Surface Mount Package User`s Manual

Surface Mount Package User`s Manual
Surface Mount Package
User’s Manual
ADE-810-007C
Rev. 4.0
3/15/02
Hitachi Ltd.
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Contents
Section 1 Types of Package Mounting Configurations .............................................
1
Section 2 Surface Mount Package Assembly Process Flow ....................................
3
3
2.1
Basic Assembly Process Flow for Surface Mount Packages .............................................
Section 3 Overview of the Individual Steps in the Assembly Process .................
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
Designing the Printed Wiring Board and the Mounting Pad..............................................
3.1.1 Printed Wiring Board Material..............................................................................
3.1.2 Mounting Pads ......................................................................................................
Solder Application..............................................................................................................
3.2.1 Solder Paste ...........................................................................................................
3.2.2 Applying the Solder Paste .....................................................................................
3.2.3 Amount of Printed Solder Paste............................................................................
Temporary Adhesive ..........................................................................................................
3.3.1 Adhesive Strength .................................................................................................
3.3.2 Curing Conditions .................................................................................................
3.3.3 Amount of Adhesive Applied (Height) .................................................................
Mounting (Placement)........................................................................................................
3.4.1 Mounting Process..................................................................................................
3.4.2 Selecting the Mounter ...........................................................................................
3.4.3 Mounting Accuracy...............................................................................................
3.4.4 Shapes of the Package Packing .............................................................................
Soldering ............................................................................................................................
3.5.1 Soldering Methods ................................................................................................
3.5.2 Overview of Various Soldering Methods..............................................................
3.5.3 Setting the Soldering Temperature Profile............................................................
3.5.4 Soldering Methods for Various Surface Mount Packages ....................................
3.5.5 Soldering Conditions.............................................................................................
Cleaning..............................................................................................................................
3.6.1 Selecting the Cleaning Solution ............................................................................
3.6.2 Cleaning Methods .................................................................................................
3.6.3 Cleaning Conditions..............................................................................................
3.6.4 Determining the Cleanliness .................................................................................
3.6.5 Other Notes and Cautions .....................................................................................
Inspection ...........................................................................................................................
3.7.1 Inspection Equipment............................................................................................
3.7.2 Subject of Inspections ...........................................................................................
Storage................................................................................................................................
3.8.1 Moisture-proof Packing ........................................................................................
5
5
5
10
20
20
25
31
33
34
35
36
37
37
39
40
40
44
44
46
52
55
56
63
63
64
65
65
65
66
66
68
72
72
i
3.9
3.8.2 Storage Before the Moisture-proof Bag is Opened ...............................................
3.8.3 Storage and Handling After the Moisture-proof Bag is Opened...........................
3.8.4 Storage and Handling Without Moisture-proof Packing ......................................
3.8.5 Baking Process ......................................................................................................
Notes and Cautions During the Mounting Process ............................................................
3.9.1 Damage from Static Electricity .............................................................................
3.9.2 Notes and Cautions Before Performing the Reflow Soldering .............................
3.9.3 Discerning the Package Crack ..............................................................................
3.9.4 Importance to Measures to Deal with Mechanical Stress .....................................
73
73
74
74
76
76
79
83
85
Section 4 Examples of BGA Assembly Evaluations.................................................. 87
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
ii
Assembly Process Flow......................................................................................................
Mounting Pad Design .........................................................................................................
Applying the Solder Paste ..................................................................................................
4.3.1 Solder Paste ...........................................................................................................
4.3.2 Solder Printing Stencil ..........................................................................................
4.3.3 Allowable Mounting Misalignment ......................................................................
Reflow Soldering Conditions .............................................................................................
Inspecting the Solder Joints After Mounting on the Printed Wiring Board .......................
Removing Method..............................................................................................................
Cleaning..............................................................................................................................
Storage................................................................................................................................
87
88
89
89
89
89
90
91
92
93
94
Section 1 Types of Package Mounting Configurations
Package mounting configurations may include surface mounting and mixed mounting. The forms
of the various mounting approaches are as shown in Figure 1.1. Because only surface mount
devices can be used in double-sided surface mounting, the double-sided surface mounting method
provides the highest mounting density. Insertion devices and surface mount devices are both used
in mixed mounting. A flow soldering process is used for the insertion devices.
Application of
solder paste
Solder paste
Application of
solder paste
Solder paste
Printed wiring board
Surface mount
package mounting
Printed wiring board
Surface mount
package mounting
Soldering (reflow)
Reflow
(a) Single-sided surface mounting (reflow)
Insertion of insertion-
type package
Soldering
(flow soldering)
Solder
(b) Single-sided mixed
mounting: Surface mount + insertion mount (reflow) + (flow soldering)
Application of
solder paste
Solder paste
Application of
solder paste
Printed wiring board
Printed wiring board
Surface mount
package mounting
Surface mount
package mounting
Soldering (reflow)
Reflow
The board is turned over
The board is turned over
Solder paste
Solder paste
Application of
solder paste
Application of
temporary adhesive
Surface mount
package mounting
Surface mount
package mounting
Adhesive
Ultraviolet rays
Soldering (reflow)
Adhesive cure
(c) Double-sided surface
mounting: Surface mount + surface mount (reflow) + (reflow)
The board is turned over
Insertion of insertion-
type package
Soldering
(flow soldering)
Solder
(d) Double-sided mixed
mounting: Surface mount + surface mount/insertion mount
(reflow) + (batch flow soldering)
Figure 1.1 Types of Surface Mount Package Mounting Configurations
1
2
Section 2 Surface Mount Package Assembly Process Flow
2.1
Basic Assembly Process Flow for Surface Mount Packages
Figure 2.1 shows the basic assembly process flow for surface mount packages.
First a solder paste is applied to the mounting pads on the printed wiring board and the devices are
placed thereon, and then soldered.
References
Printed
wiring board
3.1
P.5 to
3.2.1
P.20 to
3.2.2
3.2.3
P.25 to
3.4
P.37 to
3.3
P.33 to
3.5
P.44
Cleaning
3.6
P.65
Inspection
3.7
P.68
Solder paste
Application of
solder paste
LSI packages
Mounting
Application of
temporary
adhesive
Soldering
Heating
Camera
LED
HITACHI
Figure 2.1 Basic Assembly Process Flow for Surface Mount Packages
3
When simultaneous reflow for double-sided surface mounting or flow soldering is performed, a
temporary adhesive is used to affix the devices to the printed wiring board before the soldering is
performed.
A cleaning process is performed to remove the residual flux, etc., after the soldering process is
performed, after which an inspection is performed.
A baking process is performed before the soldering when a moisture-removal treatment is required
when a plastic package is used.
See the references in Figure 2.1 for details about the various steps in the assembly process.
4
Section 3 Overview of the Individual Steps in the
Assembly Process
3.1
Designing the Printed Wiring Board and the Mounting Pad
In surface mount assembly, the materials from which the printed wiring board is manufactured and
the design of the mounting pads have an effect on the manufacturability and on the solder joint
reliability. The section below will discuss the selection of the materials from which to manufacture
the printed wiring boards and the design standards for mounting pads.
3.1.1
Printed Wiring Board Material
Although there are many different types of printed wiring boards, these printed wiring boards
basically fall into one of two broad categories: boards made from organic materials and boards
made from inorganic materials. (See Figure 3.1.)
Printed wiring boards made from organic materials are the most commonly used today, and
copper-clad laminate boards are the most common. Table 3.1 describes the types of copper-clad
laminate boards, and their primary characteristics and applications. Because the various board
materials can be categorized by the specific applications, the materials should be selected after
taking required electrical characteristics, thermal dissipation characteristics, thermal durability,
mechanical characteristics, reliability, and so forth into account. Table 3.2 shows the types of
printed wiring boards used most commonly in the consumer and industrial uses.
5
Figure 3.1 Types of Printed Wiring Board Materials
6
Materials
for Printed
Wiring
Boards
Ceramic base
Printed Wiring Board
Metal base Printed
Wiring Board
High heat resistant
Thermoplastics
Printed Wiring Board
Flexible Copperclad Laminate
Composite
materials base
Copper-clad
Laminate
Glass Fabric/Glass Mat base Polyester-resin Copper-clad Laminate (FR6)
Glass Fabric/Paper base Epoxy-resin Copper-clad Laminate (CEM1)
Glass Fabric/Glass Mat base Epoxy-resin Copper-clad Laminate (CEM3)
Alumina base Printed Wiring Board
Aluminium nitride base Printed Wiring Board
Silicon nitride base Printed Wiring Board
Silicon carbide base Printed Wiring Board
Metal core
Metal base
Enamel
Polysulfone-resin
Polyetherimide-resin
Polyetherketon-resin
Polyester-resin Flexible Copper-clad Laminate
Polyimid-resin Flexible Copper-clad Laminate
Glass Fabric base Epoxy-resin Flexible Copper-clad Laminate
Rigid-Flexible Multilayer
Polyester-resin
Copper-clad
Laminated
Epoxy-resin
Copper-clad
Laminate
Glass fabric base Epoxy-resin Copper-clad Laminate (FR4, G10)
Glass fabric base High heat resistant Epoxy-resin Copper-clad Laminate (FR5, G11)
Glass Fabric base Polyimid-resin Copper-clad Laminate (GPY)
Glass Fabric base Fluorocarbon polymer Copper-clad Laminate
Materials for Multilayer Printed Wiring Board [Prepreg/Thin Copper-clad Laminate] (FR4, FR5, GPY)
Paper base Phenolic-resin Copper-clad Laminate (FR1, FR2, XXXpc, Xpc)
Paper base Epoxy-resin Copper-clad Laminate (FR3)
Paper base Polyester-resin Copper-clad Laminate
(Source: "Mr. Masamitsu Aoki, Toshiba Chemicals, "Issues in Selecting PWB," Surface Mount Technology, December, 1995, pg. 6 - 13.
Inorganic
Materials
Organic
Materials
Glass Fabric
base Copperclad Laminate
Paper base
Copper-clad
Laminate
Film
Adhesive
Copper layer
Flexibility, low price
Flexibility, high thermal
durability
Consumer electronics (calculators)
Industrial electronics (office
automation equipment),
Consumer electronics (cameras, CD
players)
Satellite communications,
computers, space/military demand,
instruments.
Low dielectric constant,
high insulation
Copper layer
Fluorine
Epoxy-type
adhesive
material
Computers, semiconductor
test equipment
High insulation, strong, high
reliability
Glass fabric +
resin
Polyimide
Industrial electronics
(office automation equipment, etc.),
Thin consumer electronics
(calculators, etc.)
Consumer electronics
(TVs, bicycles, toys, etc.)
Consumer electronics (8 mm video,
video camera, CD players, etc.)
Industrial electronics (office
automation equipment, factory
automation equipment, etc.)
Industrial electronics
(office automation equipment, etc.)
Consumer electronics (toys, etc.)
Consumer electronics
(VTR, TV, Audio/visual, etc.)
Consumer electronics (office
automation equipment, tuners, etc.)
Consumer electronics
(audio/visual, etc.)
Applications
High insulation, strong, high
dimensional stability.
Strong
Through-hole plating
is possible.
High insulation
Good in punch processes
Excellent insulation
Good in punch processes
Good in punch processes
Good tracking resistance
Superior manufacturability
Good in punch processes
Good in punch processes
Through-hole plating is possible.
Characteristics
Copper layer
Glass fabric +
resin or glass
mat
Glass fabric +
resin
Copper layer
Glass fabric +
resin
Copper layer
Copper layer
Glass fabric +
resin
Paper + resin
Glass fabric +
resin
Copper layer
Paper + Resin
Copper layer
with adhesive
Structure
Epoxy
Polyester
Epoxy
Epoxy
Polyester
Epoxy
Phenol
Resin
(Source: "Mr. Masamitsu Aoki, Toshiba Chemicals, "Issues in Selecting PWB," Surface Mount Technology, December, 1995, pg. 6 - 13.
Polyester
Polyimide
Glass fabric
Glass fabric
Glass mat
Glass paper
Glass fabric
Paper
Paper
Base Material
GPY
FR-5, FR-4
G-11, G-10
FR-6
CEM-3
CEM-1
FR-3
FR-2, XXXpc
FR-1, Xpc
NEMA (ANSI)
Grade
There is also the
2-layer FPC.
May also be
constructed with
multiple layers
Sometimes uses a
copper layer with
adhesive.
Also found in
multilayer boards
(there are some
thickness
constraints).
