THE
THE
ADVANCED ENERGY"
MDX 500
MAGNETRON DRIVE
User Manual
PN: 5700270-B
January 1993
THE
ADVANCED ENERGY
MDX 500
MAGNETRON DRIVE
User Manual
ADVANCED ENERGY
INDUSTRIES, INC
1600 Prospect Parkway
Fort Collins, Colorado 80525
(303)221-4670
Telex 445-0938
РМ: 5700270-В
January 1993
To ensure years of dependable service, Advanced Energy® products are
thoroughly tested and designed to be among the most reliable and highest
quality systems available worldwide. All parts and labor carry our standard
1-year warranty.
For Customer Service, call:
AE, Colorado office (303) 221-0108 (24-hour line)
Fax: (303) 221-5583
AE, Califomia office (408) 263-8784 (8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Pacific
Standard Time — California only)
Fax: (408) 263-8992
AE, Japanese office 81 (03) 3222-1311
Fax: 81 (03) 3222-1315
AE, German office 49 (0711) 777-87-18
Fax: 49 (0711) 777-87-00
all others contact your local service center — see the list on
the next page
©1992, Advanced Energy Industries, Inc
All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This manual is
supplied to enable the reader to safely install, operate, and service the
equipment described herein. Making copies of any part of this manual for any
purpose other than these is a violation of U.S. copyright law.
In the interest of providing even better equipment, Advanced Energy Industries,
Inc., reserves the right to make product changes without notification or
obligation. To the best of our knowledge, the information contained in this
manual is the most accurate available as of the date on the title page.
For more information, write Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., 1600 Prospect
Parkway, Fort Collins, CO 80525.
AE Service Centers
Company Name
Vacutec AB
Sweden
Gambetti Kenologia snc
Italy
Segen Technologies, Ltd.
Israel
Zeus Co., Ltd.
Korea
Schmidt Scientific
Taiwan
Returning Units for Repair
Phone/Fax Numbers
46 (0) 40-437270
Fax: 46 (0) 40-435538
39 (02) 9055660
Fax: 39 (02) 9052778
972 (03) 9363106
Fax: 972 (03) 9362030
82 (02) 577-3181
Fax: 82 (02) 576-3199
886 (02) 5013468
Fax: 886 (02) 25029692
Before returning any product for repair and/or adjustment, call AE Customer
Service and discuss the problem with them. Be prepared to give them the serial
number of the unit and the reason for the proposed retum. This consultation
call will allow Customer Service to determine if the unit must actually be
returned for the problem to be corrected. Such technical consultation is always
available at no charge.
If you retum a unit without first getting authorization from Customer Service,
and that unit is found to be functional, you will have to pay a retest and
calibration fee, and all shipping charges.
Upgrading Units
AE will upgrade older units for a fee (a percentage of the current list price,
based on the age of the unit. Such an upgraded unit will carry a 6-month
warranty (which will be added to any time remaining on the original warranty).
SAFETY
WARNING
SAFE OPERATING PROCEDURES AND PROPER USE OF THE
EQUIPMENT ARE THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE USER OF THIS SYSTEM.
Advanced Energy Industries, Inc., provides information on its products and
associated harzards, but it assumes no responsibility for the after-sale
operation of the equipment or the safety practices of the owner or operator.
This equipment produces potentially lethal high-voltage and high-cumrent
energy. You should read this manual and understand its contents before you
attempt to hook up or operate the equipment it describes. Follow all safety
precautions. Never defeat interlocks or grounds.
A
DANGER! All personnel who work with or who are exposed to this
SHOULD KNOW...
equipment must take precautions to protect themselves against serious or
possibly fatal bodily injury.
DO NOT BE CARELESS AROUND THIS EQUIPMENT.
CONGRATULATIONS ...
On your purchase of AE's MDX magnetron drive, which is designed for
continuous hard use into a vacuum environment. Advanced circuit design and
calibrated instrumentation make these units the most accurate, most efficient,
and most versatile in the world today.
The Advanced Energy® MDX magnetron drive provides exceptional efficiency
from line to load, quick response to changes in the load, and extremely low
stored energy in the the output filter. In addition, you can regulate power,
current, or voltage.
The standard ARC-OUT™ arc-suppression circuitry provides outstanding
suppression and quenching of arcs, cutting off the energy that feeds hot spots.
Typical applications include dc sputtering with RF bias, basic magnetron
sputtering, cathodic-arc deposition (sputter etching), and dc-biased RF
sputtering.
CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION
Read This Раде! ..................................... Vii
Overview of the Manual
La 4e ee te a ae ae aa 0200 0 iX
Interpretingthe Manual .................. co... Xi
PART | GETTING TO KNOW YOUR MDX MAGNETRON DRIVE
1. WHAT IT IS
TableofContents ............. ccc. 1-3
General Description... ........... citi iii. 1-5
Typical Applications. ............. e eoeeocrcoceeccrooceoo 1-7
Specifications. ............_eoooeooccercececoccorearerero 1-13
2. HOW IT WORKS
Table of Contents ...........o_ooeeococxcocrovcoorocerecceo, 2-1
Theory of Operation. ............e_.._oeeocececoosccoocoo 2-3
Connectors.........o.ñc_eoeococececcecorocoereroracerercecos 2-7
Status Information ..........ñ.o_o.eceeococeeecxceescooorcocoo 2-11
Interfacing ..........ñ.oeñcooeevcrcecocecccoororeosocooeo 2-17
PART II OPERATING YOUR MDX MAGNETRON DRIVE
3. PREPARING FOR USE
TableofContents .............. cin... 3-3
Setting Up «oi eee eee 3-5
Making Rear Panel Connections. ........................ 3-11
First-time Operation. ........... ccna. 3-21
4. CHOOSING MODES/SETTINGS
Table of Contents ..............oeoeecexccocococorereeoo 4-1
Output Regulation ................oowe_eceecscoracoorcoo 4-3
Remote Operation .............. iii... 4-7
Contactor Hold...............eeceeecxcxocoosoreecereno 4-9
A
С
PART Ill LEARNING MORE ABOUT YOUR MAGNETRON DRIVE
5. OPERATING NOTES
Dc Bias RR a sa ee
Warranty and claims information
Index
Schematics
INTRODUCTION
READ THIS PAGE!
We know that some of you want to start the magnetron drive now and that
you don't feel you have time to read the entire manual. Below is a list of the
subsections you will need to read in order to get started. We also think that
you will find Overview of the Manual (page ix) and Interpreting the Manual
(page xi) useful. They are very short sections, and are intended to guide you
through the manual.
Overview of the Manual explains the organization of the manual, so that you
can more quickly find what you need. Interpreting the Manual explains the
type conventions (what it means when a word appears in capitalized italic
type, for instance), and what the five icons (symbols) mean.
e Physical specifications page 1-14
e Connectors page 2-7
e Setting up page 3-5
e Start-up procedures page 3-21
e Indicators page 2-13 through 2-15
e Front and rear panel controls page 2-17 and 2-18
Vii
INTRODUCTION
OVERVIEW OF THE MANUAL
The main table of contents is a general outline of major topics covered in the
manual. It contains only the main headings within each chapter so that you
can skim it and get a general idea of what is contained here, without having to
look at a lot of headings. When you tum to one of the five chapters, you will
find a detailed table of contents that lists every heading in that particular
chapter. This will help you to quickly decide which page contains the
information you are looking for. Throughout the manual, the chapter titles are
printed at the top right-hand comer of each odd-numbered page.
Part | contains two chapters: What It Is, and How It Works. What It Is gives a
general overview of the MDX magnetron drive, its various features and
configurations, and typical applications. A detailed description of the functional
specifications and a list of the physical specifications are also included.
How It Works contains a functional block diagram and important information
on connections, including listings of all input, output, and reference pins.
Status indicators are briefly discussed, and functions that are available
through the User port are described.
Part II consists of two chapters: Preparing for Use and Choosing
Modes/Settings. Preparing for Use provides information on connection and
wiring options, spacing and cooling requirements, and start-up procedures.
Choosing Modes/Settings contains information on selecting one of the three
methods of output regulation: power, current, or voltage. Accessing functions
through the analog/digital (“User”) interface is discussed. Also included is an
explanation of the contactor hold function and the impedance options.
Part lll contains two technical operating notes: one on dc bias and one on
grounding considerations.
INTRODUCTION
INTERPRETING THE MANUAL
Type Conventions
To help you quickly pick out what is being discussed, the manual presents
certain words and phrases in type that is different from the rest of the text.
Pin and line names appear in capitalized italics (LEVEL IN.A). Labels that are
on the MDX (switches, indicators, etc.) generally appear in boldface capital
letters (LEVEL). Exceptions are port names, which simply begin with a capital
letter (User port).
Functions are printed in boldface lowercase letters (contactor hold).
How to Use the Symbols
A=
Safety notes. Important notes concerning potential harm to
SHOULD KNOW...
people.
A
Warning notes. Important notes conceming possible ham to this
SHOULD KNOW...
unit or associated equipment.
Pis |
SHOULD KNOW... Operating notes. More thoughts on how to use the extended
features provided.
xi
A
С
YOU
SHOULD KNOW...
YOU
SHOULD KNOW...
Hook-up and interfacing notes. General practices
conceming input and output power connections, or used in
connecting communication and control interfaces.
Service notes. General practices to be used in
maintaining this equipment in top running condition.
Xii
PART |
GETTING TO KNOW YOUR
MDX MAGNETRON DRIVE
WHAT IT IS
CONTENTS
General Description. 0 ...0.0.000000000000000000000000008 15
Output Regulation. ............................ 1-5
Displays ..........eocoeocr0cccrcocadoceoveraoocnaa 1-5
Built-in Protection ................eeoceccecoreo. 1-5
Arc-suppression Circuitry ............ e. eee. 1-5
Typical Applications ............0080000000 00e scan nu 00 1-7
Basic Magnetron Sputtering........................ 1-7
Factory Configuration......................... 1-7
DC SputteringwithRF Bias ........................ 1-9
DC-biased RF Sputtering .......................... 1-11
SpecificationS. ...0.0.000000000000000000000000000000008 1-13
Functional Specifications. .......................... 1-13
Physical Specifications . ........................... 1-14
_. PARTI
AC
WHAT IT IS
(GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The dc magnetron drives in the MDX series prove just how convenient and
efficient advanced high-frequency switchmode power supplies are.
They...
are light and compact
are highly efficient (low heat emission)
provide excellent regulation and stability
have a highly reliable solid state design
are modular
store very little energy in the output filter
These magnetron drives exhibit superior output response time, low output
ripple voltage, and considerable space savings over lower frequency designs.
The modular design allows the supplies to be easily serviced.
Output Regulation
The MDX can be used as a power, current, or voltage source, depending on
the method of output regulation selected. The setpoint level is set with a
locking potentiometer to ensure repeatability from run to run.
Displays
Instrumentation and status readings are taken and interpreted by the internal
circuitry, then displayed on the digital front panel display and LED indicators.
Power, voltage, current, and interlock status are examples of the parameters
that are displayed.
Built-in Protection
The MDX has complete intemal protection for all overload conditions. Three
separate pins on the User port and a front-panel indicator are provided for
safety-related inputs such as vacuum, water, and auxiliary (user-specified)
interlocks.
Arc-suppression Circuitry
ARC-OUT™ provides multilevel suppression and quenching of different types
of arcs. An added advantage is that ARC-OUT reduces target burn-in time and
material loss. This feature also prevents energy from being dumped into hot
spots by sensing a drop in impedance and immediately shutting the power off.
_. PART
NE
Start-up after an arc is controlled so that the hot spots cool before power is
reapplied, thus preventing repeated arcing.
WHAT IT IS
TYPICAL APPLICATIONS
Basic Magnetron Sputtering
Four output configuration options are available for the MDX: negative output
voltage or positive output voltage, and 500 V at 1 A or 1000 V at 0.5 A.
Danger! An understanding of grounding and
the proper hookup of grounds is essential to
personnel safety and is necessary for the
proper operation of your system. In all cases
you must connect the chassis ground stud
on the rear of the MDX to earth ground with
the lowest possible impedance.
AS
SHOULD KNOW...
Factory Configuration
The MDX will be shipped with the polarity, voltage/current, and analog
reference voltage specified in the purchase order. Negative and positive
configurations are illustrated on the next page.
The output of the power supply is always referenced to the chassis. A ground
stud is provided to make a low impedance connection to the load.
AE
PART |
Insuloted
/ Feedthrough
Cothode
(Target Material)
Chamber
Zi Substrate
MEE
Anode od,
N Optional
Grounded
Substrate
m
Figure 1-1. Factory configuration (negative output).
Insuloted
/ Feedthrough
Cathode
(Target Material)
| Chamber
| / Substrate
MEET
N Optional
Grounded
| Substrote
Figure 1-2. Factory configuration (positive output).
A
SHOULD KNOW...
WHAT IT IS
DC Sputtering with RF Bias
WARNING! You must place an ac blocking
filter in series with the output of the dc
power supply if your system uses a dc
power supply in combination with an ac
power supply that has an output frequency
greater than 50 kHz.
