softMachines User`s Manual
V er si on 1. 7
© Copyright March, 1997 Adept Technology, Inc.
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
This material is the property of Adept Technology, Inc.,
and contains confidential information. No part of this
publication may be reproduced, published, stored in a
retrieval system, or disclosed to others without prior
written permission from Adept Technology, Inc.
The use of general descriptive names, trade names,
trademarks, etc., in this manual, even if they are not
especially identified, does not mean that such names, as
understood by the Trade Marks and Merchandise Marks
Act, may accordingly be used freely by anyone.
The material contained herein is subject to change without
notice.
Table of Contents
Using this Manual
x
Chapter 1: Introduction to Soft Machines
Using the Mouse
The Soft Machines Display
Graphics Window
Quick Pick Window
The View Bar
Machine Part Program Window
The Top Bar
Using Help
Panels
Command Buttons
Toggle Choices
Shape Selectors
Graphics Selectors
Editable and Display Fields
Switches
Choice Buttons
Sliders
Lists
List Buttons
Color Buttons
Increment Buttons
Pop up Boxes
Using the Quick Access
Libraries
The G-Code Language
The SIL Language
Geometry
Geometric Terms
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1-5
1-6
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1-11
1-12
1-13
1-14
1-14
1-15
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1-17
1-17
1-18
1-18
1-19
1-20
1-21
1-21
1-22
1-23
1-23
1-25
1-26
1-27
1-27
iii
Table of Contents
Pose
Frame
Position
Orientation
1-28
1-28
1-29
1-30
Chapter 2: Getting Started
Starting Soft Machines
Using the File Menu
Backing up Automatically
Saving Your Work
Quitting Soft Machines
2-1
2-2
2-3
2-5
2-6
Chapter 3: Modeling
Basic Principles
The Model Body
Modeling Guidelines
Using the Modeling Menu
Obtaining Information about a Shape
Adding Primitives
Adding a Block
Adding a Cone
Adding a Cylinder
Adding a Frustum
Adding a Prism
Adding a Sphere
Editing a Shape
Scaling an Object
Swapping Objects in a Model
Compacting an Object
Expanding an Object
Inverting Objects
Aligning Facets
Copy
Reattach Pose
Editing the Resolution
Changing the Default Settings
Where to Go From Here
iv
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-3
3-5
3-6
3-7
3-7
3-8
3-8
3-9
3-9
3-10
3-10
3-11
3-11
3-12
3-12
3-12
3-13
3-13
3-14
3-16
3-17
Soft Machines 1.7
Table of Contents
Chapter 4: Graphics Display Options
Display Options for the Workcell and Objects
Wireframe Display Mode
Surface Display Mode
Using the Graphics Parameters Panel
Displaying Additional Graphics Windows
Adjusting Workcell Lighting
Changing the Default Settings
Setting Default Colors
Multiple-Object Selection Highlighting
Setting the Update Rate
Dynamic View
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-5
4-7
4-8
4-9
4-10
4-10
4-10
Chapter 5: Constructing the Workcell
Installing Workcell Objects
Using the Layout Menu
Changing the Workcell Defaults
Moving Objects
Rotating Objects
Moving an Object in a Plane
Moving an Object to the Edge of an Object
Moving an Object to the Pose of an Object
Aligning an Object
Moving an Object to the Face of an Object
Moving an Object to the Vertex of an Object
Moving an Object to the Frame of an Object
Using the Handle
Moving to Coordinates
Changing the Objects in the World
Creating and Removing Affixments
Adopting Objects
Renaming Objects
Deleting Objects from the World
Changing an Object’s Properties
Applying Colors
Visibility
Transparency
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5-11
5-11
5-12
5-13
5-13
5-14
5-15
5-16
5-17
v
Table of Contents
Material
5-17
Chapter 6: Modeling NC Tooling
The Tooling Assembly
Cutting Tools
Creating a Cutting Tool from a Model
Modeling an End Mill Cutter
Modeling a Shell Mill Cutter
Modeling a Drill Cutter
Tool Holder
Creating a Tool Holder from a Model
Modeling Adaptors Using Parameters
Modeling an End Mill Tool Holder
Modeling a Shell Mill Tool Holder
Modeling a Shank Stub Arbor
Tool Changer
Tool Library
Using a Menu
Creating a Tool Library
Removing a Tool from a Station
Multiple Tool Chains
6-1
6-4
6-4
6-6
6-7
6-7
6-8
6-9
6-9
6-10
6-11
6-12
6-13
6-15
6-17
6-17
6-21
6-21
Chapter 7: Utilities
Collision Detection
Setting Up Collision Pairs
Setting Up New Collision Pairs
Loading Collision Pairs
Saving Collision Pairs
Setting Up Collision Parameters
The Factory
Displaying the Factory
Setting the Size
Display Options
Measuring
Movies
Creating Hard Copy Output
Viewing an Error Log
vi
7-3
7-5
7-5
7-7
7-7
7-8
7-12
7-13
7-13
7-13
7-15
7-17
7-21
7-24
Soft Machines 1.7
Table of Contents
Paths
Teaching Frames
Creating a Path
Editing a Path
Testing the Path
Deleting a Path
Working with Files and Directories
7-25
7-25
7-26
7-27
7-28
7-30
7-31
Chapter 8: Running a Simulation
Setting Up an Interactive Simulation
Interactive Simulation Parameters
Recording Errors
Loading and Saving Simulation Parameters
Batch Mode Set Up and Simulation
Using the Batch Mode Simulate Panel
Using the Set Job Parameters Panel
Using the Machine Pendant
Manual Controls
Setting Up Part Program Simulation
Changing the Workpiece Coordinates
Changing the Machine Variables
The Simulation Monitor
8-2
8-3
8-3
8-4
8-5
8-7
8-9
8-12
8-13
8-14
8-15
8-18
8-19
Appendix A: IGES Conversions
The IGES Standard
Restrictions on IGES Conversions
Importing Large Models
IGES Conversions Using the Panels
The CAD Interface Panel
Importing Files
Editing the Imported Model’s Settings
Editing Resolution
Skipping Attributes
Editing Compaction
Changing the IGES Settings
Exporting Models
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vii
Table of Contents
Appendix B: First Cut
How First Cut Works
Setting Up First Cut
Selecting the Settings
Defining the Stock
Setting the Cutter Display Options
Creating a Playback File
Loading an SLA Model of the “As-Designed” Part
Accepting the Settings
Using First Cut
Setting Up the First Cut Default View
Using the Mouse
First Cut Display Window Selections
View Menu
Dynamic Menu
Colors Menu
Display Menu
Modes Menu
Measure Menu
Using Playback Mode
Loading a Playback File
Using the First Cut Playback Control Window
B-3
B-4
B-5
B-5
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B-6
B-6
B-7
B-7
B-7
B-8
B-9
B-10
B-11
B-13
B-14
B-14
B-19
B-22
B-22
B-24
Appendix C: G & M Codes
Appendix D: Product Administration
Working with Products
Creating a New Product
Editing a Product
Deleting a Product
Activating a Product
Deactivating a Product
Working with Project Areas
Creating a New Project Area
Renaming a Project Area
Deleting a Project Area
Working with User Areas
viii
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D-2
D-4
D-4
D-5
D-5
D-6
D-6
D-7
D-8
D-9
Soft Machines 1.7
Table of Contents
Creating a New User Area
Renaming a User Area
Deleting a User Area
D-9
D-10
D-10
Appendix E: The Software Installation Tree
Appendix F: Soft Machines Software Directories
Common User Areas
The templates Subdirectory
The projects Subdirectory
The users Subdirectory
Standard Modules
The silio Subdirectory
The silspec Subdirectory
The builds Subdirectory
The options Subdirectory
Components of User-Written Modules
The actions Subdirectory
The mccode Subdirectory
The mhcode Subdirectory
The sil Subdirectory
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F-8
Index
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Using this Manual
Using this Manual
The following sections describe conventions which have been used in
this manual to denote specific concepts.
Windows
Windows that are part of the display are indicated in Italics. Examples:
Quick Pick Window and Graphics Window.
The Top Bar
Pulldown menus from the top bar are indicated with bold letters in This
Typeface. Example: File is a pulldown menu.
Panels
Panels are indicated with This Typeface. Example: Move Object is the
title of the panel that is displayed when you choose Move Object… from
the Layout pulldown menu.
Pulldown Selections and Commands
Selections from the pulldown menus, commands and command buttons
are indicated with Italics in this Typeface. Examples: Empty Cell is a
selection from the File pulldown menu, Apply is a command button.
Toggle Choices
Toggle choices are shown with a ◆ symbol in front of the label.
Example: ◆ Checks is a toggle choice.
x
Soft Machines 1.7
Using this Manual
Switches
Switches are shown with a ❏ symbol in front of the label. Example:
❏ Show Reference Frame is the switch in Figure 1-17: Switch example
on page 1-17.
Fields and Messages
The label and the information in the field are in this typeface. Example:
Edge Length displays 1.0 in its field.
Messages, such as instructions and error messages that pop up or are
displayed in the panels are quoted using this typeface. Example:
Pick any edge of an object.
Filenames
This typeface is used for filenames. Example: default.sil is a
file.
Keys
Keyboard keys are indicated by the “<>” symbols enclosing the key in
capital letters in THIS TYPEFACE. Example: <RETURN> is a key.
Other Conventions
For the following, this typeface is used.
■ booleans
■ variables
■ statements
■ object names
■ commands
■ operators
Example: menus(); is a command.
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xi
Chapter 1
Introduction to
Soft Machines
Soft Machines offers these features:
➢ Geometrical modelling of workcell components, including part
geometry, cutting tools, fixtures, etc.
➢ Kinematics modelling of machine tools, which results in the
simulated machines operating just like real machines. All types of
machining equipment can be simulated, including
■ 3, 4 and 5 axis
■ Multiple turrets and spindles
■ Tool changers, rotary tables and other auxiliary equipment
➢ Capability to load, interpret and execute NC part programs by the
simulated machine tool
➢ Automatic collision detection of all moving machine parts with
CAD models of machining stock, finished parts, tools and fixturing
➢ Reporting of simulation results, including error log reporting
➢ Batch mode or interactive simulation
➢ Support for custom G and M codes and canned cycles
➢ Support for individual machine controllers
➢ Cycle time and machining cost estimation
Soft Machines provides you with a single system for Computer Simulated
Manufacturing applications, and the use of computer simulation to verify the
manufacture, assembly, and test of parts and products. The simulated machine
tool validates machine speed, tool changer routines, feed rates, interactions
between machine components, and potential collisions. You can use
Soft Machines to simulate entire manufacturing processes from start to finish.
Soft Machines verifies machine code data in simulation, eliminating the need
for dry runs with the physical machine.
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1-1
Introduction to
Soft Machines
Soft Machines® is a software simulator of NC machining processes using 3D
graphics animation. The simulation is used for verification of post-processed
machine code data. Soft Machines identify and eliminate NC program errors
through execution of G and M codes on simulated machines, tools, parts and
fixtures.
Introduction to Soft Machines
Figure 1-1 illustrates how Soft Machines operates like the real machine tool on
the shop floor.
NC Programming NC Programs
System
Operator
Instructions
NC Programs
Figure 1-1
Soft Machine
Program
Verification
Machine Tool
Program
Execution
How Soft Machines works
Using the Mouse
In Soft Machines, the left mouse button is used most of the time.
There are some special cases where all three buttons are used.
These are described in the appropriate sections.
1-2
Soft Machines 1.7
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
The Soft Machines Display
Each of the features displayed when you are using Soft Machines is
described in the following sections.
Additional
Pulldown
Graphics Window
Menu
Top Bar
Help
Tool
Bar
Panel (in
Quick
Access)
Graphics
Window
Machine Part
Program Window
Quick Pick Window
Figure 1-2
NOTE
User’s Manual
(3/97)
View Bar
The Soft Machines display
The windows can be resized by holding down the left mouse
button on any side or corner and dragging to the desired size,
then releasing the button.
1-3
Introduction to Soft Machines
Holding down the right mouse button with the cursor over the
background displays these options:
Pop
Push
Hide Background
Close
Pop
Brings Soft Machines forward to the top layer of
the desktop of your workstation.
Push
Pushes Soft Machines to the bottom layer of the
desktop of your workstation.
Hide Background
Removes the background for ease in using other
items on your desktop (such as shells) without
closing Soft Machines.
Close
Makes Soft Machines an icon. Double-click on
the icon with the left mouse button to re-open
Soft Machines.
Graphics Window
The Graphics Window displays all graphic elements of a Soft Machines
session.
The graphics display is represented in 3D. Wireframe display is
available on all workstations with options for backface elimination,
perspective and orthographic viewing. In all cases, surface information
of the workcell model is used.
The Soft Machines graphics system is called the Virtual Graphics
Processor (VGP). The VGP is self-allocating (virtual) and allows for a
number of graphics capabilities: flat and Gouraud shading of polygons,
ambient light, and full 24-bit color.
NOTE
1-4
For information on changing the graphics display, such as
adding additional Graphics Windows, see Chapter 4,
“Graphics Display Options”.
Soft Machines 1.7
Quick Pick Window
The Quick Pick Window is located at the bottom left of your screen and
contains a scrolling tree of the objects installed in your workcell. The
Quick Pick Window provides an alternative to selecting objects from the
Graphics Window.
An ellipsis (…) after an
object means that the
object has children
under it.
World
Expands the Quick Pick
Window. The selection
changes to Contract,
which returns the window
to its original size.
Figure 1-3
The Quick Pick Window
The objects in the Quick Pick Window are shown in a tree structure.
When an object is composed of other objects (or children), the parent
object is shown with branches to the children.
Holding the right mouse
button down with the
cursor on an object
displays the available
options for that object.
Figure 1-4
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Expand Children
Expand Siblings
Expand Grandchildren
Expand All
Hide
Using the Quick Pick Window
1-5
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Introduction to Soft Machines
The selections in the pulldown menu displayed when you hold down the
right mouse button change depending on the current status of the object.
If an object has an ellipsis (…) after it, Expand Children will be one of the
selections. If all the children are displayed, Hide Children will be one of
the selections. These are the possible selections:
Expand Children
Shows all the children of the selected object.
Expand Siblings
Shows all children of the selected object’s parent.
Expand Grandchildren Shows all children and grandchildren of the
selected object.
Expand All
Shows all objects in the World.
Hide
Hides the object the cursor is on.
Hide Children
Hides the object’s children. An ellipsis (…) is put
after the name of the parent object.
Expand is used to expand the Quick Pick Window. Depending on which
other panels are displayed, the objects in the Quick Pick Window may be
color-coded and a legend added which explains the color coding. For
example, toggling ◆ Adopt in the Edit World panel displays a legend with
parent and children objects color coded.
The View Bar
The view bar is located immediately below the Graphics Window and
contains selections for changing the view of the perspective of the
workcell, zooming in and out, and saving views of the workcell.
The camera angle concept of the view bar enables you to see the object
from different angles similar to the way a camera moves around an
object—the object itself does not move.
1-6
Soft Machines 1.7
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Isometric View
Figure 1-5
Top View
Side View
Different views
The following sections describe the view bar selections.
Quick View
Enables you to scale, pan, or rotate the view by using the mouse
buttons.
After you click on
Quick View, the left
button pans, the
middle button zooms
and the right button
spins.
Axis View
Looks along an axis towards the origin.
As you move the mouse with the left
button held down, each of these views
is highlighted. Releasing the mouse
button with a view highlighted selects
that view.
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Introduction to Soft Machines
Iso View
Shows an isometric view of the workcell.
As you move the mouse with the left
button held down, each of these views
is highlighted. Releasing the mouse
button with a view highlighted selects
that view.
Zoom In
Enables you to select an area of the screen for viewing.
To use Zoom In:
1. Move the cursor to the upper left corner of the
desired viewing area in the Graphics Window.
2. Hold down the left mouse button.
3. Drag the cursor to select the lower right corner of
the desired viewing area.
4. Release the left mouse button. The selected area in
the Graphics Window will be enlarged to the size
you select.
1-8
Soft Machines 1.7
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Zoom Out
Enables you to zoom out to see more of the workcell.
To use Zoom Out:
1. Move the cursor to the upper left corner of the
desired viewing area in the Graphics Window.
2. Hold down the left mouse button.
3. Drag the cursor to select the lower right corner of
the desired viewing area. When you drag the cursor
towards the center of the Graphics Window, the
frame will get smaller.
4. Release the left mouse button. The selected area in
the Graphics Window will shrink to the size you
select.
NOTE
Using PAN from the Quick View works well in
conjunction with Zoom In and Zoom Out by
helping to keep the image in the center of the
Graphics Window.
Point
Clicking Point then clicking on a workcell object in the
Graphics Window changes the view such that the
location where you clicked is in the center of the
Graphics Window.
View Obj
Enables you to select a workcell object to view, either by clicking on
it with the left mouse button, or by making a selection from the
Quick Pick Window. The object is shown as a Zoom In view in the
Graphics Window. Resizing the Graphics Window will resize the
object, so you continue to have a complete view of the object.
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Introduction to Soft Machines
View All
Optimizes the view to include all visible objects in the workcell.
Resizing the Graphics Window will resize the objects, so you
continue to have a complete view of all visible objects.
Save View
Displays the View Name field. Entering a name and pressing
<RETURN> or clicking the return button saves the workcell view.
Select View
Displays the Select View panel, from which you can select a saved
workcell view.
Undo View
Undoes the most recent view bar command.
Machine Part Program Window
The Machine Part Program Window displays NC part programs
(G code) during simulation. Part program statements scroll through the
Machine Part Program Window as program statements are being
executed. During simulation, error messages are displayed in this
window.
1-10
Soft Machines 1.7
The Top Bar
The top bar is located at the top of the screen, and contains a list of the
available pulldown menus. The pulldown menus in the top bar provide
access to the panels.
Holding down the left mouse
button on any of these
selections will display a
pulldown menu.
Defaults…
Empty Cell
Install…
Save…
Selections ending with an
ellipsis (…) display a panel.
Other selections perform the
command.
Exit Menus
Quit…
Figure 1-6
The top bar
To make a selection you can either
■ Drag the mouse (with the left button held down) until the
desired selection is highlighted, then release the button.
■ Click on a selection on the top bar to display its pulldown
menu, then click on your selection.
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Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Introduction to Soft Machines
Using Help
A Help Window is available for each panel, which provides information
about using that panel.
Figure 1-7
A Help Window
The See Also box contains command buttons for displaying information
about related topics.
Previous Section and Next Section display the selected and related topics.
You can access on-line help in two ways:
■ Selecting Table of Contents… from the Help pulldown menu
displays the available topics. Click on a topic to display
information about it.
■ Move the cursor onto a panel. Press the <Help> key on your
keyboard. The Help panel pops up displaying information
about that panel.
NOTE
1-12
If your keyboard does not have a <Help> key, press
the <F1> key.
Soft Machines 1.7
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Figure 1-8
The Table of Contents Window
Panels
Choosing a menu selection that ends with an ellipsis (…) or clicking a
tool bar button displays a panel. These panels can contain a variety of
selections in the form of command buttons, editable and display fields,
toggle choices, and switches.
List
Editable Field
Return Button
Commands
Figure 1-9
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Panel example
1-13
Introduction to Soft Machines
The types of items that are in the panels are described in the following
sections.
Command Buttons
Commands are performed either by making a
selection from a pulldown menu, or by clicking on a
command button in a panel. Command buttons are
the blue boxes with the white labels. A command
button or pulldown menu selection with an ellipsis
(…) displays another panel.
There are several common command buttons:
OK
Performs the action and dismisses the panel.
Apply
Performs the action or applies settings. The panel is still
displayed so additional actions may be performed.
Close
Dismisses the panel.
Cancel
Dismisses the panel without applying the settings.
Actions already performed are not undone.
Toggle Choices
Panel items that have diamonds next to them indicate that you must
choose only one of these at a time. Example: you must choose
Affix/Unaffix or Rename or Adopt or Delete.
Toggle Choices
Shape Selector
(with Direct Select)
Figure 1-10
1-14
Toggle choices and shape selector
Soft Machines 1.7
Shape Selectors
Shape selectors enable you to select objects from the
Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window. Depending on the
kind of shape selector, you can select one object or multiple objects.
When you click any shape selector using the left mouse button, a
pop up box instructs you to make a selection or click Cancel Selection
in the box.
After clicking the shape selector, clicking on an object in the
Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window using the left mouse
button selects the object. The name of the selected object replaces
the text displayed in the field.
The left button is used to first click the shape
selector, then to choose an object from the
Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window.
Figure 1-11
Single object shape selector
For complex objects where the components are not clearly seen, an
option is available that makes selecting the component from the
Graphics Window easier. If you hold down the left mouse button on
an object in the Graphics Window, a pop up box lists not only the
object, but all the components (children) of that object. Select the
appropriate shape with the left mouse button.
Shape selectors can also have a “direct select” option, meaning that
selecting an object using the middle mouse button gives you the
same result as first clicking the shape selector with the left button.
With this type of shape selector, the middle
mouse button can be used to select an object
directly. The left button can also be used.
Figure 1-12
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Direct-select, single object shape selector
1-15
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Introduction to Soft Machines
Shape selectors can also have a multiple-selection option. These
selectors can be used to select single objects, as described above, or
to select more than one object.
Figure 1-13
Multiple object shape selector
If you would like to select more than one object, you need to hold
down <SHIFT> while selecting the objects in the Graphics Window
or the Quick Pick Window. After selecting the first object, a pop up
box will be displayed.
List of selected objects.
To add items to the list, or
remove selected items
from the list, hold down
<SHIFT> while selecting
the objects in the
Graphics Window or the
Quick Pick Window.
To remove items, you can
also click on the item in the
list using the left mouse
button.
Confirms the
currently selected
list of objects.
Clears the list, but
remains in multipleselection mode.
Figure 1-14
Dismisses the pop-up list and
reverts to the last selected
object or group of objects.
Multiple selection pop up box
During the selection process, all current selections will be
highlighted in the Graphics Window and the Quick Pick Window.
Your previous selections will remain highlighted until you have
confirmed your new selection.
To confirm a multiple selection, click OK in the pop up list.
NOTE
1-16
You can also confirm your multiple selection by clicking on
one of the selected shapes without holding down <SHIFT>.
Soft Machines 1.7
Graphics Selectors
Clicking on a graphics selector with the left mouse button enables
you to pick an item from the Graphics Window, or from a pop up
list.
Graphics Selector
Figure 1-15
NOTE
Graphics selector example
When using a graphics selector, you cannot make a
selection from the Quick Pick Window.
Editable and Display Fields
Both editable and display fields have a label ending with colon (:)
next to them. The information in an editable field is displayed in
yellow. An editable field can be changed by entering new
information and then clicking the return button, pressing
<RETURN>, or clicking OK or Apply (if the panel has these
selections). Double clicking on the value in an editable field will
highlight it and replace it with the value you enter.
Editable Field
Figure 1-16
Return Button
Editable field
If the information in the field is displayed in white, this is a display
field and cannot be edited.
Switches
Panel items that have a box next to them are switches. Click in the
box to turn that option on. The box will appear yellow if on.
Example: ❏ Show Reference Frame can be switched on or off.
Switch
Figure 1-17
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Switch example
1-17
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Introduction to Soft Machines
Choice Buttons
Choice buttons display a pulldown menu containing the available
selections or settings.
In the example below, holding down the left mouse button on the
Units choice button displays a pulldown menu. Make your selection
the same way as you make top bar menu selections.
Choice Button
Figure 1-18
cm
mm
meter
inch
mil
foot
yard
Choice button example
Sliders
Sliders are used to graphically change settings.
Slider
Move the cursor to the marker, hold the left
button down and drag to the desired setting.
You can also click in the slider box in the
space to the right or left of the marker.
Figure 1-19
1-18
Slider example
Soft Machines 1.7
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Lists
Lists are used to display lists of items, such as file names, that
change.
Marker
Scroll Bar
Current Item
Figure 1-20
List example
Viewing the List
You can view different sections of the list by using the scroll bar at
the right side of the list. Clicking the left mouse button on the arrows
move up or down, as does clicking in the space above or below the
marker. Dragging the marker with the left mouse button held down
also scrolls the list. Scrolling down the list does not change which
item is selected. To select an item from a list, you must click on it.
Selecting an Item from a Single-Selection List
Most of the lists are single-selection, meaning that only one item can
be selected at a time. Clicking on an item with the left mouse button
selects it. Clicking on a different item selects that item and
“unselects” the previous selection.
Selecting Items from Multiple-Selection Lists
You can select more than one item from some of the lists by using
the left mouse button and keyboard:
■ To select more than one consecutive item:
Move the cursor to the first item, hold down the left mouse
button and drag the cursor until the range of items is selected.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
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Introduction to Soft Machines
You can also click on the first item in the range. Hold down the
<SHIFT> key and click on the last item in the range (you can use
the scroll bar, if necessary).
