View the User Manual - Star Electric Vehicles
Owner’s Manual and Service Guide
Enclosed Electric Shuttle Bus
BN72-14-AC-D and BN72-11-AC-D Wheelchair Accessible
June 2014
Thanks for buying our electric vehicle. For better use, please read through this manual before
operating this vehicle to avoid any possible damage due to improper operation. Keep the manual
handy after reading for future reference.
Important Information:
Important information is showed in following way in this manual:
WARNING: Failure to follow Warning instructions could result in severe injury or death to the
vehicle occupants, bystanders or persons inspecting or repairing the vehicle.
CAUTION: Failure to follow Caution instructions could cause damage to the vehicle.
Note: Remove the seat and backrest wrapping film to prevent seat vinyl fading. If you have to
stock the vehicle for long time, also remove the seat and backrest wrapping film.
1
Table of Contents
Vehicle Specifications
3
Operation
4
Important Labels
4
Functions
Operational Process
Safety
6
7
Maintenance
8
Battery
Cleaning
8
Recharging
9
Watering
9
Specific Gravity Test
11
Open-Circuit Voltage Test
12
Installation
13
Traction/Motor
13
Troubleshooting
14
14
Speed Controller
15
Brake System
15
Lubrication
General Maintenance Notes
Periodical Maintenance
15
16
Storage
19
Troubleshooting
19
Electrical Diagram
25
2
Vehicle Specifications
BN72-14-AC-D
BN72-11-AC-D Wheelchair
Accessible
Passengers
14
11 + wheelchair
Motor
9.5 HP AC
9.5 HP AC
Battery group
Controller power
Maximum speed (mph)
Total load capacity (lbs)
Dimensions (in)
Weight (lbs)
Ground Clearance (in)
Turing Radius (ft)
Wheelbase (in)
Climbing capacity (loaded)
Front suspension
Rear suspension
Steering system
Brake system
Tire size
Tire Pressure (psi)
Wheel type
12 x 6V (72V), Trojan T-105
included
550A Curtis 1238
18
2200
12 x 6V (72V), Trojan T-105
included
550A Curtis 1238
18
2200
203 x 61 x 82
207 x 61 x 82
3130
3130
5”
5”
19.6
19.6
108”
114”
20%
Independent, coil over shock
Leaf spring and shock
Rack and pinion
4-wheel hydraulic
155 R 12
65
20%
Independent, coil over shock
Leaf spring and shock
Rack and pinion
4-wheel hydraulic
155 R 12
65
12” aluminum
12” aluminum
3
Operation
Important Labels
Please read the following labels carefully before operating the vehicle, and promptly replace any
labels which become unreadable or removed.
•
•
•
Security Warning label under the dashboard
Warning label under the dashboard
Warning label beside the parking brake handle
Functions
Power key: Controls the power supply of the whole vehicle. When the key is inserted into it and
turned clockwise, it will switch on the lights, horn, and the control system; when the key is turned
back, the power will be switched off.
Acceleration pedal: Controls the speed. It should be depressed slowly. The vehicle speeds up with
the gradual stepping-down, and reaches the full speed when the pedal is stepped to the bottom. The
4
vehicle slows down when the pedal is released gradually. When the pedal is fully released, electric
brake works.
Service brake pedal: Decelerate the vehicle.
F/R switch: This switch is a three-position button. Depressing the upper part (F) makes the vehicle
move forwards while depressing the lower part (R) makes the vehicle move backwards, and the
middle is neutral. NOTE: The buzzer will sound when the lower part of this button is depressed to
give warning to the people around your electric vehicle.
Hand-brake lever: Parks and brakes the vehicle.
Steering wheel: Controls the driving direction.
Light switch: Controls light system, including turning signals and headlight (includes high beam and
lower beam).
Wiper and horn switch: Controls the wiper and horn.
Emergency stop switch: Stops the power of the whole vehicle in case of emergency. NOTE: Before
you switch on the vehicle, always check the status of this switch to make sure that it is in the OFF
position.
Combination meter: This meter shows information including lights, speed, range, hand brake, and
battery power.
5
Operational Process
Starting the vehicle
1| Select F for Forward or R for Reverse from F/R Button.
2| Switch on power with key.
3| Release the handbrake lever.
4| Depress the acceleration pedal smoothly.
WARNING: If you switch on Power Key first before selecting Forward or Reverse on F/R Button,
the vehicle will not run.
Stopping the vehicle
1| Step Service Brake Pedal to decelerate the vehicle until it stops completely and shift F/R
button to Neutral position.
2| Engage the handbrake lever to park the vehicle.
3| Release the service brake.
4| Switch off all lights.
5| Switch off the power key and take out the key.
Charging
CAUTION: There are two different kinds of chargers for this vehicle. One is an exterior charger and
the other is a built-in (on-body) charger. Before you use the charger, read the charger operation
manual.
Explosive hydrogen gas is produced while battery is charged. Only charge the battery in wellventilated areas.
6
Before using the charger, check if the battery charger you are using is correctly rated for your local
AC electricity network.
Do not disconnect the DC output cord from the battery receptacle when the charger is ON,
otherwise an arc could occur which may cause an explosion.
Do not open the housing of the charger. Only a qualified electrician should open the housing of the