In this application (see the illustration on the next page), proper installation of
the RF generator and tuner is critical to proper operation of the system. Proper
installation includes good, solid, RF grounding and dc installation.
An RF filter must be placed between the dc output and the chamber because
13.56 MHz is very disruptive to the typical dc magnetron power supply. There
is no need to put a filter between the RF tuner outut and the chamber because
Advanced Energy® tuners provide a dc block.
The purpose of this type of installation is to elevate the potential on the biased
substrate. With proper installation and programming, an Advanced Energy®
RFX can control the developed dc bias on the substrate (see the operating
note on dc bias, page DC-3).
This extra control parameter (RF bias) may provide higher deposition rates or
better film structure. The results will vary with each application. Biasing alters
the ion and acceleration potentials, and these altered potentials provide the
desired results.
АЕ
PART |
RF Filter
7
Insulated
Feedthrough
Вх
-
Chamber
|
T |
Tuner >
DL substrate
509 |
——l j——
Zu — J
m = Alternate
Method
Figure 1-3. Typical configuration for dc sputtering with RF bias.
1-10
WHAT IT IS
DC-biased RF Sputtering
WARNING! You must place an ac blocking
filter in series with the output of the dc
power supply if your system uses a dc
power supply in combination with an ac
power supply that has an output frequency
greater than 50 kHz.
Ai
SHOULD KNOW...
Figure 1-4 (on the next page) shows a typical RF sputtering application, where
the target shield and chamber walls are referenced to ground, but the
substrate is directly biased with a dc power supply. This could be a planar
magnetron or an “S” gun installation.
Improper grounding of the tuner, chamber, and MDX will result in radio
frequency interference (RFI), which is often evidenced in this application by
chattering valves or your computer behaving erratically.
As
DANGER! Lethal high-voltage potentials will
SHOULD KNOW...
be present if the tuner, chamber, and MDX
are not properly grounded.
Some RF sputtering applications require a length of cable between the tuner
output and the vacuum feedthrough. This type of connection should only be
used, with extreme caution, if there is no way to mount the tuner directly to the
vacuum feedthrough. The impedance transformation that takes place within
the interconnect cable can create large circulating currents on this cable. The
power dissipated is a function of I°R losses. This formula shows that any
increase in circulating current greatly increases the losses in the cable.
In light of this fact, a teflon dielectric cable should be used because teflon has
a more favorable thermal characteristic than other cable materials. The teflon
will minimize migration of the center conductor due to overheating, thus
reducing the probability of the center conductor shorting to the outer sheath.
A key consideration in any RF installation is the RF retum path. Power
supply/tuner connection: The power supply is usually connected to the
tuning network through a coaxial cable, and the braided shield on this cable
acts as an adequate RF retum for this section of the circuit. Tuner/chamber
1-11
AE
PART |
network and chamber. On all Advanced Energy® tuners, the aluminum
chassis provides the RF retum path. Ideally, this chassis should be bolted
directly onto the vacuum chamber, thus establishing good surface contact. If
this is not possible, connect the tuner and chamber with a solid copper strap.
Avoid using braid — the fine strands within the braid form a highly inductive
path and may melt from overheating. Also avoid using stainless steel hardware
— steel is a poor conductor at high frequencies because of its ferromagnetic
properties.
Brass hardware is most commonly used because brass is a good conductor
and is readily available.
Insulated
500 / Feedthrough
Tuner |Z. Torget
ср р
—
Substrate
|
Chamber
7 au Filter
y |
Figure 1-4. Typical configuration for RF sputtering with dc bias.
1-12
WHAT IT IS
SPECIFICATIONS
Functional Specifications
Control Signal
Sources
Methods of Output
Regulation
Programmable
Setpoints
Arc Suppression
Digital Meter
Ramp Switches
Fault Conditions
1-13
Output can be controlled from the front panel or the
optional analog/digital interface.
The value that remains constant when the MDX is
producing output can be power, current, or voltage.
An output level (up to the unit's maximum rated
output) can be programmed for power, current, or
voltage.
Arc conditions are quickly detected and the MDX
output is quickly modified to prevent damage to the
target and substrate.
The digital meter on the front panel display can
show information in watts, volts, or amps,
regardless of whether output is presently being
produced in power, current, or voltage regulation;
when output is initially tumed on, the digital meter
displays setpoint or program information in the
selected regulation mode.
Select a ramp time—fast ramp or some
combination of 0.1 sec., 1 sec., or 10 sec. (the
ramp times are additive)—by configuring the ramp
switches on the rear control panel.
The faults that will cause the MDX to shut off
output are interlock, input power, and
overtemperature.
PART |
Physical Specifications
Input Voltage
Input Current
Output Power
Output Voltage
Output Current
Output Ripple
Output Display
Accuracy
Methods of
Control
Output
Connector
Output Cable
Ambient
Temperature:
Operating
Storage
Transportation
1-14
90-132 VAC (50/60 Hz) or
180-265 VAC (50/60 Hz)
10 A at 90 VAC at 500 W or
5 A at 180 VAC at 500 W
Power factor = .65
0-500 W.
0-600 V or
0-1200 V
0-1 Aor
0-05 A
Switching: 2% p-p (100 kHz)
Line: 1% p-p (100/120 Hz)
Within 2% of actual output level or 0.2% of
maximum rated output level, whichever is greater.
Local or remote manual operation.
UHF style; SHV style (optional); “N” type (optional)
RG-8U coaxial cable and/or discrete cables.
Minimum 0°C, maximum 40°C (maximum value of
average over 24 hr.:35%C).
Minimum -25°C, maximum 55°C.
Minimum -25°C, maximum 55°C (for short periods
of up to 24 hr, the maximum is 70°C).
WHAT IT IS
Coolant Flow
Parameters:
Contamination
Humidity
Atmospheric
Pressure:
Operating
Storage
Transportation
Size
Weight
1-15
Cooling air should be free of corrosive vapors and
particles, conductive particles, and particles that
could become conductive after exposure to
moisture.
15-85% relative humidity; no condensation or icing.
800 mbar minimum (approx. 2000 m above sea
level).
800 mbar minimum (approx. 2000 m above sea
level).
660 mbar minimum (approx. 3265 m above sea
level).
3.5 in. (H) x 8.5 in. (W) x 16.0 in. (D)
(8.9 cm x 21.6 cm x 38.1 cm)
12.25 Ibs.
AE
PART |
HOW IT WORKS
CONTENTS
Theory of Operation ...................0..00000 000000 2-3
Connector Se ...0.000000000000000000000000000000000000 2-7
Input Power ConnectOr ......0.0.0.00000000000000000004 2-7
Output Connector ..........10200000 000 een es aa ane 2-7
Optional Analog/Digital /O Port ..................... 2-8
Pin-description Table .......................... 2-8
Status Information. ....0.0000000000000000000 0000000008 2-11
Status Signals. ............ ci iii 2-11
Indicators. .........c iii eee 2-13
Status Indicator LEDs. ......................... 2-13
LEDsonSwitches ............................ 2-14
Digital Meter LEDs . . ............ ci... 2-15
CA 0 mu c mme nca 0000 2-17
Front PanelControls. ............................. 2-17
RearPanel Controls . ............... iin... 2-18
User Port Functions
= PART |
AC
HOW IT WORKS
THEORY OF OPERATION
The MDX magnetron drive is a sophisticated dc power supply designed
exclusively for use into vacuum environments. The figure below and the
following paragraphs outline the theory of operation.
Inverter
Section
Output DC
Measurement Out
| ]
Input
Section
Output
Section
Remote
Interfaces
Housekeeping
Supply
Control
Figure 2-1. MDX 500 functional block diagram.
Input
In the input section, ac line voltage is applied through fuses to a contactor. The
contactor, when closed, delivers the line voltage to a rectifier bridge, where it is
converted to dc. The dc voltage is applied to bus capacitors through soft-start
circuitry. This bus provides dc voltage to the inverter section. The input section
also contains a control transformer, which supplies 24 V ac to the
housekeeping and inverter sections.
Housekeeping Supply
The housekeeping supply section provides +24 V dc to power the logic
circuitry and control panel.
Inverter
The inverter section converts dc to pulse-width-modulated, 50-kHz ac voltage
by altemating the current through two sets of switching transistors (see Figs.
2-2 and 2-3 on the next page).
Output
In the output section, an isolation transformer steps up the 50-kHz ac voltage
from the inverter section and sends it to a full-wave rectifier bridge. The
resulting dc then passes out through a filter network and through the output
measurement section.
АЕ
PART |
Input Inverter Output
Section Section Section
Л A A
( ЛГ a À
AC Filter
DC 25 kHz Inductor
H +
Filter DC
AC Input Capacitor Output
H —
Input Rectifier Switching Output Output Rectifier
Bridge Transistors Transformer Bridge
al JL JL J
Y У Y
Figure 2-2. Illustration of switching theory.
I ==> => 3 =-<--<-
Upper Transistor Lower Transistor
Current Flow Current Flow
Figure 2-3. Detail of Fig. 2-2, illustrating current flow through switching transistors
(dashed lines represent flow).
HOW IT WORKS
Output Measurement
The output measurement section measures current, voltage, and power.
These signals are conditioned to 0-5 V dc (or 0-10 V dc) and sent to both the
logic control and remote interfaces sections.
Control
The control section uses operator-supplied parameters and setpoints to control
the output. This section is also responsible for providing status information to
the operator through all interfaces and for controlling the input section.
Control Panel Display
The display on the control panel communicates operator-supplied inputs to the
logic control section and provides the operator with status information.
Remote Interface (optional)
The remote interface communicates operator-supplied inputs to the control
section from the User port (analog and digital) and provides the operator with
status information.
— PARTI
AC
HOW IT WORKS
CONNECTORS
Input Power Connector
The ac line input connection is provided by means of a three-prong, grounded
U.S. standard connector that is provided with the unit.
See page 3-11 for details on making this connection.
Output Connector
The cable for the output connection is not included with the MDX, but can be
purchased from AE separately.
The standard output connector is a UHF style, with an SHV style or “N” type
connector optional. See page 3-12 for details on making this connection.
о PART |
AC
Optional Analog/Digital 1/0 Port
The User interface, located on the rear panel, is a 25-pin, female, D
subminiature connector. Its associated male connector, connector shell, and
jack post screws are included in the hardware kit. The table below provides
information about each pin. See page 3-12 for details on making this
connection.
Pin 1 \
O 000000000000 O
080080000000
Pin-description Table
The User connector is primarily an “analog” interface that allows the use of a
remote controller. Note: An “.A” appended to a pin name indicates an analog
signal; a “.D" indicates a digital signal. A bar over a signal name indicates that
the signal is true when low. Also, depending on which factory configuration
was chosen, full scale is either 5 V or 10 V.
Pin No. Pin Name Description Refer to
1 | OUT.A output, 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) p. 3-13
2 P OUT.A output, 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) p. 3-13
3 VOUTA output, 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) p. 3-13
4 WATER ILK.D input, 0-15 V p. 3-13
5 VAC ILKD input, 0-15 V p. 3-13
6 MAIN INTLK.D input, 0-15 V p. 3-13
7 RMT OFF.D input, 0-15 V p. 3-13
8 RMT ON.D input, 0-15 V p. 3-13
9 GND chassis ground p. 3-13
10 REF.A 5 V reference level p. 3-13
(or 10 V reference level)
(5 mA max.)
11 unassigned
12 LEVEL OUT.A output, 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) p. 3-14
13 STPT OK.D output, 0-15 V p. 3-14
14 V AUX.A output, 15 V (100 mA max.) p. 3-14
15 unassigned
16 PREG.D input, 0-15 V p. 3-14
HOW IT WORKS
Pin No. Pin Name Description Refer to
17 IREG.D input, 0-15 V p. 3-14
18 unassigned
19 unassigned
20 GND chassis ground p. 3-14
21 GND chassis ground p. 3-14
22 OUTPUT.D output, 0-15 V p. 3-15
23 LEVEL IN.A input, 0-5 V or (0-10 V) p. 3-15
24 unassigned
25 GND chassis ground p. 3-15
AE
PART |
HOW IT WORKS
STATUS INFORMATION
Status Signals
The MDX can be extemally monitored by means of output lines on the User
port. Digital signals are 0-15 V; analog signals are 0-5 V (or 0-10 V).
Pin Name Functional Status
1 | OUT. A Varying 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) signal
representing output current.
2 P OUT.A Varying 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) signal
representing output power.
3 V OUT.A Varying 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) signal
representing output voltage.
12 LEVEL OUT.A Varying 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) signal
representing the programmed setpoint.
13 STPT OK.D Indicates that the output is equal to the
requested setpoint when the signal goes
low.
22 OUTPUT.D Indicates that the output has been tumed
on when the signal goes low.
AE
PART |
- 12
Indicators
HOW IT WORKS
MDX functions can be monitored by checking 1) the six status indicator LEDs
that appear below the digital meter, 2) the LEDs on the switches, and 3) the
LEDs that appear to the right of the digital meter.
