HSA Handheld Spectrum Analyzer User`s Guide

HSA Handheld Spectrum Analyzer User`s Guide

Keysight N9342C/43C/44C

Handheld Spectrum Analyzer

Notice: This document contains references to

Agilent. Please note that Agilent’s Test and

Measurement business has become Keysight

Technologies. For more information, go to www.keysight.com.

User's Guide

Notices

© Keysight Technologies, Inc. 2010-2015

No part of this manual may be reproduced in any form or by any means (including electronic storage and retrieval or translation into a foreign language) without prior agreement and written consent from Keysight Technologies,

Inc. as governed by United States and international copyright laws.

Part Number

N9342-90002

Edition

Fifth Edition, February 2015

Printed in China

Keysight Technologies, Inc.

No. 116 Tian Fu 4th Street Hi-

Tech Industrial Zone (South)

Chengdu 610041, China

Warranty

The material contained in this document is provided “as is,” and is subject to being changed, without notice, in future editions.

Further, to the maximum extent permitted by applicable law, Keysight disclaims all warranties, either express or implied, with regard to this manual and any information contained herein, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose. Keysight shall not be liable for errors or for incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, use, or performance of this document or of any information contained herein. Should Keysight and the user have a separate written agreement with warranty terms covering the material in this document that conflict with these terms, the warranty terms in the separate agreement shall control.

Software Revision

This guide is valid for A.03.40 revisions of the

N9342C/43C/44C firmware or later.

CAUTION

A CAUTION notice denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or the like that, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in damage to the product or loss of important data. Do not proceed beyond a CAU-

TION notice until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.

WARNING

A WARNING notice denotes a hazard. It calls attention to an operating procedure, practice, or the like that, if not correctly performed or adhered to, could result in personal injury or death. Do not proceed beyond a WARNING notice until the indicated conditions are fully understood and met.

Battery Marking

Keysight Technologies, through Rechargeable

Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC), offers free and convenient battery recycling options in the

U.S. and Canada. Contact RBRC at

877-2-RECYCLE (877.273.2925) or online at: http://www.call2recycle.org/ for the nearest recycling location.

Technology Licenses

The hardware and/or software described in this document are furnished under a license and may be used or copied only in accordance with the terms of such license.

Restricted Rights Legend

If software is for use in the performance of a

U.S. Government prime contract or subcontract, Software is delivered and licensed as “Commercial computer software” as defined in DFAR 252.227-7014 (June 1995), or as a “commercial item” as defined in FAR

2.101(a) or as “Restricted computer software” as defined in FAR 52.227-19 (June 1987) or any equivalent agency regulation or contract clause. Use, duplication or disclosure of

Software is subject to Keysight Technologies’ standard commercial license terms, and non-DOD Departments and Agencies of the

U.S. Government will receive no greater than

Restricted Rights as defined in FAR

52.227-19(c)(1-2) (June 1987). U.S.

Government users will receive no greater than

Limited Rights as defined in FAR 52.227-14

(June 1987) or DFAR 252.227-7015 (b)(2)

(November 1995), as applicable in any technical data.

1 Overview

Introduction 2

Front Panel Overview 5

Display Annotations 6

Top Panel Overview 8

Instrument Markings 9

2 Getting Started

Checking Shipment and Order List 12

Power Requirements 13

AC Power Cords 14

Safety Considerations 15

Working with Batteries 18

Powering the Analyzer on for the First Time 20

Preparation for Use 21

Power On and Preset Settings 21

Factory Default Settings 22

Visual and Audio Adjustment 23

General System Settings 23

Timed Power On/Off 24

IP configuration 24

Ext Input 24

Show System 25

Adding an Option 26

Show Error 26

Perform Calibration 26

Data Securities 28

Upgrading Firmware 28

Probe Power Output 29

HSA and BSA PC software 30

Making Basic Measurements 31

Contents

3 Functions and Measurements

Measuring Multiple Signals 34

Measuring a Low-Level Signal 39

Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy 44

Making Distortion Measurements 45

Making a Stimulus Response Transmission Measurement 51

Measuring Stop Band Attenuation of a Low-pass Filter 53

Making a Reflection Calibration 55

Measuring Return Loss Using the Reflection Calibration Routine 57

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor 58

Spectrum Monitor 68

Demodulating an FM Signal 70

Modulation Analysis 72

AM/FM Modulation Analysis 72

ASK/FSK Modulation Analysis 75

Channel Scanner 78

Top/Bottom N Channel Scanner 78

List N Channel Scanner 80

Channel Scanner Setup 82

Cable & Antenna Test 83

Preparation 83

Measuring Cable Reflection 84

Measurement Functions 87

File Operation 90

Viewing a file list 90

Saving a file 92

Deleting a file 93

Loading a file 93

4 Key Reference

Amptd 96

Display 102

BW 103

RBW 103

VBW 103

VBW/RBW 104

Avg Type 104

Sweep 106

Sweep Time 106

Sweep Type 107

Single Sweep 107

Trigger 108

Gated Sweep 109

Sweep Setup 110

Enter 111

ESC/Bksp 111

Frequency 112

Marker 115

Marker 115

Marker Trace 115

Mode 116

Marker To 118

Function 119

Marker Table 119

Read Out 120

Zoom In/Out 120

Delta Ref 121

All Off 121

Logging Start/Stop 121

Peak 122

MEAS 124

OBW 124

ACPR 125

Channel Power 126

Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM) 128

MODE 135

Spectrum Analyzer 135

Tracking Generator 135

Power Meter 138

Spectrum Monitor 144

SPAN 148

Span 148

Full 148

Zero 148

Last Span 148

Trace 149

Trace 149

Clear Write 149

Max Hold 149

Minimum Hold 150

View 150

Blank 150

Detector 150

Average 152

Average Dura. 152

Limit 153

Limit Type 153

Limit Line 153

Limits 153

Limits Edit 154

Margin 154

Save Limits 154

Recall Limits 154

5 Error Messages

Overview 156

Error Message List 157

6 Troubleshooting

Check the basics 162

Contact Keysight Technologies 164

7 Menu Map

Display 167

Sweep 168

FREQ 169

Limit 169

Marker 170

Peak 171

File/Mode - Task Planner 172

Mode - Tracking Generator 173

Mode - Modulation Analysis (AM/FM) 174

Mode - Modulation Analysis (ASK/FSK) 175

Mode - Cable & Antenna Test 176

Mode - Power Meter 177

Meas (1) 178

Meas (2) 179

Span 179

System 180

Trace 181

Overview

1 Overview

The Keysight N934XC is a series of handheld spectrum analyzer with a frequency range from

100 kHz to 20.0 GHz.

N9342C: 100 kHz - 7 GHz

N9343C: 1 MHz - 13.6 GHz

N9344C: 1 MHz - 20 GHz

It provides good usability and exceptional performance for installation and maintenance, spectrum monitoring, and on- site repair tasks. It provides several measurement modes for different applications. Each mode offers a set of automatic measurements that pre- configure the analyzer settings for ease of use.

For the latest product information, please refer to the link below:

N9342C: http://www.keysight.com/find/n9342c

N9343C: http://www.keysight.com/find/n9343c

N9344C: http://www.keysight.com/find/n9344c

1

Overview

Introduction

2

Introduction

The analyzer provides ultimate measurement flexibility in a package that is ruggedized for field environments and convenient for mobile applications.

Functionality and Feature

The analyzer provides you with a comprehensive functionality set and measurement convenience, including:

• Power Measurement

provides power measurement functionality on

OBW

(Occupied Bandwidth)

, channel power, and

ACPR

(Adjacent Channel Power Ratio)

.

• Spectrum Emission Mask

Provides a Pass/Fail testing capability with a mask for out- of- channel emissions measurement.

• Tracking Generator (Option TG7)

Provides an RF source for scalar network analysis (exclusive for N9342C).

• Spectrum Monitor (Option SIM)

Provides the capability to analyze the stability of a signal over time. The analyzer can be used to monitor the signal capturing performance or intermittent event over extended periods of time.

• High-sensitivity Measurement (Option PA7, P13, P20)

Includes a pre- amplifier, enabling highly sensitivity measurements, this can be used to measure the low- level signals.

• High Accuracy Power Measurement

Supports Keysight U2000 series (option PWM) and U2020 series (option PWP) power sensors for high accuracy power measurement as a power meter.

Overview

Introduction

• Baseband Channel (Option BB1)

Provides superior DANL and SSB between 3 kHz to 12 MHz.

• Cable & Antenna Test (Option CA7; Requires option TG7)

Provides a built- in VSWR bridge. Return loss, cable loss and distance- to- fault measurement function are available for the field test.

• Modulation Analysis

Provides AM/FM (option AMA) and ASK/FSK

(Option DMA) modulation analysis function.

• Task Planner (Option TPN)

Provides task planner function to integrate different measurements for test automation.

• Time-gated Spectrum Analysis (Option TMG)

Measures any one of several signals separated in time and excludes interfering signals.

• Channel Scanner (Option SCN)

provide the channel scan function in spectrum monitoring, coverage test, and band clearance.

3

Overview

Introduction

Optimized Usability

The analyzer provides the enhanced usability as below:

The

6.5-inch TFT colorful LCD screen ( pixels) enables you to read the scans easily and clearly both indoors and outdoors.

The

arc-shaped handle and rugged rubber casing ensure a comfortable and firm hold.

Socket/Telnet remote control via USB, and LAN port.

The

PC Software on help kit CD provides further editing and data analysis functions.

The

3-hour-time battery provides continuous work time during field testing.

The

light sensor adjusts the display brightness according to the environment to save power.

Keys are

back-lit provides easy access in low- light conditions.

Keypad can be

locked and unlocked with password to forbid undesired keypad operation.

Built-in GPS, with built- in GPS antenna (Option

GPS) offers the GPS location for the field testing.

User Data Sanitation (Option SEC) allows user to erase all customized files and data in analyzer for security.

For the latest product information, please refer to the link below: http://www.keysight.com/find/n9342c http://www.keysight.com/find/n9343c http://www.keysight.com/find/n9344c

For the latest upgrade information, please refer to the link below: http://www.keysight.com/find/sa_upgrades

4

Overview

Front Panel Overview

Front Panel Overview

14

13 12 11

N9342CN

100 kHz - 6.0GHz

Handheld Spectrum Analyzer

System

M ode

File

M eas

Limit

Trace

Sw eep

BW

Disp

Amptd

User

Span

Save

Freq

F5

F6

F7

Preset

F3

F4

F1

F2

SHIFT

1

ABC

4

JKL

7

STU

2

DEF

5

MNO

8

VWX

0

Peak

M arker

Esc/ Bksp

3

GHI

6

PQR

9

YZ_

ENTER

10

8

7

6

9

1

2

3 4

5

Caption Function

1 Power Switch Toggles the analyzer between on and off

2 Function keys Includes functional hardkeys for measurements.

3 Preset Returns the analyzer to a known state and turns on/off the power save feature (press for 1 sec.)

4

SHIFT

Switches alternate upper function of the function keys and Peak/Marker hardkey.

5 Enter Confirms a parameter selection or configuration

6 Peak/Marker Activates the peak search or marker function

7 ESC/Bksp

8 Alphanumeric keys

Exits and closes the dialog box or clears the letter input as a back space key.

includes a positive/negative, a decimal point and ten alphanumeric keys

9 Arrow keys

10 Knob

11 Softkeys

12 Speaker

Increases or decreases a parameter step by step

Selects the mode or edits a numerical parameter

Indicates current menu functions on the screen

Actives in demodulation mode

13 Light Sensor Adjusts the screen and hardkey back-light according to the environmental light.

14 Screen Displays spectrum traces and status information

5

6

Overview

Display Annotations

Display Annotations

1

20

19

2

3

4

5

6

7

PA

18 17

16

15

8

9

10 11

12 13

14

3

4

1

2

Description

Time and date

Reference level

Amplitude scale

Associated Function Key

[System] > {Time/Date}

[Amptd]

[Amptd] > [Scale/Div]

5

6

7

Average

Trace and detector

Preamplifier and sweep and trigger mode

Sweep status and trigger type

[Trace] > {More} > {Average}

[Trace] > {More} > {Detector}

[Amptd] > {Preamp} and

[Sweep] > {Trigger}

[Sweep] > {Sweep Setup} and

[System] > {Port setting} > {Ext Input}

[Freq] 8 Center frequency or start frequency

9 Resolution Bandwidth [BW] > {RBW}

10 Display status line Displays status and messages.

Overview

Display Annotations

11 Video bandwidth and frequency offset

12 Frequency span or stop frequency

13 Sweep time

14 Status annunciator

15 Softkey menu

16 Softkey menu title

17 Remote annunciator and shift annunciator

18 Marker information

19 GPS information

20 Attenuation

[BW] > {VBW} or [Freq] > {Freq

Offset}

[Span] or [Freq] > {Stop Freq}

[Sweep] > {Sweep Time}

Power and USB stick status

See key label description in the

Key

Reference

for more information.

Refers to the current activated function

Indicates the remote mode and shift key mode

[Marker]

[System] > {More} > {GPS}

[Amplitude] > {Attenuation}

7

8

Overview

Top Panel Overview

Top Panel Overview

12

11 10

9 8

1

RF Input 50

50 VDC M AX

30dBm (1W) M AX

Ext Pow er

Charging

Antenna

GPS

PC

12-16 VDC

55 W M AX

2 3 4

5

RF Out 50

REV

PWR

50 VDC M AX

30dBm (1W) M AX

LAN

6 7

Items Function

2 LED indicator (Charging) Lights (On) when the battery is charging

3 LED indicator Lights (On) when external DC power is connected.

4 USB interface (Device) Connects to a PC

5 USB interface (Host)

6 Headphone

7 LAN Interface

8 RF OUT Connector

9 Probe power connector

Provides input for the DC power source via an

AC-DC adapter, or Automotive type DC adapter.

Connects to a USB memory stick or disk

Connects to a headphone

Connects to a PC for SCPI remote control

The output for the built-in tracking generator.

Enabled with Option TG7.

Provides power for high- impedance AC probes or other accessories (+15 V, –12 V, 150 mA maximum).

11 GPS antenna connector

12 RF IN Connector (50 Ω)

Connects to an external TTL signal or a 10 MHz reference signal. The trigger the analyzer’s internal sweep

Connects an GPS Antenna (option GPA) for GPS application.

Accepts an external signal input.

Overview

Instrument Markings

Instrument Markings

The CE mark shows that the product complies with all relevant European Legal Directives.

The CSA mark is a registered trademark of the

Canadian Standards Association.

ISM1-A

ICES/NMB-001

All Level 1, 2 or 3 electrical equipment offered for sale in Australia and New Zealand by Responsible Suppliers must be marked with the Regulatory Compliance Mark.

This symbol is an Industrial Scientific and Medical

Group 1 Class A product (CISPR 11, Clause 4)

The ISM device complies with Canadian

Interference- Causing Equipment Standard- 001.

Cet appareil ISM est conforme à la norme NMB- 001 du

Canada.

The instruction manual symbol: indicates that the user must refer to specific instructions in the manual.

The standby symbol is used to mark a position of the instrument power switch.

Indicates the time period during which no hazardous or toxic substance elements are expected to leak or deteriorate during normal use. Forty years is the expected useful life of the product.

Korea Certification indicates this equipment is Class A suitable for professional use and is for use in electromagnetic environments outside of the home.

The symbol indicates this product complies with the

WEEE Directive (2002/96/EC) marking requirements and you must not discard this equipment in domestic household waste.

Do not dispose in domestic household waste. To return unwanted products, contact your local Keysight office, or refer to http://www.keysight.com/environment/product/

9

Overview

Instrument Markings

10

2 Getting Started

Getting Started

Information on checking the analyzer when received, preparation for use, basic instrument use, familiarity with controls, defining preset conditions, updating firmware, and contacting

Keysight Technologies.

11

Getting Started

Checking Shipment and Order List

Checking Shipment and Order List

Check the shipment and order list when you receive the shipment.

Inspect the shipping container for damages.

Signs of damage may include a dented or torn shipping container or cushioning material that might indicate signs of unusual stress or compacting.

Carefully remove the contents from the shipping container, and verify if the standard accessories and your ordered options are included in the shipment.

For any questions, contact the Keysight

Technologies Customer Contact Center (CCC).

See

“Contact Keysight Technologies” on page 164

.

For the latest service information please refer to: http://www.keysight.com/find/assist

12

Getting Started

Power Requirements

Power Requirements

The AC power supplied must meet the following requirements

:

Voltage:

Frequency:

Power:

100 to 240 VAC

50/60 Hz

Maximum 80 W

The AC/DC power supply charger adapter supplied with the analyzer is equipped with a three- wire power cord, in accordance with international safety standards. This power cord grounds the analyzer cabinet when it is connected to an appropriate power line outlet. The power cord appropriate to the original shipping location is included with the analyzer.

Various AC power cables are available from

Keysight that are unique to specific geographic areas. You can order additional AC power cords that are appropriate for use in different areas. The

AC Power Cord table provides a lists of the available AC power cords, the plug configurations, and identifies the geographic area in which each cable is typically used.

The detachable power cord is the product disconnecting device. It disconnects the main AC circuits from the DC supply. The front- panel switch is only a standby switch and does not disconnect the instrument from the AC LINE power.

13

Getting Started

AC Power Cords

Plug Type

250V 10A

250V 10A

AC Power Cords

Cable Part

Number

8121-1703

8120-0696

Plug

a

Description

For use in

Country & Region

BS 1363/A Option 900

United Kingdom, Hong

Kong, Singapore, Malaysia

AS 3112:2000 Option 901

Australia, New Zealand

250V 16A

8120-1692 IEC 83 C4 Option 902

Continental Europe, Korea,

Indonesia, Italy, Russia

125V 10A

8120-1521

8120-2296

CNS 10917-2

/NEMA 5-15P

Option 903

Unite States, Canada,

Taiwan, Mexico

SEV 1011 Option 906

Switzerland

250V 10A

8120-4600 SABS 164-1 Option 917

South Africa, India

230V 15A

8120-4754 JIS C8303 Option 918

Japan

125V 15A

8120-5181 SI 32 Option 919

Israel

250V 16A

8120-8377 GB 1002 Option 922

China

250V 10A a. Plug description describes the plug only. The part number is for the complete cable assembly.

14

Getting Started

Safety Considerations

Safety Considerations

Keysight has designed and tested the N934xC handheld spectrum analyzer for measurement, control and laboratory use in accordance with

Safety Requirements IEC 61010- 1. The tester is supplied in a safe condition. The N934xC is also designed for use in Installation Category II and

Pollution Degree 2 per IEC 61010- 1.

Read the following safety notices carefully before you start to use a N934xC handheld spectrum analyzer to ensure safe operation and to maintain the product in a safe condition.

WARNING

Personal injury may result if the analyzer’s cover is removed. There are no operator-serviceable parts inside.

Always contact Keysight qualified personnel for service.

Disconnect the product from all voltage sources while it is being opened.

WARNING

This product is a Safety Class I analyzer. The main plug should be inserted in a power socket outlet only if provided with a protective earth contact. Any interruption of the protective conductor inside or outside of the product is likely to make the product dangerous. Intentional interruption is prohibited.

WARNING

Electrical shock may result when cleaning the analyzer with the power supply connected. Do not attempt to clean internally.

Use a dry soft cloth to clean the outside case only.

WARNING

Always use the three-pin AC power cord supplied with this product. Failure to ensure adequate earth grounding by not using this cord may cause personal injury and product damage.

15

Getting Started

Safety Considerations

WARNING

Danger of explosion if the battery is incorrectly replaced.

Replace only with the same type battery recommended.

Do NOT dispose of batteries in a fire.

Do NOT place batteries in the trash. Batteries must be recycled or disposed of properly.

Recharge the battery only in the analyzer. If left unused, a fully charged battery will discharge itself over time.

Temperature extremes will affect the ability of the battery to charge. Allow the battery to cool down or warm up as necessary before use or charging.

Storing a battery in extreme hot or cold temperatures will reduce the capacity and lifetime of a battery. Battery storage is recommended at a temperature of less than

25 o

C.

Never use a damaged or worn-out adapter or battery.

Charging the batteries internally, even while the analyzer is powered off, the analyzer may keep warm. To avoid overheating, always disconnect the analyzer from the AC adapter before storing the analyzer into the soft carrying case.

Connect the automotive adapter to the power output connector for IT equipment, when charging the battery on your automotive.

The VxWorks operating system requires full conformity to

USB 1.1 or USB 2.0 standards from a USB disk. Not all the

USB disk are built that way. If you have problems connecting a particular USB disk, please reboot the analyzer before inserting another USB stick.

The analyzer cannot be used in the standard soft carrying case for more than 1 hours if the ambient temperature is higher than 35 o

C.

16

Getting Started

Safety Considerations

Environmental Requirements

The N934xC is designed for use under the following conditions:

Operating temperature:

0 o

C to 40

–10 o

C to +50 o o

C (using AC- DC adapter)

C (using battery)

Storage temperature: –40 o

C to +70 o

C

Battery temperature: 0 o

C to 45 o

C

Humidity: < 95% (40 o

C)

Electrical Requirements

The analyzer allows the use of either a lithium battery pack (internal), AC- DC adapter shipped with the analyzer, or optional automotive +12 VDC adapter for its power supply.

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Precautions

This analyzer was constructed in an ESD protected environment. This is because most of the semiconductor devices used in this analyzer are susceptible to damage by static discharge.

Depending on the magnitude of the charge, device substrates can be punctured or destroyed by contact or proximity of a static charge. The result can cause degradation of device performance, early failure, or immediate destruction.

These charges are generated in numerous ways, such as simple contact, separation of materials, and normal motions of persons working with static sensitive devices.

When handling or servicing equipment containing static sensitive devices, adequate precautions must be taken to prevent device damage or destruction.

Only those who are thoroughly familiar with industry accepted techniques for handling static sensitive devices should attempt to service circuitry with these devices.

17

Getting Started

Working with Batteries

Working with Batteries

The battery provides you approximately 3 hours of operating time for your long time measurement in field test.