charger.
The charger should be stored in safe and dry room with good ventilation. The charger should be
packed properly if not used for long time.
Safety
The driver should have a good knowledge of the operation system of the vehicle and its features
while following rules for safe operation.
WARNING: Drive the vehicle off streets unless it is allowed.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
The vehicle cannot be overloaded, or the motor will be damaged. An overloaded vehicle can
lose control and its life will be shortened.
Unqualified persons are prohibited to drive the vehicle.
Make sure this vehicle runs in its rated climbing ability.
Don’t overtake other vehicles at crossroads, in blind areas or in other dangerous zones.
Keep your entire body inside the vehicle, keep seated and holding on while the vehicle is
moving.
Do not start the vehicle until all occupants are securely seated.
Keep your hands on the steering wheel and your eyes on the path ahead.
Always back out the vehicle slowly and watch the back carefully.
Avoid starting and stopping suddenly.
Avoid turning the vehicle too sharply at high speeds.
Always drive slowly up and down slopes.
Do not make any modification or addition which may affect the capacity or safety.
7
•
Children are not allowed to play in the vehicle. Children should be seated between adults
and protected while the vehicle is moving.
Battery Maintenance
WARNING: Battery electrolyte is poisonous and dangerous, may cause severe burns, injury, etc..
Always wear protective clothing, gloves, and goggles when handling batteries, electrolyte, and
charging your battery.
KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN.
Cleaning
The exterior of the battery, the connection wires and bolts should always be kept clean and dry.
When cleaning, make sure all vent caps are tightly in place. Clean the battery top with a cloth or
brush and solution of baking soda and water. When cleaning, do not allow any cleaning solution or
other foreign matter to get inside the battery. This should be done every week.
Clean battery terminals and the inside of cable clamps using a post and clamp cleaner. Clean
terminals will have a bright metallic shine. This should be done whenever necessary.
Reconnect the clamps to the terminals and thinly coat them with petroleum jelly (Vaseline) to
prevent corrosion.
WARNING: Before you disconnect any battery cable from any terminal on the battery, always
remove the power by disconnecting the main battery cable from the controller.
Checking the terminals and nuts: The connection of the battery should always be kept in good
condition. Check every week on whether any battery cable terminal or nut has become loose in
order to prevent any damage to terminals. Check the status of the battery cable weekly. A damaged
battery cable should be replaced immediately.
8
Foreign matter: Do not place any objects on the battery and do not connect the positive pole to the
negative pole. This may cause a short circuit and sparking.
Recharging
•
As long as you use the vehicle, regardless of how long you have used it, the battery should
be recharged fully on the same day. Any delay in re-charging will negatively affect the
•
•
battery. The lead-acid battery does not develop a memory, so need not be fully discharged
before recharging.
If the vehicle is going to be kept unused for a long time, the battery should be fully
recharged first. After that, the battery should be fully recharged every two weeks.
When driving, the driver should always be aware of the drop level of the battery power
from the battery power meter. Any drop means the battery power is diminishing. The driver
can estimate the distance needed to be taken, and recharge the battery at a proper time in
case the vehicle cannot get back to the recharging station in time for recharging.
WARNING: Make sure the battery is recharged before the battery power meter shows 20% power
is left inside the battery. An over-discharged battery will have a very short service life and will
make recharging difficult.
WARNING: During recharge, the vehicle should be parked in a well-ventilated area with the fill caps
tightly secured. Keep far away from any flame and sparks to avoid any explosion or fire that could
cause physical injury or damage to the property.
During recharge, if the vehicle had doors, keep the doors open. Lift the seat bottom to keep the
battery compartment open to the air.
Watering
Flooded batteries need water. More importantly, watering must be done at the right time and in the
right amount or else the battery's performance and longevity suffers. Water should always be
added after fully charging the battery. Prior to charging, there should be enough water to cover the
plates. If the battery has been discharged partially or fully, the water level should also be above the
plates. Keeping the water at the correct level after a full charge will prevent having to worry about
the water level at a different state of charge.
9
It is recommended that batteries be checked once a month until you get a feel for how often you
must water your batteries. Important things to remember:
•
•
•
Do not let the plates get exposed to air. This will damage (corrode) the plates.