Status Indicator LEDs
Six status indicator LEDs that convey information about the status of the MDX
appear below the digital meter. The table below details their exact meanings.
Status Indicator LEDs
ARC
SETPOINT
OUTPUT
INTERLOCK
PLASMA
REMOTE
Functional Status
Lights to indicate that the impedance of the
chamber dropped enough to cause the amount of
current produced by the MDX to reach the built-in
overcurrent trip point.
Lights when output is equal to the programmed
setpoint; goes out when output is tumed off.
Lights to indicate that output has been turned on.
Lights when all interlock conditions have been
satisfied; flashes if the interlock string is broken
(see User pins 4, 5, and 6 (WATER ILK.D,
VAC ILK.D, MAIN INTLK.D). When an interlock
fails, the output is tumed off and cannot be tumed
back on until the interlock condition is satisfied.
Lights to indicate that output is on and output
current is greater than 10 mA.
Lights to indicate that the remote interface has
been given either on/off control or setpoint control
or both.
— PARTI
AC
LEDs on Switches
LEDs on the front panel switches light and flash to convey a variety of
information.
Switch LEDs Functional Status
OUTPUT POWER, STOP Lights when the MDX is not producing output.
OUTPUT POWER, START Lights when output is tumed on.
REGULATION, POWER The POWER LED lights when power
and CURRENT regulation has been selected; the CURRENT
LED lights when current regulation has been
selected; both the POWER and CURRENT
LEDs light when voltage regulation has been
selected. Both the POWER and CURRENT
LEDs flash if no mode of regulation has
been selected.
a Note that the POWER and CURRENT switches latch
YOU > when pressed; each switch must be deselected by
SHOULD KNOW... pressing it again if you want to specify another mode of
regulation.
Digital Meter LEDs
HOW IT WORKS
Four LEDs are located to the right of the digital meter. These LEDs indicate
what parameter is being displayed on the digital meter. To toggle among the
parameters, press the DISPLAY switch until the appropriate LED lights. (See
the front panel foldout at the end of this chapter.)
Digital Meter LED
WATTS
VOLTS
AMPS
SETPOINT
Functional Status
Lights when selected with the DISPLAY
switch while the output is on; the actual
output power will be displayed on the digital
meter.
Lights when selected with the DISPLAY
switch while the output is on; the actual
output voltage will be displayed on the digital
meter.
Lights when selected with the DISPLAY
switch while the output is on; the actual
output current will be displayed on the digital
meter.
Lights when selected with the DISPLAY
switch or when the unit is in STOP mode.
When the SETPOINT LED lights, the digital
meter is monitoring the setpoint level in the
selected mode of regulation. The LEVEL
knob may then be used to adjust the setpoint.
AE
PART |
- 16
INTERFACING
HOW IT WORKS
Front Panel Controls
OUTPUT POWER, STOP
OUTPUT POWER, START
REGULATION, POWER
and CURRENT
LEVEL knob
DISPLAY
Tums off output.
Turns on output if the front panel has control
of the on/off function, all interlock conditions
are satisfied, and a regulation mode has
been selected. If a setpoint value has been
specified, the MDX will go to that level.
Selects what method of output regulation the
MDX will use (if the control panel has control
of the LEVEL function). Pressing the
POWER switch chooses the power method,
pressing the CURRENT switch chooses the
current method, and pressing both POWER
and CURRENT together chooses the voltage
method. See Output Regulation, page , for
a detailed discussion.
Is used to set or adjust the output setpoint.
The LEVEL knob can be used whether the
output is tumed on or off. The DISPLAY
switch must be pressed until the SETPOINT
LED to the right of the digital meter lights to
view the setpoint. The setpoint is displayed
on the digital meter in the selected mode of
output regulation.
Is used to select the parameter to be
displayed on the digital meter.
AE
PART |
Rear Panel Controls
ON/OFF
RAMP, 0.1 SEC
RAMP, 1.0 SEC
RAMP, 10 SEC
LOCAL, ON
LOCAL, SETPT
C HOLD
Turns the input power on and off.
When down, this switch sets the ramp time
to 0.1 sec.
When down, this switch sets the ramp time
to 1 sec.
When down, this switch sets the ramp time
to 10 sec.
This switch selects between the front panel
and the User port for on control. When up,
this switch gives control to the User port;
when down, it gives control to the front
panel. (Note: The off signal may be received
from both the front panel and the User port.)
This switch selects between the front panel
and the User port for control of regulation
method and setpoint level. When up, this
switch gives control to the User port; when
down, it gives control the front panel.
When down, this switch enables the
contactor hold function, which causes the
contactor to remain closed after the first
ramp start. Contactor hold shortens the
time needed for the output to reach setpoint
on subsequent runs.
HOW IT WORKS
User Port Functions
Many of the functions that are available from the control panel are also
available through the user interface.
The available functions include:
e tuming output on and off
specifying method of output regulation
completing the system interlock string
specifying output setpoint
monitoring output parameters and status
The parameters that can be monitored through the User port are:
Parameter Associated pins
is output enabled pin 22
has setpoint level been reached pin 13
what is output voltage pin 3
what is output power pin 2
what is output current pin 1
what is the setpoint level pin 12
AE
PART |
- 20
Stop @ Start D
o о
Output Power
LE
Regulation
Power Current
O
Y HL
O
L Voitage al
Acsas MDX 500
O Watts
O Amps
O Volts
O Setpoint
Status
O Arc O Remote O Plasma
O Setpoint O Output QO Interlock
Level
Display
MDX 500 Front View
MDX 500 Rear View
PART II
OPERATING YOUR MDX
MAGNETRON DRIVE
PREPARING FOR USE
CONTENTS
Setting ÜP.....0000000000000000000000000000000000008 3-5
Unpacking............oeeecocoocecocdccoooooacea 3-5
Spacing Requirements ..............r_e_eweeooocecoo 3-7
Cooling Requirements. ...............eexceesconoo 3-9
Making Rear Panel Connections ...................... 3-11
Grounding .........._c_eeeeeeercooceoreoreoroooo. 3-11
Connecting Input Power ...............eooeorceceeeeoo. 3-11
Connecting the Output ............._——__eorrerccco. 3-12
Connecting for User-remote Control. ................. 3-12
Signal Descriptions: User 1/O Pins................ 3-13
Wiring Options ..........._eoéeweeocxceocreecoccceoo 3-16
Three-wire Control .......................... 3-16
Two-wire Control...............0000000000000 3-16
External Monitoring of Output. ................. 3-17
External Programming of Setpoint.............. 3-17
Digital Output Signals................ eee. 3-18
Normal Interlock Connection .................. 3-18
CheaterPlug............. cia... 3-19
Disconnecting ............ew_eeeecxeoroooocoaoronooo 3-20
First-time Operation ....0..000000000000000000000000 000 3-21
Start-up Procedure .............. ci. 3-21
_. PART II
AC
PREPARING FOR USE
SETTING UP
Unpacking
Unpack and inspect your MDX magnetron drive power supply carefully. Check
for obvious physical damage. If no damage is apparent, proceed to make the
connections. If you do see signs of shipping damage, contact Advanced
Energy Industries, Inc., and the carrier immediately. Save the shipping
container for submitting necessary claims to the carrier.
—. PARTI
AC
PREPARING FOR USE
Spacing Requirements
e The clearance between either side of the MDX and the enclosure
must be 1 inch (25 mm).
e No clearance is required between the top of the MDX and the top
of the enclosure.
No clearance is required between the units.
The clearance between the rear of the MDX and the enclosure
must be 3 inches (76 mm), with adequate ventilation (see
page 3-8).
No clearance required
between enclosure and units
No clearance required
between units
Output
| © ее:
— = [== 1" (25 mm)
minimum cleorance from
enclosure to units, each side
Figure 3-1. Illustration of top, side, and interunit clearance requirements for MDX units
stacked in an enclosure.
= PART II
NE
3° (76 mm) minimum clearance —=
from rear of enclosure to rear of rack
Figure 3-2. lllustration of rear clearance requirements for MDX units stacked in an
enclosure.
PREPARING FOR USE
Cooling Requirements
For the MDX to be sufficiently cooled, the enclosure must be configured to:
bring in ambient-temperature air (45°C maximum)
distribute input air to the power supplies
prevent exhaust air from circulating back and becoming input air
exhaust the hot air from the rack with minimal airflow restriction
You may need to add air baffles to the rack to prevent exhaust air from
recirculating.
Le.
> <
|” + a
Figure 3-3. Graphic representation of the view looking down on the top of an MDX in an
enclosure. The arrows show the direction of air flow.
AE
PART |
PREPARING FOR USE
MAKING REAR PANEL CONNECTIONS
Grounding
A protective earth terminal stud is located on the rear panel (see the foldout of
the rear panel at the end of Chapter 2).
DANGER! Connect the protective earth
terminal on the MDX rear panel to protective
earth/ground before making any other
connection.
a YOU For optimum performance, ground the chassis stud to
SHOULD KNOW... the chamber ground.
Connecting Input Power
A
SHOULD KNOW...
The standard line voltage is 90-132 VAC, 50/60 Hz. All power supplies leave
the factory with their input and output voltages identified on an enclosed test
checklist. The line input connection is provided by means of a three-prong,
grounded, U.S. standard conector.
A
SHOULD KNOW... WARNING! Do not plug into an ungrounded
outlet. Do not cut off the ground tab.
AE
PART II
Connecting the Output
A mating UHF (SHV or “N” type optional) connector should be used to
connect the power supply output to the load. If a coaxial cable is used, the
shield can be the retum. However, a separate ground braid should always be
used between the system ground and the power supply stud for safety
purposes.
The shield is connected to the chassis ground. It will be positive or negative
referenced to the center connector, depending on what was specified when
the unit was ordered.
Connecting for User-remote Control
Control is given to the User port if one or both of the two LOCAL switches on
the rear panel are closed. A detailed description of each signal begins on the
next page. Following that are several wiring diagrams that illustrate three- and
two-wire control, external output monitoring, extemal setpoint programming,
the normal interlock connection, and the “cheater” plug.
В YOU > A quick-reference pin-description table for this port is
SHOULD KNOW... on pages 2-8 and 2-9.
PREPARING FOR USE
Signal Descriptions: User I/O Pins
pin 1. | OUT.A. This output provides a fully buffered 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) signal
representing output current. The supply can produce 5V=1Aor10V=1A
(referenced to ground), depending on the factory configuration. Accuracy is
within 2% of the actual output level or 0.2% of the maximum rated output level,
whichever is greater. Its impedance is 100 , and current should be limited to
2 mA.
pin 2. P OUT.A. This output provides a fully buffered 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) signal
representing output power. The supply can produce 5 V = 500 W or
10 V = 500 W (referenced to ground), depending on the factory configuration.
Accuracy is within 2% of the actual output level or 0.2% of the maximum rated
output level, whichever is greater. Its impedance is 100 2, and current should
be limited to 2 mA.
pin 3. V OUT.A. This output provides a fully buffered 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) signal
representing output voltage. The supply can produce 5 V = 1200 V dc or
10 V = 1200 V dc (referenced to ground), depending on the factory
configuration. Accuracy is within 2% of the actual output level or 0.2% of the
maximum rated output level, whichever is greater. Its impedance is 100 ©, and
current should be limited to 2 mA.
pin 4. WATER ILK.D. This input signal, in conjunction with VAC ILK.D (pin 5)
and MAIN INTLK.D (pin 6), monitors the system interlock string. If the interlock
conditions are not all satisfied (water, vacuum, and auxiliary), the output
cannot be turned on. If any of the interlocks are broken while the output is
running, the output will tum off and the INTERLOCK status LED will flash. This
pin should be referenced to ground.
pin 5. VAC ILK.D. See discussion of pin 4 (WATER ILK.D).
pin 6. MAIN INTLK.D. This input signal is a general purpose current loop that
allows the main contactor to close. If the main interlock is not satisfied, the
circuit will not be completed to ground. This will prevent the main dc bus from
becoming energized but will allow the logic circuits to function (the front panel
indicators will still work).
pin 7. RMT OFF.D. This input signal is used to turn off output from the User
port. An open circuit between RMT OFF.D and ground will tum off output
power. It should be referenced to ground.
pin 8. RMT ON.D. This input signal is used to turn on output from the User
port. Closure between RMT ON.D and ground will tum on output power when
enabled through the LOCAL ON switch. It should be referenced to ground.
