SARIS Manual

OPERATIONS

MANUAL

SCINTREX

Rev Description of change

1.1

Initial Release

ECO Date of issue App

R.B.

Operations Manual

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SCINTREX LIMITED

HEAD OFFICE

SCINTREX Limited

222 Snidercroft Road

Concord, Ontario

Canada, L4K 1B5 tel: (905) 669-2280 fax: (905) 669-6403 e-mail: [email protected]

In the U.S.A.

SCINTREX U.S.A.

900 Woodrow Lane

Suite 100

Denton, Texas 76205 tel: (940)591-7755 fax: (940) 591-1968 e-mail: [email protected]

In Australia/ S.E. Asia/

SCINTREX/Auslog

P.O. Box 125 Sumner Park

83 Jijaws Street, Brisbane

QLD Australia 4074 tel: (+61-7) 3376-5188 fax: (+61-7) 3376-6626 e-mail: [email protected]

World-wide web: http://www.idsdetection.com

http://www.scintrexltd.com

Copyright © SCINTREX Limited 2001. All rights reserved.

No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photo-copying, recording, or otherwise, without prior consent from

SCINTREX Limited.

Document Part No. 735-700, Revision 1.1

Printed and bound in Canada

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Foreword

Congratulations on purchasing the SARIS resistivity system from Scintrex Ltd.!

You are in possession of one of the most versatile and advanced resistivity systems for groundwater, geotechnical, engineering and archaeological applications available.

The SARIS can be configured to suit your own unique requirements. In addition to the standard 4-electrode mode, the SARIS can use intelligent multi-electrode cables, supporting a wide variety of arrays such as:

• Schlumberger

Wenner

Offset Wenner

• Pole-Dipole

• Dipole-Dipole

In-line Pole-Pole

• Lateral Pole-Pole

Gradient

Y

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

YL

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Table of Contents

Foreword

Getting Started

About this manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Page numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1

Chapter layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2

Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3

About the instrument . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

Important Safety Notice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4

Instrument overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6

2nd

Console and Keypad. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6

Keyboard description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7

Function keys. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7

Function/Alphanumeric keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8

Direction/Sign keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9

Powering up the SARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10

Adjusting the contrast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10

Preset contrast values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

Manually set contrast values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11

On-line display screens. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13

On-line help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13

System information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14

Keyboard operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16

Entering values in fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-16

Fields with preset values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19

Alphanumeric entry, example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-19

Alphanumeric entry, example 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20

Your survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23

Sounding configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23

Profiling configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-25

Automated soundings and profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-28

Dumping data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29

YLL

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Dumping data in USB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29

Mimimum system requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-29

Resetting the SARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30

Resetting the default parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-30

Instrument Setup

Set-up screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1

Cable setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2

Selecting a cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4

Detecting a new cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7

Deleting a cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8

Copying a cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10

Creating a virtual cable, example 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15

Transmitter screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22

Options screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26

Presets setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-29

Creating a new preset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-31

Selecting a preset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-35

Copying a preset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-39

Deleting a preset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-43

Service screen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-45

Service and support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-46

Software upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-48

Database errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-48

GPS screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-50

GPS setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-51

Choosing your map datum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52

Choosing differential mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-52

Clock screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-53

Survey screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-55

Optional parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-56

Optional header parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57

Optional survey reference point parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-57

Reading coordinates with the GPS module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-58

Survey parameter setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-59

Survey array setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-64

Sounding arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-65

Profiling arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-66

Borehole logging arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-67

Survey cable setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-68

Field Operation

Field setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

YLLL

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Manual survey. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2

Automated survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3

Resistivity surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4

Example 1: Schlumberger sounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5

Automated cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

Preset table of positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

Manual entry of electrode positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8

Starting a Schlumberger sounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10

Performing the next measurement: Schlumberger sounding. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11

Inverting your Schlumberger sounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13

Example 2: Wenner profiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-16

Automated cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20

Manual entry of electrode positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-20

Beginning a Wenner profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-22

2nd Draft

Performing the next measurement: Wenner profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-24

Viewing your Wenner profile results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-25

Entering notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-27

Recording notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28

2

Recording notes using the pre-defined list of notes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-28

Recording notes using available macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-30

Recording manually entered notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-33

Scrolling through your surveys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-35

Scrolling through your soundings and profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-36

Dumping data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39

Dumping data from your SARIS using the USB port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-39

Dumping data using the RS-232 port . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-44

Setting the communication parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-45

Memory clear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-53

Maintenance and Trouble-shooting

Customer service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1

Battery charging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

Charging procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3

Basic maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4

Fuse replacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4

Console disassembly and reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6

Trouble shooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7

Saris operation error messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9

Inversion routine error messages. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10

L[

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Reference Information

Saris technical specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1

Saris system components list . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5

Warranty and repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7

Warranty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7

Repair . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7

Shipping instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8

Appendix A: Offset Wenner Sounding

Offset Wenner Theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1

Technical Description of the Offset Sounding & Schlumberger Cables . . . . . . . . . . A-3

SCS-64 Cable System (Part no. 735030) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4

SCS-128 Cable System (Part no. 735031) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-4

SCS-256 Cable System (Part no. 735032) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5

SCS-96 Cable System (Part no. 735033) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-5

SCS-192 Cable System (Part no. 735034) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-7

SCS-384 Cable System (Part no. 735035) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-8

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-11

Appendix B: Imaging Techniques

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

Example: Wenner array . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1

Appendix C: Scintrex Utilities Program

Installing SCTUTIL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-2

Reprogramming your SARIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-9

Using the RS-232 cable to upgrade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-11

Installing your USB driver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-13

Appendix D: The Induced Polarization Method

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1

Historical Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-3

Description of the I.P. phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-4

The Time Domain Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-6

The Frequency Domain Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-8

Field Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-9

Electrode arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-13

Data presentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-15

Model responses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-15

Case Histories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-18

[

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Limitations of I.P. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-24

Decay curve analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-26

Time versus frequency domain. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-31

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-35

Appendix E: SARIS GPS Datums

2nd Draft

2

2nd

[L

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

[LL

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

1

Getting

Started

About this manual

Page numbering

The numbering scheme used consists of two parts: the chapter number and

page number. For example,

604# would refer to chapter

#6

, page

4

.

For your convenience, each chapter has a thumb-tab on the right-hand side allowing you to quickly locate a chapter of interest. The thumb-tabs are arranged in descending order, with Chapter 1 always starting at the top.

404

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

Type styles

The following typeface conventions will be used throughout the manual.

Convention Use

Bold Italic

Indicates an action to be taken

Italic

ALL CAPS

Denotes a new term being introduced

Denotes the name of a method or mode

Chapter layout

This manual is divided into five chapters with the information flow detailed in the following table.

Chapter

1. Getting Started

2. Setup

3. Operations

4

5

.

.

Maintenance

Reference

C.

D.

A.Offset Wenner

Technique

B.

E.

Description

Gives an overview of the manual and the SARIS.

Describes how to setup your SARIS for a resistivity survey.

Describes each step in a resistivity survey. Thorough examples of a Schlumberger sounding and Wenner profile are given

Describes basic maintenance, trouble-shooting and basic repairs

Contains the technical specifications, instrument parts list and warranty information.

405

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

About this manual

Symbols

The following symbols will be used to highlight specific sections of text throughout the manual.

Symbol Meaning

Warning:

Denotes an important point concerning safety

Important:

Indicates a important topic, particular attention should be paid to this section

Note:

Denotes a point of interest, or information you should read

Tip:

Denotes an interesting hint for smoother operation

Question:

Indicates a relevant question concerning an important topic

406

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

About the instrument

Important Safety Notice

Warning:

TX.

STOP

The SARIS can produce LETHAL currents. DO

NOT touch current terminal A(C

1

) and B(C

2

) or any bare wires or current electrodes while transmitting current. THIS CAN RESULT IN SERIOUS

INJURIES.

Whereas Scintrex has taken reasonable precautions in its design to minimize the possibility of personal injury in its normal and proper use, Scintrex can bear no responsibility in this regard.

All users are cautioned to establish and adhere scrupulously to safe operating procedures in the field, as well as safe practices in the maintenance and repair of this unit.

It is recommended that all field operators be fully advised of the potential hazard from these currents and of the operating procedures necessary to avoid accidents.

Positive communication between the operator and all field personnel will help ensure that accidents do not occur.

In case of an emergency, you can interrupt the injection of current by pressing and holding the Tx

Stop key until an acknowledgement message appears

This will shut down the transmitter and avoid any further injuries.

Do not touch the electrodes or any section of bare wire when the SARIS is injecting current.

407

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

About the instrument

Operation principles

The SARIS has a structured database allowing you to enter as many surveys as you want. You are only limited by the physical size of the memory, which at 1008 Kilobytes will allow you to store more than a week’s worth of data in your SARIS. Each survey is comprised of several soundings and/or profiles that contain individual readings. The following flowchart illustrates how the surveys are structured in the memory.

Survey 1

Profile 1

readings readings readings

Profile 2

readings readings readings

Sounding 1

readings readings readings

Profile 3

readings readings readings and so on.

408

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

Instrument overview

The SARIS resistivity system consists of an electronics console, optional multi-electrode or borehole interfaces which allow you to connect to intelligent multi-electrode or borehole cables and a power supply module.

The following picture illustrates a SARIS system with a multi-electrode interface.

Electronics

Console

Multi-Electrode

Cable Module

Power Supply

Module

Console and Keypad

The following picture shows the front panel of the console.

409

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

About the instrument

Keyboard description

Function keys

On

The On key turns the instrument on.

Off

Enter

CXL

BKSP

The Off key turns the instrument off.

The Enter key is used to acknowledge a particular keystroke sequence. This is commonly used when entering numeric parameters such as the value of the

AB spacing in a Schlumberger sounding.

The CANCEL key is used to either clear the data field or to move the cursor back one space.

SOUNDING

PROFILE

The arrow keys move the cursor either, right, left up or down.

TX.

STOP

Emergency Stop:

Will immediately stop the injection of current.

F1

TO

F5

The F1 to F5 function keys access the sub-menu options. These options will vary according to the current menu. For instance in the surveys screen the

F1 key allow you to access the parameters sub-menu.

Press the Sounding/Profile key to begin a sounding or a profile.

40:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

READING

INFO

7

STU

NOTE

8

VWX

HELP

5

MNO

DUMP

6

PQR

SETUP

1

ABC

SURVEY

2

DEF

MEMORY

3

GHI

CONTRAST

4

JKL

Starting a resistivity reading once a sounding or profile has been properly set up.

Function/Alphanumeric keys

Keying in the number 1, letters a, b and c as well as accessing the Setup screen.

Keying in the number 2, letters d, e and f as well as accessing the Survey screen.

Keying in the number 3, letters g, h and i as well as accessing the Memory screen.

Keying in the number 4, letters j, k and l as well as accessing the Contrast Setting screen.

Keying in the number 5, letters m, n and o as well as accessing the On-line help screen.

Keying in the number 6, letters p, q and r as well as accessing the Dump screen.

Keying in the number 7, letters s, t and u as well as accessing the Information screen.

Keying in the number 8, letters v, w and x as well as accessing the Notes screen.

40;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

RECALL

9

YZ

N

.

S

0

E

.

W

0

About the instrument

Keying in the number 9, letters y and z as well as accessing the Data Recall screen.

Direction/Sign keys

Keying in the north direction, increasing the contrast and entering a + sign.

Keying in the south direction, decreasing the contrast and entering a - sign.

Keying in the east direction, increasing the contrast and entering a + sign.

Keying in the west direction, decreasing the contrast and entering a - sign.

40<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

Powering up the SARIS

PRESS

On

PRESS

CONTRAST

4

JKL

To turn your SARIS on, press the On key.

Note:

If your SARIS does not turn on, or the screen is either totally blank or dark, please refer to “Trouble shooting” on page 4-7.

Adjusting the contrast

If the screen is either too dark or too light, press the

CONTRAST key.

The following screen will then appear.

4043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Important:

Polarizing sunglasses may prevent you from seeing the screen, it will appear as all dark.

PRESS

F1

PRESS

F2

About the instrument

Preset contrast values

The preset contrast values are 30, 50 70 and 90% contrast. The default value for the contrast is 50%.

To set the contrast to 30%, press the F1 key.

To set the contrast to 50%, press the F2 key.

S

0

W

0

N

.

E

.

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F4

To set the contrast to 70%, press the F3 key.

To set the contrast to 90%, press the F4 key.

Manually set contrast values

The user can also manually set the contrast on a scale of 1 to 16, from lighest to darkest.

To increase the contrast you can press any of the keys illustrated on the left.

To decrease the contrast you can press any of the keys illustrated on the left.

4044

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

PRESS

F5

Press the F5 key to exit the Contrast Adjustment screen.

4045

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

About the instrument

On-line display screens

In addition to the Contrast Screen previously described, there are two other on-line display screens. These screens can be accessed at any time during the operation of the SARIS.

On-line help

The help key line allows you to access help topics about the current screen being displayed.

PRESS

HELP

5

MNO

To access the on-line Help screen, press the HELP key.

The screen that will then appear will depend on the context in which the help key is pressed.

Example 1:

For instance, if the HELP key was pressed in the

Survey Screen (Survey key), the following screen would appear as an overlay.

4046

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

Example 2:

If the HELP key was pressed in the SetUp Screen

(SetUp key), the following screen would appear as an overlay.

PRESS

HELP

5

MNO

PRESS

INFO

7

STU

To exit the on-line help press the HELP/5/MNO key to return to the previous screen.

System information

The information on-line screen presents information about your SARIS.

To show the on-line information screen, press the

INFO key.

4047

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

About the instrument

The following screen will then appear as an overlay to the screen being presently displayed.

PRESS

INFO

7

STU

The information topics illustrated on the screen are in order:

Instrument model number,

Instrument version,

Software version,

Serial number,

Quantity of RAM available,

Quantity of flash memory available

Percentage of free memory,

Battery voltage

Inner temperature of the unit.

Press the INFO key to return to the previous screen.

4048

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

Keyboard operations

There are several basic keyboard operations that will be repeated throughout the manual. These operations are as follows:

• entering values in field, editing fields, entering alphanumeric values.

For purposes of clarity and briefness, we shall enumerate these procedures only once. Where in the manual these procedures are called upon, we shall refer to the present section.

Entering values in fields

There are two types of parameter fields:

Fields with preset values.

Fields with no preset values.

As a general example, let us consider a screen that has both types of fields.

In the Transmitter SetUp screen, you can select the operating options for the transmitted current.

PRESS

SETUP

1

ABC

With the SARIS turned on, press the SETUP key to access the Set-Up screen.

4049

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

About the instrument

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS Enter

↵↵

Press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the transmitter icon.

The word Transmitter will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

7UDQVPLWWHU

Press the Enter key.

404:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F3

Press the F3 key to toggle between the Function mode and the edit mode.

When in the EDIT mode, the word EDIT will be highlighted, as illustrated below.

(',7

404;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

About the instrument

Fields with preset values

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring your cursor to the maximum current parameter.

0D[1#&XUUHQW=

Press the right or left arrow key to set the value of the maximum current. The preset values are 50, 100,

200, 500, 750 or 1000 mA.

Alphanumeric entry, example 1

The alphanumeric keys allow you to enter four characters per key. The entered character depends on the number of times the key is pressed. For instance as you toggle the 2/DEF key you will successively obtain 2, d, e or f

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring your cursor to the maximum measurement time parameter.

0D[#0HDVXU1#WLPH=

Key in the value. For instance for 20 press the 2 key,

PRESS

SURVEY

2

DEF

PRESS

PRESS

0

and then press the 0 key.

Enter

↵↵

Press the Enter key to acknowledge your choice.

404<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

PRESS

F5

PRESS

SURVEY

2

DEF

Press the F5 key to return to the SETUP screen.

Alphanumeric entry, example 2

With the SARIS turned on, press the SURVEY key to access the Survey Header screen.

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F3

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring your cursor to the Survey parameter.

The Survey parameter will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

6XUYH\=

Press the F3 key to toggle between the function mode and edit mode.

When in the EDIT mode, the word EDIT will be highlighted as illustrated below,

(',7

4053

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F2

PRESS

F1

About the instrument

and the flashing cursor will move into the data field, as illustrated below.

6XUYH\=

5

HG#5LYHU

PARAMETER DATA FIELD

To enter a new survey name, press the F2 key. This will clear the data field.

Key in the desired survey name, this can be any alphanumeric value up to 19 characters long.

For instance, if you were to write Test as the survey name, you would first press the F1 key until CAPS

LOCK is on, in order to get uppercase characters, as illustrated below.

&$36

/2&.

RQ

RII

Then press the STU key until you obtain the letter T.

PRESS

INFO

7

STU

PRESS

F1

PRESS

To return to lowercase, press the F1 key again to toggle back to lowercase characters, CAPS LOCK will then be set to off, as illustrated below.

&$36

/2&.

RQ

RII

To advance your cursor, press the right arrow key.

4054

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

PRESS

SURVEY

2

DEF

Press the 2/DEF key until you obtain the letter e.

PRESS

PRESS

INFO

7

STU

PRESS

Press the right arrow key to advance your cursor.

Press the 7/STU key until you obtain the letter s.

Press the right arrow key to advance your cursor.

PRESS

PRESS

INFO

7

STU

Enter

↵↵

Press the 7/STU key until you obtain the letter t.

Press the ENTER key to acknowledge your choice.

PRESS

F3

When you are finished editing the parameter, press the F3 key to exit the EDIT mode.

4055

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Your survey

Your survey

The SARIS can be configured to suit your many needs. In order to optimize your survey you must first determine if either a sounding or profile are the appropriate survey methods to be used.

A sounding would be carried out if you would to get vertical resistivity information at a given point, whereas an imaging survey would be carried out to get two-dimensional information of the sub-surface.

Furthermore, the SARIS can be configured to carry out soundings and profiles automatically with the help of the Automated Sounding Cables, as illustrated below.

Sounding configuration

The following electrode arrays can be used for soundings:

Schlumberger

Wenner

Offset Wenner

Dipole-dipole

4056

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

A

.

na

M

I

V a

N na

The Schlumberger electrode array

B

A a

M

I

V a

N a

B

The Wenner electrode array

1

1. For a complete description of the Offset Wenner Array, see Appendix A,

“Offset Wenner Sounding”

.

4057

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

V

N P2 a

P1 M na

I

A C1 a

C2

B

The dipole-dipole electrode array

Profiling configuration

The following electrode arrays can be used for profiling:

Schlumberger

Wenner

Dipole-dipole

Pole-dipole

Axial Pole-pole

Lateral Pole-pole

Gradient

Your survey

4058

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

V

N P2 a

P1 M na

I

A C1 a

The Pole-dipole electrode array

C2

B

N P2

V

P1 M na

A C1

I

The Axial Pole-pole electrode array

C2

B

4059

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Your survey

N P2

V

P1

M

A C1

I

C2

The lateral Pole-pole electrode array

C2

B

V

P1 M

N P2

I

B

A

C1

The Gradient electrode array

405:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

Automated soundings and profiles

As mentioned previously, resistivity surveys can be fully automated with the use of the intelligent cables.

The survey cables which are commonly available are the following:

SCS-64 Wenner Sounding

SCS-128 Wenner Sounding

SCS-256 Wenner Sounding

SCS-96 Wenner & Schlumberger Sounding

SCS-192 Wenner & Schlumberger Sounding

SCS-384 Wenner & Schlumberger Sounding

ICS-1 Imaging/Profiling

ICS-2 Imaging/Profiling

ICS-3 Imaging/Profiling

ICS-5 Imaging/Profiling

ICS-10 Imaging/Profiling

ICS-12.5 Imaging/Profiling

ICS-15 Imaging/Profiling

ICS-20 Imaging/Profiling

Furthermore, Scintrex can custom build and type of cable to fit your own specific requirements.

405;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Dumping data

Dumping data

Important:

The SCTUTIL Scintrex Utilities program that is supplied along with your SARIS must be installed to allow you to transfer data from your SARIS. Please refer to “Installing SCTUTIL” on page C-2 for further instructions.

Dumping data in USB

Important:

In order for you to transfer data from your SARIS using the USB mode, you have the following in your

PC:

USB Port

USB Host Driver

Mimimum system requirements

Important:

The SCTUTIL Scintrex Utilities program will not

function in a Windows 3.x environment.

The Minimum requirements for your PC are as follows:

WINDOWS 95 or better

8 MB of RAM

3 MB of Hard Disk space

405<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Getting Started

Resetting the SARIS

Important:

Should your SARIS lock-up, i.e. that it does not respond to any keystroke,

PRESS Off

press the OFF key and hold for approximately five seconds.

The instrument will then reset itself. However, your data will not be lost.