■ To select more than one non-consecutive item:
Select the first item or range of items. Hold down the
<CONTROL> key and select another item or range of items.
■ To “unselect” an item:
Click on a selected item. The highlighting is removed from that
item.
List Buttons
Clicking a list button displays the list of applicable items. Clicking
on an item in the list with the left mouse button selects that item.
There are two types of list buttons: restricted and unrestricted.
Unrestricted list buttons allow you to enter your selection directly
into the field or choose an item from the list.
Restricted list buttons only allow you to choose an item from the list.
The field displays the current selection.
If a Search selection is included, clicking on it enables you to enter
a search string. Clicking anywhere on the list with the right mouse
button dismisses the list. You also have the option of entering a
name.
Unrestricted
List Button
Editable Field
Figure 1-21
1-20
Restricted
List Button
Display Field
List buttons
Soft Machines 1.7
Color Buttons
Color buttons are used to set the color for that field.
Color Button (also
the current color)
Color Name
Figure 1-22
Color button
Clicking on a color button displays the Select Color panel.
Available colors in
the current palette.
Select a color by
clicking on it, then
clicking Select.
Displays the Color Wheel
panel.
Each color in the palette can
be changed by using the
Color Wheel panel, which
is described on page 5-14.
Figure 1-23
The Select Color panel
Selecting a color from the palette in the Select Color panel changes
the color in the color button.
Increment Buttons
Holding down the left mouse button with the cursor on the increase
button increases the value in the field by small increments. The
decrease button decreases the value.
Increase Button
Figure 1-24
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Decrease Button
Increment buttons
1-21
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The Soft Machines Display
Introduction to Soft Machines
The Tool Bar
You can display some of the most frequently used panels by clicking the
appropriate button from the tool bar. Table 1-1 describes the tool bar
buttons.
Button
Description
Button
Description
Displays the Install
panel.
Displays the Tool Setup
panel.
Displays the
Appearance panel.
Displays the
Simulation Monitor panel.
Displays the Edit World
panel.
Displays the Movies panel.
Displays the Move
Object panel.
Displays a calculator.
Displays the Collision
Detection panel.
Displays the Measure
panel.
Displays a machine
pendant.
Quits the session.
Displays the Batch Mode
Simulate panel.
Table 1-1
Tool bar buttons
Pop up Boxes
Pop up boxes are displayed when you make selections that have more
than one way of accomplishing the task, to provide you with additional
instructions, or to ask for a confirmation.
Figure 1-25
1-22
Pop up box example
Soft Machines 1.7
Using the Quick Access
Most of the panels will pop up on the left side of the screen. They are in
the Quick Access. If you display another panel, without closing a
displayed panel in the Quick Access, the original panel is shown as a
command button above the new panel. If you click on the command
button, the original panel is displayed and the new panel is shown as a
command button. This way, you can quickly access the panels you
frequently use without having to display them from the top bar.
You can move the panels out of the Quick Access by holding the left
mouse button down with the cursor on the title bar and dragging the
panel. The panel will remain displayed until it is dismissed.
Libraries
In Soft Machines terminology, a library is a directory that stores data
and information about Soft Machines entities (see Table 1-2). You can
organize these libraries by project and access them using the panels.
Libraries generally reside under one of two directories:
~cim/projects contains models, tools, cells, etc. that are specific
to an individual project.
~cim/users
contains models, tools, cells, etc. that belong to
each user.
The contents of libraries must have certain filename extensions to be
recognized by Soft Machines. Using standard file extensions is also
helpful for distinguishing among the contents of a particular library
subdirectory. When you save cells and models with the Save commands
in the menus and panels, Soft Machines generates the file extensions
automatically.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
1-23
Introduction to
Soft Machines
Libraries
Introduction to Soft Machines
Subdirectory
Extension
Description
models
.model
Models that were generated with
Soft Machines or from a CAD
system.
nc_tooling
.ct
Soft Machines cutting tool model.
.th
Soft Machines tool adaptor/holder
model.
.tc
Soft Machines tool changer model.
.tlib
Soft Machines tool library.
cells
.cell
Complete workcells with machines,
fixtures, parts, tools, etc.
part_prog
.gc
G-code part programs (machine code
data).
.job
Simulation set up file for batch mode
simulation.
.bat_list
Batch mode simulation file.
.err_log
Error log output from Soft Machines.
.sgm
Graphical data of a movie.
.cmd
Command data of a movie.
simulations
.play
First Cut (metal removal) playback
files.
cad
.exp
Catia model files (output from
catsilma).
.igs
IGES data files.
.stl
SLA data files.
videos
Table 1-2
1-24
Libraries and filename extensions
Soft Machines 1.7
Introduction to
Soft Machines
The G-Code Language
The G-Code Language
Soft Machines verifies an NC machining process by uploading and
executing NC part programs in a simulated workcell. These part
programs contain machine code data in the ANSI/EIA RS274D standard
format, commonly known as G-code. This is the format supported by
most machine tool manufacturers and NC post-processors on CAD
systems.
To simulate NC part programs, Soft Machines translates the part
programs into equivalent commands and executes them to perform the
simulation.
G-code commands are classified into three categories:
■ Machine-independent generic commands
■ Machine-dependent generic commands
■ Machine-dependent specific commands (user commands)
Machine-Independent Generic Commands
These basic commands are understood by all NC machines and executed
in a non-equivocal fashion. Examples are G-codes such as G00
(positioning), G01 (linear interpolation), G90 (absolute input), G91
(incremental input) and M codes such as M00 (program stop), M03
(spindle on, CW), and M08 (coolant on).
Machine-Dependent Generic Commands
These commands are understood by all NC machines but executed in a
machine specific way. Examples are M06 (tool change), M10 (clamp).
Each machine will have its own procedure, and time delay, for changing
tool or clamping/unclamping fixtures.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
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Introduction to Soft Machines
Machine-Dependent Specific Commands (User
Commands)
These commands are either unique commands to a particular machine
tool, or are user-defined commands. Examples are canned cycles and
user-defined sub-routines.
NOTE
Appendix C, “G & M Codes”, contains a representative list of
the codes mentioned above.
The SIL Language
SIL (SILMA Interactive Language) is a general purpose, high-level
language developed by SILMA. SIL syntax is essentially that of Pascal,
but the semantics extend beyond Pascal to include advanced
programming features typical of fourth-generation programming
languages.
SIL serves as the language interface for developing Soft Machines
programs. Soft Machines is written entirely in SIL.
SIL is well-suited for simulation and control applications; it is also a
fully general object-oriented, concurrent programming language. SIL
offers a combination of efficiency, flexibility, and approachability
unique among the current generation of object-oriented programming
languages.
A recent addition to SIL, the device facility, allows a closer approach to
the ideal of software construction by plugging together standard
components. Devices are particularly effective for user interface
development, and for distributed computing (in which SIL devices
participating in the same application reside on several networked
computers).
For a detailed description of SIL and instructions on how to use it, see
the Soft Machines Developer’s Guide, available from SILMA.
1-26
Soft Machines 1.7
Introduction to
Soft Machines
Geometry
Geometry
To simulate three-dimensional space and its contents, we need a means
of describing how the contents are situated in the region of space being
simulated. This is called spatial geometry or simply, geometry.
With Soft Machines, geometric descriptions are used to construct and
locate simulated objects. The Soft Machines software uses those same
geometric descriptions to perform kinematic transformations on the
simulated objects for moving them around the simulated space.
Geometric Terms
To simulate objects in a three-dimensional space, Soft Machines
manipulates a data structure in which all simulated objects are
represented by a type called shape.
To handle multiple shapes, Soft Machines arranges all shapes in the
simulated world in a tree structure. The root of this tree is a special shape
which lacks any associated geometry and is called World. This tree
structure is seen in the Quick Pick Window.
Every shape (including World) has an associated local reference frame
which is called its pose. The pose of the World is the master reference
system, and every other shape in the World tree has a pose which is
specified relative to the World pose. When you select a reference frame
using the menus, the pose of some shape is always selected. The default
reference frame is the pose of the World and may sometimes be called
the Universe coordinate system.
The language used in this manual and when speaking about
Soft Machines entities contains terms like coordinate system, frame,
pose, and reference system. The following items explain the
distinctions between these terms:
■ All shapes have a pose.
■ Frame shapes are a special kind of shape (which of course
also possess a pose).
User’s Manual
(3/97)
1-27
Introduction to Soft Machines
■ Frame shapes are physical objects in the simulated world,
and can usually be picked with the mouse like any other
shape.
■ Poses can be displayed, but are ephemeral—they cannot be
picked.
Every point on an object has a fixed location relative to its pose. When
you manipulate objects, you only need to be concerned with their poses.
Pose
A pose represents the reference frame of an object. In
Soft Machines, it is described using six values that combine its
position and orientation (x, y, z, yaw, pitch, roll).
Pose
Z
z
X
Y
y
x
Figure 1-26
Pose
An example of a pose on the left-hand side is illustrated in Figure
1-28, “Pose (left-hand side)” on page 1-29. It is displayed with three
orthogonal lines and the text letters x, y, and z, which are labels for
the axes.
Frame
Soft Machines provides a special kind of shape called a frame
which is used primarily for teaching desired positions of objects
(e.g., via points in a path along which another shape will move). The
geometry of a frame shape is shown on the right hand side of Figure
1-28
Soft Machines 1.7
1-27—one axis looks like an X, one like a Y, and the Z axis looks
like a pointer. Because a frame is also a kind of shape, it has a pose
which lies coincidently with the frame’s geometry.
Frame
Pose
Figure 1-27
Coordinate frames
Position
A position specifies a point in space relative to the origin of some
reference frame. The position of the point is at X, Y, Z in Cartesian
coordinates. In Soft Machines, the units of position are specified by
centimeters by default (but can be changed easily to the units of your
choice).
Position
(X,Y,Z)
•
z
(0,0,0)
y
Figure 1-28
User’s Manual
(3/97)
x
Pose (left-hand side)
1-29
Introduction to
Soft Machines
Geometry
Introduction to Soft Machines
Orientation
An orientation is the angular rotation of a set of axes relative to
some reference frame. In Soft Machines, the angles of orientation
are specified in degrees (yaw, pitch, roll). Yaw is a rotation about
the X-axis, pitch is a rotation about the Y-axis, and roll is a rotation
about the Z-axis.
Z
Roll
Pitch
X
Figure 1-29
Yaw
Y
Orientations
To specify completely how an object is situated in space, you will
need to describe both the position and orientation of its reference
frame. For this reason, it is often convenient to specify position and
orientation together as a pose. The pose of an object is the position
and orientation of its reference with respect to some other reference.
NOTE
1-30
This section described terms you need to know to use
Soft Machines. Instructions for manipulating geometry
using the SIL language can be found in the
Soft Machines Developer’s Guide, available from
SILMA.
Soft Machines 1.7
Chapter 2
Getting Started
Starting Soft Machines
Starting Soft Machines
The following steps explain how to start Soft Machines.
1. Enter sspa in a shell window. The Product Administration panel
is displayed.
List of available
products.
Click on a product
using the left mouse
button to select it.
The Product Size
field displays the size
of the selected
product.
Starts the selected product.
Figure 2-1
NOTE
Quits product administration.
The Product Administration panel
For more information on working with this panel, see the
Installation Guide.
2. Click on a Soft Machines product in the Select Product to Start list.
3. Click Start Product.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
2-1
Getting Started
This chapter explains general procedures, such as saving your work and quitting
Soft Machines.
Getting Started
NOTE
Soft Machines should be started with access to the
menus. If a SIL> prompt is displayed in the shell window,
enter menus(); to start the product.
Using the File Menu
The File menu is used for installing objects in the workcell, saving the
workcell and objects in the workcell, and quitting Soft Machines.
File
Defaults…
Empty Cell
Install…
Save…
Exit Menus
Quit…
Figure 2-2
The File menu
Table 2-1 describes the selections available from the File menu.
Selection
Description
Defaults…
Displays the File Defaults panel. See “Backing up
Automatically” on page 2-3.
Empty Cell
Creates a new workcell. If you have any objects in the
workcell (or a previously-saved workcell installed), a
confirmation requestor asks you to confirm that you
want to remove everything that is currently in the
workcell.
Install…
Displays the Install panel. See “Installing Workcell
Objects” on page 5-2.
Table 2-1
2-2
File
menu selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Selection
Description
Save…
Displays panels for saving the workcell and workcell
objects. See “Saving Your Work” on page 2-5.
Exit Menus
Disables the menus and displays the SIL> prompt in
the shell window. You can activate the menus by
entering menus(); at the prompt.
Quit…
See “Quitting Soft Machines” on page 2-6.
Table 2-1
File
menu selections (continued)
Backing up Automatically
The File Defaults panel is used to instruct Soft Machines to make
periodic backups of your workcell. Selecting Defaults… from the File
pulldown menu displays the File Defaults panel.
Figure 2-3
The File Defaults panel
❏ Auto Save Cell
Switching this on saves the workcell automatically.
Backup Period
Sets how often the backup copy of the workcell will be updated.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
2-3
Getting Started
Backing up Automatically
Getting Started
Number of Backups to Maintain
Specifies how many backup versions will be made. You can restore
any of the backup versions. For example, after working a couple of
hours you would have four versions of the workcell: my_cell (the
original file), my_cell1, my_cell2 and my_cell3.
Cell Name
Sets the filename that will be used to save the backup copy. The
default is the current name of the workcell. The backup copy will not
replace the workcell copy—a number will be appended to the
filename. For example, the first backup will be saved as my_cell1.
When you save the workcell using the Save panel, the original
workcell file is updated.
2-4
Soft Machines 1.7
Saving Your Work
The entire workcell can be saved, or the components can be saved in
separate files, using the Save panel. Selecting Save… from the File
pulldown menu displays the Save panel.
List of directories under the current
directory. Directories that are not
libraries have two dots (..) after the
directory name. Libraries do not
have this symbol.
List of the objects in the World
that comprise the selected
category in the current directory.
Sets the directory. You can use
the list button to select
~cim/projects or
~cim/users, or use the field
to enter any directory on the
system. See “Libraries” on
page 1-23.
Selecting a directory from this
list makes it the current
directory.
The toggle choices are the
categories of the components of
the World.
Saving the workcell does not
adequately save the models.
The models should be saved in
separate files.
Filename that will be used to
save the highlighted model or
workcell.
Figure 2-4
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Save panel
2-5
Getting Started
Saving Your Work
Getting Started
Quitting Soft Machines
You can quit Soft Machines by selecting Quit… from the File pulldown
menu.
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button quits the session.
Shortcut
If you have made any modifications to the workcell or an object since
the last save, a warning pops up.
If you have not made any modifications since the last save, you are asked
to confirm that you want to exit Soft Machines.
Figure 2-5
Quit confirmation
You can also quit Soft Machines by entering quit(); at a SIL> prompt.
In this case, no warning is issued, so make sure you have saved any
changes.
2-6
Soft Machines 1.7
Chapter 3
Modeling
Basic Principles
Before conducting a Soft Machines simulation, you need to convert the relevant
characteristics of the physical objects to be simulated into the internal
representations which Soft Machines can recognize and process. This process is
known as modeling. Soft Machines offers a basic modeling facility which you
can use to define the form and structure of workcell objects.
Most objects are made up of a number of components, each of which can
be broken down into a number of components and so on until eventually,
only simple one-piece parts remain. In Soft Machines, these separate
parts are called rigid models. The assemblies that the rigid models
comprise are called non-rigid models. All Soft Machines models are
either rigid or non-rigid, and all non-rigid models are ultimately
composed of rigid models.
Models are most conveniently represented by a model tree such as this
one for a simple motor:
Model
Mounting
Plate
Screws
Screw 1
Rotor
Assembly
Housing
Screw 2
Bearings
Bearing 1
Figure 3-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Shaft
Windings
Bearing 2
Model tree for a typical motor
3-1
Modeling
Basic Principles
Modeling
The leaves of a tree such as that shown in Figure 3-2 are always rigid
models, and the nodes of the tree are always non-rigid models. Each leaf
or node is considered a model. A node includes all of the models in the
tree below it. Likewise, any node is considered a component of the node
above it. A model can consist of any number of nodes and leaves.
The Model Body
The model body is the description of the form of the model. The body
of a model is another data structure containing all the volumes, surfaces,
facets, edges, and points which compose the model. Soft Machines
represents solid objects by using their bounding vertices, edges, and
surfaces.
■ A point is a set of X, Y, Z coordinates in 3D Cartesian space.
■ An edge is a straight line segment connecting two points.
■ A facet is a set of edges representing the boundary of a
planar convex polygon. All facets have an inside and outside
as defined by the direction of the positive normal to the
polygon.
■ A surface is represented by a set of facets, each
approximating a part of the curve.
■ A volume is a set of facets representing a convex
polyhedron.
The body of a non-rigid model is often empty since the purpose of many
structured models is to group rigid models (which have bodies) together
in a cohesive fashion. In certain instances, however, you may wish to
give a structured model a body.
Modeling Guidelines
You can model almost any object using the Modeling menu. There is no
“best” way to build models, but a few guidelines may be helpful.
The most important rule is to keep models simple. Overly detailed
models are inefficient, time consuming to create, and add nothing to the
simulation except possible visual appeal.
3-2
Soft Machines 1.7
Using the Modeling Menu
When creating a model, you must decide upon an appropriate structure
for the model. The structure determines the model’s basic components
and the assembly of these components. When determining the model’s
structure, take the model’s purpose into consideration. For example, if
you were constructing a robot that will disassemble a motor down to its
mounting plate, rotor assembly, and housing, the rotor assembly need
not be built as a structured model.
Modeling
Build rigid models using basic components. Often, the basic
components are fairly complex themselves, and are best constructed as
rigid models. You can then include the rigid model in the basic
component of which it is a part.
Using the Modeling Menu
The Modeling pulldown menu is used to construct Soft Machines
models.
Modeling
Defaults…
Model Info…
Primitives…
Create Null Model…
Import/Export Model…
Edit Shape…
Edit Resolution…
Figure 3-2
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Modeling menu
3-3
Modeling
Table 3-1 describes the selections available from the Modeling menu.
Selection
Description
Defaults…
Displays the Modeling Defaults panel. See
“Changing the Default Settings” on page 3-16.
Model Info…
Displays the Shape Description panel, which
is used to obtain information about a model. See
“Obtaining Information about a Shape” on
page 3-5.
Primitives…
Displays the Add Primitives panel, which is
used to add primitives to the workcell. See
“Adding Primitives” on page 3-6.
Create Null Model…
Displays the Create Null Model panel. Clicking
OK or Apply adds a null model to the World. The
name used for the null model is specified in the
Name field.
Import/Export Model…
Displays the CAD Interface panel, which is
used to import models into Soft Machines and to
export Soft Machines models. See Appendix A,
“IGES Conversions”.
Edit Shape…
Displays the Edit Shape panel. See “Editing a
Shape” on page 3-10.
Edit Resolution…
Displays the Edit Resolution panel, which is
used to modify segment length or facet size on
parametric models. See “Editing the Resolution”
on page 3-14.
Table 3-1
3-4
Modeling
selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Obtaining Information about a Shape
Obtaining Information about a Shape
The Shape Description panel provides information about workcell
objects. Selecting Model Info… from the Modeling pulldown menu
displays the Shape Description panel.
Specifies which object will be
described.
Displays location information with
reference to the World. The
location can be changed using
the Move Object panel.
Displays whether the object is
hidden or visible (controlled by
the ◆ Visibility selection in the
Appearance panel).
Displays whether the object is
compacted or not (controlled by
the ◆ Compact selection in the
Edit Shape panel).
Figure 3-3
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Shape Description panel
3-5
Modeling
Displays the type of the object.
Modeling
Adding Primitives
The Add Primitives panel is used to add primitive shapes to the model.
Selecting Primitives… from the Modeling pulldown menu displays the
Add Primitives panel.
This section of the panel changes
depending on the toggle choice.
Instructions for adding the shapes
represented by the toggle choices
are in the following sections.
Figure 3-4
NOTE
3-6
The Add Primitives panel
The dimension fields in the selections to add primitives are in
the current units. To change the units, see “Changing the
Workcell Defaults” on page 5-4.
Soft Machines 1.7
Adding Primitives
Adding a Block
Toggling ◆ Block displays the selections used for adding a block, along
with a diagram showing the dimensions.
Specifies the
name of the
new block.
Specifies the
width.
Specifies the
diameter.
Specifies the
height.
◆ Block selections
Modeling
Figure 3-5
Adding a Cone
Toggling ◆ Cone displays the selections used for adding a cone, along
with a diagram showing the dimensions.
Specifies the
name of the
new cone.
Specifies the
radius.
Specifies the
height.
Figure 3-6
User’s Manual
(3/97)
◆ Cone selections
3-7
Modeling
Adding a Cylinder
Toggling ◆ Cylinder displays the selections used for adding a cylinder,
along with a diagram showing the dimensions.
Specifies the
name of the
new cylinder.
Specifies the
radius.
Specifies the
height.
Figure 3-7
◆ Cylinder selections
Adding a Frustum
Toggling ◆ Frustum displays the selections used for adding a frustum,
along with a diagram showing the dimensions.
Specifies the
name of the
new frustum.
Specifies the
first radius.
Specifies the
second radius.
Specifies the
height.
Figure 3-8
3-8
◆ Frustum selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Adding Primitives
Adding a Prism
Toggling ◆ Prism displays the selections used for adding a prism, along
with a diagram showing the dimensions.
Specifies the
name of the
new prism.
Specifies the
width.
Specifies the
diameter.
Specifies the
height.
◆ Prism selections
Modeling
Figure 3-9
Adding a Sphere
Toggling ◆ Sphere displays the selections used for adding a sphere,
along with a diagram showing the dimensions.
Specifies the
name of the
new sphere.
Specifies the
radius.
Figure 3-10
User’s Manual
(3/97)
◆ Sphere selections
3-9
Modeling
Editing a Shape
You can change shapes using the Edit Shape panel. Selecting
Edit Shape… from the Modeling pulldown menu displays the Edit Shape
panel.
This section of the panel changes
depending on the toggle choice.
The toggle choices are described
in page 3-10 through page 3-13.
Figure 3-11
The Edit Shape panel
Scaling an Object
You can use ◆ Scale to scale an object uniformly in the X, Y, and Z
directions.
1. Toggle ◆ Scale. Pick an object to scale and the Scale Factor
field are displayed.
2. Enter a scale value in the Scale Factor field.
3. Select the object to be scaled from the Graphics Window or
the Quick Pick Window.
3-10
Soft Machines 1.7
Editing a Shape
Swapping Objects in a Model
Toggling ◆ Swap displays selections used to exchange the physical
positions of objects in a model’s object tree. Swap refers to the process
of objects changing places with one another in the object tree.
Figure 3-12
Modeling
Selecting an object from the
Graphics Window or Quick Pick Window
exchanges or replaces that object with
the one specified in the Edit field.
◆ Swap selections
Edit
Displays the name of the model to be changed.
◆ Node
The nodes that the objects occupy in their respective
object trees will exchange places.
◆ Tree
The objects’ trees will change places.
❏ Remove Old
If this is switched on, the selected object will replace
the one specified with the Edit shape selector. If this
is switched off, the two objects will exchange
physical positions.
Compacting an Object
Toggling ◆ Compact provides selections for changing the tree structure
of a specific model by creating a bond between objects. This bond can
be removed by using ◆ Expand.
Select an object to compact from the Graphics Window or the
Quick Pick Window.
Choose between two toggle choices: ◆ Rigid and ◆ Non-rigid.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
3-11
Modeling
◆ Rigid
Structures the tree of the selected object such that the
child objects are considered to be affixed to the
parent object, and are no longer considered separate
entities. If the parent object moves, its children will
move also. In addition, the children are not permitted
to move relative to one another. You must move the
parent to move the children.
Using rigid compaction increases performance on
certain platforms.
◆ Non-rigid
Structures the tree of the selected object such that the
child objects are considered to be affixed to the
parent object, but the child objects can still move
relative to one another.
Expanding an Object
Toggling ◆ Expand removes the bonds created with ◆ Compact and
returns objects to their original tree structure. Select an object to expand
from the Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window.
Inverting Objects
Toggling ◆ Invert inverts the facets of the selected object.
◆ Invert Model
Inverts all the facets of the selected object.
◆ Invert Facet
Inverts the selected facet.
Aligning Facets
The selections displayed by toggling ◆ Align are usually used to
manipulate the facets of models that have been imported into
Soft Machines through the CAD interface.
NOTE
3-12
To import models from IGES, see Appendix A, “IGES
Conversions”.
Soft Machines 1.7
Editing a Shape
Selection
Description
◆ Radial From Vertex
Select one of the object’s vertices. The
normals are aligned radially outward from the
selected vertex.
◆ Radial From Edge
Select one of the object’s edges. The normals
are aligned radially outward from the selected
edge.
◆ With Facet Normal
Select one of the faces of an object. The
normals of the object’s other facets are
aligned with the normal of the selected face.
