that use V2 counts only)
do not add up to 1.
The normalized frequencies for the combinations corresponding to each main verb constitute a
vector. These vectors are used for clustering that
is the unsupervised learning of classes. The software tool Cluster 3.0 is used for hierarchal cluster
of these vectors using centroid method. The tool
is available at http://bonsai.ims.utkyo.ac.jp/ mdehoon/software/cluster/software.htm.
V2/main
rah ’stay’
dE ’give’
lE ’take’
A ’come’
jA ’go’
DAl ’insert’
paR ’fall’
bETH ’sit’
cuk complete
sak able
pA ’find’
uTH ’rise’
gir
’fall’
0.0937
0.0032
0
0.0032
0.4345
0
0.1260
0.0016
0.0339
0.0129
0.0016
0
hans
’laugh’
0.1064
0.0292
0.0133
0
0
0
0.1064
0
0
0.0026
0
0
tOR
’break’
0.0771
0.5176
0.0193
0
0.1350
0.0354
0
0
0.0354
0.0482
0
0
Table 1: A sample from the Frequency table corresponding to main verb-V2 sequences
3
Results
The hierarchal clusters obtained by this exercise
are shown in figure 1.
Figure 1: The dendogram showing hierarchal clustering of Urdu verbs on the basis of V2 frequencies.
Visually we can see two/four major clusters.
There are two major clusters: cluster 1 and cluster
2. Cluster 2 is subdivided into two major clusters:
2A and 2B. One of these two clusters i.e. 2A is
subdivided into two more clusters 2A1 and 2A2.
Hence, visually we find four major clusters: 1, 2A1,
2A2 and 2B that are hierarchically arranged. Some
of the verbs from these clusters are:
Cluster 1: (approx.
70 verbs) nikal
’emerge/come out’, jI ’live’, A ’come’, jal ’(get)
burn’, guzar ’pass’, pak ’(get) bake’, ban ’(get)
make’, tHak ’get tired’, kUd ’jump (from one point
to other)’, ucHal ’jump (up and down motion)
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
108
kHA ’eat’, samajH ’understand’, jIt ’win’, lUT
’rob’, nahA ’bath’, pI ’drink’, nigal ’swallow’
Cluster 2A1: (approx. 45 verbs) cal ’move’,
hans ’laugh’, gA ’sing’, muskurA ’smile’,bOl
’speak’, kHEl ’play, cIx ’scream’, nAc ’dance’,
laTak ’(get) hang’, jAg ’wake up’
paRH ’read’, dEkH ’see’, sun ’hear’,mAng ’ask’,
cUs ’suck’, pIT ’hit/beat’, kamA ’earn’,lA ’bring’
pUcH ’ask’, DHUND ’search’, cHU ’touch’,
kANp ’shiver’, baj ’(get) ring’
Cluster 2A2: (approx. 20 verbs) jAn ’know’,
pahcAn ’recognize’, apnA ’adopt’, pahan ’wear’,
mAn ’accept’, tHAm ’hold’, kHENc ’pull’, cun
’pick/pluck’
gin ’count’, dHO ’wash’, pIs ’grind’, cHAn ’filter’, gHEr ’cover’, tal ’fry’
Cluster 2B: (approx. 40 verbs) kah ’say’, dE
’give’, likH ’write’, bEc ’sell’, sukHA ’(make) dry’,
navAz ’give’, batA ’tell’, jagA ’(make) wake up’,
tOR ’break’, kHOl ’open’, rakH ’put’, rOK ’(make)
stop’, bAnT ’divide/distribute’, kas ’tighten’
4
Discussion
These clusters correspond to semantic classes discussed earlier in the literature. Most of the verbs in
the cluster 1 are unaccusative verbs whose subject
is a patient/theme. These unaccusative verbs e.g.
nikal ’emege/come-out’ etc. are listed in first paragraph of cluster 1 verb list given in the above section. The second paragraph in this list has another
class of verbs i.e. ingestives. The verbs like kHA
’eat’ etc. are transitive. However, the subject of
these verbs is considered as a theme that traverses
a path (the object) (Ramchand 2008). Hence ingestives are semantically closer to the unaccusatives.
The subjects of both are patient/theme or undergoer
in Ramchand’s framework.
Cluster 2 corresponds to the (transitive and intransitive) verbs that have agentive subjects. The
cluster 2B corresponds to the transitive verbs whose
subject bring some change to the object. Most of
the verbs are either causing change of state verbs
like toR ’break’ or bHigO ’(make) wet’ or ditransitives like kah ’say’ or rakH ’put’. The subject does
not get affected in these types of verbs.
The analysis of verb list of cluster 2A1 shows
that it has three kinds of verbs (listed in three paragraphs in above section). The verbs in first paragraph e.g. cal ’move’ and hans ’laugh’ etc. correspond to the (intransitive) unergative verbs that
have agentive subject. Most of the verbs in second
and third paragraphs e.g. dEkH ’see’/kamA ’earn’
and pUcH ’ask’/DHUND ’search’ are transitive
verbs whose subject is agentive.
Most of the verbs in class 2A2 are those whose
subject gets something physically or logically. The
verbs e.g. cun ’pick’ in the first paragraph easily
fit this description, however the verbs in second
paragraph form a pragmatic class of those actions
e.g. pIs ’grind’ in which the subject often gets
benefit logically.
It must be noted that the ”verbs in nth paragraphs” described in above text are not the subcluster given by the clustering tool. We subjectively
(and manually) made these subdivisions among the
verbs of each clusters to adequately explain the
semantics of the verbs in each cluster.
When we sort the frequency table (having cluster
labels) with respect to frequencies of V2 verbs, we
find interesting observations. The frequencies of
progressive auxiliary rah ’stay’ is correlated to the
cluster 2A1. It means that this auxiliary occurs
with all kinds of verbs, but it is more frequent with
verbs of certain semantic properties. However, the
high frequency occurrences of the verb sak used as
ability marker do not correlate to any verb class.
The frequency analysis gives the productivity/compatibility of each of the V2 verbs. The
progressive marker rah is found to occur with 161
(out of 183) verbs. The light verb jA is found to occur with 121 verbs. On the other hand, light verbs
DAl ’put’ and uTH ’rise’ are found to appear only
with 22 and 23 (main) verbs respectively.
5
Conclusion
Urdu corpus is processed to find frequencies of
main verb-V2(auxiliary/light verb) combinations.
The clustering of this data gives four major clusters
that have verbs with common semantic properties.
This experiment is an effort to find how much we
can comprehend about semantics of Urdu verbs
solely on the basis of light verbs/auxiliary frequencies.
References
Peter Edwin Hook. 1974. The Compound Verbs in
Hindi. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Muhammad Humayoun. 2006. Urdu morphology, orthography and lexicon extraction. Masters thesis,
Chalmers University of Technology, Chambéry.
109
Gillian Ramchand. 2008. Verb Meaning and the Lexicon: A First Phase Syntax. Cambridge University
Press, Cambridge.
Anuradaha Saksena. 1982. Topics in the Analysis
of Causatives with an Account of Hindi Paradigms.
University of California Press, Berkeley.
Ruth Laila Schimdt. 1999. Urdu: An Essential Grammar. Routledge, London.
Abul Lais Siddiqui. 1971. Jamaul Qawaid (Comprehensive Grammar). Karachi.
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
111
Qualitative and Quantitative Error Analysis in Context
Christian Chiarcos, Julia Ritz
Collaborative Research Centre 632 “Information Structure”
Universität Potsdam
Potsdam, Germany
{chiarcos,jritz}@uni-potsdam.de
Abstract
A crucial step in the development of NLP systems
is a detailed error analysis. Our system demonstration presents the infrastructure and the workflow for training classifiers for different NLP tasks
and the verification of their predictions on annotated corpora. We describe an enhancement cycle
of subsequent steps of classification and contextsensitive, qualitative error analysis using ANNIS2
(Chiarcos et al., 2009), an annotation information
system for querying and visualizing corpora with
multi-layer annotations.
We illustrate our approach for the example of
a classifier that distinguishes anaphoric and nonanaphoric NPs. Our implementation is, however,
not specific to this particular problem, but rather,
it makes use of generic modules suitable to represent and process any graph-based linguistic annotations. The workflow described here can thus
be employed to different NLP tasks, ranging from
simple part-of-speech tagging to coreference analysis or semantic role labelling.
1 Background
The training of statistical classifiers for NLP tasks
requires a well-informed selection of parameters,
as well as a detailed error analysis for their verification and adjustment, and here, we show how
a general-purpose corpus query tool like ANNIS2
(Chiarcos et al., 2009) can be applied in such a
cycle of classifier refinement and qualitative and
quantitative error analysis. Already Chiarcos et al.
(2009) sketched the possibility of such a workflow,
but in this paper we explore the potential of such
an application in depth for a concrete example, the
training of a classifier for NP anaphoricity (Ritz,
2010) using WEKA (Witten and Frank, 2005).
As opposed to earlier research in the field of
annotation enrichment and classifier refinement,
ANNIS2 is not tied to one particular type of annotation: It allows to store, visualize and query
any kind of text-based linguistic annotations (see
fn. 2), with annotations representing plain text, hyper references, but also multi-media material such
as sound files and video sequences. As a tool
specifically designed for multi-layer annotations,
it comes with the following advantages:
domain independence ANNIS2 can cope with
any kind of text-based annotation, so it allows to
integrate multiple layers of annotation regardless
of compatibility considerations. Existing frameworks that employ cyclic application of statistical
classifiers and qualitative error analysis are usually domain-specific,1 whereas ANNIS2 provides
generic visualization components. With ANNIS2,
different kinds of linguistic annotations can be inspected using a single, yet domain-independent
tool.
elimination of feature extraction Taking the
integration of syntactic and semantic features in
a classifier for anaphor resolution as an example,
it is necessary to represent such higher-level information as attribute-value pairs. Using ANNIS2,
syntactic information can be directly drawn from
the respective annotations, because all kinds of
annotations and coreference are represented using the same graph-based data structures. Fea1
An active learning system for the acquisition of parser
rules, for example, displays training sentences besides their
meaning representation, cf., (Zelle and Mooney, 1996;
Thompson et al., 1999), but cannot be easily extended to display, say, coreference. A system for the disambiguation between different candidate parses produced by the same tool
(Osborne and Baldridge, 2004) is even more restricted to the
specific syntactic formalism.
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
ture extraction can thus be directly performed by
ANNIS2, without the need of error-prone conversion scripts mapping between two or more different formats that represent different layers of annotation.
multi-layer visualization ANNIS2 allows to visualize the results of the classifier, together with
all other annotations, regardless of whether they
represent features attached to single tokens or edge
labels in a syntax tree. Thus, a qualitative analysis
can be performed that allows to study the relationship between any layer of original annotation and
the results of a classifier.
2 From Corpus Preparation to Classifier
Refinement
We describe the application of the ANNIS
data base for the development and the interactive refinement of a classifier that distinguishes
anaphoric and non-anaphoric NPs on the the
OntoNotes corpus (Hovy et al., 2006; Weischedel
et al., 2007).
In its current instantiation ANNIS2, ANNIS
is a relational database implementation that allows to store, to visualize and to query for any
kind of text-oriented linguistic annotation using
a web-based interface.2 Basic data structures are
nodes (tokens, spans of tokens) and edges (relations between nodes) with different subtypes that
represent the basis for the query language and the
generic visualizations of ANNIS (Chiarcos et al.,
2009). ANNIS2 also provides the feature to export
query matches to external tools such as WEKA,
so that further statistical evaluations are possible,
whose results can then be merged with the original
annotations and reimported into ANNIS.
The overall workflow is shown in Fig. 1.
Corpus Preparation For our experiment, we
imported the syntactic and the coreference annotations of the OntoNotes corpus into ANNIS2. To
our best knowledge, ANNIS2 is the only graphical
tool available that allows for the concurrent study
of two independent layers of annotation.3
The syntactic annotations and the coreference
annotations are converted to PAULA, the data format underlying ANNIS (Dipper and Götze, 2005),
by means of a set of converters provided over our
web interface (upper left corner in Fig. 1).4 Using Kickstarter, a graphical user interface for the
maintenance of an ANNIS2 installation, the resulting PAULA corpus is compiled to the relational DB format and then loaded into the data
base (left side in Fig. 1).
The ANNIS2 screenshot in Fig. 1 shows the
results for a query for two coreferent OntoNotes
markables, the tree view of the syntax annotation,
and a fraction of the pointing relation visualization with selected anaphoric chains being highlighted. The aforementioned WEKA export can be
exploited to extract features from the annotations.
Feature Extraction The following ANNIS2
query extracts all anaphoric NPs:
(1) cat="NP" &
node & #2 _=_ #1 &
node & #2 ->IDENT_relation #3
The first line of (1) retrieves an NP from the
syntax annotation and binds it to variable #1.
Then, we query for a node #2 from the coreference
annotation that covers the same tokens as #1 and
that takes a third node #3 as its anaphoric (IDENT)
antecedent. Node #1 is thus anaphoric.
ANNIS2 can export the matches for query (1) in
ARFF, WEKA’s native table format. In the ARFF
table, then, every line represents a match for this
query; every column represents an attribute assigned to the nodes #1, #2 or #3; every cell represents the annotation value (or NULL if the attribute
is not specified). The first two columns identify
the anchor of the match, i.e., the document id and
the id of node #1; when an ARFF table is merged
with the original corpus, the classification results
are represented as annotations attached to this anchor node.
2
The underlying data structures of ANNIS are specified
in the PAULA Object Model (Chiarcos et al., 2009) as sets
of labelled directed acyclic graphs (LDAGs). In agreement
with Ide and Suderman (2007), we assume that practically
every kind of linguistic annotation that refers to textual representations of natural languages can be modelled by means
of LDAGs. Here, we describe here the study of interdependencies between syntactic annotation and coreference annotations. Other applications include the comparison between
alternative parses for the same text (Chiarcos et al., 2010) or
multi-layer annotations in general (Dipper, 2005).
3
Although TrED (Pajas and Štěpánek, 2009) allows to
represent and to query for anaphoric and syntactic relations,
as well, it is limited to annotations that form one single tree,
so that at most one layer of syntactic annotation is available,
whereas ANNIS2 is unrestricted in this respect.
4
All resources mentioned in this paper, ANNIS2, Kickstarter, and the web interface to converter and merging
scripts can be found under our project site http://
www.sfb632.uni-potsdam.de/˜d1. For WEKA, see
http://www.cs.waikato.ac.nz/ml/weka.
Figure 1: Workflow
!
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
To mark the matches of the query as anaphoric
NPs, a new column anaph with value yes is
added.
Every NP not matching the query
(i.e., non-anaphoric NPs) is thus characterized by
anaph="NULL". These features define our target
classification for anaphoricity.
As the ARFF file contains the original document and node ids of the anchor nodes, the ARFF
table can be merged with the original corpus. For
this purpose, the converter site provides a CGI
script that takes the text file, the ARFF file, and an
archive comprising the original corpus as its parameters. In this way, users can enrich their original corpora with WEKA classification results by
means of a web interface. The modified corpus is
then imported into ANNIS2 using Kickstarter.
Retrieving Training Data and Classifier Training A query for all NPs (cat="NP") now yields
not only all annotations originally assigned to the
corresponding node #1, but also, a column for
anaph which is yes for all nodes retrieved by
query (1) before, and NULL for all other nodes.
The attribute anaph is unspecified (NULL) for all
generic, underspecified, abstract, attributive and
appositive NPs that are hence considered nonanaphoric.
The ARFF table exported from ANNIS2 can
directly be loaded into WEKA. In Fig. 1, upper
right corner, we see a WEKA plot of three parameters, the phrase form (type of referring expression,
X), the number of previous mentions of the same
expression (Y), and the anaphoricity of the respective expression (color: non-anaphoric as red,
anaphoric as blue). As the plot shows, pronouns
are mostly anaphoric (blue), indefinites are nonanaphoric (red). Possessive NPs are mostly nonanaphoric, but definites cannot be directly associated with either anaphoric or non-anaphoric. This
indicates that the surface form provides us at best
with an incomplete approximation of anaphoricity.
Extending the set of factors, however, allows us
to develop a more reliable classifier. We trained
C4.5 decision trees on a training set consisting of
80% of the documents in the corpus, and applied
to a development consisting of another 10% of the
corpus’ documents. Details of the classifier and
its performance are described by Ritz (2010). The
classification results from WEKA are merged with
the original corpus and re-imported to ANNIS2.
Qualitative and quantitative error analysis using ANNIS2 In ANNIS2, the classification results can be queried and viewed in context. The
anaphoricity predicted by our WEKA classifier,
for example, can be confirmed by comparing
coreference annotations with classification results
as in query (2):
(2) anaph_pred="NULL" &
node & #2 _=_ #1 &
node & #2 ->IDENT_relation #3
Query (2) retrieves every NP #1 that is incorrectly classified as non-anaphoric, because it is
coextensional with a node #2 that takes #3 as an
anaphoric antecedent.
Using the ANNIS visualizations, the errors of
the classifier can be manually inspected together
with other annotations, and hypotheses regarding
contextual features can be developed on this basis.
Based on such qualitative error analyses, quantitative studies can be performed, e.g., by calculating contingency tables for novel feature combinations using the match count for different specialized ANNIS2 queries. Significant features can
then be integrated into the classification. The classification results can then be re-imported again,
and the next cycle begins.
Using 7 contextual features,5 the classifier described by Ritz (2010) distinguishes anaphoric
from non-anaphoric NPs with 92.66% accuracy.
As compared to the baseline (classify all NPs as
being non-anaphoric, accuracy 86.37%), this result represents a significant improvement (McNemar test, p<.01).
Qualitative analysis (manual inspection of
the misclassifications) indicates that grammatical
functions (subject, etc.) correlates with anaphoricity. Such hypotheses receive initial support by
means of statistical tests that operate on contingency tables obtained from match counts, i.e., a
quantitative analysis.
Querying for edge labels allows us to export
grammatical functions in the ARFF table, and
adding this feature to the classifier indeed increases its performance significantly (McNemar
test, p<.01, accuracy 92.98%).
5
NP length, noun form (e.g., proper noun, common noun,
or pronoun), named entity type (e.g., person, organization,
etc.), phrase form (definite, indefinite, pronominal, etc.), previous mentions, previous mentions of the head noun, the size
of the left context, whether the NP is embedded in another
NP or not.
115
3 Conclusion and Outlook
We have presented a cycle of feature extraction and classifier refinement; our workflow combines a user-friendly graphical interface for corpus querying and annotation visualization (ANNIS2), classifier training (WEKA), format conversion (converter site) and the integration of novel
corpora to ANNIS2 (Kickstarter).
An important aspect is that this workflow allows
for distributed processing by people with different
specialization. Kickstarter and ANNIS2 backend,
for example, may run on a sever maintained by a
technician with little or no NLP background. A
linguist or NLP engineer, however, who is granted
access to the data via ANNIS2, can develop highly
sophisticated classifiers on his local WEKA installation and, using the converter site, he can convert,
merge and reintegrate the data with little effort
(and without bothering about details of the conversion process).
The workflow described above is not unprecedented (see, e.g., Kermes and Evert, 2001), but it
differs from earlier accounts in that it uses a corpus tool that supports multi-layer annotations, and
thus allows to combine not only different flat annotations with each other, but also, multiple hierarchical annotations (e.g., phrase structure annotations besides semantic annotations and discourse
structural annotations on the same stretch of primary data), or annotations originating from different annotation tools (e.g., coreference annotation besides syntax annotation as in our example).
The application of ANNIS2 thus introduces a new
quality in the number of parameters and contextual
dependencies to be processed.
References
Christian Chiarcos, Stefanie Dipper, Michael Götze,
Ulf Leser, Anke Lüdeling, Julia Ritz, and Manfred
Stede. 2009. A Flexible Framework for Integrating
Annotations from Different Tools and Tagsets. TAL
(Traitement automatique des langues), 49(2).
Christian Chiarcos, Kerstin Eckart, and Julia Ritz.
2010. Creating and exploiting a resource of parallel
parses. In Proceedings of the Fourth Linguistic An-
notation Workshop, pages 166–171, Uppsala, Sweden, July.
Stefanie Dipper and Michael Götze. 2005. Accessing
heterogeneous linguistic data – Generic XML-based
representation and flexible visualization. In Proceedings of the 2nd Language & Technology Conference 2005, pages 23–30, Poznan, Poland, April.
Stefanie Dipper. 2005. XML-based stand-off representation and exploitation of multi-level linguistic
annotation. In Proceedings of Berliner XML Tage
2005 (BXML 2005), pages 39–50, Berlin, Germany.
Eduard Hovy, Mitchell Marcus, Martha Palmer,
Lance Ramshaw, and Ralph Weischedel. 2006.
OntoNotes: The 90% Solution. In Proceedings of
the Human Language Technology Conference of the
NAACL, pages 57–60, New York City, USA.
Nancy Ide and Keith Suderman. 2007. GrAF: A graphbased format for linguistic annotations. In Proceedings of The Linguistic Annotation Workshop (LAW)
2007, pages 1–8, Prague, Czech Republic.
Hannah Kermes and Stefan Evert. 2001. Exploiting
large corpora: A circular process of partial syntactic analysis, corpus query and extraction of lexikographic information. In Proceedings of the Corpus
Linguistics 2001, pages 332 – 340, Lancaster, UK.
Miles Osborne and Jason Baldridge. 2004. Ensemblebased active learning for parse selection. In Proceedings of HLT-NAACL, pages 89–96.
Petr Pajas and Jan Štěpánek. 2009. System for querying syntactically annotated corpora. In Proceedings
of ACL-IJCNLP 2009, pages 33–36, Singapore, August.
Julia Ritz. 2010. Using tf-idf-related measures for determining the anaphoricity of noun phrases. In Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, September.
Cynthia A. Thompson, Mary Elaine Califf, and Raymond J. Mooney. 1999. Active learning for natural language parsing and information extraction. In
Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on
Machine Learning ICML-99, pages 406–414.
Ralph Weischedel, Sameer Pradhan, Lance Ramshaw,
Linnea Micciulla, Martha Palmer, Nianwen Xue,
Mitchell Marcus, Ann Taylor, Olga Babko-Malaya,
Eduard Hovy, Robert Belvin, and Ann Houston.
2007. OntoNotes Release 1.0. Technical report,
Linguistic Data Consortium, Philadelphia.
Ian H. Witten and Eibe Frank. 2005. Data mining:
Practical machine learning tools and techniques.
Morgan Kaufman, San Francisco, 2nd edition.
John M. Zelle and Raymond J. Mooney. 1996. Learning to parse database queries using inductive logic
programming. In Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Portland, OR, August.
116
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
117
POS-Tagging of Historical Language Data: First Experiments
Stefanie Dipper
Institute of Linguistics
Ruhr-University Bochum
Germany
[email protected]
Abstract
This paper deals with part-of-speech tagging applied to manuscripts written in Middle High German. We present the results of a set of experiments
that involve different levels of token normalization and dialect-specific subcorpora. As expected,
tagging with “normalized”, quasi-standardized tokens performs best (accuracy > 91%). Training on
slightly simplified word forms or on larger corpora
of heterogeneous texts does not result in considerable improvement.
Introduction1
1
This paper deals with automatic analysis of historical language data, namely part-of-speech (POS)
tagging of texts from Middle High German (1050–
1350). Analysis of historical languages differs
from that of modern languages in two important
points.
First, there are no agreed-upon, standardized
writing conventions. Instead, characters and symbols used by the writer of some manuscript in parts
reflect impacts as different as spatial constraints
(parchment is expensive, hence, use of abbreviations seems favorable) or dialect influences (the
dialect spoken by the author of the text, or the
writer’s dialect, who writes up or copies the text,
or even the dialect spoken by the expected readership). This often leads to inconsistent spellings,
even within one text written up by one writer.
Second, resources of historical languages are
scarce and often not very voluminous, and
manuscripts are frequently incomplete or damaged.
1
We would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for
helpful comments. The research reported here was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), Grant
DI 1558/1-1.
These features—data variance and lack of large
resources—challenge many analysis tools, whose
quality usually depend on the availability of large
training samples. “Modern” POS taggers have
been used mainly for the annotation of English
historical corpora. The “Penn-Helsinki Parsed
Corpora of Historical English” (Kroch and Taylor, 2000; Kroch et al., 2004) have been annotated
in a bootstrapping approach, which involves successive cycles of manual annotation, training, automatic tagging, followed by manual corrections,
etc. The project “GermanC”2 uses a state-of-theart tagger whose lexicon has been filled with historical form variants. In contrast, Rayson et al.
(2007) and Pilz et al. (2006) automatically map
historical word forms to the corresponding modern word forms, and analyze these by state-ofthe-art taggers. The mappings make use of the
Soundex algorithm, Edit Distance, or heuristic
rules. Rayson et al. (2007) apply this technique
for POS tagging, Pilz et al. (2006) for a search engine for texts without standardized spelling.
This paper reports on preliminary experiments
in applying a state-of-the-art POS tagger (the
TreeTagger, Schmid (1994)) to a corpus of texts
from Middle High German (MHG). Our approach
is similar to the one by Kroch et al. in that we train
and apply the tagger to historical rather than modern word forms. Our tagging experiments make
use of a balanced MHG corpus that is created and
annotated in the context of the projects “Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik” and “Referenzkorpus
Mittelhochdeutsch”.3 The corpus has been semi2
http://www.llc.manchester.ac.uk/
research/projects/germanc/
3
http://www.mittelhochdeutschegrammatik.de, http://www.linguistics.rub.
de/mhd/
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
118
UNICODE
STRICT
SIMPLE
NORM
LEMMA
STTS
ich
ich
ich
ich
ich
dir
dir
dir
dir
dû
gelobe .
gelobe .
gelobe .
gelobe .
ge-loben
PPER PPER VVFIN $.
dar
dar
dar
dar
dâr
o
zu ne
zu\o ne
zuo ne
zuo ne
zuo ne
helbe ich
helbe\- ich
helben ich
hilfen ich
hëlfen ich
dir
dir
dir
dir
dû
ADV ADV PTK- VVFIN PPER PPER
NEG
Figure 1: A small excerpt from Tristrant (Magdeburg fragment), along with different types of
transcriptions and annotations (screenshot from http://www.hs-augsburg.de/~harsch/germanica/
Chronologie/12Jh/Eilhart/eil_tmma.html)
2
The Corpus
4
Ž
Ž
Ž
The corpus is a collection of texts from the 12th–
14th centuries, including religious as well as profane texts, prose and verse. The texts have been
selected in a way as to cover the period of MHG
as optimal as possible. The texts distribute in time,
i.e. over the relevant centuries, and in space, coming from a variety of Upper German (UG) and
Middle German (MG) dialects. UG dialects were
(and are still) spoken in the Southern part of Germany, Switzerland, and Austria. Examples are
Bavarian, Swabian, or Alemannic. MG dialects
were spoken in the middle part of Germany, e.g.
Franconian or Thuringian.
The texts are diplomatic transcriptions, i.e.,
they aim at reproducing a large range of features
of the original manuscript or print, such as large
initials, or variant letter forms (e.g. short vs. long
s: <s> vs. <ſ>), or abbreviations (e.g. the superscribed hook < > can abbreviate -er: cleid
stands for cleider ‘clothes’4 ).
The original corpus provides two different versions of “word forms”: the diplomatic transcription and a normalized form. For the tagging ex< > can also stand for re, r, and rarely for ri, ir. We
replace it unambiguously by er, which seems to be the most
frequent case.
periments, we created simplified versions of these
forms: “strict” and “simple” transcriptions, and
a normalized ASCII-form. In the following, we
describe both the original and simplified versions
of the word forms. Figure 1 presents an example
fragment encoded in the different versions.
• The Unicode version is the diplomatic transcription, as produced by human transcribers. It renders the manuscript very closely and, e.g., distinguishes short vs. long s, abbreviations, etc.
• The strict version is a slightly modified version of the original transcription which uses ASCII
characters only. Instead of letters with diacritics or
o
superposed characters (ö, u), it uses ASCII characters combined with the backslash as an escape
character (o\”, u\o). Ligatures (æ) are marked by
an underscore (a_e), & is mapped to e_t, þ to t_h.
• The simple version abstracts away from many
of the diplomatic and/or dialectal idiosyncrasies.
Characters are mapped to lower case, all kinds of
accents or other diacritics are removed. Character
combinations are mapped to the base characters
o
(u, æ become uo, ae, respectively). Abbreviations
are spelt out (e.g., the -hook becomes er).
Ž
automatically annotated with POS tags, morphology, lemma, and a normalized word form, which
represents a virtual historical standard form. The
corpus is not annotated with modern word forms.
In this paper, we present the results of a set of
experiments that involve different types of tokens
(simplified and normalized versions) and dialectspecific subcorpora. Sec. 2 presents detailed information about the corpus and its annotations, Sec. 3
addresses the tagging experiments and results.
• Finally, the norm(alized) version is an artificial
standard form, similar to the citation forms used
in lexicons of MHG, such as Lexer (1872). The
normalized form abstracts away completely from
dialectal sound/grapheme variance. It has been
semi-automatically generated by a tool developed
by the project “Mittelhochdeutsche Grammatik”.
The tool exploits lemma and morphological information in combination with symbolic rules that
encode linguistic knowledge about historical dialects (Klein, 2001). We use a simplified ASCII
version of the normalized form, with modifications similar to the ones of the simple transcription
version.
119
Texts
Tokens
51 total
211,000
27 MG
91,000
20 UG
67,000
4 mixed
strict
40,500
.19
22,000
.24
15,000
.22
Types
simple
34,500
.16
19,000
.21
13,500
.20
norm
20,500
.10
13,000
.14
8,500
.13
53,000
Table 1: Number of tokens and types in the Middle
High German corpus. Below each type figure, the
type-token ratio is given.
Table 1 displays some statistics of the current
state of the corpus. The first column shows that
there are currently 51 texts in total, with a total of
around 211,000 tokens. The shortest text contains
only 51 tokens, the longest one 25,000 tokens. 27
texts are from MG dialects and 20 from UG dialects. 4 texts are classified as “mixed”, because
they show mixed dialectal features, or are composed of fragments of different dialects.
As Table 1 shows, the numbers of types are
somewhat reduced if strict (diplomatic) word
forms are mapped to simple forms. Comparing strict and normalized types, the numbers are
roughly cut in half. This benefits current taggers,
as it reduces the problem of data sparseness to
some extent. The question is, however, how reliably the normalized form can be generated automatically. The current tool requires a considerable
amount of manual intervention during the analyses
of lemma and morphology.
MG texts seem more diverse than UG texts: Despite the fact that the MG subcorpus is larger than
the UG subcorpus, it has a higher type/token ratio.
The texts are further annotated with POS tags.
The original POS tagset comprises more than 100
tags and encodes very fine-grained information.
For instance, there are 17 different tags for verbs,
whose main purpose is to indicate the inflection
class that the verb belongs to. For the experiments described in this paper, these POS tags were
mapped automatically to a modified version of the
STTS tagset, the de-facto standard tagset for modern German corpora (Schiller et al. (1999); see
Fig. 1).5
5
The STTS modifications are:
(i) An underspecified tag for the demonstrative or relative
pronoun der has been introduced. The distinction between
both types of pronouns can be made rather easily for modern
German texts: relative pronouns induce subordinate word order, whereas demonstrative pronouns do not. In MHG, the
3
The Experiments
For the experiments, we performed a 10-fold
cross-validation. The split was done in blocks
of 10 sentences (or “units” of a fixed number of
words, if no punctuation marks were available6 ).
Within each block, one sentence was randomly extracted and held out for the evaluation.
For the analysis, we used the TreeTagger, since
it takes suffix information into account. Thanks
to this property, the TreeTagger can profit from
units smaller than words, which seems favorable
for data with high variance in spelling.
In our experiments, we modified two parameters during training: (i) word forms: strict, simple,
norm; (ii) dialects: all, MG, UG (i.e., training data
consists of the entire corpus, or the MG subcorpus, or the UG subcorpus). For instance, in one
setting the tagger is trained on the strict forms of
MG data.
For the evaluation, we introduced a further parameter: (iii) tagger: specific, general, incorrect.
In the specific setting, the trained tagger is applied to the “correct”, specific data (e.g., the tagger trained on strict-MG data is evaluated on strictMG data). In the general setting, the tagger trained
on the entire corpus is applied to some subcorpus. Finally, in the “incorrect” setting, the tagger
trained on MG data is evaluated on UG data, and
vice versa.
The first evaluation setting is straightforward.
Setting two gives an impression of which performance we can expect if we apply a tagger that
has been trained on a larger data set, which, however, consists of heterogeneous dialect texts. Setting three shows the extent to which performance
can degrade in a kind of worst case scenario. In
addition, settings three allows us to compare the
position of the verb, which marks subordinate word order,
was not as fixed as nowadays. Hence, this property should
not be used as a criterion.
(ii) General tags PW, PI, and KO are used rather than
PWS/PWAT, or PIS/PIAT, or KON/KOUS etc., because the
original tagset does not allow to reconstruct the distinction.
(iii) All adjectives are tagged with the underspecified tag
ADJ. Predicative adjectives can be inflected in MHG and,
thus, a mapping to ADJA/ADJD is not easily definable.
(iv) Finally, the suffix _LAT subtype was introduced to mark
Latin words and their POS tags (e.g. V_LAT for Latin verbs).
These occur quite frequently in historical texts. Our corpus
contains a total of 5,500 Latin words (= 2.6% of all tokens).
In the MG texts, 5.3% of the tokens are Latin, whereas in the
UG texts, only 0.9% are Latin.
6
Punctuation marks in historical texts do not necessarily
mark sentence or phrase boundaries. Nevertheless, they probably can serve as indicators of unit boundaries at least as well
as randomly-picked boundary positions.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
120
Dialect
MG
UG
Tagger
specific
general
incorrect
unknowns
specific
general
incorrect
unknowns
strict
86.62 ± 0.63
86.92 ± 0.64
65.48 ± 0.73
59.71 ± 1.84
89.16 ± 0.75
88.88 ± 0.68
77.81 ± 0.80
62.77 ± 1.77
Word Forms
simple
87.65 ± 0.59
87.69 ± 0.58
71.20 ± 0.56
62.26 ± 2.18
89.58 ± 0.72
89.45 ± 0.59
79.76 ± 0.57
64.81 ± 2.62
norm
91.43 ± 0.39
91.66 ± 0.47
81.59 ± 0.44
68.14 ± 1.34
92.91 ± 0.29
92.83 ± 0.39
89.43 ± 0.49
70.46 ± 2.21
Table 2: Results of a 18 test runs, based on different types of word forms, dialect subcorpora, and
taggers, and 6 evaluations of unknown tokens. For each scenario, mean and standard deviation of perword accuracy across the 10 folds are given (all values are percentages).
impact of the normalization step: Since normalization is supposed to level out dialectal differences,
we expect less deterioration of performance with
norm forms than with strict or simple forms.
The results of the different scenarios are summarized in Table 2. For each scenario, mean and
standard deviation of per-word accuracy across the
10 folds are given.
The table shows that taggers achieve higher
scores with UG data than MG data, in all scenarios. This result is somewhat unexpected since the
size of the UG subcorpus is only 75% of that of the
MG subcorpus. However, as we have seen, MG
data is more diverse and has a higher type/token
ratio.
With respect to the different types of word
forms, tagging with normalized forms turns out
best, as expected. The differences between strict
and simple forms are surprisingly small, given the
fact that the size of the “simpler vocabulary” is
only around 85% of the “strict vocabulary”.7 The
wide difference between simple and normalized
forms reflects the fact that the level of standardization as introduced by the normalization step concerns not just minor features such as accents or
ligatures but also inflectional endings and sound
changes.
Comparing the three types of taggers, the table
clearly shows that the specific and general taggers perform considerably better than the incorrect ones. As expected, the differences between
the taggers are less pronounced with normalized
word forms. Interestingly, the specific and general
tagger variants do not differ significantly in most
of the scenarios, despite the fact that the general
taggers have been trained on a larger data set.8
Finally we evaluated the performance of the
specific taggers on unknown words. The results
show that performance degrades considerably, by
22.5 (with the UG-norm tagger) up to 26.9 percentage points (with the MG-strict tagger).
7
Maybe this outcome can be attributed to the TreeTagger, which possibly performs similar simplifications internally. All word form results differ significantly from each
other, though.
8
The general taggers perform significantly better than the
corresponding specific taggers when they are evaluated on
MG-norm and MG-strict data (paired t-test; MG-norm data:
t=4.48, df=9, p<.01; MG-strict data: t=4.20, df=9, p<.01).
4
Summary and Outlook
We presented a set of experiments in POS tagging
of historical data. The aim of this enterprise is to
evaluate how well a state-of-the-art tagger, such
as the TreeTagger, performs in different kinds of
scenarios. The results cannot directly compared
to results from modern German, though: Our corpora are rather small; historical data is considerably more diverse than modern data; and we used
a modified version of the STTS.
As future steps, we will perform a detailed error
analysis: Which tags are especially hard to learn,
which tags are difficult to distinguish? Can certain
errors be traced back to dialectal properties of the
language? Is there an impact of time of origin of a
manuscript?
To reduce variance of the data, without requiring complete normalization of all words, we plan
to investigate a hybrid approach, by evaluating
whether it is helpful to normalize function words
only and keep content words unmodified. Since
function words are closed classes, it might be possible to successfully normalize these words automatically, without manual intervention.
121
References
Thomas Klein. 2001. Vom lemmatisierten Index
zur Grammatik. In Stephan Moser, Peter Stahl,
Werner Wegstein, and Norbert Richard Wolf, editors, Maschinelle Verarbeitung altdeutscher Texte
V. Beiträge zum Fünften Internationalen Symposion
Würzburg 4.-6. März 1997, pages 83–103. Tübingen: Niemeyer.
Anthony Kroch and Ann Taylor. 2000. PennHelsinki parsed corpus of Middle English. Second edition, http://www.ling.upenn.edu/
hist-corpora/PPCME2-RELEASE-2/.
Anthony Kroch, Beatrice Santorini, and Lauren Delfs.
2004. Penn-Helsinki parsed corpus of Early Modern English. http://www.ling.upenn.edu/
hist-corpora/PPCEME-RELEASE-1/.
Matthias Lexer. 1872. Mittelhochdeutsches Handwörterbuch. Leipzig. 3 Volumes 1872–1878.
Reprint: Hirzel, Stuttgart 1992.
Thomas Pilz, Wolfram Luther, Ulrich Ammon, and
Norbert Fuhr. 2006. Rule-based search in text
databases with nonstandard orthography. Literary
and Linguistic Computing, 21:179–86.
Paul Rayson, Dawn Archer, Alistair Baron, Jonathan
Culpeper, and Nicholas Smith. 2007. Tagging the
Bard: Evaluating the accuracy of a modern POS tagger on Early Modern English corpora. In Proceedings of Corpus Linguistics 2007, University of Birmingham, UK.
Anne Schiller, Simone Teufel, Christine Stöckert, and
Christine Thielen. 1999. Guidelines für das Tagging
deutscher Textcorpora mit STTS (kleines und großes
Tagset). Technical report, University of Stuttgart
and University of Tübingen.
Helmut Schmid. 1994. Probabilistic part-of-speech
tagging using decision trees. In Proceedings of
International Conference on New Methods in Language Processing.
122
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
123
Trainable Tree Distance and an application to Question Categorisation∗
Martin Emms
School of Computer Science and Statistics
Trinity College
Dublin, Ireland
[email protected]
Abstract
Continuing a line of work initiated in Boyer et al.
(2007), the generalisation of stochastic string distance to a stochastic tree distance, specifically to
stochastic Tai distance, is considered. An issue
in modifying the Zhang/Shasha tree-distance algorithm to the stochastic variants is noted, a Viterbi
EM cost-adaptation algorithm for this distance is
proposed and a counter-example noted to an allpaths EM proposal. Experiments are reported in
which a k-NN categorisation algorithm is applied
to a semantically categorised, syntactically annotated corpus. We show that a 67.7% base-line using standard unit-costs can be improved to 72.5%
by cost adaptation.
1 Theory and Algorithms
The classification of syntactic structures into semantic categories arises in a number of settings. A
possible approach to such a classifier is to compute
a category for a test item based on its distances to a
set of k nearest neighbours in a pre-categorised example set. This paper takes such an approach, deploying variants of tree-distance, a measure which
has been used with some success in tasks such
as Question-Answering, Entailment Recognition
and Semantic Role Labelling (Punyakanok et al.,
2004; Kouylekov and Magnini, 2005; Emms,
2006a; Emms, 2006b; Franco-Penya, 2010). An
issue which will be considered is how to adapt the
atomic costs underlying the tree-distance measure.
Tai (1979) first proposed a tree-distance measure. Where S and T are ordered, labelled trees,
a Tai mapping is a partial, 1-to-1 mapping σ from
∗
This work was supported in part through the Centre
for Next Generation Localisation by the Science Foundation
Ireland
the nodes of S to the nodes of T , which respects
left-to-right order and ancestry1 , such as
a
c
a
a
b
b
a
a
b
b
b
b
A cost can be assigned to a mapping σ based on
the nodes of S and T which are not ’touched’ by
σ, and the set of pairs (i, j) in σ. The Tai- or
tree-distance ∆(S, T ) is defined as the cost of the
least-costly Tai mapping between S and T . Equivalently, tree-edit operations may be specified, and
the distance defined by the cost of the least costly
sequence of edit operations transforming S into T ,
compactly recorded as an edit-script:
operation
~ ~r) → m′ (~l, d,
~ ~r)
m′ (~l, m(d),
′ ~ ~
~ ~r)
m (l, d, ~r) → m′ (~l, m(d),
~ → m′ (d)
~
m(d)
edit-script element
(m, λ)
(λ, m)
(m, m′ )
An edit-script can be seen as a serialization of
a mapping, and the distances via scripts and
via mappings are equivalent (Zhang and Shasha,
1989).
If strings are treated as vertical trees, the Tai distance becomes the standard string distance (Wagner and Fischer, 1974). Ristad and Yianilos (1998)
pioneered a probabilistic perspective on string distance via a model in which there is a probability distribution p on edit-script components, and
Q
P (e1 . . . en ) = i p(ei ). It is natural to consider
how this probabilistic perspective can be applied
to tree-distance, and the simplest possibility is to
use exactly the same model of edit-script probability, leading to2 :
1
so if (i1 , j1 ) and (i2 , j2 ) are in the mapping, then
(T1) lef t(i1 , i2 ) iff lef t(j1 , j2 ) and (T2) anc(i1 , i2 ) iff
anc(j1 , j2 )
2 A
∆ was proposed by Boyer et al. (2007)
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
124
Definition 1.1 (All-paths and Viterbi stochastic
Tai distance) ∆A (S, T ) is the sum of the probabilities of all edit-scripts which represent a T aimapping from S to T ; ∆V (S, T ) is the probability
of the most probable edit-script
Computing ∆A and ∆V We have adapted the
Zhang/Shasha algorithm for Tai-distance to the
stochastic case. The algorithm operates on the
left-to-right post-order traversals of trees3 . If i is
(the index of) a node of the tree, let γ(i) be its
label, il be the leaf reached by following the leftbranch down, and S[i] be the sub-tree of S rooted
at i. If i′ is a member of S[i], the prefix il ..i′ of the
traversal of S[i] can be seen as a forest of subtrees.
Considering the mappings between such forests, a
case distinction can made on the possible final element of any script serializing the mapping, giving
the following decomposition for the calculation of
∆V and ∆A
Lemma 1.1 where GV is the max operation,
and GA is the sum operation, for x ∈ {V, A}
′
′
∆x (i
l ..ix, jl ..j′ ) =
∆ (il ..i − 1, jl ..j ′ ) × p(γ(i′ ), λ)