AE
PART ll
pin 9. GND.
pin 10. REF.A. This output signal provides an accurate 5 V reference (5 V +
10 mV) or a 10 V reference (10 V + 20 mV), depending on the factory
configuration. This pin should be referenced to ground. Its impedance is
100 ©, and current should be limited to 2 mA.
pin 11. unassigned.
pin 12. LEVEL OUT.A. This output provides a fully buffered 0-5 V (or 0-10 V)
signal representing the MDX's programmed setpoint level: 5 V = maximum
setpoint or 10 V = maximum setpoint (referenced to ground), depending on the
factory configuration. Its impedance is 100 Q, and the current should be limited
to 2 mA.
pin 13. STPT OK.D. This 0-15 V output signal indicates that the output is
equal to the requested setpoint by going low (the SETPOINT status LED on
the front panel will also light). It will sink 35 mA, and should be referenced to
ground. It is internally pulled up to 15 V through a 10-kQ2 resistor, and its
impedance is 100 Q.
pin 14. V AUX A. This connection is a user-available 15 V power source
referenced to ground. The user can draw as much as 100 mA from this
source. Source impedance is less than .1 Q and is fuse protected.
pin 15. unassigned.
pin 16. P REG.D. This 0-15 V input signal, in conjunction with pin 17
(| REG.D), indicates the method of output regulation. When P REG.D is low
and / REG.D is high, the power method is selected. When both signals are
low, the voltage method is selected. This pin should be referenced to ground.
pin 17. | REG.D. This 0-15 V input signal, in conjunction with pin 16
(P REG.D), indicates the method of output regulation. When | REG.D is low
and P REG.D is high, the current method is selected. When both signals are
low, the voltage method is selected. This pin should be referenced to ground.
pin 18. unassigned.
pin 19. unassigned.
pin 20. GND.
pin 21. GND.
PREPARING FOR USE
pin 22. OUTPUT.D. When high, this 0-15 V output signal indicates that the
output is off. When low, it indicates that output is on and will ramp up to
whatever setpoint has been specified (the OUTPUT POWER, START LED on
the front panel will also light). It will sink 35 mA, and should be referenced to
ground. It is internally pulled up to 15 V through a 10-kQ2 resistor, and its
impedance is 100 Q.
pin 23. LEVEL IN.A. This 0-5 V (or 0-10 V) input signal is used to remotely
program the output level (see Fig. 3-7, page 3-17): § V = maximum output
level or 10 V = maximum output level, depending on the factory configuration.
This signal should be referenced to ground.
pin 24. unassigned.
pin 25. GND.
AE
PART II
Wiring Options
Three-wire Control
If you want to use both an on switch and an off switch, select this wiring option
(see Fig. 3-4). Contact of RMT ON.D (pin 8) with GND (pin 9) will cause output
to turn on. However, RMT OFF.D (pin 7) must be pulled low before output can
be tumed on. You can prevent output from coming on by letting RMT OFF.D
(pin 7) float high.
RMT ON.D 8 ©- 1
FH
GND 9 © |
ob
RMT OFF.D 7 O-
Figure 3-4. Wring diagram for three-wire control.
Two-wire Control
You might want to connect pins 7 and 8 (RMT OFF.D and RMT ON.D) and
control them as one input (see Fig. 3-5). Two-wire control is useful if your
system's on/off requirements are simple. That is, if you want to use one device
(such as a relay) to control the MDX rather than using one device to control
the on function and one device to control the off function, this method may be
more convenient for you. When pins 7 and 8 are connected to User pin 9
(GND), the output will tum on immediately. If you let User pins 7 and 8 float
high while output is being produced, output will be tumed off.
RMT ON.D В © |
o
RMT OFF.D 70 or
GND 9 o
Figure 3-5. Wining diagram for two-wire control.
PREPARING FOR USE
External Monitoring of Output
In cases where there is no control panel, an external device can be hooked up
to display what voltage, power, or current level the MDX is producing. For
each of the outputs, either 5 V or 10 V represents full scale, depending on the
factory option selected.
(NN
V OUT.A 30 M
\_/
4
P OUT.A 2 o— M
\
| OUT.A 10 (+) —1
GND 20 ©
Figure 3-6. Wiring diagram for externally monitoring the output.
External Programming of Setpoint
The next figure shows how to wire the input lines so that you can specify
output setpoint level from an extemal source. You will also need to specify
method of output regulation—see page 4-3.
Level
REF.A 10 ©
10 kQ2
1/4 W
GND 21 ©
LEVEL INA 23 ©
Figure 3-7. Wiring diagram for externally programming the output setpoint.
AE
PART II
Digital Output Signals
The following figure shows the wiring configuration for the digital output signals.
+15 V
10 kQ
Signal
Figure 3-8. Wiring diagram for the digital output signals.
Normal Interlock Connection
The following figures show how to wire if you want to take advantage of the
interlock lines by connecting them to sensors. For example, MAIN INTLK.D
can be used to wam if a door is open, VAC ILK.D to indicate if the chamber
contains a vacuum, and WATER ILK.D to warn of problems with the cooling
system for the magnetron. If any connection is open, the interlock string is
broken and output will not come on. Similarly, if any connection opens during
operation, the output will be tumed off and the INTERLOCK LED will flash.
+15 V +15 V
10 kQ
10 ко
Signal O- + VV— —e
10 À 4.7 4 T uF
Figure 3-9. Wiring diagram for a normal water/Avacuum interlock setup.
74HC
PREPARING FOR USE
+15 V
82 9
+24 V
Signal
Contactor
Control
Main
Contoctor
Figure 3-10. Wiring diagram for a normal main interlock setup.
Cheater Plug
The “cheater plug” (see Fig. 3-11) that came attached to the User connector
makes it possible for you to run the MDX essentially right out of the box,
without making any wiring adjustments. You can continue to use the cheater
plug if you want to ignore (“cheat”) the interlock lines.
HE ou N If the User port won't be used, you must leave the
ОМ... cheater plug attached to the MDX.
Ai
WARNING! You are defeating the interlocks
SHOULD KNOW...
if you use the cheater plug.
MAIN INTLK.D 6 o—
VAC ILK.D 5 0 }
WATER ILK.D 4 o
RMT OFF.D 7 0
GND 9 ©
Figure 3-11. Wining diagram for the “cheater” plug.
АЕ
PART II
Disconnecting
Disconnect the MDX from all voltage sources before opening it for any
adjustment, replacement, maintenance, or repair.
A
SHOULD KNOW...
DANGERI Internal components may remain
live for 1 min. after the MDX has been
disconnected.
Bde
SHOULD KNOW... Make sure replacement fuses are of the same rating
and specific type as those being replaced.
PREPARING FOR USE
FIRST-TIME OPERATION
Start-up Procedure
1. Make sure that the necessary external inputs are supplied (refer to signal
descriptions on pages 3-13 through 3-15) or that the “cheater plug” is installed
on the User connector on the rear of the MDX (see page 3-19).
2. Connect the output connector.
3. Tum on the switch that is on the rear panel of the MDX.
4. The digital meter will display the current setpoint and the OUTPUT POWER,
STOP LED will be lit. The INTERLOCK LED will also be lit.
5. Select the regulation mode that you want by pressing the appropriate
switch(es). The appropriate switch LED(s) will light. See page 4-3 for more
information on output regulation.
6. Set the ramp rate by setting the rear panel RAMP switches (any
combination of 0.1, 1.0, and 10) for the desired ramp time. See pages 2-18
and 4-6 for more information on ramp switches.
7. To preset the output level (in local mode), adjust the LEVEL knob while you
watch the digital meter.
Ar
DANGER! The next step will result in high
SHOULD KNOW...
voltage levels at the output connector. Take
appropriate steps to prevent electrical shock.
8. Press OUTPUT POWER, START. The main contactor will close, and the
OUTPUT POWER, START LED will light. The SETPOINT, OUTPUT, and
PLASMA status LEDs will also light.
9. Press the DISPLAY switch to cycle through each of the parameters
available for display to verify system operation.
_. PART II
AC
10. Tum the LEVEL knob to vary the output (in local mode) while you watch
the digital meter.
11. Press the OUTPUT POWER, STOP switch any time to tum off output.
CHOOSING MODES/SETTINGS
CONTENTS
Output Regulation .......0000000000000000000000000008 4-3
0 5..5... 5.555 вкевеовввн.. 4-3
Current .......22000 022 eee a eee a a ee a a ee aa 00 0 4-3
Voltage ............._e_eoeoeececssccooorecocerco 4-3
Setpoints and Ramp Switches..........ewcwomresccccoo 4-5
Setpoint level ................_oeeeeooccrcoocceo 4-5
Rampswitches................ cc. iin... 4-6
Remote Operation .......ó_..e.wwceoreececceresroocooooo 4-7
Setpoint level ............e_—..._c_eoceecoeccrceoo 4-7
U a a a a a a ee eee ee 4-7
Contactor Hold. ......0.0.000000000000000000000000000050 4-9
Impedance Options .................000000 case 000000 4-11
о PART |
AC
CHOOSING MODES/SETTINGS
OUTPUT REGULATION
The product of the MDX magnetron drive is referred to generically as “output”
throughout this manual because it is possible to regulate power, current, or
voltage. You can choose one of these three methods of output regulation.
Power
Power regulation is selected from the front panel by pressing the POWER
switch under the REGULATION label (the LED on the switch will light).
From the User port, pin 16 (P REG.D) must be low and pin 17 (I REG.D) must
be high.
Current
Current regulation is selected from the front panel by pressing the CURRENT
switch under the REGULATION label (the LED on the switch will light).
From the User port, pin 16 (P REG.D) must be high and pin 17 (1 REG.D)
must be low.
Voltage
Voltage regulation is selected from the front panel by pressing both the
POWER and CURRENT switches under the REGULATION label (both LEDs
on the switches will light).
From the User port, both pin 16 (P REG.D) and pin 17 (1 REG.D) must be low.
_. PARTI
AC
CHOOSING MODES/SETTINGS
Setpoints and Ramp Switches
Setpoint Level
You can program an output setpoint level whether or not output is being
produced.
Front Panel:
1. Press the DISPLAY switch until the SETPOINT LED to the right of the
digital meter lights.
2. Use the LEVEL knob to specify the desired setpoint level (displayed on
the digital meter).
The SETPOINT status indicator LED (see page 2-13) lights when output is
equal to the preselected setpoint; it goes out when the output has been turned
off.
User Interface.
Pin 23 (LEVEL IN.A) is used to program output setpoint level (see detailed
signal description on page 3-15).
Parameters that can be monitored from the User port are:
Parameter User pins
Setpoint level pin 23
Whether programmed output setpoint pin 13
level has been attained
AE
PART |
Ramp Switches
There are three RAMP switches located on the rear panel.
RAMP 0.1 sets the ramp time to setpoint to 0.1 sec.
RAMP 1.0 sets the ramp time to setpoint to 1.0 sec.
RAMP 10 sets the ramp time to setpoint to 10.0 sec.
These switches can be used individually or in combination to specify the
amount of time (0.1-11.1 sec.) the MDX will take to reach the specified output
setpoint. If none of the switches are tumed on, fast ramp occurs. The time of
the fast ramp will depend on whether contactor hold is enabled and whether
this is the first time output has been tumed on.
CHOOSING MODES/SETTINGS
REMOTE OPERATION
With a control/display panel, on control is given to the User port when the
LOCAL, ON switch on the rear panel is closed (in the up position). Off control
is always available from both the front panel and the User port. Setpoint
control is given to the User port when the LOCAL, SETPT switch on the rear
panel is closed (in the up position).
Setpoint Level
e To select voltage regulation, both pin 17 (I REG.D) and pin 16
(P REG.D) must be low.
e To select power regulation, pin 17 (I REG.D) must be high and
pin 16 (P REG.D) must be low.
e To select current regulation, pin 17 (I REG.D) must be low and
pin 16 (P REG.D) must be high.
Method of Condition of Signal
Output Regulation pin17 pin 16
voltage low low
power high low
current low high
e Use pin 23 (LEVEL IN.A) to set the desired output level.
e Use pin 12 (LEVEL OUT.A) to monitor the output level.
On/Off
From the rear panel, place the LOCAL, ON switch in the up position to
transfer control of output on (pin 8) to the User port. Output off is always
available from both the front panel and the User port. (See detailed description
of User pins beginning on page 3-18.)
e Use pin 8 (RMT ON.D) to tum output on.
e Use pin 7 (RMT OFF.D) to turn output off (see discussion of
two-wire and three-wire control on page 3-23).
o OW RMT OFF.D will override all commands and force the
— MDX to shut off output power.
—. PARTI
AC
CHOOSING MODES/SETTINGS
CONTACTOR HOLD
To help prolong the life of the main and soft-start contactors, the MDX is
equipped with a contactor hold feature. If your process run times are short,
you may want to specify that the contactors stay energized after the first start
cycle. With this feature, when the C HOLD switch on the rear panel is set to
the down position, the contactors will remain closed after the first time the dc
bus is energized, regardless of whether output is being produced or not. If the
switch is set to the up position, the contactors will close and open as output is
tumed on and off. Interlock faults and bus voltage faults will open the
contactors whether or not C HOLD is enabled.
AE
PART |
CHOOSING MODES/SETTINGS
IMPEDANCE OPTIONS
Each MDX is equipped with a built-in impedance-matching transformer. See
the figures on the following pages for voltage/current and impedance options.
о PART II
AC
700
„— 500 Watts
600 ZA
a
500 —p == us us» ue us us un os on aj qe US ES dj: ES US UD UN UN
400
VOLTS
300
200
100
О0 ex ems as ajs az az de es as
83 9 1.0 1.1
700
600
500 T -— => wm
400
>
POWER
300
200 /
100
О 5
— ma,
' ~
0 722 1000 1500 2000 2500
OHMS
O em aus as as as on (a dm dp jas aus ow |e eme
a
Pd
Figure 4-1. Voltage/current and low impedance options.
