user manual document
2015
User’s Manual
User’s Manual
Index
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Self-assessment tool for the
diagnosis, characterization and
Introduction ....................................................................................... 3
o Objective .................................................................................. 4
of energy efficiency
in
o Who isimprovement
it aimed .....................................................................
5
Tool Requirements .......................................................... 6
industrial sectors.
General Issues ..........................................................................
8
Footsteps ..................................................................................... 10
Report ............................................................................................ 14
Appendix I: Questions to be performed at different stages .................... 18
o Technical data on the company ...................................................... 19
o Boilers ..................................................................................... 21
o Refrigerators ................................................................................... 22
o Motors, fans, pumps, compressors ...................................... 23
o Horn ........................................................................................ 23
o Special furnaces ......................................................................... 23
o Dryers .................................................................................... 24
www.pineaudit.eu
Disclaimer
The sole responsibility for the content of webpage lies with the authors. It does
not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Union. Neither EASME nor
the European Commission are responsible for any use that may be made of the
information contained therein.
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User’s Manual
1. Index
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Index ............................................................................................................ 2
Introduction .................................................................................................. 3
Tool Requirements ...................................................................................... 5
Previous indications ..................................................................................... 6
Step by step ................................................................................................. 8
Report ........................................................................................................ 15
Helps.......................................................................................................... 21
Energy measure recommendations ........................................................... 30
Hints........................................................................................................... 46
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User’s Manual
2. Introduction
Target
The purpose of this document is to serve as manual diagnostic tool, characterization
and improvement of energy efficiency in industrial sectors, to be used in the first phase
of scouting energy audits within the PINE project.
The purpose of the application is to generate a self-assessment report as to show
sectorally, and in a customized manner, the efficient use of energy resources of
enterprises, allowing to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each, improving
continuously saving in its activity, and thus provide greater value to their products or
services.
Who is it for?
Welcome to the PINE self-assessment tool. This online tool enables companies from
six specific production sectors to make a self-assessment of their energy performance,
based on the last annual consumption period, and the main characteristics of their
energy consuming systems and devices. After completing the questionnaire the tool
gives a short summary of energy sources and consumption areas, and a set of generic
and specific recommendations with approximate ranges of potential savings associated
with the implementation of each specific recommendation. This assessment does not
replace a real energy audit and provides general recommendations that may not
always be implementable or feasible at each specific case.
This tool is aimed at small and medium enterprises whose activity falls within one of the
following industrial sectors and subsectors listed in the table below.
Agrifood
1.15
3.15
4.15
7.15
15.81 / 15.82
15.91 to 15.97
15.98
Meat industry
Processing and preserving of fruit and vegetables
Manufacture of fats and oils
Manufacture of animal feed
Manufacture of bread, biscuits and bakery products
Production of alcoholic beverages
Mineral water and alcoholic beverages-an
Metal
2.28
4.28
5.28
7.28
1.29
2.29
Manufacture of tanks, reservoirs and containers of metal
Forging, stamping and roll forming of metal, powder metallurgy
Treatment and coating of metals
Manufacture of metal products, except furniture
Manufacture of machinery and equipment nec
Manufacture of other machinery, equipment and materials commonly used mechanical
3.29
5.29
Manufacture of agricultural
Manufacture of other machinery for specific uses
Chemical
1.24
2.24
Manufacture of basic chemicals
Manufacture of pesticides and other agrochemicals
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3.24
Manufacture of paints, varnishes and similar coatings, printing ink and mastics
4.24
5.24
Pharmaceutical Manufacturing
Manufacture of soap and detergents, cleaning and polishing. Manufacture of perfumes and
hygiene Beauty
6.24
7.24
Manufacture of other chemical products
Manufacture of man-made fibers
Nonmetallic Mineral
1.26
2.26
Manufacture of glass and glass products
Manufacture of refractory products and refractory, except for construction
3.26
4.26
Manufacture of ceramic tiles and tile
Manufacture of bricks, tiles and clay products for construction
Textile
1.17
2.17
3.17
Preparing textile fibers
Manufacturing textile fabrics you
Textile finishing
Plastic
2.25
Plastic products
On the left the NACE codes are shown. However, the software will prompt to choose a
field of activity sorted out by description. NACE codes are then indicative.
This model comprises around 80% to 85% of all the industrial SMEs. Since the sort of
industrial processes vary significantly among sectors, a different analysis is done,
according to the sector of activity. Many modules are equivalent (motors, HVAC,
heating, furnaces, cooling, lighting, compressed air,…) and the subroutines are called
as needed.
The program is conceived to work in a decision tree model. Therefore, the decisions
and information completed upstream will determine the questions and information
required downstream. For this reason, some information cannot be retrieved as the
information compilation progresses. Once the final report is generated there is no
possibility to modify inputs as they may affect the whole questionnaire path. Hence, the
only way to correct or modify inputs is by creating a new file and starting over again.
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3. Tool Requirements
Being a Web application, you must have Internet access in the computer you want to
access the questionnaire for "Self-assessment tool, characterization and improvement
of energy efficiency in industrial sectors."
The tool is optimized for the following browsers:
 Internet Explorer 6.0 and later
 Mozilla Firefox 2.0 and later
 Google Chrome
 Opera 8.0 and later
For correct operation it is necessary that the javascript functions be enabled in your
browser.
It is also important to have a PDF reader program, and that the final document reported
by the tool uses this extension.
There is no way to install an access the program internally from a hard disk drive.
Access to computer tool
To access the software tool you must enter the the tool link as shown below:
http://circe2.deweb.es/herramienta
The initial screen of the tool is as follows. First you are asked to select one of the 6
major industrial sectors, and one of the available languages.
Figura 1. Image screen software tool
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4. Previous indications
Warning:
If you have opened the application and pass a certain time without using it
(about 5 minutes), it will return to the home page. To continue you must register
again and return to the form he had last completed.
Before completing the questionnaire "Diagnostic Tool, characterization and
improvement of energy efficiency in industrial sectors", it is recommended to follow a
set of guidelines that facilitate the subsequent use and proper completion of the forms
included in it.
1. Person responsible for completing the tool
It is recommended that the person responsible for carrying out the data entry in the tool
has full knowledge of existing machinery in the company and its operation.
Once started to fill in data, there is always the possibility to exit and continue later.
Nevertheless it is very recommendable to get all the necessary information beforehand,
so as to minimize the data entering time. The minimum information that will most likely
be required by the software is:
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Latest energy supply invoices for a full year: electricity bill, gas bill, gasoil bill,
coal bill, biomass and other supplies, with the amount of energy furnished and
the unit cost, tax included.
A list of energy consuming devices with its main characteristics: number, type of
device, fuel used, power, age, average working hours per year, yearly
turnover…
General information about preventive maintenance scheduled, frequency and
scope.
Average number of workers, working days per year, working hours per day, and
production volume to calculate energy intensity.
A suggestion to speed up the data collection process is to contact the energy manager
or technician in chart and let him/her know about this minimum data requirements so
as to let them be prepared in advance prior to the visit.
In the software tool there is a first set of general company data, and questions
pertaining to the technical characteristics and use of the different equipment installed in
the plant.
It is not possible to continue the questionnaire without having completed the
current screen. In the case of missing data at a given time, you may quit the tool by
clicking on the link in the right top menu "log out”, and come back later but you cannot
proceed any further as the missing data may be important to decide which questions
come next.
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The software tool saves the last form in which the data have been completed. When
logging in again, you will be taken to the last completed field.
2. Description of devices
In forms regarding equipment installed in the company, it is requested the number and
name of the devices with a name less than 50 characters. It is recommended that the
device name is significant because it will be the way to refer to calculated-saving
measures proposed for that particular device.
