Brian Friedel LEED® AP

Brian Friedel LEED® AP
Watt Stopper Education Series
LEED NC and
LEED-NC
d Lighting
Li hti Control
C t l
Strategies
Brian Friedel LEED® AP
www.wattstopper.com
Learning Objectives
1. Where lighting controls fit within the context of LEED-NC v.2.2;
2. How lighting control systems are used for meeting the LEED
Minimum Energy Performance Prerequisite;
3. How to achieve higher levels of LEED certification using lighting
control and building integration design strategies in the
Optimizing Energy Performance credit
4. How to achieve higher levels of LEED certification in the
Controllability Of Systems credit; and
5. Lighting control design strategies to consider for the Innovation
in Design category
LEED - NC Rating System Overview
Categories
Prerequisites
Credit 1
Credit 2
Credit 3
Credit 4
Credit 5
Credit 6
Credit 7
Credit 8
Sustainable
Sites
(14 Points)
Erosion &
Sedimentation
Control
Site
Selection
(1 pt)
Urban
Redevelop.
(1 pt)
Brownfield
Redevelop.
(1 pt)
Alternative
Transportation
(1 - 4 pts)
Reduced Site
Disturbance
(1 pt)
Storm Water
Management
(1 - 2 pts)
Heat Island
Effect
(1 - 2 pts)
Light Pollution
Reduction
(1 pt)
Water Efficient
Landscaping
(1 - 2 pts)
Wastewater
Technologies
(1 pt)
Water Use
Reduction
(1 - 2 pts)
Optimize
Optimize
E
Energy
Performance
Performance
(1 - 10 pts)
Renewable
E
Energy
(1 - 3 pts)
Additional
Commissioning
C
i i i
(1 pt)
Ozone
Depletion
D
l ti
(1 pt)
Measurement
& Verification
V ifi ti
(1 pt)
Green
Power
P
(1 pt)
Local/Regional
Rapidly
Materials
Renewable Mat.
(1 - 2 pts)
(1 pt)
Water
Efficiency
(5 Points)
Energy &
At
Atmosphere
h
(17 Points)
Fundamental
Fundamental
BBuilding
Building
B ildi
ildi
Commissioning
Commissioning
Minimum
Energy
Minimum Energy
Performance
Performance
CFC Reduction
Materials &
Resources
(13 Points)
Storage &
Collection of
Recyclables
Building
Reuse
(1 - 3 pts)
Construction
Waste Mgmt.
(1 - 2 pts)
Resource
Reuse
(1 - 2 pts)
Recycled
Content
(1 - 2 pts)
Indoor
Environmental
Quality
(15 Points)
Minimum IAQ
Performance
CO2
Monitoring
(1 pt)
Increase
Ventilation
Effectiveness
(1 pt)
Construction
IAQ
Mgmt Plan
Mgmt.
(1 - 2 pts)
Low-Emitting
Materials
(1 - 4 pts)
Innovation
In Design
(1 - 4 pts)
LEED
Accredited
Professional
(1 pt)
Innovation
& Design
Process
(5 Points)
Environmental
Tobacco Smoke
Control
Indoor Chem.
& Pollution
Control
(1 pt)
Controllability
Controllability
of
of Systems
Systems
(1 - 2 pts)
Certified
Wood
(1 pt)
Thermal
Comfort
(1 - 2 pts)
Where don’t they?
y
Daylight
& Views
(1 - 2 pts)
Energy & Atmosphere
Category
Prerequisites
Î Fundamental Building Commissioning
Î Minimum Energy Performance
Credit 1
Î Optimize Energy Performance
E&A
& Prerequisite
e equ s te 1
Fundamental Building Commissioning
Intent… “Verify
y that the building’s
g energy
gy related systems
y
are installed,,
calibrated and perform according to the owner’s project requirements,
basis of design, and construction documents.”