VOLTS
POWER
CHOOSING MODES/SETTINGS
1400
и 500 Wotts
1200
N
\
\
1000 —
Teee т = <
—
U
l
800
600
400
200
.
<. «= Un ES GS as an de an an
©
-—
N
Gi
>
N
с
AMPS
700
600
500 ———
400
300 /
200
olf
О 1000 2000 2878 4000 5000 6000
OHMS
\
N
DS
SN
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Figure 4-2. Voltage/current and high impedance options.
AE
PART II
PART IH
LEARNING MORE ABOUT
YOUR MAGNETRON DRIVE
AS
SHOULD KNOW...
E OPERATING NOTES
Dc BIAS
“Dc bias” refers to the dc component of the RF power that is developed
between the cathode and the anode of a typical RF plasma vacuum system.
This dc component is blocked from the RF generator by the capacitors that
are used in the impedance-matching networks.
The dc potential is a controllable parameter. It is also a valuable indicator
that itself changes in response to changes in other process parameters.
Some of the parameters that affect dc bias are molecular densities and ratios
of process gases, cathode/anode surface area ratios, pressure regimes and
stability, and RF power densities. While some of these parameters are
controllable, others are fixed and so must be worked around.
The amount of dc bias that is developed within a process system depends
upon the system design or the process being run. Although a systems
manufacturer can use modeling or empirical data to predict the dc bias that
should be expected with a specific system or process, a power supply
manufacturer cannot.
In any case, you can determine dc bias by measuring it yourself with a
high-voltage probe.
DANGER! Lethal high-voltage and
high-current potentials are present during
the measurement of dc bias. Extreme
caution is required to ensure the safety of
yourself and of those working with you.
Carelessness can cause severe burns,
paralysis, or instant death.
Measure dc bias at the RF feedthrough. The farther the probe is from the
feedthrough, the less accurate the measurement. This is because dc bias
decreases with distance from the feedthrough due to electrical loss. A
convenient point for taking this measurement, if you are using an Advanced
Energy® impedance-matching network, is inside the impedance-matching
network itself, at the output of the series capacitor.
Dc bias can be regulated in two ways, the choice of which depends upon
the process or application. The mutually exclusive choices result in either
maximum range or maximum resolution.
DC - 1
If you choose maximum range, run the RF generator at maximum power
when you measure dc bias. In the more advanced, microprocessor-
controlled RF generators, a normalization (calibration) function makes it
possible to tailor the process to the dc bias regulation. With one of these
generators, maximum power will also equate with maximum dc bias. By
normalizing for the maximum dc bias, the process will have the widest range
of available dc biases.
If resolution of the dc bias control is more important, set your system up for
a “typical” process before you measure dc bias. The new microprocessor-
controlled generators will calibrate the dc bias over a smaller power cross
section, thus providing a higher resolution over a smaller area of operation.
Since what is best for one application will not necessarily be best for another
application, you may calibrate for either resolution or range, and then later
repeat the process for the other possibility.
DC - 2
Hl Hook-up NOTES
(GROUNDING
Current seeks the path of lowest resistance. If several paths are characterized
by similar impedances, the current flow may randomly switch paths. This
switching may appear as oscillations and cause interference (“noise”) with
electronic equipment. The goal in any system design is to provide a known,
fixed, lowest impedance path. The way to do this is to provide good grounding.
Grounding is important for a variety of reasons:
e it ensures safety of personnel
e it protects equipment
e itis necessary for agency approvals
e it prevents electromagnetic radiation
e it prevents electromagnetic interference
e jt provides a known reference for control signals
Grounding requirements and standards are set and promulgated by various
commercial and govemmental agencies. Information is available from UL,
CSA, VDE, FCC, IEEE, SAE, CISPR, and many local government agencies.
Always check whatever documents are mandated by your local authorities.
This note is intended to provide a broad overview of grounding issues and
considerations.
AC and DC Grounding
In the real world there is a significant difference between the techniques used
to provide a good dc ground and those used to provide a good ac ground. Just
because a system has a very low dc resistance to earth-ground does not at all
imply that it has a good ac earth-ground, or vice versa. A dc ground
connection requires conductors and connectors with adequate cross-sectional
area for the current to be carried; these conductors and connectors must also
be made of material with very little resistance.
An ac ground requires conductors and connectors with adequate surface area
for the current to be carried; however, the conductors and connectors must
also have very little inductive reactance or capacitive reactance to ensure the
lowest possible impedance. This becomes more critical as the frequency
increases into the RF range.
Ста - 1
NE
PART Ill
AS
SHOULD KNOW...
The major safety issue conceming improperly grounded equipment is that
people can come in contact with dangerous voltages. Although this danger is
usually viewed as being caused by dc or 50/60 Hz ac voltages, this is not
necessarily the case. The multimeter is a typical measuring instrument used to
determine whether or not a system or component is grounded. A multimeter is
designed to measure dc voltage and current, ac voltage and current, and
resistance. However, it is not sensitive to high-frequency energy and often will
not even detect the presence of RF energy, much less give accurate readings.
Since RF can be present without being detected by common means,
there is a significant potential for harm to personnel from RF surface
bums, arcs that penetrate the skin, and other such injuries.
Equipment designed to measure RF energy is expensive and bulky, and must
be calibrated over narrow frequency ranges. Most facilities do not have this
kind of equipment on hand. It is therefore very important that all appropriate
personnel (those involved in design, installation, maintenance, and operations)
are knowledgeable about all aspects of grounding for electrical energies, from
dc through RF.
DANGER! Operating and maintenance
personnel must have the correct training
before setting up and maintaining
high-energy electrical equipment.
While significant numbers of RF problems are caused by improper grounding
of RF power supplies used in a process, all plasma systems produce some RF
energy that must be taken into acount when the system is designed. As
examples: Plasma arcs are like small lightening bolts that cause broad-band
RF interference; a plasma chamber is a type of oscillator and radiates RF
energy if not shielded; electric motors/relays/solenoids can produce RF energy
when they are actuated; even microcomputers used in instruments and
controllers can produce RF energy that can cause problems with other circuits.
Each one of these sources may interfere with the proper operation of
electronic instruments and controls within the system. In the worst cases, this
energy can cause noise in equipment at some distance from the source, often
hundreds of feet or more away.
Symptoms of Noise Problems
Some grounding problems are inevitable in complex and high-power systems.
A good system developer understands grounding problems and, therefore, has
a development lab with good earth grounds. This ensures that the new system
works well during construction and testing. However, a common occurence is
that when it is installed at a customer's site, nothing works. This is typically
due to poor earth-grounding techniques.
Gmd - 2
HOOK-UP NOTES
Similarly, noise problems will not always surface during the development
phase of the components that will be used in the system. This is because a
manufacturer cannot simulate the exact environment in which the components
(power supplies, for instance) will be used. Noise problems tend not to show
up until the component is installed and operating in its intended environment.
Then, after a few minutes or hours of normal operation, the system finds itself
someplace out in left field. Inputs are ignored and outputs are gibberish. The
system may respond to a reset, or it may have to be tumed off and then back
on again, at which point it commences operating as though nothing had
happened. There may be an obvious cause, such as an electrostatic
discharge from somebody's finger to a keyboard, or the upset occurs every
time another machine is tumed on or off. Or there may be no obvious cause,
and nothing the operator can do will make the upset repeat itself. But a few
minutes, or a few hours, or a few days later it happens again.
One symptom of electrical noise problems is randomness, both in the
occurrence of the problem and in what the system does in its failure. All
operational upsets that occur at seemingly random intervals are not
necessarily caused by noise in the system. Marginal bus voltages, inadequate
decoupling, rarely encountered software conditions, or timing coincidences can
produce upsets that seem to occur randomly. On the other hand, some noise
sources can produce upsets downright periodically. Nevertheless, the more
difficult it is to characterize an upset as to cause and effect, the more likely it is
to be a noise problem.
Types and Sources of Electrical Noise
The name given to electrical noises other than those that are inherent in the
circuit components (such as thermal noise) is EMI: electromagnetic
interference. Motors, power switches, fluorescent lights, electrostatic
discharges, etc., are sources of EMI. There is a veritable alphabet soup of EMI
types, and these are briefly described below.
Supply Line Transients
Anything that switches heavy current loads on to or off of ac or dc power lines
will cause large transients in these power lines. Switching a vacuum pump on
or off, for example, can put a large voltage spike onto the ac power lines.
The basic mechanism behind supply line transients is shown in Fig. 1. The
battery represents any power source, ac or dc. The coils represent the line
inductance between the power source and the switchable loads R1 and R2. If
both loads are drawing current, the line current flowing through the line
inductance establishes a magnetic field of some value. Then, when one of the
loads is switched off, the field due to that component of the line current
Gmd - 3
AE
PART Ill
collapses, generating transient voltages, v=L(di/dt), which try to maintain the
current at its original level. That's called an “inductive kick.” Because of
contact bounce, transients are generated whether the switch is being opened
or closed, but they're worse when the switch is being opened.
L
Figure 1. Supply line transients.
An inductive kick of one type or another is involved in most line transients.
Other mechanisms for line transients exist, involving noise pickup on the lines.
The noise voltages are then conducted to a susceptible circuit right along with
the power.
EMP and RFI
Anything that produces arcs or sparks will radiate electromagnetic pulses
(EMP) or radio-frequency interference (RFI). Spark discharges have probably
caused more software upsets in digital equipment than any other single noise
source. The upsetting mechanism is the EMP produced by the spark. The
EMP induces transients in the circuit, which are what actually cause the upset.
Arcs and sparks occur in plasma chambers, electron-beam systems, and
magnetron sputtering systems; in associated equipment such as electric
motors and switches; and in static discharges. Electric motors that have
commutator bars produce an arc as the brushes pass from one bar to the
next. Dc motors and the “universal” (ac/dc) motors that are used to power
hand tools are the kinds that have commutator bars. In switches, the same
inductive kick that puts transients on the supply lines will cause an opening or
closing switch to throw a spark. Vacuum systems contain vacuum pumps,
solenoid valves, motors, power supplies, and many other noise producers.
ESD
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the spark that occurs when a person picks up
a static charge from walking across a carpet, and then discharges it into a
keyboard, or whatever else can be touched. Walking across a carpet in a dry
climate, a person can accumulate a static voltage of 35 kV. The current pulse
Gmd - 4
HOOK-UP NOTES
from an electrostatic discharge has an extremely fast rise time — typically, 4
A/nsec. Figure 2 shows ESD waveforms that have been observed by some
investigators of ESD phenomena.
— Experimental
60 —
Colculoted
Current in Amps
5
20
O $ 1T 1 1 1 1 1 11 1 “1
O 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
Time in Nonoseconds
(0)
Vert: 5 A/Div
Time: 5 ns/Div
Displayed:
Ip: 40 A
Tr: 1 ns
500 V
(b)
Figure 2. Waveforms of electrostatic discharge currents from a hand-held metallic
object.
It is enlightening to calculate the L(di/dt) voltage required to drive an ESD
current pulse through a couple of inches of straight wire. Two inches of
straight wire has about 50 nH of inductance. That's not very much, but using
50 nH for L and 4 A/nsec for di/dt gives an L(di/dt) drop of about 200 V.
Recent observations by W.M. King suggest even faster rise times (Fig. 2B)
and the occurrence of multiple discharges during a single discharge event.
Obviously, ESD sensitivity needs to be considered in the design of equipment
that is going to be used in difficult industrial environments. Although humidity is
controlled in many IC clean rooms, this is not the case in many other clean
rooms. Any time large volumes of air are moved, electrostatic energy will build
Gmd-5
AE
PART Ill
up. This can cause ESD problems for a system's control circuitry, whether in
the system computer, a power supply’s microprocessor, an electronic vacuum
pump, or a critical endpoint detector such as an RGA computer.
Ground Noise
Currents in ground lines are another source of noise. These can be 60-Hz
currents from the power lines, or RF hash, or crosstalk from other signals that
are sharing this particular wire as a signal retum line. Noise in the ground
lines is often referred to as a “ground loop” problem. The basic concept of the
ground loop is shown in Fig. 3. The problem is that true earth-ground is not
really at the same potential in all locations. If the two ends of a wire are
earth-grounded at different locations, the voltage difference between the two
“ground” points can drive significant currents (several amperes) through the
wire. Consider the wire to be part of a loop which contains, in addition to the
wire, a voltage source that represents the difference in potential between the
two ground points, and you have the classical “ground loop.” By extension,
the term is used to refer to any unwanted (and often unexpected) currents in a
ground line.
Circuit
1
Eorth—ground
—= Eorth-ground
ot À ot B
Potentiol Difference
Ground Loop Between A ond B
Figure 3. Illustration of a ground loop.
