AvaSoft 5
AVASOFT FULL
version 5.1
USER’S MANUAL
Mar-02
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AVASOFT INSTALLATION
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QUICK START: MEASURING AND SAVING A SPECTRUM
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MAIN WINDOW
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2.1
Menu bar
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2.2
Button bar
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2.3
Edit bar
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2.4
Graphical region
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2.5
Status bar
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2.6
Find peaks or valleys by CTRL or SHIFT + left mouse button click
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MENU OPTIONS
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3.1
File Menu
3.1.1
File Menu: Start New Experiment
3.1.2
File Menu: Load Dark
3.1.3
File Menu: Load Reference
3.1.4
File Menu: Load Experiment
3.1.5
File Menu: Save Dark
3.1.6
File Menu: Save Reference
3.1.7
File Menu: Save Experiment
3.1.8
File Menu: Print
3.1.9
File Menu: Black and White printer
3.1.10
File Menu: Display Saved Graph
3.1.11
File Menu: Convert Graph - to ASCII
3.1.12
File Menu: Convert Graph - to J-CAMP
3.1.13
File Menu: Exit
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3.2
Setup Menu
3.2.1
Setup Menu: Hardware
3.2.2
Setup Menu: Smoothing and Spline
3.2.3
Setup Menu: Correct for Dynamic Dark
3.2.4
Setup Menu: Subtract Saved Dark
3.2.5
Setup Menu: Strobe Enable
3.2.6
Setup Menu: Options
3.2.6.1
Setup Menu: Options - Check on Overexposure.
3.2.6.2
Setup Menu: Options – Full Width Half Max
3.2.6.3
Setup Menu: Options - Integrals
3.2.6.4
Setup Menu: Options – Autosave Spectra Periodically
3.2.6.5
Setup Menu: Options - Correct for Drift
3.2.6.6
Setup Menu: Options - Automatic Save Dark by TTL shutter
3.2.6.7
Setup Menu: Options - External Trigger Setting
3.2.6.8
Setup Menu: Options - Auto configure Integration time
3.2.6.9
Setup Menu: Options - Suppress Save Comments
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3.3
2
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View Menu
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3.3.1
3.3.2
3.3.3
3.3.4
3.3.5
3.3.6
3.3.7
3.3.8
3.3.9
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View Menu: Scope Mode
View Menu: Absorbance Mode
View Menu: Transmittance Mode
View Menu: Irradiance Mode
View Menu: Channel
View Menu: Change Graph Scale
View Menu: Graphic Reset
View Menu: Autoscale Y-axis
View Menu: Goto Preset Scale
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APPLICATIONS
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4.1
Applications: History Channel Functions
4.1.1
History Application: Function Entry
4.1.2
History Application: Start Measuring
4.1.3
History Application: Display Saved History Graph
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4.2
Applications: Wavelength Calibration
4.2.1
Calibrate Wavelength Application: Perform New Calibration
4.2.2
Calibrate Wavelength Application: Restore Original Calibration
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4.3
Applications: Color Measurement
4.3.1
Color of an Object - Background
4.3.2
Menu option: Color Measurement
4.3.2.1
LABChart
4.3.2.2
Time Series
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4.4
Applications: Absolute Irradiance Application
4.4.1
Quick Start
4.4.2
Load Intensity Calibration
4.4.3
Perform Intensity Calibration
4.4.3.1
Select Calibrated Lamp
4.4.3.2
View/Edit Lamp Data
4.4.3.3
Select Fiber Diameter
4.4.3.4
Start Intensity Calibration
4.4.4
Select Output Parameter(s)
4.4.5
Time Series Measurement
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4.5
Applications: Process Control Application
4.5.1
Installation of the NI-DAQ software
4.5.2
Installation of the PCI-6503 hardware
4.5.3
Configure and test the PCI-6503 card
4.5.4
Using the Process Control Application in AvaSoft
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4.6
Applications: Excel Output
4.6.1
Select Source Data
4.6.2
Enable Excel Output
4.6.3
Settings
4.6.4
Start Output
4.6.5
Stop Output
4.6.6
Limitations and Optimization Notes
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5
HELP
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APPENDIX A TROUBLESHOOTING
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A.1 Spectrometer does not acquire data
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A.2 Known problems under Windows95 and Windows2000
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A.3 Other potential problems
A.3.1 Range check error and no wavelength range at the x-axis
A.3.2 AvaSoft 5.1 Basic has been installed although the FULL version was ordered
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AvaSoft Installation
AVASOFT version 5.1 is a 32-bit application and can be installed under the following operating
systems:
•
Windows 95/98/Me
•
Windows NT/2000/XP
Installation program
With each new spectrometer system, an AVANTES PRODUCT CD-ROM is included. Also included
is a unique configuration diskette with spectrometer serial number and specific wavelength calibration
coefficients. It’s necessary to have the diskette inserted in the floppy drive during the installation from
CD-ROM.
Installation Dialogs
The setup program will check the system configuration of the computer. If no problems are detected,
the first dialog is the “Welcome” dialog with some general information.
After this, a dialog will be shown, in which you will be asked to insert the spectrometer specific
configuration diskette into drive a:. If the configuration diskette is not inserted, AvaSoft Basic will be
installed with a default wavelength range. AvaSoft Full cannot be installed without the information that
is in the files on the diskette. After inserting the diskette into drive a: and clicking the next button, the
installation program starts reading spectrometer specific information from the diskette. Depending on
this information, the program proceeds with installing AvaSoft Basic or AvaSoft FULL.
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In the next dialog, the destination directory for the AvaSoft software can be changed. The default
destination directory is C:\SW5FULL if AvaSoft FULL will be installed and C:\SW5BASIC if AvaSoft
BASIC will be installed. If you want to install the software to a different directory, click the Browse
button, select a new directory and click OK. If the specified directory does not exist, it will be created.
In the next dialog, the name for the program manager group can be changed. The default name for this
is “AVANTES Software”.
After this, the “Start Installation” dialog is shown. After clicking the “next” button, the installation
program starts installing files.
One of the files that will be installed in AvaSoft’s main directory is a Microsoft Utility program, called
hhupd.exe (hhupd=Html Help UPDate). This file is executed during the installation to check if the
computer recognizes HTML Help files. This format is also used in the AvaSoft Help files. On most
computers, the program hhupd.exe will return the next dialog:
indicating that no update of HTML Help is required. If HTML Help is not recognized, or an older
version has been found, the next dialog will be displayed:
HTML Help can be installed by clicking the “OK” button, or you can run the utility program later on,
by executing hhupd.exe from AvaSoft’s main directory.
After all files have been installed, the “Installation Complete” dialog shows up. By clicking the “Finish”
button, a last dialog is shown which contains the following information:
It’s strongly recommended to restart the computer
before starting AvaSoft.
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Launching the software
AvaSoft can be started from Windows Start Menu. Under Start-programs, the group “AVANTES
Software” has been added. This group contains two icons. With the red “V” icon, AvaSoft is started.
The AvaSoft Help icon can be used to activate the AvaSoft helpfiles (these helpfiles can also be
activated from the Help menu after starting AvaSoft).
The first time AvaSoft is started, the hardware set up dialog is shown. In this dialog, the Spectrometer
Type, ADC-card and some other parameters can be entered. The same result can be achieved by
using the menu option Setup-Hardware (section 3.2.1).
If these parameters have been filled in correctly, data collection can be activated by clicking the green
start button.
If no spectrum is shown after clicking the start button, or if there are other software problems, please
refer to APPENDIX A: Troubleshooting.
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1
Quick Start: Measuring and saving a spectrum
1. After starting AvaSoft, the green Start button needs to be clicked to start measuring.
2. Connect a fiber or probe to the light source and to the spectrometer input port(s) and set up the
experiment for taking a reference spectrum.
3. Adjust the Smoothing Parameters in the Setup menu (section 3.2.2) to optimize smoothing for the
Fiber/Slit diameter that is used.
4. Now turn on the light source. Usually some sort of spectrum may be seen on the screen, but it is
possible that too much or too little light reaches the spectrometer at the present data collection
settings. Too much light means that, over a certain wavelength range, the signal is overloaded
shown as a straight line at any arbitrary height, even near zero. This can usually be solved by a
shorter integration time. The integration time can be changed in the main window, in the white box
below the start/stop button. If AvaSoft is collecting data, the start/stop button shows a red ‘stop’
and the integration time box is gray, indicating that it cannot be changed. After clicking the ‘stop’
button the data acquisition stops and the integration time can be changed. The result of the changed
integration time can be viewed after clicking the green ‘start’ button. Try to adjust the integration
time, such that the maximum count over the wavelength range is around 3500 counts. When at
minimum integration the signal is still too high, an attenuator (FHSA-TTL), a neutral density filter or
fibers with a smaller diameter may be used. When not enough light reaches the spectrometer,
likewise a longer integration time should be entered.
5. When a good spectrum is displayed, turn off the light source.
6. Now save the Dark data. This is be done by File-Save-Dark from the menu or by clicking the
black square on the left top of the screen with the mouse. Always use Save Dark after the
integration time has been changed.
7. Turn on the light source again. Save the present spectrum as a reference by choosing File SaveReference from the menu or by clicking at the white square (next to the black one). Always use
Save Reference after the integration time has been changed. Now the Transmittance/reflectance
(T button) or Absorbance (A button) spectra can be obtained online. To have a better look at the
amplitude versus wavelength, the cursor button can be clicked. A vertical line is displayed in the
graph. If the mouse cursor is placed nearby this line, the shape of the mouse cursor changes from
an arrow to a ‘drag’ shape. If this shape is displayed, the left mouse button can be used to drag
(keep left mouse button down) the line with the mouse towards a new position. Moving this line
shows the corresponding values of wavelength and amplitude in the main screen. By clicking the
red stop button, the data acquisition is stopped and the last acquired spectrum is shown in static
mode. The data acquisition can be started again by clicking the same button, which now shows a
green ‘Start’.
8. To save the spectrum (in the mode chosen before), choose File-Save-Experiment from the menu,
or click the Save Experiment button from the button bar.
9. To improve the Signal/Noise ratio, a number of spectra may be averaged. To do this, the value in
the white average box in the main window (next to integration time) can be increased. The value
can only be changed in static mode. When AvaSoft is acquiring data, the average box becomes
gray.
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2 Main Window
2.1 Menu bar
The menu’s and submenu’s are described in section 3.
2.2 Button bar
Start/Stop button
The Start/Stop button can be used to display data real-time or to take a snapshot
Cursor button
After clicking the cursor button, a vertical line is displayed in the graph. If the mouse cursor is placed
nearby this line, the shape of the mouse cursor changes from an arrow to a ‘drag’ shape. If this shape
is displayed, the left mouse button can be used to drag (keep left mouse button down) the line with the
mouse towards a new position. Moving this line shows the
corresponding values of wavelength and amplitude in the main
screen. As an alternative for dragging the line, the small step
and big step arrow buttons may be used, or the left and right
arrow keys on the keyboard. The step size for the arrow
buttons can be changed by holding down the CTRL-key while
clicking at a (single or double) arrow button.
Save reference and dark buttons
The reference button is the white button at the left top of the screen. It needs to be clicked to save the
reference data. The same result can be achieved with the option File-Save Reference. The dark button
is the black button at the left top of the screen. It needs to be clicked to save the dark data. The same
result can be achieved with the option File-Save Dark.
Save experiment button
By clicking the Save Experiment button an experiment is saved. The same result can be achieved with
the option File-Save Experiment.
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Print button
By clicking the Print button a graph that is displayed on the monitor will be printed. The same result can
be achieved with the option File-Print.
Channel button
After clicking the Channel button, a dialog is shown in which the spectrometer channels can be
selected, for which data will be acquired and displayed. The same result can be achieved with the
option View-Channel.
Scope button
By clicking the S button, the data will be presented in Scope Mode. The same result can be achieved
with the option View-Scope Mode.
Absorbance button
By clicking the A button, the data will be presented in Absorbance Mode. The same result can be
achieved with the option View-Absorbance Mode.
Transmission button
By clicking the T button, the data will be presented in Transmittance Mode. The same result can be
achieved with the option View-Transmittance Mode.
Irradiance button
By clicking the I button, the data will be presented in Irradiance Mode. The same result can be
achieved with the option View-Irradiance Mode.
Autoscale Y-axis button
By clicking this button, the graph will be rescaled on-line. A maximum signal will be shown at about
75% of the vertical scale. The same result can be achieved with the option View-Autoscale Y-axis
Change Graph Scale button
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By clicking this button, a dialog will be shown in which the range can be changed for both X- and Yaxis. This range can be saved as well and restored any time by clicking the Goto Preset Scale button
(see below). The menu option with the same functionality is View-Change Graph Scale.
Goto Preset Scale button
By clicking this button, the scale for X- and Y-axis will be set to a range that has been set before. The
same result can be achieved with the menu option View-Goto Preset Scale
Graphic Reset button
By clicking this button, the X- and Y-axis will be reset to their default values. The same result can be
achieved with the option View-Graphic Reset
Auto Configure Integration time button
After this button is clicked, AvaSoft starts searching for an optimal integration time. Depending on the
maximum counts in the last scan, the integration time will be increased/decreased automatically until a
scope signal of about 3500 counts is measured. During the search routine, the changes in integration
time can be followed in the integration time edit box in the edit bar. A dialog will display the new
integration time if the search is ready. The routine can be aborted by clicking the button again before
the search has ended.
H.C.F. button
The History Channel Function button allows you to switch directly to the history channel function
screen to start measuring immediately. Of course first the functions need to be defined.
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The two buttons below are available only if AvaSoft has been ordered together with the color
application add-on:
Color Chart button
The Color Chart button allows you to switch directly to the Color Chart screen and starts measuring
immediately.
Color of Object versus Time button
The Color of object versus time button allows you to switch directly to the time measurement of color
parameters and starts measuring immediately.
2.3 Edit bar
When AvaSoft is acquiring data, the edit fields are gray and non-editable. By clicking the red STOP
button, data acquisition is stopped and the edit fields become white and editable. The edit bar shows the
following parameters:
Integration time[ms]
This option changes the CCD readout frequency and therefore the exposure- or integration time of the
CCD detector. The longer the integration time, the more light is exposed to the detector during a single
scan, so the higher the signal. If the integration time is set too long, too much light reaches the detector.
The result is that, over some wavelength range, the signal extends the maximum counts (4096) or in
extreme case shows as a straight line at any arbitrary height, even near zero. Entering a shorter
integration time can usually solve this. Try to adjust the integration time, such that the maximum count
over the wavelength range is around 3500 counts. When at minimum integration the signal is still too
high, an attenuator (FHSA-TTL), a neutral density filter or fibers with a smaller diameter may be used.
When not enough light reaches the spectrometer, likewise a longer integration time should be entered.
It’s also possible to let AvaSoft search for a good integration time by clicking the ‘?AC’ button, or by
using the menu option Setup-Options-Auto Configure Integration time.
If measurements are done in a mode in which reference and dark data are required (all modes except
Scope mode), then new reference and dark spectra need to be saved after the integration time has
been changed.
Average
With this option, the number of scans to average can be set. A spectrum will be displayed after every #
scans. This spectrum is the average of the # scans.
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Wavelength[nm]
The wavelength shows the position of the cursor, which becomes visible if the cursor button is down.
