THE PERFECT EYE - Stemmer Imaging

THE PERFECT EYE - Stemmer Imaging
User Manual
BLIZZARD-60
CMOS Area Scan Cameras
THE PERFECT EYE
MAN020 08/2005 V1.0
All information provided in this manual is believed to be accurate and reliable. No
responsibility is taken by Photonfocus AG for its use. Photonfocus AG reserves the right to
make changes to this information without notice.
Reproduction of this manual in whole or in part, by any means, is prohibited without prior
permission having been obtained from Photonfocus AG.
1
2
Contents
1 Preface
1.1 About Photonfocus
1.2 Contact . . . . . . .
1.3 Sales Offices . . . .
1.4 Further information
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5
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2 How to get started
7
2.1 CameraLink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.2 USB 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3 Product Specification
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Further Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4.1 Frame grabber Relevant Configuration Parameters (CameraLink only)
3.4.2 USB 2.0 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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13
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4 Functionality
4.1 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Free Running and External Trigger Mode .
4.1.2 Exposure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 Maximum Frame Rate . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4 Active Pixel Array and End-of-Line Pattern
4.2 Linear and Non-linear Pixel Response . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Gain x1 to x8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 LinLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 Skimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4 Image Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3 Reduction of Image Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Region of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Decimation Y 1:2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Trigger modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Configuration Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 CameraLink Serial Interface . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 USB 2.0 Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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5 Hardware Interface
5.1 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 CameraLink Connector . .
5.1.2 USB 2.0 Connector . . . .
5.1.3 Power Supply . . . . . . .
5.1.4 Trigger Signals (USB only)
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27
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CONTENTS
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3
CONTENTS
5.1.5 Status Indicator . . . . . . . . . .
5.2 CameraLink Data Interface . . . . . . . .
5.3 Read-Out Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 Standard Read-out Timing . . . .
5.4 Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 External Trigger Mode . . . . . .
5.4.3 Notes on Using External Trigger .
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6 The PFRemote Control Tool
6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.1 CameraLink Model . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2 USB 2.0 Model . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Installation Notes (CameraLink only) . . .
6.2.1 DLL Dependencies . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Camera Initialization . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 The Camera Configuration Dialog
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37
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7 Mechanical and Optical Considerations
7.1 Mechanical Dimensions . . . . . . .
7.2 Optical Interface . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Mounting the Lens . . . . .
7.2.2 Cleaning the Sensor . . . . .
7.3 Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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45
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8 Warranty
49
8.1 Warranty Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
8.2 Warranty Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
A Pinouts
A.1 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.1.1 Power Supply Connector for CameraLink Model
A.1.2 Power Supply Connector for USB Model . . . . .
A.2 CameraLink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A.3 USB 2.0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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51
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B USB compatibility
55
B.1 Hardware requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
C Literature and Links
59
D Revision History
61
4
1
Preface
1.1
About Photonfocus
The Swiss company Photonfocus is one of the leading specialists in the development of CMOS
image sensors and corresponding industrial cameras for machine vision, security & surveillance
and automotive markets.
Photonfocus is dedicated to making the latest generation of CMOS technology commercially
available. Active Pixel Sensor (APS) and global shutter technologies enable high speed and
high dynamic (120 dB) applications, while avoiding the disadvantages, e.g. image lag,
blooming and smear.
Photonfocus has proven that the image quality of modern CMOS sensors is now appropriate
for demanding applications. Photonfocus’ product range is complemented by custom design
solutions in the area of camera electronics and CMOS image sensors.
Photonfocus is ISO 9001 certified. All products are produced with the latest techniques in order
to ensure the highest degree of quality.
1.2
Contact
Photonfocus AG, Bahnhofplatz 10, CH-8853 Lachen, Switzerland
Sales
Phone: +41 55 451 01 31
Email: [email protected]
Support
Phone: +41 55 451 01 37
Email: [email protected]
Table 1.1: Photonfocus Contact
1.3
Sales Offices
Photonfocus products are available through an extensive international distribution network;
details of the distributor nearest you can be found at www.photonfocus.com.
1.4
Further information
For further information on the products, documentation and software updates please see our
web site www.photonfocus.com or contact our distributors.
Photonfocus reserves the right to make changes to its products without notice.
Photonfocus products are neither intended nor certified for use in life support
systems or in other critical systems. The use of Photonfocus products in such
applications is prohibited.
Photonfocus and LinLog are trademarks of Photonfocus AG. CameraLink is a
registered mark of the Automated Imaging Association. Product and company
names mentioned herein are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.
5
1 Preface
6
2
How to get started
2.1
1.
CameraLink
Install a suitable frame grabber in your PC.
To find a compliant frame grabber, please see the frame grabber compatibility
list at www.photonfocus.com.
For US and Canada: Ensure the device downstream of the camera data path (e.g.
camera power supply, cable, frame grabber and PC) is UL listed.
2.
Install the frame grabber software.
✎
3.
Without installed frame grabber software the camera configuration tool PFRemote will not be able to communicate with the camera. Please follow the instructions of the frame grabber supplier.
Remove the camera from its packaging. Please make sure the following items are included
with your camera:
•
Power supply connector (3-pole power plug)
•
Camera body cap
If any items are missing or damaged, please contact your dealership.
4.
Remove the camera body cap from the camera and mount a suitable lens.
Figure 2.1: Camera with protective cap and lens.
7
2 How to get started
Do not touch the sensor surface. Protect the image sensor from particles and
dirt! When removing the protective cap or changing the lens, the camera should
always be held with the opening facing downwards to prevent dust from the
environment falling onto the CMOS sensor. If the lens is removed, the protective
cap should be refitted.
To choose a suitable lens for your application, see the Lens Finder in the ’Support’
area at www.photonfocus.com.
5.
Connect the camera to the frame grabber with a suitable CameraLink cable (see Fig. 2.2).
Figure 2.2: Camera with frame grabber, power supply and cable.
Do not connect or disconnect the CameraLink cable while camera power is on!
For more information about CameraLink see Section 4.5.
6.
Connect a suitable power supply to the provided 3-pole power plug. For the connector
assembly see Fig. A.1.
Check the correct supply voltage and polarity! Do not exceed the maximum
operating voltage of +12V DC (± 10%).
The pinout of the connector is shown in Section A.1.
For US and Canada: Ensure a UL listed power supply is used. A suitable UL listed
power supply is available from Photonfocus.
8
7.
Connect the power supply to the camera (see Fig. 2.2).
✎
8.
The status LED on the rear of the camera will light red for a short moment, and
then flash green. For more information see Section 5.1.5.
Download the camera software PFRemote to your computer.
You can find the latest version of PFRemote on the support page at
www.photonfocus.com.
9.
Install the camera software PFRemote. Please follow the instructions of the PFRemote
setup wizard.
Figure 2.3: Screen shot PFremote setup wizard
10. Start the camera software PFRemote and choose the communication port (e.g. cl0, com0,
siso0).
Figure 2.4: PFRemote start window
2.1 CameraLink
9
2 How to get started
11. Check the status LED on the rear of the camera.
✎
The status LED lights green when an image is being produced, and it is red when
serial communication is active. For more information see Section 5.1.5.
12. You may now display images using the software that is provided by the frame grabber
manufacturer.
The camera delivers images with a resolution of 10 bit. Please refer to the documentation of your frame grabber how to receive 10 bit images.
2.2
1.
USB 2.0
Remove the camera from its packaging. Please make sure the following items are included
with your camera:
•
Power supply connector (7-pole power plug)
•
Camera body cap
•
Installation CD (Driver/Application CD)
If any items are missing or damaged, please contact your dealership.
Please check that your PC’s chipset is supported before you proceed (see Section
4.5.2).
2.
Remove the camera body cap from the camera and mount a suitable lens.
Figure 2.5: Camera with protective cap and lens.