“Radiated” and “Conducted” Noise
Radiated noise is noise that arrives at the victim circuit in the form of
electromagnetic radiation, such as EMP and RFI. It causes trouble by
inducing extraneous voltages in the circuit. Conducted noise is noise that
arrives at the victim circuit already in the form of an extraneous voltage,
typically via the ac or dc power lines.
You can defend against radiated noise by carefully designing layouts and
using effective shielding techniques. You can defend against conducted noise
with filters and suppressors, although layouts and grounding techniques are
important here, too.
Ста - 6
HOOK-UP NOTES
Types of Failures and Failure Mechanisms
A major problem that EMI can cause in digital systems is intermittent
operational malfunction. These software upsets occur when the system is in
operation at the time an EMI source is activated, and are usually characterized
by a loss of information or a jump in the execution of the program to some
random location in memory. The person who has to iron out such problems is
tempted to say the program counter went crazy. There is usually no damage
to the hardware, and normal operation can resume as soon as the EMI has
passed or the source is de-activated. Resuming normal operation usually
requires manual or automatic reset, and possibly re-entering of lost information.
Electrostatic discharges from operating personnel can cause not only software
upsets, but also permanent (“hard”) damage to the system. For this to happen
the system doesn't even have to be in operation. Sometimes the permanent
damage is latent, meaning the initial damage may be marginal and require
further aggravation through operating stress and time before permanent failure
takes place. Sometimes the damage is hidden.
Current Loops
The first thing most people learn about electricity is that current won't flow
unless it can flow in a closed loop. This simple fact is sometimes temporarily
forgotten by the overworked engineer who has spent the past several years
mastering the intricacies of the DO loop, the timing loop, the feedback loop,
and maybe even the ground loop.
EB The simple current loop probably owes its apparent
YOU demise to the invention of the ground symbol. By a
stroke of the pen you avoid having to draw the return
paths of most of the current loops in the circuit. Then
“ground” turns into an infinite current sink, so that
any current that flows into it is gone and forgotten.
Forgotten it may be, but it's not gone. It must return
to its source, so that its path will by all the laws of
nature form a closed loop.
SHOULD KNOW...
The physical geometry of a given current loop is the key to why it generates
EMI, why it's susceptible to EMI, and how to shield it. Specifically, it's the area
of the loop that matters.
Any flow of current generates a magnetic field with an intensity that varies
inversely to the distance from the wire that carries the current. Two parallel
wires conducting currents +l and -| (as in signal feed and retum lines) would
generate a nonzero magnetic field near the wires if the distance from a given
point to one wire is noticeably different than the distance from the same point
Gmd - 7
AE
PART Ill
to the other wire, but farther away (relative to the wire spacing). Where the
distances from a given point to either wire are about the same, the fields from
both wires tend to cancel out.
Thus, maintaining proximity between feed and return paths is an important
way to minimize their interference with other signals. The way to maintain
their proximity is essentially to minimize their loop area. And, because the
mutual inductance from current loop A to current loop B is the same as the
mutual inductance from current loop B to current loop A, a circuit that doesn't
radiate interference doesn’t receive it either.
Thus, from the standpoint of reducing both generation of EMI and susceptibility
to EMI, the hard rule is to keep loop areas small. To say that loop areas
should be minimized is the same as saying the circuit inductance should be
minimized. Inductance is by definition the constant of proportionality between
current and the magnetic field it produces: ¢ = LI. Holding the feed and retum
wires close together so as to promote field cancellation can be described
either as minimizing the loop area or as minimizing L. It's the same thing.
Shielding
There are three basic kinds of shields: shielding against capacitive coupling,
shielding against inductive coupling, and RF shielding. Capacitive coupling is
electric field coupling, so shielding against it amounts to shielding against
electric fields. As will be seen, this is relatively easy. Inductive coupling is
magnetic field coupling, so shielding against it is shielding against magnetic
fields. This is a little more difficult. Strangely enough, this type of shielding
does not in general involve the use of magnetic materials. RF shielding, the
classical “metallic barrier” against all sorts of electromagnetic fields, is what
most people picture when they think about shielding. Its effectiveness depends
partly on the selection of the shielding material, but mostly, as it tums out, on
the treatment of its seams and the geometry of its openings.
Shielding Against Capacitive Coupling
Capacitive coupling involves the passage of interfering signals through mutual
or stray capacitances that aren't shown on the circuit diagram, but which the
experienced engineer knows are there. Capacitive coupling to your body is
what would cause an unstable oscillator to change its frequency when you
reach your hand over the circuit, for example. More importantly, in a digital
system it causes crosstalk in multi-wire cables.
The way to block capacitive coupling is to enclose the circuit or conductor you
want to protect in a metal shield. That's called an electrostatic or Faraday
shield. If coverage is 100%, the shield does not have to be grounded, but it
usually is, to ensure that circuit-to-shield capacitances go to signal reference
Gmd - 8
HOOK-UP NOTES
ground rather than acting as feedback and crosstalk elements. Besides, from
a mechanical point of view, grounding it is almost inevitable.
A grounded Faraday shield can be used to break capacitive coupling between
a noisy circuit and a victim circuit, as shown in Fig. 4. Figure 4A shows two
circuits capacitively coupled through the stray capacitance between them. In
Figure 4B the stray capacitance is intercepted by a grounded Faraday shield,
so that interference currents are shunted to ground. For example, a grounded
plane can be inserted between PCBs (printed circuit boards) to eliminate most
of the capacitive coupling among them.
Noise
Cs
Victim
Source
Circuit
ı1|—
(a) Capacitive Coupling
Noise
Source
„” Гогобоу Shield
Victim
€ | — Circuit
(b) Electrostatic Shielding
Figure 4. Use of Faraday shield.
Shielding Against Inductive Coupling
With inductive coupling, the physical mechanism involved is a magnetic flux
density B from some external interference source that links with a current loop
in the victim circuit, and generates a voltage in the loop in accordance with
Lenz's law: v = NA(dB/dt), where in this case N = 1 and A is the area of the
current loop in the victim circuit.
Gmd - 9
PART Ill
AE
There are two aspects to defending a circuit against inductive coupling. One
aspect is to try to minimize the offensive fields at their source. This is done by
minimizing the area of the current loop at the source so as to promote field
cancellation, as described in the section on current loops. The other aspect is
to minimize the inductive pickup in the victim circuit by minimizing the area of
that current loop, since, from Lenz's law, the induced voltage is proportional to
this area. So the two aspects really involve the same corrective action:
Minimize the areas of the current loops. In other words, minimizing the
offensiveness of a circuit inherently minimizes its susceptibility.
Shielding against inductive coupling means nothing more nor less than
controlling the dimensions of the current loops in the circuit. We will look at
two examples of this type of “shielding”: the coaxial cable and the twisted pair.
The Coaxial Cable. Figure 5 shows a coaxial cable carrying a current | from a
signal source to a receiving load. The shield carries the same current as the
center conductor. Outside the shield, the magnetic field produced by +I
flowing in the center conductor is cancelled by the field produced by -I flowing
in the shield. To the extent that the cable is ideal in producing zero extemal
magnetic field, it is immune to inductive pickup from external sources. The
cable effectively adds zero area to the loop. This is true only if the shield
cames the same current as does the center conductor.
Current Loop
Figure 5. External to the shield, $ = 0
In the real world, both the signal source and the receiving load are likely to
have one end connected to a common signal ground. In that case, should the
cable be grounded at one end, both ends, or neither end? The answer is that
it should be grounded at both ends. Figure 6A shows the situation when the
cable shield is grounded at only one end. In that case the current loop runs
down the center conductor of the cable, then back through the common
ground connection. The loop area is not well defined. The shield not only
does not carry the same current as the center conductor, but it doesn't carry
any current at all. There is no field cancellation at all. The shield has no effect
whatsoever on either the generation of EMI or susceptibility to EMI. (It is,
however, still effective as an electrostatic shield, or at least it would be if the
shield coverage were 100%.)
Grnd - 10
HOOK-UP NOTES
Figure 6B shows the situation when the cable is grounded at both ends. Does
the shield carry all of the retum current, or only a portion of it on account of the
shunting effect of the common ground connection? The answer to that
question depends on the frequency content of the signal. In general, the
current loop will follow the path of least impedance. At low frequencies, 0 Hz
to several kilohertz, where the inductive reactance is insignificant, the current
will follow the path of least resistance. Above a few kilohertz, where inductive
reactance predominates, the current will follow the path of least inductance.
The path of least inductance is the path of minimum loop area. Hence, for
higher frequencies the shield carries virtually the same current as the center
conductor, and is therefore effective against both generation and reception of
EMI.
{ Current Loop
\
|
u и
(a) Shield Has No Effect
NX Low=tre uency
C t Path
(b) Two Return Paths urrent Pa
Figure 6. Use of coaxial cable.
Note that we have now introduced the infamous “ground loop” problem, as
shown in Fig. 7A. Fortunately, a digital system has some built-in immunity to
moderate ground loop noise. In a noisy environment, however, you can break
the ground loop and still maintain the shielding effectiveness of the coaxial
cable by inserting an optical coupler, as shown in Fig. 7B. What the optical
coupler does, basically, is allow you to redefine the signal source as being
ungrounded, so that the optically coupled end of the cable need not be
grounded; this still lets the shield carry the same current as the center
conductor. Obviously, if the signal source weren't grounded in the first place,
the optical coupler wouldn't be needed.
Grnd - 11
AE
PART ll
Co
J
Ground Loop Г =
VS
n
Potential Difference
Between the Two
Ground Points
(a) The Ground Loop
Coupler
Current Loop
(b) Breoking the Ground Loop =
Figure 7. Use of optical coupler.
The Twisted Pair. A cheaper way to minimize loop area is to run the feed and
return wires right next to each other. This isn't as effective as a coaxial cable
in minimizing loop area. An ideal coaxial cable adds zero area to the loop,
whereas merely keeping the feed and retum wires next to each other is bound
to add a finite area.
However, two things work to make this cheaper method almost as good as a
coaxial cable. First, coaxial cables are not ideal. If the shield current isn't
evenly distributed around the center conductor at every cross-section of the
cable (it isn't), then field cancellation extemal to the shield is incomplete.
Since field cancellation is incomplete, the effective area added to the loop by
the cable isn't zero. Second, in the cheaper method the feed and retum wires
can be twisted together. This not only maintains their proximity, but the noise
picked up in one twist tends to cancel out the noise picked up in the next twist
down the line. Thus the “twisted pair” tums out to be about as good a shield
against inductive coupling as coaxial cable is.
The twisted pair does not, however, provide electrostatic shielding (i.e.,
shielding against capacitive coupling). Another operational difference is that
the coaxial cable works better at higher frequencies. This is primarily because
Grnd - 12
HOOK-UP NOTES
the twisted pair adds more capacitive loading to the signal source than does
the coaxial cable. The twisted pair is normally considered useful up to only
about 1 MHz; the coaxial cable is considered useful up to 1 GHz.
RF Shielding
A time-varying electric field generates a time-varying magnetic field, and vice
versa. Far from the source of a time-varying EM field, the ratio of the
amplitudes of the electric and magnetic fields is always 377 Q. Up close to
the source of the fields, however, this ratio can be quite different, and
dependent on the nature of the source. The field where the ratio is near 377
Q is called the far field, and the field where the ratio is significantly different
from 377 Q is called the near field. The ratio itself is called the wave
impedance, E/H.
The near field goes out about one-sixth of a wavelength from the source. At
1MHZ this is about 150 ft., and at 10 MHz it's about 15 ft. That means that if
an EMI source is in the same room with the victim circuit, it's likely to be a
near field problem. The reason this matters is that in the near field an RF
interference problem could be almost entirely due to E-field coupling or H-field
coupling, and that could influence the choice of an RF shield or whether an RF
shield will help at all.
In the near field of a whip antenna, the E/H ratio is higher than 377 Q, which
means it's mainly an E-field generator. A wire-wrap post can be a whip
antenna. Interference from a whip antenna would be by electric field coupling,
which is basically capacitive coupling. Methods to protect a circuit from
capacitive coupling, such as a Faraday shield, would be effective against RF
interference from a whip antenna. A gridded-ground structure would be less
effective.
In the near field of a loop antenna, the E/H ratio is lower than 377 Q, which
means it's mainly an H-field generator. Any current loop is a loop antenna.
Interference from a loop antenna would be by magnetic field coupling, which is
basically the same as inductive coupling. Methods to protect a circuit from
inductive coupling, such as a gridded-ground structure, would be effective
against RF interference from a loop antenna. A Faraday shield would be less
effective.
A more difficult case of RF interference, near field or far field, may require a
genuine metallic RF shield. The idea behind RF shielding is that time-varying
EMI fields induce currents in the shielding material. The induced currents
dissipate energy in two ways: I°R losses in the shielding material and
radiation losses as they re-radiate their own EM fields. The energy for both of
these mechanisms is drawn from the impinging EMI fields —thus the EMI is
weakened as it penetrates the shield.