Example: If you enter the name of a freezer as " freezer one" the proposed measure
will be shown as follows:
This name is not recommended because it is very generic and may lead you to
confusion when interpreting the final report.
.
If you enter the name of the boiler as boiler " cooking room boiler (15 kW) ", although
the final report is reviewed after a while the boiler would be well defined on the savings
measures proposed.
3. Format numbers
In the course of completing the questionnaire relating to computer tool the user must
enter a series of numerical data (Example: power), it is necessary to know the format to
be used in these settings.
 If it's a figure of thousands: Ex: 1540 -> do not use separation dots to indicate a
value greater than a thousand.

If it's a decimal: Ex: 4.5 -> the decimal places must be separated with a dot ".",
Do not use commas ",".
4. Helps
Some questions in the questionnaire have the symbol , This indicates that you have
"help" with explanatory information for a correct interpretation of the question and
adequate completion of the same.
5. Correction of errors
In case you need to rectify and return to previous screens, Use the back button at the
bottom left.
Once the necessary screens receded, it is again necessary to complete the
questionnaire from the point at which a data is modified and onwards..
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5. Step by step
Every file or company data is kept and accessible by means of a username and
password.
Hint: use the company name or acronym as username. The password may be a
personal password by user (always the same for each user) or it may be the
username again, to remember it more easily.
If you want to access an existing file for a given company, please insert the login and
password corresponding to the company.
If you want to create a new file, click on “Press here to proceed to the energy audit
questionnaire
Summarizing: To access the tool main screen there are two options:
1- Insert login and password should you be a registered user.
This option is primarily used to continue the questionnaire if you have been abandoned
at some point, or to access the pdf of the final diagnostic results for viewing at any
time.
2- If not a registered user, you must click "here" and register for the first time to
access the computer questionnaire tool.
Figura 1. Log Mode in the tool
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The questionnaire relating to the "scouting diagnosis tool, characterization and
improvement of energy efficiency in industrial sectors" includes two types of questions:
Company data and issues specific to the equipment installed in the company, their
characteristics and mode of operation, well as the overall operation of the facility.
The first screen after registering the generic data corresponding to the company, is as
shown in Figure 6.
At the end of the generic data questionnaire you will be requested to provide a
username and a password for this particular company.
If any of the compulsory data fields are empty or wrong they will be marked in red after
pressing “continue”
Figura 2. Screen details
To continue the questionnaire and move on to the following screen, at least the
mandatory fields marked with an asterisk (*). must be completed Then click on
"Continue".
Once the general data screen for the company, the different blocks in which the
questions are divided for the sector of activity (NACE) to which your company belongs
start:
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Technical data
Boilers
Cooling devices
Engines, fans, pumps, compressors
Furnaces.
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On the left of the screen you will be informed about the module of information you are
in. On the right top corner the company name and the log out button will be displayed.
The first screen requests the amount of production per year in m2, litres, tonnes or kg,
as well as a free text box for additional explanations about the type of product. One or
more types can be filled in.
Figura 3. Screen details for production volume.
It shown in Figure 6, the various modules into which the screen is divided completion of
the questions.
The structure of all blocks independently is similar:
1- Modules of the tool: It left the area in which the block is to be completed over
the computer tool.
We can observe that there are two symbols:
: Indicates the block in which module you are now
: Indicates that the block has been completed and completed correctly.
2- Company name and log out button the tool: at the top right. It displays the
name of the company that is conducting the survey
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Besides, you have the option "log out", which allows you to quit the tool to
continue from that point later.
3- Form: It is the main module of the screen, since it shows the questions, answer
choices and aids for completing them.
4- Back to the previous form: This option, located at the bottom left, drives you
back to previous screens on error in filling in the data.
Once you get back the necessary screens, it is again necessary to complete
the questionnaire from the point at which the tool is at that time. The
reason is because whatever changes made in the entered information may
entail a path change in the decision tree.
In each of the forms, by continuing, any required information is missing, this will be
marked in red as shown in Figure 8.
Figura 4. Image display incomplete data
At the end of each module a message communicates that you have successfully
completed the module and indicates what will be the next module to appear.
Some questions may not be clear. If a blue
and explanations as the example below.
, appears, you can click for further details
Some questions are simply yes / no questions as in the example below. A default value
will be proposed.
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Figura 5. Yes / No questions
Some questions may not be clear. If a blue
and explanations as the example below.
, appears, you can click for further details
Figura 6. Help for a question
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Every section starts by asking for the number of devices of each kind. You will be
prompted to fill in a data sheet per each of the devices. If the company has several
equal such devices you can fill in one, and copy the data for the following equipment,
selecting it from the right column.
Figura 7. List of devices to be described.
Once inside the questionnaire, you will be requested to fill in the device characteristics
depending on the device you are describing. An important data will the loading factor,
from 0 to 1. If unknown a 0.75 default value will be assigned
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Figura 8. Sheet for device technical data.
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6. Report
Once you have completed all phases of the software tool, you enter the final report
proposed measures for the company in question.
The report is divided into several blocks, which are detailed below:
First, there is a first block which general data of the company have been made to the
tool.
Figura 9. Image general report data
Next, the report shows a pie chart showing the share of the existing company
consumption by type of equipment. This diagram only shows consumer distribution
outputs, if you want to also represent inputs, then you should open an energy Sankey
diagram of the company in which both aspects are represented, for that purpose click
on "View". This diagram will be added at the end of the report pdf version.
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Figura 10. Company energy outputs diagram
Figura 11. Sankey Diagram
The next block in the report shows the general measures (without quantification)
proposed to improve the energy performance of the company. For each of the
measures the corresponding device described by the given name will be displayed in
brackets.
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Figura 12. General recommendations for energy improvement
Following, there is a general measures block with those measures by type of energy
that it is possible to quantify.
Figura 13. Energy improvements report, quantified measures
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As seen in Figure 13, the savings are quantified using a range of values.
Below is an overview of the initial situation of the company, shown by a red bar, and
the consumption after the implementation of the measures proposed in the diagnostic
report shown by a green bar.
Figure 14 shows the energy consumption by type showing the initial and the final
consumption estimations. Please bear in mind that this is an average estimation of the
savings achieved only by the full deployment of the quantitative recommendations. If
the generic recommendations were implemented as well, the savings would be larger,
although impossible to estimate..
Figura 14. Picture showing the initial and final company consumption estimation
To summarize the actions proposed and the expected estimated impact a final
summary table is provided, first showing generic qualitative measures and the
associated equipment, and then, showing the quantitative measures and the amount
and range of savings by type of energy as shown below.
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Figura 15. Summary table with the generic recommendations and the associated equipment
Figura 16. Summary table with the quantitative recommendations and the associated
equipment, as well as the savings estimation.
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Finally, there is a table with the percentage of savings by type of energy that would
result from the implementation of the proposed measures.
Thermal savings percentage 5 y 7 %
Electric savings percentage 7 y 9 %
Please bear in mind that
 This is an estimation range varying from a top number and a bottom number
These are based on the implementation of all recommended measures and
always compared to the best available technology. Hence, these are maximum
ranges of expected savngs.
 The total savings will depend on the actual consumption.
In case you want to save the final report document, print it, etc ... you can have it in
PDF format, by clicking on "View document in PDF format" at the top of the final energy
assessment report
A final disclaimer is added, featuring the following statement:
The sole responsibility for the content of this software lies
with the authors. It does not necessarily reflect
the opinion of the European Communities. The European
Commission is not responsible for any use that
may be made of the information contained therein.
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7. Helps
Help 1: Is there insulation in the heat distribution pipes?