∆x (i ..i′ , j ..j ′ − 1) × p(λ, γ(j ′ ))

 x l ′ l
′
Gx ∆ (ixl ..i′ l −′ 1, jl ..j′ l −′ 1)×
′
′


 ∆ (il ..i − 1, jl ..j − 1) × p(γ(i ), γ(j ))




|
{z
}
∆xM (i′l ..i′ , jl′ ..j ′ )
The following picture illustrates this
x (
=Gx
x (λ
x
λ)
)
x (
For any leaf i, the highest node k such that i =
kl is a key-root, and KR(S) is the key-roots of S
ordered by post-order traversal. For x ∈ {A, V },
the main loop of T D x is then essentially
for i ∈ KR(S), j ∈ KR(T )
for i′ : il ≤ i′ ≤ i, j ′ : jl ≤ j ′ ≤ j,
compute ∆x (il ..i′ , jl ..j ′ ) via Lemma 1.1
computing a series of forest distance tables, whilst
reading and updating a persistent tree table. Space
precludes further details except to note the subtlety in T D A that to avoid double counting, the
tree table must store values only for mappings between trees with matched or subsituted roots (the
3
so parent follows children
)
′ ′ ′ ′
∆A
M (il ..i , jl ..j ) term in Lemma 1.1), unlike the
Zhang/Shasha algorithm, where it stores the true
tree-distance4 .
T D A and T D V work under a negated logarithmic mapping5 , with ×/max/sum mapped to
+/min/logsum6 . Where Σ is the label alphabet, a
cost table C of dimensions (|Σ|+1)×(|Σ|+1) represents (neg-logs of) atomic edit operation, with
first column and row for deletions and insertions.
For ∆V and ∆A , the probabilities represented in C
should sum to 1. For T D V , the neg-log mapping is
never inverted and T D V can be run with arbitrary
C and calculates then the standard non-stochastic
Tai distance. The unit-cost table, C01 , has 0 on the
diagonal and 1 everywhere else.
Adapting costs We are interested in putting treedistance measures to work in deriving a category
for an uncategorised item, using an example-set of
categorised examples, via the k nearest-neighbour
(kNN) algorithm. The performance of the kNN
classification algorithm will vary with cost-table C
and Expectation-Maximisation (EM) is a possible
approach to setting C. Given a corpus of training
pairs, let the brute-force all-paths EM algorithm,
A , consists in iterations of: (E) generate a virEMbf
tual corpus of scripts by treating each training pair
(S, T ) as standing for the edit-scripts A, which
can relate S to T , weighting each by its conditional probability P (A)/∆A (S, T ), under current
costs C and (M) apply maximum likelihood estimation to the virtual corpus to derive a new costA is not feasible. Let EM V be a
table. EMbf
Viterbi variant of this working with a virtual corpus of best-scripts only, effectively weighting each
by the proportion it represents of the all-paths sum,
∆V (S, T )/∆A (S, T ). Space precludes further details of EM V . Such Viterbi training variants have
been found beneficial, for example in the context of parameter training for PCFGs (Benedí and
Sánchez, 2005). The training set for EM V is tree
pairs (S, T ), where for each example-set tree S, T
is a nearest same-category neighbour. EM V increases the edit-script probability for scripts linking these trees, lessening their distance. Note that
without the stochastic constraints on C, the dis4
Boyer et al. (2007) present somewhat unclear algorithms
for ∆A , not explicitly as extensions of the Zhang/Shasha algorithm, and do not remark this double-counting subtlety.
Their on-line implementation (SEDiL, 2008) can compute incorrect values and this work uses our own implementation of
the algorithms here outlined.
5
x = neg − log(p) iff p = 2−x
P
6
logsum(x1 . . . xn ) = −log( i (2−xi ))
125
This corpus was used in a number of experiments on kNN classication using the tree-distance
T D V algorithm, with various cost tables. In each
case 10-fold cross-validation was used with a 9:1
example-set/test-set split.
Figure 1 shows some results of a first set of
experiments, with unit-costs and then with some
stochastic variants. For the stochastic variants, the
cost initialisation was Cu (3) in each case.
For stochastic string-distance Ristad and Yianilos (1998) provided a feasible equivalent to
A :
EMbf
for each training pair (s, t), first
position-dependent expectations E[i][j](x, y) are
computed, then later summed into positionindependent expectations. Boyer et al. (2007) contains a proposal in a similar spirit to provide a feaA but the proposal factorsible equivalent to EMbf
izes the problem in a way which is invalid given
the ancestry-preservation aspect of Tai mappings7 .
For example, using a post-fix notation subscripting
by post-order position, let t1 = (·1 (·2 ·3 m4 ) ·5
·6 ), t2 = ((·1 ·2 ) (·3 m′4 ) (·5 ·6 ) ·7 ) (from fig 3
of their paper). They propose to calculate a swap
expectation E[4, 4](m, m′ ) by
[∆A ((·1 ), (·1 ·2 ))×[∆A ((·2 )(·3 ), (·3 ))×p(m, m′ )]
×∆A ((·5 ·6 ), ((·5 ·6 )·7 ))]/∆A (t1 , t2 )
But ∆A ((·5 ·6 ), ((·5 ·6 )·7 )) will contain contributions from scripts which map t1 ’s ·6 , an ancestor
of m4 , to t2 ’s ·6 , a non-ancestor of m′4 , and these
should not contribute to E[4, 4](m, m′ ).
2 Experiments
QuestionBank (QB) is a hand-corrected treebank for questions (Judge, 2006). A substantical percentage of the questions in QB are taken
from a corpus of semantically categorised, syntactically unannotated questions (CCG, 2001).
From these two corpora we created a corpus of
2755 semantically categorised, syntactically analysed questions8 , spread over the semantic categories as follows9 : HUM(23.5%), ENTY(22.5%),
DESC(19.4%), NUM(16.7%), LOC(16.5%) and
ABBR(1.4%)
7
A fact which they concede p.c.
available at www.scss.tcd.ie/Martin.Emms/quest_cat
9
See (CCG, 2001) for details of the semantic category labels
8
% accuracy
2−Cλ [x][y] = λ(2−C[x][y] ) + (1 − λ)(2−Cu (d)[x][y] )
40 43 46 49 52 55 58 61 64 67
tance via T D V could be minimised to zero by setting all costs to zero, but this would be of no value
in improving the categorisation performance.
To initialize EM V , let Cu (d) stand for a
stochastically valid cost-table, with the additional
properties that (i) all diagonal entries are equal (ii)
all non-diagonal entries are equal (iii) diagonal entries are d times more probable than non-diagonal.
As a smoothing option concerning a table C derived by EM V , let Cλ be its interpolation with the
original Cu (d) as follows
untrained stochastic
trained stochastic unsmoothed
trained stochastic smoothed
unit costs
1
5
10
20
30
50
100
200
k values
Figure 1: Categorisation performance with unit
costs and some stochastic variants
The first thing to note is that performance with
unit-costs (▽, max. 67.7%) exceeds performance
with the non-adapted Cu (3) costs (◦, max. 63.8%).
Though not shown, this remains the case with
far higher settings of the diagonal factor. Performance after applying EM V to adapt costs (△,
max. 53.2%) is worse than the initial performance
(◦, max. 63.8%). A Leave-One-Out evaluation, in
which example-set items are categorised using the
method on the remainder of the example-set, gives
accuracies of 91% to 99%, indicating EM V has
made the best-scripts connecting the training pairs
too probable, over-fitting the cost table. The vocabulary is sufficiently thinly spread over the training pairs that its quite easy for the learning algorithm to fix costs which make almost everything
but exactly the training pairs have zero probability. The performance when smoothing is applied
(+,max. 64.8%), interpolating the adapted costs
with the initial cost, with λ = 0.99, is considerably higher than without smoothing (△), attains
a slightly higher maximum than with unadapted
costs (◦), but is still worse than with unit costs
(▽).
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
126
The following is a selection from the top 1% of
adapted swap costs.
8.50
8.93
9.47
9.51
9.78
11.03
11.03
?
NNP
VBD
NNS
a
was
’s
.
NN
VBZ
NN
the
is
is
12.31
12.65
13.60
13.83
13.92
13.93
The
you
can
many
city
city
the
I
do
much
state
country
3 Comparisons and Conclusions
68
66
0.99
0.9
0.5
0.1
costs
60
62
64
% accuracy
70
72
These learned preferences are to some extent intuitive, exchanging punctuation marks, words differing only by capitalisation, related parts of speech,
verbs and their contractions and so on. One might
expect this discounting of these swaps relative to
others to assist the categorisation, though the results reported so far indicate that it did not. A
stochastically valid cost table cannot have zero
costs on the diagonal, and even with a very high
ratio between the diagonal and off-diagonal probabilities, the diagonal costs are not negligible. Perhaps this mitigates against success and invites consideration of outcomes if a final step is applied in
which all the entries on the diagonal are zeroed. In
work on adapting cost-tables for a stochastic version of string distance used in duplicate detection,
Bilenko and Mooney (2003) used essentially this
same approach. Figure 2 shows outcomes when
the trained and smoothed costs finally have the diagonal zeroed.
lam
lam
lam
lam
unit
1
5
10
20
30
50
100
roed. Now the unit costs base-line is clearly outperformed, the best result being 72.5% (k = 20,
λ = 0.99), as compared to 67.5% for unit-costs
(k = 20)
200
k values
Figure 2: Categorisation performance: adapted
costs with smoothing and zeroing
The (▽) series once again shows the outcomes
with unit-costs whilst the other series show outcomes obtained with costs adapted by EM V ,
smoothed at varius levels of interpolation (λ ∈
{0.99, 0.9, 0.5, 0.1}) and with the diagonal ze-
Collins and Duffy (2001) proposed the
SST (S, T ) tree-kernel ’similarity’: a product in an infinite vector space, the dimensions
of which are counts c(t) of tree substructures t,
each c(t) weighted by a decay factor γ size(t) ,
0 < γ ≤ 1, and it has been applied to tree classification tasks (Quarternoni et al., 2007). If the
negation of SST (S, T ) is used as an alternative to
∆V (S, T ) in the kNN algorithm, we found worse
results are obtained10 , 64% − 69.4%, with maximum at k = 10. However, deploying SST (S, T )
as a kernel in one-vs-one SVM classification11 , a
considerably higher value, 81.3%, was obtained.
Thus, although we have shown a way to
adapt the costs used by the tree-distance measure which improves the kNN classification performance from 67.7% to 72.5%, the performance
is less than obtained using tree-kernels and SVM
classification. As to the reasons for this difference and whether it is insuperable one can only
speculate. The data set was relatively small and
it remains for future work to see whether on
larger data-sets the outcomes are less dependent
on smoothing considerations and whether the kNN
accuracy increases. The one-vs-one SVM approach to n-way classification trains n(n − 1)/2
binary classifiers, whereas the approach described
here has one cost adaptation for all the categories,
and a possibility would be to do class-specific cost
adaptation, in a fashion similar to Paredes and Vidal (2006).
One topic for future work is to consider how
this proposal for cost adaptation relates to other recent proposals concerning adaptive tree measures
(Takasu et al., 2007; Dalvi et al., 2009) as well
as to consider cost-adaptation outcomes in some
of the other areas in which tree-distance has been
applied.
10
using the SVMLIGHTTK (2003) implementation
using the libsvm (2003) implementation, with decay γ =
0.4, slack C = 2.0
11
127
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18:1245–1262.
128
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
129
Training and Evaluating a German Named Entity Recognizer
with Semantic Generalization
Sebastian Padó
Manaal Faruqui
Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering Maschinelle Sprachverarbeitung
Universität Stuttgart
Indian Institute of Technology
Stuttgart, Germany
Kharagpur, India
[email protected]
[email protected]
Abstract
We present a freely available optimized Named Entity Recognizer (NER) for German. It alleviates
the small size of available NER training corpora
for German with distributional generalization features trained on large unlabelled corpora. We vary
the size and source of the generalization corpus
and find improvements of 6% F1 score (in-domain)
and 9% (out-of-domain) over simple supervised
training.
1
Introduction
Named Entity Recognition is an important preprocessing step for many NLP tasks. It finds usage
in applications like Textual Entailment, Question
Answering, and Information Extraction. As is often the case for NLP tasks, most of the work has
been done for English. To our knowledge, at this
time there is no single “off-the-shelf” NER system
for German freely available for academic purposes.
A major reason for this situation is the (un-)
availability of labelled development data in the respective languages. For English, many large corpora annotated with named entities are available
from a number of shared tasks and bakeoffs, including CoNLL 2003, MUC 2006/2007 and ACE
2008. For German, the only available dataset for
NER seems to be the data from the CoNLL 2003
shared task on “Language-Independent Named Entity Recognition” (Tjong Kim Sang and De Meulder, 2003).
The German training part of the CoNLL 2003
data consists only of a total of 220,000 tokens. This
is fairly small, but there must be a language-specific
aspect at play as well: Even though the amount of
training data for English is roughly comparable, the
recall of the best system on English data, at 89%,
is 25% higher than when trained on German data
with 64% (Florian et al., 2003). We hypothesize
that this difference is primarily due to the higher
morphological complexity of German. Generally,
this puts a higher strain on the lemmatization, and
where lemmatization fails, tokens in the test set
may simply be unknown. Also, morphological features, which can be learned from comparatively little data, are presumably less predictive for German
than they are for English. For example, capitalization is a good predictor of NERs in English, where
common nouns are not capitalized. In German, on
the other hand, all nouns are capitalized, but most
of them are not NEs.
While feature engineering for German is clearly
one way out of this situation, the scarcity of labelled data remains a problem since it can lead to
overfitting. In this paper, we therefore investigate
an alternative strategy, namely semantic generalization. We acquire semantic similarities from large,
unlabelled corpora that can support the generalization of predictions to new, unseen words in the
test set while avoiding overfitting. Our contribution is primarily in evaluation and system building. We train the Stanford NER system (Finkel and
Manning, 2009) on different German generalization corpora. We evaluate on both in-domain and
out-of-domain data, assessing the impact of generalization corpus size and quality. We make the
system with optimal parameters freely available for
academic purposes. It is, to our knowledge, among
the best available German NERs.
2
Named Entity Recognition with
Semantic Generalization
We use Stanford’s Named Entity Recognition system1 which uses a linear-chain Conditional Random Field to predict the most likely sequence of
NE labels (Finkel and Manning, 2009). It uses
a variety of features, including the word, lemma,
and POS tag of the current word and its context,
n-gram features, and “word shape” (capitalization,
numbers, etc.).
1
http://nlp.stanford.edu/software/
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
130
Importantly, the system supports the inclusion of
distributional similarity features that are trained on
an unrelated large corpus. These features measure
how similar a token is to another in terms of its
occurrences in the document and can help in classifying previously unseen words, under the assumption that strong semantic similarity corresponds to
the same named entity classification. Specifically,
the Stanford NER system is designed to work with
the clustering scheme proposed by Clark (2003)
which combines standard distributional similarity
with morphological similarity to cover infrequent
words for which distributional information alone is
unreliable.2 As is generally the case with clustering
approaches, the number of clusters is a free parameter. The time complexity of the clustering is linear
in the corpus size, but quadratic in the number of
clusters.
To illustrate the benefit, imagine that the word
“Deutschland” is tagged as location in the training set, and that the test set contains the previously unseen words “Ostdeutschland” and “Westdeutschland”. During clustering, we expect that
“Ostdeutschland” and “Westdeutschland” are distributed similarly to “Deutschland”, or are at least
morphologically very similar, and will therefore
end up in the same cluster. In consequence, these
two words will be treated as similar terms to
“Deutschland” and therefore also tagged as LOC.
Large unlabelled German corpora. For the semantic generalization step, we contrast two corpora that are representative of two widely available classes of corpora. The first corpus, the Huge
German Corpus (HGC), consists of approximately
175M tokens of German newspaper text. The HGC
is a relatively clean corpus and close in genre to
the CoNLL data, which are also newswire. The
second corpus is deWac (Baroni et al., 2009), a
web-crawled corpus containing about 1.9M documents from 11,000 different domains totalling
1.71B tokens. deWac is very large, but may contain
ungrammatical language, and is less similar to the
CoNLL data than HGC.
4
Exp. 1: Testing on In-Domain Data
German corpus with NER annotation. To our
knowledge, the only large German corpus with
NER annotation was created for the shared task
“Language-Independent Named Entity Recognition”
at CoNLL 2003 (Tjong Kim Sang and De Meulder,
2003). The German data is a collection of articles
from the Frankfurter Rundschau newspaper annotated with four entity types: person (PER), location (LOC), organisation (ORG) & miscellaneous
(MISC). MISC includes, for example, NE-derived
adjectives, events, and nationalities.3 The data is
divided into a training set, a development set, and
a test set. The training set contains 553 documents
and approximately 220,000 tokens. The development set (TestA) and test set (TestB) comprise 155
and 201 documents, respectively, with 55,000 tokens each.
In this experiment, we replicate the CoNLL 2003
setup: We train the NER system on the training
set, experiment with different generalization settings while evaluating on the the TestA development set, and validate the best models on the TestB
test set. We tag and lemmatize both with TreeTagger (Schmid, 1994). We report precision, recall,
and F1 as provided by the CoNLL scorer.
Without any semantic generalization, on TestA
we obtain a precision of 80.9%, a recall of 58.8%,
and an F-Score of 68.1%. The poor recall corresponds to our expectations for the small size of
the training set, and the experiences from CoNLL
2003. It also results in a low overall F1 score.
For generalization, we apply Clark’s (2003) clustering method to HGC and deWac. For each corpus,
we vary two parameters: (a), the amount of generalization data; and (b), the number of clusters
created. Following Clark (p.c.), we expect good
performance for k clusters when k 3 ≈ n where n
is the size of the generalization corpus. This leads
us to consider at most 600 clusters, and between
10M and 175M tokens, which corresponds to the
full size of the HGC and about 10% of deWac.4
Table 1 shows the results for using the HGC
as generalization corpus. Already the use of 10M
tokens for generalization leads to a drastic improvement in performance of around 5% in precision
and 10% in recall. We attribute this to the fact that
the semantic similarities allow better generalization to previously unknown words in the test set.
This leads primarily to a reduction of recall errors,
2
Clark’s system is available from http://www.cs.
rhul.ac.uk/home/alexc/pos2.tar.gz
3
See http://www.cnts.ua.ac.be/conll2003/
ner/annotation.txt for annotation guidelines.
4
The deWac corpus supports the training of larger models.
However, recall that the runtime is quadratic in the number of
clusters, and the optimal number of clusters grows with the
corpus size. This leads to long clustering times.
3
Datasets
Precision
80.9
83.5
84.1
84.2
84.1
85.4
85.1
84.9
84.8
85.0
86.0
85.4
Recall
58.8
65.5
66.0
66.2
66.8
68.9
68.9
68.6
69.1
69.4
70.0
69.3
F1
68.1
73.4
73.9
74.1
74.5
76.3
76.1
75.9
76.1
76.4
77.2
76.5
Table 2: Performance on CoNLL German TestA
development set, using deWac as generalization
corpus
but to more robust regularities in the model, which
improves precision. The beneficial effect of the
generalization corpus increases from 10M tokens
to 50M tokens, leading to a total improvement of 67% in precision and 12-13% in recall, but levels off
afterwards, indicating that no more information can
be drawn from the HGC. For all but the smallest
generalization corpus size, more clusters improve
performance.
The situation is similar, but somewhat different,
when we use the deWac corpus (Table 2). For 10M
tokens, the improvement is considerably smaller,
only 2.5% in precision and 6.5% in recall. However, the performance keeps improving when more
data is added. At the size of the HGC (175M tokens), the performance is only about 1% worse in
all statistics than for the HGC. As can be seen in
Figure 1, the performances for HGC and deWac
seem largely to converge. This is a promising result,
given that we did not do any cleaning of deWac,
since web corpora are cheaper than newswire corpora and can be obtained for a larger range of languages.
78
●
●
●
76
74
●
●
●
●
●
●
Table 1: Performance on CoNLL German TestA
development set, using HGC as generalization corpus
Tokens Clusters
Baseline (0/0)
10M
100
10M
200
20M
100
20M
200
50M
200
50M
400
100M
200
100M
400
175M
200
175M
400
175M
600
●
●
72
F1
68.1
75.7
74.9
72.9
77.4
77.0
78.6
76.6
77.8
78.0
78.3
79.8
●
HGC
deWac
70
Recall
58.8
68.1
66.8
64.9
70.1
69.3
71.5
69.4
76.0
71.3
71.0
72.9
68
Precision
80.9
85.2
85.2
83.0
86.4
86.7
87.3
85.4
86.7
86.2
87.2
88.0
F1 score
Tokens Clusters
Baseline (0/0)
10M
100
10M
200
20M
100
20M
200
50M
200
50M
400
100M
200
100M
400
175M
200
175M
400
175M
600
80
131
●
●
0
50
100
150
Generalization corpus size (10^6 tokens)
Figure 1: F1 as function of generalization corpus
Model
Florian et al. (2003)
Baseline (0/0)
HGC (175M/600)
deWac (175M/400)
Precision
83.9
84.5
86.6
86.4
Recall
63.7
63.1
71.2
68.5
F1
72.4
72.3
78.2
76.4
Table 3: Comparison to best CoNLL 2003 results
for German on the CoNLL TestB test dataset
Finally, Table 3 validates the results for the best
HGC and deWac models on the test set (TestB) and
compares them to the best CoNLL 2003 shared task
system for German (Florian et al., 2003). We see a
small decrease of the performance of both systems
by about 1% F-Score. Both models substantially
outperform the baseline without generalization and
Florian et al., a classifier combination system, by
4% and 5% F-Score, respectively. The improvement is mainly due to an 8% increase in recall.
5
Exp. 2: Testing on Out-of-Domain
Data
This experiment assesses the performance of our
CoNLL-trained German NER system on a different domain, namely the German part of the EUROPARL corpus (Koehn, 2005). EUROPARL consists of the Proceedings of the European Parliament,
i.e., corrected transcriptions of spoken language,
with frequent references to EU-related NEs. It thus
differs from CoNLL both in genre and in domain.
We annotated the first two EUROPARL files5 with
NEs according to the CoNLL guidelines, resulting
in an out-of-domain test set of roughly 110,000
tokens.
5
ep-96-04-{15,16}; tagging speed ≈2000 tokens/h.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
132
Model
Baseline (0/0)
HGC (175M/600)
deWac (175M/400)
Precision
67.8
78.0
77.0
Recall
47.4
56.7
56.7
F1
56.0
65.6
65.3
Table 4: Performance on EUROPARL
Results. We tagged the test set with the baseline
model and the best HGC and deWac models. The
results are shown in Table 4. The performance of
the baseline model without generalization is considerably worse than on the in-domain test set, with a
loss of about 10% in both precision and recall. We
see particularly bad recall for the MISC and ORG
classes (34.4% and 46.0%, respectively), which are
dominated by terms infrequent in newswire (nationalities and EU organizations and programs).
With semantic generalization, both recall and
precision increase by roughly 10% for both HGC
and deWac, indicating that corpus quality matters
less in out-of-domain settings. We find a particularly marked improvement for the LOC category
(deWac: P: 85.5% → 93.5%; R: 53.4% → 71.7%).
We attribute this to the fact that location names are
relatively easy to cluster distributionally and thus
profit most from the semantic generalization step.
Unfortunately, the same is not true for the names of
EU organizations and programs. Even though the
final performance of the models on EUROPARL
is still around 10% worse than on the in-domain
test data, the comparatively high precision suggests
that the systems may already be usable for term
extraction or in some semi-automatic setup.
6
Related Work
Rössler (2004) follows a similar motivation to ours
by compiling resources with lexical knowledge
from large unlabelled corpora. The approach is
implemented and evaluated only for the PER(son)
category. Volk and Clematide (2001) present a set
of category-specific strategies for German NER
that combine precompiled lists with corpus evidence. In contrast, Neumann and Piskorski (2002)
describe a finite-state based approach to NER based
on contextual cues and that forms a component
in the robust SMES-SPPC German text processing system. Didakowski et al. (2007) present a
weighted transducer-based approach which integrates LexikoNet, a German semantic noun classification with 60,000 entries.
Table 5 compares the performance of these systems on the only category that is available in all
systems, namely PER(son). System performance
System
HGC 175M/600
Rössler (2004)
Didakowski et al. (2007)
Volk and Clematide (2001)
Neumann and Piskorski
(2002)
Data
C
C
O
O
O
Prec
96.2
89.4
93.5
92
95.9
Rec
88.0
88.4
92.8
86
81.3
F1
92.0
88.9
93.1
88.8
88.0
Table 5: Different German NER systems on category PER (C: CoNLL 2003 test set, O: own test
set)
is between 88% and 93% F-Score, with the best
results for Didakowski et al. and our system. This
comparison must however be taken with a grain of
salt. Only our system and Rössler’s are evaluated
on the same data (CoNLL 2003), while the three
other systems use their own gold standards. Still,
our HGC model performs competitively with the
best systems for German, in particular with respect
to precision.
7
Conclusions
We have presented a study on training and evaluating a Named Entity Recognizer for German. Our
NER system alleviates the absence of large training
corpora for German by applying semantic generalizations learned from a large, unlabelled German
corpus. Corpora from the same genre yield a significant improvement already when relatively small.
We obtain the same effect with larger web-crawled
corpora, despite the higher potential noise. Applied
across domains, there is no practical difference between the two corpus types.
The semantic generalization approach we use is
not limited to the four-class CoNLL setup. Even
though its benefit is to decrease the entropy of the
NE classes distribution by conditioning on clusters,
and a higher number of NE classes could reduce the
size of this effect, in practice the number of clusters
is much higher than the number of NER classes.
Therefore, this should not be an issue. Generalization can also be combined with any other models
of NER that can integrate the class features. The
extent to which other systems (like Florian et al.,
2003) will improve from the features depends on
the extent to which such information was previously absent from the model.
We hope that our results can be helpful to the
German NLP community. Our two best classifiers (HGC 175M/600 and deWac 175M/400) as
well as the EUROPARL test set are freely available for research at http://www.nlpado.de/
˜sebastian/ner_german.html.
133
Acknowledgements Many thanks to Jenny Rose
Finkel and Alexander Clark for their support.
References
Marco Baroni, Silvia Bernardini, Adriano Ferraresi,
and Eros Zanchetta. 2009. The wacky wide web: A