Installing a Battery

18

Step Notes

1 Open the battery cover Use a phillips type screwdriver, loosen the retaining screw, then pull the battery cover open.

2 Insert the battery Observe correct battery polarity orientation when installing.

3 Close the battery cover Push the cover closed, then re-fasten the cover with the retaining screw.

Viewing the Battery Status

Determine the battery status using either of the following methods:

Check the battery icon in the lower- right corner of the front- panel screen: it indicates the approximate level of charge.

Press

[System] > {System Info} > {Show System} >

{Page down} to check the current battery information.

Getting Started

Working with Batteries

Charging a Battery

You may charge the battery both in the tester and in the external battery charger (option BCG).

Connect the automotive adapter to the IT power outlet of your automobile (with option 1DC) for battery recharging.

1 Insert the battery in the analyzer.

2 Plug in the AC- DC adapter and switch on the external power.

3 The charge indicator lights, indicating that the battery is charging. When the battery is fully charged, the green charging indicator turns off.

During charging and discharging, the battery voltage, current, and temperature are monitored. If any of the monitored conditions exceed their safety limits, the battery will terminate any further charging or discharging until the error condition is corrected.

The charging time for a fully depleted battery, is approximately four hours.

19

Getting Started

Powering the Analyzer on for the First Time

Powering the Analyzer on for the First Time

Insert the battery into the analyzer or connect the analyzer to an external power supply via the

AC- DC adapter, then press the power switch on the front panel of your N934xC to power on the analyzer.

Use only the original AC-DC adapter or originally supplied battery for the power source.

The maximum RF input level of an average continuous power is 30 dBm (or +50 VDC signal input). Avoid connecting a signal into the analyzer that exceeds the maximum level.

Allow the analyzer to warm- up for 30 minutes before making a calibrated measurement. To meet its specifications, the analyzer must meet operating temperature conditions.

Install battery

Press Power Switch

20

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

Preparation for Use

This section provides the basic system configuration which is frequently used before or after the measurement operation.

Power On and Preset Settings

Selecting a preset type

Press

[SYS] > {PwrOn/Off Preset} > {Preset Type} to choose the preset types. The analyzer has three types of preset setting for you to choose from:

DFT Restores the analyzer to its factory- defined settings. The factory default settings can be found,

“Factory Default Settings” on page 22

.

User Restores the analyzer to a user- defined setting. Refer to the descriptions as below.

Last

Restores the analyzer to the last setting.

Saving a User-defined Preset

If you frequently use system settings that are not the factory defaults, refer to the following steps to create a user- defined system settings that can be easily recalled:

1 Set the analyzer parameters using the knob, the arrow keys, or the numeric keypad.

2 Press [SYS] > {PwrOn/Off Preset} > {Save User} to save the current parameters as the user preset setting.

3 Press [SYS] > {PwrOn/Off Preset} > {Preset Type User} to set the preset mode to user defined system setting.

4 Press [Preset]. The instrument will be set to the state you previously saved.

21

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

Factory Default Settings

Parameter

Center Frequency

Start Frequency

Stop Frequency

Span

Reference Level

Attenuation

Scale/DIV

Scale Type

RBW

VBW

Average Type

Sweep time

Sweep Mode

Probe Power

Trace 1

Trace 2

Trace 3

Trace 4

Trace 1 Detection

Trace 2 Detection

Trace 3 Detection

Trace 4 Detection

Trace Average

Marker

Mode

Default Setting

Specific to Product

0.0 Hz

Specific to Product

Specific to Product

0.0 dBm

Auto (20 dB)

10 dB/DIV

Log

Auto (3 MHz)

Auto (3 MHz)

Log Power

Auto

Normal

Off

Clear write

Blank

Blank

Blank

Pos Peak

Pos Peak

Pos Peak

Pos Peak

All Off

All Off

Spectrum Analyzer

22

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

Visual and Audio Adjustment

Display Adjustment

Press

[System] > {Brightness} > {Brightness} to toggle the screen brightness between

Auto and Man. When it is set to

Auto, the brightness adjusts according to the environment automatically with the built- in light sensor. When it is set to

Man, you can set a fixed brightness value manually.

Setting Button Backlight

Press

[System] > {Keypad Setting} > {BackLight} to toggle the backlight button between

Auto and Man. You can select the backlight brightness and the auto- off idle time in manual mode.

Setting Key Beep

Press

[System] > {Key Settings} >{Beeper} to activate the key beep function as an indicator of key operation.

General System Settings

Provides the following system setting options:

Time/Date

Press

[System] > {Time/Date} to set the date and time of the analyzer.

The allowed input for the time is HHMMSS format, and YYYYMMDD format for the date.

Power Saving

Press

[System] > {Screen Setting} > {Power Saving} to select a power saving mode which turns off the

LCD display after a user- defined idle time. Press any key to re- activate the LCD display after the

LCD display power- saving mode has been triggered.

23

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

Timed Power On/Off

Pressing

[System] > {Power On/Off Preset} > {Timed Pwr

On} or {Timed Pwr Off} sets the time switch to power on/off the N934xC in a user- defined time and date.

This function requires the power supply to be connected or charged battery installed.

Press

{Repeat Mode Once/Everyday} to set the N934xC boot up/off in the pre- saved time everyday. The pre- saved date is invalid in this mode.

IP configuration

The N934xC supports LAN port connection for data transfer. Press

[System] > {Port Setting} > {IP

Admin} > {IP Address Static} to manually set the IP address, gateway and subnet mask with the proper

LAN information. Or, just press

[System] > {Setting}

> {IP Admin} > {IP Address DCHP} to get the IP address in LAN dynamically according DCHP.

Press

{Apply} to enable all the configurations you set.

Ext Input

Toggles the channel for external input between

Ref and

Trig. Ref refers to a 10 MHz reference signal; Trig refers to a TTL signal.

External Reference (Ref)

Use the external reference function as follows:

1 Input a 10 MHz signal into the EXT TRIG IN/REF IN connector.

2 Press [System] > {Port Setting} > {Ext Input Ref} to enable the external reference signal input.

Then, the analyzer will disable the internal reference and switch to accept the external reference.

24

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

NOTE

External Trigger (Trig)

When an external TTL signal is used for the triggering function, the analyzer uses the inner reference as default.

Use the external trigger function as follows:

1 Press [System] > {Port Setting} > {Ext Input Trig} to enable the external TTL signal input.

2 Press [SPAN] > {Zero Span} to activate the Trigger function.

3 Access the associated softkeys to select the rising edge (

Ext Rise) or the falling edge (Ext Fall) as the trigger threshold.

The trace will halt in external trigger mode until the trigger threshold is met or the free run function is activated.

Show System

Pressing

[System] > {System Info} > {Show system}

displays the following hardware, software, and battery information of the analyzer:

Machine Model

MCU Firmware Version

DSP Firmware Version

FPGA Firmware Version

RF Firmware Version

RF Module S/N

KeyBoard Module S/N

This Run Time

Temperature

Source Voltage

Power Source

Battery Info

Name

Serial NO.

Capacity

Temperature

Charge Cycles

Voltage

Current

Charge Status

Remain Time

Host ID

25

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

Adding an Option

Pressing

[System] > {More} > {Service} > {Add Option}

brings up a dialog box for entering the option license code. Use the numeric keypad to input the option license code and then use the

[ENTER] key as a terminator. If the analyzer recognizes the option license code, a message “Option activated

successfully” will appear in the status line.

Otherwise, a message “Invalid option licence” will appear in the status line. Press

[System] > {System

Info} > {Installed Options} to view the options.

Show Error

Pressing

[System] > {System Info} > {Error history} accesses a list of the 30 most recent error messages. The most recent error will appear at the bottom of the list. If the error list is longer than 30 entries, the analyzer reports an error message

[–350, Query overflow] . For more information, refer to

“Error Messages” on page 155

.

Perform Calibration

The N934xC provides three manual calibration function to calibrate the time base and amplitude.

The analyzer should warm up for 30 minutes before calibration.

Time Base Calibration

Perform a time base calibration to guarantee the frequency accuracy.

When the calibration function is triggered, the current measurement is interrupted and a gauge displays on the LCD. A message will display on the

LCD which indicates the calibration is finished, and the interrupted measurement restarts.

Please refer to the operation procedures below:

1 Input a 10 MHz, 0 dBm signal to EXT TRIG IN.

2 Press [System] > {More} > {Service} > {Calibration} >

{Time Base by Ext} to initiate a calibration.

26

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

NOTE

The analyzer provides the GPS time base calibration function (Option GPS is required).

Locate the analyzer on an open ground to receive the GPS signal from satellites. Then press

[System]

> {More} > {Service} > {Calibration} > {Time Base by GPS}

to perform a GPS time base calibration.

Time base calibration takes only a short time when the inner temperature is stable. When the inner temperature is increasing, calibration takes a long period of time or will fail. If the input reference signal is abnormal, the calibration cycle will take a long and unpredictable time to exit, and the LCD displays an error message.

Amplitude Calibration

The analyzer provides the internal amplitude calibration function. Please refer to the procedures below to perform an amplitude calibration:

1 Press [System] > {More} > {Service} > {Calibration} >

{Amplitude calibration} > {Calibration}

2 Connect a 50 MHz CW signal to RF IN connector.

The allowed amplitude range is from –2 dBm to

2 dBm. Then press

[Enter] to continue.

3 Input the amplitude number of the 50 MHz signal in the pop- up window and press

[Enter] as a terminator.

The analyzer will perform a calibration according to the input amplitude value. Press

{Clear data} to set to the factory- preset status with default amplitude calibration data. The amplitude calibration function is only available with the firmware revision A.02.08 or later.

27

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

Data Securities

The N934xC offers the optional memory erase function for data security. Press

[System] > {More} >

{Securities} > {Erase Memory} to erase all the user data in internal memory. Press Enter as a terminator to start the erase process immediately.

The memory erase process takes 15 minutes approximately. During the erase process, there must be a constant power supply to ensure the successful erase. If the erase process is interrupted, please reboot the instrument and erase memory again.

Upgrading Firmware

Please follow the steps below to update the firmware:

1 Download the latest N934xC firmware from http://www.keysight.com/find/sa_upgrades

2 Extract files to the root directory of a USB stick.

You will see a folder named “N934xDATA” with file Bappupgrade.hy.

3 Insert the USB stick into the top panel USB connector.

4 Press [System] > {More} > {Service} > {Upgrade

Firmware} to activate the updating procedure.

Press

Enter to upgrade the firmware. The analyzer will perform the update automatically.

5 Unplug the USB stick and restart the analyzer when message “All modules have been upgraded, please restart” is displayed.

6 Press [System] > {System Info} > {Show System} to find the updated MCU firmware version.

In updating process, there must be a constant power supply to for at least 15 minutes. If power fails during the updating process it can cause damage to the instrument.

28

Getting Started

Preparation for Use

Probe Power Output

The Probe Power provides power for high- impedance AC probes or other accessories

(+15 V, –12V, 150 mA maximum).

The Probe power is set to off as default. Press

[System] > {More} {Port Setting} > {Probe Power On} to switch on the probe power output.

29

Getting Started

HSA and BSA PC software

HSA and BSA PC software

NOTE

Keysight HSA and BSA PC software is an easy- to- use, PC- based remote control tool for the

N9342C/43C/44C HSA handheld spectrum analyzer.

It is able to be discretely used as a spectrum monitor to display and control the trace scans simultaneously with the analyzer, or a file manager to send/get files between the analyzer and PC. It also provides some data analysis function for your further use.

You can get this software in the Help Kit CD, or download from http://www.keysight.com/find/n9342c

.

To connect the analyzer via the USB/LAN port to a PC, no extra driver is required. All you need is the Keysight IO libraries suite, which is in the Help kit CD shipped with your analyzer, or download the IO libraries suite from http://www.keysight.com/find/iolib

For the further description of the HSA PC software, please refer to the online help embedded in this software.

30

Getting Started

Making Basic Measurements

Making Basic Measurements

This section provides information on basic analyzer operations. It assumes that you are familiar with the front and top panel buttons and keys, and display annotations of your analyzer. If you are

not, please refer to

“Front Panel Overview” on page 5

,

“Top Panel Overview” on page 8

, and

“Instrument

Markings” on page 9

.

For more details on making measurements, please refer to

“Functions and Measurements” on page 33

”.

Entering Data

When setting measurement parameters, there are several ways to enter or modify active function values:

1 Using the Front Panel Knob

Increases or decreases the current value.

2 Using the Arrow Keys

Increases or decreases the current value by the step unit defined.

Press

[Freq] > {CF Step} to set the frequency by an auto- coupled step (Step = Span/10, when mode is set to

Auto).

{CF Step}

3 Using the Numeric Keypad

Enters a specific value. Press a terminator key

(either a specified unit softkey or

[ENTER]) to confirm input.

4 Using the Shift Hardkey

Press the blue shift key first, then press the function hardkeys to select the upper alternative function.

5 Using the Enter Key

Terminates an entry or confirms a selection.

31

Getting Started

Making Basic Measurements

Viewing a Signal on the Analyzer

1 Use a signal generator to generate a CW signal of 1.0 GHz, at a power level of 0.0 dBm.

2 Press [System] > {PwrOn/Off Preset} > {Preset Type} and

select DFT to toggle the preset setting to the factory- defined status.

3 Press the green [Preset] key to restore the analyzer to its factory- defined setting.

4 Connect the generator’s RF OUT connector to the analyzer’s

RF IN connector.

5 Press [Freq] > 1 > {GHz} to set the analyzer center frequency to 1 GHz.

6 Press [Span] > 5 > {MHz} to set the analyzer frequency span to 5 MHz.

7 Press [Peak] to place a marker (M1) at the highest peak (1 GHz) on the display.

The Marker amplitude and frequency values appear in the function block and in the upper- right corner of the screen.

Use the front- panel knob, arrow keys, or the softkeys in the Peak Search menu to move the marker and show the value of both frequency and amplitude displayed on the screen.

Figure 2-1 View a signal (1 GHz, 0 dBm)

32

Functions and Measurements

3

Functions and Measurements

33

Functions and Measurements

Measuring Multiple Signals

Measuring Multiple Signals

This section provides information on measuring multiple signals.

Comparing Signals on the Same Screen

The N934xC can easily compare frequency and amplitude signal differences, for example, measuring radio or television signal spectra. The

Delta Marker function allows two signals to be compared when both appear on the screen at the same time.

In the following example, a 50 MHz signal is used to measure frequency and amplitude differences between two signals on the same screen. The Delta

Marker function is demonstrated in this example.

1 Press [Preset] to set the analyzer to the factory default setting.

2 Input a signal (0 dB, 50 MHz) to the RF IN connector of the analyzer.

3 Set the analyzer start frequency, stop frequency, and reference level to view the 50 MHz signal and its harmonics up to 100 MHz:

Press

[FREQ] > 40 > {MHz}

Press

[FREQ] > 110 > {MHz}

Press

[AMPTD] > 0 > {dBm}

4 Press [PEAK] to place a marker on the highest peak on the display (50 MHz).

The

{Next Left PK} and {Next Right PK} softkeys are available to move the marker from peak to peak.

5 Press [Marker] > {Delta} to anchor the first marker

(labeled as M1) and activate a delta marker.

The label on the first marker now reads 1R, indicating that it is the reference point.

34

Functions and Measurements

Measuring Multiple Signals

NOTE

6 Move the second marker to another signal peak using the front panel knob. In this example the next peak is 100 MHz, a harmonic of the 50 MHz signal:

Press

[Peak] > {Next Right PK} or {Next Left PK}.

To increase the resolution of the marker readings, turn on the frequency count function. For more information, please

refer to

“Improving Frequency Resolution and

Accuracy” on page 44

.

Figure 3 Delta pair marker with signals (same screen)

35

Functions and Measurements

Measuring Multiple Signals

Resolving Signals of Equal Amplitude

In this example a decrease in resolution bandwidth is used in combination with a decrease in video bandwidth to resolve two signals of equal amplitude with a frequency separation of 100 kHz.

Notice that the final RBW selected is the same width as the signal separation, while the VBW is slightly narrower than the RBW.

1 Connect two sources to the analyzer input as shown below.

Figure 4 Setup for obtaining two signals

Remot e

Standby

On

N 9310A RF Signal Generator 9 kHz - 3.0 GHz

Frequency

Amplit ude

4

1

Ent er

7 8

5

2

AM

FM

M

9

6

3

I/Q

FUN CTION S

U tility

Sw eep

Pulse

File

Trig ger

Preset

Local

LF Out

M OD

On/ Off

0 RF

On/ Off

LF OUT RF OU T 50

REVERSE PW R

4W M AX 30VDC

Signal generator

Directional coupler

Rem ote

On

Standby

N9310A RF Signal Generator 9 kHz - 3.0 GHz

Frequency

Am plitude

Enter

7

4

8

5

AM

FM

M

9

6

I/ Q

FUN CTIONS

Ut ility

Sw eep

Pulse

File

Trigger

Preset

Local

LF Out

M OD

On/ Off

3 1

0

2

RF

On/ Off

LF OUT RF OUT 50

REVERSE PWR

4 W MA X 30 VD C

Signal generator

2 Set one source to 300 MHz. Set the frequency of the other source to 300.1 MHz. Set both source amplitudes to –20 dBm.

3 Setup the analyzer to view the signals:

Press

[PRESET]

Press

[FREQ] > 300.05 > {MHz}

Press

[SPAN] > 2 > {MHz}

Press

[BW] > 30 > {kHz}

36

Functions and Measurements

Measuring Multiple Signals

Use the knob or the arrow keys to further reduce the resolution bandwidth and better resolve the signals.

As you decrease the resolution bandwidth, you improve the resolution of the individual signals and it also increases the sweep timing. For fastest measurement times, use the widest possible resolution bandwidth.

Under factory preset conditions, the resolution bandwidth is coupled to the span.

Figure 5 Resolving signals of equal amplitude

37

Functions and Measurements

Measuring Multiple Signals

Resolving Small Signals Hidden by Large

Signals

This example uses narrow resolution bandwidths to resolve two input signals with a frequency separation of 50 kHz and an amplitude difference of 60 dB.

1 Connect two sources to the analyzer input connector as shown in

Figure 4 on page 36

.

2 Set one source to 300 MHz at –10 dBm. Set the other source to 300.05 MHz at –70 dBm.

3 Set the analyzer as follows:

Press

[PRESET]

Press

[FREQ] > 300.05 > {MHz}

Press

[SPAN] > 500 > {kHz}

Press

[BW] > 300 > {Hz}

4 Reduce the resolution bandwidth filter to view the smaller hidden signal. Place a delta marker on the smaller signal:

Press

[Peak]

Press

[MARKER] > {Delta}

Press

[Peak] > {Next Right PK} or {Next Left PK}

Figure 6 Resolving a small signal hidden by a larger signal

38

Functions and Measurements

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

This section provides information on measuring low- level signals and distinguishing them from spectrum noise. There are four techniques used to measure low- level signals.

Reducing Input Attenuation

The ability to measure a low- level signal is limited by internally generated noise in the spectrum analyzer.

The input attenuator affects the level of a signal passing through the analyzer. If a signal is very close to the noise floor, reducing input attenuation will bring the signal out of the noise.

1 Preset the analyzer:

2 Input a signal (1 GHz, –80 dBm) to RF IN.

3 Set the CF, span and reference level:

Press

[FREQ] > 1 > {GHz}

Press

[SPAN] > 5 > {MHz}

Press

[AMPTD] > –40 > {dBm}

4 Move the desired peak (1 GHz) to the center of the display:

Press

[Peak]

Press

[MARKER] > {Marker To} > {To Center}

Figure 7 A signal closer to the noise level (Atten: 10 dB)

39

Functions and Measurements

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

5 Reduce the span to 1 MHz and if necessary re- center the peak.

Press

[SPAN] > 1 > {MHz}

6 Set the attenuation to 20 dB. Note that increasing the attenuation moves the noise floor closer to the signal level.

Press

[AMPTD] > {Attenuation} > 20 > {dB}

Figure 8 A signal closer to the noise level (Atten: 20 dB)

7 Press [AMPTD] >{Attenuation} > 0 > {dB} to set the attenuation to 0 dB.

Figure 9 A signal closer to the noise level (Atten: 0 dB)

40

Functions and Measurements

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Decreasing the Resolution Bandwidth

Resolution bandwidth settings affect the level of internal noise without affecting the amplitude level of continuous wave (CW) signals. Decreasing the

RBW by a decade reduces the noise floor by 10 dB.

1 Refer to

“Reducing Input Attenuation” on page 39

,

and follow steps 1, 2 and 3.

2 Decrease the resolution bandwidth:

Press

[BW], and toggle RBW setting to Man

(manual), then decrease the resolution bandwidth using the knob, the arrow keys or the numeric keypad.

The low level signal appears more clearly because the noise level is reduced.

Figure 10 Decreasing resolution bandwidth

41

Functions and Measurements

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Using the Average Detector and

Increased Sweep Time

The analyzer’s noise floor response may mask low- level signals. Selecting the instruments averaging detector and increasing the sweep time will smooth the noise and improve the signal’s visibility. Slower sweep times are necessary to average noise variations.

1 Refer to

“Reducing Input Attenuation” on page 39

, and follow steps 1, 2, and 3.

2 Press [TRACE] > {More} > {Detector} > {Average} to select the average detector.

3 Press [Sweep] > {Sweep Time} to set the sweep time to 500 ms.

Note how the noise appears to smooth out. The analyzer has more time to average the values for each of the displayed data points.

4 Press [BW] > {Avg Type} to change the average type.

Figure 11 Using the average detector

42

Functions and Measurements

Measuring a Low-Level Signal

Trace Averaging

Averaging is a digital process in which each trace point is averaged with the previous sweep’s data average for the same trace point.

Selecting averaging, when the analyzer is auto coupled, changes the detection mode to sample, smoothing the displayed noise level.

NOTE

This is a trace processing function and is not the same as using the average detector (as described on

page 42

).