The amplitude of the signal, which is given in the statusbar at the bottom of the main window, is the
amplitude at the wavelength shown in this field.
2.4 Graphical region
The graphical region
displays the data in an
XY-diagram, with at the
X-axis the wavelength
in nanometer, and at the
Y-axis the detector
counts. After loading or
saving a reference and
dark spectrum, other
units can be selected at
the Y-axis: Absorbance
Units, Percentage
Transmittance, or
Relative Irradiance.
Zoom features
Zoom in: select a region to be expanded to the full graph. To select this region, click the left mouse
button in the white graphical region and drag it downwards and to the right. After releasing the left
mouse button within the graphic display, both the X- and Y-axis will be rescaled to the new values of
the selected region.
Zoom out: drag with the left mouse button within the white rectangle, but in stead of dragging the
mouse downwards and to the right, drag it into another direction. After releasing the mouse button, both
the X- and Y-axis will be reset to their default values.
Move X-Y: dragging with the right mouse button results in moving the complete spectrum up or down
and to the left or right.
Move -Y: if a mouse-wheel is available on the mouse being used, then the spectrum can be moved up
or down by moving the mouse wheel.
2.5 Status bar
For each selected spectrometer channel, a statusbar at the bottom of the main window shows
information about the file to which the data will be saved, amplitude at current wavelength, and the
current settings for the smoothing and spline parameters.
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2.6 Find peaks or valleys by CTRL or SHIFT + left mouse button click
This option can be used in all modes (Scope, Absorbance, Transmittance or Irradiance) and for all
displayed graphics. When the left mouse button is clicked in the graphical region, while the CTRL key
is down, AvaSoft will follow the following procedure to run to the closest peak:
1. The wavelength is determined from the position the mouse click occurred.
2. The data from closest pixel is retrieved
3. The direction to search for the peak is determined from the neighbour pixels. If both neighbour
pixels have a lower value at the Y-axis than the current pixel, the current pixel is already a peak. If
only one of the neighbour pixel values is higher then the current pixel value, the peak will be
searched in the direction of this higher pixel. If both neighbour pixels have a higher value at the Yaxis than the current pixel, the current pixel is in a valley. The peak will in this case be searched in
the direction of this neighbour pixel with the highest value.
4. The cursor starts moving in the direction, as determined under 3), until it reaches a pixel of which
the value is not higher than the last one evaluated. At this pixel the cursor stops.
By holding down the SHIFT key in stead of the CTRL key, the same procedure will be used to move
to the closest valley.
If more than one spectrum is being displayed, a dialog, as shown at the
right, pops up in which the spectrum for which the peakfinder needs to be
activated can be selected out of all displayed spectra.
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3
Menu Options
In sections 3.1 to 3.4 the four main menu options (File, Setup, View and Application) and their
submenu's are described in detail.
3.1 File Menu
3.1.1
File Menu: Start New Experiment
After selecting this option, a dialog box appears in which a new experiment name can be entered. The
experiment name will be saved as a filename with the extension *.kon. This extension does not need to
be entered.
After clicking the save button, the
current filename will be built up from
the experiment name that has been
entered, and a sequence number,
starting at 0001.
Example: if the experiment name is
TOP, the first graphic file that will be
saved in scope mode, will be called
TOP0001.ROH, the sequence number
will be automatically incremented, so
the next file that will be saved in scope
mode will be called TOP0002.ROH
etc. For detailed information on
graphic filenames, see File -Save Experiment. Note that the dialog allows you to select different folders
or drives to save the experiments to, as well as creating a new folder name for the new experiment.
After closing the dialog box by clicking the save button, the new experiment name, followed by its
sequence number, is displayed in the lower left of the status bar. By clicking the cancel button, the old
experiment name will be restored.
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3.1.2
File Menu: Load Dark
With this option, dark data can be loaded, that have been saved before. If AvaSoft is in static mode, the
dark data that will be loaded are shown on the screen first.
3.1.3
File Menu: Load Reference
With this option, reference data can be loaded, that have been saved before. If AvaSoft is in static
mode, the reference data that will be loaded are shown on the screen first.
3.1.4
File Menu: Load Experiment
With this option, an experiment can be
loaded, that has been used before. This
way more spectra can be saved to an
existing experiment. An experiment
name has the file extension "*.kon".
After choosing this option, a dialog box
shows all experiments that were saved
earlier in the current experiment
directory. If the experiment name that
needs to be loaded is in this directory,
select it and click the save button. If the
experiment name that needs to be loaded
is in another drive and/or directory, move
to this directory by clicking the
behind the current foldername. For detailed information on graphic
filenames, see File -Save Experiment.
3.1.5
File Menu: Save Dark
With this option, dark data are saved. The name of the dark data file is "dark*.dat", where * represents
the number of the slave channel for which the dark data has been saved (*=0 represents the master
channel).
The dark data files will be saved in the experiment directory that has been picked by the option File Load-Experiment or File-Start New-Experiment.
3.1.6
File Menu: Save Reference
With this option, reference data are saved. The name of the reference data file is "ref*.dat", where *
represents the number of the slave channel for which the reference data has been saved (*=0
represents the master channel).
The reference data files will be saved in the experiment directory that has been picked by the option
File-Load-Experiment or File-Start New-Experiment.
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3.1.7
File Menu: Save Experiment
With this option, spectral data is saved. All graphic files will be saved in the experiment directory that
has been picked by the option File -Load-Experiment or File-Start New-Experiment.
Saving graphic files if one spectrometer channel is enabled
First, a window appears in which a line of comments can be entered to the saved graph. Next two files
will be saved: the first file contains the saved spectrum data. The name of this first file starts with the
experiment name, directly followed by the sequence number of the saved spectrum. The extension of
this first file depends on the current measuring mode, as shown below:
Extension
Mode
ROH
Scope Mode
ABS
Absorbance
TRM
Transmittance/Reflectance
IRR
Irradiance
The second file contains the line of comments, which may have been added to this graph. The name of
this second file is, except for the extension, the same as the name of the first file (experiment name and
sequence number). The extension of this second file also depends on the measuring mode, as shown
below:
Extension
Mode
RCM
Scope Mode
ACM
Absorbance
TCM
Transmittance/Reflectance
ICM
Irradiance
Example: suppose the name of our experiment is "top". Then, saving one spectrum in scope mode, one
in absorbance mode and two in transmittance mode results in the following files:
top0001.roh: spectrum data in scope mode
top0001.rcm:
comments for the spectrum saved in top0001.roh
top0001.abs: spectrum data in absorbance mode
top0001.acm:
comments for the spectrum saved in top0001.abs
top0001.trm: spectrum transmittance mode
top0001.tcm:
comments for the spectrum saved in top0001.trm
top0002.trm: spectrum data in transmittance mode
top0002.tcm:
comments for the spectrum saved in top0002.trm
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After leaving the application and opening AvaSoft the next time, saving graphics in scope, absorbance
and transmittance mode, will then result in respectively the data-files top0002.roh, top0002.abs and
top0003.trm, as well as the comment files top0002.rcm, top0002.acm and top0003.tcm.
Before saving, the name of the graphic file is displayed in the statusbar at the bottom of the screen.
After saving, the sequence number is automatically incremented by one.
Saving graphic files if multiple spectrometer channels have been enabled
If graphic files are saved while more than one channel is viewed at the same time (see option ViewChannel), then the graphic filename for each channel that is displayed gets a different sequence
number. For example, the result of saving one experiment in triple view mode is three graphic data files
and three comment files, for instance:
top0002.roh: spectrum data in scope mode (e.g. Master Channel)
top0003.roh: spectrum data in scope mode (e.g. Slave1 Channel)
top0004.roh: spectrum data in scope mode (e.g. Slave2 Channel)
top0002.rcm: comments for the spectrum saved in top0002.roh
top0003.rcm: comments for the spectrum saved in top0003.roh
top0004.rcm: comments for the spectrum saved in top0004.roh
For each channel a different comment line can be entered.
To make it easier to select the graphic files later on with the option File -Display Saved Graph, all
comment lines start with a short name for the channel at which the graph has been saved: M for
Master, S1 for Slave1 and so on.
After saving, the sequence numbers in this example (triple view mode) will automatically have been
increased to 0005, 0006 and 0007, for resp. Master, Slave1 and Slave2.
3.1.8
File Menu: Print
After selecting the print menu option,
the background colors in the graphical
region will become white. If the menu
option “Black and White printer” (see
next section) has been marked, the
line style for the spectra will also
change from colored to black. A
dialog will be shown in which the title
for the printout can be entered. In the
next window, the printer settings can
be changed (e.g. portrait or landscape
printing, printing quality etc.). After
clicking OK in the printer settings
dialog, the
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graph will be printed, and the original graph colors will be restored on the monitor.
3.1.9
File Menu: Black and White printer
The default setting in AvaSoft is to print the spectra in the same color as they appear on the monitor.
However, if a color printer is not available, the menu option “Black and White printer” can be enabled.
If this option is enabled, different line styles will be printed if more than one spectrum is displayed, e.g.
dash-dash, dot-dot, dash-dot. To enable this option, click the menu option and a checkmark appears in
front of it.
3.1.10 File Menu: Display Saved Graph
This option requires that graphic files were saved earlier by using the option File-Save Experiment.
After choosing this option, a window shows all files in the current measure mode. In the example at the
right, the measure mode is “scope”, so the extension of the earlier saved spectra is *.roh.
To select graphic files that were saved in another measure mode, e.g. absorbance, click
Graph - …Mode, and pick the desired measure mode.
To select graphic files from another folder or drive, click
behind the
behind the current foldername.
If a graphic file is marked by a (single) mouse click on the filename, the comment line for this file
appears at the top of the graphical region in the main window. Selecting multiple filenames can be
realized by using the CTRL or SHIFT key in combination with the mouse. If the CTRL key is pressed,
all the files that are clicked by the mouse will be selected for displaying. If the SHIFT key is pressed,
all the files in between two clicked files will be selected for displaying.
Select the name of the file(s) to be displayed and click the Open button. To leave this dialog without
displaying graphic files, click the CANCEL button.
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In the figure at the right, two
graphic files were selected in
scope mode. The comments
that were saved with these
graphs are displayed at the top
of the graphical region,
together with information
about amplitude at current
wavelength (amp), integration
time (it) and smoothing (s)
settings at the moment that the
file was saved and the name
of the graphic file. If the
active spectrometer channels
(e.g. Master) have not been
unselected with the View
Channel option, the actual data
for the activated channel(s)
will be displayed in the same graph as the selected graphic files. By clicking the green start button, the
online measurements can be compared directly to the graphics that were saved before.
The menu option File-Display Saved Graph is preceded by a checkmark as long as the earlier saved
graphics are displayed. To clear these earlier saved graphics, select again the menu option File-Display
Saved Graph, after which the checkmark disappears, and only the spectra for the active spectrometer
channel(s) will be displayed.
3.1.11 File Menu: Convert Graph - to ASCII
This option requires that graphic files were
saved earlier by using the option File-Save
Experiment. After choosing this option, a
window shows all files in the current
measure mode. In the example at the right,
the measure mode is “scope”, so the
extension of the earlier saved spectra is
*.roh.
To select graphic files that were saved in
another measure mode, e.g. absorbance,
click
behind the Graph - …Mode, and
pick the desired measure mode.
To select graphic files from another folder or drive, click
behind the current foldername.
If a graphic file is marked by a (single) mouse click on the filename, the comment line for this file
appears at the top of the graphical region in the main window. Selecting multiple filenames can be
realized by using the CTRL or SHIFT key in combination with the mouse.
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If the CTRL key is pressed, all the files that are clicked by the mouse will be selected for conversion.
If the SHIFT key is pressed, all the files in between two clicked files will be selected for conversion.
Select the name of the file(s) to be converted to ASCII and click the Open button. To leave this dialog
without converting files, click the CANCEL button. The extension of the text files depends on the
extension of the binary graphic file as shown below:
Extension binary file Extension text-file
ROH
TRT
ABS
TAT
TRM
TTT
IRR
TIT
All text files start with a header with information for the graphic file that has been converted. The
header shows:
-
the comment line
-
the integration time
-
the number of scans that has been averaged
-
the number of pixels used for smoothing
The data in a *.TRT file is given in two columns. The first column gives the wavelength in nanometers,
the second one the scope data.
The data in the *.TAT, *.TTT and *.TIT files is presented in five columns. The first column gives the
wavelength in nanometers. The second to fourth column give respectively the dark, reference and
scope data. The fifth column shows the calculated value for absorbance (in a *.TAT file),
transmittance (in a *.TTT file) or irradiance (in a *.TIT file).
3.1.12 File Menu: Convert Graph - to J-CAMP
JCAMP-DX is a standard file format
for exchange of spectra between
different spectrometer systems and
computers. A JCAMP-DX spectrum
is a text file, which can be viewed,
corrected and annotated with a text
editor. A lot of other elaborate
spectrometer software programs, like
Grams32 and OPUS, are capable of
importing files in JCAMP-DX format.
The J-Camp format requires an equal
distance between the data points at
the X-axis (wavelength). Converting the CCD-pixels to wavelength points is not a linear function, so
before writing to the J-CAMP format, the 2048 (for an AVS-S2000) data points are linearized first.
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This option requires that graphic files were saved earlier by using the option File-Save Experiment.
After choosing this option, a window shows all files in the current measure mode. In the example at the
right, the measure mode is “scope”, so the extension of the earlier saved spectra is *.roh.
To select graphic files that were saved in another measure mode, e.g. absorbance, click
Graph - …Mode, and pick the desired measure mode.
To select graphic files from another folder or drive, click
behind the
behind the current foldername.
If a graphic file is marked by a (single) mouse click on the filename, the comment line for this file
appears at the top of the graphical region in the main window. Selecting multiple filenames can be
realized by using the CTRL or SHIFT key in combination with the mouse. If the CTRL key is pressed,
all the files that are clicked by the mouse will be selected for conversion. If the SHIFT key is pressed,
all the files in between two clicked files will be selected for conversion.
Select the name of the file(s) to be converted to J-CAMP and click the Open button. To leave this
dialog without converting files, click the CANCEL button. The text files in J-Camp format require an
extension DX. If, for example a file AVANTES0001.trm and another file AVANTES0001.abs are
both converted to J-camp, the result will be AVANTES0001.dx in both cases.
3.1.13 File Menu: Exit
Closes AvaSoft.
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3.2 Setup Menu
3.2.1
Setup Menu: Hardware
After clicking this option, a dialog is shown in which a number of hardware parameters can be set.
Spectrometer Type
The Spectrometer Type. The following options are available:
•
S1000/PS1000/PC1000. This Spectrometer Type was available until the year 1998. It contains
1100 pixels and is a lot less sensitive than the 2000 series spectrometers
•
S2000/PC2000/USB2000/HR2000. The 2000 series spectrometers use a 2048 pixels CCD array.
This type should also be selected for multichannel 2000 series spectrometers (SD2000, MC2000)
•
The S2000BT (BT=Beta Test) is one of the first S2000 systems, which uses only 1100 pixels,
starting with the first pixel entered in the edit box, which shows up after selecting this spectrometer
type.
•
S1024DW. Deep Well detector spectrometer. This spectrometer type uses a 1024 pixels linear
photodiode array.