collection of very large linguistically processed webcrawled corpora. Journal of Language Resources
and Evaluation, 43(3):209–226.
Alexander Clark. 2003. Combining distributional and
morphological information for part of speech induction. In Proceedings of the Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational
Linguistics, pages 59–66, Budapest, Hungary.
Jörg Didakowski, Alexander Geyken, and Thomas
Hanneforth. 2007. Eigennamenerkennung zwischen morphologischer Analyse und Part-of-Speech
Tagging: ein automatentheoriebasierter Ansatz.
Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, 26(2):157–186.
Jenny Rose Finkel and Christopher D. Manning. 2009.
Nested named entity recognition. In Proceedings
of the Conference on Empirical Methods in Natural
Language Processing, pages 141–150, Singapore.
Radu Florian, Abe Ittycheriah, Hongyan Jing, and
Tong Zhang. 2003. Named entity recognition
through classifier combination. In Proceedings
of the Conference on Natural Language Learning,
pages 168–171. Edmonton, AL.
Philipp Koehn. 2005. Europarl: A parallel corpus for
statistical machine translation. In Proceedings of the
MT Summit X, Phuket, Thailand.
Günter Neumann and Jakub Piskorksi. 2002. A shallow text processing core engine. Journal of Computational Intelligence, 18(3):451–476.
Marc Rössler. 2004. Corpus-based learning of lexical
resources for German named entity recognition. In
Proceedings of the Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, Lisbon, Portugal.
Helmut Schmid. 1994. Probabilistic part-of-speech
tagging using decision trees. In Proceedings of the
International Conference on New Methods in Natural Language Proceedings, pages 44–49, Manchester, UK.
Erik F. Tjong Kim Sang and Fien De Meulder.
2003. Introduction to the CoNLL-2003 shared task:
Language-independent named entity recognition. In
Proceedings of the Conference on Natural Language
Learning, pages 142–147, Edmonton, AL.
Martin Volk and Simon Clematide. 2001. Learnfilter-apply-forget. Mixed approaches to named entity recognition. In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on Applications of Natural Language for Information Systems, Madrid, Spain.
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
135
Aufbau eines linguistischen Korpus aus den Daten der englischen
Wikipedia
Markus Fuchs
Informationswissenschaft
Universität Regensburg
Regensburg, Deutschland
[email protected]
Abstract
Die Online-Enzyklopädie Wikipedia bietet eine Fülle an (semantischer) Information, die zur
Lösung von Problemstellungen aus verschiedenen Bereichen der Sprach- und Texttechnologie
(Information Retrieval, Verarbeitung natürlicher
Sprache, Information Extraction) eingesetzt werden kann. Die Informationen liegen jedoch nur in
semi-strukturierter Form in der Wikipedia-eigenen
Markup-Sprache vor, dem sogenannten “Wikitext”.
Dieser Artikel stellt ein System vor, das auf Basis
der Daten der (englischen) Wikipedia ein linguistisches Korpus erstellt und darin auch Wikipediaspezifische strukturelle Daten und Metadaten
wie Artikelverweise, Kategorienzugehörigkeit oder
zwischensprachliche Verweise speichert. Da alle
Daten in einer relationalen Datenbank abgelegt
werden, ist ein einfacher und sehr effizienter Zugriff mit umfassender Suchfunktionalität möglich.
Es wird unter anderem gezeigt, wie sich die drei
häufigsten Untersuchungsmethoden von Korpora
(Konkordanz, Frequenzlisten und Kollokationen)
mit dem hier beschriebenen System realisieren lassen.
1
Einleitung
Eine neue Art der semantischen Ressource findet
in den letzten Jahren verstärkt Anwendung in der
Verarbeitung natürlicher Sprache: Sogenannte kollaborativ erstellte Wissensressourcen (KWR) bieten gegenüber traditionellen Ressourcen wie WordNet oder GermaNet einige Vorteile, die sie für den
Einsatz bei vielen Problemstellungen interessant
machen (Zesch et al., 2008):
Zum einen sind sie (zumeist) frei verfügbar und
zum anderen kann durch die große Zahl an freiwilligen Mitarbeitern ein hoher Grad an Abdeckung
und Aktualität erreicht werden.
Die Wikipedia als der wohl bedeutendste Vertreter der KWRs bietet durch ihren enzyklopädischen
Aufbau, ihre dichte Verweisstruktur und ihre Multilingualität eine Fülle an (semantischer) Information
und wurde bereits für eine Vielzahl verschiedener
Studien eingesetzt:
Gabrilovich und Markovitch (2009) machen
sich die Tatsache zu Nutze, dass jeder WikipediaArtikel einen Begriff beschreibt, und gründen darauf ein Verfahren zur Berechnung der semantischen
Verwandtschaft. Ruiz-Casado u.a. (2005) vergleichen die Artikeltexte mit den Glossierungen potenziell bedeutungsgleicher WordNet-Synsets, um
Wikipedia-Einträge automatisiert auf die entsprechenden Konzepte von WordNet abzubilden.
In der Wikipedia kommen drei verschiedene Arten von Verweisen vor: Links auf andere Artikel
werden z. B. von Ito u.a. (2008) eingesetzt. Sie
nutzen deren Kookkurrenzen, um ein System zur
Bestimmung der semantischen Verwandtschaft zu
erstellen.
Kategorien-Links werden in der Wikipedia verwendet, um mehrere Artikel bzw. mehrere Kategorien in einer Kategorie zusammenzufassen. Ponzetto
und Strube (2007) analysieren beispielsweise die
Syntax der Titel verknüpfter Kategorien, um deren
semantische Beziehung zu bestimmen.
Durch zwischensprachliche Verweise können Artikel mit gleichem Inhalt unterschiedlicher Sprachversionen der Online-Enzyklopädie miteinander
verknüpft werden. De Smet und Moens (2009) verwenden dies in einem Verfahren, mit dem sich bestimmen lässt, ob zwei Nachrichtenmeldungen in
verschiedenen Sprachen über das gleiche Ereignis
berichten.
2
Vergleichbare Arbeiten
Für den Zugriff auf die Wikipedia(WP)-Daten werden sogenannte “Datenbank-Backup-Dumps” angeboten.1 Dabei handelt es sich um eine XML-Datei,
die in mehr oder weniger regelmäßigen Abständen
1
http://dumps.wikimedia.org/enwiki/
136
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
(alle 1-3 Wochen) für alle Sprachversionen erstellt
wird und alle zu diesem Zeitpunkt bestehenden
Artikel enthält. Die Texte der einzelnen Artikel
selbst sind im Wikipedia-eigenen Wikitext-Format
gespeichert.
Um strukturiert auf die Daten zugreifen zu
können, muss der Wikitext erst geparst werden.
Deshalb gibt es mittlerweile einige Projekte, bei
denen dieser Schritt bereits erledigt ist, wie z. B.
die Java Wikipedia Library(JWPL) (Zesch et al.,
2008), den Semantically Annotated Snapshot of
Wikipedia(SW1) (Atserias et al., 2008) oder das
WaCkypedia EN-Korpus (Baroni et al., 2008). Keines dieser Systeme bzw. Ressourcen bietet allerdings einen effizienten und umfassenden Zugriff
auf die in der Wikipedia enthaltene Informationsmenge dergestalt, dass komplexe Suchanfragen formuliert werden können.
So wurden die Wikipedia-Artikeltexte bei SW1
zwar um eine Vielzahl an linguistischen Annotationsdaten angereichert, jedoch fehlen viele wichtige Wikipedia-spezifische Daten wie
zwischen-sprachliche Verweise oder die Kategorienzugehörigkeiten. Zudem sind die Daten in mehreren Textdateien im proprietären “Multitag”-Format
gespeichert, sodass eine Verwendung nicht unmittelbar möglich ist.
Bei der JWPL hingegen lassen sich die Daten über eine umfangreiche Programmierschnittstelle abfragen. Hier sind aber wiederum keine
zusätzlichen Annotationsdaten enthalten. Darüber
hinaus sind Suchmöglichkeiten auf eher strukturelle Daten beschränkt (z. B. “Gib alle Artikel aus, die
eine bestimmte Anzahl an einkommenden Verweisen haben.”).
Das WaCkypedia EN-Korpus ist eines der Korpora aus dem WaCky-Projekt, bestehend aus den
Artikeltexten der englischen Wikipedia. Die Daten
sind in einem XML-Format gespeichert, das von
der IMS Open Corpus WorkBench gelesen und indiziert werden kann. Die Artikeltexte wurden um
linguistische Annotationsdaten erweitert. Jedoch
sind keine Wikipedia-spezifischen Daten wie etwa
die Artikelverweise enthalten. 2
folgenden Anforderungen erfüllen:
Da der Datenbestand der Wikipedia ständig
anwächst, muss das System gut skalieren können.
Des Weiteren sollen darin sowohl Wikipediaspezifische als auch linguistische Daten enthalten
sein, damit das Korpus für möglichst viele wissenschaftliche Fragestellungen verwendet werden
kann. Und schließlich soll das Speicherformat zum
einen so gestaltet sein, dass sich zusätzliche Daten (z. B. weitere linguistische Annotationen) auch
nachträglich leicht hinzufügen lassen. Zum anderen sollen die Daten leicht in ein Standardformat
exportiert werden können.
3.1
Plattform und Architektur
Das System wurde in C++ mit plattformunabhängigen Standardbibliotheken programmiert.
Als Datenspeicher wird eine PostgreSQLDatenbank verwendet.
Dadurch kann die in dem relationalen
Datenbank-Management-System (RDBMS) implementierte Indizierungs- und Suchfunktionalität
auch bei der Korpus-Abfrage verwendet werden.
Und über die Abfragesprache SQL sind auch
komplexere Abfragen und Mustersuchen möglich.
Weiterhin lassen sich auch nachträglich weitere
Daten hinzufügen, indem die neuen Datentabellen
über Fremdschlüssel mit den bestehenden verknüpft werden. Außerdem erleichtert das stark
strukturierte Speicherformat einer relationalen
Datenbank den Export der Daten in ein anderes
Format (z. B. XCES).
Die einzelnen Artikel-Datensätze des WikipediaDaten-Dumps lassen sich unabhängig voneinander
verarbeiten und speichern. Deshalb wurde die Verarbeitung parallelisiert und auf drei Programme
(WikiServer, WikiCorpusClient und CorpusServer)
verteilt, die auf unterschiedlichen Rechnern laufen können. Dadurch lässt sich die Erstellung des
Korpus stark beschleunigen.
3.2
Wikitext-Parser
Um die Nachteile der oben beschriebenen Projekte
zu umgehen, muss das hier vorgestellte System die
Der erste Verarbeitungsschritt ist das Parsen des
Wikitext-Markups. Um größtmögliche Kompatibilität mit dem Original-Parser zu erreichen, wurden die dort verwendeten Ersetzungs-Algorithmen
übernommen und in einer modular aufgebauten, objektorientierten und dadurch leichter zu wartenden
C++-Bibliothek implementiert.3
2
Eine ausführlichere Darstellung vergleichbarer Arbeiten
findet sich in Fuchs (2009).
3
Für eine nähere Beschreibung des Parsers sei auf Fuchs
(2009) verwiesen.
3
System zur Erstellung eines
Wikipedia-Korpus
137
Aus dem vom Parser erstellten Parsebaum wird
zuerst der reine Artikeltext (ohne Formatierungen)
extrahiert. Zusätzlich werden aber auch alle Verweistypen und Hervorhebungen (fett, kursiv) gespeichert.
3.3
Lexikalische Verarbeitung
Zur lexikalischen Verarbeitung des reinen Artikeltextes wurde der FoxTagger (Fuchs, 2007) verwendet. Da der Part-of-Speech-Tagger bereits sowohl
eine Satzgrenzen-Erkennung als auch die Tokenisierung integriert hat, sind für diese notwendigen
Verarbeitungsschritte keine weiteren Programme
nötig.
Als Lexikon verwendet der Tagger nicht wie
sonst üblich ein aus dem Trainingskorpus erstelltes
Lexikon, sondern die Index-Dateien von WordNet
für die offenen Wortklassen und eine von Hand
erstellte Liste für die geschlossenen Wortklassen.
Fuchs (2007) hat in Untersuchungen festgestellt,
dass diese Konfiguration einen positiven Effekt
auf die Genauigkeit und Robustheit des Taggers
hat. Deshalb ist davon auszugehen, dass FoxTagger auch auf dem Datenbestand der Wikipedia sehr
gute Ergebnisse liefert, obwohl sich die darin enthaltenen Texte vermutlich stark vom Trainingskorpus unterscheiden. Da es leider keinen GoldStandard für die Part-of-Speech(PoS)-Annotation
der Wikipedia-Texte gibt, konnte diese Vermutung
nicht verifiziert werden.
In dem PoS-Tagger ist außerdem eine morphologische Analyse implementiert, die für jedes Token
alle für die zugewiesene Wortart möglichen Lemmata ausgibt.
3.4
(Ko-)Okkurrenz-Analyse
Die Untersuchung von Frequenzlisten und Kollokationen sind typische Verwendungen von Korpora. Um beide leicht aus dem WikipediaKorpus abfragen zu können, werden die Vorkommenshäufigkeiten der Terme in jedem Artikel gezählt und in der Datenbank abgespeichert.
Über Aggregatfunktionen des RDBMS können die
Häufigkeitswerte der einzelnen Artikel dann summiert werden.
Ebenso werden bei der Erstellung des Korpus
auch die direkten Kookkurrenzen (surface cooccurrences) über ein asymmetrisches Kontextfenster mit einer Größe von vier Tokens nach rechts
gezählt (Evert, 2008).
Bei der Zählung von Kookkurrenzen und der Berechnung der Assoziationsmaße überlagern sich die
verschiedenen Bedeutungen der Terme. Die Filterung nach Part-of-Speech erlaubt die Auftrennung
in begrenztem Umfang. Eine klare Trennung wäre
nur bei einer Bedeutungsannotation möglich.
Mihalcea (2007) hat gezeigt, dass sich die Artikelverweise als Bedeutungsannotation von deren
Ankertexten interpretieren lassen. Aus diesem
Grund erfolgt die Zählung der Kookkurrenzen auf
zwei Artikelversionen: Bei der einen werden die
Tokens des Ankertextes gezählt und bei der anderen
die Artikelverweise selbst. Damit lassen sich auch
die Kollokationen von “Wikipedia-Begriffen” ermitteln, wenn auch auf einer kleineren Datenbasis.
3.5
Speicherformat
Die Daten des Korpus sind auf mehrere DatenbankTabellen verteilt. Kernstück ist die Tabelle corpus tokens. Sie enthält für jedes Token des Korpus
eine Tabellenzeile mit den folgenden Daten: die
Wortform des Tokens (surface), seine Grundform
(lemmata), Wortart (part of speech) und Position
im Korpus (token pos); die ID des Artikels, in dem
es vorkommt (rev id); die Nummer des Satzes, in
dem es vorkommt (sentence id), sowie die Position in diesem Satz (pos in sentence) und schließlich, ob das Token fett oder kursiv formatiert ist
(is emphasized). Zusätzlich ist für jedes Token, das
im Ankertext eines Links vorkommt, der Name
des Artikels gespeichert, auf den verwiesen wird
(links to article).
In weiteren Tabellen sind alle Artikel-,
Kategorien- und zwischensprachlichen Verweise
gespeichert (article links, article categories
und article iw links). Die corpus articlesTabelle enthält für jeden Artikel einen eigenen
Datensatz, in dem dessen Titel, ID (rev id)
und Informationen über die Anzahl der darin
enthaltenen Tokens gespeichert sind. Die im
vorherigen Abschnitt erwähnten (Ko)OkkurrenzHäufigkeiten für jeden Artikel sind in den
beiden Tabellen article term frequencies und
article cooccurrence frequencies
gespeichert.
Zusätzlich enthält die Datenbank die beiden
Tabellen corpus term frequencies und corpus cooccurrence frequencies, in denen die
Häufigkeitswerte für das Gesamtkorpus bereits
summiert wurden.
Wie die im Korpus enthaltenen Daten für typische korpusbasierte Studien (Frequenzlisten, Kollokationen, Konkordanz) verwendet werden können,
zeigt der nächste Abschnitt.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
138
4
Anwendungsmöglichkeiten
Da die Termhäufigkeiten des Gesamtkorpus bereits
in einer eigenen Tabelle gespeichert sind, ist die
Abfrage von Frequenzlisten sehr einfach. Dabei
können die Algorithmen der Datenbank zur Sortierung und Filterung verwendet werden. Da die
Vorkommenshäufigkeiten der Terme auch für jeden
Artikel in der Datenbank abgelegt sind, lassen sich
auch Frequenzlisten für Subkorpora (z. B. für alle
Artikel einer Kategorie) sehr leicht erstellen.
Interessieren nur die Frequenzwerte für eine begrenzte Anzahl Terme, können diese in einer eigenen Tabelle abgelegt und zur Filterung verwendet
werden.
Um Kollokationen im Sinne von wiederkehrenden und vorhersagbaren Wortkombinationen
(Evert, 2008) aus dem Korpus zu extrahieren, werden verschiedene Assoziationsmaße verwendet. Zur Berechnung werden die Vorkommenshäufigkeiten der beiden Terme und deren
Kookkurrenzen sowie die Gesamtzahl aller Tokens
des Korpus benötigt. Auch hier lassen sich diese
Werte wieder direkt aus den entsprechenden Tabellen (corpus term frequencies für die Termfrequenzen bzw. corpus cooccurrence frequencies für
die Kookkurrenzhäufigkeiten) abfragen. Wie oben
bereits erwähnt, können die Artikelverweise als
Bedeutungsannotation interpretiert und auch deren
Kollokationen ermittelt werden.
Es ist angedacht, die Assoziationswerte für die
gängigsten Assoziationsmaße (Evert, 2008) zu berechnen und in der Datenbank abzuspeichern.
Zur Erstellung einer Konkordanz-Ansicht
können alle Positionen, an denen das gesuchte
Knotenwort auftritt, und deren Kontext über einen
Tabellenindex abgefragt werden.
Auch hier ist es wieder möglich, die Artikelverweise zu nutzen. Somit lässt sich auch die Konkordanz einer bestimmten Wortbedeutung darstellen.
5
Ausblick
Für das Korpus ist ein Webinterface
(http://www.wikicorpus.com)
in
Vorbereitung, über das sich die Daten auch ohne SQL
abfragen lassen. Dort soll es dem Benutzer
dann auch möglich sein, das Korpus um eigene
Annotationen zu erweitern oder Listen in der
Datenbank anzulegen, auf die dann bei Abfragen
referenziert werden kann.
Ebenso ist für die nächste Version des KorpusSystems geplant, noch mehr Daten aus der Wiki-
pedia zu extrahieren und in der Datenbank abzuspeichern. Dazu zählen z. B. die Informationen
aus Infoboxen oder über den Aufbau des Artikels
(Sektionen, Paragraphen).
Der Datenbestand wird in Zukunft automatisch
über die Wikipedia-Daten-Dumps laufend aktualisiert.
Der Großteil der einzelnen Verarbeitungsschritte
zur Erstellung des Korpus ist sprachunabhängig.
Deshalb ist eine Verwendung des Korpus-Systems
für weitere Sprachen möglich und angedacht.
References
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corpus. SIGIR Forum, 40(1):64–69.
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pages 1212–1249. Walter de Gruyter.
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M. Fuchs. 2009. Aufbau eines wissenschaftlichen textcorpus auf der basis der daten der englischsprachigen wikipedia. Masterarbeit, Hochschule Regensburg.
E. Gabrilovich and S. Markovitch. 2009. Wikipediabased semantic interpretation for natural language
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S. P. Ponzetto and M. Strube. 2007. Deriving a large scale taxonomy from wikipedia. In AAAI, pages
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
141
Detecting Vagueness in Two Languages and Two Domains
Viola Ganter
HITS gGmbH
Heidelberg
Germany
[email protected]
Abstract
We describe a system for the automatic detection of weasel worded subclauses in English and
French. We extract already annotated sentences
from Wikipedia articles and use n-gram- and POSbased features for weasel word detection. We successfully apply the English model to biomedical,
hedge-annotated data.
1 Introduction
Recent years have seen a surge in research on
the detection of speculative statements (hedges).
However, little research has been done outside the
biomedical domain or outside the genre of scientific papers. Furthermore, to our knowledge,
there have been no computational studies in languages other than English. On the other hand,
many NLP systems would benefit from the detection of vague statements. Question-answering
and ontology-extraction systems need to be able
to differentiate facts from speculation. Automatic
essay-correction and -writing aids could benefit
from the detection of vague references, and research in deception detection needs to identify
agent underspecification. To this end, Ganter &
Strube (2009) have investigated the detection of
weasel words in Wikipedia articles, using a combination of unigrams and heuristic, shallow syntactic patterns.
In this paper, we first propose a definition of
weasel words and contrast it to hedges. We then
investigate different feature sets and their benefits for weasel word detection. Finally, we show
that the task can be transferred to other languages
and domains by applying our system to French
Wikipedia articles and a biomedical hedge corpus.
2 Related Work
Research on hedge detection in NLP has been focused almost exclusively on the biomedical domain. Light et al. (2004) present a study on annotating hedges in biomedical documents. They
show that the phenomenon can be annotated tentatively reliably by non-domain experts when using
a two-way distinction. Medlock & Briscoe (2007)
develop a weakly supervised, unigram-based system for hedge classification in the biomedical
domain. Their best system results in a 0.76
precision/recall break-even-point (BEP). Szarvas
(2008) extends their work to n-grams. He also applies his method to (slightly) out of domain data
and observes a considerable drop in performance.
Kilicoglu & Bergler (2008) are first to consider
the effect of syntactic patterns in hedge detection, yielding an F-score of 85% when trained
and tested on the corpus created by Medlock
& Briscoe (2007). They also participate in the
BioNLP Shared task 2009 (Kilicoglu & Bergler,
2009), reaching first place with an F-score of
25.27% for the detection of speculative language.
This low F-score partially relates to the setup of
the task, which involved event extraction as a basis to hedge detection, but on the other hand the
authors also point out “the lack of a standardized
notion of speculation among various corpora” (p.
124).
3 Weasels and Hedges
There is little consistency in the usage of the term
hedge. Hedges were introduced by Lakoff as
words whose meaning implicitly involves fuzziness
(Lakoff, 1973). His examples for hedges include
sort of and often, but also par excellence and really
- the latter of which being particularly a-typical
for the contemporary use of the term. Crompton
(1997) considers different studies of hedges and
proposes definition (1) below.
142
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
Hedging in scientific context strongly differs
from hedging in political speeches. It is a required
means to pose uncertain suppositions, whereas Jason (1988) focuses on hedging in political context,
where it has an evasive, euphemistic nature.
Weasel words is a colloquial term and, thus,
similarly ill-defined.
Jason (1988) describes
weasel words as a means to political hedging, and
defines them as an expression denoting qualifying
phrases and detensifiers (sort of or rather). The
Wikipedia style guidelines describe weasel words
as . . . words that, whilst communicating a vague or
ambiguous claim, create an impression that something specific or meaningful has been said.
We propose the following distinction:
1. A hedge is an item of language which a
speaker uses to explicitly qualify his/her lack
of commitment to the truth of a proposition
he/she utters. (Crompton, 1997)
2. A weasel word is an item of language which
a speaker uses to disguise his/her lack of
commitment to the truth of a proposition
he/she utters.
Both hedges and weasel words are means for
hedging, which however, can be divided into explicit and evasive hedging. What hedges and
weasel words have in common, then, is the
speaker’s lack of commitment to the truth of the
statement they appear in.
4 Data
Contributors to Wikipedia are advised to avoid
weasel words, as they are not in line with
Wikipedia’s policy of a neutral point of view1 . To
this end, a number of maintenance tags can be
placed into articles with weasel words (hereafter
referred to as weasel tag). We considered all those
tags to be weasel tags, that were either listed by
Wikipedia as tags to improve weasel worded statements ({{weasel word}}, {{who}}) or were
a redirect of one of these tags (i.e. tags that
were directly linked to and used as equivalents of
one of the listed tags). However, we excluded
the {{weasel}} tag, as it is generally used to
tag whole paragraphs or even articles as weasel
worded, while the other tags are placed directly
1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Wikipedia:Guide_to_writing_better_
articles
into a sentence. To collect training data, we extracted subclauses containing weasel tags from
POS tagged Wikipedia articles (using Wikipedia
dumps2 from the years 2007-2009 and the TreeTagger (Schmid, 1997)), subclauses in this case
being defined as the string between two punctuation marks. For each tagged subclause we found,
we chose one random subclause from an article
that did not contain any weasel tag in order to
collect negative examples. The reason for this
choice of negative examples related to the fact that
weasel worded sentence were often surrounded by
other, untagged weasel worded sentences. In some
cases articles were marked as generally weasel
worded and the weasel-word tag was just used
to emphasize some example sentences. In other
cases, the occurence of a weasel-worded expression was tagged once, but left untagged in succeeding sentences. By randomly chosing negative
instances from completely untagged pages, we intended to minimize the number of false negatives
in the training set, although it should be noted that
this still did not completely exclude the possibility of false negatives. We extracted a total of 1008
subclauses for training and 110 each as development and test data.
5 Experiments
5.1 Method
We created eight different feature sets: Following
Medlock & Briscoe (2007) and Szarvas (2008), we
extracted unigrams and bigrams from the training data to create feature sets. However, we expected these features not to be informative enough
to characterize weasel words. Consider the following examples:
1
a) It is said (weasel)
b) They were considered (weasel)
c) They were generally considered (weasel)
2
a) Some linguists (weasel)
b) Some church representatives (weasel)
c) The church representatives (non-weasel)
Example 1a) is a weasel worded phrase, although none of its containing unigrams (it, is, or
said) is a weasel word. While bigrams might capture this, we did not expect them to capture the
similarity between 1b) and 1c). To meet this problem, we also extracted k-skip-bigrams, short skipgrams. Given a sequence of words w1 . . . wn we
2
http://download.wikipedia.org/
143
Figure 1: Feature extraction: bigrams, skip-grams, crosslevel bigrams, and cross-level skip-grams
define skip-grams as the set of word pairs {(wi ,
wj ) | i ǫ {1 . . . n-1} ∧ j ǫ {i+1 . . . n}}.
However, we expected none of the abovementioned features to capture the similarity between 1a) and 1b) or c). The weasel-wordedness
of these examples seems to be beyond the word
level. To capture this, we extracted POS tags
as one feature set and, analogously to the stringbased features, also extracted POS bigrams and
POS skip-grams.
In many cases, the characteristic of weasel
words can be summarized in a combination of
words and POS tags. For instance, 2a) and b)
can be characterized by the pattern <Some .*
NNS>. In contrast, <DT .* NNS> is not specific
enough, as it would also capture example 2c). In
order to capture these relations, we extracted what
we will call cross-level bigrams and cross-level
skip-grams (see Figure 1 for illustration). Given a
sequence of pairs of words and POS tags (w1 ,p1 )
. . . (wn,pn ), we define a cross-level bigram as any
element of the set {(wi ,pi+1 ),(pi ,wi+1 ) | i ǫ {1
. . . n-1}} and a cross-level skip-gram as any element of the set {(wi ,pj ),(pi ,wj ) | i ǫ {1 . . . n1} ∧ j ǫ {i+1 . . . n}}. Similarly to Ganter &
Strube (2009), we extracted only those features
that occurred before a weasel tag. To further eliminate weak features, we performed feature selection
using the attribute subset evaluator and best-first
search algorithm (performing greedy hill-climbing
with backtracking), both implemented in the Weka
machine learning toolkit (Witten & Frank, 2005).
Finally, we combined all (selected) features to a
ninth feature set.
5.2
Results
For the task of automatically identifying weasel
worded subclauses we applied a support vector
machine (SVM), Naı̈ve Bayes (NB), and a decision tree (J48) classifier, all implemented in Weka.
Table 1 shows the performance of the three classifiers using the different feature sets. As the
precision-recall ratio was similar over all three
classifiers, we only report the support vector machine’s detailed results. All classifiers performed
significantly better than chance (with p=0.1 for
the bigram-based model, p=0.01 for all others using a paired t-test). Surprisingly, POS-based and
POS bigrams-based classification performed best
with a reasonably high precision considering the
coarseness of POS tags. This indicates that weasel
words have common characteristics at the POS
level that distinctly differentiate them from nonweasel worded language.
Purely word level based features consistently
yielded high precision but low recall over all classfiers. This indicates a variety of weasel words on
the word level that could not be captured by the