E&A Prerequisite 1
Fundamental Building Commissioning
Î Complete for the following energy-related systems,
systems at a
minimum:
ƒ HVAC&R systems (mechanical and passive) and associated
controls
ƒ Lighting and daylighting controls
ƒ Domestic hot water systems
ƒ Renewable energy systems
Î Designate an individual as CxA to lead, review and oversee
the completion of the commissioning process activities
ƒ Documented experience
ƒ At least 2 building projects
Î Documentation of procedures and settings
E&A Prerequisite 2
Minimum Energy
gy
Performance - Intent
“Establish
stab s the
t e minimum
u level
e e of
o
energy efficiency for the proposed
building and systems”
Energy & Atmosphere Category –
Prerequisite 2 Minimum Energy Performance
Two Requirements:
Mandatory Provisions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004
Î Sec. 5.4. Building envelope
Î Sec. 8.4. Power
Î Sec.
S
6
6.4.
4 HVAC
Î Sec.
Sec 9.4.
9 4 Lighting
Î Sec. 7.4. Service Water Heating
Î Sec. 10.4. Electric Motors
P
Prescriptive
i ti Requirements
R
i
t off ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004
90 1 2004
Î Sec. 5.5. Building envelope
Î Sec. 6.5. HVAC
Î Sec. 7.5. Service Water Heating
Î Sec. 9.5. BAM Lighting
or
Î Sec. 11 Energy Cost Budget Method
There is a p
provision for following
g a local code if equivalence
q
to 90.1-2004
has been shown per DOE standard processes
ASHRAE/IESNA 90
90.1-2004
1 2004
9.4 Interior Control Highlights
(Mandatory)
Î Automatic shut-off of lighting
Î Manual switch or occupancy sensor in spaces bounded
by full height partitions
Î Occupancy sensors in:
ƒ Classrooms
ƒ Conference/meeting
C f
/
ti rooms
ƒ Lunch/break rooms
*** Add Title
Titl 24 requirements
i
t
ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004
9.4 Interior Control
Hi hli ht (Mandatory)
Highlights
(M d t
)
Automatic Shut-off of Exterior Lighting
Î Photosensor
Î Astronomical
A t
i l Ti
Time Cl
Clock
k
Î 10 Hour Memory Retention!
Lighting Power Densities Using
The Building Area Method
Lighting Power Density
Building Area Type
(W/ft2)
Automotive Facility
0.9
Convention Center
1.2
Library
13
1.3
Manufacturing Facility
1.3
Motel
1.0
Motion Picture Facility
1.2
Multi-Family
0.7
Museum
1.1
Office
1.0
ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004
9.5 Lighting BAM
Highlights (Mandatory)
Building Area Method
Î Select LPD from T9
T9.5.1
5 1 and apply
to building areas
Î Interior Lighting
g
g Power Allowance
(ILPA) = Sum of LPA of all area
types
Î Installed ILP <= ILPA
Î ** Add Title 24 requirements
Optimizing Energy
Performance –
E&A Credit 1
Building Energy
Performance
Decreased
Energy
Baseline
Building
Design
Building
E&A: C
E&A
Credit
dit 1
Optimize Energy
Performance - Intent
“Achieve increasing levels of energy
performance above the baseline in the
prerequisite standard to reduce
environmental and economic impacts
associated with excessive energy use”
use
E&A: Credit 1
O ti i Energy
Optimize
E
Performance
P f
–4O
Options
ti
1 Whole Building Energy Simulation (1 - 10 Pts)
1.
Î Demonstrate % improvement above 90.1-2004
Î Use Building Performance Rating Method
ƒ Informative Appendix G in 90.1-2004
2. New Buildings Institute Core Performance
Guide (Up to 5 points)
Î Energy modeling requirements waived
Î Applies to buildings under 100,000 ft2
E&A: Credit 1
O ti i Energy
Optimize
E
Performance
P f
–4O
Options
ti
3. ASHRAE Advanced Energy
gy Design
g Guide for
Small Office Buildings 2004 (4 Pts.)
Î 30% more energy efficient than a building
g
to meet 90.1-1999
designed
Î Applies to office buildings under 20,000 ft2
4 Advanced Buildings Benchmark Version 1
4.
1.1
1
(1 Pt.)