Grnd - 13
AE
PART ||
More formally, the В losses are referred to as absorption loss, and the
re-radiation is called reflection loss. As it tums out, absorption loss is the
primary shielding mechanism for H-fields, and reflection loss is the primary
shielding mechanism for E-fields. Reflection loss, being a surface
phenomenon, is pretty much independent of the thickness of the shielding
material. Both loss mechanisms, however, are dependent on the frequency (0)
of the impinging EMI field, and on the permeability (u.) and conductivity (с) о?
the shielding material. These loss mechanisms vary approximately as follows:
reflection loss to an E-field (in dB) ~ log ©
ou
absorption loss to an H-field (in dB) + t Voou
Where:
t = the thickness of the shielding material.
The first expression indicates that 1) E-field shielding is more effective if the
shield material is highly conductive and less effective if the shield is
ferromagnetic, and 2) that low-frequency fields are easier to block than
high-frequency fields. This is shown in Fig. 8.
©
Se
= 158 0 Amin e ==Copper
2 100 + WET
S 75 4
c 50 - Steel
= 25 -
2 0 1 Ï Г Ï i
© 0.01 0.1 1 10 100 1000 10,000
Frequency (Kilohertz)
Figure 8. E-field shielding.
Copper and aluminum both have the same permeability, but copper is slightly
more conductive, and so provides slightly greater reflection loss to an E-field.
Steel is less effective for two reasons. First, it has a somewhat elevated
permeability due to its iron content, and, second, as tends to be the case with
magnetic materials, it is less conductive.
On the other hand, according to the expression for absorption loss to an
H-field, H-field shielding is more effective at higher frequencies and with shield
material that has both high conductivity and high permeability. In practice,
however, selecting steel for its high permeability involves some compromise in
conductivity. But the increase in permeability more than makes up for the
Grnd - 14
HOOK-UP NOTES
decrease in conductivity, as can be seen in Fig. 9. This figure also shows the
effect of shield thickness.
175
— 150
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Figure 9. H-field shielding.
A composite of E-field and H-field shielding is shown in Fig. 10. However, this
type of data is meaningful only in the far field. In the near field, the EMI could
be 90% H-field, in which case the reflection loss is irrelevant. It would be
advisable then to beef up the absorption loss, at the expense of reflection loss,
by choosing steel. A better conductor than steel might be less expensive, but
it would also be ineffective.
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Figure 10. E- and H-field shielding.
Grnd - 15
= PART IH!
NE
A characteristic that can be exploited for low-frequency magnetic fields is the
ability of a high-permeability material such as mumetal to divert the field by
presenting a very low reluctance path to the magnetic flux. Above a few
kilohertz, however, the permeability of such materials is the same as steel.
In actual fact the selection of a shielding material tums out to be less important
than the presence of seams, joints and holes in the physical structure of the
enclosure. The shielding mechanisms are related to the induction of currents
in the shield material, but the currents must be allowed to flow freely. If they
have to detour around slots and holes, as shown in Fig. 11, the shield loses
much of its effectiveness.
As can be seen in Fig. 11, the severity of the detour has less to do with the
area of the hole than it does with the geometry of the hole. Comparing
Fig. 11C with Fig. 11D shows that a long narrow discontinuity such as a seam
can cause more RF leakage than a line of holes with larger total area. A
person who is responsible for designing or selecting rack or chassis
enclosures for an EMI environment needs to be familiar with the techniques
that are available for maintaining electrical continuity across seams.
Information on these techniques is available in the references at the end of this
note.
|
a Shield L— Rectangular
Current Slot
Qu Section of
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(с) (в)
Figure 11. Effect of shield discontinuity on magnetically induced shield current.
Grnd - 16
HOOK-UP NOTES
Grounds
There are two kinds of grounds: earth ground (safety ground) and signal
ground. The earth is not an equipotential surface, so earth-ground potential
varies. In addition, its other electrical properties are not conducive to its use
as a retum conductor in a circuit. However, circuits are often connected to
earth ground for protection against shock hazards. The other kind of ground,
signal ground, is an arbitrarily selected reference node in a circuit— the node
with respect to which other node voltages in the circuit are measured.
Earth Ground
The standard U.S. three-wire, single-phase ac power distribution system is
represented in Fig. 12. The white wire is earth-grounded at the service
entrance. If a load circuit has a metal enclosure or chassis, and if the black
wire develops a short to the enclosure, there will be a shock hazard to
operating personnel, unless the enclosure itself is earth-grounded. If the
enclosure is earth-grounded, a short results in a blown fuse rather than a “hot”
enclosure. The earth-ground connection to the enclosure is called a safety
ground. The advantage of the three-wire power system is that it distributes a
safety ground along with the power.
Note that the safety-ground wire carries no current, except in case of a fault,
so that at least for low frequencies it’s at earth-ground potential along its entire
length. The voltage of the white wire, on the other hand, may be several volts
different than the voltage of ground, due to the IR drop along its length.
Service Metol
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Figure 12. Single-phase power distribution.
Grnd - 17
AE
PART ll
In high-power systems and systems that radiate high levels of noise, it is
common practice to provide each system with an individual earth-ground. This
is done by driving a copper stake or stakes into the ground under or very close
to the frame of the system, even to the extent of drilling holes through concrete
floors.
In multistory buildings it is even more difficult to provide a low-impedance,
secure connection to the earth. Many times this is done by using a copper
pipe that provides water to the system. This practice is suspect because the
water pipe may travel a considerable distance before making contact with the
earth, and thus may have a relatively high impedance/resistance. In a
multistory system, a heavy copper strap should connect the system frame to
an earth-ground stake by the shortest possible path.
All earth-ground connections should be made with 1-1.5 in. copper strap
whenever possible. This practice provides a low-impedance path for both dc
and ac.
In many areas the soil is very dry and has high electrical resistance. This is
cured by providing a grid of stakes or a mat of copper wires, and a means of
continually wetting the earth around the stakes or grid.
In the past, the earth around the ground stake was saturated with copper
sulfate. However, the toxicity of copper sulfate combined with its high solubility
endangers groundwater supplies, and so this practice is now illegal. Other,
nontoxic electrolytes are sometimes used, depending on local laws.
Signal Ground
Signal ground is a single point in a circuit that is designated to be the
reference node for the circuit. Commonly, wires that connect to this single
point are also referred to as “signal ground.” In some circles “power supply
common” or PSC is the preferred terminology for these conductors. In any
case, the manner in which these wires connect to the actual reference point is
the basis of distinction among three kinds of signal-ground wiring methods:
series, parallel, and multipoint (shown in Fig. 13).
Grnd - 18
HOOK-UP NOTES
U
1/0 PCB PCB Ы Power
1 2 3 Supplie
Ground Line ref. Point
Series Connection
~~ Ref . Point
Parallel Connection
=="
1/0
PCB PCB PCB Power
1 2 3 Supplie
Ground Plane
Хе. Point
Multipoint Connection
Figure 13. Three ways to wire the grounds.
The series connection is pretty common because it's simple and economical.
It's the noisiest of the three, however, due to common-ground impedance
coupling between the circuits. When several circuits share a ground wire,
currents from one circuit, flowing through the finite impedance of the common
ground line, cause variations in the ground potential of the other circuits.
Given that the currents in a digital system tend to be spiked, and that the
common impedance is mainly inductive reactance, the variations could be bad
enough to cause bit errors in high current or particularly noisy situations.
The parallel connection eliminates common-ground impedance problems, but
uses a lot of wire. Other disadvantages are that the impedance of the
individual ground lines can be very high, and the ground lines themselves can
become sources of EMI.
Grnd - 19
AE
PART lI
In the multipoint system, ground impedance is minimized by using a ground
plane with the various circuits connected to it by very short ground leads. This
type of connection would be used mainly in RF circuits above 10 MHz.
Practical Grounding
A combination of series and parallel ground-wiring methods can be used to
trade off economic and electrical considerations. The idea is to run series
connections for circuits that have similar noise properties, and connect them at
a single reference point, as in the parallel method (shown in Fig. 14).
In Fig. 14, the “noisy and high current signal ground” connects to things like
motors and relays. The hardware ground is the safety-ground connection to
chassis, racks, and cabinets. It's a mistake to use the hardware ground as a
return path for signal currents because it's fairly noisy (for example, it's the
hardware ground that receives an ESD spark) and tends to have high
resistance due to joints and seams.
Noisy
Quiet and High
Signal Current Hardware
Ground Signal Ground
round
Wi Ref. Point
Green—wire
Ground
Figure 14. Parallel connection of series grounds.
Screws and bolts don’t always make good electrical connections because of
galvanic action, corrosion, and dirt. These kinds of connections may work well
at first, and then cause mysterious maladies as the system ages.
Grnd - 20
HOOK-UP NOTES
Figure 15 illustrates a grounding system for a typical power supply setup in a
vacuum-process system, showing an application of the series/parallel
ground-wiring method. Ground lines 1 and 2 are normally required by code but
cannot be relied upon in high-power systems. Ground lines 3, 4, and 5
illustrate series grounding.
Ground lines 6 and 7 illustrate parallel grounding. They ensure that power
supply 1 (PS1) and power supply 2 (PS2) are integral parts of the system
grounding scheme (the utility connection is usually not a quality ground).
Ground line 8 provides the primary system earth-ground connection.
Current retum 9 ensures a current return path for the power supply output and
should not be confused with the ground lines (1 through 8). See the typical
applications discussed on pages 1-9 through 1-16 for instructions on how to
connect this line with the earth-ground terminal.
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Grnd - 21
АЕ
PART Ill
The separation of grounds shown in Fig. 16 is similar to what is shown in Fig.
15, but here it is shown at the PCB level. Currents in multiplexed LED
displays tend to put a lot of noise on the ground and supply lines because of
the constant switching and changing involved in the scanning process. The
segment driver ground is relatively quiet, since it doesn't conduct the LED
cumrents. The digit-driver ground is noisier, and should be provided with a
separate path to the PCB ground terminal, even if the PCB ground layout is
gridded. The LED feed and return current paths should be laid out on
opposite sides of the board like parallel flat conductors.
Control Function
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Figure 16. Separate ground for multiplexed LED display.
Figure 17 shows right and wrong ways to make ground connections in racks.
Note that the safety ground connections from panel to rack are made through
ground straps, not panel screws. Rack 1 correctly connects
signal ground to rack ground only at the single reference point. Rack 2
incorrectly connects signal ground to rack ground at two points, creating a
ground loop around points 1, 2, 3, 4, 1.
Breaking the “electronics ground” connection to point 1 eliminates the ground
loop, but leaves signal ground in rack 2 sharing a ground impedance with the
relatively noisy hardware ground to the reference point: In fact, it may end up
using hardware ground as a retum path for signal and power supply currents.
This will probably cause more problems than the ground loop.
Gmd - 22
HOOK-UP NOTES
Rock 1 Rock 2
Panel Panel
Ground bp RP Ground
Strops X Straps
Incorrect
Ground
+V
2 3
Primary
Power
Ground 1 \
Electronics Ground
Green—wire Ground
Figure 17. Electronic circuits mounted in equipment racks should have separate
ground connections. Rack 1 shows correct grounding; rack 2 shows incorrect
grounding.
Braided Cable
Ground impedance problems can sometimes be eliminated by using braided
cable. The reduction in impedance is due to skin effect: At higher frequencies
the current tends to flow along the surface of a conductor rather than uniformly
through its bulk. While this effect tends to increase the impedance of a given
conductor, it also indicates the way to minimize impedance—to manipulate the
shape of the cross-section so as to provide more surface area. For its bulk,
braided cable is almost pure surface.
Depending on the length of the cable and the actual frequencies involved,
there may be situations where braided cable is not desirable. The individual
strands of wire in the braided cable may present a high inductance to RF and
actually impede current flow. For high-power RF applications, it is usually best
to use a wide copper strap.
Grnd - 23
АЕ
PART lll
Glossary
Digital ground
Data signal ground
Analog signal ground
Signal common
Power common
Common retum
RF retum
Ground
Earth ground
Grounding conductor
Ground electrode
Ground loop
Grnd - 24
Ground-line connections for nondifferential-
input, paired signal wires. These wires are
paired for noise-rejection purposes. The
ground wire of the pair may be connected to
an individual ground connection orto a
common ground connection.
A retum conductor (usually low current)
common to several circuits.
The path or paths that RF energy uses to
retum to its source (such as an RF
generator). RF energy is a surface
phenomenon and may travel over the
surface of insulated wires, chassis, frames,
floors, or equipment faces. Special methods
must be used to ensure that there is a solid
earth-ground in systems that produce or use
RF energy.
A terminal intended to ensure, by means of
a special connection, the grounding
(earthing) of part of an apparatus when
properly connected to an earth electrode.
The conductor that is used to establish
ground and that connects a piece of
equipment or device to the ground electrode.
A conductor, group of conductors, mat, or
gnd, in intimate contact with the earth for the
purpose of providing a connection with
ground. This electrode determines the lowest
ground potential for an electrical system.
A potentially detrimental loop formed when
two or more points in an electrical system
that are normally at ground potential are
connected by an additional conducting path.