training data.
Unigr.
POS tags
Bigr.
POS bigr.
C.-l. bigr.
Skip-gr.
POS skip-gr.
C.-l. skip-gr.
Combined
PSV M
0.90
0.71
0.83
0.75
0.76
0.94
0.78
0.83
0.91
RSV M
0.59
0.69
0.57
0.74
0.60
0.57
0.72
0.66
0.66
FSV M
0.71
0.70
0.67
0.75
0.67
0.71
0.75
0.73
0.76
FNB
0.76
0.77
0.53
0.77
0.69
0.76
0.74
0.67
0.74
FJ 48
0.73
0.77
0.57
0.73
0.67
0.72
0.72
0.67
0.74
Table 1: Performance of SVM, NB, and J48 using different
features sets (unigrams, part-of-speech tags, bigrams, partof-speech bigrams, cross-level bigrams, skip-grams, part-ofspeech skip-grams, cross-level skip-grams, and the combination of all)
Finally, combining all feature sets yielded the
best performance for support vector machine classification, yet it did not differ significantly from
other models.
5.3 Experiments on French Data
The French Wikipedia does not contain direct
equivalents to each of the English weasel tags.
In fact, our French collection of weasel tags consisted only of {{qui}}, {{combien}}, and their
redirects (see section 4). Both of these tags are
used in the same manner as the English {{who}}
tag (which itself is a weasel tag). It should be
pointed out that this tag is commonly used to
mark underspecified subjects and does not capture occurrences of perhaps or probably. Common contexts for the French weasel tag are On
raconte (you/some tell), certains conservateurs
(cetain conservatives), or est considérée (is considered). We extracted subclauses in the same way
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
144
as for the English corpus, using Wikipedia dumps
from the year 2009. The corpus comprised of 462
subclauses for training and each 52 subclauses for
testing and development data. Again, we used the
TreeTagger for POS tagging. Table 2 shows the
results for the different methods when applied to
French. All classifiers performed significantly better than chance (p=0.01).
Unigr.
POS tags
Bigr.
POS bigr.
C.-l. bigr.
Skip-gr.
POS skip-gr.
C.-l. skip-gr.
Combined
PSV M
0.73
0.71
0.77
0.73
0.78
0.83
0.74
0.77
0.73
RSV M
0.37
0.73
0.40
0.68
0.56
0.32
0.71
0.58
0.51
FSV M
0.49
0.72
0.53
0.71
0.65
0.46
0.73
0.66
0.60
FNB
0.67
0.76
0.42
0.71
0.61
0.53
0.71
0.65
0.72
FJ 48
0.47
0.76
0.50
0.70
0.65
0.52
0.71
0.63
0.57
Table 3: Performance on biomedical data
Unigr.
POS tags
Bigr.
POS bigr.
C.-l. bigr.
Skip-gr.
POS skip-gr.
C.-l. skip-gr.
Combined
PSV M
0.91
0.71
0.82
0.82
0.77
0.72
0.75
0.81
0.79
RSV M
0.73
0.85
0.35
0.69
0.65
0.50
0.81
0.65
0.73
FSV M
0.81
0.77
0.49
0.75
0.71
0.59
0.78
0.72
0.76
FNB
0.78
0.70
0.49
0.72
0.69
0.56
0.69
0.71
0.69
FJ 48
0.79
0.72
0.44
0.71
0.68
0.54
0.75
0.72
0.81
Table 2: Performance on French data
Unlike on the English data, the bigram-based
method yields a higher precision when trained on
French data than the skip-grams, which might relate to the fact that qualifiers are often placed behind the noun in French, as in plusieurs observateurs politiques. Thus, the classifier learns the
same bigram (plusieur observateurs) from both, a
noun phrase with and without qualifier. In contrast, English qualified noun phrases do not have
common bigrams with their qualifierless version
(Some linguists vs. Some well-known linguists).
5.4
Hedge Detection on Biomedical Data
To investigate how similar weasel words are to
hedges, we applied the English models on a
biomedical hedge corpus (Medlock & Briscoe,
2007). Apart from the biomedical hedge corpus
created with their semi-supervised model, they
also annotated a small set of sentences manually.
The manually annotated data set contains more
fine-grained annotation, including the hedge trigger, the scope of the hedge and the topic of speculation. As we classify subclauses, we chose to
test our system on this data set. We divided the
data into subclauses, considering only those subclauses to contain hedges that contained the hedge
trigger, ignoring hedge scope. As we did for the
Wikipedia data, for each tagged subclause we extracted one untagged subclause, resulting in a balanced data set of 612 subclauses. Table 3 shows
the results.
The performance of all word-based related
methods dropped by an average of 13%. Considering that the biomedical data differs from
Wikipedia articles not only in the domain, but also
in genre, this was not surprising. As precision was
still above 70% for all classifiers, this indicates
that there is a considerable lexical overlap between
weasel words in Wikipedia articles and hedges in
biomedical data. The performance of POS-related
methods showed no decrease in performance.
6 Conclusions
We have built a system to detect weasel worded
subclauses in Wikipedia articles and transferred
this system to French. We have applied the English model to a hedge-annotated corpus from the
biomedical domain, showing how similar weasel
words and hedges are, even when domain and
genre differ. For both English and the biomedical hedge corpus, POS-based features performed
best, yielding not only a high recall but considerably high precision considering the coarseness of
POS tags. This shows that hedges are not purely
lexically defined.
Acknowledgments. This work has been partially funded by the European Union under the
project Judicial Management by Digital Libraries
Semantics (JUMAS FP7-214306) and by the
Klaus Tschira Foundation, Heidelberg, Germany.
145
References
Crompton, Peter (1997). Hedging in academic
writing: Some theoretical problems. English for
Specific Purposes, 16:271–287.
Ganter, Viola & Michael Strube (2009). Finding
hedges by chasing weasels: Hedge detection using Wikipedia tags and shallow linguistic features. In Proceedings of the ACL-IJCNLP 2009
Conference Short Papers, Singapore, 2–7 August 2009, pp. 173–176.
Jason, Gary (1988). Hedging as a fallacy of language. Informal Logic, X3.
Kilicoglu, Halil & Sabine Bergler (2008). Recognizing speculative language in biomedical research articles: A linguistically motivated perspective. In Proceedings of the Workshop on
Current Trends in Biomedical Natural Language Processing, Columbus, Ohio, 19 June
2008, pp. 46–53.
Kilicoglu, Halil & Sabine Bergler (2009). Syntactic dependency based heuristics for biological
event extraction. In Proceedings of the BioNLP
2009 Workshop Companion Volume for Shared
Task, Boulder, Colorado, 5 June 2009, pp. 119–
127.
Lakoff, George (1973). Hedges: A study in meaning criteria and the logic of fuzzy concepts.
Journal of Philosophical Logic, 2:458–508.
Light, Marc, Xin Ying Qiu & Padmini Srinivasan
(2004). The language of Bioscience: Facts,
speculations, and statements in between. In
Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2004 Workshop: Biolink 2004, Linking Biological Literature, Ontologies and Databases, Boston, Mass.,
6 May 2004, pp. 17–24.
Medlock, Ben & Ted Briscoe (2007). Weakly supervised learning for hedge classification in scientific literature. In Proceedings of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Prague, Czech Republic, 23–
30 June 2007, pp. 992–999.
Schmid, Helmut (1997). Probabilistic Part-ofSpeech tagging using decision trees. In Daniel
Jones & Harold Somers (Eds.), New Methods
in Language Processing, pp. 154–164. London,
U.K.: UCL Press.
Szarvas, György (2008). Hedge classification in
biomedical texts with a weakly supervised selection of keywords. In Proceedings of the 46th
Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Human Language Technologies, Columbus, Ohio, 15–20 June 2008,
pp. 281–289.
Witten, Ian H. & Eibe Frank (2005). Data Mining:
Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques (2nd ed.). San Francisco, Cal.: Morgan
Kaufmann.
146
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
147
Transliteration among Indian Languages using WX Notation
Sapan Diwakar
Rohit Gupta
Pulkit Goyal
Information Technology
LTRC
Information Technology
IIIT, Allahabad
IIIT, Hyderabad
IIIT, Allahabad
India
India
India
[email protected] {pulkit,sapan}@daad-alumni.de
Abstract
In this paper, we propose an algorithm to transliterate between several Indian languages. The main
aim of the algorithm is to assist in the translation
process by providing efficient transliteration. This
algorithm works on Unicode transformation format of an Indian language. It then transliterates
it into the Unicode transformation format of the
target language. It does no sort of bilingual dictionary lookup of the word. It can be used to transliterate nouns (e.g. named entities) in the translation process as well as for transliterating some text
into other language which is more suitable for the
reader.
1
Introduction
With the advances in technology and availability
of information in electronic format everywhere, it
becomes important to provide this information to
people as and when needed as well as in their native
language. This calls for the development of a tool
that can translate this information efficiently.
The translation process comprises of several
steps, one of which is transliteration. By transliteration, we refer to the process of transcribing letters or words from one script to another script. In
transliteration, word pronunciation is usually preserved. In some cases, it can also be modified
according to its pronunciation in target language.
Its main aim is to present the word in the destination languagefs script such that it is readable by
the readers of the destination language (Surana and
Singh, 2008).
The use of translation is even more necessary
in a country like India that has immense diversity.
There are different people who speak different languages in different regions of the country. Moreover, most of these languages have different scripts.
Thus the application of translation is huge in India.
Also, Indian languages are used by many people
across the globe. Hindi, the most common of all the
Indian languages is used by more than four hundred
million people followed by Bengali (83m), Telugu
(74m), Marathi (72m), Tamil (61m), Urdu (52m),
Gujarati (46m), Kannada (38m) and Malayalam
(33m) (Wikipedia, 2010).
We aim at providing an efficient algorithm for
the transliteration process that is used to convert
nouns (or other words) that are not present in the
bilingual dictionary of the source language to the
target language. Such software has other utilities as
well when used as a standalone tool. One such utility of such software is in building an interface for
users wherein they can type in an Indian Language
using the more familiar QWERTY keyboard.
The idea is to allow users to type Roman letters
and have them automatically transliterated into Indian Language. This is not as simple as it occurs
because there is no direct mapping between Roman
letters and Indian Language letters. There may be
several combinations of characters which produce
a single character in Indian Language or may produce vowel. The mapping that we have used in
our work, is a more constrained and provides a rule
set for writing a particular Indian Script in Roman
letters which can then be converted into the Indian
Script. This intermediate representation (known as
WX notation explained in a greater detail later in
the paper) also provides a way to convert the Indian
Languages into one another considering that the
phonetic pronunciation of the words in WX notation does not change with different scripts. This
assumption is simplifying as well as holds true
in most of the cases for Indian Languages. Our
approach revolves around this concept of WX notation and inter-conversions between UTF notation
of language to its WX notation and then from WX
to UTF of the target language.
The paper is structured as follows. In Section
2, we briefly discuss the previous work carried
out in this field. In Section 3, we describe our
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
148
methodology which is subdivided into three main
modules as described in Sections 3.1, 3.2 and 3.3.
2
Previous Research
There have been several researches carried out in
this area. Janarthanam, Sethuramalingam and Nallasamy (2008) proposed an algorithm that employs
grapheme-based model. In their approach, the
transliteration equivalents are identified by matching in a target language database based on editdistance. The authors trained their tool with several
names before the transliteration process. Surana
and Singh (2008) present a different algorithm that
eliminates the training phase. They used fuzzy
string matching to account for the lack of training
process. Karimi, Turpin and Scholer (2006) split
the words into vowels and consonants to achieve
transliteration. Their approach focuses on combining most probable combinations of vowels and consonants from source language to target language.
A Statistical model for transliteration from English
to Arabic words was implemented by Jaleel and
Larkey (2003).
3
Methodology
Our algorithm works by converting the Unicode
transformation format of source language to its corresponding WX notation taking into account the
linguistic knowledge for each language. This WX
notation is then converted to the Unicode transformation format of the target language to achieve
transliteration. It utilizes the information stored
in Unicode transformation format to automatically
identify the source language. The target language,
however, needs to be specified.
Before we begin with the description of the algorithm, let us first define what Unicode transformation format and WX notation are.
Definition 1: Unicode transformation format
(UTF): It is the universal character code standard to
represent characters. UTF-8 is an alternative coded
representation form for all the characters in Unicode while maintaining compatibility with ASCII
(Unicode Standard Version, 2003).
Definition 2: WX-Notation: WX notation is a
transliteration scheme to denote a script in Roman
script. It defines a standard for the representation
of Indian Languages in Roman script. These standards aim at providing a unique representation of
Indian Languages in Roman alphabet (Akshar et.al.,
1995).
The WX notations for different Indian Languages are similar in their representation (See Table
1). We utilize this property for the development of
our algorithm for transliteration.
Language
Hindi
Bengali
Telugu
Punjabi
Malayalam
Kannada
UTF-8
WX
Sacina
Table 1: Corresponding UTF and WX for various
Indian Languages representing the word “Sachin”
Thus the problem of transliteration can now be
divided into sub problems each of which can be
addressed by designing converters for converting
UTF to WX and WX to UTF for each language.
This method of conversion using an intermediate
notation was necessary so as to limit the number
of converters required for several languages (Using
direct mapping, for 6 languages, we would have
required 30 different transliteration tools whereas
using the intermediate notation, we just need 6
tools for converting from UTF to WX and another
6 to convert back from WX UTF thus limiting the
number of tools to just 12). Another benefit of
this notation is that we can extend it to convert into
other languages by simply adding 2 tools that could
convert from UTF to WX and vice versa for that
language.
3.1
Identifying Source Language
The first step in the transliteration process that we
explain in the paper is to identify the source language. The source language of the given text can
automatically be detected by analyzing the UTF
characters. UTF characters follow a particular order in the representation of characters. All the characters of a particular script are grouped together.
Thus we can identify which language/script is presented to the software by analyzing its character
codes. UTF-8 characters are variable length. For Indian languages, these characters comprise of three
bytes. Thus to detect the script of the UTF-8 characters, we analyzed the three bytes for different
languages for some pattern. By comparing the
code of second byte, the Indian Languages can be
identified (See Table 2).
149
Language
Hindi (hin)
Bengali (ben)
Telugu (tel)
Punjabi (pan)
Malayalam (mal)
Kannada (kan)
Code for second
byte
164 or 165
166 or 167
176 or 177
168 or 169
180 or 181
178 or 179
Table 2: Character Codes for UTF-8 representation
of different Indian Languages
3.2
Results
In order to prove our algorithm, we compared the
performance of our tool with the results provided
on a test set by Linguists having knowledge of both
the source as well as target language.
To evaluate our method, we tested our tool on
a large corpus having 10k (approx. 240k words)
sentences in Hindi. We then transliterated the complete corpus into each of the target languages one
by one, results of which are listed in table 3.
Converting UTF to WX
The next task is to convert the UTF form of language to the corresponding WX notation. This is
achieved by using different converters for different
languages. These converters are similar in their
implementation with a few minor changes for each
arising due to its linguistic rules. Firstly, we initialize the character maps which usually represent
a many to one mapping from Roman characters
to UTF. We then extract characters from the input
string one by one. We then push the corresponding
WX equivalents of these characters to the output
string. We have to keep in mind about maintaining
the efficiency of the algorithm so that searching for
an element in the map is minimized. For this purpose, we have made a map that corresponds to the
indices that we can obtain using UTF characters.
Thus we donft need to search the map for UTF characters. Each UTF character has a different code and
from that code, we can extract an index that points
to its corresponding WX character. This finds the
WX equivalent for each UTF character in constant
time.
3.3
4
Target Language
Hindi
Bengali
Telugu
Punjabi
Malayalam
Kannada
Accuracy
95.8
93.2
90.0
92.9
85.2
87.1
Table 3: Different Indian Languages and corresponding accuracy
The accuracy is based on the phonetic pronunciations of the words in target and source language and
this was obtained from Linguistics having knowledge of both the languages.
Converting WX to UTF
a) Input Text to transliteration module
Once we obtain the WX notation for the given
source text, the next step is to convert the WX
notation to UTF of target language. This can be
done using a similar mapping of Roman characters to UTF. Again we have to keep in mind about
maintaining the efficiency of the algorithm so that
searching for an element in the map is minimized.
This is done by utilizing the ASCII codes of roman
characters that are used to represent WX characters
and then building the map as required. Thus WX to
UTF conversion for each character is also achieved
in constant time.
b) Output in Hindi
Figure 1: Results of transliteration module
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
150
Another important point to note in the transliteration module is its time efficiency. Since it may
be used as a part of the complete translation tool, it
has to perform its task very rapidly. Keeping this in
view during our implementation, we now present
the time taken by our tool.
For 100 words written in Devanagari (Hindi), the
transliteration into Malayalam using our tool takes
less than 0.100 seconds on an Intel Core 2 Duo, 1.8
GHz machine running Fedora.
5
Conclusion
In this paper, we present an algorithm for the efficient transliteration between Indian Languages.
We presented a brief overview of UTF and WX
notations and then our algorithm that involved transition from UTF to WX of source language and
then back to UTF for target language.
6
Future Work
The algorithm presented in the paper is an efficient
algorithm for transliteration and would be used
in translation between Indian Languages. We are
also exploring on how to make the mapping more
efficient using automatic learning.
References
Akshar Bharati, Vineet Chaitanya, and Rajeev Sangal.
1995. Natural Language Processing : A Paninian
Perspective. Prentice Hall of India.
Nasreen Abdul Jaleel and Leah S. Larkey. 2003. Statistical transliteration for english-arabic cross language
information retrieval. In Proceedings of the twelfth
international conference on Information and knowledge management, New Orleans, LA, USA.
Srinivasan C. Janarthanam, Sethuramalingam S, and
Udhyakumar Nallasamy. 2008. Named entity
transliteration for cross-language information retrieval using compressed word format mapping algorithm. In Proceedings of 2nd International ACM
Workshop on Improving Non-English Web Searching.
Sarvnaz Karimi, Andrew Turpin, and Falk Scholer.
2006. English to persian transliteration. In SPIRE
2006, pages 255–266.
Harshit Surana and Anil Kumar Singh. 2008. A more
discerning and adaptable multilingual transliteration
mechanism for indian languages. In Proceedings of
the Third International Joint Conference on Natural
Language Processing, Hyderabad, India.
Addison Wesley The Unicode Consortium. 2003. The
Unicode Standard, Version 4.0.
Wikipedia.
2010.
Languages of india.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/languages of india.
(accessed: April 21, 2010).
151
Konstruktionsgrammatische Analyse von Gliederungsstrukturen
Harald Lüngen
Mariana Hebborn
Zentrum für Medien und Interaktivität Zentrum für Medien und Interaktivität
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Justus-Liebig-Universität Gießen
Germany
Germany
{harald.luengen,mariana.hebborn}@zmi.uni-giessen.de
Abstract
Dieser Beitrag beschreibt, wie Analysen von
Gliederungsfragmenten als Gliederungskonstruktionen im Formalismus der Sign-Based Construction Grammar (Sag, 2007) dargestellt werden können.
1
Motivation und Ziele
Wissen in textueller Form tritt uns immer als visuell und hierarchisch gegliederte Einheiten von
Text entgegen, was in wissenschaftlichen Texten
besonders deutlich wird. Eine Forschungshypothese des laufenden Projekts „Die Ordnung von
Wissen in Texten - Textgliederung und Strukturvisualisierung als Quellen natürlicher Wissensontologien“1 ist, dass die Gliederung wissenschaftlicher Texte wesentliche Teile der Wissensstruktur widerspiegelt, die im Text aufgebaut wird.
Die Gliederung einer modernen Dissertation etwa
stellt einen Kompromiss dar zwischen den Anforderungen der Textsorte und den methodischen und
sachlichen Gegebenheiten des Gegenstandes.
Ziel des Projekts ist es, zu untersuchen und
zu beschreiben, wie hierarchisch-visuelle Gliederungssysteme aufgebaut sind, wie Wissensstrukturen in ihnen kodiert werden und wie aus Gliederungen automatisch Ontologien für maschinell unterstützte Navigations-, Archivierungs- oder Suchaufgaben abgeleitet werden können.
2
Korpus
Zur Bearbeitung der Forschungsfragen wurde ein
Korpus von 32 digitalen (zumeist PDF) wissenschaftlichen Lehrbüchern aus zwölf Diszipli1
gefördert im Rahmen des LOEWE-Schwerpunkts Kulturtechniken und ihre Medialisierung an der Justus-LiebigUniversität Gießen
nen zusammengestellt.2 Der Textinhalt und die
XML-basierte Dokumentstruktur dieser Lehrbücher wurden extrahiert und mittels einer Suite von
XSLT-Stylesheets in eine XML-Annotation der
Dokumentstruktur nach den TEI-P5-Guidelines
überführt. Außerdem wurden die Lehrbuchtexte
mittels des Tree Taggers und Chunkers von der
Universität Stuttgart (Schmid, 1994) mit morphologischen Analysen und Chunk-Informationen sowie mittels des Machinese Syntax-Parsers von
Connexor Oy (Tapanainen und Järvinen, 1997)
mit dependenzsyntaktischen Analysen versehen.
Alle Annotationsebenen sind in XML realisiert und werden auf der Basis ihrer identischen Primärdaten zu XStandoff-Dokumenten
kombiniert. XStandoff-Dokumente repräsentieren
Multi-Layer-Annotationen und können wie in
(Stührenberg und Jettka, 2009) beschrieben mit
Hilfe von XML-Standards und -Werkzeugen verarbeitet werden. Das so aufbereitete Datenmaterial
stellt die Grundlage für die weiterführende Analyse der vorliegenden Korpusdaten.
Die Gliederungen der Lehrbücher unseres Korpus sind in der Form automatisch generierter Inhaltsverzeichnisse als XStandoff-Dokumente
mit allen verfügbaren Annotationsschichten in
der nativen XML-Datenbank eXist gespeichert
und werden durch XQuery-Anfragen oder PerlProgramme, die die LibXML-Funktionsbibliothek
verwenden, ausgewertet. Diese Korpusinfrastruktur wird genutzt, um Gliederungsfragmentanalysen, wie in (Lüngen und Lobin, 2010) dargestellt,
durchzuführen.
2
An dieser Stelle möchten wir den Verlagen Facultas,
Haupt, Narr/Francke/Attempto, Springer, UTB, Vandenhoek
& Ruprecht, und Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft danken, die uns freundlicherweise digitale Versionen von Lehrbüchern zur Verfügung gestellt haben.
152
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
6.2 Theorien des Lernens
Behaviorismus
Konstruktivismus
Kognitivismus
Abbildung 1: Gliederungsfragment
3
Gliederungskonstruktionen
Ausgehend von den Teilaufgaben der Ontologieinduktion „Identifikation von Domänenkonzepten“ und „Identifikation von Relationen zwischen
Domänenkonzepten“ (vgl. z.B. Maedche und
Staab, 2004) untersuchen wir, wie ontologischsemantische Relationen zwischen Domänenkonzepten durch Gliederungsstrukturen angezeigt
werden. In Abbildung 1 ist ein Gliederungsfragment dargestellt, in diesem Fall eine Zwischenüberschrift mit drei ihr unmittelbar untergeordneten Überschriften aus der Gliederungsstruktur
des Bandes Einführung Pädagogik von (Raithel
et al., 2007). Für die Beschreibung der Semantik
eines solchen Fragments verwenden wir den Ansatz der Multilayered Semantic Networks (MultiNet) von Hermann Helbig (Helbig, 2006). Der
MultiNet-Ansatz ist eine umfassende semantische
Theorie und bietet ein großes und konsistentes
Inventar semantischer Typen, Merkmale, Relationen und Funktionen. Es wurde beispielsweise für
die syntaktisch-semantische Analysekomponente
eines QA-Systems verwendet (Gloeckner et al.,
2007).3
Die MultiNet-Repräsentation der Semantik des
Gliederungsfragments in Abbildung 1 ist in Abbildung 2 zu sehen: Die Domänenkonzepte Behaviorismus, Konstruktivismus und Kognitivismus
aus den Unterüberschriften stehen jeweils in einer isA-Relation (in MultiNet: SUB) zu dem Domänenkonzept Lerntheorie aus der übergeordneten Überschrift. Welche linguistischen und strukturellen Eigenschaften führen zu dieser semantischen Interpretation? Es reicht nicht aus, dass die
vier linguistischen Ausdrücke in dieser Reihenfolge hintereinander im Text vorkommen, entscheidend ist, dass der Ausdruck Theorien des Lernens im Plural steht und dass die drei anderen
Ausdrücke jeweils durch eine Unterordnungsrelation im Rahmen einer Gliederungstruktur einge-
Abbildung 2: MultiNet-Repräsentation der Semantik des Gliederungsfragments
SELF:
CHILD:
T1
T2
Abbildung 3: Gliederungsschema
führt werden. Informell können wir sagen: Liegt
ein Gliederungsschema wie in Abbildung 3 vor,
so kann ein MultiNet-Schema wie in Abbildung
5 oder durch Mehrfachanwendung ein MultiNetSchema wie in Abbildung 5 abgeleitet werden,
falls folgende Bedingungen gelten:
1. SELF enthält den Term T1 , der auf das Domänenkonzept B referiert.
2. CHILD enthält den Term T2 , der auf das Domänenkonzept A referiert.
3. T1 ist ein Nomen oder eine Nominalphrase
im Plural.
4. T2 ist ein Nomen oder eine Nominalphrase
3
Für den Entwurf von MultiNet-Repräsentation wurde
uns freundlicherweise der MWR-Editor von Professor Helbigs Gruppe in Hagen zur Verfügung gestellt.
Abbildung 4: MultiNet-Schema
153
Abbildung 5: MultiNet-Schema
Eine solche Paarung von Gliederungsschema
und MultiNet-Schema nennen wir Gliederungskonstruktion in Anlehnung an die Konstruktionsgrammatik (Kay, 1995). In der Konstruktionsgrammatik wird die Kombination sprachlicher
Ausdrücke durch die Assoziierung von FormenSchemata mit Bedeutungsschemata beschrieben;
Aufgrund ihrem monostratalem Charakter erscheint die Konstruktionsgrammatik besonders
geeignet für unsere Beschreibungsaufgabe, nämlich verschiedene sprachliche Ebenen wie Semantik, Syntax und Pragmatik in einer einheitlichen
Struktur abzubilden. Eine formalisierte Version
der Konstruktionsgrammatik ist die sogenannte Sign-based Construction Grammar (SBCG)
(Sag, 2007; Michaelis, 2010), welche eine Anwendung des Formalismus der getypten AttributWert-Matrizen (AWMs) des HPSG-Ansatzes (Pollard und Sag, 1994) auf die Konstruktionsgrammatik darstellt. Abbildung 6 zeigt die oben beschrieben Gliederungskonstruktion als AWM nach
dem SBCG-Formalismus.
2-level-cxt-plural-1 ⇒

