1761-UM003 - Rockwell Automation

1761-UM003 - Rockwell Automation
Allen-Bradley
MicroLogix 1000
Programmable
Controllers
(Bulletin 1761 Controllers)
User
Manual
Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Preface - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - P-1
Who Should Use this Manual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-1
Purpose of this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-1
Common Techniques Used in this Manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-5
Allen–Bradley Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P-5
Hardware
1
Installing Your Controller
Compliance to European Union Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Hardware Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Master Control Relay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Using Surge Suppressors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Safety Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10
Power Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12
Preventing Excessive Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13
Controller Spacing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14
Mounting the Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-15
2
Wiring Your Controller
Grounding Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Sinking and Sourcing Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Wiring Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Wiring Diagrams, Discrete Input and Output Voltage Ranges . . . . . . . . 2-7
1761-L32AWA Wiring Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9
Minimizing Electrical Noise on Analog Controllers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Grounding Your Analog Cable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Wiring Your Analog Channels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Analog Voltage and Current Input and Output Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Wiring Your Controller for High-Speed Counter Applications . . . . . . . 2-25
3
Connecting the System
Connecting the DF1 Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
toc-i
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Connecting to a DH–485 Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Connecting the AIC+ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10
Establishing Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19
Programming
4
Programming Overview
Principles of Machine Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
Understanding File Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4
Understanding How Processor Files are Stored and Accessed . . . . . . 4-6
Addressing Data Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10
Applying Ladder Logics to Your Schematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Developing Your Logic Program - A Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15
5
Using Analog
I/O Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2
I/O Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Input Filter and Update Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3
Converting Analog Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5
6
Using Basic Instructions
About the Basic Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2
Bit Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Examine if Closed (XIC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3
Examine if Open (XIO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Output Energize (OTE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4
Output Latch (OTL) and Output Unlatch (OTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5
One–Shot Rising (OSR). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6
Timer Instructions Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-7
Timer On–Delay (TON) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10
Timer Off–Delay (TOF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11
Retentive Timer (RTO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-13
Counter Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-15
Count Up (CTU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-17
Count Down (CTD). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-18
Reset (RES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-20
toc--ii
Table of Contents
Basic Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine Application Example 6-21
7
Using Comparison Instructions
About the Comparison Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Comparison Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2
Equal (EQU). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Not Equal (NEQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Less Than (LES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3
Less Than or Equal (LEQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Greater Than (GRT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Greater Than or Equal (GEQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4
Masked Comparison for Equal (MEQ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5
Limit Test (LIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6
Comparison Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine Application Example
7-8
8
Using Math Instructions
About the Math Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Math Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-2
Add (ADD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4
Subtract (SUB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-5
32–Bit Addition and Subtraction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-6
Multiply (MUL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-8
Divide (DIV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-9
Double Divide (DDV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-10
Clear (CLR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Square Root (SQR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-11
Scale Data (SCL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-12
Math Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine Application Example . 8-14
9
Using Data Handling Instructions
About the Data Handling Instructions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2
Convert to BCD (TOD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3
Convert from BCD (FRD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4
Decode 4 to 1 of 16 (DCD). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-8
Encode 1 of 16 to 4 (ENC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-9
Copy File (COP) and Fill File (FLL) Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-10
Move and Logical Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-13
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MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Move (MOV). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-15
Masked Move (MVM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-16
And (AND) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-18
Or (OR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-19
Exclusive Or (XOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-20
Not (NOT). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-21
Negate (NEG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-22
FIFO and LIFO Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-23
FIFO Load (FFL) and FIFO Unload (FFU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-25
LIFO Load (LFL) and LIFO Unload (LFU) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-26
Data Handling Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine Application
