Cadfil Help V7.63

Cadfil Help V7.63
Cadfil Help V7.63
Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
Table Of Contents
1. CADFIL Help System.................................................................................................. 4
1.1 Getting Started........................................................................................................ 4
1.1.1 About Cadfil.................................................................................................... 4
1.1.2 What is Cadfil.................................................................................................. 4
1.1.3 Installation....................................................................................................... 5
1.1.4 Software Updates ............................................................................................ 7
1.1.5 Stages of program Generation......................................................................... 8
1.1.6 Licence File Expiry ......................................................................................... 9
1.1.7 Material Database............................................................................................ 9
1.2 Mandrel Creation.................................................................................................. 12
1.2.1 Overview of Mandrel and Envelope Creation............................................... 12
1.2.2 Mandrel (X,R) Edit ....................................................................................... 13
1.2.3 Importing a DXF file..................................................................................... 15
1.2.4 Converting Old mandrel files........................................................................ 16
1.3 Fibre Path Creation............................................................................................... 16
1.3.1 Introduction to fibre path generation............................................................. 16
1.3.2 Mandrel Meshing for fibre path generation .................................................. 16
1.3.3 Fibre Path Start Position................................................................................ 17
1.3.4 Winding Trajectories..................................................................................... 17
1.3.5 CADFIL Fibre Path Requirements................................................................ 18
1.3.6 Creating a fibre path...................................................................................... 19
1.3.7 Specific wind angle required......................................................................... 20
1.3.8 Specific diameter opening required............................................................... 21
1.3.9 Difficult mandrels ......................................................................................... 22
1.3.10 The fibre path creation menu ...................................................................... 22
1.3.11 Fibre Paths Display Options........................................................................ 24
1.3.12 Friction & Step Dialog ................................................................................ 25
1.3.13 Views Menu ................................................................................................ 26
1.3.14 Creating a Joining Path ............................................................................... 28
1.4 Payout Path Creation............................................................................................ 29
1.4.1 Introduction to payout path creation ............................................................. 29
1.4.2 Creation of payout path ................................................................................. 30
1.4.3 Band pattern selection ................................................................................... 31
1.4.4 Band Pattern With Dwell Winding ............................................................... 33
1.4.5 Filter length and filter angle .......................................................................... 34
1.4.6 Thickness modifications................................................................................ 34
1.4.7 View payout path .......................................................................................... 36
1.5 Combining Winding Programs............................................................................. 37
1.5.1 Control File for creating multi layer wind paths ........................................... 37
1.6 Post Processing..................................................................................................... 38
1.6.1 Introduction to Post Processing..................................................................... 38
1.6.2 Post-processor configuration (.SM File) ....................................................... 39
1.6.3 Post Processor Configuration @@[email protected]@ .................................... 43
1.6.4 The 2 axis post processor .............................................................................. 47
1.6.5 The 3 and 4 axis post-processors................................................................... 48
1.6.6 The 3 axis large eye post processor............................................................... 48
1.6.7 The 5 axis post processor-1........................................................................... 48
1.6.8 The 5 axis post procrocessor-2...................................................................... 49
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1.6.9 The 5 axis (3 plane) post processor............................................................... 49
1.6.10 The 6 axis post processor- 1........................................................................ 49
1.6.11 The 6 axis post processor- 2........................................................................ 50
1.6.12 Transfer NC to Winder................................................................................ 50
1.6.13 Post Processor Input .................................................................................... 51
1.7 QuickCad.............................................................................................................. 59
1.7.1 QuickCAD (Parametrics) Introduction ......................................................... 59
1.7.2 Pipe Winding................................................................................................. 60
1.7.3 Cylinder Hoop Winding ................................................................................ 68
1.7.4 Dome Ended Vessel Parametric.................................................................... 71
1.7.5 Vessel With Encaps (Beta Version) .............................................................. 73
1.7.6 Elbow Winding ............................................................................................. 74
1.7.7 Tee Winding.................................................................................................. 77
1.7.8 Sphere Winding............................................................................................. 86
1.7.9 Flat Plate Winding......................................................................................... 88
1.7.10 SPAR Winding............................................................................................ 95
1.8 Error Messages................................................................................................... 110
1.8.1 Introduction to error handling ..................................................................... 110
1.8.2 Fatal errors................................................................................................... 110
1.8.3 Non-fatal errors ........................................................................................... 110
1.8.4 Cadfil main program errors messages......................................................... 111
1.8.5 Mandrel generation error messages............................................................. 111
1.8.6 Fibre path generation errors ........................................................................ 112
1.8.7 Payout path error messages ......................................................................... 115
1.8.8 Post processor error messages..................................................................... 117
1.9 Figures................................................................................................................ 119
1.9.1 Mandrel XR Edit Dialoge Box.................................................................... 119
1.9.2 Graphics Window in Mandrel/Envelope X,R Edit...................................... 119
1.9.3 Edit XR Data Record................................................................................... 120
1.9.4 Axisymmetric path Requirements, 2 Hoop Points ...................................... 120
1.9.5 Winding Angle System For Starting Path ................................................... 120
1.9.6 Friction Direction looking on to mandrel surface ....................................... 121
1.9.7 Difficult Mandrels ....................................................................................... 122
1.9.8 Band Pattern Selection Dialogue................................................................. 123
1.9.9 Visualisation of fibre Band Pattern ............................................................. 123
1.9.10 Band pattern explanation........................................................................... 124
1.9.11 Default Clearance Envelope...................................................................... 126
1.9.12 The Control (.CTL) file editor................................................................... 126
1.9.13 Dome Ended Vessel Parameters ............................................................... 127
1.9.14 Elbow Winding Parameters....................................................................... 127
1.9.15 Front & Back faces of plate with face advance parameter=2 ................... 128
1.9.16 Front & Back faces of plate with face advance parameter=1 ................... 128
1.9.17 NC Feedrate Dialogue............................................................................... 129
1.9.18 Spar winding Parameters........................................................................... 129
1.9.19 QuickCad Sphere Parameters.................................................................... 130
1.9.20 Machine offsets and Datums ..................................................................... 130
1.10 Appendices ....................................................................................................... 131
1.10.1 Cadfil Installation...................................................................................... 131
1.10.2 Appendix A -Cadfil file formats ............................................................... 133
1.10.3 Appendix B-Calculations .......................................................................... 139
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1.10.4 Appendix C - Other Languages................................................................. 141
1.11 Examples .......................................................................................................... 143
1.11.1 Examples Introduction .............................................................................. 143
1.11.2 QuckCAD - CNG Vessel tutorial 01......................................................... 143
1.11.3 Aluminium Bottle - QuickCAD ................................................................ 143
2. Addenda ................................................................................................................... 147
2.1 USB Datakey (DK3) .......................................................................................... 147
2.2 Difficult mandrels .............................................................................................. 147
2.3 Parallel Datakey (DK12).................................................................................... 147
2.4 Viewing Options Dialog .................................................................................... 147
2.5 Endcap Types & Parameters ...................................................................... 148
2.6 Slide 1................................................................................................................. 149
2.7............................................................................................................................. 149
2.8 ‹header›
 .................................................................................................... 149
2.9 Click to edit Master title style ............................................................................ 149
2.10 notes_flag.gif Notes ........................................................................................ 149
2.11 Slide 1............................................................................................................... 149
2.12 Slide 1............................................................................................................... 150
2.13 Slide 1............................................................................................................... 150
2.14 Slide 1............................................................................................................... 150
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1. CADFIL Help System
1.1 Getting Started
1.1.1 About Cadfil
CADFIL® is a registered trade mark of Crescent Consultants Ltd. and is protected by
Copyright 1986-2011, all rights reserved.
IMPORTANT
Crescent Consultants Limited accepts no liability for loss or consequential loss as a
result of use, or inability to use the CADFIL® software.
Crescent Consultants Ltd.
2 Springfield
Kegworth
Derby DE74 2DP
England
Tel: +44 (0)7958 647196
Fax: +44 (0)871 263 7797
Email: [email protected]
Web: www.cadfil.com
1.1.2 What is Cadfil
CADFIL® is a computer aided design (CAD) package, for the generation of part
programs for interpretation by CNC filament winding machines. The aim of CADFIL,
is to enable the user of the system to easily generate, highly accurate CNC part
programs for the control of NC filament winding machines. Within a few minutes, a
user can investigate the wind angles possible on a geometry, generate a fibre path,
estimate the amount of fibre required, and produce a documented control program
complete with estimated wind time.
CADFIL permits the user to generate programs remote from the winding machine, and
hence with little or no loss of production winding time. The program generated will
have been tailored for the optimum band pattern generation, and will enable fibres to be
laid at the precision of the filament-winding machine used, rather than with the
inaccuracy of the teach-In method.
The system determines geodesic or frictionally modified geodesic fibre paths on the
surface of an axisymmetric mandrel. These paths are subsequently processed into
machine independent co-ordinates. Finally, this data is translated into the numerical
code for the defined winding machine controller. This is subsequently transferred to the
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winding machine controller. The system can be configured to generate programs for a
wide variety of machines.
CADFIL® assumes that the user is a competent design engineer, with knowledge of
composite materials. It will enable such a person to establish the required laminate
structure on a mandrel, and create a NC program for the target filament-winding
machine.
CADFIL is menu driven, and operates on a PC using the the Windows operating
systems. The current level is designed and tested for Windows XP, Vista and Windows
7
1.1.3 Installation
To install Cadfil the installer must have administrator rights on the PC for steps 1, 2
and 4.
STEP 1, Install Cadfil
Cadfil comes as an executable install file. When run the install file:
•
•
•
•
Copies files to the C:\Cadfil\cadfil7xx folder (7xx is the version number e.g..
7.01 would be 701).
Creates Registry keys
Creates shortcuts on the Start menu in the programs area.
Creates a Desktop shortcut for Cadfil
STEP 2, Install drivers
Cadfil uses a security device called a Datakey. This is a DK3 device(See 2.1) (USB
port device).
DK12(See 2.3) parallel port devices are not supported after Cadfil version 7.25
Cadfil copies a driver file to the C:\Cadfil\cadfil7xx. The driver install program is called
DK3win.exe. A shortcut in the Cadfil programs group on the start menu can be used to
run this install.
Please note that Cadfil Install files downloaded from www.cadfil.com do not usually
include the drivers to keep the file size smaller. Driver installation is not required if the
user is installing an updated version of Cadfil. Drivers can be downloaded from the web
page www.cadfil.com/DataKeyDrivers.
STEP 3, Attach Datakey
Attach the USB datakey. The first time a USB key is used you may get the message that
Windows has found new hardware and is loading drivers, please wait for this to
complete. This message may also occur if you plug into a USB port that has not been
used for the datakey before.
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STEP 4, Apply a licence file
You should have been sent (usually by email) a small file, usually called ‘lic.dat’. This
is required when you run Cadfil for the first time after an install. Place this file in a
convenient location on the PC, for example on the desktop.
You can now run Cadfil my clicking the Cadfil7 icon on the desktop or in the start
menu, Programs, Cadfil7 group.
Problem Solving
You may find that most of the menu options are greyed out and cannot be used. A
security error message may be given and you could be directed to this help file if you
chose to be.
To fix this you need to go to the utilities menu and select the Apply New Licence file
option. You will then need to browse in the file open box to find the licence file you
saved earlier. Having read the licence file you can then see the Cadfil the Message
‘Licence Update Succesful’ in the Cadfil Text window (you may need to scroll down
this window to read the messages). If you get an error please note the error number and
contact CCL. It may be that you need an updated licence file.
Security error messages will be of the format ‘Security failure, code xxx. View Help?’.
Error codes meanings are shown below.
It is suggested that you:
a. Check the Datakey is plugged into the PC and try to run Cadfil again. After
plugging in a key wait a few seconds for windows to find it.
b. Re-install the driver files (see step 2) and try again.
c. Contact CCL.
For other codes you may just need to apply the latest licence file as described above. If
the error persists please contact CCL. Contact details are at the start of this help file and
can also be found on the Cadfil ‘About’ option.
Cadfil Run Time Licence code errors:
-1 No DK3 driver
-2 No DK3 found
-5 ,-16,-17 Corrupt DK3 datakey data
-6,-7,-8,-18 Licence expired
-9 DK3 found but not recognised (not initialised by Cadfil)
-10,-11,-13,-14,-15 Only for DK12 parallel key – DK12 is now obsolete
-12 Cadfil version number too high for licence data version
The above are the ones that you might see. The DK12 datakey is obsolete at Cadfil
Version7.25
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The error codes when installing a new licence file are different meanings, these
are:
-1 Lic.dat file selected is not found
-2 Error opening lic.dat file
-3 Error reading lic.dat file
-19 Lic.dat file is corrupt
-5, -6 License file is time expired
-7 DK3 found but not recognised
-8 Wrong DK3 for licence file/wrong licence file for DK3
-9,-11,-12 DK12 error codes
1.1.4 Software Updates
Cadfil is sold with a defined period of technical support, the support period is usually
12 month from the time of purchase. Modifications, improvements and technical
solutions to issues are published from time to time at the Cadfil web site. Such new
versions published within the period of technical support are available for download
and installation.
As of Cadfil version 7.38 the facility to check for updates automatically is included on
the Help Menu with the Check for Updates Option.
If you select the Check for Updates Option and you are automatically directed to this
page then Cadfil could not make a connection to www.cadfil.com. This could be that
the the computer does not have an internet connection or perhaps and the Cadfil
application is being blocked by a firewall such as the windows firewall. You can
manually check if the updates page is available by going to
www.cadfil.com\updates.html and you can download the latest update from this page.
Please note that the latest version of software may not run with the level of licence on
your Datakey, please read the following notes.
The Check for Updates Option will write to the Cadfil Text Winding and tell you:
a) The current version of Cadfil that you are running
b) If an update is available
c) The latest Version that is available for download
d) The Highest version available that will run with your current Datakey licence
settings. If there is a version that you cannot run you may be able to get a free update
for the licence on you datakey or there may be a charge. Please contact us at
[email protected] with the details of your current version, the serial number from the
datakey and the name of your company.
If an update is available and can be used please go to www.cadfil.com\updates.html
and follow the instructions to download and install the update.
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It is possible to have several versions of Cadfil on a PC however the shortcuts on the
start menu and desktop that are created by the installation program are for the last
version installed.
1.1.5 Stages of program Generation
CADFIL comprises of four stages, mandrel definition, fibre path design and payout eye
path generation and post processing. The QuickCad options(See 1.7.1) available for
certain geometries complete the first three stages in one go.
Post-processing converts the machine independent payout path into machine
instructions compatible with the relevant winding machine controller. Post-processing
is divided into a number of options dependant upon machine axes available, and which
axes are to be used. These options enable a program to be generated using a different
machine control strategies.
Various data files are supplied with CADFIL, which enables the user to configure their
system to their own specific requirements. These and other CADFIL files are discussed
in See Appendix D - Cadfil Files
The user is initially required to define the mandrel geometry. This is achieved within
the mandrel edit or new mandrel options(See 1.2.1), mandrel edit. Alternatively the
mandrel data can be imported from a CAD program(See 1.2.3) (such as AutoCAD) via
a DXF file, and option described else where in this help file. The edit option asks for an
existing mandrel file (.mnd extension).
The mandrel geometry is defined by the input of data points, in the form of X,R coordinates. X being the position along the mandrel's axis of revolution, and R the
component's radius at this position. A three dimensional surface mesh is automatically
created from this information in the fibre design section.
Once the mandrel has been generated, the user can create fibre paths on it, by selecting
the create path(See 1.3.1) option from the Cadfil main menu. The mandrel geometry
determines the path of the fibre once the initial start point and fibre direction have been
entered, and can only be varied by a small amount, dependant upon the coefficient of
friction between the fibre, the resin and the surface of the mandrel.
The user then develops the fibre path, using friction when necessary, until the path's
completion by the generation of two hoop points(See 1.9.4) within the path. The fibre
path is then saved, and the fibre design section exited.
The payout path section (create payout path(See 1.4.1) on the Cadfil main menu) reads
the fibre path data file and calculates the machine positions (relative to the mandrel).
Fibre and resin data and other necessary parameters are given at this stage to determine
the number of fibre cycles required to cover the component. The amount of fibre
required is given and a graph showing the composite thickness on the mandrel is
displayed. A data file containing machine co-ordinate points relative to mandrel is
written for use by the post-processor. If required this payout path data can be
graphically viewed to show the machine positions, the band structure or to animate the
winding..
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It is possible to use a mandrel to create a number of fibre path and then payout paths for
different wind angles or areas of mandrel coverage. To wind these paths as automatic
sequence on the machine, joining paths(See 1.3.14) need to be created to connect the
end of one winding program to the start of the next. Having created a series of payout
files and joining payout files these are combined in a control file.(See 1.5.1) The post
processor can use the control file to generate a complete winding program foe all layers
without having to edit the machine control (NC) data in any way.
The final stage of the CADFIL system is to translate the payout file into winding
machine instructions. The post-processor performs this task.(See 1.6.1) Post-processors
can be configured to produce programs for an almost limitless variety of machines.
The NC part program is an ASCII format file, as are all CADFIL data files, permitting
easy editing. The NC file can then be transferred to the NC controller using proprietary
file transfer software and the program should then be run in accordance with the
filament winding machine manufacturer's instructions.
1.1.6 Licence File Expiry
Some of the Cadfil licence data is held with the USB Datakey. The Licence may have
an expiry date after which the software will not function fully. You may get one the
following messages if the licence has a limited period to run:
'WARNING - licence has less than 30 days'
'WARNING - licence has less than 15 days'
'Read Help Topic - Licence File Expiry' (this help topic).
In this case please send and email requesting a licence file update to [email protected]
with the details of your current software version, the serial number written on the
Datakey and the name of your company and contact details.
The licence is a small data file that is supplied by email with full instructions of how to
apply it.
1.1.7 Material Database
Cadfil Contains a database of Fibre and Resin Materials. For winding program
calculation only two parameters are required, the width of the fibre band ( the band
width) to determine the path spacing and and the band thickness to calculate the
thickness of the winding if required.
The band width is a function of the fibre type and also of the dispensing system
(payout head). The tension and guide system will affect if the fibre spreads into a wide
type or if it bunches up like a rope. Based on the band width and the fibre and resin
material properties this band thickness can be calculated. For this reason the user must
add there own bandwidth data based on experience with the winding machine type.
The material database allows the user to :
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a) Save fibre and resin material data for future use.
b) Set material data for a particular winding and report this information to the NC
program file for traceability and to add operator instructions such as which resin to use
and the number and type of rovings to use. A description of the material parameter
post- processor logicals can be found in the section on Post-Processor Variables @@[email protected]@.(See 1.6.3)
c) Calculate band thickness.
The material data is containing in and external file cadfil_material_data.csv found in
the Cadfil system folder (C:\Cadfil\Cadfilxxx ). This is a comma separated value
(CSV) file and can be opened and edited in Microsoft Excel or other spread sheet
programs. The format and layout should not be changed but the user can add or remove
entries as required.
An example of such a CSV file viewed in Excel is show below.
The first two lines are header information and show the units and item description.
Currently only the tex , density and bandwidth values are used for calculation the other
information is there for reference and for future use.
Category currently must be "Fibre" or "Resin".
Type is "Carbon", "Glass" , "Aramid" or "Other" for Fibres and "Epoxy", "Polyester"
or "Other" for Resins.
The other parameters are standard material parameters that can be found in
manufacturers technical data-sheet.
The user can set material data from the Cadfil Main option menu or from the 'Material
Properties' button that occurs on various dialogues during program generation. When
the set materials options is selected the dialog shown below is displayed.
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The Roving type can be changed from the pull down menu. The Roving description
pull down will show all the rovings of the current roving type that are in the database. A
roving material can be selected by clicking on it from the pull down menu. The same
logic applies to resin type and resin description. The current selections are the ones
shown in the dialog and the properties are the current properties that apply to this
selection. The material data is fixed in the database the only one that the user can
override /change on this screen is the roving width (band-width).
On selecting OK the following screen is shown.
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This displays the current selection of materials and the user can set the number of
rovings being used for the current winding. It is also possible to set the expect finre
volume fraction or fibre mass fraction for the final composite that is expected. The
calculate button shown the current band width (roving width x Number of rovings) and
the expected can thickness given the specified material properties and fibre fraction.
The 'calculate' is also automatically performed when the screen is exited with the OK
option.
Band Width and Band thickness are the only parameters required to calculate a winding
program.
1.2 Mandrel Creation
1.2.1 Overview of Mandrel and Envelope Creation
For rotationally symmetric shapes the first stage in generating winding programs is to
create a mandrel file defining the shape to be wound. At the same time the user can
create a mandrel envelope. This is described in the section entitled Editing of Mandrel
and Envelope X,R Data(See 1.2.2). The mandrel and envelope data are saved in a text
file with the .mnd file name extension
A mandrel definition consists of X,R data co-ordinates defining the surface. The user
needs to define sufficient points to have a reasonable representation of the curvature of
the mandrel profile. There are a few points to note:
Fine detail such as small internal (concave) blend radii are not required and indeed can
prove counter productive.
It is usual to divide the mandrel such that (for example) long cylindrical sections are
split into lengths of not more than about 10 diameters.
Consider where the X=0 position is for the mandrel, this is the datum position for the
mandrel. The mandrel must be located with reference to the winding machine datum.
This is discussed further in post-processing under the heading XDAT- Carriage Axis
Datum.
The positive X-axis direction of the mandrel must be in the same direction as the
positive direction of the machine carriage axis.
A mandrel envelope is a clearance surface around the mandrel on which the fibredispensing head will move. It is defined in the same way as the mandrel shape. When
creating an envelope the user should consider several things:
It gives better control to have the dispensing head close to the mandrel at all times.
If clearances are too small test winding will be worrying! Also, on some machines
there may be small positional errors as the winding speed is increased so beware.
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The programmed position is for the centre of the dispensing eye or roller. If this has a
large width this must be reflected in the envelope or a crash may occur on the corners at
the mandrel ends when moving in.
It is best not to have too many points or a more complex envelope than is necessary.
Cadfil will automatically create a default envelope if the user does not create one. This
may not be always be ideal it is best to check.
Mandrel and envelope data can be created by importing a DXF file(See 1.2.3) created
in a CAD system such as AutoCAD this is described in the following section.
1.2.2 Mandrel (X,R) Edit
Creating mandrel or envelope data for axisymmetric shapes is done performed using the
XR Data Entry Dialogue Box, the features of this dialogue box are described below.
Point Labels Check Box
If this box is checked numbers are placed on the data points on the mandrel
drawing(See 1.9.2). These numbers match the point numbers in the mandrel or
envelope data list. If the Draw Expanded option is checked the additional points are
shown so the point numbers may not match the data list
Draw Expanded Check Box
Mandrel or envelope data consists of basic data point and additional points that tie on
lines or circular arcs between basic data points if Draw Expanded is checked this
additional points are shown on the mandrel/envelope drawing in the graphics window
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No Symmetry; X+ End Symmetry; X-end Symmetry; Buttons
These buttons set symmetry options The options are X- END to set a flag to say the
mandrel (and envelope) is symmetric about the left hand X data position of the
mandrel, X+ END to set symmetry about the right hand end, or NONE (the normal
option). Note that for X+ symmetry the envelope must not have points with X values
greater than the largest mandrel X position, and for X- symmetry the envelope should
not have X co-ordinates less than the smallest mandrel X position.
Mandrel Data; Envelope Data Buttons
When these button are clicked the focus switches from editing Mandrel data to
Envelope data. (Or visa versa) and the data in the Text Data List box also switches.
Text Data List Box
This box(See 1.9.1) shows 5 entries for each mandrel or envelope as selected with the
Mandrel Data/Envelope Data Buttons These are a point number (see Point Labels),
and X position, a Radial R position, Extra Points and Fit Radius.
The X & R positions are main data (x, y) points for the mandrel profile. The fit Radius
is a circular arc to fit between this point and the next main data point. If this is the last
point then the fit radius is ignored. The extra points are a number of X,R data points
that are automatically created on the fit radius. If the fit radius is zero the extra points
are created on a straight line. If the extra points value is zero then the fit radius is
ignored. If fit radius is negative then the radius will be concave rather than convex.
Clicking on a line of data allows the values to be edited via a popup edit box shown
below.
Add Data Button
This option pops up a row of four edit boxes(See 1.9.3) where the user can enter the
four values X,R, Additional points and Fit radius. These data are then added to the
mandrel or envelope
Delete Data Button
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The pops an edit box asking for the data point numbers to delete. The user can enter
multiple points e.g. 1 3 5 Would delete points 1 3 and 5. Up to five lines of data can be
deleted in one go.
Flip Button
The options turns the mandrel around, for example if this part was a gas cylinder the
neck would go from the X+ end to the X- end or visa-versa
Datum Button
This options allows the user to add a value (it may be negative) to all mandrel positions
to move its origin (zero position).
Scale Button
This options allows the user to multiply all values by a scale factor. So for example if
the data was entered in inches but mm are required then enter a scale factor of 25.4 and
all the values will multiplied by this factor and thus converted. The mandrel should then
be saved with the updated data. The scale factor is not saved or retained in any way.
Cadfil does not know the actual units used for the mandrel, these are just dimensionless
units. If the units used for the mandrel do not match the linear units for the winding
machine then conversion (gearing) factors must be specified in the post processor
configuration.
1.2.3 Importing a DXF file
On the Cadfil Utilities menu there is an Imported DXF option. This reads a DXF file
created in a CAD program and creates a mandrel file. For this to work the DXF file
must be prepared in a certain way as described below.
The Mandrel data is defined by a 2D profile in the X,Y plane using lines and circular
arcs
The axis of the mandrel should be the World X axis
The Lines and arcs for the mandrel must be joined to form a polyline or lwpolyline.
This polyline must be on a layer called MAN
The layer called MAN should contain only one polyline but can contain other data
The Envelope data (optional) must be prepared in the same way as the mandrel contour
The envelope polyline must be on a layer called ENV.
In the CadfilXXX\Data folder there is a sample DXF file called TESTMAN.DXF.
Cadfil has been tested on AutoCAD R12, R13, R14 & 2000 DXF files.
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1.2.4 Converting Old mandrel files
At version 5 the format of the Cadfil mandrel (.mnd) files fundamentally changed. If a
user tries to read a mandrel file from an older version and error such as ‘invalid mandrel
file header’ will be given. It is possible to convert old mandrel data to the latest format
using the ‘Convert old mandrel’ option on the utilities menu. The user is prompted for
the mandrel name and then the new mandrel name. By default the new name is the
same as the old name and if this is not changed the old mandrel will be replaced.
If the mandrel had an ‘Envelope’ file this will automatically be converted and added
into the mandrel file data. The envelope is part of the mandrel file post in v5 and later
versions. If the mandrel had no envelope definition a default definition is created
PLEASE CHECK THIS ENVELOPE.
Note that the format of the FIB and payout files also changed as the mandrel surface is
now defined using quadrilateral elements rather than triangular elements. There is no
conversion facility for fibre path or payout path files. These will have to be re-created.
1.3 Fibre Path Creation
1.3.1 Introduction to fibre path generation
This section discusses the Fibre Design section of the CADFIL system. It briefly deals
with the requirements for the generation of the fibre path, initially starting with meshing
of the mandrel, advice on selection of the fibre start method, winding trajectories, and
the fibre path requirements of the CADFIL system. It then goes on to describe example
situations frequently encountered in path development.
Due to the wide variation in mandrel design, and operator path requirements, this
manual cannot however, be expected to cover all possible permutations that could be
achieved. The examples have therefore been chosen to enable the user to quickly gain
an appreciation of the capabilities of the software, whilst providing the knowledge of
how to develop fibre paths for the majority of applications.
Next Section(See 1.3.2)
1.3.2 Mandrel Meshing for fibre path generation
In order to avoid potential problems during fibre path generation, it is advisable that the
user attempt to maintain the aspect ratio of all elements to be as near to a ratio of 1:1 as
possible. In practice this is difficult, and a wide variation in the aspect ratio of elements
is to be expected.
However, we do recommend that elements do not exceed a ratio of 10:1, in any
direction, and that a minimum of 16 elements per revolution be used. Larger aspect
ratios may lead to inaccuracies in path generation though this is not necessarily the
case. A warning is given for elements that exceed the advised 10:1 ratio, the elements
concerned are listed to the errors logging file CADFIL.LOG.
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The main reason for such an error to occur, is where cylinders have been defined using
a few points, giving rise to large X co-ordinate steps. This can be rectified by inserting
additional points where necessary in the mandrel data file in the mandrel section of the
software.
A warning is also given for meshing the mandrel with fewer than 16 elements per
revolution. This is for user information purposes, and does not stop the user from
continuing with the fibre path development section of the program. This minimum is
recommended to enable the system to gain an adequate surface representation of the
mandrel.
A trade off is required between the accuracy of the mandrel definition, and the
computational time required. A high number of elements per revolution will increase
the time for path calculation, not only in this section of the program, but since the file
generated is required in later parts of the system, then it will also affect the speed of
path generation in these sections also. This very high definition of fibre paths is,
unnecessary to generate accurate NC programs. A ‘number of elements’ value of 30 is
suitable for most purposes.