Resetting the default parameters

Important:

In the extremely rare event that your database becomes corrupted, ( also see “Trouble shooting” on page 4-7), you will have to reset your SARIS to the default parameters. However, this will erase

entirely your data, list of cables and presets .

To reset the SARIS to the default parameters:

First, shut the SARIS off by pressing the Off key

PRESS

TX.

STOP

press the Tx Stop

AND

and

PRESS

On

On keys together. The unit will then reset itself to the default parameter setting and all data, list of cables and presets will be erased.

4063

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

2

4

Instrument

Setup

Set-up screen

Before you can initiate a resistivity survey, you must adjust certain parameters such as the cables (if any) that will be used, the transmitted current settings, the line frequency notch filter to use, the sleep time, adjustment of the real-time clock, and connection to an internal GPS unit.

PRESS

SETUP

1

ABC

Press

the SETUP key to access the Setup screen.

504

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

The following screen will then appear.

Cable setup

PRESS

The Cable screen allows you to choose which imaging or sounding cable that you want to use.

In the Setup screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the cables icon.

Enter

↵↵

The word Cables will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

&DEOHV

Press the Enter key to access the cables screen.

505

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The following screen will then appear.

Set-up screen

You have then the choice to either select a cable, read a new cable, delete an existing cable from the list of available cables or copy an existing cable for editing.

506

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

Selecting a cable

Enter

↵↵

When your power up your SARIS and if you have a multi-electrode cable module in place, it will automatically recognize the cable connected to it and enter the cable and its parameters in the list of available cables. If your cable is not connected to the module you can also detect this cable (see

“Detecting a new cable” on page 2-7).

In the Cable Setup screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the Select icon.

The word Select will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

6HOHFW

Press the Enter key to access the cable list screen.

The following screen will then appear.

507

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen cable.

The cable will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

,&604#,PDJLQJ

PRESS

F4

PRESS

F3

To select this cable, press the F4(SELECT) key.

The cable will then be selected as illustrated below.

,&604#,PDJLQJ

To show the parameters of this cable, press the

F3(SHOW) key.

The following screen will then appear.

508

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

F5

Important:

You cannot edit cable parameters, these are illustrated for information purposes only.

To exit the Cable Parameters screen, press the

F5(OK) key to return to the Cable List screen.

Once the selection is acceptable, press the F5(OK) key to return to the Cable screen.

509

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

PRESS

PRESS

Enter

Enter

↵↵

Detecting a new cable

During the course of your survey, you may want to add a new cable to the list of available cables.

Note:

If you turn your SARIS on and a cable is already connected to your multi-electrode cable module, the

SARIS will automatically recognize this cable and its parameters in the list of available cables.

In the Cable screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the New icon.

The word New will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

'HWHFW

Connect your new cable to the multi-electrode cable module.

Press the Enter key to access the new cable screen.

You will then be warned that the cable was added to the list of available cables. To view the list of

available cables, see “Selecting a cable” on page 2-4.

Press the Enter key to close this window and return to the Cable screen.

50:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Deleting a cable

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

In the Cable screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the Delete icon.

The word Delete will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

'HOHWH

Press the Enter key to access the cable delete screen.

The following screen will then appear.

50;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen cable.

PRESS

F4

Set-up screen

The cable will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

,&604#,PDJLQJ

To select this cable, press the F4(SELECT) key.

The cable will then be selected as illustrated below.

,&604#,PDJLQJ

And the following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F4

PRESS

F5

Note:

If you marked the wrong cable by mistake, you can always unmark a cable by pressing the F3(MARK) key again.

To delete this cable, press the F4(DELETE) key.

Once the selection is acceptable, press the F5(OK) key to return to the Cable screen.

50<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Copying a cable

When you are daisy-chaining imaging cables, i.e.

connecting several imaging cables end to end, you will find it much more practical to create a new virtual cable comprising the totality of all the electrodes on the daisy-chained cables.

What is a virtual cable?

A virtual cable is a list of electrode positions. A virtual cable is treated like a real cable in the sense, but does not exist in a physical sense. For a detailed example on how to create a virtual cable, see

“Creating a virtual cable, example 1” on page 2-15.

Hint:

When you are modifying your cable separation, i.e.

using a smaller separation than the standard separation of your standard imaging cable, you will find it much more practical to create a new virtual cable indicating the new electrode separation.

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

In the Cable screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the Copy icon.

The word Copy will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

&RS\

Press the Enter key.

5043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The following screen will then appear.

Set-up screen

PRESS

F4

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen cable.

The cable will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

,&604#,PDJLQJ

To copy this cable, press the F4(COPY) key.

The following screen will then appear.

5044

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen parameter you want to edit.

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F2

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

1DPH=

Press the F2(CLEAR ALL) key to clear the name field.

Enter the cable name as an alphanumeric value; this can be up to 19 characters long.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 2” on page 1-20 if you are unsure of the procedure.

7\SH=

You can choose either Imaging or Sounding as your cable type.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between sounding and imaging.

Important:

You cannot edit your type of cable. This is indicated for information purposes only. All other cable parameters are fully editable.

5045

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

1R1HOHFWURGHV=

The number of electrodes a cable has refers to the number of takeouts on the cable. In the case of two

25 takeout cable which are daisy-chained end to end, the total number of electrodes will then be 50 electrodes.

Enter the number of electrodes as a numeric parameter. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

6HFWLRQ=

The number of sections usually depends on the type of cable: for instance a sounding will always need two cable sections because the sounding point is always in the center of the array. For imaging, the user can employ either one or two cables.

Important:

For the time being, only one-section imaging is supported.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between one or two sections.

You will also notice the following icons appearing besides the number of sections:

For one section.

5046

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

For two sections.

PRESS

PRESS

PRESS

F3

F5

F5

5047

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

6SDFLQJ=

The base spacing between the electrodes can be set to any number as long as it is compatible with your cable. This value can be set from 0.1 to 10000.

Hint:

You can use a smaller spacing with any imaging cable. Remember, however, to measure your electrode spacing precisely, otherwise your apparent resistivities could be erroneous.

Enter the electrode spacing as a numeric parameter.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

8QLWV=

The units will be either in metres or in feet.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between meter and feet.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

Once the cable parameter values are acceptable,

press the F5(SAVE) key to accept them, save the new cable and to return to the cable list screen.

Press the F5(CANCEL) key to exit to cable screen.

Set-up screen

PRESS

PRESS

SETUP

1

ABC

Press

the SETUP key to return to the Set-Up screen.

Enter

↵↵

Creating a virtual cable, example 1

As mentioned earlier, when you are daisy-chaining imaging cables, i.e. connecting several imaging cables end to end, you will find it much more practical to create a new virtual cable comprising the totality of all the electrodes on the daisy-chained cables.

The following example illustrates a typical example of a virtual cable. Where a two standard ICS-1 cables with 25 takeouts each are daisy-chained and a virtual cable containing 50 electrodes is created.

In the Cable screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the Copy icon.

The word Copy will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

&RS\

Press the Enter key.

5048

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F4

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen cable.

The cable will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

,&604#,PDJLQJ

To copy this cable, press the F4(COPY) key.

5049

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The following screen will then appear.

Set-up screen

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen parameter you want to edit.

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F2

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

1DPH=

Press the F2(CLEAR ALL) key to clear the name field.

Enter the cable name “ICS-1 50 electrodes” as an alphanumeric value.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 2” on page 1-20 if you are unsure of the procedure.

504:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

504;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

7\SH=

You will not change the type, it will remain as an imaging cable.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between sounding and imaging.

Important:

You cannot edit your type of cable. This is indicated for information purposes only. All other cable parameters are fully editable.

1R1HOHFWURGHV=

The number of electrodes a cable has refers to the number of takeouts on the cable. In the case of two

25 takeout cable which are daisy-chained end to end, the total number of electrodes will then be 50 electrodes.

Enter the number of electrodes (50) as a numeric parameter. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

6HFWLRQ=

The number of sections usually depends on the type of cable: for instance a sounding will always need two cable sections because the sounding point is always in the center of the array. In this case you will be using one section of cables.

Important:

For the time being, only one-section imaging is supported.

Set-up screen

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between one or two sections.

You will also notice the following icons appearing besides the number of sections:

For one section.

For two sections.

6SDFLQJ=

The base spacing between the electrodes can be set to any number as long as it is compatible with your cable. This value can be set from 0.1 to 10000.

Hint:

You can use a smaller spacing with any imaging cable. Remember, however, to measure your electrode spacing precisely, otherwise your apparent resistivities could be erroneous.

Enter the electrode spacing as a numeric parameter.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

8QLWV=

The units will remain as metres.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between meter and feet.

504<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

F3

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

Your edit cable screen should resemble the following.

PRESS

F5

Once the cable parameter values are acceptable,

press the F5(SAVE) key to accept them, save the new virtual cable and to return to the cable list screen.

5053

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

When you return to the Cable Select menu (see

“Selecting a cable” on page 2-4), you will notice

that your virtual cable is in the list of available cables, as illustrated below.

You can now select it as any other cable.

5054

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Transmitter screen

The transmitter screen allows the user to select the operating options for the transmitted current.

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

In the Setup screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the transmitter icon.

The word Transmitter will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

7UDQVPLWWHU

Press the Enter key.

The following screen will then appear.

5055

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen parameter you want to edit.

PRESS

F3

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

The approximate maximum current value that you will be able to inject can be set to values of 50, 100,

200, 500, 750 and 1000mA.

Press the right or left arrow key to set the value of the maximum current.

0LQ1#&XUUHQW=

In all instances, the SARIS will inject the minimum current possible, while still preserving the utmost data quality, in order to preserve battery power. You can also override this feature by setting a minimum current value which is higher than the SARIS would normally inject.

The approximate minimum current value that you will be able to inject can be set to values of 1, 2, 5,

10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 750 and 900 mA.

Press the right or left arrow key to set the value of the minimum current.

5056

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Note:

The SARIS will use approximate values for the current. You may very well have a current value slightly under the selected minimum.

1RLVH#WKUHVKROG=

The noise threshold is understood as the maximum variance of signal. The number of cycles that the measurement will take will depend on this threshold.

The lower the threshold and higher the ambient electrical noise, the longer the measurement will take until it is acceptable.

The threshold can be set to OFF, LOW, MED or HI.

These thresholds respectively correspond to maximum variance values of 0, 0.01, 0.1 and 0.5.

Press the right or left arrow key to set the value of the noise threshold.

0D[1#IDVW#PHDVXU1#WLPH=

The maximum fast measurement time parameter determines what maximum length of time the unit will carry out a resistivity measurement for each reading.

Enter the maximum measurement time as a numeric parameter. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

5057

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F5

Set-up screen

0D[1#,3#F\FOHV=

The maximum number of IP cycles determines what maximum number of full cycles (ex. 8 seconds for a

2 sec cycle) the unit will carry out a resistivity/IP measurement for each reading.

Enter the maximum number of IP cycles as a numeric parameter. The maximum number of IP cycles can be set from 3 to 100. Please refer to

“Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

Note:

The noise threshold always has precedence over any other setting, either the maximum fast measurement time or the maximum number of IP cycles.

Therefore, the measurement will stop when the noise threshold is attained before either the maximum fast measurement time or the maximum number of IP cycles.

Hint:

If you want your SARIS to carry out the maximum number of IP cycles without stopping because of the noise threshold, set this threshold to 0.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

After you are satified with the chosen transmitter parameter values, press the F5(OK) key to accept them and to return to the Setup menu.

5058

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Options screen

The options screen allows you to select four options: the line frequency notch filter, the sleep time, whether to flag the warnings.

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

In the setup screen, press the arrow keys to bring the cursor to the options icon.

The word Options will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

2SWLRQV

Press the Enter key.

The following screen will then appear.

5059

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F3

Set-up screen

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

/LQH+PDLQV,#IUT=

You have the choice between 60 and 50 Hz notch filters.

Press the right or left arrow key to select the power line frequency of the area in which your SARIS is being used.

6OHHS#DIWHU=

You can choose to have the unit turn itself off if no keys are pressed after 1, 2, 5, 10, 20 or 30 minutes.

Furthermore, if you choose NO, the unit will not turn itself off unless you do so by pressing the OFF key.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between values.

6FDQ#:DUQLQJV=

You can have your SARIS warn you if there are bad contacts or open loops when using intelligent electrode cables. The unit will the automatically stop to allow you to verify the contacts or connect the appropriate electrode.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between

YES and NO.

505:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

2II:HQQHU#LQWHUSRO1=

You can have your SARIS calculate the Wenner intermediary points when you are performing Offset

Wenner Soundings. For more information, see

Appendix A "Offset Wenner Sounding".

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between

YES and NO.

PRESS

F5

Press the F5(OK) key to return to the SETUP menu.

505;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

Presets setup

PRESS

The presets menu allows you to choose a preset list of electrode positions.

This is most convenient in the sounding mode, when you are not using a sounding cable. Thus, the preset positions can be thought of as a virtual sounding cable. Furthermore, the presets are applicable while performing

Wenner and Schlumberger soundings.

Note:

Presets have no use in imaging. An imaging cable has takeouts at constant intervals, therefore using a preset list of positions in imaging is redundant; the next position is attained simply by incrementing from the keypad.

In the Setup screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the presets icon.

Enter

↵↵

The word Presets will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

3UHVHWV

Press the Enter key to access the presets menu.

505<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

The following screen will then appear.

You have then the choice to either select a preset already created, create a new preset, delete an existing preset from the list of available presets or copy an existing preset for editing.

5063

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

Creating a new preset

During the course of your survey, you may want to create a new preset list of electrode positions.

In the Preset screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the New icon.

The word New will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

1HZ

Press the Enter key.

The following screen will then appear.

5064

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

You will then be prompted to enter the name of your new preset list of positions, its type and the number of points in the preset list.

Note:

You will already be in the edit mode, therefore there will be no need to press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to access the edit mode.

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen parameter you want to edit.

PRESS

F2

1DPH=

Press the F2(CLEAR ALL) key to clear the name field.

Enter the preset name as an alphanumeric value; this can be up to 19 characters long.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 2” on page 1-20 if you are unsure of the procedure.

7\SH=

You can choose either Wenner or Schlumberger as your sounding type.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between

:(11(5 and 6&+/80.

5065

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F1

Set-up screen

1R1SRLQWV=

The number of points on a preset refers to the number of electrode positions in the preset list.

Enter the number of electrode positions as a numeric parameter. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

Press the F1(POSITS) key to access the position table.

Press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to selected location in the table.

Enter the electrode positions as numeric parameters.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

As an example, a completed Schlumberger 10 position preset table would resemble the following.

5066

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

F5

Note:

If your table contains more than 10 electrode positions, you will be able to scroll through the pages by using either the F2(NEXT PAGE) or

F1(PREV PAGE) keys.

Press the F5(OK) key to return to the New Preset screen.

PRESS

F5

Press the F5(SAVE) key to save the new preset table of positions and return to the Preset screen.

5067

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

PRESS

Selecting a preset

Enter

↵↵

If you have already entered and saved a preset list of electrode positions, you can now use it as you would a cable.

In the Preset screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the Select icon.

The word Select will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

6HOHFW

Press the Enter key to access the list of available presets.

A list of available presets will then appear, similar to the following screen.

5068

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen preset.

The preset will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

0*6

PRESS

F4

PRESS

F3

To select this preset, press the F4(SELECT) key.

The preset will then be selected as illustrated below.

0*6

To show the positions of this preset, press the

F3(SHOW) key.

The following screen will then appear.

5069

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F3

Set-up screen

Note:

You cannot edit preset parameters, these are illustrated for information purposes only.

Press the F3(POSITS) key to access the position table.

As an example, a completed Schlumberger 10 position preset table would resemble the following.

PRESS

PRESS

F5

F5

Note:

If your table contains more than 10 electrode positions, you will be able to scroll through the pages by using either the F2(NEXT PAGE) or

F1(PREV PAGE) keys.

Press the F5(OK) key to return to the Preset

Parameters screen.

To exit the Preset Parameters screen, press the

F5(OK) key to return to the Preset List screen.

506:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

F5 After having selected an acceptable preset table,

press the F5(OK) key to return to the Preset screen.

506;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

Copying a preset

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

In the Cable screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the Copy icon.

The word Copy will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

&RS\

Press the Enter key to access the preset copy menu.

The following screen will then appear.

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen preset.

The preset will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

0*6

506<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

F4

To copy this preset, press the F4(COPY) key.

The following screen will then appear.

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen parameter you want to edit.

PRESS

F2

5073

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

1DPH=

Press the F2(CLEAR ALL) key to clear the name field.

Enter the cable name as an alphanumeric value; this can be up to 19 characters long.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 2” on page 1-20 if you are unsure of the procedure.

7\SH=

PRESS

F1

Set-up screen

You can choose either Wenner or Schlumberger as your sounding type.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between

:(11(5 and 6&+/80.

1R1SRLQWV=

The number of points on a preset refers to the number of electrode positions in the preset list.

Enter the number of electrode positions as a numeric parameter. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

Press the F1(POSITS) key to access the position table.

Press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to selected location in the table.

Enter the electrode positions as numeric parameters.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

5074

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

As an example, a completed Schlumberger 10 position preset table would resemble the following.

PRESS

F5

Note:

If your table contains more than 10 electrode positions, you will be able to scroll through the pages by using either the F2(NEXT PAGE) or

F1(PREV PAGE) keys.

Press the F5(OK) key to return to the Edit Preset screen.

PRESS

F5

Press the F5(SAVE) key to save the new preset table of positions and return to the Preset screen.

5075

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

Deleting a preset

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

In the Preset screen, press the arrow keys to bring your cursor to the Delete icon.

The word Delete will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

'HOHWH

Press the Enter key to access the preset delete screen.

A list of available presets will then appear, similar to the following screen.

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the chosen preset. For instance the copy of the preset you had defined in the New Preset section and copied in the Copy Preset section.

5076

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F4

PRESS

PRESS

F5

SETUP

1

ABC

The preset will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

0*6#&RS\

To select this cable, press the F3(MARK) key.

The cable will then be selected as illustrated below.

[

0*6#&RS\

Note:

If you marked the wrong preset by mistake, you can always unmark a preset by pressing the F3(MARK) key again.

To delete this preset, press the F4(DELETE) key.

Once the selection is acceptable, press the F5(OK) key to return to the Preset screen.

Press

the SETUP key to return to the Set-Up screen.

5077

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

Service screen

PRESS

The service screen allows you to view the adresses of the Scintrex offices throughout the world, upgrade your current software version, and run a diagnostic program to detect and correct data base errors.

In the set-up screen, press the arrow keys to bring the cursor to the service icon.

The word Service will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

6HUYLFH#

Enter

↵↵

Press the ENTER key.

The following screen will appear.

Press the up or down arrow keys to toggle between the available options.

5078

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

PRESS

Enter

Enter

↵↵

Press the ENTER when you have chosen which operation you want to perform.

Service and support

The service and support menu lists the locations of our offices worldwide.

Press the arrow keys to bring the cursor to the service and support menu.

The phrase “service and support” will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

6HUYLFH#DQG#6XSSRUW

Press the ENTER key.

The following screen will then appear.

5079

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F3

Set-up screen

Canada

To find contact information about the Canadian office, use the right or left arrows to toggle to the word Canada.

The word Canada will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

&DQDGD

Press the F3(SHOW INFO) key to show the information about this office.

The following screen will appear.

PRESS

F3

Press the F3(SHOW INFO) key to close this window.

You can repeat the above-mentioned steps for our

USA, and Australia offices.

507:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS Enter

↵↵

Software upgrade

The software upgrade selection allows you to upgrade your SARIS to the current software version.

For a complete description of the upgrade procedure, refer to “Reprogramming your SARIS” on page C-9.

Database errors

The SARIS detects and corrects data base errors.

Under most circumstances, a database error will not affect the integrity of your data. Furthermore, the

SARIS is programmed to normally detect and correct database errors on its own, without user intervention. The database error detection feature provides a detailed list of the detected errors which is mainly for the use of customer service personnel.

As a user, you need not be concerned by this feature.

Press the arrow keys to bring the cursor to the data base errors menu.

The phrase “data base errors” will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

'DWD#EDVH#HUURUV

Press the ENTER key.

507;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

If no errors are detected, the following screen will then appear.

If database errors are detected, they will be listed.

These may be required by Customer Service personnel when you contact your nearest Scintrex

Service & Support office. See “Service and support” on page 2-46.

PRESS

F5

Press the F5(OK) key to return to the SETUP menu.

Note:

You cannot access the Enable factory tests menu; this is reserved for Scintrex Customer Service personnel only.

507<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

GPS screen

PRESS

The GPS menu allows you to control an internal GPS receiver.

In the SetUp screen, press the arrow keys to bring the cursor to GPS icon.

The word GPS will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

*36

Enter

↵↵

Press the ENTER key.

The following screen will then appear.