Earth resistivity
Conducted interference
Radiated interference
Impedance
Resistance
Grnd - 25
HOOK-UP NOTES
A measurement of the electrical resistance
of a unit volume of soil. The common unit of
measure is the ohm-meter, which is the
resistance measured between faces of a
cubic meter of soil by driving ground
electrodes into the earth 1 m apart to a
depth of 1 m.
Interference resulting from conducted
radio-frequency noise, switching spikes,
lightening strikes, or conducted electrical
noise (produced by the operation of other
equipment) that enters equipment by direct
coupling.
Interference resulting from radiated
electromagnetic energy that enters
equipment.
Symbol, Z. Unit, ohm (QQ). The total
opposition offered by a circuit to the flow of
ac current. It may be expressed as a vector
sum of resistance (the “real” part) and
reactance (the “imaginary” part), or as a
magnitude and phase angle. Capacitive
reactance increases as frequency
decreases; inductive reactance increases as
frequency increases.
Symbol, R. Unit, ohm (2). The simple
opposition to current flow. The “real” part of
impedance. Defined as that factor by which
the mean-square conduction current must be
multiplied to determine the corresponding
power lost by dissipation as heat or other
permanent radiation loss of electromagnetic
energy from the circuit.
AE
PART Ill
Parting Thoughts
The references by Ott and by White were the main sources of information for
the original article from which most of the material in this note was taken.
According to that article, reference 4 “is probably the finest treatment currently
available on the subject.”
Courses and seminars on the subject of electromagnetic interference are
given regularly throughout the year. Information on these can be obtained from:
IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Society
e EMC Education Committee
345 East 47th Street
New York, NY 10017
Phone: (212) 752-6800
e Don White Consultants, Inc.
Intemational Training Centre
P. O. Box D
Gainesville, VA 22065
Phone: (703) 347-0030
The EMC Education committee has available a videotape: “Introduction to
EMC — A Video Training Tape,” by Henry Ott. Don White Consultants offers
a series of training courses on many different aspects of electromagnetic
ccmpatibility. Most organizations that sponsor EMC courses also offer in-plant
presentations.
Reprinted in part by permission of Intel Corporation, Copyrightintel
Corporation, 1982.
Grnd - 26
HOOK-UP NOTES
References
1. Clark, O.M. 1979. Electrostatic Discharge Protection Using Silicon Transient
Suppressors. Proceedings of the Electrical Overstress/Electrostatic Discharge
Symposium. Reliability Analysis Center, Rome Air Development Center.
2. King, W. M. and D. Reynolds. 1981. Personnel Electrostatic Discharge:
Impulse Waveforms Resulting From ESD of Humans Directly and Through
Small Hand-held Metallic Objects Intervening in the Discharge Path. In:
Proceedings of the IEEE Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility,
pp. 577-590.
3. Ott, H. 1981. Digital Circuit Grounding and Interconnection. In: Proceedings
of the IEEE Symposium on Electromagnetic Compatibility, pp. 292-297.
4. Ott, H. 1976. Noise Reduction Techniques in Electronic Systems. New
York: Wiley.
5. 1981 Interference Technology Engineers’ Master (ITEM) Directory and
Design Guide. R. and B. Enterprises, P. O. Box 328, Plymouth Meeting, PA
19426.
6. Smith, L. Nov. 1979. A Watchdog Circuit for Microcomputer Based
Systems. Digital Design, pp. 78-79.
7. TranZorb Quick Reference Guide. General Semi-conductor Industries, P.O.
Box 3078, Tempe, AZ 85281.
8. Tucker, T.J. 1968. Spark Initiation Requirements of a Secondary Explosive.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 152, Article |, pp. 643-653.
9. White, D. 1973. Electromagnetic Interference and Compatibility, Vol. 3: EMI
Control Methods and Techniques. Don White Consultants.
10. White, D. 1981. EMI Control in the Design of Printed Circuit Boards and
Backplanes. Don White Consultants.
Grnd - 27
—. PART Il
NE
Grnd - 28
Warranty Claims
Advanced Energy® products are warranted to be free from failures due to defects in material and
workmanship for 12 months after they are shipped from the factory (please see warranty statement,
below, for details).
In order to claim shipping or handling damage, you must inspect the delivered goods and report such
damage to AE within 30 days of your receipt of the goods. Please note that failing to report any damage
within this period is the same as acknowledging that the goods were received undamaged.
For a warranty claim to be valid, it must:
e be made within the applicable warranty period
e include the product serial number and a full description of the circumstances giving rise to the claim
e have been assigned a return authorization number (see below) by AE Customer Service
All warranty work will be performed at an authorized AE service center (see list of contacts at the front of
the manual). You are responsible for obtaining authorization (see details below) to return any defective
units, prepaying the freight costs, and ensuring that the units are returned to an authorized AE service
center. AE will retum the repaired unit (freight prepaid) to you by second-day air shipment (or ground
carrier for local retums); repair parts and labor will be provided free of charge. Whoever ships the unit
(either you or AE) is responsible for properly packaging and adequately insuring the unit.
Authorized Returns
Before returning any product for repair and/or adjustment, call AE Customer Service and discuss the
problem with them. Be prepared to give them the serial number of the unit and the reason for the
proposed return. This consultation call will allow Customer Service to determine if the unit must actually
be returned for the problem to be corrected. Such technical consultation is always available at no charge.
Units that are returned without authorization from AE Customer Service and that are found to be
_ functional will not be covered under the warranty (see warranty statement, below). That is, you will have
to pay a retest and calibration fee, and all shipping charges.
Upgrading Units
AE's products are continually changing as ways to improve them are discovered. AE is happy to upgrade
older units so that they reflect recent improvements. The fee for upgrading a unit will be a percentage of
the current list price, based on the age of the unit. Such an upgraded unit will carry a 6-month warranty
(which will be added to any time remaining on the original warranty). Contact Customer Service for
specifics on getting an older unit upgraded to the current revision level.
Warranty
The seller makes no express or implied warranty that the goods are merchantable or fit for any
particular purpose except as specifically stated in printed AE specifications. The sole
responsibility of the Seller shall be that it will manufacture the goods in accordance with its
published specifications and that the goods will be free from defects in material and
workmanship. The seller's liability for breach of an expressed warranty shall exist only if the
goods are installed, started in operation, and tested in conformity with the seller's published
instructions. The seller expressly excludes any warranty whatsoever concerning goods that have
been subject to misuse, negligence, or accident, or that have been altered or repaired by anyone
other than the seller or the seller’s duly authorized agent. This warranty is expressly made in lieu
of any and all other warranties, express or implied, unless otherwise agreed to in writing. The
warranty period is 12 months after the date the goods are shipped from AE. In all cases, the seller
has sole responsibility for determining the cause and nature of the failure, and the seller’s
determination with regard thereto shall be final.
5559001
INDEX
applications ...... 220200144440 4 4 4 4 04 4240 1-7
basic magnetron sputterng .. .. .. .. .. ...... 1-7
dc sputtering with RF bias .. .. .. .......... 1-9
dc-biasedRF sputtering .. ............... 1-11
arc
АКС-ООТ. .. ...................... 1-5
cheater plug .. .... . . . . .. .. 2... 2... .... 3-19
configurations for magnetron sputtering
factory (negative output) .. ............... 1-7
factory (positive output) .. .. .. .. .......... 1-7
connectors/ports
analog/digital /O port .. .. .. .........424.4.0 2-8
input power .... 122224241114 4 1 11 1020 2-7, 3-11
output . . . .. ee eee 2-7, 3-12
contactor hold . . . . .. ....... 0... 2-18, 4-9
coolingrequirements . . ................... 3-9
current regulation . ooo... 4-3
digital output SignalS . . . . ................. 3-18
disconnecting . . . ....Ñ. . . 4 4 4 4 4 0 4 10 3-20
fastramp ..... 2202041424 4 4 eee. 4-6
functional block diagram . . . .. .............. 2-3
grounding . .... 2.220212 1221 4 4 4 2 4 1 1 1 11 40 3-11
interfacing
front panelcontrols . . . . ................ 2-17
rear panelcontrols . . .................. 2-18
User port . ........... 4 4 44 4 2 2 1 1 240 2-19, 4-7
INDEX
Oon/off control . 4 44 4 4 4 4 1 40 44 0 2-18, 4-7
output impedance ......... 4144 4 4 41 nar 4-11
output regulation . ........ o. oeZeerero oro, 1-5, 4-3
power regulation . .......Ño..oaeeeoeoceo a. 4-3
program mode
setpoints andramp switches. . . . ........... 4-5
ramp switches . . . . . .. . . .. ............. 1-13, 2-18, 4-6
setpointlevel . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. ......... 4-5
setting UP ..... 0402121 42 4 4 4 4 0 4 0 1 2 1000 3-5
signal descriptions
User port... ... 120202010414 4 0 4 0 1 0 1 0 0 3-13
spacing requirements .. .. ..... 2222412 2200 3-7
specifications
functional . .............. 0.00... 1-13
physical . . . ... .. .. ............... 1-14
start-up procedure . . . . . .. .. ............. 3-21
status information
digital meter (ЕО0$ . . . .. . ... ........... 2-15
signals . . . .. .. ................... 2-11
status indicator LEDs .................. 2-13
switch LEDS . . ..................... 2-14
theory of operation .. ... 1.222121 12 4 1 12 00 2-3
INDEX
U
User port
connector . .. .....Ñ.e.ce e e mesero ene a. 2-8
pin-description table . . ................. 2-8
signal descriptions . . . ................. 3-13
user-remotecontrol . . . . .................. 2-19, 4-7
method of output regulation... .. .. .. ....... 4-7
on/off ..... 202022 1144 4 4 4 4 4 4 e aaa ea 0 2-18, 4-7
setpoint level . 4 41 1 44 20 4-7
V
voltage regulation .. ..... . . .. .. .......... 4-3
WwW
wiring options
cheater plug ..... 2212211221 1 osorno ao 3-19
digital output signals .. ..... 1.222424 22 40 3-18
external output monitoring .. .. .. .......... 3-17
external programming of setpoint .. .. .. .. .. . .. 3-17
normal interlock connection .. .. .. .. ........ 3-18
three-wirecontrol . . . . . . . .............. 3-16
two-wire control . . ......eÑÑo. e. e. — . ener 3-16
INDEX
о —
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NOTES: UNLESS OTHERWISE BPECIFIEO
1. ALL RESISTANCE VALUES ARE IN OHMS. 1/04. 1X, SHT,
2. ALL CAPACITANCE VALUES ARE IN MICROFARADS.
3. USED WITH 2302318 MDX 600 CONTROL PCS.
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SIGNATURE DATE
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TSC426 '
'
|
> NOTES: UNLESS OTHERWISE SPECIFIED ' SPARES ı |
I. ALL RESISTANCE VALUES ARE IN OHMS, 1/44. CF. ' | \.
<A DRIVE> —A—QA1VE u2s 2. ALL CAPACITANCE VALUES ARE IN MICROFARADS. i
‚ T8C426 3. USED VITH 2302323 MDX 500 POVER PCB. = eri , DO NOT SCALE SIGNATURE DATE |
EEE | PE PURE AE IN "+ "+ ! ss omens wows [omo MDX 500
' ARE IN Man il Ai DMA. LADA. à
SOLDERED IN AT THÉ FA Y. Ar WACKER 2709 1
ciot cz 180226 CONNECTIONS SHOVN ARÉ FOR A NEGATIVE OUTPUT. E vec uss earner pon — revel! POWER
!80PF “7 180OFF 5, CONNECTIONS SHOWN ARE FOR A NEGATIVE S00V, 1A OUTPUT. T8C426 UIC | TLOG2 —— — 0. CHOCK SCHEMATIC . 1982
T8C426 | TOLERANCES; ee a вл) 0400 qui 51
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TEST GND | XX = 1.020 PROJ EG. R | 12/097
I XXX = +010 PROD ENG
| 0 = +.005 T +
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p= ADVANCED
PARTS TO BE FREE OF BURRS THIRD ANGLE PROX CTION
BREAK ALL EDGES TITLE BLOCK REVISION | E E N E RGY
A | 7 | A | с A A | AN | m ! +
8 7 | > + 3 =
nev | mec DESCRIPTION OF CHANGE ¡OMIO/DATE | CONZ/DATE | APP/DATE
a - hmm 08/22/02 экс [a ne
PIS Ps 412114474487332382333733328379534
|
INPUT
NOTE: ANY CHANGES TO THIS SYSTEM SOHEMATIC
MUST ALDO NE YO ME NOMDUAL SCHIBALTICS.
DO NOT SCALE
NES OTHERWIRE SPEED
ALL DIMENINONS
NTENPRET
00 14.30
REQUIRED FOR RELATED
XX = + 020 Г
200 = + B10
> = + 005 Мет у 1 ADVANCED
X/X = 21/32 ”
Хе mins | N |
1
— AE, World Headquarters
1625 Sharp Point Drive — |
Fort Collins, CO 80525 USA
Phone: 970.221.0108 or 970.221.0156
- Fax: 970.221.5583 — | | | — ADVANCED
Email: [email protected] AE ENERGY
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