To avoid heat losses, it is critical to ensure a good insulation of pipes and conducts. If
cracks, total or partial lack of insulation material, or if an excess of heat are observed,
the insulation is not good enough and should be improved.
Help 2: Are there vegetable wastes in any of the company processes?
Vegetable wastes are useful reusable biomass. Thus, it is important to know exactly
how much wastes are generated, that can be recycled, in case they are of use
internally or by another company, to get an extra profit out of them, or analyze the
energy content and value.
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Next table shows the energy content of usual vegetable wastes in industry.
Caloric power
Waste
kWh/ kg
Rice husks
3,46
Almond shell
4,61
Bark
4,24
Wood and conifer branches
4,19
Hardwood firewood and branches
3,85
Olive pomace
3,88
Grape pomace
3,77
Cereal straw
4,24
Paper
4,52
Pruning
3,85
Olive tree pruning
3,68
Vine shoots
3,82
Sawdust and shavings
4,41
Cloths
4,58
For comparison purposes, the natural gas or petrol calorific value is about 11.63 kWh /
kg.
In agrifood companies it is very common to obtain wastes that can be burned to get
extra energy for the drying, curing and dehydration processes. In this case, bear in
mind the local legal and environmental requirements to this regard.
Help 3: Is there an automatic process control in your company?
Automatic process control systems perform actions when detecting a gap between
desired and actual value of a process parameter, with no human intervention. Through
process automation, a closer process control can be done, improving the energy,
operation and maintenance efficiency of the final product, by enabling equipments to
work the closest possible to the optimum.
Help 4: Fuel Type
Fuels can be classified as:
 Solid: Firewood, charcoal, coal, , coking coal, …
 Liquid: Heavy oil, petrol, gasoil, kerosene, fuel-oil, alcohols …
 Gas:, Natural gas, propane, butane, acetilene, LPG …
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Help 5: When checking the boiler performance, do you apply corrective
actions to reach the recommended combustion parameters?
A boiler’s performance is the ratio of useful heat produced (after losses) with respect to
the fuel energy. Losses may come from exhaust gases, boiler insulation or purging
flows. To evaluate this performance it is necessary to have a gas analyzer to measure
the O2, CO2 & CO concentrations, and their exiting temperature, as well as the outside
boiler temperature. The right values of O2, CO and the outlet gas temperature depend
on the type of fuel and burner, as well as the boiler size. Target values will be provided
at the equipment manual or through the manufacturer.
Help 6: What is the full load operating time per year?
Full load means nominal or design conditions. Roughly, working 24 hours at half load is
equivalent to working 12 hours at full load. Full load operation means using less fuel
per product unit and, thus, being more cost-effective. It is then more efficient to install
several lower power equipments that may be activated or stopped depending on the
work load, to ensure they work at the highest efficiency settings.
Help 7: Is there a condensate recovery system?
All heat distribution pipes and equipments present some condensation due to the
different temperatures inside (at steam temperature) and outside the pipes (at ambient
temperature). The energy content in the condensate can be more than 10% of the total
steam energy content of a typical system. With a condensed water heat recovery
system the purpose is not only recovering the water condensed, but also the thermal
energy contained in it.
Distribution
losses 5%
Combustion
losses 13%
DISTRIBUTION
FLASH STEAM
10%
STEAM
GENERATION
End of
boiler
purge 3%
FUEL PRIMARY
ENERGY 100%
WASTED
CONDENSATE
FINAL USER
CONDENSATE
FLOW BACK
Water refilling
FINAL ENERGY 74%
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Help 8: Is there usually ice covering the cabinet walls and coil?
Frost accumulated either on the fridge and freezer inner walls, or on the coil, reduces
the heat transfer and increases the energy consumption largely. Efficient anti-frost
systems that identify temperature and evaporator pressure drop, or measure the
humidity and frost accumulation are much better than those systems that get rid of the
frost following programmed cycles.
Help 9: Is the pressure switch adapted to changing conditions
(winter/summer)?
Cooling system compressors are limited by the top pressure (condensation) and
bottom pressure (evaporation). The compressor pressure is controlled by a switch. The
most adverse operating conditions occur in summer due to the high ambient
temperature, that affects the device performance. Therefore, compressors are
designed to work at the top pressure level, which is most likely not needed in winter. If
the pressure switch settings are not changed, the equipment would be operating at
summer worst case conditions, thus loosing efficiency for winter working conditions.
Help 10: Is the cooling equipment fitted with an open door sensor?
Sensors to detect open doors and acoustic signals to indicate an open door for a long
time are features that help the user to be aware of misuses that are very energy
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inefficient. Your equipment should be fitted with these items and they should work
properly.
Help 11: Are joints in good condition?
Joints help to have a good insulation and reduce heat losses, However, due to
intensive use, they usually deteriorate faster and may need replacement from time to
time. Keeping joints in good condition are key to ensure good energy performance.
Help 12: Is it usual that the equipment works at half the capacity?
Several cooling equipment working at a given target temperature, but empty or partially
filled up, imply a waste in space and capacity. Several such devices multiply
consumption with respect to the ideal situation in which contents are gathered together
in fully loaded equipments and the rest are switched off.
Help 13: Are your equipments fitted with inverter technology and variable
speed drive?
Some screw compressor cooling devices are fitted with inverter technology. This
technology controls the power to the target temperature at real time with no
compressor on and off cycles. The top pressure is reduced and the power is adapted to
the needs at all times. The energy consumption and the equipment lifetime get
significantly improved.
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Help 14: Is there any engine with variable loads?
For engines that work at variable workloads it is very interesting to modify the working
speed to match the optimum power, and prevent them from working at full power
continuously. This is specially recommendable in the following cases:





Pump drives
Extractor drives
Fan drives
Compressor drives
………
Help 15: Load factor
This indicator shows the electric equipment usage in a facility over a given period. It is
defined as (lf) the ratio between the average demand in the period and the máximum
demand in the same period.:
Average Demand
(lf) = ------------------------------Maximum Demand
The most recommendable load factor is the closest possible to 1. Any value lower than
1 shows that the system is either over-dimensioned, or not used at its full potential.
¿How to calculate the Average Demand?
Energy consumption
DP = ----------------------------------------Number of operating hours
Help 16: Is there a heat recovery system?
Exhaust gases may exit the combustion chamber at a high temperature so as to
transfer energy to other processes like water or inlet air preheat, to decrease the fuel
consumption. Recovered heat can even be used in a different process like low
temperature drying.
economizers: equipments for process water preheating.
preheaters. These are heat exchangers in charge of rising up the inlet combustion air.
In any case, for oil fuels it is not possible to decrease the exhaust gases temperature
below 150 - 175ºC, as the sulfuric acid condensation would corrode the pipes and
equipment. In case of gas the exhaust gas temperature can decrease below the water
condensation temperature.
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Help 17: Number of full load operating hours?
Full load means nominal or design conditions. Roughly, working 24 hours at half load is
equivalent to working 12 hours at full load. Full load operation means using less fuel
per product unit and, thus, being more cost-effective.
It is then more efficient to install several lower power equipments that may be activated
or stopped depending on the work load, to ensure they work at the highest efficiency
settings.
The number of operating hours would be the equivalent number of working hours if the
device worked at full capacity, or nominal conditions.
Help 18 Leaks in Compressed Air Systems
The leak rate on an unmanaged compressed air system can be as much as 40% of the
output. Compressed air leaks also lead to additional costs through:
• Fluctuating system pressure, which can cause air tools and other air-operated
equipment to function less efficiently — potentially stalling and affecting
production
• Reduced service life and increased maintenance of equipment due to
unnecessary compressor cycling and running time
• Excess compressor capacity.