Point Allocations
Existing
Bldg/Rnvtns**
Points
10.5%
3.5%
1
14.0%
7.0%
2
17 5%
17.5%
10 5%
10.5%
3
21.0%
14.0%
4
24.5%
17.5%
5
28.0%
21.0%
6
31.5%
24.5%
7
35 0%
35.0%
28 0%
28.0%
8
38.5%
31.5%
9
42.0%
35.0%
10
New Buildings**
REQUIRED 6/6/07
** Percentage is the bottom of a range, not the middle! Includes regulated and unregulated loads (include plug loads, exterior lighting, and parking garages).
What Lighting
g
g Control
Strategies Should I Consider
For Credit 1 - Optimizing
Energy Performance?
Strategy #1
Occupancy
p
y Sensors
Energy Savings –
O
Occupancy
Sensors
S
Energy
Savings
g
Energy
W t
Waste
(20 Minute Time Out)
Break Room
39%
17%
Classroom
63%
52%
Conference Room
57%
39%
Private Office
45%
28%
Restroom
68%
47%
A li ti
Application
Maniccia, D., A. Bierman, A. Tweed, B. Von Neida, JIES 2001 Von Neida, B., D. Maniccia, A. Tweed, JIES 2001
Occupancy Sensor Control Strategies
Î C
Code
d Compliance
C
li
– Mandatory
M d t
use occupancy sensor and
d bi
bi-level
l
l
switching
Î Optimize Energy Performance - Bi-level switching with half manualon
Sc Sb Sa
a
b
ƒ Sa controls 1st row of lamps (a) in each fixture
ƒ Sb controls 2nd row of lamps (b) in each fixture
ƒ Sc controls wallwashers
a
b
2008 CLTC Studyy – Bi-level Switching
g
100%
ON Time (% While Oc
ccupied)
17%
30%
80%
100% Light
(Switch 1 and 2)
60%
100%
32%
70%
50% Light
(S it h 1 or 2)
(Switch
40%
20%
38%
13%
0%
Auto-On 100%
(while occupied)
Manual On
0% Light
(Off)
Auto On 50%
■ 70% off th
the ti
time the
th space iis occupied,
i d only
l 50% off th
the lilight
ht
is used
21
2008 CLTC Studyy – Bi-level Switching
g
Kwh Per Year (A
Average Offfice)
160
150
120
46% Less
52% Less
80
81
72
40
0
Auto-On 100%
(While Occupied)
Manual On
Auto on 50%
■ 52% energy saving with Auto-On 50% control strategy over
Auto-On 100%
22
Strategy #2
Occupancy Sensors and
Occupancy-based Control
off Mechanical Systems
S
Mechanical System Integration
Perimeter VAV Private Office Zone
Î Code Compliance - Auto off using occupancy sensors
Î Temperatures
p
for all offices determined by
y large
g office
Single Zone
OS
Application Specific Controller
VAV
OS
Subzone
1
OS
Subzone
2
Source: Hartman, T., Improving VAV Zone Control, ASHRAE Journal, June 2003, pp 24-32
T
Subzone
3
Mechanical System Integration
Perimeter VAV Private Office Zone
Î Optimize Energy Performance - Integrate occupancy sensors with
thermostat setbacks
Custom Application Controller
VAV
OS
Subzone
1
OS
T
Subzone
2
OS
T
Source: Hartman, T., Improving VAV Zone Control, ASHRAE Journal, June 2003, pp 24-32
T
Subzone
3
Integrated
g
Fan Control
Î Code - Automatic off using occupancy sensor
Î Optimize Energy Performance - Integrate fan control
Î Good Practice - Manual Override
SK SK
J
PP
J
PP
Change to DLM
Controls
Strategy #3
Layered
y
Control
Layered Control Strategies
School Hallway
Î Code Compliance
ƒ Scheduling
Î Optimize Energy Performance
ƒ Occupancy sensor
ƒ Multi-level load control
Î Energy Impact
ƒ 33% reduction during after
after-hours
hours
occupied times
ƒ Hallway lighting off during afterp
times
hours unoccupied
Strategy #4
Daylighting Control
Daylit
y Classroom Side-lighting
g
g
Î Base Code Compliance