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A/D Converter
As shown in the figure above, there are nine possible converters to choose from. The serial (RS-232)
A/D Converter Type should be chosen for all A/D Converter types that are connected to the serial
computer port (SAD500, serial USB2000, serial ADC1000-USB). The NONE option can be selected if
no converter is connected in which case the driver simulates the data acquisition.
Depending on the selected A/D Converter Type, a number of other parameters need to be entered:
•
After selecting the USB2000, the USB2000 serial number for the device which is attached to
the USB port needs to be selected, like in the figure below. Likewise, the USB Serial number
needs be selected in case an ADC1000-USB (e.g. ADUC0021 in the figure below) or an
HR2000 (e.g. HR2A0037 in the figure below) A/D converter is attached to the USB port.
•
The ADC500/PC1000, ADC1000-ISA/PC2000 and DAQ700 require that the IRQ and Base
Address are set. The default Base Address is 300 hex (768 decimal) and default IRQ is IRQ7.
If there are conflicts, this may need to be changed. If an ADC500/PC1000 or
ADC1000/PC2000 converter is used, the dip switches on the card have to be changed as well.
See for detailed information about how to change Base Address and IRQ the Avantes
Spectrometer manual, section 3.
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•
Selecting the ADC2000-PCI A/D Converter will show the figure below. The PCI CardID
number will be used in the future to allow switching between A/D cards. Instead of using IRQ
and Base Address, a PCI identifier will be used to select between more than one ADC2000PCI. This feature is not currently supported by the hardware, but will be added in a future
release.
•
After selecting the Serial (RS-232) A/D converter, the parameters in the figure below need to
be entered
Serial Port
Sets the serial (COM) port to which the Serial A/D converter has been connected.
Baud Rate
Sets the baud rate for the Serial A/D converter.
SAD500 pixel resolution
Sets the pixel resolution for the SAD500 A/D converter. This value specifies that every nth
pixel of the spectrometer is transmitted from the SAD500 to the PC.
Compress data
Sets the data compression mode for the Serial A/D converter. Enable this function to gain
speed by minimizing the amount of data transferred over the RS-232 connection.
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3.2.2
Setup Menu: Smoothing and Spline
The Cubic Spline Interpolation Algorithm can be applied to get
a better estimation for the spectral data between the pixels on
the detector array.
Smoothing is a procedure, which averages the spectral data
over a number of pixels on the detector array. For example, if
the smoothing parameter is set to 2, the spectral data for all
pixels xn on the detector array will be averaged with their
neighbor pixels xn-2, xn-1, xn+1 and xn+2.
Cubic Spline Interpolation
In the figure at the right, the effect
of spline interpolation is illustrated.
The Master data shows the AD
counts for 4 pixels, connected by a
straight line (linear interpolation).
The Slave1 data is for these 4
pixels exactly the same as for the
Master data, but this time the cubic
spline interpolation algorithm has
been applied, resulting in data
which is smooth in the first
derivative and continuous in the
second derivative.
The spline interpolation can be
useful for applications in which the
output of line sources, like laser
diodes is displayed, or for other
applications, which require a high resolution. Note that for the AVS-S2000 with 2048 pixels, the effect
of spline interpolation is not visible if the data is shown at full scale. The monitor resolution is much less
than 2048 pixels. The effect of spline interpolation can only be visualized if the number of detector
pixels that are displayed is smaller than the number of monitor pixels at the x-axis.
Smoothing
To get a smoother spectrum without loosing information it is important to set in the software the right
smoothing parameter. The optimal smoothing parameter depends on the distance between the pixels at
the detector array and the light beam that enters the spectrometer. For the AVS-S2000 the distance
between the pixels on the CCD-array is 12.5 micron.
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Light beam
Smoothing
[micron]
parameter
10
0
25
1
50
2
100
4
200
8
With a 200 micron fiber (no slit installed) connected, the optical pixel
resolution is 16 CCD-pixels. Theoretically the optimal smoothing
parameter is therefore 8 (each pixel averaged with 8 left neighbor
pixels and 8 right neighbor pixels). If a 50 micron slit is installed in the
spectrometer, the optical pixel resolution will be 4 CCD-pixels, and the
smoothing parameter should be set to 2. In the table at the left, the
recommended smoothing parameter for the AVS-S2000 spectrometer
are listed as function of the light beam that enters the spectrometer.
This light beam is the fiber core diameter, or if a smaller slit has been
installed in the spectrometer, the slit width.
The best way to determine the optimal smoothing parameter is to look at the resolution with
a line -source like the CAL-2000 calibration lamp. Displaying the resolution in nanometers at Full
Width Half Max can be activated by the menu option Setup/Options/Full Width Half Max. First look at
the FWHM value of one or more peaks without smoothing (smoothing = 0). Then increase the
smoothing parameter and look at the effect of the increase on the FWHM value(s). In order to get an
optimal smoothing without loosing resolution, the smoothing parameter should be increased, as long as
the resolution does not become worse.
3.2.3
Setup Menu: Correct for Dynamic Dark
The pixels of the CCD detector (AVS-S2000) are thermally sensitive, which causes a small dark
current, even without light exposure. To get an approximation of this dark current, the signal of the first
16 dead pixels of the CCD-detector can be taken and subtracted from the raw scope data. This will
happen if the correct for dynamic dark option is enabled. As these 16 pixels have the same thermal
behaviour as the active pixels, the correction is dynamic. This option will have no effect if an AVSS1024DW spectrometer is used, because this spectrometer uses a different detector.
Note that this option is different from the dark current that needs to be saved before any transmittance
or absorbance measurements can be taken (File -Save Dark). If the correct for dynamic dark option
has been changed, it will be necessary to save a new dark and reference spectrum because the raw
data has been changed.
If this menu option is preceded by a checkmark, the scope data is corrected with the dynamic dark
algorithm. It is recommended to leave this setting checked, which is the default state.
3.2.4
Setup Menu: Subtract Saved Dark
This option is used to subtract the dark spectrum that has been saved (File -Save Dark) from the raw
scope data. After starting up AvaSoft, this menu option is always unselected, because a dark spectrum
needs to be saved or loaded before it can be subtracted.
If this menu option is preceded by a checkmark, the scope data is corrected with the saved dark.
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3.2.5
Setup Menu: Strobe Enable
This option can be used to enable or disable an external strobe
(e.g., the XE-2000 or LED-475) attached to an AVS-S2000
spectrometer. If this menu option is preceded by a checkmark,
the strobe control function has been enabled.
A dialog, as shown at the right is displayed, in which the cycle
time for the strobe rate (in milliseconds) can be set. The
cycletime for the strobe rate can be set by the software only if the spectrometer type is a PC2000. For
the AVS-S2000, the strobe rate needs to be set by jumper J3 in the hardware. Make sure to choose the
integration time in AvaSoft such that a constant number of flashes occur for every integration time.
See for more information about the Strobe Control settings the Avantes Operating manual, section
2.1.2.
3.2.6
Setup Menu: Options
3.2.6.1 Setup Menu: Options - Check on Overexposure.
This option, if preceded by a checkmark, checks if there is too much light exposed to the detector in the
spectrometer. This is useful for measurements in transmittance, absorbance and irradiance mode, or if
the history channel functions or the color application is used. In all these modes data may be
misinterpreted, if the spectrometer is overexposed.
By default this option is OFF. After clicking the menu option
it will be enabled. First, the saturation level can be changed.
The check on overexposure routine compares the maximum
value over all pixels of the scope data in each scan with the
saturation level entered in the dialog at the right. If this
maximum exceeds the saturation level, a warning will be
given. If the warning appears during measurements, the
ignore button in the message dialog can be chosen to continue measuring without further warnings. By
choosing the ignore button the check on overexposure option will be disabled.
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3.2.6.2 Setup Menu: Options – Full Width Half Max
The Full Width Half Maximum of a peak is the bandwidth (in nanometers) for which the intensity is
higher than half of the maximum intensity of that peak. The FWHM can be calculated in Scope or
Irradiance Mode. This utility is used mostly measuring the output of laser diodes. During FWHM
calculations, the intensity needs to be corrected for the
dark data. Therefore it is recommended to enable the
option Subtract Saved Dark, as shown in the dialog at
the right which appears after clicking the FWHM
option. After clicking the OK button, the Full Width
Half Max calculated for a number of peaks. To mark
a peak for which the FWHM values needs to be calculated, press the ALT key, and click with the left
mouse button on this peak. If only one spectrometer channel is enabled, and there are no earlier saved
graphs being displayed, then the FWHM value of the marked peak will be shown directly on top of the
peak. Furtheron, this peak will be yellow marked over the width of the FWHM value (it may be
necessary to zoom in on the peak to be able to view that the peak is marked).
If more than one spectrum is being displayed, a dialog, as shown at the
right, pops up in which the spectrum for which the FWHM needs to
be activated can be selected out of all displayed spectra.
In the figure below, three peaks have been selected for FWHM
calculation: one for the Master channel, one for the Slave1 channel
and one for “FWHM0012.roh”, which is an earlier saved spectrum.
The FWHM values are given in the same color as the spectrum is
drawn.
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To disable the FWHM calculation, the menu option (which is marked as long as the FWHM is
enabled), needs to be reselected.
3.2.6.3 Setup Menu: Options Integrals
This utility can be used for measuring the
total amount of energy coming into the
spectrometer. Up to 10 integrals can be
displayed simultaneously. The integral
calculations are enabled after they have
been defined in the dialog that is shown at
the right. This dialog is displayed after
activating the menu option Setup-OptionsIntegrals. In the example at the right, three
integrals have been defined (the first 3 are
marked by the “Enable” checkbox in the
first column). In the second column, a
spectrum can be chosen out of all spectra
that are at that moment displayed in the
main window in AvaSoft. A full list of the spectra to choose from (this includes earlier saved spectra
like integral 3 in the example) is displayed after clicking on the arrow button at the right side of the
second column. In the third and fourth column, the wavelength range can be entered over which the
integral should be calculated. Finally, a multiplication factor can be entered for scaling purpose. After
clicking the OK button, the integral values are given as shown in the figure below.
To disable the integral calculation, the menu option (which is marked as long as the Integrals are
enabled), needs to be reselected.
To measure the integral versus time, up to 8 different functions can be entered in the History
application.
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3.2.6.4 Setup Menu: Options – Autosave Spectra Periodically
With this option complete spectra will be saved
automatically in time. The following
parameters can be set:
•
Time delay before first scan needs to
be entered in seconds. After clicking the
OK button, AvaSoft waits for this number
of seconds, before the first scan is saved.
•
Time delay between scans needs to be
entered in seconds. This defines the time
between saving two subsequent spectra. If
this number is set to zero, AvaSoft will
save the spectra as fast as possible.
•
Number of scans to save: the number of spectra that needs to be saved can be entered.
On top of the parameters that appear at the right, a checkbox shows: Save As Fast As Possible (no
screen updates).
If the white checkbox in front of this text line is marked, the Automatic Save option will always save
the number of scans that have been entered as fast as possible. To do so, the time delay between
scans is automatically changed to 0 milliseconds at the moment the checkbox is clicked. With this
option selected, the spectra will be saved 5 to 10 times faster. compared to if this option is not selected.
This speed increase has been achieved by mainly two reasons:
1) During the saving of the number of scans that has been entered, the screen update, which is very
time-consuming, is not activated.
2) No comment files will be generated.
Other factors that have a positive effect on the speed of the data acquisition, and which can be set in
AvaSoft are:
• Smoothing parameters. Set smoothing to 0 pixels (= fiber/slit 10 micron).
• Integration time.
• Averaging.
Furthermore, it is recommended to keep the number of files in your experiment directory small (a few
hundred maximum), because a large number of files in the same experiment directory has a negative
effect on the system speed. Although system speed is highly dependent on hardware (PC, A/D
converter) and Windows activities in the background, it should be possible to save complete spectra in
15 milliseconds this way.
After pressing the OK button, the remaining number of spectra to be saved, is counted down in the edit
bar at the top right of the screen. If the automatic saving needs to be aborted before all spectra have
been saved, the Autosave Spectra Periodically menu option can be selected again and the value 0 can
be entered for the number of spectra to be saved.
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3.2.6.5 Setup Menu: Options - Correct for Drift
This option is available if the spectrometer system has one or more slave
channels. One spectrometer channel will be used as a reference channel,
which will continuously measure the reference spectrum (e.g. the white tile in
reflectance measurements or the cuvette holding the reference solution in
transmittance measurements). Changes in this reference signal, e.g. because
of drift in the lightsource, will be used to correct the data of the other
(selected) spectrometer channels. The wavelength range over which the data
can be corrected will be the overlapping wavelength range between
reference spectrometer channel and the spectrometer channel to be
corrected.
If this option is activated, a dialog is shown in which the reference channel
and one or more (depending on the number of spectrometer channels that are
available) channels to be corrected can be selected. After selecting the right
setup, and clicking the OK button, AvaSoft shows the following information:
Turn on your light source, choose the right integration time and save reference. Then turn off the light
source and save dark.
After clicking OK, AvaSoft enables the spectrometer channels that are relevant in the correct for drift
application. After saving the reference and dark files, a message dialog shows that the data will be
corrected for drift. The menu option will be preceded by a checkmark. To disable the correct for drift
option, the menu option (if preceded by a checkmark) needs to be clicked.
3.2.6.6 Setup Menu: Options - Automatic Save Dark by TTL shutter
To use the automatic save dark option, an interface cable needs to be connected from the spectrometer
(AVS-S2000-series only) to the light source (HL-2000-FHSA or DH-2000-FHS) or to the
Filter/Cuvette Holder with Attenuator/Shutter (FHSA-TTL). The interface cable between TTL-shutter
and USB2000 spectrometer is a 15 pin to 10 pin cable (IC-DB15-2-USB). For all other spectrometer
types, the interface cable is a 15 to 15 pin cable (IC-DB-15). The TTL-switch has three positions:
•
To the left: lamp always on
•
In the middle: lamp always off
•
To the right: TTL-position: lamp on or off, depending on high/low TTL
To use the automatic save dark option, the TTL switch needs to be in TTL-position. In AvaSoft, the
menu option ‘save automatic dark by TTL shutter’ needs to be checked in the menu setup-options. If
this option is checked, the TTL will switch off the light source at the moment the dark data is saved.
After the dark has been saved, the light will be switched on automatically.
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3.2.6.7 Setup Menu: Options - External Trigger Setting
For the external trigger settings different
options are available:
•
External Software Trigger
If this option is selected, AvaSoft acquires data
as long as an external TTL level signal is high
at pin 8 on the DB15 connector (AVS-S2000)
or pin 7 at the USB2000 connector. The
integration time is according to the software
setting. For this option the handheld pushbutton
cable IC-Extrig-2 may be ordered. The minimal
time delay between the rising edge of the TTLpulse and the first actual spectrum measured is
7 ms, the maximum time delay is 7 ms plus
integration time selected.
The following options are hardware controlled. please note that these TTL inputs require 50mA current
and need a pull down resistor of 10 kΩ.
•
External Hardware Trigger
A TTL pulse on pin 4 of the DB15 connector, or pin 7 at the USB2000 connector activates this option,
it requires a 50 mA current and need a pull down resistor of 10 kΩ. When the TTL trigger pulse
comes, a single spectrum is taken upon the rising edge of the TTL pulse with a fixed integration time of
50 ms (this can be changed by jumper settings in REV G and later boards, see the Spectrometer
manual). This option is useful to observe short pulse events (i.e. laser pulses, etc.).
