QPLL User Manual - CMS-ECAL Monitoring system

QPLL User Manual - CMS-ECAL Monitoring system
Q P L L U S E R M AN U AL
P R E L I M I N AR Y
QPLL User Manual
Quartz Crystal Based Phase-Locked Loop
for Jitter Filtering Application in LHC
Paulo Moreira
CERN - EP/MIC, Geneva Switzerland
2002-12-10
Version 0.0
Technical inquires: [email protected]
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Introduction__________________________________________________ 3
Features: .............................................................................................................................3
OPERATION _________________________________________________ 4
QPLL Signals ________________________________________________ 5
QPLL pinout _________________________________________________ 7
Pin assignments.................................................................................................................7
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INTRODUCTION
The QPLL is a Quartz crystal based Phase-Locked Loop. Its function is to act as a jitter-filter
for clock signals operating synchronously with the LHC bunch crossing clock frequency. Two
frequency multiplication modes are implemented: 120 MHz and 160 MHz modes1. In the
160 MHz mode, the ASIC generates three clock signals synchronous with the reference clock
at 40 MHz, 80 MHz and 160 MHz while in the 120 MHz mode the synthesized frequencies are
40 MHz, 60 MHz and 120 MHz. In both cases, the highest frequency is generated directly
from a Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO) and the lower frequencies are obtained
by synchronous division. The two frequency multiplication modes require Quartz crystals cut
to the appropriate frequencies.
Features:
Quartz crystal based Phase-Locked Loop
Three LVDS clock outputs
Two frequency multiplication modes:
o
40 MHz, 80 MHz and 160 MHz
o
40 MHz, 60 MHz and 120 MHz
Reference clock input levels:
o
LVDS
o
CMOS single-ended, 2.5 V to 5 V compatible
Output jitter: < 50 ps peak-to-peak for input signal jitter less than 120 ps RMS
Package: LPCC-28 (5 mm × 5 mm, 0.5 mm pitch)
Power supply voltage: 2.5V
Radiation tolerant
0.25 µm CMOS technology
Crystal: The QPLL quartz crystal will be provided with the QPLL for operation in the
specified frequency multiplication mode.
1
Please note that frequency numbers in this document are often rounded to the nearest integer. This is
just a simplification to facilitate reading (and writing). In fact, these numbers should be interpreted to
be the exact multiples of the LHC bunch-crossing clock frequency.
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OPERATION
The QPLL uses the LHC bunch-crossing clock as the reference frequency. This signal can be
feed to the ASIC either in CMOS or LVDS levels (please refer to Figure 1). Selection of which
input to use is simply done by forcing the unused clock input to logic level “0” (notice the use
of the OR function in the reference clock signal path in the block diagram). The three clock
outputs are LVDS signals and their frequency depends on the “mode” input. When “mode” is
set to “0” the output clock frequencies are: 40 MHz, 60 MHz and 120 MHz otherwise the
frequencies are: 40 MHz, 80 MHz and 160 MHz. Since the highest clock frequency is
obtained directly from the Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO), different crystals are
required for operation in each one of the two frequency multiplication modes. The required
crystals are provided by CERN for the specified operation frequency.
160 MHz / 120 MHz
LVDS IN
PLL
CMOS IN
Mode
4
40 MHz
Enable External Control
fo Select
4
80 MHz / 60 MHz
4
Enable Auto Restart
Reset
LOGIC
Vdd
Locked
Error
Cap
Figure 1 QPLL block diagram
The use of a VCXO in the QPLL allows to achieve low jitter figures but imposes the limitation
of a small frequency lock range. To cope with crystal cutting accuracy, process, temperature
and power supply variations, upon reset or loss of lock, the ASIC goes through a frequency
calibration procedure. In principle, this is an automatic procedure that in most applications
should be “transparent” to the user. However in some situations, like for example hardware or
system testing, the user might want to have control over it. The signals that are relevant to
this function are: “externalControl”, “autoRestart” and “foSelect<3:0>”. If the “externalControl”
signal is set to “1” then the automatic calibration procedure is disabled and the VCXO centre
frequency is set by the signals “foSelect<3:0>” otherwise, the free running frequency is
automatically determined.
The QPLL contains a lock detection circuit that monitors at every instant the lock state of the
phase-locked loop. If the PLL is detected to be unlocked, a frequency calibration cycle is
initiated to lock the PLL. This feature can be disabled by forcing the signal “autoRestart” to
“0”. In this case, a frequency calibration cycle is only started if a reset is applied to the IC. In
any case the “locked” signal reports the locked status of the PLL.
The logic circuits controlling the PLL use redundant logic techniques to cope with Single
Event Upsets (SEU). The “error” flag indicates (momentarily) that one SEU has occurred.