Do not fill past the water level in the filling well to the cap. This most likely will cause the
battery to overflow acid, consequently losing capacity and causing corrosion.
Do not use water with a high mineral content. Use distilled or de-ionized water only.
WARNING: The electrolyte is a solution of acid and water so skin contact should be avoided.
Watering procedure
1| Open the vent caps and look inside the fill wells.
2| Check electrolyte level; the minimum level is at the top of the plates.
3| If necessary add just enough water to cover the plates at this time.
4| Put batteries on a complete charge before adding any additional water (refer to the
Charging section).
5| Once charging is completed, open the vent caps and look inside the fill wells.
6| Add water until the electrolyte level is 1/8" below the bottom of the fill well.
7| A piece of rubber can be used safely to help determine this level.
8| Clean, replace, and tighten all vent caps.
CAUTION: Never add acid to a battery.
Testing: Visual inspection alone is not sufficient to determine the overall health of the battery. Both
open-circuit voltage and specific gravity readings can give a good indication of the battery's charge
level, age, and health. Routine voltage and gravity checks will not only show the state of charge but
also help spot signs of improper maintenance, such as undercharging and over-watering, and
possibly even locate a bad or weak battery. The following steps outline how to properly perform
routine voltage and specific gravity testing on batteries.
10
Specific Gravity Test (Flooded batteries only)
1| Do not add water at this time.
2| Fill and drain the hydrometer 2 to 4 times before pulling out a sample.
3| There should be enough sample electrolyte in the hydrometer to completely support the
float.
4| Take a reading, record it, and return the electrolyte back to the cell.
5| To check another cell, repeat the 3 steps above.
6| Check all cells in the battery.
7| Replace the vent caps and wipe off any electrolyte that might have been spilled.
8| Correct the readings to 80° F:
a| Add .004 to readings for every 10° above 80° F.
b| Subtract .004 for every 10° below 80° F.
9| Compare the readings.
10| Check the state of charge using the table below.
If any specific gravity readings register low then follow the steps below.
1| Check voltage level(s).
2| Perform equalization charge. Refer to the Equalizing section for the proper procedure.
3| Take specific gravity readings again.
If any specific gravity reading still registers lower than the factory specification of 1.277+/- .007
then one or more of the following conditions may exist:
1| The battery is old and approaching the end of its life.
2| The battery was left in a state of discharge too long.
3| Electrolyte was lost due to spillage or overflow.
4| A weak or bad cell is developing.
11
5| Battery was watered excessively previous to testing.
Batteries in conditions 1 - 4 should be taken to a specialist for further evaluation or retired from
service.
Open-Circuit Voltage Test
For accurate voltage readings, batteries must remain idle (no charging, no discharging) for at least
6 hrs, preferably 24 hrs.
1| Disconnect all loads from the batteries.
2| Measure the voltage using a DC voltmeter.
3| Check the state of charge with the table below.
4| Charge the battery if it registers 0% to 70% charged.
If battery registers below the Table 1 values, the following conditions may exist:
1| The battery was left in a state of discharge too long.
2| The battery has a bad cell.
Batteries in these conditions should be taken to a specialist for further evaluation or retired from
service.
State of charge as related to specific gravity and open circuit voltage
Open-Circuit Voltage
Percentage of
Charge
Specific Gravity
Corrected to
80° F
100
1.277
6.37
8.49
12.73
25.46
38.20
50.93
80
1.238
6.25
8.33
12.50
25.00
37.49
49.99
90
70
1.258
1.217
6V
6.31
6.19
12
8V
8.41
8.25
12V
12.62
12.37
24V
25.24
24.74
36V
37.85
37.12
48V
50.47
49.49
60
1.195
6.12
8.16
12.24
24.48
36.72
48.96
40
1.148
5.98
7.97
11.96
23.92
35.87
47.83
50
30
20
10
1.172
1.124
1.098
1.073
6.05
5.91
5.83
5.75
8.07
7.88
7.77
7.67
12.10
11.81
11.66
11.51
24.20
23.63
23.32
23.02
36.31
35.44
34.97
34.52
48.41
47.26
46.63
46.03
Battery Installation
Tighten the battery cables to battery terminals with torque of 95 - 105 lbs. in. (10.7 - 11.9 N.M.)
Make sure there is nothing else between the battery cable lug and battery terminal post.
WARNING: When working with the battery, DO NOT put wrenches or any other metal objects
across the battery terminals, otherwise, an arc can occur, and it may cause explosion of the battery
and physical injury.
Battery should be installed or replaced only by a qualified electrician.
Traction/Motor Maintenance
The motor is designed for use up to 4000 feet above sea level and in a temperature between -15° F
and 105° F.
Never keep the motor running idly. Any mud, sand, and other clinging objects should be cleaned
away.
Check the carbon brush every three months. To change a worn or weakened carbon brush, press
spring.
13
Troubleshooting for Motor (DC Motor only)
Warning: Only a qualified electrician should change and adjust the carbon brush.
Symptoms
All copper plates turn
black
The commutator turns
black in a certain order
and in groups