Do not touch the sensor surface. Protect the image sensor from particles and
dirt! When removing the protective cap or changing the lens, the camera should
always be held with the opening facing downwards to prevent dust from the
environment falling onto the CMOS sensor. If the lens is removed, the protective
cap should be refitted.
10
To choose a suitable lens for your application, see the Lens Finder in the ’Support’
area at www.photonfocus.com.
3.
Install the USB camera software called MicroDisplayUSB.
After installation of the USB 2.0 device driver, any other USB 2.0 devices connected to this controller will be ignored. USB 1.1 devices, on the other hand, can
still be operated.
4.
Connect the camera to a USB 2.0 port at the PC with a suitable USB 2.0 cable (see Fig. 2.6).
Figure 2.6: Camera with power supply and USB 2.0 cable.
5.
Connect a suitable power supply to the provided 7-pole power plug. For the connector
assembly see Fig. A.1.
Check the correct supply voltage and polarity! Do not exceed the maximum
operating voltage of +12V DC (± 10%).
The pinout of the connector is shown in Section A.1.
For US and Canada: Ensure a UL listed power supply is used. A suitable UL listed
power supply is available from Photonfocus.
6.
Start the software "MicroDisplayUSB". In the Camera Selection window (see Fig. 2.7),
choose the camera model and press OK. This step is mandatory for proper operation of
the camera, because it uploads the USB firmware into the camera.
2.2 USB 2.0
11
2 How to get started
Figure 2.7: MicroDisplayUSB camera selection window
If the power supply or the USB cable of the camera have been disconnected, you
have to restart MicroDisplayUSB in order to download the USB firmware again.
7.
Start the camera software "PFRemote" and choose the communication port USB0 (see Fig.
2.4).
8.
Check the status LEDs on the rear of the camera
The status LED 2 (lower one) lights green when an image is being produced, and
it is red when serial communication is active. The LED 1 (upper one) lights green
when USB is ready and blinks red depending of the transfer mode. For more
information see Section 5.1.5.
✎
9.
12
You may now display images using the MicroDisplayUSB software.
3
Product Specification
3.1
Introduction
The BLIZZARD-60 series of CMOS cameras from Photonfocus is aimed at demanding
applications in industrial image processing. It provides an exceptionally high dynamic range of
up to 120 dB at a resolution of 750 x 400 pixels and a frame rate of up to 60 full images per
second. The cameras are built around a monochrome CMOS image sensor, developed by
Photonfocus. The principal advantages are:
•
Low power consumption at high speeds
•
Resistance to blooming
•
Extremely high image contrast achieved by LinLog technology.
•
The global shutter, in combination with a selectable region of interest, is ideal for high
speed applications
•
Software is provided to set camera parameters and store them within the camera.
•
The cameras have a digital CameraLink or a USB 2.0 interface.
•
The compact size of only 55 x 55 x 24 mm3 (CameraLink) or 55 x 55 x 48 mm3 (USB 2.0)
makes the BLIZZARD-60 series the perfect solution for applications in which space is at a
premium.
The general specifications and features of the camera are listed in the following sections.
13
3 Product Specification
3.2
Technical Specifications
BLIZZARD-60
Technology
CMOS active pixel
Scanning system
progressive scan
Optical format / diagonal
Resolution
2/3” / 9 mm
750 x 400 pixels (active 748 x 400)
Pixel size
10.6 x 10.6 µm2
Active optical area
7.95 x 4.30 mm
Random noise
< 1.5 DN RMS @ 10 bit / gain = 1
Fixed pattern noise (FPN)
< 15 DN RMS @ 10 bit / gain = 1
Dark current
2 fA/pixel @ 30°C
200 ke−
Full well capacity
Spectral sensitivity
Responsivity
Optical fill factor
Dynamic range
Color format
Characteristic curve
380 nm ... 950 nm
3
480x10 DN/(J/m2 ) @ 610nm / 10 bit / gain = 1
35% (diode area only)
60 dB linear, 120 dB (with LinLog)
monochrome
linear or LinLog
Shutter mode
global shutter
Readout mode
non-interleaved
Min. Region of Interest (ROI)
1 row x 6 columns
Table 3.1: Image sensor specifications
The last two colums of every image consist of an end of line (EOL) pattern which
cannot be turned off. Therefore, the maximum active resolution is 748 x 400
pixels, but an image of 750 x 400 pixels is output. The second to last column is
always white and the last black. This also applies when using Region of Interest
(see Section 4.3.1 ).
14
BLIZZARD-60
Exposure Time
500 µs ... 52 ms / 500 µs steps (linear or LinLog mode)
10 µs ... 500 us / 10 µs steps (linear mode only)
Frame Rate
60 fps @ Tint = 100 µs
Pixel Clock
20 MHz
Camera Taps
1
Greyscale Resolution
10 bit
Programmable On-Chip Gain
x1 - x8 in 8 steps
Table 3.2: Camera specifications
Operating Temperature
Power Supply
Power Consumption
Lens Mount
BLIZZARD-60 CL
BLIZZARD-60 USB
0°C ... 60°C
0°C ... 60°C
+12 V DC (± 10%)
+12 V DC (± 10%)
0.8 W
2.2 W
C- or CS-Mount
3
Dimensions
Mass
Conformity
C- or CS-Mount
55 x 55 x 24 mm
55 x 55 x 48 mm3
150 g
200 g
CE
CE
Table 3.3: Physical characteristics
Quantum Efficiency
80
QE Diode
QE Pixel incl. Fill factor
QE (Electrons/Photon) [%]
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
300
400
500
600
700
800
Wavelength [nm]
900
1000
1100
Figure 3.1: Spectral response
3.2 Technical Specifications
15
3 Product Specification
3.3
Feature Overview
BLIZZARD-60
Interfaces
CameraLink base configuration or USB 2.0 Interface
Camera Control
PFRemote (Windows GUI) or programming library (Windows)
Configuration Interface
Trigger Modes
CLSERIAL (9’600 baud / higher baud rates on request)
Free running / ExSync controlled
Features
Region of Interest (ROI)
LinLog / Skimming / Decimation (Y 1:2) / Analog gain
Table 3.4: Camera configuration
3.4
3.4.1
Further Information
Frame grabber Relevant Configuration Parameters (CameraLink only)
BLIZZARD-60 CameraLink
Pixel Clock
20 MHz
Number of Taps
1
Greyscale Resolution
CC-Signals
10 bit
CC1: EXSYNC (common trigger signal, level sensitive), CC2, CC3, CC4: not used
Table 3.5: Camera specification
The trigger signal is level sensitive, it is not edge controlled! Keep the applied EXSYNC-Signal as short as possible (100ns up to configured exposure time).
Please consult your frame grabber manual whether your grabber is capable of
processing such trigger pulses.
3.4.2
USB 2.0 Interface
During the software installation, the original Windows USB 2.0 driver is replaced by a highly
performance-optimized driver from Silicon Software. To take full advantage of your camera, a
PC mainboard with Intel chip set is mandatory. Chip sets from VIA can achieve only half of the
maximum frame rate. Other chip sets are currently not supported (see Section 4.5.2).
After installation of the USB 2.0 device driver, any other USB 2.0 devices connected to this controller will be ignored. USB 1.1 devices, on the other hand, can
still be operated.
16
4
Functionality
This chapter serves as an overview over the camera configuration modes and explains camera
features. The goal is to describe what can be done with the camera; the setup is explained in
later chapters.
4.1
4.1.1
Image Acquisition
Free Running and External Trigger Mode
By default the camera continuously delivers images with a certain configurable frame rate,
which depends on the exposure and read-out time (free-running mode). When the acquisition
of an image needs to be synchronised to an external event, a trigger can be used (refer to
Section 4.4).