•
External Synchronization
A TTL pulse on pin 5 of the DB15 connector activates this option, it requires a 50 mA current and
need a pull down resistor of 10 kΩ. The integration time is now hardware controlled and lasts as long
as from the rising edge of the TTL pulse to the rising edge of the next TTL pulse. The minimal
integration time is about 10 ms.
If the white “automatic save on trigger” box is marked, then each spectrum that will be recorded in
external trigger mode will be saved automatically.
3.2.6.8 Setup Menu: Options - Auto configure Integration time
After this menu option is clicked, AvaSoft starts searching for an optimal integration time. Depending
on the maximum counts in the last scan, the integration time will be increased/decreased automatically
until an optimal signal is measured.
The changing values of the actual integration time during the search can be followed in the integration
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time field at the edit bar. If the autoconfigure integration time routine needs to be aborted before an
optimal integration time has been found, click the ‘?AC’ button (which is in the down position during the
search), or reselect the menu option Setup-Options-Auto Configure Integration time.
When the maximum peak is around 3500 counts, a dialog is shown in which the new integration time is
given. Since the integration time has changed, new reference and dark spectra need to be saved,
before switching to transmittance or absorbance mode is possible. For this reason this option is only
available in scope mode.
3.2.6.9 Setup Menu: Options - Suppress Save Comments
This option, if preceded by a checkmark, disables the appearance of the comments dialog box if an
experiment is saved as described in section 3.1.7.
By default this option is OFF. After clicking the menu option it will be enabled (preceded by a
checkmark).
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3.3 View Menu
3.3.1 View Menu: Scope Mode
The display is set to Scope Mode, showing a real time raw data signal, with on the Y-axes the read out
of the AD-converter and on the X-axes the calculated wavelength.
3.3.2 View Menu: Absorbance Mode
In Absorbance Mode, the absorbance at pixel n is calcula ted using the current sample, reference and
dark data sets in the following equation:
 samplen − dark n 

An = − log
 ref n − dark n 
3.3.3 View Menu: Transmittance Mode
In Transmittance Mode, the transmittance at pixel n is calcula ted using the current sample, reference
and dark data sets in the following equation:
 samplen − dark n 

Tn = 100 * 
 ref n − dark n 
The percentage of transmittance is mathematically equivalent to the percentage of reflectance and can
also be used for reflectance experiments.
3.3.4 View Menu: Irradiance Mode
If the Absolute Irradiance Measurements Module has been ordered with AvaSoft, this option will show
the absolute energy output in µWatt/cm2/nm. An elaborate description about the experimental setup in
case of absolute irradiance can be found in section 4.4.
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If the absolute irradiance application is not available, a light source of known color temperature is
needed as a reference, for example the HL2000 or HL-2000-LL with color temperatures of
respectively 2960K and 2800K. The relative radiance energy at wavelength λ is then calculated using
the current sample, the reference and the dark data sets:
S λ = Bλ * (sample λ − dark λ )
Where Bλ is the computed component of the spectral distribution of the blackbody radiant emmittance
(at user selected temperature in degrees Kelvin), divided by the current reference data at wavelength λ
How to take relative irradiance measurements with AvaSoft
1.
Start the AvaSoft software, and click the Start button in the main window.
2.
Connect a fiber to the Spectrometer input port.
3.
Adjust the Smoothing Parameters in the Setup menu to optimize smoothing for the Fiber/Slit
diameter that is used.
4.
Set up the experiment such that the other end of the fiber points at the sample of light to be
determined (use a fixture for the best results). Usually some sort of spectrum may be seen on
the screen, but it is possible that too much or too little light reaches the spectrometer at the
present data collection settings. Too much light means that, over a certain wavelength range, the
signal is overloaded shown as a straight line at any arbitrary height, even near zero. This can
usually be solved by a shorter integration time. The integration time can be changed in the main
window, in the white box below the start/stop button. If AvaSoft is collecting data, the start/stop
button shows a red ‘stop’ and the integration time box is gray, indicating that it cannot be
changed. After clicking the ‘stop’ button the data acquisition stops and the integration time can
be changed. The result of the changed integration time can be viewed after clicking the green
‘start’ button. Try to adjust the integration time, such that the maximum count over the
wavelength range is around 3500 counts. When at minimum integration the signal is still too high,
fibers with a smaller diameter can be used. When not enough light reaches the spectrometer,
likewise a longer integration time should be entered.
5.
When a good spectrum is displayed, turn off the light source.
6.
Now save the Dark data. This is done by File -Save Dark from the menu or by clicking the black
square on the left top of the screen with the mouse.
7.
Turn on the reference light source of known color temperature (2960K for HL2000) and
set up the fiber end that is not connected to the spectrometer, so that a good spectrum is
displayed on the screen. Note that the integration time or fiber type may not be changed while
measuring the reference data. If there is too much light, adjust the focusing of the light source,
so less light is coupled into the fiber. As long as only light from the reference light source and no
ambient light is coupled into the fiber, this will not influence the spectral distribution, only its
height. Try to set up the fiber such that the maximum count over the wavelength range is around
3500 counts.
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8.
Save the Reference data. This is done by File -Save Reference from the menu or by clicking the
white square on the left top of the screen with the mouse.
9.
Note that the whole operation of saving a reference file does not need to be carried out each
time a new experiment is started. The reference data are saved in a file called ref*.dat and can
be loaded next time by choosing the option File -Load Reference. After saving or loading
reference and dark the irradiance mode can be chosen by clicking the ‘I’ button or by the menu
option View-Irradiance mode. First a message box appears in which the value of the color
temperature in Kelvin of the light source that has been used as a reference can be entered. If
light from the reference light source is viewed, the Planck-curve for the color temperature of the
reference light source is displayed, as shown in the figure at the start of section 3.3. The
maximum of the reference Planck-curve has been set to 100.
3.3.5
View Menu: Channel
After selecting this option, a dialog is shown in which the channels to be displayed can
be selected. Depending on the number of available channels in the spectrometer
system that is used, up to 8 spectrometer channels can be selected. If displaying graphs
that were saved before (File -Display Saved Graph), the active channels also remain
visible, to be able to measure online against a saved graph background. To view only
the saved graphs, all active channels need to be unselected.
3.3.6
View Menu: Change Graph Scale
After selecting this option, a dialog is shown in which the range
for both X- and Y-axis can be changed. To switch to the full
scale, the View-Graphic Reset option, or the mouse zoom-out
feature can be used. By clicking the Save button in this dialog,
the settings for X-axis and Y-Axis will be saved to a file and
can be restored in the future by selecting the menu option
“View-Goto Preset Scale” or by clicking the corresponding
button in the button bar.
3.3.7
View Menu: Graphic Reset
When selecting this option, the graph will be reset to the default X- and Y-axes.
3.3.8
View Menu: Autoscale Y-axis
By using this option, the graph will be rescaled on-line. A maximum signal will be shown at about 75%
of the vertical scale.
3.3.9
View Menu: Goto Preset Scale
By clicking this menu option, the scale for X- and Y-axis will be set to a range that has been set
before . The same result can be achieved by clicking the Goto Preset Scale Button in the button bar.
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4
Applications
4.1 Applications: History Channel Functions
4.1.1
History Application: Function Entry
With the History
Application, the output of
self defined functions or
integrals can be followed in
a graph against time. Up to
8 functions can be followed
simultaneously.
The functions are defined in
the dialog at the right, which
is shown after the HistoryFunction Entry option has
been chosen.
The functions F1 to F8 can
be selected by clicking the
corresponding TAB sheet at
the top of this dialog.
Furtheron, a number of
general (function
independent) parameters
can be entered, below of the
function TAB sheets.
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Function Type
The first time that the Function Entry dialog is activated, all 8 functions are not activated (Function
Type = None). To define a function, the Function Type radio button needs to be changed from None to:
Integral, User Defined , View Spectrum or Peak. After defining the function type, the Measure Mode,
Function Definition and Function Display Settings can be set.
Measure Mode
The four possible modes (Scope, Absorbance, Transmittance or Irradiance) are described in section
3.3.1 to 3.3.4. Note that if the selected measure mode is Absorbance, Transmittance or Irradiance a
reference and dark spectrum needs to be saved or loaded before the History Channel Measurements
can be started.
Function Definition
The parameters that need to be entered in the Function Definition Box depend on the Function Type
that has been chosen: Integral, User Defined, View Spectrum or Peak.
Function Definition-Integral
In case a function is defined to display the integral versus time, the following parameters can be set:
Spectrometer Channel. The default is Master, but in case more channels are available, this can be
changed to Slave1, Slave2…..up to Slave7.
The “from” and “to” edit boxes may be changed to specify the wavelength range in nanometer over
which the integral needs to be calculated.
Finally, a multiplication factor can be entered. The value entered here is multiplied with the calculated
integral.
Function Definition-User Defined
In case a function is entered to display the output of a self defined function against time, a function
needs to be defined first. In the dialog box, a comprehensive example is given, but it illustrates some of
the functions AvaSoft can handle. A list of allowed operators and functions is given below:
Operators:
Functions:
log(x)
*, /, +,= natural log
log10(x)
= log base 10
exp(x)
= e to the power of x
sqrt(x)
= square root
Additionally, the wavelength signal for master and slave channel(s) are given in by:
m(wavelength in nm)
= master
s1(wavelength in nm)
= slave1, s2(wavelength in nm) = slave2, etc.
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For example: the function that needs to be entered to follow the intensity of the HG peak against time
at the second slave channel is: s2(253.65)
Function Definition-View Spectrum
The View Spectrum function does not display function output against time. Instead, the wavelength
range that has been entered in the Function Definition Box will be displayed at the X-axis. The
spectrum for the selected spectrometer channel will be displayed in the selected measure mode. If the
History Channel Functions are used to track the intensity or wavelength of a peak (see below for the
Function Definition – Peak), a graphical feature can be used to visualize the peak changes in a
spectrum. The number of peaks to display in the spectrum can be entered. This number (between 0
and 100) is the number of vertical lines that will be drawn in the spectrum, each vertical line
representing one of the detected peaks in the past.
• The height of the vertical line is equal to the peak intensity.
• The wavelength at which the vertical line is drawn in the spectrum corresponds to the wavelength
of the detected peak.
• The color of a vertical line represents the oldness of the peak: Most recent peak is red, going back
in time followed by orange, green and blue. All older peaks are gray colored, from light gray (oldest
peak) to dark gray (one peak older than blue).
The time interval at which the vertical lines are updated is the same as the time interval at which the
function output is saved (to be entered under Save every x Seconds under Save Function Output).
For example, suppose the function output will be saved every 3 seconds, and the Nr of peaks to display
has been set to 10 in function F1. After starting the History Channel Measurements, the peak in the
spectrum drawn for F1, will be marked by a red vertical line immediately. In the next 3 seconds, the
spectral peak may vary in height or position but the red vertical line remains at the same place and
height. After 3 seconds, the red vertical line becomes orange, and a new red line will be drawn at the
position and with the height of the peak detected at that moment (t=3). After 6 seconds another line is
drawn and the colors are shifted again, so that red is most recent, then orange, then green. At t=27
seconds, the 10th vertical line is drawn, again red for the most recent, the oldest is now represented by
a light gray color. At t=30 seconds, the oldest peak is removed from the list (since in this example the
Nr of peaks to display is 10), a new one is added and the colors are shifted according to the definition
etc….
Function Definition-Peak
In case a function is defined to display a peak versus time, the following parameters can be set:
The Spectrometer Channel. The default is Master, but in case more channels are available, this can be
changed to Slave1, Slave2….. up to Slave7.
The “from” and “to” edit boxes may be changed to specify the wavelength range in nanometer, which
will be evaluated in the peak search. Finally, a selection can be made to define the Peak Output:
Wavelength or Intensity.
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If both wavelength and intensity need to be followed against time, one of the functions (F1..F8) can be
used to follow the peak wavelength, and another function to follow the peak intensity. To visualize the
peak changes, a third function can be set to “View Spectrum” with e.g. the wavelength range set to
455- 457 as well and the nr of peaks to display set to 10. In the figure above, the resulting output will be
the wavelength of the highest peak between 455 and 457 nanometer. If the intensity button had been
selected, the function output would have been the intensity of the highest peak between 455 and 457
nanometer.
Function Display Setting
For Integral , User Defined and Peak functions, the output can be displayed graphically against time.
The amount of time that will be displayed at the X-axis can be set manually by clicking the Fixed
radiobutton. If set to Auto, the time axis will be set to 1 minute. This option is not available if the View
Spectrum Function Type has been selected, because the X-axis range is in that case in nanometers,
and determined by the wavelength range as described above.
The Y-Axis can also be set to Fixed or to Auto. The Auto option will set the Y-axis range to the
minimum and maximum function values that are in the list of measured datapoints.
Function Independent Parameters
Function Independent Parameters - Display no graphics to speed up data processing
Below the TAB sheets for function definition an option can be enabled or disabled to speed up data
processing by not displaying the graphics during the measurements. If an application requires fast data
processing (e.g. more than 10 scans per second), this option should be enabled. If saved to an output
file, the data can be displayed graphically after the time series experiment has been ended, as described
in section 4.1.3: History-Display Saved History Graph.
Function Independent Parameters - Save Function Output
The results of a time series experiment will be saved to an ASCII-file if the radio button “Save
Function Output” has been selected. A number of seconds between saving can be entered for data
reduction, in case measurements are carried out over long periods. Entering a value of zero results in
saving every scan. The name of the file to which the data will be saved, can be changed after clicking
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the “Change Output File…” button. Last option in the “Save Function Output” box is to enable or
disable the possibility to create a backup file during the measurements. If this option is enabled,
AvaSoft will create a backup file with the same filename, but with the extension *.bak (also in ASCII).
This backup file is updated every scan and can be used in case the filename that has been selected has
failed to save the data, for instance because of a power failure during the measurements.
Save HCF…/Load HCF buttons
AvaSoft automatically saves all parameters (function definition, save options) to the file hcf.ini, and
restores these parameters, the next time AvaSoft is started. With the Save HCF… and Load HCF…
buttons, it’s also possible to save these parameter settings to (and load from) a file with the extension
*.hcf. With this feature it is possible to save for each experiment a different HCF file, so it can be
loaded a next time the same settings are required. The left figure below shows the dialog in which the
name of the hcf file can be entered after clicking the save HCF… button. The right figure below,
which is displayed after clicking the Load HCF… button, illustrates how to select an earlier saved HCF
file.
After the definition of one or more functions, the OK button is clicked to confirm, the CANCEL button
to leave the dialog without changes. If the OK button is clicked, AvaSoft performs a number of checks
on the data that has been entered. If no warnings show up, the parameters that have been entered are
accepted, and the measurement can be started by the History – Start Measuring menu option.
4.1.2
History Application: Start Measuring
This option displays the output against time for the history functions that have been defined in the
History Channel Function Entry dialog box. If the option “Display no graphics to speed up data
processing” has been marked in the function entry dialog, the function output will be shown by numbers
only, which are updated each time a new scan is saved to the output file.
There are six buttons at the top of this window: an Exit button, a Pause/Start button, a Save Reference
button, a Save Dark button, an Info button and a Print button.