Notes
Table 3.1
Types of Copper-clad Laminate Board’ and Their Primary Characteristics and
Applications
7
Table 3.2
Characteristics of the Various Types of Resin Laminate Boards
Material Characteristics
Material Structure
Glass
Coefficient
Transition of Thermal
Tensile
Tempe- Expansion Thermal
Strength
rature
(XY)
Conductivity (XY)
Units
(°C)
(PPM/°C)
(W/M°C)
(PSI × 10 –6 ) (—)
Glass Epoxy (FR-4)
125
14-18
0.16
2.5
High Tg Glass Epoxy
(New FR-5)
194
8-9
—
—
Glass Polyimide
250
12-16
0.35
Aramid-based Epoxy
125
6-8
Aramid-based
Polyimide
250
Dielectric
Constant
(1 MHz)
Coefficient
Volume
Surface
of Water
Resistivity Resistance Absorption
(Ω/cm)
(Ω)
(%)
4.8
10 12
10 13
0.10
5.1
10 15
10 14
0.11
4.8
4.8
10 14
10 13
0.35
0.12
4.4
3.9
10 16
10 16
0.85
5-8
TBD
4.0
3.6
10 12
10 12
1.50
20
0.26
0.2
2.3
10 10
10 11
1.10
—
5 to 7
21.0
44.0
8.0
10 14
TBD
TBD
—
Magnetic-coated
Copper Laminate Alloy
6 to 7
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
TBD
Printed Wiring Board
Glass-Teflon Laminate 75
Inorganic Materials
Alumina-Beryllia
(ceramic)
Note: TBD: Variable, to be determined.
When it comes to the reliability of solder joints, it is necessary to take into consideration the
matching of the coefficient of thermal expansion with that of the package when selecting the
materials. In the electronic circuits, LSI packages are soldered on the boards that have different
coefficients of thermal expansion. (Figure 3.2 shows the coefficient of thermal expansion of
various materials.)
As is shown in Figure 3.3, changes in temperatures cause repetitive relative thermal
displacements, which may cause the solder joints to crack and break. The thermal displacements
∆ is calculated as shown below, and is dependent on the difference in the coefficients in thermal
expansion between the board and the package (∆α), the difference in temperature (∆T), and the
package size .
∆
= ∆α × ∆T × ( /2)
In the thin packages such as typified by TSOP (packages that are compatible with the recent
demands for smaller and thinner devices), the percentage of the package body volume occupied by
the silicon dies is increasing and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the overall package has
become relatively small. In applications requiring high levels of reliability, the application of
boards with low coefficients of thermal expansion (such as the new FR-5 in Table 3.2) are
recommended because they are able to reduce the global mismatch of the coefficients of thermal
expansion between the package and the board.
8
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion x 10–6/°C
Device
100
High temperature
solder 9/1, 95/5
50
Board
Paper phenol (Y):
In the Y direction
Eutectic solder
Paper phenol (X):
In the X direction
Resin (epoxy)
Copper, silver
20
Glass epoxy (Y)
Gold
Glass epoxy (X)
Glass
10
Alumina
Kovar, alloy 42
5
SiC
Si
3
1
Figure 3.2 Types of Electronic Materials for Surface Mount Assembly and Their
Coefficients of Thermal Expansion
Lead
Resin
Board
Thermal
displacement ∆
Lead
∆ = ∆α·∆ T·( /2)
γ max
Solder
Shear strain γ
Board
QFP/SOP
Figure 3.3 Structure of Minute Solder Joint and Thermal Shear Displacement (The dotted
line represents the deformation by changes in temperature.)
9
3.1.2
Mounting Pads
The geometry of the mounting pad is critical because of its influence on the soldering yield and
the solder joint reliability. Examples of mounting pad design for various surface mount packages
are given below. (Figures 3.4 to 3.15.)
;
;;
;
;
;;
The optimum value for mounting pads depends on the board material, the solder paste material,
the soldering method, and the precision of the equipment used. The actual design of the mounting
pads must be suited to the circumstances.
QFP (Including TQFP and LQFP)
MID
E or D
e
β2
β2
β1
α
α
e
e
β1
M IE = E + 2 α
2
= L + β1 + β2
MIE
M ID = D + 2α
H E (or HD) + 2 β2
2
b2
e
L
α : Ease of cleaning
β1 : Solder joint strength
β2 : Solder mask pattern accuracy and
ease of solder inspection
( β2 =0.2 mm)
2 ≥ L + β1 + β2
b ≤ b2 ≤ e – r
( 2 : Mounting pad length)
( b 2: Mounting pad width)
γ : Eliminating solder bridge
L: Length of flat part of terminal, b: Terminal width
Units: mm
e
α
β1
β2
γ
1.0, 0.8, 0.65
0.2 or more
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.5
0.1 or more
0.2 to 0.3
0.2
0.25
0.4
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.15
(Reference values based on the former EIAJ standard ED-7404A.)
Figure 3.4 Example of Mounting Pad Design for QFP (Including TQFP and LQFP)
10
;
;
;;;; ;;;
SOJ
e1
e1
b2
2
1
e
Units: mm
1.2
2.0
0.75
1
e
2
b2
(Reference values based on the
former EIAJ standard ED-7406.)
Figure 3.5 Example of Mounting Pad Design for SOJ
QFJ (PLCC)
e
e1 E
b
e1 D or e1 E
b2
e
1
2
e1 D
Units: mm
1
2
b2
1.2
2.0
0.75
(Reference values based on the
former EIAJ standard ED-7407.)
Figure 3.6 Example of Mounting Pad Design for QFJ (PLCC)
11
QFN (LCC)
e
E
e
MD1
α
e
b2
MD2
D
β
b2
ME1
ME2
L
b
MD1
≤ D – 2 ×
MD2
≥ D + 2 ×
ME1
≤ E – 2 ×
ME2
≥ E + 2 ×
b ≤ b 2 ≤ e –
L
α
L
α
β
Units: mm
α
β
(Reference values based on the
former EIAJ standard ED-7412.)
Figure 3.7 Example of Mounting Pad Design for QFN (LCC)
12
0.2
0.3
;
;
; ;;
;
;
SOP
L
b2
L
2
e1
e1
e
b
e
e
e
β1
α
e
e
e
e
Units: mm
e
β2
L
e
e1
α
β 1
β 2
γ
b2
2
Type 1
Type 2
Type 3
Type 4
Type 5
Type 6
225 mil (5.72)
300 mil (7.62)
375 mil (9.53)
450 mil (11.43)
525 mil (13.34)
600 mil (15.24)
0.2 or more
0.2 to 0.5
0.2
0.3
0.76
L + β1 + β2
(Reference values based on the
former EIAJ standard ED-7402-1.)
Figure 3.8 Example of Mounting Pad Design for SOP
13
;
;;
;
TSOP (I)
MD
D
L
L
e
e
b2
e
b
2
Units: mm
β1
β2
L
α
α
β 1
β 2
γ
b2
2
0.1
to 0.2
0.2
to 0.3
0.2
0.25
( e = 0.5)
0.25
≥ L + β1 + β2
(Reference values based on the
former EIAJ standard ED-7402-3.)
Figure 3.9 Example of Mounting Pad Design for TSOP (I)
14
;;;
; ;;
;
;
TSOP (II)
E
ME
e
e
b2
e
b
2
β1
α
β 1
β 2
γ
β2
L
2
α
b2
Units: mm
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
≥ L + β1 + β2
b 2 to e – γ
(Reference values based on the
former EIAJ standard ED-7402-4A.)
Figure 3.10 Example of Mounting Pad Design for TSOP (II)
SOI
e
e1
2
Units: mm
b2
2
e1
e
0.50
2.00
9.53
0.80
b2
Figure 3.11 Example of Mounting Pad Design for SOI
15
;;;;;;;; ;;;
;
;
;
;; ;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;
Discrete Packages
SMPAK
0.4
0.5 0.5
0.5
MFPAK
0.3
0.4
1.2
0.7
0.7
0.9
0.4
0.4
SMFPAK-6
0.7
1.4
0.45 0.45
0.5
0.4
CMPAK
0.65
CMPAK-4(T)
0.65
0.6
0.5
CMPAK-5(T)
0.65
0.3
0.6
0.6
2.6
0.8
0.65
CMPAK-6
1.9
0.8
0.6
0.6
0.8
0.8
1.9
0.8
0.8
0.5
0.8
0.65
0.65
0.65
CMFPAK-6
0.3
0.4
1.9
1.9
0.5
0.3
0.65
0.65
0.65
0.65
Figure 3.12 Example of Mounting Pad Design for Discrete Packages (1)
Note: ‘(T)’ in CMPAK-4(T), CMPAK-5(T) indicates transistor packages. However, ‘(T)’ is
omitted in each product’s document. The CMPAK mounting pads are suitable for both
transistors and diodes.
16
;
;
;
;; ;;;;;;
;
;
;
;; ;
MPAK-4
MPAK
1.8
0.95
1.0
0.95
1.0
1.0
2.6
2.6
1.2
1.9
0.8
0.8
MPAK-5
MPAK-6
0.95
0.6
1.0
1.0
0.6
0.95
2.6
0.95
2.6
0.95
;;;
;
1.9
TSOP-6
UPAK
2.0
2.6
45°
1.0
1.0
1.5
1.0
1.5 0.7
1.0
3.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
1.0
Figure 3.13 Example of Mounting Pad Design for Discrete Packages (2)
Note: The MPAK and MPAK-5 mounting pads are suitable for both transistors and diodes.
17
;;;;;;;
;
;
;
;
;
;;;;;;;
LDPAK(S)
DPAK(S)
11.2
5.5
10.5
13.7
8.8
1.0
1.0 1.5
2.5
6.0
4.0
8.8
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.54 2.54
2.3
LFPAK
2.3
LLD
1.6
4.57
2.2
1.2
7.04
5.04
1.2
1.5
SRP
1.52
0.76
1.5
2.0
1.5
1.27
4.57
0.8
URP
0.8
1.5
0.8
Figure 3.14 Example of Mounting Pad Design for Discrete Packages (3)
18
;
;;;;;;;;;;;
;;;;;;;
;
;
UFP
SFP
MOP
2.6
0.8
φ0.5
1.4
1.0
CMPAK-5(D)
1.9
1.3
0.65
0.65
0.4
0.7
0.8
0.6
1.0
1.9
CMPAK-4(D)
0.8
1.27
0.6 1.1 0.6
1.3
VSON-5
0.5
1.35
0.5
0.45
0.3
1.0
Figure 3.15 Example of Mounting Pad Design for Discrete Packages (4)
Note: ‘(D)’ in CMPAK-4(D), CMPAK-5(D) indicates diode packages. However, ‘(D)’ is
omitted in each product’s document.
19
3.2
Solder Application
As the lead pitch for surface mount packages has become narrower, the application process of
solder paste has come to have a great influence on the stability of soldering qualities (yield and
reliability).
By optimizing the following elements of the application process of solder paste, it is possible to
stabilize the quality of the soldering.
• Solder paste materials
• Printing mask for the solder paste application
• Application equipment of solder paste (printer or dispenser)
3.2.1
Solder Paste
(1) Structure of the Material
Solder paste consists of solder powder, flux, etc.
(a) Solder Powder
As lead pitches have become narrower, solder powder has undergone a sequential
miniaturization from irregular shape to spherical shape, to fine spherical shape. At present,
the spherical shape solder is used the most in surface mounting applications. Figure 3.16
shows a comparison of solder powder shapes.
Figure 3.17 shows the relationship between the size of the solder powder grains and the
paste-printing mask opening dimensions. Generally, excellent printing results can be
obtained when the powder grain diameter is less than about 1/7 of the printing mask
opening width, and less than about 1/5 of the thickness of the printing mask. Generally the
printing mask opening dimension, when used with a 0.5 mm lead pitch QFP, is
approximately 0.25 mm, and the solder powder average grain diameter is about 0.03 mm
(30 µm).
20
Shape of Solder
Powder
Diameter of Solder
Powder Grain
Lead Pitch
Compatibility
53 to 75 µm
25 to 38 µm
15 to 25 µm
0.65 mm and above
0.5 to 0.4 mm
0.3 mm
Figure 3.16 Shape of Solder Powder
Average solder powder grain diameter (µm)
(Materials provided by Senju Metal Industry Co., Ltd.)
150
100
50
25
0 W
0.15 mm 0.25 mm 0.35 mm
(Printing mask opening width)
Corresponding
lead pitch
0.3 mm
0.5 mm
0.65 mm
0.76 mm
1.27 mm
Figure 3.17 Relationship Between the Printing Mask Opening Width and the Average
Solder Powder Grain Diameter
Table 3.3 shows the types of solder alloys that are used for the primary solder pastes.
21
Table 3.3
Types of Solder Alloys Used in Major Solder Pastes
Type
Alloy
Composition
Eutectic solder
63Sn-37Pb
The melting temperature is low (183°C), General
and thus there is little thermal impact on
the electronic components.
Silver bearing
solder
62Sn-36Pb-2Ag
•
Solder joint strength is stronger and
has superior life expectancy.
•
Prevents the silver scavenging
phenomenon.*
Lead-free Sn-Ag
solder
Characteristics
Sn-3.0Ag-0.5Cu, •
etc.
•
•
Notes: *
22
Application
Ag electrodes, Ag
patterns.
High soldering temperature
General
High solder bulk strength
Lead-free mounting
Higher creep strength than Sn-Pb
eutectic solder
When applying solder to metal surfaces that include Ag (such as Ag conductors and Ag
pads), this is a phenomenon where the Ag from the material being soldered diffuses
into the solder.
(Materials provided by Senju Metal Industry Co., Ltd.)
(b) Flux
The flux used in the solder paste performs functions such as preventing reoxidization,
cleaning the surface, providing adhesion, etc. The compositional structure of the flux is as
shown in Table 3.4.