1 Refer to the first procedure

“Reducing Input

Attenuation” on page 39

, and follow steps 1, 2, and 3.

2 Press [TRACE] > {Average} (On) to turn average on.

3 Press 50 > [ENTER] to set the average number to

50.

As the averaging routine smooths the trace, low level signals become more visible.

Figure 12 Trace averaging

43

Functions and Measurements

Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy

Improving Frequency Resolution and Accuracy

NOTE

This section provides information on using the frequency counter to improve frequency resolution and accuracy.

Marker count properly functions only on CW signals or discrete spectral components. The marker must be > 40 dB above the displayed noise level.

1 Press [PRESET] (factory preset)

2 Input a signal (1 GHz, –30 dBm) to the analyzer’s

RF IN connector.

3 Set the center frequency to 1 GHz and the span to 5 MHz.

4 Press [MARKER] > {Function} > {Counter} to turn the frequency counter on.

5 Move the marker by rotating the knob to a point half- way down the skirt of the signal response.

6 Press [MARKER] > {Function} > {Normal} to turn off the marker counter.

Figure 13 Using the frequency counter

44

Functions and Measurements

Making Distortion Measurements

Making Distortion Measurements

This section provides information on measuring and identifying signal distortion

.

Identifying Analyzer Generated Distortion

High level input signals may cause analyzer distortion products that could mask the real distortion present on the measured signal. Use trace and the RF attenuator to determine which signals, if any, may be internally generated distortion products.

In this example, a signal from a signal generator is used to determine whether the harmonic distortion products are generated by the analyzer.

1 Input a signal (200 MHz, –10 dBm) to the analyzer

RF IN connector.

2 Set the analyzer center frequency and span:

Press

[Preset] (factory preset)

Press

[Freq] > 400 > {MHz}

Press

[Span] > 700 > {MHz}

The signal produces harmonic distortion products

(spaced 200 MHz from the original 200 MHz signal).

Figure 14 Harmonic distortion

45

Functions and Measurements

Making Distortion Measurements

3 Change the center frequency to the value of the second (400 MHz) harmonic:

Press

[Peak]

Press

[Marker] > {Marker To} > {To Center}

4 Change the span to 50 MHz and re- center the signal:

Press

[Span] > 50 > {MHz}

Press

[Peak]

5 Set the attenuation to 0 dB:

Press

[Amptd] > {Attenuation} > 0 > {dB}

Press

[Marker] > {Marker To} > {To Ref}

6 To determine whether the harmonic distortion products are generated by the analyzer, first save the trace data in trace 2 as follows:

Press

[Trace] > {Trace (2)}

Press

[Trace] > {Clear Write}

7 Allow trace 2 to update (minimum two sweeps), then store the data from trace 2 and place a delta marker on the harmonic of trace 2:

Press

[Trace] > {View}

Press

[Peak]

Press

[Marker] > {Delta}

The

Figure 15

shows the stored data in trace 2 and the measured data in trace 1. The Marker Delta indicator reads the difference in amplitude between the reference and active trace markers.

46

Functions and Measurements

Making Distortion Measurements

Figure 15 Identifying Analyzer Distortion (O dB atten)

8 Press [AMPTD] > {Attenuation} > 10 > {dB} to increase the RF attenuation to 10 dB.

Figure 16 Identifying Analyzer Distortion (10 dB atten)

The marker readout comes from two sources:

Increased input attenuation causes poorer signal- to- noise ratio. This causes the marker delta value to be positive.

Reduced contribution of the analyzer circuits to the harmonic measurement causes the marker to be negative.

A large marker delta value readout indicates significant measurement errors. Set the input attenuator at a level to minimize the absolute value of marker delta.

47

Functions and Measurements

Making Distortion Measurements

Third-Order Intermodulation Distortion

Two- tone, third- order intermodulation (TOI) distortion is a common test in communication systems. When two signals are present in a non- linear system, they may interact and create third- order intermodulation distortion products that are located close to the original signals.

System components such as amplifiers and mixers generate these distortion products.

In this example we test a device for third- order intermodulation using markers. Two sources are used, one is set to 300 MHz and the other to

301 MHz.

1 Connect the equipment as shown in figure below.

Remote

Standby

On

N9310A RF Signal Generator 9 kHz - 3.0 GHz

Frequency

Amplitude

4

1

Enter

7

0

8

5

2

AM

FM

M

9

6

3

I/ Q

FUNCTIONS

Utility

Sw eep

Pulse

File

Trigger

MOD

On/ Off

RF

On/ Off

LF OUT RF OUT 50

Preset

Local

LF Out

REVERSE PWR

4W MAX 30 VDC

Signal generator

Directional coupler

Remote

Standby

On

N9310A RF Signal Generator 9 kHz - 3.0 GHz

Frequency

Amplitude

Enter

7

1

4

0

8

5

2

AM

FM

M

9

6

3

I/ Q

FUNCTIONS

Utility

Sw eep

Pulse

File

Trigger

Preset

Local

LF Out

MOD

On/ Off

RF

On/ Off

LF OUT RF OUT 50

REVERSE PW R

4W MA X 30VDC

Signal generator

This combination of signal generators and directional coupler (used as a combiner) results in a two- tone source with very low intermodulation distortion.

Although the distortion from this setup may be better than the specified performance of the analyzer, it is useful for determining the TOI performance of the source/analyzer combination.

48

Functions and Measurements

Making Distortion Measurements

NOTE

After the performance of the source/analyzer combination has been verified, the DUT (device under test, for example, an amplifier) would be inserted between the directional coupler output and the analyzer input.

The coupler used should have a high isolation between the two input ports to limit the sources intermodulation.

2 Set one source (signal generator) to 300 MHz and the other source to 301 MHz. This will define the frequency separation at 1 MHz. Set both sources equal in amplitude, as measured by the analyzer. In this example, they are both set to –5 dBm.

3 Set the analyzer center frequency and span:

Press

[PRESET] (Factory preset)

Press

[FREQ] > 300.5 > {MHz}

Press

[SPAN] > 5 > {MHz}

4 Reduce the RBW until the distortion products are visible:

Press

[BW] > {RBW}, and reduce the RBW using the knob, the arrow keys or the numeric keypad.

5 Move the signal to the reference level:

Press

[Peak]

Press

[MARKER] > {Marker To} > {To Ref}

6 Reduce the RBW until the distortion products are visible:

Press

[BW] > {RBW}, and reduce the RBW using the knob, the arrow keys or the numeric keypad

.

7 Activate the second marker and place it on the peak of the distortion product (beside the test signal) using the

Next Peak:

Press

[MARKER] > {Delta}

Press

[Peak] > {Next Left (Right) PK}

49

Functions and Measurements

Making Distortion Measurements

8 Measure the other distortion product:

Press

[MARKER] > {Normal}

Press

[Peak] > {Next Left (Right) Peak}

9 Measure the difference between this test signal and the second distortion product.

Press

[MARKER] > {Normal}

Press

[Peak] > {Next Left/Right Peak}

Figure 17 TOI test screen

50

Functions and Measurements

Making a Stimulus Response Transmission Measurement

Making a Stimulus Response Transmission

Measurement

The procedure below describes how to use a built- in tracking generator to measure the rejection of a low pass filter, a type of transmission measurement.

1 To measure the rejection of a low pass filter, connect the equipment as shown below.

A 370 MHz low- pass filter is used as a DUT in this example.

Figure 18 Transmission Measurement Test Setup

DUT

100 kH z - 3.0 GHz

HANDHELD SPECTRUM ANALYZER

PRESET

1

ABC

4

JKL

2

D EF

5

M N O

7

STU

8

VWX

3

GHI

6PQR

9

YZ_

M ARKER

0 SAVE LIM IT

ESC/ CLR

ENTER

SYS MODE M EAS TRACE

BW/

SWP

AMPTD SPAN FREQ

2 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.

3 Set the start and stop frequencies and resolution bandwidth:

Press

[FREQ] > {Start Freq} > 100 > {MHz}

Press

[FREQ] > {Stop Freq} > 1 > {GHz}

Press

[BW] > {RBW} > 1 > {MHz}

4 Turn on the tracking generator and if necessary, set the output power to –10 dBm:

Press

[MODE] > {Track Generator} > {Amplitude (On)} >

–10 > {dBm}.

Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed the maximum power that the device under test can tolerate.

51

Functions and Measurements

Making a Stimulus Response Transmission Measurement

5 Press [Sweep] > {Sweep Time (Auto)} to put the sweep time into stimulus response auto coupled mode.

6 Increase the measurement sensitivity and smooth the noise:

Press

[BW] > {RBW} > 30 > {kHz}

Press

[BW] > {VBW} > 30 > {kHz}

A decrease in the displayed amplitude is caused by tracking error.

7 Connect the cable from the tracking generator output to the analyzer input. Store the frequency response in trace 4 and normalize:

Press

[MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Store Ref} (1 4) >

{Normalize (On)}

8 Reconnect the DUT to the analyzer and change the normalized reference position:

Press

[MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Norm Ref Posn} > 8 >

[ENTER]

9 Measure the rejection of the low- pass filter:

Press

[Marker] > {Normal} > 370 > MHz, {Delta} > 130

> {MHz}

The marker readout displays the rejection of the filter at 130 MHz above the cutoff frequency of the low- pass filter.

Figure 19 Measure the Rejection Range

52

Functions and Measurements

Measuring Stop Band Attenuation of a Low-pass Filter

Measuring Stop Band Attenuation of a

Low-pass Filter

When measuring filter characteristics, it is useful to look at the stimulus response over a wide frequency range. Setting the analyzer x- axis

(frequency) to display logarithmically provides this function. The following example uses the tracking generator to measure the stop band attenuation of a 370 MHz low pass filter.

1 Connect the DUT as shown in

Figure 18 on page 51

. This example uses a 370 MHz low pass

filter.

2 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.

3 Set the start and stop frequencies:

Press

[FREQ] > {Start Freq} > 100 > {MHz}

Press

[FREQ] > {Stop Freq} > 1 > {GHz}

Press

[AMPTD] > {Scale Type} > {Log}

4 Press [BW] > 10 > {kHz} to set the resolution bandwidth to 10 kHz.

Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed the maximum power that the device under test can tolerate.

5 Turn on the tracking generator and if necessary, set the output power to - 10 dBm:

Press

[MODE] > {Track Generator} > {Amplitude (On)} >

–10 > {dBm}.

6 Press [Sweep] > {Sweep Time (Auto)} to put the sweep time into stimulus response auto coupled mode. Adjust the reference level if necessary to place the signal on screen.

7 Connect the cable (but not the DUT) from the tracking generator output to the analyzer input.

Store the frequency response into trace 4 and normalize:

Press

[MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Store Ref} (1 4) >

{Normalize (On)}

53

Functions and Measurements

Measuring Stop Band Attenuation of a Low-pass Filter

8 Reconnect the DUT to the analyzer. Note that the units of the reference level have changed to dB, indicating that this is now a relative measurement.

9 To change the normalized reference position:

Press

[MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Norm Ref Posn} > 8 >

[ENTER]

10Place the reference marker at the specified cutoff frequency:

Press

[MARKER] > {Mode} > {Normal} > 370 > MHz

11 Set the 2nd marker as a delta frequency of

37 MHz:

Press

{Delta} > 37 > MHz

12In this example, the attenuation over this frequency range is 19.16 dB/octave (one octave above the cutoff frequency).

13Use the front- panel knob to place the marker at the highest peak in the stop band to determine the minimum stop band attenuation. In this example, the peak occurs at 600 MHz. The attenuation is 51.94 dB.

Figure 20 Minimum Stop Band Attenuation

54

Functions and Measurements

Making a Reflection Calibration

Making a Reflection Calibration

The following procedure makes a reflection calibration using a coupler or directional bridge to measure the return loss of a filter. This example uses a 370 MHz low- pass filter as the DUT. The tracking generator (option TG7) is needed for this measurement. For N9342C handheld spectrum analyzer with option CA7 or CAU, please refer to the

“Measuring Cable Reflection” on page 84

to make

a reflection measurement.

The calibration standard for reflection calibration is usually a short circuit connected at the reference plane (the point at which the DUT is connected). A short circuit has a reflection coefficient of 1 (0 dB return loss). It reflects all incident power and provides a convenient 0 dB reference.

1 Connect the DUT to the directional bridge or coupler as shown below. Terminate the unconnected port of the DUT.

Figure 21

Reflection Measurement Short Calibration Test Setup

Short

Circuit or

DUT

Coupled Port

100 kH z - 3.0 GHz

HAN DHELD SPECTRU M ANALYZER

SYS M ODE MEAS TRACE

BW/

SWP AM PTD SPAN

PRESET

1ABC

4JKL

7STU

2 DEF 3 GHI

5MNO

8VWX

6PQR

9 YZ_

0SAVE

LIM IT

M ARKER ESC/ CLR

ENTER

FREQ

NOTE

If possible, use a coupler or bridge with the correct test port connector types for both calibrating and measuring. For the best results, use the same adapter for the calibration and the measurement. Terminate the second port of a two port device.

2 Connect the tracking generator output of the analyzer to the directional bridge or coupler.

55

Functions and Measurements

Making a Reflection Calibration

NOTE

3 Connect the analyzer input to the coupled port of the directional bridge or coupler.

4 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.

5 Turn on the tracking generator and if necessary, set the output power to –10 dBm:

Press

[MODE] > {Track Generator} > {Amplitude (On)} >

–10 > {dBm}

Excessive signal input may damage the DUT. Do not exceed the maximum power that the device under test can tolerate.

6 Set the start and stop frequencies and RBW:

Press

[FREQ] > {Start Freq} > 100 > {MHz}

Press

[FREQ] > {Stop Freq} > 1 > {GHz}

Press

[BW] > 1 > MHz

7 Replace the DUT with a short circuit.

8 Press [MEAS] > {Normalize} > {Store Ref (1 4)} >

{Normalize (On)} to normalize the trace.

It activates the trace 1 minus trace 4 function and displays the results in trace 1. The normalized trace or flat line represents 0 dB return loss. Normalization occurs in each sweep.

Replace the short (cal device) with the DUT.

Since the reference trace is stored in trace 4, changing trace 4 to Clear Write invalidates the normalization.

Figure 22 Short Circuit Normalized

56

Functions and Measurements

Measuring Return Loss Using the Reflection Calibration Routine

Measuring Return Loss Using the Reflection

Calibration Routine

This procedure uses the reflection calibration routine in the previous procedure

“Making a

Reflection Calibration” on page 55

, to calculate the

return loss of the 370 MHz low- pass filter.

1 After calibrating the system with the above procedure, reconnect the filter in place of the short (cal device) without changing any analyzer settings.

2 Use the marker to read return loss. Position the marker with the front- panel knob to read the return loss at that frequency.

Rotate the knob to find the highest peak and the readout is the maximum return loss.

Figure 23 Measuring the Return Loss of the Filter

57

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

Making a Power Measurement with USB

Power Sensor

Average power measurements provide a key metric in transmitter performance.

Base station transmit power must be set accurately to achieve optimal coverage in wireless networks. If the transmit power is set too high due to inaccurate power measurements, undesired interference can occur. If the transmit power is set too low, coverage gaps or holes may occur. Either case may affect system capacity and may translate into decreased revenue for service providers.

Figure 24 Connection with base station

58

Average power can be measured for the channel of interest while the base station is active. All other channels should be inactive. Average power is a broadband measurement. If other signals are present the analyzer will also measure their power contributions.

The maximum power for the RF IN port and the RF OUT port of the analyzer is +20 dBm. The maximum power for the Power

Sensor port is +24 dBm. When directly coupled to a base station, the test set can be damaged by excessive power applied to any of these three ports.

To prevent damage in most situations when directly coupling an analyzer to a base station, use a high power attenuator between the analyzer and the BTS.

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

The N934xC spectrum analyzer supports the U2000 and U2020 series USB power sensors.

The U2000 Series USB power sensors do not need manual calibration and zero routines performed.

Calibration and zeroing are performed without removing the power sensor from the source, through internal zeroing. With internal zeroing of

U2000 Series USB power sensors, there is no need to disconnect the sensor or power- off the DUT. The

U2000 Series do not require 50 MHz reference signal calibration, allowing the factory calibration to ensure measurement accuracy. For best accuracy, users are recommended to perform external zeroing for input signals below - 30 dBm for best accuracy

.

NOTE

If you suspect other signals may be present, it is recommended that you turn off all the other channels and measure average power only on the signal of interest.

Another option is to measure channel power (which is less accurate), that filters out all other channels (signals). You can measure channel power for CDMA using the CDMA Analyzer or CDMA Over Air tool. For other modulation formats, use their respective analyzers (that is, GSM, 1xEV-DO, or

W-CDMA) or measure channel power using either the spectrum analyzer or the Channel Scanner tool.

NOTE

Connect the power meter as close as possible to the power amplifier/duplexer output. Do not use a coupled port. Sensors may not be as accurate at the power levels provided by coupled ports.

59

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

Making an Average Power Measurement

To make an average power measurement, connect the power sensor and cable, zero and calibrate the meter, before making a measurement.

Zeroing of the Power Meter will occur automatically:

Every time the Power Meter function is used.

When a 5 degree C. change in instrument temperature occurs.

Whenever the power sensor is changed.

Every 24 hours (min.).

Before measuring low level signals -for example,

10 dB above the lowest specified power the power sensor is capable of.

Calibrate the Power Meter every time you cycle the power on and off.

In most situations, you can press

{Zero} to complete the two steps (zero and cal) together.

To Make a Basic Average Power Measurement

You can follow the steps below to make a basic average power measurement.

1 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.

2 Press [MODE] > {Power Meter} to access the power meter mode.

3 Zero and calibrate the meter. Press {Zeroing} to make a zero operation of the power sensor followed by a calibration operation.

4 Connect the power sensor to the RF Input

50 MHz port. The analyzer supports the U2000 series power sensors.

To prevent damage to your sensor, do not exceed the power

U2000/1/2A +25 dBm (320 mW) average, 20 VDC

+33 dBm (2 W) peak, <10 μs

For more information on the maximum power of U2000 series power sensors, please refer to the Operating and Service

Guide of Keysight U2000 Series USB Power Sensors.

60

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

5 Connect the external attenuation, if required, with the power sensor used.

6 Connect the power sensor to the signal to be measured. A typical base transceiver station connection is after the output of the power amplifier and duplexer. The connection requires a 2 ft. cable and two Type- N barrel connectors, in addition to the power sensor and external attenuator.

7 Press Meas Setup > Disp Range to set the display range of the measurement. when it is set to

On, the display range will be adjusted automatically according to the signal power dynamic range.

When it is set to Off, press

Top and Bottom to set the display range manually.

8 Press General Setup > Freq to set the power frequency for the DUT. The current frequency will display in the bottom line.

9 Press Power Range > Auto Power to toggles the measurement range between

On and Off. When it is set to

On, the power range will be adjusted automatically. Use auto range when you are not sure of the power level you are about to measure. When it is set to

Off, press Range to select the upper range or lower range. The lower range uses the more sensitive path and the upper range uses the attenuated path.

Table 1 Power Sensor Range

Sensor

U2000/1/2/4A

U2000/1/2H

U2000/1B

Lower range Upper range

–60 dBm to –7 dBm –7 dBm to +20 dBm

–50 dBm to +3 dBm +3 dBm to +30 dBm

–30 dBm to +23 dBm +23 dBm to +44 dBm

61

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

10Press Meas > Meas Seup > Disp Mode to set the display in meter. chart or trace display. the measurement result will displays on the screen as shown.

Figure 25 Power Measurement

62

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

Making a Peak Power Measurement

NOTE

The Keysight U2020 X- series USB peak and average power sensors enable peak power measurements that have the same accuracy as measurements obtained using traditional peak power meters, while providing the advantages of being a very compact and portable form factor.

Follow the steps below to make a peak power measurement.

1 Press Mode > Power Meter to access the power meter mode.

2 Connect the power sensor to the USB port of

N9322C. The sensor will automatically initialize, perform zeroing (While remaining connected to the device under test), and calibrate without connecting to an external source.

You can manually perform zeroing and calibration by pressing

Zeroing > Zeroing and Calibration at any time after the sensor is connected and initialized.

3 Press General Setup > Freq to set the frequency of the signal under test.

As a wideband device, the power sensor has a frequency response. The power sensor utilizes a complex correction algorithm to remove power measurement error due to linearity error, frequency response, and temperature drift to generate a more accurate measurement.

The analyzer provide the customer preset function with U2020 X- series power sensor. Press

Meas >

Preset and the predefined protocol list will pop up.

Select the wanted item and press

Preset as a terminator. The related settings will be set automatically.

63

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

Figure 26 Customized Preset the U2020 Power Sensor

4 Press Meas Disp > Disp Mode > Trace to find the

measurement results as

Figure 27

below.

Figure 27 Peak Power Measurement

64

Marker Readings Gate Results

Pulse Parameter Results

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

Power Meter Settings

Please find the sections below to find the general power meter measurement settings.

Setting Power Meter Resolution

You can choose from four levels of Power Meter resolution. Higher resolutions provide more accuracy but slow the measurement speed.

1 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.

2 Press [MODE] > {Power Meter} to access the power meter mode.

3 Press {Meas Disp} > {Resolution}. Select 1,2,3 or 4.

The four options represent different resolution as follow:

[1] = 1

[2] = 0.1

[3] = 0.01

[4] = 0.001

Setting the Power Meter’s Top and Bottom End-Points

Setting the end points (Disk Range) close to the expected measurement value changes the sensitivity of the Power Meter scale resolution. This is an advantage in viewing small changes in power.

However, this will not affect the overall range of the sensor.

1 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.

2 Press [MODE] > {Power Meter} to access the power meter mode.

3 Press {Meas Disp} > {Disp Range} to access the end- points menu.

4 Press {Top} and enter the maximum scale value desired using the numeric keypad. Then press

{dBm} to complete the setup.

5 Press {Bottom} and enter the minimum scale value desired using the numeric keypad. Then press

{dBm} to complete the setup.

65

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

Setting the Power Meter’s Upper and Lower Limits

The internal Power Meter can be configured to detect when a measurement has failed a user predefined upper and lower limits.