4.1.2
Exposure Control
The exposure time defines the period during which the image sensor is integrating the
incoming light. See Table 3.2 for the range of exposure time which can be configured.
4.1.3
Maximum Frame Rate
The maximum frame rate depends on the exposure time and the size of the image (see Region
of Interest, Section 4.3.1).
4.1.4
Active Pixel Array and End-of-Line Pattern
The BLIZZARD-60 Camera has an active pixel array of 748 columns x 400 rows. At the end of
each row, a fixed pattern of gray level 0 (black) and then gray level 1023 (white, 10 bit
resolution) will be transmitted as an End-of-Line (EOL).
( 0 ,0 )
I m a g e
L e n s
C M O S
( 0 ,0 )
v e r t ic a l s c a n
( 7 4 7 ,3 9 9 )
( 7 4 7 ,3 9 9 )
h o r iz o n t a l s c a n
I m a g e S e n s o r
R e p r e s e n ta t
I m a g e s iz
in c lu d in g w h
te s
io n
e 7
it e
t r o
w
o n M o n it o r
5 0 x 4 0 0
a n d b la c k
Figure 4.1: Aquired image at full resolution with test row
17
4 Functionality
Every aquired image consists of the active pixel array information and the EOL
pattern. The EOL pattern cannot be switched off.
4.2
Linear and Non-linear Pixel Response
Normally, the camera offers a substantially linear response between input light signal and
output gray level. This can be modified by the use of LinLog or Skimming as described in the
following sections.
In the following sections, the pixel response is illustrated by diagrams, which
show the principle behaviour.
4.2.1
Gain x1 to x8
The gain of the programmable gain amplifier (PGA) can be configured between 1 and 8 with a
resolution of 8 steps: x1 / x1.5 / x1.8 / x2.5 / x3 / x4.5 / x6 / x8.
Fig. 4.2 gives an example of the sensor response curve using different gain settings for Tint =
1ms.
Sample Gain Response Curves
O=525nm Tint =1ms
1050
1000
950
900
850
800
Output code [10bit]
750
700
1
1.5
1.8
2.5
3
4.5
6
8
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0.0E+00
5.0E-05
1.0E-04
1.5E-04
2.0E-04
2.5E-04
3.0E-04
Optical Power [W/cm2]
Figure 4.2: Response curve for different gain settings in linear mode
When using gain, LinLog and skimming in combination, the parameters for each
feature have to be selected very carfully. Otherwise, the image quality may not
satisfy.
18
4.2.2
LinLog
The LinLog feature of CMOS image sensors from Photonfocus allows the user to adapt the
characteristics of the sensor to the requirements of the application. In situations involving high
intrascene contrast, compression of the upper grey level region can be achieved with the
LinLog technology. At low intensities, each pixel shows a linear response. At high intensities,
the response changes to logarithmic compression. The transition region between linear and
logarithmic response can be smoothly adjusted and is continuously differentiable and
monotonic.
An example in the following section should illustrate the LinLog feature.
G ra y
V a lu e
S a tu r a tio n
1 0 0 %
W e a k c o m p r e s s io n
L in e a r
R e s p o n s e
R e s u ltin g L in lo g
R e s p o n s e
S tr o n g c o m p r e s s io n
0 %
V a lu e 1
L ig h t In te n s ity
V a lu e 2
Figure 4.3: Resulting LinLog2 response curve
The BLIZZARD-60 has 4 parameters to control the LinLog mode (Time1, Time2, Value1 and Value2,
see Fig. 4.4). The LinLog voltage (V_LinLog) that is applied to the sensor is decreased in two
steps to 0 during the exposure time. A higher LinLog voltage means a stronger compression of
the bright input light.
At exposure start, the LinLog voltage is equal to Value1. After Time1 finished, the LinLog
voltage is decreased to a level equal to Value2. After Time2 ends, the LinLog voltage is
decreased to zero (Value3) until the end of integration.
V
L in L o g
t
e x p
V a lu e 1
V a lu e 2
T im e 1
V a lu e 3 = C o n s ta n t = 0
T im e 2
T im e 1
T im e 2
t
t
e x p
Figure 4.4: Linlog voltage switch
4.2 Linear and Non-linear Pixel Response
19
4 Functionality
An example for a LinLog response curve is given in Fig. 4.5. The exposure time in this example
was Tint = 10 ms, and the step of the LinLog voltage from the programmed LinLog voltage to
0V occurs at 99% of the integration time. The decimal value in the legend corresponds to the
LinLog settings Value1.
Sample LinLog2 Response Curves
O=525nm Tint =1ms
1050
1000
950
900
850
800
Output code [10bit]
750
700
0
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0.0E+00
5.0E-05
1.0E-04
1.5E-04
2.0E-04
2.5E-04
Optical Power [W/cm2]
Figure 4.5: Response curve for different LinLog settings in LinLog2 mode
20
3.0E-04
3.5E-04
4.2.3
Skimming
Skimming is a Photonfocus proprietary technology to enhance detail in dark areas of an image.
Skimming provides an adjustable level of in-pixel gain for low signal levels. It can be used
together with LinLog to give a smooth monotonic transfer function from high gain at low
levels, through normal linear operation, to logarithmic compression for high signal levels. The
resulting response is similar to a gamma correction.
Fig. 4.6 shows an example of the sensor response curve for different skim voltages. The
integration time was Tint = 10 ms. The decimal value in the legend corresponds to the skim
settings.
Sample Skimming Response Curves
O=525nm Tint =10ms
1050
1000
950
900
850
800
Output code [10bit]
750
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
700
650
600
550
500
450
400
350
300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0.0E+00
5.0E-06
1.0E-05
1.5E-05
2.0E-05
2.5E-05
3.0E-05
Optical Power [W/cm2]
Figure 4.6: Response curve for different skim settings
4.2.4
Image Correction
On the BLIZZARD-60, there is a defect pixel correction available. It is implemented as a sliding
window containing five pixels, which examines the current pixel and two pixels either side of
it. If the current pixel exceeds the average of its neighbors by more than a certain user-defined
threshold, the pixel will be rejected and replaced by this average value.
4.2 Linear and Non-linear Pixel Response
21
4 Functionality
4.3
Reduction of Image Size
With Photonfocus cameras there are several possibilities to focus on the interesting parts of an
image, thus reduce the data rate and increase the frame rate. The most commonly used
feature is region of interest (ROI).
4.3.1
Region of Interest
Some applications do not need the full image resolution (e.g. 750 x 400 pixels). By reducing the
image size to a certain region of interest (ROI), the frame rate can be greatly increased. A
region of interest can be any rectangular window and is specified by its position within the full
frame and its width and height. Fig. 4.7 gives some possible configurations for a region of
interest, and Table 4.1 shows other examples on how the frame rate can be increased for the
BLIZZARD-60 model by reducing the ROI.
When using the skimming feature, the frame rate slightly decreases due to increased reset time of the sensor (see Table 4.2).
a )
b )
c )
d )
Figure 4.7: ROI configuration examples
The user can define a Region Of Interest (ROI) within the sensor to be transmitted to the frame
grabber. The smallest ROI for the camera consists of one line of six pixels.
ROI Dimensions
Maximum frame rate
750 x 400
58 fps
750 x 200
110 fps
750 x 100
198 fps
750 x 1
956 fps
600 x 400
70 fps
400 x 400
98 fps
300 x 200
217 fps
Table 4.1: Example: Frame rate increase for a ROI (Tint = 1ms)
Please note that the last two pixels of every line are EOL pattern. The second to
last line is always white and the last black. This also applies when using ROI (see
Section 4.1.4).