concept-subconcept-objects-frame 
i
,
  

* CONCEPT
+

  
SUBCONCEPT j


  
h
i

MTRSEMFRAMES plural-frame ,

  
INSTANCE i

  
h
i

 

singular-frame


INSTANCE j




DTRS 1 , 2



 h



i


noun


SYN CAT

NUM pl 


 h



i 
SELF 1 

INDEX
i
SEM



GENER ge






CONTEXT TERM +





 h
i


noun




SYN CAT NUM sg 


 h

i 
CHILD 2 




SEM INDEX j
GENER sp






CONTEXT TERM +
Abbildung 6: Gliederungskonstruktion „PLURAL“ nach SBCG
Abbildung 7 zeigt die Repräsentation des konkreten Konstrukts aus dem obigen Beispiel, welches durch die Konstruktion in Abbildung 6 (und
entsprechende Lexikoneinträge) lizensiert wird.
2-level-cxt-plural ist die Typenbezeichnung für
die Klasse der Konstrukte, die sich auf zwei
Gliederungsebenen beziehen und in deren Fokus sich eine Überschrift mit einem DomänenTerm im Plural befindet. Die Merkmale SELF
und CHILD wurden zur Auszeichnung der Unterordnungsrelation in Gliederungsschemata eingeführt; wir verwenden SELF, CHILD, PARENT
nach dem Vorbild der XML Path Language (Clark,
1999) um im Gliederungsschema von einer Überschrift, die im Fokus steht (SELF) auf über-,
unter- oder nebengeordnete Überschriften Bezug
zu nehmen. Im Zusammenhang mit der Koindizierung mit Elementen der DTRS-Liste der Konstruktion erfüllen sie eine ähnliche Funktion wie
das HD-DTR-Merkmal in den headed-constructs
der SBCG (Sag, 2007, S.51). Die bisherige Inventarisierung von Gliederungskonstrukten hat gezeigt, dass sie keine headed structures sind, daher
wirkt das Head-Feature Principle in diesen Strukturen nicht, wohl aber das Semantik-Prinzip (Principle of Compositionality, cf. (Sag, 2007, S.42)),
welches die FRAMES-Liste der DTRS mit den
FRAMES-Listen der MTR unifiziert. In den FRAMES verwenden wir als Merkmale die C-Rollen
aus dem MultiNet-Ansatz (Helbig, 2006), wie beispielsweise MCONT (für mental content) in Abbildung 7. Unter CONTEXT führen wir das boolesche Merkmal TERM ein, welches den Terminologiestatus eines Ausdrucks anzeigt.
4
Ausblick: Ontologieinduktion aus
Gliederungsinformationen
Derzeit werden Gliederungskonstruktionen inventarisiert, im SBCG-Formalismus beschrieben und
in TRALE (Penn, 2003; Melnik, 2007) implementiert, um sie auf Konsistenz zu überprüfen.
Ein weiteres Ziel des Projekts ist die Implementierung eines Prototyps für die Ontologieinduktion aus Gliederungsstrukturen. Bei der Extraktion
von Domänenkonzepten und semantischen Relationen zwischen ihnen werden Gliederungskonstruktionen eine ähnliche Rolle spielen wie die
lexiko-syntaktischen „Hearst Patterns“ (Hearst,
1992), die bei der Ontologieinduktion aus Fließtext angewendet wurden. Das Poster wird weitere komplexere Beispiele von Gliederungskon-
154
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
struktionen und Paaren von Gliederungsfragmenten und MultiNet-Repräsentationen zeigen, die
von ihnen lizensiert werden, sowie eine Beschreibung der Verarbeitungspipeline der Ontologieinduktion.
References
James Clark, Steve DeRose (Hrsg.)
(1999).
XML Path Language (XPath). Version 1.0.
http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xpath19991116/, 3.05.2010.
Ingo Glöckner, Sven Hartrumpf, Hermann Helbig, Johannes Leveling, Rainer Osswald (2007). Automatic semantic analysis for NLP applications. In:
Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, Jg. 26, H. 2, S.
241-266.
Hermann Helbig (2006). Knowledge Representation
and the Semantics of Natural Language. Series Cognitive Technologies. Springer: Berlin.
Paul Kay (1995). Construction Grammar. In:
Verschueren, Jef; Östman, Jan-Ola Blommaert Jan
(Hg.): Handbook of Pragmatics. Manual. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, S. 171 - 177.
Harald Lüngen, Henning Lobin (Erscheint 2010). Extracting semantic relations from tables of contents
Erscheint in: {Proceedings of Digital Humanities
2010.
Marti A. Hearst (1992). Automatic acquisition of hyponyms from large text corpora. In: Proceedings of
the 14th International Conference on Computational
Linguistics .
Alexander Maedche, Steffen Staab (2004). Ontology
Learning. In: Handbook on Ontologies. Springer:
Berlin.
Nurit Melnik (2007). From “Hand-Written” to Computationally Implemented HPSG.
Research on Language and Computation.
Volume 5, Number 2.
Laura A. Michaelis (im Erscheinen). Sign-Based
Construction Grammar. Erscheint in: The Oxford
Handbook of Linguistic Analysis. Oxford University Press: Oxford.
Stefan Müller (2007). Head-driven Phrase Structure
Grammar: Eine Einführung. Stauffenburg Einführungen Nr. 17. Tübingen: Stauffenburg.
Stefan Müller (erscheint 2010). Grammatiktheorie:
Von der Transformationsgrammatik zur beschränkungsbasierten Grammatik. Stauffenburg Einführungen. Tübingen: Stauffenburg
Gerald Penn, Detmar Meurers, Kordula De Kuthy,
Mohammad Haji-Abdolhosseini, Vanessa Metcalf,
Stefan Müller, Holger Wunsch (2003). Trale Milca Enviroment v. 2.5.0. User’s Manual.
http://utkl.ff.cuni.cz/ rosen/public/
trale-manual.pdf, 3.05.2010.
Carl Pollard, Ivan A. Sag (1994). Head-driven Phrase
Structure Grammar. Studies in Contemporary Linguistics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.
Jürgen Raithel, Bernd Dollinger, Georg Hörmann
(2007). Einführung in die Pädagogik. Begriff - Strömungen - Klassiker - Fachrichtungen. 2. Aufl. Wiesbaden: Springer: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.
Ivan A. Sag
(2007).
Sign-based Construction
Grammar.
An
Informal
Synopsis.
Unpublished
Manuscript,
http://lingo.stanford.edu/sag/papers/
theo-syno.pdf, 3.05.2010.
Helmut Schmid (1994). Probabilistic Part-of-Speech
Tagging using Decision Trees. In: Proceedings of
the International Conference on New Methods in
Language Processing. Manchester, UK, S. 44-49.
Maik Stuehrenberg, Daniel Jettka (2009). A tookit
for multi-dimensional markup: The development of
SGF to XStandoff. In: Proceedings of Balisage:
The Markup Conference 2009 (Balisage Series on
Markup Technologies, 3).
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the fifth conference on Applied natural language
processing. Washington D.C.
155


a3-2-level-cxt-plural-1
D
E
 
 FORM Theorien des Lernens,


Behaviorismus

  

concept-subconcept-objects-frame 
 

 