5083

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Important:

If your antenna is not connected or the line of sight to the satellites is blocked, the number of satellites will be zero.

Set-up screen

PRESS

F3

If no GPS unit is detected, the following message will appear at the bottom of the screen.

(UURU+1R#&RPP1#ZLWK#*36#+WPRXW,

If there is miscommunication between the GPS antenna and the internal GPS board, the follwoing message will appear at the bottom of the screen.

&KHFN#6XP#(UURU

GPS setup

The GPS setup screen, as its name indicates allows the user to choose the appropriate datum and set the

GPS mode to either single of differential.

In the GPS screen, press the F3(GPS OPTION

SETUP) key,, the following screen will then appear.

5084

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Choosing your map datum

PRESS

F3

PRESS

PRESS

F3

F1

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring your cursor to the map datum parameter.

The selected parameter will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

0DS#'DWXP=

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

Enter the datum number as a numeric parameter.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

Note:

Please refer to Appendix E "SARIS GPS Datums" for a complete list of datums available in the SARIS and their corresponding datum numbers.

Choosing differential mode

Important:

The differential mode is not yet supported in the

SARIS.

When you have completed your GPS setup, press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

Press the F1(SEND TO GPS) key to return to the

GPS screen to take a GPS measurement.

5085

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Set-up screen

Clock screen

The clock screen allows you to adjust the internal real-time clock.

Note:

Time and date as determined by this clock will be included in the data files.

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

In the Setup screen, press the arrow keys to bring the cursor to the clock icon.

The word Clock will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

&ORFN

Press the ENTER key

5086

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F5

Press the up or down arrow keys to move between the time and the date.

Press the right or left arrows to move between either of the three parameters ex. Hours, minutes or seconds.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

Enter the time as a numeric parameter. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

Repeat the previous procedure for the minutes and seconds values.

When you are finished editing the parameters, press the F5(OK) key to return to the SETUP menu.

5087

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Survey screen

Survey screen

The survey screen allows you to create the survey header included in the data file. This will include the survey name, the name of the client, the name of the operator, the grid reference point as well the survey parameters such as the units, electrode array, cable used and the waveform.

PRESS

SURVEY

2

DEF

To access the Survey screen, press the SURVEY key.

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F3

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring your cursor to the parameter you want to modify.

The selected parameter will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

6XUYH\=

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

5088

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

PRESS

F2

To enter a new survey name, press the F2(CLEAR

ALL) key. This will clear the data field.

Enter the survey name as an alphanumeric value; this can be up to 19 characters long.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 2” on page 1-20 if you are unsure of the procedure.

Enter

↵↵

Important:

The Survey name is required for any data file.

Moreover no duplicate names will be accepted.

When the survey name is correct, press the ENTER key to acknowledge your choice.

Optional parameters

The remaining parameters in this screen, i.e. client name, operator and the grid reference point parameters are optional, i.e. you can choose to not enter any value for these parameters.

Should you wish to enter values follow the same steps as mentioned for the survey name.

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring your cursor to the next parameter you want to modify.

5089

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Optional header parameters

Survey screen

&OLHQW=

The client name can be any alphanumeric value up to 19 characters long.

2SHUDWRU=

The operator name can be any alphanumeric value up to 19 characters long.

Optional survey reference point parameters

(DVWLQJ=

The easting is the east coordinate of your grid reference point. This number can be set to any value from -9999999 to 9999999 (or E/W).

1RUWKLQJ=

The northing is the north coordinate of your grid reference point. This number can be set to any value from -9999999 to 9999999 (or N/S).

$]LPXWK=

The azimuth value is the direction, clockwise from true North, of your grid system.

$OWLWXGH=

The altitude is the value of the elevation of your grid reference point, either above mean sea level or relative to any particular point. This number can be set to any value from -9999999 to 9999999.

508:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

PRESS

F3

F2

870#=RQH=

The UTM zone of your grid reference point. Consult the topographic map of your sector.

87&#'LII1=

The difference between your time zone and UTC time (Coordinated Universal Time).

When you are finished editing the parameters, press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

Note:

The reference point parameters can also be filled in by the internal GPS if it is installed.

Reading coordinates with the GPS module

If a GPS module is installed, connect your GPS antenna to the coaxial connector located on the top of your SARIS console.

Press the F2(READ GPS) key.

Once the number of satellites is sufficient and the antenna has clear line of sight to the satellites, a GPS reading will be acquired. A GPS icon as illustrated below,

508;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

will appear beside the Easting and Northing coordinates, and the following message will appear at the bottom of the screen.

*36#UHDGLQJ#DFTXLUHG

Survey screen

Survey parameter setup

The survey parameter setup screen allows you to set the grid system, the survey units, whether you choose to do a sounding or a profile, which waveform you are using as well as the array and cable chosen.

PRESS

F1

In the survey header screen, press the F1(PARAMS) key to access the Survey Parameter screen.

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F3

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring your cursor to the parameter you want to modify.

The selected parameter will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

*ULG#6\VWHP=

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

508<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

5093

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

*ULG#6\VWHP=

The grid system can either be NSEW or XY. This means that your grid can be represented with or without cardinal point references.

Note:

In a NSEW grid system, north-south oriented lines will have an E or W suffix, depending if they are located either east or west of the grid origin.

Furthermore, east-west lines will have a N or S suffix, depending if they are located either north or south of the grid origin.

Press the right or left arrow key to set the grid system.

8QLWV=

The units are either metres or feet.

Press the right or left arrow key to set the units.

6RXQGLQJ23URI2%KROH=

You can select the initial array to be used in the survey. This array is either a sounding array or an imaging array.

Note:

The initial array type can be changed at any moment during your survey. You are not bound by your initial selection.

Survey screen

Press the right or left arrow key to set the survey type to either sounding or profile.

If you choose Profile, an icon illustrating a typical profiling electrode array will appear at the right of the highlighted word profile, as illustrated below.

3URILOH=

If you choose Sounding, an icon illustrating a typical sounding electrode array will appear at the right of the highlighted word sounding, as illustrated below.

6RXQGLQJ=

$UUD\=

You can choose the array type to be used.

Note:

There are several types of arrays for sounding and profiling. The available arrays for sounding are:

Schlumberger

Wenner

Offset Wenner

Dipole-dipole

The available arrays for profiling are:

Schlumberger

Wenner

Dipole-dipole

Pole-dipole

5094

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Axial Pole-pole

Lateral Pole-pole

Gradient

Press the right or left arrow key to set the array type.

:DYHIRUP=

You can choose to use either a standard square waveform, or if you wish to also acquire IP data, you can also choose a Time Domain IP waveform.

Note:

The standard square waveform is recommended when you are only interested in acquiring resistivity data. The repetition rate of the squarewave signal is much higher than the rate of the IP waveform. Thus your data will be acquired much faster.

Press the right or left arrow key to set the type of waveform.

When you choose a time-domain IP waveform, your survey parameter setup screen, the on time parameter will pop-up, as illustrated below.

5095

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Survey screen

2Q#7LPH=

When you chose a Time Domain IP waveform, you will also be prompted to choose the on time of the

TDIP signal, either 1, 2, 4 or 8 seconds.

Press the right or left arrow key to set the value of the on time.

5096

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Survey array setup

Within the survey parameter screen, you can also choose the initial array for your survey through the F1 key. As mentioned previously, this can also be

done through the Survey Parameter Setup screen. See “Arrays” on page 2-61.

PRESS

F1

Within the survey parameter setup screen, press the

F1(ARRAY LIST) key to access the Array Setup screen.

If you had previously chosen Sounding as your survey method in the survey parameter setup screen, the following screen will then appear.

5097

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Proceed to “Sounding arrays” on page 2-65.

Survey screen

If you had previously chosen Profiling as your survey method in the survey parameter setup screen, the following screen will then appear.

Proceed to “Profiling arrays” on page 2-66.

Note:

You can also toggle between sounding and profiling by pressing the F1 key. The borehole logging parameters are accessed by pressing the F2 key.

Sounding arrays

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to either sounding array.

The array will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

:HQQHU#6RXQGLQJ

5098

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

PRESS

F4

PRESS

F5

PRESS

F4

PRESS

F5

To select this sounding array, press the F4(MARK) key.

The selected sounding method will then be marked as illustrated below.

:HQQHU#6RXQGLQJ

Once the chosen sounding array is acceptable, press the F5 (OK) key to return to the Survey Parameter

Setup screen.

Profiling arrays

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to either profiling array.

The profiling array will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

:HQQHU#3URILOH

To select this profiling array, press the F4 (MARK) key.

The selected profiling array will then be marked as illustrated below.

:HQQHU#3URILOH

Once the chosen profiling array is acceptable, press the F5 (OK) key to return to the Survey Parameter

Setup screen.

5099

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F2

Survey screen

Borehole logging arrays

In the sounding select or profile select screen, press the F2 (B.HOLE ARRAYS) key.

Important:

For a complete description of the borehole logging option, please refer to the “Borehole Logging

Operations Manual”.

509:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Instrument Setup

Survey cable setup

Within the survey parameter screen, you can also choose the cable or the preset for your survey. This can also be done through the Setup screen. See

“Cable setup” on page 2-2, or “Presets setup” on page 2-29.

YOU HAVE NOW COMPLETED YOUR

SET-UP

509;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

3

Field

Operation

By now you have decided what type of resistivity surveys you want to perform and have already setup your SARIS accordingly. Now, we will go on to next step where you will carry out a survey, add macro notes, recall data, dump your data to your PC and finally clear the memory for future use.

We shall give thorough examples of a Schlumberger sounding and a dipole-dipole profile. For purposes of briefness and clarity, the other sounding and profiling arrays shall be dealt with succinctly.

604

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Field setup

The following captions illustrate a typical setup of a resistivity survey in the field. Proceed to if you are already familiar with the field setup of a resistivity survey.

Manual survey

First, the electrodes are positioned in their proper place along the survey line.

For instance, for a Schlumberger sounding with the first AB/2 of 25m and the first MN/2 of 5m, electrodes would be located respectively 5 and 25 m on either side of the SARIS.

These electrodes are then connected to the SARIS using standard wire, as illustrated below.

605

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field setup

The wires are then connected to the binding posts of the SARIS, as illustrated below.

Automated survey

First, the intelligent electrode cables are connected to the multi-electrode interface module, as illustrated below.

The electrodes are then connected to the intelligent electrode cables.

606

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Resistivity surveys

Note:

Should one of the potential wires become momentarily disconnected during the measurement, the Standard Deviation of your measurement will

become very high. Refer to page 3-11 or page 3-23

for an illustration of the standard deviation. If one of the current wires should become momentarily disconnected during the measurement, the measurement will immediately stop.

Note:

If you are performing a Wenner sounding using automated sounding cables, you must connect the center electrode to the center binding post, as illustrated below. The center electrode will be located at your sounding point.

Center binding post

607

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Resistivity surveys

Example 1: Schlumberger sounding

By now, you have already setup your SARIS to perform a Schlumberger sounding. If you are unfamiliar with the setup or have not done this yet, please see “Instrument Setup” on page 2-1.

PRESS SOUNDING

PROFILE

To access the sounding/profile screen press the

Sounding/Profile key.

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F3

Note:

The ID parameter identifies your particular sounding with a number in the survey. A survey can contain as many soundings and profiles as you want, you are only limited by the amount of memory available in the SARIS. Furthermore, no new sounding will be saved until the F5(OK) key is pressed.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

608

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

609

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

(DVWLQJ=

The east coordinate of your sounding reference point. The value of this parameter is relative to the position of your survey reference point. For an explanation of the easting of the survey reference point, see “Optional survey reference point parameters” on page 2-57.

1RUWKLQJ=

The north coordinate of your sounding reference point. The value of this parameter is relative to the position of your survey reference point. For an explanation of the easting of the survey reference point, see “Optional survey reference point parameters” on page 2-57.

$]LPXWK=

The direction clockwise from true North, of your sounding. The value of this parameter can be either relative to true north or to your grid reference azimuth. For an explanation of the grid reference azimuth, see “Optional survey reference point parameters” on page 2-57.

$OWLWXGH=

The elevation of your sounding reference point, either above mean sea level or relative to the grid reference point. For an explanation of the survey reference point altitude, see “Optional survey reference point parameters” on page 2-57.

PRESS

F5

Resistivity surveys

Enter the values of your Easting, Northing, Azimuth and Altitude parameters as numeric parameters.

Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

6FDQ#PRGH=

You can choose to carry out your survey either manually (NO CABLE) by moving the electrodes after each measurement, or automatically

(CABLE-AUTO) in conjunction with the intelligent electrode cable and the intelligent electrode interface module.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between

NO CABLE and CABLE-AUTO.

Once these sounding parameters are acceptable,

press the F5(OK) key to save your parameters and exit the SOUNDING: SCHLUMBERGER screen.

You are now in the Schlumberger Sounding electrode setup screen.

Note:

You must now enter sounding parameters such as the first ab and mn values. These are expressed either in meters or in feet as per the Units display in the Survey Parameter Setup screen. See “Survey parameter setup” on page 2-59.

If you had not chosen the proper sounding cable or had not chosen a preset list of positions, you will be warned to do so by the SARIS. To close this window, press the ENTER key.

60:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

The following screen will then appear.

60;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Automated cable

If you had already connected an automated

Schlumberger sounding cable to the multi-electrode interface module, you will notice that the cable parameters will automatically be loaded upon the beginning of the sounding.

Proceed immediately to “Starting a Schlumberger sounding” on page 3-10.

Preset table of positions

If a preset table of electrode positions had been chosen (see “Presets setup” on page 2-29), you will notice that the first value in table will automatically be loaded upon the beginning of the sounding.

Proceed immediately to “Starting a Schlumberger sounding” on page 3-10.

Manual entry of electrode positions

In the Schlumberger Sounding Electrode Parameter

Setup screen, press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the ab parameter.

Resistivity surveys

The word ab will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

DE

PRESS

PRESS

PRESS

PRESS

F3

Enter

↵↵

F3

F5

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

Enter the value of ab as a numeric parameter. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the mn parameter.

The word mn will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

PQ

Enter the value of mn as a numeric parameter.

Press the ENTER key to acknowledge your choices.

The cursor will then move back to the ab parameter.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

Press the F5(OK) key to save the changes to your new sounding.

60<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

PRESS

F5

Starting a Schlumberger sounding

Within the Schlumberger Sounding Electrode setup screen, press the F5(INJECT) key to start injecting current.

Note:

In case of an emergency, you can interrupt the injection of current either by pressing and holding the Tx Stop key until an acknowledgement message appears,

TX.

STOP

This will shut down the transmitter, and the measurement will be discarded.

or,

By pressing the F4(STOP) key, you will stop the reading at the end of the current cycle.

F4

Once you have pressed the F4(STOP) key, you can accept or reject the reading.

6043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Resistivity surveys

After the maximum measurement time is attained or the signal dispersion gets below the noise threshold, the measurement will automatically stop. The unit will then display the following message.

'21(#$

as well as the reading, within the following screen.

Waveform

Apparent resistivity

Standard deviation

Transmitted current

Self Potential

Battery voltage

Plot Scale

Once the measurement is done, the values of the apparent resistivity (Ro), standard deviation of the resistivity measurement (SD), transmitted current

(TxI) and self-potential (SP), battery voltage, vertical plot scale, ab and mn are illustrated. During the measurement and also once the measurement is completed, the SARIS also displays the voltage waveform at the MN electrodes.

Performing the next measurement:

Schlumberger sounding

In the automatic mode, i.e. with mode set to

CABLE-AUTO, with an automated sounding cable and the multi-electrode interface module attached, the next reading will be performed automatically without user intervention. Therefore if you are in

6044

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

PRESS

READING

PRESS

PRESS

OR

F1

F3 automatic mode, this section can be skipped and you

should proceed to “Inverting your Schlumberger sounding” on page 3-13.

To repeat a reading or to proceed to the next sounding measurement, press the reading key, you will then be returned to the Schlumberger Sounding

Electrode Setup menu.

You can now proceed to take the next measurement either by:

If a preset table of electrode positions has been chosen

By pressing the F1(next ab) key. The SARIS will automatically insert the next set of ab and mn values from the preset table, or

If not

By pressing the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the EDIT mode and manually entering the new ab and mn values.

PRESS

F5

Press the F5(INJECT) key to start injecting current.

You can repeat the procedures in this section until you have obtained all the points on your sounding curve.

6045

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F5

Resistivity surveys

Inverting your Schlumberger sounding

To view the sounding curve, press the F5(GRAPH) key, within the measurement screen. A typical sounding curve should resemble the following illustration.

PRESS

F1 To obtain the layered resistivity values, press the F1

(INVERT) key.

You will then be prompted to choose the number of estimated layers. This can be any number from 0 to

5. Should you choose 0, the SARIS will define the optimum number of layers for you.

6046

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

The inversion results will then be displayed as follows.

PRESS

F2

Note:

The inversion algorithm of the SARIS, called

ISSETAB does not use a starting model. Only the field data is necessary. You can invert your sounding data by using other inversion programs currently available on the market. ISSETAB was developed by Daniel Doucet, Consulting

Geophysicist

1

.

To illustrate the sounding curve without the layer parameters, press the F2(SHOW LAYERS) key.

1. Complete address: Daniel Doucet, Bureau 104, 30 rue des Violettes, 76350 Oissel, FRANCE tel: (+33) 608-05-98-40.

6047

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Resistivity surveys

The sounding curve alone will then appear as illustrated below.

Note:

This accuracy of the sounding inversion results will be indicated by the goodness of fit of the sounding curve versus the field results.

You are now ready to proceed with your next sounding or profile

6048

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Example 2: Wenner profiling

By now, you have already set up your SARIS to perform a Wenner profile. If you are unfamiliar with the setup or have not done this yet, please see

“Instrument Setup” on page 2-1.

PRESS SOUNDING

PROFILE

To access the sounding/profile screen press the

Sounding/Profile key.

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F3

Note:

The ID parameter identifies your particular profile with a number in the survey. A survey can contain as many soundings and profiles as you want, you are only limited by the amount of memory available in the SARIS. Furthermore, no new profile will be saved until the F5(OK) key is pressed.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

6049

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Resistivity surveys

/LQH#'LUHFWLRQ=

The cardinal direction of your profile. If your profile is in a North-South direction, then you would choose

N-S. If your profile is in an East-West direction, then you would choose E-W. You can also choose to identify direction according to the azimuth from true

(AZ). For an explanation of the survey reference azimuth, see “Optional survey reference point parameters” on page 2-57.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between

N-S, E-W and AZ.

/LQH#3RVLWLRQ2<=

The position of your profile relative to the Y axis of your survey reference point.

$OWLWXGH=

The elevation of the position of the first electrode in your profile, either above mean sea level or relative to the survey reference point. For an explanation of the survey reference point altitude, see “Optional survey reference point parameters” on page 2-57.

$]LPXWK=

The azimuth of your profile, either relative to true north or to your grid reference azimuth. This parameter appears on the screen only if you have chosen AZ as the Line Direction. For an explanation of the grid reference azimuth, see “Optional survey reference point parameters” on page 2-57.

604:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

604;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

4VW#6WDWLRQ2;=

The position of the first electrode in your profile relative to the survey reference point.

6WDWLRQ#6WHS=

The station increment that you want your profile to increase by. The default value is 1.

%DVH#6SDFLQJ=

The spacing between each successive electrode. It is usually denoted as “a” and is also known as the fundamental electrode spacing for your profile array. The default value is 1.

0D[1#Q=

The maximum number of separations on your profile. The separation “n” is a multiple of the base spacing “a”. The default value is 1. For a complete description of imaging techniques and arrays, see

Appendix B, “Imaging Techniques”.

Enter the values of the Line position/Y, Altitude,

Line Azimuth, 1st Station/X, Station step, Base spacing (a) and Max. n parameters as numeric parameters. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

6FDQ#PRGH=

You can choose to carry out your survey either manually, (NO CABLE) by moving the electrodes after each measurement, or automatically

PRESS

F5

Resistivity surveys

(CABLE-AUTO) in conjunction with the intelligent electrode cable and the intelligent electrode interface module.

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between

NO CABLE and CABLE-AUTO.

Once these profiling parameters are acceptable,

press the F5(OK) key to exit the PROFILE:

WENNER screen. You are now in the Wenner

Profile electrode setup screen.

The following screen will then appear.

You must now enter the profiling parameters such as your “a” separation, as well as the position of your first electrode (A/C1). These are expressed either in meters or in feet as per the Units display in the

Survey Parameter Setup screen. See “Survey parameter setup” on page 2-59.

604<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

PRESS

F3

Automated cable

If you have connected an automated Imaging cable, you will notice that the cable parameters will automatically be loaded upon the beginning of the profile.

Proceed immediately to “Beginning a Wenner profile” on page 3-22.

Manual entry of electrode positions

In the Wenner Profile electrode parameter setup screen, press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the A/C1 parameter.