Next Section(See 1.3.3).
1.3.3 Fibre Path Start Position
When deciding on where to start the fibre path, the user must decide on what are the
main requirements of the path he wishes to generate. An appreciation of the various
ways in which the fibre can be started will simplify matters. The user ought to consider
the following requirements of fibre paths.
1.Is there a fibre winding angle that is necessary at specific axial locations on the
mandrel?
2.Is there a requirement for the path to close down to a boss on the mandrel end(s), or to
have a specific diameter opening at one end of the component?
3.Are there any features of the mandrel that may give rise to difficulties during the fibre
path development ?
The answers to the above questions will determine which is the quickest, simplest or
most accurate method of developing the fibre path, to achieve the desired features. This
is discussed in later sections.
Next Section(See 1.3.4)
1.3.4 Winding Trajectories
The geometry of the component, previously defined in mandrel generation(See 1.2.1),
determines the stable paths that the user will be able to achieve. The main requirement
of the fibre path, when determining its trajectory, is that it should not slip. This is
accomplished within CADFIL in two ways.
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In the first method, the fibre path follows a geodesic path, this being the shortest
distance between two points on the mandrel. The limitation of this method of fibre path
generation is however, that once the initial conditions of start position and start angle
have been input, the rest of the path is uniquely defined by the geometry of the
component. Therefore, the scope for attaining an optimum winding pattern for
mechanical and environmental requirements can be limited.
The second method of path generation makes use of the frictional effects between fibre,
resin and mandrel surface, to allow the fibre to be deviated away from the geodesic
non-slip path, to a friction sustained(See 1.9.6) non-slip path .
The amount of deviation from the geodesic path is dependent upon the friction
coefficient, this being dependent upon the mandrel finish, fibre and resin type, etc., and
also upon the geometry of the component. A higher local curvature will increase the
normal reaction to the component surface, this in turn increases the frictional forces
available to sustain the fibre on the required path, and hence the fibre path will deviate
faster.
The CADFIL system can make use of both of these methods whilst a fibre path is being
generated, the operator deciding upon the amount of friction to be applied, and when to
use it.
Next Section(See 1.3.5)
1.3.5 CADFIL Fibre Path Requirements
Since the components that this system deals with are axisymmetric, CADFIL only
requires the user to develop one half of a complete fibre circuit between two hoop
position as shown in the diagram below. The hoop positions are the locations where the
fibre path turns around. The return half of the fibre circuit is automatically generated
in the payout path section.
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In order that the system can accurately locate the hoop points at either end of the fibre
path, the user is required to generate a minimum of three points following the hoop
position. When starting the path, unless the user commenced with a hoop direction
winding ( 90o ), it will also be necessary to have a few points prior to the initial hoop
point.
The following sections outline the methods for attaining specific fibre path
characteristics, which may be required by the operator.
Next Section(See 1.3.6)
1.3.6 Creating a fibre path
Having created a mandrel as described in previous sections a fibre path can be created.
From the CADFIL initial menu select the Create Path option. The user is asked to
enter/select the mandrel file name and is then asked for the Number of elements per
revolution. This is the number of elements around the mandrel and is discussed in the
mandrel meshing(See 1.3.2) section. The start conditions for the fibre track is then
requested.
Once the initial start position and direction has been selected, it is only possible to make
small modification to be basic geodesic path trajectory. The only method available is to
use the friction that exists between the resin, fibre and mandrel being used. This section
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describes how the path is started, and the subsequent sections discuss the best methods
of start point selection to achieve specific requirements.
When the path is started the mandrel is drawn in the display area in the default X-Y
(SIDE) view. The user is then requested to specify the X location of the start position
(i.e. the position along the mandrel axis). The options are:
TypeIf the X co-ordinate of the start point required is known, then this option is used.
The user is prompted, Enter start position. The start position entered must be in
mandrel units, and it’s located relative to the mandrel origin.
MouseIf an approximate start location on the mandrel is satisfactory, then the user can
move the mouse cursor to the desired position and click the left mouse button.
RadiusIf a specific end opening is required this option can be used refer to the
following section entitled 'specific wind angle(See 1.3.7) required.'
Once the start position is specified the start angle can be specified from the following
options:
HOOP UHOOP Up is used to start the fibre path in the hoop direction (90 degree
winding angle). If this option is used one hoop point is now already generated, and if
the location is on the mandrel end, the opening diameter has thus been fixed.
HOOP DHOOP Down is that same as HOOP U except that the fibre starts with -90
degree winding angle. The direction of rotation of the mandrel in the winding machine
will be opposite to using hoop up.
CURSORThis option displays a cursor cross at the position where the fibre start
position was previously requested. Using the mouse, the user stretches the rubber band
line to make the angle required between the band line and the horizontal. Once the
approximate angle has been achieved, the user left clicks.
ANGLEA dialogue box requests the start angle to be input displaying, ENTER
START ANGLE -/+ 180. The user is required to input the start angle (See figure(See
1.9.5) ).
Once the fibre start position and angle has been specified the software proceeds to the
fibre creation menu(See 1.3.10) described in a later section.
Next Section(See 1.3.14)
1.3.7 Specific wind angle required
An example of a situation where a specific wind angle is required is discussed below.
Consider a cylinder with domed or cone ends(See 1.9.11) (or some other shape of
reducing diameter). The user wishes to generate ±30 degree winding on the cylinder but
is not concerned about the end opening diameters at the cone end. Referring to the
previous section on starting the fibre path the user can use the CURSOR option to
approximately fix the path start location on the cylindrical section of the mandrel near
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the cone end. The start angle can then be specified using the ANGLE option. In this
case, as we wish to pass over the cone end first we specify and angle of 150o, (18030=150, refer to figure(See 1.9.5)). The fibre can then be advanced one segment at a
time menu using the ACTION option. Setting STEP to a larger number (5 or 10 for
example) will speed things up.
As the fibre advances down the cone the winding angle displayed will be seen to
change and eventually the fibre will turn around. Thus the first hoop point has been
fixed. This position will later be the start or tie on position on the winding machine!
The fibre angle will then increase and then due to geodesic theory when the path is back
on the cylinder the wind angle will be 30 degrees. There may be a small angle change
e.g. 0.1 degrees, due to the fact that numerical methods are used. Larger changes may
be seen if the mandrel is poorly defined (very few sections and/or few elements per
revolution - see the sections on mandrel meshing).
The fibre will now advance (with ACTION) along the cylindrical section of the
mandrel and will turn around on the dome end. Once the fibre has turned around the
second hoop point has been defined and the path is complete. The fibre should always
be advanced at least three segments past the point where it is seen to turn, as this allows
the software to accurately locate the turning point at a later stage. If this is not done an
error will be given during payout path generation.
The path can now be saved and the user can exit and proceed to the payout path
generation.
Next Section(See 1.3.8).
1.3.8 Specific diameter opening required
This section enables the user to generate a fibre path to give a component, which will
have a specific diameter opening in one end. At an end of a component, the fibre turns
round, and therefore, the fibre will be travelling in a hoop direction around the mandrel.
We can therefore use this property to start the fibre at this position in the hoop
direction.
The user can fix the X position by using the RADIUS option at menu 3.4. The user is
prompted for the mandrel radius at the end opening, the software the start at the left and
of the mandrel putting a marker on the mandrel when the mandrel radius matches the
value entered. A menu with SELECT THIS POINT YES/NO? appears. If NO is
selected the next location on the mandrel is shown. This option cannot be used to start
on a cylindrical section at there are an infinite number of locations! If the user does not
select any of the choices (or if no choices exist) the software returns to the previous
menu.
Having specified the start location select HOOP U or HOOP D. The selection will fix
the direction of mandrel rotation. For example, if the machine's positive direction of
mandrel rotation was clockwise when viewed in a positive direction along the mandrel's
axis of revolution, then the user would select HOOP U, in order that the instructions to
the machine controller are not all negative. In some cases (when using the 5 axis 3
plane or the 6 axis post processors, the mandrel rotation direction can be important if
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the machine 'head' is not symmetric as these post processors use three Cartesian axes of
motion (XYZ).
Having specified the fibre path start position the path can be generated as normal with
or without the use of friction. If the path is generated fully geodesically, the end
opening diameter will be the same at the other end of the mandrel (to within the
accuracy of the numerical predictions). If a larger or smaller opening at the other end is
required friction must be used. The path can be advanced and deleted over the mandrel
end using different amounts of friction until the specific diameter is achieved. This can
usually be done in 2 or 3 iterations and is made substantially easier if a mandrel end
view is selected from the VIEWS menu.
Next Section(See 2.2).
1.3.9 Difficult mandrels
1.3.10 The fibre path creation menu
This menu controls the generation of fibre tracks on the mandrel surface. Through out
path generation the current path X position (X), mandrel radius (R), winding angle (A),
point number (N) and friction status are displayed in the text window.
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The menu options above are described below:
Finish & Save This exits to the main menu and the user is asked if he wishes to save
the fibre path data before exiting. Having saved the fibre the option to proceed to
creating the payout path is given(See 1.4.1).
Action This option advances the fibre path by the current step value with the current
friction setting. As a shortcut a left mouse button click on the Cadfil Graphics window
has the same result.
Friction/Step Pops the friction/step dialog box(See 1.3.12) with allows the user to set
parameters for the path creation. As a shortcut a left mouse button click on the Cadfil
Text window has the same result.
Delete This option retreats the fibre path by the current step value with the current
friction setting. As a shortcut a right mouse button click on the Cadfil Graphics window
has the same result.
View Options This enables the CADFIL views menu to be accessed(See 1.3.13). This
allows the view angle to be changed, output of graphics and other facilities such as
ZOOM and PAN. This is described in a later section of this manual. This dialog also
allows the user to change how the path is displayed.(See 1.3.11)
Rotate about Axis This option enables the user to rotate the fibre path around the
mandrels axis of revolution in the current view. Whenever a new view is selected, any
relative X rotation entered using this command is lost, as the display is mandrel and
fibre are drawn in the selected view orientation. The system prompts: Enter relative xaxis rotation a value in degrees should be entered. The fibre path will then be redrawn,
the original path remaining visible. The value entered here is the motion to move the
fibre track from where it is now, to its new position. The can help if the fibre is on the
back face of the mandrel.
Redraw This clears the screen and draws the fibre and mandrel mesh in the currently
selected view with the current display options.
PATRAN Output. This option allows model data to be output as a PATRAN neutral
file containing shell elements. The user is asked for the name of the file to create. The
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extension '.ptn' is added to the file name entered. This option may not be present as this
feature is an additional software licence item.
Test Hoop Points. This prints a summary (to the text window) of the X-position and
radial opening for each hoop point in the winding file and is useful to determine if there
are two acceptable hoop points for create a payout path or to determine the size of the
end openings that have been generated.
The objective is to steer the path across the surface of the mandrel to achieve the wind
angles and mandrel coverage required. At any stage the user can change the fiction
parameters to help steer the path. If no friction is set then the path will be geodesic, i.e.
it will follow the shortest path across the mandrel surface given the current position and
direction of travel. Please refer to the examples at in the appendices of this help file.
Next Section(See 1.3.11)
1.3.11 Fibre Paths Display Options
These options determine how the fibre path is displayed in the screen and are accessed
from the Display options entry on the Fibre path creation menu(See 1.3.10). The
options are as follows:
Not Shown. Selecting this option will remove all hidden detail from the view
requested. The only fibre which is visible on the front of the mandrel will be displayed.
Change colour. Hidden fibre is shown in a different colour
Dashed line. The colour of the fibre is the same as that on the front of the mandrel, but
it is drawn in a dashed line (default option)
From C/T Line. The fibre is rotated around the mandrel until the end point is on the
mandrel centre line.
Only FibEnds. Markers are shown for the fibre start and end positions (only used for
non-axisymmetric systems)
Show as band. The user is asked for a band-width and the path is shown to scale as a
band of this width on the mandrel surface.
Next Section(See 1.3.13)
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1.3.12 Friction & Step Dialog
This dialog sets parameters for creating a fibre path(See 1.3.10) to aid steering it across
the mandrel surface.
LH Friction Sets Left Hand friction. The direction of friction(See 1.9.6) is when
looking onto the surface of the mandrel facing in the direction in which the path is
being created, thus LH friction deviates to the left and RH friction to the right. When
friction is selected the user is requested to enter the friction percentage a value from 0100 which can be entered in steps of 0.1 e.g. 33.1%. This is the proportion on the
friction coefficient, a value, the higher the friction value the more rapid the change in
fibre direction.
Geodesic. This option sets zero friction i.e. the path will continue geodesically.
RH Friction sets Right Hand friction. (See LH Friction)
Const Angle. This option forces the fibre path to continue at a constant angle, this
angle being the current angle. This option cannot be set on the first point of a fibre path.
This option is useful for winding along mildly tapering cylinders where it would be
difficult to keep progressively changing friction to maintain a wind angle. Warning: at
present this option does not check the level of friction that is required to maintain the
constant angle and hence if this option is used in an inappropriate manner the fibre path
may not be feasible to wind due to slippage. Friction checking will be available in a
later version of CADFIL.
Friction Percentage is is the proportion of the friction coefficient to apply. The range
is 0 to 100%.
Friction Coefficient is the characteristic value for the fibres , resin and mandrel being
used. A default value is supplied. The user will be able to maximise the benefit
achievable by using frictionally sustained paths, if for each fibre/resin system used, the
maximum coefficient of friction attainable is first determined. For example, preimpregnated carbon/epoxy tape will have a significantly higher friction coefficient
when compared to a system of polyester resin wetting out glass fibres pulled through a
resin bath. The friction coefficient and percentage boxes are only active when LH or
RH friction is active via the radio buttons.
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Create/Delete Step. When the path is advanced or retreated across the mandrel surface
(via left or right mouse clicks respectively on the Cadfil graphics window) the number
of element segments the path moves is controlled by the step value. Clicking the + box
increases the step and the - box decreases the step. This can significantly speed the
process of path development.
Fix Point. Pressing this button fixes (remembers) the current fibre position such that
the path before this point cannot then be deleted. If is is attempted to deleted past the
fixed point a warning message will be given. Clicking the Unfix Point button will
cause to software to forget the fixed point. If a point has been fixed, the path is
advanced and the the fix point button is pressed again the new position will become the
fixed point and the previous value will be lost.
Help. The help button launch this software topic.
OK. This button closes the dialog however the dialog can be left open add you can
advance or delete the path by clickimg on the Cadfil Graphics window, reverting to this
dialog to adjust the parameters.
1.3.13 Views Menu
Fibre path viewing enables the user to see the fibre on the surface of the component,
from any direction he desires, and permits the use to zoom in on an area of interest and
pan or move the view point along the fibre. The fibre path and mandrel-viewing menu
is reached, by selecting VIEWS option at the fibre path creation menu(See 1.3.10). or
from the view payout path menu(See 1.4.7). The options are selection on a n easy to use
windows dialog box and are described as follows:
OK Returns to the previous menu and redraws
DRAW Refreshes the screen with the latest draw options and remains in the views
dialog
X-Y View This is the default view and the user sees a side profile of the mandrel
looking normal to the mandrel X-Y plane.
X-Z View This is a side profile of the mandrel looking normal to the mandrel X-Z
plane.
-X END This is an Y-Z view looking onto the x- end of the mandrel.
+X END This is an Y-Z view looking onto the x+ end of the mandrel.
ISO View This gives a mandrel isometric view with the mandrel axis running across
the screen from bottom left to top right.
USER This permits the user to define a view direction. The system requests 3 angles to
be entered (in degrees), these being the rotation of the component about its axes. The
first value prompted for, is the component's rotation about the X-axis. The second value
requested is the rotation of the component about its new Y-axis (this being modified
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due to its rotation about X). The final value requested is the required rotation about its
new Z-axis. This again being modified from its original orientation by a rotation about
X, and a secondary rotation about its new Y.
Zoom Window This allows the user to zoom in on a particular area of interest and is
particularly useful with long thin mandrels as it can be difficult to see details clearly
when the mandrel is fitted to the full screen. On selecting ZOOM the user must use the
MOUSE to define the area of the current view that is to be fitted to the screen. The user
is prompted to select two cursor positions, after entering the first point a 'rubber band'
box is drawn from this location to the current cursor position indicating the area that
will be selected when the second cursor position is selected. If one or both sides of the
box have zero side length the zoom area will not be selected. Having successfully
picked two points the software will redraw the current image, fitting the selected area to
the screen.
Note that if the user picks a zoom area with no fibre or mandrel in it then the screen
will be empty after redrawing! The ZOOM is reset to full screen whenever a view is
selected as the VIEWS menu.
Zoom Factor Zooms based on current view centre, i.e. 0.5 halves the scale (i.e. display
is smaller) and 2.0 would double the view scale.
Zoom ALL This resets the zoom to full screen.
Pan in View This allows the user to move the view position (move the mandrel across
the screen) and can be useful in conjunction with the ZOOM facility. The user is
requested to enter two cursor positions. The direction from point one to point two is the
direction in which view point (eye) moves and the distance moved is the distance
between the points. The pan view port is reset when a new view is selected.
Shade None switches back to normal display options, i.e. all shading is switched off.
Mark Nodes is principally of use for non-axisymmetric application. When selected the
use is asked for a node number (from the mesh database). If this node does not exist the
system will beep. If it does exist a marker will be placed at its location on the screen
Normal Vectors when this option is selected the element normal are displayed with a
line from the centre of the patch that is normal to the patch surface. The outer end is
marked with a marker. The markers will be re-displayed even if the view changes. If
this option is selected again the feature will be switched off.
Shade Linear this selects one of the advanced 3D solid rendering display options. In
this mode all solid objects such as the mandrel and any payout head block definition
will be rendered in a pre-set colour palette to reflect a light source which is behind the
view point of the user. A true hidden detail image is created using Z buffering
techniques. These images can be captured as Windows bitmap files using the VIEWSOUTPUT option. Such images can then be read into presentation packages such as
Corel-Draw and Microsoft PowerPoint to produce high quality report and presentation
materials.
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For a payout path in conjunction with the fibre dispensing head block definitions (see
PAYOUT VIEWING) the user can step through a winding program looking at a
realistic 3D solid model and can easily visually assess the winding program, and if
there are any problems with machine/mandrel contact. This essential for nonaxisymmetric geometries and multi-axis winding-machines, as the interaction of the
machine and mandrel is very complex. The only alternative is to test the program on the
winding machine losing valuable production time.
This options renders the objects based on the normal direction of the surface patches.
I.e. the shade is constant over the patch. This gives the mandrel a faceted appearance
that is more pronounced if the mesh is course.
Shade Bi-linear This option is similar to shade-linear except that the light (shade)
intensity is calculated at each node or vertex on the patches and the shading is bilinearly interpolated over the patch. On curved surfaces this gives a much more realistic
image even if the mesh is very course. The rendering process is slower. If there are
sharp discontinuities in curvature on the mandrel this shading options is give a slight
localised anomaly in such locations. In this instance the shade-linear option (perhaps
with a denser mesh) may be a better options.
Cull Patches This switches surface culling on or off. Culling is the automatic removal
(for display) of all patches whose normal direction is away from the view direction.
Can be useful for non-axisymmetric and RTM work.
Edges ON/OFF Used with shading to draw the patch edges.
Fill Times Used in RTM work the fill time at nodes can be interrogated by clicking on
them.
Property Display Shades patches according to the current property index (nonaxisymmetric and RTM work only).
Zbuf Invert Used in shading the Zbuffer can be inverted such that objects to the rear of
the view come to the front and visa-versa (non-axisymmetric and RTM work only).
1.3.14 Creating a Joining Path
This option is selected from the Cadfil Main menu. A joining path is used to wind a
single circuit starting at one point ion the mandrel and finishing at a different position.
Thus a user could generate a standard winding Pattern to wind a low angle layer on a
component. He could then generate a separate pattern for a high angle wind and he
could then generate a joining path to allow the machine to automatically wind from the
end of the low angle wind to the start of the high angle wind. The wind sequence of
patterns is specified in a control file(See 1.5.1) such that the Post-processor(See 1.6.1)
can automatically create a complete program for all the layers.
A joining path is created(See 1.3.3) in the same way as a normal fibre path. The user
generates a path with two or more hoop points (turning points - as shown below).
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The difference is that when the Payout path is created there is no band pattern, there is
only one cycle and the return half of the path is not created. The joining path starts at
the first hoop point in the path and finishes at the last hoop point.
Next section(See 1.3.7)
1.4 Payout Path Creation
1.4.1 Introduction to payout path creation
This module maps the fibre path from the surface of the component onto a notional
control surface on which the winding machine is constrained to move. The control
surface (or envelope) gives clearance around the mandrel, a default payout
envelope(See 1.9.11) is created if the user does not create one. In the mandrel
edit/create section(See 1.2.1) of CADFIL the user can create a custom machine
envelope.
In this section the user gives data relating to the materials that he will be using during
the winding of the component. From these data the system calculates the fibre bundle
cross-sectional area, and by inclusion of the bandwidth will enable the system to
calculate the thickness of the composite to be laid down, and the minimum number of
cycles for complete coverage.
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A feature now exists, which plots the payout eye path, along with the mandrel. This
enables the user to view the payout eye motion in relation to the mandrel. Viewing
options enable user to view the mandrel and payout path from any direction, whilst also
permitting the operator to rotate the payout eye path around the mandrel.
The user can also view the band structure of the winding using the Fibre Bands(See
1.9.9) option
The software has the ability to update the mandrel profile. This option enables the user
to modify the profile of the mandrel used to generate the fibre path, by adding to it the
thickness profile of the layer to be over-wound. This will enable the user to generate
subsequent fibre paths onto the modified profile.
Next Section(See 1.4.2)
1.4.2 Creation of payout path
At the CADFIL main menu select the Create Payout Path option.
The system will request the name of the fibre path (. FIB) file to use.
The system reads the fibre path data and then reads the mandrel and envelope file data
that is referenced in the fibre path file.
The prompt, Thickness file required y/n? is then given. A thickness file is not usually
required but if it is a file name must be specified, this file will have the default '.THK'
extension. A thickness file must be generated if the user wishes update the mandrel
later.
RESIN DENSITY1.10
FIBRE DENSITY2.60
NUMBER OF ROVINGS1
FIBRE TEX2400
THICKNESS CONSTANT K 1000.00
FRACTION MASS RATIO0.60
FILTER ANGLE (DEGREES)12.00
FILTER LENGTH100.
PAYOUT CLEARANCE50.00
FIBRE BAND WIDTH5.0
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The first six values above are used to estimate the cross sectional area of the resin
impregnated fibre bundle to allow the thickness of the winding to be calculated. When
the user later specifies the band-width the band thickness can be estimated. The
calculation is set up for default units but can be modified if required. See the
appendices for tow area calculations(See 1.10.3.2).
See also the section on thickness modifications(See 1.4.6).
The FILTER ANGLE and FILTER LENGTH(See 1.4.5) can be used to reduce the
number of data points in the payout path and are discussed in one of the following
sections.
The PAYOUT CLEARANCE is used to create the default envelope around the
mandrel. If the mandrel file has an envelope defined and this was selected at step 4 then
this value is ignored. The PAYOUT CLEARANCE value entered MUST be in mandrel
units.
The software now calculates from the data input the number of cycles required to cover
the mandrel. This line is displayed for user information as follows, the user will note
that the number of cycles is not a whole number as it is unlikely that the effective
bandwidth will divide exactly a whole number of times into the mandrel maximum
circumference. By default CADFIL rounds the number of cycles to the nearest
whole number.
The other items displayed are the minimum layer thickness and the total length of fibre
for one layer (assuming one roving)
If a thickness file was requested The system will now prompt the user as to whether he
would like to update the mandrel profile by displaying, MANDREL UPDATE
REQUIRED Y/N. If the user answer 'Y' the display will indicate UPDATING
MANDREL. PLEASE WAIT. Following this, the system will request the user to
input a new mandrel filename for the updated mandrel.
The Band pattern table(See 1.9.8) is then shown. This user can select a band pattern by
clicking on the line required. Band pattern is discussed in detail in a latter section.
The system requests the user to input the name of the payout file he wishes to save the
payout path data to. This file has the .PAY extension.
The system then proceeds to the Payout View Section(See 1.4.7).
1.4.3 Band pattern selection
The band pattern is used to control the final laminate structure by ensuring successive
repetitions of the designed fibre path circuits are placed in the correct positions relative
to each other. This usually involves making a small modification to the calculated
design path by the 'progression factor' though in some cases this can be done by dwell
winding(See 1.4.4) where the mandrel rotates with no other motion.
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The progression factor is the ratio of the desired total rotation needed to achieve a
certain band pattern structure (Target Angle), to the total rotation of the generated path
around the mandrel for one circuit (Actual angle).
Progression factor = Target Angle / Actual Angle
A band pattern of 1 is shown in the figures(See 1.9.10). As can be seen, the successive
bands are laid adjacent to each other. It is very unlikely for a fibre path to return to a
position exactly one band-width around the mandrel from its start position. Thus, in
order to achieve this, the angles of rotation of the mandrel are modified along the fibre
path generated.
If the path returned 180 degrees out of phase with the start point, and if the total
rotation from start to end is quite small (say 1 to 3 revolutions for example), then the
modification to the path (progression factor) would be large. This would be likely to
cause the path to be unstable and slip. In this example, a band pattern of 2 would be
more appropriate. An example of a band pattern of 2(See 1.9.10) can also be seen in the
figure. In this case the coverage of the mandrel now progresses from two initial
positions.
For band patterns higher than 2 there will often be more than one possible band
structure and thus the post processor will give more than one option for a particular
band pattern. An example can be seen in the figure where, a band pattern of three(See
1.9.10) could be performed in two ways, the first having a 'Skip Factor' of one and the
second a 'Skip Factor' of two.
The band patterns that are possible are a function of the number of machine carriage
circuits (cycles) that are required for one layer on the mandrel. As the number of cycles
increases the number of band pattern possibilities increases.
For a given number of cycles CADFIL automatically calculate all the different band
pattern possibilities, the user can then select a suitable pattern from these.
The band pattern selection(See 1.9.8) figure shows a typical user dialogue for band
pattern selection. As can be seen, the user is first given the number of cycles and the
total rotation of the path around the mandrel.
The items on the table header are: The option number; The band pattern; The mandrel
rotation (per cycle) that will result from selecting this pattern (target angle); The
'angular change', that is the change in mandrel rotation required to achieve this pattern;
The Progression factor (PROGF); The amount by which the progression factor differs
from the ideal value of 1.0.
The ideal situation is to have no modification to the path, i.e. to have a progression
factor of 1.000. When the post-processor suggests possible band patterns, it orders them
such that option 1 is the nearest to 1.000 and option 2 is next nearest, etc.
If the progression factor is more than about 0.05 from 1.000 (i.e. outside the range
0.995...1.005) then fibre slip may occur. Thus such options are not recommended but
may be feasible.
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In the example in the figure(See 1.9.8), the user could click on line 1 for a band pattern
of 13 or line 2 for a band pattern of 11.
The user may change the number of cycles to allow different patterns to be displayed
and to modify thickness(See 1.4.6). For example if CADFIL calculated that 186.4
cycles where required for coverage this would be rounded to 186. The cycle range in
the boxes at the top of the band table would be from 186 cycles to 186 cycles. By
clicking into the boxes the user could change these values to be from 185 cycles to 187
cycle and then click the recalculate button. The best band patterns using the new data
would be displayed.
The dwell split feature is discussed under the topic dwell winding(See 1.4.4).
If the cancel button is selected then no band pattern modification is applied. This
should not be used for standard axisymmetric CADFIL files, as the winding pattern
produced will usually be random. Certain special programs (parametrics) can generate
.PAY files that have the correct band pattern already built in to them and thus the band
pattern modification should not be applied.
1.4.4 Band Pattern With Dwell Winding
On the band pattern table(See 1.9.8) there are buttons to switch from progression
winding(See 1.4.3) to dwell winding. In dwell winding the modification to mandrel
achieve a band pattern is achieved by additional mandrel rotation at the hoop (turning)
points(See 1.9.4).
Normally the dwell rotation is split equally (50:50) between the two turning positions in
the program. The dwell-split feature allows the dwell to be biased between the ends
100:0 has all the dwell at the first hoop position and 0:100 has all the dwell at the
second (last) hoop position. Dwell split is only available if dwell winding is selected.
Currently this feature is implemented for Cadfil Axsym, pipe winding, dome vessel
and vessel with end-caps. For other options it is ignored. The Default split value is
50:50 but this can be changed by setting the $DWELL-SPLIT= in the SM file (see
topic on this configuration file(See 1.6.2)). $DWELL-SPLIT takes value 0.0 to 1.0.
Dwell winding has advantages and disadvantages as follows:
Disadvantages:
It leads to an extra increase in thickness at the turning points
In general it can only be used when the hoop points are on a cylinder otherwise fibre
slip will occur.
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The exception is when the dome end on the cylinder has pins or has a shaft that the
fibres can wrap around to prevent slipping. In this case the end cap winding is usually
not part of the final product.
Advantages:
Can give greater choice of band pattern
Does not modify the wind angle on the rest of the path to achieve a band pattern
Can be useful on some difficult mandrels (see below)
Use of dwell winding on some difficult mandrels
In this example the winding angle on the cylinder is low and using geodesic winding
the fibre passes onto the end shaft without turning as in the first picture.