The commutator turns
black
The brush wears out, turns
colors and become broken
Big sparks
The brush and its wires get
hot
The brush is noisy
Possible Causes
The pressure of brush is incorrect.
Short circuit in the commutator or armature coil; poor welding or
disconnection between the commutators and the armature coil.
The central line of the commutator deviates or its surface is not
round and smooth.
The motor vibrates; the clearance between the brush and its holder
is too big; the clearance between the brush and commutators is too
big; the mica between different commutators extrudes; the brush is
made by wrong materials; the brush is the wrong type.
The motor is overloaded; the commutators are not clean, round or
smooth; mica or some commutators extrude; the brush is not
ground properly; the brush is the wrong type; the brush is jammed
in the brush holder; the brush holder become loose or vibrating;
the polarity and sequence of magnetic poles is wrong.
Big sparks of the brush; poor contact between brush and soft wires.
The surface of the commutators is not smooth.
Speed Controller Maintenance
The speed controller of the vehicle is wholly imported, which adopts high frequency MOS
technology to realize the control of speed, torque and brake with smoothness, silence, and high
energy efficiency.
14
When the vehicle starts, the controller will inspect signals from the accelerator. If signal exceeds
20%, the HPD (protection unit in the controller) will prohibit the output of the controller.
The controller will self-check when the vehicle is running. If any defect inspected, the controller will
stop the vehicle to protect the operator and the vehicle.
Brake System Maintenance
Depress the brake pedal with a force of 65 lbs. The pedal travel shouldn’t exceed 2/3 of the full free
pedal travel.
The clearance for the brake plate is self-adjusted. Under a force of around 45 lbs, the parking brake
handle should be fixed in one gear from 5 to 10 ratchets. When the brake handle is released
completely, the brake function will stop.
Inspect and change brake shoe, and add lubrication into the brake bearing periodically.
Lubrication
Use 901 vehicle brake oil DOT3 as brake oil. Use 1L of 85W/90GL lubrication oil for gear box. Use
1L of 90GL hypoid gear oil for the rear axle.
Lubrication points: steering gears, horizontal bars, steering ball joints, and bearings.
General Maintenance Notes
•
To avoid any damage on the brake shoe, the handbrake should be released to its bottom
before staring the vehicle.
15
•
•
•
The lubricant for rear power assembly must be applied and changed as per user’s manual.
The brake system must be adjusted once every 3 months.
The electricity system must be checked once every 3 months (especially main circuit) for its
fastening parts and wiring connections. Meanwhile the contactor should be checked. Any
•
•
•
•
•
defective parts should be replaced immediately. Dust should be cleaned with low pressure
air.
The electric contactors easily become hot if their mutual contact is not in good condition, so
special attention should be paid regularly to the electric contactors.
When changing a fuse, make sure that the new fuse is right in rated current.
Disconnect the positive pole from the battery when maintenance is done.
Never step the accelerator hard and frequently, which may shorten the life of the controller.
It is prohibited to pour any other liquids (such as battery addictives, mineral water and tap
water) into the battery. Only distilled water should fill battery.
Periodical Maintenance
•
•
•
•
Check if the contact between contacting points of the contactor is in good condition, check
for any mechanical sticking or jamming.
Check if the micro switch in the accelerator can be switched on and off properly.
Check if the switch for the turn signal can be switched on and off properly.
Check if all the connections between the motor, the battery, and the controller are in good
condition.
Please use the following cleaning procedure for routine maintenance:
1| Turn the power key to OFF position.
2| Remove power by disconnecting the battery.
3| Discharge the capacitors in the controller by connecting a load (such as a contactor coil or
a horn) across the controller’s B+ and B- terminals.
16
4| Remove any dirt or corrosion from the connector areas. The controller should be wiped
clean with moist rag. Dry it before reconnecting the battery. The controller should not be
subjected to pressured water flow from either a standard hose or a power washer.
5| Make sure the connections are tight, but do not over-tighten them.
NOTE: All above checks should be performed with the power off. Above checks shall be carried out
once every 3 months; after the power is turned off, the wave-filter capacitor in the controller unit
should continue discharging for a few minutes more; don’t wash the electrical parts with water. You
can remove dust with a brush or high–pressure air.
Periodic Maintenance Chart
WARNING: Make sure to turn off the power key and apply the park brake when you do the
maintenance unless specified. If the owner is not familiar with the maintenance of this vehicle, the
dealer should do the work.
Item
Descriptions
Daily Weekly Monthly Quarterly Yearly
Check the liquid level. Add distilled water
if necessary.
Charge the battery.