22
ROI Dimensions
Maximum frame rate
750 x 400
58 fps
750 x 200
109 fps
750 x 100
194 fps
750 x 1
873 fps
600 x 400
70 fps
400 x 400
97 fps
300 x 200
212 fps
Table 4.2: Example: Frame rate increase for a ROI (Tint = 1ms) when using skimming
The ROI parameter values must follow the rules according to 4.3. PFRemote and PFLib API
respectively ensure that the settings are correct without any user intervention.
Range
Step size
X
0, 4, 8, .. 740
modulo 4
W
6, 10, 14, .. 750
4
Y
0, 1, 2 .. 394
1
H
1, 2, 3 .. 400
1
Table 4.3: ROI size restriction
Calculation of the Maximum Frame Rate
The frame rate depends on the exposure time, trigger mode and skimming mode.
Frame time = (1 / frame rate)
Frame time > (exposure time + read out time)
Frame time > TInt + tU { PY · PX + [(PY − 1) · LP] + FS + CPRE1 + CPRE2 + SR}
tU
pixel clock period in ns (constant tU = 50.00 ns)
TInt
exposure time (range TInt = 10 µs . . . 52 ms)
LP
line pause (constant LP = 61 clock cycles)
CPRE1
clocks between completed readout and before a new image acquisition begins
(External Trigger: CPRE1 = 0 clock cycles; Free running: CPRE1 = 62 clock cycles)
CPRE2
clocks between end of integration and before the data transfer begins
(constant CPRE2 = 28 clock cycles)
SR
skim reset; additional clocks between end of integration and before the data
transfer begins when skimming is active (skim = 0: SR = 0 clock cycles,
skim > 0: SR = 1984 clock cycles)
FS
frame start; clocks between rising edge FVAL and first LVAL (constant FS = 73 clock cycles)
PX
number of pixels in x-direction (6 . . . 750 columns)
PY
number of pixels in y-direction (1 . . . 400 rows)
A frame rate calculator is available in the support area of the Photonfocus website.
4.3 Reduction of Image Size
23
4 Functionality
4.3.2
Decimation Y 1:2
Decimation Y 1:2 (1:2 Y-axis subsampling) is another possibility to increase the frame rate. It
transfers every 2nd row of an image and thus compresses the image height by factor 2.
Decimation can also be used together with ROI.
4.4
Trigger modes
With a trigger signal the acquisition of an image can be synchronised with an external event.
This trigger signal can be either generated by the frame grabber itself or it can be generated
by an external source such as a light barrier.
For the BLIZZARD-60 cameras, there are 2 different trigger modes available:
External Trigger Mode In this trigger mode the camera is configured with a certain exposure
time. A trigger pulse starts the acquisition of an image (level sensitive).
Free Running By default, the camera delivers continuously images with a certain frame rate,
which is defined by the exposure and read-out time.
For more information and the respective timing diagrams see Section 5.4.
4.5
4.5.1
Configuration Interface
CameraLink Serial Interface
A CameraLink camera can be controlled by the user via an RS232 compatible asynchronous
serial interface. This interface is contained within the CameraLink interface as shown in Fig. 4.8
and is physically not directly accessible. Instead, the serial communication is usually routed
through the frame grabber. For some frame grabbers it might be necessary to connect a serial
cable from the frame grabber to the serial interface of the PC.
C a m e ra
F ra m e g ra b b e r
P ix e l C lo c k
C C
S ig n a ls
C a m e r a L in k
C a m e r a L in k
Im a g e d a ta ,
F V A L , L V A L , D V A L
S e r ia l In te r fa c e
Figure 4.8: CameraLink serial interface for camera communication
To interface different cameras to different frame grabbers, the CameraLink standard defines a
software API. It defines how the functions to initialise, read from, write to and close the serial
interface should look. The code behind these functions is frame grabber specific and is written
by the frame grabber manufacturer. The functions are then compiled into a DLL called
clserXXX.dll, where XXX is a unique identifier for the frame grabber manufacturer.
The PFRemote camera configuration tool as well as the PFLib API use the serial interface to
communicate with the camera and to control its functions. The serial interface is accessed via
the clserXXX.dll. Therfore, the appropriate clserXXX.dll for the frame grabber manufacturer
24
needs to be in the same directory as the PFRemote executable (e.g. C:\Program
Files\Photonfocus\PFRemote). This DLL is usually located in the windows\system32 directory after
installing the frame grabber driver.
The serial configuration parameters are defined in the CameraLink standard and are as follows:
9600 baud, 1 start bit, 1 stop bit, no parity, no handshaking.
4.5.2
USB 2.0 Interface
The abbreviation USB stands for "Universal Serial Bus" and is a bus system developed in 1995
by a consortium of leading companies in the computer industry, in cooperation with Intel. The
USB 1.1 specification defined the port speed to be 12 Mbit/s, the USB 2.0 specification a
remarkable 480 Mbit/s. USB supports so-called "Hot-Plugging" that allows USB devices to be
plugged in or out during system operation. With an image size of 750 x 400 pixels, a frame rate
of about 30 frames/s can be achieved using the ISO transfer mode (max. 24 MBytes/sec), while,
in isochronous mode (max. 48 MByte/s - supported only by some Intel PC chip sets) a frame rate
of 60 frames/s can be reached.
The maximum speed of the USB interface (24 MByte/s or 48 MByte/s) is determined by the USB driver automatically and cannot be configured. However, the
user can use external trigger for synchronisation.
Software requirements
Microsoft Windows 2000 (SP3 / SP4) or Windows XP (SP1 / SP2)
The camera can only be operated with frame grabber software from SiliconSoftware. Other frame grabber software is not supported.
The camera firmware, which is essential for the operation of the camera, is automatically transmitted to the camera via USB during the start-up of the SiliconSoftware MicroDisplay USB software. The camera must, therefore, always be
connected to the USB bus during program start up; otherwise the camera will
not be functional! Refer to the SiliconSoftware reference manual for further
information about the Silicon Software frame grabber software.
Camera and frame grabber functions use seperate SDKs. See Section 6.1.2 for
more information.
After installation of the USB 2.0 device driver, any other USB 2.0 devices connected to this controller will be ignored. USB 1.1 devices, on the other hand, can
still be operated.
Hardware requirements
A list of supported Intel chip sets can be found in B. When using one of this chip sets, the full
performance of 48 Mbytes/s can be reached.
It is possible to install and operate additional USB controller (USB 1.1 and USB 2.0) plug-in
cards. Additional USB 2.0 host adapters may only transfer up to 24 Mbyte/s, because they do
not support the isochronous mode.
4.5 Configuration Interface
25
4 Functionality
26
5
Hardware Interface
5.1
Connectors
5.1.1
CameraLink Connector
The BLIZZARD-60 CameraLink cameras are interfaced to external components via
•
a CameraLink connector, which is defined by the CameraLink standard as a 26 pin, 0.5"
Mini D-Ribbon (MDR) connector to transmit configuration, image data and trigger.
•
a subminiature connector for the power supply, 3-pin Binder series 712
The connectors are located on the back of the camera. Fig. 5.1 shows the plugs and the status
LED which indicates camera operation.
Figure 5.1: Rear view of the CameraLink camera
The CameraLink interface and connector are specified in [CL]. For further details including the
pinout please refer to Appendix A. This connector is used to transmit configuration, image
data and trigger signals.
27
5 Hardware Interface
5.1.2
USB 2.0 Connector
The BLIZZARD-60 USB 2.0 camera is interfaced to external components via
•
a USB 2.0 (B-Type) connector (see Fig. 5.2)
•
a subminiature connector for the power supply, trigger- and strobe signal, 7-pin Binder
series 712
Figure 5.2: USB type-B Cable
The connectors are located on the back of the camera. Fig. 5.3 shows the plugs and the status
LED which indicates camera operation.
Figure 5.3: Rear view of the USB 2.0 camera
28
5.1.3
Power Supply
The camera requires a single voltage input (see Table 3.3). The camera meets all performance
specifications using standard switching power supplies, although well-regulated linear supplies
provide optimum performance.