Generally halogen is included in activator.
After the solder is applied, then when there is residual activator (i.e. where this activator
contains halogen, etc.) on the devices or the board, then there will be an impact of
reliability. Consequently, regulations should be put in place and enforced regarding
cleaning the boards.
Evaluate the cleanliness of the boards after considering the cleaning conditions when
selecting the flux. Table 3.5 shows the recommended values based on the MIL standards
for the cleanliness of the board after devices are mounted.
Table 3.4
Structural Components of the Flux and Flux Functions
Structure
Function
Composition
Resin
To prevent reoxidization.
Natural or Modified rosin.
To reduce surface tension.
(WW rosin, Polymerized rosin, Hydrogenated
rosin, Disproportionated rosin)
To provide adhesion.
Activating
Component
To provide a surface cleaning
effect.
Amine hydrohalide salts.
(Etylamine hydrobromide, Aniline
hydrocloride, etc.)
Organic acids (stearic acid, sebacic acid, etc.)
Supplementary
Components
To supplement the functions.
Slump prevention material, adhesive material,
etc.
Thixotropic Agent
To prevent separation.
Hardened caster oil, etc.
Solvent
To regulate the viscosity.
Butyl carbitol
To provide adhesion.
Terpineol
Materials provided by: Senju Metal Industry Co., Ltd.
23
Table 3.5
Cleanliness of the Boards after the Devices Have Been Mounted (Converted
values from the MIL-P-28809A specified values)
Cleanliness of the printed
wiring board after cleaning.
Item
Standard
Amount of residual Cl.
1 µ g/cm 2, or less
The resistivity of the extracted
solvent (after extraction).
2 × 10 6 Ω · cm, or more
Notes: 1. Board Area:
Both sides of the printed wiring board plus the surface area of the
devices mounted thereon.
2. Extraction Solvent:
Isopropyl alcohol (75% by volume) plus H 2O (25% by volume).
(Before Extraction)
(The extracted solvent resistance is 6 × 10 6 Ω·cm or more.)
3. Extraction Method:
Rinse both sides of the printed wiring board with 10 ml/2.54 ×
2.54 cm2 for at least 1 minute.
4. Extracted Solvent Resistance Measurement:
With a conductivity gage.
(Check MIL-P-28809A for details on the MIL standards.)
(2) Performance Required by the Solder Paste
Requirements for performance of the solder paste are as listed below:
(a) Paste can be printed in the appropriate thickness and pattern using a screen printing
method. Or it is possible to supply a specific amount of paste using a dispenser. (It may
also be dip coated.)
(b) When there is a preheat process, the printed pattern will spread as much as required after
printing.
(c) There is excellent solderability on the chip electrodes and on the circuit paths.
(d) There is high reliability for the flux residual after reflow.
(e) Cleaning properties for the residual flux are excellent.
(f) There are no remaining solder balls after reflow or after cleaning.
(g) There are no changes in viscosity over time and that a specific set of use requirements are
maintained.
(h) Solder paste remains adhesive even after printing and it is able to adhere the device.
(Materials supplied by: Senju Metal Industry Co., Ltd.)
The board mounting pad dimensions and operability, product reliability, and so forth should be
thoroughly researched before selecting the solder paste.
24
3.2.2
Applying the Solder Paste
Generally, the solder paste is applied through either a screen printing method or a dispensing
method. The application method of solder paste will differ depending on the form of the solder
powder in the solder paste. Summaries of both methods are presented below.
(1) Screen Printing Method
The screen printing method is a method where a printing mask loaded with solder paste is
aligned on top of the printed wiring board, a squeegee is used on top of the printing mask to
push the solder paste through the mask, supplying the solder paste to the pads through the
openings in the mask.
There are mesh screens and metal stencils for the printing masks. The characteristics of each
are shown in Figure 3.18.
The various factors that influence the print quality are listed in Table 3.6.
(i) When a mesh screen is used.
Squeegee
;;
Solder paste
Screen gap
Printed wiring board
(ii) When a metal stencil is used: Printing in direct contact with the printed wiring board.
Squeegee
Solder paste
Printed wiring board
Figure 3.18 Screen Printing
25
Table 3.6
Factors That Influence the Quality of Screen Printing
Factor
Screen
(a) Density of the mesh.
(b) Thickness of the emulsion or the thickness
of the metal.
(c) Amount of tension.
(d) Unbalanced tension.
Paste.
(a) Viscosity.
Categories of Impact, With Details
Clarity of pattern (resolution)
Pattern film thickness
Pattern film thickness
Pattern misalignment, non-uniformity of the film
thickness.
Pattern film thickness
Blotting, blurring, contamination
Squeegee.
(a) Squeegee hardness.
Pattern dimensional precision, film thickness
Pattern dimensional precision, film thickness
(b) Shape of the squeegee (three types, flat,
rectangular, or sword-like).
(c) Angle of the squeegee (when a flat squeegee Pattern dimensional precision, film thickness
is used).
Operating Conditions.
(a) Screen gap.
(b) Squeegee pressure.
(c) Squeegee speed.
(d) Ambient temperature and humidity.
Pattern dimensional precision, film thickness
Blotting, blurring, contamination
Clarity, dimensional precision, and film thickness
of pattern
Pattern film thickness
Changes in the viscosity of the paste,
evaporation of the solvent
Changes in the board dimensions
Changes in the screen tension and the
dimensions
Mechanical Precision of the Printer.
Non-uniformity of the pattern film thickness
(a) Stability of the squeegee speed (speed
variation)
(b) Stability of the screen frame (screen slipping) Pattern printing misalignment
(c) Uneven screen gap.
Pattern printing misalignment, non-uniformity of
film thickness.
Pattern printing misalignment, non-uniformity of
(d) Parallelism of the squeegee (vis-à-vis the
film thickness.
table)
(e) Parallelism of the operation of the squeegee Pattern printing misalignment, non-uniformity of
film thickness.
(f) Mechanical strength (the force vis-à-vis the Pattern printing misalignment, non-uniformity of
film thickness.
squeegee).
26
Comparing metal stencils to mesh screens, the metal stencils are most appropriate in terms of
printing precision, and durability, and in soldering for fine lead pitch, the metal stencils are most
appropriate.
The following conditions are required by the metal stencils.
(i) Dimensional accuracy (the dimensions of the openings and the stencil thickness)
(ii) Ease of the solder paste removal
(iii) Positional accuracy
This accuracy is more important the finer the pitch of the pads.
(i)
Improving the Dimensional Accuracy
The accuracy of the opening dimensions and of the stencil thickness is greatly influenced by the
metal stencil manufacturing process; thus the metal stencil manufacturing process must be selected
based on the level of accuracy requirements.
Stencils that are manufactured using the electro-forming method (an additive method) are marked
by the shortcomings that they are expensive and that they have poor durability; however, their
removal characteristics are excellent (in that the solder paste does not catch on the side surfaces of
the openings when the stencil is removed), which leads to the strength that this approach can
improve the solder paste printing process. Because of this, metal stencils that have been
manufactured using the additive method are now used (in addition to the conventional etching
method) for fine pitch printing with pitches of 0.5 mm or less.
Figure 3.19 (supplied by Sonocom, Ltd.) shows the openings of the metal stencils manufactured
through both the conventional etching process and the additive process. Figure 3.20 combines the
various elements and shows the effects of improvements to the number of boards that can be
printed continuously. (Source: Data from Hitachi Techno Engineering, Ltd.)
Additive stencil
Etched stencil
Figure 3.19 Cross-sectional View of the Metal Stencils
(Source: Sonocom, Ltd.)
27
Number of boards printed continuously (relative value)
5
Additive stencil
Spherical solder
paste
4
Etched stencil
3
Irregular
solder
paste
Additive stencil and
spherical solder paste
2
1
0.65
0.5
0.4
0.3
Lead pitch (mm)
Figure 3.20 Results of Experiments on the Number of Boards That Can Be Printed
Continuously
(Source: Hitachi Techno Engineering, Ltd. Data)
(ii) Improving the Solder Paste Removal Properties
The solder paste removal properties are influenced by the cross-sectional smoothness of the stencil
openings. Consequently, the stencils that are manufactured through the electro-forming method
(an additive method) have come to be used because of the excellent smoothness of the side
surfaces of the openings. (See Figure 3.21)
When solder paste with higher levels of viscosity is used, providing a taper on the side walls of the
openings is said to improve the printing characteristics.
28
A 0.3 mm-pitch pattern printed using a stencil
manufactured by an additive method.
A 0.3 mm-pitch pattern printed using a stencil
manufactured by an etching method.
Figure 3.21 Print Patterns Using Different Types of Stencils
(Source: Hitachi Techno Engineering, Ltd. Catalog)
Select the printing stencil type to be used based on the lead pitch of the ICs to be mounted, the
costs, and so forth in an overall evaluation before making the selection.
(iii) Improving the Positional Accuracy
It is important to increase the stiffness of the stencil so that there will be no misalignment during
printing if there are going to be improvements in the positioning accuracy. Furthermore, image
recognition is required in order to perform high accuracy alignment between the board and the
stencil.
Solder paste application equipment possessing the automatic pattern recognition and positioning
methods, such as shown in Figure 3.22, is recommended if it is required to perform high yield
soldering, especially in high pin-count or fine-pitch applications.
29
Screen
Screen
Screen marks
(recognized after
test print)
Printing Unit
Printing Unit
Screen marks
Camera
Camera
Recognition
Unit
Recognition
Unit
Printing marks
Board for
printing
(standby unit)
Test print board
(a) Normal Method
(b) Method Used When Performing Solder Printing
Figure 3.22 Reference Mark Recognition Method
(2) Dispensing Method
The dispensing method is a method that uses air pressure to dispense a specific volume of
solder paste from a nozzle. The amount of paste dispensed is adjusted by the paste viscosity,
the nozzle diameter, the air pressure, and the dispensing time. Figure 3.23 presents a schematic
diagram of the dispensing method.
Air pressure
Nozzle
Regulator
Solder paste
;
Printed wiring board Mounting pad
Figure 3.23 Dispensing Method
30
;
;
;;
3.2.3
Amount of Printed Solder Paste
The solder paste to be printed is calculated using the method described below. (Figure 3.24.)
(a) When a Mesh Screen Is Used:
The amount of paste printed = (screen thickness × proportion of open area + emulsion thickness) × pattern area.
Screen thickness
Emulsion thickness
Solder paste
(b) When a Metal Stencil Is Used:
The amount of paste printed = stencil thickness × pattern area.
Metal stencil
Solder paste
Figure 3.24 Amount of Printed Solder Paste
31
The shape of the printed solder paste is sometimes ruined when it is spread after printing or during
the preheat process. This is normally called "slump" for solder paste. When this "slump" is
increased, it can lead to the formation of solder balls, and can extremely lead to the bridge and/or
misaligned devices. (Figure 3.25 (A)). It is said that by making the surface area of the paste that is
printed somewhat smaller than the mounting pads, it is possible to avoid the formation of solder
balls (Figure 3.25 (B)).
Mounting pad
Slump
Solder paste
Solder balls
(A)
Printed wiring
board
Print
Preheat
Reflow
The solder applied
is slighted smaller
than the size of the
mounting pad.
(B)
Figure 3.25 Solder Paste Slump
(Materials provided by Senju Metal Industry Co., Ltd.)
32
3.3
Temporary Adhesive
When the flow soldering method (i.e., the solder dipping method) is used, the devices must be
affixed temporarily before soldering. The temporary affixing of the devices is usually performed
using an adhesive. The temporary adhesives used can be categorized by how they are cured, either
using thermosetting type or UV curable type.
Issues such as the following must be taken into account when selecting the temporary adhesive:
Ease of Applying the Adhesive: Will a dispenser be used or will screen printing be used? Is high
speed dispensing a possibility?
Adhesive Strength: How much adhesive strength (in terms of kg) is required? In particular, will
the adhesive be able to stand up to the flow soldering conditions?
Curing Conditions: What is the maximum temperature and the maximum time to which the IC
device and the board can be exposed for curing?
Reliability: What impact will there be on reliability of the products as a whole when it comes to
the characteristics of the adhesive after curing (for example, its electrical isolation characteristics,
its dielectric constant, its coefficient of thermal expansion, etc.)?
33
3.3.1
Adhesive Strength
Figure 3.26 shows the temporary adhesive strength of typical adhesives in the market place.
Regardless of the adhesive material used we were able to obtain an adequate adhesive strength.
However, the adhesives with the greater adhesive strengths were the thermosetting types.
Average adhesive strength (kg/mm2)
1.5
Cured
at 150 °C
for 60
seconds
1.0
0.5
0
Adhesive strength
criteria: 0.3 kg/mm2
UF1300
NF5000 PD860002
Adhesive A Fuji
Heleus
Chemicals Somar
UV curable type
D124F
JU-11T
Amicon
Koki
Thermosetting type
Figure 3.26 Adhesive Strengths of the Temporary Adhesives (Examples Using SOP)
34
3.3.2
Curing Conditions
In adhesive A, which was shown in Figure 3.26, an adequate adhesive strength is obtained after
cured at a sufficiently high temperature. As is shown in Figure 3.27, generally the adhesive which
is applied to the bottom surface of the package body is cooler than the surface of the board. Be
sure to obtain adequate adhesive strength by controlling the curing conditions at the adhesive.