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-28
10
Using Program Flow Control Instructions
About the Program Flow Control Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Jump (JMP) and Label (LBL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2
Jump to Subroutine (JSR), Subroutine (SBR), and Return (RET) . . . . 10-4
Master Control Reset (MCR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7
Temporary End (TND) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Suspend (SUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8
Immediate Input with Mask (IIM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Immediate Output with Mask (IOM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9
Program Flow Control Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine Application
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10
11
Using Application Specific Instructions
About the Application Specific Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-2
Bit Shift Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3
Bit Shift Left (BSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5
Bit Shift Right (BSR). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-6
Sequencer Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7
Sequencer Output (SQO) and Sequencer Compare (SQC) . . . . . . . . 11-7
Sequencer Load (SQL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-14
Selectable Timed Interrupt (STI) Function Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17
Selectable Timed Disable (STD) and Enable (STE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20
Selectable Timed Start (STS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22
Interrupt Subroutine (INT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-22
toc--iv
Table of Contents
Application Specific Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine Application
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23
12
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
About the High–Speed Counter Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
High–Speed Counter Instructions Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-2
High–Speed Counter (HSC). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-6
High–Speed Counter Load (HSL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-18
High–Speed Counter Reset (RES) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-21
High–Speed Counter Reset Accumulator (RAC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-22
High–Speed Counter Interrupt Enable (HSE) and Disable (HSD) . . . 12-23
Update High–Speed Counter Image Accumulator (OTE) . . . . . . . . . 12-24
What Happens to the HSC When Going to REM Run Mode . . . . . . . 12-25
High-Speed Counter Instruction in the Paper Drilling Machine Application
Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-29
13
Using the Message Instruction
Types of Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-2
Message Instruction (MSG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-3
Timing Diagram for a Successful MSG Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-8
MSG Instruction Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-10
Application Examples that Use the MSG Instruction . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13-13
Troubleshooting
14
Troubleshooting Your System
Understanding the Controller LED Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-2
Controller Error Recovery Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-5
Identifying Controller Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-6
Calling Allen-Bradley for Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14-11
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MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Reference
A
Hardware Reference
Controller Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-2
Controller Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-11
Replacement Parts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-12
B
Programming Reference
Controller Status File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1
Instruction Execution Times and Memory Usage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-25
C
Valid Addressing Modes and File Types for Instruction Parameters
Available File Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-2
Available Addressing Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C-2
D
Understanding the Communication
Protocols
RS-232 Communication Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D-1
DF1 Full-Duplex Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D-2
DF1 Half-Duplex Slave Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D-5
DH–485 Communication Protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D-10
E
Application Example Programs
Paper Drilling Machine Application Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-2
Time Driven Sequencer Application Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-17
Event Driven Sequencer Application Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-19
Bottle Line Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-21
Pick and Place Machine Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-24
RPM Calculation Application Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-28
On/Off Circuit Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-34
Spray Booth Application Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-36
Adjustable Timer Application Example. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-41
F
Optional Analog Input Software Calibration
Calibrating an Analog Input Channel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-2
Glossary - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -G-1
Index - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - H-1
toc--vi
Summary of Changes
Summary of Changes
The information below summarizes the changes to this manual since the last printing
as Publication 1761–6.3 — July 1998.
To help you find new information and updated information in this release of the
manual, we have included change bars as shown to the right of this paragraph.
New Information
The table below lists sections that document new features and additional information
about existing features, and shows where to find this new information.
For This New Information
See
Updated explosion hazard information
page 1-15
Added 1761-CBL-AH02 and 1761-CBL-PH02
to cable selection
page 3-14
Removed catalog 1761-NET-DNI
Chapter 3
Updated relay life specifications
page A-6
Added relay life chart
page A-6
Updated Information
Changes from the previous release of this manual that require you to reference
information differently are as follows:
•
The DeviceNet communications information has been updated; see chapter 3,
Connecting the System.
•
For updated information on automatic protocol switching, see chapter 3,
Connecting the System.
•
The MicroLogix™ 1000 programmable controllers’ VA ratings and power supply
inrush specifications have been updated; see appendix A, Hardware Reference.
SOC-ix
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
•
SOC-x
The DF1 Full–Duplex and DH–485 configuration parameters have been updated;
see appendix D, Understanding Communication Protocols.
Preface
Preface
Read this preface to familiarize yourself with the rest of the manual. It provides
information concerning:
•
who should use this manual
•
the purpose of this manual
•
conventions used in this manual
•
Allen–Bradley support
Who Should Use this Manual
Use this manual if you are responsible for designing, installing, programming, or
troubleshooting control systems that use MicroLogix™ 1000 controllers.
