1771-2.34, Allen-Bradley Proportional/Integral/Derivative Control (2

1771-2.34, Allen-Bradley Proportional/Integral/Derivative Control (2
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
AllenBradley
Proportional/Integral/Derivative Control
(2Loop) Module
(Cat. No. 1771-PD)
Product Data
General Description
The Proportional/Integral/Derivative Control (2-Loop) Module Assembly
(cat. no. 1771-PD) is an intelligent I/O Module that performs closed loop
PID control. The PID module is a process controller. It monitors the input
process variable, compares the input to the desired set point, and calculates
the analog output based on the control algorithm programmed in the
module (figure 1). It can be used with a variety of I/O devices that operate
in the +4 to +20mA or +1 to +5V DC range.
1
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Figure 1
PID Closed Loop Control
You have a choice of control algorithm:
A-B
ISA
Refer to Comparing ISA and A-B Algorithms and the end of this data
sheet.
Block transfer programming is used to communicate between the PID
module and the PC processor. The PC processor writes loop configuration
data such as gain constants, set points, filter values, limit and alarm values
to the PID module and reads status data such as analog input values, analog
output values, alarm limits and diagnostics from the PID module. The PID
module can be used with any Allen-Bradley PC processor that has block
transfer capability, and uses 1771-I/O.
2
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
The PID module has five levels of fault tolerance. If communication with
the PC processor is lost or withheld, the module can operate alone in soft
fault mode using the last values transferred from the PC processor. If a
fault in module hardware is detected, the module automatically sets the
output to a predetermined value and generates a signal to transfer control
to an optional user-supplied manual control station. When a manual control
station is used, the manually controlled output overrides the output set by
the module. Control can be returned to the PID module by a “bumpless”
transfer that prevents an undesirable output surge. Another level of fault
tolerance is the module’s response to loss of voltage. If +5V DC is lost,
outputs go to a predetermined maximum of minimum value. If "15V DC
is lost, outputs go to minimum value. Lastly, the PID module can operate
from a power supply that is independent of the I/O chassis power supply.
An overview of a PID module control system is shown in figure 2. Once
properly configured, the PID module can operate independently of the PC
processor. Or, the PID module/PC processor combination can perform
adaptive control where the PC processor can continually adjust the PID
module’s control algorithm based on process changes monitored by the PC
processor. In addition, PID modules can be used with PC processors in
distributed control systems using the data highway.
Figure 2
System Overview
3
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Loop Features
The PID module can control one or two PID closed loops. The two loops
can be independent or linked together by an advanced control function
such as cascade or decoupling. Expanded loop features can be chosen in
addition to standard features to suit the application. All features are
selectable by settings bits in the data table with the exception of the I/O
range, the source of +5V DC, and the fault response to a hardware failure,
or loss of +5V DC (which are selected using internal configuration plugs).
Write block transfers to the module allow program logic to enable the
following features:
Standard Features for Input Conditioning
detect the loss of process variable input
read the process variable at the PC processor
substitute a value calculated by the PC processor for use as the process
variable
take the normalized square root of the process variable
digitally filter the process variable
Standard Control Features
select direct or reverse acting control
download a set point from the PC processor
limit and/or set an alarm on the error signal
perform error dead band (zero crossing)
set an alarm when the error exceeds the dead band
select the A-B or ISA PID algorithm
select error or error squared conditioning of the proportional and/or
integral error
select whether the derivative function operates on the error or the
process variable
set an alarm on the proportional term
limit and/or set an alarm on the integral term
limit and/or set an alarm on the derivative term
Standard Features for Output Conditioning
limit and/or set an alarm on the PID algorithm output
read the PID algorithm output at the PC processor
4
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
override the PID algorithm output from the PC processor
interface directly with a manual control station (bumpless transfer)
hold the PID algorithm output for independent loop tuning
hold the bias/feedforward term for independent loop tuning
download an output bias from the PC processor
Expanded Features
perform scaling on the process variable, set point and/or error
use the tieback as the feedforward input
take the normalized square root of the feedforward input
add a feedforward offset
multiply the feedforward term by a constant
perform lead/lag filtering on the feedforward term
download a feedforward value from the PC processor
cascade the output of loop 1 into the set point of loop 2
decouple the VPID output of loop 1 into the feedforward input of loop 2
The module performs anti-reset wind-up on the integral output term. When
a limit is set on the PID algorithm output, the integral output term is
adjusted to compensate for changes in other algorithm output terms.