Temperature on the
surface of the board
150°C
Temperature
135°C
Temperature at the
adhesive
Time
Figure 3.27 Example of the Temperature Profile When Curing the Temporary Adhesive
35
3.3.3
Amount of Adhesive Applied (Height)
The dependence of the adhesive strength on the area adhesion is substantial, and it is necessary to
investigate the coating spread of the adhesive so that the optimal strength can be obtained (Figure
3.28). Moreover, the stand-off heights are different depending on the packages. The amount of
adhesive applied, and especially the height of the application must be optimized for each package
(Figure 3.29).
20
Adhesive strength (kg/mm2)
(For a 32-pin SOP)
15
10
5
0
10
20
30
40
Adhesive area after curing (mm2)
Figure 3.28 Relationship Between the Adhesive Area and the Adhesive Strength
(Using Adhesive: NF5000)
SOP
The adhesive layer is not
thick enough for an SOJ,
and thus “does not reach.”
SOJ
;;
;
Temporary adhesive
Figure 3.29 Optimization of the Application Height of the Temporary Adhesive (Schematic)
36
3.4
Mounting (Placement)
3.4.1
Mounting Process
While the actual mounting process may vary in terms of the equipment used, or in terms of the
devices that are mounted, the mounting capability, etc., when it comes to the mounting process
itself, the processes used can be categorized as the individual device mounting method, the in-line
mounting method, and the batch mounting method depending on whether individual devices are
mounted one at a time or whether multiple devices are mounted simultaneously. Supplementary
equipment for each model type must be provided so that the mounter that will be used for surface
mount packages will be able to perform high precision mounting operations, and in most cases
robots are used in an individual device mounting system. The various methods for mounting are as
shown in Figure 3.30.
37
X-Y Table
Vacuum nozzle
Printed wiring board
Feeder
Devices
(a) Individual Mounting Method
Vacuum nozzle
Feeder
Printed wiring board
Devices
(b) In-line Mounting Method
Devices
Vacuum nozzle
Printed wiring board
Magazine
(c) Batch Mounting Method
Figure 3.30 Device Mounting Methods
38
3.4.2
Selecting the Mounter
As lead pitches become finer, there are ever increasing demands for greater accuracy in the
mounting process. Issues such as the following require careful consideration when selecting the
mounter:
•
•
•
•
•
Mounting accuracy
Mounting speed
Positioning method
Repeatability accuracy
Set-up time
High precision equipment is especially important when performing fine-pitch mounting for
multipin QFP, etc. with a lead pitch of 0.5 mm or less. The key points in selecting the mounter for
fine pitch placement are to emphasize the precision of the mounting, and the following issues
require special attention:
• The equipment must be able to recognize the printed wiring board.
• The equipment must have a positional accuracy within ±0.1 mm (and there must be visual
recognition for all devices).
• The equipment must be able to provide control in the vertical direction (i.e., the direction of the
Z axis) so that that the force with which the leads are inserted can be controlled.
• The equipment must be able to detect bent leads and must have an auto reject function (i.e., a
function that inspects the package and only places packages with the proper external
appearance.)
On the IC package side, as well, it is critical that the packages are shipped in "hard trays" to
prevent bent leads and floating leads, thus making it possible to provide high precision mounting
capabilities. For the lead coplanarity, which is an especially critical attribute, 0.1 mm is guaranteed
for most packages.
39
3.4.3
Mounting Accuracy
Figure 3.31 shows the fundamental concepts of mounting accuracy.
W
Lead
X: Allowable misalignment
Mounting pad
b
Allowable protrusion
Mounting accuracy=
(Total placement accuracy)2 — (Board accuracy)2 — (QFP lead accuracy)2
Total placement accuracy = the amount of allowable misalignment (X).
(Example)
Example for a 0.4 mm pitch QFP where the allowable protrusions are 1/3 of lead width (W):
Total placement accuracy = allowable misalignment (X) = W × 1/3 + (b-W) × 1/2
= 0.17 mm/3 + (0.22 mm - 0.17 mm) / 2 = 0.0817 mm.
When we assume that the board pattern accuracy: 0.01 mm, QFP lead accuracy: 0.03 mm,
Mounting accuracy =
(0.0817)2 — (0.01)2 — (0.03)2 = ±0.075 mm
Figure 3.31 QFP Mounting Accuracy
3.4.4
Shapes of the Package Packing
(1) Specifications and Characteristics of the Package Packing
At Hitachi, Ltd. products are shipped in one of three forms: "magazines," "trays," and
"embossed taping." See Chapter 4 of the "Hitachi Semiconductor Package Data Book,"
published by Hitachi, Ltd. regarding the form in which the packages are shipped, and regarding
the external dimensions of the various packing types.
Figure 3.32 shows the general packing specifications used at Hitachi. Table 3.7 lists the
features and characteristics of the packing characteristics at Hitachi.
40
Outside Cardboard Packing Box
Carton tape (blue)
PP band
Inside Box
Corrugated cardboard
Label
Cardboard
Magazine
Tape
Corrugated cardboard
Label
Magazine, Tray or Tape
Tape IC device
Stopper
Magazine
Reel
Tray
Figure 3.32 LSI Package Packing Specifications
41
Table 3.7
Features and Characteristics of Hitachi's Packing Specifications
Characteristic
Magazine
Standardized at 495 mm or 500 mm long, the magazines are used for various types of
packages.
Tray
The external tray dimensions are standardized at 315.8 mm (L) × 135.8 mm (W) × 7.6
mm (T). However, the trend toward the use of JEDEC trays continues.
Tape
The specifications for the tape conform to the JIS C0806, EIA481, and IEC286-3.
(2) Environmental Compatibility
Hitachi is aggressively pursuing the following measures to reduce waste and to increase the
effectiveness of resource utilization:
(i) Recycling of Packing Materials
• To decrease waste and utilize limited resources, Hitachi
 plans to recover and reuse trays
 promotes marking to indicate the materials used in packing-trays, magazines, reels, etc.
 seeks easily recycled alternatives to conventional packing materials
(ii) Reducing the Amount of Packing Material and Switching to Different Packing Materials
As shown in Table 3.8, Hitachi is reducing the amount of cushioning material used for devices
shipped in trays and certain devices shipped in magazines and changing the packing materials
for devices shipped in tapes.
42
Table 3.8
Reducing Cushioning Material and Changing Packing Materials
Before change
After change
Air bubbles (for packing)
Outside
packing box
(Example of
reduced use of
cushioning material
for devices shipped
in trays)
Inside box
Inside box
(Example of
reduced use of
cushioning material
for devices shipped
in magazines)
Individual packing
(Example of change
in packing
materials for devices
shipped in tapes)
Inside box (carton paper)
Inside box
Size of outside box adjusted to
match inside box
Inside box (cardboard)
Bubble wrap or Styrofoam
Embossed carrier tapes
made of polyvinyl chloride
Polystyrene (no polyvinyl chloride)
43
3.5
Soldering
3.5.1
Soldering Methods
Soldering methods can be divided into partial heating methods where only the parts to be soldered
are heated and full heating methods where the entire packages are heated. While the influence of
temperature on the package is relatively small because of the minimal increase in temperature of
the package itself in the partial heating method, the range of application of this method is limited
because of its unsuitability for high-volume production. On the other hand, even though the
superior performance in mass production of the full heating method has caused this method to be
employed used, the temperature increase of the package as a whole is considerable and thus ample
care is required regarding the thermal shock to the packages. Table 3.9 shows the primary
soldering methods used for surface mount packages.
44
Table 3.9
Soldering Methods Used for Surface Mount Packages
Summary of Soldering
Method
Partial
Heating
Methods
Temperature Thermal
Productivity Uniformity Shock
Illustration
Soldering iron
Solderability Cost
Soldering iron
Pulse current
Pulse heater
Heater
Hot air
Hot air
Laser
Laser
Xenon
lamp
Parabolic
mirror
Light beam
Printed wiring board
Full
Heating
Methods
Infrared
heater
Infrared reflow
Cooling coil
Vapor phase reflow
VPS* method
Saturated
vapor
Inert liquid
Heater
Air reflow
Heater
N2 reflow
Heater
Hot air
N2 (Nitrogen)
Flow soldering
Flow solder
(Solder bath for surface mounting)
Note:
The circle mark indicates a comparative advantage over the other methods.
VPS: Vapor Phase reflow Soldering
45
Although full heating methods are seen as advantageous for mass production, for devices that are
particularly sensitive to the heat associated with soldering, we recommend using a partial heating
method (e.g., soldering iron heating) following reflow soldering of other devices.
In high density mounting, methods such as the VPS method and the air reflow method, which tend
not to raise the temperature of the package as a whole but which are able to heat the solder joints
directly, are useful in terms of the thermal conduction methods.
Infrared reflow
Air reflow
Radiant heat
Convection heat
Conducted heat
Conducted heat
Conducted heat
Conducted heat
Printed wiring board
Figure 3.33 Comparison of Thermal Conduction Methods (Schematic)
3.5.2
Overview of Various Soldering Methods
1. Partial Heating Methods
(i) Soldering Iron Heating
This is a method where the package is affixed to the board using flux or an adhesive and a
soldering iron is used to perform the soldering process (i.e., melting the solder). In order to
avoid reliability degradation from overheating, the temperature of the soldering iron should
be 350°C or less, and the soldering iron should not be in contact with any given pin for
more than 3 seconds. The temperature of the lead itself should be 260°C or less.
(ii) Pulse Heating
This is a method where a heat collet is placed on the leads after the package has been
placed on the pad, and the collet is heated through a pulse current to perform the soldering
by melting the solder.
(a) While the reflow heating characteristics are determined by the collet temperature,
because there is gap between the collet temperature and the actual temperature at the
46
solder joints, it is likely that the actual temperature at the solder joints will be lower
than the temperature setting for the collet.
(b) When there is a large amount of variability within the temperature distribution within
the heat collet, or when the heat collet is lacking adequate thermal capacity, the
soldering temperature will differ depending on the actual soldering process performed.
For these reasons, it is necessary to carefully consider the following when setting the
reflow conditions:
(a) Setting the reflow temperature conditions in terms of the actual solder joint
temperature.
(b) Setting the reflow temperature at a target of approximate 50°C higher than the solder
melting point.
(iii) Hot Air Heating
This is a process where the reflow heating makes use of a jet of hot gas from a nozzle,
where this gas (air, nitrogen, etc.) is heated using a heater. Because the thermal conduction
and thermal capacity of the gaseous medium used in this method are low, an extremely
large volume of heated air must be supplied, and it is difficult to insure uniformity and
stability in the processing conditions.
Heater
Air or nitrogen
Quartz glass tube
LSI
Hot air
Solder paste
Printed wiring board
Mounting pad
Figure 3.34 Schematic Diagram of the Hot Air Heating Method
47
(iv)Laser Heating
This is a method where the soldering is performed by melting the solder through irradiating
the solder joint with a laser beam. Generally YAG lasers are used most often in this process
because of the thermal transfer to the metal surface at the solder joint and because of the
level of energy absorption at the printed wiring board.
Camera
Cross line
Relay lens
Mirrors for beam axis
adjustment
Dichroic mirror
;
Illumination
Beam expander
Focusing lens
Material to be soldered
Laser beam
Figure 3.35 Example of the Optical System for a YAG Laser
(v) Light Beam Heating
This is a method where light from a source such as a xenon lamp is concentrated using a
parabolic mirror, and the soldering is performed by splitting the beam and shining it on the
solder joints.
There is also equipment that splits the beam into four parts, making it possible to perform
the soldering of the packages with the leads emerged into four sides.
2. Full Heating Methods
(i) Infrared Reflow Method
This is a method where the solder is melted and the soldering process is thus performed
based on radiant heat (i.e., heat that is radiated from infrared light sources such as lamps,
panel heaters, sheath heaters, etc.). This method is used very often because of its superior
performance in mass production situations. Figure 3.36 shows a schematic of infrared
reflow equipment.
For the reasons listed below, it is likely that there will be a temperature gap even within a
given package:
48
(a) There will be locations that are illuminated directly by the infrared radiation (the top
surfaces of the devices, etc.), along with places that are not illuminated (such as the
bottom surfaces of the devices).
(b) The level of absorption of infrared radiation will vary depending on the material being
used (e.g., the resin, lead materials, solder paste, etc.).
As a result, when this method is used, the surface temperature of the package body will be
higher than the temperature of the leads when the reflow temperature profile is set for the
lead parts which are to be soldered, which in some cases may cause thermal stresses and
cracks in the package. There are especially large thermal stresses on the ICs when the near
infrared rays are used (wherein resin is quite transparent), and thus at present the far
infrared rays are usually used. In either case, the surface temperature of the package body
must be checked when the temperature profile is set. Section 3.9.2 should also be
referenced for the information regarding the prevention of package cracking.