If the red Exit button is clicked, the time measurements are ended and the main window and menu is
activated again. The yellow Pause button can be used to stop the time measurements temporarily.
After clicking the Pause button, data acquisition stops and the text on the button changes to a green
Start. If the Start button is clicked, data acquisition is activated again and the text changes back to the
yellow Pause again.
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The Save Reference
and Save Dark
buttons have the
same functionality as
in the main window.
The Info button
shows the Function
Entry dialog, in which
all parameters can be
viewed (not edited)
while the
measurement is
running.
By clicking the Print
button, the graphics
that are displayed can
be printed during the
run. First the printer
specific dialog shows
up in which the print options can be set. For example, if only one graph of the four in the figure above
need to be printed, this graph can be selected by the page(s) radiobutton. All graphics are printed full
size on a different page.
Zoom features
In each graph the same zoom features apply as in the main window (except for scaling the Y-axis with
the mouse wheel). However, zooming in over the X-axis while the measurement is running and the Xaxis is already scrolling will not be possible, because in that case the X-axis is updated with each new
scan. Clicking the pause button to take a snapshot will solve this problem.
Zoom in: select a region to be expanded to the full graph. To select this region, click the left mouse
button in the white graphics region and drag it downwards and to the right. After releasing the left
mouse button, both the X- and Y-axis will be rescaled to the new values of the selected region.
Zoom out: drag with the left mouse button within the white graphics region, but in stead of dragging
the mouse downwards and to the right, drag it into another direction. After releasing the mouse button,
both the X- and Y-axis will be reset to their default values.
Move X-Y: dragging with the right mouse button results in moving the complete spectrum up or down
and to the left or right.
4.1.3
History Application: Display Saved History Graph
If time measurement data have been saved, the resulting ASCII file can be displayed graphically by
selecting this file in the dialog that is shown after clicking the “Display Saved History Graph” menu
option.
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After clicking the “Open” button, the function output of the functions with function type “Integral” or
“User Defined” is displayed against time. Both X- and Y-axis are set to their full scale, which is
determined by the minimum and maximum values in the list.
The zoom features, as described in section 4.1.2, can be applied, to zoom in on an interesting time
interval. A description for the print button can also be found in section 4.1.2.
Since the History Channels Output file is in ASCII, this file can be easily imported in a spreadsheet
program like Microsoft EXCEL. The data in the file can also be viewed with a text editor, like
Microsoft Word, or with Notepad. An example of the file format is given on the next page:
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History Channel Functions Measurement Report
Measurements started at 29/06/01 Time: 15:06:29
Integration time: 3 ms
Average
: 1 scans
Description of the Functions:
FUNCTION 1: User Defined Function: m(400). Scope Mode.
FUNCTION 2: User Defined Function: m(500). Absorbance Mode.
FUNCTION 3: User Defined Function: m(600). Transmittance Mode.
FUNCTION 4: User Defined Function: m(700). Irradiance Mode.
FUNCTION 5: Integral Master Channel, between 380,0 and 780,0 nm. Multiplied with: 1,000.
Transmittance Mode.
FUNCTION 6: View Spectrum in Transmittance Mode. No Data Saved
FUNCTION 7:Not Activated
FUNCTION 8:Not Activated
Time
Seconds
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
15:06:29
0,62
79,79
-2,294E-3
100,8
74,11
40192
15:06:30
0,77
81,84
-2,059E-3
100,9
74,17
40236
15:06:30
0,92
81,79
-3,756E-3
100,2
73,77
40201
15:06:30
1,07
84,69
-3,209E-3
101,0
73,43
40202
15:06:30
1,22
82,19
-7,877E-4
100,3
74,11
40188
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4.2 Applications: Wavelength Calibration
If a Mercury-Argon light source (CAL-2000) is available, together with suitable optical fibers, an
automatic wavelength calibration can be performed. The recommended optical fibers used for auto
calibration are:
FC-IR8-2
FC-IR50-2
FC-UV50-2
8 µm core, Vis/NIR, 2 meters long, SMA
50 µm core, Vis/NIR, 2 meters long, SMA
50 µm core, UV/Vis, 2 meters long, SMA
An important precondition for a successful auto calibration is the absence of overexposure. The easiest
way to assure this is to select the ‘check on overexposure’ option. If the spectrometer is overexposed
at minimum integration time, a fiber with smaller core diameter (FC-IR8-2) needs to be used. As an
alternative, the incoming light can be attenuated e.g. by using a neutral density filter.
4.2.1
Calibrate Wavelength Application: Perform New Calibration
The procedure to perform an auto calibration is as follows:
- Connect the fiber to the CAL-2000 light source and to the spectrometer channel to be calibrated.
- Choose a suitable integration time so as not to overexpose the detector. The peaks can be seen in
scope mode.
Select the menu option ‘Wavelength CalibrationPerform New Calibration’. A dialog box will
appear, in which the serial number of your Master
Unit needs to be entered This number can be found
on the calibration certificate of your spectrometer,
or on the bottom of the AVS-S2000.
The auto calibration routine will now search for a
number of peaks; initially it will look for 5 peaks in
the data from the Master channel.
- The channel and the number of peaks to look for
can be altered. A new search can be performed by
pressing the ‘Find Peaks’ button. The peaks are
shown in 3 columns. The first column shows the
position of the peaks found. The second column
shows the position of a suggested standard peak, if
available. The last column lists the difference
between the first two columns. You can edit the
values of the second column by selecting them with
the mouse.
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-
Press the ‘Calculate’ button. If your calibration is successful, you will
be asked to confirm new coefficients.
Select ‘OK’ and the new calibration will be applied immediately.
Please consider the following points to avoid some pitfalls:
At least 3 peaks are needed to successfully complete a new calibration. The calibration will not be
accepted if the new coefficients result in a calibration curve that differs too much from the current one.
The intercept may only differ by a value of 10 nm and the wavelength at the far end of the x-axis may
only differ by a value of 50 nm.
If e.g. all the peaks are in one half of the wavelength range, it is very unlikely that these criteria are
met.
Try to calibrate with more peaks. Selecting too many peaks can however lead to peaks that cannot be
matched with standard wavelengths. These peaks will not be used.
Remember that some peaks are second order peaks that will not be in the list of suggested standard
peaks. In order to be used, a corresponding ‘standard’ wavelength must be entered.
4.2.2
Calibrate Wavelength Application: Restore Original Calibration
This option enables the user to restore the calibration coefficients to their original values, i.e. the values
that AvaSoft was shipped with. If a new calibration was performed with a limited number of peaks, or
over a limited wavelength range, the results could be less favorable.
This option allows the user to undo unwanted changes to the calibration.
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4.3 Applications: Color Measurement
The AvaSoft Color Application has been developed to perform on-line color measurements with a
spectrometer system. It can be used for reflective color measurements, in earlier versions of AvaSoft
called “color of object measurements”. The CIE 1976 L*a*b* color parameters are calculated, as well
as other frequently used parameters, like Hue, Chroma and X, Y, Z.
These parameters can be displayed in a CIELAB chart or in a graph versus time. It’s also possible to
save the measured L*a*b* values online to a database and use one of the products from the database
as a reference color. By comparing the measured L*a*b* values to the stored database values, color
differences (?ELab, ?L*, ?a*, or ?b*) can be measured as well.
Emissive color measurements can be done to measure the color of a light source (e.g. LED’s). These
measurements require an irradiance spectrum to calculate the color parameters x, y and z. With
AvaSoft’s Irradiance application, it is possible to perform irradiance measurements with a lot higher
accuracy than when using the relative irradiance mode (which assumes a perfect blackbody light
source with known color temperature). For this reason the emissive color or “color of light” calculation
is one of the features in AvaSoft’s 5.1 Irradiance Application.
4.3.1
Color of an Object - Background
The color of an object can be expressed by the CIE 1976 (L*a*b*) color space. L* describes the
lightness of the color. A positive value of a* describes the redness of the color, a negative a* the
greenness. Similarly, yellowness or blueness is expressed by coordinate b*, which is positive for yellow
and negative for blue. The L*a*b* values are derived from the CIE tristimulus values X, Y and Z of
the sample (object) and the standard illuminant tristimulus values Xn, Yn and Zn.
The standard illuminant tristimulus values for Xn, Yn, and Zn are constant and depend only on the type
of standard illuminant that has been chosen.
The CIE tristimulus values X, Y and Z of the color of an object are obtained by multiplying the relative
power P of a standard illuminant, the reflectance R (or the transmittance) of the object, and the 1931
CIE standard observer functions x? , y? and z? (2 degrees angle). The integral of these products over all
the wavelengths in the visible spectrum (380 to 780 nm with a 5 nm interval) gives the tristimulus
values.
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The chromaticity coordinates x, y and z are obtained by taking the ratios of the tristimulus values (X, Y
and Z) to their sum:
x=
X
(X + Y + Z )
y=
Y
(X + Y + Z )
z=
Z
(X +Y + Z)
Another well known way to present the color parameters a* and b* is by their hue angle (h*) and
Chroma (C*).
Hue angle is measured in degrees starting with h*=0 in the red direction (+a*) and increasing
counterclockwise:
h * = arctan
b*
a*
Chroma is defined as the length of the line from the point a*=b*=0 to the sample point:
2
2
C * = a* + b*
To describe color differences, a well known parameter is ?ELab, which is defined as:
∆E Lab = (∆L*) 2 + ( ∆a*) 2 + ( ∆b*) 2
In which,
?L*, ?a* and ?b* represent the difference in L*a*b* values between the reference color and the
actual measured L*a*b* values.
4.3.2
Menu option: Color Measurement
After selecting the menu option “Applications-Color Measurement” a dialog is displayed in which the
input parameters can be set. The dialog shows two tabbed pages: one is called “LABChart” and shows
the input parameters for displaying the color measurements in a color chart; the other one is called
“Time Series” and shows all input parameters for displaying up to eight color parameters in a graph
versus time. The input parameters will be described in detail in sections 4.3.2.1 (LABChart) and
4.3.2.2 (Time Series).
The color measurements are started by clicking the OK button. AvaSoft returns to the main window if
the Cancel button is clicked.
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4.3.2.1 LABChart
The color measurements in the LABChart are started by clicking the OK button in the figure above.
The following parameters can be set before the measurements are started:
•
Spectrometer Channel. If the spectrometer system contains one or more slave spectrometer
channels, the spectrometer channel on which the color will be measured can be selected from the
drop down box at the upper left corner (showing by default “Master”). Make sure white reference
and dark spectra have been saved before for the selected spectrometer channel.
•
Illuminant. The CIE Standard sources A, B or C or one of the illuminants D50, D55, D65 or D75
can be selected by clicking one of the radio buttons. The default is D65, which is the most widely
used illuminant. It represents the power distribution of average daylight, with a correlated color
temperature of 6500K. The D50, D55 and D75 have correlated color temperatures of 5000K,
5500K and 7500K. The CIE Standard sources A, B or C represent respectively: Incandescent light
(2854K blackbody), Simulated noon sunlight and Simulated overcast sky daylight. Note that there is
no relation between the illuminant chosen here and the light source that is used for measuring the
color of an object. The selected illuminant is used in calculation of the color parameters. These
color parameters will be different if for example A will be selected in stead of D65, just as the
color of an object will look different in average daylight or in incandescent light (2854K blackbody).
•
Display settings. The measurement results can be displayed graphically in 3 charts:
1) the LABChart in which a* and b* are shown by a moving dot in a CIELAB graph
2) the Measured Color Panel, which displays the color which is being measured. Note that the
displayed color on the monitor may not match exactly the color of the object (depends on
monitor), but it will give a good impression.
3) The Reference Color Panel, which displays the reference color that has been selected under
the “reference color” setting.
The graphical display can be enabled or disabled by a mouse click for each graph separately.
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•
Display following Color Parameters . The values of the color parameters that are enabled will
be displayed below of the charts during the measurements.
•
Save Settings. The color parameters can be saved to an ASCII file during the measurements.
The current name and location of this ASCII file is shown under save setting. This filename (and
path) can be changed by clicking the “Change Output File” button. The next dialog will be
displayed:
To start a new file for saving the color
parameters, enter a filename that does not
already exists (AvaSoft will add the .txt
extension), and click Open.
If an existing file is selected, the color
parameters that will be saved are appended to
this file. This way experiments that were saved
before can be proceeded, using the same output
file.
•
Reference Color
The reference color can be set to compare the L*, a* and b* color parameters during the online
measurements with the LREF, aREF and bREF of the reference color. The color differences can
be shown during the measurements by dL (=L*-LREF), da (=a*-aREF), db (=b*-bREF) and/or dE
(=√ (dL2+da 2+db2)).
The reference color can be entered manually under “Current Reference Color” in the figure above,
or it can be selected from a database file. The database file is a list of reference colors that were
saved before to this file, all with a unique ProductID. By default the name of the database file is
“empty.pct”. By clicking the DB button, a different database file can be selected, or a new file can
be created.
To start a new database file for saving
reference colors, enter a filename that does
not already exists (AvaSoft will add the .pct
extension), and click Open.
To open an existing file simply double click
on the filename, or select it and click the
Open button. The file example.pct can be
found in AvaSoft’s main directory (default
C:\SW5FULL) and contains a few
measured reference colors.
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To select a reference color from the database file, click the select button, below of the DB button.
The contents of the database file will be displayed as shown in the figure below:
To select one of the products from the
list, click on one of the numbers (1..11)
in the first (gray) column.
To delete a product from the list, select
it and click the delete key on the
keyboard.
To search for a certain productID or
number, click the Find button.
To sort the records by ProductID, LREF, a-REF or b-REF, click on the
corresponding column header. A yellow
marked ‘1’ will be shown in the column
header. By clicking again at the header
which is already marked, the sorting
direction will be converted.
By clicking the Cancel button, the
selected product will not be moved to
the current reference color in the
LABChart settings dialog, and changes
(e.g. deleting a product from the list) will be ignored.
By clicking the OK button, the current reference color in the LABChart settings dialog is changed
to the color which has been selected.
To add the current reference color (specified in the LABChart settings dialog) to the database
file, the Add button (below of the select button) can be clicked. If the ProductID already exists, a
dialog will be shown in which the choice can be made to overwrite the old color parameters with
the new ones, or to keep the old values for this productID. As an alternative, a reference color can
be added to the database during the online measurements. This can be done only if in the
LABChart settings dialog, the option “Add new reference colors to DB when measuring” is
enabled.
After all settings are filled in correctly the
measurements can be started by clicking the OK
button, or using the Enter key on the keyboard. A
shortcut to start measuring with LABChart directly
(omitting the settings dialog) is clicking the
LABChart button in AvaSoft’s main window.
The figure at the right shows all color parameters
and all 3 charts were enabled. The measurements in
the figure are performed with the Master
spectrometer channel and illuminant D65 has been
selected. The filename to which data will be saved
can be found in the lower left corner.
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The button bar in the LABChart shows the following buttons:
• The Exit button is clicked to stop the color measurements and return to AvaSoft’s main window.
• The white and dark reference buttons have the same functionality as in AvaSoft’s main window.