A simplified flow chart of the PID loop algorithm (figure 3) shows
selected standard and expanded loop features.
5
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Figure 3
Simplified PID Algorithm
Block Transfer Programming
6
PID module features are selected by setting word values and control bits in
data table block files. Block files are transferred between the PC processor
and the PID module by bidirectional block transfers (figure 4).
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Figure 4
Multiple Block Concept
Loop data must be loaded initially from the PC processor to the PID
module by a power-up load/enter sequence. Thereafter, program logic can
enable continuous bidirectional communication (dynamic/status toggle
sequence), or periodic bidirectional block transfers when the module
operates independently of the PC processor. Either way, the PC processor
can continuously monitor the status of the PID module: by continuously
reading the status block by read block transfers, or by examining the
module’s status monitor byte which does not require block transfers.
Multiple Block Concept
Data block files are areas of the PC processor data table used to store loop
control words and loop values. The blocks have corresponding storage
areas in the PID module. Block files required by the PID module are:
Dynamic block — contains values for both loops which may change
frequently. Once data has been initially loaded into the PID module, the
dynamic block values can be changed at any time with a single write block
transfer. The dynamic block contains 10 words for 1-loop operation or 17
words for 2-loop operation.
Loop 1 Constants Block — contains values which seldom change. Once
data has been initially loaded into the PID module, the loop constants can
be changed only by initiating a load/enter sequence of multiple block
7
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
transfers. The loop constants block contains 12 words for standard features
or 19 words for standard and expanded features.
Loop 2 Constants Block — (similar to Loop 1 Constants Block)
Status Block — is used to report the current status of the PID module and
any alarm condition detected by the module. The status block also prompts
the next write block transfer of a dynamic block or loop constants block.
The status block contains 11 words for 1-loop operation or 18 words for
2-loop operation.
A summary of the words used to store feature values and associated control
bits is listed in table A.
Table A
Control and Value Words
Dynamic Block
Word
Title
Range
W01
W02
W03
W04
W05
W06
Master Control Word
Control Word
Dynamic Block Start Address
Loop 1 Block Start Address
Set Analog Output 1
Set Point 1
Scaled
Proportional Gain 1
Bias 1
Process Variable 1
Feedforward Input 1
04095
04095
"99990
09999
"9999
04095
"4095
Loop 2 Block Start Address
Set Analog Output 2
Set Point 2
Scaled
Proportional Gain 2
Bias 2
Process Variable 2
Feedforward Input 2
04095
04095
"99990
09999
"9999
04095
"4095
W07
W08
W09
W10
W11
W12
W13
W14
W15
W16
W17
8
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Table A
Control and Value Words (continued)
Loop 1 Constant Block
Word
Title
Title Range
W18
W19
W20
W21
W22
W23
W24
W25
W26
W27
W28
W29
W30
W31
W32
W33
W34
W35
W36
Loop Control Word A
Loop Control Word B
Input Filter Time Constant 1
Maximum Negative Error 1
Maximum Positive Error 1
Dead Band 1
Integral Gain 1
Derivative Gain 1
Integral Term Limit 1
Derivative Term Limit 1
Minimum Output Limit 1
Maximum Output Limit 1
Loop 1 Expanded Control Word
Minimum Scaling Value 1
Maximum Scaling Value 1
Feedforward Offset 1
Feedforward Gain 1
Lead Time Constant 1
Lag Time Constant 1
0999.9
04095
04095
04095
0999.9
09999
09999
09999
04095
04095
"99990
"99990
09999
09999
0999.9
0999.9
Loop 2 Constants Block
Word
Title
Range
W38
W39
W40
W42
W42
W43
W44
W45
W46
W47
W48
W49
W50
W52
W52
W53
W54
W55
W56
Loop 2 Control Word A
Loop 2 Control Word B
Input Filter Time Constant 2
Maximum Negative Error 2
Maximum Positive Error 2
Dead Band 2
Integral Gain 2
Derivative Gain 2