ƒ Scheduling
Teacher’ss Desk
Teacher
J
a, c
a, c
a, c
a, c
a b
a,
a b
a,
a, b
a, b
a, b
a, b
a b
a,
a b
a,
Photosensor
Daylight Zone
Sa
Sb
Sc
Î Optimize Energy
Performance
ƒ Occupancy Sensor
ƒ Dim row adjacent to window
Î Good Practice
ƒ Bi-level switching for
manual override
Example: Neptune School, Neptune NJ
Energy Efficient Measures
Î Solar orientation
Î R27 wall w/blown cellulose
Î R30 roof insulation
Î Triple
p p
pane windows
Î Solar shading
Î Light shelves
Î LPD 0
0.92
92 W/
W/sff
Î Daylight dimming
Î GSHP
Î Underfloor air
Î Demand controlled ventilation
Î Energy recovery units
Courtesy of Erik Ring, CTG Energetics, and Marcus Sheffer, 7Group
Lighting Energy Efficient Measures
I
Impact
t Building
B ildi Electric
El t i Use
U (kWh)
400,000
-7%
7%
ASHRAE Budget
B d t Building
B ildi
350,000
Reduced LPD
-4%
With Daylighting Added
Building Eleectric Use (kWh)
300,000
-33%
250,000
-10%
200,000
-15%
-5%
150,000
100,000
50,000
0
Heat
Rejection
Misc.
Equip.
Exterior
Usage
Courtesy of Erik Ring, CTG Energetics, and Marcus Sheffer, 7Group
Domestic
Hot Water
Lights
Space
Cool
Space
Heat
Circulation
Fans
Pumps &
Aux.
Lighting Energy Efficient Measures
I
Impact
t Cooling
C li
System
S t
Sizing
Si i
Cooling Equiipment Size (Tonns)
200
150
-10%
- 4%
100
50
0
ASHRAE Budget
g Buildingg
Courtesy of Erik Ring, CTG Energetics, and Marcus Sheffer, 7Group
Lighting
g g
With Daylighting
yg g
Lighting Energy Efficient Measures
I
Impact
t Operating
O
ti Cost
C t Reduction
R d ti
$160,000
-8%
$140,000
-3%
Estimatedd Operating Costts
$120,000
$100,000
$80,000
$60,000
$40,000
$20,000
$0
Gas Electric Total
ASHRAE B
Budget
d t Building
B ildi
Courtesy of Erik Ring, CTG Energetics, and Marcus Sheffer, 7Group
Gas
Electric Total
Li hti
Lighting
Gas Electric Total
With D
Daylighting
li hti
Strategy #5
Plug
g Load Control
Optimize Energy Performance
Control of Unregulated
Unreg lated Pl
Plug
g Loads
S
Sensor
mounted
t d under
d binder
bi d bin
bi
Power strip under desk
Task lighting
Task lighting
Summary
y–
Optimizing Energy
Performance Strategies
1. Occupancy Sensors
2 Occupancy-based
2.
Occupancy based control of mechanical system
3. ‘Layered’ control strategies
4. Daylighting control strategies
5. Control unregulated plug loads
NRG Systems LEED - NC Gold
Project Info
Project Goals
Î Location: Hinesburg, VT
Î Minimize energy use
Î Building Type(s): Commercial office/Indust/NC
Î Maximize use of renewables
Î 46,500 sq. ft., 3-story building, rural setting
Î Completed: August 2004
Î Rating: U.S.
U S Green Building Council LEED
LEEDNC, v.2/v.2.1 -- Level: Gold (44 points)
NRG Systems Lighting
C t l Strategies
Control
St t i
Î Daylight-responsive controls in office areas and warehouses
Î Multi-zone dimming
Î Occupancy sensors for auto-off (interior and exterior)
Î Manual-on
Manual on control
NRG Systems
Estimated Annual Energy Costs
Results
Î 0.77 W/sq. ft - lighting
ƒ ~44% Less Than 90.1-2001
Î 40% Reduction in Daytime Lighting Energy Use
Î 72% of Energy Used from Renewables
ƒ Solar, Wind, Wood Pellets
Costs
Î $7.83 Million Dollar Project
Î 8.21%
8 21% Premium ($643
($643,000)
000)
ƒ 72%: Renewables
ƒ 28%: LEED Cost Premium ($3.93/sq. ft)
Î Est.