  
CONCEPT i
, 

  

SUBCONCEPT j

  


*theory-frame +
  



MTR 


 SEMFRAMES INSTANCE i ,



MCONT k
  


h
i
  



behaviorism-frame
  


,
  
INSTANCE j



  
h
i


learning-frame



INSTANCE k




phrase






FORM Theorie + n, des, Lernen + s





ARG-SThi













noun





SELECThi

  






XARG
none






 CATLID theory-frame





SYN 


CASE
nom

 






NUM
pl







1 
VALhi






MRKG det









INDEX i






 

* theory-frame +




INSTANCE i , 


SEM


MCONT k

FRAMES





h
i




learning-frame





INSTANCE
k
*
+







CONTEXT TERM +
DTRS






word




FORM Behaviourismus



ARG-SThi



  


 




noun





  SELECThi


 

  XARG none

 

 CATLID behaviorism-frame

 

SYN

 

CASE nom
 

 


NUM
sg


 
2 



VALhi






MRKG det


 





INDEX j


h


i 

 



behaviorism-frame

SEMFRAMES INSTANCE j











GENER sp






CONTEXT TERM +





SELF
1


CHILD 2
Abbildung 7: Gliederungskonstrukt
156
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
157
Productivity of NPN sequences in German, English, French, and Spanish
Antje Müller
Katja Keßelmeier
Sprachwissenschaftliches Institut
Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Germany
{roch,kesselmeier,mueller}@linguistics.rub.de
Claudia Roch
Abstract
NPN sequences like step by step or year after year
combine regular and irregular aspects of language.
While the pattern seems to be fully productive for
at least some prepositions, it is highly restricted
for others, so that the question of licensing conditions arises. Following Jackendoff (2008) we
consider the semantics of the preposition as well
as of the noun to play a crucial role here. While
some work has been done on NPNs considering
examples more or less intuitively, we tackle the
question of the productivity of these constructions
with the help of corpus-based, statistical methods.
We do not only examine NPNs in English but use
the EUROPARL corpus for a cross-linguistic comparison of the productivity and the semantics of the
NPNs in four languages.
1
Introduction
NPN sequences are combinations of two identical1
nouns with a preposition in between. The construction includes both idiomatic instances, e.g. word
for word (’literally’) and also more or less regular
patterns, e.g. month after month (with the analogous forms day after day, book after book, etc.).
NPN sequences, also known as ”binomials”, belong to the field of phraseology, which treats irregular aspects of language. Jackendoff, examining
English NPN constructions, regards them as ”a
prime example of what Culicover (1999) calls a
’syntactic nut’ - an entrenched noncanonical structure” (Jackendoff, 2008).
Nevertheless he assumes that the construction is
fully productive with five English prepositions (after, by, for, to, and upon (with its variant on)), and
regards the construction as a whole as semiproductive. Jackendoff grounds his division into productive and semiproductive rules on a definition which
1
NPN sequences with different nouns will be excluded
from our investigation.
says that with a productive rule, the open variable
(which is the noun in our case) can be filled freely,
while for a semiproductive rule it has to be learned
which cases are acceptable. In his assumptions
about productivity, he relies on citations found in
the literature and speakers’ intuitive judgements.
We study a similar question, namely for which
prepositions the NPN construction is productive,
using statistical methods. Initially, we tested which
prepositions of the entire set of simple prepositions
in a language can be found in the construction. In
a second step, we determined which of the prepositions are used productively and compared them
to each other. An important issue was to detect the
determining factors for the regular patterns. Apparently, on the one hand, they depend a lot on the
preposition used in the NPN sequence and on its
semantics. Possibly, on the other hand, the semantics of the noun plays a crucial role if it turns out
that all the nouns in the NPN sequences belong
to one semantic class. Therefore, we will include
a short section describing the semantics of NPN
sequences.
To approach these questions, we chose to do a
corpus study using the EUROPARL corpus, which
is an aligned parallel corpus consisting of debates
held in the European Parliament. It comprises
eleven languages, four of which are examined,
namely German, English, French, and Spanish.
We use these languages2 for a contrastive analysis of NPN sequences. The advantage of a contrastive analysis is that existing productive semantic
patterns can be detected cross-linguistically.
The data gained by querying the EUROPARL
corpus are fed into the R software3 for statistical
computing. As a productivity measure, we use
the typical LNRE models (Large Number of Rare
2
As Jackendoff notes, NPN constructions can be found in
a multitude of other languages as well, for example in Dutch,
Polish, Russian, Japanese or Mandarin.
3
http://www.r-project.org/
158
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
Events) that are implemented in the zipfR package
(Baroni & Evert, 2006).
2
pour, sur) and Spanish respectively (a, con, contra,
por, sobre, tras).
Querying the EUROPARL corpus
The EUROPARL corpus contains roughly 40 million tokens per language and is freely available as
a part of the OPUS collection (cf. Tiedemann &
Nygaard, 2004). It was preprocessed and sentencealigned by Koehn (2005) and POS-tagged and lemmatized within the IMS Open Corpus Workbench
project.4
We searched for expressions consisting of two
identical nouns joined by a particular preposition,
testing the occurrences of all simple prepositions
for the different languages one by one. We determined the productivity of the construction by
means of vocabulary growth curves. For the calculation of the curves, the total corpus size was
reduced by half ten times and each slice of the
corpus was treated separately.
The resulting NPN sequences had to be checked
manually because such a revision yields more reliable results when it comes to computing productivity. Besides we wanted to exclude some of the
sequences. There are some restrictions formulated
for the English language by Jackendoff that we can
take over: There are no mass nouns or nouns in the
plural form allowed (with exceptions), prenominal
adjectives are possible, but determiners and postnominal complements are not permitted in the NPN
construction. But in contrast to Jackendoff, NPN
constructions with non-identical nouns and NPN
sequences proceeded by another preposition (e.g.
from N to N) are not considered. Proper names will
also be excluded.
3
Some initial results
After having clarified the procedure of the extraction and delimited the constructions that will be
included in the study, we can take a first glimpse at
the total occurrences of NPNs in the corpus.
The total occurrences of the prepositions in NPN
sequences across languages can be found in Table
1. There is only a small subset of simple prepositions for each language that can be found in the
construction: There are eight prepositions for German (an, auf, für, gegen, in, nach, über, um) and
English (after, against, by, for, in, on, to, upon),
and 6 prepositions for French (à, àprès, contre, par,
4
http://cwb.sourceforge.net/
p (G)
an
auf
für
gegen
in
nach
über
um
8
f
102
5
924
6
235
5
11
106
1394
p (En)
after
against
by
for
in
on
to
upon
8
f
395
6
665
53
554
36
211
38
1959
p (Fr)
à
après
contre
par
pour
sur
f
348
369
2
624
101
11
p (Sp)
a
con
contra
por
sobre
tras
6
1455 6
f
593
100
2
474
15
428
1612
Table 1: Total occurrences of NPN sequences for
prepositions in German, English, French, and Spanish
Comparing the total occurrences, the observed
languages differ somewhat in their extent of using the NPN construction. The greatest number of
NPN sequences can be found in English (1959),
followed by Spanish (1612) and French (1455) and
finally German with the least number of combinations (1394). Due to the fact that we use a parallel
corpus, we can assume that we have a broadly similar text basis for each language. However, the
translations in the corpus do not correspond exactly. Often, we find examples of a typical NPN
sequence in one language (e.g. German Schritt für
Schritt ’step by step’) which are translated into another language by an adverb (e.g. gradually) or
by a completely different construction (e.g. one
step after the other). Sometimes the other language
simply does not use an NPN sequence or pieces of
text are not translated into the other languages or
the alignment does not work correctly in a section.
4
Semantics of the NPN construction
The semantics of the prepositions and the respective nouns play an important role for the semantics of the whole NPN sequence. Jackendoff distinguishes five semantic categories for the NPN
constructions, namely ’succession’ (in a ’local’,
’temporal’, and ’local-vertical’ sense), ’juxtaposition’, ’matching’ with the subcategories ’exchange’
and ’comparison’, and ’large quantity’, excluding
the interpretation ’transition’ that only applies to
non-identical nouns.
These categories suggested by Jackendoff for
English can also be assigned to the other languages
examined, although it must be clear that every language shows idiosyncrasies.
159
subtypes
Jackendoff
English
German
French
Spanish
succession
local, local-vertical,
temporal
after, by, upon/on, to
after, by, upon/on, to
auf, für, nach, um
à, après, par, sur
a, por, sobre, tras
juxtaposition
to
to, in
an, in
à
a, con
matching
exchange, comparison,
adversative
for
against, for
gegen, um
contre, pour
contra, por
large quantity
upon/on
upon
über
sur
sobre
Table 2: Semantic categories for NPN sequences
A semantic classification of the NPN subconstructions for the four languages based on the categories by Jackendoff can be found in Table 2.
The category ’adversative’ has been added as a
subcategory of ’matching’. It is relevant for the
NPN sequences with the preposition against or
gegen (Germ.) respectively, contre (Fr.) and contra
(Sp.) in the other languages.
Apart from the classification based on the different prepositions and their associated meanings, we
analyzed the nouns in the NPN sequences. First of
all, there are body part expressions and concrete local nouns in the category ’juxtaposition’ (cf. Engl.
shoulder to shoulder, eye to eye, hand in hand, arm
in arm, etc.) which can be found across all four
languages.
Another important group of nouns contains temporal expressions that occurred in the semantic category ’succession’ (e.g. for Engl. day by day, year
by year, month by month, year after year, day after
day, month after month, year upon year, decade
upon decade). It suggests itself that some kind of
’temporal succession’ can be expressed within this
category, but the semantic paradigm of nouns is not
restricted to temporal expressions here, but open to
all kinds of nouns.
This is an interesting observation with regard
to the productivity of the construction. In the next
section, we present the statistical methods we use to
compute the productivity of the NPNs and compare
the different prepositions in the subconstructions
with each other.
5
Productivity of the NPN construction
Reasonable indicators for productivity are vocabulary growth curves, from which one can glean
how the vocabulary will develop on the basis of
expected values. Vocabulary growth curves are often applied to compare the productivity of different
morphological processes, but will be used here to
compare the productivity of the different subconstructions of NPNs. As the subconstructions differ
in vocabulary size, it is necessary to extrapolate the
curves to make them comparable.
For extrapolation, models are needed that predict the development of the vocabulary. When
dealing with lexical statistic computations, a great
number of infrequent occurrences are involved
and so the typical LNRE models are required,
taking into account these distributions. The statistical computation of these models was done
by means of the zipfR package (Baroni & Evert,
2006). Three typical models are implemented there:
the Zipf-Mandelbrot model (ZM), the finite ZipfMandelbrot model (fZM) and the Generalized Inverse Gauss-Poisson model (GIGP).
The goodness-of-fit was calculated for the three
models with every preposition5 in an NPN. For
each case the best model was selected (the overall
best value was reached with a Zipf-Mandelbrot
model and the English preposition on (χ2 =
0.9123977, df = 3, p = 0.822435).6
The vocabulary growth curves computed by using the LNRE models and the empirical curves for
the NPN sequences for the four languages can be
seen in Figure 1. What is principally assumed is
that flattening curves stand for unproductive rules,
while ascending curves indicate that a process is
productive. The vocabulary growth curves indicate
that the NPN constructions with the prepositions
um, für (Germ.), after, by, for (Engl.), après, par
(Fr.), and por, tras (Sp.) are productive. The results
for the English NPN constructions agree with the
findings of Jackendoff.
5
Sometimes, these models could not be computed for a
preposition because there were too few occurrences in the
corpus (cf. Table 1). These prepositions are not included in
Figure 1.
6
The value for χ2 should be as low as possible and the
p-value preferably high, at least > 0.05.
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
160
Figure 1: Vocabulary growth curves (empirical and ZM/fZM) for German, English, French and Spanish.
The productive NPN subconstructions are all
used to express ’succession’, which is clearly an
important factor and a cross-linguistic pattern. For
the other prepositions, one might suppose that these
NPN sequences are more or less unproductive.
What must be kept in mind is that a curve may
seem productive, but that possibly one has not seen
enough data yet.
6
Conclusion
We have shown that the productivity of NPN sequences can be compared by computing the vocabulary growth curves with statistical models. Especially the NPNs with a ’succession’ sense seem to
be productive, even across languages, but a more
fine-grained semantic classification would be desirable.
As a next step we are planning to repeat the study
on a larger German corpus in order to confirm our
observations and maybe get even more accurate
statistical models for computing the productivity.
Acknowledgments
We would like to thank Jan Strunk and Stefanie
Dipper for their helpful comments and Tibor Kiss
for his help with R.
161
References
Harald Baayen. 2001. Word frequency distributions.
Kluwer, Dordrecht.
Marco Baroni and Stefan Evert. 2006. The zipfr
package for lexical statistics: A tutorial introduction. URL, [03/05/10]: http://zipfr.r-forge.rproject.org/materials/zipfr-tutorial.pdf.
Peter W. Culicover. 1999. Syntactic nuts: hard cases,
syntactic theory, and language acquisition. Oxford
University Press, Oxford.
Stefan Evert. 2004. A simple lnre model for random
character sequences. In Proceedings of the 7èmes
Journées Internationales d’Analyse Statistique des
Données Textuelles, pages 411–422.
Ray Jackendoff. 2008. Construction after construction
and its theoretical challenges. Language, 84(1).
Philipp Koehn. 2005. Europarl: A parallel corpus for
statistical machine translation. In MT Summit.
Jörg Tiedemann and Lars Nygaard. 2004. The opus
corpus - parallel & free. In Proceedings of the
Fourth International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC’04), Lisbon, Portugal.
162
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
163
Automatically Determining the Semantic Gradation of German Adjectives
Peter F. Schulam
Department of Computer Science
Princeton University
United States
[email protected]
Abstract
The semantics of gradable adjectives, in particular
their order with respect to one another on a given
scale, are not sufficiently represented in lexical resources such as wordnets. Thus, it is not clear
whether superb expresses the quality of “goodness” equally, more, or less strongly than excellent
or great. Sheinman and Tokunaga (2009) determine the relative gradation of English adjectives
by applying lexical-semantic patterns that hold between members of pairs of similar descriptive adjectives to corpus searches. The patterns identify
one member of such pairs as the one that expresses
a stronger, or more intense, degree of the property denoted by the scale than the other member.
By iteratively applying these patterns to a set of
adjectives, Sheinman and Tokunaga (2009) arrive
at a uniform score for each adjective that allows
them to place it at an appropriate point on a scale.
We extend the AdjScales method (Sheinman and
Tokunaga 2009) to some frequent and salient German adjectives to test its crosslingual robustness.
Our work has consequences for automatic text understanding and generation, lexicography and language pedagogy.
1
Christiane Fellbaum
Department of Computer Science
Princeton University
United States
[email protected]
ent meanings. Automatic text understanding and
generation systems must be able to differentiate
among such adjectives as well.
1.1
Adjectives in WordNet
The most widely used lexical resource, WordNet, organizes English adjectives into “dumbbell”
structures, consisting of two polar adjectives and
a number of adjectives that are semantically similar to one of each of the poles (Gross et al. 1989;
Gross and Miller 1990). Polar adjective pairs
such as long and short, called “direct” antonyms
by Gross and Miller (1990), label two salient opposed points on a scale such as “length” (Bierwisch 1987). Extended and abbreviated are ”semantically similar” to long and short, respectively.
These adjectives are called “indirect” antonyms of
the polar adjectives. Figure 1 shows an example
of a WordNet “dumbbell”.
Introduction
Adjectives remain a relatively ill-understood category. This is reflected in their representation in
language resources, which typically lack explicit
indications of the degree or intensity with which
adjectives express a common property. Thus Roget’s 21st Century Thesaurus identifies both acceptable and superb as synonyms of good 1 , but
native speakers easily agree that the sentences Her
work was acceptable/good/superb express differ1
http://www.thesaurus.com/browse/good
Figure 1: An example of a WordNet “dumbbell
structure” (Gross and Miller 1990)
A major shortcoming of WordNet’s treatment
of adjectives is that it does not distinguish among
the strength of the similar adjectives: what is the
degree to which they express the property of the
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
164
scale? I.e., what is their relative position with respect to the polar adjectives and one another?
GermaNet abandons the use of WordNet’s
dumbbell structure and adopts a hierarchical
structure akin to that which is used for organizing nouns and verbs (Hamp and Feldweg
1997). The root nodes, like temperaturspezifisch
(”temperature-specific”) refer to the shared property and, in some cases, to the domain of the adjectives in the tree. These terms are the direct superordinates of the polar adjectives. Each polar
adjective dominates a subtree of additional adjectives, which are claimed to be increasingly more
specific as one descends the tree.
While the Princeton WordNet does not distinguish between the relative intensities of similar
adjectives, it encodes a coarse scale by focusing
on antonymous adjectives. GermaNet, however,
completely abandons a scalar approach in adopting a hierarchical structure. Schulam (2009) questions this move away from bipolarity by showing the strong co-occurrence patterns of German
bipolar adjectives — the phenomenon that underpins the Princeton WordNet organization. Furthermore, rejecting a bipolar representation fails to account for the scalar properties of many adjectives.
2
Gradability
Our goal is to assign gradable adjectives to their
relative positions on a scale. Kennedy (1999)
points out that “a defining characteristic of gradable adjectives is that there is some gradient property associated with their meaning with respect to
which objects in their domains can be ordered.”
A necessary characteristic of gradable adjectives
is that they “ascribe to their head nouns values of
(typically) bipolar attributes and consequently are
organized in terms of binary oppositions” (Gross
and Miller 1990). The bipolar adjectives, as well
as their similar adjectives, naturally allow themselves to be placed on unidimensional scales, with
each pole of the dimension corresponding to one
of the two attributes.
2.1 Property Scales
Languages tend to provide words for referring to
intermediate values between opposing semantic
poles. Consider the phrase “The bread is warm”.
If we drew a straight line through the lexicalized “points” associated with the words cold, lukewarm, and hot, the word warm might lie on the
line somewhere between lukewarm and hot.
Lexical resources indicate that speaker introspection provides only fuzzy judgments about
where gradable adjectives fall on a scale. Nevertheless, language provides for ways to detect
these subtle gradations via lexical-semantic patterns. Our goal is to empirically identify such
patterns for German adjectives and to propose a
method for correctly placing them on their respective scales.
3
AdjScales
Sheinman and Tokunaga (2009) propose AdjScales, a method that accepts a group of similar
adjectives as input and returns as output a unified
scale on which the initial adjectives, as well as additional similar ones, are situated in order of increasing strength.
The fundamental preparatory step is the discovery of scaling patterns (Sheinman and Tokunaga
2009). AdjScales uses pattern extraction queries
of the form a ∗ b. a and b are seed words and ∗ is
a wildcard. Sheinman and Tokunaga perform such
queries using a yahoo search engine API that allows for searches and the collection of “snippets”,
small text excerpts for each result returned from a
search engine. These snippets can then be compiled into a database of excerpts containing patterns of interest.
AdjScales selects seed words in a supervised
manner using two seeds seed1 and seed2 such
that seed2 is stronger-than seed1 . Sheinman and
Tokunaga selected 10 seed word pairs from Gross
and Miller (1990) that intuitively display a clear
gradation along the same scale.
After successfully creating a database of snippets, AdjScales extracts patterns of the form
[prefixp x infixp y postfixp ] “where x and y are
slots for words or multiword expressions” (Sheinman and Tokunaga 2009). Pattern candidates must
be consistent with respect to the order in which all
instances display the seed words. “Intense” patterns display the weaker word first and the more
intense word second, while “mild” patterns do the
opposite. Valid patterns must also be supported
by at least three seed pairs, and they must repeat
twice in extracted sentences. Finally, the patterns
must be supported by seed pairs describing different properties.
Pattern extraction is followed by several steps:
input, scale relaxation, extension, scaling, and
scales unification.
165
The input step selects at least two similar adjectives. Scale relaxation divides the input adjective set into two antonymous subsets using WordNet’s dumbbell structure (Sheinman and Tokunaga 2009).
The extension step proposes adjectives belonging to the same scale as the input word, based on
members of a WordNet dumbbell structure.
Scaling involves iteratively placing pairs of adjectives from the extended input set into the extracted patterns. Sheinman and Tokunaga employ
a weighting algorithm that uses the page hit counts
returned from a search engine when searching for
the complete phrase formed by the adjective pair
and the extracted pattern. They use this algorithm
to apply a uniform score representing intensity to
each adjective (Sheinman and Tokunaga 2009).
This allows for the adjective in each of the subdivided groups to be ordered according to increasing
intensity as indicated by their score.
After the two subdivided groups have been independently ordered, the scales are unified. The
two independently unified scales are merged at the
“mild” ends of the spectrum.
4
AdjScales in German
Adapting the pattern extraction process to German
adjectives involved selecting suitable seed words,
choosing an accessible and extensive corpus in
which we could search for patterns, and selecting
patterns from the data returned from the pattern
extraction queries.
4.1
Seed Word Selection
From a list of 35 antonymous adjective pairs identified by Deese (1964) we selected five antonym
pairs as candidate seeds and translated them into
German: kalt-heiß, dunkel-hell, schnell-langsam,
traurig-glücklich, and stark-schwach 2 . The pairs
represent a variety of different properties to ensure
that our extracted patterns would apply to a broad
range of semantically diverse adjectives.
Next we paired each of the members of the five
antonymous pairs with another adjective from the
same scale that we intuitively judged to be more
mild or more intense. For example, for kalt (cold)
we chose the milder adjectives kühl (cool) to complete the seed pair.
We compiled a list of similar adjectives for each
of the members of the five antonymous pairs by
2
cold-hot, dark-bright, fast-slow, sad-happy, strong-weak
Kalt
Dunkel
Schnell
Traurig
Stark
Kühl
Düster
Hastig
Bitter
Stabil
Heiß
Hell
Langsam
Glücklich
Schwach
Warm
Grell
Schleppend
Zufrieden
XXX
Table 1: Complete list of seed words chosen for
this study.
#
1
2
3
4
5
6
Intense Patterns
X, fast Y
X, nicht jedoch Y
X, zwar nicht Y
X und oft Y
X sogar Y
X, aber nicht Y
Table 2: List of discovered intense patterns.
using the graphical user interface GermaNet Explorer3 , which allowed us to search the adjective
trees in GermaNet. After compiling a list of similar adjectives for each of the members of the pairs,
we performed queries using COSMAS II4
We searched for sentences containing both a
translated Deese adjective and one of the corresponding similar adjectives. After iterating
through all similar adjectives for each of the Deese
adjectives, we chose the most suitable pairing
based on the size and diversity of the results returned. The final seed pairs can been in table 1.
Table cells filled with “XXX” indicate that no appropriate adjective was discovered.
4.2
Pattern Extraction
To extract patterns, we performed queries in COSMAS II that searched for co-occurrences of the
seed pairs within the same sentence regardless of
their relative order. We exported the results to
text files and processed them using simple python
scripts.
We first separated the results for each pair of adjectives into files containing “mild” patterns and
files containing “intense” patterns. We then removed all results in which the seed words were
connected only by und, as this pattern does not indicate the relative strength of the adjectives that it
joins. The final list of aggregated patterns is shown
in tables 2 and 3.
3
4
http://www.hytex.tu-dortmund.de/ressourcen.html
http://www.ids-mannheim.de/cosmas2
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
166
#
7
8
9
10
Mild Patterns
nicht X, aber Y
nicht X, aber doch Y
nicht zu X, aber Y genug
nicht X, sondern Y
Table 3: List of discovered mild patterns.
4.3
5
Pattern Testing
To test our extracted patterns we used a python
script to submit queries containing a pattern in
which the adjective slots were filled with test adjective pairs that were different from those used to
initially extract the patterns. A test was considered
successful when the search returned more results
for intense patterns when the adjective pairs were
ordered mild-intense and when the search returned
more results for mild patterns with the adjective
pairs were ordered intense-mild.
Intense Patterns
Pattern Hits
1
6
1
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