The sources of leakage are numerous, but the most frequent causes are:
• Manual condensate drain valves left open
• Shut-off valves left open
• Leaking hoses and couplings
• Leaking pipes and pipe joints
• Leaking pressure regulators
• Air-using equipment left in operation when not needed.
Help 19 Heat recovery in Compressed Air systems
One of the key cost-reduction opportunities is to re-use the waste heat generated by
the compressor in a suitable application. Only 10% of the electrical energy driving an
air compressor is converted into compressed air energy. The remaining 90% is
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User’s Manual
normally wasted as heat. A properly designed heat recovery unit can recover over 80%
of this heat for heating air or water.
Help 20: Air inlet position in Compressed Air systems
Cold air is denser than hot air. If the inlet air is denser the energy needed to compress
it will be lower. Therefore, it is recommendable to keep the air inlet outdoors.
Help 21: Speed drive systems
Speed drives are devices that are fitted to the AC engines and control both the starting
and the running processes. This is very convenient in presence of resistant variable
loads. It is particularly applicable to:
Engines that drive pumps
Engines that drive extractors
Engines that drive fans
Engines that drive compressors
Help 22: Discharge lamps
For discharge lamps there must be an auxiliary element, called ballast or reactance,
whose purpose is to initiate the discharge and control it.
There are 2 types of ballast
Magnetic ballast. Use in industrial applications is declining due to its low efficiency
and the inability to regulate the light output of the lamp.
Electronic ballast. More efficient as they can regulate the luminous flux.
Heating
Water radiators: It is the most economical and simple system. Cast iron radiators have
a higher thermal inertia and are more resistant than steel or aluminum. The distribution
is more efficient for bitubular than monotubular configuration as it increases heat
distribution. The surface temperature is 60 - 80 degrees C.
Underfloor heating: Various crosslinked polyethylene pipes are placed 3-5 cm below
the soil surface, with a spacing of 10 to 30 cm between them. By circulating water
through the tubes at 45 degrees C, the soil is kept at 29 degrees.
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Fan-coil units: equipment fitted with a heater with hot water inside and a fan that
forces air to pass through it, warming it up. This equipment can also be used for
cooling.
Industrial cooling is usually generated by means of



Refrigeration Tower: The equpments involved are fans and process cooling
pumps.
Compression Cooling. The equipments involved are compressors (different
than compressed air systems)
Adsortion Cooling. The equipments involved are Cooling pumps.
What type of burners are your furnaces and dryers fitted with?



High speed burners: they work by injecting a great volume of low temperature
gases at a high rate. Heat is transmitted by convection
Auto recycling burners: Combustion gases are driven into the flames. NOx
emissions are reduced.
Puls combustion burners: Combustion gases are circulated in a way that the
temperature is more homogeneous all around the furnace. The gas feed
enables an optimum use of the energy.
What type of heating system is in operation in your company’



Boiler: Fuel + air are injected into the boiler chamber through a burner. The
combination fuel + oxigene gives off thermal energy and, as a result, a number
of byproducts are produced: solid wastes (ashes, slag) and exhaust gases at
high temperature (from 200 to 1000 degrees). The energy contained in those
gases is transmitted to a fluid (water, air, oil) by means of a heat exchanger
before they are evacuated via a chimney.
Electric heating: An electric current is forced through a resistance, producing
heat this way.
Heat pump: this is a device that generates heat for winter heating and extracts
it for summer cooling, just by inverting the working cycle. It is based on the
principle of heat transfer from a cold environment to a warm one by means of a
mechanical energy as heat pumping. To invert the cycle a valve switches the
flux direction and the condenser works as evaporator and viceversa. In terms of
energy, it is a very efficient system since the thermal energy produced exceeds
by far the electric energy applied.
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User’s Manual
8. Energy measure recommendations
For recommendations in yellow, an approximate % of savings is provided.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
Recommendation 1: ASSIGN AN ENERGY MANAGER POSITION IN YOUR
COMPANY.
Following up on energy consumption is critical to monitor the energy resources per unit
of product and identify deviations with respect to the average values and the target
values. A person or team should be nominated to take up this task and promote energy
efficiency actions and report results.
Recommendation 2: INSULATE PROPERLY THE HEAT DISTRIBUTION
NETWORK TO MINIMIZE LOSSES.
Energy losses can be significantly reduced if a proper insulation is done on distribution
pipes, valves, tanks and any element where the temperature inside differs greatly from
the ambient temperature.
Savings: 3%
.
Recommendation 3: INSULATE PROPERLY THE HEAT DISTRIBUTION
NETWORK TO MINIMIZE LOSSES.
Energy losses can be significantly reduced if a proper insulation is done on distribution
pipes, valves, tanks and any element where the temperature inside differs greatly from
the ambient temperature.
From 1-10 m of defective pipe insulation, savings can be up to 1% or original
consumption.
From 10-50 m of defective pipe insulation, savings can be up to 2% or original
consumption.
Beyond 50 m of defective pipe insulation, savings can be up to 3% or original
consumption.
Recommendation 4: IT IS RECOMMENDED TO MAKE A STUDY ABOUT THE
POSSIBILITY TO REUSE THE VEGETABLE WASTES FOR ENERGY PURPOSES.
Some by-products in agrofood industries can be considered as recyclable biomass,
and be reused for different purposes, either by another company process, or by the
own company process, seeking then an economic profitability. If it is no possible to use
those wastes as by-products, it might be worth considering the reuse to generate
energy.
Recommendation 5: AUTOMATIC PROCESS CONTROLS OPTIMIZE THE
PRODUCTION PROCESS.
Many industrial processes are wasting energy as the manual control is not efficient. An
automatic control can monitor the different process parameters and take the
programmed actions to improve the energy efficiency.
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User’s Manual
Recommendation 6: USUALLY, CLEANING PROCEDURES ARE NOT ENERGYEFFICIENT AND THEY ALSO WASTE WATER.
Cleaning tasks usually involve an important water consumption and energy
consumption to heat up the water used in the cleaning. There are techniques that can
reduce both. Some of them are described below:
o
o
o
Cleaning in Place enables to carry out the cleaning almost automatically, thus
controlling the amount of water consumed, and therefore the energy contained
in the cleaning water.
Cleaning by means of low pressure foams to disolve the dirtiness, followed
by a rinsing. This technique reduces the amount of water used and the
associated energy.
One step detergents: these products reduce the number of cleaning steps
(disinfection, basic and acid treatment,) to just one, thus reducing the water
consumption and the subsequent energy use.
These efficient cleaning techniques may represent important savings at affordable
costs.
BOILERS
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
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Keep oven doors closed always good.
Reduce load times and inoperación.
Operate at maximum load.
Use insulation to reduce heat loss.
Use PLCs to control the consumption of the furnace and other parameters. The
difference in consumption between an automated electric furnace and other
manual is about 25%. Furthermore, the average life of the resistors in an
electric furnace can even double.
Ensure a good seal for the doors. Up to 80% of the loss of a furnace can be
caused by opening the doors.
Use size-adjustable inlets so that the opening is just enough to allow entry of
the material but not higher to avoid unnecessary losses.
Seek to work with the furnace at full load, instead of several partial loads.
Rapidly charge the feedstock to reduce radiation losses of the furnace.
Also, try to extend working times as much as possible to avoid having to
preheat the oven every time you want to use it.
Ensure that the idling time is minimized. Reduce testing and repair times.
Preheat the load if possible by heat of exhaust gases from other processes.
Use any resulting byproduct, such as water cooling from induction furnaces,
exhaust gases ... You can use the heat stored to feed other processes such as
preheating another furnace, drying a product, etc.