Integral Term Limit 2
Derivative Term Limit 2
Minimum Output Limit 2
Maximum Output Limit 2
Loop 2 Expanded Control Word
Minimum Scaling Value 2
Maximum Scaling Value 2
Feedforward Offset 2
Feedforward Gain 2
Lead Time Constant 2
Lag Time Constant 2
0.999.9
04095
04095
04095
0999.9
09999
09999
09999
04095
04095
"99990
"99990
09999
09999
0999.9
0999.9
9
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Table A
Control and Value Words (continued)
Status Block
Word
Title
Range
W57
W58
W59
W60
W61
W62
For Future Use
Alarm (both loops)
Next Block Start Address
Loop Time/Diagnostic
Loop Status 1
Loop Error 1
Scaled
Read Loop 1 Output
Read Analog Input 1
Read Process Variable 1
Scaled
Read Tieback Input 1
Read Feedforward Value 1
Loop Status 2
Loop Error 2
Scaled
Read Loop 2 Output
Read Analog Input 2
Read Process Variable 2
Scaled
Read Tieback Input 2
Feedforward Value 2
"4095
"99990
04095
04095
04095
"99990
04095
"9999
"4095
"99990
04095
04095
04095
"99990
04095
"9999
W63
W64
W65
W66
W67
W68
W69
W70
W71
W72
W73
W74
Storage Requirements
10
Data table storage requirements depend on the number of control loops and
on whether expanded features have been selected. Data blocks for storing
the values of standard and expanded features can be arranged
consecutively in the data table. A minimum of 33 words is required for one
standard loop. A maximum of 74 words is required for two expanded loops
(figure 5).
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Figure 5
Block File Memory Requirements
Display of Data Blocks
By placing the data blocks consecutively in the data table, they can be
displayed conveniently in a single data monitor display where the word
numbers and position numbers of the display correspond.
11
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Programming Considerations
The PID module has considerable programming versatility. A load/enter
sequence is used to configure the module with selected features, start PID
control, or to change loop constants. Data can be transferred to the module
and stored indefinitely in buffer memory until activated by a program logic
command.
Bidirectional block transfers can be used for continuous communication
between PID module and PC processor. The PC processor reads the status
block, then writes the dynamic block to the module in the next I/O scan.
Continuous bidirectional block transfer is useful for adaptive control where
the PC processor adjusts loop values based on data received by monitoring
the process.
The PID module is capable of operating independently without continuous
block transfer communication with the PC processor. Once the module has
been initialized, the module’s general status can be monitored continuously
through the status monitor byte without block transfers. The status monitor
byte reports the module’s detection of a module hardware fault, loss of
input, or loss of analog power.
Fault Response
The module detects internal hardware failures and loss of communication
with the PC processor. The manner in which the module responds to a
detected fault is user selectable.
Hardware Fault
Module response to a detected hardware fault can be selected with internal
programming (jumper) plugs prior to installation (table B). In the event of
a hardware fault, programming plug selection causes the module to
respond in one of the following ways:
sets the analog output to the minimum value (+4mA or +1V DC)
holds the analog output to the last value before the fault occurred
sets the analog output to the maximum value (+20mA or +5V DC)
Also, when the module detects a hardware fault it automatically transfers
control of the loop(s) to an manual control station (if used). The output of
the manual control station can be controlled manually and overrides the
module’s output.
12
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Loss of Voltage
Module response to a detected loss of +5V DC can be selected, as well.
sets analog output to minimum value (+4mA or +1V DC)
sets analog output to maximum value (+20mA or +5V DC)
Outputs go to minimum value if "15V DC is lost.