◆ Auto Align
Select one of the facets of an object. The
normals of the object’s other facets are
aligned with the normal of the selected facet.
Table 3-2
◆ Align selections
Copy
Toggling ◆ Copy and selecting an object from the Graphics Window or
the Quick Pick Window creates a copy of the object.
Reattach Pose
Toggling ◆ Reattach Pose and selecting an object from the
Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window re-attaches the pose (or
body-attached frame). Use this selection after you have moved the
teacher to a new location because Soft Machines uses the teacher’s
location to re-define the object’s pose.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
3-13
Modeling
After selecting the object to be modified using the Edit shape selector,
toggle one of the choices described in Table 3-2.
Modeling
Editing the Resolution
The Edit Resolution panel enables you to modify segment length or
facet size on parametric models. Selecting Edit Resolution… from the
Modeling pulldown menu displays the Edit Resolution panel.
Specifies the object
to be edited.
This section of the panel changes
depending on the Mode toggle
choice.
Figure 3-13
The Edit Resolution panel
Low resolutions (fewer facets) will speed up the graphics for large CAD
models, however the models will look “rough”. High resolution will
make the models look more real, but may slow the graphics of some
platforms. Setting the proper resolution is important as it can achieve a
good balance between performance and appearance.
3-14
Soft Machines 1.7
Editing the Resolution
Selection
Description
◆ UV Mode
Specifies the facetization as a 2-dimensional grid.
This is not recommended since it does not
optimize the number of facets.
You need to specify three fields: Surface U,
Surface V and Boundary.
Boundary is the resolution of the trimmed surface
boundary.
◆ Tolerance Mode
Specifies the maximum allowable deviation of the
faceted representation from the actual analytic
surface. This optimizes the number of facets by
creating more where the curvature is high, and
fewer where surfaces are flat.
◆ Edge Length Mode
Specifies the size of the facets, but does not
optimize.
Table 3-3
Modes
Table 3-4 describes the available switches that determine the kind of
geometry that will be edited.
Selection
Description
❏ Curves
Edits resolution on curves according to the current
mode.
❏ Surfaces
Edits resolution on surfaces according to the
current mode.
❏ Descendents
Edits resolution on all the descendents of the
selected shape.
Table 3-4
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Geometry switches
3-15
Modeling
Table 3-3 describes the three modes.
Modeling
Changing the Default Settings
Selecting Defaults… from the Modeling pulldown menu displays the
Modeling Defaults panel.
Figure 3-14
The Modeling Defaults panel
Table 3-5 describes the selections available from the Modeling Defaults
panel.
Selection
Description
Primitives Resolution
Sets the number of facets for the certain
primitives.
Curve Resolution
Sets the number of line segments of a curve
when it is created.
Surface Resolution
Sets the number of facets a surface will have
when it is created. The surface resolution in
the U and V parameter direction is equal to
this value.
Geometric Epsilon
Sets the value to be used as a geometry
precision constant to compare “real” numbers.
Table 3-5
3-16
Modeling Defaults selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Where to Go From Here
Selection
Description
❏ Convex Facets
If switched on, all concave facets will become
convex facets. This is necessary for reliable
collision detection.
Table 3-5
Modeling Defaults selections (continued)
To save models, see “Saving Your Work” on page 2-5.
To install models into the workcell, see “Installing Workcell Objects”
on page 5-2.
To import models from IGES, see Appendix A, “IGES Conversions”.
To import models from other CAD systems, see the CAD Interfaces
manual, available from SILMA, Division of Adept Technology, Inc.
To change the color of models, see “Changing an Object’s Properties”
on page 5-14.
To change the components of the models, such as adopting additional
objects, see “Changing the Objects in the World” on page 5-11.
To change how the models are displayed, see “Display Options for the
Workcell and Objects” on page 4-1.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
3-17
Modeling
Where to Go From Here
Chapter 4
Graphics Display
Options
Display Options for the Workcell and Objects
The Graphics pulldown menu provides utilities to manipulate the
Soft Machines graphics display, including changing the workcell perspective
and lighting, adding additional Graphics Windows and changing how often the
graphics are updated. The effect of these selections is only used to temporarily
modify the graphics display for ease in performing certain functions. The
settings
. revert to the default after you quit the session.
See “Changing the
Default Settings” on
page 4-8.
Graphics
See “Displaying
Additional
Graphics Windows”
on page 4-5.
Parameters…
Multiple Views…
Lighting…
Defaults…
See “Adjusting
Workcell Lighting” on
page 4-7.
The Graphics menu
Display Options for the Workcell and Objects
The Graphics Parameters panel is used to modify how the workcell and
workcell objects are displayed. In order to understand the selections on
this panel, you first need some information on how the display works.
Soft Machines supports two display modes for models: wireframe and
surface. The wireframe representation is intended mainly to provide
compatibility with existing wireframe models built on external CAD
systems. Surfaced representation allows for more realistic display
techniques using polygon filling.
You can set if a model is displayed in surface or wireframe by using the
Display choices in the Graphics Parameters panel.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
4-1
Graphics Display
Options
Figure 4-1
See “Using the
Graphics Parameters
Panel” on page 4-3.
Graphics Display Options
Wireframe Display Mode
In wireframe display mode, an edge is drawn only if it is one of the
following:
■ A wireframe element
■ Associated with an edge of a forward-facing surface, and is
not shared by an adjacent forward-facing surface of the same
surface, (i.e., an edge caused by the segmentation of a
smoothly curved surface)
■ A limb (an edge along which a surface vanishes as it curves
away from the viewer)
Surface Display Mode
In surface display mode, Soft Machines paints all facets which face the
front of the display by beginning with the most distant one and working
forward. With this method, facets in the foreground simply paint over
the portions of facets in the background which they occlude.
Soft Machines shades surfaces by using a simulated light source, when
one is provided.
NOTE
You can add a light source by using the Lighting panel (see
“Adjusting Workcell Lighting” on page 4-7).
In some cases, Soft Machines does not draw the edges associated with a
facet. This method of displaying the edges of surfaces is called backface
elimination. Although not as realistic as hidden line removal, backface
elimination is a method of optimizing the display speed on platforms
without hardware graphics support. To modify how backfaces are
displayed, use the ◆ Backfacing Surfaces toggle choice in the
Graphics Parameters panel.
4-2
Soft Machines 1.7
Display Options for the Workcell and Objects
Using the Graphics Parameters Panel
Graphics Display
Options
The Graphics Parameters panel modifies how the workcell and objects
in the workcell will be displayed. Selecting Parameters… from the
Graphics pulldown menu displays the panel. If you have more than one
Graphics Window displayed, you can apply the Graphics Parameters
selections to different Graphics Windows.
Figure 4-2
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Graphics Parameters panel
4-3
Graphics Display Options
Display
Controls whether the surfaces of the objects are shown or only
the outline.
◆ Surface
Soft Machines displays only those lines
at the front of workcell objects. Objects
appear to be opaque. See “Surface
Display Mode” on page 4-2.
◆ Wireframe
Soft Machines displays all lines on
workcell objects. Objects appear to be
transparent. See “Wireframe Display
Mode” on page 4-2.
Shading
These options only apply if ◆ Wireframe is toggled.
◆ Flat
Shows the interior facets of objects as
lines.
◆ Smooth
Removes interior facets so the objects
displayed in wireframe will look
smooth.
Backfacing Surfaces
Controls how the edges of surfaces are displayed. See “Surface
Display Mode” on page 4-2.
4-4
◆ Hidden
Objects appear to be opaque.
◆ Shown
Objects appear to be transparent.
◆ Highlight
Backfaces are shown and highlighted
intensely.
◆ Lowlight
Backfaces are shown and highlighted,
but less intensely.
Soft Machines 1.7
Displaying Additional Graphics Windows
Projection
Controls the perspective of how objects are displayed.
◆ Perspective
Soft Machines displays the workcell in
normal perspective.
◆ Orthogonal
Soft Machines uses a non-perspective
display.
Displaying Additional Graphics Windows
You can display up to four Graphics Windows. By displaying different
views of the workcell simultaneously, you can
Graphics Display
Options
➢ Look at a workcell from different angles
➢ Display more than one workcell
➢ Zoom in on an object in one window, while still being able
to see the overall workcell in another window
➢ Apply the Graphics Parameters selections to different
windows
➢ Have objects hidden and shown in different windows
➢ Change the lighting in different windows
NOTE
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Hiding objects is done using the Appearance panel.
See “Changing an Object’s Properties” on
page 5-14. Changing the lighting is described in
“Adjusting Workcell Lighting” on page 4-7.
4-5
Graphics Display Options
The Multiple Views panel is used to add additional Graphics Windows,
rearrange or delete them. Selecting Multiple Views… from the Graphics
pulldown menu displays the Multiple Views panel.
Selections for arranging
and sizing the
Graphics Windows.
You can also use the left
mouse button to rearrange
or resize them.
Figure 4-3
The Multiple Views panel
Table 4-1 describes the selections available from the Multiple Views
panel.
Selection
Description
◆ Add
Adds a Graphics Window and assigns it a View
number. For example, the second window is added as
View 2. This is illustrated in “The Soft Machines
Display” on page 1-3.
◆ Remove
Displays a list of the views. Click on the view from the
list and then click Apply to remove that window.
◆ Arrange
Displays different display options for arranging the
Graphics Windows. See Figure 4-3 for options.
Table 4-1
4-6
Multiple Views selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Adjusting Workcell Lighting
Adjusting Workcell Lighting
Selecting Lighting… from the Graphics pulldown menu displays the
Lighting panel.
Adjusts the intensity
of ambient light.
Chooses the light
source to be adjusted.
Changes the longitude
of the light source.
Changes the latitude
of the light source.
Figure 4-4
The Lighting panel
If you have more than one Graphics Window displayed, you can apply
the Lighting selections to different Graphics Windows.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
4-7
Graphics Display
Options
Adjusts the intensity
of the light source.
Graphics Display Options
Changing the Default Settings
The Graphics Defaults panel is used to set the update rate, highlighting
options and dynamic viewing. Selecting Defaults… from the Graphics
pulldown menu displays the Graphics Defaults panel.
This section of the panel changes
depending on the toggle choice.
The toggle choices are described
in the following sections.
Figure 4-5
4-8
The Graphics Defaults panel
Soft Machines 1.7
Changing the Default Settings
Setting Default Colors
Toggling ◆ Highlighting enables you to set the colors used to highlight
objects and events in the Graphics Window.
Figure 4-6
◆ Highlighting selections
❏ Shown in Graphics Views
Highlight
Sets the primary highlighting color used for selected objects and
groups.
Collision
Sets the color for collisions. Collision detection must be switched on
to see the effect of this option (see “Collision Detection” on
page 7-3).
Near Miss
Sets the color for near misses. ❏ Use Near Zone in the Collision
Parameters panel must be switched on to see the effect of this option
(see page 7-10).
Special
Sets the color for colliding surfaces. ❏ Surfaces in the Collision
Parameters panel must be switched on to see the effect of this option
(see page 7-9).
User’s Manual
(3/97)
4-9
Graphics Display
Options
Sets whether the highlighting colors will be shown in the
Graphics Window.
Graphics Display Options
Multiple-Object Selection Highlighting
Toggling ◆ Multi Pick Hili enables you to set how the objects that have
been selected during the multiple-object selection process are indicated.
You have the choice of using an outline or a bounding box.
NOTE
For information on using multiple-object selection, see
“Shape Selectors” on page 1-15.
Setting the Update Rate
The update rate sets how often the Graphics Window will be refreshed.
If the update rate is a small value, the system will slow down to
accommodate the frequent refreshes.
Toggling ◆ Update Rate enables you to set the update rate.
Figure 4-7
NOTE
◆ Update Rate selections
This setting is also used in collision detection if the
Check At parameter in the Collision Parameters panel is
set to ◆ Refresh.
Dynamic View
Toggling ◆ Dynamic View displays the ❏ Enabled switch. Switching this
on changes objects to wireframe display (if wireframe is available).
When switched off, objects return to their original display.
4-10
Soft Machines 1.7
Chapter 5
Constructing
the Workcell
After creating the models, you need to install them into the workcell, and then
construct the workcell.
A complete workcell contains
■ All the objects necessary for the simulation
■ Locations of all the objects relative to the World coordinate
system
■ Object colors
■ Affixment relations with other objects in the cell
■ Views from which the workcell can be viewed
When you have completely set up the workcell, you can save it in a
Soft Machines library to use later.
For information on saving your cell, see “Saving Your
Work” on page 2-5.
Constructing
the Workcell
NOTE
User’s Manual
(3/97)
5-1
Constructing the Workcell
Installing Workcell Objects
The first step in laying out your workcell is to install the objects by using
the Install panel. The Install panel can be displayed by selecting Install…
from the File pulldown menu.
List of directories under the
current directory. Directories that
are not libraries have two dots (..)
after the directory name. Libraries
do not have this symbol.
Sets the directory. You can use
the list button to select
~cim/projects or
~cim/users, or use the field
to enter any directory on the
system. See “Libraries” on
page 1-23.
Selecting a directory from this
list makes it the current
directory.
This toggle choice sets what you
would like to install.
Toggling ◆ Workcell displays
the Replace/Merge toggle.
◆ Replace replaces the entire
contents of the cell.
List of the objects that comprise
the selected category in the
current directory.
Figure 5-1
◆ Merge merges the selected
workcell with the current one.
The list is compiled from the file
extensions of the files. See
Table 1-2, “Libraries and
filename extensions” on
page 1-24.
The Install panel
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the Install
Shortcut panel.
5-2
Soft Machines 1.7
Using the Layout Menu
Models of parts should be installed with ◆ Part toggled to identify them
as parts. A model installed with ◆ Part toggled is added to the workcell
under a null model labeled part. Children of this null model will be used
by First Cut in determining the stock bounding box.
NOTE
If you are using a workcell created with a pre-1.7 version
of Soft Machines, you need to add the part null model to
the workcell. This procedure is described on page 3-4.
Using the Layout Menu
After adding the objects to the workcell, they need to be arranged into
the correct positions. The primary menu you will use to set up and
organize your workcell is the Layout menu.
Layout
Defaults…
Move Object…
Edit World…
Appearance…
Figure 5-2
The Layout menu
Selection
Description
Defaults…
Shows the reference frame and changes workcell units.
See “Changing the Workcell Defaults” on page 5-4.
Move Object…
Moves objects. See “Moving Objects” on page 5-5.
Edit World…
Re-defines the relationships of objects, such as their
affixments. See “Changing the Objects in the World” on
page 5-11.
Table 5-2
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Layout
selections
5-3
Constructing
the Workcell
Table 5-2 describes the selections, and tells you where to look for further
information.
Constructing the Workcell
Selection
Description
Appearance…
Displays the Appearance panel. See “Changing an
Object’s Properties” on page 5-14.
Table 5-2
Layout
selections (continued)
Changing the Workcell Defaults
The Layout Defaults panel is used to set the workcell units and the
reference frame. Selecting Defaults… from the Layout pulldown menu
displays the Layout Defaults panel.
Switching this on
displays the reference
frame in the
Graphics Window.
Specifies the
reference frame.
Sets the pose size.
Sets the reference
frame size.
cm
mm
meter
inch
mil
foot
yard
Sets the current
workcell units.
5-4
Figure 5-3
The Layout Defaults panel.
Figure 5-4
The reference frame
Soft Machines 1.7
Moving Objects
Moving Objects
The Move Object panel is displayed by selecting Move Object… from the
Layout menu.
Selects the object
to be moved.
This section changes depending
on which selection is toggled.
See page 5-6 to page 5-9 for a
description of the toggle choices.
See “Using the
Handle” on page 5-9.
Undoes the
displayed move.
Figure 5-5
Constructing
the Workcell
See “Moving to
Coordinates” on
page 5-10.
The Move Object panel
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut Move Object panel.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
5-5
Constructing the Workcell
Rotating Objects
Toggling ◆ X, ◆ Y, or ◆ Z in the Rotate section of the Move Object panel
displays a circle around the object in the Graphics Window and the
appropriate selections in the middle of the panel. Using these selections,
you can rotate the current object around the appropriate object.
Specifies whether the
current object rotates
around the current
reference frame or
itself.
Figure 5-6
The Rotate about X Axis box
By positioning the cursor in the Graphics Window and holding down the
left mouse button, you can drag the cursor to a different rotation.
Releasing the mouse button rotates the object.
Figure 5-7
Rotating an object
There are two modes to determine how the object will be rotated:
◆ Jump, or ◆ Drag.
5-6
◆ Jump
Uses angle increments entered in the Angle Incr field.
◆ Drag
Uses the mouse cursor to rotate the object in the
Graphics Window.
Soft Machines 1.7
Moving Objects
Moving an Object in a Plane
Toggling ◆ XY, ◆ YZ, or ◆ XZ in the Move in section of the Move Object
panel displays a cross on the object in the Graphics Window and the
appropriate selections in the middle of the panel. Using these selections,
you can move the current object in the XY, YZ, or XZ planes.
X Distance
Y Distance
Figure 5-8
The Move in XY Plane box
By positioning the cursor in the Graphics Window and holding down the
left mouse button, you can drag the cursor to the new location. Releasing
the mouse button moves the object.
Moving an object in the XY plane
There are two modes to determine how the object will be moved:
◆ Jump, or ◆ Drag.
◆ Jump
Uses distance values entered in the DX and DY fields.
◆ Drag
Uses the mouse cursor to move the object in the
Graphics Window.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
5-7
Constructing
the Workcell
Figure 5-9
Constructing the Workcell
Moving an Object to the Edge of an Object
Toggling ◆ To Edge in the Move Object panel and clicking on the edge
of a workcell object in the Graphics Window moves the designated
workcell object to that edge. If ❏ Center on Edge is switched on, the
object will be moved to the center of the edge.
Moving an Object to the Pose of an Object
Toggling ◆ To Pose in the Move Object panel and clicking on the pose
of a workcell object in the Graphics Window moves the current object
to the selected pose.
Aligning an Object
Toggling ◆ Orient in the Move Object panel displays the Align with
selections, which are used to align the current object with the edge, face,
frame, or pose of a workcell object that you pick in the
Graphics Window. You can also use ◆ Bisect Faces or ◆ Bisect Edges to
move the current object to another workcell object such that their
specified faces or edges bisect.
Displays instructions for
using the current selection.
Figure 5-10
The Align with selections
Moving an Object to the Face of an Object
Toggling ◆ To Face in the Move Object panel and clicking on the face
of a workcell object in the Graphics Window moves the designated
workcell object to that face.
5-8
Soft Machines 1.7
Moving Objects
There are two options. If ❏ Center on Face is switched on, the object will
be moved to the center of the face. If ❏ Align with Face is switched on,
the object will be aligned with the face.
Moving an Object to the Vertex of an Object
Toggling ◆ To Vertex in the Move Object panel and clicking on the
vertex of a workcell object in the Graphics Window moves the
designated workcell object to that vertex.
Figure 5-11
The Move to Vertex box
Moving an Object to the Frame of an Object
Toggling ◆ To Frame in the Move Object panel and clicking on the
frame of a workcell object in the Graphics Window moves the
designated workcell object to that frame.
If you want to move an object relative to a position other than its pose,
you can use its “handle”.
Clicking Add Handle adds a handle to the selected part.
Figure 5-12
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The handle
5-9
Constructing
the Workcell
Using the Handle
Constructing the Workcell
Switching on ❏ Move Handle applies the Move Object selections to the
handle. Switch off ❏ Move Handle to move the part.
Any moves of the part will be made with respect to the handle
position—if you move the part to the pose of the teacher, the handle will
be aligned to the pose of the teacher.
Clicking Delete Handle removes the handle.
Moving to Coordinates
Selecting Move to Coordinates… from the Move Object panel displays the
Move to Coordinates in Reference panel. The Translate fields move the
object to the specified coordinate relative to the current reference frame.
The Rotate fields rotate the object relative to the current reference frame.
Moves or rotates the
object according to
the coordinates.
Figure 5-13
5-10
Resets the
coordinates to the
last location.
The Move to Coordinates in Reference panel
Soft Machines 1.7
Changing the Objects in the World
Changing the Objects in the World
The Edit World panel is used to change the components of the World.
Objects can be bonded together, renamed or deleted from the World.
The Edit World panel can be displayed by selecting Edit World… from the
Layout menu.
This section of the panel changes
depending on the toggle choice.
Toggle choices are described in
the following sections.
Figure 5-14
The Edit World panel
Creating and Removing Affixments
◆ Affix/Unaffix in the Edit World panel is used both to temporarily bond
two objects together or to remove this bond. Toggling ◆ Affix/Unaffix
then selecting an object affixes that object to the object displayed in the
Affix to field. If an object is already affixed, toggling ◆ Affix/Unaffix then
selecting an object removes the affixment.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
5-11
Constructing
the Workcell
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut Edit World panel.
Constructing the Workcell
Adopting Objects
Adopting refers to the process of changing Soft Machines’s object tree.
When one object adopts another, it becomes the “parent” object. The
adoptee or “child” object is then below the parent object in the object
tree. This arrangement results in the child object being a component of
the parent object—the child object moves when the parent object moves.
In the model tree shown in Figure 3-1, “Model tree for a typical motor”
on page 3-1, model is the parent object of all of the motor’s parts.
Because mounting plate has no parts below it on the object tree, it is not
a parent object—it is a child only. The screws and rotor assembly,
however, do have parts below them on the object tree; therefore, they are
considered parent objects. They are also child objects because they are
below model in the object tree.
To create this model using the ◆ Adopt selection:
1. Install all the objects included in the model. The objects are
shown in the Quick Pick Window as being on the same level.
2. Toggle ◆ Adopt in the Edit World panel. The object which
will be the parent is displayed in the Parent field. Use the
middle mouse button to select model from the
Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window.
3. Use the left mouse button to select the children to adopt
(mounting plate, screws, housing, rotor assembly) from the
Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window. The
Quick Pick Window is updated.
5-12
Soft Machines 1.7
Changing the Objects in the World
4. Use the middle mouse button to select the next-level parents
(the previous children) and the left button to select their
children.
Figure 5-15
The Quick Pick Window before and after
adopting objects
Renaming Objects
◆ Rename renames an object selected from the Graphics Window or the
Quick Pick Window. A pop up box will request the new name.
Deleting Objects from the World
◆ Delete deletes an object from the World. If the object has been saved,
NOTE
Saving the workcell does not adequately save the object. To
install an object, it must have been saved as a separate file.
You can remove everything in the workcell by clicking on the
World icon in the Quick Pick Window.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
5-13
Constructing
the Workcell
it can be installed again. If the object has not been saved, it is deleted
permanently.
Constructing the Workcell
Changing an Object’s Properties
The Appearance panel is used to alter an object’s properties: color,
material, transparency and visibility. If you save the workcell, the
current appearances of the objects is saved with the cell. In the case of
color, material, and transparency, you can permanently alter the object
by saving it. The Appearance panel can be displayed by selecting
Appearance… from the Layout menu.
This section of the panel changes
depending on the toggle choice.
The toggle choices are explained
in the following sections.
Undoes the most
recent selection.
Figure 5-16
The Appearance panel
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut Appearance panel.
5-14
Soft Machines 1.7
Changing an Object’s Properties
Applying Colors
Toggling ◆ Color paints objects or changes the background color. This
property is saved when the workcell is saved and saving the object
permanently changes its color.
Available colors in
the current palette.
Each color can be
changed by using
the Color Wheel
panel.
Displays the
Color Wheel panel.
Applies the
selected color to
the background.
Figure 5-17
◆ Color selections
The Color Wheel panel is used to change the colors in the palette.
Clicking this button in the ◆ Color selections displays the panel.
Lightens or darkens
color.
Color of current palette
selection.
Sets color values.
Selected color (color
that will be set when
Set Palette is clicked).
List of available
colors.
Figure 5-18
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Color Wheel panel
5-15
Constructing
the Workcell
Color wheel location
of the selected
color.
Constructing the Workcell
Visibility
Toggling ◆ Visibility displays the visibility selections.
Figure 5-19
◆ Visibility selections
The Hide/Toggle/See toggle sets whether the object or object entity is to
be hidden or shown. Hidden objects are not removed from the workcell.
The ◆ Toggle selection changes the object’s visibility back and forth—
for example, if the object is hidden, ◆ Toggle shows it.
NOTE
The reference frame is hidden by switching off
❏ Show Reference Frame in the Layout Defaults panel.
The Object/Object Entities toggle sets the workcell component that will be
affected by the Hide/See toggle. Toggling to ◆ Object enables you to
choose an object. Toggling ◆ Object Entities displays the object entity
selections: ❏ Poses, ❏ Surfaces, ❏ Frames, ❏ Curves.
The Current View/All Views toggle is used if you have more than one
Graphics Window displayed. Toggling ◆ Current View applies your
selections only to the current view of the workcell. Toggling ◆ All Views
applies your selections to all the views of the workcell.
NOTE
5-16
To display additional Graphics Windows, see “Displaying
Additional Graphics Windows” on page 4-5.