It is extremely important that you apply the appropriate voltages to your camera.
Incorrect voltages will damage the camera.
For US and Canada: Ensure a UL listed power supply is used. A suitable UL listed
power supply is available from Photonfocus.
For further details including the pinout please refer to Appendix A.
5.1.4
Trigger Signals (USB only)
The power connector of the BLIZZARD-60 USB model contains an external trigger input and a
strobe output.
The input voltage to the TRIGGER pin must not exceed +15V DC, to avoid damage
to the optocoupler!
In order to use the strobe, the optocoupler must be powered with 5 .. 15 V DC. The STROBE
signal is an open-collector output, therefore, the user must connect a pull-up resistor (> 1K) to
STROBE_VDD (5 .. 15 V DC) as shown in Fig. 5.4. This resistor should be located directly at the
signal receiver. The delay of the strobe pulse can be configured in the MicroDisplayUSB
software.
Figure 5.4: Circuit for the trigger input and strobe output signals (USB only)
The maximum sink current of the STROBE pin is 8mA. Do not connect inductive or
capacitive loads, such loads will may result in damage to the optocoupler!
5.1 Connectors
29
5 Hardware Interface
5.1.5
Status Indicator
A dual-color LED on the back of the camera gives information about the current status.
Figure 5.5: CameraLink version
LED Green
Green when an image is output. At slow frame rates, the LED blinks with the
FVAL signal. At high frame rates the LED changes to an apparently continuous
green light, with intensity proportional to the ratio of readout time over frame
time
LED Red
Red indicates an active serial communication with the camera
Table 5.1: CameraLink Version
For the USB model, there are two LEDs:
Figure 5.6: USB version
LED 1 Green
Green when a physical USB connection is established.
LED 1 Red
After the USB-firmware was uploaded to the camera by MicroDisplayUSB, the
camera is ready for data transfer. The blinking frequency of the red LED
indicates the current transfer mode. In ISO mode (24 MByte/s), the blinking
interval is 1 Hz, in ISOCHRONOUS mode (48 Mbyte/s), it is 4 Hz.
LED 2 Green
Green when an image is output. At slow frame rates, the LED blinks with the
FVAL signal. At high frame rates the LED changes to an apparently continuous
green light, with intensity proportional to the ratio of readout time over
frame time.
LED 2 Red
Red indicates an active serial communication with the camera.
Table 5.2: USB version
30
5.2
CameraLink Data Interface
The CameraLink standard defines signals for transferring the image data, control information
and the serial communication.
Data Signals CameraLink data signals contain the image data. Depending on the camera
model, one or more taps with variable bit resolution are used to send the image data
from the camera to the frame grabber. In addition, handshaking signals such as FVAL, LVAL
and DVAL are transmitted over the same physical channel.
Camera Control Information Camera control signals (CC-signals) can be defined by the camera
manufacturer to provide certain signals to the camera. There are 4 CC-signals available
and all are unidirectional with data flowing from the frame grabber to the camera. For
example, the external trigger is provided by a CC-signal (see Table 5.3 for the CC
assignments).
CC1
EXSYNC
External Trigger. May be generated either by the frame grabber itself
(software trigger) or by en external event (hardware trigger).
CC2
NC
Not used
CC3
NC
Not used
CC4
NC
Not used
Table 5.3: Summary of the Camera Control (CC) signals as used by Photonfocus
Pixel Clock The pixel clock is generated by default on the camera and provided to the frame
grabber for synchronisation.
Serial Communication A CameraLink camera can be controlled by the user via an RS232
compatible asynchronous serial interface. This interface is contained within the
CameraLink interface and is physically not directly accessible.
1 T a p
C a m e ra
F ra m e g ra b b e r
P ix e l C lo c k
C C S ig n a ls
C a m e r a L in k
C a m e r a L in k
Im a g e d a ta ,
F V A L , L V A L , D V A L
S e r ia l In te r fa c e
Figure 5.7: 1-tap CameraLink system
The frame grabber needs to be configured with the proper tap and resolution settings,
otherwise the image will be distorted or not displayed with the correct aspect ratio. Fig. 5.7
shows symbolically a 1-tap system. For more information about taps refer to [AN021].
5.2 CameraLink Data Interface
31
5 Hardware Interface
5.3
Read-Out Timing
5.3.1
Standard Read-out Timing
By default, the camera is in free running mode and delivers images with a certain frame rate
depending on the configured exposure time without any external control signals. The sensor is
operated in non-interleaved mode, which means that the sensor is read out after the preset
exposure time (see 5.8). Then the sensor is reset, a new exposure starts and the readout of the
image information begins again. The data is output on the rising edge of the pixel clock. The
signals FRAME_VALID (FVAL) and LINE_VALID (LVAL) mask valid image information. The signal
SHUTTER indicates the active integration phase of the sensor and is shown for clarity only.
F r e e R u n n in g
T r ig g e r
E x p o s u r e tim e
5 m s
5 m s
F ra m e n + 1
F ra m e n
R e a d - o u t tim e
1 2 m s
1 2 m s
F ra m e n + 1
F ra m e n
F r a m e tim e = 1 7 m s
F r a m e tim e = 1 7 m s
E x te r n a l T r ig g e r M o d e
N e x t tr ig g e r
T r ig g e r
E x p o s u r e tim e
R e a d - o u t tim e
5 m s
5 m s
F ra m e n + 1
F ra m e n
F ra m e n
8 m s
F r a m e tim e = 1 7 m s
8 m s
F ra m e n + 1
F r a m e tim e = 1 7 m s
Figure 5.8: Read out timings in free running and trigger mode
Fig. 5.9 visualises the timing behaviour of the control and data signals.
32
Frame time
Maximum frame time is defined as exposure time plus data read out
time.
Exposure time
Period during which the pixels are integrating the incoming light.
PCLK
Pixel clock on CameraLink interface
SHUTTER
Internal signal, shown only for clarity. Is ’high’ during the exposure
time, during which the pixels integrate the incoming light and the
image is acquired.
FVAL (Frame Valid)
Is ’high’ while the data of one whole frame are transferred.
LVAL (Line Valid)
Is ’high’ while the data of one line are transferred. Example: To transfer
an image with 750x400 pixels, there are 400 LVAL within one FVAL active
high period. One LVAL lasts 750 pixel clock cycles.
DVAL (Data Valid)
Is ’high’ while data are valid.
DATA
Transferred pixel values. Example: For a 750x400 pixel image, there are
750 values transferred within one LVAL active high period, or 750*400
values within one FVAL period.
Line pause
A delay before the first line and after every following line when
reading out the image data.
CPRE1;CPRE2
Additional delay between signals - see Fig. 5.9.
Table 5.4: Explanation of control and data signals used in the timing diagram
P C L K
F r a m e T im e
S H U T T E R
E x p o s u re
T im e
C P R E 2
C P R E 1
F V A L
F ra m e s ta rt
L in e p a u s e
L V A L
F ir s t L in e
L a s t L in e
D V A L
D A T A
Figure 5.9: Timing diagram for free running mode
5.3 Read-Out Timing
33
5 Hardware Interface
5.4
5.4.1
Trigger
Overview
A trigger is an event that starts an exposure. The trigger signal is either generated on the
camera, on the frame grabber (soft-trigger) or comes from an external device such as a light
barrier.
For BLIZZARD-60 cameras, there is one external trigger mode available. For the CameraLink
model, the trigger signal EXSYNC must be routed by the frame grabber on CC1. For the the USB
2.0 model, see Section 5.1.4.
5.4.2
External Trigger Mode
In the external trigger mode, the image acquisition begins as soon as the external trigger pulse
is high. The image is read out after the pre-set exposure time. After readout, the sensor
returns to the reset state and the camera waits for a new trigger pulse (see 5.8 and Fig. 5.10.