Table B
Programming Plug Positions
Function
Choice
Plug Position
hold max/min,
hold last state
E2 LEFT for max/min,
E2 RIGHT for last state
backplane
external
E10 IN for backplane
E10 OUT for external
1
2
maximum, minimum
maximum, minimum
E5 OUT for max, IN for min.
E4 OUT for max, IN for min.
output range
1
2
I, V
I, V
E3, E6, E8 as shown in figure 6
E1, E2, E7 as shown in figure 6
input range
1
2
I, V
I, V
E15 IN for I, OUT for V
E14 IN for I, OUT for V
tieback input
1
2
I, V
I, V
E11 IN for I, OUT for V
E12 IN for I, OUT for V
compliance
standard, additional
E18 as shown in figure 6
E21, E22 IN for standard, OUT
for additional.
source of +5V DC
back plane, external
E23, E24 as shown in figure 6
Digital Board
hard fault output
source of +5V DC
Analog Board
hard fault output
Note: The current range I is +4 to +20mA, the voltage range is +1 to +5V DC.
13
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Communications Fault
The PID module detects the loss of communication with the PC processor
(soft fault). Program logic enables the module to respond in one of the
following ways in response to a soft fault:
sets the analog output to the minimum value (+4mA or +1V DC)
holds the analog output to the last PID algorithm value before the soft
fault occurred
performs PID control based on the last values transferred to the PID
module before the soft fault occurred
sets the analog output to the maximum value (+20mA or +5V DC)
Switch position 1 on the last state switch assembly (I/O chassis backplane)
must be set to the position for the soft fault response to operate. Note that
this will cause the outputs of other modules in the same chassis to be
de-energized when they detect a fault.
The response for each loop can be selected independently for a hardware or
communications fault.
Hardware
The PID module is a dual-slot module that occupies both slots of a module
group. The front panel contains three LED indicators and a write-on label
to record I/O ranges and the last date of calibration. Internally, the module
contains a digital and an analog printed circuit board. The analog board is
located beneath the module cover containing the label that identifies the
connections to the field wiring arm.
Internal Selections
The PID module can accommodate a wide variety of applications. This is
made possible by positioning a number of programming plugs inside the
module. Selectable functions and corresponding programming plugs on
both circuit boards are listed in table B. Programming plug locations on the
analog circuit board are shown in figure 6.
14
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Figure 6
Programming Plug Locations (Analog Board)
15
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Indicators
The front panel LED indicators allow an operator to observe the operating
condition of the module. The indicators will be on, off or flashing (table
C).
Table C
LED Indicators
Power Requirements
Indicator
State
Condition
FAULT
(red)
off
on
normal operation
hardware fault
RUN
(green)
on
flashing
off
toggle
normal operation
powerup (unprogrammed)
not running
loss of "15V DC
STAND
ALONE
(yellow)
off
flashing
toggle
on
normal operation
soft fault
loss of "15V DC
block transfer program error
all three
off
calibration mode
The PID module requires 1.2A at +5V DC from the I/O chassis backplane.
The module also requires 100mA at +15V DC and 100mA at -15V DC
from an external supply through the field wiring arm (table D).
Table D
+15V DC Power Supply
Specifications
+15Volts
15Volts
Current
100mA
100mA
Voltage Tolerance
1%
1%
Regulation (type)
Series
Series
Line Regulation (for 10V AC input change)
"0.2%
"0.2%
Load Regulation (no load to full load)
"1.0%
"1.0%
Ripple
1mVpp
1mVpp
Overvoltage Protection
+18 volts
18 volts
Current Limit (percent of full load)
125%
125%
The source of +5V DC can be an optional external power supply wired to
the field wiring arm (table E). This allows the module to be powered
entirely from power supplies independent of the backplane.