Soft Machines 1.7
Changing an Object’s Properties
Transparency
Toggling ◆ Transparency is used to make an object appear transparent.
This property is saved when the workcell is saved and saving the object
permanently alters how transparent it is.
Sets how transparent the
object will appear in the
Graphics Window.
The outer square represents
the background, and the inner
square illustrates how
transparent the object will be
displayed using the current
settings.
Figure 5-20
◆ Transparency selections
First set the percentage using the slider or Percentage field, then click on
an object in the Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window. If
Percentage is 100% transparent, only the outline of the object will be
displayed. To set it back, make the percentage 0, then click on the object.
Material
Besides color and transparency, a surface object can have a material
associated to it. Different materials show different lighting effects.
Three choices are available to simulate plaster, plastic, or metal.
Toggling ◆ Material displays the toggle choices:
◆ Default
Non-shiny and bright (plaster).
◆ Plastic
Shiny but dim.
◆ Metal
Shiny and bright.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
5-17
Constructing
the Workcell
NOTE
Although this selection is available on all platforms, you may
not see the effect on certain platforms. You might also
consider using the ◆ Wireframe selection in the Graphics
Parameters panel (see “Display Options for the Workcell and
Objects” on page 4-1).
Constructing the Workcell
This property is saved when the workcell is saved and saving the object
permanently changes its material.
5-18
Soft Machines 1.7
Chapter 6
Modeling NC Tooling
The Tooling Assembly
The Tooling Assembly
Before a machine tool can perform any machining operations, tooling
must be mounted to the machine. In Soft Machines, NC tooling (tool
changers, tool holders and cutters) are modeled and saved as tool
libraries. When part programs are loaded for simulation, the
appropriate tool libraries must be installed into the workcell and
attached to the machine tool model. Figure 6-1 illustrates the tool library
components:
Tool Changer
(discussed on
page 6-13)
Tool Holder
(discussed on
page 6-8)
Cutting Tool
(discussed on
page 6-4)
Tool Library
Mount
Z
+
Station
Z
Z
Z
+
Z
Flange
Tip
=
Flange
Tool library components
Modeling NC
Tooling
Figure 6-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-1
Modeling NC Tooling
Tool Changer (Turret)
Tool Holder/Adaptor
Cutting Tool
Figure 6-2
NC tooling: tools for turning
Cutting Tools
Tool Holders / Adaptors
Figure 6-3
6-2
NC tooling: tools for a machining center
Soft Machines 1.7
The Tooling Assembly
Tooling is set up by using the Tool Setup panel. Selecting
Tooling Setup… from the Simulate pulldown menu displays the
Tool Setup panel.
Sets the directory. The selections
are similar to the Directory section
of the Install panel (see “Installing
Workcell Objects” on page 5-2).
Sets the type of tooling component
to be constructed.
This section of the panel
changes depending on the
toggle choice.
The toggle choices are described
in the following sections.
Figure 6-4
The Tool Setup panel
Modeling NC
Tooling
Tool Bar Clicking on this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut Tool Setup panel.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-3
Modeling NC Tooling
Cutting Tools
A cutting tool is a cutter that performs the actual machining operations.
NOTE
Figure 6-1, “Tool library components” on page 6-1 illustrates
how cutting tools are used with other tooling components.
Toggling ◆ Cutting Tool in the Tool Setup panel displays the selections
for tool cutters.
There are two methods for creating a cutting tool:
◆ Use Model in World is used to create a cutting tool from a
workcell object (see “Creating a Cutting Tool
from a Model” in the following section).
◆ Use Parameters
is used to automatically create end mills and
shell mills from specified parameters.
Creating a Cutting Tool from a Model
◆ Use Model in World is used to convert a workcell object into a cutting
tool. Cutting tools modeled in another CAD package can be imported
into the workcell through the CAD Interfaces panel, and then converted
into Soft Machines tools using these panel selections.
Figure 6-5
6-4
◆ Use Model in World selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Cutting Tools
Table 6-1 describes the ◆ Use Model in World selections.
Selection
Description
Name
Specifies the Soft Machines model to be
converted to a cutting tool.
◆ Define Tip
Defines the cutting tip of the cutter. Selection
is made by clicking on a frame or an object
from the Graphics Window. The pose of the
selected object defines the cutting tip.
Z
Z
Flange
Tip
◆ Define Flange
Defines the flange pose of the cutter. The
flange specifies the mount location of the
cutter to the tool holder/adaptor mount frame.
Save as Cutting Tool…
Displays a name requestor, which is used to
specify the filename of the new cutter. The
filename will be appended with a .ct file
extension, and saved in the nc_tooling
subdirectory of the current library.
◆ Use Model in World selections
Modeling NC
Tooling
Table 6-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-5
Modeling NC Tooling
Modeling an End Mill Cutter
Highlighting End Mill from the list displayed by toggling
◆ Use Parameters displays the End Mill panel.
Figure 6-6
The End Mill panel
Type sets the type of end mill that will be created. End, which is used to
create a flat end mill, is shown in Figure 6-6. Setting Type to Ball displays
the diagram for a spherical end mill:
Creating a radius end mill is also possible by setting Type to Radius.
The End Mill panel contains these parameters:
6-6
■ d
diameter
■ l1
gauge length of cutter
■ l2
length of flutes
Soft Machines 1.7
Cutting Tools
Units defines
mm.
units used for d, l1 and l2. There are two choices: inch or
Modeling a Shell Mill Cutter
Highlighting Shell Mill from the list displayed by toggling
◆ Use Parameters displays the Shell Mill panel.
Figure 6-7
Units defines
The Shell Mill panel
units used for d and l. There are two choices: inch or mm.
Flutes defines number of flutes on cutter. Choices are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16,
18, 20.
Highlighting Drill from the list displayed by toggling ◆ Use Parameters
displays the Drill panel.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-7
Modeling NC
Tooling
Modeling a Drill Cutter
Modeling NC Tooling
Tool Holder
A tool holder is used as a tool holding device for cutting tools.
Examples of tool holders include drill chucks, collets, and V-flange
adapters. For a machining center, tool holder/cutting tool assemblies are
usually mounted on a tool magazine when not performing machining
operations. An automatic tool changer will mount the tool holder to the
machine spindle when a tool-change command is executed.
NOTE
Figure 6-1, “Tool library components” on page 6-1 illustrates
how tool holders are used with other tooling components.
Toggling ◆ Tool Holder in the Tool Setup panel displays the selections
for tool holders.
Uses a workcell object as a
tool holder. See “Creating a
Tool Holder from a Model”
on page 6-9.
Creates a tool holder from
specified parameters. See
“Modeling Adaptors Using
Parameters” on page 6-9.
Saves the model as a tool
holder.
Figure 6-8
6-8
◆ Tool Holder selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Tool Holder
Creating a Tool Holder from a Model
Toggling ◆ Use Model in World displays the selections for specifying a
workcell object to be recognized as a tool holder. Table 6-2 describes the
◆ Use Model in World selections.
Selection
Description
Name
Specifies the Soft Machines model to be converted
into a tool holder.
◆ Define Mount
Defines the pose of the mount point of the tool
holder.
Selection is made by clicking on a frame or an object
from the Graphics Window.
If an object is selected, the pose of the object defines
the mount location.
Flange
Z
◆ Define Flange
Table 6-2
Z Mount
Defines the flange pose of the tool holder. The flange
specifies the mount location of the holder to the tool
changer station frame.
◆ Use Model in World selections
Modeling Adaptors Using Parameters
Modeling NC
Tooling
Toggling ◆ Use Parameters displays a list of available adaptor types:
End Mill, Shell Mill and Shank Stub Arbor. Highlighting each displays a
panel, described in the following sections.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-9
Modeling NC Tooling
Modeling an End Mill Tool Holder
Highlighting End Mill Adaptor from the list displayed by toggling
◆ Use Parameters displays the End Mill Adaptor panel.
Choosing a CV selection from Taper displays:
V-Flange End Mill Adaptor
Choosing a BT selection from Taper displays:
BT End Mill Adaptor
Figure 6-9
The End Mill Adaptor panel
The End Mill Adaptor panel contains these parameters for model
tooling:
■ d1
ID (internal diameter) of tool holder
■ d2
OD (external diameter) of tool holder
■ l1
Gauge length of holder
Units defines units used for d1, d2, l1, l2 and l3, choices are inch or mm.
Taper defines the adaptor type, choices are CV40, CV45, CV50 (Vflange adaptors) and BT35, BT40, BT45, BT50.
6-10
Soft Machines 1.7
Tool Holder
Modeling a Shell Mill Tool Holder
Highlighting Shell Mill Adaptor from the list displayed by toggling
◆ Use Parameters displays the Shell Mill Adaptor panel.
Choosing a CV selection from Taper displays:
V-Flange Shell Mill Adaptor
Choosing a BT selection from Taper displays:
BT Shell Mill Adaptor
Figure 6-10
The Shell Mill Adaptor panel
Modeling NC
Tooling
The selections in the Shell Mill Adaptor panel are the same as the End
Mill Adaptor panel selections, which are described in the previous
section.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-11
Modeling NC Tooling
Modeling a Shank Stub Arbor
Highlighting Shank Stub Arbor from the list displayed by toggling
◆ Use Parameters displays the Shank Stub Arbor panel.
Choosing a CV selection from Taper displays:
V-Flange Stub Arbor
Choosing a BT selection from Taper displays:
BT-Flange Stub Arbor
Figure 6-11
The Shank Stub Arbor panel
The End Mill Adaptor panel contains these parameters for model
tooling:
■ l
Gauge length of holder
■ d
Diameter of tool holder
Units defines
units used for l and d, choices are inch or mm.
Taper defines the adaptor type, choices are CV40, CV45, CV50 (Vflange arbors) and BT35, BT40, BT45, BT50.
6-12
Soft Machines 1.7
Tool Changer
Tool Changer
A tool changer is a device for changing cutters between machining
operations. For a turning machine, a tool changer usually consists of a
turret containing multiple cutter assemblies (see Figure 6-15, “Tool
library for CNC turret lathe” on page 6-16). For a machining center, the
tool changer is usually composed of a tool magazine, which stores the
tool holder/cutter assemblies, and mechanisms (usually a mechanical
arm) for exchanging cutter assemblies between the tool magazine and
the machine spindle (Figure 6-12).
Machine Spindle
Tool Holder/
Cutter
Assemblies
Tool Magazine
Figure 6-12
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Tool changer for horizontal machining center
6-13
Modeling NC
Tooling
Tool Changer Arm
Modeling NC Tooling
In Soft Machines, a tool changer can be an automatic tool changer for
machining centers, or a multiple station turret on lathes and turning
centers.
NOTE
Figure 6-1, “Tool library components” on page 6-1 illustrates
how tool changers are used with other tooling components.
Toggling ◆ Tool Changer in the Tool Setup panel displays the selections
for tool changers. Before a workcell object can be converted to a tool
changer, frames designating station locations must be “taught” on the
model.
NOTE
Teaching frames is explained in “Teaching Frames” on page 725.
Figure 6-13
◆ Tool Changer selections
Table 6-3 describes the tool changer selections.
Selection
Description
Name
Specifies the workcell object to be converted to a
tool changer.
Number of Stations
Specifies the number of stations on the tool
changer.
Table 6-3
6-14
◆ Tool Changer selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Tool Library
Selection
Description
Station
Selects the station number to be assigned to a
frame. Station numbers are assigned by
highlighting the station number in the panel and
then selecting the frame from either the
Graphics Window or Quick Pick Window.
Save As Changer…
Saves the model as a tool changer.
Table 6-3
NOTE
◆ Tool Changer selections (continued)
Each Soft Machines project area supplied by SILMA, Division
of Adept Technology, Inc. contains a default tool changer
located under the nc_tooling subdirectory.
Tool Library
A tool library is a collection of tool holder/cutter assemblies mounted
on a tool changer. Different NC part programs require different
combinations of tool holders and cutters. Tool libraries provide a means
of storing these different combinations (see Figure 6-15, “Tool library
for CNC turret lathe” on page 6-16).
Toggling ◆ Tool Library in the Tool Setup panel displays the selections
for the tool library.
Described on
page 6-17.
Described on
page 6-21.
◆ Tool Library selections
Modeling NC
Tooling
Figure 6-14
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-15
Modeling NC Tooling
Tool Holder/
Cutter
Assemblies
12-Station Turret
Figure 6-15
6-16
Tool library for CNC turret lathe
Soft Machines 1.7
Tool Library
Using a Menu
Toggling ◆ Use Menu in the tool library selections displays the
Tool Library panel.
Station
number on
tool changer.
Available Tool
Holders
Available
Cutters
This information is
updated after
selecting items from
the Stn, Holder and
Cutter lists and
clicking LOAD TOOL
TO STATION.
Figure 6-16
The Tool Library panel
Creating a Tool Library
Modeling NC
Tooling
Follow these steps to create a new library.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-17
Modeling NC Tooling
1. Select Create Lib. A name requestor is displayed.
Figure 6-17
Name requestor
2. Enter the filename you would like for the library and click OK.
The Select Tool Changer panel is displayed.
Figure 6-18
The Select Tool Changer panel
3. Highlight a tool changer from the list and click OK. The tool
changer is installed. The Select Tool Changer panel is
dismissed.
Figure 6-19
6-18
Installing a new library
Soft Machines 1.7
Tool Library
4. Follow these steps to mount a holder and cutter onto a station.
a. Select a station from the Stn list.
b. Select an item from the Holder list and one from the Cutter
list.
c. Click LOAD TOOL TO STATION. A name requestor is
displayed.
d. Enter a new ID for the tool, or accept the default. The tool ID
is the reference number called by the tool change command.
The holder/cutter is mounted to the designated station on the
tool changer.
Station
Holder/Cutter
Mounting a holder/cutter
Modeling NC
Tooling
Figure 6-20
User’s Manual
(3/97)
6-19
Modeling NC Tooling
The Contents and Tool Parameters sections of the Tool Library
panel are updated with the new information.
Figure 6-21
6-20
The updated Tool Library panel
Soft Machines 1.7
Tool Library
Removing a Tool from a Station
Follow these steps to remove a tool from a station.
1. Select the station in the Stn field.
2. Select <empty> in the Holder and Cutter lists.
3. Click LOAD TOOL TO STATION to unload the holder/cutter.
1
2
3
Figure 6-22
Select 2 in the Stn field
and <empty> in both the
Holder and Cutter lists.
1
Click LOAD TOOL TO
STATION.
2
The middle holder/cutter
is removed.
3
Removing a tool from a station
Multiple Tool Chains
Figure 6-23
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Modeling NC
Tooling
Some machine tools have tool changers containing more than one tool
chain.
Multiple tool chains
6-21
Modeling NC Tooling
In Soft Machines, tool changers with multiple tool chains are handled as
follows:
■ Load tools onto each tool chain and save it as a separate tool
library.
■ Use the ◆ Combine Tool Chains option to combine the
individual tool chains to create a multiple tool chain library.
The ◆ Combine Tool Chains option is used to model tool libraries
containing more than one tool chain, such as those found on machining
centers with multiple tool chains.
In Soft Machines, tool libraries with multiple tool chains are modeled by
combining the tool library for each tool chain.
Toggling ◆ Combine Tool Chains in the tool library selections displays
the Combine Tool Chains panel.
Tool libraries to be
included in the
chain.
Available tool
libraries.
Clicking on an item
and clicking
Remove-> removes
it from the list.
Figure 6-24
Clicking on an item
and clicking <-Add
adds it to the other
list.
The Combine Tool Chains panel
Clicking Combine displays a name requestor. Enter the name you would
like for the tool chain.
6-22
Soft Machines 1.7
Chapter 7
Utilities
Utilities
Collision Detection…
Factory…
Measure…
Movies…
Plotter Output…
View Error Log…
First Cut Playback…
Paths
Teach Frames…
Calculator…
File System…
Create Path…
Edit Path…
Test Path…
Delete Path…
Figure 7-1
The Utilities menu
Selecting Calculator… displays a calculator containing commonly-used
mathematical functions.
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut calculator.
Table 7-1 describes the selections available from the Utilities menu.
Selection
Description
Collision Detection…
See “Collision Detection” on page 7-3.
Factory…
See “The Factory” on page 7-12.
Measure…
See “Measuring” on page 7-15.
Table 7-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Utilities
selections
7-1
Utilities
The Utilities pulldown menu contains utilities for detecting collisions that will
occur in a simulation, creating movies, measuring distances between objects,
modifying the way the factory is displayed, creating hard copy output, and
obtaining access to your file system.
Utilities
Selection
Description
Movies…
See “Movies” on page 7-17.
Plotter Output…
See “Creating Hard Copy Output” on page 7-21.
View Error Log…
Displays the View Error Log Window, which
displays the error log associated with the
selected file. See “Viewing an Error Log” on
page 7-24.
First Cut Playback…
Displays a pop up box that is used to load a
playback file. “Using Playback Mode” on page
B-22 provides more information on viewing
playback files.
Paths
See “Paths” on page 7-25.
File System…
See “Working with Files and Directories” on
page 7-31.
Table 7-1
7-2
Utilities
selections (continued)
Soft Machines 1.7
Utilities
Collision Detection
Collision Detection
The Collision Detection panel is used to check workcell objects for
collisions and near misses. The panel can be displayed by selecting
Collision Detection… from the Utilities pulldown menu.
Figure 7-2
The Collision Detection panel
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut Collision Detection panel.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-3
Utilities
Table 7-2 describes the selections available from the Collision Detection
panel.
Selection
Description
Collision Detection
Toggles the collision detection facility ◆ On or ◆ Off.
NOTE The color used to highlight the collision in the
Graphics Window is set in the
Graphics Defaults panel (see page 4-9).
Static Check
Performs a static collision check. Static collision
checks are used to determine which objects are
colliding at the moment you select Static Check.
Static Pair…
Displays the Static Pair panel. The first object is
displayed in the Object to Check with field. When you
select the second object, Soft Machines performs a
static check (see Static Check above).
Parameters…
Displays the Collision Parameters panel. See Figure
7-5, “The Collision Parameters panel” on page 7-8.
◆ Checks
Selects which collision pairs will be checked for
collisions. See “Setting Up Collision Pairs” on
page 7-5.
◆ Excludes
Selects which collision pairs will be excluded from
collision checking.
◆ Pick First
Selects the object which will have other objects
checked against it for collisions. See “Setting Up New
Collision Pairs” on page 7-5.
◆ Pick Second
Selects the object or objects to be checked against the
object in the First Object of Pair box. Clicking on an
object in the Quick Pick Window causes the object to
be listed in the Second Object of Pair box.
Load Pair List…
Displays the Load Pair Lists panel, which you can
use load collision pairs that you saved previously. See
Figure 7-3, “The Load Pair Lists panel” on page 7-7.
Table 7-2
7-4
Collision Detection selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Utilities
Collision Detection
Selection
Description
Save Pair List…
Displays the Save Pair Lists panel, which you can
use to save collision pairs. See Figure 7-4, “The Save
Pair Lists panel” on page 7-7.
Table 7-2
Collision Detection selections (continued)
To use collision detection, you need to:
1. Toggle Collision Detection ◆ On.
2. Toggle ◆ Checks and select the pairs you want to be checked
for collisions. See “Setting Up Collision Pairs” below.
3. Toggle ◆ Excludes and select those pairs that you do not
want to be checked for collisions.
4. Set up the parameters. See “Setting Up Collision
Parameters” on page 7-8.
Setting Up Collision Pairs
Collision pairs are used in collision detection.
Setting Up New Collision Pairs
You can use the ◆ Pick First and ◆ Pick Second toggle (in the
Collision Detection panel) to set up collision pairs. You need to set
up two sets of lists—one list of object pairs to check for collisions
and one list to exclude from collision checking.
1. Toggle ◆ Checks.
2. Make sure ◆ Pick First is toggled. Click on an object in the
Quick Pick Window. This causes the object to be listed in the
First Object of Pair box and ◆ Pick Second to be toggled.
Selecting WORLD causes the second object to be checked
against all other objects. You may go back and toggle ◆ Pick
First to pick new collision pairs.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-5
Utilities
3. Select the object (or objects) to be checked against the object
in the First Object of Pair box. Clicking on an object in the
Quick Pick Window lists it in the Second Object of Pair box.
4. Click Save Pair List… and use the Save Pair Lists panel to
save collision pairs.
The object pairs that will be checked for collisions are now selected.
5. Toggle ◆ Excludes and set up the object pairs to be excluded
from collision checking.
Example
Starting out with Object A and Object B
Object A
Child 1
Child 2
Object B
Child 1
Child 2
If you wanted to check if Object A collides with Object B, but you
don’t want to check if Child 1A collides with Child 1B, you
would:
Toggle ◆ Checks and set up Object A and Object B as a collision
pair.
Toggle ◆ Excludes and set up Child 1A and Child 1B as an
exclude pair.
7-6
Soft Machines 1.7
Loading Collision Pairs
The Load Pair Lists panel is used to load collision pairs that have
been previously saved. Clicking Load Pair List… the Collision
Detection panel displays the Load Pair Lists panel.
List of previously saved
pair lists.
This field can be used to
enter the filename of an
existing collision pair.
Figure 7-3
The Load Pair Lists panel
Saving Collision Pairs
The Save Pair Lists panel is used to assign a filename to a defined
collision pair. Clicking Save Pair List… in the Collision Detection
panel displays the Save Pair Lists panel.
List of defined pair lists.
Specifies the filename
that will be used for the
selected collision pair.
Figure 7-4
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Save Pair Lists panel
7-7
Utilities
Collision Detection
Utilities
Setting Up Collision Parameters
The Collision Parameters panel is used to set up the conditions and
options for checking collisions. Clicking Parameters… from the
Collision Detection panel displays the Collision Parameters panel.
Figure 7-5
The Collision Parameters panel
The selections available from the Collision Parameters panel are
described in the following sections.
7-8
Soft Machines 1.7
Check Mode
◆ Selective
Checks selected objects against one another for
collisions. Use the Checks/Excludes toggle in the
Collision Detection panel to add objects to and
remove objects from this list.
◆ All
Checks all workcell objects against one another
for collisions.
Check At
Sets the interval that objects will be checked for collisions.
◆ Refresh
NOTE
Collisions will be checked when the
Graphics Window is refreshed.
You can change the update rate in the Graphics Defaults
panel. See “Setting the Update Rate” on page 4-10.
◆ Collision Interval
Collisions will be checked at the interval
specified in the Interval(s) field.
Tolerance
Displays the current value of the tolerance zone (in current
distance units). Tolerance is the distance that Soft Machines
uses to determine whether or not a collision has occurred. For
instance, if Tolerance is set to 0.1 (and the current workcell units
is centimeters), then Soft Machines will consider objects that
come within .1 centimeters of one another to be colliding.
Show Intersecting
❏ Shapes
Highlights colliding shapes.
❏ Curves
Highlights colliding curves.
❏ Surfaces
Highlights colliding surfaces.
NOTE
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The color used to highlight the colliding surfaces in the
Graphics Window is set in the Graphics Defaults panel
(see page 4-9).
7-9
Utilities
Collision Detection
Utilities
❏ Add Curves to World
Adds curves created from collisions as shapes to the World. The
Curve Parent shape selector is used to specify the shape under
which collision curves are added.
❏ Use Near Zone
Checks for near misses. The Near Zone field sets the current
value of the near zone (in current distance units).
The near zone is the distance used to determine whether or not
a near miss has occurred. For instance, if Near Zone is set to .1
(and the current workcell units is centimeters), then
Soft Machines will consider objects that come within .1
centimeters of one another to be nearly missing each other.
NOTE
The color used to highlight the near miss in the
Graphics Window is set in the Graphics Defaults panel
(see page 4-9).
❏ Write to File
Writes collision information to the file specified in the File field.
❏ Stop on Collision
Pauses the simulation when a collision is detected.
❏ Report Collisions
Prints collision information in the shell window containing the
SIL> prompt. This is the same window you used to start
Soft Machines.
❏ Beep on Collision
Beeps when a collision is detected.
Once you have set up the parameters for your current workcell, you can
save and load this configuration in future sessions of Soft Machines by
using Load Parameters… and Save Parameters….
7-10
Soft Machines 1.7
Load Parameters…
Displays the Load Parameters panel, which is used to load a
configuration that was previously saved.
List of previously saved
parameter configurations.
This field can be used to
enter the filename of an
existing configuration.
Figure 7-6
The Load Parameters panel
Save Parameters…
Displays the Save Parameters panel, which is used to save your
configuration.
List of previously saved
parameter configurations.
Specifies the filename
that will be used for the
selected configuration.
Figure 7-7
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Save Parameters panel
7-11
Utilities
Collision Detection
Utilities
The Factory
The factory is the background setting for your workcell objects. When
you first start Soft Machines, the factory has grid lines on the floor and
displays walls. You can change this display by using the Factory panel.
Selecting Factory… from the Utilities pulldown menu displays the Factory
panel.