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Recommendation 7: APPLY CORRECTIVE ACTIONS TO REACH THE
RECOMMENDED COMBUSTION PARAMETERS WHEN CHECKING THE BOILER
PERFORMANCE.
The correct values of O2, CO and exhaust gases temperature depend on the type of
fuel and burner used and the boiler’s size. A regular checking of the exhaust gases
should be done, and compared with the optimum given by the boiler manufacturer. As
a reference, the correct values are:
Combustible
O2 max (%)
CO max (ppm)
Fuel-oil
Gasoil
Natural Gas
3,5
3,5
2
200
200
50
If the measured values do not correspond to the ones recommended then the boiler is
not working fine. Some adjustments and fine-tuning might be required, as well as a
proper preventive maintenance.
Savings may be up to 6.5% of the initial equipment consumption.
Recommendation 8: CARRY OUT PERIODICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE.
Regular preventive maintenance should be done, following the manufacturer
guidelines. Frequency as stated by the manufacturer, at least once a year and
depending on the equipment use.
Recommendation 9: INSTALL A CONDENSATE RECOVERY SYSTEM TO SAVE
ENERGY AND WATER.
These systems aim to return the condensed water at the maximum possible
temperature to the water feeding system to recover both the water and the thermal
energy contained in it.
Approximate savings:
If Temp > 130º, thermal savings 4%
If Temp < 130º, savings 2%
Average savings 3%
Recommendation 10: FIND OUT THE PROCESS AND EXHAUST GASES
TEMPERATURE TO FINE-TUNE THE COMBUSTION PROCESS.
Knowing the process temperature to supply hot water or process steam will allow to set
the heat production to the process needs, avoiding energy wastes.
An excess on exhaust gases temperature may entail an energy waste at the outlet
gases. This temperature can be obtained by measuring directly at the boiler outlet. This
value is always taken and reported in the annual maintenance report and should be
tracked in the boiler’s maintenance book.
The maximum exhaust gas temperature varies according to the fuel used. If:
 Gas fuels: 175ºC
 Liquid fuels: 230ºC
 Solid fuels: 230ºC
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User’s Manual
Recommendation 11: REVISE THE EXTERNAL BOILER INSULATION AND
REFRACTORY MATERIAL
A too high outer surface temperature around the boiler may indicate that the equipment
is not sufficiently insulated, and therefore, there is an energy waste through the boiler
surface. Improvements in the boiler insulation material, increasing thickness of the
insulation layer and checking the refractory material is needed. This also contributes to
a safer operation, avoiding burns and accidents. Heat losses may be reduced up to 7080%.
Savings for the equipment 2%.
Recommendation 12: BOILER CLEANING
A too high exhaust gases temperature may be the cause of an inefficient heat
exchange inside the boiler. This issue is usually solved by means of an inner cleaning.
This cleaning should be done on a regular basis to increase the useful heat and
decrease the exhaust gases temperature.
Savings are estimated to be 1% with respect to the current consumption for every 20º
of exhaust gases temp exceeding the maximum value.
Recommendation 13: INSTALL A HEAT RECOVERY SYSTEM
Exhaust gases in high temperature processes may contain enough energy to preheat
the inlet combustion air and reduce the energy consumption this way. This effect can
be achieved by installing a pre-heater which is a heat exchanger to capture part of the
outlet air energy and transfer it to the inlet air. If the excess of heat is reused to heat up
water, then the equipment to install is called economizer.
To know the equipment that best fits in your facilities, please seek expert advice.
.
Recommendation 14: BOILER REPLACEMENT BY A NATURAL GAS BOILER
After 15 years of use a boiler may need replacement as the boiler performance
decreases along time. If there is access to Natural Gas supply then it is highly
recommendable to replace the old boiler by a natural gas boiler, as they are more
efficient and less polluting.
It can be obtained saving up to 15% with respect to the current consumption if the
previous boiler was not a natural gas boiler.
Recommendation 15: BOILER REPLACEMENT BY A NEW BOILER WITH SAME
FUEL
After 15 years of use a boiler may need replacement as the boiler performance
decreases along time. If there is no access to Natural Gas supply then the option is to
replace the old boiler by a boiler using the same fuel..
It can be obtained saving up to 10% with respect to the old boiler
Recommendation 19: FIND APPLICATIONS TO USE THE CONDENSATE HEAT
RECOVERY SYSTEM TO SAVE ENERGY AND WATER.
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These systems aim to return the condensed water at the maximum possible
temperature to the water feeding system to recover both the water and the thermal
energy contained in it. IF the system is not used, it would be very interesting to find an
application or process to use the recovered energy, for instance to complete the hot
water supply.
Approximate savings:
If Temp > 130º, thermal savings 4%
If Temp < 130º, savings 2%
Average savings 3%
COOLING EQUIPMENT AND REFRIGERATORS:
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS

There are high-efficiency fans for the evaporator and condenser requiring less
energy to operate and generate less heat, thereby reducing the cooling needs.
The savings potential is estimated between 3 and 15%. Likewise, there are high
efficiency compression systems that allow savings between 6 and 16%
depending on the refrigeration equipment used.

Evaporative condensers use a soaked filter to cool outside air, increasing its
ability to give off heat. savings may vary between 3 and 9%. when replacing the
dry coolers, whose power consumption is high, for these wet systems

Pressure amplifiers for the liquid side are small cooling pumps located after the
condenser, that increase the pressure of the liquid refrigerant before entering
the expansion valve. This increased pressure provides an additional cooling,
improving the system efficiency up to 20%.

Reducing the temperature of the liquid refrigerant below its condensation
temperature (subcooling process), increases the cooling capacity of the
refrigerant and reduces both the refrigerant amount and the time the
compressor must be running. This operation can be performed with ambient air
(ambient subcooling) or with an additional cooling system (mechanical
subcooling). The latter system savings can reach 25%. Environmental
subcooling capacitors require greater size or additional heat exchangers to
subcool the refrigerant and savings vary between 1 and 9%.

Moisture heaters are electric heaters that are installed in medium and low
temperature cooling systems to keep the outer surfaces free of condensation.
Typically these systems are powered continuously, but if installing a moisture
control device, the heaters turn on or off according to need. Energy savings can
reach 20%.
Finally, heat recovery systems to warm water with the residual heat released
from cooling equipment. can be installed. This allows for reduced energy for hot
water needs.

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User’s Manual
Recommendation 20: PERFORM REGULAR EQUIPMENT CHECKS AND
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE
It is recommended to perform regular equipment checks and preventive maintenance
to ensure the best working conditions. Maintenance should be as frequent as stated by
the manufacturer, and at least once a year.
Recommendation 21: DEFROST PERIODICALLY
A good maintenance can ensure up to a 25% reduction in the operating costs of the
refrigerators. One recommendation is to defrost the coil and clean the condenser.
The efficient no-frost systems detect humidity, measure the frost accumulation and
detect the evaporator pressure drop to achieve defrosting with no need of programmed
defrosting cycles.
Recommendation 22a: SET THE EQUIPMENT PRESSURE SWITCH ACCORDING
TO THE YEAR SEASON (WINTER / SUMMER)
Cooling system compressors are limited by the top pressure (condensation) and
bottom pressure (evaporation). The compressor pressure is controlled by a switch. The
most adverse operating conditions occur in summer due to the high ambient
temperature, that affect the device performance. Therefore, compressors are designed
to work at the top pressure level, which is most likely not needed in winter. If the
pressure switch settings are not changed, the equipment would be operating at
summer worst case conditions, thus loosing efficiency for winter working conditions.
There are potential saving of 2% with respect to initial equipment consumption
Recommendation 22: ENSURE THECORRECT FRIDGE AND FREEZER DOOR
CLOSING BY MEANS OF AN OPEN-DOOR SENSOR.