• The “Save as reference color” button is used to update the current reference color. After clicking
this button, a dialog is displayed in
which a name for the ProductID
needs to be entered. If the productID
already exists in the database file and
if the option “Add new reference
colors to DB when measuring” is
enabled in the LABChart settings
dialog, then a dialog will be shown in
which the choice can be made to
overwrite the old color parameters
with the new ones, or to keep the old
values for this productID (see figure
at the right).
• The select button can be used to select a new reference color from the database, as described in
detail on the previous page.
• Each time the Save button is clicked, a new record is added to the Filename in the lower left
corner. One record contains the following fields: Date, Time, Comments, L, a, b, h, c, X, Y, Z,
RefProductID, Lref, aRef, bRef, dL, da, db, dE, Channel and Illuminant. The Comments field
contains the text that is entered in the dialog that is shown after clicking the Save button.
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4.3.2.2 Time Series
With time series color measurements, up to 8 color parameters or color differences can be followed
simultaneously in a graph against time. The time series settings are defined in the dialog above, which is
shown after clicking the Time Series TAB page. The functions F1 to F8 can be selected by clicking the
corresponding TAB sheet at the top of this dialog.
Furtheron, a number of general (function independent) parameters can be entered, below of the
function TAB sheets. The following features can be set separately for all functions F1 to F8:
•
Spectrometer Channel. If the spectrometer system contains one or more slave spectrometer
channels, the spectrometer channel on which the color will be measured can be selected from the
drop down box at the upper left corner (showing by default “Master”). Make sure white reference
and dark spectra have been saved before for the selected spectrometer channel.
•
Illuminant. The CIE Standard sources A, B or C or one of the illuminants D50, D55, D65 or D75
can be selected by clicking one of the radio buttons. The default is D65, which is the most widely
used illuminant. It represents the power distribution of average daylight, with a correlated color
temperature of 6500K. The D50, D55 and D75 have correlated color temperatures of 5000K,
5500K and 7500K. The CIE Standard sources A, B or C represent respectively: Incandescent light
(2854K blackbody), Simulated noon sunlight and Simulated overcast sky daylight. Note that there is
no relation between the illuminant chosen here and the light source that is used for measuring the
color of an object. The selected illuminant is used in calculation of the color parameters. These
color parameters will be different if for example A will be selected in stead of D65, just as the
color of an object will look different in average daylight or in incandescent light (2854K blackbody).
•
Function display settings. For each function, one of the color parameters can be selected.
Functions for which the color parameter has been set to “None” will be disabled. If one of the
color difference parameters (dL, da, db or dE) is selected, the reference color to which the
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measured color needs to be compared needs to be defined as well. Therefore the reference color
definition box (figure below) will be displayed if dL, da, db or dE is clicked.
For each function, a different reference color can be selected. A detailed description about the DB,
Select and Add button can be found in the previous section.
The color parameters that have been set in the functions can be displayed graphically against time.
The amount of time that will be displayed at the X-axis can be set manually by clicking the Fixed
radiobutton (see figure below). If set to Auto, the time axis will be set to 1 minute. The Y-Axis can
also be set to Fixed or to Auto. The Auto option will set the Y-axis range to the minimum and
maximum function values that are in the list of measured datapoints.
Function Independent Parameters
Function Independent Parameters - Display no graphics to speed up data processing
Below the TAB sheets for function definition an option can be enabled or disabled to speed up data
processing by not displaying the graphics during the measurements. If an application requires fast data
processing, this option should be enabled. If saved to an output file, the data can be displayed
graphically after the time series experiment has been ended, as described in section 4.1.3: HistoryDisplay Saved History Graph.
Function Independent Parameters - Save Function Output
The results of a time series color experiment will be saved to an ASCII-file if the radio button “Save
Function Output” has been selected. A number of seconds between saving can be entered for data
reduction, in case measurements are carried out over long periods. Entering a value of zero results in
saving every scan. The name of the file to which the data will be saved, can be changed after clicking
the “Change Output File…” button.
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Last option in the “Save Function Output” box is to enable or disable the possibility to create a backup
file during the measurements. If this option is enabled, AvaSoft will create a backup file with the same
filename, but with the extension *.bak (also in ASCII). This backup file is updated every scan and can
be used in case the filename that has been selected has failed to save the data, for instance because of
a power failure during the measurements.
Save Setting/Load Settings buttons
AvaSoft automatically saves all parameters (color parameters, save options) to the file cootime.ini, and
restores these parameters, the next time AvaSoft is started. With the Save Settings and Load Settings
buttons, it’s also possible to save these parameter settings to (and load from) a file with the extension
*.coo. With this feature it is possible to save for each experiment a different *.coo file, so it can be
loaded a next time the same settings are required. The left figure below shows the dialog in which the
name of the file can be entered after clicking the Save Settings button. The right figure below, which is
displayed after clicking the Load Settings button, illustrates how to select an earlier saved *.coo file.
After the definition of one or more functions, the OK button is clicked to start measuring, the
CANCEL button to leave the dialog and return to AvaSoft’s main window.
After starting the color measurements by clicking OK, the output of the selected color parameters will
be displayed against time. If the option “Display no graphics to speed up data processing” has been
marked in the function entry dialog, the function output will be shown by numbers only, which are
updated each time a new scan is saved to the output file.
There are six buttons at the top of this window (see figure below): an Exit button, a Pause/Start button,
a Save Reference button, a Save Dark button, an Info button and a Print button.
If the red Exit button is clicked, the time measurements are ended and the main window and menu is
activated. The yellow Pause button can be used to stop the time measurements temporarily. After
clicking the Pause button, data acquisition stops and the text on the button changes to a green Start. If
the Start button is clicked, data acquisition is activated again and the text changes back to the yellow
Pause again.
The Save Reference and Save Dark buttons have the same functionality as in the main window.
The Info button shows the dialog, in which all parameters can be viewed (not edited) while the
measurement is running.
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By clicking the Print button, the
graphics that are displayed can be
printed during the run. First the
printer specific dialog shows up in
which the print options can be set.
For example, if only one graph of
the four in the figure above need
to be printed, this graph can be
selected by the page(s)
radiobutton. All graphics are
printed full size on a different
page.
At the right top of each graph, a
color indicator panel shows the
color of the sample being
measured. If the function output is
a color difference value, like dE in the figure above, then a second color indicator panel is shown for
the reference color.
If time measurement data have been saved, the resulting ASCII file can be displayed graphically by
selecting this file in the dialog that is shown after clicking the menu option: Application-History-Display
Saved History Graph.
After clicking the “Open” button in this dialog, the function output is displayed against time. Both Xand Y-axis are set to their full scale, which is determined by the minimum and maximum values in the
list.
Zoom features
In each graph the same zoom features apply as in the main window (except for scaling the Y-axis with
the mouse wheel). However, zooming in over the X-axis while the measurement is running and the Xaxis is already scrolling will not be possible, because in that case the X-axis is updated with each new
scan. Clicking the pause button to take a snapshot will solve this problem.
Zoom in: select a region to be expanded to the full graph. To select this region, click the left mouse
button in the white graphics region and drag it downwards and to the right. After releasing the left
mouse button, both the X- and Y-axis will be rescaled to the new values of the selected region.
Zoom out: drag with the left mouse button within the white graphics region, but in stead of dragging
the mouse downwards and to the right, drag it into another direction. After releasing the mouse button,
both the X- and Y-axis will be reset to their default values.
Move X-Y: dragging with the right mouse button results in moving the complete spectrum up or down
and to the left or right.
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4.4 Applications: Absolute Irradiance Application
AvaSoft-IRRAD has been developed to perform on-line absolute irradiance measurements with an
Avantes spectrometer system. A calibrated light source HL2000-CAL or DH2000-CAL with known
energy output (in µWatt/cm2/nm) is used as a reference. Also the calibration of an Avantes
spectrometer system can be done in our calibration lab, after which this calibration can be loaded.
Color of light parameters can be expressed by the chromaticity coordinated x, y and z. These
chromaticity coordinates are obtained by taking the ratios of the tristimulus values (X, Y and Z) to their
sum. The tristimulus values X, Y and Z and the spectral irradiance are computed in a wavelength range
from 380 nm to 780 nm, using a 5 nm interval. These parameters, as well as the coordinates u and v
and the color temperature of an external light source can be calculated and displayed in real-time.
The same experimental set up (spectrometer with fiber optics and cosine corrector or integrated
sphere) is used to calculate the intensity of the light to be measured. The calculated output can be
displayed and saved in two ways:
•
In the main Window the data is displayed as spectral irradiance in µWatt/cm2/nm versus
wavelength, like in the graph above. Further, the result of up to 10 of the following output
parameters is displayed in a separate window: radiometric quantities µWatt/cm2, µJoule/cm2, µWatt
or µJoule, photometric quantities Lux or Lumen, color coordinates X, Y, Z, x, y, z, u, v and color
temperature.
•
In Time Measurement mode, up to 8 functions can be displayed simultaneously against time. For
each function, a different radiometric, photometric or color coordinate output parameter and/or
wavelength range may be selected, as well as a different spectrometer channel.
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4.4.1
Quick Start
Quick Start (1): Perform absolute irradiance measurements using a calibrated lamp
1. Start the AvaSoft software, and click the Start button in the main window.
2. Connect a fiber to the Spectrometer input port.
3.
Adjust the Smoothing Parameters in the Setup menu to optimize smoothing for the Fiber/Slit
diameter that is used.
4. Set up the experiment such that the other end of the fiber with CC-3 cosine corrector points at the
light source to be measured (use a fixture for the best results). Try to adjust the integration time,
such that the maximum count over the wavelength range is around 3500 counts. It’s also possible
to let AvaSoft search for an optimal integration time by clicking the ‘?AC’ button, or by using the
menu option Setup-Options-Auto Configure Integration time. The integration time that is used in
this experiment does not necessarily needs to be the same as the integration time that is used
during the intensity calibration.
5. Turn on the reference light source (e.g. HL-2000-CAL) and connect the other end of the fiber to
it. If a cosine corrector is used at the end of the fiber, mount it directly on the reference light
source.
6. Try to adjust the integration time while looking at the reference light, such that the maximum count
over the wavelength range is around 3500 counts. It’s also possible to let AvaSoft search for an
optimal integration time by clicking the ‘?AC’ button, or by using the menu option Setup-OptionsAuto Configure Integration time.
7. Select the calibration lamp and enter the diameter of the fiber that is used, as described in section
4.4.3.1 and 4.4.3.3.
8. Verify that the calibration lamp is ON for at least 15 minutes, and save a reference spectrum
(white button, or menu option File/Save/Reference).
9. Turn off the calibration lamp. The spectrum should appear flat, near the bottom of the scale. Save
a dark spectrum. (black button, or menu option File/Save/Dark).
10. Select the menu option “Absolute Irradiance measurement/Perform Intensity Calibration/Start
intensity calibration” to start an intensity calibration. First a dialog shows up to ask for a
confirmation that current dark and reference datasets are correct. Click yes to confirm. Then a
dialog shows up in which the current settings in this intensity calibration are shown. If the
calibration has been performed with diffuser, the intensity calibration data will be saved to an
ASCII file with extension *.dfr, with bare fiber this extension will be *.fbr. The name of the
intensity calibration file can be entered after clicking the “Save As” button.
11. Switch to irradiance mode to view the intensity of the calibration light source. Note that small
changes in integration time will have no effect on the intensity curve, although it does effect the
scope data. With an integration time shorter than the integration time during calibration, the noise
will increase. With an integration time longer than the integration time during calibration, be careful
not to overexpose the spectrometer. If the integration time used in the experiment is different from
the integration time during the calibration, the dark spectrum in the experiment needs to be saved.
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12. To measure irradiance output in the experiment, set up the same experiment as under point 4, enter
the integration time that was found under point 4 (or determine a new one in Scope mode), block
the light path to the spectrometer, and save a dark spectrum. Then select one of the irradiance
output parameters as described in section 4.4.4. If the irradiance of the light to be measured needs
to be displayed against time, use the time measurement set up, as described in section 4.4.5.
13. The intensity calibration as performed under point 10 can be loaded in future experiments by
selecting the option “Load Intensity Calibration”, as described below under Quick Start (2). After
loading an intensity calibration, a dark spectrum needs to be saved before switching to Irradiance
mode.
Quick Start (2): Perform absolute irradiance measurements by loading an intensity
calibration
1. Start the AvaSoft software, and click the Start button in the main window.
2. Connect a fiber to the Spectrometer input port.
3.
Adjust the Smoothing Parameters in the Setup menu to optimize smoothing for the Fiber/Slit
diameter that is used.
4. Set up the experiment such that the other end of the fiber with CC-3 cosine corrector points at the
light source to be measured (use a fixture for the best results). Try to adjust the integration time,
such that the maximum count over the wavelength range is around 3500 counts. It’s also possible
to let AvaSoft search for an optimal integration time by clicking the ‘?AC’ button, or by using the
menu option Setup-Options-Auto Configure Integration time.
5. Select the menu option “Absolute Irradiance Measurements/Load Intensity Calibration”. A dialog
shows up in which the intensity calibration file can be selected. Select the file and click the open
button. A message will show information about the spectrometer channel for which the calibration
has been loaded and the name of the calibrated lamp which has been used during the calibration.
6. Block the light path to the spectrometer and save a dark spectrum. (black button, or menu option
File/Save/Dark).
7. To measure irradiance output in the experiment, set up the same experiment as under point 4, and
switch to irradiance mode. Select one of the irradiance output parameters as described in section
4.4.4. If the irradiance of the light to be measured needs to be displayed against time, use the time
measurement set up, as described in section 4.4.5.
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4.4.2
Load Intensity Calibration
By selecting the menu option
Application-Absolute Irradiance
Measurement-Load Intensity
Calibration, an intensity calibration that
was saved before can be loaded. An
intensity calibration file contains the data
which is necessary to convert the Scope
data to Irradiance data. If the
spectrometer system has one or more
slave channels, it is important to know
that the calibration data for each
spectrometer channel are saved in a
separate file. To measure irradiance
data at more spectrometer channels simultaneously, the calibration files for each spectrometer channels
needs to be loaded first. After loading the intensity calibration file(s), a new dark spectrum needs to be
saved.
4.4.3
Perform Intensity Calibration
4.4.3.1 Select Calibrated Lamp
Before an intensity calibration can be
performed, a calibrated lamp needs to
be selected. This is done by selecting
the menu option “Application-Absolute
Irradiance Measurement-Perform
Intensity Calibration-Select Calibrated
Lamp. All other submenu’s under
Perform Intensity Calibration will not
be available until the calibrated lamp
has been selected. After the
calibration file has been selected, the
data can be viewed, edited and/or
saved under a different filename with
the next submenu option: View/Edit
Lamp Data.
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4.4.3.2 View/Edit Lamp Data
The data of the calibrated light source can be viewed
and/or edited by clicking the menu option ApplicationAbsolute Irradiance Measurement-Perform Intensity
Calibration- View/Edit Lamp Data. A dialog with the
intensity versus wavelength values for the selected
calibration light source is shown.
If needed, the data can be edited and saved under
another filename by clicking the Save As… button.
Before the changed data takes effect, the new
filename needs to be loaded with the Select lamp
option described above.
If the close button is clicked, AvaSoft returns to its
main menu and the data will not be saved.
4.4.3.3 Select Fiber Diameter
The diameter of the fiber or cosine corrector can be entered in a dialog which is shown after the option
Application-Absolute Irradiance Measurement-Perform Intensity Calibration-Select Fiber Diameter is
clicked. For a CC-3 cosine corrector, the diameter to be entered is 3900 micron.