Plain
Grid
Checkboard
Grouted
Clicking a color
button displays the
Select Color panel.
Figure 7-8
7-12
The Factory panel
Soft Machines 1.7
Displaying the Factory
The selections in the Factory Style box control which parts of the factory
are displayed.
Wall
◆ Full Factory
Displays the walls and floor.
◆ Floor Only
Removes the walls from the
display.
◆ No Factory
Floor
Figure 7-9
❏ Shadowed
Removes the walls and the
floor from the display.
The factory
Casts shadows on the floor. Although the effect is more
dimensional, this selection causes the system to slow
down.
Setting the Size
The selections in the Factory Dimensions box set the wall and floor
dimensions.
X-Dim
and Y-Dim set the dimensions of the floor.
Height sets
the height of the walls.
Auto Size resizes the factory to the minimum size that includes all
installed objects.
Display Options
Wall Color
specifies the color of the walls.
Floor Style
sets how the workcell floor looks:
Plain
Removes grid lines or tiles and displays the floor in a
solid color. The color is set by the Tile Color color button.
User’s Manual
7-13
(3/97)
Utilities
The Factory
Utilities
Grid
Checkboard
Grouted
7-14
Displays a solid color floor with lines marking a grid.
The color of the floor is set by the Tile Color color button.
The color of the grid lines is set by the Tile Color 2 color
button. The space between the grid lines is set with the
Tile Size field. This is the default setting. A grid floor is
shown in Figure 7-9, “The factory” on page 7-13.
Fills in every other tile of the grid floor.
The tile colors are set by the Tile Color
and Tile Color 2 color buttons. The size
of the squares is set with the Tile Size
field.
Displays separate tiles with grouting in between the tiles.
The color of the tiles is set by the Tile Color color button.
The size of the tiles is set with the Tile Size field. The
color of the grout is set by the Tile Color 2 color button.
The thickness of the grouting is set with the Grout Size
field.
Soft Machines 1.7
Utilities
Measuring
Measuring
The Measure panel provides a way to measure distances in the
Graphics Window. Click on the items you want to measure using the
mouse, and the distance between them is reported in the Measure Data
panel. The panels can be displayed by selecting Measure… from the
Utilities pulldown menu.
This section of the panel
changes depending on the
toggle choice.
The measurement results are displayed
in this panel.
The toggle choices are
described below.
Figure 7-10
The Measure and Measure Data panels
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut Measure panel.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-15
Utilities
The selections available from the Measure panel are described in
Table 7-3.
Selection
Description
◆ Point Point
Measures the distance between two selected points.
The Pick Mode toggle choices restrict the type of
points that you are measuring. For example, if you
select a pair of points with ◆ Edge toggled, the edges
closest to the points you selected are chosen.
◆ Surface Area
Measures the surface area of an object by adding the
areas of its facets. Click on a surface.
◆ Pose Pose
Measures the distance between two selected reference
poses. Use the Measure from shape selector to select
the first pose. When you select second pose, the result
is displayed in the Measure Data panel.
◆ Edge Edge
Measures the distance between two selected edges.
Click on a pair of edges.
◆ Curve Length
Measures the length of a curve by adding the length of
its segments. Click on a curve.
◆ Object Object
Measures the distance between two selected objects.
Use the Measure from shape selector to select the first
object. When you select the second object, the result is
displayed in the Measure Data panel.
Table 7-3
7-16
Measure selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Utilities
Movies
Movies
A movie is an animation created by recording an application (either by
running the programs or by running the simulation). The Movies panel
enables you to show pre-recorded movies using Soft Machines. The
Movies panel can be displayed by selecting Movies… from the Utilities
pulldown menu.
Figure 7-11
The Movies panel
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the Movies
Shortcut panel.
The buttons on the Movies panel have these uses:
Pause
Rewind
Figure 7-12
Stop
Play
Record
The Movies panel buttons
Switching on ❏ Continuous Loop will continue to play the selected movie
or movies until switched off.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-17
Utilities
You can step through a movie one frame at a time by pausing the movie
using the Pause button, then clicking the Play button.
The Load Movies panel is displayed by selecting Load from the Movies
panel.
List of directories under the
current directory. Directories that
are not libraries have two dots (..)
after the directory name. Libraries
do not have this symbol.
Sets the directory. You can use
the list button to select
~cim/projects or
~cim/users, or use the field
to enter any directory on the
system. See “Libraries” on
page 1-23.
Selecting a directory from this
list makes it the current
directory.
List of movies in the current
directory. You may choose
more than one movie. All
highlighted movies will be
loaded.
Can be used to enter the
filename of an existing movie.
Figure 7-13
The Load Movies panel
Selecting a movie and clicking Load dismisses the Load Movies
panel and changes the Movies panel so the Play button is
highlighted.
7-18
Soft Machines 1.7
The Movie Information panel is used to obtain or edit a description of the
current movie. Clicking Describe displays the Movie Information panel.
Icon
Section
This section of the panel describes the movie.
You can edit the description by clicking in this area.
You can also use editing keys, such as <Copy>, <Cut>
and <Paste> keys. Double-clicking on a word highlights
it.
Changes are saved by clicking Save when you are
finished editing.
Figure 7-14
The Movie Information panel
Clicking Recapture Icon takes a snapshot of the current
Graphics Window and puts it in the icon section.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-19
Utilities
Movies
Utilities
The Record Movies panel is displayed by selecting the Record
button from the Movies panel.
List of directories under the
current directory. Directories that
are not libraries have two dots (..)
after the directory name. Libraries
do not have this symbol.
Sets the directory. You can
use the list button to select
~cim/projects or
~cim/users, or use the
field to enter any directory on
the system. See “Libraries”
on page 1-23.
Selecting a directory from
this list makes it the current
directory.
List of movies in the current
directory.
Specifies the filename that will
be used to store the movie.
Figure 7-15
The Record Movies panel
To record a movie, follow these steps:
1. Display the Record Movies panel by
selecting the Record button from the
Movies panel.
2. Enter the name of the movie.
3. Perform the actions in the movie.
4. Stop recording the movie by clicking the
Stop button.
7-20
Soft Machines 1.7
Although you can record a movie by following the preceding steps, you
should record simulations by switching on ❏ Record Movie in either the
Simulation Setup panel or the Set Job Parameters panel.
Creating Hard Copy Output
The Plotter Output panel enables you to create hard copy outputs of the
current workcell. You can select page size, margins, output type, and
type of printer to use when creating the output file. The Plotter Output
panel can be displayed by selecting Plotter Output… from the Utilities
pulldown menu.
List of available
plotters.
Outputs a printer file to
this filename.
Displays the
Plotter Options panel.
Writes the printer file.
Figure 7-16
The Plotter Output panel
Highlighting a plotter in the Output Type list and clicking Plot writes a
files readable by the selected printer.
The File Name field is used to specify a filename that will be used to store
the output. Clicking Plot creates a printer file and saves it using the
filename specified in the File Name field. Soft Machines will append an
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-21
Utilities
Creating Hard Copy Output
Utilities
extension onto the file and save the output. The extension depends on
the plotter type: .bwps (black and white PostScript), .clps (color
PostScript), or .hpgl (HPGL/2).
The printer file will be placed in the data subdirectory of the current
library. To print this file, you will need to send it to your printer via your
printer mechanism (lp, lpr, etc.).
Clicking Options… from the Plotter Output panel displays the
Plotter Options panel.
Switching on performs
hidden-line removal on the
output. Since hidden-line
removal is memory intensive,
some cells may be too large
to use this option.
Specifies a title to be printed
on each page of the output.
Sets the width of the output
page.
Sets the height of the output
page.
Can be used only if
◆ Orthogonal is toggled.
Figure 7-17
The Plotter Options panel
The Portrait/Landscape toggle selects the direction of print: ◆ Portrait is
the normal print direction, while ◆ Landscape does a ninety degree
rotation.
7-22
Soft Machines 1.7
The Perspective/Orthogonal toggle sets how the image will be printed on
the page:
◆ Perspective prints by doing a perspective projection of the three-
dimensional world onto the two-dimensional page.
NOTE
No scale is printed in this mode because a fixed length will
appear longer when it is close and shorter when it is far away.
This makes scaled measurements impossible.
◆ Orthogonal prints by doing an orthogonal projection of the three-
dimensional world. Scaling is enabled in this mode because a line will
display with the same length, no matter how far away from the eye it is.
When using ◆ Orthogonal mode, the scale factor that best fits the page
size is automatically determined. Switching on ❏ Use Scale will use the
Scale setting. Entering a scale of 1:20 means that a centimeter measured
on the printed page equals 20 centimeters in the real world.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-23
Utilities
Creating Hard Copy Output
Utilities
Viewing an Error Log
The View Error Log Window displays the error log associated with the
selected file. Selecting View Error Log… from the Utilities pulldown menu
displays the View Error Log Window.
Current error
log file.
List of all error log files in
the current project library.
Displays block numbers
and the time each error
occurred.
Figure 7-18
7-24
The View Error Log Window
Soft Machines 1.7
Utilities
Paths
Paths
Teaching Frames
The Teach Frames panel is used to add new frames to the World.
Selecting Teach Frames… from Paths selections in the Utilities pulldown
menu displays the Teach Frames panel.
Specifies the pose of the
new frame.
Selects the parent of the
frame that is to be taught.
Adds the new frame to the
World.
Figure 7-19
The Teach Frames panel
If that parent selected in Taught on has no frames underneath it, a subtree
“frames” will appear underneath the parent in the Quick Pick Window,
and new frames will become children of this “frames” parent.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-25
Utilities
Creating a Path
The Create Path panel is used to add a new path to the World. Selecting
Create Path… from the Paths selections in the Utilities pulldown menu
displays the Create Path panel.
Creates the path and displays the Edit Path
panel. OK dismisses the Create Path panel,
while Apply leaves it displayed.
Figure 7-20
The Create Path panel
Desired Owner specifies
the owner of the path (the workcell object that
will move along the path).
Desired Path Name specifies the name
created when OK or Apply is clicked.
7-26
the path will have. The path is
Soft Machines 1.7
Editing a Path
The Edit Path panel is used to add vias to a path and to manipulate these
vias. Selecting Edit Path… from the Paths selections in the Utilities
pulldown menu displays the Edit Path panel.
List of vias in the current path.
Vias are added by clicking on
frames in the Graphics Window
or the Quick Pick Window.
Figure 7-21
The Edit Path panel
Table 7-4 describes the selections available from the Edit Path panel.
Selection
Description
Path
Specifies which path is being edited.
Owner
Changes the owner of the path (the workcell object
that will move along the path).
Table 7-4
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Edit Path selections
7-27
Utilities
Paths
Utilities
Selection
Description
Select Via to
Add to Path
Vias are added by clicking on frames in either the
Graphics Window or the Quick Pick Window. While
this panel is displayed, vias will be added to the Path
Vias list.
The toggle is used to control whether vias are added
◆ Before or ◆ After the current via.
The Cut Vias button cuts the highlighted via(s). The
cut vias can then be pasted using the Paste Vias
button.
The Copy Vias button copies the highlighted vias(s).
The copied vias can then be pasted using the Paste
Vias button.
The Paste Vias button pastes via(s) that had been
previously copied or cut. The ◆ Before/◆ After toggle
controls where the vias will be pasted.
The Reverse Vias button reverses the order of all
highlighted vias. These vias need not be contiguous.
The Edit Vias button enables you to edit the vias.
Table 7-4
Edit Path selections (continued)
Testing the Path
Before using the Test Path panel, you need to define a path (with at least
one via) by doing the following:
■ Teach frames.
■ Create a path by using the Create Path panel.
■ Add vias to the path by picking frames or joint vectors by
using the Edit Path panel.
7-28
Soft Machines 1.7
After defining a path, you can use the Test Path panel to test it.
Selecting Test Path… from the Paths selections in the Utilities pulldown
menu displays the Test Path panel.
Specifies which path
will be affected.
List of vias in the path.
Highlighting a via moves the
path’s owner to that location. If
more than one via in this list is
highlighted, motion will be to all
highlighted vias.
Figure 7-22
The Test Path panel
The machine can move in either of two modes, continuous move or snap
move. The toggle choice controls which mode is used.
Toggling ◆ Continuous Move moves the machine along the selected
range path from start to finish, calculating movement time.
Toggling ◆ Snap Move snaps the machine directly to the final location,
calculating the time it would have taken to move along the path. This
mode is useful when the range path cycle time is desired, but it is not
necessary to see the device move along the path.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
7-29
Utilities
Paths
Utilities
Highlighting a via in the path will move the path’s owner to that
location. If more than one via in the Path Vias list is highlighted, motion
will be to all highlighted vias. This motion may be viewed again by
clicking Repeat Highlighted Move.
Move Along Entire Path moves the path’s owner along the complete path.
The same behavior would happen if the entire path were highlighted and
Repeat Highlighted Move was selected.
Deleting a Path
The Delete Path panel is used to delete paths from the World. Selecting
Delete Path… from the Paths selections in the Utilities pulldown menu
displays the Delete Path panel.
List of all the paths in the World.
Switching this on
deletes the frames and
JV’s in the path also.
Figure 7-23
The Delete Path panel
A path is deleted by highlighting it in the list and clicking OK or Apply.
7-30
Soft Machines 1.7
Utilities
Working with Files and Directories
Working with Files and Directories
The File System panel provides access to your machine’s file system.
Using this panel, you can manipulate files, directories and links without
quitting Soft Machines. Selecting File System… from the Utilities
pulldown menu displays the File System panel.
Access
Permissions
Type of
File
Directory
Makes the panel larger.
The selection changes to
Contract, which returns the
panel to its original size.
Figure 7-24
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The File System panel
7-31
Utilities
7-32
Soft Machines 1.7
Chapter 8
Running a Simulation
Both interactive and batch simulations are set up and run using the Simulate
pulldown menu.
Simulate
Tooling Setup…
Simulation Setup…
Simulate…
Simulate Batch…
Simulation Monitor…
Figure 8-1
The Simulate menu
Table 8-1 describes the selections available from the Simulate menu.
Selection
Description
Tooling Setup…
Displays the Tool Setup panel. See Chapter 6,
“Modeling NC Tooling”.
Simulation Setup…
Displays the Simulation Setup panel, which is
used to set up an interactive simulation. See
“Setting Up an Interactive Simulation” on
page 8-2.
Simulate…
Displays a machine pendant for the current
machine. The machine pendant controls and
executes an interactive simulation. See “Using the
Machine Pendant” on page 8-12.
Table 8-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Simulate
selections
8-1
Running a
Simulation
After the workcell has been completed and you have chosen the utilities you
would like to include, such as collision detection, you are ready to run the
simulation. There are two ways to simulate a part program: interactive, where
you execute a single simulation and batch, where you group multiple
simulations together and execute them sequentially.
Running a Simulation
Selection
Description
Simulate Batch…
Displays the Batch Mode Simulate panel, which
is used to set up and execute batch simulations.
See “Batch Mode Set Up and Simulation” on
page 8-5.
Simulation Monitor…
Displays the Simulation Monitor panel. See “The
Simulation Monitor” on page 8-19.
Table 8-1
Simulate
selections (continued)
Setting Up an Interactive Simulation
Selecting Simulation Setup… from the Simulate pulldown menu displays
the Simulation Setup panel.
See “Interactive
Simulation Parameters”
See “Recording Errors”
on page 8-3.
See “Loading and Saving
Simulation Parameters”
on page 8-4.
Figure 8-2
8-2
The Simulation Setup panel
Soft Machines 1.7
Setting Up an Interactive Simulation
Interactive Simulation Parameters
Table 8-2 describes the selections available from the Mode box.
Description
Graphics Update
Sets the rate that the Graphics Window will be
updated. Setting to <At Stmt> refreshes the
graphics after every G-code statement.
Current Unit
Sets the workcell units.
❏ Trace Path
Enables tracing of tool center path during
simulation. During the simulation, trace lines are
generated. They are shown in a different color to
distinguish cutter changes. Once generated, these
trace lines are workcell objects. By default, trace
lines are adopted under the workcell object labeled
“part.” If there is no workcell object labeled “part”
when ❏ Trace Path is switched on, a pop up box
prompts you to select an object. The selected
object will then be the parent for the trace lines.
❏ Skip Feedrate
Programmed feedrates are ignored during
simulation. When this is switched on, the
simulation will proceed in rapid feedrate mode.
❏ First Cut
Displays the First Cut Setup panel. See
Appendix B, “First Cut”.
Table 8-2
Mode
Running a
Simulation
Selection
selections
Recording Errors
Table 8-3 describes the selections available from the Error Log box.
Selection
Description
❏ Log File
Switching this on prompts you to enter a filename for the
log and creates an error log file containing error messages
generated during the simulation.
Table 8-3
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Error Log
selections
8-3
Running a Simulation
Selection
Description
❏ Record
Switching this on prompts you to enter a filename for a
movie. You then have the option to record the entire
simulation, or just the collisions.
Movie
Table 8-3
◆ All
This option records the entire simulation
process.
◆ Collisions
Records collisions (applicable when
collision detection is active).
NOTE For information on using collision
detection, see page 7-3).
Error Log
selections (continued)
When running a simulation with ❏ Record Movie switched on, program
blocks are recorded in the movie as they are being executed. The
program blocks are also displayed in the Graphics Window as they
occur.
Loading and Saving Simulation Parameters
Selecting Load Parameters… from the Simulation Setup panel displays
the Select Parameter File panel.
List of previously-saved
parameter files.
Figure 8-3
8-4
The Select Parameter File panel
Soft Machines 1.7
Batch Mode Set Up and Simulation
Batch Mode Set Up and Simulation
Batch mode simulation enables you to execute a series of jobs
(simulations) in an “unattended” mode. After completing a batch mode
simulation, you can review error logs and movies for each job.
A batch file is composed of a number of jobs. Each job references a
previously-saved workcell and a set of specified simulation parameters.
Job #1 contains Workcell #1
Job #1 Parameters
Batch File contains
Job #2 contains Workcell #2
Job #2 Parameters
Job #3 contains Workcell #1
Job #3 Parameters
Figure 8-4
Batch file structure
The same workcell can be referenced by any number of jobs.
These steps outline the procedure for creating a batch file:
1. Create and save appropriate workcells for each job.
Each workcell should contain all the necessary items for the
simulation: the machine, part, fixturing, and tool library.
Collision detection pairs need to have been set up. Other
parameters are specified in the Set Job Parameters panel.
2. Create an empty batch file.
Creating a batch file is done by selecting Load/Create Batch
in the Batch Mode Simulate panel. A name requestor
prompts you to specify a name for the batch file.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
8-5
Running a
Simulation
The parameter configurations can be saved by clicking Save Parameters
from the Simulation Setup panel. A name requestor prompts you to
specify a name for the current parameter configuration.
Running a Simulation
3. Add jobs to the batch file.
Jobs are added by selecting Add Job…. A name requestor
prompts you to specify a name. After specifying a name, the
Set Job Parameters panel will be displayed.
4. Edit and save simulation parameters for each job.
Job parameters are specified and saved using the Set Job
Parameters panel.
5. Save the batch file.
The batch file is saved by selecting Save Batch Setup.
8-6
Soft Machines 1.7
Batch Mode Set Up and Simulation
Using the Batch Mode Simulate Panel
Running a
Simulation
Selecting Simulate Batch… from the Simulate pulldown menu displays
the Batch Mode Simulate panel.
Figure 8-5
The Batch Mode Simulate panel
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the Batch
Shortcut Mode Simulate panel.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
8-7
Running a Simulation
Table 8-4 describes the selections in the Batch Mode Simulate panel.
Selection
Description
Load/Create Batch…
If there are previously-saved batch files in the
current directory, this selection displays the
Select Batch File list containing the available
batch files in the current project library and the
<new> selection. You can retrieve an existing
batch file or create a new one. When you want
to create a new batch file, you are prompted to
enter a name.
If there are no previously-saved batch files in
the current directory, a name requestor prompts
you to specify a name for a new batch file.
You can change project libraries by using the
Install or Save panel.
File Name
Displays the current batch file.
Jobs
Displays the jobs associated with the current
batch file.
Edit Job…
Displays the Set Job Parameters panel,
which enables you to edit the highlighted job.
See Figure 8-6, “The Set Job Parameters
panel” on page 8-11.
Add Job…
Displays the Select Job File list containing the
available jobs and the <new> selection. You can
add an existing job to the batch file, or create a
new one. When you want to create a new job,
you are prompted to enter the name of the new
batch file.
Delete Job
Deletes the highlighted job from the batch file.
Table 8-4
8-8
Batch Mode Simulate selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Selection
Description
Save Batch Setup
Saves the current batch setup. Clicking this
selection displays a name requestor.
The .bat_list extension will be added to
the specified name. The batch file will be saved
in the current project library under the
part_prog subdirectory.
Start Batch Simulation
Starts simulating each job in the current batch
file.
Stop Batch Simulation
Stops the simulation.
Table 8-4
Batch Mode Simulate selections (continued)
Using the Set Job Parameters Panel
The Set Job Parameters panel is displayed when a new job is created by
using the Add Job… selection in the Batch Mode Simulate panel. You
can also display the panel for an existing job by selecting Edit Job… from
the Batch Mode Simulate panel, which is shown on page 8-11.
Table 8-5 describes the selections available from the
Set Job Parameters panel.
Selection
Description
Job Name
Displays the current job being edited. You can select a
different job from the Jobs list in the
Batch Mode Simulate panel.
Project
Displays the current project area.
Cell
Selects a workcell to be associated with the current
job.The list button lists all workcells in the current
project library.
Machine
Displays the name of the machine to be simulated.
This field is automatically updated with the name of
the machine in the selected workcell.
Table 8-5
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Set Job Parameters selections
8-9
Running a
Simulation
Batch Mode Set Up and Simulation
Running a Simulation
Selection
Description
Part Prog
Selects the part program to simulate.
Start At
Selects where the simulation will start. The number
selections in the list refer to actual block numbers,
such as N10, N20. Block numbers that are not
included in the list can be manually entered into the
field. Selecting <tof> starts the simulation at the “top
of file” (the first line of the file).
End At
Selects where the simulation will end. Selecting <eof>
ends the simulation at the “end of file” (the last line of
the file).
Err Log
Error log filename. The default is the job name.
Movie
Specifies a movie name. To record a movie, ❏ Record
Movie must be switched on.
❏ Trace Path
Same as the ❏ Trace Path selection in the Simulation
Setup panel. See page 8-3.
❏ First Cut
Switching this on enables material removal simulation
for the current job and displays the First Cut Setup
panel.
NOTE For more information on material removal, see
Appendix B, “First Cut”.
❏ Save Cell After
Switching this on overwrites the current workcell with
the workcell as it is after the job is completed. Items
created during the simulation, such as trace paths, will
also be saved.
Job
❏ Record Movie
Switching this on will record a movie using the
filename specified in the Movie field. You have the
option to record the entire simulation, or just the
collisions.
◆ All
Table 8-5
8-10
The option records the entire
simulation process.
Set Job Parameters selections (continued)
Soft Machines 1.7
Batch Mode Set Up and Simulation
Description
◆ Collisions
Save
Saves job parameters in the current project library in
the part_prog subdirectory. The .job extension
is added to the job name.
Table 8-5
Set Job Parameters selections (continued)
Figure 8-6
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Records collisions (applicable when
collision detection is active).
NOTE For information on using collision
detection, see page 7-3).
The Set Job Parameters panel
8-11
Running a
Simulation
Selection
Running a Simulation
Using the Machine Pendant
The machine pendant enables you to manually setup a machine tool
before running the part program. Selecting Simulate… from the Simulate
pulldown menu displays a machine pendant for the installed machine.
This section of the panel
changes depending on the
machine type. See “Manual
Controls” on page 8-13.
Described in “Changing the
Workpiece Coordinates” on
page 8-15.
Manual Data Input, which
enables you to enter G and
M codes.
Described in “Changing
the Machine Variables”
on page 8-18.
This section is described
in “Setting Up Part
Program Simulation” on
page 8-14.
Figure 8-7
Example of a machine pendant
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut machine pendant.
8-12
Soft Machines 1.7
Using the Machine Pendant
If you have more than one machine installed, a pop up box enables you
to choose which machine will have its machine pendant displayed.
Manual Controls
The Manual Control box in the machine pendant contains selections to
manually control the machine components. The selections are
configured to match the controller of the selected machine. This section
describes the “standard” controls represented by the Henri Line machine
pendant. These controls have been grouped into three sets of selections:
◆ Jog, ◆ Tool Changer, and ◆ Other.
Toggling ◆ Jog displays the Jog Axes selections:
The toggle choice sets which
axis will be moved by using
the slider.
Controls the setting of the
above toggle choice.
Moves machine to the home
position.
Figure 8-8
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Jog Axes selections
8-13
Running a
Simulation
In order to display the machine pendant, you must have a machine
installed. The panel is displayed for the machine that you last installed.