Tighten the nut on the battery cable.
Battery

Check if the battery is over-discharged
(the battery power meter flashing).


Check the liquid density of the battery;
standard density should be 1.275±0.005.
Check if the battery is charged fully by
using the hydrometer and checking the


battery power meter.
Charger
Clean the surface of battery

Observe the charging status, check if the
charger plug becomes hot.
17

Clean the surface of the charger. Do not

get any water inside the charger.
Check if all terminals are tightened
Controller
Clean the surface of the controller.

Check if the solenoid is in order, checking
its touching point.
Check if any water gets in. Check if it
Motor

properly. Do this after the power is off.
becomes too hot.


Check if the carbon brush should be

replaced. (DC motor only)
Check if the accelerator pedal works well
and if it can be released freely and

Check if the brake drum and shoe.

automatically.
Check if the hand brake functions.

Check if the hose and tube for the brake

liquid leaking.
Check if the brake liquid inside the brake
liquid tank is enough.
Chassis
and body
Check the air pressure inside the tire,
check if the tire surface is worn, and


check if the nuts are tightened properly.
Check if the shock absorber has any oil
leaking, flat or abnormal noise.
Check if there is oil leaking on the gear
box and the rear end.


Add the lubricant inside the wheel hub,
steering system.
Adjust the toe-in of the front end.


Clean the body and seat.