To wind this part right hand friction is used to turn the path faster as shown in the
second picture.
With non-geodesic winding on a flat-ended mandrel like this there a risk of fibre
slippage often the part will wind ok at one speed but will slip if the winding is speeded
up. The solution is to use dwell winding to add rotation to wind the fibre around the
shaft as shown in the third picture.
1.4.5 Filter length and filter angle
To generate an accurate geodesic path the mandrel must have a relatively large number
of patches or elements. Fibre positions are calculated each time the path crosses the
boundary of an element. The number of data points on the fibre path is much greater
than the number of points required to accurately control the machine. Filter length and
angle are used to remove (filter out) surplus data points. Subsequent data points on the
fibre path are selected such that the distance between the points on the mandrel
surface is not less than the filter length and the angle between the path direction
vectors for successive data points is not greater than the filter angle. The default values
are suitable for most purposes. The filter values cannot be zero and the filter length is
not permitted to be greater than 200.
Using very small filter values can lead to many very small motions on the winding
machine. In many cases this leads to 'rough' operation of the machine and can lead to an
increase in winding time.
1.4.6 Thickness modifications
Within CADFIL, there are a number of ways in which the thickness of a component can
be built up. The various methods for modifying the thickness of a wound structure
easily are described below.
Bandwidth
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The first opportunity to modify the thickness in the CADFIL design process, exists
within the payout path generation(See 1.4.2) section, in that bandwidth values can be
varied to attain overlaps or gaps. For example, the bandwidth of a fibre bundle on the
surface of the component is say 15mm. We could inform the CADFIL system that the
bandwidth of the fibre on the surface of the component is 5mm. The CADFIL system
would calculate the NC program with its band shifting allowing for a fibre bandwidth
of 5mm. Therefore, there will be a 10mm overlap between adjacent bands on the
surface of the component, hence increasing the thickness of the composite. Informing
the CADFIL system that we have a bandwidth of greater than the actual fibre on the
surface of the component will result in a component of basket weave, or one which has
holes.
Number of cycles for coverage
The next method which enables the thickness to be modified, is to inform the system
that we require a different number of cycles for coverage (in the band selection(See
1.9.8) pattern dialogue), than the value calculated as the minimum number from
CADFIL.
The CADFIL system determines the minimum number of cycles for complete coverage
of the component, given that the bandwidth of the fibre that was entered, and the
winding angles that have been achieved within the fibre path.
If we enter a different number of cycles, for example twice the number of fibres as the
minimum value calculated, the CADFIL system will compensate by halving the
incremental angle to the next fibre in the band pattern. Hence, since the fibre has a fixed
bandwidth, the fibre will now overlap its adjacent fibre by 50%. Informing the CADFIL
system that we require a number of cycles less than that calculated, unless we also
modify the fibre bandwidth to compensate, will result in a the fibre being laid in a
basket weave pattern, or one which has holes in.
Number of times to repeat program
Another method by which we can modify the thickness is by using the ‘combine
programs’ option on the ‘NC Post-Processng menu’. This options used to combining
different winding programs e.g. heklical and hoop programs to make a continuous
program. However it also allows the user to define the the number of times a program is
repated. In using this method, the second layer wound does not take into account the
thickness generated by the winding of the first layer. More information this option cab
be found in the section on combining winding prograns(See 1.5.1).
This method does not use overlapping of bands to create the required thickness and will
create discrete layers, often leading to a better laminate.
The same effect can be eached by editing the NC data and changing the number of
circuits for the program for example if 31 circuits are used per layer then changing to
62 will give two layers.
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1.4.7 View payout path
The payout path, previously generated, can be viewed by selecting the View Payout
Path option at the main menu. The viewing section enables the user to view from any
direction the component and one of its relevant payout path tracks. The payout path is
shown as a series of payout eye points, connected by lines. This permits the user to
view the motion of the payout eye relative to the mandrel. The system requests the user
to input the name of the existing payout path file. The system will then read the path
and mandrel data. If payout viewing has been entered automatically (from say a
QuickCad) payout data is already loaded.
The view dialog(See 2.4) is then shown, the options are as follows:
View OptionsThis allows the user to select different view directions, to select graphics
output to a printer, and to use the zoom and pan facilities. The use of this menu is as
described in the section on fibre path viewing(See 1.3.13).
StepSwitching the step option allows the path to be redrawn in steps or stages. The next
section is drawn by clicking the step increment. This is a useful option for enabling the
operator to view the progress of the eye around the mandrel, when winding the selected
path.
Rotate X Axis This option enables the user to rotate the payout eye path around the
component, the X axis being the components and the paths axis of revolution. This path
rotation can be carried out in any view. On selecting this option the user is prompted,
ENTER RELATIVE X AXIS ROTATION >. The payout path will be drawn in its
new position (either in full or in steps), the path in its initial position remaining
displayed, i.e.. two paths will be visible, the original and its new rotated location.
DRAWThis option clears the graphics window and redraws with current settings.
The following options determine what is drawn at the next redraw.
Fibre BandsThis allows the user to see the band structure
Fpath+PmarkDraws the Fibre Path and Payout Markers for the payout points.
Ppath+PmarkDraws the Payout Path with Payout Markers on it.
2D Pay PathDraws the Payout Path with the points rotated into a common plane
F>P LinesDraws lines (representing the fibre) from the mandrel to the payout point.
These data is as it would be seen on a 4axis machine (DEFAULT MODE)
Animate StaticIt is possible for the user to create a solid model representation of the
fibre dispensing head using a number cylindrical and cuboid (brick) primitives. In this
mode the user can draw each position of the payout head around the mandrel for a
particular payout path. The payout block and mandrel are either draw in wire-frame or
solid dependant on the SHADE mode. The head is rotated for the rotating eye and yaw
axes. The fibre band is also drawn from the payout head to the mandrel. The band can
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be given a particular width and the effects of band twist can be observed. If this option
(or Animate Dynamic) is selected the user will be asked to specify the post process type
so that the animation can show the machine motions for different post process options.
Post process options are discussed in a later section of this manual.
Animate DynamicThis is similar to Animate Static The head is successively draw and
then removed as the payout program is stepped through. This takes the form of an
animation to visually see the head moving around the mandrel.
Pick Display PointsThe system goes into the Animate Static mode but the user is asked
to enter the point number(s) of a particular payout position(s). The user may have
identified a particular point(s) of interest perhaps for graphics output. Using this option
the user can display the payout head for the chosen position. The mandrel and head are
drawn using the current view options (e.g. SHADE mode, VIEW and ZOOM scale).
Element SelectOnly used for RTM/Non-axisymmetric work
Node SelectOnly used for RTM/Non-axisymmetric work
FLE OutputOnly used for RTM work
CFILL OutputOnly used for RTM work
Boundary PlotOnly used for RTM/Non-axisymmetric work
CFILL ResultsOnly used for RTM work
EXITThis option returns control to the previous menu.
1.5 Combining Winding Programs
1.5.1 Control File for creating multi layer wind paths
A control file can be created in the Combine Programs on the NC Post-Process Menu.
This consists of a sequence of payout files that the user has generated for winding
different angles and joining paths(See 1.3.14) to wind from the end of one layer to the
start of the next.
When the user later selects a post-process option it will ask for a payout (.pay) name. If
<name>.ctl exists it will read this control file instead for looking for a payout file. It
will thus process all the payout files in the control file.
The control file editor consists of an easy to use dialogue. The options are:
OPENthis option asks for the file name of and existing control file. These have the
.CTL file name extension. The file is loaded and the data displayed.
ADDthis option allows the user to add a new line of data. A dialogue box pops up show
all the payout files available and the user can select one. The system then asks for the
number of times to repeat the program (i.e. the number of layers) and the position in the
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winding sequence list. The position (number) of existing items in the list is displayed
on screen in the control edit dialogue.
DELETEthe user clicks on a line of data (this will highlight it) and then clicks on the
delete button to remove the line
FINISHthe user is asked to enter a name for the control file to save the data to. The user
can overwrite (update) the file read in or create a new file.
1.6 Post Processing
1.6.1 Introduction to Post Processing
The function of the post-processor is to convert the payout (.PAY) file into instructions
(Numerical Control data) for the filament winding machine (FWM) in order that it may
reproduce the designed fibre path on the surface of the mandrel. The NC data is
produced in the form of a data file that can subsequently be transferred to the winding
machine. The format of this file is dependent on the type of FWM.
The naming convention for the machine axes used throughout the post-processing
sections is as follows;
The linear (Cartesian) axes are AX4,AX5,AX6, the rotational axes being
AX1,AX2,AX3.
AX1is the mandrel rotation about AX4 direction
AX2is the payout eye rotation about AX5 direction (eye-roll)
AX3is thepayout eyes rotation about AX6 direction (eye-yaw)
AX4Carriage travel i.e. along the mandrel
AX5Cross-feed travel (Primary axis for radial motion towards and away from the
mandrel)
AX6Vertical travel (a right angles to AX4 and and AX5 though not necessarily
vertical)
The axis names on any particular machine will be different to those used here, this
being dependent on the controller's configuration. The post-processor is configured for
the actual axis names on the machine. The actual names are set by the $LAB-AX-n
settings in the machine configuration (.SM) file.
CADFIL uses a right handed set (RHS) throughout, the AX4 direction is fixed by the
carriage axis direction on the machine, AX5 is defined as being in an horizontal plane
perpendicular to the AX5 axis, the positive AX5 direction being away from the
mandrel.
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The directions of the other axes then follow directly from the adoption of a right handed
set (RHS). The FWM may not use such a system, so the signs of the axis motions are
modified according to the signs of parameters ($AX-STATUS-n) defined in the
machine configuration (.SM) file.
Various post-processing options can be supplied (using up to 6 axes) dependent on the
axis configuration of the machine and the nature of the winding to be undertaken. The
standard system options supplied are the 3 and 4 axes systems described below(See
1.6.5).
The winding can be divided into three main areas, these being:
1.Winding with a single tow.
2.Winding with multiple tows (wide band-width)
or3.Winding with tape.
The standard CADFIL post-processors are the '3 axis' and '4 axis' systems. The three
axis post-processor uses the machine axes ‘AX1,AX4,AX5’ and the four axis system
uses machine ‘AX1,AX4,AX5,AX2’ axes. The ‘3 axis’ system is primarily for winding
using a payout eye with a single tow (or perhaps a narrow tape), the 4 axis system is for
use with multiple tows using a roller or comb payout system. The additional eye-roll
axis motion removes the sliding action of the tows across the roller.
The post-processor is independent from the path generation software and is configured
specifically for particular customers. The various post-processing systems (e.g. 3,4 or 5
axis systems) can be accessed from the NC Post Process option of the Cadfil main
menu.
Next Section(See 1.6.2)
1.6.2 Post-processor configuration (.SM File)
At version 7 all post-processor configuration is in a file with the .SM extension. The
file is usually found in he Cadfil install directory. When Cadfil is run a file called
‘default.sm’. is always read. If is is not found in the install directory a windows ‘file
open’ dialog box is shown and you must ‘browse’ to find it.
If on reading the .SM there are errors in it there is than an option to view the error log
which will identify the problem(s). If there are errors in the file all the post-process
options will be greyed out, that is, you will NOT be able to post-process.
On the ‘NC-Post Process menu’ there is a ‘select winding machine’ option which
allows the selection of a different .SM file, Thus if you have two different winding
machines you could have ‘machine-name1.sm’ and ‘machine-name2.sm’.
Each time you post-processes the text ‘The Active machine configuration is > machinename.sm’ is displayed in the text window so you know which configuration is in use.
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If you change a .SM file while CADFIL is running you need to exit or re-select the .SM
file using the ‘select winding machine’ option to ensure the changes are being used.
The .SM file is a text file that can be viewed or changed using a text editor such as
Notepad. If you use notepad set ‘Word Wrap off’ on the ‘Format’ menu.
The SM file contains comments describing all the parameter and variables in it. A
number of sample files are usually supplied. It is normal for CCL to configure the
‘default.sm’ file to the best knowledge we have available at the time the software is
supplied. We can offer technical assistance on this if required, please ask!
If you are unsure do not modify this file and always make a safe copy of the original
file before changing it.
There are three types of data in the SM, system constants which are $ variables i.e.
$constant-name some of these parameters are described below. There are some
$contants that define the program layout and this can contain @@variables. These
variables have the format @@[email protected]@, for example @@[email protected]@, during
the post-process run time this variable would be substituted for the current time & date.
A list & description of @@logicals can be found under the topic post processor
logicals(See 1.6.3).
$GEARING-AX-n These are the ratios, which relate the units of of the winding
machine. The post processor uses rotational units of degrees, thus if an axis rotation of
1 degree corresponds to a rotation of 234.567 machine units then the scaling ratio
would be 234.567. If the rotating axis units on the machine are degrees, then the scaling
factor would be 1.0. For linear axes e.g. cross-feed these relate the units used to define
the mandrel in Cadfil to those of the machine i.e. if the machine uses mm and the
mandrel is specified in mm the gear is 1.0. It is strongly recommended that a system of
units for the mandrel are adopted and then used constantly. This removes the need to
change the scaling data in the configuration file once it has been set up correctly. In
practice all customer use either mm or inch for the mandrel definition.
$OFFSET-AX-n These values for each axis (n=1 to 6) from the machine reference
point (machine 'home' position or payout origin) to the spindle datum. The offsets
MUST be in machine units and have the CORRECT SIGN. They are the values one
would use to instruct the machine to move (crash!) the centre of the payout origin (the
position were the payout eye is attached), to the spindle datum point. These offsets are
constants for the machine, but may change when maintenance work is performed on it.
The spindle datum point is a fixed point on the machine winding axis, this usually being
located on the head-stock or tail-stock. When the mandrel is located in the machine, the
position of the mandrel must then be measured from this point. Thus, the mandrel's
position can be defined in the machine co-ordinate system vie the Xdatum post-process
variable.
Click here to see a diagram for OFFSETS(See 1.9.20)
$FEED-DEFAULT-WIND: This is the value of feed-rate that is used in the NC
subprogram to wind the component.
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$FEED-DEFAULT-START: This is the value of feed-rate that is used in the move to
the start position in the NC main program.
$SMALL-MOVE-AX-n: Significant axis motions for axes 1 to n. A value must be
supplied for each axis on the machine. This function holds small incremental axis
motions, until the value of the motion for an axis is greater than the significant axis
motion specified for that axis. If values of zero ( 0.0 ) are entered then all motions are
output, however small they may be. The values entered for each axis should be in the
relevant machine units. If an axis is not present on the machine, a value should still be
entered (0.0 for example), as six values are always expected. If these are set to zero for
active axes, then there may occasionally be very small machine motions due to the
numerical rounding errors associated with the generation of the path across the surface
mesh. Such motions will not add to the accuracy of the winding of the path and may
impair the smoothness of the winding operation. This feature is not used on the last line
of a subroutine, hence ensuring there is no misclosure error of the payout eye position
at the end of each cycle. All axes positions (except A), return exactly to the start
position at the end of each cycle. If this was not the case, a program with a large
number of cycles would progressively 'shift' the fibre track in relation to the mandrel in
one or more axes during winding.
$MAX-SPEED-AX-n: The user can specify a maximum feedrate for each of the axes,
this can be used with the speed mode options to ensure no axis goes over-speed and can
be used to optimise winding time. When graphics of speed are displayed these are as a
proportion of the maximum speed for the axis i.e. 0.5=50% maximum speed.
; example uses deg/min and mm/min
; set all 6 axes even if machine does not have them
$MAX-SPEED-AX-1=60000.
$MAX-SPEED-AX-2=60000.
$MAX-SPEED-AX-3=60000.
$MAX-SPEED-AX-4=40000.
$MAX-SPEED-AX-5=30000.
$MAX-SPEED-AX-6=
$MAX-ACCEL-AX-n: This can set acceleration values for each axis which can help
to create a smoother faster winding program. For this option to be active in the postprocessor the option $ACCEL_DISABLED=0 must be set, this is NOT the default
state. If $ACCEL_DISABLED=0 is set, there is a further option $ACCEL_CALC_OFF
this sets the initial (default) state for the ‘acceleration check box’ on the feed-rate dialog
box during post proces, the acceleration option is default on used if
$ACCEL_CALC_OFF=0 is set. This last set can be over ridden by the user each time
the post-processor is used.
;example of axis acceleration values in mm/min/mm or deg/min/min
;example assuming machine can go from 0 to max speed in 1/15 mins (4
seconds)
;thus accel = vmax * 15
$MAX-ACCEL-AX-1=900000.
$MAX-ACCEL-AX-2=900000.
$MAX-ACCEL-AX-3=900000.
$MAX-ACCEL-AX-4=900000.
$MAX-ACCEL-AX-5=900000.
$MAX-ACCEL-AX-6=
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$AX-3-ROTN-OFFSET: Machines with a yaw axis often have the rotating centre of
the yaw not at the fibre dispensing point. When the head yaws the post-processor must
compensate with cross-feed and carriage movements. The total rotating length from the
dispense point to yaw centre is made up of the FIXED OFFSET+POLEN. The fixed
offset is a constant for the machine (and is internally programmed into the postprocessor) and will not change. If there is no yaw axis, set the offset to 0.00.
$MAX-AX-3-INCR.The yaw axis moves the head on a circular path. The cross-feed
and carriage axes have to make compensating moves. As the axes move on a linear path
point to point, if the yaw angle is large the clearance of the dispensing point could
temporarily increase or decrease during the motion. If clearances are small this could
cause a clash with the mandrel. The max- increment can be set to 10 degrees for
reasonable accuracy. Any larger yaw movements are then broken into smaller parts and
the correct carriage/cross-feed motions calculated for each. If the max.-increment is set
to >2*yaw axis limit the feature is fully deactivated.
$PIPE-MAX-CARRIAGE-INCREMENT. The parameter is not strictly a post
processor variable as it affects .PAY file creation for pipe winding (Multi-pipe, Pipe,
Hoop, Multi-hoop). Where there is a long linear section of motion along the pipe with
only 2 axes of motion (for example of a helical winding of a 12000mm long pipe there
could be a 'linear' single motion block of 11000mm) this motion can be broken into a
number of smaller motion blocks. If $PIPE-MAX-CARRIAGE-INCREMENT=1000
was set a linear motion on the carriage of 8900mm would be slip into 9 equal portions
such than none exceeded 1000mm. On some machines this feature could be used to
help in recovery from power failure or to help in motion smoothing, or to overcome
some controller limitation. If the value is not set the feature is non enabled and is not
used.
$MPF-FIRST-IN-NC . A standard gcode NC program file (<name>.prg) normally
consists of a main program (MPF) and a series of sub-programs (SPFs) this option
allows the MPF to be the first program in the prg file ($MPF-FIRST-IN-NC=1) or the
last program in the prg file ($MPF-FIRST-IN-NC=0).
There are now further options:
$MPF-FIRST-IN-NC=2 then instead for creating <name>.prg the post processor will
create files <name>.mpf and <name>.spf with the MPF and SPF data in them as some
controllers require the two types of program to be separate.
$MPF-FIRST-IN-NC=3 then instead for creating <name>.prg the post processor will
create files <name>.mpf and one or more <name>xxx.spf files where xxx is 001, 002 ,
003 etc. Thus every program unit is in a separate file. This mode can be useful for
example on Siemens 840 controllers the SPF's can be accessed directly from the hard
drive (using EXTCALL) without having to 'load them'.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
See also the values to set the transfer software to the NC winder(See 1.6.12) which are
also set in the SM file.
Next Section(See 1.6.5)
1.6.3 Post Processor Configuration @@[email protected]@
In the post processor block definitions for the layout of SPF and MPF there are
numerous logical variables that can be used. These have the format @@[email protected]@
for example @@[email protected]@. In this case the LAB-AX-1 is the axis name label for
axis 1 (the mandrel rotation). So if the mandrel rotation axis label has been set to 'A'
then wherever @@[email protected]@ is specified the value (in this case 'A' will be
applied).
There are numerous logicals, some will be essential for creating a working program,
some can be used to add optional information to the program for example
@@[email protected]@ can be used to add the version of Cadfil being used to
the program.
@@[email protected]@
Current value of feed-rate or speed variable
@@[email protected]@ & @@[email protected]@
Are the current SPF and MPF program line numbers. The first line in the main
program (MPF) is set by the value $LINE-NO-START-MPF and the line number step
is set by $LINE-NO-INCREMENT-MPF. For the sub-program file (SPF) the values are
$LINE-NO-START-SPF and $LINE-NO-INCREMENT-SPF. @@[email protected]@ is the number of the next line i.e. the current line number plus the line
number increment. The maximum line number the controller can support is set by
$LINE-NO-MAX. If this is exceeded the first line number is then used thus it will not
be unique!
@@[email protected]@ (where n can be 1 to 6)
These are the names (labels) for axes 1 to 6
@@[email protected]@ (where n can be 1 to 6)
Is the current increment motion value for axis n
@@[email protected]@ (where n can be 1 to 6)
Is the current absolute machine position value for axis n
@@[email protected]@ (where n can be 1 to 6)
Is the absolute machine position of the very first position (the start position) for axis n
@@[email protected]@
Is the number of circuits for the current SPF
@@[email protected]@
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
The current Cadfil version e.g. 7.35
@@[email protected]@
Gives the value windows reports for current date and time in the following format 06NOV-07 08:38:07
@@[email protected]@
The name of the post processor configuration (.sm file) being used.
@@[email protected]@
The name of the current SPF (often the current payout file name)
@@[email protected]@
The name of the MPF
@@[email protected]@
Name of the CTL file when multiple layer programs are being processed if there is no
CTL file this is the name as @@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@ (where n takes the values to 4)
These are the 4 terms of the quaternion function for post-processing using a industrial
robot. The four Q values Q1,Q2,Q3& Q4 define angular the orientation of the payout
eye (robot tool).
@@[email protected]@
Adds an empty line (a line with a single space)
@@[email protected]@ (where names takes the value 1 to 3)
In the sm file there user can define up to 3 tensions values. For example these could be
high medium and low tension. This function inserts the value of tension defined.
@@[email protected]@
Maximum radius in the current mandrel (only valid for axisymmetric mandrels)
@@[email protected]@
Default mandrel clearance distance from current payout file
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
This is a special logical which is found in the MPF block definition and inserts a line or
number of lines that define the start point and subroutine call for the SPF. This is
defined as a separte block as a program with multiple subprograms will use this block
several times. To understand this function is is easier to look at a working example of
an SM file.
@@[email protected]@
Current Cadfil Version, e.g. 7.34
@@[email protected]@
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
Name of current payout path file
@@[email protected]@
Width of the fibre band for the current SPF (payout file)
@@[email protected]@
Mandrel Xdatum value
@@[email protected]@
Name of logged in user reported by windows
@@[email protected]@
This is a special function variable. In the program block definitions and line contain this
value will only be processed on the first occurrence. This could be used for example in
the start position block to have a stop code (NC - M00) for the first SPF start only to tie
in the fibres.
@@[email protected]@
Incremental time for current motion.
@@[email protected]@
Current winding machine time from start of program to current position.
@@[email protected]@
Total length of fibre wound in program
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
These 'P38' parameters are specific only the the tape edge winding parametric program
and are documented elsewhere.
Pipe Winding Parameters, see the help file section on these programs
@@[email protected]@
The mandrel radius at the start of the program.
@@[email protected]@
The Clearance Radius for the machine.
@@[email protected]@
Start position from chuck datum.
@@[email protected]@
Length of pipe to be wound
@@[email protected]@
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
For a multi-layer pipe program the winds angle my be different for each layer so this
parameter is best included in the start position block or the SPF header block.
@@[email protected]@
This parameter if used should be included in the start position block or the SPF header
block.
Please note that for a pipe winding program with more than one layers the 'mandrel'
radius (and other parameters) changes with each layer. If these parameters are used in
the main MPF block the value that is used will be for the last SPF! It is better to use
these parameters in the start position block, perhaps using the @@[email protected]@ if the data is not required for each layer. Some parameters will probably be
required for each layer such and wind angle.
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
@@[email protected]@
The above parameters relate to the fibre & resin properties from the materials database
that have been saved in the current payout file.
@@[email protected]@
The current estimate of the mass of resin used during winding, assuming the user has
selected the correct material parameters. The fibre amount is known. the resin is from
the specified resin fraction & resin density. Caution, this will be the current value and it
is cumulative. If you have this at the end of the MPF it will be the total. If you have
after each layer it will be the current value and will increase layer by layer.
@@[email protected]@
The current estimate of the mass of fibre used. See @@[email protected]@.
@@[email protected]@
Current wound mass of composite. It is equal to @@[email protected]@[email protected]@[email protected]@.
@@[email protected]@
The payout file is a set 3D motion coordinate data that is converted into NC motion for
a specific winding machine by the post-processor. The payout file may also contain
some ancillary records that direct the post-processor to perform some additional action.
Ancillary records take the format ANRxx where xx is a number any then may have
some other data that follows. ANR08 appears with the line:
ANR08 ; previous point was hoop point
If the user wishes an action can be associated with this event, for example every time
a hoop (turning) point is reached by flipping a fixed stop payout eye rotation that can
be found on some older machines that do not have a programmable payout eye
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
rotation. This works as follows , set the output for the NC machine with the SM file
variable $ANR08_HOOP_ACTION_TXT1=. For example
$ANR08_HOOP_ACTION_TXT1=M88 outputs the code M88 which could have been
set on the CNC to perform a specific action. In the SM file we our then add
@@[email protected]@ to the blocks $BLOCK-SPF-START, $BLOCK-SPF-MIDDLE and
$BLOCK-SPF-END that are used for sub-program motion data formats.
Note we now have $ANR08_HOOP_ACTION_TXT1 and
$ANR08_HOOP_ACTION_TXT2 which are used alternately to allow for the set and
unset code to be different.
For example:
[email protected]@[email protected]@@@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@@@[email protected]@ @@[email protected]@
Each time the ANR08 appears in the payout file (at the turning points) the codes
@@[email protected]@ would be replaced by M88 and at all other times it would be replaced
by null text (i.e. removed). If $ANR08_HOOP_ACTION_TXT1 or 2 is not set in the
SM file then there will be no output as it will by default ne set to a null string.
1.6.4 The 2 axis post processor
The 2 axis system is best suited to the winding of cylinders though can be used for
other components with care. The operation of the 2 axis post processor is exactly as for
the 3 and 4 axis systems(See 1.6.1), with the following exceptions:
i) Only the mandrel rotation and carriage machine axes are used.
ii) The user is required to enter an additional clearance parameter.
iii) There are limitations on the winding of low angles.
The 2 axis post processor (where supplied) can be executed by selection at the
appropriate post-processor menu option. The system is intended primarily for use with
a payout 'eye'. The eye travels along a line parallel to the machine 'X' axis in the 'Z=0'
plane. After the entry of the Payout extension, the user is requested to enter a payout
clearance with the prompt:
ENTER PAYOUT CLEARANCE FOR 2 AXIS SYSTEM [xxxxxx] :
The value in the square brackets is the default value, and can be accepted by hitting OK
with no other input. Another value can be entered if required.
This clearance must be supplied in the mandrel units, and is added to the maximum
mandrel radius for the particular mandrel used. This then fixes the distance from the
winding axis of the line the payout eye moves on.
Because there is no cross-feed' travel, if the winding program has low (zero is axial)
winding angles, then the machine carriage travel to achieve the desired position will be
large. This may be greater than the machine travel available, or may give poor fibre
control due the large distance between the payout eye and the contact point on the
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
mandrel. The end-overshoot effect can be reduced by decreasing the clearance, but the
user must exercise caution when using low clearances as a clash with the mandrel could
occur if measurements have not been made accurately.
1.6.5 The 3 and 4 axis post-processors
The post-processor asks the user a number of questions, these are:
The name of the payout path (.PAY) file to use.
The name of the program file (.PRG) to create.
XDAT: 'X' axis datum(See 1.6.13.3) to locate the mandrel in the machine.
The Payout eye extension length.
The feed rate calculation method and winding speed.
The NC part program number(See 1.6.13.7) for the main program (if required)
The NC part program number for the subroutine (if required)
These are explained in more detail (where necessary) in the following sections. In most
cases the data is checked for validity and the user is asked to re-enter invalid values.
Next Section(See 1.6.13.2)
1.6.6 The 3 axis large eye post processor
This is for machines with the Mandrel, carriage and cross-feed axes i.e. no eye roll axis.
Were a payout ring is used and a large band width is required a large payout eye would
be used. However the movement of the fibres from side to side in the eye can lead to
inaccuracies in the winding particularly on end domes where slippage could result. The
post processor is identical to the 3 axis system(See 1.6.1) except the user is requested to
enter the Payout Ring Radius. This value is then used to correct the payout eye
positions for the movement of the fibre in the payout ring.