The letters A/C1 will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

$2&4

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

Enter the position of your first electrode (A/C1) as a numeric parameter. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 1” on page 1-19, if you are unsure of the procedure.

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the a parameter.

The letter a will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

D

Enter the value of your fundamental spacing as a numeric parameter.

6053

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

PRESS

PRESS

Enter

↵↵

F3

F5

Resistivity surveys

Press the ENTER key to acknowledge your choices.

The cursor will then move back to the A/C1 parameter.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

Press the F5(OK) key to save the changes to your new profile.

6054

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

PRESS

F5

Beginning a Wenner profile

Within the Wenner Profile electrode setup screen,

press the F5(INJECT) key to start injecting current.

Note:

In case of an emergency, you can interrupt the injection of current either by pressing and holding the Tx Stop key until an acknowledgement message appears,

TX.

STOP

This will shut down the transmitter, and the measurement will be discarded.

or,

By pressing the F4(STOP) key, you will stop the reading at the end of the current cycle.

F4

Once you have pressed the F4(STOP) key, you can accept or reject the reading.

6055

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Resistivity surveys

After the maximum measurement time is attained or the signal dispersion gets below the noise threshold, the measurement will automatically stop. The unit will then display the following message.

'21(#$

as well as the reading, within the following screen.

Waveform

Apparent resistivity

Standard deviation

Transmitted current

Self Potential

Battery voltage

Plot Scale

Once the measurement is done, the values of the apparent resistivity (Ro), standard deviation of the resistivity measurement (SD), transmitted current

(TxI) and self-potential (SP), battery voltage, vertical plot scale, ab and mn are illustrated. During the measurement and also once the measurement is completed, the SARIS also displays the voltage waveform at the MN electrodes.

6056

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

PRESS

READING

PRESS

PRESS

OR

F1

F2

PRESS

OR

F3

PRESS

F5

6057

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Performing the next measurement:

Wenner profile

In the automatic mode, i.e. with mode set to

CABLE-AUTO, with an automated imaging cable and the multi-electrode interface module attached, the next reading will be performed automatically without user intervention. Therefore if you are in automatic mode, this section can be skipped and you

should proceed to “Viewing your Wenner profile results” on page 3-25.

To repeat a reading or to proceed to the next sounding measurement, press the reading key, you will then be returned to the Wenner Profile electrode setup screen.

You can now proceed to take the next measurement either by:

Pressing the F1(NEXT STA) key; this will move up your profile to the next station, the A/C1 value will increase automatically according to the “Station

Step” parameter, or, for a multi-separation profile or section, where the

“Max. n” parameter is greater than 1, by pressing the F2(NEXT a) key; this will increase your “a” separation to the next level, according to the “Base

Spacing(a) parameter”, or, by pressing the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to manually enter the new A/C1 and/or a values.

Press the F5(INJECT) key to start injecting current.

You can repeat the procedures in this section until you have obtained all the points in your profile.

PRESS

F5

Resistivity surveys

Viewing your Wenner profile results

To view your profile, press the F5 (GRAPH) key, within the measurement screen.

Case 1: Single separation Wenner profile

For a single separation profile, data is presented as a profile, as illustrated below.

Case 2: Multi-separation Wenner profile or section

6058

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

For a multi-separation Wenner profile or section, data is presented as a spreadsheet, as illustrated below.

PRESS

F2

Note:

The n column is empty because this parameter does not apply for a Wenner profile.

If you have more than one page of data points, press the F2(NEXT PAGE) key.

PRESS

F1

To return to a previous page of data points, press the

F1(PREV PAGE) key.

You are now ready to proceed with your next sounding or profile

6059

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Entering notes

Entering notes

During the course of your soundings or profiles, you may want to enter survey notes regarding cultural or topographic features that were encountered. These notes can be entered at any time during your survey and will be stored in a sequential fashion, i.e. just after the last measurement collected up till then.

PRESS

NOTE

8

VWX

To access the notes screen, press the NOTE key.

The following screen will then appear.

Note:

Please note that the note that will be stored in your data file will be the one indicated in the data field beside the NOTE parameter field, as illustrated below.

1RWH= 5

LYHU

PARAMETER DATA FIELD

605:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

You can enter and record in your data file any note at any time.

Recording notes

The notes that you will record in your data file can either be:

• a note taken from the pre-defined list. This list is comprised of 24 items. or, one of five macros. or, manually entered text not included in the pre-defined list of features nor in the list of macros.

Recording notes using the pre-defined list of notes

In the notes screen, press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the note parameter field as

illustrated on page 3-27.

PRESS

F2

Press the F2(USE LIST) key to access the pre-defined list of notes.

605;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The following screen will then appear.

Entering notes

Press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the feature you want to choose. It will then be highlighted.

PRESS

F1

PRESS

F4

PRESS

F5

PRESS

F5

If the note you want to choose is not on the present list, press the F1(NEXT PAGE) key to go to the next page.

To cancel this function, press the F4(CANCEL) key. This will return you to the notes screen.

When you are satisfied with the selected note, press the F5(OK) key to use this note as your chosen note.

It will now be inserted in the note parameter field.

To record this note in your data file, press the

F5(RECORD) key. The note parameter field will then be cleared and ready for the next note recording.

605<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Recording notes using available macros

What is a macro?

A macro is a note that you would wish to reuse. It can be one of the notes taken from the list or it can be any arbitrary string of characters.

Defining your five macros—

In the notes screen, press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the first macro entry, as illustrated below.

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F2

You can enter each macro by either use the pre-defined list (by pressing the F2(USE LIST) key) as described in the previous section or by manually entering the string of characters as explained below.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

To enter a new macro, press the F2(CLEAR ALL) key. This will clear the macro field.

6063

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

PRESS

F3

Entering notes

Enter the note, as an alphanumeric value up to 19 characters long. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 2” on page 1-20 if you are unsure of the procedure.

Once the entered macro is correct, press the

F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

In the following illustration, the five chosen macros are a combination of pre-defined notes and manually entered notes.

Note:

At any time you can edit your macros by either entering new macros or editing the existing ones.

Using your macros—

In the notes screen, press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the macro you wish to enter in the note parameter field. For instance if you wish to use macro #5, then the number 5 will be highlighted as illustrated below.

6064

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

PRESS

F1

Press the F1(USE MACRO) key to insert the chosen macro in the note parameter field. The screen will resemble the one illustrated below.

PRESS

F5

To record this feature in your data file, press the

F5(RECORD) key. The note parameter field will then be cleared and ready for the next note recording.

6065

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Entering notes

Recording manually entered notes

In the notes screen, press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the note parameter field as

illustrated on page 3-27.

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F2

PRESS

PRESS

F3

F5

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

To enter a new note, press the F2(CLEAR ALL) key. This will clear the data field.

Enter the note, as an alphanumeric value up to 19 characters long. Please refer to “Alphanumeric entry, example 2” on page 1-20 if you are unsure of the procedure.

Once the entered note is correct, press the

F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to exit the EDIT mode.

To record this note in your data file, press the

F5(RECORD) key. The note parameter field will then be cleared and ready for the next note recording.

6066

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Recalling data

During the course of your soundings or profiles, you may want to recall any stored data, regardless of when it was stored.

PRESS

RECALL

9

YZ

To access the recall screen, press the RECALL key.

The following screen will then appear.

6067

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

You can recall data sequentially from every file that was stored in memory.

Note:

A survey can contain as many soundings and profiles as you wish. Each sounding or profile is identified with its unique identification number (ID) within a particular survey.

PRESS

F1

Recalling data

Scrolling through your surveys

If you have more than one survey in your data file, you will be able to scroll through each survey in your data file. Each survey is stored sequentially in the order it was created.

In the recall screen, press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the survey parameter field as

illustrated on page 3-34.

The word survey will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

6XUYH\=

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between surveys.

The survey name will then appear in the parameter field and the parameters of the first sounding or

profile will also appear, as illustrated on page 3-34.

To display the complete set of your survey parameters, press the F1(SHOW SURVEY

PARAMS) key.

6068

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F5

Press the F5(OK) key to exit this screen.

Scrolling through your soundings and profiles

If you have more than one sounding or profile in your survey, you will be able to scroll through each sounding or profile in your survey. Each sounding or profile is stored sequentially in the order it was created.

In the recall screen, press the up or down arrow keys to bring the cursor to the ID parameter field.

The word ID will then be highlighted as illustrated below.

,'=

Press the right or left arrow key to toggle between each sounding or profile.

6069

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Recalling data

PRESS

OR

F2

PRESS

F4 or,

press the F2(SEARCH) key after having manually entered the ID number or the particular profile or sounding your are interested in viewing.

The parameters of each sounding or profile will

appear, as illustrated on page 3-34.

To display the sounding or profile table, press the

F4(RECALL ID GRAPH) key.

A typical resistivity profile or sounding is illustrated below.

PRESS

F1

To adjust, the horizontal scale, press the F1(ZOOM

OFF) key.

606:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Note:

When ZOOM is off, twenty metres (feet) of data are illustrated. When ZOOM is on, two hundred metres

(feet) are illustrated.

If you are performing a multi-separation profile or sounding, the data will be illustrated as table of resistivity values. A typical resistivity table is illustrated below.

PRESS

F2

If you have more than one page of data points, press the F2(NEXT PAGE) key.

PRESS

F1

To return to a previous page of data points, press the

F1(PREV PAGE) key.

606;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Dumping data

Dumping data

After you have collected your survey data, you will want to transfer the data from your SARIS to a PC for future and more advanced processing. You can dump either through RS-232 cable or through your USB cable. We recommend that you dump your data every day.

Important:

If you are dumping data from your SARIS for the first time, you must first install the Scintrex Utilities program supplied to you with your SARIS. You will not be able to transfer data from your SARIS to your

PC without having SCTUTIL installed in your PC.

If you are unsure of this procedure, please refer to

“Installing SCTUTIL” on page C-2.

Dumping data from your SARIS using the USB port

In the Com Parameters window of the SCTUTIL program, make sure that USB Interface is enabled.

To enable this interface click on the USB window, as illustrated below.

606<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

6073

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Power up your SARIS by pressing the ON key.

Connect your USB cable to the your PC.

Connect your USB cable to your SARIS.

Note:

If this is the first time that you are dumping through the USB port, your PC will then recognize the new hardware and prompt you through the installation.

Your SARIS USB driver is located on the SCTUTIL

CD-ROM. If this is not the case or you are unsure of this procedure, refer to “Installing your USB driver” on page C-13.

Dumping data

Note:

In the Dump window of the SCTUTIL program, you can enable Keep Log File, this will produce a complete log of all the surveys as well as assist the

Customer Service personnel in helping you trouble-shoot. The log file contains all the settings of your SARIS.

In the Dump window of the SCTUTIL program,

click on START DUMP to initiate the data transfer to your PC.

6074

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

You will then be prompted to choose a file name for your data, as per the screen illustrated below.

Note:

The default name of your file follows the following format: time(24 HRS) minutes month date year. The

SARIS will dump in Scintrex Geophysical Database format. This format is compatible with all modern resistivity programs.

6075

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Dumping data

Click on the Open button. You will then notice the

“ON-LINE” message appears and that the data is being transferred, as illustrated by the following screen.

6076

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Once the data is successfully transferred, a message indicating successful upload of your data will

PRESS

F5

Once you have transferred your data to your PC, press the F5(OK) key on your SARIS to return to the previous screen.

Dumping data using the RS-232 port

Double-click on the SCTUTIL icon to start the program.

6077

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The following screen will then appear.

Dumping data

You can enable Keep Log File, this will produce a complete log of all the surveys as well as assist the

Customer Service personnel in helping you trouble-shoot. The log file contains all the settings of your SARIS.

Setting the communication parameters

Before you can transfer data or upload the most recent version of SARIS operating software, you must set the proper baud rate as well as the correct number of data bits.

Click on the Com Parameters window to set the communication parameters.

6078

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

The following screen will then appear.

6079

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Click on USB interface to disable it. The default setting for the SARIS is USB enabled.

Select the desired baud rate, number of data bits, stop bits and parity, the default values are 19200,8,1 and n.

Important:

Your baud rate, data bits and stop bits have to be the same on your SARIS and your PC.

Select flow control, the default is none.

To select your com port, click on the down arrow located beside the com1 selection.

The following screen will then appear.

Dumping data

PRESS

DUMP

6

PQR

Select the desired com port. In most cases, this will be com1.

Connect your RS-232 cable to the your PC.

Important:

Make sure that your RS-232 cable is connected to the appropriate serial port on your PC. Most modern

PC’s have more than one serial port.

To access the Data Dump screen on your SARIS,

press the DUMP key.

607:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F3

PRESS

F3

Note:

You can only modify the baud rate, the other dump parameters cannot be modified, they are illustrated only as a reference in order to set your PC serial port accordingly.

Press the F3(FUNCT/EDIT) key to choose the

EDIT mode.

Press the right or left arrow key to select the baud rate at which you want to transfer your data.

Press the F1(START DUMP) key to initiate a data dump; a message indicating that the data is being transferred will appear in the lower left hand corner of the console screen.

Note:

To abort the dump process while the data is being transferred, you can press the F1(STOP DUMP) key.

607;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Dumping data

In the Dump window of the SCTUTIL program,

click on START DUMP to initiate the data transfer to your PC.

You will then be prompted to choose a file name for your data, as per the screen illustrated below.

607<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Note:

The default name of your file follows the following format: time(24 HRS) minutes month date year. The

SARIS will dump in Scintrex Geophysical Database format. This format is compatible with all modern resistivity programs.

Click on the Open button. You will then notice the

“ON-LINE” message appears and that the data is being transferred, as illustrated by the following screen.

6083

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Dumping data

After the data is successfully transferred, a message indicating successful data transfer will appear in the lower left-hand portion of your SARIS screen, as illustrated below.

Once the data is successfully transferred, a message indicating successful upload of your data will

6084

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

PRESS

F5

After you have transferred your data to your PC, press the F5(OK) key on your SARIS to return to the previous screen.

6085

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Memory clear

Memory clear

We recommend that you clear the data stored in the flash memory every day after every dump. However, in the event where you cannot dump your data, the flash memory will allow you to safely store the data for very long periods of time.

PRESS

MEMORY

3

GHI

To access the Memory Clear screen, press the

MEMORY key.

The following screen will then appear.

PRESS

F1

The amount of total memory in flash memory is illustrated in kilobytes. Furthermore, the amount available memory is illustrated in terms of percentage of total memory.

Press the F1(CLEAR MEMORY) to clear the memory.

6086

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Field Operation

Note:

To clear the memory, you must press the following sequence of hot keys: F1, F3, F2 and F4. Only then will the memory be cleared.

PRESS

F1 F3 F2 F4

PRESS

F5

While the memory is being erased, the message

“Memory clearing” will appear where the “Storage

Available” message was. The unit will beep when you have cleared the memory.

Press the F5(OK) key to return to the Setup menu.

6087

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

4

Maintenance and

Trouble-shooting

Customer service

In order to provide our valued customers with the utmost in customer service, a help service is available through e-mail to either of our offices world-wide. You can reach at least one of our offices through e-mail regardless of your time zone. If you need any help with the instrument, either in operating it or applying it towards a particular application, do not hesitate to contact Scintrex SARIS support at the following addresses:

Canada: (from 8:30 AM to 5:30 PM EDT; 12:30 to

21:30 GMT)

Tel: (+1-905) 669-2280

Fax: (+1-905) 669-6403 e-mail: [email protected]

web site: www.idsdetection.com

U.S.A.: (from 8:30 AM to 5:30 PM CDT; 13:30 to

22:30 GMT)

Tel: (+1-940) 591-7755

Fax: (+1-940) 591-1968 e-mail: [email protected]

704

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Maintenance and Trouble-shooting

Australia: (from 7:30 AM to 5:00 PM; from 21:30 to 3:00 GMT)

Tel: (+61-7) 3376-5188

Fax: (+61-7) 3376-6626 e-mail: [email protected]

705

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Battery charging

Battery charging

The battery pack in the SARIS is a high-capacity 24 Volts, 8 Ah gel-cell pack. Depending on field conditions, you may be able to carry out your surveys without having to recharge the battery pack for several days.

However, recharging your batteries every day is a good practice.

Optimum charging is done at room temperature.

Warning:

NEVER CHARGE A BATTERY AT

EXTREMELY COLD TEMPERATURES THIS

COULD RESULT IN AN EXPLOSION OF

YOUR BATTERY PACK.

Charging procedure

1 CONNECT the battery charger to the SARIS battery pack

2 CONNECT your battery charger in the wall outlet.

706

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Maintenance and Trouble-shooting

Basic maintenance

Your SARIS is a virtually maintenance-free instrument. However, there are some small components that may have to be replaced from time to time.

Fuse replacement

The battery pack fuse is located in the center of the top portion of the battery pack.

1 Detach the battery pack from the electronics console.

707

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

2 Unscrew the fuse from the battery pack

.

Basic maintenance

3 Remove the fuse from the fuse holder

.

708

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Maintenance and Trouble-shooting

4 Replace and screw the fuse back in place.

.

Console disassembly and reassembly

Warning:

Disassembly of the console is strongly discouraged due to the complexity of the tasks required and the risk of electrical shock. Scintrex cannot be held responsible for any mishap that console disassembly would cause. The SARIS can produce LETHAL voltages inside the console. THIS CAN RESULT

IN SERIOUS INJURIES.

Whereas Scintrex has taken reasonable precautions in its design to minimize the possibility of personal injury in its normal and proper use, Scintrex can bear no responsibility in this regard.

709

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Trouble shooting

Trouble shooting

Despite the fact that your SARIS is a very reliable instrument, there can be circumstances where problems may occur. The following table lists some of these problems and their attempted solution. However, please do not hesitate

to contact your nearest Scintrex office. See “Customer service” on page 4-1

for the office nearest you.

Problem Possible cause

Unit will not turn ON when the

ON key is pressed

Battery pack is not connected

Screen is completely dark or light

Blown fuse on battery pack

Contrast is not adjusted properly

Unit does not respond to any keystroke; no keys will respond

Number of database errors corrected is less than number of errors detected

Unit shuts off immediately after

ON key is pressed

Display flickers and unit shuts off

Low battery

Low battery

Possible solution

Connect battery pack to electronics console.

Replace fuse as per “Fuse replacement” on page 4-4.

Press the ENTER key, press

CONTRAST key and press F2

(50%) key.

Reset the unit by pressing and holding the OFF key until unit shuts off. Press the ON key.

Reset the unit to default parameters by pressing the ON and Tx Stop keys together.

However, caution must be applied in this case, since this

will erase your data entirely.

Charge battery as per “Charging procedure” on page 4-3.

Charge battery as per “Charging procedure” on page 4-3.

70:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Maintenance and Trouble-shooting

Data does not dump

Problem Possible cause Possible solution

RS-232 or USB cable Connect cable as per “Dumping is not connected to

SARIS data” on page 3-39.

RS-232 or USB cable is not connected to

PC

Connect cable as per “Dumping data” on page 3-39.

Unit will not recognize automated cables

File transfer program is not installed properly

Check installation of SCTUTIL program as per “Installing

SCTUTIL” on page C-2..

Multi-electrode interface module is not connected properly

Connect multi-electrode interface module to electronics module.

70;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Saris operation error messages

Saris operation error messages

During normal operation, errors messages do not appear. However, when an erroneous operation or procedure is made, error messages will appear. The following table lists the error messages that you may encounter during operation of your SARIS. Please do not hesitate to contact your nearest

Scintrex office. See “Customer service” on page 4-1 for the office nearest

you.

Error Message

Open Loop MN

Open Loop AB

Not Enough

Power

Defective

Transmitter

Failure code T01

Defective

Transmitter

Failure code T02

Possible cause Possible solution

Bad contact on one or both of the potential electrodes

Check contact resistances, or for a broken wire or loose contacts with the takeouts (see note at the bottom of the page)

Bad contact on one or both of the current electrodes

Check contact resistances, or for a broken wire or loose contacts with the takeouts(see note at the bottom of the page)

Requested current setting exceeds power capabilities of

Reduce the current the SARIS

The analog board

Contact your nearest Customer fuse may be

Service Office blown

The analog board

Contact your nearest Customer fuse may be

Service Office blown

Note:

When working with imaging cables and after having improved the contact, the reading can be restarted by pressing the READING key followed by the

F5(INJECT) key.

70<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Maintenance and Trouble-shooting

Inversion routine error messages

During the inversion of your sounding data, errors do not normally appear.

However, when an erroneous operation is made, error messages will appear.

The following table lists the error messages that you may encounter during the inversion of your sounding data. Please do not hesitate to contact your

nearest Scintrex office. See “Customer service” on page 4-1 for the office

nearest you.