The machine pendant depends on the machine selected—when a
different machine is loaded into the workcell, a different machine
pendant will be displayed.
Running a Simulation
Toggling ◆ Tool Changer displays the selections for moving the tool
changer (only available if applicable for the current machine).
Moves the tool
changer to the
specified station.
Figure 8-9
◆ Tool Changer selections
Spindle Control
Figure 8-10
◆ Other selections
Setting Up Part Program Simulation
The Part Prog choice button in the machine pendant lists the available
part programs.
The Start list button lists the options of where the simulation will start.
Select <tof> if you want the simulation to start at the beginning of the
file. You can also use the field to enter a program block number. The
simulation will begin at the specified block number.
The End list button lists the options of where the simulation will end.
Select <eof> if you want the simulation to stop at the end of the program
file. You can also use the field to enter a program block number. The
program will end at the specified block number.
8-14
Soft Machines 1.7
Using the Machine Pendant
The simulation selections are used to simulate the selected part program.
Table 8-6 describes the simulation selections available from the
machine pendant.
Description
Stops a running simulation.
Simulates the part program. If ❏ Step is switched on,
the program will wait each time the specified number
of statements has been simulated.
Pauses the simulation.
❏ Step
Switching this on enables you to simulate the program
step-by-step. The simulation will pause when it has
simulated the number of statements specified by the
Steps setting. You can then either click the Play
button to continue the simulation.
Steps
When the part program is going to be simulated stepby-step, this setting determines how often the
simulation will pause. Setting Steps to 5, for example,
pauses the simulation every fifth step.
Setting Steps to <cont> simulates the entire program.
Table 8-6
Machine pendant’s simulation selections
Changing the Workpiece Coordinates
The Work Coordinates panel displays the current workpiece coordinates
table of the soft machine. Each column in the table represents one
workpiece coordinate system (Work Piece Coordinates are sometimes
called fixture offsets or machine coordinate systems (MCS)). Each row
in the table displays the coordinates of each axis in each workpiece
coordinate system.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
8-15
Running a
Simulation
Selection
Running a Simulation
The number of workpiece coordinates are determined by the CNC
controller. Common CNC controllers use the following convention:
FANUC
Cincinnati
Milacron
Fadal
G53
Represents machine coordinates and
cannot be edited
G54 - G59
Represents workpiece coordinates 1 to 6
H0
Represents machine coordinates and
cannot be edited
H1 - H16
Represents Fixtures Offsets 1 to 16
D1 - D16
Represents Programmable Offsets 1 to 16
E0
Represents machine coordinates and
cannot be edited
E1 - E6
Represents workpiece coordinates 1 to 6
Clicking Work Coords… from a machine pendant displays the Work
Coordinates panel. The Work Coordinates panel is configured to match
the controller of the selected machine. Figure 8-11 shows the Work
Coordinates panel for the Henri Line.
8-16
Soft Machines 1.7
Using the Machine Pendant
Figure 8-11
Running a
Simulation
Selects a work
coordinate to be
changed. The Move
Object panel is
displayed once a
selection is made.
The Work Coordinates panel
To change a preset work coordinate:
1. Select the workpiece coordinate that you want to change
using the Change Work Coordinates list button. The Move
Object panel is displayed.
2. Use the Move Object panel to move the specified machine
coordinate frame to the new location.
NOTE
The Move Object panel is described in “Moving
Objects” on page 5-5.
3. In the Work Coordinates panel, click Apply.
Reset Coordinates resets the coordinate frames to a default location.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
8-17
Running a Simulation
Changing the Machine Variables
The Machine Variables panel is used to add, change or delete machine
variables. Clicking Machine Vars… from a machine pendant displays the
Machine Variables panel. The Machine Variables panel is configured to
match the controller of the selected machine. Figure 8-12 shows the
Machine Variables panel for the Henri Line.
Displays the E variables.
Clicking on a value displays a pop up
box which is used to change the
value.
New E variables can be added by
following the instructions below.
E variables can be deleted by
clicking Delete… and entering the
index number in the pop up box.
Figure 8-12
The Machine Variables panel
To add an E variable:
1. Click Add…. A pop up box is displayed. This pop up box is
used to enter an integer that will be used as the E variable
index number.
Figure 8-13
8-18
E variable index pop up box
Soft Machines 1.7
The Simulation Monitor
2. Enter an integer. A pop up box is displayed. This pop up box
Figure 8-14
Running a
Simulation
is used to enter the value that will be assigned to the
E variable.
E variable value pop up box
3. Enter a value. The index is added to the table in the Machine
Variables panel.
The Simulation Monitor
Selecting Simulation Monitor… from the Simulate pulldown menu
displays the Simulation Monitor panel.
Displays current
machine status.
Simulation Clock
(described below).
Displays axis
positions.
Figure 8-15
The Simulation Monitor panel
Tool Bar Clicking this tool bar button displays the
Shortcut Simulation Monitor panel.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
8-19
Running a Simulation
The Simulation Clock displays information about the simulation and is
used to pause the simulation.
Clicking here pauses
the simulation.
Split Time
Tells you if the
simulation is paused.
Displays the amount
of simulation time
that has passed.
Displays the
simulation time was
displayed when
Split Time was clicked.
Figure 8-16
The Simulation Clock
Split Time is used to compare the amount of time that has passed since
a certain point in the simulation.
8-20
Soft Machines 1.7
Appendix A
IGES Conversions
The IGES Standard
Soft Machines supports an IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) to
Soft Machines and Soft Machines to IGES interface. Soft Machines converts
IGES files to Soft Machines models and Soft Machines models to IGES files.
Using this interface, you can access and use models built on external CAD
modeling systems and put into IGES format. Models built using Soft Machines
can be converted to IGES format and used by other CAD/CAM systems as well.
In this way, IGES provides a link between Soft Machines and other CAD/CAM
systems.
The IGES standard was developed to provide a common data format for
describing the engineering characteristics of physical objects. These
characteristics include shape, size, and structure, along with various
accompanying data used to annotate or enhance these characteristics.
Using the IGES standard, three-dimensional models, engineering
drawings, and other graphics-related product data can be shared among
disparate CAD/CAM databases. The IGES standard describes only a
common data format—it is not a communications protocol.
In the IGES format, product data is divided into geometric and nongeometric categories. Geometric data describes the shape and size
(form) of the physical object. Examples of geometric data are points,
lines, arcs, cubic splines, planes, and parametric surfaces.
Non-geometric data is used for annotation (as in engineering
drawings), for identifying groupings of data, and for assigning various
attributes or properties to the data.
All geometric and non-geometric data is expressed in terms of entities,
which is the fundamental IGES information unit. All entities are
categorized by type and assigned a corresponding type number in order
to differentiate one type of entity from another. For example, the
geometric circular arc entity has an entity type number of 100 while the
User’s Manual
(3/97)
A-1
IGES Conversions
The IGES Standard
IGES Conversions
non-geometric text font definition entity has the entity type number 310.
Many entity types have variants called forms which are identified by
their associated form numbers.
All data on a product, including the entities used to describe that
product, comprise an IGES file. Each individual IGES file is composed
of a number of 80-column records, or cards, organized into five
sections: start, global, directory entry, parameter data, and a
terminator.
A-2
start
The start section is used as a general heading for the
file. The start section may contain a description of the
file contents, a title for the file, or any other
descriptive information. The records in the start
section are composed of ASCII character strings, and
are used mainly for identification.
global
The global section contains information necessary to
convert data from the IGES format to the native
formats used by Soft Machines and other CAD/CAM
systems. For example, the global section may contain
the number of bits for integer and floating point
numerical representation, scale factor and units, file
name, vendor IDs, and date and time the file was
created.
directory
The directory entry section serves as an index for all
geometric and non-geometric entity data in the file.
This section contains one two-record entry for each
entity. Each entry lists certain attributes for the entity
it introduces along with pointers to other directory
entries or parameter section entries which contain
specific information for the entity.
parameter
The parameter data section contains the actual
parameter data associated with each entity
introduced in the directory section. Parameter entries
are free-formatted and may consist of any number of
records, but they must contain pointers to their
associated directory entries.
Soft Machines 1.7
Restrictions on IGES Conversions
terminator
The terminator consists of a single record which lists
the number of records in each section of the file. It
may be used to check for extraneous data or data
omissions.
IGES Conversions
Two different IGES formats, ASCII and binary, are available.
Soft Machines, however, uses ASCII format only. The Soft Machines
IGES conversion software is based on IGES Version 4.0 which is
detailed in the National Bureau of Standards publication number NBSIR
88-3813 (AF) Initial Graphics Exchange Specification (IGES), Version
4.0.
Restrictions on IGES Conversions
The following entities are used when converting IGES models to
Soft Machines models:
Entity
Description
Basic geometric entities:
100
circular arc
102
composite curve
104
conic arc (parabola, ellipse, hyperbola)
106
copious data (chains of points)
108
plane
110
line
112
parametric spline curve
114
parametric spline surface
116
point
Table A-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
IGES entities used in conversion
A-3
IGES Conversions
Entity
Description
118
ruled surface
120
surface of revolution
122
tabulated cylinder
124
transformation matrix (frame)
126
rational B-spline curve
128
rational B-spline surface
Structural entities:
212
general note
308
subfigure definition
402
associativity
408
singular subfigure instance
410
view
412
rectangular array subfigure
414
circular array subfigure
Geometric and annotation entities (import only):
202
angular dimension
206
diameter dimension
208
flag note
210
general label
212
general note
214
leader (arrow)
216
linear dimension
Table A-1
A-4
IGES entities used in conversion (continued)
Soft Machines 1.7
Restrictions on IGES Conversions
Description
218
ordinate dimension
220
point dimension
222
radius dimension
228
general symbol
404
drawing entity
NOTE
Entity 212 is used only for handling text pointers on
parameter cards.
IGES Conversions
Entity
Solid geometric entities (import only):
NOTE
Solids are imported as sets of bounding surfaces.
140
offset surface
150
block
152
right angular wedge
154
right circular cylinder
156
right circular cone frustrum
158
sphere
160
torus
162
solid of revolution
164
solid of linear extrusion
168
ellipsoid
NOTE
Solid entities 150-168 are represented as sets of
parametric surfaces.
Trimmed surface geometric entities (import only):
142
Table A-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
curve on a parametric surface
IGES entities used in conversion (continued)
A-5
IGES Conversions
Entity
144
Description
trimmed surface
Table A-1
IGES entities used in conversion (continued)
Table A-2 describes IGES annotation types supported in Soft Machines.
Type Number
IGES Type Description
202
Angular Dimension Entity
206
Diameter Dimension Entity
208
Flag Note Entity
210
General Label Entity
212
General Note Entity
214
Leader (Arrow) Entity
216
Linear Dimension Entity
218
Ordinate Dimension Entity
220
Point Dimension Entity
222
Radius Dimension Entity
228
General Symbol Entity (including geometric
tolerance)
404
Drawing Entity
Table A-2
Supported IGES annotation types
If you build your model on another CAD system, but intend to use it
primarily with Soft Machines, limit the data for these models to this
subset of entities in order to prevent loss of information.
A-6
Soft Machines 1.7
Importing Large Models
Importing Large Models
If you import large model files or CAD parts, you may need to increase
the values of two variables. For new products, these variables are
located in the file: cim/templates/base/lisp.ini
For existing products, these variables are located in the file:
cim/templates/<template name>/lisp.ini
1. At the end of the appropriate file, add the command:
alloca_stack_size = 24000000;
2. Add malloc_max to the file (it can be added anywhere) by
adding the command:
malloc_max = 30000000;
By increasing the alloca_stack_size from 6000000 to 24000000, you
increase the swap space requirement by 18 MB.
NOTE
Refer to the Installation Guide for information on swap space
requirements for your hardware platform.
IGES Conversions Using the Panels
The IGES to Soft Machines conversion routine ignores most of the
values in the globals section of the IGES file. The values it uses are
■ Delimiter character
■ End of record delimiter
■ Unit flag and units
This section discusses menus and panels that are used to import an IGES
file to Soft Machines, and to import a Soft Machines file to IGES.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
A-7
IGES Conversions
If you see the error message too many objects in putobj—need to
increase alloca_stack_size, follow these steps:
IGES Conversions
The CAD Interface Panel
The CAD Interface panel is displayed by selecting Import/Export Model…
from the Modeling pulldown menu.
Should display IGES for IGES
conversions.
List of directories under the
current directory. Directories that
are not libraries have two dots (..)
after the directory name. Libraries
do not have this symbol.
Sets the directory. You can use
the list button to select
~cim/projects or
~cim/users, or use the field
to enter any directory on the
system. See “Libraries” on
page 1-23.
Selecting a directory from this
list makes it the current
directory.
This section of the panel changes
depending on the Import/Export
toggle.
Importing files is explained in
“Importing Files” on page A-9.
Exporting models is explained in
“Exporting Models” on page A-16.
Performs the conversion.
Figure A-1
A-8
The CAD Interface panel
Soft Machines 1.7
IGES Conversions Using the Panels
Importing Files
Toggling ◆ Import provides selections for reading in and converting
your IGES files.
IGES Conversions
List of files in the current
directory that are available to be
imported.
Figure A-2
◆ Import selections
❏ Add to World
Switching this on installs the converted model into the current
workcell.
❏ Save to File
If this is switched off, the converted model will be not be saved.
Switching this on specifies that you would like to save the converted
model. Either the ❏ Use From or Save Dir selections are used to
specify the directory where the converted model will be saved.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
A-9
IGES Conversions
❏ Use From
Switching this on saves the imported file in the current directory.
Switching this off enables you to specify a different directory using
the Save Dir selections. This selection is only available if you have
specified that you want to save the file by switching on ❏ Save to
File.
Save Dir
These selections are used to specify a directory where the converted
model will be saved. These selections are only available if you have
specified that you want to save the file by switching on ❏ Save to File
and that you do not want to save the file in the current directory by
switching off ❏ Use From.
Clicking this button displays a list used to select a directory. You
can also enter a directory name in the field.
Edit Settings…
Displays the Edit Settings panel, which is described in the following
section.
IGES…
Displays the Iges Settings panel, which is described on page A-15.
A-10
Soft Machines 1.7
IGES Conversions Using the Panels
Editing the Imported Model’s Settings
IGES Conversions
The Edit Settings panel provides three main categories of attributes
that the model will possess after it has been imported: ◆ Skip,
◆ Resolution and ◆ Compaction. Clicking Edit Settings… displays the
Edit Settings panel.
This section of the panel
changes depending on the
Mode toggle choice.
Figure A-3
The Edit Settings panel (with ◆ Resolution
toggled)
Editing Resolution
Toggling ◆ Resolution enables you to modify segment length or
facet size on parametric models.
Low resolutions (fewer facets) will speed up the graphics for large
CAD models, however the models will look “rough”. High
resolution will make the models look more real, but may slow the
User’s Manual
(3/97)
A-11
IGES Conversions
graphics of some platforms. Setting the proper resolution is
important as it can achieve a good balance between performance and
appearance.
Table A-3 describes the three modes.
Selection
Description
◆ UV Mode
Specifies the facetization as a twodimensional grid. This is not recommended
since it does not optimize the number of
facets.
You need to specify three fields: Surface U,
Surface V and Boundary.
Boundary is the resolution of the trimmed
surface boundary.
◆ Tolerance Mode
Specifies the maximum allowable deviation of
the faceted representation from the actual
analytic surface. This optimizes the number of
facets by creating more where the curvature is
high, and fewer where surfaces are flat.
◆ Edge Length Mode
Specifies the size of the facets, but does not
optimize.
Table A-3
Modes
Table A-4 describes the available switches that determine the kind
of geometry that will be edited.
Selection
Description
❏ Curves
Edits resolution on curves according to the
current mode.
❏ Surfaces
Edits resolution on surfaces according to the
current mode.
Table A-4
A-12
Geometry switches
Soft Machines 1.7
IGES Conversions Using the Panels
Selection
Description
❏ Descendents
Edits resolution on all the descendents of the
selected shape.
Table A-4
Geometry switches (continued)
Skipping Attributes
Toggling ◆ Skip displays 4 switches, which serve as filters:
Skips both discrete and analytic curves during conversion.
❏ Remove Surfaces
Skips both discrete and analytic surfaces during conversion.
❏ Remove Analytic
Removes the analytic description of the entities after their
conversion.
❏ Remove Non-geometry
Skips entities with no geometry during conversion.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
A-13
IGES Conversions
❏ Remove Curves
IGES Conversions
Editing Compaction
Toggling ◆ Compaction provides selections for changing the tree
structure of a specific model by creating a bond between objects.
Figure A-4
◆ Compaction selections
◆ Rigid
Structures the tree of the selected object such that the child
objects are considered to be affixed to the parent object, and are
no longer considered separate entities. If the parent object
moves, its children will move also. In addition, the children are
not permitted to move relative to one another. You must move
the parent to move the children.
Using rigid compaction increases performance on certain
platforms.
◆ Non-rigid
Structures the tree of the selected object such that the child
objects are considered to be affixed to the parent object, but the
child objects can still move relative to one another.
A-14
Soft Machines 1.7
IGES Conversions Using the Panels
◆ Permanent Rigid
Structures the object tree such that the all objects, whether parent
or child, are considered to be on one level. This option provides
maximum graphics performance and minimum memory
consumption, but cannot be reversed.
Changing the IGES Settings
IGES Conversions
The Iges Settings panel is used to specify attributes to be included
or ignored when importing the IGES file. Clicking IGES… displays
the Iges Settings panel.
Figure A-5
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Iges Settings panel
A-15
IGES Conversions
Exporting Models
Toggling ◆ Export provides selections for converting Soft Machines
models to IGES files. Once converted, you can edit them with other
CAD/CAM systems.
Selects the model to be
converted (if ◆ Model is
toggled).
Specifies the filename of
the converted model.
Figure A-6
A-16
◆ Export selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Appendix B
First Cut
Figure B-1
First Cut
First Cut significantly reduces the need for the physical verification process and
its related costs.
First Cut Features
The following are the main features of First Cut:
➢ Simulation of complex multi-axis cutter motion. Material
removal is displayed in full color shaded images.
➢ Several types of errors are detected automatically:
rapid cuts, cuts into fixtures, tool-holder collisions, and
cutting above the flute length. During the simulation, the
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-1
First Cut
First Cut integrates the material removal functionality and the machining
analysis features of Cimplex NCV with Soft Machines. Using Soft Machines
with First Cut enables you to graphically view and verify both the material
removal process and the complete machine tool motions before releasing the
program to the shop floor. First Cut enables you to input post-processed NC
program files.
First Cut
color of the cutter changes to red to indicate rapid motions.
When a rapid motion cuts the part, the cut is displayed in red
and an error message is reported.
➢ Errors are displayed in the Machine Part Program Window
and recorded in an error log file.
➢ Material removed by each cutter can be automatically
displayed in a different color.
➢ The cursor can be used to point to any location on the model
to determine the precise coordinates, the surface normal
vector, and the material thickness.
➢ SLA files in ASCII format can be read, and the geometry
from the file can be created as part, fixture or stock.
➢ An as-designed part from an SLA file can be graphically
compared to the machined part; the as-designed part is
displayed translucently and overcuts and undercuts are
highlighted.
➢ The current volume and volume removed can be displayed
during or after the simulation.
➢ The images of the machined part can be rotated a specific
number of degrees about the horizontal or vertical axis. Also,
the image can be rotated dynamically about the horizontal or
vertical axis.
➢ Models can be sectioned through any specified plane either
by using the mouse to digitize the point at which the part is
to be sectioned, or by entering the coordinates and the plane
normal for the point.
➢ Machining of deep features can be observed by making the
stock translucent or by sectioning the stock during
simulation.
➢ The light source can be moved dynamically, and shadows
can be rendered, to see details of the surface finish and for
better realism.
B-2
Soft Machines 1.7
How First Cut Works
➢ The material removal process can be recorded into a
playback file. A faster play back speed is provided.
How First Cut Works
First Cut is an interactive graphics system that you can use to reduce the
time and cost involved in generating error-free NC programs. The NCV
simulation is designed to help identify and correct inefficient tool
motions.
First Cut provides a visual image for the verification of numerical
control machining operations. The simulation of tool motion and
material removal provides a graphical representation of a work-inprocess model. As the cutter follows the tool paths specified by the NC
programmer, the user sees the part emerging from the stock. This
process improves shop floor productivity by providing a cost effective
alternative to “tape tryouts” on the machine tool.
➢ Inspect an apparent error
➢ Measure any particular point on stock or part thickness
➢ Rotate the part vertically or horizontally, or zoom in on the
view, for inspection of particular areas
➢ Section cut the model
First Cut has many features, such as pointing, image enhancement, flip,
and zoom, that are used to evaluate the work-in-process model.
The simulation session can be run interactively, or one or more input
files can run unattended (see “Batch Mode Set Up and Simulation” on
page 8-5 for more information). In either mode, you can record the
session for later play back. You can detect errors and identify inefficient
tool motions either “live” during the simulation, or when replaying the
playback file.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-3
First Cut
Processing can be interrupted, at any time, and the view modified to
First Cut
Setting Up First Cut
The First Cut Setup panel is used to set parameters for the First Cut
machining view. Switching on ❏ First Cut in the Simulation Setup panel
displays the First Cut Setup panel.
Figure B-2
NOTE
The First Cut Setup panel
The Simulation Setup panel is described in “Setting Up an
Interactive Simulation” on page 8-2.
The selections in the First Cut Setup panel are described in the
following sections.
B-4
Soft Machines 1.7
Setting Up First Cut
Selecting the Settings
Defining the Stock
There are three options for defining the stock: ◆ Box, ◆ Cylinder and
◆ Load SLA File.
◆ Box
Generates a box stock model for the simulation. First Cut
calculates a bounding box that will enclose the workcell
object named “part” and its children.
NOTE
For information on installing a part into the workcell,
see “Installing Workcell Objects” on page 5-2.
◆ Cylinder
Generates a cylindrical stock model for the simulation.
First Cut calculates the cylinder’s dimensions using a similar
process as ◆ Box.
Displays an unrestricted list button which is used to select an
SLA file in the current directory.
NOTE
Before loading an SLA file, make sure the current
units match the units used to create the SLA file. If
you would like to change the units, see “Changing the
Workcell Defaults” on page 5-4.
To create an SLA file to be used in First Cut, see the
CAD Interfaces manual available from SILMA,
Division of Adept Technology, Inc.
Setting the Cutter Display Options
◆ Wireframe
The cutter is displayed in wireframe. This is the default
setting.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-5
First Cut
◆ Load SLA File
First Cut
◆ Solid
The cutter is displayed as a solid object.
◆ Off
The cutter display is turned off during simulation.
❏ Add tool holders
Switching this on adds tool holders to the First Cut
simulation and detects cuts beyond the flutes of the cutter.
❏ Change color as tool change
Switching this on changes the color of the cuts each time a
cutter change is encountered in the NC program.
Creating a Playback File
❏ Create Playback is used to record a movie of the machining process
as it is shown in the First Cut Display Window. Switching on
❏ Create Playback displays an unrestricted list button which is used
to specify the filename that will be given to the playback file.
Playback files are given the .play extension and are saved in the
simulation subdirectory of the current directory.
Loading an SLA Model of the “As-Designed” Part
❏ Load designed (SLA) model is used to load an SLA model that is
designated as the “as-designed” part. This “as-designed” part is
compared to the “as-machined” part produced by First Cut.
Switching on ❏ Load designed (SLA) model displays an unrestricted
list button which is used to select the filename of the SLA model.
When creating an SLA model, the pose of the exported SLA model
must match the pose of the “part” model.
B-6
Soft Machines 1.7
Using First Cut
NOTE
Before loading an SLA model, make sure the current units
match the units used to create the SLA model. If you would
like to change the units, see “Changing the Workcell
Defaults” on page 5-4.
To create an SLA model to be used in First Cut, see the CAD
Interfaces manual available from SILMA, Division of Adept
Technology, Inc.
Accepting the Settings
To accept the First Cut settings:
1. Click Done in the First Cut Setup panel.
2. Click OK in the Simulation Setup panel.
Setting Up the First Cut Default View
When the Play button is selected in the machine pendant, the current
Soft Machines view of the part becomes the default First Cut view. For
this reason, it is important to choose an optimal view that will give the
best vantage point of the entire machining process before selecting the
Play button.
NOTE
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Chapter 8, “Running a Simulation” provides instructions for
running the simulation.
B-7
First Cut
Using First Cut
First Cut
Starting a simulation from the machine pendant displays the First Cut
Display Window.
Figure B-3
The First Cut Display Window
Using the Mouse
In First Cut, the left mouse button is used to select menu
items and making selections in the First Cut Display
Window. The middle and right mouse buttons are used for
manipulating the model and changing views.
B-8
Soft Machines 1.7
Using First Cut
The right mouse button is used to perform a “Zoom
Window” function in the First Cut Display Window. To use
Zoom Window, hold down the right mouse button and drag
the cursor to form a rectangle around the area you would
like to zoom in on. Releasing the mouse button expands the
selected area to fill up the entire screen.