You should have a basic understanding of electrical circuitry and familiarity with
relay logic. If you do not, obtain the proper training before using this product.
Purpose of this Manual
This manual is a reference guide for MicroLogix™ 1000 controllers. It describes the
procedures you use to install, wire, program, and troubleshoot your controller. This
manual:
•
explains how to install and wire your controllers
•
gives you an overview of the MicroLogix™ 1000 controller system
•
provides the MicroLogix™ 1000 controllers’ instruction set
•
contains application examples to show the instruction set in use
See your programming software user manual for information on programming your
MicroLogix™ 1000 controller. For information on using the Hand-Held Programmer
with the MicroLogix™ 1000 controllers, see the MicroLogix™ 1000 with Hand-Held
Programmer (HHP) User Manual, Publication 1761-6.2.
P-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Contents of this Manual
Tab
Hardware
Programming
P-2
Chapter
Title
Contents
Preface
Describes the purpose, background, and scope of this
manual. Also specifies the audience for whom this manual
is intended.
1
Installing Your
Controller
Provides controller installation procedures and system
safety considerations.
2
Wiring Your Controller
Provides wiring guidelines and diagrams.
3
Connecting the
System
Gives information on wiring your controller system for the
DF1 protocol or DH–485 network.
4
Programming
Overview
Provides an overview of principles of machine control, a
section on file organization and addressing, and a program
development model.
5
Using Analog
Provides information on I/O image file format, I/O
configuration, input filter and update times, and conversion
of analog data.
6
Using Basic
Instructions
Describes how to use ladder logic instructions for relay
replacement functions, counting, and timing.
7
Using Comparison
Instructions
Describes how to use the instructions to compare values of
data in your ladder logic program.
8
Using Math
Instructions
Describes how to use the ladder logic instructions that
perform basic math functions.
9
Using Data Handling
Instructions
Describes how to perform data handling instructions,
including move and logical instructions and FIFO and LIFO
instructions.
10
Using Program Flow
Control Instructions
Describes the ladder logic instructions that affect program
flow and execution.
11
Using Application
Specific Instructions
Describes the bit shift, sequencer and STI related
instructions.
12
Using High-Speed
Counter Instructions
Describes the four modes of the high-speed counter and its
related instructions.
13
Using the Message
Instruction
Provides a general overview of the types of communication,
and explains how to establish network communication using
the message instruction.
Preface
Tab
Chapter
Title
Troubleshooting
14
Troubleshooting Your
System
Reference
Contents
Explains how to interpret and correct problems with your
MicroLogix™ 1000 controller system.
Appendix A Hardware Reference
Provides physical, electrical, environmental, and functional
specifications.
Appendix B Programming
Reference
Explains the system status file and provides instruction
execution times.
Valid Addressing
Modes and File Types
Appendix C for Instruction
Parameters
Provides a listing of the instructions along with their
parameters and valid file types.
Understanding the
Appendix D Communication
Protocols
Contains descriptions of the DF1 protocol and DH–485
network.
Appendix E Application Example
Programs
Provides advanced application examples for the high–speed
counter, sequencer, bit shift, and message instructions.
Analog Input
Appendix F Optional
Software Calibration
Explains how to calibrate your controller using software
offsets.
Glossary
Contains definitions for terms and abbreviations that are
specific to this product.
Related Documentation
The following documents contain additional information concerning Allen–Bradley
products. To obtain a copy, contact your local Allen–Bradley office or distributor.
For
Read this Document
A procedural manual for technical personnel who use the
MicroLogix™ 1000 with Hand–
Allen–Bradley Hand–Held Programmer (HHP) to monitor and
Held Programmer (HHP) User
develop control logic programs for the MicroLogix™ 1000
Manual
controller.