16
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Table E
+5V DC (Optional) Power Supply
Wiring
Specifications
+5V DC
Voltage (at field wiring arm)
5.05V DC
Current
1.2A
Voltage regulation (sum of all deviations due to line, load and ripple)
"0.15V DC
Rise time (to 4.75V DC)
10ms
Terminal identification and connections to the module are summarized in
figure 7. Typical wiring (less shielding) for I-loop control with a manual
control station is shown in figure 8. Proper shielding is essential to
minimize coupling of electrical noise to the PID module. The optimum
grounding point(s) will vary between inputs and outputs, and voltage or
current devices. Refer to the PID Module User’s Manual publication no.
1771-6.5.9) for proper shielding of input and output devices.
Figure 7
Terminal Identification and Connections
17
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Figure 8
Typical Connections for 1Loop Control
Additional Compliance
18
The maximum allowable load impedance in current mode using standard
compliance is 500 ohms. Additional compliance can be established for one
or two loops, if analog outputs 1 and 2 and tieback inputs 1 and 2 are
selected for current mode. Additional compliance allows a maximum load
impedance of 1250 ohms and is obtained by internally referencing module
common to -15V DC.
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Keying
Keying bands should be used to guard against placing another type of
module in a module group reserved for the PID module. Keying band
positions are as follows:
slot 0 (left)
between 8 and 10
between 18 and 20
Comparing ISA and
AB Algorithms
slot 1 (right)
between 2 and 4
between 28 and 30
The ISA algorithm and the Allen-Bradley algorithm are different although
they achieve the same closed loop control. By understanding the
differences, you can convert proportional gain, reset and rate values from
ISA to equivalent A-B gain values.
ISA Algorithm
The equation for PID closed loop control is:
VO= KC (E) + KC/TI ∫(E) dt + KC (TD)d(E)/dt
Where
KC = controller gain 1/T
1/TI = reset term in repeats per minute
TD = rate term in minutes
AB Algorithm
The equation for PID closed loop control is:
VO= KP(E) + KI ∫(E)dt + (KD)d(E)/dt + Bias
Where
Kp = proportional gain
KI = integral gain in inverse seconds
KD = derivative gain in seconds
Comparison
The ISA algorithm contains dependent variables. When you change your
controller gain (KC), you also change your integral and derivative values.
The A-B algorithm contains independent variables. You adjust the
proportional, integral, and derivative terms independently.
19
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
ISA Algorithm
AB Algorithm
Controller Gain KC
(dimensionless)
Proportional Gain KP
(dimensionless)
Reset Term 1/TI
(repeats per minute)
Integral Gain KI
(inverse seconds)
Rate Term TD
(minutes)
Derivative Gain KD
(seconds)
When using the A-B algorithm, you must convert the ISA controller gain,
reset, and rate terms to gain values of the A-B algorithm.
Conversion
Convert ISA values to A-B values as follows:
KP = KC
KI =
K PǒIńT I)
60
KD = KP(TD)(60)
Example
If your desired ISA values are:
controller gain = KC = 1
reset value = 1/TI = 5 repeats per minute
rate term = TD = 3 minutes
convert them to A-B gain values as follows:
proportional gain = KP = KC = 1
integral gain = K1 = (1)(5) = 0.083
60
derivative gain = KD = (1)(3)(60) = 180
Selecting the Algorithm
You select the ISA or A-B algorithm by setting a bit in the control word.