1 Press [Preset] to perform a factory preset.

2 Press [MODE] > {Power Meter} to access the power meter mode.

3 Press {Meas Setup} > {Limits} to access the limits menu.

4 Press {Limits} to activate the limits function. Each time the softkey is pressed, the selected option changes.

5 Press {Upper Limits} and enter the high limit value using the numeric keypad. Then press

{dBm} to complete the setup.

Press

{Lower Limits} and enter the low limit value using the numeric keypad. Then press

{dBm} to complete the setup.

Set the Step Detection

Press

Meas > General Setup > Average > Step Detect to set the step Detect On and Off. When it is set to on, the filter will re- initialize upon detection of a step increase or decrease in the measured power to reduce the filter settling time after a significant step in the measured power, Step detection can be set in both manual and automatic filter modes.

Set the Measurement Gate

Press

Meas > Peak Setup > Gate Setup to set the start time and gate length for a measurement gate. A measurement gate allows measurements to be performed on particular sections of the input signal. The gate is defined by a start time relative to the trigger instant and a duration. Signal samples acquired during the time interval specified by the gate are used for the measurements in that gate. A system of up to four independent gates is provided.

66

Functions and Measurements

Making a Power Measurement with USB Power Sensor

Set the Trigger

Press

Meas > Peak Setup > Trig/Acq to set the trigger parameters listed below for the measurement gate.

Acqn Set the single, free run or continuous trigger mode. Select to enable trace and auto trigger delay for the single and continuous trigger modes. For the free run mode, only auto trigger delay can be enabled.

Source Set the trigger source to internal channel or an external source.

Mode Enable auto level or manually set the trigger level if the internal trigger source is selected.

Level sets the trigger level manually when the

Mode is set to manual.

Delay Set the delay time to be applied between the trigger event and all the gate start times. This allows you to time- shift all the gates by the same amount with one setting change.

Slope Select the positive or negative slope type to determine if the trigger event is recognized on the rising or falling edge of a signal respectively.

Holdoff Set the holdoff time to disable the trigger mechanism after a trigger event occurs.

Hysteresis Set the hysteresis to help generate a more stable trigger by preventing triggering unless the RF power level achieves the trigger level and the additional hysteresis value. It can be applied to both rising and falling edge trigger generation.

Hysteresis is only available for the internal trigger source and manual trigger level.

67

Functions and Measurements

Spectrum Monitor

Spectrum Monitor

The scrolling three- dimensional display is noted for its ability to track the frequency and power behavior over the time, particularly intermittent signals. Spectrum Monitor may be used to analyze the stability of a signal over the time, or to identify intermittent interference signals in communications systems.

The X- axis represents frequency, and amplitude is represented by color; red for a strong signal and blue for noise floor. The Y- axis represents time, with the trace from the newest sweep displayed at the bottom of the screen. Earlier traces move up toward the top with each new sweep. Two coupled markers allow the user to place a marker on any trace in the Spectrum Monitor and view the normal spectrum for the time of that sweep. The time interval between sweeps can be adjusted, and up to 1500 traces can be displayed and saved.

Figure 28 Spectrum Monitor submenu screenshot

68

Please refer to the procedures below to perform a

Spectrum Monitor measurement.

1 Connect the Omni Antenna to RF IN connector.

Functions and Measurements

Spectrum Monitor

2 Set the center frequency and span.

Press

[FREQ]>[1.8052]>{GHz}, [SPAN]>[5]>{MHz}.

3 Turn on the Spectrum Monitor function.

Press

[MEAS]>{Spectrum Monitor}.

4 Set the update interval time between two frames.

Press

{Update Int. On}, rotating the knob or pressing numeric keypads to set the update interval time.

5 Turn on Marker 1 and Marker 2.

Press

[Marker]>{State On}>{Marker (2)}> {State On}.

6 Press {Frequency}, rotate knob to change the frequency of marker as you want.

7 Press [Meas]>{File Logging}>{Start Save} to save

Spectrogram data. After pressing

{Stop Save}. The spectrogram will be saved into a trace or CSV data file for your future use. With option GPS, you can convert the CSV file into KML file in

HSA PC software for review the test GPS location in Google Earth on PC.

Please refer to

“Loading a file” on page 93

to load

the saved spectrogram trace file.

Spectrum Monitor Audio Alert

The spectrum monitor provides an audio alert with a frequency dependant on the different control parameters. This alert needs two markers to specify the measure channel. The

Band Power of the channel specified by two markers is measured without the audio alert. The

Alert Limit is set to specify the lowest band power that makes the buzzer beep.

Please refer to the procedures below to turn on the audio alert.

1 Press [Meas] > {Spectrum Monitor} to access into the spectrogram mode.

2 Press [Marker] > {More} > {Audio Alert} to enable the audio alert.

69

Functions and Measurements

Demodulating an FM Signal

Demodulating an FM Signal

This section demonstrates how to demodulate and listen to an FM signal using the built- in FM demodulator.

Using the built- in FM demodulator you can tune to an FM signal and view the results of the detector output as displayed in the time- domain.

Alternatively, the demodulated signal is also available as an audio output (to the speaker or headphone jack).

1 Perform a factory preset:

Press

[Preset] (factory preset).

2 Use a signal source or an antenna for an FM signal to analyze. In this example the signal source is used transmitting at 300 MHz with FM deviation of 10 kHz and FM rate of 1 kHz.

NOTE

If you are using a broadcast FM signal in the United States, for example, the FM channels are broadcasting between

87.7 MHz to 107.7 MHz. The optional preamplifier is essential for the broadcast FM signal demodulation.

3 Set the center frequency to the center of the FM signal (in this case 300 MHz):

Press

[FREQ] > 300 > {MHz}.

4 Set the analyzer to zero span for time- domain analysis:

Press

[SPAN] > {Zero Span}.

Press

[Sweep] > {Sweep Time} > 4 > {ms}.

5 Turn off the input attenuation and turn on the optional pre- amplifier:

Press

[AMPTD] > {Attenuation} > 0 > {dB}.

Press

{Preamp On}

70

Functions and Measurements

Demodulating an FM Signal

6 Set the resolution bandwidth to capture the full bandwidth of the FM signal. To calculate the required bandwidth use

RBW =((2 x Frequency Deviation)+(2 x Modulation

Rate))

In our case the RBW should be: (2 x 10 kHz) +

(2 x 1 kHz) = 22 kHz With 1- 3- 10 sequence

RBW selections, choose the next highest RBW of

30 kHz:

Press

[BW] > 30 > {kHz}.

7 Turn on the FM demodulator:

Press

[Marker] > {Function} > {Demod}

{Demod Setting} > {Demod Type FM}.

Listen to the FM audio signal.

Press

{Speaker Vol}, rotate the knob.

Alternatively, you can also use the headphone jack.

71

Functions and Measurements

Modulation Analysis

Modulation Analysis

The analyzer provides the optional AM/FM (Option

AMA) and ASK/FSK (Option- DMA) modulation analysis function for analysis the modulated signals.

AM/FM Modulation Analysis

Optional AM/FM demodulation analysis provides modulation metrics, including carrier power, modulation rate, AM depth/FM deviation, SINAD and carrier frequency offset. User definable limits provide Pass/Fail indicators of four types:

Maximum carrier power, Maximum AM modulation index or FM deviation, Minimum AM modulation index or FM deviation, and Minimum carrier frequency offset.

The user can save the waveforms with metrics for reporting as well as the set- up parameters for future measurements or analysis. In the following example, you can use any source available (such as

AM/FM radio) as long as it has AM/FM signal generation capability.

AM Modulation Analysis

Please refer to the procedures below for the AM demodulation analysis:

1 Connect the signal generator to RF IN connector and turn on the signal generator’s AM and RF output.

2 Turn on the AM modulation analysis function.

Press

[MODE] > {Modulation Analysis} > {AM}.

3 Press [Freq] > {Carrier Freq} > [100] > {MHz} to set the carrier frequency.

4 Set the attenuation state to Auto (default):

Press

{More} > {Attenuation Auto}

5 Press [Disp] > {Y Scale} > {Scale Coupling On} to set the Y scale auto coupling.

72

Functions and Measurements

Modulation Analysis

6 Set the AM depth limit and turn on the limit function:

Press

[Limits] > {AMod Depth UP} > [51] > {%} >

{AMod Depth Low} > [49] > {%} > {Limits on}

The red value in the result indicates the modulated AM depth exceeds the limits set as above.

Figure 29 AM modulation analysis

FM Modulation Analysis

Please refer to the procedures below for the FM modulation analysis:

1 Connect the signal generator to RF IN connector and turn on the signal generator’s FM and RF output.

2 Turn on the FM modulation analysis function.

Press

[MODE] > {Modulation Analysis} > {FM}.

3 Press [Freq] > [Carrier Freq] > [100] > {MHz} to set the carrier frequency.

4 Set the attenuation state to Auto (default):

Press

{Attenuation Auto}

5 Press [Disp] > {Y Scale} > {Scale Coupling On} to set the Y scale auto coupling.

73

Functions and Measurements

Modulation Analysis

6 Set the FM deviation limit and turn on the limit function:

Press

[Limits] > {FreqDev UP} > [11] > {%} > {FreqDev

Low} > [9.9] > {%} > {Limits on}

The red value in the result indicates the modulated FM deviation exceeds the limits set as above.

Figure 30 FM modulation analysis

74

Functions and Measurements

Modulation Analysis

ASK/FSK Modulation Analysis

The ASK/FSK modulation analysis function supports four display modes:

Symbol

Waveform

ASK/FSK Error

Eye Diagram.

User definable limits provide Pass/Fail indicators of four types:

Maximum carrier power

Maximum ASK modulation depth/FSK frequency deviation

Minimum ASK modulation depth/FSK frequency deviation

Maximum carrier frequency offset.

The metrics includes carrier power, ASK/FSK error,

ASK depth/FSK frequency deviation, and ASK index etc. The waveform with metrics and setup parameters can be saved for reports and future

Measurements.

In the following example, you can use any source available (such as your remote key of the car) as long as it has ASK/FSK generation capability. For

ASK/FSK signal, its Filter is Nyquist and Alpha is

0.35.

ASK Modulation Analysis

Please refer to the procedures below to analysis the ASK modulation.

1 Connect the signal generator to RF IN connector and turn on the signal generator’s ASK and RF output.

2 Turn on the ASK modulation analysis function.

Press

[MODE], {Modulation Analysis}, {ASK}.

3 Press [Freq] > [100] > {MHz} to set the carrier frequency.

75

Functions and Measurements

Modulation Analysis

4 Press [Meas] > {Symbol Rate} > [10] > {MHz} to set the symbol rate.

5 Press {Filter Setup} > {Ref Filter} > {Nyquist} > {Return} to set the filter type.

6 Set the attenuation state to Auto (default):

Press

[Amptd] > {Attenuation Auto}

7 Press [Disp] > {Y Scale} > {Scale Coupling On} to set the Y scale auto coupling.

8 Setting the ASK depth limit and turn on the limit function:

Press

[Limits] > {ASK Depth UP} > [71] > {%} > {ASK

Depth Low} > [70] > {%} > {Limits on}

9 Press {Disp} > {Display} > {Eye Diagram} to view the eye diagram.

The figure below indicates the ASK eye diagram as a measurement result.

Figure 31 ASK Eye Diagram

76

Functions and Measurements

Modulation Analysis

FSK Demodulation Analysis

Please refer to the procedures below to analysis the ASK modulation.

1 Connect the signal generator to RF IN connector and turn on the signal generator’s FSK and RF output.

2 Turn on the ASK demodulation analysis function.

Press

[MODE], {Modulation Analysis}, {FSK}.

3 Press [Freq] > [100] > {MHz} to set the carrier frequency.

4 Press [Meas] > {Symbol Rate} > [10] > {ksps} to set the symbol rate.

5 Press {Filter Setup} > {Ref Filter} > {Nyquist} > {Return} to set the filter type.

6 Set the attenuation state to Auto (default):

Press

[Amptd] > {Attenuation Auto}

7 Press [Disp] > {Y Scale} > {Scaling Coupling On} to set the Y scale auto coupling.

8 Setting the FSK deviation limit and turn on the limit function:

Press

[Limits] > {FreqDev UP} > [41] > {kHz} > {FreqDev

Low} > [39] > {kHz} > {Limits on}

Figure 32 FSK Modulation

77

Functions and Measurements

Channel Scanner

Channel Scanner

NOTE

The channel scanner - option SCN is a tool for coverage test, band clearance, and spectrum monitoring. It measures the channel power of multiple transmitted channels. The power is displayed via either the graphic bar chart or time bar chart. It allows you to set maximum 20 channels for your test. You can continuously log the scanned channel data as CSV file for post processing or KML file for further use in Google

Earth application on your PC.

The CSV file has smaller size compared with KML file. It is recommended to save CSV file in analyzer and convert the CSV file into KML file in HSA PC software. Both the CSV and KML files record the channel information and GPS location (option

GPS is needed).

Top/Bottom N Channel Scanner

Top/Bottom N channel scan is used for searching the top/bottom channels from specified channel range according channel power.

Figure 33 Top N Channel Scanner Measurement

78

Please refer to the procedures below to perform a

Functions and Measurements

Channel Scanner

Top N channel scanner measurement.

1 Connect the antenna to RF IN connector.

2 Turn on the channel scanner function.

Press

[Meas] > {Channel Scanner}

3 Press [Meas] > {Scan Mode} > {Top N} to set the scan mode to TOP N channel mode. Input the channel number you need to monitoring. Press

{Enter} as a terminator.

4 Press {Range Edit} to access the submenu to edit the scan range.

Toggle

{Edit Method} to underline Std. It allows you to set the range according to the embedded communication standard, such as CDMA and

GSM which is used specifically in different countries. Press

{Signal Std} to select the standard. Press

{Recall} as a terminator. Press

{Begin Chn} and {End Chn} to set the begin and end channel for scanning. Press

{Apply} to apply all the range settings.

If you toggle

{Edit Method} to underline Custom, it allows you to set the customer- defined scan as your need.

Press

{Start Freq} to set the scan start frequency.

Press

{Freq Step Size} to set the frequency interval for adjacent channels.

Press

{Bandwidth} to set the bandwidth of each frequency channel which is used to calculate the channel power.

Press

{Number of Chn} to set the number of frequency channels which will be scanned.

Press

{Apply} as a terminator to apply all the settings above.

5 Press {Scan Start} to initiate the channel scan function.

6 Press {Logging Start} to start recording the scan process which includes the channel power and related channel bandwidth value to a CSV/KML file. Press

{Logging Stop} to end the logging. The

CSV/KML file will be saved immediately.

79

Functions and Measurements

Channel Scanner

List N Channel Scanner

The List N channel scan is used for listing the frequency channels from specific channel standard or customized frequency bandwidth.

Please refer to the procedures below to perform a

List N channel scanner measurement.

1 Connect the antenna to RF IN connector.

2 Turn on the channel scanner function.

Press

[Meas] > {Channel Scanner}

3 Press [Meas] > {Scan Mode} > {List} to set the scan mode to List N channel mode. Input the channel number you need to monitoring. Press

{Enter} as a terminator.

4 Press {List Edit} to access the submenu to edit the scan range.

Press

{Insert} to insert a channel and access the channel setting submenu to customize the channel parameters.

Press

{Edit Method Std}. It allows you to set the range according to the embedded communication standard, such as CDMA and GSM which is used specifically in different countries.

Press

{Signal Std} to load a standard file as your

need. Please refer to

“Loading a file” on page 93

for details.

Press

{Chn ID} to select the specific channel according to the signal standard.

Or press

{Edit Method Custom}. It allows you to set the customer- defined scan as your need.

Press

{Freq} to set the center frequency of the current channel.

Press

{Bandwidth} to set the bandwidth of each frequency channel which is used to calculate the channel power.

The first channel editing is completed. Press

{Return} > {Insert} to add more channels as your need.

80

Functions and Measurements

Channel Scanner

NOTE

If there is a need to further edit the channel set previously, press

{Index}, rotate the knob to highlight the channel as your need for further editing.

Press

{Apply} as a terminator to apply all the settings above.

5 Press {Scan Start} to initiate the channel scan function.

6 Press {Logging Start} to start recording the scan process which includes the channel power and related channel bandwidth value to a CSV/KML file. Press

{Logging Stop} to end the logging. The

CSV/KML file will be saved immediately.

Please make sure the file catalog is set to INT or USB unless the logging file can not be saved successfully. When the logging file exceeds the maximum volume of the storage catalog, the logging will automatically pause and the file will be saved immediately.

Display

In channel scanner mode, the

[Disp] hardkey is used to adjust the channel scanner display to review the customized scan result.

Press

{Freeze} to pause the display refresh but the scan is still running.

You can sort the channel by ID or power, in ascending or descending order. Or you can press

{Disp Mode} to toggle the display mode between bar mode and time mode.

Figure 34 Time display mode in List N channel scanner

81

Functions and Measurements

Channel Scanner

Channel Scanner Setup

To customized the channel scan process, you can press

[Meas] > {Channel Scanner} > {Setup} to set the measurement interval and rule in the submenu.

The

Meas Interval is a value of time/distance during which the every two scan process is triggered.

When it is set to off, the channel will be scanned with default settings.

The

Interval Type is toggled between time and distance. When it is set to

Time, the minimum interval time is 100 ms. When it is set to

Distance, it allows you to measure the channel with the specific distance on the road test. The minimum interval distance is 1 meter. Please refer to the

Figure 39 on page 91

for the distance interval channel scan.

NOTE

The option GPS is required to set the Interval Type to

Distance. Press [System] > {More} > {GPS} > {GPS On}

The

Measure Rule and Search Rule is toggled between

Speed and Accuracy.

For each scan process, the analyzer will first search and find out the available channels according to the selected scan mode. Then, a precise measurement will perform to get the scan result.

The accuracy mode in measurement rule is set as default to get the precise measurement for the searching- out channels.

The speed mode will speed the measurement but reduce the measurement accuracy. It is set to default in search rule to search out the available channels approximately.

The

Top Cycle number is the searching times for each measurement. It allows you to measure the specific searching- out channels continuously.

82

Functions and Measurements

Cable & Antenna Test

Cable & Antenna Test

Press

[MODE] > {Cable&Antenna Test} to access the cable and antenna measurement submenu. There are three different measurement mode for your selection:

Reflection measurement

One port cable loss

Distance to fault

Preparation

Before making a measurement in a specific mode, the HSA requires a calibration to make sure the measurement accuracy. A new calibration must be performed if any components used in the calibration setup are changed. For example, a short coaxial cable used to connect the tester to the DUT

Press

[Freq] and [Span] to set the measurement frequency range. It is best to keep the calibration frequency range as close as possible to the actual sweep frequencies necessary for the measurements.

Calibrating over a larger frequency range than the actual measurement range will reduce the accuracy of the test results.

Calibrators

The calibrator are available with the option CA7:

T-combo calibrator This is a T- shaped mechanical calibrator. It consists of a calibrated open, short and 50

Ω load. Using the T- combo calibrator will result in a more accurate calibration than when using the an electronic calibrator.

83

Functions and Measurements

Cable & Antenna Test

Calibrate with a T-combo calibrator

Using a T- combo calibrator is a three step process requiring the user to manually change the open- short- load components. The default order of the calibration process is open- short- load.

1 Press [Freq] > {Calibrate} to bring up the dialog box for calibration instruction. Follow the on- screen instruction to connect the Open component of the T- combo calibrator to the RF

OUT connector of the analyzer. Press

[ENTER] to start the open calibration.

2 Follow the instruction to connect the short component of the T- combo calibrator to the RF

OUT connector of the tester. Press

[ENTER] to start the short calibration.

3 Connect the Load component of the T- combo calibrator to the RF OUT connector of the tester.

Press

[ENTER] to start the load calibration.

A

Calibrated indicator is shown on the upper left corner of the screen when the calibration is completed. Then, the analyzer is ready for your further cable measurement.

Measuring Cable Reflection

Press

[Mode] > {Cable&Antenna Test} > {Reflection

Measurement} to select the Reflection Measurement

Mode. It allows you to set the Y axis of the graticule as

Return Loss, VSWR or Reflection Coefficient value in

Disp Mode.

Perform a Basic Reflection Measurement

Please refer to the procedure below to make a reflection measurement over a frequency range of 5

MHz to 7 GHz.

1. Press

[MODE] > {Cable&Antenna Test} > Reflection

Measurement} to access the reflection measurement mode.

84

Functions and Measurements

Cable & Antenna Test

2. Press

{Disp Mode} > {Return Loss} to choose the display mode.

3. Press

[Freq] > {Start Freq} > 5 > {MHz} to set the start frequency to 5 MHz.

4. Press

{Stop Freq} > 7 > {GHz} to set the stop frequency to 7 GHz.

5. Press

{Calibrate} to calibrate the anaylzer with the T- combo calibrator. A

Calibrated indicator is shown on the upper left corner of the screen when the calibration is completed.

6. Remove the calibrator and connect the cable to the RF Output connector. The return loss measurement starts and the results are shown as figure below.

Figure 35 Reflection Measurement - Return Loss

85

Functions and Measurements

Cable & Antenna Test

Measuring Distance to Fault

For this measurement, an internally generated signal emits from the RF OUT port of the tester and is transmitted to the cable and antenna system

(DUT). The tester receives and processes the signal power reflected from faults and imperfections. In performing a DTF measurement, the tester uses frequency domain reflectometry. The transmitted and reflected signals contain information about the distance to the faults. This information is used to determine the physical distance to the faults. The tester displays the physical distance to the probable faults, corrected for cable loss and the velocity propagation factor of the cable.

Perform a Distance-To-Fault measurement

Perform the following steps to make a

Distance- To- Fault measurement over a frequency range of 5 MHz to 7 GHz:

1 Press the [MODE] > {Cable&Antenna Test}>{Distance

To Fault} to select the DTF mode.

2 Press [FREQ] > {Start Freq} >

5 > {MHz} > [ENTER] to set the start frequency to 5 MHz.