Inversion routine error message

1

2

4

14,32

15,36

18

30

31

37

42

51

81

82,83

Diagnosis

Memory allocation error for a single index table

Memory allocation error for a double-index table

Memory allocation error for a rho type structure nudispo must have values of 1, 2 or 3

(Schlumberger/Wenner/Dipole-dipole)

Number of measurements must be between 4 and 1000

Data error: electrode spacing or resistivity has a negative value

Incorrect value of the ntcal (apparent resistivities to calculate)

Dipole-dipole length of dipoles is either zero or negative

Data error: less that four measurements with distinct dipole lengths

Insufficient number of measurements

Too many iterations

Processing stopped by user before rhocal model calculation

Processing stopped by user after obtaining niter iteration results

7043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

5

Reference

Information

Saris technical specifications

Saris Specifications

Output (Transmitter)

Output Power

Output Current:

Current Regulation

Output Current measurement accuracy:

Output Voltage:

100W minimum in both 100

and 2500

Ω loads

1.0 Amp minimum into 100

load

None, unregulated

±1.25%

500V into 2500

load

804

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Reference Information

Saris Specifications (Continued)

Input (Receiver)

Input Resistance: 11 M

Ω nominal

Input Voltage Dynamic Range: ±40V

1000VDC, max. 5 seconds Maximum Input Voltage:

Input Voltage Measurement

Accuracy:

±0.5%

Input Voltage Resolution:

Input Dynamic Range:

Noise Rejection:

SP Compensation:

Resistivity Measurement

0.6 µVolt

156 dB

98 dB (50/60Hz) power line rejection

±1V

Cycle Time:

Number of cycles:

Resistivity accuracy

IP

Number of IP windows:

5 or 6 Hz acccroding to power line frequency for Resistivity

1, 2, 4 or 8 seconds ON Time for time domain IP

Automatic, 1 to

±1% (measured in 2500

Ω load)

Position of IP windows

Chargeability Units

IP Chargeability Resolution:

4

See “Saris IP Window specifications” on

page 5-4.

mV/V

0.1 mV/V

Environmental

805

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Saris technical specifications

Saris Specifications (Continued)

Operating Temperature:

Water resistance:

Power Supply

-20°C to +55°C

Waterproof to IP65

Power Supply Type:

Measuring Capacity:

24V, 7.5Ah clip-on Lead-Acid Battery,

180 W-h capacity

100 hours standby operation

>12000 minimum power, 30 sec. Readings.

(Maximum number of readings will decrease according to output power)

Internal Computer

Display:

Communication Interfaces:

Data Storage Capacity:

Weight and Dimensions

320 by 240 quarter VGA monochrome

LCD

12 MHz USB and RS-232

>10,000 single readings

Complete SARIS Unit with

Battery:

SARIS Battery only:

336*215*201mm outside all connectors

336*190*177mm without connectors

8.9 Kg

336*215*86mm

6.4 Kg

806

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Reference Information

Saris IP Window specifications

60 Hz power line 50 Hz power line

1 sec 2 sec 4 sec 8 sec 1 sec 2 sec 4 sec 8 sec Ton

M1Begin time (ms)

M1End time (ms)

M2Begin time (ms)

M2End time (ms)

M3Begin time (ms)

M3End time (ms)

M4Begin time (ms)

M4End time (ms)

100

150

150

250

250

450

450

850

100

200

200

400

400

800

800

1600

100

300

300

700

700

1500

1500

3100

200

600

600

1400

1400

3000

3000

6200

100

160

160

280

280

520

520

880

100

200

200

400

400

800

800

1600

100

300

300

700

700

1500

1500

3100

200

600

600

1400

1400

3000

3000

6200

807

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Saris system components list

Saris system components list

Item Description

Resistivity Module

Multi-Electrode Interface

Module

RS-232 Cable

Battery Module

Battery Charger

Spare Carrying Bag #1

Spare Carrying Bag #2

Scintrex Utilities CD-ROM

User’s Manual

ICS-1 Imaging Cable System

ICS-2 Imaging Cable System

ICS-3 Imaging Cable System

ICS-5 Imaging Cable System

ICS-10 Imaging Cable System

ICS-12.5 Imaging Cable System

ICS-15 Imaging Cable System

ICS-20 Imaging Cable System

SCS-64 Wenner Sounding Cable

System

SCS-128 Wenner Sounding Cable

System

SCINTREX

Part Number

735 500

735 501

745 081

735 502

735 503

735 507

735 526

735 650

735 700

735 020

735 021

735 022

735 023

735 024

735 025

735 026

735 027

735 030

735 031

808

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Reference Information

Item Description

SCS-256 Wenner Sounding Cable

System

SCS-96 Schlumberger & Wenner

Sounding Cable System

SCS-192 Schlumberger & Wenner

Sounding Cable System

SCS-384 Schlumberger & Wenner

Sounding Cable System

50m Single Core Cable

100m Single Core Cable

200m Single Core Cable

250m Single Core Cable

300m Single Core Cable

500m Single Core Cable

750m Single Core Cable

Electrode

SARIS Spare Parts Kit

GPS Option

Carrying Case

BOREHOLE LOGGING OPTION

Borehole Sonde

Borehole Interface Module

Borehole Option Spare Parts

Kit

SCINTREX

Part Number

735 032

735 033

735 034

735 531

735 529

735 062

735 035

735 040

735 041

735 042

735 043

735 044

735 045

735 046

735 519

735 061

735 060

735 528

809

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Warranty and repair

Warranty and repair

Warranty

All Scintrex equipment, with the exception of consumable items, is warranted against defects in materials and workmanship for a period of one year from the date of shipment from our plant. Should any defects become evident under normal use during the warranty period, Scintrex will make the necessary repairs free of charge.

This warranty does not cover damage due to misuse or accident and may be voided if the instrument console is opened or tampered with by persons not authorized by Scintrex.

Repair

When to ship the unit

Please do not ship your instrument for repair until have communicated the nature of the problem to our Customer Service Department by e-mail, telephone, facsimile or correspondence. Our Customer Service Department may suggest certain simple tests or steps for you to do which may solve your problem without the time and expense involved in shipping the instrument back to Scintrex for repair. If the problem cannot be resolved, our personnel will request that you send the instrument to our plant for the necessary repairs.

Description of the problem

When you describe the problem, please include the following information:

• the symptoms of the problem, how the problem started, if the problem is constant, intermittent or repeatable, if constant, under what conditions does it occur, any printouts demonstrating the problem

80:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Reference Information

Shipping instructions

No instrument will be accepted for repair unless it is shipped prepaid. After repair, it will be returned collect, unless other arrangements have been made with Scintrex. Please mention the instrument’s serial number in all communications regarding equipment leased or purchased from Scintrex.

Head Office

Instruments within Canada should be shipped to:

SCINTREX Limited

222 Snidercroft Road

Concord, Ontario

L4K 1B5 tel: (905) 669-2280 fax: (905) 669-6403 e-mail: [email protected]

Australia

SCINTREX/Auslog

P.O. Box 125 Sumner Park

83 Jijaws Street

Brisbane, QLD

4074 tel: (+61-7) 3376-5188 e-mail: [email protected]

80;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

U.S.A.

Scintrex U.S.A.

900 Woodrow Lane, Suite 100

Denton, Texas

76205 tel: (940) 591-7755 fax: (940) 591-1968 e-mail: [email protected]

Warranty and repair

80<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Reference Information

Other areas

Instrument shipped for repair from outside Australia, Canada and the U.S.A.

should be addressed to Scintrex and shipped to:

Scintrex Limited

c/o Danzas Customs Brokers

1600 Drew Road

Mississauga, Ontario

L5S 1S5

CANADA tel: (905) 405-9300 fax: (905) 405-9301

Three sets of customs documents must be included:

• one set inside the package,

• one set attached to the package and sealed to the outside of the package, one set attached to the air waybill.

Scintrex instruments are manufactured in Canada, consequently there is no customer duty payable in Canada. It is advisable to state on the customs documents the following:

“Canadian Goods Returned to Canada for Repair”

Name of the equipment

Value

Serial Number

Reason for return

Packaging and weight

8043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

A

Offset Wenner

Sounding

Offset Wenner Theory

The idea behind the Offset Wenner Sounding Method, proposed by Barker

(1981) is to eliminate or at least greatly reduce the effects of surface inhomogeneities on the sounding results. The Offset Wenner method uses five electrodes at a time. These electrodes are equally spaced by a value of

“a”. The sounding cables are spread out on either side of the SARIS and a center electrode is added at the location of the SARIS, i.e. the sounding point.

A standard Wenner array uses only four electrodes at a time. Figure 1 illustrates a typical Offset Wenner Sounding setup.

$0 4

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Offset Wenner Sounding

Wenner Sounding Cable Wenner Sounding Cable

1st Wenner Measurement

R

D1

2nd Wenner Measurement

R

D2

A M

A

N

M

B

N B a

Figure 1: Offset Wenner Measurements

A first Wenner measurement R

D1

is taken with the first four electrodes, and then a second Wenner measurement R

D2

is taken using the next four electrodes. By averaging the two Wenner measurements, the effects of near-surface inhomogeneities are greatly reduced. The mean resistance, denoted R

D

or R

W

is plotted at the sounding point.

Furthermore, the Offset Wenner technique allows you to calculate intermediate points on the Wenner sounding curve. This increases the number of points on the sounding curve and can improve the subsequent inversion of data.

The calculation of these intermediate points is based on the following formulae.

R w

(3a) = 0.5(R w

(2a)) + R

B

(2a) – R

B

(a)+0.5(R w

(4a)) (1)

R w

(4a) = 2(R c

(2a) – R w

(2a)) (2)

The former formula (2) is typically used only to calculate the last point on the

Wenner sounding curve.

Resistances R

A

, R

B

and R

C

are illustrated below.

$0

5

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

A M N B

R

A

A B M N

R

B

A M B N

R

C

a

Figure 2: Intermediate Resistances

R

A

, R

B

and R

C

For purposes of quality control, the following formulae are also used:

R

A

= R

B

+ R

C

Offset Error = (R

D1

(a)-R

D2

(a))/R

D

(a)

(3)

Obs. Error = (R

A

(a) - (R

B

(a) + R

C

(a))/R

A

(a) (4)

(5)

Where

R

W

(a)

R

D

(a) = (R

D1

(a) + R

D2

(a))/2 (6)

Technical Description of the Offset Sounding &

Schlumberger Cables

A total of six standard Offset Wenner sounding cables are available.

SCS-64 series

SCS-64

SCS-128

SCS-256

SCS-96 series

SCS-96

SCS-192

SCS-384

$0

6

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Offset Wenner Sounding

The SCS-96 series allows the user to perform Offset Wenner and

Schlumberger soundings, whereas the SCS-64 series allows the user to perform Offset Wenner soundings only. Furthermore, additional intermediate resistances are calculated with SCS-64 series of cables. For more information on how these additional Wenner resistances are calculated

see “Offset Wenner Theory” on page A-1.

Calculations of R

A

and R

B

are not required in the SCS-96 series.

Note:

The electrodes at 0.5 and 1 metre takeouts must be planted at a shallow depth otherwise the resistivity measurement will be false, because of the length of the electrode in the ground as compared to the electrode separation.

SCS-64 Cable System (Part no. 735030)

This system consists of two 64m sounding cables with 8 takeouts at the following positions: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 64.0 metres.

Offset Wenner measurements are taken for the following spacings: 0.5, 1.0,

2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 metres.

Intermediate Wenner resistances are calculated for spacings 1.5, 3.0, 6.0,

12.0, 24.0, 48.0 and 64.0 metres.

SCS-128 Cable System (Part no. 735031)

This system consists of two 128m sounding cables with 9 takeouts at the following positions: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 32.0, 64.0, and 128.0 metres.

Offset Wenner measurements are taken for the following spacings: 0.5, 1.0,

2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 32.0 and 64.0 metres.

Intermediate Wenner resistances are calculated for spacings 1.5, 3.0, 6.0,

12.0, 24.0, 48.0, 96.0 and 128.0 metres.

$0

7

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SCS-256 Cable System (Part no. 735032)

This system consists of two 256m sounding cables with 10 takeouts at the following positions: 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 32.0, 64.0, 128.0 and 256.0

metres.

Offset Wenner measurements are taken for the following spacings: 0.5, 1.0,

2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0, 32.0, 64.0 and 128.0 metres.

Intermediate Wenner resistances are calculated for spacings 1.5, 3.0, 6.0,

12.0, 24.0, 48.0, 96.0 and 192.0 and 256.0 metres.

SCS-96 Cable System (Part no. 735033)

This system consists of two 96m sounding cables with 15 takeouts at the following positions: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, 24.0, 32.0,

48.0, 64.0 and 96.0 metres.

Schlumberger resistances are calculated for AB/2 of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0,

6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, 24.0, 32.0, 48.0, 64.0 and 96.0 metres using the following table:

$0

8

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Offset Wenner Sounding

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

24.0

32.0

48.0

48.0

8.0

12.0

12.0

16.0

64.0

96.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

6.0

1.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

16.0

1.0

1.0

3.0

3.0

16.0

16.0

0.5

0.5

1.0

1.0

0.25

0.5

0.5

Table A-1: Equivalence table for MN/2 and AB/2 for the SCS-96 cable

An intermediate Wenner resistance is calculated for 64.0 metres.

$0

9

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SCS-192 Cable System (Part no. 735034)

This system consists of two 192m sounding cables with 17 takeouts at the following positions: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, 24.0, 32.0,

48.0, 64.0, 96.0, 128.0 and 192.0 metres.

Schlumberger resistances are calculated for AB/2 of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0,

6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, 24.0, 32.0, 48.0, 64.0, 96.0, 128.0 and 192.0 metres using the following table:

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

12.0

12.0

16.0

24.0

32.0

48.0

4.0

4.0

6.0

8.0

1.0

1.0

2.0

3.0

1.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.25

0.5

0.5

0.5

$0

:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Offset Wenner Sounding

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

48.0

64.0

96.0

128.0

128.0

192.0

16.0

16.0

16.0

16.0

32.0

32.0

Table A-2: Equivalence table for MN/2 and AB/2 for the SCS-192 cable

An intermediate Wenner resistance is calculated for 128.0 metres.

SCS-384 Cable System (Part no. 735035)

This system consists of two 384m sounding cables with 19 takeouts.

This system consists of two 192m sounding cables with 17 takeouts at the following positions: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, 24.0, 32.0,

48.0, 64.0, 96.0, 128.0 and 192.0 metres.

Schlumberger resistances are calculated for AB/2 of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0,

6.0, 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, 24.0, 32.0, 48.0, 64.0, 96.0, 128.0 and 192.0 metres using the following table:

$0

;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

1.0

1.0

0.25

0.5

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

48.0

64.0

96.0

128.0

16.0

24.0

32.0

48.0

128.0

192.0

6.0

8.0

12.0

12.0

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

16.0

16.0

16.0

16.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

3.0

32.0

32.0

1.0

1.0

1.0

3.0

0.5

0.5

0.5

1.0

Table A-3: Equivalence table for MN/2 and AB/2 for the SCS-384 cable

$0

<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Offset Wenner Sounding

An intermediate Wenner resistance is calculated for 256.0 metres.

$043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Bibliography

Bibliography

Barker, R. D. (1981)

"The offset system of electrical resistivity sounding and its use with a multicore cable" Geophysical Prospecting, Vol. 29, pp. 128-143.

044

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Offset Wenner Sounding

$045

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

B

Imaging

Techniques

Introduction

The purpose of electrical imaging techniques is to produce an image of the subsurface resistivity. These results are produced as two-dimensional true resistivity section. With the knowledge of this true resistivity one can confirm or infirm the geological model. A more correct term for this process is sounding-profiling.

Example: Wenner array

There are many electrode arrays that are used in electrical imaging. These arrays have been illustrated in chapter 1. See “Profiling configuration” on page 1-25.

%04

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Imaging Techniques

a=30 m

As an example, let us consider the Wenner array in imaging. The following caption illustrates how data obtained from a Wenner electrical imaging survey is plotted as a pseudo-section.

A

B

M N

B

a=20 m

A

a=10 m

A

M

M

N

B

N

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • •

Figure 1: Building a Wenner pseudo-section

• •

A first profile with a fundamental “a” spacing of 10 metres is first carried out

(black). Then the “a” spacing is increased to 20 metres and a second profile is carried out (blue). Finally, “a” spacing is increased to 30 metres and a second profile is carried out (red).

The data points are then plotted on a pseudo-section and contoured.

Data thus obtained data would resemble the following pseudo-section.

Figure 2: Wenner pseudo-section

Once this pseudo-section is obtained, a true resistivity section must be produced in order to relate to the true geological section. Several inversion programs are available on the market. Two such programs are well suited for

%05

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

the SARIS; they are RES2DINV from M.H. Loke (www.geoelectrical.com) and RESIXIP2DI from Interpex Limited (www.interpex.com).

The following caption illustrates the inversion results obtained from the field data illustrated in figure 2.

Figure 3: Wenner Inversion Results

The mathematical basis of these inversions is beyond the scope of this manual, and the user should refer to the aforementioned web sites for further details.

Any inversion is only as good as its relation to the geological model.

Furthermore, prior knowledge of the geological model is a prerequisite for a viable inversion. Both RES2DINV and RESIXIP2DI allow the user to fix certain start parameters such resistivities or thicknesses of layers. Thus the inversion should converge towards a solution which is more in line with the true geological model.

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Imaging Techniques

Because the mathematical assumptions and methods are different from one inversion program to another, one should not expect identical results from one inversion program to another using the same field results. Furthermore, because of these same mathematical assumptions and methods, certain inversion programs will be better suited than others in a given situation.

The previous point cannot be emphasized enough. Many in the geophysical industry have come to believe in the infallibility of geophysical results; i.e.

that they should stand alone and that computed inversions be accepted as gospel. All modern exploration tools such as geophysics, geological mapping, structural geology, geochemistry, to name a few are subservient to the geological model.

%07

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

C

Scintrex Utilities

Program

The SCTUTIL Scintrex utilities program allows the user to download data from the SARIS as well as upload the most current version of the SARIS operating software supplied to you by Scintrex.

The SCTUTIL program is located on the CD-ROM disk provided supplied with every SARIS.

You will find this CD-ROM is one of the compartments of your SARIS transit case.

&04

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

Installing SCTUTIL

Before you can use the SCTUTIL utilities program, you must first install it on your PC.

Insert the SCTUTIL CD-ROM in the proper drive on your PC.

The installation program is self-executable, therefore you should see the following screen appear.

If it does not appear, go to your CD-ROM drive and

run the Setup.exe program.

&05

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

After the Install Shield Wizard is prepared, the following screen will then appear.

Click on Next.

&06

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

The following screen will then appear.

&07

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Click on Next.

The following screen will then appear.

If you wish, type your name and company.

Click on Next.

&08

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

The following screen will then appear.

&09

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

If you do not want the program to be installed in the default directory, click on Browse to choose another directory and then click on Next, otherwise just click on Next.

The following screen will then appear.

Click on Next.

&0:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

The following screen will then appear.

&0;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Click on Next.

The installation program will then load the appropriate files onto your PC.

When the installation is complete, you can run the program by clicking on the SCTUTIL icon.

Reprogramming your SARIS

From time to time, you will be receiving software upgrades for your SARIS.

You can easily upload the most current version of the SARIS operating software by using SCTUTIL.

Note:

The upgrading of your software version can be done either with the RS-232 or USB ports. However, the

USB port upgrade is much faster and uses less menus.

PRESS

On

Note:

If you are unsure of the current software version,

press the INFO/7/STU key. The software version will be indicated on the third line of this screen.

Important:

Before you upgrade your software to the newest version, you must dump all data. This data will be erased once you upgrade your software.You can upgrade the software using the RS-232 port, however the USB port is much faster.

Press the On key.

Connect your USB or RS-232 cable to your PC and your SARIS.

&0<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

Start your SCTUTIL program and click on the operating system window, the following window will appear.

&043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Click on Reprogram system.

The following window will appear.

You will then browse for the SARIS system (*.sys) files sent to you by Scintrex.

Once you have found it, click Open.

If your are using your USB cable, the upgrade will then start and should be completed in a very short time.

If you are using an RS-232 cable instead, proceed to the next section.

Using the RS-232 cable to upgrade

On your SARIS, press the arrow keys to bring the cursor to the software upgrade menu.

&0 44

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

PRESS

PRESS

Enter

F1

PRESS

OR

Enter

↵↵

The phrase “software upgrade” will then be highlighted, as illustrated below.

6RIWZDUH#XSJUDGH

Press the ENTER key.

You will then be prompted to do one of the following:

To cancel this operation, press the F1(CANCEL) key, or to continue, press the ENTER key.

The following message will then appear on the

SARIS screen.

5

(352*5$00,1*#23(5$7,1*#6<67(0

Once, the message has disappeared, the reprogramming of your SARIS is complete.