Document
Number
1761-6.2
P-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
For
Information on mounting and wiring the MicroLogix™
1000 controllers, including a mounting template for easy
installation
Read this Document
Document
Number
MicroLogix™ 1000
Programmable Controllers
Installation Instructions
1761–5.1.2
MicroLogix™ 1000 (Analog)
Programmable Controllers
Installation Instructions
1761–5.1.3
The procedures necessary to install and connect the AIC+
and DNI
Advanced Interface Converter
(AIC+) and DeviceNet Interface
(DNI) Installation Instructions
1761–5.11
A description on how to install and connect an AIC+. This
manual also contains information on network wiring.
Advanced Interface Converter
(AIC+) User Manual
1761–6.4
Information on how to install, configure, and commission a
DNI
DeviceNet™ Interface User Manual
In–depth information on grounding and wiring Allen–Bradley
programmable controllers
A description of important differences between solid–state
programmable controller products and hard–wired
electromechanical devices
An article on wire sizes and types for grounding electrical
equipment
A complete listing of current documentation, including
ordering instructions. Also indicates whether the documents
are available on CD–ROM or in multi–languages.
A glossary of industrial automation terms and abbreviations
Information on understanding and applying MicroLogix™
1000 controllers
P-4
Allen–Bradley Programmable
Controller Grounding and Wiring
Guidelines
Application Considerations for Solid–
State Controls
National Electrical Code
1761–6.5
1770–4.1
SGI–1.1
Published by
the National
Fire Protection
Association of
Boston, MA.
SD499
Allen–Bradley Publication Index
Allen–Bradley Industrial Automation
Glossary
MicroMentor
AG–7.1
1761–MMB
Preface
Common Techniques Used in this Manual
The following conventions are used throughout this manual:
•
Bulleted lists such as this one provide information, not procedural steps.
•
Numbered lists provide sequential steps or hierarchical information.
•
Italic type is used for emphasis.
Allen–Bradley Support
Allen–Bradley offers support services worldwide, with over 75 Sales/Support Offices,
512 authorized Distributors and 260 authorized Systems Integrators located
throughout the United States alone, plus Allen–Bradley representatives in every major
country in the world.
Local Product Support
Contact your local Allen–Bradley representative for:
•
sales and order support
•
product technical training
•
warranty support
•
support service agreements
Technical Product Assistance
If you need to contact Allen–Bradley for technical assistance, please review the
information in the Troubleshooting chapter first. Then call your local Allen–Bradley
representative.
P-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Your Questions or Comments on this Manual
If you find a problem with this manual, or you have any suggestions for how this
manual could be made more useful to you, please contact us at the address below:
Allen–Bradley Company, Inc.
Control and Information Group
Technical Communication, Dept. 602V, T122
P.O. Box 2086
Milwaukee, WI 53201–2086
or visit our internet page at:
http://www.ab.com/micrologix
P-6
Installing Your Controller
Installing Your Controller
Hardware
1
This chapter shows you how to install your controller system. The only tools you
require are a Flat head or Phillips head screwdriver and drill. Topics include:
•
compliance to European Union Directives
•
hardware overview
•
master control relay
•
surge suppressors
•
safety considerations
•
power considerations
•
preventing excessive heat
•
controller spacing
•
mounting the controller
1-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Compliance to European Union Directives
If this product has the CE mark it is approved for installation within the European
Union and EEA regions. It has been designed and tested to meet the following
directives.
EMC Directive
This product is tested to meet Council Directive 89/336/EEC Electromagnetic
Compatibility (EMC) and the following standards, in whole or in part, documented in
a technical construction file:
•
EN 50081-2
EMC – Generic Emission Standard, Part 2 – Industrial Environment
•
EN 50082-2
EMC – Generic Immunity Standard, Part 2 – Industrial Environment
This product is intended for use in an industrial environment.
Hardware Overview
The MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller is a packaged controller containing a
power supply, input circuits, output circuits, and a processor. The controller is
available in 10 I/O, 16 I/O and 32 I/O configurations, as well as an analog version
with 20 discrete I/O and 5 analog I/O.