These errors are dealt with automatic requiring no action from the user.
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QPLL SIGNALS
autoRestart – 5V compatible CMOS input with internal pull-up resistor:
autoRestart = “0”: Automatic restart of the PLL is disabled. A frequency
calibration cycle will only occur after a reset.
autoRestart = “1”: Automatic restart is enabled. A frequency calibration cycle
will occur each time the PLL is detected to be unlocked.
cap – VCXO decoupling node:
A 100 nF capacitor must be connected between this pin and ground.
error – 2.5V CMOS output:
This signal indicates that an SEU has occurred. Since SEU events are dealt
with automatically by the ASIC logic, this signal will be active only during
period in which the error condition persists. A SEU should not affect the
operation of the PLL
externalControl – 5V compatible CMOS input with internal pull-down resistor:
externalControl = “0”: The VCXO centre frequency is set by the automatic
frequency calibration procedure.
externalControl = “1”: The VCXO free running frequency is set by the input
signals foSelect<3:0>.
foSelect<3:0> - 5V compatible CMOS inputs with internal pull-down/pull-up resistors
(foSelect<3> ← pull-up, foSelect<2> ← pull-down, foSelect<1> ← pull-down,
foSelect<0> ← pull-down):
These signals control the VCXO free running oscillation frequency when the
signal “externalControl” is set to “1”. If “externalControl” is set to “0” these
signals have no influence on the IC operation.
inCMOS – 5V compatible CMOS input with internal pull-down resistor:
This is the CMOS reference clock input. When in use, inLVDS+ and inLVDSmust be set to logic levels “0” and “1” respectively.
inLVDS+ and inLVDS- – LVDS inputs:
These signals are the LVDS reference clock inputs. When in use, inCMOS
must be held at logic level “0”.
locked – 2.5V CMOS output:
Reports the PLL locked status.
Lvds40MHz+ lvds40MHz- – LVDS output:
40MHz clock output
lvds80MHz+ lvds80MHz- – LVDS output:
mode = “0”: 60 MHz clock signal (with 120 MHz quartz crystal).
mode = “1”: 80 MHz clock signal (with 160 MHz quartz crystal).
lvds160MHz+ lvds160MHz- – LVDS output.
mode = “0”: 120 MHz clock signal (with 120 MHz quartz crystal).
mode = “1”: 160 MHz clock (with 160 MHz quartz crystal).
mode – 5V compatible CMOS input with internal pull-up resistor:
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mode = “0”: 120 MHz frequency multiplication mode (120 MHz quartz crystal
required).
mode = “1”: 160 MHz frequency multiplication mode (160 MHz quartz crystal
required).
~reset – 5V compatible CMOS input:
Active low reset signal.
xtal1, xtal2 – Quartz crystal connections
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QPLL PINOUT
The QPLL is packaged in a 28-pin 5 mm × 5 mm Leadless Plastic Chip Carrier
(LPCC-28) with 0.5 mm pin pitch.
22 - vdd
23 - cap
24 - xtal1
25 - gnd
26 - xtal2
27 - mode
28 - f0 Select<0>
1- inLVDS-
21 - f0 Select<1>
2 - inLVDS+
20 - lvds40MHz+
3 - InCMOS
19 - lvds40MHz-
QPLL
Package: LPCC-28
Size: 5 mm x 5 mm
Pitch: 0.5 mm
4 - externalControl
5 - autoRestart
18 - vdd
17 - gnd
6 - reset
16 - lvds160MHz+
7 - f0 Select<3>
15 - lvds160MHz14 - f0 Select<2>
13 - lvds80MHz+
12 - lvds80MHz-
11 - vdd
10 - gnd
9 - locked
8 - error
Figure 2 QPLL pinout
Pin assignments
Pin Number
Signal Name
Signal type
1
inLVDS-
Input, LVDS
2
inLVDS+
Input, LVDS
3
inCMOS
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
4
externalControl
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
5
autoRestart
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
6
~reset
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
7
f0Select<3>
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
8
error
Output, 2.5 V compatible
9
locked
Output, CMOS 2.5 V
10
gnd
Power
11
vdd
Power
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12
lvds80MHz-
Output, LVDS
13
lvds80MHz+
Output, LVDS
14
f0Select<2>
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
15
lvds160MHz-
Output, LVDS
16
lvds160MHz+
Output, LVDS
17
gnd
Power
18
vdd
Power
19
lvds40MHz-
Output, LVDS
20
lvds40MHz+
Output, LVDS
21
f0Select<1>
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
22
vdd
Power
23
cap
Power
24
xtal1
Analogue, Quartz crystal
25
gnd
power
26
xtal2
Analogue, Quartz crystal
27
mode
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
28
f0Select<1>
Input, CMOS 5V compatible
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