Note:

The SCTUTIL program will also indicate that the reprogramming is proceeding. Please wait that the

SARIS powers down for the reprogramming to be complete. When the SARIS is powered up an hourglass will appear for five seconds.

&045

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Installing your USB driver

The USB driver is located on your SCTUTIL CD-ROM. Before transferring data in USB mode from your SARIS to your PC, you must first install this driver on your PC.

Close all applications on your PC.

Insert the SCTUTIL CD-ROM in the proper drive on your PC.

In the Control Panel window of your PC,

double-click on “Add New Hardware”.

The following window will appear.

&0 46

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

Click on Next and let the Wizard search for plug and play devices, the following screen will then appear.

&047

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

When it has finished searching for plug and play devices, the following screen will then appear.

Click on No and press Next.

&0 48

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

The following screen will then appear.

&049

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Click on No and press Next.

The following screen will then appear.

&0 4:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

Scroll down and select Universal Serial Bus, as per the following screen.

&04;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Click on Next. The following screen will then appear.

Click on Have Disk.

The following screen will then appear.

Click on Browse.

&0 4<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

The following screen will then appear.

&053

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Insert your SCTUTIL CD-ROM in your D:drive (or whichever CD-ROM drive is appropriate in your case)

Click on the down arrow in Drives and select the drive where your CD-ROM has been inserted. The following screen will then appear.

&0 54

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

Double-click on the USBDRV directory and click on the “saris.inf” file. The following screen will then appear.

&055

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Click on OK. The following screen will then appear.

Click on OK. The following screen will then appear.

&0 56

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

Click on Next. At this point you may be prompted by your PC that the driver is incompatible select it anyway. The following screen will then appear.

&057

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Click on Next. Wait for the installation to complete.

Once the installation is complete, the following screen will then appear.

Re-boot your PC to acknowledge the changes.

Your USB driver is now installed.

&0 58

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Scintrex Utilities Program

&059

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

D

The Induced

Polarization

Method

The following article originally written by Dr. Harold O. Seigel, past

President of Scintrex, explains the induced polarization method. Despite the fact that this article refers to now obsolete instrumentation, the basis of the method has remained unchanged.

Introduction

The induced polarization method is based on the electrochemical phenomenon of overvoltage, that is, on the establishment and detection of double layers of electrical charge at the interface between ionic and electronic conducting material when an electrical current is caused to pass across the interface.

In practice, two different field techniques (Time Domain and Frequency

Domain) have been employed to execute surveys with this method. These techniques can yield essentially equivalent information but do not always do so. Instrumentation and field procedures using both techniques have evolved considerably over the past two decades. Much theoretical information for quantitative interpretation has been accumulated.

'0 4

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

All naturally occurring sulfides of metallic lustre, some oxides and graphite, give marked induced polarization responses when present in sufficient volume, even when such materials occur in low concentrations and in the form of discrete, non-interconnected particles.

Induced Polarization is the only method presently available which has general application to the direct detection of disseminated sulfide deposits such as “porphyry type” or bedded copper deposits, and bedded lead-zinc deposits in carbonate rocks.

A number of case histories are documented where standard geoelectrical and other geophysical methods failed to yield an indication of sulfide mineralization by the induced polarization method.

Each rock and soil type exhibits appreciable induced polarization response, usually confined to a relatively low amplitude range, which is characteristic of the specific rock or soil. Certain clays and platey minerals including serpentine, sericite and chlorite sometimes give rise to abnormally high responses. These effects are attributed largely to so-called “membrane polarization”.

Despite a moderate amount of laboratory and field investigation, it is not feasible in general to differentiate between induced polarization responses due to overvoltage and non-metallic sources, nor to differentiate between possible sources within each group.

Because of other variables, it is likewise difficult to uniquely equate a specific induced polarization response to a specific percentage of metallic content, although mean relationships have been established.

Through the measurement of secondary parameters, such as the transient decay curve form characteristics, one may obtain useful information relating to the average particle size of metallic responsive bodies or to the influence of electromagnetic transients on the I.P. measurements. The latter effect becomes prominent when surveys are made in areas with highly conducting surface materials, e.g. semi-arid regions.

'0

5

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Historical Background

The induced polarization (or I.P. as it is commonly known) method is, in application, the newest of our mining geophysical tools, having come into active use only in late 1948. Its roots extend somewhat farther back, however. Schlumberger (1920) reports having noted a relatively lengthy decay of the residual voltages in the vicinity of a sulfide body after the interruption of a primary D.C. current. Unfortunately, measurements in non-mineralized areas gave rise to rather similar residual polarization potentials, so he apparently abandoned his efforts.

In the late 1930's in the U.S.S.R. (Dakhnov, 1941) I.P. measurements were being made in petroleum well logging in an attempt to obtain information relating to the fluid permeability of the formations traversed by the well.

Dakhnov mentions the possible application of the method to the exploration for sulfide mineralization, although it would appear that no such use was being made use thereof at that time. Unfortunately the volume of Dakhnov did not come to the attention of abstracters in North America until the spring of 1950.

Active development of the I.P. method as applied to mineral exploration in

North America commenced with the writer's theoretical study in 1947 of the phenomenon of overvoltage and his report (Seigel, 1948) on its possible application to geophysical prospecting. Laboratory and subsequent field investigation, sponsored by Newmont Mining Corporation in 1948 eventually led to the development of a working field technique and the recognition of polarization effects in all rocks (Seigel 1949).

Contemporaneously and independently D.A. Bleil (Bleil 1953) indicated the possibility of utilizing I.P. in prospecting for magnetite and sulfide mineralization but apparently did not recognize the presence of non-metallic polarization effects in rocks.

Until 1950 all I.P. measurements were of the “time-domain” type (see below). In 1950, as the result of some laboratory measurements, L.S. Collett and the writer suggested the method of measuring I.P. effects using sinusoidal current forms of different frequencies. J.R. Wait expanded greatly on the possibilities of this approach and successful field tests were carried out in that year. The work of the Newmont group is summarized in a monograph

(Wait 1959).

'0

6

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

Since 1950 several groups have been active in the development of the I.P.

method by means of theoretical laboratory model and field studies.

prominent among these groups has been that at the Massachusetts Institute of

Technology (Hall of 1957) (Madden 1957) (Marshall 1959).

Description of the I.P. phenomenon

Within the literal meaning of the term, polarization is a separation of charge to form an effective dipolar distribution within a medium. Induced polarization is, therefore, a separation of charge which is due to an applied electric field. It may also include phenomena which cause voltage distributions similar to those due to true polarization effects.

For practical purposes, only polarization effects with time constants of build up and decay longer than a few milliseconds are of importance. This usually excludes such phenomena as dielectric polarization and others which are encompassed by the normal electromagnetic equations.

In order to measure I.P. effects in a volume of rock one passes current through the volume by means of two contact points or electrodes and measures existing voltages across two other contact points.

Theoretically, any time varying current form can be used, but in practice only two such forms are employed. In the first technique a steady current is passed for a period of from one second to several tens of seconds and then abruptly interrupted.

The polarization voltages built up during the passage of the current will decay slowly after the interception of the current and will be visible for at least several seconds after the interception. This is termed the “Time

Domain” method.

The “Frequency Domain” method entails the passage of sine wave current forms of two or more low, but well separated, frequencies, e.g. 0.1 and 2.5

c.p.s., or 0.5 c.p.s. and 10 c.p.s.

Since polarization effects take an appreciable time to build up, it can be seen that they will be larger at the lower frequency than at the higher, so that apparent resistivities or transfer impedances between the current and measuring circuits will be larger at the lower frequency. The change of measured resistivities with frequency is, therefore, an indication of polarization effects.

'0

7

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Further discussion of the precise quantities measured in the Time and

Frequency Domain methods will be resumed after a presentation of some of the polarization phenomena involved.

When a metal electrode is immersed in a solution of ions of a certain concentration and valence, a potential difference is established between the metal and the solution sides of the interface. This difference in potential is an explicit function of the ion concentration and valence, etc.

When an external voltage is applied across the interface a current is caused to flow and the potential drop across the interface changes from its initial value.

If the electrode is a cathode it becomes more negative with respect to the solution, whereas if it is an anode, it becomes more positive with respect to the solution.

The change in interface voltage is called the “overvoltage” or “polarization potential” of the electrode. If the electrode is a cathode, we speak of

“hydrogen overvoltage” and, if an anode, of “oxygen overvoltage”.

These overvoltages are due to an accumulation of ions on the electrolyte side of the interface, waiting to be discharged. The charge of these ions will be balanced by an equal opposite charge due to electrons or protons on the electrode side of the interface.

For small current densities the overvoltage is proportional to the current density, i.e. is a linear phenomenon. The variation of overvoltage with several other factors is presented in the writer’s Doctoral Thesis (Seigel,

1949). The time constant of build up and decay is of the order of several tenths of seconds.

Overvoltage is, therefore, established whenever current is caused to flow across an interface between ionic and electronic conduction. In normal rocks the current which flows under the action of an impressed E.M.F. does so by virtue of ionic conduction in the electrolyte in the capillaries of the rock.

There are, however, certain rock forming minerals which have a measure of electronic conduction, and these include almost all the metallic sulfides

(except sphalerite), graphite, some coals, some oxides such as magnetite, and pyrolusite, native metals and some arsenides and other minerals with a metallic lustre.

When these are present in a rock subjected to an impressed E.M.F., current will be caused to flow across capillary - mineral interfaces and hydrogen and oxygen overvoltages will be established. Figure 1 is a simplified representation of what happens to an electronic conducting particle in a rock under the influence of current flow.

'0

8

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

Figure 1: Induced Polarization Response of a Metallic Conducting Particle in a Rock.

Despite attempts by various workers to investigate the source of non-metallic

I.P. in rocks, an adequate explanation of all observed effects is still lacking.

A number of possible contributory agents have been established. Vacquier

(Vacquier et al, 1957) has carefully examined strong polarization effects due to certain types of clay minerals.

These effects he believed to be related to electrodialysis of the clay particles.

This is only one type of phenomenon which can cause “ion-sorting” or

“membrane effects”.

For example, a cation selective membrane zone may exist in which the mobility of the cation is increased relative to that of the anion, causing ionic concentration gradients and, therefore, polarization effects (see also

Marshall, 1959). Much work remains to be done to determine the various agencies, other than clay particles, which can cause such membrane effects.

The Time Domain Method

Figure 2 shows the typical transient I.P. voltage decay forms for various rock forming materials in a laboratory testing apparatus. See also Scott (1969). A primary current time of the order of 21 seconds was employed on these tests.

'0

9

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Figure 2: Decay-Curves for Metallic and Non-metallic Minerals (after Wait, 1959).

It will be noted that the voltages are plotted against the logarithm of the decay time and are approximate linear functions of the log t for reasonable lengths of time (t). The amplitude of the transient voltages has been normalized with respect to the steady state voltage existing immediately before the interception of the primary current.

In order to indicate the magnitude of the I.P. effects one may measure one or more characteristics of the transient decay curve and relate it back to the amplitude of the measured primary steady state voltage prior to the interception of the primary current.

It may be shown that the ratio is Vs/Vp, i.e. peak polarization voltage to the primary voltage just before interception is a physical property of the medium, which has been called the “Chargeability” of the medium.

Since it has been demonstrated that most I.P. decay voltages are similar in form but differ in amplitude (for the same charging time) one can take the average of several transient voltages at different times, or indeed use the time integral of the transient voltages as a diagnostic criterion. The advantage of averaging or integrating lies in the suppression of earth noises and of electromagnetic coupling effects.

The chargeability is often designated by the letter “M”. If the time integral is used the units of M will be in millivolt seconds/volt or milliseconds. If one or more transient voltage values are measured and normalized, M will be dimensionless.

For homogeneous, isotropic material, the value of M is independent of the shape or size of the volume tested and of the location of the electrodes on it.

It is a true physical property. For a given medium it is dependent on the current charging time and on the precise parameter of the decay curve

'0

:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

measured. There are also subsidiary variations with temperatures and electrolyte content, etc.

The Frequency Domain Method

Figure 3 shows typical curves of the variation of normalized resistivities with frequency for various sulfides, graphite and iron-metallic rock minerals in artificial mixtures. Both the fact of the variation of apparent resistivity with frequency and the presence of phase angle lags may be used to indicate the presence of I.P. effects, although generally only the first is so employed.

Figure 3: Resistivity-frequency Characteristics of Metallic and Non-metallic Minerals

(after Wait, 1959).

Since the I.P. phenomena may be shown to be linear, within the usual range of voltages and currents, there is a direct relationship between the transient curve form and the variation of apparent resistivity with frequency. To arrive at a dimensionless parameter equivalent to the chargeability, one would have to normalize the apparent resistivity, by dividing by the resistivity at one particular frequency. The factor used is called the “Percent Frequency .

Effect” or P.F.E. and is defined as (R1-R2/R1) x 100 where R1 and R2 are the apparent resistivities at the lower and higher frequencies used (Marshall,

1959).

A second parameter is sometimes employed which is really a mixture of physical properties. It is called the Metal Factor (M.F.) and is proportional to

P.F.E./R2 or to M/R. As such, it serves to emphasize I.P. effects which occur in obviously conductive environments, i.e. concentrated sulfide deposits or sulfides and graphite in shear zones.

'0

;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Since it is not a dimensionless factor nor a true single physical property, it is subject to variation related to the changes of shape and resistivity of the medium under investigation, rather than simply to variations in polarization characteristics.

In my opinion, the metal factor has some merit in emphasizing I.P. anomalies due to concentrated metallic bodies, but should not be used as a primary indicator of abnormal I.P. conditions.

Field Equipment

Figure 4 shows a block diagram of apparatus commonly used in field operations with the time-domain method and the primary current and resultant voltage wave forms. The transient voltage amplitudes are considerably exaggerated to be visible.

PRIMARY POWER

(BATTERIES OR A C. MOTOR

GENERATOR SET

TRANSMITTER

HIGH VOLTAGE D.C. POWER

SUPPLY

(VACUUM OR S.C.R.)

C

CURRENT ELECTRODES

C

PRIMARY VOLTAGE AND

POLARIZATION

TRANSIENT MEASURING UNIT

PROGRAMMER

RECEIVER

PROGRAMMER

(TRIGERRED BY PRIMARY

VOLTAGE PULSE)

C

POTENTIAL ELECTRODES

C

PRIMARY CURRENT

WAVE FORMS

T t

O

MEASURED VOLTAGE

TRANSIENT

VOLTAGE

O

STEADY STATE

PRIMARY

VOLTAGE

Figure 4: Time Domain Apparatus, Block Diagram and Wave Forms.

Power sources up to 30 K.V.A., 5000 volts and 20 amperes have been employed where extreme penetration is desired in low resistivity areas. The current-on time T ranges from one second to as much as 30 seconds, and the

'0

<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

current-off time t may be as much as 10 seconds. It is not strictly necessary to employ a cyclic current wave form, but considerable advantages in signal-to-noise ratio are achieved thereby.

Most of the receivers now employed are remote triggering, i.e. they are internally programmed, triggered by the primary voltage pulse and do not require a cable interconnection to the cycle timer on the power control unit.

Figure 5a shows a typical time-domain remote-triggered receiver (Scintrex

MK VII, Newmont Type). This particular receiver has several interesting features.

Figure 5a: Typical modern Time Domain I.P. receiver (Scintrex Mk VII)

For one, there is a memory circuit which provides an automatic self potential adjustment at the tail end of each cycle. For another, it has the ability to integrate the area either below the transient curve (standard M measurement) or above the transient curve (denoted as the L measurement) over a specific time interval. The ratio of these quantities gives a direct measure of the decay curve form, which may be of diagnostic value (see below). In areas of low electric earth noise useful measurements may be made with primary voltages as low as 300 microvolts. Figure 5b shows a complete typical modern time domain induced polarization unit (Scintrex MKVII) of which the

Newmont-type receiver above is a part.

'043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Figure 5b: Typical modern Time Domain I.P. unit (Scintrex Mk VII)

Figure 6 shows a block diagram of a typical frequency domain field apparatus and voltage wave form. Since the primary current and earth voltages are usually measured by separate devices and their ratio employed to obtain the apparent earth resistivity and its variation with frequency, it is common practice to adjust the current to a standard value and maintain it there to the required accuracy.

'044

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

PRIMARY POWER

(BATTERIES OR A C. MOTOR

GENERATOR SET

METER

TRANSMITTER

HIGH VOLTAGE D.C. POWER

SUPPLY

(VACUUM OR S.C.R.)

CURRENT REGULATION

C

CURRENT ELECTRODES

C

TIMING UNIT

RECTIFIER

RECEIVER

FILTER

&

AMPLIFIER

C

POTENTIAL ELECTRODES

C

WAVE FORM

(Both primary current and measured voltage)

O

Figure 6: Frequency Domain Apparatus, Block Diagram and Wave Forms.

The primary wave form is usually a commutated D.C. Commonly, up to 6 frequencies are available in the range of 0.05 to 10 c.p.s. Figure 7 shows a typical modern frequency domain measuring unit. This unit has a high degree of power line frequency (50 c.p.s. to 60 c.p.s.) rejection.

Figure 7: Typical modern Frequency Domain Receiver (Geoscience)

'045

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

It measures both the primary voltage and the change of primary voltage with change in operating frequency, the latter to an accuracy of about ±0.3% where the former exceeds 100 microvolts. It has the added feature of a phase lock voltmeter which assists in making measurements under low signal-to-noise conditions.

Electrode arrays

Common field electrode arrays are shown in Figure 8.

Figure 8: Common field electrode arrays

The electrodes marked C are current electrodes and those marked P are potential or measuring electrodes. Each of the electrode arrays has its own advantages and disadvantages in respect of depth of penetration, labour requirements for moving, susceptibility to earth noise, electromagnetic earth transients and interline coupling.

'046

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

Array

The following table summarizes the features of these arrays.

Domain

Employed

Advantages Disadvantages

Wenner

Three Electrode

(or Pole-Dipole)

Dipole-dipole

Time

Time and

Frequency

Frequency

For local vertical profiling

Three linemen

Universal coupling

Good depth penetration

Good resolution

Universal coupling

Poor depth penetration.

Requires four linemen

Susceptible to surface masking effects

Complex curve forms. Low order signals. Susceptible to surface masking effects.

Gradient Time Minimum masking.

Two linemen only.

Excellent depth penetration.

Excellent resolution.

Can use multiple receivers for speed.

Couples best with steeply dipping bodies.

Low order signals

For each array (except the gradient array) the basic electrode spacing “a” is selected to give adequate penetration down to the desired depth of exploration. For the pole-dipole and double dipole it is customary to obtain several profiles for different values of “a” or for integral values of n from 1 to as much as 4.

For the symmetric arrays (Wenner and Dipole-Dipole) the measured values are plotted against the midpoint of the array. When using the Three Electrode

Array (time-domain) the station position is taken to be the midpoint of the moving current and the nearest potential electrode. When using the

Pole-Dipole (frequency domain) the station position is taken as the midpoint between the moving current electrode and the midpoint of the two potential electrodes.

'047

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

With the Gradient array it is the midpoint of the two potential electrodes. For the Three Electrode array and Pole-Dipole these station locations are not unique and represent conventions only.

Data presentation

I.P. data may be plotted in profile form or contoured, although it should be noted that somewhat different results will be obtained with different line orientations so that contouring is not strictly justified. Profile interpretation is superior, particularly for shallow, confined bodies, because multiple peaked may arise from such bodies using certain electrode arrays, and the plotted peaks may give an erroneous impression of the location of the polarizable body.

To obtain the variation of physical properties with depth, expanding arrays may be used with any of the electrode systems, keeping the spread centre fixed and simply changing the relative spacing “a”. This is of particular value where it is known or expected that vertical variations of physical properties will be much greater than lateral variations.

As the spacing is increased the influence of the deeper regions becomes more significant, and the resultant resistivity and I.P. curves may often be interpreted to give the depth to discontinuities in physical properties and the physical properties themselves.

Common practice in presenting frequency domain results is to plot the measured data below the line at a depth equal to the distance of the station position (as defined above) from the midpoint of the potential dipole. When this is done for a variety of values of “n”, a pseudo two dimensional section.

results which show, albeit in a markedly distorted fashion, the variation of physical properties with depth.

Model responses

A mathematical representation of I.P. effects has been developed by the writer (Seigel, 1959), which relates the observed I.P. response of a heterogeneous medium to the distribution of resistivities and I.P.

characteristics. To a first approximation it is equally applicable to any I.P.

measured in the time and frequency domains.

'048

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

From this theory, one may predict the anomalous response to be expected from a specific body with a given chargeability and resistivity contrast. For example, Figure 9 shows the form factor F plotted for the Three Electrode

Array for a sphere for various values of

D, where#D is the ratio of the electrode spacing to the depth to the centre of the sphere. The sphere response is proportional to F times the chargeability contrast, times its volume and times a resistivity ratio factor. A number of such theoretical curves, for the pole-dipole and gradient arrays, using spheres and ellipsoids as models, may be seen in the paper by Dieter (1969) et al.