1-2
Installing Your Controller
The catalog number for the controller is composed of the following:
Bulletin Number
Analog I/O
Base Unit
Analog Circuits:
Inputs = 4
Outputs = 1
Unit I/O Count: 20
Input Signal:
A = 120V ac
B = 24V dc
Hardware
1761-L20AWA-5A
Power Supply:
A = 120/240V ac
B = 24V dc
Output Type:
W = Relay
B = MOSFET
A = Triac
The hardware features of the controller are:
➀
➁
➂
➃
➀
➁
➂
➃
➄
➄
➅
➅
➆
➆
➇
➈
➇
➉
Input terminals
dc output terminals (or not used)
Mounting hole
Input LEDs
Status LEDs
RS-232 communication channel
Output LEDs
Power supply line power
Ground screw
Output terminals
➈
➉
➂
1-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Master Control Relay
A hard-wired master control relay (MCR) provides a reliable means for emergency
controller shutdown. Since the master control relay allows the placement of several
emergency-stop switches in different locations, its installation is important from a
safety standpoint. Overtravel limit switches or mushroom head push buttons are
wired in series so that when any of them opens, the master control relay is
de-energized. This removes power to input and output device circuits. Refer to the
figure on page 1-6.
!
ATTENTION: Never alter these circuits to defeat their function, since serious
injury and/or machine damage could result.
Note:
If you are using an external dc output power supply, interrupt the dc
output side rather than the ac line side of the supply to avoid the
additional delay of power supply turn-off.
The external ac line of the dc output power supply should be fused.
Connect a set of master control relays in series with the dc power
supplying the input and output circuits.
Place the main power disconnect switch where operators and maintenance personnel
have quick and easy access to it. If you mount a disconnect switch inside the
controller enclosure, place the switch operating handle on the outside of the
enclosure, so that you can disconnect power without opening the enclosure.
Whenever any of the emergency-stop switches are opened, power to input and output
devices should be removed.
When you use the master control relay to remove power from the external I/O circuits,
power continues to be provided to the controller’s power supply so that diagnostic
indicators on the processor can still be observed.
1-4
The master control relay is not a substitute for a disconnect to the controller. It is
intended for any situation where the operator must quickly de-energize I/O devices
only. When inspecting or installing terminal connections, replacing output fuses, or
working on equipment within the enclosure, use the disconnect to shut off power to
the rest of the system.
Note:
Do not control the master control relay with the controller. Provide the
operator with the safety of a direct connection between an emergencystop switch and the master control relay.
Using Emergency-Stop Switches
When using emergency-stop switches, adhere to the following points:
•
Do not program emergency-stop switches in the controller program. Any
emergency-stop switch should turn off all machine power by turning off the
master control relay.
•
Observe all applicable local codes concerning the placement and labeling of
emergency-stop switches.
•
Install emergency-stop switches and the master control relay in your system.
Make certain that relay contacts have a sufficient rating for your application.
emergency-stop switches must be easy to reach.
•
In the following illustration, input and output circuits are shown with MCR
protection. However, in most applications, only output circuits require MCR
protection.
The following illustrations show the Master Control Relay wired in a grounded
system.
Note:
The illustrations only show output circuits with MCR protection. In most
applications input circuits do not require MCR protection; however, if
you need to remove power from all field devices, you must include MCR
contacts in series with input power wiring.
1-5
Hardware
Installing Your Controller
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Schematic (Using IEC Symbols)
L1
L2
230V ac
Disconnect
MCR
Fuse
230V ac
I/O Circuits
Isolation
Transformer
X1
230V ac
Operation of either of these contacts will remove
power from the adapter external I/O circuits, stopping
machine motion.
Master Control Relay (MCR)
Cat. No. 700-PK400A1
X2
Emergency-Stop
Push Button
Overtravel
Limit Switch
Fuse
Stop
Suppressor
Cat. No. 700-N24
Start
MCR
Suppr.
MCR
MCR
230V ac
I/O Circuits
dc Power Supply.
Use IEC 950/EN 60950
_
(Lo)
MCR
24V ac
I/O Circuits
(Hi)
Line Terminals: Connect to 230V ac
terminals of Power Supply.
1-6
+
Line Terminals: Connect to 24V dc
terminals of Power Supply.