3 Press {Stop Freq} > 7 > {GHz} > [ENTER] to set the stop frequency to 7 GHz.

4 Press {Calibrate} to bring up the calibration process guidance. Follow the instructions to perform a calibration. For more information

about calibration, refer to

“Preparation” on page 83

.

5 Remove the calibrator and connect the cable under test (DUT) to the RF OUT connector on the top panel of the tester.

6 Press {Meas} > {More} > {Cable Specification} to set the cable specification. Press

{Cable Type} to select the default cable type. Press

{Select Cable} to choose the standard cable types with fixed cable attenuation and velocity factor. Or press

{Cable

Type} > {Custom} to set the cable attenuation by

86

Functions and Measurements

Cable & Antenna Test

{Cable Atten} and velocity factor by {Vel Factor}. In this example, the cable attenuation is 0.48 dB/meter and the velocity factor is 66%.

The DTF measurement starts and the results are displayed on the screen. A peak in the horizontal trace indicates a defective location.

Press

[Meas] > {Freq Domain On} to enable the split screen with cable loss trace in frequency domain.

Figure 36 Frequency Domain Split Screen In DTF Test

Measurement Functions

The cable and Antenna test mode provides the following measurement functions to help you with the complicated field test tasks.

Trace Math

Trace math provide a trace comparison function for your test. Press

[Trace] > {Data->Mem} to save the current trace in yellow to the internal memory in blue. Press

{Data}, {Memory} or {Data&Memory} to display the corresponding traces on the screen.

Press

{Trace Math} to choose the calculation types for the trace comparison:

{Data+Mem}, {Data-Mem}

87

Functions and Measurements

Cable & Antenna Test

and

{Data/Mem}. The result is shown on the screen in logarithmic power.

Press

{Data&Memory} to show the trace math result

in yellow and the saved trace in blue as

Figure 37

.

Figure 37 Trace Math In Distance To Fault Test

88

Press

{Average On} to turn on the trace average for the current trace in yellow.

Interference Immunity

Interference immunity function is provided to filter the interference signal. This function key is available in all the measurement modes, including

Reflection Measurement, One Port Cable Loss and

Distance To Fault. Press

{IIM On/Off} to toggle this function on and off.

Pass & Fail Test with Limit and Limit line

Press

[Shift] > [Limit/Trace] to use the limit function for pass & fail test. There are two limits configuration which allows you to set the upper limit and lower limit for the trace. Press

{Limit 1/2}

> {Type} to toggle the limit direction between upper and lower. Press

{Edit Limits} to set the limit points one by one. Then, press

{Return} > {Limit on/off} to

Functions and Measurements

Cable & Antenna Test

turn on the customized limit function. Then, the pass and fail indicator is displayed on the screen according to the customized criteria.

Press

{Limit 1/2} > {Limit Line} to set a single limit line. Input the limit value and then press

On} to enable the limit line as

Figure 38

.

{Limit Line

Press

{Limit Beep} to turn on the beep indicator. If the trace is failed to pass the limit line, there will be continuous beep indicating the failure.

Figure 38 Limit Line in Reflection Measurement

89

Functions and Measurements

File Operation

File Operation

Pressing

[File] accesses a menu that allows you to manage file saving and loading.

Viewing a file list

Refer to the following two steps to view a file list:

1 Select the directory to view.

Press

[File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to toggle the displayed file list from internal memory, external

USB memory stick or system memory.

2 Select the file type you wish to view.

Press

[File] > {View FileType} to select a file type.

File Types

Each file type has a specific purpose as defined below:

Trace (*.DAT)

A trace file records trace data and controls.

Screen (*.JPG)

A screen file records graphic information of the current screen.

State (*.STA)

A state file records the current controls and settings of the analyzer. Use this file type for saving test parameters for future recall, such as

Frequency, Amplitude and BW settings.

Limit (*.LIM)

A limit file records the limit settings. You can edit the limit file and transfer this file between the N934xC and PC software.

CSV (*.CSV)

A CSV file records the trace data and available for review on PC. With option GPS, you can convert the CSV file into KML file in HSA PC software for review the GPS location in Google

Earth on PC.

90

Functions and Measurements

File Operation

Task Planner (*.TPF)

A task planner file contains the user- defined measurement tasks in sequence which make the test task easier in field test.

Setup (*.SET)

A setup file records the system setting information, such as language, date/time, and power saving mode. This file type is not used for test parameter setup information.

Standard (*.STD)

A standard file contains the frequency range and corresponding parameters for a specific communication standard. It allows you to recall those default settings for the singal searching and testing in that range.

Amplitude Correction (*.COR)

The amplitude correction file is used for trace amplitude offset compensation. Please refer to

“Correction” on page 98

to edit and save the

correction file on HSA PC software.

KML (*.KML)

A KML file is available for Google Earth on PC.

It is specified for channel scanner measurement and the GPS location is only available when the option GPS is activated.

Figure 39 Review the KML file in Google Earth

91

Functions and Measurements

File Operation

Saving a file

Refer to the following three steps to save a file:

1 Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to select the file directory.

2 Press [File] > {Save as}, The pop- up window displays for your further setting.

3 Edit a file name.

A file name can consist of letters and digits. A single key stroke on the numerical keypad inputs a digital number; and consecutive key stroke selects and inputs a letter.

4 Rotate the knob to choose the file type you need.

5 Press [Enter] to save the file.

When a file saving completes, the saved file will display in the file list..

NOTE

When a file is selected, you can edit the file name by pressing the numeric and alphabetic hardkeys on the right side of the analyzer’s front panel.

Quick Saving a File

Press

[Save] to quickly save a trace or a screen to either the local memory or an external USB device, depending upon the setup of the save path.

Refer to the steps for saving a trace/screen:

1 Press [File] > {Setup} > {Qsave Type} to set the quick save file type.

2 Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to select the file directory.

3 Press [Return], [Save] to save a trace or a screen copy to the pre- defined memory. The trace or screen will be automatically assigned with a default file name. A trace will be assigned with a file name, such as HYTRACE, HYTRACE_1, and consecutive decimal numbers appended to the alphabetic file name, such as HYSCREEN,

HYSCREEN_1 and consecutive decimal numbers appended to the alphabetic file name.

92

Functions and Measurements

File Operation

Saving a User State

The analyzer allows you to recall the frequently used state file with

[User] hardkey. Please follow the steps below to create the user menu.

1 Follow the file saving procedure above to save a state file in internal memory.

2 Rotate the knob to highlight the saved file.

3 Press [Files Operation] > {Copy to}

4 Rotate the knob to highlight the folder named

USER. Press

{Browse Folder} to access into this folder.

5 Rotate the knob to highlight the folder named

State. Press

{Browse Folder} to access into this folder.

6 Press {Copy} to copy the file into the User/State folder.

The State file is available for your quick recall by pressing

[User].

Deleting a file

1 Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to select a directory.

2 Rotate the knob to highlight a file.

3 Press [Return} > {File Operation} > {Delete} to delete the selected file. The file will be deleted once user presses

Enter to confirm deleting.

BE

Once a file is deleted, it cannot be recovered. Carefully decide whether to delete a file before proceeding.

Loading a file

1 Press [File] > {Directory} > {Media Type} to select a directory.

2 Rotate the knob to highlight a file.

3 Press {Recall} to recall the saved file.

93

Functions and Measurements

File Operation

NOTE

Loading a Task Planner File

Please refer to the following procedures to load a task planner file.

1 Press [Mode] > {Task Planner} or [File] > {View

FileType} > {TPF} to view the task planner file list.

2 Rotate the knob to highlight the task planner file which you need.

3 Press {Recall} to load the task planner file. The measurement task will list in sequence.

4 Press {Run} to initiate the measurement in sequence.

The task planner file is created by the HSA PC software. For the task planner saving and editing, please refer to the software online help for details.

For the automatic task, all the measurement tasks are executed automatically without interruption. For the manual task, the program is paused and releases a result report when each measurement is finished. The program will be continued once you input the next

instruction. See

Figure 40

.

For the manual- if- failed task, the measurement tasks are executed continuously unless there is a failed result.

Figure 40 Task Measurement Result

94

4 Key Reference

Key Reference

This chapter provides descriptions of the instrument hardkeys and softkey menu functionality, key access to softkey submenus, and instrument parameter control options.

Additional reference information is provided in the

“Menu Map” on page 165

.

95

Key Reference

Amptd

Amptd

Key access:

[Amptd]

Activates the reference level function and access the associated softkeys to set functions that affect the way data on the vertical axis is displayed or corrected.

Ref level

Key access:

[AMPTD] > {Ref level}

Activates the reference level function.

The reference level is the amplitude power or voltage represented by the top graticule on the display. Changing the value of the reference level changes the absolute amplitude level (in the selected amplitude units) of the top graticule line.

To change the reference level, use the arrow keys, the knob, or the numeric keypad. Pressing any digit (0 through 9) on the numeric keypad brings up the terminator menu.

Attenuation

Key access:

[AMPTD] > {Attenuation}

Toggles the input attenuation between

Auto or Man.

The input attenuation ranges from 0 dB to 50 dB and allows you to set the attenuation level in 1 dB increments when attenuation is set to

Man.

The input attenuator, normally coupled to the reference level control, reduces the power level of the analyzer input signal at the input mixer. The attenuator is recoupled when attenuation is set to

Auto.

To prevent damage to the input mixer, do not exceed a power level of +30 dBm at the input. A granted power level for stable sensitive measurement is less than 20 dBm.

96

Key Reference

Amptd

NOTE

Preamp

Key access:

[AMPTD] > {Preamp}

Toggles the internal preamp between

On and Off.

Preamp results in a correction being applied to compensate for the gain of the preamp at 20 dBm so that amplitude readings show the actual value at the input connector.

When the preamp is on, a PA indication appears on the left side of the display.

NOTE

The preamp is set to on in full frequency band, otherwise the correction is not applied even though the

PA indication still appears.

Scale/DIV

Key access:

[AMPTD]

Sets the logarithmic units per vertical graticule division on the display.

The Scale/Div function is only available when the Scale Type key is set to Log.

Scale Type

Key access:

[AMPTD] > {Scale Type}

Toggles the scale type of vertical graticule divisions between logarithmic and linear.

When Scale Type is set to

Log, a logarithmic units is activated ranging from 1 to 10 dB per division.

When Scale Type is set to

Lin, the vertical divisions are linearly scaled and the default amplitude units are volts. The top of the display is set to the reference- level value and the bottom graticule becomes zero volts. (Each division of the graticule is one- tenth of the reference level in volts.)

97

Key Reference

Amptd

98

NOTE

Y Axis Units

Key access:

[AMPTD] > {More} > {Y Axis Units}

Sets the amplitude units.

Amplitude units are maintained for both logarithmic and linear modes depending on the Scale Type setting.

NOTE

HiSensitivity

Key access:

[AMPTD] > {HiSensitivity}

Press this softkey

On to set 0 dB attenuation,

- 50 dBm reference level and turn the pre- amplifier on. It’s very helpful to observe the low- level signals with this settings.

Ref Offset

Key access:

[AMPTD] > {Ref Offset}

Adds an offset value which ranges from - 327.6 dB to +327.6 dB, to the displayed reference level.

Reference-level offsets are only entered by using the numeric keypad. Entering an offset does not affect the trace or the attenuation value.

Reference- level offsets are used when gain or loss occurs between a device under test and the analyzer input. Thus, the signal level measured by the analyzer may be referred to as the level at the input of an external amplitude conversion device.

When an amplitude offset is entered, its value appears in the lower left corner of the display.

Correction

Key access:

[AMPTD] > {More}

Press this softkey to perform the amplitude correction. The amplitude correction is used to compensate the gain/attenuation from antenna/cable. Please refer to the procedures below to use the amplitude correction function.

Key Reference

Amptd

1 Please refer to the procedures below to create a correction file in HSA PC software.

1 Open the pc software.

2 Press {File} > {New} > {Corrections} to access the correction file editing pop- up menu.

3 Refer to the

Figure 4-1

to add the point date with frequency and amplitude offset value.

Figure 4-1 Editing correction file in PC software

4 When the editing is completed, press Save/Save

As to save the correction file.

2 Set a folder named N934xDATA in a USB disk and put the saved correction file in. Insert the

USB disk on top panel for further loading.

99

Key Reference

Amptd

3 Press [Amplitude] > {More} > {Corrections} >

{Correction1} > {Load User}. The saved correction file is displayed in the file catalog menu.

4 Press {Recall} to load this correction file. The correction file name will be shown on the

{Correction1} softkey and the {Apply Corrections} is set to

On automatically which indicates the amplitude compensation has been applied to the displayed trace.

Press

{Apply Corrections off} to turn off all the correction from correction1 to 4.

Set

{Antenna Unit} to On to switch to graticule unit from dBm to dBmV/m for field strength measurement.

Figure 4-2 Field Strength Measurement

100

Impedance

Key access:

[Amptd]

This softkey toggles the impedance between 50

W and 75

W.

Key Reference

Amptd

PSD Function

Key access:

[Amptd]

Press this softkey to turn on the power spectral density function. When it is set to On, the measurement result and amplitude parameters will be shown in power spectral density. The PSD function can only be enabled in Spectrum Analysis and Spectrum Monitor mode.

101

Key Reference

Display

Display

Graticule

Key access:

[Disp]

Press this softkey to turn on the graticule display for the trace.

Y Scale

Key access:

[Disp]

Press this softkey to turn on the amplitude scale unit display on the left of the graticule. The unit determined by the

{Y Axis Unit} softkey.

Display Line

Key access:

[Disp]

Activates an adjustable horizontal line that is used as a visual reference line.

The display line, used for trace arithmetic, has amplitude values that correspond to its vertical position when compared to the reference level. The value of the display line appears in both the active function block and on the softkey. The arrow keys, knob, or numeric keypad may be used to adjust the display line. Pressing any digit, 0 through 9, on the numeric keypad brings up the selected terminator menu. To deactivate the limit line, press

Display Line

(Off).

102

Key Reference

BW

BW

Activates the bandwidth function and accesses the associated softkeys to control resolution bandwidth, video bandwidth.

RBW

Key access:

[BW] > {RBW}

NOTE

Changes the 3 dB resolution bandwidth from 10 Hz to 3 MHz in a 1, 3, 10 sequence using the knob, step keys or the numeric keypad.

If an unavailable bandwidth is entered using the numeric keypad, the closest available bandwidth in the 1, 3, 10 sequence is used.

NOTE

As the resolution bandwidth is decreased, the sweep time is modified to maintain amplitude calibration. Resolution bandwidth is also related to span. As span is decreased, resolution bandwidth decreases. As the resolution bandwidth changes, the video bandwidth, if in auto couple mode, changes to maintain the VBW/RBW ratio.

In non-zero span mode, the value of RBW is determined by whether the setting for RBW is Auto or Man (manual).

A “#”mark appears next to RBW on the display when it is not coupled

.

VBW

Key access:

[BW] > {VBW}

Changes the analyzer post- detector filter from 1 Hz to 1 MHz in a 1, 3, 10 sequence using the knob, the step keys, or the numeric keypad.

As the video bandwidth is decreased, the sweep

103

Key Reference

BW

NOTE

time is increased to maintain amplitude calibration.

If an unavailable bandwidth entered using the numeric keypad, the closest available bandwidth in the 1, 3, 10 sequence is used.

VBW/RBW

Key access:

[BW] > {VBW/RBW}

Selects the ratio between the video and resolution bandwidths.

NOTE

If signal responses near the noise level are visually masked by the noise, the ratio can be set to less than 1 to lower the noise. The knob and step keys change the ratio in a 1, 3, 10 sequence.

When preset is set to default, or VBW/RBW is set to Auto, the ratio is set to 1.

Avg Type

Key access:

[BW] > {Avg Type}

Accesses the functions to automatically or manually choose from one of the following averaging type:

Log Pwr

Key access:

[BW] > {Avg Type} > {Log Pwr}

Averages the data as appropriate for the logarithmic scaled y- axis.

When average type is set to

Log Pwr, “LgAv” appears on the left side of the display.

104

Key Reference

BW

Pwr

Key access:

[BW] > {Avg Type} > {Power}

Converts the scale from logarithmic to linear power units, and then averages the power trace data.

With average type set to

Pwr, “PAvg” appears on the left side of the display.

Voltage

Key access:

[BW] > {Avg Type} > {Voltage}

Averages the data as appropriate for the linearly scaled y- axis scale.

With average type set to

Voltage, “VAvg” appears on the left side of the display.

There are actually four types of averaging processes within an N934xC. All, except VBW filtering, are affected by this setting. They are listed as follows:

• Trace averaging

Averages signal amplitudes on a trace- to- trace basis. (Press

Log Pwr or Pwr)

• Average detector

Averages signal amplitudes during the time or frequency interval and represents the result as a single measurement point.

• Noise marker

Averages signal amplitudes across measurement points to reduce variations for noisy signals.

• VBW filtering

Performs a form of averaging of video signal.

105

Key Reference

Sweep

Sweep

Activates the sweep mode function and accesses associated softkeys to select the trace sweep functions.

Sweep Time

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Sweep Time}

NOTE

Selects the sweep time for the analyzer to tune across the displayed frequency span (or, in zero span, the time the analyzer take to sweep the full screen).Inputs may be made using the knob, the arrow keys, or numeric keypad.

Reducing the sweep time increases the sweep rate.

In non-zero spans

When the sweep time is auto- coupled, the analyzer selects the optimum (shortest) sweep time ranging from 10 ms to 1000 s. The auto selection is determined by three measurement settings:

Frequency Span

The selected Resolution Bandwidth

The selected Video Bandwidth

Note that changing one of the three factors above will change the sweep time. The sweep time is in direct ratio to frequency span and is in reverse ratio to the selected resolution bandwidth and video bandwidth when auto- coupled.

With sweep time set to a value less than the minimum auto-coupled value, an annotation “Data out of range” appears in the active function block and the sweep time is automatically converted to the minimum auto-coupled value.

106

Key Reference

Sweep

In zero span

Auto- coupled does not function when in a zero span. The sweep time can only be set manually.

The sweep time is selectable from 6 s to 200 s in zero span.

In FFT Mode

In FFT mode, the sweep time default is auto- coupled. The submenu, sweep time is invalid in FFT mode.

Sweep Type

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Sweep}

Toggles the analyzer between the continuous sweep mode and the single sweep mode.

• Sweep (Single)

Puts the analyzer in a single sweep mode. In this mode, pressing

[Sweep] > {Single Sweep} enables a sweep.

• Sweep (Cont)

Performs one sweep after another as soon as it is triggered. Pressing [

Preset] (When Preset Type is set to

Default) or turning the power on, sets the sweep mode to continuous sweep as default.

Single Sweep

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Single Sweep}

When the analyzer is in continuous sweep mode and not in a measurement mode

([MEAS] > Measure

Off), pressing [Sweep] > {Single Sweep} will change the sweep setting to single sweep. It will then begin a sweep after the trigger conditions are met.

If the analyzer is already in single sweep, pressing

[Sweep] > {Single Sweep} will execute a new sweep as soon as the trigger condition is met.

107

Key Reference

Sweep

If average is on

([TRACE] > {More} > {Average On}), pressing

[Sweep] > {Single Sweep} will halt averaging of the current value, and then continue averaging from the current count number when a single sweep function triggers.

Trigger

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Trigger}

Accesses the menu of keys that allow you to select the trigger mode of the analyzer. This softkey is only available in zero span.

Free Run

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Trigger} > {Free Run}

New sweep starts as soon as possible after the current sweep ends. This is the default state of trigger mode.

Video

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Trigger} > {Video}

Activates the trigger condition that starts the next sweep if the detected RF envelope voltage rises to a level set by the video trigger level.

Ext Rise

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Trigger} > {External}

Activates the trigger condition that will start a sweep when the external voltage (connected to

TRG IN on the rear panel) passes through

EXT

approximately 2 volts. The external trigger signal must be a 0 V to +5 V TTL signal.

108

Key Reference

Sweep

Gated Sweep

The time gated sweep function requires the option

TMG. This function is used to ensure fast and accurate measure TDM, TDD or RF busted signals.

Gated Sweep

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Gated Sweep} > {Gated Sweep

On/Off}

Turn on/off the gated sweep function.

Gate View

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}

When

Gate View is set to off, the display is in frequency domain. When

Gate View is set to On, the display is in time domain (zero span), the gate length is shown in red lines for further adjustment.

View SweepTime

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}

Adjust the sweep time scale to set the gate parameters precisely.

Gate Delay

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}

Set the time to wait after the gate signal is received before the gate sweep is implemented. The gate Delay is auto coupled to a minimum value with different RBW values.

Gate Length

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}

Set the gate length for gated sweep. The gate length is auto coupled to a minimum value with different RBW values.

109

Key Reference

Sweep

Gate Source

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Gated Sweep}

There are three sources for gated sweep.

When

External is selected, a TTL signal is required.

Periodic Timer is preferred when Span is much wider than bandwidth of the

For

External and Periodic Timer, a sync source is required for specified event synchronization.

RF burst is a trigger source if there is not any external source.

Sweep Setup

Swp Time Rule

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Sweep Setup}

The analyzer provides two sweep time rules to meet the different sweep time requirements:

• Speed

Activates the default fast sweep time rule.

• Accuracy

Activates the normal sweep time rule to ensure the measurement accuracy.

Speed sweep time rule provides a fast measurement function that decreases the sweep time. Using Fast Sweep will decrease the measurement accuracy.

Sweep Type

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Sweep Setup}

Toggles the Sweep type between Sweep and FFT mode. The default setting is sweep mode.

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Key Reference

Enter

Enter

Enter hardkey provides the functions as below:

Terminates data entry and enters into the analyzer numerical values keyed from numeric keypad on the front panel.

Terminate filename entries.

Switch the instrument status from remote to local.

ESC/Bksp

This hardkey provides mainly two types of functions:

Clear

Clears any numeric entry and cancels the active function.

Clears any title entry and cause the title to revert to the previous name.

Clears input or output overloads

Clears error messages from the status line along the bottom of the display.