This system warns the user if the equipment door has been left open totally or partially,
in order to avoid thermal losses. In the worst case, it is at least recommended to attach
warning messages to alert users to keep the doors closed.
Recommendation 23: ENSURE JOINTS GOOD CONDITION
Joints avoid thermal losses between doors and equipment cabinet, by ensuring air
tightness. These joints get deteriorated by intensive use and a revision and
replacement if needed is recommended.
Recommendation 24: SET AN APPROPRIATE TEMPERATURE SETPOINT
ACCORDING TO THE STORED PRODUCT NEEDS .
Lower temperatures than the minimum needed to store safely the product bring about
an energy waste.
Recommendation 25: PROTECT CONDENSER FROM DIRECT SOLAR
RADIATION.
Condensers are sensitive to ambient temperature, reducing the heat exchange
efficiency as it goes up. This is why the condenser has to be kept away from sunshine
and heat sources, and they should be located in well-ventilated places.
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User’s Manual
Saving of 2% with respect to initial equipment consumption can be achieved.
Recommendation 26: COOLING EQUIPMENT SHOULD WORK AT FULL LOAD.
Cooling equipment should work at full capacity to increase energy efficiency. If there
are several refrigerators working at the same temperature and partially loaded, it is
recommended to unify loads into fewer equipments at full capacity, and switch all the
non-used devices.
Recommendation 27: FRIDGE / FREEZER REPLACEMENT BY A NEW ONE WITH
INVERTER TECHNOLOGY.
This technology ensures much lower consumptions by adapting the compressor speed
to the actual pressure needed to meet the target temperature, keeping it to a more
stable and constant value, instead of the usual on-off cycles by former technologies. It
also increases the device lifetime, by reducing the on-off cycles.
This action can save as much as 40% with respect to the present situation.
Recommendation 28: INSULATE THE PIPE SECTION FROM COMPRESSOR TO
EVAPORATOR
The overall system efficiency increases by reducing thermal losses in critical areas like
the pipe that goes from the compressor to the evaporator. It is, then, critical to insulate
this section properly to obtain savings of around 3%.
ELECTRIC ENGINES, PUMPS, FANS, COMPRESSORS
Recommendation 30: ENGINE REPLACEMENT BY A HIGH EFFICIENCY ONE.
For heavily used engines (more than 15 hours/day) older than 10 years it is strongly
recommended to replace conventional technology engines by high efficiency ones,
saving up to 40% with respect to the initial engine consumption. High efficiency
engines provide the same power at a much lower consumption, and extend the device
lifespan. They work better out of the nominal conditions and at low temperatures.
Savings can get up to 45%.
Recommendation 31: CARRY OUT REGULAR REVISIONS
Periodical revisions and preventive maintenance are needed to ensure the best
working conditions for the electric engines, at least once a year.
Special Recommendation 32: INSTALL VARIABLE SPEED DRIVES FOR ENGINES
> 4 kW THAT WORK AT VARIABLE LOADS.
For engines submitted to variable loads, it is interesting to be able to modify the engine
speed to adapt the power to each moment’s needs, instead of wasting energy by
making the engine work at full power at all times. This is achieved by means of a
variable speed drives that, at the same time, smooth the start up profile to provide a
more efficient working condition.
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User’s Manual
This is very convenient in presence of resistant variable loads. It is particularly
applicable to:
Engines that drive pumps
Engines that drive extractors
Engines that drive fans
Engines that drive compressors
Recommendation 33: INSTALL COMPRESSOR AIR INLET OUTDOORS
The colder the air the denser it is, and therefore, the lower the energy necessary to
compress it further. Hence. it is recommended that compressed air systems take the
air right from the outside to ensure it is colder than inside air except for some cases of
extreme summer wheather
Recommendation 34: SWITH OFF COMPRESSED AIR EQUIPMENS AT
WEEKENDS AND IDLE TIMES.
If not in use, switch off the compressed air system at weekends and whenever is not
going to be used to reduce energy consumption and extend the system lifetime.
Recommendation 35: REPLACE COMPRESSOR
For old compressors that work more than 15 hours/day, it is recommended to replace
the compressor by a high efficiency one, obtaining savings of 40% of the original
compressor consumption.
Recommendation 36: COMPRESSED AIR PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE OF
LEAKS .
The higher the pressure the higher the leaks. There should be regular revisions to
ensure that there are not air leaks in the system.
The leak rate on an unmanaged compressed air system can be as much as 40% of the
output. Compressed air leaks also lead to additional costs through:
• Fluctuating system pressure, which can cause air tools and other air-operated
equipment to function less efficiently — potentially stalling and affecting
production
• Reduced service life and increased maintenance of equipment due to
unnecessary compressor cycling and running time
• Excess compressor capacity.
The sources of leakage are numerous, but the most frequent causes are:
• Manual condensate drain valves left open
• Shut-off valves left open
• Leaking hoses and couplings
• Leaking pipes and pipe joints
• Leaking pressure regulators
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User’s Manual
•
Air-using equipment left in operation when not needed.
Recommendation 37: Heat recovery in Compressed Air systems
One of the key cost-reduction opportunities is to re-use the waste heat generated by
the compressor in a suitable application. Only 10% of the electrical energy driving an
air compressor is converted into compressed air energy. The remaining 90% is
normally wasted as heat. A properly designed heat recovery unit can recover over 80%
of this heat for heating air or water.
FURNACES
Recommendation 40: GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS
Glass surface is an important factor in the formation of particulates and other air
pollutants. Changes in the design of the furnace or attempt to improve the energy
transmission trav? S vitrifiable mass so that the temperature of the glass surface is m?
S low.
Replace the fuel with natural gas as primary energy in the drying means an easier
control and regulation and energy savings? Tico to improve process efficiency and
reduce the emission? No particulate, SOx and CO2.
With the sealing of the furnace walls and c? Maras reduces parasitic air inlet
presence of NOx increases thereby reducing the emission of these flue gases and
reducing energy consumption, further improved refractory materials enables reduce
heat loss from the oven and extending the useful life thereof.
Recommendation 41: FIND OUT THE EXHAUST GASES TEMPERATURE TO
FINE-TUNE THE COMBUSTION PROCESS.
An excess on exhaust gases temperature may entail an energy waste at the outlet
gases. This temperature can be obtained by measuring directly at the furnace outlet.
This value is always taken and reported in the annual maintenance report and should
be tracked in the furnace’s maintenance book.
Recommendation 42: CARRY OUT REGULAR REVISIONS
Periodical revisions and preventive maintenance are needed to ensure the best
working conditions for the furnaces, at least once a year.
.
Recommendation 43: REVISE THE EXTERNAL FURNACE INSULATION AND
REFRACTORY MATERIAL
A too high outer surface temperature around the furnace may indicate that the
equipment is not sufficiently insulated, and therefore, there is an energy waste through
the boiler surface. Improvements in the furnace insulation material, increasing
thickness of the insulation layer and checking the refractory material is needed. This
also contributes to a safer operation, avoiding burns and accidents. Heat losses may
be reduced up to 70-80%.
Savings for the equipment 1.5%.
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User’s Manual
Recommendation 44: Exhaust gases temp: INSTALL A HEAT RECOVERY
SYSTEM TO REUSE THE EXHAUST GASES TEMPERATURE.
Exhaust gases in high temperature processes may contain enough energy to preheat
the inlet combustion air and reduce the energy consumption this way. This effect can
be achieved by installing a pre-heater which is a heat exchanger to capture part of the
outlet air energy and transfer it to the inlet air. If the excess of heat is reused to heat up
water, then the equipment to install is called economizer.