In Simulation Mode, you should stop or pause the
simulation before using Zoom Window. When you resume
or re-start the simulation, the view reverts to the original,
“unzoomed” view. If you use Zoom Window while the part
is being cut, the view will be redrawn gradually. You can
reset the view using Reset in the Modes menu (see “Modes
Menu” on page B-14).
First Cut
When the simulation is paused or stopped, the middle
mouse button can be used to dynamically rotate or zoom the
view, depending on which option is selected in the Dynamic
menu (see “Dynamic Menu” on page B-11).
First Cut Display Window Selections
Table C-1 describes the First Cut Display Window selections and
tells you where the menu is described in greater detail.
Menu
Description
View
Enables you to set the view orientation in the
window. See “View Menu” on page B-10.
Dynamic
Enables you to dynamically rotate, zoom or
change the light source. See “Dynamic Menu” on
page B-11.
Table C-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
First Cut Display Window selections
B-9
First Cut
Menu
Description
Fit
The Fit selections are unavailable in this version of
First Cut.
Colors
Enables you to set the color of cuts. See “Colors
Menu” on page B-13.
Display
Enables you to switch on and off the display of the
axes and shadows. See “Display Menu” on
page B-14.
Modes
Enables you to section the model, rotate it, and
compare the as-manufactured model with the asdesigned part. See “Modes Menu” on page B-14.
Measure
Enables you to take various measurements on the
part model. Chip removal is also carried out here.
See “Measure Menu” on page B-19.
Table C-1
First Cut Display Window selections (continued)
View Menu
These selections are
unavailable in this
version of First Cut.
Figure B-4
B-10
The View menu
Soft Machines 1.7
Using First Cut
Flip enables you to rotate the part through 180 degrees around your
current vertical axis. For example, if you have a front view, the
image will be flipped over to a back view. Selecting Flip again
returns the part to the original view.
If you select Close, you will be asked to confirm that you wish to
close the First Cut Display Window.
Dynamic Menu
The Dynamic menu contains the dynamic viewing modes.
These selections are
unavailable in this
version of First Cut.
The Dynamic menu
First Cut
Figure B-5
The Dynamic menu selections are described in the following
sections.
◆ Rotate
You can dynamically rotate the part model by following
these steps:
1. Toggle ◆ Rotate from the Dynamic menu.
2. Place your cursor to the left or right of center in your
view of the part.
3. Hold down the middle mouse button.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-11
First Cut
4. Drag the mouse left or right to rotate about the vertical
axis. To rotate about the horizontal axis, do the same
thing above or below the center of your view of the part
and drag the cursor up or down.
◆ Move light
You can dynamically move the light source in a window:
Toggle ◆ Move light in the Dynamic menu, then either click
the middle mouse button or drag it to place the light source.
Clicking (or letting up) the button in the center of the
window places the light source at the eyepoint, where it is
normally. Clicking or letting up at the edges of the viewport
places the light source in that direction, at right angles to the
line of sight. Clicking or letting up in intermediate locations
places the light source at intermediate directions.
◆ Zoom
You can dynamically zoom up the image by toggling
◆ Zoom, as an alternative to using Zoom Window,.
As explained in “Using the Mouse” on page B-8, Zoom
Window enables you to magnify an area of the First Cut
Display Window by selecting an area of the view using the
right mouse button.
Dynamic Zoom works by toggling ◆ Zoom from the
Dynamic menu, and then selecting the point to be zoomed in
your view; you then press the middle mouse button, and drag
the mouse upward until you get the desired degree of
magnification.
B-12
Soft Machines 1.7
Using First Cut
Colors Menu
The Colors menu
The color choices are used to select the color of the cuts during
simulation. The active color button is toggled. First Cut
automatically cycles through all colors at each cutter change when
the automatic option ❏ Change cut color at cutter change is active
NOTE
❏ Change color at cutter change is described on page B-6.
To change the current color, toggle a different color choice.
The Repaint button is used to manually repaint the color of all cuts to
the current color.
To change all the cuts to a new color:
1. Toggle one of the color buttons.
2. Select Repaint.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-13
First Cut
Figure B-6
First Cut
Display Menu
This selection is
unavailable in this
version of First Cut.
Figure B-7
The Display menu
The Display menu selections are described in the following sections.
❏ Show axes
When this is switched on, the coordinate axis is displayed at
the top left hand corner of the First Cut Display Window.
❏ Shadows
Switching this on displays shadows in the window.
Displaying shadows can be useful for highlighting features
on the part, and for understanding detail.
NOTE
Shadows are displayed only if the light source has
been moved away from the line of sight.
Modes Menu
Figure B-8
The Modes menu
The Modes menu selections are described in the following sections.
B-14
Soft Machines 1.7
Using First Cut
❏ Enhance
Switching this on draws a dark line where the edge of one
part of the model lies in front of another. This is especially
useful where two parts of the model are rendered at the same
brightness, making the edge between them invisible.
Switching off returns the image to its unenhanced state.
Section…
Figure B-9
The Section panel
The section plane is created by clicking at the desired point
on the model, as was done in this illustration, and by typing
in the plane’s normal vector. You can also type in point
coordinates.
Figure B-10 A section plane
Reset section and Reset all, on the Modes menu, restores the
image of the complete model.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-15
First Cut
You can section the part at any time, or run a simulation
while the part is sectioned, using the Section panel. Selecting
Section… from your Modes menu displays the Section panel.
First Cut
The Normal vector points in the direction of the material to be
made invisible. In the case illustrated, everything with a Y
coordinate less than 1.81092 will be made invisible.
You can cancel the dialog window, without turning off
sectioning, by selecting the OK button.
❏ Compare
The Compare function is used to compare the as-designed
part with the as-machined part. The “as-designed” SLA
model of the part must be selected in the First Cut Setup
panel before starting the simulation.
NOTE
The First Cut Setup panel is described on page
B-4.
To do the comparison, switch on ❏ Compare from the Modes
menu in the First Cut Display Window.
The part is redrawn in a translucent light-gray color;
overcuts (i.e., gouges) are drawn in red; undercuts are drawn
in blue. To return to normal display, select the Compare
button again.
In comparison mode, the image can be flipped or zoomed,
but not rotated.
B-16
Soft Machines 1.7
Using First Cut
Rotate…
The Rotate Shaded Image panel is used to swivel the part
model about its vertical or horizontal axis, in order to see the
part from different angles. Selecting Rotate… from the
Modes pulldown menu displays the Rotate Shaded Image
panel.
Figure B-11 The Rotate Shaded Image panel
1. Enter the number of degrees, negative if you wish, that
you want the part to be rotated. The number of degrees is
always taken as absolute, and not as an increment or
decrement to any previously entered number.
For vertical rotation, a positive angle causes the front of
the part to move to the right, and a negative angle causes
it to move to the left. For horizontal rotation, a positive
angle rolls the front downwards, and a negative rolls the
front upwards.
2. Select Apply.
3. Select Cancel, or select Reset all or Reset rotation from the
Modes
User’s Manual
(3/97)
menu, to restore the original image.
B-17
First Cut
To rotate the part:
First Cut
❏ Translucent
The stock and fixtures can be displayed translucently in
simulation mode, including while the simulation is running.
This is especially useful for watching the machining of holes
and deep pockets, and of features on the back of the part. To
toggle this mode on and off, use the ❏ Translucent switch in
the Modes menu.
Figure B-12 Switching on ❏ Translucent
Reset
To restore the default viewing options for sectioning,
rotation, zooming or lighting, use the Reset selections in the
Modes menu.
Figure B-13 The Reset selections
B-18
Soft Machines 1.7
Using First Cut
Table C-2 describes the Reset selections.
Selection
Description
Reset all
Resets sectioning, rotation, zoom, and
light source.
Reset section
Restores the full view of the part.
Reset rotation
Returns the view to its original
orientation.
Reset zoom
returns the view to its original
unzoomed state.
Reset light
Returns the light source to its default
direction.
Table C-2
Reset selections
The Measure menu is used to take measurements on the model, to
obtain a reading of machining times, and to remove chips of material
for a better view of the cut part. The Measure menu is invoked from
the First Cut Display Window:
These selections are
unavailable in this
version of First Cut.
Figure B-14 The Measure menu
The Measure menu selections are described in the following
sections.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-19
First Cut
Measure Menu
First Cut
Point…
Displays the Measure Point panel. To measure a point on a
model, click on the desired point in the First Cut Display
Window using the left mouse button.
Figure B-15 The Measure Point panel
The Measure Point panel displays the coordinates of the point
being measured. The Measure Point panel also displays the
surface normal (the direction perpendicular to the surface) and
the material thickness.
If you measure cuts such as those above then approximate, rather
than precise, coordinates are displayed, and the dialog label
changes from “Coordinates:” to “Coordinates (approx):”. Also, no
surface normal or material thickness are displayed.
If, when determining the material thickness, First Cut finds that
the other side of the wall was created by such a cut, the thickness
displayed is only approximate, and the label changes from
“Material thickness:” to “Material thickness (approx):”.
Measurements can be taken when the window is zoomed or
sectioned, but not when it is rotated.
Remove chips
To remove material separated from the view of the part:
1. Select the part by clicking on it with the left mouse button.
2. Select Remove chips from the First Cut Display Window’s
Measure
B-20
menu.
Soft Machines 1.7
Using First Cut
While the removal calculation is underway, the part will be
shaded in red to show progress.
If you have activated a viewing mode (rotation,
enhancement, zooming, sectioning, or comparison) in the
First Cut Display Window, you will be asked to reset the
view and then remove the chips.
Volume…
To measure the volume of the cut part and of the material
removed, choose Volume… from the Measure menu.
The stock must be entirely within the window when the
simulation begins. Anything outside the window will be silently
ignored by the volume calculations.
If there are chips remaining in the window, they are counted as
part of the part volume. To remove them from the calculation,
you must remove them from the window; choose Remove chips
from the Measure menu.
With regard to accuracy:
• The numbers are estimates. No uncertainty figures
are displayed because there is actually no bound on
the possible error. Since First Cut only samples the
part surfaces at each pixel, it has no way of knowing
how rough the surfaces are, and how much volume is
contained, between pixels.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-21
First Cut
Figure B-16 The Measure Volume panel
First Cut
• If no stock faces are seen edge-on (i.e., you have
avoided Front view, Side view, etc.), you can expect
an error on the order of one part in W, where W is the
width of the part on-screen in pixels. The default
window width is 600 pixels, so if your smooth part
fills the window, the error would be one part in 600.
If several faces are seen edge-on, the error will be
roughly three times this, or three parts in W. If you
know your part contains small details that are not
captured in First Cut’s pixel-based solid model, we
suggest you avoid calculating the volumes
altogether, because there is no way to know how
accurate they are. These accuracy considerations are
true of all pixel-based verification products.
Using Playback Mode
Playback Mode provides extended capabilities for viewing a recorded
simulation. In Playback Mode, you can speed up or slow down the
simulation, run it backward or run it to specified checkpoints.
To use Playback Mode, you need to have a playback file loaded.
Loading a Playback File
You can load a newly-created playback file by using the First Cut panel.
Selecting Playback loads the playback file that was created in the current
simulation.
Loads the selected playback file.
Exits First Cut.
Figure B-17 The First Cut panel
B-22
Soft Machines 1.7
Using Playback Mode
You can load a previously created playback file by using the First Cut
Playback… selection in the Utilities menu.
Selecting First Cut Playback… from the Utilities menu displays First Cut
Playback panel.
List of all the .playback
files in the current project
library.
Loads the highlighted
playback file.
Exits Playback Mode.
First Cut
Figure B-18 The First Cut Playback panel
User’s Manual
(3/97)
B-23
First Cut
Using the First Cut Playback Control Window
Once a playback file is loaded, the First Cut Playback Control Window
provides the ability to use the Playback Mode capabilities.
Figure B-19 The First Cut Playback Control Window
Table C-3 describes the selections available from the First Cut Playback
Control Window.
Selection
Description
Go
Starts or resumes playing the currently loaded playback file.
Table C-3
B-24
First Cut Playback Control Window selections
Soft Machines 1.7
Selection
Description
To
Specifies checkpoints where the playback file will pause.
Selecting Go resumes playback. You can interrupt the
selection by selecting Stop.
Table C-3
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Beginning
The playback file will run backwards from
the current position to the start of the NC
program.
Prev Error
The playback file will run backwards from
the current position to the previous error.
Prev Cutter
The playback file will run backwards from
the current position to the previous cutter
change.
Prev Point
The playback file will run backwards from
the current position to the previous NC
program block.
Next Point
The playback file will run until it reaches
the next NC program block.
Next Cutter
The playback file will run until it reaches
the next cutter change.
Next Error
The playback file will run until one of the
following conditions are met:
• The cutter hits the stock while in
Rapid motion.
• The cutter hits a fixture.
• The holder or cutter shaft hits the
stock or fixture.
A message describing the error is logged in
the error file.
End
The process will run through the end of the
playback file. This is the default setting.
First Cut Playback Control Window selections
(continued)
B-25
First Cut
Using Playback Mode
First Cut
Selection
Description
❏ Slow
Switching this on restricts the playback speed to one
program block per second. This enables you to see the cutter
motions in detail. Switching this off resumes normal
playback speed.
Stop
Interrupts playback. The playback can be resumed by
selecting Go.
Table C-3
B-26
First Cut Playback Control Window selections
(continued)
Soft Machines 1.7
Appendix C
G & M Codes
Code
Function
G00
Point to Point Positioning
G01
Linear Interpolation
G02
Circular Interpolation CW
G03
Circular Interpolation CCW
G04
Program Delay
G05
Unassigned
G06
Parabolic Interpolation
G07
Unassigned
G08
Acceleration
G09
Deceleration
G10 - G12
Unassigned
G13 - G16
Axis Selection
G17
Plane Selection XY
G18
Plane Selection ZX
G19
Plane Selection YZ
G20 - G24
Unassigned
G25 - G27
Permanently Unassigned
G28
Move Axes to HOME Position
G29
Permanently Unassigned
Table B-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
G & M Codes
This appendix lists the generic G and M codes, along with a brief description.
G codes
C-1
G & M Codes
Code
Function
G30 - G32
Unassigned
G33
Threadcutting, Constant Lead
G34
Threadcutting, Increasing Lead
G35
Threadcutting, Decreasing Lead
G36 - G39
Permanently Unassigned
G40
Radius Compensation OFF
G41
Cutter Compensation LEFT
G42
Cutter Compensation RIGHT
G43
Cutter Offset, Inside Corner
G44
Cutter Offset, Outside Corner
G45 - G49
Unassigned
G50 - G52
Reserved for Adaptive Control
G53
Move wrt Machine Coordinates
G54
Move wrt Work Coordinates 1
G55
Move wrt Work Coordinates 2
G56
Move wrt Work Coordinates 3
G57
Move wrt Work Coordinates 4
G58
Move wrt Work Coordinates 5
G59
Move wrt Work Coordinates 6
G60
Single Direction Positioning
Table B-1
C-2
G codes (continued)
Soft Machines 1.7
Function
G61
Exact Stop Mode
G62
Corner Radius Override
G63
Tapping Mode
G64
Cutting Mode
G65 - G67
Unassigned
G68
Coordinate System Rotation
G69
Coordinate System Rotation
G70
Inch Programming
G71
Metric (mm) Programming
G73
Canned cycle - Rapid Drilling
G74
Canned Cycle - Left Hand
Tapping
G75
Unassigned
G76
Canned Cycle - Fine Boring
G77 - G79
Unassigned
G80
Canned Cycle Cancel
G81
Canned Cycle - Spot Drilling
G82
Canned Cycle - Counter Boring
G83
Canned Cycle - Peck Drilling
G84
Canned Cycle - Tapping
Table B-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
G & M Codes
Code
G codes (continued)
C-3
G & M Codes
Code
Function
G85
Canned Cycle - Boring
G86
Canned Cycle - Rapid Boring
G90
Absolute Dimension Input
G91
Incremental Dimension Input
G92
Preload Machine Registers
G93
Inverse Time Feedrate
G94
Inch or mm / min Feedrate
G95
Inch or mm / rev Feedrate
G96
Constant Surface Feedrate
G97
Revolutions per Minute (rpm)
G98
Initial Level Return TRUE
G99
Initial Level Return FALSE
Table B-1
C-4
G codes (continued)
Soft Machines 1.7
Code
Function
M00
Program Stop
M01
Optional (Planned) Stop
M02
End of Program
M03
Spindle CW
M04
Spindle CCW
M05
Spindle OFF
M06
Tool Change
M07
Coolant No. 2 ON
M08
Coolant No. 1 ON
M09
Coolant OFF
M10
Clamp
M11
Unclamp
M12
Synchronization Code
M13
Spindle CW and Coolant ON
M14
Spindle CCW and Coolant ON
M15
Motion +
M16
Motion -
M17 - M18
Unassigned
M19
Oriented Spindle Stop
Table B-2
User’s Manual
(3/97)
G & M Codes
The following table lists and describes the M codes.
M codes
C-5
G & M Codes
Code
Function
M20 - M29
Permanently Unassigned
M30
End of Data
M31
Interlock Bypass
M32 - M35
Unassigned
M36 - M39
Permanently Unassigned
M40 - M46
Gear Changes if Used—
Otherwise Unassigned
M47
Return to Program Start
M48
Cancel M49
M49
Bypass Override
M50 - M57
Unassigned
M58
Cancel M59
M59
Bypass CSS Updating
M60 - M89
Unassigned
M90 - M99
Reserved for User
Table B-2
C-6
M codes (continued)
Soft Machines 1.7
Appendix D
Product Administration
This appendix explains how to perform product administration tasks to
customize Soft Machines. Appendix F, “Soft Machines Software Directories”
explains the organization of the Soft Machines software.
The fundamental component of Soft Machines software is the product, which
is the executable portion of the SILMA software. Products are composed of
modules.
The Product Administration panel is used to create and start products and
manage user and project areas. To display the Product Administration panel,
enter sspa in a shell window.
List of available
products.
Click on a product
using the left mouse
button to select it.
The Product Size field
displays the size of the
selected product.
Starts the selected product.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
The Product Administration panel
D-1
Product
Administration
Figure B-1
Quits product administration.
Product Administration
IMPORTANT
Using this panel will modify the software tree correctly.
If you are considering modifying the software using
text commands, read Appendix E, “The Software
Installation Tree”, before doing so.
The Products pulldown menu is used to create, edit, deactivate, activate and
delete products. See “Working with Products” on page D-2.
The Projects and Users pulldown menus are used to create, edit and delete
project and user areas. See “Working with Project Areas” on page D-6 and
“Working with User Areas” on page D-9.
Working with Products
The Products pulldown menu is used to create, edit, deactivate, activate
and delete products. Products reside in the cim/templates directory
(see “The templates Subdirectory” on page F-3).
Products
Create…
Edit…
Delete…
Activate…
Deactivate…
Figure B-2
The Products menu
Creating a New Product
The Create Product panel is used to create new products from modules.
Modules include SILSPECs, SIL I/Os, products and other options (see
“Standard Modules” on page F-5 and “Components of User-Written
Modules” on page F-7 for more information).
D-2
Soft Machines 1.7
Working with Products
Selecting Create… from the Products pulldown menu displays the
Create Product panel.
List of available
modules.
Modules that will form
the product.
To add a module to this
list, click on a module
from the Available
Modules list and click
the --> button.
The <-- button removes
a module from this list.
Clicking OK creates a product with the
specified name and modules.
Figure B-3
The Create Product panel
The Name field specifies the name of the product.
IMPORTANT
Avoid using upper case characters for product names
or filenames. Names are changed to lower case. You
cannot create a product if the path contains upper
case characters.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
D-3
Product
Administration
The Directory field specifies the directory. By default, products reside in
the cim/templates directory.
Product Administration
Editing a Product
The Edit Product panel is used to change which modules comprise the
product. Selecting Edit… from the Products pulldown menu displays the
Select Product to Edit panel.
Product to be edited.
List of products which are
available to be edited.
Products that have been
deactivated are noted.
Clicking on a product
changes the Edit Product
field.
Figure B-4
The Edit Product panel
Clicking OK displays the Edit Product panel, which has the same
selections as the Create Product panel. You can only edit products that
belong to you.
Deleting a Product
The Delete Product panel is used to delete products.
To delete a product:
1. Select Delete… from the Products pulldown menu. The
Delete Product panel is displayed.
2. Select a product in the Products list.
D-4
Soft Machines 1.7
Working with Products
3. Click OK. A confirmation request is displayed.
4. Click OK. The entire directory where the product resides is
deleted. You can only delete products that belong to you.
Activating a Product
The Activate Product panel is used to rebuild products that have been
previously deactivated.
To activate a product:
1. Select Activate… from the Products pulldown menu. The
Activate Product panel is displayed.
2. Select a product in the Deactivated Products list.
3. Click OK. The product is activated. You can only activate
products that belong to you.
Deactivating a Product
Because products occupy between 20 - 25 MB of disk space, you might
want to deactivate a product to recover some of the disk space. The
deactivated product retains all the information about the included
options in the original product (you will not need to select modules
again when activating a deactivated product).
To deactivate a product:
1. Select Deactivate… from the Products pulldown menu. The
Deactivate Product panel is displayed.
2. Select a product in the Active Products list.
3. Click OK. A confirmation request is displayed.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
D-5
Product
Administration
4. Click OK. The product is deactivated. You can only
deactivate products that belong to you.
Product Administration
Working with Project Areas
The Projects pulldown menu is used to list, create, delete, or rename
project areas. Project areas reside in the cim/projects directory (see
“The projects Subdirectory” on page F-3).
Projects
Create…
Rename…
Delete…
Figure B-5
The Projects menu
Creating a New Project Area
The Create Project panel is used to create a new project area. Selecting
Create… from the Projects pulldown menu displays the Create Project
panel.
Figure B-6
The Create Project panel
The Name field specifies the name of the project.
IMPORTANT
Avoid using upper case characters for project names
or filenames. Names are changed to lower case.
The Directory field specifies the directory. By default, project areas
reside in the cim/projects directory.
D-6
Soft Machines 1.7
Working with Project Areas
Clicking OK creates the specified project area directory. Permissions for
the new project area are dictated by the umask of your current login. A
link is created from cim/projects to the new area (see “The
projects Subdirectory” on page F-3).
Renaming a Project Area
The Rename Project panel is used to rename a project area (using UNIX
mv command).
To rename a project area:
1. Select Rename… from the Projects pulldown menu. The
Select Project to Rename panel is displayed.
Product to be
renamed.
List of current project
areas.
Clicking on a project
changes the Project field.
Figure B-7
The Select Project to Rename panel
3. Click OK. The Rename Project panel is displayed.
4. Enter the new name in the New Name field.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
D-7
Product
Administration
2. Select a project area from the Projects list.
Product Administration
5. Click OK. The project area is renamed.
Product to be
renamed.
Figure B-8
The Rename Project panel
Deleting a Project Area
The Delete Project panel is used to remove a project area. You can only
delete project areas that belong to you.
To delete a project area:
1. Select Delete… from the Projects pulldown menu. The
Delete Project panel is displayed.
2. Select the project area you would like to delete from the
Projects list.
3. Click OK to confirm your choice.
D-8
Soft Machines 1.7
Working with User Areas
Working with User Areas
The Users pulldown menu is used to list, create, delete, or rename user
areas. User areas reside in the cim/users directory (see “The users
Subdirectory” on page F-4).
Users
Create…
Rename…
Delete…
Figure B-9
The Users menu
Creating a New User Area
Selecting Create… from the Users pulldown menu displays the
Create User panel, which is used to create a new user area.
NOTE
New users are set up using the cim/scripts/newuser
script, which is explained in the Installation Guide.
The Name field specifies the name of the new user area.
The Directory field specifies the directory. By default, user areas reside
in the cim/users directory.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
D-9
Product
Administration
Clicking OK creates the specified the user area directory. Permissions
for the new user area are dictated by the umask of your current login. A
link is created from cim/users to the new area (see “The users
Subdirectory” on page F-4).
Product Administration
Renaming a User Area
The Rename User panel is used to rename a user area (using UNIX mv
command).
To rename a user area:
1. Select Rename… from the Users pulldown menu. The
Select User to Rename panel is displayed.
2. Select a user area from the Users list.
3. Click OK. The Rename User panel is displayed.
4. Enter the new name in the New Name field.
5. Click OK. The user area is renamed.
Deleting a User Area
The Delete User panel is used to remove a user area. You can only
delete user areas that belong to you.
To delete a user area:
1. Select Delete… from the Users pulldown menu. The
Delete User panel is displayed.
2. Select the user area you would like to delete from the Users
list.
3. Click OK to confirm your choice.
D-10
Soft Machines 1.7
Appendix E
The Software
Installation Tree
The structure of the SILMA installation tree is important for both software
functionality and the installation of updates. It is designed to separate user data
and data shipped from SILMA. This separation allows you to easily update
existing software without the danger of removing user data.