The data is output on the rising edge of the pixel clock and the CameraLink handshaking
signals FRAME_VALID (FVAL) and LINE_VALID (LVAL) mask valid image information. The signal
SHUTTER in Fig. 5.10 indicates the active integration phase of the sensor and is shown for clarity
only.
P C L K
E X S Y N C
F r a m e T im e
S H U T T E R
E x p o s u re
T im e
C P R E 2
C P R E 1
F V A L
L in e p a u s e
F ra m e s ta rt
L V A L
F ir s t L in e
D V A L
D A T A
Figure 5.10: Timing diagram for external trigger mode
34
L a s t L in e
5.4.3
Notes on Using External Trigger
Trigger Delay (CameraLink Model)
The total delay between the trigger edge and the camera exposure consists of the delay in the
framegrabber and the camera (Fig. 5.11). Usually, the delay in the frame grabber is relatively
large to avoid accidental triggers caused by voltage spikes (see Fig. 5.12).
Figure 5.11: Trigger delay visualisation from the trigger source to the camera (CameraLink)
Figure 5.12: Timing diagram for trigger delay
For the delay in the framegrabber, please ask your framegrabber manufacturer. The camera
delay consists of maximum 2 clock cycles, which results in the delay as shown in Table 5.5.
BLIZZARD-60 (CameraLink)
50 ns
Table 5.5: Camera trigger delay for the BLIZZARD-60 CameraLink model
5.4 Trigger
35
5 Hardware Interface
36
6
The PFRemote Control Tool
6.1
Overview
PFRemote is a graphical configuration tool for Photonfocus cameras. The latest release can be
downloaded from the support area of www.photonfocus.com.
All Photonfocus cameras can be either configured by PFRemote, or they can be programmed
with custom software using the PFLib SDK ([SW002]).
PFRemote is available for Windows only. For a Linux or QNX system, we provide the necessary
source code to control the camera on request, but there is no graphical user interface available.
Please note that we do not provide any support for Linux or QNX.
6.1.1
CameraLink Model
As shown in Fig. 6.1, PFRemote and PFLib respectively control parameters of the camera, such
as exposure time and ROI. However, to grab an image and to process it use the software or SDK
that was delivered with your frame grabber.
P F R e m o te
U s e r A p p lic a tio n
F ra m e G ra b b e r
S o ftw a re
P F L ib
F ra m e G ra b b e r S D K
C a m e ra
F ra m e G ra b b e r
Figure 6.1: PFRemote and PFLib in context with the CameraLink frame grabber software
6.1.2
USB 2.0 Model
For the USB camera model, there is no external frame grabber necessary, as the camera
connects directly to the USB 2.0 port. Instead, the frame grabber functionality was transferred
into the camera.
As shown in Fig. 6.2, the camera parameters can be controlled by PFRemote and PFLib
respectively. To grab an image and to process it, use the MicroDisplayUSB software or the USB
SDK [SW003].
37
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
P F R e m o te
M ic r o D is p la y
S o ftw a re
U s e r A p p lic a tio n
P F L ib
U S B S D K
C a m e ra
U S B F ra m e G ra b b e r (C a m e ra )
Figure 6.2: PFRemote and PFLib in context with the USB 2.0 frame grabber software
6.2
Installation Notes (CameraLink only)
Before installing PFRemote, make sure that your frame grabber software is installed correctly.
The PFRemote setup wizard will ask you to choose your frame grabber. It will then copy the
necessary files from your frame grabber installation to the \PFRemote directory.
If your CameraLink compatible frame grabber is not listed in the setup wizard, please do the
following:
•
During PFRemote installation, choose "Other CameraLink compliant Grabber" when
asked about the frame grabber.
•
After the installation, locate a CLSER*.DLL in your frame grabber’s software distribution (*
matches any vendor specific extension). This file is usually located in your
\windows\system32 directory or in the installation directory of the frame grabber software.
•
Copy the CLSER*.DLL into the PFRemote installation directory (usually C:\Program
Files\PFRemote) and rename it to CLSER.DLL.
•
Start PFRemote. The port names "cl0" and "cl1" are displayed.
6.2.1
DLL Dependencies
Several DLLs are necessary in order to be able to communicate with the cameras:
•
MVXXXXE.DLL: Specific camera DLL, e.g. BLIZZARD60.DLL.
•
PFCAM.DLL: DLL handling camera detection and switching to specific camera DLL.
•
CLSER.DLL: DLL for serial communication. This is a DLL which is delivered with your frame
grabber software.
•
COMDLL.DLL: Communication DLL. This COMDLL is not necessarily CameraLink specific, but may
depend on a CameraLink API compatible DLL which should also be provided by your
frame grabber manufacturer (as described above).
More information about these DLLs is available in the SDK documentation ([SW002]).
38
6.3
6.3.1
Usage
Camera Initialization
On start, PFRemote displays a list of available communication ports which is returned from the
COMDLL. For example, a COMDLL using the CameraLink standard ports results in the display below.
Figure 6.3: PFRemote port list
To open a camera on a specific port double click on the port name (e.g. cl0). Alternatively,
right click on the port name and choose Open & Configure.... The port is then queried for a
Photonfocus compatible camera.
Figure 6.4: PFRemote with configuration window after camera port was opened
Once the camera has successfully been opened, the configuration dialog is displayed (Fig. 6.5).
Instead of the port name, the camera model name is now displayed. Right clicking on the
camera model name will show further options:
Camera Port Options Menu
Info... Shows camera information
Reset Resets the camera
Close Closes camera and frees the communication port
6.3 Usage
39
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
6.3.2
The Camera Configuration Dialog
The PFRemote configuration dialog is used to configure the camera. It uses tabs to configure
the following camera parameters:
Exposure/Trigger Setting of exposure time, trigger mode, software trigger.
Window Setting of the region of interest, decimation Y 1:2.
Characteristics Setting of LinLog, analog gain, skimming, offset.
Advanced Setting of the pixel correction feature.
Info Displays information about the current camera release.
These parameters as well as the control buttons on the right side are explained in the
following sections.
Common Control Buttons
Reset Reset the camera and reread the power-on values into the configuration dialog box.
Store as Defaults Store current settings in the camera EEPROM as new boot-up values.
Settings file: File Load Load default values from a file.
Settings file: File Save Save current values to a file.
Factory Reset Recover the factory settings from EEPROM (Set camera to delivery status).
Exposure and Trigger Settings
Figure 6.5: Exposure and triggering control
This register tab contains trigger and exposure settings.
Free Running The sensor delivers frames consecutively, the rate is determined by the exposure
time plus readout time.
40
External Trigger The sensor expects a trigger signal (high active) on the trigger input. Note
that if the trigger level is kept high before switching to this mode, otherwise the sensor
will still stay in free running mode.
Trigger! Generate a software trigger. The trigger input level must be low.
Exposure time [ms ] Configure the exposure time in milliseconds.
Window (Region of Interest, Decimation Y
Figure 6.6: Camera window settings
The region of interest is defined as a rectangle [X, Y, W, H] where
X X-coordinate of upper left corner, starting from 0
Y Y-coordinate of upper left corner, starting from 0
W Window width
H Window height
Set to max. ROI Sets the ROI to the maximum (X = 0, Y = 0, W = 750, H = 400)
The parameters for the ROI must follow the rules according to 6.1.
Parameter
Range
Step Size
X
0, 4, 8, 12, ... 740
modulo 4
Y
6, 10, 14, 16, ... 750
4
W
0, 1, 2, 3, ... 394
1
H
0, 1, 2, 3, ... 400
1
Table 6.1: BLIZZARD-60 ROI Parameters
6.3 Usage
41
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
Not all frame grabbers can handle ROI changes while they are running. If your
frame grabber application crashes in this case, stop grabbing before adjusting
the window size and make sure you have set the same window size in your
frame grabber software.