To know the equipment that best fits in your facilities, please seek expert advice.
Savings can be up to 15%.
Recommendation 45 Revise Heat Recovery system.: REVISE THE HEAT
RECOVERY SYSTEM MAINTENANCE, WORKING CONDITIONS AND
DIMENSIONING.
If the heat recovery system is installed but the exhaust gas temperature is above the
maximum, the heat recovery equipment may not work properly or may not be properly
dimensioned. Perform a preventive maintenance, a thorough cleaning and analyze
whether the equipment is the most appropriate for your needs.
Recommendation 46: FIND OUT THE PROCESS TEMPERATURE
It is important to know the range of process temperatures to set the furnace to the right
temperature and avoid a waste of energy.
Recommendation 47: INSTALL AN AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM FOR THE
THERMAL EQUIPMENTS.
Recommendation 48: REGENERATIVE FURNACES
Recommendation 49 : REPLACE HEAT RECOVERY FURNACE BY
REGENERATIVE IF PRODUCTION > 40 TN/DAY.
HEAT RECOVERY FURNACEs are mainly used for flexible processes with low
capacity (<40 tn/day). Above this production it is better to install a regenerative furnace.
Recommendation 50: REPLACE ELECTRIC FURNACE BY HEAT RECOVERY
FURNACE IF PRODUCTION BETWEEN 20 AND 40 TN/DAY AND REPLACE BY
REGENERATIVE IF PRODUCTION ABOVE 40 TN/DAY.
Electric furnaces are economically feasible up to 20 tn/day, depending on the electricity
cost and fossil fuel prices. For productions between 20 to 40 tns / day it is best to use
HEAT RECOVERY FURNACEs.
Recommendation 51: COMBINED FURNACES
Recommendation 52: REPLACE BATCH FURNACE BY HEAT RECOVERY
FURNACE IF PRODUCTION BETWEEN 20 AND 40 TN/DAY AND REPLACE BY
REGENERATIVE IF PRODUCTION ABOVE 40 TN/DAY.
Batch furnaces are adequate for low glass productions of different types. For
productions over 40 tn/day it is best to use regenerative furnaces.
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User’s Manual
Recommendation 53: REPLACE THE BURNER BY ANY OF THE FOLLOWING
TECHNOLOGIES
* HIGH SPEED BURNER
* AUTO RECYCLING BURNER
* PULSE COMBUSTION BURNER
Burners mix fuel and air just before combustion takes place.The most efficient burners
compared to the standard are
* HIGH SPEED BURNERS
* AUTO RECYCLING BURNERS
* PULSE COMBUSTION BURNERS
Recommendation 54: REUSE THE OUTLET AIR HEAT RECOVERED FROM THE
DRYING PROCESS.
Recommendation 55: REPLACE THE EXTRUDER CYLINDER HEATING SYSTEM
BY AN INDUCTION HEATING SYSTEM
Energy peaks are avoided as the cylinder temperature is more homogeneous and the
heating / cooling cycles of the standard system are no longer required. With this
technology are achieved efficiencies above 95%, with a reduction of energy losses
close to 98% and a reduction in power consumption of up to 70%.
saving of 21% with respect to the initial equipment consumption
Recommendation 56: MAKE AN IN.DEPTH FURNACE SEALING AND USE HIGH
EFFICIENCY REFRACTORY MATERIALS
This measure prevents heat losses and, hence, the energy efficiency increases.
Recommendation 57: REPLACE THE CURRENT FURNACE BY A CONTINUOUS
FURNACE.
In general, it is recommended the use of continuous-type furnaces (tunnel) versus
discontinuous. Continuous operation can increase the quantity and quality of the
product reducing the cost of labour and reducing the specific fuel consumption
significantly. Specifically, while the thermal efficiency of a tunnel oven is higher than
70-75% , the performance of a discontinuous oven is between 50-55%
Recommendation 58 MAKE IMPROVEMENTS IN THE HEAT RECOVERY
SYSTEMS OF THE REGENERATION CHAMBERS
It is convenient to check the internal layout to enable a better heat transfer.
Recommendation 59: INSTALL A HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM
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User’s Manual
It is recommended to study the feasibility of a Heat & Power system to reuse the heat
energy to generate electricity
Recommendation 58a: REPLACE YOUR CURRENT DRYER BY A NATURAL GAS
DRYER.
Natural gas is more efficient as a fuel, and emits lower SOx, polluting particles and
CO2
Recommendation 59a: REPLACE CURRENT BURNERS TO ENABLE NATURAL
GAS CONSUMPTION.
These burners enable the shift to Natural Gas as a fuel, benefiting of the higher fuel
efficiency and lower SOx, CO2 and particle emissions and ensuring a 5% fuel
consumption reduction
HEATING AND COOLING IN BUILDINGS
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR HVAC
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Whenever the outdoor temperature is below 25 ° C and humidity levels are very
high, natural ventilation can solve the cooling problems of the rooms.
To avoid unnecessary heat sources, such as excessive light, too many devices
that produce heat, etc. This equipment should be turned off when not in use.
At the moment you turn the air conditioning system, all doors and windows of
the premises must be securely closed to prevent cold air losses
If the room is to be unoccupied for more than four hours, the thermostat must
be set at 28 ° C.
Turning off the system 30 minutes before the stay is completely empty, savings
are achieved without any loss of comfort.
Prevent cold air stream falls directly on the occupants of the room. If the air
conditioner has adjustable blades, you have to direct it towards the ceiling.
The air pipes must always be well sealed, well insulated and free of
obstructions. Otherwise, the efficiency of a centralized air conditioning would
drop significantly.
The service technician should also check the electrical connections and
contacts, and the refrigerant charge. Electrical connections are common
sources of errors, especially when the equipments turn on and off often. System
efficiency will decrease significantly when the refrigerant amount does not
match exactly the manufacturer's specifications.
Recommendation 60: SET THE RIGHT TEMPERATURE SETPOINT DEPENDING
ON THE YEAR SEASON
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Every degree above 20º C, 6% savings in heating consumption. Confort temperature
range varies from 20 to 25º. For Winter the ideal temperature should be set at 20º,
whereas in summer the ideal temperatura should be 25º.
Recommendation 61: INSTALL A HEAT PUMP HVAC SYSTEM IN YOUR INDOOR
FACILITIES.
Heat Pumps are reversible systems that exchange heat from the interior of a building to
the ambient by means of an additional energy input. The lower the temperature gap the
lower the energy consumption. This system is self-regulated according to the inner
temperature setpoint and the ouside temperature.
Heat Pumps are usually more efficient than other HVAC systems.
Recommendation 62: INSTALL AN UNDERFLOOR HEAT DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEM.
Hot air is lighter and tends to go up. A radiant floor distribution system covers all the
room surface thus providing a more homogeneous temperature and a better confort
feeling at a lower energy consumption.
Recommendation 63: INSTALL A REGULATION AND CONTROL SYSTEM.
To adequate the heating to the ambient external conditions it is strongly recommended
to put in place a regulation and control system. Savings can be up to 20 % in heating
consumption.
Recommendation 64: USE EAVES, AWNINGS OR CANOPIES TO KEEP OUT
DIRECT SUNLIGHT IN SUMMER.
Stopping direct sun radiation from breaking through is a good way to save in Cooling
systems in summer.
Recommendation 65: COVER HVAC CONDENSERS FROM DIRECT SUNSHINE.
Since the HVAC systems increase efficiency when the temperature gap is low it is
adviced to keep the condensers away from the sunshine.
Recommendation 66: SET THE TEMPERATURE CONTROLS IN APPROPRIATE
REPRESENTATIVE LOCATIONS.