1.6.7 The 5 axis post processor-1
The 5 axes post processor uses all axes except the ‘vertical’ axis. It uses the yaw axis to
enable the fibre band to be laid much flatter over the mandrel end. It has a disadvantage
(on most machines) that the yaw axis is normally limited in it travel either side of the
straight ahead position. Thus, the yaw axis cannot accommodate low angle wind angles
well. If the yaw axis is used to take out the fibre twist as in the full 6 axis post
processing the machine head needs a large clearance to avoid hiding the mandrel shafts
at the mandrel ends. The 6 axis post processor is recommended in preference to this
one.
Operation of this post processor is identical to the standard 4 axis post processor. Using
the correct value of payout eye extension(See 1.6.13.4) is essential as when the yaw
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
axis is moved there must be compensation in the carriage and cross-feed axes if this
rotation is not centred about the end of the delivery eye.
1.6.8 The 5 axis post procrocessor-2
This uses all axes except the ‘vertical’ axis. This is similar to 5axis option one but the
roles of the roll and yaw axes are reversed. The yaw axis is used to eliminate twist in
the fibre and the roll to take up the wind angle and keep the band central on the payout
roller.
Operation of this post processor is identical to the standard 4 axis post processor. Using
the correct value of payout eye extension(See 1.6.13.4) is essential as when the yaw
axis is moved there must be compensation in the carriage and cross-feed axes if this
rotation is not centred about the end of the delivery eye.
1.6.9 The 5 axis (3 plane) post processor
The 5 axis (3 plane) post processor can be used for most components where the user
wishes to use a payout roller. It is selected (where supplied) from the Post-processing
menu. It uses all axes excet the yaw axis. The only real advantage over the standard 4
axis(See 1.6.1) system is that the contact angle of the tape/tow around the roller is
constant and equal to 90 Degrees. The operation of the software is identical to that of
the standard 3 and 4 axis systems, except that the user is requested for additional input
data, this being:
i)Control surface clearance. This clearance is added to the largest mandrel radius and
is then used to define the distance of a plane of constant axis AX6 (vertoical axis). This
plane will be either above or below the mandrel depending on the direction of mandrel
rotation.
ii)End plane clearance. This defines the distance of planes of constant AX4 (carriage)
from the first and last mandrel points. These end planes are used to limit the carriage
travel when winding lower winding angles.
The POE travels in the planes described above such that the POE is always on the
positive cross-feed side of the mandrel. The Tape/tow is held such that the contact line
from roller to mandrel is always in a 'vertical' plane. The roll axis motion is calculated
to remove the sliding action of the tape against the roller. It does not remove any twist
due to the slope of the component's surface. If the user is winding on a steep cone or
near the top of an end dome, then there will be a temporary twist in the tape/tow that
can cause problems. This problem can be reduced by increasing the POE clearance.
This has the effect of reducing the twist per unit length in the fibres, but clearances may
be too large and the accuracy of the fibre laying could decrease.
1.6.10 The 6 axis post processor- 1
This option can be selected from the post processing menu. Operation of the 6 axis post
processor is similar to the standard 4 axis system.(See 1.6.1) The roll and yaw axes are
used to keep the tows aligned on the payout eye and to remove twist of the tows
between eye and mandrel. This allows wider fibre bands to be used without the band
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
narrowing due to fibre twist when winding across dome ends. Some twist is normally
experienced with 4-axis winding. The vertical axis is used to provided greater clearance
between the winding head and the mandrel as the head shape on 6 axis machines means
that positioning the feed eye close to a dome end is not possible due to head clash with
the mandrel shafts. If the vertical axis is not used a very long payout eye extension is
required. The position of the payout head will either be above or below the horizontal
plane through the mandrel axis dependant upon the direction of rotation of the
mandrel. The direction of rotation is dependant on if the fibre track was started going
up or down the screen. The head geometry may dictate which option (above or below)
works best.
For 6 axis winding, using the correct value of payout eye extension(See 1.6.13.4) is
essential as when the yaw axis is moved there must be compensation in the carriage
and cross-feed axes due to the rotation not being centred on the end of the delivery eye.
Using the six axis post processor and when viewing along the winding axis, the fibre
from mandrel to payout point on the head has no component of direction in the 'Y' axis
and the fibre makes a 90 degree angle to the payout roller viewed along the axis of the
roller. This post processor asks for The 6 axis transformation angle the default value
is 90o. The user can specify the contact angle of the fibre around the payout roller.
Values less than 45 degrees are not recommended. The best value is 90 but in some
instances where there are problems due to limited vertical travel. Other values between
45 and 90 can be used to reduce vertical travel.
1.6.11 The 6 axis post processor- 2
The alternative 6 axis post processor is similar to the 6 axis post processor(See 1.6.10)
except that the payout eye is constrained to move in a plane that contains the winding
axis that is inclined at an angle to the X-Y plane. This can allow a larger diameter to be
wound than is usual or my give better clearance if the payout head has an unusual
configuration The angle of inclination is from the value entered when the 6 axis
transformation angle is requested. The default value is 45 degrees. Using this option
radial mandrel clearance can be optimised for example if the Z travel is 300mm And
the Y travel is 600mm from the mandrel centre line the angle would be optimal at
arctan(300/600) and the maximum radial clearance would be (6002+3002). The standard
6 axis system should usually be used in preference to this option.
1.6.12 Transfer NC to Winder
Cadfil currently does not include any transfer software for communication between the
PC and the NC controller on the winding machine. This transfer is often proprietary to
the CNC in question.
If transfer software is provided by the controller manufacturer this can be integrated so
that it can be launched from the NC Post-Process Menu, On the Transfer NC to Winder
Option.
This option is controlled by three variables in the winding machine configuration (.SM)
file.(See 1.6.2) These are:
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
$NC-TRANSFER-MODE=
This takes values of 0 for no transfer to winder option or 2 for transfer to winder using
an external program. 1 is intended for a CADFIL internal transfer option but this is not
currently avialable.
The path and name of external transfer program is specified as in the example below:
$NC-TRANSFER-PRG=
A third option allows command line parameters for external transfer program if this are
needed. If they are not needed do not set this value.
$NC-TRANSFER-CMD-LN=/p /n
The transfer to winder can also be launched automatically from the Cadfil-Pipewinder
(Multi-Pipe) dialog if these options have been set.
1.6.13 Post Processor Input
1.6.13.1 Post processor input
The post-processor asks the user a number of questions, these are:
The name of the payout path (.PAY) file to use.
The name of the program file (.PRG) to create.
XDAT: 'X' axis datum(See 1.6.13.3) to locate the mandrel in the machine.
The Payout eye extension length.
The feed rate calculation method and winding speed.
The NC part program number(See 1.6.13.7) for the main program (if required)
The NC part program number for the subroutine (if required)
These are explained in more detail (where necessary) in the following sections. In most
cases the data is checked for validity and the user is asked to re-enter invalid values.
Next Section(See 1.6.13.2)
1.6.13.2 Entering names of '.PAY' and '.PRG' files
When entering file names in the post-processor the extensions (e.g. '.PRG' in
<filename>.PRG etc.) should not be added. When asked for a payout file if the user
entered 'test.dat', the program would strip the extension input and append the default
extension, and then search for 'TEST.PAY'. If he entered 'TEST' then 'TEST.PAY'
would still be searched for. Input can either be in upper or lower case but lower case
input is always converted to upper case as some NC controllers do not accept lower
case characters.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
If the payout path (.PAY) file is not found in the current directory then the user has the
choice to enter a new name, or to exit from the program. When requested for file names
a default name is suggested where possible. For example, if the payout file is
'TEST.PAY', then the default for the NC data file would be 'TEST' to create
'TEST.PRG'. This default can be selected by depressing <ENTER> with no other
input. Alternatively a new name can be entered.
If the name given for the program file is a file that already exists in the working
directory, then the user is informed of this, and he then has the choice of overwriting
the existing file (the data in it is then lost) or of supplying a new name.
Next Section(See 1.6.13.3)
1.6.13.3 Entering X datum : XDAT
This value is used to locate the mandrel along the winding axis from the spindle datum
point. It is the distance from the spindle datum point, a known position on the winding
axis, to the origin of the mandrel. The mandrel origin is the position of the mandrel's
zero X co-ordinate (and lies on the mandrel axis) in the mandrel data. It is sensible
when entering the mandrel data to specify this zero position at a position that is easily
identifiable on the mandrel, so that measurements can be easily made from it directly. It
need not be within the mandrel, it could be for example on a shaft fixed to the mandrel.
The XDAT value has a sign. This is in the direction of travel of the machine 'X' axis
from the spindle datum point to the mandrel origin, i.e.. the machine 'X' motion from
the datum point to the mandrel origin. The Units of XDAT must be those used to
define the mandrel. See program start position(See 1.6.13.9) for additional information
1.6.13.4 Entering the Payout Eye Length: POLEN
The user is prompted, ENTER POE EXTENSION in a dialog:
The payout eye length (POELEN) is the length of the tooling that dispense the fibres,
on many machines this is an interchangeable component, to see a diagram follow this
link(See 1.9.20). This default value can be accepted or a new value can be entered for
the specific payout eye to be used.
A default length can be specified in the SM (winding machine configuration file(See
1.6.2)) using the variable $PAYOUT-EYE-DEFAULT-LEN=75, in this case setting the
default to 75mm. If no value is set the default is zero.
Note that there is a variable $ASK-FOR-PAYOUT-EYE-LEN that can be set in the
machine configuration (.SM) file.
If $ASK-FOR-PAYOUT-EYE-LEN=0 then the user is not asked for the POELEN
value and the default value it is assumed. The default is to ask ($ASK-FOR-PAYOUTEYE-LEN=
Next Section(See 1.6.13.5)
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1.6.13.5 Selection feed rate calculation method
The NC Feed rate dialogue(See 1.9.17) allows the user to set the winding speeds and
method to use to calculate machine feed-rates.
The Feed-rate dialog now shows the maximum speeds (feed-rates) for each axis and
also the maximum accelerations for each axis. If an axis exceeds the maximum set
speed in a particular line of motion the overall feed-rate will be reduced.
The accelerations are only used if the ‘accerations check box’ is ticked. If the velocity
for the next motion cannot be reached within the time length of that line then the time
for that line will be increased (i.e. the machine is slowed) such that the maximum
acceleration for the axis with the problem is respected. The acceleration functions are in
an experimental state at version 7.27 and the effectiveness is dependant upon the setup
and configuration of the winding machines motion (NC) controller.
The default velocity and acceleration limits are set in the machine configuration
file(See 1.6.2) (.sm file) described in another section.
The calculation mode options are as follows:
0. Only specify a feed rates at the start of the NC main and NC sub -programs. The feed
value used in the main program is the 'start feed' from the .SM file. The feed-rate in the
sub-program is specified by the user but the default is the start feed.
1. Calculate feed rates for each NC block such the mandrels rotational speed remains
constant (maintains a constant feed rate on the 'A' axis).
2. Maintain a constant total feed rate on the 'A' and 'X' axes.
3. Maintain a constant total feed rate on the 'A', 'X' and 'Y' axes.
4. Maintain a constant fibre speed (not yet implemented).
In the post-processor configuration file (.SM) file the variable $FEED-DEFAULTMODE can be set. If $FEED-DEFAULT-MODE=2 is set then on the feed-rate dialog
option 2 (above) will be pre-set.
Other feed rate variables that can be pre-set are:
$FEED-MAX= (largest overall speed allowed)
$FEED-MIN= (smallest overall fee rate allowed)
$FEED-DEFAULT-START= (Speed for start position)
$FEED-DEFAULT-WIND= (Winding speed)
$FEED-CALC-METHOD= (only used for machines with a non-standard speed
calculation)
$MAX-MANDREL-SURF-SPEED= (the maximum speed of the mandrel surface at
the largest diameter (radius) in mm/min or inch/min dependant on units),
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Thus the maximum mandrel rotation speed in degrees/min would be =$MAXMANDREL-SURF-SPEED*360/(2*PI*Rmax) where Rmax is the largest radius of the
mandrel being used. If this option is set the maximum mandrel rotation speed is
reduced as the mandrel diameter increases. This is useful for two reasons, it is safer for
the mandrel drive train by reducing excessive load for large mandrels and it also limits
the fibre delivery speed as high speed can lead to poor fibre wetting or other fibre
delivery problems. If the user wishes to use this feature to set the mandrel speed then
$FEED-DEFAULT-WIND should be set to a large value. If $MAX-SPEED-AX-1
(mandrel axis) has a lower value than the value calculated from $MAX-MANDRELSURF-SPEED then $MAX-MANDREL-SURF-SPEED will also have no effect as the
lower speed limit would always apply
$MAX-MANDREL-SURF-SPEED-ON=takes a value of 1 or 0. If it is 1 then the
$MAX-MANDREL-SURF-SPEED is considered, of 0 it is not used.
The normal (default) unit of length in Cadfil is mm and $LEN_UNIT_NAME=MM is
set internally. It is also possible to use $LEN_UNIT_NAME=INCH in the sm file. This
is mainly used in output (e.g. speed graphs for information) however some internal
constants are converted from mm to inch is inch is set. The mandrel should always be
defined in the units selected.
The Time unit is for information in outputs only. Actual speed values (feed rates) must
match the units actually used by the controller. In the SM file you can set
$TIME_UNIT_NAME=
or $TIME_UNIT_NAME=Minute. Minute is set by default.
Winding speed
This is set in one of the dialogue text windows. For most machines this will have units
of mm/min. The default value is the start feed from the .SM file. This winding speed is
used in different ways depending upon the feed option selected.
For option 0 the value entered is the value that will be specified at the top of the NC sub
program.
For option 1 this will be the speed of the mandrel axis. Exceptionally on a few customer
configurations this is the mandrel surface speed at the largest mandrel diameter.
For options 2 and 3 the feed rate is calculated such that the combined feed to the
relevant axes is equal to the value entered. Total feed for a set of axes is usually
calculated by summing the squares of the incremental motions on each axis and then
taking the square root.
so:
distance = √( a2 + b2 +c2) where a, b and c are the incremental motions on an NC line
for mandrel, carriage and cross-feed axes.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
thus if these were 10 degrees, 100mm and 50mm the distance would be √( 102 + 1002 +
502) = 112.25. If the feed rate was 1000 mm/min then the time taken for the motion is:
speed= distance /time >> time=distance/speed = 112.25/1000 = 0.11minutes = 6.7
seconds
if there was also and eye rotation of 15 degrees then:
distance = √( 102 + 1002 + 502+ 152) = 113.24, so if we wanted a combined feed rate of
1000mm/min for the first 3 axes we would need to actually specify a feed rate of :
speed = distance /time = 113.24/0.11 = 1009mm/min
This methodology is applied for options 1 2 and 3 to specify a combined feed on
mandrel, mandrel + carriage, or mandrel + carriage + cross-feed.
For option 4 the winding speed is the rate at which the fibre is deposited on the
mandrel.
Please note that the machine will have a maximum feed rate value that can be used.
This should be set in the .SM file. If this value is exceeded during feed rate calculations
the feed-rate will be set to this maximum value. The option and speed selected will
effect the smoothness of machine motion and the total time required to wind the part.
An indication of total winding time is given in the NC data.
Starting speed
This is the speed used at the start of the program to move to the initial (tie on) start
position. This is often a slow value. The default value is set in the .SM file
Next Section(See 1.6.13.7)
1.6.13.6 Axis Speed Summary Dialog
When the post-processor has finished, a summary of the maximum feed-rates for each
axis for each sub-program file (SPF) is given. This looks like the picture shown below.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
If there is only one SPF then only one 'layer' will be shown, that is, only one line of
data. The titles across the top show the names that were assigned to the machine axes in
the winding machine configuration file (.SM file). The values in the table show the
maximum speed that each axis has at some point in that SPF. The speed is expressed as
percentage of the maximum speed defined for that axis as shown in the NC feed-rate
dialog(See 1.9.17). The default speed maximum values are set in the SM file.
So for layer 3 above the 'X' axis has a maxim value of 13.3% whilst the 'Y' axis has a
maximum of 25.3%.
Is should be noted that any axis showing 100% indicates that the axis was requested to
go over-speed and has been limited to the maximum value in the interests of safety.
There is a very important point here, if for example, the user has a large and heavy
mandrel the 'constant mandrel speed' feed rate option might be chosen so as not to over
stress the machine. If in this case an axis has been limited at 100% then the constant
mandrel speed will not have been achieved, the axes will all have been slowed at the
points where over speed would have occurred. In this case it is recommended that the
user post-processes again and decreases then winding speed value in the NC feed-rate
dialog(See 1.9.17) so that no axis speed exceeds 99.9%.
Please note that for Cadfil-Pipewinder (multi-pipe) the speed is set for each SPF in the
data table and should be adjusted there.
For a single SPF post process job the speed information can also be seen in the speed
graph shown at the end of post-processing.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
1.6.13.7 NC Part program main and subroutine numbers
(Please note that on most modern NC controllers program numbers are not required as
the names of the .PAY or .CTL file used can be used directly for the main and subprogram names rather than numbers. In the case the .SM post processor configuration
file is set so the user is not asked for program numbers.)
The user is prompted for the program numbers to use in the NC data. These are checked
to ensure validity for the particular controller, the user being prompted until a valid
input is supplied. The numbers supplied are whole numbers, and there usually being a
range for valid numbers, for example 1 to 999 or 1 to 9999. On some controllers it may
be possible to have the same main and sub-programs numbers, and other controllers
may not permit this. There may also be certain program numbers on the machine that
are reserved for special purposes. This is not checked for. The user is advised to read
the documentation for the specific machine and controller used, and to be familiar with
these. It is also advisable to keep a record of all user program numbers as they are used.
Next section(See 1.6.13.8)
1.6.13.8 Calculation and output of NC part program
After the data input is complete the post-processor then proceeds to process the payout
data and create a program file. A message is displayed to the screen when all the data
has been processed. The initial post-processor menu is re-displayed to allow the user to
process further data or to exit. Various error messages are displayed if problems occur.
These should usually be self-explanatory, otherwise see the errors section.
1.6.13.9 Calculation of program start position
If the reference point data given in the machine data file (.SM) is correct and if the
XDAT and payout extension values (POELEN) specified by the user are also correct,
then the automatic start point will be correct.
If any of the above data is incorrect, the command for the motion to move to the
program start position is useless. The possibility of the payout arm crashing with the
mandrel exists if the program is used to move to the start position as intended.
This section shows how the start point is calculated from the data supplied to the
program. It is intended as an aid so that the user can check if he wishes to.
Follow the link to view a diagram for Offsets, XDAT and POELEN. Offsets Diagram
link(See 1.9.20)
For the Linear axes (carriage, cross-feed and Vertical):
SP_AX_4 = OFFSET-AX-4 + (POS-AX-4 + XDAT) *$GEARING-AX-4*$AXSTATUS-4
SP_AX_5 = OFFSET-AX-5 + (POS-AX-5 + POELEN) *$GEARING-AX-5*$AXSTATUS-5
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SP_AX_6 = OFFSET-AX-6 + (POS-AX-6) *$GEARING-AX-6*$AX-STATUS-6
For the Rotary axes (Mandrel, eye-roll, eye-yaw):
SP_AX_1 = OFFSET-AX-1 + (POS-AX-1) *$GEARING-AX-1*$AX-STATUS-1
SP_AX_2 = OFFSET-AX-2 + (POS-AX-2) *$GEARING-AX-2*$AX-STATUS-2
SP_AX_3 = OFFSET-AX-3 + (POS-AX-3) *$GEARING-AX-3*$AX-STATUS-3
Where:
SP_AX_nis the computed absolute start position off the winding machine for axis n.
OFFSET-AX-nIs the machine constant from the reference (home) position of the
machine to the spindle datum for axis n.( See OFFSETS(See 1.6.2) )
GEARING-AX-nIs the relation between mandrel units and machine units (see postprocessor configuration(See 1.6.2))
AX-STATUS-ntakes the value -1,0 or 1 depandant on the postive direction of axis the
machine with respect to sign convention used in CADFIL for axis n (zero indicates the
axis does not exist on the winding machine).
XDAT and POELEN are values that are usually requested each time a file is postprocessed. If the Payout eye (the fibre dispening tool) is never changed on the machine
then the offsets can be set up so the POELEN is always zero.
XDATis to position the mandrel in the machine. It is from the spindle datum to the
mandre datum (origin) It is in mandrel units.
POELEN Is the length of the payout eye (roller/ comb/ etc), it is in the mandrel units.
POS-AX-nis the start position of the fibre track relative to the mandrel origin, in the
mandrel axis system and units for axis n.
In addition to the linear axes (carriage, cross-feed, vertical), there may also be some
eye-roll or eye-yaw motions. These assume an origin for the motions. The zero position
for these rotational axes is a function of both the machine and payout eye orientation in
the machine. Some machines have a zero position, whilst on others the zero position
must be set when the machine is started up.
Cadfil has an internal zero position assumed for the 'eye-roll’ axis (axis-2). This is as
follows; imagine the cross-feed axis is horizontal; the fibre is being dispensed from a
roller; and the axis of the roller is vertical. The zero position is with the fibre coming of
the positive carruiage motion side of the roller i.e. the side of the roller that is in the
carriage axis positive direction. In this case for normal winding (which starts at hoop)
in moving to the start position the eye-roll axis will rotate either + or – 90 degrees
dependant on the direction of mandrel rotation. As a consequnce the majority of
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winding machines have a $OFFSET-AX-2 value of +90 or -90 (or the equlvaent in the
machines units)
The eye-Yaw axis (axis-3) zero position is assumed to be in the straight 'ahead'
position, that is with the payout arm normal to the winding axis this Cadfil Zero can be
modified to suit the winding-machine setting $OFFSET-AX-3 in the .SM file.
Depending on the machine the user may have to 'jog' the machine axes into the correct
positions and then 'zero' the axes.
Next Section(See 1.6.13.10)
1.6.13.10 Running the NC program
After the program has been transferred to the FWM it can then be run. Programs are
available from CCL to allow the transfer of NC data to and from the FWM via RS-232
serial protocols.
Instructions should be available from the machine builder and the controller
manufacturer on the operation of the machine. The payout eye should move to the start
position and then stop. The user must then attach the roving(s) to the mandrel. The
software assumes that the fibre is pulled at 90 degrees to the winding axis (i.e. is at
hoop). The user must ensure that the attachment is consistent with the way the mandrel
is about to rotate.
Small errors in the point attachment point do not generally have much effect on the
winding pattern as the paths usually adopts the correct path within the first circuit.
When using a new program for the first time extreme caution should be used as errors
in the input data could cause the machine to crash. The user should initially set a slow
feed-rate and be prepared to stop the machine quickly. CCL cannot accept any liability
for failure to follow such advice.
1.7 QuickCad
1.7.1 QuickCAD (Parametrics) Introduction
The contents of the QuickCAD menu will vary depending upon which of the parametric
options have been supplied. Crescent Consultants have a number of specialised
programs that can be configured from the QuickCad menu. The screen options could
include those shown below:
Dome Ended Vessels(See 1.7.4.1)
PIPE Winding(See 1.7.2.2)
HOOP Winding(See 1.7.3.1)
MultiHoop Winding(See 1.7.3.2)
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FLAT PLAT Winding(See 1.7.9.1)
ELBOW Winding(See 1.7.6.1)
SPHERE Winding(See 1.7.8.1)
SPAR winding(See 1.7.10.1)
Click for a link to material property(See 1.4.2) entry in payout path creation.
QuickCAD options are specific to a type of geometry, e.g. dome ended cylinders. The
user enters basic parameters such as wind angle, cylinder diameter, band-width etc.
This data is saved as a .PAR file and can be saved, retrieved or edited. Using this data
the mandrel data, fibre path data and payout data is automatically created and then the
payout path data is post-processed to produce NC data by the normal options.
The parameters for different the options are discussed in the following sections.
1.7.2 Pipe Winding
1.7.2.1 PipeWinder (Multi-pipe)
This software driven from a single dialog screen as
shown below.
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Pipe-Winder Overview
The Cadfil Pipe winding software is designed for higher angle winding (40-90 degrees)
on pipes and is ideal for use on 2 axis winders. When Pipe-Winder is included as part of
a higher specification package(e.g. Cadfil-Lite) then more machine axes may be
available. Multi-layer and angle winding patterns can be quickly generated with both
hoop (90 degree) and helical winding. Pipe winding is not suitable for low angles (less
than 30 degrees) as this involves winding over an end-cap. For such applications
Cadfil-Lite is more suitable. The thickness of the winding and winding times are
automatically calculated. Each layer is calculated making allowance for the thickness of
the previous winding to ensure band pattern and fibre angles are always optimum. For
each later the ‘turning length’ at the end where with winding angle is changing for the
turning around is automatically calculated. For some applications this length is
considered as waste as it is cut away after winding. Creating a program with pipewinder is simple. There is a single window dialog box (data entry screen) show on the
first page of this document. The steps for program generation are:
1) Enter the ‘Header’ Information – Basic information such as mandrel diameter and
the fibre band width that is constant for each layer.
2) Click The ‘Add layer’ button to activate a new layer. Enter the data specific to that
layer such as winding angle etc.
3) Click ‘Add layer’ to add the next layer. Layers can be deleted using the ‘Delete
layer’ button or a new layer can in inserted part way though the sequence using the
‘Insert Layer’ button. In both these cases the ‘layer number’ in the left most column
is used to select where to insert or delete a layer. The date entry form allows for 10
separate layers. If more are required a second pipe winding can me made using the
initial ‘mandrel radius’ as the final mandrel radius after the first 10 layers.
4) Click the ‘Calculate (update)’ button to fill out calculated values in the data table.
You will be asked to save the data and must give a file name. Error messages will be
given if data is incorrect or missing. You must correct the data.
5) After a successful ‘Calculate (update)’ the ‘Generate NC-Data’ button becomes
active, click this to generate the complete winding program, after NC generate the wind
times are added to the table. You get an option to view the program in the default text
editor (normally notepad).
A description of the 'header' data is shown in the following figure
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Cylinder radius. Is the radius of the mandrel at the start of winding. If the mandrel
diameter is 200mm the radius is 100mm.
Clearance Radius is the distance of the payout head (fibre comb or similar) from the
mandrel rotation centre, so if the mandrel radius was 100mm and the clearance radius
was 150mm the machine payout head will be 50mm (150-100) from the surface of the
mandrel. For machines with more than 2 axis this position can be set automatically in
the NC code. For 2 axis machine this must be set manually or a value that is possible
(or fixed) on the machine must be entered. If the machine is a large distance from the
mandrel accuracy will reduce (variation in wind length and band structure). For large
mandrels (more than 1m diameters) a surface clearance of 250mm (10 inches) is OK.
For small mandrels (<300mm diameter) a surface clearance of 50-75 mm (2-3 inches)
is OK.
Fibre band-width is the true width of the fibres band as it lays onto the mandrel, if
you considered it as a tape.
The Band thickness is the thickness of the fibre band as it lays down on the mandrel if
you consider it as a tape. One way to measure is make a single layer of hoop and the
band thickness is half the increase in mandrel diameter.
Start position. This is the position along the machine carriage where the winding will
start. It is measured from a fixed position often the machine chuck face or headstock.
This reference is set up in the post-processor configuration file. Your machine supplier
or software supplier should be able to advice/or set up this file.
The total length of winding is exactly what it says. This included any turning length so
if you need a length of tube with an exact wind angle all the way along it you will need
to use a longer wind length to allow for the turning length. The waste is automatically
calculated. So if you want say 2000mm at 45 degrees enter this data and ‘calculate’. If
the waste length is given as 200mm then increase the total length of winding to
2200mm. If a negative length is used the winding will start in the negative direction of
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the carriage, so the start position must be specified to suit this, there is a diagram latter
in this document.
The friction coefficient is used to calculate the turning area. Cadfil supplies a default
value but this can be changed by the user. If friction is increased the tuning lengths get
shorter but if too high a value is used the fibres will slip. Typically a value of 0.1-0.2 is
used.
Mandrel rotation +1/-1 is the direction the mandrel rotates, a value of +1 (default)
give positive(+) mandrel rotation, -1 gives negative (–) mandrel rotation.
Each layer can be repeated a
number of times. For ‘hoop’ 1
layer is a single machine
traverse, uses 2 for a double
layer that comes back.
Layer Sequence
Numbers: Up to 10
layers per form can be
entered.
Wind angle calculated from
band width automatically
for hoop winding.
Cover factor is 100% by default but the user
can over-ride it here. This can be used to
‘adjust’ the band width. If a cover factor
200% is used the programmed bandwidth
will halve so the bands will overlap. For a
cover factor of 50% the winding will have
gaps. During winding the bandwidth may be
slightly different for different wind angles so
the user can adjust here.
The machine speed can be
changed for each layer. A default
value is applied but can be overridden
Automatically generated data
when the ‘Calculate’ button is
clicked.
Layer Data Explained
The previous picture shows the data layout for each layers. New layers can be made
using the add or insert buttons or deleted with the delete layer button. The data items
are described below.
Hoop/Helical Buttons. Each layer is either hoop or helical. If hoop is selected the wind
angle will be calculated to give a helical lead of one band with. If you wish the Bands
to overlap or gap for a hoop winding use the ‘cover factor’ parameter. Helical winding
creates a +/- layer at the wind angle specified by the user.