Association with other functions

Provides a permitted setting for triggering other functions such as:

Activates

LIMIT function for pass/fail judgements.

Activates

SAVE function for current trace saving.

When pressing [ESC/Bksp], the current parameter annotation in the lower left corner, which is an indicator of available settings of Limit and Save, disappears.

111

Key Reference

Frequency

Frequency

NOTE

Activates the center frequency function, and accesses the menu of frequency functions. The center frequency, or start and stop frequency values appear below the graticule on the display.

When changing both the center frequency and the span, change the frequency first since the span can be limited by the frequency value.

Auto Tune

Key access:

[FREQ] > {Auto Tune}

Activates the auto tune function to view the signal automatically. analyzer performs peak search in full span and set the marker frequency to center frequency, and set appropriate reference level according to the amplitude of signal. Then, the

RBW is set to 1 MHz and all auto coupled to display the signal. The minimum detectable amplitude is –50 dBm.

Center Frequency

Key access:

[FREQ] > {Center Freq}

Activates the center frequency function, which allows you to set the horizontal center of the display to a specified frequency.

Start Frequency

Key access:

[FREQ] > {Start Freq}

Sets the frequency at the left side of the graticule.

The left and right sides of the graticule correspond to the start and stop frequencies. When these frequencies are activated, their values are displayed below the graticule in place of center frequency and span.

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Key Reference

Frequency

Stop Frequency

Key access:

[FREQ] > {Stop Freq}

Sets the frequency at the right side of the graticule. The left and right sides of the graticule correspond to the start and stop frequencies. When these frequencies are activated, their values are displayed below the graticule in place of center frequency and span.

CF Step

Key access:

[FREQ] > {CF Step}

Changes the step size for the center frequency function. Once a step size has been selected and the center frequency function is activated, the arrow keys change the center frequency by the step- size value. The step size function is useful for finding harmonics and sidebands beyond the current frequency span of the analyzer. When auto- coupled, the center size is set to one division

(10 percent of the span).

Channel Std.

Key access:

[FREQ] > {Channel Std.}

The Channel Standard softkey is a shortcut to load a factory- preset standard file (*.STD) which is located in system memory as default. The standard file list includes most communication protocol standards which is used in several countries.

Please refer to

“Loading a file” on page 93

for how to

recall a file.

113

Key Reference

Frequency

Freq Offset

Key access:

[FREQ] > {Freq Offset}

Allows you to input a frequency offset value that is added to the frequency readout of the marker, to account for frequency conversions external to the analyzer. Offset entries are added to all frequency readouts including marker, start frequency, and stop frequency. Offsets are not added to the span or frequency count readouts. Entering an offset does not affect the trace display.

Low Frequency Channel (Option BB1)

Key access:

[FREQ] > {LowFreqChannel On Off}

This softkey toggles the baseband channel on and off. When it is set to On, the SSB and DANL performance will be better from 3 kHz to 12 MHz.

This softkey is only visible when the option BB1 has been installed and only available in Spectrum

Analysis, Spectrum Monitor mode.

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Key Reference

Marker

Marker

Accesses the marker control softkeys to select the type and number of markers. Markers are diamond- shaped characters that identify points of traces. Up to six pairs of markers may appear on the display simultaneously; only one pair can be controlled at a time. The marker that is controlled is called the “active” marker. Pressing

[MARKER]

activates the Normal menu key.

Marker

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Marker}

Selects one of the six possible markers. A marker that has already been selected will become active when it is turned on. If a marker has been turned on and assigned to a specific trace, it will become active on that trace if that marker is selected.

Marker Trace

Key access:

[MARKER] > {More} > {Marker Trace}

Activates a marker on the trace if there are no markers turned on. If a marker is currently active, press

Marker Trace until 1, 2, 3, or 4 is underlined.

The active marker will be moved to the selected trace.

Selecting

Auto will move the marker to the automatically selected trace. The selection order is to look for the lowest numbered trace in the following order of trace modes:

Clear write

Min. hold

Max hold

View

If there is no trace in any of these modes, it selects trace 1 as default.

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Key Reference

Marker

Mode

Normal

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Normal}

Activates a single frequency marker at the center of the active trace if a marker is not already displayed. If a marker is displayed before the

Normal function is enabled, the marker is enabled at the position of the selected marker. The marker number is indicated above the marker. The knob and/or arrow keys move the marker left or right. If a value is entered from the numeric keypad, the marker is moved to the trace point nearest to that value. Annotation in the active function block and in the upper right corner indicates the frequency and amplitude of the marker (time and amplitude, if in zero span.) Pressing

Normal turns off the Delta function and moves the active marker to the delta marker position.

NOTE

Delta

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Delta}

Activates a second marker at the position of the first marker. (If no marker is present, two markers appear at the center of the display). The amplitude and frequency (or time) of the first marker is fixed. The marker number is indicated above the delta marker, and the same number is indicated with an R (for example, 1R) above the reference marker. Use the data controls to position the delta marker. Annotation in the active function block and in the upper- right corner of the display indicates the frequency (or time) and amplitude differences between the two markers. The markers will be turned off if the scale type is changed between log and linear.

Pressing Delta again moves the reference marker to the active marker position, so you are allowed to make delta measurements from differing reference points without having to turn off the makers and begin again.

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Key Reference

Marker

NOTE

NOTE

The delta marker function permits signal-to-noise measurements provided the signal is a single spectral component. Place a normal marker on the signal, press Delta, place the delta marker in the noise, and activate Marker

Noise. The indicated amplitude indicates signal-to-noise/Hz.

Delta Pair

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Mode}

Enters a mode that allows adjustment of both the

Ref (start) and Delta (stop) markers independently.

Pressing

Delta Pair, toggles between the reference and delta markers. The start marker number is indicated with a number and an R above the marker (for example, 1R) and the delta marker is indicated with a marker number. This mode is useful in functions such as

Band Power.

Ref and Delta markers maintain their displayed x-axis location, but not their frequency values when you change a parameter that redefines the x-axis scale. Reset these markers when parameters such as Span or Center Freq are changed.

Span Pair

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Mode}

Enters a mode that allows adjustment of both the ref and delta markers. Pressing

Span Pair, toggles between the span and center markers. The start marker number is indicated with a number and an

R above the marker (for example, 1R) and the stop marker is indicated with a marker number.

Adjusting the span changes the frequency difference between the two markers while maintaining the midpoint between the two markers at a fixed frequency. Changing the center changes the center point between the two markers while maintaining the frequency difference. This mode is useful in functions such as

Band Power.

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Key Reference

Marker

Off

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Mode}

Turns off the active function markers.

Marker To

Accesses the following marker function menu keys:

• To Center

Key access:

[MARKER] > {To Center}

Sets the center frequency of the analyzer to the marker frequency. In Delta mode, pressing

[Marker]

> {Marker To} > {To Center} sets the center frequency to the marker delta value. The function is not available in zero span.

• To Start

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Marker To}

Changes the start frequency so that it is equal to the frequency of the active marker. In Delta mode,

To Start sets the start frequency to the marker delta value.

To Start is not available in zero span.

• To Stop

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Marker To}

Changes the start frequency so that it is equal to the frequency of the active marker. In Delta mode,

To Stop sets the stop frequency to the marker delta value.

To Stop is not available in zero span.

• To Reference

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Marker To}

Changes the reference level to the active marker value, moving the marked point to the reference level (top line of the graticule). In Delta mode, pressing

[Marker] > {Marker To} > {To Reference} sets the reference level to the amplitude difference between the markers.

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Key Reference

Marker

Function

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Function}

Accesses the following menu keys that allows you to change the active marker readout mode.

Normal

Activates the default readout mode.

Counter

Activates a frequency counter mode.

Noise

Activates a noise readout mode for evaluating power density.

Band Power

Indicates the power over that part of the trace between the reference and active markers.

Demod

Activates the demodulation mode.

Demod Setting

Accesses the menu keys to select

AM demodulation,

FM demodulation or demodulation Off. It also accesses the

Speaker Vol, and Delay Time menu keys described below.

Marker Table

Key access:

[MARKER] > {Marker Table}

Compresses the graticule and displays the marker number, trace number, marker type, X axis value, and the amplitude in the table. demodulation. In zero span, demodulation is performed (and can be heard) throughout the sweep.

119

Key Reference

Marker

Read Out

Key access:

[MARKER] > {More} > {Read Out}

Accesses the following menu keys that allow you to change the active marker readout. This function is only available in non- zero span.

Frequency

Sets the marker to

Frequency. The default selection in non- zero spans, displays the absolute frequency of a normal marker or the frequency of the delta marker relative to the reference marker.

Period

Sets the marker readout to

Period. Displays the reciprocal of the above frequency.

Time

Sets the marker readout to

Time. The default selection in zero span, displays the time interval between a normal marker and the start of the sweep or the time of the delta marker relative to the reference marker.

Zoom In/Out

Key access:

[MARKER] > {More} > {Zoom In}

Activates the marker zoom in/out function which triggers a series of operation as below:

Save current state as a backup state file.

Set center frequency as current marker frequency value.

narrow the span to 1/10 as previous span.

If RBW is set to Auto, the RBW will be coupled with span automatically

If RBW is set to manual, the RBW will be narrowed as 1/10.

Zoom out resume the state before Zoom in was pressed.

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Key Reference

Marker

Delta Ref

Key access:

[MARKER] > {More} > {Delta Ref}

Adjust the delta marker reference level manually.

This function is exclusive when marker mode is set to delta.

All Off

Key access:

[MARKER] > {More} > {All Off}

Turns off all of the markers, including markers used for signal track and demodulation. The marker annotation is also removed.

Logging Start/Stop

Key access:

[MARKER] > {More} > {Logging Start/Stop}

Press this softkey to start recording the marker value, GPS information to a CSV file. The frequency and amplitude value of the marker will be continuously recorded in the file.

Press this softkey

(Logging Stop) again to stop logging and save the CSV file immediately. With option GPS, you can convert the CSV file into KML file in HSA PC software for review the GPS location in Google Earth on PC.

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Key Reference

Peak

Peak

Place a marker on the highest peak based on the setting of the search criteria as follows:

Peak

Key access:

[Peak]

Place a marker on the highest peak.

Next Left Peak

Key access:

[Peak] > {Next Left PK}

Moves the marker to the next peak to the left of the current marker. The signal peak must exceed the peak threshold value by the peak excursion value. If there is no peak to the right, the marker will not move and the

No Peak Found error message will appear on the display.

Next Right Peak

Moves the marker to the next peak to the right of the current marker. The signal peak must exceed the peak threshold value by the peak excursion value. If there is no peak to the right, the marker will not move and the

No Peak Found error message will appear on the display.

Key access:

[Peak]> {Next Right PK}

Pk-Pk Search

Key access:

[Peak] > {Pk-Pk Search}

Finds and displays the frequency (or time, if in zero span) and amplitude differences between the highest and lowest trace points.

Continuous PK

Key access:

[Peak] > {Continuous Pk}

When a marker is placed on a signal and

Continuous

Pk (On) is pressed, the marker will remain on the

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Key Reference

Peak

signal even if the signal frequency changes, as long as the amplitude of the signal does not change by more than 3 dB from one sweep to another.

If the signal is lost, an attempt will be made to find it again and maintain the marker on the signal peak. If there are other signals on screen near the same amplitude, one of them may be found instead. Signals near 0 Hz cannot be maintained effectively, because they cannot be distinguished from the LO feedthrough, which is excluded by intent from the search algorithm.

Peak Table

Key access:

[Peak] > {More} > {Peak Table}

• Peak Table

Displays a list of up to ten signal peaks that is updated at the end of each sweep. The peaks can be sorted in order by descending amplitude or by ascending frequency. Peaks above or below the display line can be excluded from the table. The peak table function works with trace 1 only.

• Export Table to CSV

Press this softkey to save the current peak table to a CSV file for your data analysis on PC.

Peak Criteria

Key access:

[Peak] > {More} > {Peak Criteria}

Accesses the following menu keys.

• Peak Threshold

Sets the minimum amplitude of signals that the marker can identify as a peak.

• Peak Excursion

Sets the minimum amplitude variation of signals that the marker can identify as a peak.

• Peak Type

Toggles the peak search marker on highest peak and lowest peak.

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Key Reference

MEAS

MEAS

Press

[MEAS] to access the multiple power measurement submenu.

In spectrum analysis mode, pressing

[MEAS] brings up the menu for a suite of power measurements such as adjacent channel power, occupied bandwidth, channel power, spectrum monitor, spectrum emission mask and channel scanner.

In other power measurement mode, pressing

[MEAS] brings the submenu for the current measurement mode. Pressing

[MEAS] again brings the main menu for the power measurements selection.

OBW

Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) integrates the power of the spectrum in the displayed green frame. The measurement defaults to 99% of the occupied bandwidth power.

Occupied bandwidth measurement are made in either single or continuous sweep mode.

Selecting a Method

Press

[MEAS] > {OBW} > {Method} to toggle the occupied bandwidth measurement mode between

percentage (%) and dBc.

Setting Percentage (%)

Press

{OBW} > {Method} > {Percent} to edit the percentage of signal power used when determining the occupied bandwidth. Press

{%} to set the percentage ranging from 10.00% to 99.99%.

Setting dBc

Press

{OBW} > {Method} > {dBc} to specify the power level used to determine the emission bandwidth as the number of dB down from the highest signal peak, within the occupied bandwidth span. This function is an independent calculation from the

124

Key Reference

MEAS

OBW calculation. The x dB bandwidth result is also called the emissions bandwidth (EBW). This sets the green frame (f1 and f2 are the two cross points of the signal and the pair of vertical lines of the displayed green frame) to your specified dB value below the maximum power, and compute the total power in the frame. The emission bandwidth is then calculated ranging from 0.1 dB to 100 dB (the default value is set to 26 dB).

ACPR

The adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) measures the power ratio between the main channel power and the adjacent channel power.

ACPR measures the total power (RMS voltage) in the specified channel. The measurement result reports the ratios of the two adjacent channel powers to the main channel power.

Center Frequency

Key access:

[MEAS] > {ACPR} > {Center Freq}

Sets the center frequency of the main channel power.

Main Channel

Key access:

[MEAS] > {ACPR} > {Main Channel}

Specifies the range of integration used in calculating the power in the main channel. Use the knob, the arrow keys, or the numeric keypad to set the bandwidth.

Adjacent Channel State

Key access:

[MEAS] > {ACPR}

Toggles the adjacent channel state between on and off. When it is set to off, only the main channel is shown on display.

125

Key Reference

MEAS

Adjacent Channel BW

Key access:

[MEAS] > {ACPR}

Specifies the range of integration used in calculating the power in the adjacent channel. Use the knob, the arrow keys, or the numeric keypad to set the bandwidth.

Adj Chn Space

Key access:

[MEAS] > {ACPR}

Sets the space value between the center frequency of main channel power and that of the adjacent channel power.

RRC Filter

Key access:

[MEAS] > {ACPR}

This softkey is a combined key to set the

Root- Raised Cosine filter state and the filter Alpha value. When the filter is set to On, there will be an annotation “RRC ON” on the display.

Filter BW

Key access:

[MEAS] > {ACPR}

Press this softkey to set the filter bandwidth of the

RRC filter. The default value is the integrated bandwidth.

126

Channel Power

Channel power function measures the power and power spectral density in the channel bandwidth specified. One pair of vertical lines of the displayed green frame indicates the edges of the channel bandwidth. The center frequency, reference level, and channel bandwidth must be set by the user.

The power calculation method used to determine the channel power is a traditional method known

Key Reference

MEAS

as the integration bandwidth (IBW) method. A swept spectrum is used as the basis for this calculation. Therefore, it is important to set the resolution bandwidth correctly before making this measurement using the following formula:

RBW

= k Span

Where k is a value between 1.2 and 4.0 and n is the number of trace points.

Center Frequency

Key access:

[MEAS] > {Channel Power}

Sets the center frequency of the display.

Integration Bandwidth

Key access:

[MEAS] > {Channel Power}

Specifies the bandwidth of integration bandwidth, which can range from 100 Hz to 3 GHz to calculate the power in a channel. For example, set the main

(center) channel bandwidth. The green frame indicates the integration bandwidth.

Disp Mode

Key access:

[MEAS] > {Channel Power}

This softkey toggles the display mode between chart and meter.

RRC Filter

Key access:

[MEAS] > {Channel Power}

This softkey is a combined key to set the

Root- Raised Cosine filter state and the filter Alpha value. When the filter is set to On, there will be an annotation “RRC ON” on the display.

127

Key Reference

MEAS

128

Filter BW

Key access:

[MEAS] > {Channel Power}

Press this softkey to set the filter bandwidth of the

RRC filter. The default value is the integrated bandwidth.

Spectrum Emission Mask (SEM)

Spectrum Emission Mask measurement includes the in- band and out- of- band spurious emissions. As it applies to W- CDMA (3GPP), this is the power contained in a specified frequency bandwidth at certain offsets relative to the total carrier power. It may also be expressed as a ratio of power spectral densities between the carrier and the specified offset frequency band. For WLAN, the reference power is taken as the peak PSD in the signal, and all offset results are also the peak PSD in that offset as opposed to the integrated power.

Avg Number

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Avg Number}

Press

Avg Number (On) to specify the number of measurement averages used when calculating the measurement result. The average will be displayed at the end of each sweep.

Meas Type

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Meas Type}

Displays a menu where you can select a measurement reference type,

Total Pwr Ref or PSD

Ref. When Total Pwr Ref is selected, the power in the carrier is used as the reference in computing the relative power values for the offsets. When

PSD Ref

is selected, the mean power spectral density of the carrier is used in computing the relative power spectral density values for the offsets.

Key Reference

MEAS

Ref Channel

accesses the softkeys that enable you to change the reference channel settings:

• Chan Integ BW

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Ref Channel}

Specifies the integration bandwidth used in calculating the power in the main channel.

• Chan Span

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Ref Channel}

Specifies the span used in measuring the power in the main channel.

• Sweep Time

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Ref Channel}

Specifies the sweep time used in measuring the power in the main channel.

• Total Pwr Ref

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Ref Channel}

Total Pwr Ref is the power in the carrier that is used as the reference in computing the relative power values for the offsets. When

Man is selected, this can be set by the user. When

Auto

is selected, this is the measured power in the reference carrier.

Offset/Limits

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM}

Displays the menus where you can change the following parameters for offset frequency settings and pass/fail tests:

Offset, Start Freq, Stop Freq, Sweep

Time, Res BW, and Limits. Refer to the tables below for default settings of particular radio standards of interest.

129

Key Reference

MEAS

Table 2 Offsets & Limits Defaulted for W-CDMA (3GPP)

Base Station Measurementsa

Offset Start

Freq

(MHz)

Stop

Freq

(MHz)

Res

BW

(kHz)

Abs

Start

(dBm)

Abs

Stop

(dBm)

Abs

Couple

Rel

Start

(dBc)

Rel

Stop

(dBc)

Meas

BW

A. On 2.515

2.715

30.00 -14.00 -14.00 Couple -30.00 -30.00

1

B. On 2.715

3.515

30.00 -14.00 -26.00

Man -30.00 -30.00

1

C. On 3.515

4.000

30.00 -26.00 -26.00 Couple -30.00 -30.00

1

D. On 4.000

8.000 1000.00 -13.00 -13.00 Couple -30.00 -30.00

1

E. On 8.000 12.500 1000.00 -13.00 -13.00 Couple -30.00 -30.00

1 a.

Fail Mask is set to Absolute and Rel Stop is set to Couple.

Table 3 Offsets & Limits Defaulted for W-CDMA (3GPP)

Mobile Station Measurementsa

Offset Start

Freq

(MHz)

Stop

Freq

(MHz)

Res

BW

(kHz)

Abs

Start

(dBm)

Abs

Stop

(dBm)

Rel

Couple

Rel

Start

(dBc)

Rel

Stop

(dBc)

Meas

BW

A. On 2.515

3.485

30.00 -71.07 -71.07

Man -35.23 -49.78

1

B. On 4.000

7.500 1000.0 -55.84 -55.84

Man -35.50 -39.00

1

C. On 7.500

8.500 1000.00 -55.84 -55.84

Man -39.00 -49.00

1

D. On 8.500 12.000 1000.00 -55.84 -55.84 Couple -49.00 -49.00

1

E. Off 12.500 15.000 1000.00 -55.84 -55.84 Couple -49.00 -49.00

1 a.

Abs Stop is set to Couple and Fail Mask is set to Abs AND Rel.

Table 4 Offsets & Limits Defaulted for 802.11a and

HiperLAN/2 Radio Standards a

Offset Start

Freq

(MHz)

Stop

Freq

(MHz)

Abs

Start

(dBm)

Abs

Stop

(dBm)

Abs

Couple

A. On 9.00

11.00

16.00

-4.00

Man

Rel

Start

(dBc)

Rel

Stop

(dBc)

Rel

Couple

0.00

-20.00 Man

Meas

BW

B. On 11.00

20.00

-4.00 -12.00 Man -20.00 -28.00 Man

C. On 20.00

30.00

-12.00 -24.00 Man -28.00 -40.00 Man

D. On 30.00

50.00

-24.00 -24.00 Couple -40.00 -40.00 Couple 1

E. Off 50.00 100.00 -24.00 -24.00 Couple -40.00 -40.00 Couple 1

1

1

1 a.

Fail Res BW is set to 100 kHz and Fail Mask is set to Rel.

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Key Reference

MEAS

Table 5 Offsets & Limits Defaulted for 802.11b Radio

Standard a

Offset Start

Freq

(MHz)

Stop

Freq

(MHz)

Abs

Start

(dBm)

Abs

Stop

(dBm)

Rel

Start

(dBc)

Rel

Stop

(dBc)

Meas

BW

A. On 11.00

22.00 -10.00 -10.00 -30.00 -30.00

1

B. On 22.00

50.00 -30.00 -30.00 -50.00 -50.00

1

C. Off 50.00

70.00 -30.00 -30.00 -50.00 -50.00

1

D. Off 70.00

90.00 -30.00 -30.00 -50.00 -50.00

1

E. Off 90.00 100.00 -30.00 -30.00 -50.00 -50.00

1 a.