Exhaust
Heaters
Heaters or lamps
Preheating
Main heating
Cooling
Device load
Device unload
Conveyor
Figure 3.36 Infrared Reflow Equipment
(ii) Air Reflow Method
In the air reflow method, the solder is melted through a hot gas (convection heating) that is
circulated within the furnace chamber after either air or inert gas has been heated using a
heater. One of two methods can be used: either the heating can be performed using hot air
alone or the heating can be performed using a combination of hot air and infrared radiation.
Figure 3.37 shows a schematic of the air reflow equipment.
49
The strengths of this method have to do with the fact that the heating is performed
primarily by thermal transmission from the hot air flow, and thus it is possible to have less
variability in temperature in the devices and in the printed wiring board than is found using
the infrared reflow method, with thermal uniformities similar to those of the VPS method.
When compared to the VPS method, the air reflow method has a relative cost advantage
because there is no need for any solvent, and thus this method is expected to be
increasingly popular in the future. However, when inert gases are not used, then the
ambient gases will be likely to cause oxidation, which could lead to problems such as
solder balls. Thus care is required when selecting the gas.
Exhaust
Hot air flow fan
Fan
Heater
Preheat
chamber
Cooler
Preheat
chamber
Reflow
chamber Hot air
Figure 3.37 Air Reflow Equipment
(iii) N2 Reflow Method
While in principle this method is the same as the air reflow method, in this method N2
(nitrogen) is circulated instead of air when the reflow soldering is performed.
When the oxygen density is 1000 PPM or less in the circulating chamber when the solder is
melted, then there are generally effects such as greater control of solder balls and greater
control of solder bridges (when there is fine-pitch placement) than is possible when
performing the reflow in a normal atmosphere environment.
(iv) Vapor Phase Reflow Method (VPS Method)
This is a method where a solvent is heated to create a vapor layer, the entire printed wiring
board is passed through this solvent vapor layer and the reflow soldering is performed by
the latent heat of vaporization. Figure 3.38 shows a schematic of the vapor phase reflow
equipment.
The features of this method include the following.
50
(a) There is no danger of overheating vis-à-vis the set temperature because the reflow
temperature does not exceed the boiling point of the solvent (where solvents at the
boiling point of 215°C are commonly used).
(b) The heating is performed uniformly so that there is little influence of the shape of the
devices or of the printed wiring boards.
(c) Because the reflow process is performed in an inert atmosphere, there is no oxidation of
the solder and thus the solder wettability is excellent.
(d) There is a decreased tendency for the flux to become burnt on, making cleaning
relatively easy.
Exhaust system
recovery unit
Chiller
unit
Cooling
chamber
Preheat
Reflow
chamber chamber
Filtering
unit
In-line equipment structure
(Source: Hitachi Techno Engineering, Ltd. catalog)
Figure 3.38 Vapor Phase Reflow Equipment
(v) Flow Soldering Method
In this method, the devices are temporarily fixed to the printed wiring board using an
adhesive, the board is inverted so that the devices are on the bottom surface of the board
and the bottom surface of the board is then passed through molten solder (flow solder).
Figure 3.39 shows a schematic of the flow soldering process by which soldering is
performed using the SOP. The flow soldering method usually uses temperatures relatively
higher than reflow methods when performing the soldering, and thus large thermal shocks
are likely, limiting the range of products to which this process can be applied. Note that
this process is not suited to all products: please contact your service representative
regarding whether or not the flow soldering process can be applied to your products. We
also recommend that you review Section 3.3 regarding the use of temporary adhesives.
51
Adhesive
Adhesive application
Mounting pads
SOP placement
SOP
Adhesive cure
Solder dip
Direction of movement
Flow solder
(Solder bath for surface mounting)
Figure 3.39 Schematic of Flow Soldering Method (Using a SOP as an example)
3.5.3
Setting the Soldering Temperature Profile
Peak temperature
Temperature
Time
Temperature
ramping
Preheating
temperature
Time
Temperature
ramping
Preheating
Main heating
(Reflow)
Cooling
• Key Approaches to Setting the Temperature Profile
Key considerations in setting the temperature profile for the soldering process include the
following:
 Setting temperature conditions that allow effective soldering
 Setting temperature conditions that do not cause thermal damage to the devices
52
• Key Points in Assigning Actual Temperature Profile Settings
The key parameters to be set in defining the temperature profile include the following:
 Peak temperature
 Solder melting time
 Preheating temperature and time
 Temperature ramping
1. Setting the Peak Temperature
The optimal parameters for the peak temperature should be set after taking the following into
consideration:
(a) The surface temperature of the devices to be mounted must be less than the thermal
durability temperature of those devices.
(b) The solder joint temperature must be higher than the solder paste melting point.
Example 1: 63Sn-37Pb eutectic solder paste
Generally the temperature is 30°C above the solder paste melting point.
Solder paste melting point:
183°C
Solder joint temperature:
210 to 260°C at leads
210 to 260°C at balls of BGA*
Note: * When BGA is used, it is necessary to melt the balls as well in order that the shape of the
solder joints after reflow soldering should be a uniform “barrel” shape. If the composition
of the BGA balls is Sn-Ag, the solder joint temperature should be between 220°C and
260°C.
Example 2: Sn-Ag solder paste
Solder paste melting point:
Solder joint temperature:
Approximately 217°C
230 to 260°C at leads
230 to 260°C at balls of BGA
Depending on the size of the device, there may be differences between the solder joint temperature
and the temperature of the surface of the package body.
While there is a tendency that there is few differences between the lead temperature and the
surface temperature of the package in the small TQFP 1414 size, the lead temperature tends to be
higher than the surface temperature of the package in the larger QFP 2828 size.
2. Solder Melting Time
When the solder melting time is too short, the solder does not adequately melt and spread onto
the mounting pads and the leads. Conversely, if the solder melting time is too long, there can
be a "silver scavenging" phenomenon in the Ag and Ag-Pd electrodes, reducing the strength of
the solder joint. These factors must be taken into consideration when setting the solder melting
time.
53
3. Preheating
The role of preheating is becoming more important as the mounting density increases. The
primary roles played by the preheating process include the following:
(a) Preventing or minimizing board warping
(b) Evaporating the solvent in the solder paste
(c) Preventing the wicking and the Manhattan phenomena
While the preheating process does not affect thermal damage to the devices themselves, the
process is required for effective soldering.
When the preheating process is too long, the surface of solder paste and the printed wiring
board oxidizes, which may lead to the formation of solder balls and poor wetting. On the other
hand, if the preheating process is too short, the amount of warp in the printed wiring board may
increase, there may be temperature gaps between the board, the IC leads, and the surface of the
packages, and there may be a greater tendency for the wicking and the Manhattan phenomena.
Taking these factors into consideration, we recommend that preheating conditions be set such
that the entire printed wiring board is heated to a uniform temperature.
4. Thermal Ramping
There is the danger of thermal damage to the devices when the temperature ramping (i.e., the
rate at which the temperature is increased or decreased) is too large in the process; however,
there should be no problems with the 1 to 5°C/second temperature ramp recommended by
Hitachi.
On the other hand, increasing the thermal ramp with which the printed wiring boards are
cooled (i.e., by increasing the speed of cooling) can improve the luster of the solder surface of
the solder joints. However, it must be noted when setting the thermal ramping parameters that
if the cooling ramp is too fast, there will be an increased tendency for the printed wiring board
to warp.
54
3.5.4
Soldering Methods for Various Surface Mount Packages
Table 3.10 shows the appropriate soldering methods to be used for the various types of surface
mount packages. Select the soldering method based on factors such as manufacturing capability,
thermal damage to devices, etc.
Table 3.10 Soldering Methods for Various Surface Mount Packages
Soldering Methods
HTSSOP*4
HQFP*4
HLQFP*4
HTQFP*4
QFN
SOP
P-VQFN MFPAK
SSOP
TSSOP
BGA
HSOP
VSSOP
SMPAK
LFBGA
P-VSON
CMFPAK
QFP
HBGA
HSOI
SMFPAK
LQFP
HFBGA TSOP-6
G-QFP QFJ
HQFP TQFP
3
LDPAK(S) LFPAK RP8P*4 SFP
HLQFP HTQFP TSOP SIP*
SOJ G-QFJ TFBGA
×
Partial Soldering
Heating iron/Laser
Methods
Pulse heater
×
×
×
×
×
Other
Discrete
Packages
Not Listed
to the Left
×
×
×
Hot air
Full
Infrared reflow/
Heating Air reflow
Methods
Vapor phase
reflow
Flow
soldering*5
*1
*1, 2
*2
×
×
×
×
×
×
: Soldering is possible using this method on the conditions recommended by Hitachi, Ltd.
X: Soldering cannot be performed using this method. (Please avoid using this method.)
Notes: *1 Varies depending on the product. Contact your sales representative for more details.
*2 For some products, the maximum solder bath temperature is 235°C and the maximum
time passing through the solder bath is 5 seconds.
*3 Only the SP-23TD may be surface mounted.
*4 Heat spreader exposed type and die pad exposed type.
*5 With fine pitch packages, there is the potential for solder bridges, etc. Use this method
only after the soldering conditions have been confirmed.
55
3.5.5
Soldering Conditions
Control of both the soldering temperature and the humidity during package storage are important
in order to prevent the deterioration in surface mount package reliability due to thermal shock
during soldering. A variety of soldering conditions are described below. If there are any points of
disagreement, the soldering conditions listed in the delivery specifications for the individual
products should take priority over the conditions listed below.
(1) Soldering Conditions Using Partial Heating Methods (Table 3.11)
The conditions listed below are recommended when using Sn-Pb eutectic or Sn-Ag solder
paste to mount packages with leads (QFP, etc.) that are suitable for soldering using partial
heating methods.
Table 3.11 Soldering Conditions Using Partial Heating Methods
Methods
Conditions
Soldering iron
Maximum lead temperature: 260°C for 3 seconds. However, the temperature of
the soldering iron itself should not exceed 350°C.
Pulse heater
Hot air
Laser
5 to 10 seconds
230°C to
260°C
Lead
Package
Solder
Mounting pad
Location at which to measure the temperature of the
solder joint is marked with the diagonal lines.
;
Solder joint temperature
Light beam
Time
56
(2) Soldering Conditions Using Full Heating Methods
We recommend limiting heating to three times within the storage durations indicated in section
3.8.3.
(a) Reflow Soldering Conditions (Tables 3.12 to 3.15)
(i) IC Packages
• Packages with Leads (QFP, etc.)
Table 3.12 Soldering Conditions for IC Packages with Leads Using Reflow Soldering
Methods
Lead plating
Solder paste
Sn-Pb eutectic
Sn-Ag
Peak temperature: 260°C*
230°C or greater for 50 seconds or less
50 seconds or less
260°C Max.*
230°C
140 to 160°C
1 to 4°C/second
Approx.
60 seconds
1 to 5°C/second
Sn-Pb eutectic
Sn-Ag
Peak temperature: 260°C*
230°C or greater for 50 seconds or less
50 seconds or less
Package surface temperature
Package surface temperature
Package surface
temperature (upper limit)
Temperature profile
Sn–Bi, Sn–Cu
Sn-Pb, palladium
260°C Max.*
230°C
150 to 180°C
90 ±30
seconds
1 to 4°C/second
1 to 5°C/second
Time
Time
Note: * The maximum temperature for large and thick QFPs or QFJs is 250°C.
Refer to the delivery specifications of the individual product for details.
57
• BGA
Table 3.13 Soldering Conditions for BGA Using Reflow Soldering Methods
Sn-Pb eutectic
Ball composition
Solder paste
Sn-Pb eutectic
Sn-Ag
Sn-Ag
Sn-Pb eutectic
Sn-Ag
Peak temperature: 260°C
230°C or greater for 50 seconds or less
Package surface temperature
Package surface
temperature (upper limit)
Temperature profile
50 seconds or less
260°C Max.
230°C
150 to 180°C
90 ±30
seconds
1 to 4°C/second
1 to 5°C/second
Time
(ii) Transistor Packages
Table 3.14 Soldering Conditions for Transistor Packages Using Reflow Soldering Methods
Lead plating
Sn–Bi, Sn–Cu
Sn-Pb, palladium
Solder paste
Sn-Pb eutectic
Sn-Ag
Peak temperature: 260°C*
230°C or greater for 50 seconds or less
Package surface
temperature (upper limit)
Sn-Pb eutectic
Peak temperature: 260°C*
230°C or greater for 50 seconds or less
50 seconds or less
230°C
140 to 160°C
1 to 4°C/second
Approx.
60 seconds
1 to 5°C/second
Package surface temperature
Temperature profile
Package surface temperature
50 seconds or less
260°C Max.*
260°C Max.*
230°C
150 to 180°C
90 ±30
seconds
1 to 4°C/second
1 to 5°C/second
Time
Note: *
58
Sn-Ag
For UPAK, DPAK, and LDPAK products, please refer to the
delivery specifications.
Time
(iii)
Diode Packages
Table 3.15 Soldering Conditions for Diode Packages Using Reflow Soldering Methods
Lead plating
Sn–Bi, Sn–Cu
Sn–Pb
Solder paste
Sn-Pb eutectic
Package surface
temperature (upper limit)
Peak temperature: 260°C
230°C or greater for 50 seconds or less
Sn-Pb eutectic
Sn-Ag
Peak temperature: 260°C
230°C or greater for 50 seconds or less
50 seconds or less
260°C Max.