Number of repeats allow the layer to be repeated a number of times. For example with
a helical winding setting 3 gives 3 +/- layers. It is not good to set the number of repeats
to high numbers as the mandrel radius increases with each layer and the wind angle will
thus change slightly with each repeat layer. Eventually gaps will start to appear between
the bands. This effect is more pronounced if the mandrel has a small diameter as the
change in thickness with each layer will be proportionately more. For hoop winding
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each layer is a single traverse., if an odd number is specified i.e. 1,3,5 the next layer
will start at the other end of the winding length.
Wind angle is the helical angle in degrees, 0 is axial 90 is circumferential (hoop). For
simple pipe winding (no end caps) angles below 40 degrees are not advisable as the
turning length (waste) increased dramatically.
Cover factor is 100% by default but the user can over-ride it. This can be used to
‘adjust’ the band width. If a cover factor of 200% is used the programmed bandwidth
will halve so the bands will overlap. For a cover factor of 50% the winding will have
gaps. During winding the bandwidth may be slightly different for different wind angles
so the user can adjust for this here if required.
Machine feed rate is the winding speed for each layer. The default value is from the
machine configuration file. The winding machine supplier should assist in the setup of
this file.
Circuits per layer, is a calculated value of how many circuit the winding program
makes to complete one full layer. For hoop winding this is always 1.
Band pattern Number is the number of ‘starts’ and is explained on following pages of
this document. There is no pattern as such for hoop winding.
Dwell rotation is additional mandrel rotation at the ends to make a particular band
pattern work correctly. The amount of dwell can be minimised by keeping the default
band pattern selection mode (mode 0).
Wind time is the layer wind time, a total is shown at the bottom. Times are calculated
at NC generate stage. Waste length is the length out of the total wind length used for
turning, where the wind angle is not true. Half of this amount will be at each end.
The Pull down menu for band pattern and feed rate mode selection are shown below.
There are three options for band pattern, the user can choose that a pattern of 1 is
automatically selected for each layer or the pattern with the smallest dwell is selected.
In manual mode the user selects from a pattern table for each layer.
Wind The NC data - Start position explained
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B
an
d
The Start position can be at
either end of the mandrel.
W
t
id
Mandrel Radius
h
MACH INE D ATUM
(chuck face)
Turn zone
(Waste/2)
Start Position
Turn zone
(Waste/2)
Wind Length
PIPE WIN DING GEOMETRY -Start near chuck
B
an
d
W
t
id
Mandrel Radius
h
MACH INE D ATUM
(chuck face)
Turn zone
(Waste/2)
Turn zone
(Waste/2)
Start Position
Negative Wind Length
PIPE WIN DING GEOMETRY -Start aw ay from chuck
To start away from the
chuck and then initially
wind towards it use a
negative Total Length of
Winding (wind length in the
lower diagram)
For Hoop winding each
repeat (layer) is one
traverse of the carriage. If
the repeats are an odd
number then the next
helical layer will
automatically swap ends of
the mandrel to start. This
ensures that the winding is
always continuous.
1.7.2.2 Pipe Winding Parameters
Pipe winding is the most common form of filament winding and programs can be
undertaken using the standard Cadfil-Axsym software The QuickCad Pipe winding
options quickly generates winding programs and .Pay files for visualisation based on
user specified parameters.
The pipe winding produced by this program is a double layer winding along the
mandrel with a small dwell at each end to allow for a repeatable band-pattern. This
parametric turns the fibre on the cylindrical portion allowing for simple extraction
without having to cut the mandrel ends, thus it is only suitable for wind angles >40
degrees, for lower angles the turning zone becomes very long and hence there is much
waste material. For lower angles the dome ended vessel parametric(See 1.7.4.1) or the
full Cadfil-Axsym system should be used. The user-specified parameters are:
Cylinder Radius
This is the radius of the cylindrical mandrel.
Clearance Radius
This is the distance of the fibre dispensing point from the axis of the cylinder. This
MUST be bigger than the mandrel radius.
Start X Position
The start X position (i.e postion along the mandrel) can be set.The actual carriage
position (in machine co-ordinates) can be modifed by the Xdatum(See 1.6.13.3) and
Offsets(See 1.6.13.9) during post-processing.
Total Length of Winding
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This is the length of the winding band centre to band centre. This can be positive of
negative as the winding will be from the Xstart position to Xstart position + Winding
length. The overall extend of the winding will be ½ a bandwidth more at each end as
the band centre position is programmed.
Friction Coefficient
The friction coefficient Mu is used to provide a none slip fibre turnaround at the
mandrel ends. The fibre is progressively turned around at the outer end of the parallel
length. The higher the value the shorter then length of the turn around will be. Values in
the range 0.01 to 0.25 are usually used but this will vary with materials being used. It
may not be possible to turn the fibre around if the friction coefficient is too small or the
parallel length of the elbow is too short. The program will issue an error if this
condition exists.
Fibre Band Width
The width of the fibre band used to determine the winding angle such that the cylinder
is fully covered by a calculated number of carriage circuits.
Mandrel Direction +1,-1
Set this to 1 for positive mandrel rotation and –1 for negative mandrel rotation.
1.7.2.3 Tapered Pipes
(Help File, additional information)
This software option is similar to the QickCAD pipe winding software and works for
tapered pipes where the taper (slope) is generally less than 1:20. Constant angle
winding on higher tapers may not be possible due to fibre slippage.
This option is entered from the QuickCad menu by selecting the taper pipe option. The
data entry form is shown below:
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The first four parameters (end position and radius) give the size of the mandrel and its
position relative to the machine datum (usually the chuck face).
The next two parameters Clearance radius and Mandrel surface clearance distance
depend on the status of the “2axis mode” tick box and are shown in the following
diagram. For the “2axis” options the clearance radius is used and thus the cross-feed
axis is not used. The other option uses a clearance from the surface of the mandrel and
thus the cross feed is used. This gives better control as the payout eye is usually closer
to the mandrel along the full length.
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The remaining parameters are exactly as described in the Cadfil help manual for
QuickCad Pipe winding.
Please note that the wind length specified is made up of a turning zone at each end
(these are of different lengths) and a zone at the user specified wind angle. These
lengths are reported along with any error messages in the Cadfil text window.
1.7.3 Cylinder Hoop Winding
1.7.3.1 Hoop Winding
Hoop winding is the simplest form of winding and can be easily programmed manually
on most winding machines. The QuickCad Hoop winding options generates hoop
winding programs and .Pay files for visualisation based on user specified parameters.
The hoop winding produced by this program is a double layer winding along the
mandrel with a dwell and outward-wind a second dwell and a return-wind. The winding
program is repeatable. The MultiHoop(See 1.7.3.2) option is also available for winding
hoop programs with several stages.
These user-specified parameters are:
Cylinder Radius
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This is the radius of the cylindrical mandrel.
Clearance Radius
This is the distance of the fibre dispensing point from the axis of the cylinder. This
MUST be bigger than the mandrel radius.
Start X Position
This is the start X position of the winding in mandrel co-ordinate system. The actual
carriage position (machine co-ordinates) can be fixed by the Xdatum(See 1.6.13.3) and
Offsets(See 1.6.13.9) during post-processing.
Length Of Winding
This is the length of the hoop winding band centre to band centre. This can be positive
of negative as the winding will be from the Xstart position to Xstart position + Winding
length. The overall extend of the winding will be ½ a bandwidth more at each end as
the band centre position is programmed.
Fibre Band Width
The width of the fibre band used to determine the winding angle such that the cylinder
is fully covered by one circuit i.e. the carriage Advances one band-with for each full
mandrel rotation.
Dwell Angle 1st End (Deg)
This is the amount of mandrel rotation with no carriage movement at the start of the
hoop winding. It can be zero.
Dwell Angle 2nd End (Deg)
This is the amount of mandrel rotation with no carriage movement at the end of the
hoop winding. It can be zero.
Angular Point Spacing (Deg)
This value determines the point spacing around the mandrel for generating the payout
path. If the user wished to view the hoop winding band structure in the payout path
viewing options then use a small value say 20 degrees. This value must be less than 180
degrees.
Mandrel Direction +1,-1
Set this to 1 for positive mandrel rotation and –1 for negative mandrel rotation.
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1.7.3.2 Multiple Hoop Winding
Multiple Hoop winding is can generate a winding program that hoop winds between a
series of specified positions on a cylindrical mandrel with an optional dwell (mandrel
rotation only) at each of these points. The QuickCad Multi-Hoop winding options
generates hoop winding programs and .Pay files that can be used for visualisation based
on user specified parameters.
These user-specified parameters are:
Cylinder Radius
This is the radius of the cylindrical mandrel.
Clearance Radius
This is the distance of the fibre dispensing point from the axis of the cylinder. This
MUST be bigger than the mandrel radius.
Fibre Band Width
The width of the fibre band used to determine the winding angle such that the cylinder
is fully covered by one circuit i.e. the carriage advances one band-with for each full
mandrel rotation.
Angular Point Spacing (Deg)
This value determines the point spacing around the mandrel for generating the payout
path. If the user wished to view the hoop winding band structure in the payout path
viewing options then use a small value say 12 degrees, for creating NC data for winding
a large value say 175 degrees is best. This value must be less than 180 degrees.
Mandrel Direction +1,-1
Set this to 1 for positive mandrel rotation and –1 for negative mandrel rotation.
Number Of X Positions
This is the number of X positions and is a whole number between 2 and 8. For example
is three is specified the user is expected to specify X position 1 (X1) and dwell angle 1
(DW1) as well as X2,DW2 and x3,DW3 so in this example the machine would move to
the first mandrel position and the mandrel will rotate DW1 degrees, the machine will
then hoop wind (on a helical lead equal to the bandwidth) to the second position X2 and
will then dwell for DW2 degrees, finally the machine will then hoop wind to position
X3 and dwell for DW3 degrees.
If in this example X3=X1 we would have the sample program as the normal hoop
winding program(See 1.7.3.1) with a winding length of X2-X1
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The number of positions is currently 20. If more than 20 are required used more than
one multi-hoop programs to do this.
WARNING
If the values of the number of positions MUST mach the number specified, if the user
specified X1,X2,X3 & X4 but only set the number of points to 3 then X4 and dwell 4
would be ignored (and not saved). If only X1,X2 & X3 were set but the points were set
to 4 then X4 would be assumed to be zero and the program would hoop wind to
mandrel position X=
X Position 1…
See above
Dwell (Deg) 1…
See Above
Loading data from a spreadsheet.
It may be a requirement that the user wishes to create a multi-hoop program where the
X positions change in a formulaic way, an example of this is a hoop rib on a pipe where
each layer steps in position from the last so that rib does not have a sharp edge that the
bands would fall off after a few layers of height is added. In the way we might have
hoop with a series of positions in the series:
x1, x2, x1+inc, x2-inc,x1+2inc,x2-2inc,...... where inc is a fixed value. It is possible to
prepare that parameter data in a spreadsheet with user created formulas and then export
this data to a parameter file the multi-hoop can read. An example Excel file with
instructions within it can be found in the data folder of the Cadfil installation folder.
The example is called MHt2.xls.
1.7.4 Dome Ended Vessel Parametric
1.7.4.1 Dome Ended Vessel Parametric
The QuickCad application is for cylinders with dome ends and an end shaft. The
programs generated are geodesic with equal end openings. This is part of the CadfilLite/Lite+ package. With The Cadfil-Lite-Plus option non geodesic winding can also be
made. If this option is available then put a ‘tick’ in the non-geodesic box and then you
can specify the ‘opening’ diameter at the ends (the data entry box for this is made
avialable). In this case the winding is geodesic on the cylinder and non-geodesic on the
domes.
A mandrel file and a payout file for viewing and subsequent post processing is
automatically created. The mandrel file can be used in the standard Cadfil Axsym
program to create joining paths for wind paths created by the dome program.
The parameters are (click here to see a diagram(See 1.9.13)):
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Two axis check box
Tick this box if winding machine only has two axes (Mandrel: AX1, Carriage: AX4) or
if you only want to use two axes. The shaft and cylinder extension clearance are not
needed and are ‘greyed out’ if you select this option.
Non-Geodesic Check Box (if available)
Tick this box for non-geodesic winding on the end domes. The end opening radius can
then be specified at each end. Please note that this end opening radius makes allowance
automatically for the width of the fibre band entered and so is the ‘true’ end opening.
Joining Path Check Box (if available)
Tick this box to create a path to join two programs together. The user must specify the
start and finish positions along the mandrel. Some of the variables below will not be
required and will be greyed out.
Cylinder Diameter (2xR1)
The is the diameter of the cylindrical part of the mandrel and hence of the spherical
dome
Cylinder Length (L)
The length of the cylinder between domes.
Shaft Diameter
The diameter of the end shaft(s), used in the mandrel generation, these can be zero.
Wind Angle (A)
This is the wind angle in degrees on the cylindrical portion of the mandre and is in the
0-90 degree rangel. Because the winding is Geodesic the Clairault equation will apply
hence the condition:
EndOpeningDiameter = CylinderDiameter * sine(WindAngleOnCylinder)
Fibre Band Width (W)
The width of the fibre band used to determine the number of cycles required to fully
cover the cylinder.
Cylinder Clearance (C1)
An envelope(See 1.2.1) is automatically created using this and the next two parameters.
This is the clearance over the cylindrical part, click here to see a figure(See 1.9.13).
Shaft Clearance (SL & SR)
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Clearance on the end shafts (see figure)
Cylinder Extension Clearance (C2)
The amount by which the cylindrical portion of the envelope is extended so that the
winding head will clear the shoulder of the dome when it moves in at the ends (see
figure).
As can be seen in the figure the datum of the mandrel is at the centre the Xdatum
value(See 1.6.13.3) must be specified in the post-processor dime to relate this position
to the spindle datum.
The user can save the data as a .PAR file to retrieve latter and modify if required. The
user also automatically enters the band pattern selection dialogue(See 1.4.3) to choose a
band pattern.
End opening X+ and XThis option is only available if the non-geodesic check box is ticked. This allows the
end opening radii (taking allowance of the band-width) to be different at each end
dome. The end opeing can then also deviate from the normal geodesic end opening that
occurs from specifying the wind angle on the cylinder.
1.7.5 Vessel With Encaps (Beta Version)
1.7.5.1 Vessel With Endcaps
This part of the software is pre-release level (beta) and the help topic has not fully
complete.
Different end-caps can be specified for each end of the mandrel from the pull down list
box, the end caps have parameters R1, R2 & R3. To see an explaining End-cap types
follow the link (diagram(See 2.5)).
The clearance parameters are explained in the following diagram (clearance parameter
diagram). Please note that having C2 > half the with of the payout head is advisable to
avoid collision with the end-cap.
The user also needs to specify the fibre band-width (W) and Winding angle (A).
For unequal end openings the non-geodesic box can be ticked and then the openings at
each end can be specified. Please note that these are for the centre line of the band so an
end opening radius 0.5*W larger than required should be used. There are some known
issues/problems with the non-geodesic winding on this option.
The process process is:
1] Enter the data parameters
2] save the parameters and give them a file name (<name>.par)
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3] Calculate the program with the 'Calculate button'
4] Exit the dialog and review the payout data in the payout viewing option that is
automatically run. The payout
5] Review the messages in the Cadfil text window, this shows errors and other
important information.
6] Exit payout viewing and post-process the <name>.pay file.
1.7.6 Elbow Winding
1.7.6.1 Elbow parametrics
This generates full coverage winding programs for elbow (pipe bend) components.
Click here to see the part geometry(See 1.9.14). The elbow parametric can be invoked
(if supplied) from the Cadfil parametrics menu described elsewhere in this manual. The
user enters a series of data parameters which are saved as a <filename>.PAR text file
and example file EL1.PAR is supplied with the software in the EXAMPLES directory.
The program automatically creates a <filename>.MND and <filename>.PAY when run.
These can then be viewed using the payout options or post processed using the
CADFIL post-process options.
The basic data parameters are as follows :
****Elbow Parametric****
Mandrel radius (R) - The external radius of the pipe.
Centre Line bend Radius (Rc)
Bend angle (degrees) (A) - Elbows are commonly 45, 60 & 90 degrees.
Parallel length (both ends) (L) - The acual length of the cylinder on the mandrel can be
longer, this is the length that will actually be covered by the winding program.
Wind axis offset distance (Yoff) - Note the direction of the Y axis in the diagram.
Winding axis offset is normally thus a negative value!
Points per rotation (N) - This determine the amount of points in the final program a
value of 12 to 16 is normally good.
Band width (Bw)
Free fibre length (Fl) - length of fibre between mandrel and payout eye
Friction coefficient (Mu) - used to turn the fibre in the cylindrical (parallel pipe) turning
area at the ends.
Wind angle - degrees (Alpha)
Band Phase Adjustment Angle In Degrees (Phi) - If you made an elbow winding for a
specific wind angle (say 55 degrees) and then wanted to wind a second layer then is
would wind exactly on top of the first layer with the bands being placed directly on top
of the bands from the earlier layer. Like building a wall from bricks it is better to
stagger the joints so the edges of the bands are not on top of each other. If the first layer
has 12 circuits to make a layer then each band occupies 360/12=30 degrees of angle, so
if a band shift of 30/2=15 degrees will give maximum band stagger.
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Note that care selection the winding axis offset and free fibre length is required as this
otherwise can result in the elbow rotating forward and backwards in the winding
machine rather than is a constant direction.
Next Section(See 1.7.6.2)
1.7.6.2 Elbow parametric data entry
R, Rc, A, L, Yoff define the mandrel geometry and are shown in this figure(See
1.9.14). The mandrel axes are also shown. The sign of Yoff is important as this is
measured in the mandrel Y direction from the mandrel origin to the wind axis.
The point per rotation (N) defines the number of data points per rotation on the fibre
track around the mandrel a small value (e.g. less then 8) could lead to inaccuracy in the
winding. A large value leads to an increase in the size of data files and the final NC
data. For most purposes a value of 12 is a good compromise.
The band width(Bw) is the actual width of the fibre tape or band that will govern the
separation of the fibre paths on the mandrel surface.
The Free fibre length (Fl) is the distance between the fibre contact point on the
mandrel, and the control point at the end of the payout device on the winding machine.
This option is displayed if the ELBOW1 parametric option is selected. If this distance
is very short, the risks of contact with the machine and the mandrel are much greater.
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Because of the complexity of winding head geometries (particularly on 6 axis
machines) it is not possible to guarantee that there will be clearance between the
mandrel and machine at all orientations and positions. When winding an NC
program for the first time it should always be run slowly such that the user can
check clearance and stop the machine quickly if necessary. It may be necessary to
re-generate the program with a greater free fibre length or to use a different post processing control strategy.
The picture above left shows part of a payout path from the Payout path viewing
options. Each blue mark represents the position of the feed-eye, it is easier to imaging
the mandrel as being stationary and the feed rotation around the mandrel. Near the
centre of this path a problem is evident as the paths circulates around the mandrel but
does not circulate around the winding axis (the dashed line). This cannot be wound and
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if post-processes the mandrel will rock forwards and backwards. The solutions are to
adjust the wind axis position or to increase the clearance (free fibre length). The same
winding with the problem fixed can be seen in the picture above right.
If the ELBOW2 parametric option is selected, the display will show the option Control
Cylinder Radius. The radius dimension entered is required to be greater than the
maximum radial point of the mandrel away from the winding axis to be used. This
enables the winding of an elbow component on machines without a cross-feed axis, or
only a manual cross-feed axis. For a two axis mode the over-travel past the ends can
become large so the range of practical elbow geometries that can be wound is
significantly reduced.
The friction coefficient Mu is used to provide a none slip fibre turnaround at the
mandrel ends. The fibre is progressively turned around at the outer end of the parallel
length. The higher the value the shorter then length of the turn around will be. Values in
the range 0.01 to 0.25 are usually used but this will vary with materials being used. It
may not be possible to turn the fibre around if the friction coefficient is too small or the
parallel length of the elbow is too short. The program will issue an error if this
condition exists.
Wind angle (degrees) Alpha this is the helix angle of the fibres on the mandrel surface
with respect the winding axis. This angle is maintained at all locations except the
turning zone at the mandrel ends. Because of geometric constraints of fibre bridging
across the inside of the elbow or fibre slippage it is not possible to use low angles. The
program does not permit angles less than 45 degrees though if the bend radius is tight
the minimum wind angle that can be used in practice may be higher than this.
1.7.7 Tee Winding
1.7.7.1 Tees - Winding Overview & Mandrel
Cadfil has a number of specific modules for Windings Tee, these can be found on the
'T Winding' Option on the QuickCAD menu.
The are a numbers of stages:
1] Generate the mandrel surface definition and an envelope definition (see below). The
envelope is a surface that is clear of the mandrel surface on which the machine will
run without hitting the mandrel.
2] Create a 'template' winding path by steering it across the mandrel surface using
'friction'. See the topic Tee Template Path(See 1.7.7.2)
3] Expand the template path (if required) using the symmetry tools as the T has 2
distinct symmetry planes.
4] Replicated paths parallel to the original path separated by a distance that is the
bandwidth of the fibres.
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5] Process the paths on the mandrel surface to create the 3D machine path (payout path)
on the clearance envelope (surfaces).
6] Post-Process the payout to create instructions for the winding machine.
8] It is also possible to generate standard pipe winding programs for the cross piece.
This can be modified and 'attached' to the T mandrel using a specific T option.
T mandrel Creation
From the T Winding options pick the 'T Mandrel generate' Button.
The figure below shows the T mandrel and envelope dimensions the actual dimension
values in mm or inch are entered in a windows dialog.
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The data entry dialog is shown below.
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Cylinder Diameter MD.
The cross-piece pipe and branch pipes are the same diameter.
Blend Radius MBR
This is the surface blend radius between cross piece and branch pipes. Typical values
are between 0.25MD and 0.5MD
Cross-Piece Cylinder length MCPL
This is the length outside the blend area at each end (see diagram). The Cross piece
total length is 2*MCPL+2*MBR+MD.
Branch Cylinder length MBCL
This is the length of the branch above the blend area (see diagram).
Envelope Cross piece length EC.
This is for the machine clearance, refer to the diagram. If the position of the machine
wants to be further away (in length) from the mandrel centre the machine will then
move on a circular plane at the end of the envelope. Caution is required as shaft
collision could occur. This can be checked in the payout viewing options or in the postprocessor output. EC must be greater than MCPL+MBR+MD/2 to be clear of the end of
the mandrel, typically add a mandrel diameter.
Envelope Branch length EB.
This is for the machine clearance, refer to the diagram. If the position of the machine
wants to be further away (in length) from the mandrel centre the machine will then
move on a circular plane at the end of the envelope. This determines the furthest
distance away the cross-feed axis will be from the winding axis.
Bandwidth BWID
This is the width of the fibre band to be used and is saved associated with parameters in
the mandrel data.
Once entered the 'Write Params' option can be used to save the parameter data, for
example to the file name1.par. This can be read back later using 'Read PArams' if there
is a need to change the data. The 'calculate' button is clicked then to generate the
mandrel data. You will be asked to give a name for the mandrel file, this will be saved
with the .mnd extension, for example mytee1.mnd. After some calcualtion you will be
asked for the mandrel name again it is best to use same name as the initial mandrel data
has been processed further and is now not needed.
Envelope Branch Outer Diameter EOD
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The leg usually requires quite a large clearance diameter (ED) to allow for the width of
the payout eye. For this reason the outer end of the POE needs to be as narrow as
possible to allow a smaller clearance. The branch cylinder has the same clearance
diameter (ED) around the intersection area however outside this area a smaller
clearance can be used (EOD), this should be as small as is practical to stop excess
program motion that can lead to a loss of fibre tension. The transition zone from ED to
EOD is conical with an arbitrary gradient of 4 (76 degrees).
1.7.7.2 Tees - Template Path Creation
This section details creating an initial template path for winding Pipe Tees. An
overview of the whole process can be found in the main T winding topic(See 1.7.7.1).
The template path option can be selected from the The Tee Dialog - Make Template
Path option. But this is a link to the Cadfil Main Menu - Fibre Path Create Option., that
is discussed elsewhere in this help file. The Topics Creating a fibre path(See 1.3.6), The
Fibre Path creation menu(See 1.3.10), Fibre Path Display Options(See 1.3.11) and the
Views Menu(See 1.3.13) are all relevant.
The steps are:
1] Pick the name of the Tee mandrel that is to be used. The Tee mandrel should already
have been created using the T mandrel Generate(See 1.7.7.1) option.
2] Set the start position using the 'By mouse click' option. This is currently the only
option relevant to Tees. Click near a point on the symmetry plane (Y=0) of the mandrel.
A line should then be highlighted as below.
[For reference the X axis of the tee is the winding rotation axis along the cross-piece.
The Z axis is along the axis of the leg and the Y axis is orthogonal to both forming a
right handed set. The Origin (0,0,0) of the Tee as at the point of intersection of the 2
pipe axes.]
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If you pick 'No' to the 'start on this line' prompt all the patch edges near the mandrel
point picked will be highlighted in turn. Pick a line on the Y=0 (in the X direction on
the centre line).
3] When Prompted set the starting and to 90 degrees, this is in the hoop
(circumferential) direction. Using Friction the path is steered across the surface of the
cross-piece and up the surface of the leg. The path is shown in the follow figures. It is
important to Note that the start position (blue filled square) is on the Y=0 symmetry
plane and the finish position (hollow blue circle) is in the X=0 symmetry plane. Having
made a template file save it via the 'finish & save' option, the path will be given a .FIB
name extension. The template path in now complete. The next step is to make use of the
mandrel symmetries(See 1.7.7.3).
1.7.7.3 Tees - Using symmetries
In a previous section the creation of a Tee template path(See 1.7.7.2) is described. In
this section we use symmetries to expand the path, the figures used are a continuation
of the data shown in the previous section.
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From the Tee Dialog select the Reflect path X=0 option.
You will be asked for the name of he .FIB template file. For this option to work the
template path MUST finish on the X=0 plane. Having selected the template path the
reflected path is calculated progress is indicated in the Cadfil text window. The display
should look as below.
As you can see because the template started on the Y=0 plane the reflection is X (at the
other end of the cross-piece) is also on the Y=0 plane. Save the path, you can overwrite
the original template path or use a new name, the latter is a better way. The next step is
to select the Reflect path Y=0 option from the Tee Dialog, and enter the name of the
path that was just saved. The process is the same and at the end you will be prompted to
save the new path. This time overwriting the input path is OK as there was only a little
work required to create it. The display should look as below. The next step is to create
parallel paths(See 1.7.7.4).
1.7.7.4 Tees - Parallel Path
In a previous section the creation of a Tee Symmetric reflection path(See 1.7.7.3) is
described. In this section replicate existing paths by creating a parallel paths. The are 1
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band width away from the previous path on the mandrel surface. Pick the parallel path
option from the Tee Dialog shown below.
You will be asked for the name of he .FIB template file. Having selected the template
path that has had symmetries applied to it you will hen have to select the side that the
path is when prompted. The parallel path is then s calculated progress is indicated ion
the screen. The display should look as below.
The path is then saved put the second path can be used to generate a third path in the
same way and the third path to create a fourth.
After saving a fibre path you can proceed to the Create Payout Path Option when
prompted. Alternative a payout path (.PAY) files can be created from a .FIB file at any
time by using the 'Create Payout Path' option from the Cadfil Main menu. The payout
path process for Tees is described in following section.
1.7.7.5 Tees - Payout Path
In a previous sections the creation of a fibre paths (See 1.7.7.2)for Tees is described. In
this section the create of the 3D machine path (payout path) is described. After saving a
fibre path you can proceed to the 'Create Payout Path' option when prompted.
Alternative a payout path (.PAY) files can be created from a .FIB file at any time by
using the 'Create Payout Path' option from the Cadfil Main menu.
The steps are simple:
1] Selected the 'Create Payout Path' option from the Cadfil Main menu.
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2] Selected a fibre path (.FIB) to process.
3] Some filtering of the paths data is then undertaken this does two things, it
deactivates data points that are very close together (the tolerance is set automatically
based on the mandrel size parameters) and is eliminates any points around the tee blend
where there is liftoff (bridging). Such point cause the mandrel motion to be erratic.
Please note where liftoff is indicated the fibres will not be tight to the mandrel surface
and may require some consolidation after winding. The view below indicates where lift
off points have been identified.
Click OK to continue. The path will be check again and some additional points may be
found. Keep clicking OK. A summary can be found in the text window (see below).
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The final step is to give the payout path a file name. The default is the same name as the
.FIB file but with the .PAY extenstion. The payout path is created using the mandrel
clearance envelope data (See 1.7.7.1) specified when the mandrel was generated.
The final step is to post-process the path. The 4 axis (no twist) option or the 6 axis
options should be used.
1.7.8 Sphere Winding
1.7.8.1 Sphere parametrics
Show Picture
The sphere parametric automatically creates multiple winding programs for providing a
mufti-angle layup on spherical components. The programs give near uniform thickness
distribution particularly if the filament bands are thin and a large number of layers are
used. Because multiple wind angles are used the resulting composite is effectively inplane quasi-isotropic and this gives maximum efficiency for a spherical pressure vessel.
Ultra-high performance pressure vessels have been produced and tested using this
method.
The user defines the sphere geometry (radius and end opening radius) and material
parameters such as the band width and the number of individual winding angle that are
required. The program then creates all the necessary winding path information and
transition paths that wind from the end point of one path to the start point of the next.