The fiber diameter is used if one of the following output parameters is selected: Lumen, µWatt or
µJoule.
As described in the dialog as well, it is important that the fiberoptic setup that is used during the
calibration, is the same as the fiberoptic setup in the experiments.
4.4.3.4 Start Intensity Calibration
The following datasets are needed before an intensity calibration can be started (see also the quick
start(1) in section 4.4.1):
•
Reference dataset, taken while looking at the calibration lamp
•
Dark dataset, taken with calibration lamp off.
If the datasets are not available, performing an intensity calibration is not possible. In this case a dialog
shows up with the following information:
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If reference and dark datasets are available, a dialog shows up which asks for a confirmation that the
current reference and dark data were saved as described in the quick start section 4.4.1 (reference
while looking at calibration lamp and dark with lamp off) and at the same integration time as in the
current setting.
After clicking the Yes button, a dialog shows up in which the current settings in this intensity
calibration are shown. If the calibration has been performed with diffuser, the intensity calibration data
will be saved to an ASCII file with extension *.dfr, with bare fiber this extension will be *.fbr. The
name of the intensity calibration file can be entered after clicking the “Save As” button.
The following data will be saved to the intensity calibration file:
-
Name of light source calibration
file (*.lmp)
-
Spectrometer channel
(0=Master, 1=Slave1 etc..)
-
Integration time in milliseconds
-
Diameter of Fiber optic surface
(section 4.4.3.3)
-
TOTAL_PIXELS (=2048 for
AVS-S2000) values, which
represent the dynamic range
(reference minus dark data) at
each pixel during the intensity
calibration, divided by the
intensity of the calibrated light
source that was used.
After an intensity calibration has been performed or loaded, the submenu options “Select Output
Parameter(s)” and “Time Series Measurement” become available.
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4.4.4
Select Output Parameter(s)
After an intensity calibration has been performed or loaded, the menu option Application-Absolute
Irradiance Measurement-Select Output Parameter(s) becomes available. With this option, the output of
up to 10 irradiance parameters can monitored simultaneously. The calculations for the irradiance
parameters can be applied to online measured irradiance spectra at one or more spectrometer
channels, but also to irradiance
spectra that were saved
before. An example of the
dialog that is shown after
clicking the “Select Output
Parameter(s)” menu option can
be found at the right. In this
example, one of the irradiance
parameters (µWatt/cm2
between 500 and 600 nm) has
been defined for 4 different
spectra (Master, Slave1, and
two spectra that were saved
before: AVANTES0016.IRR
and AVANTES0017.IRR. To
be able to select the spectra that were saved before in this dialog, these spectra need to be displayed in
the main window (use the menu option “File -Display Saved Graph” to do so).
One of the 15 different irradiance output parameters can be selected. For some of these parameters,
the wavelength range needs to be specified. For others, the wavelength range is fixed from 380 to 780
nm, according to the definition of the parameter. Since the calculation of all parameters is based on the
Irradiance spectrum, we will first define how this irradiance spectrum is determined:
In Irradiance Mode, the radiance at pixel n is calcula ted using the sample and dark data sets in the
experiment and the reference and dark from the intensity calibration in the following equation:
 sample n − dark n 
 * factor
I n = Caldatan * 
 refcal n − darkcal n 
Caldata n represents the intensity of the calibrated light source at pixel n in µWatt/cm2/nm. The factor
compensates for the difference in integration time between experiment and intensity calibration. In
earlier versions of AvaSoft, one of the following parameters could be selected: µWatt/cm2, µJoule/cm2,
µWatt, µJoule, Lux or Lumen. The definition for these parameters is given in following table:
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Parameter
Wavelength range Description
2
To be specified
Integration of In over the wavelength range
2
µJoule/cm
To be specified
Integration of In over the wavelength range, multiplied with the
integration time
µWatt
To be specified
Integration of In over the wavelength range, multiplied with the fiber
or cosine corrector surface
µJoule
To be specified
Integration of In over the wavelength range, multiplied with the fiber
or cosine corrector surface, and with the integration time
Lux
380 – 780 nm
Integration of In between 380 and 780 nm, multiplied with the
Luminous efficacy curve (see figure below)
Lumen
380 – 780 nm
Multiplication of Lux with fiber or cosine corrector surface in m2
µWatt/cm
Luminous efficacy curve
700
Luminous efficacy [lumens/watt]
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
380
430
480
530
580
630
680
730
780
Wavelength [nm]
In AvaSoft version 5.1, the following “Color of Light” parameters were added: X, Y, Z, x, y, z, u, v and
the Color Temperature.
The color of light can be expressed by the chromaticity coordinates x, y and z. These chromaticity
coordinates are obtained by taking the ratios of the tristimulus values (X, Y and Z) to their sum:
x=
X
(X + Y + Z )
y=
Y
(X + Y + Z )
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Z
(X + Y + Z )
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The tristimulus values X, Y and Z are computed by:
X = ∑ I λ * xλ
Y = ∑ I λ * yλ
Z = ∑ I λ * zλ
where:
=
Iλ
xλ, yλ, zλ =
Spectral irradiance at wavelength λ
CIE 1931 Standard Observer value (2 degrees angle) at wavelength λ
The tristimulus values X, Y and Z and the spectral irradiance are computed in a wavelength range from
380 nm to 780 nm, using a 5 nm interval.
The CIE1960 UCS color coordinates u and v are calculated by:
u=
4x
(− 2 x + 12 y + 3)
v=
6y
(− 2 x + 12 y + 3)
The equation that is used for calculating the color temperature is emperical and assumes a black body
radiator:
p = ((x-0.332)/(y-0.1858))
Color Temp =5520.33-(6823.3*p)+(3525*p2)-(449*p3)
If for one or more rows in
the Output Parameters
Dialog all columns
(Enable, Spectrum,
Output Parameter and if
relevant, the wavelength
range) are filled in
correctly, clicking the OK
button results in showing
the calculated values in a
small window at the
bottom right end of the
screen. To view the
definition of the output
parameters that belong to
these numbers, the
horizontal scrollbar can be
used, or the left side of
the window can be
dragged to the left to expand the window size.
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4.4.5
Time Series Measurement
After an intensity calibration has been performed or loaded, the menu option Application-Absolute
Irradiance Measurement-Time Series Measurement becomes available.
With time series irradiance measurements, up to 8 irradiance parameters can be followed
simultaneously in a graph against time. The time series settings are defined in the dialog above, which is
shown after clicking the “Application-Absolute Irradiance Measurement-Time Series Measurement”
menu option. The functions F1 to F8 can be selected by clicking the corresponding TAB sheet at the
top of this dialog.
Furtheron, a number of general (function independent) parameters can be entered, below of the
function TAB sheets. The following features can be set separately for all functions F1 to F8:
•
•
•
Irradiance Parameter. Per function, one of the 15 available irradiance parameters, which have
been described in the previous section, can be selected. The function numbers for which the
“None” option has been selected will be disabled.
Spectrometer Channel. If the spectrometer system contains one or more slave spectrometer
channels, the spectrometer channel on which the irradiance will be measured can be selected from
the drop down box at the left (showing by default “Master”).
Wavelength range. If one of the following irradiance parameters has been selected: µWatt/cm2,
µJoule/cm2, µWatt or µJoule, the wavelength range needs to be specified over which the irradiance
spectrum will be integrated (see previous section). For all other parameters, the wavelength range
is fixed to 380 to 780 nm, according to their definition.
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•
Function display settings.
The irradiance parameters that have been set in the functions can be displayed graphically against
time. The amount of time that will be displayed at the X-axis can be set manually by clicking the
Fixed radiobutton (see figure below). If set to Auto, the time axis will be set to 1 minute. The YAxis can also be set to Fixed or to Auto. The Auto option will set the Y-axis range to the minimum
and maximum function values that are in the list of measured datapoints.
Function Independent Parameters
Function Independent Parameters - Display no graphics to speed up data processing
Below the TAB sheets for function definition an option can be enabled or disabled to speed up data
processing by not displaying the graphics during the measurements. If an application requires fast data
processing, this option should be enabled. If saved to an output file, the data can be displayed
graphically after the time series experiment has been ended, as described in section 4.1.3: HistoryDisplay Saved History Graph.
Function Independent Parameters - Save Function Output
The results of a time series color experiment will be saved to an ASCII-file if the radio button “Save
Function Output” has been selected. A number of seconds between saving can be entered for data
reduction, in case measurements are carried out over long periods. Entering a value of zero results in
saving every scan. The name of the file to which the data will be saved, can be changed after clicking
the “Change Output File…” button.
Last option in the “Save Function Output” box is to enable or disable the possibility to create a backup
file during the measurements. If this option is enabled, AvaSoft will create a backup file with the same
filename, but with the extension *.bak (also in ASCII). This backup file is updated every scan and can
be used in case the filename that has been selected has failed to save the data, for instance because of
a power failure during the measurements.
Save ICF/Load ICF buttons
AvaSoft automatically saves all parameters (irradiance parameters, save options) to the file irrtime.ini,
and restores these parameters, the next time AvaSoft is started. With the Save ICF and Load ICF
buttons, it’s also possible to save these parameter settings to (and load from) a file with the
extension*.icf. With this feature it is possible to save for each experiment a different *.icf file, so it can
be loaded a next time the same settings are required.
After the definition of one or more functions, the OK button is clicked to start measuring, the
CANCEL button to leave the dialog and return to AvaSoft’s main window.
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After starting the irradiance measurements by clicking OK, the output of the selected color parameters
will be displayed against time. If the option “Display no graphics to speed up data processing” has been
marked in the function entry dialog, the function output will be shown by numbers only, which are
updated each time a new scan is saved to the output file.
There are six buttons at the top of this window (see figure below): an Exit button, a Pause/Start button,
a Save Reference button, a Save Dark button, an Info button and a Print button.
If the red Exit button is clicked, the time measurements are ended and the main window and menu is
activated. The yellow Pause button can be used to stop the time measurements temporarily. After
clicking the Pause button, data acquisition stops and the text on the button changes to a green Start. If
the Start button is clicked, data acquisition is activated again and the text changes back to the yellow
Pause again.
The Save Reference and Save Dark buttons have the same functionality as in the main window.
The Info button shows the dialog, in which all parameters can be viewed (not edited) while the
measurement is running.
By clicking the Print button, the
graphics that are displayed can be
printed during the run. First the
printer specific dialog shows up in
which the print options can be set.
For example, if only one graph of the
four in the figure above need to be
printed, this graph can be selected by
the page(s) radiobutton. All graphics
are printed full size on a different
page.
If time measurement data have been
saved, the resulting ASCII file can be
displayed graphically by selecting this
file in the dialog that is shown after
clicking the menu option: ApplicationHistory-Display Saved History
Graph. After clicking the “Open” button in this dialog, the function output is displayed against time.
Both X- and Y-axis are set to their full scale, which is determined by the minimum and maximum
values in the list.
Zoom features
In each graph the same zoom features apply as in the main window (except for scaling the Y-axis with
the mouse wheel). However, zooming in over the X-axis while the measurement is running and the Xaxis is already scrolling will not be possible, because in that case the X-axis is updated with each new
scan. Clicking the pause button to take a snapshot will solve this problem.
Zoom in: select a region to be expanded to the full graph. To select this region, click the left mouse
button in the white graphics region and drag it downwards and to the right. After releasing the left
mouse button, both the X- and Y-axis will be rescaled to the new values of the selected region.
Zoom out: drag with the left mouse button within the white graphics region, but in stead of dragging
the mouse downwards and to the right, drag it into another direction. After releasing the mouse button,
both the X- and Y-axis will be reset to their default values.
Move X-Y: dragging with the right mouse button results in moving the complete spectrum up or down
and to the left or right.
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4.5 Applications: Process Control Application
Avasoft Process Control allows you to operate digital outputs corresponding with preset levels of your
history channels. You can use all eight history channels, as well as the output functions of the Time
Series from both the Color and the Irradiance applications.
AvaSoft supports the PCI-6503 card from National Instruments, and uses 17 of the maximum of 24
digital output channels this card offers.
The driver- and testsoftware that comes with this card is called NI-DAQ. National Instruments advises
you to install this software prior to installing the hardware.
The card’s user manual is also available on the NI-DAQ CD-ROM, in pdf format.
4.5.1
Installation of the NI-DAQ software
Installation of the NI-DAQ software is done by inserting the CD-ROM and running the installation
software by choosing “Install NI-DAQ” from the menu. AvaSoft 5.1 has been tested with NI-DAQ
version 6.9.1.
National Instruments offers the latest version on their web-site via:
ftp://ftp.ni.com/support/daq/pc/ni-daq/
4.5.2
Installation of the PCI-6503 hardware
Please install the PCI-6503 card in an available PCI slot inside your computer.
4.5.3
Configure and test the PCI-6503 card
After NI-DAQ has been installed, you can run the Measurement and Automation Explorer by clicking
it’s icon on the desktop to verify correct installation.
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You can also test the different
outputs channels with this
program by running the Test
Panel application. Right click
the PCI-6503 in the Devices
and Interfaces tree and select
Test Panel.
The Output Port and Line
Numbers for the different
channels are listed in the table
below. Go to the Digital
Output section, select the
correct Output Port and Line
Number and click the Write
Output button. This will set the
corresponding digital output
high. Deselect the Line
Number box and click the
Write Output button to set the output low .
Pin assignments of the
PCI-6503 card:
PC7
1
2
GND
PC6
3
4
GND
PC5
5
6
GND
PC4
7
8
GND
PC3
9
10
GND
PC2 11
12
GND
PC1 13
14
GND
PC0 15
16
GND
PB7 17
18
GND
PB6 19
20
GND
PB5 21
22
GND
PB4 23
24
GND
PB3 25
26
GND
PB2 27
28
GND
PB1 29
30
GND
PB0 31
32
GND
PA7 33
34
GND
PA6 35
36
GND
PA5 37
38
GND
PA4 39
40
GND
PA3 41
42
GND
PA2 43
44
GND
PA1 45
46
GND
PA0 47
48
GND
+5V 49
50
GND
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PCI-6503 signals used by AvaSoft Process
Control
F#
connector
pin
NI-DAQ
NI-DAQ
port
line
1 max
min
1
3
2
2
7
6
2 max
5
2
5
min
7
2
4
3 max
9
2
3
min
11
2
2
4 max
min
13
15
2
2
1
0
5 max
17
1
7
min
19
1
6
6 max
21
1
5
min
23
1
4
7 max
min
25
27
1
1
3
2
8 max
29
1
1
min
31
1
0
47
0
0
scan
4.5.4
Using the Process Control Application in AvaSoft
The Process Control application needs to be activated by selecting ‘Application’, ‘Process Control’,
‘Enable’. A checkmark will appear before the menu entry to show that the option is enabled.
To set minimum and maximum threshold values for each of the History functions, select ‘Application’,
‘Process Control’, ‘Digital Output Settings’.
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The box shows 16 values, corresponding with a minimum
and maximum threshold value for the 8 history channels. All
16 values can be edited by clicking them with the mouse.
After selecting OK, the settings are written to a binary file
called ‘digital.ini’.