Res BW is set to 100 kHz, Fail Mask is set to Rel, and

Abs Stop and Rel Stop are both set to Couple.

Offset

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}

Selects the offset pairs (upper and lower) that the softkeys affect, and displays the memory selection menu from

A to E (where you can store up to 5 sets of values for

Start Freq, Stop Freq, Sweep Time,

Res BW, Meas BW, Abs Start, Abs Stop, and so forth).

Press

Offset until the letter of the desired offset (A,

B, C, D, or E) is underlined. Only one selection at a time is shown on this key label.

Start Freq

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}

Specifies the inner limit (frequency closest to the carrier) for both segments of the specified offset pair. When

Start Freq (Off) is selected, the offset pair is not measured.

Stop Freq

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}

Specifies the outer limit (frequency furthest from the carrier) for both segments of the specified offset pair. The minimum frequency difference between

Start Freq and Stop Freq is limited to 100 Hz.

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Key Reference

MEAS

Sweep Time

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}

Specifies the sweep time for the currently selected offset, and toggles this function between

Auto and

Manual for each offset.

Res BW

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits}

Specifies the resolution bandwidth used in measuring the offset pair. When set to

Auto, the

Res BW from the default tables for

“Offset/Limits” on page 129 are used. When set to

Man, the allowed range is 1 kHz to 1MHz.

Abs StartAmpt

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}

Enables you to enter an absolute level limit at

Start

Freq for the currently selected offset ranging from

–200.00 to +50.00 dBm with 0.01 dB resolution.

Abs StopAmpt

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}

Enters an absolute level limit at

Stop Freq for the currently selected offset ranging from –200.00 to

+50.00 dBm with 0.01 dB resolution, and to toggle this function between

Couple and Man. If set to

Couple, this is coupled to Abs Start to make a flat limit line. If set to

Man, Abs Start and Abs Stop you can enter different values to make a sloped limit line.

Rel StartAmpt

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}

Enters a relative level limit at

Start Freq ranging from –150.00 to +50.00 dBc with 0.01 dB resolution.

132

Key Reference

MEAS

Rel StopAmpt

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}

Enters a relative level limit at

Stop Freq ranging from –150.00 to +50.00 dBc with 0.01 dB resolution, and to toggle this function between

Couple and Man. If set to Couple, this is coupled to

Rel Start to make a flat limit line. If set to Man, Rel

Start and Rel Stop you can enter different values to make a sloped limit line.

Meas BW

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}

Specifies the bandwidth to use when measuring the offset. When using the front panel, only the currently selected offset is affected. All the offsets are affected when remote control. This is the multiplier applied to the resolution bandwidth to determine the bandwidth to integrate when calculating the power. Meas BW is now restricted to be 1 and not changeable.

Fail Mask

Key access:

[MEAS] > {SEM} > {Offset/Limits} > {More}

Displays the menu to select one of the following logic keys for fail conditions between the measurement results and the test limits:

• Absolute

Sets the limit test to show Fail if one offset is larger than the corresponding limit for

Abs Start

and/or

Abs Stop. This is the default selection for each offset for BTS measurements.

• Relative

Sets the limit test to show Fail if one offsets spectrum emission mask measurement results is larger than the corresponding limit for

Rel Start

and/or

Rel Stop.

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Key Reference

MEAS

• Abs AND Rel

Set the limit test to show fail if one offset’s emission mask measurement results is larger than both the corresponding limit for

Abs Start and Stop and the limit for

Rel Start and Rel Stop.

• Abs or Rel

Set the limit test to show fail if one offset’s the absolute emission mask measurement results is larger than the corresponding limit for

Abs Start

and

Stop or the limit for Rel Start and Rel Stop.

134

Key Reference

MODE

MODE

Pressing

[Mode] activates the softkey menus to select the measurement mode of your analyzer. The measurement modes are:

Spectrum Analyzer

Tracking Generator

Power Meter

Task Planner

Spectrum Analyzer

Key access:

[MODE] > {Spectrum Analyzer}

Select the spectrum analyzer mode, and press

[ENTER] to make the spectrum analysis and measurement.

Tracking Generator

Key access:

[MODE] > {Tracking Generator}

Select this mode, and press

[ENTER] to make specified measurement with tracking generator.

When selected, the Meas softkey menu for the tracking generator mode will appear.

Amplitude

Key access:

[MODE] > {Tracking Generator} > {Amplitude}

Activates (

On) or deactivates (Off) the output power of the tracking generator. The power level can then be adjusted using the numeric keypad, arrow keys, or knob. Pressing any digit, 0 through 9, on the numeric keypad brings up the selected terminator menu.

135

Key Reference

MODE

Power-level sensitive devices connected to the tracking generator output may be accidentally damaged. This is because the actual source amplitude will be greater than the amplitude indicated on the analyzer, when the power sweep function is being used. The source amplitude value is used as the starting amplitude for a power sweep. The ending amplitude for a power sweep is higher then the source amplitude value and it may actually be set to values beyond specified output levels.

Therefore, exercise caution when connecting a power-level sensitive device to the tracking generator output.

NOTE

When Amplitude (Off) is selected, the output attenuation on the N934xC is set to the maximum attenuation.

Amptd Step

Key access:

[MODE] > {Tracking Generator}

Allows you to set the step size of the power level range of the tracking generator. The default setting is one vertical scale division when in a logarithmic amplitude scale.

Amptd Offset

Key access:

[MODE] > {Tracking Generator}

Offsets the displayed power of the tracking generator. Using the amplitude offset capability of the tracking generator allows you to take system losses or gains into account, thereby displaying the actual power delivered to the device under test.

Normalize

Key access:

[MODE] > {Tracking Generator}

Store Ref (1 4)

Copies trace 1 into trace 4.

Store Ref (1 4) must be pressed before pressing

Normalize (On). If

Normalize (On) is pressed before Store Ref (1 4),

136

Key Reference

MODE

NOTE

the error message: Store reference trace before

turning on Normalize (On) is displayed in the status line, however Normalize has been activate.

• Normalize

Normalize(On) activates the normalize function.

On each sweep, the normalized trace (Trace 4) is subtracted from Trace 1 and the result is added to the normalized reference level. The display shows the result of the following calculation:

Trace 1 - Normalized Trace + Normalized

Reference Level

The trace data is normalized with respect to the normalized reference level, even if the value of the normalized reference level is changed. This function remains in effect on all subsequent sweeps until it is turned off.

Segmented sweep is not available when Normalize (On) is selected. Trace 1 should be in clear write mode prior to setting normalize to on.

The normalize function is useful for applying correction data to a trace while making a stimulus response measurement using a tracking generator.

Normalize will compensate for irregularities of the components used in the test setup, isolating the performance of the DUT. For example, connect the cables and use a thru line in place of the device

(DUT) to be measured, between the tracking generator and the analyzer input. Notice that the frequency response is not perfectly flat, showing the response of the cables, as well as the flatness of both the tracking generator and the analyzer.

Now press

Store Ref (1 4), Normalize On. Notice that the displayed trace is now flat, or normalized. The position of the normalized trace can now be moved to a different position on the display by changing the normalized reference position. This may be useful if the device to be tested has positive gain,

137

Key Reference

MODE

such as an amplifier. Now replace the thru line with the device under test, and an accurate measurement of the gain or loss can be made.

• Norm Ref Lvl

Sets the level (in dB) of the normalized reference.

• Norm Ref Posn

Offsets the displayed trace without affecting the instrument gain or attenuation settings. This allows the displayed trace to be moved without decreasing measurement accuracy.

• Ref Trace

Allows you to view or blank the reference trace on the display.

Power Meter

Key access:

[MODE] > {Power Meter}

Use the arrow keys to highlight the mode.

Select this mode, and press

[ENTER] to make a measurement using the power meter function.

When selected, the Power Meter softkey menu will be displayed and many of the instrument hardkeys will be disabled as they are not necessary for this mode.

Measurement

Key access:

[MODE] > {Power Meter}

This softkey toggles the measurement between AVG and Peak. When it is set to AVG, the result shown in screen is the power sensor’s measurement result. When it is set to Peak, the result shown in screen is the power sensor’s gate measurement result.

138

Key Reference

MODE

Zeroing

Key access:

[MODE] > {Power Meter}

Access the associated Zeroing submenu.

• Zeroing

Make a Zero operation of the power sensor.

The U2000 Series USB Power Sensors have their sensor calibration tables stored in non- volatile memory which means that the reference calibration factor is automatically loaded upon power- up.

• Zero Type

Toggles the zeroing type of the Power Sensor between internal and external. When this type is set to

EXT, pressing Zeroing will bring up a message which indicates the external signal need be pulled out. This setting is not affected by the preset in Power Meter menu.

Meas Disp

Key access:

[MODE] > {Power Meter}

Access the Meas Disp submenu for defining the display range and resolution while in Power Meter mode.

• Disp Range

Access the associated Disp Range submenu.

• Auto Range

Toggles the auto range function between On and

Off. When the

Auto Range is set to On, the Top and Bottom value of the power meter’s display range will be set automatically according to the measurement data:

Top = Max. data + 0.5

Bottom = Min. data - 0.5

The default setting is Off.

139

Key Reference

MODE

• Top

Set the top value of the power meter’ display range.

Range from (Bottom + 0.01) to 200 dBm.

The default value is 20 dBm.

• Bottom

Set the bottom value of the power meter’ display range.

Range from - 200 to (Top - 0.01) dBm.

The default value is - 70 dBm.

• Resolution

Access the associated Resolution submenu.

When the measurement suffix is W or %, this parameter represents the number of significant digits. When the measurement suffix is dB or dBm, 1 through 4 represents 1, 0.1, 0.01, and

0.001 dB respectively.

The default value is 3.

• Disp Mode

Change the display mode between Meter and

Chart.

The default mode is Meter.

• Chart View

Access the Chart View submenu. This soft key is disabled when the measurement is in process or if the display mode is set to Meter.

This submenu is used to view the measurement chart.

• Home

View the first 21 points of current measurement chart.

• End

View the latest 21 points of current measurement chart.

140

Key Reference

MODE

• Prev

View the previous points of the chart.

• Next

View the next points of the chart.

• Continue/Pause

Continues or pauses the current measurement.

When the measurement is in process, this softkey is displayed as “Pause”; when the measurement is paused, the softkey is displayed as “Continue”.

Meas Setup

Key access:

[MODE] > {Power Meter}

Accesses the Meas Disp submenu which is used to configure the measurement settings.

• Freq

Sets a frequency between 1 kHz and 90.0 GHz using the numeric keypad, arrow key or knob. If the frequency does not correspond directly to a frequency in the sensor calibration table, the power sensor calculates the calibration factor using linear interpolation.

• Power Range

Accesses the

Power Range submenu.

• Auto Range

Enables and disable auto ranging. When auto ranging is ON, the power sensor selects the best measuring range for the measurement. When auto ranging is OFF, the power sensor remains in the current range and may be manually set by the user.

• Range

Selects the Lower or Upper of power ranges when the Auto Range is Off.

• Limits

Accesses the

Limits submenu.

141

Key Reference

MODE

• Limits

Enables or disables the limit function.

• Upper Limit

Sets a value of the upper test limit for the current measurement. The units used are dependent on the current setting of power unit.

When the measured power is greater than the value specified, a failure will be reported.

• Lower Limit

Sets the lower test limit value for the current measurement. The units used are dependent on the current setting of power unit. When the measured power is less than the value specified, a failure will be reported.

• Limit Beep

Enables or disables the limit beep.

• Rel/Offset

Accesses the

Rel/Offset submenu.

• Rel

Enables the comparison of a measurement result to a reference value and sets a reference value on the current measured data.

• Offset

Sets a value of the display offset on the current measurement, and enable or disable the display offset. The display offset is applied to the measurement signal after any math calculation.

• Average

Accesses the

Average submenu.

• Average

Enables or disables the

Average function.

• Avg Count

Sets a value of the filter length and to set the average count value to be Auto or Manual.

142

Key Reference

MODE

The power sensor automatically sets the number of readings averaged together to satisfy most power measurements averaging requirements.

The number of average readings depends on the resolution and the power level settings the power sensor is currently using.

• Step Detect

Enables or disables step detection. In AUTO filter mode, the average of the last four values entered into the filter is compared to the entire filter average. If the difference between the two averages is greater than 12.5%, the digital filter is cleared. The filter will then start storing new measurement data. This feature shortens the filter time required when the input power changes substantially. Note that the result appears to settle faster, although true settling to the final value is unaffected.

• Meas Interval

Sets the interval time between two measurements. The default value is 100 ms.

Preset

Key access:

[MODE] > {Power Meter}

Sets the power meter softkey menu options to the preset conditions. For example, the upper and lower limits are set to their preset limit values.

143

Key Reference

MODE

144

Spectrum Monitor

Spectrogram Run/Pause

Key access:

[MODE] > {Spectrum Monitor}

Toggles the spectrogram monitoring between

Run and

Pause.

Restart Meas

Key access:

[MODE] > {Spectrum Monitor}

Resets the spectrogram display.

Update Interval

Key access:

[MODE] > {Spectrum Monitor}

Enables you to set the interval of time to update data to 1 or more seconds. Or, you may set it to automatically determine the Update Interval that provides the maximum data collection speed.

A data sample is taken every time interval for display on the spectrogram. Increasing the update time allows data capturing over a longer period of time in the spectrogram.

Spec View

Key access:

[MODE] > {Spectrum Monitor}

Enables you to view the details in the captured spectrogram. when the Spectrogram is running,

Pressing

{Spec View} pauses the running spectrogram.

Press

{Home}/{End} to view the first /last spectrogram in cache.

Press

{Playback} to playback the spectrogram process. The direction and the update interval is changeable as your need.

Palette

Key access:

[MODE] > {Spectrum Monitor}

Toggles the spectrogram color mode between full color and gray scale.

Key Reference

MODE

NOTE

Disp Mode

Key access:

[MODE] > {Spectrum Monitor}

Allows you to set the spectrogram display mode as trace, spectrogram or both trace and spectrogram.

File Logging

Key access:

[MODE]> {Spectrum Monitor} > {File

Logging}

Accesses the submenu for spectrogram file operation.

• Start/Stop Save

This softkey allow you to start or stop the automatic save function. Once the spectrogram measurement frames reached the file size set in the

{File Size}, a file (*.SPE or *.CSV) will be automatically saved, and the spectrogram measurement will restart.

The save process takes a few seconds to read from cache.

During this period, the measurement is paused.

• Timed Setting

This submenu allows you to configure automatic time save function. You can set start date, time, stop date, time in this menu. Press

{Timed Save On}, the analyzer will start the auto- saving function from the

Start Time.

• File Type

Toggles the saved file type between trace and CSV.

• File Path

Allocate the path where the file is saved.

• File Size

Set the number of frames for the spectrogram trace file. The allowed input range is 200 to 1500 frames.

145

Key Reference

MODE

Cable & Antenna Test

Key access:

[MODE] > {Cable&Antenna Test}

Select this mode to make a measurement using the cable and antenna test function.

Auto Scale

Key access:

[Amptd] > {Auto Scale}

Press this softkey to adjust the amplitude scale automatically to include the peak and valley level in graticule.

Calibrate

Key access:

[Freq] > {Calibrate}

Cal Type

Key access:

[Freq] > {Cal Type}

This softkey toggles the calibration type between full span calibration and selected span calibration.

Full span calibration runs an open- short- load calibration across the full frequency span.

A FullSpan calibration ignores the frequency changes during measurements.

Selected span calibration performs an open- short- load calibration across a user- defined frequency span. A SelectedSpan Cal requires a re- calibration of the analyzer, after changing the measurement frequency range. Normally, the selected span should be set as close to the actual swept frequency range.

Run/Hold

Key access:

[Sweep] > {Run/Hold}

This softkey toggles the frequency sweep between run and pause status.

146

Key Reference

MODE

Data->Mem

Key access:

[Trace] > {Data->Mem}

This softkey is used to store the active data trace into memory. The trace in memory will be refreshed in the next sweep once you press this softkey. There are three trace refresh mode for your selection:

Data Only the activated trace is viewable. The trace memory is not viewable.

Memory Only the trace in memory is viewable.

Data&Memory The trace both activated and in memory is viewable.

Disp Mode

Key access:

[Meas] > {Disp Mode}

This softkey allows you to set the Y axis of the graticule as return loss, VSWR or reflection coefficient value.

IIM On/Off

Key access:

[Meas] > {IIM}

This softkey toggles IIM between on and off. When there is a need to measure the antenna feed line in field, there are probably some interference signals coupled into the device, which will be detected as spurs in the measurement result. When IIM is set to on, the analyzer will compensate those spurs by

IIM algorithm.

147

Key Reference

SPAN

SPAN

This hardkey accesses the softkey submenu of span functions. Pressing

[SPAN] allows you to change the frequency range. The frequency- span readout describes the total displayed frequency range. To determine frequency span per horizontal graticule division (when in linear frequency scale type), divide the frequency span by 10.

Span

Key access:

[SPAN] > {Span}

Enter a frequency span range value.

Full

Key access:

[SPAN] > {Full}

Changes the span to the full frequency range of the analyzer.

Zero

Key access:

[SPAN] > {Zero}

Changes the frequency span to zero. In this mode, the current center frequency is displayed in the time domain (the x axis is displayed in units of time), like a conventional oscilloscope.

Last Span

Key access:

[SPAN] > {Last Span}

Sets the span to the previous span setting.

148

Key Reference

Trace

Trace

Accesses the trace keys to store and manipulate trace information. Each trace comprises a series of data points in which amplitude information is stored. The analyzer updates the data for any active trace with each successive sweep.

Trace

Key access:

[TRACE] > {Trace}

Selects the trace (1- 4) for current use.

Clear Write

Key access:

[TRACE] > {Clear Write}

Erases any previously stored trace data and continuously updates the display during following sweeps of the analyzer. This function is activated for trace 1 at power on and factory preset.

Max Hold

Key access:

[TRACE] > {Max Hold}

NOTE

Maintains the displayed maximum level for each trace point of the selected trace. A trace point is updated if a new maximum level is detected in successive sweeps.

Changing the vertical scale (Amplitude, Scale Type, Log or

Line), or pressing PRESET, or turning averaging on (TRACE,

Average (On)) or switching widow in Zone Span restarts the held trace.

149

Key Reference

Trace

Minimum Hold

Key access:

[TRACE] > {Min Hold}

NOTE

Maintains the minimum level for each trace point of the selected trace, and updates each trace point if a new minimum level is detected in successive sweeps.

Changing the vertical scale (Amplitude, Scale Type, Log or

Line), or pressing PRESET, or turning averaging on (TRACE,

Average (On) or switching widow in Zone Span restarts the held trace.

View

Key access:

[TRACE] > {View}

Holds and displays the amplitude data of the selected trace. The trace register is not updated as the analyzer sweeps. If a trace is deactivated by pressing

Blank, the stored trace data can be retrieved by pressing

View.

Blank

Key access:

[TRACE] > {Blank}

Stores the amplitude data for the selected trace and removes it from the display. The selected trace register will not be updated as the analyzer sweeps. This function is activated for traces 2, 3 and 4 at power- on and

Factory Preset.

Detector

Key access:

[TRACE] > {More} > {Detector}

Selects a specific detector type, or allows the system to auto select the appropriate detector for a measurement.

For every trace point displayed, there is a finite time during which the data for that point is collected. The analyzer has the ability to look at all of the data evaluated during that time and present

150

Key Reference

Trace

a single point of trace data based on the detector mode. We call the interval during which data for that trace point is being collected, the “bucket”.

Thus a trace is more than a series of single points.

It is actually a series of trace “buckets”. The data may be sampled many times within each bucket.

• Normal

Selects the maximum and minimum video signal values alternately. When selecting the normal detector, “

N” appears in the upper- left corner.

• Average

Measures the average value of the amplitude across each trace interval (bucket). When

Average is selected, “

A” appears on the upper- left corner.

• Pos Peak

Obtains the maximum video signal between the last display point and the present display point and stores this value in memory. It is used primarily when measuring sinusoidal (spectral) components.

When

Positive Peak is selected, “P” appears in the upper- left corner.

• Sample

Primarily used to display noise (or noise- like) signals. It should not be used to measure the accurate amplitude of non noise- like signals.

In sample mode, the instantaneous signal value at the present display point is placed in memory.

When

Sample detector is selected, “S” appears in the upper- left corner of the display.

• Neg Peak

Similar to peak detector, but selects the minimum video signal value. Not to be used to measure the most accurate amplitude. When in mode, an “

Negative Peak

N” also appears in the upper- left corner.

151

Key Reference

Trace

Average

Key access:

[TRACE] > {More} > {Average}

Initiates a digital averaging routine that averages the trace points in a number of successive sweeps resulting in trace “smoothing”. Increasing the average number will further smooth the trace. For the information of the type of averaging please refer to

“Avg Type” on page 104

.

The average is restarted when any of the following occurs:

A new average number is entered.

Any related parameter (e.g., center frequency) is changed.

Press

Average (Off) to turn off averaging.

The number of sweeps can only be set using the numeric keypad, not the knob or arrow keys.

Average Dura.

Key access:

[TRACE] > {More}

Initiates a digital averaging routine that averages the trace points in an average duration resulting in trace “smoothing”. Increasing the average duration will further smooth the trace. For the information

of the type of averaging please refer to

“Avg

Type” on page 104

.

The average is restarted when any of the following occurs:

A new average duration is entered.

Any related parameter (e.g., center frequency) is changed.

{Avg Restart} is pressed

Press

Average Dura. (Off) to turn off averaging.

152

Key Reference

Limit

Limit

Limit Type

Key access:

[Limit] > {Limit Type}

Defines the limit you are editing as either an upper or lower limit. An upper limit fails if trace 1 exceeds the limit. A lower limit fails if trace 1 falls below the limit.

Limit Line

Key access:

[Limit] > {Limit Line}

Activates an adjustable horizontal line that is used as a visual reference line.