The parametric program is invokes from the QuickCAD options of the Cadfil main
menu. This is documented elsewhere in this manual. A sample file call SP1.PAR is
supplied in the EXAMPLES directory.
The program generates a series of .PAY files for example if the parametric data was in
the file SP.PAR the software would generate SP01.PAY, SP02.PAY, SP03.PAY....... A
maximum of 99 payout files can be created. Note that on DOS systems the maximum
filename before the extension is 8 characters and hence the stem name the user supplies
should not exceed 6 characters. A special control file SP.CTL would also be created.
When the data is post-processed the .CTL file identifies all the individual .PAY files
such that they can be automatically processed in sequence to create a single NC data
file.
There are currently three possible variations on the Sphere parametrics these are shown
on the parametrics menu as SPHERE2 and SPHERE3.
SPHERE2-Equal Openings with user specified wind angles
This parametric is for vessels with equal polar end openings the users specified the
number of layers and the ply angles required for each layer. The clearance envelope is
spherical with a cylindrical clearance around the shaft(s)
SPHERE3-Equal or unequal openings with automatic wind angles
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This parametric is for vessels with equal or unequal polar end openings the users
specified the end openings and the number of layers. The ply angles required for each
layer are calculated automatically. The clearance envelope is spherical with separate
cylindrical clearances for each shaft. The polar opening at one end can be zero or can
be specified that the band crosses partially over the pole.
Next Section(See 1.7.8.2)
1.7.8.2 Sphere parameters described
Show Picture
The parametric data for the Sphere1 parametric follows. Data entry for the other sphere
parametrics is similar.
*****SPHERE3 PARAMETRIC*****
Sphere Radius
Filament Band Width
Polar end opening radius
Number of band sets
Number of points per circuit
Spherical clearance radius
End shaft clearance radius
The Sphere radius and polar end opening define the winding geometry. The polar
end opening is at both ends and the inner edge of the fibre band for the lowest wind
angle should just touch the opening diameter. The highest wind angle is 90 degrees and
this is a single band around the equator. A number of winding angles (layers) are
created equal to the number of bands sets with constant changes in wind angle
between the highest and lowest angles layers described above. Each program is a
separate standard axisymmetric program with the number of cycles required to
complete the layer automatically calculated. The wind angles, numbers of bands in the
layer and the name of the particular PAY file are tabulated on the screen when the
Sphere program is invoked. If the basic thickness of a filament band was say 0.18mm
and a composite 4mm thick is required then 4/(2*0.18)=11.1 layers are required and the
number of band sets would be specified as 11. In practice the actual thickness of the
part will vary a little. We have found that the composite is often a little thinner at the
poles and the lower angle winding programs can be repeated (by changing the number
of cycles in the NC data) to thickness the composite at the ends.
Each winding program has a number of data points on it and this is the number of
points per circuit. A value of 20 works well in most applications. This is a
compromise between accuracy and the amount of data created.
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The spherical clearance radius and end shaft clearance radius define a control surface
on which the payout points will lie. This consists of a sphere intersected with a
cylinder, the cylinder being bigger than the mandrel shafts(s) and the sphere being
bigger than the mandrel (plus the thickness of the winding). Thus the values supplied
must be bigger than the shaft and mandrel radii.
When post processing the payout data from the sphere program the user should note
that the band pattern has automatically been calculated in producing the payout file
data.
1.7.9 Flat Plate Winding
1.7.9.1 Plate Winding
The Cadfil plate winding software is a program that generates full numerical control
(NC) data for the winding of flat plate mandrels.
Organisations working in research and development or in design and quality
management often have a requirement to make flat specimens to perform tensile tests,
flexural tests, fatigue tests, impacts tests......
It can be difficult to obtain full design data from tests on standard filament wound
samples e.g.. rings and pipes, it is also difficult to make true comparisons with
composites made from other manufacturing processes. The CADFIL-Plate software is a
ready solution to these problems as it allows an interwoven +/-angle winding onto a
rectangular flat plate mandrel.
Its is possible to produce multi-angle wind angle programs comprising of any
combination of ± wind angles. For example, it would be possible to wind 4 layers of
±150, followed by 3 layers of 900 to imitate the fibre layup on a specific filament wound
part.
For the full range of angle combinations, the plate mandrel must be such that it has
adjustable shafts that allow the winding to be stopped and the plate to be changed over
so that it can be rotated it about its other axis. A mandrel or mandrel drawings to allow
the customer to manufacture a mandrel can be supplied as required. Low cost mandrels
can be used.
The user creates a control file with parameters such as plate height, width and
thickness, band width, wind angle and required sample length and some other control
parameters. The software automatically creates NC data for 3-6 axes (for most
applications only 3 axes are required, mandrel rotation, carriage and cross-feed). Fibre
and payout paths and a mandrel definition can be automatically created for visualisation
in the CADFIL I software.
The machine positions are calculated to give close control of the fibre payout and fibre
speed to prevent fibre breakage on the plate edge. High quality windings can be
produced by the software.
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Because flat plate windings have poor fibre consolidation some pressure is required
during curing. This can be done by curing in a press, but satisfactory results can be
obtained by curing the wound plate between steel sheets with a weight placed on top.
Following selection of the PLATE parametric option at the QuickCAD menu.
***** PLATE PARAMETRIC *****
No. OF POINTS ON TURN RADIUS
FACE ADVANCE PARAMETER
WIND ANGLE (DEGREES)
REQUIRED WIND LENGTH
FIBRE BANDWIDTH
PLATE HEIGHT
PLATE WIDTH
PLATE THICKNESS
CLEARANCE TOP EDGES
FACE CLEARANCE
END (OVERSHOOT) CLEARANCE
START POS. FROM PLATE END
Next Section(See 1.7.9.2)
1.7.9.2 Plate parametric data entry
No. of points on turn radius.
This parameter (NPT) is an integer (whole) number that must always be odd (i.e.
7,9,11....). The programmed fibre path on the mandrel surface assumes that the end of
the edges of the plate are round with a radius equal to half the plate thickness. This
results in a smoother machine motion when winding, and reduces 'snatching' of the
fibre that could cause fibre breakage. It is not important for the mandrel to actually have
rounded edges but some radius is recommended on the plate edges, as a sharp corner
can cut the fibres. All the data points on the winding paths are on the rounded ends (the
path across the plate is always a straight line). This parameter is the number of data
points in the fibre and payout track around the mandrel edge. There will be 2*NPT data
points per mandrel rotation when winding. For accuracy the software does not allow a
value for NPT of less than 7, if a value of less than 7 is used the software will warn the
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user with a message and then actually use a value of 7. If an even value of NPT is used,
the software will warn the user and will use a value that is 1 greater.
Advance Parameter (IADV)
The is an integer value and takes the values 1 or 2. If one is used the required wind
angle is only given on one face of the mandrel. The other face will have a wind angle of
around 90o.
If a value of 2 is used (see figure(See 1.9.15)) the wind angle is given on both faces, but
the length of mandrel required for a specified sample length will be much longer.
Mandrel length is an issue if the mandrel is to be rotated about both axes as the length
cannot exceed the maximum machine capacity for diameter. For wind angles that are
less than about 60o slippage at the plate ends may occur when the wind angle is on one
face only (see figure for IADV = 1(See 1.9.16)), and therefore the wind angle must be
specified for both mandrel faces in this case (IADV = 2).
Wind angle (THETA)
The wind angle specified is always the angle relative to the machine carriage axis. For
example, 90o is hoop fibres and 0o is axial fibres with respect to the machine carriage
axis. The advance parameter above can be set to give this wind angle on one or both
mandrel faces. The wind angles achieved will depend on the options set. The software
displays on the screen the wind angles that will actually be used. These angles are
referred to as
THETA1, THETA2, THETA3 and THETA4 these are as follows:
THETA1Wind angle on front mandrel face on forward carriage stoke.
THETA2Wind angle on rear mandrel face on forward carriage stoke.
THETA3Wind angle on front mandrel face on return carriage stoke.
THETA4Wind angle on rear mandrel face on return carriage stoke.
If hoop winding (90o) is required the user can specify THETA as 90o. The software will
automatically generate wind angles such that the carriage advances 1 fibre band-width
per mandrel rotation. Read the special notes on hoop winding.
Required Wind Length (WLREQ)
In general there will always be some scrap material at the ends of the winding. The
software will generate a winding program that gives the +/- winding angles over a
rectangular area that is the Required Sample Length x the Plate Height. In some cases a
longer sample of full +/- winding can be cut from the plate but of reduced height .
Fibre Band width (BWID)
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The band width is the actual width of the filamentary material that is being wound onto
the surface. It is usually specified in mm. Large band widths will lead to less flexibility
in exactly obtaining specific wind angles as the band progression will be greater.
Plate Height (PHITE)
Plate height is the mandrel rotating diameter when winding, and is usually defined in
mm. This value must be correct for accurate generation of winding programs (see
Figure 20).
Plate Width/Length (PWID)
This value is the length of the plate (along the machine carriage direction when
winding) and is usually in mm. The value is used for checking that the mandrel is
sufficiently long for the sample size requested (see Figure 20). It is also used for
location of the carriage over-travel limits (see CLREND)
Plate Thickness (PT)
This is the thickness of the plate used, usually in mm. It us used in the calculation of
mandrel clearance, and for the radius assumed at the plate edges (see Figure 20). The
axis of rotation of the mandrel is assumed to pass through the geometric centre of the
plate.
Top, Side and End Clearances (CLRT, CLRS, CLREND)
The calculated machine positions in the .PAY file lie on an elliptical surface (See
Figure 20) around the mandrel when view end on (along the carriage axis). This allows
close control over the fibre whilst allowing clearance to be made between mandrel and
delivery system. There are three parameters, Clearance Top Edges, Face Clearance and
End (overshoot) clearance. These are shown in Figure 20. These values are normally in
mm.
Start Position from Plate End (XSTART)
This is the location of the start of the winding pattern on the plate relative to the most
negative edge of the plate (with respect to the carriage axis positive direction) and is
normally in given in mm. By changing this value, the position of the winding on the
mandrel can be changed. This parameter permits a positive or zero value, however if a
negative value is specified the program will automatically fix the program start
position such that the centre of the useable sample is at the centre of the plate. This
facility is useful if a number of different wind angles are used as the usable portions of
each program will thus have maximum overlap.
File stem name
The first line on the control file contains the stem name for the data files the software
will create. For example if the name was PLATE1 the software will create output files
PLATE1.FIB and PLATE1.PAY and the default NC data file will be PLATE1.PRG.
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Because this item is read as text, no text should follow on the same line as this data
item.
The user should now select the POST-PROCESS option. Post-processing(See 1.6.1) as
exactly as for the CADFIL I software with the following exceptions:
1)The user is not asked to select a band pattern as this has been pre-determined by the
software.
2)The software allows the program cycle to have a different carriage position at start
and finish to allow for band indexing along the mandrel.
3)The initial codes may be different for the program start position as unlike standard
axisymmetric winding the initial rotational position of the mandrel is very
important.
Details on the use and configuration of the post-processor can be found in the CADFIL
user manual. See also, notes on combining winding programs(See 1.7.9.4) and special
considerations for hoop winding programs(See 1.7.9.5).
Next Section(See 1.7.9.3)
1.7.9.3 Plate parametric error messages
Many of the error messages produced by the software should be self-explanatory, a few
need further discussion which is given below.
WINDING PATH IS TOO LONG FOR THE PLATE
PATH GENERATION ABORTED
This message is given if the plate dimensions and other parameters produce a winding
that is longer than the mandrel. There are a number of ways of removing this problem.
For example make a longer mandrel (remembering that if the mandrel is to be rotated
about the other axis also the length must not exceed the maximum mandrel diameter of
the machine). Other alternatives are to ask for a shorter sample length or to set the
IADV parameter to 1 rather than 2 or to use a mandrel with a smaller plate height or to
use a higher wind angle. Setting the IADV parameter will make the most difference but
then usable sample will only be obtained from one face of the mandrel.
WIND ANGLES ON FRONT AND REAR FACES CANNOT
BE DIFFERENT FOR HOOP WINDING. SET THE
IADV PARAMETER IN THE CONTROL FILE TO 2
When hoop winding (winding at an angle such that a full layer is produced by one
carriage stroke), the software demands that the IADV parameter is set to 2. The user
must exit the program and change the control file to reflect this. Hoop winding(See
1.7.9.5) is discussed further in a following section.
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HOOP WINDING, 2 PAYOUT FILES WILL BE CREATED
FIRST (OUTWARD) PATH IS :xxxxxx
SECOND (RETURN) PATH (NO EXTN) ?:
This is discussed in section 0 the user should enter a second file stem name at this
prompt.
Next Section(See 1.7.9.4)
1.7.9.4 Using / combining plate NC programs
The plate winding program produces Numerical Control (NC) data which consists of a
main routine which contains setup information and a sub-program that describes a
single carriage circuit. The sub-program is called a number of times by the main
program to form one layer. During a single carriage circuit (outward and reverse
strokes) the carriage advances by a single bandwidth to give a progression to cover the
mandrel. The sub-program generally contains incremental motions, i.e. all motions a
relative to the current machine position.
After winding a layer the carriage will have advanced a number of bandwidths. If a
number of layers are required a single reverse motion is needed to get back to the initial
position. An example is shown below for a FANUC control (syntax varies from
machine to machine but the general principles are the same).
M98 P7001 L19;Sub-program Number 7001 is repeated 19 times
A -360.00 X-120.00;The band width was 6 mm thus the carriage is moved back
(19+1)*6mm. The 360 degree mandrel rotation is to prevent fibre slippage.
M98 P7001 L19;Wind a second layer
The software automatically creates the first sub-program call but the additional calls
and intermediate motions must be entered manually.
In the main program the software calculates the program start position so the machine
can automatically move to the start position. As the mandrel is not rotationally
symmetric the original rotational position of the mandrel is very important. The
software assumes that the plate is in the horizontal position prior to the program being
run. Positioning the mandrel in 'jog' mode using a spirit level is the best way of
achieving this.
If winding programs for different wind angles are created the software will create a full
NC program for each wind angle. It user can edit these programs together manually if
these need to be wound continuously. Care must be taken to ensure continuity of
mandrel rotational position and payout position between programs.
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When running NC programs for the first time the user should ensure that he is in a
position to stop the machine quickly as minor errors in machine setup can lead to
damage to the machine of mandrel if a clash results.
Next Section(See 1.7.9.5)
1.7.9.5 Plate Hoop winding
When the user specifies a wind angle of 90 degrees or a wind angle greater than:
Tan-1 (PHITE/BWID)
Then the format of the winding program will be slightly different. As bandwidth is
generally quite small relative to the length to be wound there would be a large number
of mandrel rotations for one carriage circuit. The NC data would thus be very large and
perhaps too big for the memory of the winding machine. The program is such the for
every rotation of the mandrel the carriage advances 1 band width (the cross feed moves
during this cycle however).
The software created two payout files, and the user is asked to provide a name of the
second set of .FIB and .PAY files. At the post-process stage the user must process
both payout files that have been created thus creating two sets of .PRG files. The
first NC program will have an NC sub-routine that is called a number of times to form
the outward part of the carriage circuit and to provide a full 'half' layer. the second
set of NC data will have a second NC subroutine that is called a number of times to
give the return part of the carriage circuit.
E.g. for a FANUC control the first program might contain:
...
M98 P7001 L126;Sub-prog 7001 repeated 126 times
...
The second NC program created might contain
...
M98 P7004 L126;Sub-prog 7004 repeated 126 times
...
The subroutine 7004 can be added to the first program and the call inserted to give:
...
M98 P7001 L126;
M98 P7004 L126;
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...
If several layers are required then use:
...
M98 P7001 L126;First layer
M98 P7004 L126;
M98 P7001 L126;Second layer
M98 P7004 L126;
...
1.7.10 SPAR Winding
1.7.10.1 Spar Winding (Prismatic non-round sections)
The SPAR winding software is found on the QuickCAD main menu (if optionally
supplied). This allows the winding of non-round sections of constant or near constant
section. The section should not have concave portions, as these cannot be wound
successfully.
There are a number of options accessed from the menu dialog shown below
High angle winding (See 1.7.10.3)typically 40-90 degrees is where the mandrel ends
are not over-wound and there is a turning length at each end of the mandrel, the length
of which is controlled by the friction parameter. Generally if the wind angle is less than
40 degrees the turning length (which may be scrap material) tend to become
impracticably long. Note that for hoop winding it is quicker and simpler (and the
programs are smaller) to use the Cadfil pipe winding option using the equivalent
mandrel radius (spar perimeter/2PI) and ensuring the radial clearance is greater than the
maximum radius of the section.
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Low angle winding where the winding paths pass over the mandrel end, this is
generally required for wind angles less than about 40 degrees (0 degrees being axial).
The software automatically generates the mandrel geometry. Click this link to see the
low angle parameters.(See 1.9.18) There are three variants:
The mandrel has a flat end plate with a pin ring(See 1.7.10.4)
The Mandrel has a idealised ellipsoidal end-dome (Spar Low angle Turn across end
dome(See 1.7.10.5))
The Mandrel has a idealised ellipsoidal end-dome with an elliptical end boss and an
enhanced clearance surface (Low Angle, Turn across end Dome (devt))(See 1.7.10.6)
Transition (joining) paths generate a single path program to be created to go from
programs of different wind angle and/or start position.
This function is not available at the present time
For all of the options a windows dialog like the one below is used, the parameters and
descriptions vary for each option. The common features are described here and further
details are given under the links for the specific options.
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There are five button options:
CANCEL to quit without saving.
HELP to jump into this help file
READ PARAMS to read a set of data parameters created at an earlier time and that
were saved to a .PAR data file.
WRITE PARAMS to write the current data parameters on the screen to a .PAR data
file.
BROWSE DXF FILES(See 1.7.10.2) to select from existing DXF files and add the
DXF name to the winding data parameters. The DXF file contains the mandrel section
and clearance geometry. Rules for creating this geometry are given by following this
link(See 1.7.10.2).
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CALCULATE to save the existing winding parameters on the screen and if possible
calculate the winding pattern using them, some useful information messages are given
to the Cadfil text window, read them!
1.7.10.2 DXF file for Spar winding
The mandrel is generated from a cross section created in a external CAD program such
as AutoCAD. The section is supplied in the form of a DXF file. To allow Cadfil to
successfully use the DXF file some rules MUST be followed.
a) The Mandrel data is defined by a 2D profile in the X,Y plane using lines and circular
arcs. Please note that circular arcs that are greater than 180 degrees should be divided
into sections that are less than 180 degrees.
b) The axis of the mandrel should be the World Z-axis (i.e. through point 0,0) the
mandrel is assumed to rotate about this axis.
c) The Lines and arcs for the mandrel MUST be joined to form a closed polyline or
lwpolyline (use the AutoCAD Pedit or PE command).
d) This polyline must be on a layer called SEC and this layer should contain only one
polyline but can contain other data. Note when CADFIL reads the dxf file only the first
3 letters of the layer name are considered so if the DXF file has layers multiple layers
starting with SEC (e.g. SEC1, SEC22) then unpredictable results or errors may occur.
e) A clearance envelope for creating the payout path can also be created in the DXF
file. The rules for creating the envelope are exactly the same as for the mandrel cross
section except that the polyline for the envelope must be on a layer called SNV. In
some versions of AutoCAD it is possible to offset a polyline using the OFFSET
command. Thus having created a polyline for the mandrel section the envelope can be
created with an all round constant clearance by offsetting it outwards, and then moving
the new polyline to the SNV layer. Again only the
Cadfil has been tested on AutoCAD R12, R13, R14 & 2000, 2006 and 2008 DXF files.
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1.7.10.3 High Angle Winding Parameters
The SPAR winding software is found on the QuickCAD main menu (if optionally
supplied). This allows the winding of non-round sections of constant or near constant
section. The section should not have concave portions, as these cannot be wound
successfully.
High angle winding typically 40-90 degrees is where the end are not over-wound and
there is a turning length at each end of the mandrel, then lngth of which is controlled by
the friction parameter. Generally if the wind angle is less than 40 degrees the turning
length (which may be scrap material) tend to become impracticably long. Note that for
hoop winding it is quicker and simpler (and the programs are smaller) to use the Cadfil
pipe winding option using the equivalent mandrel radius (spar perimeter/2PI) and
ensuring the radial clearance is greater than the maximum radius of the section.
Click here (See 1.7.10.1)to return to the main topic
The windows dialog below is used:
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Note that of the parameters may be ‘greyed’ that is the user cannot select of enter data.
This is because those options are not used and are retained for compatibility with
different software options or for future options.
Mandrel Start X Start and Mandrel Finish X. These define the length (X finish- X start)
of the winding program and where it is positioned relative to the mandrel origin (the
x=0 position). The position of mandrel origin in the machine will depend on the
machine datum's and the XDAT parameter(See 1.6.13.3) described elsewhere in this
help file under post-processing.
Minimum Arc length around the section, is the typical spacing of data points along the
path on the mandrel surface, the units will be the same as the mandrel units usually mm
or inch. For reasonably accurate winding about 8 points per rotation (for higher angles)
is more than adequate, however when the user looks at the Cadfil graphics the path will
appear not to be smooth. If good graphics are required use a small spacing. Please note
that calculate time will be large and the data files and winding programs will be large if
the spacing is small.
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End Plane X position 1 & 2. These values are used for low angles winding to limit the
travel of the mandrel carriage at the mandrel ends and to determine the smallest radial
position the cross feed axis can move in to at the mandrel ends. Position one is at the Xend of the mandrel and position 2 is at the X+ end. If these items are greyed they are
not required for the winding option chosen. WARNING the machine can move inwards
and could clash with the mandrel if the planes are not positioned outside the extremes
of the constant spar section.
Extra-Dwell 1 & 2 is a distance circumferentially around the mandrel at either end that
the winding will dwell. This is a minimum value as additional dwell my be required for
the purposes of making a proper winding pattern.
Bandwidth is the actual width of the fibre band to be used. This is used to calculate the
number of carriage circuits required for a layer and is also used for the graphics of the
banding structure.
End turning length is the distance (at both ends of the mandrel) than can be used to turn
the fibre. The fibre starts at hoop and progresses down to the required winding angle. If
the software can achieve the required wind angle in a shorter distance it will do so and
the length of winding at the required angle will be correspondingly longer. If the length
is less than that actually required a warning is given and the wind-angle that is achieved
will not be the specified wind angle, the wind angle that is achieved is reported to the
Cadfil text window.
Friction (coefficient) Mu is used to determine how quickly the fibre turns, a high value
makes it turn faster and visa-versa. A value of about 0.2 is good for most purposes. If
winding with pins on the mandrel near the ends use a very high value to turn the path
quickly just outside the row of pins. Please not, Cadfil cannot defy the laws of physics,
wishing for a high friction value to turn a path quickly will not make the impossible
possible.
Wind angles (Degrees) , is the value in degrees that the user requires in the central
portion of the wind path i.e. the total length excluding and turning zones. The Low
angle option does not have a turning zone as the fibre turns on the mandrel ends thus
the wind angle is fully upto the mandrel end.
Payout clearance and mode. This feature is no longer used as the clearance is always
from the DXF file as this is the most general and flexible method.
Mandrel Direction check box. If ticked (default) the program is generated such that the
mandrel rotates in the positive direction.
End-Zone Speed Over-ride. This options is not currently used. The function is to apply
a factor to the winding speed in the turning zone.
Boss Rotation Angle. This option is not currently used.
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1.7.10.4 Low Angle Parameters (Flat end with pins)
The SPAR winding software is found on the QuickCAD main menu (if optionally
supplied). This allows the winding of non-round sections of constant or near constant
section. The section should not have concave portions, as these cannot be wound
successfully.
Low angle winding where the winding paths pass over the mandrel end, this is
generally required for wind angles less than about 40 degrees (0 degrees being axial).
The software automatically generates the mandrel geometry. Click this link to see the
low angle geometric parameters.(See 1.9.18) There are three variants:
The mandrel has a flat end plate with a pin ring
The Mandrel has a idealised end-dome, this latter option has two variants with
different parameters and options that might be applicable to different geometry sections
for the mandrel
Click here (See 1.7.10.1)to return to the main topic
The windows dialog below is used for the flat mandrel end with a radial pins. The
winding progresses along the constant section of the mandrel at a constant wind angle
the winding goes through pins at mandrel end and when the payout is at the end planes
the cross feed moves inwards toward the shaft to the 'dwell hold radius'. The fibre is
wrapped around the shaft and the the winding proceeds back through the pins to start
the next traverse of the mandrel. There is usually a considerable build up of material
around the shaft to cut away after winding.
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Note that of the parameters may be ‘greyed’ that is the user cannot select of enter data.
This is because those options are not used and are retained for compatibility with
different software options or for future options.
Mandrel Start X Start and Mandrel Finish X. These define the length (X finish- X start)
of the winding program and where it is positioned relative to the mandrel origin (the
x=0 position). The position of mandrel origin in the machine will depend on the
machine datum's and the XDAT parameter described elsewhere in this help file under
post-processing.
Minimum Arc length around the section, is the typical spacing of data points along the
path on the mandrel surface, the units will be the same as the mandrel units usually mm
or inch. For reasonably accurate winding about 8 points per rotation (for higher angles)
is more than adequate, however when the user looks at the Cadfil graphics the path will
appear not to be smooth. If good graphics are required use a small spacing. Please note
that calculate time will be large and the data files and winding programs will be large if
the spacing is small.
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Dome length. Not used in this option as there is no dome. Set to zero
End Plane X position 1 & 2. These values are used for low angles winding to limit the
travel of the mandrel carriage at the mandrel ends and to determine the smallest radial
position the cross feed axis can move in to at the mandrel ends. Position one is at the Xend of the mandrel and position 2 is at the X+ end. If these items are greyed they are
not required for the winding option chosen. WARNING the machine can move inwards
and could clash with the mandrel if the planes are not positioned outside the extremes
of the constant spar section.
Dwell Hold radius. The machine will move do this distance from the winding axis on
the end planes whilst the fibre is wrapped around the mandrel shaft.
Bandwidth is the actual width of the fibre band to be used. This is used to calculate the
number of carriage circuits required for a layer and is also used for the graphics of the
banding structure.
End turning length is the distance (at both ends of the mandrel) than can be used to turn
the fibre. The fibre starts at hoop and progresses down to the required winding angle. If
the software can achieve the required wind angle in a shorter distance it will do so and
the length of winding at the required angle will be correspondingly longer. If the length
is less than that actually required a warning is given and the wind-angle that is achieved
will not be the specified wind angle, the wind angle that is achieved is reported to the
Cadfil text window.
Friction (coefficient) Mu is used to determine how quickly the fibre turns, a high value
makes it turn faster and visa-versa. A value of about 0.2 is good for most purposes. If
winding with pins on the mandrel near the ends use a very high value to turn the path
quickly just outside the row of pins. Please not, Cadfil cannot defy the laws of physics,
wishing for a high friction value to turn a path quickly will not make the impossible
possible.
Wind angles (Degrees) , is the value in degrees that the user requires in the central
portion of the wind path i.e. the total length excluding and turning zones. The Low
angle option does not have a turning zone as the fibre turns on the mandrel ends thus
the wind angle is fully upto the mandrel end.
Payout clearance and mode. This feature is no longer used as the clearance is always
from the DXF file as this is the most general and flexible method.
Mandrel Direction check box. If ticked (default) the program is generated such that the
mandrel rotates in the positive direction.
End-Zone Speed Over-ride. This options is not currently used. The function is to apply
a factor to the winding speed in the turning zone.
Boss Rotation Angle. This option is not currently used in this option.
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1.7.10.5 Spar With Dome End
The SPAR winding software is found on the QuickCAD main menu (if optionally
supplied). This allows the winding of non-round sections of constant or near constant
section. The section should not have concave portions, as these cannot be wound
successfully.
Click here (See 1.7.10.1)to return to the main topic
Low angle winding where the winding paths pass over the mandrel end, this is
generally required for wind angles less than about 40 degrees (0 degrees being axial).
The software automatically generates the mandrel geometry. Click this link to see the
low angle geometric parameters.(See 1.9.18) There are three variants:
This variant has a dome-end . The dome is considered to be elliptical in side or plan
elevation blending from the mandrel section shape to the circular shaft. The only
variable describing the dome geometry is dome length which is the length from the
section where the mandrel start to change shape to where it meet the shaft. This length
is assumed to be the same at each end of the mandrel.
The windows dialog below show the input parameters. The winding progresses along
the constant section of the mandrel at a constant wind angle the winding goes around to
dome going tangent to a shaft or circular boss than then turns back to traverse the dime
to enter the constant section of the mandrel at the correct wind angle for winding the
reverse part of the circuit
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Note that of the parameters may be ‘greyed’ that is the user cannot select of enter data.
This is because those options are not used and are retained for compatibility with
different software options or for future options.
Mandrel Start X Start and Mandrel Finish X. These define the length (X finish- X start)
of the constant section of the mandrel and where these sections are positioned relative
to the mandrel origin (the x=0 position). The position of mandrel origin in the machine
will depend on the machine datum's and the XDAT parameter described elsewhere in
this help file under post-processing.