Package surface temperature
Package surface temperature
Temperature profile
Sn-Ag
230°C
140 to 160°C
1 to 4°C/second
Approx.
60 seconds
1 to 5°C/second
50 seconds or less
260°C Max.
230°C
150 to 180°C
90 ±30
seconds
1 to 4°C/second
1 to 5°C/second
Time
Time
(b) Flow Soldering Conditions (Table 3.16)
The conditions for the flow soldering method are shown in the table below.
Table 3.16 Soldering Conditions Using Flow Soldering Method
Item
Conditions
Preheating Temperature 80 to 150°C
Time
Solder dip
Condition Setting
—
At the surface of the printed wiring
board
1 to 3 minutes
Temperature 230 to 250°C* 1
Time
Upper Limit
2 to 4 seconds
260°C* 1
7 seconds*
Solder bath temperature
1, 2
Time during which the package
passes through the solder bath.
Notes: *1 For some products of thin packages (TQFP, TSOP), the solder bath temperature should
not exceed 235°C and the time passing through the solder bath should not exceed 5
seconds. Refer to the delivery specifications of the individual product for details.
*2 For surface mounted transistor products, the time passing through the solder bath
should not exceed 5 seconds. Refer to the delivery specifications of the individual
product for details.
59
• SOP-28 pins
Solder bath: 245°C
Dip time: 4 seconds
(The temperature is measured at the
surface of the printed wiring board.)
4 seconds
235°C
Temperature
Preheat approximately 60 seconds.
120°C
Board surface
temperature
Enters the solder
Exits the solder
Time
Figure 3.40 Example Temperature Profile for Flow Soldering Method
Note that the applicability of this process depends on the individual products; contact your service
representative directly to check the applicability of this process to your products.
When the flow soldering method is used, there are even greater temperature differences within the
IC itself depending on the thermal capacity of the packages than there are using reflow methods
such as IR reflow. This is because the heat that reaches the IC comes from direct thermal
transmission from contact with the molten solder.
One method that is commonly used in experimenting with the thermal durability to flow soldering
method is that of immersing the IC which is not mounted on a board into the solder bath.
However, although this method is both convenient and easy to perform, because all surfaces of the
package directly contact the molten solder, the temperature within the IC will be higher than it
would were the IC mounted on a board used as it is in actual practice, and thus the stresses exerted
on the package will be larger. Consequently, we would suggest that when thermal durability
testing is performed relative to the flow soldering method, it should be performed using ICs that
are actually mounted on boards in order to insure testing conditions more closely resembling the
actual conditions of use.
60
Figure 3.41 shows a comparison of the temperature profiles for tests using the ICs which are not
mounted on boards vs. tests where the ICs are mounted on boards.
Even when the solder temperatures and dip times are held constant, whether or not the package
cracks is dependent on the temperatures within the package (i.e., the temperature at the die itself or
at the die pad, etc.) and we can see from the figure that there is relatively little chance of cracking
when the ICs are mounted on boards.
300
Mounted on board
Board
10s
SOP-32 pins
surface temperature:
247°C
Package surface
temperature: 241°C
• Solder bath temperature:
260°C
• Dip time: 10 seconds
250
Not mounted on board
10s
Package surface
temperature: 247 °C
Die surface
temperature: 224°C
Temperature (°C)
200
Die surface
temperature: 189°C
150
100
50
0
0
60
120
180
240
300
0
60
120
Time (seconds)
Figure 3.41 Comparative Example of Solder Dip Temperature Profiles (For ICs mounted
on boards vs. ICs not mounted on boards)
61
Furthermore, when the IC has been in the solder dip for 5 seconds or less, a small change in the
solder dip time will result in a large difference in peak temperature within the IC. (See Figure
3.42.)
The thermal stresses on the ICs can be minimized by shortening the duration of the solder dip as
much as possible.
300
10 seconds
9 seconds
8 seconds
7 seconds
6 seconds
5 seconds
Internal Temperature (°C)
250
200
4 seconds
3 seconds
2 seconds
150
1 second
100
50
(SOP-28 pins)
Solder bath temperature: 260 ± 2°C
0
Time
Figure 3.42 Examples of the Relationship Between the Temperature Within the IC and the
Duration of the Solder Dip (Example taken for a IC not mounted on board)
62
3.6
Cleaning
When there is residual flux that includes corrosive materials on the printed wiring board after the
reflow soldering process is performed, this flux may have an influence on the reliability of the
devices and of the wiring board interconnects. Because of this, a cleaning or rinsing is performed
to remove the residual flux, or solder paste must be selected that includes a flux that is compatible
to a "no-clean" process (i.e. a flux that leaves little residual material).
The following must be taken into account when determining whether to use a cleaning process or
to use a "no-clean" process,:
•
•
•
•
•
Product reliability level
Environment in which the product will be used
Appearance level
Characteristics of the flux to be used
Whether or not there is the need for an in-circuit test.
3.6.1
Selecting the Cleaning Solution
The type of cleaning solution will vary greatly depending on whether the flux to be used is a rosinbased, or whether the flux to be used is water soluble. The cleaning solution must be selected to
match the characteristics of the flux residue.
(1) When a Rosin-based Flux is Used
(a) Terpene-based solvent: A fluid that has components extracted from orange peels.
(b) Petroleum-based solvent: A compound fluid made from a petroleum-based solvent and a
surface activator.
(c) Alcohol-based solvent: Ethanol, methanol, etc.
(d) Alkaline thinner.
(2) When a Water-soluble Flux is Used
(a) Water (including hot water)
(b) Water with an alkali neutralizer.
(3) Cleaning Solutions and Fluxes Compatible With the Anti-chlorofluorocarbon Regulations
We have investigated the impact on semiconductor packages of the use of typical cleaning
solutions and fluxes that are compatible with anti-chlorofluorocarbon regulations.
The typical materials are given in Table 3.17, below. None of these materials have an impact
on the semiconductor packages.
63
Table 3.17 Cleaning Solutions and Fluxes Compatible With Anti-chlorofluorocarbon
Regulations
Cleaning Solutions Compatible With Rosin-based Fluxes
Water Soluble Fluxes
EC-7
Lonco: 3355-11
Pain-α ST-100S
Tamura Chemicals: TF-33B
Clean-Through 750H
Koki: JSW-3F
Techno-care FPW, FPV
Filler Metals Japan:
FW175 (35)
FW178
The table above lists the common cleaning solutions. Select the cleaning solution after considering
the impact on the environment and the safety issues, etc.
3.6.2
Cleaning Methods
Cleaning methods include ultrasonic cleaning, immersion cleaning, spray cleaning, and vapor
cleaning. The respective benefits of these methods are listed below.
Table 3.18 Various Cleaning Methods
Ultrasonic Cleaning This is a method where the cleaning is performed by subjecting the product to
ultrasonic vibrations when it is in the solution. While this method can make the
cleaning solution to enter fine spaces, caution is required, because it may
damage the connections in the product.
Immersion Cleaning This is a method where the product is submerged in the cleaning fluid,
requiring the cleaning fluid to be very clean.
Spray Cleaning
This is a method where a high-pressure solvent spray is sprayed against the
product. Spraying at an angle may increase the effectiveness of cleaning when
there is little clearance between the devices and the printed wiring board.
Vapor Cleaning
This is a method where the cleaning is performed by solvent vapors. This
method is often used as a final cleaning method because it is possible to clean
using a solvent that contains no impurities.
The selection of the cleaning solution, the cleaning method, the cleaning equipment, and so forth
depends on the structure of the printed wiring board and on the configuration of devices on the
board. Select an appropriate cleaning method based on an evaluation that takes all of these factors
into account.
64
3.6.3
Cleaning Conditions
The following conditions are presented as an example of ultrasonic cleaning. However, care is
required in selecting the applied frequency, power (especially the peak power), and time. Also, be
sure devices do not resonate.
(a) Frequency:
28 kHz to 29 kHz (selected so that the device does not resonate.)
(b) Ultrasonic output:
15W/liter (once)
(c) Time:
30 seconds or less
(d) Other:
The oscillator shall not contact the device or the printed wiring board
directly.
This is especially true for ceramic packages such as QFN (LCC) and QFP (Ceramic), because they
are cavity packages and the ultrasonic cleaning will cause the connection wires to resonate, thus
breaking the wires.
3.6.4
Determining the Cleanliness
Determine the cleanliness based on Table 3.5 of Section 3.2.1, discussed above, "Cleanliness of
the Boards after the Devices Have Been Mounted."
3.6.5
Other Notes and Cautions
(1) Be aware that exposure to excessive cleaning may cause the markings on the package to fade
for disappear; check the process under actual use conditions.
(2) Cleaning Using Organic Solvents
(a) Because of flammability concerns, fire-prevention equipment must be used when terpenebased solvents, alcohol, or petroleum-based solvents are used.
(b) When the cleaning is done by rinsing with water, it is necessary to give adequate
consideration to processing the effluent.
(3) Rinsing with Water
Care must be taken to follow all regulations pertaining to waste water processing.
65
3.7
Inspection
3.7.1
Inspection Equipment
As the soldering connection pitch becomes finer and the solder joints are miniaturized, the amount
of solder per joint and the area of joint both become smaller, and thus the inspections in each
process through the completion of soldering are ever more important. While in the past visual
inspections have been the primary means by which these inspections have been performed,
recently a variety of automated inspection equipment has been developed and has appeared on the
market.
At present the inspection equipment is primarily soldering appearance inspection equipment and
solder paste post-printing appearance inspection equipment.
(1) Soldering Appearance Inspection Equipment
While in the past the primary objective of inspections and tests was to determine whether or
not the soldering appearance is acceptable, recently the equipment is also able to inspect the
device mounting status at the same time.
66
Table 3.19 Schematic Representations of Inspection Equipment
Defects
Device Mounting Status
;;;
Soldering Appearance
Insufficient Open
Solder
Lead
Misaligned
Lead
Bridge
Missing
Device
Incorrect
Misaligned Mounting
Device
Orientation
Method/Principle
Multi-angular TV camera
illumination
Light cut-off
X to
LED
LED
Light source
Image sensor
∆ to
X to ∆
Imaging lens
Laser
scanning
X-ray
X to ∆
Spot laser
Photoreceiver
µ-Focus
X-ray source
∆
X
Image
Can be inspected
Cannot be inspected
Can be inspected with conditions or the detection rate is low.
;
:
X:
∆:
In fine pitch lead packages, the coplanarity, which has an especially large impact on quality, has
been standardized at 0.1 mm. Efforts are being made to improve technologies in the pursuit of
quality improvements of the lead coplanarity.
(2) Inspection Equipment for Appearance of Solder Paste After Printing
The objective of these systems is to prevent in advance the occurrence of soldering defects
(such as inadequate solder, bridging, etc.) by inspecting the shape of the fine-pitch lead solder
paste patterns (i.e. the volume, shifted patterns, the height of the paste, bridging, slump,
unevenness, etc.) after the minute patterns are printed.
At present, one of two systems is used, either the multi-angular illumination method or the
laser scanning method.
67
3.7.2
Subject of Inspections
The inspections of the solder joints inspect the defects shown in Table 3.20. Both the causes and
the countermeasures for the various defects are listed in this table. This material should be used as
a reference when improving the various processes.
Table 3.20 Reflow Soldering Defects: Troubleshooting Guide
Type of Defect
Description
Causes
Countermeasures
Inadequate reflow This is a situation where •
there is still remaining
Some solder powder
solder powder and either •
is still remaining
the solder paste has not
Mounting
been subjected to reflow •
pad
at all or, even though
most of the solder paste
Printed wiring board
has been melted in the
reflow process, there are
still those places where
soldering has not been
performed and solder
powder is found on the
surface of the solder that
has been melted.
•
Inadequate heating
(temperature, time)
Solder paste
degradation (aging) •
Excessive preheating
(temperature and time •
between beginning
heating and melting
the solder.
Re-evaluate the
heating equipment
and method.
Store the solder paste
in a refrigerator.
Do not use hardened
portions of solder
paste, such as surface
areas.
There is no solder found •
on the locations where
There is no solder
Mounting there was supposed to be •
pad
soldered.
Solder paste will not •
print.
•
Poor printability of
solder paste.
The printing conditions
are not suited to the
solder paste
properties.
Select solder paste
with good printability.
Re-evaluate the
printing parameters
(including the printing
mask thickness and
the printing mask
size).
•
The solder paste
printing are smaller
when compared to the •
pad.
The pad, lead, or
paste have poor
solderability.
•
The amount of solder
paste used in the
•
printing is inadequate.
Increase the printing
area.
Switch to the pads,
leads, or solder paste
with better
solderability.
Plate the pads and
leads with solder.
Print a thicker solder
layer.
Not solder
•
Inadequate spread The solder does not
spread to adequately
The spread is
cover the mounting pad
not adequate
or the lead.
Die
•
•
•
68
Table 3.20 Reflow Soldering Defects: Troubleshooting Guide (cont)
Type of Defect
Description
Bridge
The gaps between
•
adjacent pads were
filled with solder when
the reflow process was
performed.