20
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
Specifications
Process Variable Inputs
Number
G process variable input 1
G process variable input 2
Configuration
G Differential
Range (userselectable)
G +4 to +20mA
G +1 to +5V DC
Digital Resolution
G 12bit binary, 1 part in 4095
Accuracy
G "0.1% of range at 25°C
Input Impedance
G 250 ohms (current)
G 10 megohms (voltage)
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
G 70dB DC
Common Mode Voltage Range
G "200V with respect to module common
Common Mode Input Resistance
G 2.5 megohms
Input Frequency Response
G 3dB at 1kHz
Maximum Allowable Input
G "30mA (current)
G 125V DC (voltage)
Temperature Coefficient
G "50 ppm/°C
Tieback Inputs
Number
G Tieback input 1
G tieback input 2
Configuration
G Single ended
Range (userselectable)
G +4 to +20mA
G +1 to +5V DC
Digital Resolution
G 12bit binary, 1 part in 4095
Accuracy
Maximum Power
G "0.1% of range at 25°C
G 3VA
Input Impedance
G 250 ohms (current)
G 4.7 megohms (voltage)
Maximum Allowable Input
G "30mA (current)
G 25V rms (voltage)
Temperature Coefficient
G "50 ppm/°C
Analog Outputs
Number
G analog output 1
G analog output 2
Configuration
G Single ended
Range (userselectable)
G +4 to +20mA
(With output common internally referenced to
power supply common, the output will drive
up to a 500 ohm load over the full current
range.)1
G +1 to +5V DC
(500 ohms minimum load resistance, 10mA
maximum load current)
Digital Resolution
G 12bit binary, 1 part in 4095
Accuracy
G "0.1% of range at 25°C
Temperature Coefficient
G "50 ppm/°C
Contact Output
G Number
G one normally closed contact, held open
Peak Voltage
G 30V
Maximum Current
G 250mA
Digital Inputs from
Manual Control Station
G Two independent inputs for monitoring.
Power Requirements
Backplane or External (Digital
Circuits)
G 1.2A at +5V DC
External (Analog Circuits)
G 100mA at +15V DC
G 100mA at 15V DC
Other
Loop Update Time
G 100msec, typical
Ambient Temperature Ratings
G Operational 0°C to 60°C (32°F to 140°F)
G Storage 40°C to 85°C (40°F to 185°F)
Relative Humidity Rating
G 5% to 95% (without condensation)
Electrical Isolation
G 1500V rms (transient)
(Isolation is achieved by optoelectronic
coupling between I/O analog circuits and
control logic)
Field Wiring Arm
G 1771WF
Keying
G Left connector (slot 0)
between 8 and 10,18 and 20
G Right connector (slot 1)
between 2 and 4, 28 and 30
1 If all analog outputs and tieback inputs used are selected to
current mode, the compliance of the analog outputs can be
extended from 500 ohms (standard compliance) to 1250 ohms
(additional compliance). This is achieved by internally
referencing the outputs to 15V DC.
1985 Allen-Bradley Company.
PLC is a registered trademark of Allen-Bradley Company.
21
Product Data
Proportional/Integral/Derivative
Control (2Loop) Module
With offices in major cities worldwide
WORLD
HEADQUARTERS
Allen-Bradley
1201 South Second Street
Milwaukee, WI 53204 USA
Tel: (1) 414 382-2000
Telex: 43 11 016
FAX: (1) 414 382-4444
EUROPE/MIDDLE
EAST/AFRICA
HEADQUARTERS
Allen-Bradley Europe B.V.
Amsterdamseweg 15
1422 AC Uithoorn
The Netherlands
Tel: (31) 2975/43500
Telex: (844) 18042
FAX: (31) 2975/60222
Publication 1771-2.34 — October, 1985
Supersedes Publication 1771-948 — July, 1983
22
As a subsidiary of Rockwell International, one of the world’s largest technology
companies — Allen-Bradley meets today’s challenges of industrial automation with over
85 years of practical plant-floor experience. More than 11,000 employees throughout the
world design, manufacture and apply a wide range of control and automation products
and supporting services to help our customers continuously improve quality, productivity
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FAX: (852) 510-9436
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HEADQUARTERS
Allen-Bradley Canada
Limited
135 Dundas Street
Cambridge, Ontario N1R
5X1
Canada
Tel: (1) 519 623-1810
FAX: (1) 519 623-8930
LATIN AMERICA
HEADQUARTERS
Allen-Bradley
1201 South Second Street
Milwaukee, WI 53204 USA
Tel: (1) 414 382-2000
Telex: 43 11 016
FAX: (1) 414 382-2400
PN 955098-65
Printed in USA
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