The DecimationY property, if enabled, causes the sensor readout to skip every second line, which
results in a decrease of the readout time and a higher achievable frame rate.
Characteristics, LinLog
Fig. 6.7 shows the properties that control the characteristic curve of the sensor. For an
explanation of the LinLog feature please refer to Section 4.2.2.
Figure 6.7: Sensor characteristics panel
There are 3 predefined LinLog settings available. Alternatively, custom settings can be created
in the LinLog "User defined" Mode.
LinLog Mode Off: LinLog is disabled. Low/Normal/High compression: Three LinLog presets.
User defined: Time1, Time2, Value1 and Value2 defined by user.
Skimming Skimming value. Skimming is disabled if set to 0. See Section 4.2.3
Black Level Offset Black level offset value. Use this to adjust the black level.
AnalogGain Change the analog gain of the sensor.
42
Advanced
Figure 6.8: Advanced panel
Defect Pixel Correction The defect pixel correction can be enabled in this dialog. The
configurable value (e.g. 128 in Fig. 6.8) correspends to the user-defined threshold, that is
described in Section 4.2.4.
Low threshold values (< 50) will smooth the image because the correction acts as
a low pass filter.
Info
Fig. 6.9 shows camera specific information such as type code, serial number and firmware
revision of the microcontroller.
Figure 6.9: Info panel
Typecode The type code of the connected camera.
6.3 Usage
43
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
Serial Serial number of the connected camera.
uC Revision Firmware revision of built-in microcontroller of the connected camera.
For any support requests, please enclose the type code, the serial number and
the uC revision.
44
7
Mechanical and Optical Considerations
7.1
Mechanical Dimensions
The general mechanical dimensions of the camera are listed in Table 3.3.
Figure 7.1: Mechanical dimensions of the BLIZZARD-60 model withCameraLink interface
During storage and transport, the camera should be protected against vibration, shock,
moisture and dust. The original packing protects the camera adequately from vibration and
shock during storage and transport. Please either retain this packing for possible later use or
dispose of it according to local regulations.
45
7 Mechanical and Optical Considerations
Figure 7.2: Mechanical dimensions of the BLIZZARD-60 model with USB interface
7.2
7.2.1
Optical Interface
Mounting the Lens
Remove the protective cap from the C-/CS-mount thread of the camera and install the lens.
When removing the protective cap or changing the lens, the camera should always be held
with the opening facing downwards to prevent dust from the environment falling onto the
CMOS sensor. If the lens is removed, the protective cap should be refitted. If the camera is
operated in a dusty environment, we recommend the use of a constant stream of clean air at
the front of the objective.
7.2.2
Cleaning the Sensor
The sensor is part of the optical path and should be handled like other optical components:
with extreme care.
Dust can obscure pixels, producing dark patches in the images captured. Dust is most visible
when the illumination is collimated. Dark patches caused by dust or dirt shift position as the
angle of illumination changes. Dust is normally not visible when the sensor is positioned at the
46
exit port of an integrating sphere, where the illumination is diffuse.
1.
The camera should only be cleaned in ESD-safe areas by ESD-trained personnel using wrist
straps. Ideally, the sensor should be cleaned in a clean environment. Otherwise, in dusty
environments, the sensor will immediately become dirty again after cleaning.
2.
Use a high quality, low pressure air duster (e.g. Electrolube EAD400D compressed air
spray) to blow off loose particles. This step alone is usually sufficient to clean the sensor of
the most common contaminants.
Workshop air supply is not appropriate and may cause permanent damage to
the sensor.
3.
If further cleaning is required, use a suitable lens wiper or Q-Tip moistened with an
appropriate cleaning fluid to wipe the sensor surface as described below. Examples of
suitable lens cleaning materials are given in Table 7.1. Cleaning materials must be
ESD-safe, lint-free and free from particles that may scratch the sensor surface.
Do not use ordinary cotton buds. These do not fulfil the above requirements and
permanent damage to the sensor may result.
4.
Wipe the sensor carefully and slowly. First remove coarse particles and dirt from the
sensor using Q-Tips soaked in 2-propanol, applying as little pressure as possible. Using a
method similar to that used for cleaning optical surfaces, clean the sensor by starting at
any corner of the sensor and working towards the opposite corner. Finally, repeat the
procedure with methanol to remove streaks. It is imperative that no pressure be applied
to the surface of the sensor or to the black globe-top material (if present) surrounding the
optically active surface during the cleaning process.
7.2 Optical Interface
47
7 Mechanical and Optical Considerations
Product
Supplier
Remark
ESD safe and suitable for
class 100 environments.
Anticon Gold 9"x 9"
Wiper
Milliken
TX4025
Wiper
Texwipe
Transplex
Swab
Texwipe
Small Q-Tips SWABS
BB-003
Q-tips
Hans J. Michael GmbH,
Germany
Large Q-Tips SWABS
CA-003
Q-tips
Hans J. Michael GmbH,
Germany
Point Slim HUBY-340
Q-tips
Sharp
Methanole
Fluid
Jonson Matthey GmbH,
Germany
Semiconductor Grade
99.9% min (Assay), Merk
12,6024, UN1230, slightly
flammable and
poisonous.
2-Propanole
(Iso-Propanole)
Fluid
Jonson Matthey GmbH,
Germany
Semiconductor Grade
99.5% min (Assay) Merk
12,5227, UN1219, slightly
flammable.
Table 7.1: Recommended materials for sensor cleaning
For cleaning the sensor, Photonfocus recommends the products available from the suppliers as
listed in Table 7.1.
.
7.3
Compliance
CE Compliance is currently being tested.
48
8
Warranty
The manufacturer alone reserves the right to recognize warranty claims.
8.1
Warranty Terms
The manufacturer warrants to distributor and end customer that for a period of two years
from the date of the shipment from manufacturer or distributor to end customer (the
"Warranty Period") that:
•
the product will substantially conform to the specifications set forth in the applicable
documentation published by the manufacturer and accompanying said product, and
•
the product shall be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use.
The distributor shall not make or pass on to any party any warranty or representation on
behalf of the manufacturer other than or inconsistent with the above limited warranty set.
8.2
Warranty Claim
The above warranty does not apply to any product that has been opened, modified or altered by any party other than manufacturer, or for any defects caused
by any use of the product in a manner for which it was not designed, or by the
negligence of any party other than manufacturer.
49
8 Warranty
50
A
Pinouts
A.1
Power Supply
The power supply plugs are available from Binder connectors at www.binder-connector.de.
It is extremely important that you apply the appropriate voltages to your camera.
Incorrect voltages will damage or destroy the camera.
For US and Canada: Ensure a UL listed power supply is used. A suitable UL listed
power supply is available from Photonfocus.
Figure A.1: Power connector assembly
A.1.1
Power Supply Connector for CameraLink Model
For the sake of completeness, A.1 summarizes the order codes of the power supply connector.
Connector Type
Order Nr.
3-pole, plastic
99-0405-00-03
3-pole, metal
99-0405-10-03
Table A.1: Power supply connectors (Binder subminiature series 712)
51
A Pinouts
3
1
2
Figure A.2: Power Supply plug for CameraLink model, 3-pole (rear view, solder side)
Pin
I/O Type
Name
Description
1
PWR
NC
Not connected
2
PWR
GND
Ground
3
PWR
VDD
+12 V DC (± 10%)
Table A.2: Power supply plug pin assignment for CameraLink model
A.1.2
Power Supply Connector for USB Model
For the sake of completeness, A.3 summarizes the order codes of the power supply connector.
Connector Type
Order Nr.