Pad
Leads
Causes
Connection
•
Solder balls are found •
around the pads or
around the devices.
Solder balls
Pad
Lead
There has been too
much solder paste
printed and thus a
connection is made to
the adjacent pads
already by the time of
the preheat process.
Countermeasures
•
Reduce the amount of
solder (both the
printed area and the
thickness.
•
Change the printing
method.
The solder paste is
printed bridging several
pads.
•
The solder paste has
melted in places aside
from the pad. The
•
reason for this might be:
 Shift during printing
the solder paste, or •
blotting during
printing.
Solder balls
Align the printing
position.
Print a somewhat
smaller pattern on the
pads.
Switch to a solder
paste that is less likely
to slump.
 Slump of solder
paste during the
heating.
 Capillary effect of
solder paste between
the device and the
board.
Pad
Lead
Solder balls
Solder balls are found •
on the surface of the
solder which has been
subjected to a reflow •
process.
•
Inadequate heating
(temperature, time)
•
Solder paste degradation
•
(aging)
Solder paste degradation
•
due to excessive
preheating.
Re-evaluate the
heating equipment
and method.
Store the solder paste
in a refrigerator.
Switch to a solder
paste that does not
degrade as much over
time.
69
Table 3.20 Reflow Soldering Defects: Troubleshooting Guide (cont)
Type of Defect
Description
Causes
Uneven amount of The amount of solder •
on the mounting pads
solder
is not uniform.
There is a different
amount of solder on
the different pads.
Position slip
LSI
Device is soldered
in a misaligned
position.
Countermeasures
•
There is a lack of
uniformity in the solder
paste during printing,
and the amount of solder •
paste printed is thus
non-uniform.
•
The solder paste has
poor printability.
•
The printing parameters
are not set correctly.
•
The devices have been •
placed with an offset.
•
The devices have shifted
in their position due to •
vibrations during
transport.
•
Lead
 Inadequate adhesive
strength in the solder
paste.
•
 Inadequate force
applied to the
devices during
placement.
•
Shifted due to the flux
during reflow.
 Too much flux in the
solder paste.
70
Switch to a solder
paste with better
printability.
Re-examine the
printing parameters.
Place the devices so
that they are not
shifted.
Minimize the vibration
during transport.
Switch to a solder
paste with greater
adhesive strength.
Reduce the amount of
flux included.
Table 3.20 Reflow Soldering Defects: Troubleshooting Guide (cont)
Type of Defect
Description
Open lead
The solder paste is
•
reflowed cleanly and, at
first, appears to have
•
made a good
connection; however,
the solder is not
attached to the lead. •
A small shift in the
position of the device.
•
Print so that there is
no shift.
The flux in the solder
paste has caused the
device to float.
•
Reduce the amount of
flux included.
•
Use LSIs with minimal
bend in the leads.
•
•
The amount of solder
paste printed is not
uniform.
Re-examine the
printing parameters.
•
Increase the thickness
of the printing layer.
Lead
Solder
LSI
;;
;;
;;
Cleaning defect
Pad
Despite the fact that
the board has been
cleaned, there is flux
residue or white
Lead powder residue.
Residue
Wicking
Resin
Lead
Solder
Pad
Printed wiring
board
Causes
The lead is bent in
QFPs, SOPs, etc.
Countermeasures
•
There is uneven heating •
and thus there is a nonuniformity in the time
over which the solder is
molten.
•
The flux residue is
resistant to cleaning.
•
The cleaning solution is
not appropriate.
•
•
The cleaning method is
not appropriate.
•
The cleaning solution did •
not saturate the residue.
•
There is a long time
delay between the reflow
process and the cleaning
process.
There is no solder
•
between the lead and
the pad because the
molten solder has been
sucked up SOJ, QFJ
(PLCC) lead.
•
Re-examine the
heating conditions.
Use a solder paste
that has good cleaning
properties.
Re-examine the
cleaning solution and
cleaning method.
Perform the cleaning
as soon as possible
after the reflow
process.
In the VPS method, this •
occurs when the heating
is done too rapidly.
Insure adequate
preheating in the VPS
method.
•
Perform the soldering
in a far infrared reflow
furnace.
71
3.8
Storage
3.8.1
Moisture-proof Packing
When the plastic packages are stored in a high moisture location, the resin absorbs the moisture.
When soldering is performed while the resin contains this absorbed moisture, the high temperature
will vaporize the water content and cause reflow cracks. Those devices that are sensitive to
moisture should be provided with moisture-proof packing to prevent the absorption of moisture
before soldering. (See Figure 3.43)
Stopper
Magazine
LSI
*This card is not applied to some devices.
Magazine
Band
Moisture-proof bag
(aluminium laminated)
Moistureproof packing
Humidity
indicator
card*
Silica gel
Label
There is also the following specification, which is based on
the JEDEC standard.
Inside box
Handle packages according to the instructions written on the surface of the moisture-proof bags.
Figure 3.43 Moisture-proof Packing (Example taken for Magazines)
72
3.8.2
Storage Before the Moisture-proof Bag is Opened
Before the moisture-proof bag is opened, it should be stored at the target of between 5 and 35°C at
85% RH or less. If the storage duration exceeds 24 months, the devices should be checked for
solderability, corrosion on the leads, etc., before use.
3.8.3
Storage and Handling After the Moisture-proof Bag is Opened
Table 3.21 Standard Storage Conditions After the Moisture-proof Bag is Opened
Item
Condition
Temperature
5 to 30°C
Humidity
60% RH or less
Time*
168 hours or less
Notes
* This refers to the total time between opening the
moisture-proof bag and completing the final reflow
soldering process.
• When there is a thermal-resistant ranking or storage conditions specified on the label affixed to
the moisture-proof bag, or if there are stipulations in the delivery specifications, etc., these
stipulations take priority over the conditions listed above in Table 3.21.
• Contact your service representative if the devices are to be stored under any conditions in
violation of the storage conditions listed above in Table 3.21 (e.g., in a different environment
or for a longer period of time).
• The use of a readily available low-moisture storage chamber (at less than 30% RH) is
recommended if the devices are to be stored for a long period of time after the moisture-proof
bag is opened. Please insure that the requirements in Table 3.21 are fulfilled when the
packages are removed from the low-moisture storage chamber, just as they are when the
packages are removed from the moisture-proof bag.
When the devices are removed from the moisture-proof bag for the delivery check, etc., be
sure that the devices are re-put into the moisture-proof bag as soon as possible (at the target of
within 60 minutes).
• When multiple soldering processes (for up to three multiple soldering processes) are
performed, be sure that the time until the completion of the final process falls within the
storage times given in Table 3.21.
73
3.8.4
Storage and Handling Without Moisture-proof Packing
Due to considerations of solderability, corrosion on the leads, etc., the following conditions should
be taken as guidelines for storage and handling of devices not in moisture-proof bags.
Temperature:
5 to 30°C
Humidity:
45 to 75% RH
Storage Period: 1 year
When there are stipulations in delivery specifications, etc., these stipulations take priority over the
conditions listed above.
3.8.5
Baking Process
When the following conditions apply, baking process (moisture removal process) should be
performed based on the conditions listed in Table 3.22.
• Products provided with a humidity indicator card.
When the 30% spot on the card turns pink when the moisture-proof bag is opened. When there
is a difference in color between the indicator card and the silica gel, then make the decision
based on the color of the indicator card.
• Products not provided with a humidity indicator card.
When the silica gels turn pink when the moisture-proof bag is opened.
• When the storage conditions exceed the stipulation in Table 3.21 after the moisture-proof bag
is opened.
See Figure 3.44 regarding the specifications of the humidity indicator card.
Table 3.22 Recommended Baking Conditions
Baking Temperature Baking Time
Repetitive Baking
General products
125°C ± 5°C
16 to 24 hours Total of 96 hours or less
Thin packages with a mounting
height of 1.20 mm or less
125°C ± 5°C
4 to 24 hours
Special products
As per the delivery specifications
Total of 96 hours or less
Be sure to use heatproof trays, etc., when performing the baking process.
Heatproof trays are marked “HEAT PROOF” or carry an indication of their maximum temperature
rating. Confirm these markings before performing the baking process.
74
76.0±1.0mm
Characteristics of the Humidity Indicator Card
RELATIVE HUMIDITY PERCENTAGE
20%
30%
Read at Lavender
Spot
40%
50.0±1.0mm
HUMIDITY INDICATOR
· While the color of the spot becomes blue
when it is dry, as it becomes moist the color
shifts from blue to lavender, and then shifts
further to pink.
· When the card is removed from the moisture
-proof bag, the presence of a lavender spot
indicates that the relative humidity within the
bag equals the quantitative value on the spot.
(The color sample within the printed frame is
lavender.)
Printed Color within the Frame: Lavender
Figure 3.44 Humidity Indicator Card Specifications
75
3.9
Notes and Cautions During the Mounting Process
3.9.1
Damage from Static Electricity
Because semiconductors are generally susceptible to damage by electrostatic discharge (ESD),
extreme caution is required when handling the semiconductors and mounting them on the printed
wiring boards. The cautions and procedures are as described below.
(1) Operating Environment
When the relative humidity is low, there is an increased risk of electrostatic charging. While it
is necessary to store the surface mount packages in a dry ambient in order to prevent them
from absorbing water, when these packaged are handled and mounted on printed wiring
boards, etc., a relative humidity between 45 and 75% is ideal from the perspective of the
accumulation of electrostatic charge.
(2) Preventing the Accumulation of Electrostatic Charge During Operations
(a) Avoid the use of insulative materials in the assembly process because these materials tend
to accumulate electrostatic charge. It is especially important to be careful with
semiconductors and completed boards—even if these semiconductors and boards are not
contacted or touched directly, when these objects are in the presence of a charged object,
they will be charged by a phenomenon of static induction. Examples of countermeasures to
prevent electrostatic discharge include the wearing of ESD protective smocks, the use of
conductive carrier boxes, and the use of air ionizers.
(b) In order to avoid electrostatic charge, all measurement instruments, conveyer belts,
workbenches, floor mats, tools, soldering irons, etc. must be grounded. The workbenches
and the floors should be covered with ESD protective mats (with resistance of 109 to
1011Ω. (See Figure 3.45)
(c) The workers should be grounded using wrist straps. However, in order to prevent the risk
of electrical shock, the grounding for the human beings must be placed in series with a
resistor of at least 1MΩ as shown in Figure 3.46.
(d) Use only soldering irons that are designed for use with semiconductors (e.g., low-voltage
soldering irons functioning at voltages between 12 V and 24 V). Ground the soldering iron
tip as shown in Figure 3.47.
76
Resistance
(2)
(1)
(5)
(4)
(6)
(3)
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
ESD protective mat (for grounding).
Ground the human workers (using wrist straps).
ESD protective floor mat (for grounding).
Humidifier
ESD protective smock
ESD protected footwear
Figure 3.45 Examples of Countermeasures to Prevent Static Electricity in Operations
Metal or other conductive material
Coated wire
R = 1 MΩ or more
Figure 3.46 Grounding for the Human Body
AC 100 V
12 V to 24 V
Soldering iron tip
1 MΩ
Figure 3.47 Example of Grounding for the Soldering Iron
77
(3) Countermeasures to Prevent Electrostatic Discharge from the Semiconductors
When there is static electrical charge on a package or on the semiconductor die, the
electrostatic charge by itself does not damage the semiconductor, rather it is the terminal
coming into contact with a metal object when the semiconductor is charged that causes a
discharge which damages the semiconductor. In this type of situation, grounding the metal will
have no effect.
The countermeasures to be used are as follows:
(a) Avoid contact semiconductor with or rubbing semiconductor against insulative materials
that will tend to cause triboelectric charging.
(b) Avoid handling operations of the semiconductors on metal plates, but rather work on ESD
protective mats.
(c) When there is the chance that the semiconductor is charged static electricity, be careful to
avoid bringing the semiconductors into direct contact with metal objects.
(4) Notes and Cautions for Mounting Operations
(a) It is necessary to use a ESD protective mat, etc. even when mounting the semiconductors
on the printed wiring board, and to insure that the mat is grounded in advance. Special care
is required when there is an accumulated charge in the capacitor after operation tests have
been performed on the printed wiring board.
(b) The printed wiring board will be charged by contact, rubbing, conduction, etc. To prevent
electrostatic discharge by contact during transportation using a carrier box, etc., it is
necessary to use an anti-static bag or to innovate ways to isolate the printed wiring boards.
(c) For chip components for which taping has been performed, and for ICs (MPAK, SOP, etc.)
the electrostatic charge resulting from peeling the cover tape from the carrier tape is larger,
the faster the peeling is performed. Rubbing and rapid peeling should be avoided as much
as possible.
The recommended peeling rate is 10 mm/second or less.