To ensure a right automatic control, the sensor should be placed away from windows,
doors, radiators, air conditioning splits, and close to the working places.
Recommendation 67: CARRY OUT REGULAR CLEANING AND MAINTENANCE
OF THE COOLING SYSTEM
Preventive maintenance and regular cleaning facilitates a more efficient heat exchange
and improves the cooling system efficiency. There is a 6.5% savings in cooling
consumption
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User’s Manual
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COOLING
GENERAL
ENERGY ACCOUNTABILITY
Being aware of the company's energy consumption is of paramount important to be
able to identify abnormal consumption peaks due to a misuse or fautly equipment.
Knowing where energy is consumed is the first step towards an efficient use of it and
can also help to identify the first easy measures to save energy. It is also
recommendable to create the position of energy manager to give continuity to any
efficiency measures.
GENERAL RECOMMENDATIONS FOR COOLING
Changing some parts of the cooling system existing can significantly improve the
overall performance of the system. Savings vary between 1 and 20%, depending on
the technology employed.
The following are the devices that can improve the efficiency of the equipment. It
should be noted that no all of them are complementary.
• There are high-efficiency fans for the evaporator and condenser they need less
energy to operate and generate less heat, thereby reducing the cooling load. Savings
energy potential is estimated between 3 and 15%.
• In the same way, there are also compression systems allowing high efficiency savings
between 6 and 16%, depending on refrigeration equipment used.
• adjust pressure modifiers pressure compressor according to external environmental
conditions. The estimated savings are between 3 and 10%.
• Evaporative condensers use a damp filter cool outside air, increasing its ability to
detach heat. When I replace the dry coolers, whose consumption electricity is high, for
these systems, the savings can vary between 3 and 9%.
• amplifiers liquid line pressure are small coolant pumps located after the condenser,
increasing the pressure of the liquid refrigerant before entering the expansion valve.
This increased pressure provides subcooling the refrigerant, improving efficiency
system. They can save up to 20% Reduced energy costs for the company
• Lowering the temperature of the liquid refrigerant below from its condensation
temperature (subcooling process) increases the cooling capacity per unit of
refrigerant and time must be the compressor operation is reduced because less is
needed
refrigerant. This operation can be performed with air environment (environmental
subcooling) or with a system of additional cooling (mechanical subcooling). Savings
This last system can reach 25%. Subcooling environmental capacitors requires higher
size or additional heat exchanger to subcool coolant and savings vary between 1 and
9%.
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User’s Manual
• Efficient lighting such as fluorescent T-8 or electronic ballasts (see section 1.5.1), can
reduce consumption electrical and cooling load on the compressor. The
Savings can be up to 10%. Additional savings can achieved by installing lighting
controls, that turn off lights when not in use.
• Moisture heaters are electric heaters that are installed in refrigeration medium and
low temperature to maintain external surfaces free of condensation.
Typically these systems are on continuously, but if a control device installed moisture,
the heaters are switched on or off of according to the needs. The energy savings can
reach 20%.
• The frost that occurs in the walls of refrigerators, freezers, etc. heat transfer
decreases and significantly increases the energy consumption. Systems Frost improve
efficient defrost cycle, identifying the fall of evaporator temperature or pressure
or by measuring the accumulation of frost and detecting the humidity. These systems
are more efficient than starting defrosting cycles following scheduled. Savings
vary between 1 and 6%.
• Finally, it can pose recovery systems heat, which heats the water with heat from the
equipment cooling. This allows for energy reductions for hot water needs.
Recommendation 70: SET AN APPROPRIATE TEMPERATURE TARGET FOR THE
HVAC SYSTEM
The recommendation for indoor confort temperature is 20 degrees for winter and 26
degrees for summer. A different temperature setpoint is a waste of energy and may not
result in a greater confort level. Every degree above 20 may imply an energy
overconsumption of 5 to 7%.
Recommendation 71: REPLACE THE HEATING SYSTEM BY A HEAT PUMP
SYSTEM
Heat Pumps are very efficient systems that can provide more thermal energy than the
electricity energy consumed. Final consumption can be up to a 50% lower than a
heating conventional system.
LIGHTING
Recommendation 90: INSTALL ELECTRONIC BALLAST PRIMERS FOR THE
DISCHARGE LAMPS.
In case of fluorescent lamps, low consumption lamps or Sodium or Mercury vapour
lamps install electronic ballast primers as they reduce the energy peak for the lamp
start up and help control the reactive energy.
Recommendation 91: REPLACEMENT OF INCANDESCENT BULBS BY LOW
CONSUMPTION LAMPS.
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User’s Manual
Whenever possible, replace incandescent bulbs by low consumption lamps. If the
working hours are high, consider the LED lamps as savings are even greater.
Recommendation 92: CONSIDER THE USE OF LED TECHNOLOGY LAMPS.
If the lamp is on for a long time throughout the year, then consider the possibility of
using LED based lamps. They are more expensive but savings are even greater.
Recommendation 93: SET A LIGHTINGPREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE PLAN.
This plan should include cleaning and revision. Having the walls and ceilings painted in
light colours helps to reduce the ligthing consumption.
Recommendation 94: CONSIDER REPLACING THE HGH PRESSURE MERCURY
VAPOUR LAMPS BY SODIUM VAPOUR LAMPS
Sodium vapour lamps are more efficient than mercury vapour lamps while giving the
necessary lighting quality and quantity for outdoor lighting, although the light is rather
yellowish.
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User’s Manual
9. Hints
This section provides valuable hints about how to deal with and overcome some
limitations of the self-assessment tool. It is an on-going work that is being updated as
new information arises.
1.
2.
3.
4.
When talking about pumps in Industrial Cooling we are talking about heat
pumps. Fluid pumps are included in the “motor, fans, pumps and compressor”
sections.
The calculation program calculates the electrical consumption by multiplying the
nominal power by the number of working hours per year. The value is corrected
by the load factor. If no load factor provided, it is assumed 0.75 as an
approximation. The final consumption is the addition of the individual
consumption of each device. Motors’ individual consumption is not calculated as
it might require too much data depending on the number of motors. These
devices, as well as other minor consumptions are deducted from the total
electricity consumption.
If the sum of all single device consumptions exceed the company electricity
consumption a warning sign will be shown. You may be given the chance to
change either the parameters of the reported devices or the overall energy
consumption in order to assort the numbers. All the numbers and energy
balance will be shown in cells that can be changed until reasonable numbers
are achieved.
Savings for motors, pumps, fans and compressors are usually assessed
following 2 criteria.

Age: older than 10 years means a high likelihood of low efficiency
compared to today’s standards. In this case, a replacement makes sense
only in case this motor be submitted to an intense usage (>15 h/day). To
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User’s Manual
5.
6.
calculate the approximate savings the software considers a 40% of the
current consumption, estimated as P nom * 20 h/day * number of working
days / year.

Variable loads for engines > 4 kW, recommending the use of speed drives.
In some sectors like food and agriculture, building consumptions are not
relevant. Hence there are no questions about HVAC. However, it is interesting
to include the heating boiler in the list of consuming devices. This consumption
is more significant in other sectors like chemical or textile and specific questions
are asked.
In case that an unexpected value is requested by the tool and this value is not
available you cannot go on with the data entering. Then you can log out and
search for the data. Next time you log back in by using the password and login
of this company, you will be automatically driven to the last unfilled screen, so
as to proceed with the work. Do not go on with a blank field. Otherwise you may
not be able to go back to retrieve that blank later.
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User’s Manual
Disclaimer
The sole responsibility for the content of webpage lies with the authors. It does
not necessarily reflect the opinion of the European Union. Neither EASME nor
the European Commission are responsible for any use that may be made of the
information contained therein.
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