E t $4-8
$4 8 Milli
Million S
Saving
i O
Over 30
30-40
40 Year
Y
Building
B ildi Lif
Life S
Span
Capitol East End Block 225
LEED 2.0
2 0 - Gold
Architect – SMWM Architects
Capitol East End
Code Compliance
Î Scheduling
ƒ Open office areas
Î Occupancy sensing
ƒ Conference rooms
ƒ Boardrooms
Î Manual Overrides
Capitol East End
Lighting Control LEED Strategies
E&A Credit 1
Î Optimize Energy Performance - 1 pt.
ƒ T-8 indirect fluorescent – 0.9 W/ft2
ƒ Daylighting controls
IEQ Credit 6.2
Î Controllability of System - 1 pt.
ƒ Plug load control in 1,200 cubicles
28% Incremental Energy Savings
Above T24
Indoor
doo Environmental
o
e ta
Quality Category
Credit 6.1 - Controllability
of Systems Lighting
Indoor Environmental Quality
– Credit 6.1 Controllability of
Systems:
y
Lighting
g
g
Intent
g level of lighting
g
g system
y
Î Provide a high
control by individual occupants or by
specific groups in multi-occupant
spaces
Î Promote the productivity, comfort and
well-being of building occupants
Indoor Environmental Q
Quality
y–
Credit 6.1 Controllability of
Systems: Lighting Controls
Requirements
Î Individual lighting controls for a minimum of 90% of the building
occupants to enable adjustments to suit individual task needs
and preferences
and
d
Î Lighting controls must be supplied for all shared multi-occupant
spaces
p
so that g
groups
p can tailor lighting
g
g to their needs
Î Meeting this requirement will enable you to acquire 1 point
towards your certification
Indoor Environmental Quality –
Credit 6
6.1
1 Group Multi-occupant Example
Scree
en
Credit Strategy
Î Architectural Dimming System
Whiteboard
DSC
Strategies
St
t i for
f Success
S
Energy & Atmosphere Category
Î Fundamental Building Systems Commissioning Prerequisite
ƒ Comprehensive documentation for lighting and lighting
control systems
y
Î Minimum Energy Performance Prerequisite
ƒ ASHRAE 90.1-2004
Î Optimizing Energy Performance - Credit 1
ƒ Occupancy Sensors
Occupancy-based
based control of mechanical system
ƒ Occupancy
ƒ ‘Layered’ control strategies
ƒ Daylighting control strategies
ƒ Control unregulated plug loads
Strategies for Success I d
Indoor
Environmental
E i
t l
Quality & Innovation
Indoor Environmental Quality Category
Î Controllability of Systems Credit 6.1
ƒ Personal Control Strategies
ƒ Architectural dimming systems
ƒ Switching...
Innovation & Design Process Category
Î Innovation in Design Credit
ƒ DALI
ƒ Others…
Additional Resources
LEED Green Building Rating System
Î www.usgbc.org/programs/leed.htm
Codes and Standards
Î ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA 90.1-2004 Standard and User’s Manual
ƒ www.ashrae.org
ƒ www.iesna.org
Potential Savings from Occupancy Sensors
Î An Analysis of The Energy and Cost Savings Potential of Occupancy Sensors for
Commercial Lighting Systems, B. Von Neida, D. Maniccia, A. Tweed, Summer
2001,, pp 111 – 125
Î The Effects of Changing Occupancy Sensor Time-out Setting on Energy Savings,
Lamp Cycling and Maintenance Costs, D. Maniccia, A. Tweed, A. Bierman, B. Von
Neida, Summer 2001, pp 97 – 110
Lighting
Li
hti Research
R
h Center
C t
Î www.lrc.rpi.edu
WattStopper Case Studies
Î http://www.wattstopper.com/pdf/Casestudy_NRGsystemx0407.pdf
http://www wattstopper com/pdf/Casestudy NRGsystemx0407 pdf
LEED 2.2 and Lighting Controls
Thank you
www.wattstopper.com
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