628
Mild Patterns
Pattern Hits
7
0
8
0
9
0
10
0
Table 4: Page hits for patterns with input lautohrenbetäubend
Intense Patterns
Pattern Hits
1
0
2
0
3
0
4
0
5
0
6
0
tables 4 and 5. Given that some pairs of adjectives
produced successful results, we believe that the
failure of other test cases should not be ascribed
to any shortcomings of the method employed but
rather to the limited scope of our study. Further
work with a larger number of distinct adjectives is
needed.
Mild Patterns
Pattern Hits
7
3
8
0
9
0
10
0
Table 5: Page hits for patterns with input ohrenbetäubend-laut
Many pairs of test adjectives did not return any
hits for both the appropriate and inappropriate ordering for both mild and intense patterns. On
the other hand, a number of pairs produced successful results. For example, the pair laut (loud)
and ohrenbetäubend (deafening) returned successful results. The results of this test can be seen in
Discussion
We demonstrated the robustness of the AdjScales
process proposed for English by Sheinman and
Tokunaga (2009) by successfully adapting it to
German. While the sample set of adjectives used
to extract patterns from our test corpus was relatively small — resulting in the aggregation of
patterns that could only be applied within a limited scope — our application of the patterns to the
selected adjective pairs yielded results mirroring
those of Sheinman and Tokunaga (2009). Some
of the patterns that we induced for German were
translational equivalents of the English patterns,
while others seem specific to German. Further extensions to additional languages are planned.
The broader implications of our study is that
the recreation of AdjScales strongly supports the
underlying semantic analysis. The lexical organization of scalar adjectives into bipolar adjectives
(Bierwisch 1987; Gross and Miller 1990) extends
across languages that recognize this lexical category. However, the labeling of values along the
scale relative to the two poles may well differ
crosslinguistically. While linguists, lexicologists
and psychologists have long taken this for granted,
we believe our contribution to be both novel and
important in that it provides empirical evidence for
understanding the meanings of specific adjectives
as members of a scale. AdjScales can furthermore
provide powerful tools for computational linguists
and Natural Language Processing applications as
well as supply the foundation for the development
of more effective language reference tools.
Acknowledgments
We thank the Institut für Deutsche Sprache for
making the COSMA corpus available. Fellbaum’s
work was supported by U.S. National Science
Foundation grant IIS 0705155.
167
References
M. Bierwisch. Grammatische und konzeptuelle
Aspekte von Dimensionsadjektiven. AkademieVerlag, 1987.
J. E. Deese. The associative structure of some
common English adjectives. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior. Vol, 3(5):347–
357, 1964.
D. Gross and G.A. Miller. Adjectives in Wordnet. International Journal of Lexicography, 3
(4):265, 1990.
D. Gross, U. Fischer, and G.A. Miller. Antonymy
and the representation of adjectival meanings.
Journal of Memory and Language, 28(1):92–
106, 1989.
B. Hamp and H. Feldweg. Germanet-a lexicalsemantic net for german.
In Proceedings
of ACL workshop Automatic Information Extraction and Building of Lexical Semantic Resources for NLP Applications, page 9–15, 1997.
C. Kennedy. Projecting the Adjective: The Syntax
and Semantics of Gradability and Comparison
. Garland Publishing, 1999.
P. F. Schulam. Restructuring Adjectives in GermaNet, 2009. Unpublished manuscript, Princeton University.
V. Sheinman and T. Tokunaga. AdjScales: Visualizing Differences between Adjectives for
Language Learners. IEICE TRANSACTIONS
on Information and Systems, 92(8):1542–1550,
2009.
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
169
Analytic and Synthetic Verb Forms in Irish –
An Agreement-Based Implementation in LFG
Sebastian Sulger
Department of Linguistics
University of Konstanz
Germany
[email protected]
Abstract
This paper discusses the phenomenon of analytic
and synthetic verb forms in Modern Irish, which
results in a widespread system of morphological
blocking. I present data from Modern Irish, then
briefly discuss two earlier theoretical approaches.
I introduce an alternative, agreement-based solution, involving 1) a finite-state morphological
analyzer for verb forms implemented using the
FST toolset (Beesley and Karttunen, 2003); 2) a
computational grammar of Modern Irish couched
within Lexical-Functional Grammar (LFG) (Bresnan, 2001) and implemented using the XLE grammar development platform (Crouch et al., 2008).
1 Introduction
In Modern Irish, verbs may appear in two different forms: synthetic and analytic. Across
tense and mood paradigms, certain person-number
combinations are expressed by markers on the
verb, resulting in so-called synthetic verb forms.
Other person-number combinations are expressed
by personal pronouns which appear independent
of the verb.
(1) Present tense paradigm for tuig ’understand’:
1P.Sg
tuigim
‘I understand’
2P.Sg
tuigeann tú
‘you understand’
3P.Sg.M tuigeann sé
‘he understands’
3P.Sg.F tuigeann sı́
‘she understands’
1P.Pl
tuigimid
‘we understand’
2P.Pl
tuigeann sibh ‘you understand’
3P.Pl
tuigeann siad ‘they understand’
In this example, the forms of the first person singular and the first person plural are synthetic forms.
Person and number information is expressed by
the ending on the verb. The other forms are an-
alytic verbs which involve separate personal pronouns to express person and number information.
It has been acknowledged in the literature that
the function of the person-number endings on the
synthetic forms are identical to the function of the
independent personal pronouns (Andrews, 1990;
Legate, 1999). Evidence for this comes from two
observations. First, the use of an independent personal pronoun is prohibited in conjunction with a
synthetic verb form.
(2) *Tuigim
mé an fhadhb.
understand.Pres.1P.Sg I ART problem
‘I understand the problem.’
(2) is ungrammatical because the person-number
information is realized on the synthetic verb form,
blocking the use of a separate personal pronoun.
Second, the use of an analytic verb form is
blocked if there is a synthetic verb form realizing
the same features as the analytic form combined
with a pronoun. Since there is a synthetic verb
form available in the paradigm for the features ‘1st
person singular’ (tuigim), the use of the analytic
verb form in conjunction with a personal pronoun
is blocked.
(3) *Tuigeann
mé an fhadhb.
understand.Pres I ART problem
‘I understand the problem.’
An implementation using a computational
grammar is thus faced with two separate tasks: 1)
block the redundant use of the independent subject pronoun when combined with a synthetic verb
form, as in (2); 2) block the analytic verb form
when there is a synthetic verb form available, as in
(3).
2 Earlier Approaches
Andrews (1990) presents an LFG approach. The
approach crucially depends on the mechanism of
170
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
unification. More specifically, he proposes a solution in form of a constraint on lexical insertion,
the Morphological Blocking Principle. Andrews
(1990) defines this principle as a variant of the
Elsewhere Condition, modified to control lexical
insertion in LFG. The principle is formulated as
follows:
Morphological Blocking Principle (MBP):
Suppose the structure S has a preterminal node P occupied by a lexical
item l1 , and there is another lexical item
l2 such that the f-structure determined
by the lexical entry of l1 properly subsumes that determined by the lexical
entry of l2 , and that of l2 subsumes
the f-structure associated with P in S
(the complete structure, after all unifications have been carried out). Then S is
blocked.
(Andrews, 1990, p. 519)
For Irish verbs, this principle essentially has the
following consequences. When the f-structure of
an analytic verb form is unified with the f-structure
of an independent pronominal, the lexicon has to
be checked to see if there is another verb form that
subsumes the resulting unified f-structure (i.e., a
form that already contains the pronominal features
in its lexicon entry – a synthetic form). If there is
such a form, the analytic form is blocked.
An obvious issue with this approach is connected to efficiency. For every verb form occurring
in a sentence, the whole lexicon has to be checked
for a corresponding synthetic form. While Andrews (1990) claims that a first small implementation by the author computes morphological blocking at a tolerable rate, it remains questionable
whether this approach is adequate for larger-scale
grammars.
Legate (1999) proposes a treatment of morphological blocking based on agreement. The analysis is couched within the framework of Distributed Morphology, drawing on insights from
McCloskey & Hale (1984). It argues that the affixes found on verbs are truly agreement patterns
in Modern Irish. The agreement between the verb
and the subject pronoun must be realized via an
agreeing affix on the verb (i.e. the synthetic form),
since these affixes are more specified than the default affix (i.e. the analytic form). The paper
departs from earlier literature in Distributed Morphology in that it requires two changes in the vo-
cabulary insertion mechanism. First, the mechanism must operate top-down instead of bottom-up,
as was assumed in previous papers. Second, any
morpho-syntactic features realized by a vocabulary item have to be deleted. The paper concludes
arguing that the Irish data constitutes an interesting argument for a framework of morphology that
applies post-syntactically, based on competition.
Legate (1999) also mentions the paper by Andrews (1990), saying that this lexicalist alternative is problematic as it involves trans-derivational
comparison (i.e., the MBP), which is a powerful and costly mechanism. Since Andrews (1990)
compares the blocking of analytic forms by synthetic forms to the blocking of expressions like the
day before today by yesterday, Legate (1999) concludes that a mechanism like the MBP eventually
restricts wordiness.
To sum up, the paper by Andrews (1990)
presents a first LFG account for the Irish data,
but fails to provide an efficient implementation of
the solution, although the approach is theoretically
interesting. Legate (1999) makes convincing arguments for an agreement analysis, but, being a
theoretical paper, does not offer an implementation; the paper also has to make changes to the applied theory of Distributed Morphology in crucial
places.
3 An Alternative LFG Implementation
In this section, I present an alternative LFG approach to the problem of analytic and synthetic
verb forms, drawing on theoretical insights from
McCloskey & Hale (1984) and Legate (1999). I
agree with their work in assuming an agreement
relationship between the verb and the subject pronoun. Instead of a competition-based approach
(Legate, 1999), my solution constitutes a lexicalist alternative based on agreement and unification,
similar to the approaches by Butt (2007) for Punjabi and Bresnan (2001) for Navajo.
My solution uses agreement equations between
the verb and the pronominal as a means to block
analytic forms from occurring where synthetic
forms are available. The implementation is twofold: 1) A detailed finite-state morphological analyzer (FSMA) dealing with Irish verbal morphology has been written, listing both analytic and synthetic verb forms with morphosyntactic features;
2) a computational LFG grammar has been implemented which effectively rules out analytic verb
171
forms in inappropriate contexts using two short
agreement templates. The implementation is situated in the frame of the ParGram project (Butt et
al., 2002). For a related implementation of Welsh
morphology, the reader is referred to Mittendorf
and Sadler (2006).
3.1
The Finite-State Morphological Analyzer
The FSMA I implemented lists both analytic and
synthetic verb forms in the lexicon. All forms
are provided with appropriate morphosyntactic
tags. The FSMA was implemented using the FST
toolkit (Beesley and Karttunen, 2003). In (4), I
give the complete present tense paradigm for tuig
‘understand’ and the analysis for each of the verb
forms.
(4) Pres. tense paradigm for tuig & FST analysis:
1P.Sg tuigim
tuig+Verb+Pres+1P+Sg+PronIncl
2P.Sg tuigeann
tuig+Verb+Pres+2P+Sg
3P.Sg.M tuigeann
The grammar, implemented using the XLE grammar development platform (Crouch et al., 2008),
makes use of the detailed morphosyntactic information provided by the FSMA. The grammar
uses a template to enforce agreement restrictions,
thereby ruling out analytic forms where synthetic
forms are available.
First, I show how the grammar rules out the
combination ‘synthetic verb form + independent
subject pronoun’ (see (2) for an example). Recall that synthetic forms are provided with the tag
+PronIncl. Associated with this tag is the following information in the tag lexicon of the grammar:
(5) Information associated with +PronIncl:
PronSFX = (↑ SUBJ PRED) = ’pro’
That is, the tag itself provides the information that
the subject is a pronominal. In contrast, the lexicon entry of an independent pronoun is given in
(6).
(6) mé PRON * (↑ PRED) = ’pro’
tuig+Verb+Pres+3P+Sg
(↑ PRON-TYPE) = pers
3P.Sg.F tuigeann
(↑ PERS) = 1
tuig+Verb+Pres+3P+Sg
1P.Pl tuigimid
tuig+Verb+Pres+1P+Pl+PronIncl
2P.Pl tuigeann
tuig+Verb+Pres+2P+Pl
3P.Pl tuigeann
tuig+Verb+Pres+3P+Pl
Notice two things about this analysis. First, the tag
+PronIncl is attached to synthetic verb forms.
This is to make sure that the subject receives a
pronominal analysis and a PRED value – details
follow in the next section.
Second, the forms are provided with detailed
person and number information, even though the
verb form is identical in some cases (i.e., the forms
are not marked for person/number). A detailed
analysis like this enables the grammar to enforce
agreement constraints and effectively rule out analytic forms where synthetic forms are available –
again, details follow in the next section.1
1
3.2 The Computational LFG Grammar
One reviewer asks whether it would be possible to use a
single non-1st-person feature instead of multiple feature sets
for the same verb form. This is a question which largely depends on the application for which the FSMA was developed.
While the features might not be strictly necessary as input to
the LFG grammar to check for agreement facts, they might
become a) important to check for in other places in the LFG
grammar; b) important to check for by other applications
which might be able to make use of the FSMA. Therefore,
(↑ NUM) = sg.
When a pronoun like this occurs in the subject position after a synthetic verb form, the unification
fails, since there are multiple PREDs – the one supplied by the synthetic form and the one supplied
by the pronoun. Multiple PRED features for a single grammatical function are not allowed by LFG,
since PRED features are not subject to unification
(Bresnan, 2001; Butt, 2007).2
Second, I turn to the more difficult case: how
to prevent analytic forms from occurring when
synthetic forms are available (e.g., how to rule
out sentences like (3)). Recall the detailed morphosyntactic analysis of verb forms outlined in
section 3.1. Again, there is functional information associated with each of the tags in (4); see the
entries in (7).
I have decided to keep the tags. A related discussion in connection with the German ParGram grammar is whether one
should have morphological case tags for nouns which have
the same form in all cases, where it was decided to include an
.NGDA tag for such nouns (Butt, personal communication).
2
One reviewer asks about how ungrammatical sentences
such as *tuigeann an fhadhb. are handled, where the verb
form is not synthetic in nature and there is no subject pronoun. Sentences like these essentially violate the principle of
completeness in LFG, stating that predicators must be satisfied by arguments with semantic features, i.e. PREDs. The
above sentence therefore is ungrammatical since the verbal
predicator demands a subject argument PRED, and since there
is no subject, cannot be satisfied; see also Bresnan (2001).
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
172
(7) +1P V-PERS SFX XLE @(AGR-P 1).
+2P V-PERS SFX XLE @(AGR-P 2).
+3P V-PERS SFX XLE @(AGR-P 3).
+Sg V-NUM SFX XLE @(AGR-N sg).
+Pl V-NUM SFX XLE @(AGR-N pl).
These entries call up templates in the grammar,
passing values over to them. For example, the
entry for the morphological tag +2P calls up the
template AGR-P and passes over the value 2; similarly, the entry for +Sg calls up the template
AGR-N and passes over the value sg. I provide
the templates AGR-P and AGR-N in (8) and (9).
(8) AGR-P( P) = (↑ SUBJ PERS) = P.
(9) AGR-N( N) = (↑ SUBJ NUM) = N.
If the information coming from the verb form
and the subject pronoun matches, the parse succeeds. In (11), the person and number features of
the subject pronoun sé agree nicely with the person and number features of the analytic verb form.
(11) Tuigeann
sé an fhadhb.
understand.Pres he ART problem
‘He understands the problem.’
The analysis produced by the computational grammar for (11) is shown in Figure 2.3
"tuigeann sé an fhadhb."
PRED
SUBJ
'tuig<[17:PRO], [49:fadhb]>'
PRED 'PRO'
17 CASE com, NUM sg, PERS 3, PRON-TYPE pers
PRED 'fadhb'
When the value 2 is passed on to AGR-P, the template tries to assign the value to the PERS attribute
of the subject; correspondingly, when the value sg
is passed on to AGR-N, the template tries to assign the value to the NUM attribute of the subject.
The templates effectively result in the unification
of features coming from the verb form and the independent pronoun.
For example, assume that an independent subject pronoun occurs after an analytic verb form, as
in (10). Then the person and number information
of the two words are matched against each other,
using these templates.
(10) *Tuigeann
mé an fhadhb.
understand.Pres I ART problem
‘I understand the problem.’
The analysis of (10) involves the lexicon entry of
mé ‘I’ as given in (6), which assigns the value 1
to the feature PERS. It also involves the verb form
tuigeann, which, according to the FST analysis in
(4), can be either third person or second person,
singular or plural. The unification and hence the
parse consequently fail, as the template AGR-P
tries to assign either third person or second person to the subject, while the lexicon entry for mé
tries to assign first person to the subject. Figure 1
shows one of the failed parses where XLE tries to
unify first person information with second person
information.
PRED
'tuig<[17:PRO], [1-OBJ]>'
PRED 'PRO'
PERS = 1
2
SUBJ
17 CASE com, NUM sg, PRON-TYPE pers
OBJ
1 TENSE
CASE com
pres
Figure 1: Failed parse of the sentence in (10)
OBJ
SPEC DET
PRED 'an'
46 DET-TYPE def, GEND fem
49 CASE com, DEF +, GEND fem, NUM sg, PERS 3
1 CLAUSE-TYPE decl, TENSE pres
Figure 2: Valid parse of the sentence in (11)
3.3 Evaluation
For evaluation purposes, I manually constructed
a testsuite of 30 grammatical and ungrammatical sentences. The implementation currently includes present tense and preterite verb forms in
all paradigms and can very easily be extended to
include other tenses. The implementation obtains
full coverage of the testsuite sentences without any
overgeneration.
4 Conclusion
I have presented data from Irish demonstrating the
problem of analytic and synthetic verb forms. I
have described two earlier approaches; one does
not offer an implementation, the other one does
offer an implementation, but involves inefficient
lexicon checking. I have described my own implementation, which is done using a detailed finitestate morphological analyzer and a computational
LFG grammar. The grammar uses efficient templates which rule out non-agreeing verb-pronoun
combinations, thereby effectively blocking analytic verb forms where synthetic ones are available.
3
One reviewer asks about the speed of the implementation. XLE consists of cutting-edge algorithms for parsing
and generation using LFG grammars. It is the basis for the
ParGram project, which is developing industrial-strength
grammars for a variety of languages. XLE returns the
following figures after parsing the sentence in (11):
1 solutions, 0.020 CPU seconds, 0.000MB max mem, 42
subtrees unified
The sentence has 1 solution, it took XLE 0.020 CPU seconds
to parse it, and 42 subtrees were unified during the parse.
173
References
Avery D. Andrews. 1990. Unification and Morphological Blocking. Natural Language and Linguistic
Theory, 8:507–557.
Kenneth R. Beesley and Lauri Karttunen. 2003. Finite
State Morphology. CSLI Publications.
Joan Bresnan. 2001. Lexical-Functional Syntax.
Blackwell Publishers.
Miriam Butt, Helge Dyvik, Tracy Holloway King, Hiroshi Masuichi, and Christian Rohrer. 2002. The
Parallel Grammar Project. In Proceedings of the
COLING-2002 Workshop on Grammar Engineering
and Evaluation, pages 1–7.
Miriam Butt. 2007. The Role of Pronominal Suffixes in Punjabi. In Annie Zaenen, Jane Simpson,
Tracy Holloway King, Jane Grimshaw, Joan Maling,
and Chris Manning, editors, Architectures, Rules,
and Preferences. CSLI Publications.
Dick Crouch, Mary Dalrymple, Ronald M. Kaplan,
Tracy Holloway King, John T. Maxwell III, and
Paula Newman, 2008. XLE Documentation. Palo
Alto Research Center.
Julie Anne Legate. 1999. The Morphosyntax of Irish
Agreement. MIT Working Papers in Linguistics, 33.
James McCloskey and Kenneth Hale. 1984. On
the Syntax of Person-Number Inflection in Modern Irish. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory,
1(4):487–534.
Ingo Mittendorf and Louisa Sadler. 2006. A Treatment of Welsh Initial Mutation. In Miriam Butt and
Tracy Holloway King, editors, Proceedings of the
LFG06 Conference.
174
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
175
A Base-form Lexicon of Content Words for Correct Word Segmentation
and Syntactic-Semantic Annotation
Carsten Weber Johannes Handl
Professur für Computerlinguistik
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg
Germany
{cnweber,jshandl}@linguistik.uni-erlangen.de
Abstract
One issue in natural language processing is the
interaction between a rule-based computational
morphology and a syntactic-semantic analysis system. This is because derivational and compound
word forms raise the question of how to deal with
ambiguities caused by the rule-based analyser, and
how to add additional information like valency to a
derivational or compound word form if its valency
frames differ from those of its root word.
In this paper we propose a lexicon design addressing both of these issues. We evaluate our design in the context of a large-scale morphological
analysis system for German in which the lexicon
serves as an interface between morphology and
syntax. In doing so, we aim at enriching the wellformed analysis results with additional information so that an adequate syntactic-semantic analysis can be ensured.
semantic analysis while preserving the strict separation between these two kinds of information.
We chose JSLIM (Handl et al., 2009) as the
framework to run our system because it supports
feature structures and includes a powerful preprocessor. JSLIM is bound to the SLIM theory of language and builds upon the formalism
of LA-grammar (Hausser, 1992). For segmentation, it relies on the allomorph method presented
in Hausser (2001). Thus, the lexicon used for morphological analysis is created by several preprocessor steps, as can be seen in fig. 1.
base-form lexicon
preprocessing
elementary lexicon
allo rules
allomorph lexicon
non-elementary lexicon
segmentation rules
base-form lexicon
of content words
Figure 1: Preprocessor steps
1 Introduction
According to di Sciullo and Williams (1987), we
consider a word to have both a morphological
and a syntactical sense. Accordingly, we distinguish between the morphologic and syntactic
word. The morphologic word builds upon morphological principles like inflection, derivation
and composition, while the syntactic word contains the information which is essential to analyse
and interpret a sentence correctly.
In agreement with Trost (1993), we want to
separate these two different sets of information.
Up to now, our rule-based analysis system handled merely inflection, derivation, and composition, thus providing only the morphological information. In sect. 4, however, we show how
to add valency information required for syntactic-
In a first preprocessor step, the entries of the
base-form lexicon have to be split into elementary
and non-elementary entries.
In a second preprocessor step, we build the allomorph lexicon by executing so-called allo rules
on the entries of the elementary lexicon.1 The
result of the execution of the allo rules serves as
our lexicon for morphological analysis. The morphological analyser is strictly rule-based and concatenates only valid sequences of allomorphs. At
the same time we break the non-elementary entries into their grammatical correct segments and
store the output in the base-form lexicon of content
words (BLCW).2 Given the correct segmentation
1
Cf. Handl and Weber (2010).
The name base-form lexicon of content words was first
introduced in Hausser (2001).
2
176
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
of all these entries, the BLCW helps to decrease
the ambiguity rate during morphological analysis.
Furthermore, the BLCW serves as our component
for encoding the essential information to be used
for syntactic-semantic analysis.
The following sections are intended to give an
idea of how our approach works, and to show the
advantages of using this supplementary lexicon.
2 Idea
The idea behind using an additional lexicon is to
distinguish two kinds of well-formed analysis results. Well-formed confirmed means that the input
can be decomposed into its allomorph segments,
so that the latter can be concatenated correctly by
the combination rules. The BLCW contains the
segmentation of the input as an entry (key) and the
input is therefore an established derivative or compound. Well-formed unconfirmed signifies that the
input can be decomposed into its allomorph segments, so that the latter can be concatenated correctly by the combination rules. The BLCW does
not contain the segmentation of the input as an entry (key) and therefore the input can be a neologism, but is not an established derivative or compound.
Fig. 2 shows the derivation steps of the analysis of the German compound Haustür (frontdoor).3 During morphological analysis the allomorphs which result from segmentation are combined via combination rules. The result are two
analyses, one based on the nouns Haus (house)
and Tür (door), the other on the denominal verb
hausen (to dwell) and the noun Tür.4 The attribute
seg stores the base-forms of the allomorphs which
result from segmentation, using them as key for
lookup in our BLCW at the end of analysis. If the
lookup succeeds, the analysis result is marked as
well-formed confirmed, otherwise as well-formed
unconfirmed. Here, the lookup for the reading as
noun-noun compound succeeds, whereas the reading as verb-noun compound fails. Therefore, the
noun-noun reading is marked as well-formed confirmed and the verb-noun reading as well-formed
unconfirmed.
The distinction between analyses which are
well-formed confirmed vs. well-formed uncon3
A detailed introduction to the combination rules of our
morphological analyser is given in Handl et al. (2009).
4
Lohde (2006, p. 63ff.) points out that noun-noun compounds have a percentage of about 80% in German noun
composition, verb-noun compounds in contrary only 5%10%.
1) rule-based concatenation
LAMORPH> Haustür

sur:


noun:



cat:


sem:


seg:

sur:


verb:


cat:



sem:


seg:

Haus  sur:

Haus  noun:

(n-g)  cat:

(n sg) sem:

Haus seg:


Tür 
sur:



noun:
Tür 



(f)  =⇒ cat:



sem:
(f sg)



seg:
Tür

haus  sur:

hausen  noun:

 cat:
(v)


(imp sg) sem:

hausen seg:


Tür 
sur:



noun:
Tür 




(f)  =⇒ cat:




sem:
(f sg)



seg:
Tür

Haus|tür 

Haustür 


(f)




(f sg)


Haus Tür

Haus|tür 



Haustür



(f)




(f sg)


hausen Tür
2) lookup at the base-form lexicon of content words

noun:

seg:

Haustür
Haus Tür


matching?
3) new, analyzed results after lookup
LAMORPH> Haustür
Well-formed confirmed

sur:


noun:


cat:



sem:


seg:

Haus|tür 

Haustür 


(f)




(f sg)


Haus Tür
Yes (1)
—————————–
Well-formed unconfirmed

sur:


noun:



cat:


sem:


seg:

Haus|tür 



Haustür



(f)




(f sg)


hausen Tür
Figure 2: Matching mechanism
firmed has several advantages. The first is a decrease in the ambiguity rate: Well-formed unconfirmed results can be suppressed in favor of alternative well-formed confirmed results as can be
seen in fig. 2. The statements Yes(1) of the analysis output indicates that there is only one single
well-formed confirmed reading. The unconfirmed
analysis result shown below serves as additional
information that the input can also be analysed differently.
Another advantage of the distinction between
analyses which are well-formed confirmed and
well-formed unconfirmed is in the handling of
neologisms. Though the parser does not find a
correct segmentation in the BLCW, the input is
declared as a well-formed analysis result based
on our combination rules. What is more, the
label unconfirmed hints to the user that the input, though grammatically correct, may not be
an established derivational or compound word
form. E.g., the German adjective heizpilzfeindlich
lacks both in well-known traditional dictionaries
177
as Wahrig (Wahrig, 1997) and online dictionaries
like Canoo (Bopp and Pedrazzini, 2009). However, the word occurs in the Wortwarte5 in an
article about outdoor heaters. Since the word
heizpilzfeindlich is rarely used, it is missing in
the BLCW. The latter only comprises established
derivatives and compounds. So, the grammar developer can decide, e.g., based on the frequency
list of a corpus, whether he wants to add the new
word to the lexicon.
Tab. 1 shows the ambiguity rate after analysing
a list of types of two well-known German corpora,
the NEGRA corpus6 and the LIMAS corpus7 . Our
morphology grammar recognizes 95,61% (NEGRA) and 90,83% (LIMAS) of the types from the
open word classes of nouns, verbs and adjectives.
The ambiguity rates of the accepted types are subdivided with regard to their part of speech. We
performed two test runs, one with and one without
an integrated BLCW.
Corpus
BLCW
Noun
Verb
Adj
yes
1,48
1,60
1,48
no
1,79
2,43
1,99
yes
1,41
1,55
1,45
no
1,80
2,35
1,98
NEGRA
LIMAS
Table 1: Ambiguity rates of the NEGRA and the
LIMAS corpus.
The results in tab. 1 reveal a significant reduction of the ambiguity rate for all three open word
classes.
It is also interesting to compare the percentage
of well-formed confirmed and well-formed unconfirmed analyses. Tab. 2 shows those numbers as
well as the respective ambiguity rates.
As can be seen from the test results, there is
a discrepancy between the ambiguity rates of the
well-formed confirmed and the well-formed unconfirmed analysis results. By improving and
completing the BLCW, we also decrease the ambiguity rate.
3 Implementation
As illustrated in fig. 1, we generate the BLCW
from the non-elementary lexicon before runtime.
5
http://www.wortwarte.de/Archiv/Datum/d090703.html
[July 1st, 2010]. For an introduction cf. Lemnitzer (2007).
6
Cf. Skut et al. (1997).
7
Cf. http://www.korpora.org/Limas/.
Corpus
Type
Noun
Verb
Adj
confirmed
34,87%
(1,28)
65,30%
(1,33)
50,69%
(1,18)
unconf.
65,13%
(1,72)
34,70%
(2,13)
49,31%
(1,89)
confirmed
29,90%
(1,24)
64,82%
(1,31)
48,18%
(1,13)
unconf.
70,10%
(1,75)
35,18%
(2,15)
51,82%
(1,92)
NEGRA
LIMAS
Table 2: Recognition rates of the NEGRA and the
LIMAS corpus.
Though the latter already contains established
derivatives and compounds, we require supplementary information about
• epentheses, derivational prefixes and derivational suffixes
• elementary word stems
• and valid allomorph sequences.
According to this set of valid allomorph
sequences, we break the entries of the nonelementary lexicon into their segments. Fig. 3
shows three entries of the lexicon, which are
broken into more than three allomorphs.
noun : E r h o l u n g s u r l a u b
seg : e r holen ung s Ur laub
v er b : b e r e c h t i g e n
seg : be Recht i g en
adj :
seg :
abwechslungslos
ab wechseln ung s l o s
Figure 3: Entries of the BLCW
The segmentation of the noun Erholungsurlaub
(holiday) comprises the derivational prefix er-,
the verb stem hol (from holen, to fetch sth.), the
derivational suffix -ung, the epenthesis -s- and
the noun stem Urlaub (holiday). The noun Erholungsurlaub is an example for a word form
where both derivation (Erhol-ung) and composition (Erholung-s-urlaub) are active. Besides, an
epenthesis occurs between the two nouns.
The verb berechtigen (to authorise) may be broken into the derivational prefix be-, the noun Recht
(law), the derivational suffix -ig (used to build
verbs from nouns), and the inflectional ending -en.
The adjective abwechslungslos (monotonous) is
decomposed into the derivational prefix ab-, the
178
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
verb stem wechsl (from wechseln, to change), the
epenthesis -s- and the derivational suffix -los.
These examples show that a precise set of allomorph sequences is essential to decompose complex lexicon entries of the BLCW correctly into
their allomorphs.
4 Syntactic-semantic Annotation
Aside from reducing ambiguity by defining the
correct segmentation of established derivatives
and compounds, the entries of the BLCW can be
used to enrich the result of the morphological analysis with syntactic-semantic information.
E.g., during morphological analysis we construct the verb form gefallen (to please) by
combining the derivational prefix ge- with the
verb stem fall (to fall) and the inflectional
ending -en.8
According to Schumacher et
al. (2004), the most relevant valency frames
of the verb fallen are hnom. compl., verbi9 and
hnom. compl., verb, prep. compl.i.10
The verb
gefallen has hnom. compl., verb, dat. compl.i11 as
its most frequent valency frame.
Since the valency frame may change with each
combined prefix, it is rather cumbersome to handle
the valency frame in its entirety during morphological analysis. We consider the valency information to be a basic, inherent, lexical property which
has to be encoded independently from the strictly
surface-based concatenation of the allomorphs and
thus encode it within the BLCW. By performing a
lexical lookup at the end of a morphological analysis we can aggregate the analysis result with this
indispensable information for syntactic-semantic
analysis.
Fig. 4 shows two entries for the content words
gefallen and aufgeben (to give up sth.) in the
BLCW which also comprises valency information.
In order to encode different alternative valency
frames, JSLIM provides the multicat notation12 ,
which is also illustrated in fig. 4.
The alternatives of a multicat are enclosed in
angle brackets and are in equal measure possible.
Hence, phrases like ich gebe auf (I give up) and
ich gebe die Hoffnung auf (I give up the hope) can
8
Grimm et al. (2001) explain that, originally, the verb
gefallen was a fortification of the verb fallen.
9
Der Wechselkurs fällt (The exchange rate falls).
10
Der Mann fällt auf sein Gesicht (The man falls on his
face).
11
Der Mann gefällt mir (The man pleases me).
12
Cf. Hausser (2001, p. 286).
v er b : g e f a l l e n
seg : ge f a l l e n
cat : (n ’ d ’ )
v er b : aufgeben
seg : a u f geben
c a t : <(n ’ ) ( n ’ a ’) >
Figure 4: Aggregation of the BLCW with valency
information
both be analysed as well-formed confirmed since
the accusative complement is encoded as an optional complement. The interaction between the
morphological analysis system and the BLCW ensures an adequate handling of two of the basic
principles of syntax, namely agreement and valency.
Our approach follows mainly the observation of
Ágel (1995) who separates between valency potential and valency realization. The valency potential, which we define in the BLCW, predetermines the grammatical structures to be realized in
the syntax. The valency realization, on the contrary, not only depends on the valency potential
of the entries, but also on the rules of our system
for a syntactic-semantic analysis. A detailed introduction to syntactic-semantic analysis using LAgrammar is provided by Hausser (2006).
5 Conclusion
We presented an approach which uses an additional lexicon to serve as an interface between
morphology and syntax. The BLCW helps to
encode the correct segmentations of established
derivatives and compounds. Generated automatically before runtime from a non-elementary lexicon, it can be used during morphological analysis
for decreasing ambiguity. Though, there is certainly room for improvements regarding segmentation. Further refinements may include a more
precise definition of valid allomorph sequences,
especially in the case of noun derivatives and compounds. Integrating more established derivatives
and compounds could also lead to reduced ambiguity rates. Besides, the BLCW enables the grammar developer to assign syntactic and semantic information of derivational and compound forms in
a consistent way. We have shown how valency information can be added to the lexicon to improve
syntactic-semantic analysis.
For future research, we plan to annotate a high
number of lexical entries with this kind of information and to test them on large-scale corpora.
179
References
Vilmos Ágel. 1995. Valenzrealisierung, Grammatik
und Valenz. Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik, 23:2–32.
Stephan Bopp and Sandro Pedrazzini. 2009. Morphological Analysis Using Linguistically Motivated
Decomposition of Unknown Words. In Cerstin
Mahlow and Michael Piotrowski, editors, State of
the Art in Computational Morphology. Workshop on
Systems and Frameworks for Computational Morphology, SFCM 2009, Zurich, Switzerland, September 4, 2009, Proceedings, volume 41 of Communications in Computer and Information Science, pages
108–117, Zürich. Springer.
Anna-Maria di Sciullo and Edwin Williams. 1987.
On the Definition of Word. MIT Press, Cambridge,
Massachusetts.
Jacob Grimm, Helmut Grimm, and Hans-Werner Bartz,
editors. 2001. Deutsches Wörterbuch von Jacob und Wilhelm Grimm im Internet. DFG-Projekt
”DWB auf CD-ROM und im Internet”, Univ. Trier,
Trier.
Johannes Handl and Carsten Weber. 2010. A Multilayered Declarative Approach to Cope with Morphotactics and Allomorphy in Derivational Morphology. In
Proceedings of the 7th conference on Language Resources and Evaluation (LREC), pages 2253–2256,
Valletta, Malta.
Johannes Handl, Besim Kabashi, Thomas Proisl, and
Carsten Weber. 2009. JSLIM - Computational
Morphology in the Framework of the SLIM Theory of Language. In Cerstin Mahlow and Michael
Piotrowski, editors, State of the Art in Computational Morphology. Workshop on Systems and
Frameworks for Computational Morphology, SFCM
2009, Zurich, Switzerland, September 4, 2009, Proceedings, volume 41 of Communications in Computer and Information Science, pages 10–27, Zürich.
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Roland Hausser.
1992.
Complexity in LeftAssociative Grammar. Theoretical Computer Science, 106(2):283–308.
Roland Hausser. 2001. Foundations of Computational Linguistics. Human-Computer Communication in Natural Language. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg, second revised and extended edition.
Roland Hausser. 2006. A Computational Model
of Natural Language Communication. Springer,
Berlin Heidelberg.
Lothar Lemnitzer.
2007.
Von Aldianer bis
Zauselquote. Neue deutsche Wörter. Wo sie herkommen und wofür wir sie brauchen. Narr, Tübingen.
Michael Lohde. 2006. Wortbildung des modernen Deutschen: ein Lehr- und Übungsbuch. Narr,
Tübingen.
Helmut Schumacher, Jacqueline Kubczak, Renate
Schmidt, and Vera de Ruiter. 2004. VALBU Valenzwörterbuch deutscher Verben, volume 31 of
Studien zur deutschen Sprache. Narr, Tübingen.
Wojciech Skut, Brigitte Krenn, Thorsten Brants, and
Hans Uszkoreit. 1997. An Annotation Scheme for
Free Word Order Languages. In Proceedings of the
Fifth Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing (ANLP-97), Washington, DC, USA.
Harald Trost. 1993. Coping with Derivation in a Morphological Component. In Proceedings of the 6th
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Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
181
Starting a sentence in L2 German –
Discourse annotation of a learner corpus
Heike Zinsmeister
Margit Breckle
Department of Linguistics
Department of German Philology and Didactics
University of Konstanz
Vilnius Pedagogical University
Konstanz, Germany
Vilnius, Lithuania
[email protected]
[email protected]
Abstract
Learner corpora consist of texts produced by second language (L2) learners.1 We present ALeSKo,
a learner corpus of Chinese L2 learners of German
and discuss the multi-layer annotation of the left
sentence periphery – notably the Vorfeld.
1
Introduction
Learner corpora consist of texts produced by foreign language (L2) learners. Normally, they are
designed as comparable corpora which consist of
pairs of monolingual corpora selected according
to the same set of criteria. In the case of learner
corpora, they comprise similar texts in one target
language produced by speakers with different L1
backgrounds or with different L2 levels. Furthermore, for reasons of comparison the corpus can
contain similar texts by L1 speakers of the target
language.
There are two main approaches for investigating
the data in a learner corpus (cf. Granger (2008):
267–268): (i) contrastive interlanguage analysis
(CIA), which assumes that L2 learners use an interim language that differs from the target language in a way that can be observed quantitatively,
and (ii) computer-assisted error analysis, in which
divergences in the L2 texts are identified (and possibly also annotated) based on a target hypothesis.
The current project deals with the creation of
the ALeSKo learner corpus 2 , which contains texts
from Chinese L2 learners of German and is complemented by comparable L1 German texts. Our
main interest lies in the expression of local coherence – whether the learners acquire the linguistic
1
For a comprehensive list of learner corpora see
www.uclouvain.be/en-cecl-lcWorld.html.
2
ALeSKo: ling.uni-konstanz.de/pages/home/
zinsmeister/alesko.html.
means to express a smooth flow from one sentence
to the next in German. In the project’s current
state, we carry out linguistic annotation to create
a basis for a CIA of local coherence. Systematic
error tagging is not yet performed.3
It is assumed that local coherence is mainly
expressed at two levels cross-linguistically
(e.g. Reinhart (1980): 168f.; (1982): 19): It is
either supported by coreferential entities that play
a role in a sequence of sentences (entity-based
coherence) or it is supported by discourse relations that relate two clauses and also larger parts
of the text semantically (discourse relation-based
coherence). In the current study, we concentrate
on entity-based coherence and on the question
how it is expressed in the sentence beginnings
since both languages – the learners’ L1 Chinese
as well as their L2 German – do not restrict the
initial position in the sentence to a particular
grammatical function (i.e. the subject). The
position presents itself as an ideal position for
linking a sentence to its preceding discourse and
establishing local coherence.
Chinese is a topic-prominent language. Hence,
its general word order and notably its left periphery is strongly determined by informationstructural conditions: the topic always comes first
which can either be a time or a locative phrase
or a familiar referent, for example a referent that
is known from the preceding discourse (Li and
Thompson (1989): 15, 85f., 94f.). German is a
verb-second language and provides an initial sentence position (Vorfeld), which precedes the finite verb. In contrast to Chinese, German is not
strictly topic-prominent even though information
3
Multi-layer error tagging is discussed in Lüdeling et
al. (2005). For a recent overview of error-tagged corpora see
Hana et al. (2010).
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
182
structure influences the realisation of the Vorfeld
(e.g. Molnár (1991); but see e.g. Frey (2004);
Speyer (2007) for critical discussions).
Our working hypothesis is that the Chinese
learners transfer rules of using the left periphery
of a sentence in their L1 Chinese to their L2 German to assure local coherence and hence will show
an overuse or an underuse of certain functions in
comparison with L1-German speakers.
The rest of the paper presents the ALeSKo corpus and its (entity-based) discourse annotation.
We conclude the paper by briefly discussing results from a contrastive interlanguage analysis of
entity-based coherence.
2
Related Work
The linguistic annotation of learner corpora is a
relatively recent development. The International
Corpus of Learner English (ICLE)4 is the largest
project to date. It is responsible for creating
a large database of comparable L2-English texts
from speakers with a variety of L1s (currently of
about 25 different L1s).
The multi-layer annotation of the German errorannotated FALKO corpus5 is used as a prototype
for the current project’s annotation efforts.6
Albert et al. (2009) report on error tagging of
a learner corpus of French L2 learners of English
and a decision model for the best error correction
derived from the annotation. The workshop series
Automatic Analysis of Learner Language (AALL
2008, 2009) brought together various projects of
L2-corpus developers and developers of Natural
Language Processing applications for foreign language teaching.
The transfer of information structure between
two verb-second languages and the filling of the
Vorfeld is contrastively investigated by Bohnacker
and Rosén (2008). However, their analysed data is
not published as a reusable annotated corpus.
There have been various research efforts concerning the discourse annotation of L1 corpora.
The current project adapts the annotation guidelines for coreference annotation and bridging
4
ICLE: cecl.fltr.ucl.ac.be/Cecl-Projects/
Icle/icle.htm
5
FALKO: http://www.linguistik.hu-berlin.
de/institut/professuren/korpuslinguistik/
forschung-en/falko
6
The German L1 texts that we report on belong to the
FALKO corpus (Falko Essays L1 0.5) and are enriched
with additional layers of discourse annotation in the current
project.
by MATE (Poesio, 2000), information structure
as applied to the Potsdam Commentary Corpus
(Götze et al., 2007) and the implicit guidelines of
centering annotation from Speyer (2005; 2007).7
3
Data
3.1
Collection
The corpus consists of 43 argumentative essays of
Chinese L2 learners of German in which they discuss pros and cons of a given subject and state
their own opinion. The learners were students
at the Konstanz University of Applied Sciences,
studying in the program Business German and
Tourism Management8 with a German level of
about B2. In addition to the L2 texts, the ALeSKo
corpus contains essays by L1 German high school
students (aged 16–19) from Berlin, which originally belong to the FALKO corpus. In sum, the
Alesko subcorpora include the following texts:
• wdt07: 25 L2 texts on the topic Are holidays
an unsuccessful escape from every-day life?
(6,902 tokens, 30–45 min, written exam, no
aids)
• wdt08: 18 L2 texts on the topic Does
tourism support understanding among nations? (6,685 tokens, 90 min., dictionary permitted)
• Falko Essays L1 0.5: 39 essays on different
topics (34,155 tokens, typed in notepad, no
internet access, no spell-checker).
The metadata for each individual text provides
information about the person’s ID, the L1, the year
of birth, the gender, the study programme, the foreign language(s), the length of L2 exposure – if
applicable – and the essay topic.
3.2
Preprocessing
The hand-written L2 learner texts were manually
transcribed. All texts (both L2 and L1) were
tokenized, lemmatized and part-of-speech tagged
with the TreeTagger (Schmid, 1994). We used
EXMARaLDA (Schmidt, 2004) for annotating
topological fields in the tagged data. The annotation output of this annotation was converted into
7
In addition, we annotate discourse relations adapting the
guidelines of the Penn Discourse Treebank (Prasad et al.,
2007) which is not discussed in this paper.
8
German: Wirtschaftssprache Deutsch und Tourismusmanagement (WDT).
183
Figure 1: The MMAX2 annotation window of ALeSKo
the MMAX file format and served as the input for
the current discourse annotation.
3.3
Annotation
For the investigation of the L2 learners’ use of the
sentences’ left periphery as compared to its use
by native speakers, both the L2 texts and the L1
texts are annotated with functional labels. The
annotation is performed manually, using the tool
MMAX2 (Müller and Strube, 2006), see Figure 1.
Our annotation guidelines define the labels, illustrate them with examples and discuss problematic cases (Breckle and Zinsmeister, 2009). The
annotation proceeds in two steps: after a primary
annotation by three student annotators or one of
the authors, the two authors agree on a gold annotation for each Vorfeld.
Table 1 illustrates the relevant layers of annotation with examples.9 Figure 1 shows a snapshot
of the annotation of example (2) in the annotation
tool MMAX2.
9
The Vorfeld constituent is underlined in the English
translation.
Information status (new, deictic, discourse
given, cf. Götze et al. (2007)): The referent of the
definite NP Die Leute, die viele Reise machen in
example (1) is mentioned for the first time and
is annotated new even though the term Leute as
such occurs earlier in the text. The referent of
Ihre Arbeit in (2) is also mentioned for the first
time. However, it is a case of indirect reference in
which the newly introduced referent is anchored
by the possessive pronoun Ihre which refers to a
discourse-old referent. Ihre Arbeit is therefore annotated discourse given.
Partly-ordered set relation (poset, cf. Speyer
(2005); Prince (1999)): In example (3) jeden Morgen (every morning’) and jeden Abend (‘every
evening’) form a set of Tageszeiten (‘times of the
day’).10
Centering (forward-looking center, preferred
center, backward-looking center, cf. Grosz et
10
The poset relation is similar to the concept of contrastive
topic (cf. Büring (1999)) which should be taken into account
in future revisions of the corpus. Thanks to one of the reviewers for pointed this out to us.
184
Proceedings of KONVENS 2010, Saarbrücken, Germany, September 2010
Information status
(1) [Die Leute, die viele Reise machen,]new haben immer mehr Geld als die, die selten reisen.
‘The people who travel a lot always have more money than those who seldom travel.’
(2) Einerseite reisen die Leute1 , weil sie1 vom Alltag flüchten möchten.
[Ihre1 Arbeit]given sind langweilig oder (. . . ).
‘On the one hand people travel because they want to escape every day life.
Their job is boring or (. . . )’
Partly-ordered set relation
(3) [Jeden Morgen]element 1 stehen wir auf, um pünktlich zur Arbeit zu sein. (. . . )
[Jeden Abend]element 2 bleiben wir zu Hause, sehen sinnlose Serien im Fernsehn.
‘Every morning, we get up for being at work in time. (. . . )
Every evening, we stay at home, watch the senseless shows on TV.’
Centering
(4) Durch Reisen können sie1 auch andere Kultur und Lebenstile kennenlernen.
[Sie]1 backward−looking center können auch ihre Kenntnisse durch Reisen erweitern.
‘By travelling, they can become acquainted to other culture and lifestyles.
They can also broaden their knowledge by travelling.’
Internal functions (frame-setting)
(5) [Heutzutage]f rame−setting(temporal) gelangt es in hoher Konjunktur, einen Urlaub zu machen.
‘Nowadays many people go on holidays.’
(6) [In den Attraktionspunkten]f rame−setting(local) werden (. . . ) notwendige Einrichtungen
konzentriert angeboten.
‘Necessary facilities are especially offered at the attraction sites.’
Table 1: Examples of discourse annotation in ALeSKo
al. (1995)): In example (4) Sie in the second sentence is a backward-looking center – the referential expression that corefers with the most salient
expression in the previous sentence according to
a saliency hierarchy (in comparison to other antecedents): subject is more salient than object(s),
object is more salient than other functions.
In addition, sentence-internal functions are
marked (frame: frame-setting topic (Götze et
al. (2007): 167f.) and others): Example (5) and
(6) present two frame-setting elements (temporal
and local). They do not contribute to local coherence but they set the frame for the interpretation of
the current sentence and are frequently used in the
Vorfeld in L1 German (cf. Speyer (2007)).
elements, there is no statistical significant difference between L1 and L2 speakers. However, L2
speakers use the function backward-looking center significantly more often in the Vorfeld than L1
speakers.11
4
Heike Zinsmeister’s research was financed by Europäischer Sozialfonds in Baden-Württemberg
Results and Conclusion
We performed a contrastive interlanguage analysis on the basis of the discourse annotation described in section 3. To this end, we compared
the relative frequencies of the different functions
in the Vorfelds of all 43 L2 essays with those in
24 of the Falko L1 essays. With respect to information status (including poset) and frame-setting
A more detailed discussion of the analysis is
given in Breckle and Zinsmeister (in preparation). Under the (simplifying) assumption that the
backward-looking center corresponds to the sentence topic we analyse the observed preference as
a transfer effect from the topic-prominent L1 Chinese to the L2 German.
Acknowledgments
11
287 out of 884 (32 %) Vorfelds constituents in the L2
essays function as backward-looking center vs. 207 out of
764 (27 %) in the L1 essays; χ2 =5.61, df=1, p<0.05. The
conclusion is still valid when the scores are normalised by
the lengths of the texts.
185
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This book contains state-of-the-art contributions to the 10th
conference on Natural Language Processing, KONVENS 2010
(Konferenz zur Verarbeitung natürlicher Sprache), with a focus
on semantic processing.
The KONVENS in general aims at offering a broad perspective
on current research and developments within the interdisciplinary field of natural language processing. The central theme
draws specific attention towards addressing linguistic aspects
of meaning, covering deep as well as shallow approaches to semantic processing. The contributions address both knowledgebased and data-driven methods for modelling and acquiring
semantic information, and discuss the role of semantic information in applications of language technology.
Semantic Approaches in Natural Language Processing
10th Conference
on Natural Language Processing (KONVENS)
Semantic Approaches
in Natural Language Processing
Proceedings of the Conference
on Natural Language Processing 2010
Edited by
Manfred Pinkal
Ines Rehbein
Sabine Schulte im Walde
Angelika Storrer
The articles demonstrate the importance of semantic processing, and present novel and creative approaches to natural
language processing in general. Some contributions put their
focus on developing and improving NLP systems for tasks like
Named Entity Recognition or Word Sense Disambiguation, or
focus on semantic knowledge acquisition and exploitation with
respect to collaboratively built ressources, or harvesting semantic information in virtual games. Others are set within the
context of real-world applications, such as Authoring Aids, Text
Summarisation and Information Retrieval. The collection highlights the importance of semantic processing for different areas
and applications in Natural Language Processing, and provides
the reader with an overview of current research in this field.
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