The installation tree as it comes off of the installation media should not be
modified. New builds areas, libraries, project areas, user areas, and templates
should be created using the Product Administration panel (displayed by entering
sspa in a shell window), since it enables you to select a destination directory
and creates the necessary symbolic links for you. If you do not use the Product
Administration panel to create new areas, you should be aware that while these
new areas can reside anywhere on the disk, they must have a symbolic link from
the expected location in the installation tree.
There are two main areas that must not be modified:
■ The installation tree and its top-level directories (builds,
projects, etc.) must remain intact and cannot be symbolic
links.
■ The cim/products directory must remain intact with no
modifications within. Modification of any parts of
cim/products, or the links pointing to them, can result in
the failure of future updates.
All unmodified SILMA software resides in the cim/products directory and
the top-level installation tree is made up of links to this directory. Whenever an
update is performed, the current areas in cim/products are removed, along
with the links from the top-level installation tree. The new areas are then
installed in cim/products and new links are created.
Because of the volatility of areas located in cim/products, you should not
save data in any of these areas. Project areas shipped from SILMA, with the
exception of the public area, should not be written to. A copy should first be
made of the project area so that future updates will not erase user data saved in
the area.
User’s Manual
(3/97)
E-1
The Software
Installation Tree
This appendix explains where user data should reside and how modification of
the installation tree affects operation.
Appendix F
Soft Machines Software
Directories
The basic Soft Machines software is in a directory called cim. The cim
directory consists of eleven subdirectories. For ease in understanding the
directories, they have been have been organized into three groups.
cim
Common User Areas
Standard Modules
templates
silio
Components of
User-Written Modules
projects
builds
actions
users
silspecs
mccode
options
mhfiles
sil
Figure F-1
The Soft Machines directories
A figure illustrating each of the three categories, along with a description of
each of the subdirectories, follows. All of the figures in this appendix use the
same legend.
filename
directory name
= File
= Directory
= Link
User’s Manual
(3/97)
F-1
Soft Machines
Software Directories
This appendix explains the organization of the Soft Machines software.
Soft Machines Software Directories
Common User Areas
The main subdirectories in this category are templates, projects,
and users.
cim
templates
users
<template name>
<user name>
heap_file,
mb_<platform>/executable
umodules
For a list of the
subdirectories and files
under this directory,
see “The users
Subdirectory” on page
F-4.
projects
public
<project name>
For a list of the
subdirectories and files
under this directory,
see “The projects
Subdirectory” on page
F-3.
Figure F-2
F-2
training
For a list of the
subdirectories and files
under this directory,
see “The projects
Subdirectory” on page
F-3.
Common user areas
Soft Machines 1.7
Common User Areas
The templates Subdirectory
Soft Machines
Software Directories
A product is a master copy of the Soft Machines software which
contains modules (SILSPECs, SIL I/Os, application solutions user
code) that you select when you create a product. The templates
subdirectory contains one or more products. See “Working with
Products” on page D-2 for details concerning the procedure used to
create, edit, deactivate, activate and delete products.
The projects Subdirectory
The projects subdirectory contains separate areas which are
referenced by the Soft Machines menu system libraries.
Two standard project areas are included: public and <soft machine
name> (named after your soft machine). Each project area contains 10
subdirectories.
Subdirectory
File
cells
<cell_name>.ref
<cell_name>.cell
models
<model_name>.model
programs
<program_name>.sil
simulations
<simulation_name>.sim
target_code
<filename>
tools
<tool_name>.ee
videos
<movie_name>.sgm
<movie_name>.cmd
nc_tooling
<cutting_tool_name>.ct
<tool_holder_name>.th
<tool_changer_name>.tc
<tool_library_name>.tlib
part_prog
<g_cold_prog_name>.gc
<batch_job_name>.job
<batch_name>.bat_list
<error_log_name>.err_log
cad
<catia_filename>.exp
Table C-1
User’s Manual
(3/97)
projects subdirectories
F-3
Soft Machines Software Directories
Subdirectory
File
<iges_filename>.igs
<sla_filename>.stl
projects subdirectories
Table C-1
The public project area is used to store general files of interest to all
Soft Machines users. The <soft machine name> area contains
information about your Soft Machine.
The project areas are referenced by the Soft Machines menu system
libraries when the directory is set to ~cim/projects in a panel. A
detailed description of the libraries is provided in “Libraries” on page 123. See“Working with Project Areas” on page D-6 for details
concerning the procedure used to setup, rename or delete project areas.
The users Subdirectory
The users subdirectory contains Soft Machines user areas which are
referenced by the menu system libraries. Often, the actual user areas
exist outside the users subdirectory (i.e., in your login home directory)
and may be accessed by Soft Machines through a symbolic link in the
Soft Machines users subdirectory.
In Soft Machines, an area is set up for each user. This area is the users
subdirectory described above, with a symbolic link, called cim, to the
Soft Machines software directory. It consists of 10 subdirectories where
Soft Machines stores and retrieves information. These subdirectories
are the same as the projects subdirectories (see Table C-1).
The user areas are referenced by the Soft Machines menu system
libraries when ◆ User is toggled in the Library section of a panel.
Soft Machines user areas are kept in the users subdirectory of the cim
tree. These may be the actual user areas, or may be symbolic links to
existing user areas outside of the Soft Machines software directory. It is
common for Soft Machines user areas to be kept in each user’s login
home directory.
User areas are usually set up during Soft Machines software installation.
See“Working with User Areas” on page D-9 for details concerning the
procedure used to setup, rename or delete user areas.
F-4
Soft Machines 1.7
Standard Modules
Standard Modules
Soft Machines
Software Directories
The main subdirectories in this category are silio, builds,
silspecs, and options.
cim
options
versions
silio
<SIL I/O name>
versions
silspec
<SILSPEC name>
versions
builds
<module name>
a
mc
c_files
mh
s
.h
.sil
sil_files
.acn
.dbs
.c
<SILSPEC name>.model
(SILSPEC files only)
.dcp
.fnc
Figure F-3
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Standard modules
F-5
Soft Machines Software Directories
The silio Subdirectory
The silio subdirectory contains areas for each SIL I/O (robot
language post-processor) purchased with the base software. Each area
generally contains a versions file which specifies the version number
of the module you wish to use.
The silspec Subdirectory
The silspec subdirectory contains areas for each SILSPEC (robot
model) purchased with the base software. Each area includes the
physical model of the robot and a versions file which specifies the
version number of the module you wish to use.
The builds Subdirectory
The builds subdirectory contains user-written SIL application code
which can be compiled (once it is debugged), and linked into the
Soft Machines base software.
The options Subdirectory
The options subdirectory contains a versions file for the builds
area, and contains versions for all modules which are not associated with
the silspec or silio areas.
F-6
Soft Machines 1.7
Components of User-Written Modules
Components of User-Written Modules
Soft Machines
Software Directories
The main subdirectories in this category are actions, mccode,
mhfiles, and sil.
cim
actions
sil
<module name>
<module name>
.acn
<filename>.sil
.dbs
<filename>.c
.dep
.fnc
.pcd
mccode
mhfiles
<module name>
<module name>
<filename>.c
<filename>.h
Figure F-4
User’s Manual
(3/97)
Components of user-written modules
F-7
Soft Machines Software Directories
The actions Subdirectory
The actions subdirectory contains auxiliary information needed for
SIL code. The SIL code here is generated automatically by the
translator.
The mccode Subdirectory
The mccode subdirectory contains all of the C code whether it was
generated with SIL or written by hand. There is one mccode
subdirectory for each module.
The mhcode Subdirectory
The mhcode subdirectory contains the header .h files for C code
generated from SIL. There is one mhcode subdirectory for each module.
The sil Subdirectory
The sil subdirectory contains all of the SIL code. There is one sil
subdirectory for each code module.
F-8
Soft Machines 1.7
Index
A
Activate Product panel D-5
Add Primitives panel 3-6
adopting objects 5-12
affixing objects 5-11
aligning objects 5-8
alloca_stack_size, increasing A-7
ambient light 4-7
ANSI/EIA RS274D standard format 1-25
Appearance panel 5-14–5-17
axis view 1-7
B
backface elimination 4-2
backfaces 4-4
background 1-4, 5-15
backing up automatically 2-3
ball end mill 6-6
.bat_list files 1-24
Batch Mode Simulate panel 8-7–8-9
bisecting faces or edges 5-8
block, adding 3-7
boundary 3-15, A-12
BT end mill adaptor 6-10
BT shank stub arbor 6-12
BT shell mill adaptor 6-11
builds subdirectory F-6
C
cad directory 1-24, F-3
CAD interface 3-12
see also IGES
CAD Interface panel A-8
cards A-2
.cell files 1-24
cells directory 1-24
child object 1-6, 5-12
choice buttons 1-18
cim directory, see Appendix
closing into an icon 1-4
.cmd files 1-24
CNC controller 8-16
User’s Manual
(3/97)
collision detection 7-3–7-11
collision pairs 7-5
excluding 7-6
loading 7-7
saving 7-7
color 4-9
file, writing to 7-10
near zone 4-9, 7-10
parameters 7-10–7-11
configurations 7-11
saving & loading 7-11
simulation 8-4, 8-11
static check 7-4
stopping the simulation 7-10
tolerance 7-9
Collision Detection panel 7-3–7-5
Collision Parameters panel 7-8–7-11
color 1-21, 5-15
background 7-12
color button 1-21
Color Wheel panel 5-15
Colors menu B-13
Combine Tool Chains panel 6-22
command button 1-14
compacting objects 3-11, A-14
cone, adding 3-7
controller 8-16
coordinate system 8-15
coordinate system (CS) 1-27
Copy Vias button 7-28
copying a model 3-13
Create Path panel 7-26
Create Product panel D-3
Create Project panel D-6
Create User panel D-9
.ct files 1-24
curve 3-15, A-12
hiding 5-16
measuring the length 7-16
resolution 3-16
Cut Vias button 7-28
cutter change color B-6
cutter, see tool: cutting
INDEX-1
Index
Index
Index
cylinder, adding 3-8
D
Deactivate Product panel D-5
decrease buttons 1-21
Delete Path panel 7-30
Delete Product panel D-4
Delete Project panel D-8
Delete User panel D-10
deleting an object 5-13
desktop 1-4
diamond symbol 1-14
direct select 1-15
directory entry section, IGES A-2
display
adding Graphics Windows 4-5, 5-16
backfaces 4-2, 4-4
defaults 4-8
factory 7-12
floor 7-13
grid lines 7-13
highlighting objects 4-9, 4-10
lighting 4-7, 5-17
perspective 4-5
shadows 7-13
surface 4-1, 4-2, 4-4, 5-17
tiles 7-13
update rate 4-10
wall 7-13
wireframe 4-1, 4-2, 4-4
Display menu B-14
dots per unit of measure 7-22
drag mode 5-6, 5-7
drill 6-7
Drill panel 6-7
Dynamic menu B-11
E
edge 3-2
edge length mode 3-15, A-12
Edit Path panel 7-27
Edit Product panel D-4
Edit Resolution panel 3-14–3-15
INDEX-2
Edit Settings panel A-11
Edit Shape panel 3-10
Edit Vias button 7-28
Edit World panel 5-11–5-13
ellipsis (…) in menu selections 1-6, 1-13
End Mill Adaptor panel 6-10
End Mill panel 6-6
entity A-1
epsilon 3-16
.err_log files 1-24
error log 1-24, 8-3
.exp files 1-24
F
face, moving to 5-9
facets
aligning 3-12
convex 3-17
definition 3-2
inverting 3-12
resolution, changing 3-14–3-15, A-11–
A-12
factory 7-12
Factory panel 7-12
feedrate 8-3
fields in panels 1-17
file
.bat_list files 1-24, F-3
.bwps files 7-22
.cell files 1-24
.clps files 7-22
.cmd files 1-24
.ct files 1-24, 6-5, F-3
.err_log files 1-24, F-3
.exp files 1-24, F-3
.gc files 1-24, F-3
.hpgl files 7-22
IGES files 1-24
.igs files 1-24, F-4
.job files 1-24, F-3
.model files 1-24
.play files 1-24
.play files B-6
Soft Machines 1.7
playback B-22
plotter 7-22
PostScript 7-22
.sgm files 1-24
SLA files 1-24
.stl files 1-24, F-4
.tc files 1-24, F-3
.th files 1-24, F-3
.tlib files 1-24, F-3
File Defaults panel 2-3
File menu 2-2, 5-2
File System panel 7-31
filename extensions 1-23
First Cut
playback files 1-24
First Cut Display Window B-8
First Cut panel B-22
First Cut Playback Control Window B-24
First Cut Playback panel B-23
First Cut Setup panel 8-3, 8-10
First Cut
cutter change color B-6
features B-1
First Cut Setup panel B-4–B-7
stock B-5
First Cut Setup panel B-4–B-7
fixture offset 8-15
flat end mill 6-6
frame 1-28
adding 7-25
hiding 5-16
moving an object to 5-9
teaching 7-25
frame, reference 5-4
frustum, adding 3-8
G
.gc files 1-24
G-code 1-25
categories 1-25
displaying during simulation 1-10
entering 8-12
simulation 8-12
User’s Manual
(3/97)
geometry
definition 1-27
pose 3-13
terms 1-27
geometry epsilon 3-16
global section, IGES A-2
Graphics Defaults panel 4-8
Graphics menu 4-1
Graphics Parameters panel 4-1–4-4
graphics selectors 1-17
Graphics Window 1-3, 1-4, 1-15
adding 4-6
arranging 4-6
removing 4-6
see also display
graphics, see display
grid lines 7-13
H
hard copy 7-21
Help Window 1-12
help, getting 1-3, 1-12
hiding objects 1-6, 5-16
highlighting objects 4-9, 4-10
holder, see tool holder
home position 8-13
HPGL/2 output 7-22
I
IGES 3-12
annotation types supported A-6
conversion restrictions A-3
entity A-1
exporting models to A-16
file formats A-3
file sections A-2
files 1-24
filters A-13
geometric data A-1
importing files A-9
non-geometric data A-1
standard A-1
version A-3
INDEX-3
Index
Index
Index
Iges Settings panel A-15
.igs files 1-24
importing large models A-7
increase buttons 1-21
increment buttons 1-21
Initial Graphics Exchange Specification, see
IGES
Install panel 5-2
isometric view 1-8
J
.job files 1-24
jump mode 5-6, 5-7
L
Layout Defaults panel 5-4
Layout menu 5-3
library 1-23
lighting 4-7, 5-17, B-12
Lighting panel 4-2, 4-7
list buttons 1-20
lists 1-19
Load Movies panel 7-18
Load Pair Lists panel 7-7
Load Parameters panel 7-11
M
M code 1-25, 8-12, C-5
machine 8-13
coordinates 8-17
home position 8-13
manual control 8-13
spindle 6-13
machine code data, see G-code
machine coordinate system 8-15
machine dependent commands 1-25
Machine Part Program Window 1-10
machine pendant panel 8-12
machine spindle 6-13
Machine Variables panel 8-18
manual conventions x
marker 1-19
INDEX-4
material 5-17
MDI (Manual Data Input) 8-12
Measure menu B-19
Measure panel 7-15
Measure Point panel B-20
Measure Volume panel B-21
measuring 7-16
menu 1-3, 1-11
metal, simulating 5-17
mill
end 6-6
.model files 1-24
modeling
compacting objects 3-11, A-14
copying 3-13
definition 3-1
edges, aligning 3-13
facets
aligning 3-12
inverting 3-12
files 1-24
guidelines 3-2
IGES
exporting models to A-16
importing files A-9
importing 3-12
importing large models A-7
model body 3-2
model tree 1-5, 3-11
example 3-1
non-rigid models 3-1, 3-12, A-14
normals, aligning 3-13
null model 3-4
primitives, see primitives
reattaching the pose 3-13
resolution, changing 3-14, 3-15, A-12
rigid models 3-1, 3-3, 3-12, A-14
structure 3-3
swapping model components 3-11
tool cutters, see tool: cutting
see also shapes
Modeling Defaults panel 3-16
Modeling menu 3-3, A-8
Soft Machines 1.7
models directory 1-24
Modes menu B-14
mouse
using the 1-5
mouse, using the 1-2, 1-11, B-8
Move Object panel 5-5–5-10
Move to Coordinates in Reference panel
5-10
movie 7-17, 8-4, 8-10
description 7-19
files 1-24
loading 7-18
pausing 7-17
playing 7-17
recording 7-20, 8-4, 8-10
rewinding 7-17
stopping 7-17
Movie Information panel 7-19
Movies panel 7-17
Multiple Views panel 4-6
N
NC part programs, see G-code
NC tooling 6-1, 6-2
nc_tooling directory 1-24, F-3
near zone 4-9, 7-10
node 3-2, 3-11
non-rigid models, see modeling: non-rigid
models
normals 3-13
null model 3-4
O
object 5-16
adopting 5-12
affixing objects 5-11
aligning 5-8
bisecting faces or edges 5-8
bonding 3-11, A-14
child 1-6, 5-12
collision detection 7-3–7-11
color 5-15
compacting 3-11, A-14
User’s Manual
(3/97)
removing 3-12
deleting 5-13
edge, moving to 5-8
expanding 3-12
face, moving to 5-9
frame, moving to 5-9
hiding 1-6, 5-16
highlighting 4-9, 4-10
installing 5-2
material 5-17
measuring distances between 7-16
modeling, see modeling
moving 3-11, 5-5–5-10
parent 1-6, 5-12
renaming 5-13
rotating 5-6
scaling 3-10
selecting 1-5, 1-15
swapping 3-11
transparent, making an object 5-17
tree 1-5
unaffixing objects 5-11
vertex, moving to 5-9
viewing 1-9
object entity 5-16
orientation 1-30
output 7-21
owner 7-26, 7-27
P
page
height 7-22
setting up 7-22
width 7-22
painting an object 5-15
palette 1-21
panels 1-13
Quick Access, using the 1-23
parameter data section, IGES A-2
parent object 1-6, 5-12
part program
simulating 8-14
part_prog directory 1-24, F-3
INDEX-5
Index
Index
Index
Paste Vias button 7-28
path
creating 7-26, 7-28
deleting 7-30
editing 7-27
owner 7-26, 7-27
testing 7-29
vias, adding 7-27
pausing a simulation 8-20
plaster, simulating 5-17
plastic, simulating 5-17
.play files 1-24
.play files B-6
Playback Mode B-22–B-24
plotter 7-21
Plotter Options panel 7-22
Plotter Output panel 7-21
point
definition 3-2
pop up boxes 1-22
pose 1-27, 1-28, 5-4, 6-9
hiding 5-16
measuring the distance between 7-16
moving an object to 5-8
position 1-29
PostScript files 7-22
primitives
adding 3-6–3-9
block 3-7
cone 3-7
cylinder 3-8
frustum 3-8
prism 3-9
resolution 3-16
sphere 3-9
printer file 7-21
printing 7-21–7-23
height & width, setting 7-22
portrait & landscape 7-22
scaling the image 7-23
title, adding 7-22
prism, adding 3-9
product
INDEX-6
activating D-5
creating D-3
deactivating D-5
deleting D-4
editing D-4
Product Administration panel 2-1
Products menu D-2
project area D-6
creating D-6
deleting D-8
renaming D-7
project library 1-23
Projects menu D-6
projects subdirectory F-3
Q
Quick Access 1-3, 1-23
Quick Pick Window 1-3, 1-5–1-6, 1-15, 1-17,
5-13
quick view 1-7
quitting Soft Machines 2-6
R
radius end mill 6-6
Record Movies panel 7-20
reference frame 5-4
reference system 1-27
Rename Project panel D-7
Rename User panel D-10
renaming objects 5-13
resolution
changing 3-14, A-12
modes 3-15, A-12
return buttons 1-17
Reverse Vias button 7-28
rigid compaction 3-12, A-14
rigid models, see modeling: rigid models
roll and pitch 1-30
Rotate Shaded Image panel B-17
rotating objects 5-6
Soft Machines 1.7
S
Save Pair Lists panel 7-7
Save panel 2-5
Save Parameters panel 7-11
saving 8-9
saving your work 2-5
scaling an object 3-10
scroll bar 1-19
Section panel B-15
Select Color panel 1-21
Select Parameter File panel 8-4
Select Tool Changer panel 6-18
Select View panel 1-10
selectors 1-15
Set Job Parameters panel 8-9
.sgm files 1-24
shadows, displaying 7-13
shank stub arbor 6-12
Shank Stub Arbor panel 6-12
shape 1-27
Shape Description panel 3-5
shape selectors 1-15
shapes
adding, see primitives
editing 3-10
resolution, changing 3-15, A-13
Shell Mill Adaptor panel 6-11
Shell Mill panel 6-7
SIL language 1-26
silio subdirectory F-6
silspec subdirectory F-6
simulate
pausing 8-20
Simulate menu 6-3, 8-1
simulation
batch mode 8-1, 8-5–8-11
adding a job 8-8
creating a new batch 8-8
deleting a job 8-8
end, setting 8-10
files 1-24
parameters 8-9
saving the setup 8-9
User’s Manual
(3/97)
start, setting 8-10
collision detection, setting up 8-4, 8-11
error log 8-3
feedrate 8-3
interactive 8-1
movie, recording 8-4, 8-10
parameter files 8-5
setting up 8-2, 8-4
tracing a path 8-3
units 8-3
Simulation Clock 8-20
Simulation Monitor panel 8-19
Simulation Setup panel 8-2
simulations directory 1-24
sliders 1-18
spatial geometry, see geometry
sphere, adding 3-9
spherical end mill 6-6
start section, IGES A-2
starting Soft Machines 2-1
static collision check 7-4
station
number
assigning to a frame 6-15
stations, see tool changer: stations 6-14
.stl files 1-24
surface 3-2, 3-15, A-12
measuring a surface area 7-16
resolution 3-16
surface representation, see display: surface
surfaces
hiding 5-16
swapping objects 3-11
switches 1-17
T
.tc files 1-24
Teach Frames panel 7-25
templates subdirectory F-3
terminator, IGES A-3
Test Path panel 7-28–7-30
.th files 1-24
tiles 7-14
INDEX-7
Index
Index
Index
.tlib files 1-24
toggle choices 1-14
tolerance 7-9
tolerance mode 3-15, A-12
tool
adaptor 6-2
cutting 6-2, 6-4
drill 6-7
end mill 6-6
files 1-24, 6-5
mill 6-6
modeling 6-4–6-7
using a model 6-4
mount flange 6-5
mounting onto a station 6-19
shell mill 6-7
tip 6-5
holder/cutter assembly 6-13, 6-19, 6-21
see also tool library
loading to a station 6-17
removing from a station 6-21
turning 6-2
tool bar 1-3, 1-22
tool chains 6-22
tool changer 6-2, 6-13
files 1-24
installing 6-18
stations 6-14, 6-17, 6-19, 8-14
tool cutter, see tool: cutting
tool holder 6-2, 6-8
end mill adaptor 6-10
files 1-24
mount flange 6-9
mount point 6-9
mounting onto a station 6-19
removing from a station 6-21
shank stub arbor 6-12
shell mill adaptor 6-11
stations 6-21
tool library 6-1, 6-15
creating 6-17
files 1-24
tool chains 6-22
INDEX-8
Tool Library panel 6-17, 6-20
tool magazine 6-13
Tool Setup panel 6-3
tooling assembly 6-1
top bar 1-3, 1-11
tracing 8-3
transparent, making an object 5-17
tree, object 1-5
turning machine 6-13
turret lathe 6-16
U
unaffixing objects 5-11
units 5-4, 8-3
Universe coordinate system 1-27
update rate 4-10, 8-3
user area
creating D-9
deleting D-10
renaming D-10
user library 1-23
Users menu D-9
users subdirectory F-4
Utilities menu 7-1
UV mode 3-15, A-12
V
vertex, moving an object to 5-9
V-flange end mill adaptor 6-10
V-flange shank stub arbor 6-12
V-flange shell mill adaptor 6-11
via
adding 7-27
videos directory 1-24
view
axis view 1-7
isometric view 1-8
quick view 1-7
saving 1-10
undoing a view command 1-10
view all 1-10
zooming in and out 1-8, B-9, B-12
view bar 1-3, 1-6–1-10
Soft Machines 1.7
Index
View Error Log Window 7-24
View menu B-10
Virtual Graphics Processor (VGP) 1-4
visibility 5-16
volume 3-2
W
Index
wireframe, see display: wireframe
Work Coordinates panel 8-15–8-17
workcell 5-1
color 5-15
deleting objects 5-13
display, see display
files 1-24
laying out 5-3–5-17
new, creating a 2-2
removing everything 5-13
saving 2-5
units 5-4, 8-3
workpiece
coordinate system 8-15
World
definition 1-27
Y
yaw 1-30
Z
Zoom Window B-9, B-12
zooming in and out 1-8, B-9, B-12
User’s Manual
(3/97)
INDEX-9
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