Figure 9: Theoretical response of a sphere, Three Electrode array

Curves of this sort permit one to interpret anomalies due to localized bodies.

It will be seen that for each array there is an optimum spacing for a body at a particular depth, and, therefore, there is some meaning to the term “depth of penetration” except for the gradient array.

When the dimensions of the polarizable medium are large in comparison with its depth below surface, as is often the case, particularly in investigation of porphyry copper type deposits, a two layer approximation is adequate.

'049

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Theoretical curves based on this approximation (Figure 10) may be used to interpret the results of expanding Wenner or Three Electrode array depth determinations.

Figure 10: Theoretical response of two-layer earth, Wenner or Three Electrode array

For more complex geometries mathematical solutions in closed form are often lacking. For such cases one may resort to model studies (e.g. Figure 11 for buried dike.) or to computer calculated solutions.

Figure 11: Model response of a dike, Dipole-dipole array (courtesy K. Vozoff)

'04:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

Case Histories

The most productive use of the I.P. method to date has been in the exploration for deposits of metallically conducting minerals, where the amounts and degree of interconnection of these minerals are too low to give rise to an electromagnetically detectable body.

Where electromagnetic detection is feasible it is usually far more rapid and economical to apply electromagnetic induction methods to the problem. The

I.P. method is the only geophysical tool available which is capable of direct detecting I percent or less by volume of metallic conducting sulfides.

It is best used, therefore, where there is a high ratio of economic minerals to total sulfide mineralization. Included in the proper I.P. range are such types of deposits as disseminated copper ores, in porphyry or bedded forms; lead-zinc deposits, particularly of the bedded type in carbonate rocks; gold and other deposits which have an association with disseminated metallic conductors. For many of these mineral occurrences the I.P. method is unique in providing detection.

'04;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Figure 12 shows time-domain discovery traverses over a typical newly discovered porphyry copper deposit in British Columbia. The lateral limits of the mineralization can be readily determined from the geophysical data, as well as the depth to the upper surface of the mineralization.

Figure 12: Geophysical and drilling results, Lornex Porphyry Copper Ore Body, British

Columbia, Canada (courtesy Lornex Mining Corp. Ltd.)

'04<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

Figure 13 shows a discovery traverse a major bedded body of sphalerite-galena-marcasite mineralization in carbonate rocks in the Pine

Point area, Northwest Territories, Canada. For comparison purposes both gravity and Turam electromagnetic profiles on the same section are shown.

Figure 13: Geophysical and drilling results, Pyramid No. 1 Lead-Zinc Ore Body, Pine

Point Area, Northwest Territories, Canada (courtesy Pyramid Mines, Ltd.)

It is interesting to note that, despite an appreciable resistivity depression over the mineralization there is no significant Turam response at 400 c.p.s. The conductivity of the ore is, in fact, no higher than that of the surficial deposits in the general area, so that electromagnetic and resistivity methods yield, in themselves, no useful information.

The gravity method, although yielding a positive response in this instance, does not provide a good reconnaissance tool in this area because of karst topography and other sources of changes in specific gravity.

'053

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

One occasionally encounters a deposit of the “massive sulfide” type which is normally thought of as an electromagnetic type of target because of its high conducting sulfide content, but which, obviously because of the lack of large scale continuity of the conducting sulfides, does not respond to the electromagnetic techniques. Figure 14 shows an intersection of ore grade material of this type, in New Brunswick, Canada, where electromagnetic methods had yielded negative results.

Figure 14: Geophysical and drilling results, Lead-Zinc-Copper Ore Body, Heath Steel

Mine, New Brunswick, Canada (courtesy P. Hallof)

In many types of ore deposits the bulk of the I.P. response is due to the accessory non-economic sulfides, usually pyrite and pyrrhotite, and the ore minerals themselves are in the minority. A true test of the sensitivity of the

I.P. method is an example of a low grade disseminated deposit with no such accessory minerals.

'054

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

Figure 15 illustrates such a case, with an I.P. discovery section over the

Gortdrum copper-silver-mercury deposit in Ireland.

Figure 15: Geophysical and drilling results, Copper-Silver Ore Body, Gortdrum Mines,

Ireland (courtesy Gortdrum Mines, Ltd.)

The ore minerals consist of chalcocite bornite and chalcopyrite in a dolomitic limestone, and there is less than 2% average by volume of metallic conducting minerals.

Whereas the bulk of I.P. measurements in mineral exploration has, naturally, been made on surface, the technology of drill hole exploration has been well developed, particularly by the Newmont group (see Wagg, 1963). The time-domain method is suitable for drill hole applications since it permits a relatively close coupling of the current and potential lines in a small diameter borehole.

'055

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The three electrode array has been extensively employed for logging purposes, with a variety of electrode spacings to give varying ranges of detection away from the hole. In this fashion the variation of electrical properties with distance from the hole may be determined. A second,

“directional log” then gives information on the direction of any anomalous material indicated by the detection log.

Whereas the I.P. method is usually employed as a primary exploration tool it may play an auxiliary role as well, e.g. to distinguish between metallic and ionic conducting sources of other types of electrical anomalies, e.g.

electromagnetic.

Figure 16 shows a typical conducting zone revealed by a ground electromagnetic survey which was later proven, by drilling, to be due to overburden conduction in a bedrock trough. The I.P. response is in the low-normal range. The gravity profile, also shown, corroborates the presence of the bedrock depression.

Figure 16: Geophysical recognition of overburden trough, Northwest Québec.

'056

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

Limitations of I.P.

Attempts have been made by a number of workers to employ the I.P. method in the field of groundwater exploration (e.g. Vacquier, 1957, Bodmer, 1968) but with no consistent success as yet. There are variations of chargeability from one type of non consolidated sediment to another, but these fall, in general, within a relatively small range compared to the usual sulfide responses.

More investigation remains to be done in this area before a definitive conclusion can be reached. It is clear that more accurate measurements will have to be made in groundwater I.P. than in base metal I.P. investigations.

The I.P. method has a number of recognized limitations, some of a fundamental nature and others of a temporary nature reflecting the current state of the art. On a unit coverage basis the method is relatively expensive to apply, costing between $200 and $500 per line mile surveyed, in most instances. This cost has, however, been progressively reduced by advances in instrumentation resulting in decreased weight, increased sensitivity and rejection of earth noise effects. Some degree of improvement is yet to be expected in this area.

The same geometric limitations apply as with the resistivity method employing the comparable array. As a rule, a body of up to 10 per cent disseminated metallic conductors cannot be detected at a distance from its nearest point much exceeding its mean diameter. This detectability may be somewhat improved by the use of secondary criteria, but such improvement is likely to be only marginal.

Since overvoltage is essentially a surface phenomenon the I.P. response from a given volume percentage of metallic conductors generally increases as the individual particle size is decreased. From the usual simple I.P.

measurements, therefore, one cannot reliably predict the percentage by volume of such conductors in a deposit as there may be a variation of particle size throughout the deposit.

Still less can one differentiate between metallic conductors (e.g. chalcopyrite, galena, pentlandite) of economic interest and those of noneconomic interest

(e.g. pyrite, pyrrhotite and graphite). In addition we cannot even reliably differentiate between metallic sources of I.P. responses. The latter may include certain types of clay and, in consolidated rocks, such platey alteration minerals as serpentine, talc and sericite.

'057

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Empirically it has been found that, on the average, 1% by volume of metallic sulfides will increase the chargeability by about 2 - 3 times, depending on the host rock type.

Figure 17 shows a section across each of two anomalous I.P. areas in the Pine

Point area, Northwest Territories, Canada.

Figure 17: Possible ambiguity of induced polarization results, Pine Point Area,

Northwest Territories, Canada

Section A is a discovery traverse across an ore body containing one half million tons of 11.4 per cent combined Pb and Zn and coming within 40 ft. of the ground surface. Section B is a traverse across what proved, by drilling, to

'058

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

be a karst sink hole, filled in with a variety of unconsolidated material including boulders and clay.

Based upon the chargeability amplitudes and the relative resistivity depressions the second case would appear to be far more promising than the first. In such cases the gravimeter has sometime proven to be of value in resolving the two types of occurrence but there is the very real possibility of the coincidence of a sink hole and a lead-zinc deposit, which would give rise to an uncertain resulting gravity response.

Decay curve analysis

Any normal transient (time-domain) polarization decay and equivalently any curve of variation of apparent resistivity with frequency may be simulated by means of a mixture of metallic conductors of a suitable particle size distribution.

It is, however, possible in an area of common geology, that the various possible sources of I.P. responses may have significantly different characteristic curves in each of these two domains. A more thorough analysis of these curves at significant points is, therefore, of value.

Modern receivers in both domains (Figures 5 and 7) have the ability to give curve form information as well as a single quantity related to an I.P.

amplitude.

Komarov (1967) documents such an example over a copper nickel deposit in the U.S.S.R. where, effectively the sulfide responses have a longer time constant than the normal non-metallic polarization.

An important source influencing I.P. measurements is the electromagnetic response of the earth. For a given electrode array the electromagnetic effect is dependent upon the frequency times the conductivity and the square of the spacing. In the frequency domain this source becomes troublesome

(communication from P.G. Hallof) when:

1. The electrode spacing is 500 ft. or over and n = 3 or greater.

2. The highest frequency employed is 2.5 c.p.s. or greater.

3. The average earth resistivity is lower than about 25 ohm metres.

'059

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Electromagnetic effects are present in the time-domain measurements as well, of course, but are usually of lesser amplitude for the same array and earth conductivity, because the effective frequencies employed in the time domain are considerably lower (commonly 0.03 to 0. 125 c.p.s.

In the extreme, the electromagnetic response of a conducting earth may seriously interfere with useful I.P. measurements in either domain.

In the time domain I.P. measurements commonly only a single amplitude (at a specific time after current interruption) or an average amplitude over an interval of time after the current interruption is used to characterize the transient decay curve and act as a measure of the induced polarization characteristics of the medium in question.

It has been known since 1950 that useful secondary information is available in the shape of the transient decay curve associated with time domain induced polarization measurements. Equivalent remarks may be made in respect of frequency domain measurements where, instead of measuring the average slope of resistivity frequency over one decade of frequency, more information is obtained about the shape of this curve.

The type of information inherent in the curve shape relates primarily to two factors (a) average metallic particle size associated with the source of an anomalous I.P. response, and (b) the presence of electromagnetic transients arising from highly conducting geologic units. For convenience we will restrict the following remarks to time domain measurements, although equivalent statements may be made in the frequency domain.

It has been established through laboratory measurements that (a) metallic conductors of large average particle size give rise to time domain decay curves of relatively long time constant, and (b) metallic conductors of small average particle size give rise to decay curves of relatively short time constant. For these reasons, if a shape factor as well as an amplitude factor of the decay curve can be established we may obtain information which is helpful in some of the following circumstances:

(1) very large or very small metallic particles - the response from these may distort the shape as well as the amplitude of the transient curve. Thus rather small amplitude anomalous metallic responses may be recognized in the presence of equal I.P. relief due only to non-metallic variations.

'05:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

(2) two different types of anomalous response materials, in the same survey area, but differing in average particle size and/or decay curve form e.g.

serpentine, graphitic particles of small average size and coarse grained metallic sulfides.

One additional and rather common circumstance is the presence of

(ionically) highly conductive overburden or consolidated rock units (e.g.

saline overburden or shales). These units can give rise to electromagnetic transients of sufficiently long time constant to affect the usual I.P. amplitude measurement.

The shape of the E.M. transient is, in practice, markedly different from that of the usual I.P. transient, having a much shorter time constant than the latter.

In addition, the polarity of the E.M. transient is often reversed to that of the

I.P. transient. Curve shape measurements can provide a clear indication of the presence of significant E.M. interference and even a semi-quantitative estimate of the latter, enough to allow a correction factor to be applied.

Equipment of the type illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 (e.g. Scintrex MK VII

System) permit appropriate transient curve shape information to be obtained.

Common to all the transmitters in this system is the ability to pass a repetitive, interrupted square wave pattern current into the ground, as shown on Figure 4. The current-on time may be 2, 4, or 8 seconds and the current-off time may be likewise selected. Measurements of I.P. transient curve characteristics are made during the current-off time.

Figure 18 shows the quantities measured by the Newmont-type receiver. In these receivers one sets the gain of certain amplifiers common to both the primary voltage Vp and transient voltage Vt measurements so that these voltages are essentially normalized.

'05;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Figure 18: Operation of Scintrex Mk VII (newmont-type) I.P. system

The usual amplitude measurement performed by these receivers consists of an integration of the area under the transient curve over a specified interval after the interruption of the primary current and is designated by the letter M

- the “chargeability” namely, 0.45 seconds to 1.1 seconds.

The 0.45 second delay time allows most E.M. transients, switching transients and interline coupling effects to disappear prior to the making of the measurement. Different measuring intervals may be employed under specific conditions.

In addition to M, the Newmont-type MK VII receiver is equipped to measure a quantity “L” which is defined as the time integral of the area over the transient curve, for a specified time interval, taking as reference voltage the transient voltage value at the beginning of the time interval. In practice, the interval selected is 0.45 seconds to 1.75 seconds, as shown on Figure 18, although different intervals may be employed under certain conditions.

'05<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

The ratio of L/M is taken as a sensitive indication of transient curve shape. It has been well established, by many tens of thousands of I.P. measurements with these systems in many parts of the world, that the L/M measurements in non-metallically mineralized areas, for a given current wave form, are constant within better than 20%.

Significant departures from these ratios usually imply an abnormal condition

- either an anomalous metallic polarization response, electromagnetic or interline coupling.

Figure 19 shows a range of transient curves and their possible cause. For each case the “normal” transient curve is also shown. These cases illustrate the sensitivity of the L/M ratio to the transient time constant. A significant increase in L/M implies an abnormally short time constant, (Case A) reflecting either positive E.M. effects or small particle size. This should, in either case, normally be accompanied by an increase in apparent chargeability M.

Figure 19: Significance of curve shape (L/M) information

'063

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

A modest increase in L/M ratio, reflecting an increase in time constant (Case

B) may reflect either the presence of large particle size in metallic conductors, in which event an increase in M may or may not be appreciably reduced.

Cases C and D show the effect of reversed polarity E.M. transients of increasing amplitude. In Case C there is a short term Vt reversal and, although M is only slightly reduced, L/M is considerably reduced. In Case D, which is considerably more extreme, Vt is still rising at 0.45 seconds, so that

L and thus L/M are, in fact, negative. M is considerably reduced from its normal value in this case, but a warning to this effect is clearly indicated by the L measurement.

A quantitative estimate of the E.M. transient response and, therefore, correction for it, may be obtained by one of a number of means. One may, for example, vary the current-on time, e.g. from 2 seconds to 8 seconds. The

E.M. transient, being of relatively short time constant, will not change. The

I.P. response will change by an amount which is fairly predictable, assuming a normal decay form. We thus obtain two equations in two unknowns from which the true I.P. response may be derived.

Curve shape measurements may be made in other ways as well, for example, by actually recording the complete transient decay curve. Whereas theoretically useful, such measurements have proven unwieldy from a weight and time standpoint. To obtain clean decay curves requires a high signal/noise ratio and thus high powers.

In the frequency domain the equivalent curve form information would be obtained through the use of three or more properly selected operating frequencies.

Time versus frequency domain

There is a continuing rivalry between protagonists of time-domain and frequency domain measurements. All that is clear is that neither method is superior in all respects to the other. The same phenomenon is being measured in different ways often with different arrays and the results are presented different formats (pseudo-sections in the frequency domain versus profiles in or contour plans in the time domain).

'064

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

The “Metal Factor”, which is a mixture of physical properties, is commonly presented with frequency domain measurements only. These differences are largely superficial and are based on separate historical developments and subjective preferences.

There is a direct mathematical transformation between I.P. measurements in the two domains. Theoretically, at least, the same information can be obtained in either domain. Practically, however, there are certain differences.

The time domain measurements are absolute, i.e. are measured in the absence of the steady state voltage and are disturbed only by earth noises as a background. The amplitude of these measurements is usually less than 1% of the steady state voltage, but even so they can usually be made to an accuracy of better than 10 per cent even in unmineralized rocks.

The limit of useful sensitivity is related only to the regional uniformity of the background I.P. response. In the frequency domain the I.P. response is measured as a difference in transfer impedances. This difference can be measured with an accuracy of only 0.3% with extremely stable equipment.

Since the non-metallic background P.F.E. over the interval of 0.1 to 2.5 c.p.s.

is usually less than 1%, the probable error of these measurements may be

30% or more.

For this reason it is seen that it is feasible to obtain greater sensitivity of measurement in the time domain. This increased sensitivity is of value in areas of low “geologic” and electrical noise. By “geologic noise” is meant the range of variation of I.P. parameters within the normal rock types of the area.

The application of I.P. to groundwater prospecting may have to develop through the time domain avenue because of the sensitivity requirements.

The frequency domain equipment requires somewhat less primary power than the time domain equipment because the former measurements in an

A.C. one with the ability to use tuned filters and amplifiers as well as devices as phase-lock detectors. This advantage is not so marked as it once was, as current time-domain equipment, with its self adjusting earth voltage balance and ability to sum any desired number of integrations, provides a high degree of noise rejection.

Under truly random noise conditions the summation of n integrations provides the usual 1/sqrt(n) reduction in statistical noise and is a powerful non-subjective means of noise suppression. The suppression of A.C. power line noise is much better with the time domain (integrating type) measurements than with frequency domain measurements.

'065

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Reference has already been made above to the relative effects of the electromagnetic response of the earth in both methods. Similar remarks apply to capacitive and inductive coupling effects between current and potential cables, although such effects can be largely avoided in any event by careful positioning of the cables, except possibly in drill hole surveying. So far, only in the time domain may useful drill hole measurements be made with both current and potential electrodes lying side by side in a small diameter borehole.

An individual geologist or geophysicist may have had his first acquaintance with or instruction in the I.P. method using either the time domain or frequency domain. He becomes familiar with the arrays used and with the method of presentation of data employed. Thereafter, he tends to resist switching to the other domain in the belief that not only will he have to deal with different geophysical equipment and electrode arrays but also with different quantities, presented in quite a different fashion. This is erroneous.

So far as arrays are concerned the time domain uses them all dipole-dipole, pole-dipole (three electrode) Wenner and gradient (Schlumberger). The frequency domain commonly uses only the first two and is restricted from using the latter two because of interline coupling effects.

Of the quantities measured in both domains the resistivity is, of course, the same, making due allowance for units. The time domain “Chargeability” is, normally very nearly proportional to the “Percent Frequency Effect” or

P.F.E. The so-called “Metal Factor” is the ratio of P.F.E. /Resistivity, and would, therefore, be equivalent to the ratio of Chargeability/Resistivity.

The time domain data presentation is commonly in the form of profiles and contour plans.

The frequency domain presentation is commonly in the form of

“pseudosections” showing the different spacing results displaced progressively downwards with increased electrode spacing. Either type of data may be presented in either form of course, to suit the tastes and experience of the individual geologist or geophysicist.

The Gradient array is very useful in obtaining bedrock penetration where the bedrock is highly resistive compared to the overlying overburden. In such cases using the pole-dipole or dipole-dipole array very little current actually penetrates the bedrock and the I.P. characteristics observed are those of the overburden only. As was mentioned above, only time domain measurements may be carried out using this array.

'066

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

There is a special practical advantage to the time domain measurements in areas where it is very difficult to make good ground contact. In such areas the problem of keeping the primary current rigidly constant, necessary for frequency domain measurements becomes severe.

In the time domain, if the primary current varies by as much as 10% during the measurement the absolute error in the chargeability may only be about

5%, which is not significant. This problem is often encountered in very and areas, e.g. parts of Peru, Chile and other desert regions.

Despite these slight effective differences both methods of I.P. exploration have amply demonstrated their value through important mineral discoveries in many parts of the world. The role of I.P. in mineral exploration is well acknowledged and rapidly expanding.

The writer wishes to thank the various sources of case histories and illustrations cited in the text and in particular, Dr. Keeva Vozoff and Dr.

Philip Hallof for valuable contributions.

'067

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Bibliography

Bleil, D. F. (1953)

"Induced Polarization, A Method of Geophysical Prospecting" Geophysics,

Vol. 18, pp. 636-661.

Bodmer, R., Ward, S. H. and Morrison, H. F. (1968)

"On Induced Electrical Polarization and Groundwater", Geophysics, Vol.

33, pp. 805-821.

Dakhnov, B. N. (1941)

"Electrical Well Logging, Interpretation of Electric Logs", Moscow,

Chapter I V.