7-pole, plastic
99-0421-00-07
7-pole, metal
99-0421-10-07
Table A.3: Power supply connectors (Binder subminiature series 712)
Figure A.3: Power supply plug for USB 2.0 model, 7-pole (rear view of plug, solder side)
Pin
I/O Type
Name
Description
1
PWR
VDD
+12 V DC (± 10%)
2
PWR
GND
Ground
3
-
NC
Not connected
4
PWR
STROBE-VDD
+5 .. +15 V DC
5
O
STROBE
Strobe control (opto-isolated)
6
I
TRIGGER
External trigger (opto-isolated), +5 .. +15V DC
7
PWR
GROUND
Signal ground (for opto-isolated strobe signal)
Table A.4: Power supply plug pin assignment for USB 2.0 model
52
A.2
CameraLink
The pinout for the CameraLink 26 pin, 0.5" Mini D-Ribbon (MDR) connector is according to the
CameraLink standard ([CL]) and is listed here for reference only.
1
2
3
1 4
1 5
1 6
4
1 7
5
6
7
8
9
1 8
1 9
2 0
2 1
2 2
1 0
2 3
1 1
2 4
1 2
2 5
1 3
2 6
Figure A.4: CameraLink cable 3M MDR-26 plug (both ends)
PIN
IO
Name
Description
1
PW
SHIELD
Shield
2
O
N_XD0
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D0
3
O
N_XD1
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D1
4
O
N_XD2
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D2
5
O
N_XCLK
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Clock
6
O
N_XD3
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D3
7
I
I_SERTOCAM
Positive LVDS Input, Serial Communication to the camera
8
O
N_SERTOFG
Negative LVDS Output, Serial Communication from the camera
9
I
N_CC1
Negative LVDS Input, CC1
10
I
N_CC2
Positive LVDS Input, CC2
11
I
N_CC3
Negative LVDS Input, CC3
12
I
P_CC4
Positive LVDS Input, CC4
13
PW
SHIELD
Shield
14
PW
SHIELD
Shield
15
O
P_XD0
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D0
16
O
P_XD1
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D1
17
O
P_XD2
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D2
18
O
P_XCLK
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Clock
19
O
P_XD3
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D3
20
I
N_SERTOCAM
Negative LVDS Input, Serial Communication to the camera
21
O
P_SERTOFG
Positive LVDS Output, Serial Communication from the camera
22
I
P_CC1
Positive LVDS Input, CC1
23
I
N_CC2
Negative LVDS Input, CC2
24
I
P_CC3
Positive LVDS Input, CC3
25
I
N_CC4
Negative LVDS Input, CC4
26
PW
SHIELD
Shield
S
PW
SHIELD
Shield
Table A.5: Pinout CameraLink connector
A.2 CameraLink
53
A Pinouts
A.3
USB 2.0
The USB 2.0 interface and connector were developed by a group of companies (Intel, Agere
Systems, NEC, Hewlett-Packard, Philips, etc.) which are now organized in the USB Implementers
Forum (www.usb.org).
The USB connector is used to transmit configuration signals and image data.
Figure A.5: USB type B connector (front view)
PIN
IO
Name
Description
1
PWR
VBUS
+5V power supply
2
I/O
DATA -
Negative Data
3
I/O
DATA +
Postive Data
4
PWR
GND
Ground
Table A.6: Pinout USB 2.0 connector
54
B
USB compatibility
B.1
Hardware requirements
To reach the full performance of 48 Mbyte/s (isochronous mode), a PC Mainboard with USB2.0
ports with Intel chip set supporting ICH4, ICH5 or ICH6 is mandatory.
Intel provides a small program (chiputil.exe) to determine the exact nature of
the chip set being used. This can be downloaded from:
ftp://aiedownload.intel.com/df-support/7355/eng/chiputil.exe
Alternative link: http://downloadfinder.intel.com/scripts-df/support_intel.asp
(search for ’chiputil’)
In the tables B.2, B.1, B.4 and B.3 there is a summary of common Intel chip sets that feature an
ICH4, ICH5 or ICH6 controller.
This chip set list is not exhaustive; status April 2005.
Chipset
Type of I/O Controller Hub
Intel® 925XE Express
ICH6 / ICH6-R
Intel® 925X Express
ICH6 / ICH6-R
Intel® 915G Express
ICH6 / ICH6-R
Intel® 915GV Express
ICH6 / ICH6-R
Intel® 915GL Express
ICH6 / ICH6-R
Intel® 915P Express
ICH6 / ICH6-R
Intel® 915PL Express
ICH6 / ICH6-R
Intel® 875P
ICH5 / ICH5-R
Intel® 865G
ICH5 / ICH5-R
Intel® 865GV
ICH5 / ICH5-R
Intel® 865P
ICH5 / ICH5-R
Intel® 865PE
ICH5 / ICH5-R
Table B.1: Performance / Mainstream desktop chip sets
55
B USB compatibility
Chipset
Type of I/O Controller Hub
Intel® 925X Express
ICH6-R
Intel® 875P
ICH5-R
Intel® E7205
ICH4
Intel® E7505
ICH4
Intel® E7520
ICH5-R
Intel® E7525
ICH5-R
Intel® E7320
ICH5-R
Table B.2: Server / Workstation chip sets
Chipset
Type of I/O Controller Hub
Intel® 915GM Express
ICH6-M
Intel® 915GMS Express
ICH6-M
Intel® 915PM Express
ICH6-M
Intel® 910GML Express
ICH6-M
Intel® 855GME
ICH4-M
Intel® 855GM
ICH4-M
Intel® 855PM
ICH4-M
Intel® 845MP
ICH4-M
Intel® 845MZ
ICH4-M
Intel® 852GME
ICH4-M
Intel® 852GMV
ICH4-M
Intel® 852GM
ICH4-M
Intel® 852PM
ICH4-M
Table B.3: Notebook / Mobile chip sets
Chipset
Type of I/O Controller Hub
Intel® 910GL Express
ICH6 / ICH6-R
Intel® 848P
ICH5 / ICH5-R
Intel® 845G
ICH4
Intel® 845GV
ICH4
Intel® 845GE
ICH4
Intel® 845GL
ICH4
Intel® 845PE
ICH4
Intel® 845E
ICH4
Table B.4: Value Desktop chip sets
56
It is possible to install and operate additional USB controller (USB1.1 and USB2.0) plug-in cards.
Additional USB 2.0 host adapters may only transfer up to 24 Mbyte/s. because they do not
support the isochronous mode.
The following add-on cards were tested at Photonfocus (this list is not exhaustive; status April
2005):
Manufacturer
Type
Chipset
Speed (MBytes/sec.)
Supported?
Planet
UIH-420
VIA VT6202
24
Yes (see note)
DeLock
89028
NEC D720100AGM
-
Not yet
Digitus
2-Port USB2.0 card
NEC D720101GJ
-
Not yet
Digitus
5-Port USB2.0 card
NEC D720101GJ
-
Not yet
Adaptec
AUA-5100
NEC D720101GJ
-
Not yet
Table B.5: Add-On PCI cards
The VIA chipset (VT6202) works but the isochronous mode (48 MByte/s) is not
supported. Thus, only 24 MByte/s can be transmitted.
After installation of the USB 2.0 device driver, any other USB 2.0 devices connected to this controller will be ignored. USB 1.1 devices, on the other hand, can
still be operated.
B.1 Hardware requirements
57
B USB compatibility
58
C
Literature and Links
CL CameraLink Specification, October 2000
SW002 PFLib SDK Documentation, Photonfocus, July 2005
AN001 Application Note "LinLog", Photonfocus, December 2002
AN021 Application Note "CameraLink", Photonfocus, July 2004
SW003 Grab Module SDK USB 2.0, Silicon Software, November 2004
59
C Literature and Links
60
D
Revision History
Revision
Date
Changes
1.0
August 2005
First release
61
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