The minimum and maximum threshold values are indicated in
the history graphs with horizontal lines. If the history function
output value exceeds the maximum value or is smaller than
the minimum value, the corresponding output pin will be set
high.
Pin 47 (PA0, port 0, line 0) can be used to test system
integrity. For each two consecutively arriving scans, one will
result in a high signal to pin 47, and the other will result in a
low signal to pin 47. This way, your application can test for
e.g. a hardware malfunction, power failure or software
crash, which would cause the state of the digital outputs to
be erratic.
An example of running the History Channel functions together with the Process Control application is
shown below.
In this example, two History Channel functions were defined. The threshold values for function F1
were set at 1000 and 1500, for function F2 at 0 and 100. These values are represented by the
horizontal lines in the graphs.
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4.6 Applications: Excel Output
AvaSoft XLS is an add-on application that enables Avasoft Full to output history channel data and/or
complete spectra to Microsoft Excel.
It uses OLE-Automation, which is a technology that enables AvaSoft to remotely control Excel,
opening sheets and copying data into cells.
On modern hardware, we have been able to copy complete 2048 pixel spectra to Excel with as little as
50 msec. overhead per scan.
4.6.1
Select Source Data
Besides enabling Excel
output, you will have to
select your source data.
This is done in the same
way it would be done
without the Excel output
option, with the input
screens you use to define
History Channel Functions,
and Time Series in the Color
and Irradiance applications.
The only difference is the
‘Save Function Output’ box,
which is not used by the
Excel Output option. This
part is replaced by a
separate dialog, which will
be described under
‘Settings’.
4.6.2
Enable Excel Output
Enable the option by selecting ‘Application’, ‘Excel Output’, ‘Enable’.
A checkmark will appear before the menu entry ‘Enable’ to show the status of the option.
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4.6.3
Settings
AvaSoft will write the data to three differently formatted sheets, depending on user input in History
Channel Function Entry and the Settings dialog .
You can enter the Settings dialog by selecting ‘Application’, ‘Excel Output’, ‘Settings’.
First, select the mode you want.
Export mode
You can select Export Mode by selecting the top radio button. In this mode, a predefined number of
scans will be logged to new worksheets that Excel will open.
Depending on your choice of history channel, one of two formats of sheet (or both) will be opened by
Excel.
If you select regula r history channels, without selecting ‘View Spectrum’, the sheet will be formatted
horizontally, with the program adding a new row for each measurement written.
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The sheet will be called ‘AvaSoft Data’, the columns contain the following data:
Column A contains a data/time value, formatted as ‘dd:mm:yyyy hh:mm:ss’.
This is a floating point value, in which the integer part is the day number, starting at January 1, 1900
with day 1. The fractional part represents a decimal time value, where 0.5 is 12:00 h. noon and 0.75 is
18:00 h.
This way, differences in date/time can be readily calculated by subtracting values, which would be
much more difficult if this was a text representation.
Column B contains a time value, representing the elapsed milliseconds since midnight. This value does
not have a one millisecond resolution. Remember that Windows is not a real-time operating system. It
can, however, be used as a reasonably accurate indicator of the time that passes between scans.
Columns C through J contain the 8 different History Channel values. For unselected History Channels,
a value of 0 will be entered in the sheet.
If you select ‘View Spectrum’ in your choice of History Channels, the sheet will be formatted
vertically. As Excel only offers 256 columns per sheet, we need to write a spectrum (which can hold
more than 2000 pixels) in a column instead of a row, and add more columns as time passes.
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Since there is a maximum of 256 columns per sheet, new sheets will be added after column 256 (‘IV’)
is filled.
The first sheet will be called ‘F1’ for history channel 1, ‘F2’ for history channel 2, etc.If extra sheets
are added, a suffix will be added to this name, e.g. F1_01, F1_02 etc.
If the function type “View Spectrum” has been selected for more than one History Channel Function
(e.g. Master channel for F1, Slave1 channel for F2), then the different history channel sheets (named
F1 and F2) are located in separate workbooks, and must be saved under separate filenames. This is
also the case for the sheet with 8 History Channel values, described before.
Rows 1 and 2 contain the date/time stamp and the elapsed millisecond value, as described in the
previous section.
Column A of the first sheet holds the wavelength scale. The wavelength range matches the
wavelength range as specified in the History Channel Functions.
The lower left half of the Settings dialog can be used to enter the number of scans you want to export
to Excel, and the time interval (in seconds) between two scans you want to log.
Default values are 1000 scans and no interval, meaning as fast as possible.
Continuous Mode
You can select Continuous Mode by selecting the bottom radio button. In this mode, data will be
written to a single sheet, each scan overwriting the previous one.
In the lower right part of the Settings dialog, you can select the workbook the sheet will be added to,
thereby enabling you to use your own calculations and graphs in Excel on live data from AvaSoft.
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Press the ‘Select File’ button to select the workbook. Please save an empty workbook using Excel if
you don’t have a previous workbook to open.
AvaSoft will check if a sheet named ‘AvaSoft Data’ is present, and will add this sheet if it is not
present. This way, links to the sheet can be preserved between sessions.
The sheet contains the following data, at fixed positions:
A3
: Date / Time stamp
This is a floating point value, in which the integer part is the day number, starting at January 1, 1900
with day 1. The fractional part represents a decimal time value, where 0.5 is 12:00 h. noon and 0.75 is
18:00 h. This way, differences in date/time can be readily calculated by subtracting values, which
would be much more difficult if this was a text representation.
B3
: Time in milliseconds after midnight
This value does not have a one millisecond resolution. Remember that Windows is not a real-time
operating system. It can, however, be used as a reasonably accurate indicator of the time that passes
between scans.
C5-C***
D3
D5-D***
: Wavelength scale (in nm) for first History Channel spectrum
: Value for first History Channel (0 if spectrum is selected)
: Spectrum for first History Channel.
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E5-E***
: Wavelength scale (in nm) for second History Channel spectrum
(empty if spectrum is not selected)
F3
: Value for second History Channel
F5-F***
: Spectrum for second History Channel
(empty if spectrum is not selected)
etc.
*** : depends on the wavelength range selected.
4.6.4
Start Output
You start the output the usual way, with ‘Application’,
‘History’, ‘Start measuring’.
You can also use the corresponding button on the Button Bar.
Please do not perform large alterations of the worksheet, while
data is being transmitted. An error ‘Call was rejected by callee’
will be issued if Excel is too busy.
Moving around the worksheet should not pose any problems.
Save any alterations to your worksheet before starting the transfer to Excel. You do not have to close
the worksheet or close Excel.
4.6.5
Stop Output
If you want to stop the transfer to Excel give focus to AvaSoft and press ‘Exit’. It may take a few
seconds before the buttons appear.
Excel will not be closed by AvaSoft. Save your work and close Excel the same way you would when
working with Excel manually.
We have included a sample worksheet, called ‘Continuous.xls’, which demonstrates linking to the
‘AvaSoft Data’ sheet. In this case, two graphs are drawn from the columns for Channel 1 and 2. The
graph and data are continuously updated while data is being transferred to Excel.
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4.6.6
Limitations and Optimization Notes
As all scans are stored in memory, it is very easy to overflow internal memory with scans in Export
mode.
Therefore, a limit to the number of scans to store in Excel has been built in. Before a new sheet is
added, the amount of memory Excel uses is determined. If this number is larger than half the physical
memory installed in the machine, output to Excel will stop.
On a 128 MB machine, this corresponds with 7-8 complete sheets of 256 columns and 2000 rows,
roughly 2000 full scans. Limiting the wavelength range will extend your range of scans accordingly.
Of course, adding more Ram to your machine will also help raise this limit.
We have, however, seen limitations in the amount of memory that Excel can use. It looks like there is
an internal limit that is hit before internal memory runs out.
In a machine with 512 MB, the limit corresponds with about 16 sheets of complete 2000 pixel spectra.
After this Excel issues an ‘Out of Memory’ message and is no longer functional. E.g. saving your data
to disk is not possible anymore.
This is only an issue on machines with large amounts of memory (256 MB, 512 MB)
For greatest speed, it is important to give the focus to Excel. If you set the focus to AvaSoft, Windows
will dramatically lower Excel’s priority. You can verify this by looking at the ‘Filling Cells’ progress bar
in the lower left corner of your worksheet.
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5
Help
After clicking the Help-Contents menu option, the AvaSoft FULL manual will be displayed in HTML
format. At the left side the Help Contents displays all sections to which the user can browse to a
specific topic.
In stead of browsing through the contents to a specific topic, the search TAB can be selected, as
illustrated in the figure below. After typing in a keyword (e.g. smoothing), and clicking the List Topics
button, a list of all topics containing this keyword is shown. By selecting a topic at the left (double
click), the information is displayed at the right, in which the keyword is marked in the text.
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Appendix A
Troubleshooting
In this Appendix, some potential software installation problems will be described, together with the
action that should be taken to solve the problem. Most of these failures are due to an incorrect
installation. If an installation was not successful, it can be helpful to read the recommendations below.
There are also other failures that were encountered during the test procedures for AvaSoft 5.1. Some
showed up only under Operating System Windows95, others only for USB2000 (or ADC1000-USB)
under Windows2000. We categorized the potential problems into three sections:
•
•
•
Spectrometer does not acquire data
Known problems under Windows95 and Windows2000
Other potential problems
If there are any failures not listed in this Appendix, or if the described solutions don’t solve the problem,
please don’t hesitate to contact us:
Avantes Technical Support
Soerense Zand 4a
NL-6961 LL Eerbeek
The Netherlands
Tel.:
Fax.:
+31-(0)313-670170
+31-(0)313-670179
E-mail: [email protected]
Web: www.avantes.com
A.1 Spectrometer does not acquire data
If the installation program did not report any problems, and all hardware has been installed as described
in the Avantes Fiberoptic Spectroscopy Operating Manual, then AvaSoft can be started and should
display a spectrum in Scope Mode, after the green Start button has been clicked. If no spectrum is
displayed, please verify if the Hardware parameters, which are installed in AvaSoft (menu option:
Setup Hardware), match the hardware that is connected to the computer. If these are not correct,
please fill in the correct parameters and click the OK button in the Hardware dialog. If necessary,
close AvaSoft, restart the program and click the green Start button. Refer to section A.3.1 if a range
check error is displayed the next time AvaSoft is started.
If this did not help, or the parameters were already correct in the first place, the solution depends very
much on the type of A/D Converter:
USB2000/HR2000 or ADC1000-USB: make sure that the USB serial number is selected in the
hardware dialog, and not the “First available USB”. If “First available USB” is the only possibility to
select, there is something wrong with the connection between spectrometer and computer. If the
Operating System is Windows2000 please refer to section A.2.
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The ADC500/PC1000, ADC1000-ISA/PC2000, DAQ700 require that the IRQ and Base Address
are set. The default Base Address is 300 hex (768 decimal) and default IRQ is IRQ7. If there are
conflicts, this may need to be changed. If an ADC500/PC1000 or ADC1000/PC2000 converter is used,
the dip switches on the card have to be changed as well. See for detailed information about how to
change Base Address and IRQ the Avantes Fiberoptic Spectroscopy Operating Manual, section 3.
Serial (RS-232) A/D converter. The SAD500 does sometimes not respond because of an “Out of
Sync” error. In most cases toggling the power off and on solves this problem. If this does not solve the
problem, the SadTest utility can be sent, in which the SAD500 communicates with the driver on a lower
level.
A.2 Known problems under Windows95 and Windows2000
Windows95
On some computers which run under Windows95 the glyphs on the buttons in the toolbar were not
visible. This is a known Windows95 problem for which a utility program (401comupd.exe) can be found
on the internet at:
http://www.microsoft.com/msdownload/ieplatform/ie/comctrl.asp
Of course we can also send this utility program on request per attached e-mail. After executing
401comupd.exe, the problem is solved.
Windows2000 and USB2000/HR2000 or ADC1000-USB
After installation of AvaSoft and connecting
the USB cable to the USB device and to the
computer’s USB port, Windows2000 shows in
some occasions the dialog at the right.
The file ezusb.sys has been installed by the
AvaSoft installation program into the directory:
winnt\system32\drivers\, on the drive where
Windows2000 has been installed (in most
cases c:\, but in the following example f:\).
Normally, this file will be found automatically
by Windows2000 in this directory. If the dialog
above is shown, please browse to the directory
to tell Windows2000 where it is located.
By clicking the open button in the dialog at the
right, the problem is solved.
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Avantes
AvaSoft 5.1 FULL manual.doc
website: http://www.avantes.com
Mar-02
email: [email protected]
Also the following error message can occur
with the file ooi_usb.inf.
This file has been installed by the AvaSoft
installation program into the directory
WINNT\INF, on the drive where
Windows2000 has been installed (in most
cases c:\, but in this example f:\). Normally,
this file will be found automatically by
Windows2000 in this directory. If the dialog
above is shown, please browse to the
\winnt\inf\ directory to tell Windows2000 where it is located.. Note that the files and folders of the type
inf can be hidden, so the browser will not display the files
of this type. Then, you need to select under the Windows
explorer menu option: Tools/Folder Options (in the View
TAB), the “Show hidden files and folders” option, in
stead of the “Do not show hidden files and folders”. See
figure below.
After browsing to the file ooi_usb.inf, and clicking the
Open button, AvaSoft can be started. The Hardware
dialog will be displayed in which you need to set the
spectrometer type to S2000 and the A/D converter type
to USB2000/HR2000 or ADC1000-USB (depending on
the hardware that is connected. Select the USB Serial
number of the attached USB device, in stead of the
(default) option First Available USB.
A.3 Other potential problems
A.3.1 Range check error and no wavelength range at the x-axis
The Hardware Setup parameters are saved by the driver to the file ooidrv.ini which is located in the
Windows or WinNT directory. If a first installation failed, the information in this file can cause the
driver not to respond to AvaSoft. This situation shows up immediately after starting AvaSoft, because
the wavelength range at the x-axis shows only a ‘0’ instead of the expected range (e.g. 200-850 nm). A
“range check error” will be given. The same error can happen if at the end of the installation program
which installs AvaSoft 5.1, the computer was not restarted (as recommended).
If this situation occurs, the problem can be solved by closing AvaSoft and deleting or renaming the file
ooidrv.ini (in the Windows or WinNT directory) and avsparam.ini in AvaSoft’s main directory
(default C:\SW5FULL or C:\SW5BASIC). The driver will create a default ooidrv.ini the next time
AvaSoft is started. AvaSoft checks at startup the presence of ooidrv.ini and if this file is not found, the
hardware setup dialog (with default parameters) is shown first. Make sure to fill in the right parameters
in this dialog. After clicking the OK button in the Hardware dialog, the right wavelength range should
appear at the x-axis.
Mar-02
AvaSoft 5.1 FULL manual.doc
Avantes
website: http://www.avantes.com
85
email: [email protected]
A.3.2 AvaSoft 5.1 Basic has been installed although the FULL version was ordered
During the installation, the configuration diskette needs to be inserted in floppy drive a:. Depending on
the information on this diskette, the installation program proceeds with installing AvaSoft Basic or
AvaSoft FULL. Apparently the configuration diskette could not be read during the installation. The
installation program needs to be executed again, this time with the configuration diskette in drive a:
86
Avantes
AvaSoft 5.1 FULL manual.doc
website: http://www.avantes.com
Mar-02
email: [email protected]
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