78
3.9.2
Notes and Cautions Before Performing the Reflow Soldering
Because, when compared with conventional insertion packages, surface mount packages that
contain large dies are structurally weaker, and because in the reflow processes that are generally
used the entire package is heated, the handling before the reflow process and the reflow conditions
should be set in advance after referencing the characteristics shown below:
(1) Mechanisms By Which the Packages Crack During Reflow and the Moisture Absorption
Characteristics
Packages that absorb moisture exhibit the cracking phenomenon during reflow as shown in
Figure 3.48. In other words, the moisture that is absorbed during storage diffuses throughout
the interior of the package and thus becomes moisture content throughout the resin. When a
package in this state passes through the reflow furnace, which heats the entire package, the
adhesive strength at the interface between the resin and the frame is reduced by the high
temperature, while at the same time differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion produce
a sheer force. Because of this, minute interfacial peeling appears at the interface between the
resin and the frame, and the water content within the resin near the frame vaporizes due to the
heat and is expelled to the interface, accelerating the peeling at this interface. In this region the
internal pressure increases, and the resin warps, eventually resulting in cracks.
Using the Fick diffusion model we can calculate the diffusion of the moisture within the resin
as follows:
δ C(x, t)
δt
= D(t)
δ2 C(x, t)
δ2X2
x: The distance from the back surface of the package in the direction of the center of the
package.
t:
Storage time
D:
Diffusion coefficient
Furthermore,
Q (t) = ∫ C (x, t) dx
indicates the total moisture content in the package. Consequently, due to the storage time and
environment of the package, there will be situations where the amount of moisture in the
package has the opposite effect on the cracking. (See Figure 3.49). Because of this, it is
important to control the moisture content by focusing on the amount of moisture in the vicinity
of the frame.
79
The diffusion coefficient D, shown above, is a function of temperature, and thus the amount of
moisture in the vicinity of the frame is also a function of temperature. When there has been no
cracking in the reflow soldering after a given heating test, then we can obtain the graph shown
in Figure 3.50 for the allowable storage time.*
Figure 3.51 shows the relationship between the adhesive strength between the resin and the
frame at various temperatures, the maximum stress that is generated when the package is
heated given various moisture absorption conditions, and the bending strength of the resin. In
this example, cracks were formed when the moisture absorption ratio exceeded 0.2% by weight
in a VPS process (Vapor Phase Soldering process at 215°C). The correctness of this model is
supported by the fact that crack appears when, in practice, the absorption ratio within a
package is 0.25% by weight.
Note: This graph shows that the length of the allowable storage period changes depending on
the storage temperature and the storage humidity. When the storage temperature or
storage humidity is lower, the storage time can be increased.
;;;
;;;
;;;
;;;;
;;
;;;
;;;
;;;
;;;
;;;
Die
Moisture absorption
Resin
;
; ;;
Storage
∂ c
∂ 2 c
•
=D
∂t
∂ χ2
c: Moisture density within the
package
D: Coefficient of diffusion of water
• 1 mol H 2 O
→ 22.4 /latm
• pV = nRT
Reflow
soldering
Vaporization of
internal moisture
content
• σ(T) > fad (T)
Interfacial peeling
Expansion
Cracks
h
a
Frame
fad: Adhesive strength of the resin
σ : Generated stress
4
• Wmax = α a 3 P
Eh
α : Shape coefficient
E : Young's Modulus of the resin
P : Internal pressure
a : Dimension of the die pad in the
short direction
h : Thickness of resin under the
die pad
• σmax > F (T)
a2
σmax = β 2 P
h
F (T): Resin strength
Shape coefficient
β:
σmax
P
Wmax
Figure 3.48 Mechanism By Which Package Cracks Occur
80
Crack
Moisture absorption ratio (percentage by weight)
0.5
No cracks occur
Cracks occur
0.4
Calculated values
0.3
Moisture absorption
85°C, 85% RH
0.2
0.1
0
Moisture desorption
baked at 80°C
20
40
60
80
100
Storage time (h)
Figure 3.49 Cracks and Moisture Absorption Ratio During Moisture Absorption and
Moisture Desorption
81
Allowable storage time after the moisture-proof bag has been opened (h)
500
15°C
400
20°C
300
25°C
200
30°C
100
0
40
60
80
100
Relative humidity during storage(% RH)
Figure 3.50 Example of the Allowable Storage Times After the Moisture-proof Bag Has
Been Opened
82
10Z
Fs
8Z
8Z
VPS
IR
(σ MLX) SAT 6Z
6Z
MoistureZ
absorption ratioZ
(85°C, 85% RH)
4Z
4Z
Fad
σ
2
0.3 wt%
2
0.2 wt%
Generated stress σ MAX (kgf/mm2)
Adhesive strength Fad × Bending strength Fs (kgf/mm2)
10Z
0.1 wt%
0
100
150
200
250
0
Temperature (°C)
Figure 3.51 Dependence on Temperature of the Adhesive Strength, Mechanical Strength of
the Resin, and the Generated Stress
3.9.3
Discerning the Package Crack
When the cracks are extreme and the cracks extend to the surface of the package, it is possible to
discern the cracks through an visual inspection. The cracks that do not extend to the surface,
however, can be evaluated through the use of an ultrasonic scanning instrument. Figure 3.52
shows an overview of this ultrasonic scanning method. An ultrasonic beam (either 25 MHz or 50
MHz) is transmitted from a probe into the package which is immersed in water, and the ultrasonic
waves that are reflected from the package are picked up by the probe. The ultrasonic waves
received by the probe are converted into electronic signals, and are canceled against the ultrasonic
wave signals that are reflected from the surface of the package, etc., so that only internal signals
are subjected to image processing.
Using this process it is possible to make the comparison shown in Figure 3.53 where an example
of a package wherein internal cracks are detected is compared to an example devoid of cracks.
These internal cracks result when the reflow conditions are relatively harsh. The use of this
instrument makes it possible to find the optimal reflow conditions and thus develop a high
reliability system.
83
Probe
XYZ scanner
Water tank
Scan
Ultrasonic
beam
Water
Reflected
wave
Package
Figure 3.52 Detecting Internal Cracks Using Ultrasonic Scanning Instrument
Internal crack
(a) Product with no cracks
Peeling
(b) Product with cracks
Figure 3.53 Results of an Inspection Using Ultrasonic Scanning Instrument
84
3.9.4
Importance to Measures to Deal with Mechanical Stress
• Broken Leads Due to Package Resonance
In cases where circuit boards with devices using QFP packages or the like mounted on them
are stored in a location where there is a significant amount of vibration, such as the engine
compartment of an automobile, there is a danger that mechanical stress due to package
resonance could cause the leads the break. To prevent this, it is important to verify at the
design stage for the chassis and circuit boards that the packages do not resonate. In addition,
the leads can be reinforced by applying a coating, or an adhesive or under-fill can be used to
secure the package to the circuit board. These can be effective ways to prevent package
resonance. Note, however, that careful preliminary evaluation is required before using
coatings, adhesives, or under-fills.
• Separated BGA Solder Connections Due to Shock from Dropping
Since area array package types such as BGA and CSP have no leads, mechanical stress
affecting a populated circuit board is applied directly to the solder connections. For this reason
solder connections becoming separated due to shock from dropping is a concern. For example,
circuit boards can be dropped accidentally after devices are mounted when the boards are
divided into smaller sections, during in-circuit testing, or during the assembly process. Also,
mobile equipment containing such devices can be dropped in the marketplace.
For these reasons it is important to carefully study ways to maintain circuit boards that will
prevent them from being exposed to mechanical stress during the assembly process. In
addition, when designing chassis and circuit boards attention needs to be paid to verifying
ways to eliminate mechanical stress caused by being dropped in the marketplace.
Another effective method of reinforcing soldered connections and ameliorating the effects of
mechanical stress is to secure the package body to the circuit board using adhesive or underfill.
Note, however, that careful preliminary evaluation is required before using adhesives or underfills.
85
86
Section 4 Examples of BGA Assembly Evaluations
The BGA (Ball Grid Array) assembly method is as described below.
4.1
Assembly Process Flow
Use a reflow process similar to the process used for conventional packages such as QFPs and SOJs
to perform the soldering. The flow of the assembly process is shown in Figure 4.1.
Printed wiring
board
Solder paste
Metal stencil
Solder paste
Solder printing
Printed wiring board
BGA
Mounting
Reflow
soldering
Heating
Cleaning
Inspection
Figure 4.1 BGA Assembly Process Flow
87
4.2
Mounting Pad Design
Mounting pad designs include the over-resist type where the mounting pad is covered with solder
resist, and the normal type where the solder resist is not placed on the pad. Select the type based
on considerations of the wiring design on the printed wiring board.
Over-resist type
Normal type
Mounting pad (copper land)
Solder resist
The standard alignment accuracy of solder resists is about ±0.1 mm. An example of a mounting
pad design designed based on this specification is shown in Table 4.1. The pad copper land
dimension should be designed taking into consideration the solder resist alignment accuracy.
Whichever pad type is used, the opening diameter of the solder resist should be the same as the
pad dimension on the BGA side. This produces a ball shape with good vertical balance following
reflow soldering, which helps to moderate the concentration of thermal stress during the heat
cycle.
Table 4.1
Mounting Pad Design Examples
Solder ball pitch
0.5
0.65
0.8
1.0
1.27
Solder ball size (diameter)
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.76
Over-resist type Solder resist
opening diameter
0.25
0.35
0.45
0.50
0.62
Copper land
diameter
0.35
0.45
0.55
0.60
0.72
Solder resist
opening diameter
0.28
0.35
0.45
0.50
0.62
Copper land
diameter
0.18
0.25
0.35
0.40
0.52
Normal type
Unit: mm
Note: Above values calculated based on a solder resist positioning accuracy of ±0.05 mm
(50 µm).
88
4.3
Applying the Solder Paste
The printing method is the best way to apply the solder paste. Print the paste at the same time for
other devices on the printed wiring board.
4.3.1
Solder Paste
In addition to the tin-lead eutectic solder pastes commonly used, lead-free compounds have started
to be used as well. Sufficient research should be performed before selecting the composition to be
used.
4.3.2
Solder Printing Stencil
Table 4.2 shows an example of solder printing stencil designs. The solder printing stencil opening
diameter should have the same dimensions as the solder resist opening diameter.
Table 4.2
Solder Printing Stencil Design Examples
Solder ball pitch
0.5
0.65
0.8
1.0
1.27
Solder ball size (diameter)
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.76
0.35
0.45
0.50
0.62
0.28
0.35
0.45
0.50
0.62
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
0.15
Solder printing stencil Over-resist type
0.25
opening diameter
mounting pad structure
Normal type mounting
pad structure
Solder printing stencil thickness
Unit: mm
4.3.3
Allowable Mounting Misalignment
In BGA, there is a great latitude for self alignment, and adequate mounting can be performed
using a 0.5 mm-pitch QFP-compatible mounter. If the center of the BGA bump is on the edge part
of the mounting pad, then the soldering occurs at the proper location due to the self alignment
effect.
89
4.4
Reflow Soldering Conditions
Use a common reflow method such as the air reflow, far infrared reflow, N2 reflow, etc., for
soldering.
Perform the soldering by melting the solder balls that are on the rear surface of the BGA package
body. Considering the thermal durability of the product, it is necessary to control the surface
temperature of the BGA package. Refer to section 3.5.5, Soldering Conditions, for specific
temperature conditions.
If there are soldering temperature stipulations in the delivery specifications, perform the soldering
based on the soldering conditions in the delivery specifications.
Set the preheating conditions after giving consideration to issues such as driving out the flux from
the solder paste, the warping of the printed wiring board, etc. In common cases, the settings are the
same as for QFP.
90
4.5
Inspecting the Solder Joints After Mounting on the Printed Wiring
Board
The BGA cannot be inspected visually after mounting on the printed wiring board; however, BGA
solder defect rates of several PPM have been reported by various firms, and defect rates in the
order of about 1/10 to 1/50 have been achieved for 0.5 mm-pitch QFP.
X-ray transparency inspection is difficult in mass production situations. Because of this, process
conditions should be set in advance through research before mass production begins.
91
4.6
Removing Method
As is shown in Figure 4.2, blowing hot air on the package makes it possible to remove the
package. Note, however, that some research will be required in advance when setting the
conditions for BGA removal, because the adjacent devices and the ones on the back surface of the
printed wiring board are also heated when the BGA is removed.
Hot air
Figure 4.2 BGA Removing Method
92
4.7
Cleaning
Select the cleaning solution and the cleaning conditions after taking into consideration regulations
such as environmental regulations, when it is necessary to perform a cleaning process after
soldering.
No damage is done to the BGA even when the cleaning is performed with the solutions compatible
with the anti-chlorofluorocarbon regulations that are used most commonly. Investigations are also
required in advance to set the parameters for long-term cleaning and repetitive brush cleaning
operations, etc., to insure that the markings on the packages are not erased.
93
4.8
Storage
Refer to section 3.8, Storage, for information on storing packages prior to soldering.
94
Surface Moount Package User’s Manual
Publication Date: 1st Edition, September 1987
4th Edition, March 2002
Published by:
Business Planning Division
Semiconductor & Integrated Circuits
Hitachi, Ltd.
Edited by:
Technical Documentation Group
Hitachi Kodaira Semiconductor Co., Ltd.
Copyright © Hitachi, Ltd., 1987. All rights reserved. Printed in Japan.
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