After above maintenance, drive the vehicle to check if the vehicle works properly.
18
Storage
Please follow the steps below when the vehicle is stored.
1| Check the liquid level inside the battery; recharge it fully before storing the vehicle.
WARNING: Charge the battery once a month if your vehicle will be stored more than one
month.
2| Turn the power key to OFF position, remove the key, and store the key in a safe place.
3| Engage the handbrake.
4| Check the tire pressure to make sure its pressure is set to recommended pressure.
5| Clean the exterior of the vehicle and apply a rust inhibitor.
6| Cover the vehicle with a breathable cover and store it in a dry, safe, and well-ventilated
place.
7| If you plan to store the vehicle for a longer time, check the liquid level inside the battery
and recharge the battery monthly.
Troubleshooting
There is no settled mode to diagnose and eliminate malfunctions. During maintaining and checking,
we suggest you first listen, then look and feel. Below is the diagnoses and maintenance of some
common malfunctions.
19
1| The vehicle doesn’t move. Turn on power key, step on accelerator pedal, vehicle doesn’t move.
Malfunction
Turn on power key,
voltameter has no signal
Possible reason
Connector(s) in circuit is loose or open
Tighten or connect
Battery cable(s) is loose or disconnected
Tighten or change
Fuse of controller or main circuit is open
Power key is broken
Volatmeter is broken
Battery terminals connect improperly
Improper operating procedure
Turn on power key,
voltameter has signal
Controller failure
Solenoid failure
Accelerator failure
Parking brake doesn’t loosen
2| Locking control when vehicle starts running, speed cannot be adjusted.
when it starts
Vehicle stops immediately
after it starts
Normal power at low
speed, weak power at
high speed
Change
Change
Adjust
Operate properly
Check or change
Repair or change
Motor failure
Malfunction
Change fuse
Check, repair, change
Over-heat protection
Vehicle runs at full speed
Troubleshooting
Possible reason
Repair or change
Loosen parking brake
Check, eliminate
Troubleshooting
Terminals of solenoid stick together
Check or repair
Potentiometer failure
Repair or change
Controller failure
Internal short of Motor
Motor is assembled too tight or blocked
Controller failure
Accelerator Failure
Repair or change
Repair or change
Repair or change
Repair or change
Controller Failure
Check or change
Motor Failure
Accelerator Failure
Change
Check or change
20
Check or change
3| Vehicle cannot change direction, only runs in one direction.
Malfunction
Possible reason
Only runs in one direction
F&R switch failure
Troubleshooting
Change
Controller Failure
Change
4| Possible reason and troubleshooting for malfunctions of mechanic system.
System
Malfunction
Possible reason
Clearance of rear axle
decelerating gear is too big, or
the decelerating gear is
Transmission
system
Abnormal sound
when running
Transmission cross shaft is
worn out
Gear of transmission is worn
out or damaged
Flange bearing is damaged
Motor bearing is damaged
Gear liquid is deficient or
Hard to shift gear,
and/or gear shift
jumps in different
positions
Steering system
broken
Steering heavy
empty
Clutch cannot separate
smoothly
Gear shift wire is damaged
Gear inside transmission case
is worn out
Orientation pin is loose
Pressure of front tire is
deficient
Screw plug of redirector is too
tight
Lack of lube in redirector
Toe-in is abnormal
21
Troubleshooting
Adjust, change
Change
Change
Change
Change
Add gear liquid
Adjust
Change
Change
Change
Check the pressure and
inflate
Adjust
Maintain/add lube
Adjust
Clearance of tension rod ball
is too big
Steering knuckle and master
pin is not lubricated
Steering shaft or its plastic
cover is worn out
Rack of redirector is worn out
Screw plug of redirector is too
Unstable wheels
tight
Toe-in is adjusted improperly
Bearing of front wheel is
worn out
Tie rod ball and joint is worn
out
Redirector is loose
The pressure of the two front
tires is different
Toe-in is too big or too small
Deflected running
Driving system
Tightness of the left and right
drum bearing of front wheels
is different
Brake of one wheel is too
tight
Spring shock absorber is
abnormal
Front suspension is loose
Abnormal tire fray
Tire pressure is abnormal
Toe-in is improper
Drum bearing loose
U type bolt of leaf spring is
loose
22
Change
Add lube
Change
Change redirector
Adjust
Adjust
Change
Change tie rod
Tighten
Inflate
Adjust
Adjust
Adjust or change
Change
Change
Inflate
Adjust
Change
Tighten
Rim is distorted or frame is
distorted
Brake force of each wheel is
different
Overexerting accelerate or
braking frequently
Master cylinder and/or wheel
cylinder is damaged or
leaking oil
Brake fluid is insufficient or
Brake fail
empty
Air enters into oil pipe
Free travel of brake pedal is
too long or the clearance of
arrester is too big
Brake drum is worn out or
distorted
Master cylinder leaks oil
internally
Brake system
The clearance of left brake
drum shoe and right brake
drum shoe is different
Oil is on one arrester’s brake
Braking deviation
shoe
Tire pressures are different
One wheel cylinder’s piston is
blocked
Wheels are aligned
improperly
Brake drum becomes out of
Braking drag
round
Brake pedal has no free travel
23
Tighten
Adjust
Alter operation
Check, eliminate,
change
Add fluid
Let air out
Adjust
Change
Change
Adjust
Dispose or change
Repair or change
Adjust
Adjust
Change
Adjust
Clearance between brake
shoe and drum is too small or
releasing spring is disabled
Piston of wheel cylinder is
ineffective
Piston of master cylinder is
ineffective
Parking brake is ineffective
Braking noise
Shoes distort
Brake facing wear out
Brake drum breach, scraped
to uneven
Adjust or change
Check or change
Change
Change spring
Change
Change
Change
This manual tries to be as sound and elaborate as possible in literal and figurative description as
well as technical description on the basis of existing data. At the same time, our company reserves
the right to alter the content of this manual and this manual is subject to change without prior
notice; in addition, our company has the final say on the interpretation of this manual.
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