The dome length is is the length from the section where the mandrel start to change
shape to where it meet the shaft. This length is assumed to be the same at each end of
the mandrel
Minimum Arc length around the section, is the typical spacing of data points along the
path on the mandrel surface, the units will be the same as the mandrel units usually mm
or inch. For reasonably accurate winding about 8 points per rotation (for higher angles)
is more than adequate, however when the user looks at the Cadfil graphics the path will
appear not to be smooth. If good graphics are required use a small spacing. Please note
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that calculate time will be large and the data files and winding programs will be large if
the spacing is small.
End Plane X position 1 & 2. These values are not used and will be greyed out.
Dwell Hold radius. The machine will move do this distance from the winding axis on
the end planes whilst the fibre is wrapped around the mandrel shaft.
Bandwidth is the actual width of the fibre band to be used. This is used to calculate the
number of carriage circuits required for a layer and is also used for the graphics of the
banding structure.
End turning length . Not used.
Friction (coefficient) Mu . Not used.
Wind angles (Degrees) , is the value in degrees that the user requires in the central
portion of the wind path i.e. the total length excluding and turning zones. The Low
angle option does not have a turning zone as the fibre turns on the mandrel ends thus
the wind angle is fully up to the mandrel end.
Payout clearance and mode. This feature is no longer used as the clearance is always
from the DXF file as this is the most general and flexible method.
Mandrel Direction check box. If ticked (default) the program is generated such that the
mandrel rotates in the positive direction.
End-Zone Speed Over-ride. This options is not currently used. The function is to apply
a factor to the winding speed in the turning zone.
Boss Rotation Angle. This option is not currently used in this option.
1.7.10.6 Spar With Dome end (devt)
The SPAR winding software is found on the QuickCAD main menu (if optionally
supplied). This allows the winding of non-round sections of constant or near constant
section. The section should not have concave portions, as these cannot be wound
successfully.
Click here (See 1.7.10.1)to return to the main topic
This variant has a dome-end . The dome is considered to be elliptical in side or plan
elevation blending from the mandrel section shape to the circular shaft. The only
variable describing the dome geometry is dome length which is the length from the
section where the mandrel start to change shape to where it meet the shaft. This length
is assumed to be the same at each end of the mandrel.
The windows dialog below show the input parameters. The winding progresses along
the constant section of the mandrel at a constant wind angle the winding goes around to
dome going tangent to an elliptical boss than then turns back to traverse the dime to
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enter the constant section of the mandrel at the correct wind angle for winding the
reverse part of the circuit.
The control surface for the payout clearance has been extended for this option by use of
the envelope vertex described below.
Note that of the parameters may be ‘greyed’ that is the user cannot select of enter data.
This is because those options are not used and are retained for compatibility with
different software options or for future options.
Mandrel Start X Start and Mandrel Finish X. These define the length (X finish- X start)
of the constant section of the mandrel and where these sections are positioned relative
to the mandrel origin (the x=0 position). The position of mandrel origin in the machine
will depend on the machine datum's and the XDAT parameter described elsewhere in
this help file under post-processing.
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The dome length is is the length from the section where the mandrel start to change
shape to where it meet the shaft. This length is assumed to be the same at each end of
the mandrel.
Elliptical Boss Dim A. The elliptical boss can be used if it is more sympathetic to the
section shape of the mandrel. The ellipse has a semi-major axis length of Dim A
aligned with the X axis from the DXF section.. The semi-minor axis is Elliptical Boss
Dim B. If required the elliptical boss can be roated relative the DXF X axis by an the
Boss rotation angle (in degrees) if this is more sympathetic to the mandrel cross section
shape. If DIM A and B are set the same the boss is circular.
The Envelope vertex defines a 3D clearance around the dome end. The clearance
surface from the DXF file is linear between the 2 end planes. Then it becomes a conical
surface with the cone base being the clearance surface on the end plane and the 'cone'
vertex being on the winding axis a distance outside the end planes defined by the
envelope vertex. The vertex distance would normally be longer than the dome length.
Minimum Arc length around the section, is the typical spacing of data points along the
path on the mandrel surface, the units will be the same as the mandrel units usually mm
or inch. For reasonably accurate winding about 8 points per rotation (for higher angles)
is more than adequate, however when the user looks at the Cadfil graphics the path will
appear not to be smooth. If good graphics are required use a small spacing. Please note
that calculate time will be large and the data files and winding programs will be large if
the spacing is small.
End Plane X position 1 & 2. These values are not used and will be greyed out.
Dwell Hold radius. not used.
Bandwidth is the actual width of the fibre band to be used. This is used to calculate the
number of carriage circuits required for a layer and is also used for the graphics of the
banding structure.
End turning length . Not used.
Friction (coefficient) Mu . Not used.
Wind angles (Degrees) , is the value in degrees that the user requires in the central
portion of the wind path i.e. the total length excluding and turning zones. The Low
angle option does not have a turning zone as the fibre turns on the mandrel ends thus
the wind angle is fully up to the mandrel end.
Payout clearance and mode. This feature is no longer used as the clearance is always
from the DXF file as this is the most general and flexible method.
Mandrel Direction check box. If ticked (default) the program is generated such that the
mandrel rotates in the positive direction.
End-Zone Speed Over-ride. This options is not currently used. The function is to apply
a factor to the winding speed in the turning zone.
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Boss Rotation Angle. see the elliptical boss dimension text above for details.
1.8 Error Messages
1.8.1 Introduction to error handling
There are two types of systems errors, those which cause the system to terminate (fatal
errors(See 1.8.2)) and those for which it may be possible for the user to make some
corrective action (non-fatal errors(See 1.8.3)) and to later exit from the program in the
usual manner. These are described separately in the following sections.
1.8.2 Fatal errors
Errors causing the program to terminate should be very rare once the software has been
correctly installed. They are described here so that the user can take appropriate action
if they occur. When CADFIL is run, an error logging file called CADFIL.LOG is
created. Various messages can be written to this data file these can be viewed using a
text editor such as Notepad.
If CADFIL terminates unexpectedly in a controlled manner there will be a messages of
the type below in the CADFIL.LOG file:
STOP 10 PEYEP
orSTOP 50 PEYEP : TOO MANY POINTS
These messages indicate that a set of circumstances within the software has arisen such
that the software would be liable to terminate in an uncontrolled manner or to corrupt
data within the memory. If such an error occurs, first try to repeat the error again, if the
error is repeatable then it will be much easier to isolate the cause of the problem. If the
user wishes the problem to be investigated then the best way to proceed is to contact
CCL directly.
The software may terminate unexpectedly writing no error messages to the
CADFIL.LOG file. This will be due to some circumstance that was unforeseen by the
authors of the software. A message generated by Windows or the software compiler
may be written to the screen prior to the system crashing. The circumstances leading to
the crash should be noted and the error repeated if possible. The user can then contact
CCL who will investigate the problem.
1.8.3 Non-fatal errors
Cadfil has numerous non-fatal error messages, these are usually a direct result of user
input errors. The error message is displayed in a dialogue box and remains there until
the user clicks OK. The user is then often re-prompted for new data for the invalid input
or the invalid input is disregarded and control is returned to the appropriate Cadfil
menu. These error messages have been divided into sections relating to the Cadfil main
program, Mandrel generation, Fibre Path Generation, Payout Path Generation and PostProcessing for ease of reference.
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1.8.4 Cadfil main program errors messages
In its normal mode Cadfil uses standard windows graphics and no drivers are required.
A colour mode of at least 256 colours is required and a resolution of not less than
640x480, though 1024x768 is preferable.
SOFTWARE SECURITY FAILURE
This message is displayed when the software datakey has not found on running the
software. When the datakey is not found the user cannot access the options on the
Cadfil main menu, a warning bell being given instead. A discussion of datakey
problems is included in the section relating to the installation of the CADFIL system.
1.8.5 Mandrel generation error messages
UNABLE TO WRITE TO MANDREL FILE
This indicates that there has been an error opening the mandrel file on disk or writing to
it. This could occur for a number of reasons.
1)The file name the user has supplied could be an invalid DOS name, for example the
characters . " [ ] : < > + = are illegal. Refer to your system manuals for valid names.
After clearing the error message the 'SAVE' option can be re-tried using a new name.
2) The disk drive could have no space left on it. If this is the case you will need to exit
from Cadfil without saving the file, and to create some more space or run Cadfil on a
different disk.
3) If you are running from a disk root (\) directory there is a limit to the number of
files/directory entries that exist. This limit may have been reached, in which case you
will need to exit from the program without saving your data and either change
directory, disk or delete some unnecessary files.
4) An unexpected error. If an error occurs that cannot be explained by any of the above,
then contact CCL with the details.
UNABLE TO OPEN MANDREL FILE
This error message occurs when the software is unable to find a mandrel file to read,
that is, the file specified by the user does not exist in the working directory. After
clearing the message the user can select the option to read the file again and supply a
new name.
ERROR READING MANDREL FILE
This error occurs when reading the mandrel file, if the data in the mandrel file is corrupt
or not in the correct format. The format of the mandrel file can be found in the
appropriate appendix.
X POSITION REPEATED - IGNORED
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The message occurs when the user attempts to create a new mandrel point whose X coordinate already has a radius specified. The new X,R position is ignored, that is, it is not
added to the mandrel data. To allow two different radii at the same mandrel position
creates a step in the mandrel which it would not be possible to wind over. If for some
reason the user wishes to create a step in the mandrel, for example on a boss at the
mandrel end then X values that are very close to each other can be used.
STEP IN MANDREL, POINT REMOVED
When the mandrel data is saved or read some checks are performed on this data. One of
these checks is for a step in the mandrel, that is two X positions that are equal and of
differing radius. If this occurs the first X,R position is deleted prior to writing the data
to the disk.
ZERO RADIUS IN MANDREL, POINT REMOVED
When the mandrel data is saved some checks are performed on this data. One of these
checks is for a zero (or negative) mandrel radius that is not at the end of the mandrel. A
zero radius is allowable at the ends of the mandrel but is not permitted at other
locations. If this situation occurs the offending X,R position is removed as the data is
being read or saved.
UNABLE TO OPEN THICKNESS FILE
This error will usually be caused by the thickness file specified by the user not existing
in the current directory. If this error is caused for some other reason then contact CCL
with the details. If this error occurs whilst updating the mandrel in the payout path
section of the software then this must be due to a system error, the user should supply
details of this to CCL.
ERROR READING THICKNESS FILE
This error is caused due to an error in the format of the thickness file. The format and
structure of this file can be found in the appropriate appendix. If this error occurs whilst
updating the mandrel in the payout path section of the software then this must be due to
a system error and the user should supply details of this to CCL.
1.8.6 Fibre path generation errors
UNABLE TO READ FRICTION VALUE
This message indicates that there was an error reading the friction value from the
materials file or that the materials file was not found. The name of the materials file is
MATERIAL.CNF. If this error message occurs then a friction value of 0.124 is
assumed. The format of the materials file(See 1.10.2.3) can also be found in the
Appendices.
UNABLE TO WRITE TO FIBRE FILE
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This message indicates there was an error writing the fibre data to disk. This could be
for a number of reasons which are listed in the previous section under the heading
'UNABLE TO WRITE MANDREL FILE'. This message indicates that the fibre path
has not been successfully saved.
FIBRE DATA NOT WRITTEN
This message occurs when saving the fibre path if the fibre file already exists in the
working directory and the user has chosen not to overwrite this data. This user should
select the option to save the data again and enter a new file name or decide to overwrite
the existing file.
WARNING LESS THAN 16 ELEMENTS
This message is displayed if the user enters a value of less than 16 when requested for
the number of elements for the surface mesh. A value of 3 or less is not allowed and the
user is forced to enter a new value. The values 4 to 16 can be used but the user is asked
to exercise some caution, as the surface mesh is poor and hence this could lead in
inaccuracies in fibre generation. In this case the user can keep the value chosen or can
elect to enter a new value.
TOO MANY ELEMENTS
For speed of computation certain parts of the surface mesh are contained in the
computers memory. Because the memory of the computer has limits, there are limits to
the size of the surface mesh that is possible. This message occurs when the number of
elements chosen for a particular mandrel will lead to there being too much mesh data to
fit in the computers memory. The user is forced to enter a new value after the error
message has been cleared. The maximum number of elements that can be specified is a
function of the number of sections on the mandrel and hence more elements can be
used where there are less mandrel sections. For most purposes a number of elements of
around 30 is acceptable.
WARNING ELEMENT ASPECT RATIO EXCEEDS 10:1
DIAGNOSTIC OUTPUT HAS BEEN MADE TO ERROR FILE
Very long thin surface elements do not model the surface of the component very well as
the fibre only changes direction at boundaries. A check is incorporated into the software
such that when the number of elements is entered the aspect ratio of the patches is
calculated. The patch length is more than 10 times longer than the patch width the
above warning is given and some diagnostic data is written to the CADFIL.LOG data
file. The user can proceed with the fibre generation and the windings will be perfectly
satisfactory in a majority of cases. The warning is provided so that the user has some
awareness of this potential problem area. A sample of the diagnostic output is shown
below. This data will be of use if the user wishes to modify the mandrel to remove the
warning message. In some circumstances this can be achieved simply by reducing the
number of elements. In other cases it may be necessary include new mandrel sections.
SECT1 and SECT2 are the points in the mandrel X,R data to either side of the patch(es)
for which the other data is provided. If the radius at one of these sections is zero (at the
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ends) then there is only one patch type between the sections. If the radii are non zero
there are two separate patch geometries between the sections and hence two lines of
data are shown. If the radii at SECT1 and SECT2 are equal these lines of data are
identical.
ELEMENT ASPECT RATIO WARNING IN FIBLAY.
PATCH ASPECT RATIO OF 10:1 HAS BEEN EXCEEDED.
THIS MAY RESULT IN INACCURACIES IN THE PATH
GENERATION. THE DIAGNOSTIC OUTPUT BELOW IS
GIVEN AS GUIDANCE TO MANDREL MODIFICATION IF
THIS IS REQUIRED.
NUMBER OF ELEMENTS= 34
MANDREL STATIONS -------- PATCH ------SECT1 SECT2 RADIUS LENGTH WIDTH RATIO
1 2 101.500 203.171 18.730 10.8471
2 3 101.500 112.000 18.730 5.9796
2 3 101.500 112.000 18.730 5.9796
3 4 101.500 17.763 18.730 .9484
3 4 100.000 17.763 18.454 .9626
9 10 50.800 17.761 9.374 1.8946
9 10 34.700 17.761 6.403 2.7737
10 11 34.700 17.611 6.403 2.7503
10 11 17.700 17.611 3.266 5.3918
11 12 17.700 17.763 3.266 5.4384
****END OF ASPECT RATIO CHECKING****
ERROR, POINT ON MANDREL SECTION
This error occurs when specifying the start X position for the fibre path when this
position corresponds exactly with the X position of a mandrel section. Starting exactly
on a mandrel section causes a numerical problem and hence is not allowed. The user is
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forced to re-enter the start position. If required this can be a very small distance from
the original position selected.
FIBRE AT MANDREL END
This message is displayed when the fibre reaches the end of the mandrel without
turning around. After clearing the message the user can deal with this problem in a
number of ways. It may be possible to delete a few fibre steps and then to apply friction
such that the fibre turns before reaching the mandrel end, or it may be necessary to
disregard the fibre path and select a new start position or angle and create a new fibre
path.
MEMORY FULL ERROR
This message occurs during fibre generation when several hundred fibre-points have
been created indicating that there is no room in the computers memory for further data.
It is unlikely that this will prove to be a practical limitation for he user, bearing in mind
that it is only necessary to generate the fibre between two hoop points. The only
practical situation where this could occur is when winding near hoop along a long
cylinder. This problem could be reduced by using less elements on the mandrel, but for
simple hoop winding on a cylinder is it much easier to create an NC program by hand,
as it need only contain two or three lines of NC data that can be simply calculated!
UNABLE TO READ FIBRE DATA
This message is displayed when the software is trying to read a fibre path file and either
cannot find the file specified in the current directory or cannot read the file because the
data has been corrupted. It will often be the case that the user has supplied the file name
incorrectly and thus the solution is to supply the correct name. A common cause of
corruption in the fibre file would be if it has been edited and the data structure is no
longer correct. The structure of the fibre path file can be found in the appropriate
appendix.
1.8.7 Payout path error messages
UNABLE TO READ FIBRE DATA
This error is described in the section on fibre path generation errors.
UNABLE TO OPEN PAYOUT FILE
This error can be generated in trying to read the payout path file for viewing purposes.
The usual reason for this will be that the file does not exist in the current directory. If a
new payout file is being saved the error will probably be due to an invalid name being
supplied and the user can enter a new name. Other possible sources of this error are
listed under 'UNABLE TO WRITE TO MANDREL FILE' heading in section 0 mandrel generation errors section.
ERROR READING PAYOUT FILE
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This message is displayed if the payout path file being read is corrupted in some way.
The format of the payout path file can be found in the appropriate appendix.
UNABLE TO READ OLD PAYOUT FILE
This error is generated if a payout file that was created by a Version of CADFIL older
than version 3.00 is attempted to be read for viewing. After version 3.00 (when the
payout path viewing options were added) some additional data was included in the
payout path file header information. This information is the payout path clearance, the
name of the mandrel file and the number of elements the mandrel, that were used in the
creating of the payout file.
UNABLE TO OPEN MANDREL FILE
ERROR READING MANDREL FILE
The payout path file and fibre path file both contain the name of the mandrel file used
in their creation. If a payout path file or fibre path file is being read the mandrel file
also needs to be read. The nature of the errors is the same as those described in the
mandrel generation section. The likely causes are that the mandrel file has been deleted
or that the payout/fibre file has been copied to a new directory but the mandrel file has
not. It error could be caused by a user editing the payout/fibre file and modifying the
name of the mandrel file that is contained in it.
PAYOUT PATH DATA NOT WRITTEN
This message can be produced when the user is trying to create a payout path file when
the file already exists and the choice not to overwrite this existing file has been made.
After clearing the message the user is requested for a new payout path file name to use.
ERROR WRITING TO PAYOUT FILE
This error indicates that the payout file has been successfully opened but that there has
been an error writing data to it. This is most likely to be due to the disk being full. If
this is not the source of error then there has been an unexpected error and the user
should contact CCL with the details.
FIRST HOOP POINT IS TOO CLOSE TO START OF PATH
RE-CREATE FIBRE PATH STARTING AT HOOP
As explained elsewhere, Cadfil requires two hoop points in the fibre path to be able to
create a repeatable cycle. Hoop points are created in two ways. The first method is
when the fibre is started exactly at hoop, and the second method it were the fibre is
developed until it turns either due to the mandrel geometry or due to the application of
friction. In this latter case the hoop point is not exactly defined and Cadfil uses various
mathematical techniques to establish the exact position of the hoop point to ensure
accuracy in the fibre track when it is reflected. For these methods to work correctly
there must be at least three fibre points to each side of the point where the fibre is seen
to turn on the computer screen. This error message is caused because the fibre was
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started very close to hoop and then turns around within a couple of steps. Hence the
hoop position cannot be fixed accurately. In this circumstance to avoid this error, the
user would be better to start the fibre position exactly where required using the hoop
facility for the start angle.
LAST HOOP POINT TOO CLOSE TO END OF PATH
GENERATE THREE FIBRE SEGMENTS PAST THE HOOP POINT
This error is for similar reasons to that described above except that the fibre path needs
to be advanced three or so elements further. The simplest solution is to return to the
fibre path generation section, retrieve that old fibre path and the to advance three or so
steps and then to save it again. The payout path will then be able to be created in the
normal manner.
MATERIAL FILE ERROR-INTERNAL DEFAULTS USED
This message is given if the file material.cnf is not found or there is an error reading it.
a set of default properties are assumed. These will be displayed on the screen for the
user to select or to enter new values in the usual manner. Information on how Cadfil
tries to locate this file can be found in appendix a, section 4 and the format of this file
can be found in appendix B.
ERROR READING THICKNESS FILE
UNABLE TO OPEN THICKNESS FILE
Refer to Mandrel generation errors.
ERROR WRITING THICKNESS FILE
This error will usually be generated when the disk is full. The user will need to exit
from the program and create more disk space.
1.8.8 Post processor error messages
POST PROCESSOR - LICENSE NUMBER nnnnnn, NOT CONFIGURED
This error occurs when that datakey has not been found. Possible reasons for this error
are discussed in the sections relating to the software installation.
ERROR READING MANDREL DATA
This error is generated when there is a data format error in the mandrel file that is being
read or that the end of the file has been reached unexpectedly. The format of the
mandrel file can be found in the appropriate
MANDREL FILE NOT FOUND
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This error occurs when the mandrel file name that has been read from the payout file
cannot be found in the current directory
ERROR OPENING MANDREL FILE
Unexpected error when opening the mandrel file, contact CCL
ERROR OPENING PAYOUT FILE
Unexpected error when opening the payout path file, contact CCL
ERROR OPENING PROGRAM FILE
This error message indicates that there was an error opening the file for the NC data.
The most probable cause being that this disk is full.
ERROR READING PAYOUT FILE LINE NUMBER nn
This error is generated when there is a data format error in the payout file that is being
read. This error was first detected on line number nn. This will usually indicate that
there is a data format error on that particular line or that the end of the file has been
reached unexpectedly. The format of the payout file can be found in the appropriate
appendix.
ERROR OPENING FILE xxxxxxx
Where xxxxxxx is the name of the file being opened. This indicates that there was an
unexpected error opening this machine data file, contact CCL.
M/C AXES INCOMPATIBLE WITH THOSE AVAILABLE
CCL internally configure the post processor for the number and type of axes on the
customers winding machine. This error occurs when the post processing option requires
axes that the machine does not possess. For example if 5 axis post processing is
selected when the machine only has 3 axes.
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1.9 Figures
1.9.1 Mandrel XR Edit Dialoge Box
1.9.2 Graphics Window in Mandrel/Envelope X,R Edit
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1.9.3 Edit XR Data Record
1.9.4 Axisymmetric path Requirements, 2 Hoop Points
1.9.5 Winding Angle System For Starting Path
Zero degrees is along the mandrel axis in the X+ direction (left to right as normally
viewed on the screen), 180 degrees is along the mandrel in the X- direction. Negative
wind angles will lead to the path spiralling around the mandrel on the opposite sense
and will lead to negative mandrel rotation during winding.
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n
1.9.6 Friction Direction looking on to mandrel surface
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1.9.7 Difficult Mandrels
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1.9.8 Band Pattern Selection Dialogue
1.9.9 Visualisation of fibre Band Pattern
Mandrel showing a band pattern of 3 created with the 'payout path viewing' menus.
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1.9.10 Band pattern explanation
The diagram below shows a section through a mandrel showing a band pattern of 3
(three 'starts'), 2 and 1. The numbers show the order in which the bands are placed on
the mandrel. In addition to band pattern some times the terms lagging or leading pattern
may be used. A leading pattern is when the bands (mandrel coverage) advance in the
direction the mandrel is rotating, a lagging pattern has the coverage advancing in the
opposite direction to the mandrel rotation.
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1.9.11 Default Clearance Envelope
1.9.12 The Control (.CTL) file editor
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1.9.13 Dome Ended Vessel Parameters
Cylinder with Endcaps
Winding parameters
in
W
le
ng
A
)
(A
Origin
Left End Cap
(L/2)
(L/2)
Cylinder Radius (R1)
d
Band Width (W)
Right End Cap
Cylinder Length (L)
Machine Clearance (Envelope)
Cylinder Clearance (C1)
Left Shaft Clearance
(SL)
Axial Clearance (C2)
Right Shaft Clearance
(SR)
Origin
1.9.14 Elbow Winding Parameters
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1.9.15 Front & Back faces of plate with face advance parameter=2
1.9.16 Front & Back faces of plate with face advance parameter=1
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1.9.17 NC Feedrate Dialogue
1.9.18 Spar winding Parameters
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1.9.19 QuickCad Sphere Parameters
1.9.20 Machine offsets and Datums
Datum's are used so the winding machine can automatically move to the correct start
position. The values OFFSET-AX-x (x can be axis 1 to 6) are constants and are put in
the post-processor configuration file (.SM file). The XDAT value locates the mandrel in
the machine and is given during program creation.
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1.10 Appendices
1.10.1 Cadfil Installation
To install Cadfil the installer must have administrator rights on the PC for steps 1, 2
and 4.
STEP 1, Install Cadfil
Cadfil comes as an executable install file. When run the install file:
•
•
•
•
Copies files to the C:\Cadfil\cadfil7xx folder (7xx is the version number e.g..
7.01 would be 701).
Creates Registry keys
Creates shortcuts on the Start menu in the programs area.
Creates a Desktop shortcut for Cadfil
STEP 2, Install drivers
Cadfil uses a security device called a Datakey. This is a DK3 device(See 2.1) (USB
port device).
DK12(See 2.3) parallel port devices are not supported after Cadfil version 7.25
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Cadfil copies a driver file to the C:\Cadfil\cadfil7xx. The driver install program is called
DK3win.exe. A shortcut in the Cadfil programs group on the start menu can be used to
run this install.
Please note that Cadfil Install files downloaded from www.cadfil.com do not usually
include the drivers to keep the file size smaller. Driver installation is not required if the
user is installing an updated version of Cadfil. Drivers can be downloaded from the web
page www.cadfil.com/DataKeyDrivers.
STEP 3, Attach Datakey
Attach the USB datakey. The first time a USB key is used you may get the message that
Windows has found new hardware and is loading drivers, please wait for this to
complete. This message may also occur if you plug into a USB port that has not been
used for the datakey before.
STEP 4, Apply a licence file
You should have been sent (usually by email) a small file, usually called ‘lic.dat’. This
is required when you run Cadfil for the first time after an install. Place this file in a
convenient location on the PC, for example on the desktop.
You can now run Cadfil my clicking the Cadfil7 icon on the desktop or in the start
menu, Programs, Cadfil7 group.
Problem Solving
You may find that most of the menu options are greyed out and cannot be used. A
security error message may be given and you could be directed to this help file if you
chose to be.
To fix this you need to go to the utilities menu and select the Apply New Licence file
option. You will then need to browse in the file open box to find the licence file you
saved earlier. Having read the licence file you can then see the Cadfil the Message
‘Licence Update Succesful’ in the Cadfil Text window (you may need to scroll down
this window to read the messages). If you get an error please note the error number and
contact CCL. It may be that you need an updated licence file.
Security error messages will be of the format ‘Security failure, code xxx. View Help?’.
Error codes meanings are shown below.
It is suggested that you:
a. Check the Datakey is plugged into the PC and try to run Cadfil again. After
plugging in a key wait a few seconds for windows to find it.
b. Re-install the driver files (see step 2) and try again.
c. Contact CCL.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
For other codes you may just need to apply the latest licence file as described above. If
the error persists please contact CCL. Contact details are at the start of this help file and
can also be found on the Cadfil ‘About’ option.
Cadfil Run Time Licence code errors:
-1 No DK3 driver
-2 No DK3 found
-5 ,-16,-17 Corrupt DK3 datakey data
-6,-7,-8,-18 Licence expired
-9 DK3 found but not recognised (not initialised by Cadfil)
-10,-11,-13,-14,-15 Only for DK12 parallel key – DK12 is now obsolete
-12 Cadfil version number too high for licence data version
The above are the ones that you might see. The DK12 datakey is obsolete at Cadfil
Version7.25
The error codes when installing a new licence file are different meanings, these
are:
-1 Lic.dat file selected is not found
-2 Error opening lic.dat file
-3 Error reading lic.dat file
-19 Lic.dat file is corrupt
-5, -6 License file is time expired
-7 DK3 found but not recognised
-8 Wrong DK3 for licence file/wrong licence file for DK3
-9,-11,-12 DK12 error codes
1.10.2 Appendix A -Cadfil file formats
1.10.2.1 Configuration files
CADFIL has a number of configuration files:
<config>.SMContains configuration of winding machine and default values for the
post-processor.
MATERIAL.CNFContains data relating to material used for filament winding
PAYHED.BLKContains a geometric description of the fibre dispensing head for
simulation
When CADFIL is run it will look in the current working directory, if any of these
files are not found an error message will be given.
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1.10.2.2 Payhed.blk file
The user can define a fibre delivery head geometry for use in the 3D visualisation. The
head is a solid defined from cylindrical primitives. An example of such a file is shown
below:
Number of cylinders
0Number of brick elements
25Number of points around first cylinder
0.0X coord of centre of end 1
10.0Y coord of centre of end 1
25.0Z coord of centre of end 1
0.0X coord of centre of end 2
10.0Y coord of centre of end 2
-25.0Z coord of centre of end 2
10.0Radius of cylinder
25Number of points around second cylinder
0.0......
15.0
0.0
0.0
115.0
0.0
5.0
25
0.0
110.0
0.0
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0.0
120.0
0.0
20.0
The geometry should be fixed such that fibre dispense point of the head should be at
coord 0,0,0. The B motion (eye roll rotation) is a rotation about the block definition Y
axis and the yaw (C) motion is about the Z axis. The rotation centre in both cases being
0,0,0.