Dieter, K., Paterson, N. R. and Grant, P. S.(1969) ,

"I.P. and Resistivity Type Curves for Three Dimensional Bodies".

Geophysics, Vol. 34, pp. 615-632,

Hallof, P. G. (1957)

"On the Interpretation of Resistivity and Induced Polarization Results"

Doctoral 'hesis, M.I.T. Department of Geology and Geophysics.

Kotizarov, B.A. (1967)

"Induced Polarization Method" Lecture read at Interregional Seminar of

UNO on New Methods for Mineral Exploration with Emphasis on

Geophysical Techniques. Moscow, U.S.S.R. July 1967.

Madden, T. R. e t al (1957)

"Background Effects in the Induced Polarization Method of Geophysical

Exploration", A.E.C Report R.M.E. 3150.

Marshall, D. J., and Madden, T. R. (1959)

"Induced Polarization, a Study of its Causes" - Geophysics Vol. XXXIV, pp.

790-816.

Schlumberger, C. (1920)

"Etude sur la Prospection Electrique du Sous Sol". Gauthier- Villars et Cie.

Paris (1920) Chapter 8, (Revised 1930).

Scott, W. J. and West, G. F. (1969)

'068

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

The Induced Polarization Method

"Induced Polarization of Synthetic, High-Resistivity Rocks Containing

Disseminated Sulphides" - Geophysics, Vol. 34, pp. 87-100.

Seigel, H. 0. (1948)

"Theoretical Treatment of Selected Topics in Electromagnetic Prospecting."

-National Research Council of Canada, Unpublished, pp. 34-53.

Seigel, H. 0. (1949)

"Theoretical and Experimental Investigations into the Application of the

Phenomenon of Overvoltage to Geophysical Prospecting" Unpublished

Doctoral Dissertation, University of Toronto.

Seigel, H. 0. (1959)

"Mathematical Formulation and Type Curves for Induced Polarization"

Geophysics Vol. XXII,', pp. 547-563.

Sunde, E. D. (1949)

"Earth Conduction Effects in Transmission Systems" Van Nostrand Co., N. Y.

(Monograph)

Vacquier, V. et al (1957)

"Prospecting for Ground Water by Induced Electrical Polarization"

Geophysics Vol. 22, pp. 660-68 7.

Wagg, D. M. and Seigel, H. 0. (1963)

"Induced Polarization in Drill Holes" Can. Min. journ., April.

Wait, J. R. (Editor) (1959)

"Overvoltage Research and Geophysical Applications" - Pergamon Press,

London, 1959.

'069

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

E

SARIS GPS

Datums

6

7

4

5

2

3

0

1

10

11

8

9

12

WGS 84 - Default

Adindan - MEAN FOR Ethiopia, Sudan

Adindan - Burkina Faso

Adindan - Cameroon

Adindan - Ethiopia

Adindan - Mali

Adindan - Senegal

Adindan - Sudan

Afgooye - Somalia

Ain el Abd 1970 - Bahrain

Ain el Abd 1970 - Saudi Arabia

Anna 1 Astro 1965 - Cocos Islands

Antigua Island Astro 1943

Antigua (Leeward Islands)

(0 4

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SARIS GPS Datums

13

24

25

26

18

19

20

21

14

15

16

17

22

23

27

28

29

30

Arc 1950

MEAN FOR Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi Swaziland,

Zaire, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Arc 1950 - Botswana

Arc 1950 - Burundi

Arc 1950 - Lesotho

Arc 1950 - Malawi

Arc 1950 - Swaziland

Arc 1950 - Zaire

Arc 1950 - Zambia

Arc 1950 - Zimbabwe

Arc 1960 - MEAN FOR Kenya, Tanzania

Ascension Island 1958

Ascension Island

Astro Beacon E 1945 - Iwo Jima

Astro DOS 71/4 - St Helena Island

Astro Tern Island (FRIG) 1961

Tern Island

Astronomical Station 1952

Marcus Island

Australian Geodetic 1966

Australia & Tasmania

Australian Geodetic 1984

Australia & Tasmania

Ayabelle Lighthouse - Djibouti

(0

5

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

31

32

33

34

35

36

43

44

45

46

37

38

39

40

41

42

47

48

Bellevue (IGN)

Efate & Erromango Islands

Bermuda 1957 - Bermuda

Bissau - Guinea-Bissau

Bogota Observatory - Colombia

Bukit Rimpah

Indonesia (Bangka & Belitung Islands)

Camp Area Astro

Antarctica (McMurdo Camp Area)

Campo Inchauspe - Argentina

Canton Astro 1966 - Phoenix Islands

Cape - South Africa

Cape Canaveral - Bahamas, Florida

Carthage - Tunisia

Chatham Island Astro 1971

New Zealand (Chatham Island)

Chua Astro - Paraguay

Corrego Alegre - Brazil

Dabola - Guinea

Djakarta (Batavia)

Indonesia (Sumatra)

DOS 1968

New Georgia Islands (Gizo Island)

Easter Island 1967 - Easter Island

(0

6

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SARIS GPS Datums

49

50

51

52

53

54

59

60

61

62

55

56

57

58

63

European 1950

MEAN FOR Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland,

France, West Germany, Gibraltar, Greece, Italy,

Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain,

Sweden, Switzerland

European 1950

MEAN FOR Austria, Denmark, France,

West Germany, Netherlands, Switzerland

European 1950

MEAN FOR Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Kuwait,

Saudi Arabia, Syria

European 1950 - Cyprus

European 1950 - Egypt

European 1950

England, Channel Islands, Ireland, Scotland, Shetland

Islands

European 1950 - Finland, Norway

European 1950 - Greece

European 1950 - Iran

European 1950 - Italy (Sardinia)

European 1950 - Italy (Sicily)

European 1950 - Malta

European 1950 - Portugal, Spain

European 1979

MEAN FOR Austria, Finland, Netherlands, Norway,

Spain, Sweden, Switzerland

Fort Thomas 1955

Nevis, St Kitts (Leeward Islands)

(0

7

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

71

72

73

74

67

68

69

70

75

76

77

78

79

64

65

66

80

81

82

83

Gan 1970 - Republic of Maldives

Geodetic Datum 1949 - New Zealand

Graciosa Base SW 1948

Azores (Faial, Graciosa, Pico, Sao Jorge, Terceira)

Guam 1963 - Guam

Gunung Segara - Indonesia (Kalimantan)

GUX I Astro - Guadalcanal Island

Herat North - Afghanistan

Hjorsey 1955 - Iceland

Hong Kong 1963 - Hong Kong

Hu-Tzu-Shan - Taiwan

Indian - Bangladesh

Indian - India, Nepal

Indian 1954 - Thailand, Vietnam

Indian 1975 - Thailand

Ireland 1965 - Ireland

ISTS 061 Astro 1968

South Georgia Islands

ISTS 073 Astro 1969 - Diego Garcia

Johnston Island 1961 - Johnston Island

Kandawala - Sri Lanka

Kerguelen Island 1949

Kerguelen Island

(0

8

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SARIS GPS Datums

100

101

98

99

102

84

85

86

87

88

89

94

95

96

97

90

91

92

93

Kertau 1948 - West Malaysia & Singapore

Kusaie Astro 1951 - Caroline Islands

L. C. 5 Astro 1961 - Cayman Brac Island

Leigon - Ghana

Liberia 1964 - Liberia

Luzon

Philippines (Excluding Mindanao)

Luzon - Philippines (Mindanao)

Mahe 1971 - Mahe Island

Massawa - Ethiopia (Eritrea)

Merchich - Morocco

Midway Astro 1961 - Midway Islands

Minna - Cameroon

Minna - Nigeria

Montserrat Island Astro 1958

Montserrat (Leeward Islands)

M'Poraloko - Gabon

Nahrwan - Oman (Masirah Island)

Nahrwan - Saudi Arabia

Nahrwan - United Arab Emirates

Naparima BWI - Trinidad & Tobago

(0

9

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

105

106

107

103

104

108

109

110

111

112

113

114

115

116

North American 1927

MEAN FOR Antigua, Barbados, Barbuda, Caicos

Islands, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Grand Cayman,

Jamaica, Turks Islands

North American 1927 .

MEAN FOR Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador,

Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua

North American 1927 - MEAN FOR Canada

North American 1927 - MEAN FOR CONUS

North American 1927

MEAN FOR CONUS (East of Mississippi River) including Louisiana, Missouri, Minnesota

North American 1927

MEAN FOR CONUS (West of Mississippi River)

North American 1927 - Alaska

North American 1927

Bahamas (Except San Salvador Island)

North American 1927

Bahamas (San Salvador Island)

North American 1927

Canada (Alberta, British Columbia)

North American 1927

Canada (Manitoba, Ontario)

North American 1927

Canada (New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova

Scotia, Québec)

North American 1927

Canada (Northwest Territories, Saskatchewan)

North American 1927 - Canada (Yukon)

(0

:

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SARIS GPS Datums

126

127

128

129

130

131

117

118

119

120

121

122

123

124

125

132

133

North American 1927 - Canal Zone

North American 1927 - Cuba

North American 1927

Greenland (Hayes Peninsula)

North American 1927 - Mexico

North American 1983

Alaska, Canada, CONUS

North American 1983

Central America, Mexico

Observatorio Metereo 1939

Azores (Corvo & Flores Islands)

Old Egyptian 1907 - Egypt

Old Hawaiian

MEAN FOR Hawaii Kauai Maui Oahu

Old Hawaiian - Hawaii

Old Hawaiian - Kauai

Old Hawaiian - Maui

Old Hawaiian - Oahu

Oman - Oman

Ord. Survey G. Britain 1936

MEAN FOR England, Isle of Man, Scotland, Shetland

Islands, Wales

Ord. Survey G. Britain 1936 - England

Ord. Survey G. Britain 1936

England, Isle of Man, Wales

(0

;

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

134

135

136

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

Ord. Survey G. Britain 1936

Scotland, Shetland Islands

Ord. Survey G. Britain 1936 - Wales

Pico de las Nieves - Canary Islands

Pitcairn Astro 1967 - Pitcairn Island

Point 58

MEAN FOR Burkina Faso & Niger

Pointe Noire 1948 - Congo

Porto Santo 1936

Porto Santo, Madeira Islands

Provisional S. American 1956

MEAN FOR Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador,

Guyana, Peru, Venezuela

Provisional S. American 1956 - Bolivia

Provisional S. American 1956

Chile (Northern, Near 19°S)

Provisional S. American 1956

Chile (Southern, Near 43°S)

Provisional S. American 1956 - Colombia

Provisional S. American 1956 - Ecuador

Provisional S. American 1956 - Guyana

Provisional S. American 1956 - Peru

Provisional S. American 1956

Venezuela

Provisional S. Chilean 1963

Chile (South, Near 53°S) (Hito XVIII)

(0

<

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SARIS GPS Datums

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

160

161

162

163

164

165

166

167

168

Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands

Qatar National - Qatar

Qornoq - Greenland (South)

Reunion - Mascarene Islands

Rome 1940 - Italy (Sardinia)

Santo (DOS) 1965

Espirito Santo Island

Sao Braz

Azores (Sao Miguel, Santa Maria Islands)

Sapper Hill 1943 - East Falkland Island

Schwarzeck - Namibia

Selvagem Grande - Salvage Islands

SGS 85 - Soviet Geodetic System 1985

South American 1969

MEAN FOR Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile,

Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru,

Trinidad & Tobago, Venezuela

South American 1969 - Argentina

South American 1969 - Bolivia

South American 1969 - Brazil

South American 1969 - Chile

South American 1969 - Colombia

South American 1969 - Ecuador

(043

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

182

183

184

185

178

179

180

181

186

187

188

169

174

175

176

170

171

172

173

177

South American 1969

Ecuador (Baltra, Galapagos)

South American 1969 - Guyana

South American 1969 - Paraguay

South American 1969 - Peru

South American 1969 - Trinidad & Tobago

South American 1969 - Venezuela

South Asia - Singapore

Tananarive Observatory 1925

Madagascar

Timbalai 1948

Brunei East Malaysia (Sabah, Sarawak)

Tokyo - MEAN FOR Japan, Korea, Okinawa

Tokyo -Japan

Tokyo - Korea

Tokyo - Okinawa

Tristan Astro 1968 - Tristan da Cunha

Viti Levu 1916, Fiji (Viti Levu Island)

Wake-Eniwetok 1960 - Marshall Islands

Wake Island Astro 1952 - Wake Atoll

WGS 1972 - Global Definition

Yacare - Uruguay

Zanderij - Suriname

(044

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SARIS GPS Datums

(045

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Index

A

Arrow keys 1-7

Automated cables 1-28

B

Battery charging 4-3

Borehole Logging arrays

2nd Draft

choosing 2-67

C

Cable

2

detecting a new cable 2-7

Cables

2nd

Automated 1-28 creating a virtual cable 2-15 to

2-21 daisy-chaining 2-10 entering name 2-12, 2-17, 2-32,

2-40

Number of sections 2-13, 2-18 setup 2-2 to 2-21

Type of 2-12, 2-18

CANCEL Key 1-7

Chapter layout scheme 1-2

Clock adjusting the 2-53

Components list 5-5

Console 1-6 disassembly and reassembly 4-6 electronics 1-6

Contrast adjusting the 1-10 manually set values 1-11 preset values 1-11

CONTRAST/4/JKL Key 1-8

Current adjusting the 2-14, 2-19

Customer service 4-1

D

Daisy-chaining cables 2-10

Data dumping 3-39 to 3-52 recalling 3-34 to 3-38 structure 1-5

Database detecting and correcting errors

2-48 to 2-49

Datum choosing your map datum 2-52

Default parameter reset 1-30, 4-7

Detecting a new cable 2-7

Direction/Sign Keys 1-9

DUMP/6/PQR Key 1-8

Dumping data 3-39 to 3-52

RS-232 mode 3-44 to 3-52

USB mode 3-39 to 3-44

E

East/+ Key 1-9

Electrode

Spacing 2-14, 2-19

Electrodes adjusting the number of electrodes

2-13, 2-18 adjusting the positions 2-33, 2-41

Emergency Stop 1-4, 3-10, 3-22

Index-

L

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Emergency Stop Key 1-7

Enter Key 1-7

Entering values in fields 1-16 to 1-22 alphanumeric entry, example 1

1-19 to 1-20 alphanumeric entry, example 2

1-20 to 1-22

Error messages

Inversion routine 4-10

SARIS operation 4-9

F

F1 to F5 keys 1-7

Function keys description 1-7

Function/Alphanumeric Keys 1-8

Fuse replacement 4-4

G

GPS choosing differential mode 2-52 choosing your map datum 2-52

Datums E-1 setup 2-51 to 2-52

Grid System 2-60

H

Hazard electrical 1-4

Help on-line 1-13 to 1-14

HELP/5/MNO Key 1-8

I

INFO/7/STU Key 1-8

IP adjusting the number of cycles

2-25 choosing 2-62

Method D-1

K

Keyboard description 1-7

Keypad 1-6

Keys

Arrow 1-7

Backspace 1-7

CANCEL 1-7

CONTRAST/4/JKL 1-8

DUMP/6/PQR 1-8

East/+ 1-9

Emergency Stop 1-7

Enter 1-7

F1 to F5 1-7

Function/Alphanumeric 1-8

HELP/5/MNO 1-8

INFO/7/STU 1-8

MEMORY/3/GHI 1-8

North/+ 1-9

NOTE/8/VWX 1-8

Off 1-7

On 1-7

Reading 1-8

RECALL/9/YZ 1-9

SETUP/1/ABC 1-8

Sounding/Profile 1-7

South/- 1-9

SURVEY/2/DEF 1-8

West/- 1-9

Index-

LL

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

L

Line frequency adjusting the 2-27

M

Macros defining 3-30 to 3-31 using 3-31 to 3-32

Maximum current adjusting the 2-23

Maximum measurement time

2nd Draft

adjusting the 2-13, 2-18, 2-24

Maximum number of IP cycles adjusting the 2-25

Memory size 1-5

Minimum current adjusting the 2-23

Modules multi-electrode interface 1-6 power supply 1-6

N

Noise threshold adjusting the 2-24

North/+ Key 1-9

NOTE/8/VWX Key 1-8

Notes entering 3-27 to 3-33 recording 3-28 to 3-33 manually entered notes 3-33 using available macros 3-30 to

3-32 using pre-defined list of features 3-28 to 3-29

Numeric parameters entering 1-7

O

Off key 1-7

Offices addresses 2-46 to 2-47

Offset Wenner interpolation 2-28

On Key 1-7

On Time 2-63

On-line screens

HELP 1-13 to 1-14 system information 1-14 to 1-15

Operation principles 1-5

P

Page Numbering 1-1

Parameter

Altitude of grid reference point

2-57

Altitude of profile reference point

3-17

Altitude of sounding reference point 3-6

Apparent resistivity 3-11, 3-23

Azimuth of grid system 2-57

Azimuth of profile 3-17

Azimuth of sounding 3-6

Base spacing 3-18

Easting 2-57

Easting of sounding reference point 3-6

1st Station/X 3-18

Grid System 2-60

Index-

LLL

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Line direction 3-17

Line position/Y 3-17

Maximum n 3-18

Northing 2-57

Northing of sounding reference point 3-6

Numeric parameters entering 1-7

On time 2-63

Optional parameters 2-56 to 2-58

Header 2-57 reference point parameters

2-57

Ro 3-11, 3-23

Scan mode 3-7, 3-18

SD 3-11, 3-23

Self-potential 3-11, 3-23 setting up the survey parameters

2-59 to 2-68

SP 3-11, 3-23

Standard deviation 3-11, 3-23

Station step 3-18

Survey 2-55 to 2-56

Transmitted current 3-11, 3-23

TxI 3-11, 3-23

Units 2-60

UTM difference 2-58

UTM Zone 2-58

Waveform

IP 2-62 squarewave 2-62

Powering up your SARIS 1-10

Preset copying a 2-39 to 2-42 creating a new preset 2-31 to 2-34 deleting a 2-43 to 2-44 selecting a 2-35 to 2-38 setup 2-29 to 2-44 type of 2-32

Profile Key 1-7

Profiling

Wenner setting electrode positions 3-20 starting a profile 3-22 taking a next measurement

3-24 viewing the results 3-25

Wenner, example 2 3-16 to 3-26

Profiling arrays 1-25 to 1-27 choosing 2-66

R

Reading key 1-8

RECALL/9/YZ Key 1-9

Recalling data 3-34 to 3-38

Reprogramming your SARIS C-9 to

C-12

Resetting the SARIS 1-30, 4-7

Resetting the SARIS to the default parameters 1-30, 4-7

S

Scan Warnings enabling the 2-27

Screens

Clock 2-53 to 2-54

GPS 2-50 to 2-52

Options 2-26 to 2-28

Service 2-45 to 2-49

Set-up 2-1 to 2-2

Survey 2-55 to 2-68

Transmitter 2-22 to 2-25

Index-

LY

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

SCTUTIL program

Important notice 1-29 installing C-2 to C-8 installing USB driver C-13 to C-25

Minimum system requirements

1-29

Setup array 2-64 to 2-66 cables 2-68 field setup 3-2 to 3-3 automated survey 3-3

SETUP/1/ABC Key 1-8

Shipping instructions 5-8 to 5-10

Sleep time adjusting the 2-27

2

Software

2-48, C-9 to C-12

Sounding arrays 1-23 to 1-25 choosing 2-65

Sounding Key 1-7

Soundings

Schlumberger example 1 3-5 to 3-15 inverting the sounding 3-13 setting electrode positions 3-8 starting a sounding 3-10 taking a next measurement

3-11 scrolling through 3-36 to 3-38

South/- Key 1-9

Start value adjusting the 2-14, 2-19

SURVEY/1/DEF Key 1-8

Symbols 1-3

T

Technical specifications 5-1

Trouble-shooting 4-7 to 4-8

Type styles scheme 1-2

U

Units 2-60

Upgrading software version 2-48, C-9 to C-12

USB

Dumping data 3-39 to 3-44

Important notice 1-29

V

Virtual cable creating a virtual cable 2-15 to

2-21

W

Warning

USB requirements 1-29

Warranty and repair 5-7 to 5-10

Waveform 2-62

West/- Key 1-9

Index-

Y

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Index-

YL

SARIS Manual -

part # 735700 Revision 1.1

Head Office

222 Snidercroft Road

Concord, Ontario

Canada, L4K 1B5 tel: (905) 669-2280 fax: (905) 669-6403 e-mail: [email protected]

In the U.S.A.

900 Woodrow Lane

Suite 100

Denton, Texas

76201 tel: (940) 591-7755 fax: (940) 591-1968 e-mail: [email protected]

In Australia

P.O. Box 125

83 Jijaws Street

Brisbane, QLD

4074 tel: (+61-7) 3376-5188 fax: (+61-7) 3376-6626 e-mail: [email protected]

SCINTREX

Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement

Table of contents