The limit line, used for trace arithmetic, has amplitude values that correspond to its vertical position when compared to the reference level. The value of the display line appears in both the active function block and on the left side of the display.

The arrow keys, knob, or numeric keypad may be used to adjust the display line. Pressing any digit,

0 through 9, on the numeric keypad brings up the selected terminator menu. To deactivate the display line, press

Display Line (Off).

Limits

Key access:

[Limit] > {Limits}

Turns on the limit pattern function and turns off the limit line function simultaneously.

153

Key Reference

Limit

Limits Edit

Key access:

[Limit] > {Limits Edit}

Allows you to set a limit pattern for measurements.

You can edit limit points, limit table and limit offset for your limit pattern.

Press

X Axis Unit to toggle the frequency domain or time domain before you set the parameter of limit point.

Margin

Key access:

[Limit] > {Margin}

Turns Margin On to set a limit line offset for the selected limit line. Either

Limit or Margin, must be turned on for a limit test to work.

Save Limits

Key access:

[Limit] > {Save Limits}

Saves the parameters of the current limit pattern in a file (*.

LIM).

Enter the user defined filename using the numeric keypad and press

[ENTER] as a terminator.

Number, alpha characters and underline are all valid components of a filename.

Recall Limits

Key access:

[Limit] > {Recall Limits}

Recalls files previously saved containing the limit parameters that may be frequently used for test purposes.

154

5 Error Messages

Error Messages

This chapter contains error message information and definitions used by the analyzer.

155

Error Messages

Overview

Overview

If an improper operation occurs during the instrument configuration, a message will appear on the status line indicating the incident and the how the spectrum analyzer corrected the setting automatically. press

[System] > {System Info} > {Error

History} to read the specific descriptions of those messages.

Example

In this example, a failure explanation is generally included with each error to further define its meaning. The instrument messages in this guide are listed numerically.

<Time> <Code>

<Message>

07.01 15:48 [F] -330 No matched module

This message indicates no matched measurement or mode found.

<Explanation in manual>

NOTE

A symbol [F] at the beginning of an error message indicates this is an error caused by manual front panel operation. A symbol [R] at the beginning of an error message indicates this is an error caused by remote control mode.

156

Error Messages

Error Message List

Error Message List

Please refer to the error messages list table as below to find the corresponding message description:

0

Error

Code

Error Message

No error

Description

–410 Query INTERRUPTED

–350 Query overflow

–321 Out of memory

–224 Illegal parameter value

–223 Too much data

–222 Data out of range

–220 No matched module

–200 Execution error

Indicates that a condition causing an

INTERRUPTED query occurred (see IEEE

488.2, 6.3.2.7)

Indicates the SCPI remote interface error queue overflowed.

Indicates an internal operation needed more memory than that was available.

Indicates you sent a parameter for this command that is NOT allowed.

Indicates a legal program data element of block, expression or string type was received that contained more data than the device could handle due to related device-specific requirements or memory.

Indicates a legal data was parsed but could not be executed because of the interpreted value was outside the legal range defined by the analyzer. The displayed results may be clipped.

Indicates no matched measurement or mode found.

This is a generic execution error for devices that cannot detect more specific errors. The code indicates on those execution errors defined in IEEE 488.2,

11.5.1.1.4 has occurred.

157

Error Messages

Error Message List

Error

Code

Error Message Description

–171 Invalid expression

–144 Character data too long

764 Unable to save file

762 Unable to load file

612 File NOT found

173 Lame package, please upgrade firmware

172 Option install fail, invalid option licence

171 File loaded

170 The menu is unavailable in this case

Indicates the data element was invalid, for example, unmatched parentheses, or an illegal character.

Indicates the character data contained more than 12 characters. (see IEEE

488.2, 7.7.1.4)

Indicates a failure occurred while saving a file. The file was not saved.

Indicates a failure occurred while loading a file. The file was not loaded.

Indicates the analyzer could not find the specified file.

Indicates the current firmware is not mostly updated. The firmware needs upgrading.

Indicates the option could not be installed, because of the invalid option licence.

Indicates the file loading succeeded.

Indicates the memo is invalid in this case.

166 Marker counter opened in fast sweep

Indicates the counter’s accuracy decreases when in fast sweep mode.

162 Cannot open fast sweep in this case

156 Incorrect alignment file on flash

Indicates current settings do not allow you to open fast sweep. For example, currently in FFT, zero span, or any measurement in power suite does not allow fast sweep.

Indicates an invalid alignment file.

153 RF EEPROM operate fail

Indicates an error when writing alignment file.

158

Error Messages

Error Message List

Error

Code

Error Message Description

152 Alignment file oversize

151 DSP boot fail

150 Mixer overload

149 Mixer saturate

Indicates the alignment file has error or invalid data.

Indicates the analyzer cannot process measurement currently, wait the analyzer to reboot. If analyzer froze, try to restart the analyzer.

Indicates the first mixer in danger. Either increase input attenuation or decrease the input signal level.

Indicates you need to either increase the input attenuation or decrease the input signal level.

Indicates invalid alignment data occurred.

147 Incorrect alignment data in

EEPROM

143 Final IF overload

138 USB device NOT ready

136 RBW limit to

30 kHz when in fast sweep

130 Meas uncal

119 RF Board Changed

116 Cannot communicate with RF

Indicates you need to either increase the input attenuation or decrease the input signal level.

Indicates the USB device is not detected.

Indicates the analyzer automatically couple the RBW to 30 kHz when in fast sweep mode.

Indicates the measurement is uncalibrated due to fast sweeping through a narrow RBW filter. Check the sweep time, span, and bandwidth settings, or use auto coupling.

Indicates the RF board was changed, the analyzer needs re-load the alignment data.

Indicates the MCU cannot find the RF board.

159

Error Messages

Error Message List

160

6 Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting

This chapter includes information on how to check for a problem with your Keysight Technologies spectrum analyzer, and how to return it for service.

If you experience a problem or would like additional information about your analyzer,

Keysight Technologies’ worldwide organization is ready to provide the support you need.

161

Troubleshooting

Check the basics

Check the basics

This section includes information on how to check for a problem with your Keysight spectrum analyzer, and how to return it for service.

If you experience a problem or would like additional information about your analyzer,

Keysight Technologies’ worldwide organization is ready to provide the support you need.

WARNING

No operator serviceable parts inside. Refer servicing to qualified personnel. To prevent electrical shock, do not remove covers.

Before calling Keysight Technologies, or returning an analyzer for service, perform the quick checks listed below. This check may eliminate the problem.

Is there power at the receptacle?

Is the analyzer turned on?

If other equipment, cables, and connectors are being used with your spectrum analyzer, make sure they are connected properly and operating correctly.

Review the measurement procedures being performed when the problem first appeared. Make sure all of the settings are correct.

If the analyzer is not functioning as expected, return the analyzer to a known state by pressing

Preset (Default Preset Type).

Is the measurement being performed, and the results that are expected, within the specifications and capabilities of the analyzer? Refer to the Technical Overview for your analyzer.

Is the analyzer displaying an error message? If

so, refer to

“Error Messages” on page 155

.

162

Troubleshooting

Check the basics

NOTE

To meet specifications, the analyzer must be aligned. For more information on how to align the analyzer, refer to

“Time Base Calibration” on page 26

.

If the analyzer is still under warranty or is covered by a maintenance contract, it will be repaired under the terms of the warranty or plan (the warranty is located at the front of this manual).

If the analyzer is no longer under warranty or is not covered by an Keysight Technologies maintenance plan, Keysight

Technologies will notify you of the cost of the repair after examining the analyzer.

If a problem persists, please contact the Keysight

Technologies office for further information and service.

Warranty and Service Options

Keysight N934xC handheld spectrum analyzer provides 1- year return- to- Keysight warranty as standard. Besides, we offers several optional maintenance plans to service your analyzer after the warranty has expired:

R- 51B- 001- 3C extends this service to 3 years.

R- 50C- 011- 3 Keysight calibration upfront support plan, 3- year coverage.

The calibration cycle of N934xC Handheld spectrum analyzer is one year.

163

Troubleshooting

Contact Keysight Technologies

Contact Keysight Technologies

Keysight has sales & service offices around the world to provide you with complete support.

Go to http://www.keysight.com/find/assist for help with:

product selection, configuration, and purchases.

technical and application assistance, and consulting.

rental and leasing options, and refurbished equipment.

repair, calibration, education and training.

If you do not have access to the internet, call the appropriate number shown below. Or contact your local Keysight Technologies Sales and Service

Office.

United States

Canada

Latin America

China

Korea

Japan

Taiwan

(tel) 800 829 4444

(fax) 800 829 4433

(tel) 877 894 4414

(fax) 800 746 4866

(tel) +1 (305) 269 7500

(tel) 800 810 0189

(fax) 800 820 2816

(tel) 080 769 0800

(fax) 080 769 0900

(tel) +81 426 56 7832

(fax) +81 426 56 7840

(tel) 0800 047 866

(fax) 0800 286 331

Europe

Australia

(tel) +31 20 547 2111

(tel) 1 800 629 485

(fax) +61 (3) 9210 5947

Other Asia Pacific

Countries

(tel) +65 6375 8100

(fax) +65 6755 0042

Email: [email protected]

164

Menu Map

7 Menu Map

This chapter contains menu maps that visually present the menus and submenus that are accessed by pressing the hardkeys and softkey menu selections in the instrument.

This is a quick reference guide for the experienced user.

165

Menu Map

Amptd

Amptd

Ref level

Attenuation

Auto Man

Preamp

Off On

Scale/DIV >

Scale Type

Log Lin

Y Axis Unit

More

HiSensitivity

Off On

Ref Offset

Correction

Impedance

50 ohm 75 ohm

PSD Function

Off On

1 dB/DIV

2 dB/DIV

5 dB/DIV

10 dB/DIV dBm dBmV dBuV

W

V dBmV EMF dBuV EMF

V EMF

Apply

Corrections

Off On

Correction1

Correction2

Correction3

Correction4

Impedance

Off On

Off

Load User

166

Display

Disp

Graticule

On Off

Y Scale

On Off

Display Line

On Off

GPS Info

On Off

*This menumap is for Spectrum Analyzer mode.

Disp

Freeze

Disp Mode

Bar Time

View Back

Threshold

On Off

Sort By

Down Up

*This menumap is for Channel Scanner measurement.

Disp

X scale

Y Scale

Display waveform>

Scale Coupling

On Off

Ref Value

Ref Position

Left>

Scale/DIV

*This menumap is for ASK/FSK modulation analysis.

Menu Map

167

Menu Map

BW

BW

RBW

Auto Man

VBW

Auto Man

VBW/RBW

Auto Man

Avg Type

Log Pwr

Power

Voltage

Sweep

Sweep

Sweep Time

Auto Man

Sweep

Single Cont

Single Sweep

*Trigger

Gated Sweep

Sweep Setup

Gated Sweep

On Off

Gated View

On Off

View

SweepTime

Gated Delay

Gated Length

Gated Source

Free Run

RF Burst

Video

External

Video Level

Trigger Slope

Rise Fall

External

Periodic Timer

RF Burst

Trigger Slope

Rise Fall

Burst Level

Swp Time Rule

Speed Accuracy

Sweep Type

Auto

Sweep

FFT

*The trigger menu is available when span is set to zero span.

168

Menu Map

FREQ

Freq

Auto Tune

Center Freq

Start Freq

Stop Freq

Chan Standard

Unit

Freq Channel

CF Step

Auto Man

Freq Offset

LowFreqChannel

*

*This softkey is only visible when option BB1 is installed.

Limit

Limit

Limit 1

Limit 2

Limit

Fixed Rel

X Axis Unit

Freq Time

Limit Beep

Off On

Limit Type

Upper Lower

Limit Line

Off On

Limit

Off On

Edit Limits

Margin

Off On

Start Threshold

Off On

Recall Limits

Save Limits

Points

Freq

Amplitude

Add

Delete Point

Delete All

169

Menu Map

Marker

Marker

Marker

1 2 3 4 5 6

Marker Trace

Mode

Function

Marker To

Marker Table

On Off

More

Read Out

Frequency>

Zoom In

Delta Ref

All Off

Logging Start

More

Normal

Counter

Noise

Band Power

Demod

Demod Setting

AM >

To Center

To Start

To Stop

Delta to Span

To Reference

Frequency

Period

Time

Normal

Delta

Delta Pair

Ref Delta

Span Center

Relative to

Off

Demod Type

AM FM

Speaker Vol

Delay Time

170

Peak

Peak

Peak Search

Next Peak

Next Left PK

Next Right PK

Pk-Pk Search

To Center

More

Continous Pk

On Off

Peak Table

Peak Criteria

Peak Table

On Off

Export Table to CSV

Peak Threshold

Peak Excursion

Peak Type

Max Min

Menu Map

171

Menu Map

File/Mode - Task Planner

MODE File

Task Planner

Save As

Recall

Rename

Files Operation

Directory

2

View FileType

Setup

Deselect

Select All

Deselect All

Copy To

Move To

Delete

QSave Type

QSave Naming

On Off

Sort By

Prefix Edit

ALL

STA

TRC

SET

JPG more

Media Type

INT SYS USB

Browse Folder

Sort By

Create Folder

Copy/Move

1

BMP

CSV

ANT

LIM

STD more

COR

TPF more

1

*The softkey Copy/Move only exists in the submenu of Copy To/Move To.

2

*The softkey View FileType is fixed as TPF in Task Planner Mode.

172

Menu Map

Mode - Tracking Generator

MODE

Power

Meter

Spectrum

Monitor

Cable &

Anntena Test

Amplitude

Off On

Amptd Step

Amptd Offset

Normalize

Store Ref

1->4

Normalize

Off On

Norm Ref Lvl

Norm Ref Posn

Ref Trace

Blank View

173

Menu Map

Mode - Modulation Analysis (AM/FM)

MO DE

Demodulation Analysis

AM

FM

C arrier Freq

IF BW

EqLP F

Detec tor

X Scale

Y Scale

More

Auto S cale

On O ff

Ref Value

Ref P osition

L eft

Scale/DIV

*

Ext Gain

Return

Peak+

Peak-

Peak+-/2

R MS

Peak Hold

On O ff

Return

CarrFreq Step

Average

O n O ff

Limits

Auto CarrF req

O n O ff

Sweep

Si ngl e C ont

Single

More

Limit

O n O ff

C arrPow Upr

AM Dept h Up/

FreqDev Up

AM Dept h L ow /

Fr eqD ev Low

C arrFreOff Up

Attenuation

Preamp

On Off

More

174

Menu Map

Mode - Modulation Analysis (ASK/FSK)

MO DE

Demodulation Analysis

ASK FSK

Carrier Freq

Sy mbol R ate

F ilter Setup

View

X Scale

Y Scale

More

Meas Length

Average

O n O ff

Trigger

Limits

Sweep

Si ngl e C ont

Single

More

Auto S cale

On O ff

Ref Value

Ref P osition

Left

Scale/DIV

*

Ext Gain

Return

Limit

O n O ff

C arrPow Upr

ASK Dep th Up/

FreqD ev Up

ASK Depth Lo w/

FreqD ev Lo w

CarrFreOff Up

Symbol

W aveform

ASK/F SK Error

Eye Diagram

Return

Free Run

RF Trigger

Ext Ris e

Ext Fall

Trig Delay

O n O ff

Meas F ilter

Ref Filter

Alpha/BbT

Filter Symbols

CarrFreq Step

Auto C arrFreq

O n Off

Attenuation

A uto M an

Preamp

O n Off

More

175

Menu Map

Mode - Cable & Antenna Test

MODE Amptd Sweep

Marker

a

Cable &

Anntena Test

Return Loss

VSWR

Cable Loss

DTF

Meas

(Setup)

b

Disp Mode

IIM

On Off

Start Distance

Stop Distance

Unit

Meters Feet

Freq Domain

On Off

More

Auto Scale

Ref Level

Scale/Div c

Cable Type

Window

Hold

Sweep

Single Cont

Single Sweep

Cable Type

RG BTS Cust

Select Cable

Cable Atten

Vel Factor

Marker

123456

Normal

Delta

Off

Continuous Max

On Off

Continuous Min

On Off

All Off

None

Rectangular

Hamming

3-Sample

Blackman

4-Sample

Blackman

Trace Limit

Data->Mem

Data

Memory

Data&Memory

Trace Math

Average

On Off

Limit Line

On Off

Limits

On Off

Edit Limits

Limit Type

Upper Lower

Limit Beep

On Off a.

Press

Meas twice to toggle the submenu between Meas setup and Mode b.

The

Meas submenu is specific for DTF measurement.

c.

The

Cable Type and Window submenu is specific for DTF

176

Menu Map

Mode - Power Meter

MODE

Power Meter

Zeroing

Meas Disp

Meas Setup

Preset

Return

Zeroing

Zero Type

INT EXT

Disp Range

Resolution

1 2 3 4

Disp Mode

Meter Chart

Chart View

Continue

Freq

Power Range

Limits

Rel/Offset

Average

Meas Interval

Return

Auto Range

Range

Lower Upper

Limits

On Off

Upper Limit

Lower Limit

Limit Beep

On Off

Rel

On Off

Offset

On Off

Average

On Off

Avg count

On Off

Step Detect

On Off

177

Menu Map

Measure Off

ACPR

Channel Power

OBW

Spectrum

Monitor

SEM

Channel

Scanner

Offset

Meas (1)

Meas

Stop Freq

Sweep Time

Auto Man

Res BW

Auto Man

More

Center Freq

Int BW

Disp Mode

RRC Filter

Filter BW

Method

Percent dBc

%

dBc

Avg Number

On Off

Meas Type

Ref Channel

Offset/Limit

Fail Setting

Abs StartAmpt

Abs Stop Ampt

Couple Man

Rel StartAmpt

Rel StopAmpt

More

Meas BW

Fail Mask

Center Freq

Main Channel

Adjacent Chn

RRC Filter

Filter BW

Total Pwr Ref

PSD Ref

Chan Integ BW

Chan Span

Sweep Time

Res Bw

Auto Man

Total Pwr Ref

/PSD Ref

Log

On Off

Hold

On Off

Beep

On Off

178

Menu Map

Meas (2)

Meas

Measure Off

ACPR

Channel Power

OBW

Spectrum

Monitor

SEM

Channel

Scanner

Spectrogram

Run Pause

Restart Meas

Update Int.

Off On

Spectrg View

Palette

Color Gray

Display Mode

File Logging

Scan Start

Scan Mode

Recall

Range Edit

Logging Start

Setup

Home

Page Up

Page Down

End

Playback

Spectrg

Trace

Spectrg&Trace

Play

Stop

Update Int.

On Off

Start Save

Time Setting

File Type

TRC CSV

File Path

File Size

List

Top N

Bottom N

Interval Type

Time Distance

Measure Rule

Speed Accuracy

Search Rule

Speed Accuracy

Top/bottom Cycle

On Off

Start Freq

Freq Step Size

Bandwidth

Number of Chn

Apply

Span

Span

Span

Full Span

Zero Span

Last Span

179

Menu Map

System

System

Brightness

Keypad Setting

Time/Date

Language

Pwr On/Off

Preset

System Info

More

Service

Port Setting

Securities

Factory

Default

GPS

GPS

Off On

GPS Info

Off On

GPS Calibration

Off On

Show GPS Info

BackLight

Brightness

Backlight Off

Timer

Beeper

On Off

Time Pwr On

Time Pwr Off

Pwr On Setting

DFT User Last

Preset Type

DFT User Last

Save User

DC Pwr In

Standby Pwron

Upgrade

Firmware

Calibration

Diagnostics

Add Option

Ext Input

Trig Ref

IP Admin

Probe Power

Off On

Erase Memory

Brightness

Power Saving

Time

Date

Sync to GPS

Time Zone Ofst

Power On

Off On

Repeat Mode

Once Everyday

Time

Date

Show System

Error History

By EXT

Time Base

By GPS

Calibration

Calibartion

Sys Name

IP Address

Static DCHP

Gateway

Subnet Mask

Apply

180

Trace

Trace

Trace

1 2 3 4

Clear Write

Max Hold

Min Hold

View

Blank

More

1 of 2

Detector

Auto Man

Average Number

Off On

Average Dura.

Off On

Avg Restart

Trace Math

Normal

Average

Pos Peak

Sample

Neg Peak

Variable A

Variable B

Variable C

Math Type

Off

A-B->C

B-A->C

A+B->C

Menu Map

181

Menu Map

182

A

Adding Option, 26

Amplitude, 96

Attenuation, 96

Avg Type, 104

B

Battery, 18

C

Calibrate, cal tools, 83

Calibrate, using T-combo, 84

calibration, freq change, 146

Calibration, span changes, 83

CF Step, 113

D

Display Adjustment, 23

DTF Measurement, 86

E

ESC/CLR, 111

Ext Input, 24

F

File Type, 90

Firmware Upgrading, 28

Frequency, 1, 112

Front Panel, 5

I

Instrument Markings, def., 9

ISM1-A, 9

L

Limit Line, 153

Limit Pattern, 153

Loading a file, 93

M

Marker, 115

Marker Delta, 116

Marker To, 118

Measuring ACPR, 125

Measuring OBW, 124

P

Peak Search, 122

Power Manager, 23

Preamp, 97

R

Reference Level, 96

Reference Offset, 98

Res BW, 103

S

Saving a file, 92

Scale Type, 97

Scale/Div, 97

Setting Key Beep, 23

Show Error, 26

Show SYS Info, 25

Single Sweep, 107

Span, 148

Sweep Mode, 107

Sweep Time, 106

T

Time Base Calibration, 26

Top Panel, 8

Trace, 149

Tracking Generator, 51

V

VBW, 103

View Multi-signals, 34

Viewing Close Signals, 35

Viewing Small Signal, 38

Viewing TOI Distortion, 48

Y

Y Axis Units, 98

Index

183

© Keysight Technologies, Inc. 2010-2015

*N9342-90002*

N9342-90002

Printed in China

Feb 2015

www.keysight.com

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