There is a limit to the number of points allowed in a block definition. Each cylinder
uses 'Number of points*6' points. A total of 500 points must not be exceeded for all
cylinders, an error will be given if it is. More points per cylinder gives a better
resolution for shading but drawing will be slower.
1.10.2.3 Material.cnf
The MATERIAL DATA FILE (MATERIAL.CNF), supplies the system with the
default material values that are to be used. These values can be entered during a system
run, but if the user uses a different set of material data regularly, then the material data
file can be modified. An example of the file is given below, along with the necessary
format of the file required.
The user can create is own <name>.cnf files an the software will allow him to choose
which to use during payout path creation. The user could create a separate file e.g.
Eglass.cnf, 12Kcarbon.cnf, etc for each material type used.
0.100Coefficient of friction
1.10Default Resin Density
2.56Default Fibre Density
2400 Default Fibre Tex (Mass per Unit Length)
4Default Number of Rovings
1000.0Default Thickness equation constant
0.60Default Ratio for fraction of fibre by mass
12.0Default Filter Angle (0-20 Degree range)
100.0Default Filter Length
50.0Default Payout Eye Clearance
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10.Default fibre band-width
All the information must be on separate lines. These are read in FORTRAN 'FREE'
format.
1.10.2.4 Fibre path file - '.FIB'
The fibre design section generates files with a '.FIB' extension. These files contain data
relating to how the fibre file was generated, along with the fibre path co-ordinate and
direction data.
16
REVIEW.MND
24
55
1 -44.5395 .0000 75.8139 .0000000 1.0000000 .0000000
2 -43.4120 19.7904 73.8587 .0566083 .9935595 -.0981583
3 -39.8676 39.2541 67.9901 .1688622 .9431811 -.2861730
4 -33.5750 58.0798 58.0798 .2782439 .8483473 -.4504291
5 -23.8938 75.9680 43.8602 .3828931 .7200355 -.5787416
6 -9.7015 92.6372 24.8221 .4810300 .5726655 -.6638254
30 .0000 99.7655 13.1751 .5709853 .4219989 -.7041962
55 10.0733 101.5000 .0000 .6577299 .0983193 -.7468095
The data contained within the file has the structure as outlined below.
Integer identifier (usually 16)Line Format : 1X,I5
Mandrel used in fibre generationLine Format : 1X,A16
Number of Elements used for Fibre GenerationLine Format : 1X,I5
Number of Points in Fibre File. ( Number of lines below )Line Format : I5
FIBPLN FIBPOSX FIBPOSY FIBPOSZ FIBDCSX FIBDCSY FIBDCSZ
Where :Format :
FIBPLNNumber of plane on which fibre is travelling. I5
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
FIBPOSXFibre X Co-ordinate. F11.4
FIBPOSYFibre Y Co-ordinate. F11.4
FIBPOSZFibre Z Co-ordinate. F11.4
FIBDCSXFibre X Direction Cosine. F11.7
FIBDCSYFibre Y Direction Cosine. F11.7
FIBDCSZFibre Z Direction Cosine. F11.7
1.10.2.5 Payout path file-'.PAY'
The Payout Path Generation section generates files with a '.PAY' extension. These files
contain data relating to how the fibre file was generated,.
22 0 1 1 1 1 1
CON1.MND
42 24 .120000E+02 .250000E+02 .160072E+02
192
-345.506 .000 49.246 -.0016070 .9999890 .0044151 .0000000 .0000000 .0000000
-345.606 62.076 49.520 .000
-345.373 6.371 48.881 .0400366 .9931564 -.1097148 .0000000 .0000000 .0000000
-342.866 68.557 42.011 .000
-344.972 12.673 47.789 .0816015 .9716734 -.2217928 .0000000 .0000000 .0000000
-339.805 74.209 33.742 .000
-344.301 18.836 45.976 .1230061 .9360252 -.3297368 .0000000 .0000000 .0000000
The data contained within the file has the structure as outlined below.
Line 1: ID, C1..C6Format : I6,6(1X,I1)
ID identifies the package or sub package that generated the file. C1..C6 May not always
be present. They relate to the axes Mandrel, Carriage, Crossfeed, Vertical, Eye Roll,
Eye Yaw respectively. They take values of 0 or 1, a value of 1 indicates that the post
processor will force the cycle to return to the initial position at the end of the cycle for
that particular axis.
Line 2 GMANFormat : 1X,A16
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GMAN: The name of the mandrel (surface definition ) file used
Line 3: NCY, NELE, CLR, BWID, ROTNFormat : 2(1X,I5),3(1X,E13.6)
NCY: Number of winding cycles
NELE: Number of elements per revolution on axisymmetric mandrel
CLR:Default clearance value
BWID: Bandwidth used
ROTN: Total rotation of path in radians
Line 4: NPAYFormat : 1X,I5
NPAY: Number of Points in Payout Path File (i.e. number of 2 line records following)
Line 5: F1,F2,F3,D1,D2,D3,N1,N2,N3Format : 3F10.3,6F10.7
F Is Fibre position on surface, D Is fibre direction vector, N is surface normal & 1,2,3
relate to the global X, Y and Z axes. N may not be set for some packages.
Line 6: P1,P2,P3,LFormat : 4F10.3
P1..P3 Payout Path position X,Y & Z,L is fibre length from F to P
Lines 5 and 6 are repeated NPAY times for successive points
1.10.2.6 Thickness data file-'.THK'
The Payout Path Generation section also generates thickness files. These are generated
with a '.THK' extension. This file contains data relating to how the fibre file was
generated,.
111
REVIEW.MND
244 2.377622 5.000000
L1 X R ANG T
1 .122600E+04 .612500E+02 .900000E+02 .952736E+01
2 .122562E+04 .624436E+02 .988438E+02 .952736E+01
3 .122538E+04 .632031E+02 .104283E+03 .952736E+01
4 .122445E+04 .660813E+02 .110899E+03 .783398E+01
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5 .122328E+04 .697469E+02 .118565E+03 .553718E+01
6 .122241E+04 .724843E+02 .121806E+03 .483378E+01
7 .122000E+04 .800000E+02 .127532E+03 .378905E+01
The data contained within the file has the structure as outline below.
Number of lines of data in file.
Mandrel name used in fibre generation.
NOCYCLXSECARBANDW
COLUMN HEADER INFORMATION
POINTXCOORDRADIUSANGLETHICKNESS
Where :Format :
NOCYCLNo. of Cycles required for coverage. Free
XSECARTow bundle cross section (mandrel units 2). Free
BANDWIDTHBandwidth used in Payout Path Generation. Free
HEADERColumn Header Information for data below.
POINTReference number of line in data file. I6
XCOORDX co-ordinate of point ( Mandrel Units ) E13.6
RADIUSRadius of mandrel at point. E13.6
ANGLEAngle of fibre in degrees at X Co-ordinate E13.6
THICKNESSThickness of laminate at the X Co-ordinate. E13.6
1.10.3 Appendix B-Calculations
1.10.3.1 Useful Calculations
On the utilities menu there is an option to make some calculations using equations
useful in filament winding & composites.
The user enters the data in the boxes for the calculation required and then clicks the
Calculate button to put the answer in the results box.
The calculations currently available are:
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Calculate the Fibre Fraction By Mass from the fibre fraction by volume.
Calculate the Fibre Fraction By Volume from the fibre fraction by Mass.
For an axisymmetric body, calculate the geodesic fibre angle at a given mandrel
diameter given the angle and diameter of another known point on the path. This uses
the Clairault equation.
For an axisymmetric body, calculate the geodesic fibre diameter position for a
particular wind angle given the angle and diameter of another known point on the path.
This uses the Clairault equation.
We can add other calculations if required If there is an item you would like adding here
then please Contact us. Details can be found in the Introduction to this help file.
1.10.3.2 Tow area calculation
Area Area of tow bundle
Tex Total Tex of fibres in bundle. e.g. 2 fibres of 2400 Tex = 4800.
ρf Resin Density.
ρr
Fibre Density.
K Area calculation constant.
FMR Mass fraction of fibres in composite.
For the Area calculated to be in correct units, the formula is required to produce an area
in the same units as the mandrel was initially generated in. Thus the units of TEX,
Fraction Mass Ratio, etc., need to be consistent.
Example :Densities Grams Per Cubic Centimetre.
TEX Grams Per Kilometre.
K=
1.10.3.3 Mass fraction from volume fraction
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Resin Density
ρr
Fibre Density
ρf
Mass fraction of fibres in composite. FMR
Volume fraction of fibres in composite. FVR
The units of Resin Density and Fibre Density must be consistent.
1.10.3.4 Volume fraction from mass fraction calculation
Resin Density
ρr
Fibre Density
ρf
Mass fraction of fibres in composite. FMR
Volume fraction of fibres in composite. FVR
The units of Resin Density and Fibre Density must be consistent.
1.10.4 Appendix C - Other Languages
1.10.4.1 Other Languages
In the Cadfil system directory (usually C:\Cadfil\V7xx ) there is text file called
Lang.dat. This file is a text file that can be viewed and edited in a program such as
WordPad. Instructions on how to change this file to configure Cadfil for another
language can be found in this file a fragment of which is show below.
REM This is the Cadfil text string file.
REM This file is a template to set up Cadfil
REM for use with languages other than English
REM
REM Each line has the Format iiiii,'text string'
REM iiiii is a 5 digit reference number followed by the
REM text message. Some or all of the messages can be translated
REM Into another language and if this file is then returned
REM by disk1 or Email to Crescent we can use it to configure
REM for that language and return an updated version of the software.
REM
REM Reference numbers greater than 10000 are the text on
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
REM the Cadfil menus. I.E. 10101 is menu 1 item 1, 10102 is
REM menu 1 item 2, 10310 is menu 3 item 10 etc.
REM
REM Menu strings can have a & which sets the following character
REM as the 'hot key' for that menu option.
REM
REM Some strings have items such as 'xxxxxxx' or'yyyyyyy'. These
REM x's are replaced by a number value at run time. Do not change
REM the number of x's or y's but the position in the string
REM can change.
REM
REM Thank you for your assistance.
REM
00001,Invalid Envelope flag in mandrel file
00002,Invalid Symmetry flag in mandrel file
00003,INVALID NUMBER OF X,R POINTS
00004,X,R Mandrel array full
00005,Error converting mandrel data
00006,Non-axisym generate not available
00007,You can Left Click the Graphics Window to Advance the Fibre
00008,You can Right Click the Graphics Window to Delete Fibre
00009,Option not authorised
….
….
….
….
00360,BAND WIDTH
00361,Machine data from file>
10101,Main &Options
10102,&New Mandrel
10103,&Mandrel Edit
10104,&Fibre Path Create
10105,Create &Joining Path
10106,Fibre &Path Modify
10107,&Create Payout Path
10108,&View Payout Path
10109,&RTM Results
10110,&Exit
10201,&Fibre Create Menu
10202,Finish and &Save
10203,&Action
10204,Se&t step
10205,&Delete
10206,&View Options
10207,&Path Display Options
10208,&Rotate About axis
10209,Redra&w
10210,R&estart Path
10211,&Friction LH
10212,&Geodesic
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….
….
….
1.11 Examples
1.11.1 Examples Introduction
The is a new section within the help file at this help level. It is the plan to progressively
expand this section in the near future
1.11.2 QuckCAD - CNG Vessel tutorial 01
If you would like to proceed anyway, click here(See 2.6).
1.11.3 Aluminium Bottle - QuickCAD
Run Cadfil, and from the ‘QuickCAD’ menu select the ‘Dome ended vessel’ option.
Fill in the data as shown below. Note that ‘non-geodesic’ is ticked as we want to
specify both the wind angle on the cylinder and the end opening radius at each end.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
If you click on ‘help’ and then ‘Dome ended vessel’ in the help text, you will find a
description of the parameters and a diagram link. Having entered the data, click ‘Write
Params’ this saves your data for if you want to re-use or change it later. For this
example save it as test1.par, you can re-load the data with the ‘Read Params’ option if
required at a later time. When you are happy with the data click the ‘Calculate’ button.
The fibre path and payout path are calculated, you select the pattern from the pattern
table. If you want to know more about the pattern table click on the help button. For
this example we select option 1 is a 4 start band pattern. You will then automatically
enter the payout viewing options.
From the ‘Payout View Menu’ select ‘View Options’. Then Select from the ‘Select
What to Display’ pull down box and pick option 10 ‘Mandrel, Fibre Bands’ as shown
in the picture to the below. Then click ‘Draw’.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
The results should loom like the picture below after selection ‘Yes’ a couple of times.
Select the ‘View angle’ pull down box and pick the ‘X- end’ option and then click
‘Draw’ to draw this view the result should be as shown below.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
Note that the bands close up to the shaft as we selected an opening radius that matched
the shaft radius. If the X+ end is viewed you can see the difference in the end opening
sizes as shown below.
There are many other view options you can look at, when finished click ‘exit’ and then
select ‘Finish’ from the ‘Payout View Menu’.
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Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
The last stage is to create the NC data. From the ‘NC Post–process’ menu select 4 axis
post-process and after a couple of click you have the program data to view on the
screen. Note that questions asked during post-process are customer specific and items
can be de-configured in not required if the items in question are not available or always
‘standard settings’ on your machine
To wind this program you must have a valid post-processor configuration with the
correct reference point data for the winding machine.
2. Addenda
2.1 USB Datakey (DK3)
2.2 Difficult mandrels
With certain mandrels it may prove difficult to achieve the desired fibre path. Mandrels
having concave sections can cause problems as it may be found that the fibre turns
around in the concave section of the component. In this example(See 1.3.9), in order to
avoid difficulties due to turn around or lift-off within this section, it is recommended
that the user start the fibre at the minimum radius within this section, and travelling in a
near hoop direction.
The path is developed around the mandrel until the two hoop points(See 1.9.4) have
been generated, completing the path requirement for CADFIL. Alternatively, the user
can start the fibre as mentioned in the previous two sections, and the user can 'steer' the
fibre through the section in question, by using the friction facility of the software.
Next Section(See 1.3.10)
2.3 Parallel Datakey (DK12)
2.4 Viewing Options Dialog
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2.5 Endcap Types &amp; Parameters
End-Cap Types
(R1)
(H)
Dome End
(1 Parameter)
R1
R1
R1
R2
R2
Elliptical End
(2 Parameters)
Torrospherical End
(3 Parameters)
Usually R3=>2R1 &
R2=0.1R1 (approx.)
148
R3
Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
2.6 Slide 1
2.7
2.8 ‹header›&#13;
‹date/time›
2.9 Click to edit Master title style
Cadfil is a registered trade mark of Crescent Consultants Ltd
Email:
[email protected]
Web:
http://www.cadfil.com
CNG Tank example
Page ‹#› of 22
Slide Show
2.10 notes_flag.gif Notes
Outline
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
‹footer›
‹#›
2.11 Slide 1
Email:
[email protected]
Web:
http://www.cadfil.com
CNG Tank example
149
Page 1 of 22
Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
2.12 Slide 1
Email:
[email protected]
Web:
http://www.cadfil.com
Tank example
Page
1 of 22Caps’
Tutorial1:
- Quick CADCNG
– ‘Vessel
With
End
Vessel With End-caps from QuickCad Menu
A mandrel
is shown
In thistoexample
the right,
we create
this isa winding
a cylinder
program
withfortwo
a typical
‘torispherical’
gas bottle such as compressed
gas (CNG) cylinder
R 87.5mm natural
(LH R2)
2.13
Slidegeometry
1
The Winding consists of:
each comprised
of
Email:end caps
[email protected]
Web:
twohttp://www.cadfil.com
radii. The left Hand
and rightPage
hand of(RH)
end
CNG(LH)
Tank example
22
layers at Hoop (circumferential
winding on 1the
cylinder)
V120H01
Machin
caps can be different but are the a)
same2 for
this example.
b) Transition (joining path hoop to helical)
V120T02
Directio
A a very good torispherical approximation
to other
such as the isotensoid shape
c)
1 layer Helical
+/-shapes
15 degrees
V120P03
a) spherical end caps can also be used.
can usually be made. Elliptical and
tutorialon
is the
not meant
to represent
an actual
complete
design,
illustrate some of the methods and too
We have not modelled and This
‘bosses’
end caps
for filling
points.
We just
needis20]
tointended
For antoinitial
trial we will have a wind a
2.14
Slide
1 of the winding
control
the size
‘end
openings’
to
suit
the
actual
boss
condition.
We
20mm
and will have geodesic winding (nonThis Tutorial was created with Cadfil 7.50, other versions may have
small differences.
Email:well [email protected]
http://www.cadfil.com
CNG LH
Tankend
example
Page 1 of
assume we have aWeb:
boss diameter
of 50mm at the
and 70mm
at22the RH
left.
end.
21] Clicking the calculate button starts the pa
Before starting some planning is required as we may end up creating several files and
to complete the path generation. The band pa
it makes things easier to have a logical naming system.
In the
previous
2.15
Slide
1 page in the winding sequence we have suggested names for the
separate program component. The vessel is designated V120 and the parts are
Email:
[email protected]
Web:
http://www.cadfil.com CNG Tank example
Page 1 of 22
V120xyy where x is H,T,P (Hoop, Transition, Polar – low angle) and yy is the position
in the winding sequence i.e. 01,02,03
Geodesic Winding at 15 degrees at 20mm Ban
End openings are the same
2.16 Slide 1
Email:
[email protected]
Web:
http://www.cadfil.com
Web:
http://www.cadfil.com
2.17 Slide 1
Email:
[email protected]
CNG Tank example
Page 1 of 22
26] We will now remake this program with non-g
the LH end cap Ø70 at the RH end. As we progra
and RH ends.
27] Pick the ‘Vessel With End-caps’ option from
V120P03.PAR we saved earlier. Note we tick the
and 45mm for the RH end as shown to the left.
28] Click the save button to re-save the V120P03
L=
SRand
213mm
R3)
created
we can(RH
see we
have the new end ope
slipping. The winding can be seen on the next pag
Non-Geodesic Winding at 15 degrees at 20mm B
CNG Tank example
Page 1 of 22
End openings are different
18] Now Pick the ‘Vessel With End-caps’ option from the ‘QuickCAD’ Menu.
Mandrel
2.18 The
Slide
1 geometry for this vessel is defined by the data parameters in the red
circle
area
in the picture
Email:
[email protected]
Web:below.
http://www.cadfil.com CNG Tank example
Page 1 of 22
SR 87.5mm (R2)
The Diagram Above shows an ex
Layer 01 – Hoop winding
TheSlide
first layer1 is a double hoop layer that will wrap from Position A to B and then
2.19
back
to A ( or B > A >Web:
B). As the
next full layer isCNG
a low
wind
Email:
[email protected]
http://www.cadfil.com
Tankangle
examplepolar
Page
1 of that
22 will
Machin
start at position C, in this instance the transition path is likely to be better from A to C,
Directio
directly from B to C would always slip.
1] From The QuickCAD menu select the multi-hoop option. Please note that there are
3] The
Multi-hoop
dialog as shown
to the
be shots
displayed.
This menu
is a data input
different
Cadfil
optionsinput
and packages
and some
of left
the will
screen
my have
form.
The
help
button
can
be
clicked
to
give
context
sensitive
help.
Any
line
of data can be
2.20
Slide
1
options that are not available on your system.
clicked
to pop a input/edit
box. The top line CNG
is the
Email:
[email protected]
Web:
http://www.cadfil.com
Tankradius
example(diameter/2)
Page 1 of 22of the cylinder
LH
End in
View
(155mm
this example). The clearance radius is 205mmSide
thus the
machine
payout
will be 14”
View–
“Band
Pattern
205-155=50mm
Opening
is R30clearance
(Ø60) from the surface of the cylinder. The fibre band width is 20mm,
angular point spacing is set by default to 12 degrees and does not need to be changed (see
help
file).‘Yes’ to the prompt to save the Multi-Hoop Parameter Data.
8] Click
2.21 Slide
The
number
of Xas’position
is set toenter
threea which
willthe
be parameter
clearer later.
9] At
the1‘save
dialog (right)
name for
file. Enter the planned C
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CNGposition
Tank example
Page 1mm
of 22from the origin
4]
to the Web:
diagram
on
thethe
previous
page
A is +270
fileReferring
name, V120H01.par
and http://www.cadfil.com
click
‘save’ button.
B
(centre
of
the
cylinder)
and
is
our
starting
position.
However
we
program
centre of the
10] Click ‘OK’ to clear the ‘NC Post-Process’ message, we will do this stepthe
later.
fibre band so we must adjust by ½ of the bandwidth (10mm) and also we do not want the
edge of the band to slip down the end cap so we must adjust away from the dome a little
11]
From the
‘Payout
View
Menu’
‘View Options’ (picture top right).
say 5mm.
Thus
the start
position
is select
270-10-5=
2.22 Slide
1Views
12]this
Thestart
Dialog
middle
right)
thenrotation
be displayed.
the ‘What
L= 540m
At
position
we(picture
have the
option
fromwill
some
withoutFrom
carriage
movement
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http://www.cadfil.com
CNG Tank
example
of 22 the draw
to
display’
down
pickdegree.
‘option 10 Fibre
Bands’
and Page
then1 click
(dwell)
and pull
we have
specified 360
button
theposition
red circled
Position(see
B(X
2) ison
at picture).
-255mm from the origin.
13] The band structure on the cylinder will be displayed (see picture below).
LH
14] End
ClickView
the ‘exit’ button on the dialog and then from the ‘Payout View Menu’ select
clearance
w
15]
Referring
backtotoexit
ourfrom
winding
sequence
on the (picture
first page
of thisright).
tutorial we have 19]
nowThe
made
a doubleparameters
hoop layer,for
thethe
next
‘Finish
Viewing’
payout
path viewing
bottom
SR=
Opening
is
R25
(Ø50)
Sidefirst
View–
Pattern
17”
layer. However it makes more sense to generate the helical layer
so that“Band
we know
what we
are joining!
L=
A full description
of the
150
16] The designers specified a wind angle of
15 degrees on the cylinder. If we consider
the geodesics
pathMachine
(shortestenvel
path
the help button.
155xSin(15)= (155 being the radius of the cylinder).
5] We will thus wind at hoop
Cadfil Help 8.53 V7.63
2.23 Slide 1
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CNG Tank example
Page 1 of 22
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CNG Tank example
Page 1 of 22
2.24 Slide 1
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29] Exiting from the payout viewing options, the next step is to start a
2.25 Slide
combined 1
winding. This is file that defines a sequence of programs that
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make
a complete multi-layer
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Page 1 of 22
30] From the ‘NC Post-Process’ Menu pick the ‘Combine Programs’ Option
(top right picture). The ‘Edit/Modify combined Winding’ Dialog will pop
(Middle right picture).
31] Normally we could pick the ‘Open’ option to retrieve a list that has
34]
dialog should
now lookwe
like
top right
for each program file
beenThe
previously
made however
arethe
starting
withpicture.
a blankData
sheetforsoeach
we pick
is
here. The key information we need for the joining path is the end X position for
thesummarised
‘add’ button.
the
hoop
program
and browser
the
start position
for will
the CNG
low
angle
program
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Web:a file
http://www.cadfil.com
Tank
Page 1 of 22Also
31]
The add
button(x=255.0)
opens
dialog that
allow
usexample
to select (X=-374.3).
note
the(.PAY)
mandrelfiles.
file for
the to
lowOpen
anglethe
program
(V120P03.mnd)for
as we
use this also.
payout
Pick
file V120H01.PAY
the will
hoop
35]
Click the ‘Finish’ button and then you will be prompted to save the combined program,
program.
saveYou
withwill
the name
V120.CTL
in the
picture.
32]
be prompted
for as
theshown
number
of middle
times toright
repeat
the program,
36]
We
create
the Joining
From the
Options’
Menu prompt
Pick the ‘Create Joining
click
OKnow
for
theparameter
default
value
ofpath.
1 (bottom
left‘Main
picture).
The second
37]
The
Mesh
(Number
of
elements/rev)
is
shown
(left), accept
the default
Path’
(bottom
left) andisthen
pick no.
the for
mandrel
forThe
thedefault
complete
vessel,
V120P03.mnd
(bottom
(bottom
right
picture)
the
item
the
list.
will
be
to
add
at
value (60) clicking ‘OK’.
right)
the
end
of
the
list
but
we
can
use
this
feature
to
insert
a
program
into
the
list
38]
The next step (below)
pick the start position,CNG
there
are
different Page
modes
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Tank
example
1 ofof22
at
anotherwelocation.
for the which
defaultthen
which
append
selection
will pickSelect
‘EnterOK
X position’
popsisa to
dialog
box the
(far right). We
program.
enter the X start position of 255.0 to match the position of the end of the hoop-winding.
33] Repeat ‘ADD’ for the fileV120P03.PAY for the low angle program.
2.26 Slide 1
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2.27 Slide 1
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2.28 40]
Slide
1 at 90 wind angle and are on a cylinder the geodesic would just circle around the mandrel with no axial movement. We need to apply
As we are
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deviate
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the wind angle and
Web:
steer the http://www.cadfil.com
path to the desired location
CNG on
Tank
theexample
LH end cap
Page
where
1 of the
22 low angle wind starts.
41] From the ‘Fibre Create’ menu pick the ‘Friction step option’ OR left mouse click on the ‘Cadfil Text Window’. Both will pop the step friction me
to the right.
42] Click the ‘LH friction’ to set left hand deviation and set the friction % to 20%, and then click OK to close the dialog.
44] From the ‘Fibre Create’ menu select the ‘Test Hoop Pts’
24] Looking in the text information window (left) we can see that for a 15 degree wind angle the left
2.29 option.
Slide
In the1picture below the results from the text window can
hand
end (LH) opening has a radius of 30mm if we consider the band edge and 40mm if we consider the
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seen. The turning point
X positions
and radii (band centre)
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CNGcan
Tank example
Page 1 of 22
centre
of2nd
theturning
band.Web:
Because
this isdeviation
geodesic
winding
be seen.
The
point
has a large
from
the startthe opening is the same at both ends and is fixed by
the 15
degree
windwind.
angle.
position
of the
low angle
To 25]
achieve
the the
desired
turning
position
a much
deviation
Using
Views
option
(as at
stepshigher
11-14)
the winding can be viewed, as illustrated on the next
would
be required. To achieve a very stable transition path rather
page.
39] All Cadfil programs
46] As
pick ‘Enter
Position’,
255made,
as themaking
start position
than
thebefore
½ circuit
of theXmandrel
we set
have
1 ½ and then Pick ‘Hoop Up’.
dialog (below) we pick H
47] From
the friction
menu
set Left Hand friction 10%, and step to 10.
circuits
might
be much
better.
48]
After
11
clicks
(position
No
111
in
the
text
window)
you
will
note
we
have
passed
the
turning
point
on
the
LH
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CNG
Tank
example
Page
1
of
22
45] From the Fibre Path menu pick the ‘Restart Path’ option and
dome.select
We now
needasked
to reverse
friction
from
to RH.
then
no when
if youthe
want
to save
theLH
path.
49] After
a further
8 clicks
we are
191 and we
have turned on the RH end cap as can be seen on the next
43]
Left mouse
click
repeatedly
on at
theposition
Cadfil Graphics
window
page.you will see the path advance to the left. You will notice in
and
the text window that the winding angle decreases with each step.
49]
We now
flip fromtoRH
LH friction
again.
The path
is advanced
X =to-270
as shown
to theAfter
right.a further
You can8 clicks we have turn on the LH end cap again as can be seen on the next page.
note that the wind angle is 41 degrees but given the path we are
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CNG Tank example
Page 1 of 22
wanting
to join to has 15Web:
degrees at http://www.cadfil.com
this point there is a lot of
difference. To speed things click on the text winding to pop the
friction dialog and set the delete/create step to 10 by clicking the
+ or – box. A further 4 clicks on the graphics window will see the
path
advance
turning
position as can be seen on the
50] We
now passed
have 4 the
turning
positions
next
page. If we use the ‘Test Hoop
as shown.
Pts’
Options again we can
see that the
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Page 1 of 22
last turning point (4) is at X= R=18
which is close to our target position.
If we needed to improve we could
right click on the graphics window a
52]
are now
in the some
payoutpath.
viewing options from
click We
or two
to delete
which
exit.a little and then
Adjust we
theshould
friction
53]
is to Pick
the ‘Combine Programs’
left The
clicklast
to step
re-generate
a revised
Option
from
the
NC
Post-Process
menu.
path. In this instance we do not need
54]
to doClick
this. the open button and open the V120.CTL file
we
earlier.
51] created
From the
Menu pick the ‘Finish
55] We
‘add’and
thesave
transition
file V120T02.pay at
and
Save’then
Option
the path
position
2. The display
should
look as the picture to
as V120T02.fib
and then
Clickthen
‘Yes’
the
left. the payout path, and save as
to create
56] Finally click ‘finish’ and save the combined file
V120T02.pay,
V120.ctl.
57] The last step will be to Pick 4 axis post-process from
the NC-Post Process menu and pick the V120.CTL file
to post-process with V120.prg as the output NC file. 151
There are a number of post-processor configuration
specific options which are described in the help file and
finally we have the completed NC data for winding the
CNG tank.
2.30 Slide 1
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2.31 Slide 1
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2.32 Slide 1
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