Installing Your Controller
L1
Hardware
Schematic (Using ANSI/CSA Symbols)
L2
230V ac
Disconnect
Fuse
MCR
230V ac
Output
Circuits
Isolation
Transformer
X1
115V ac
Fuse
Operation of either of these contacts will remove
power from the adapter external I/O circuits, stopping
machine motion.
X2
Emergency-Stop
Push Button
Overtravel
Limit Switch
Stop
Start
Master Control Relay (MCR)
Cat. No. 700-PK400A1
Suppressor
Cat. No. 700-N24
MCR
Suppr.
MCR
MCR
115V ac
Output
Circuits
dc Power Supply.
Use NEC Class 2 for UL
Listing.
MCR
_
+
(Lo)
24 V dc
Output
Circuits
(Hi)
Line Terminals: Connect to 115V ac
terminals of Power Supply.
Line Terminals: Connect to 24V dc
terminals of Power Supply.
1-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using Surge Suppressors
Inductive load devices such as motor starters and solenoids require the use of some
type of surge suppression to protect the controller output contacts. Switching
inductive loads without surge suppression can significantly reduce the lifetime of
relay contacts. By adding a suppression device directly across the coil of an inductive
device, you will prolong the life of the switch contacts. You will also reduce the
effects of voltage transients caused by interrupting the current to that inductive
device, and will prevent electrical noise from radiating into system wiring.
The following diagram shows an output with a suppression device. We recommend
that you locate the suppression device as close as possible to the load device.
+dc or L1
VAC/DC
Snubber
Out 0
Out 1
Out 2
ac or dc
Outputs
Out 3
Out 4
Out 5
Out 6
Out 7
COM
dc COM or L2
If you connect a micro controller FET output to an inductive load, we recommend that
you use an IN4004 diode for surge suppression, as shown in the illustration that
follows.
+24V dc
VAC/DC
Out 0
Out 1
Out 2
Relay or Solid State
dc Outputs
Out 3
Out 4
IN4004 Diode
Out 5
Out 6
Out 7
24V dc common
COM
1-8
Suitable surge suppression methods for inductive ac load devices include a varistor,
an RC network, or an Allen-Bradley surge suppressor, all shown below. These
components must be appropriately rated to suppress the switching transient
characteristic of the particular inductive device. See the table on page 1-10 for
recommended suppressors.
Surge Suppression for Inductive ac Load Devices
Output Device
Output Device
Output Device
Surge
Suppressor
Varistor
RC Network
If you connect a micro controller triac output to control an inductive load, we
recommend that you use varistors to suppress noise. Choose a varistor that is
appropriate for the application. The suppressors we recommend for triac outputs
when switching 120V ac inductive loads are a Harris MOV, part number V175
LA10A, or an Allen-Bradley MOV, catalog number 599–K04 or 599–KA04. Consult
the varistor manufacturer’s data sheet when selecting a varistor for your application.
For inductive dc load devices, a diode is suitable. An 1N4004 diode is acceptable for
most applications. A surge suppressor can also be used. See the table on page 1-10
for recommended suppressors.
As shown in the illustration below, these surge suppression circuits connect directly
across the load device. This reduces arcing of the output contacts. (High transient
can cause arcing that occurs when switching off an inductive device.)
Surge Suppression for Inductive dc Load Devices
_
+
Output Device
Diode
(A surge suppressor can also be used.)
1-9
Hardware
Installing Your Controller
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Recommended Surge Suppressors
We recommend the Allen-Bradley surge suppressors shown in the following table for
use with Allen-Bradley relays, contactors, and starters.
Device
Coil Voltage
Suppressor Catalog
Number
Bulletin 509 Motor Starter
Bulletin 509 Motor Starter
120V ac
240V ac
599–K04
599–KA04
Bulletin 100 Contactor
Bulletin 100 Contactor
120V ac
240V ac
199–FSMA1
199–FSMA2
Bulletin 709 Motor Starter
120V ac
1401–N10
Bulletin 700 Type R, RM Relays
ac coil
None Required
Bulletin 700 Type R Relay
Bulletin 700 Type RM Relay
12V dc
12V dc
700–N22
700–N28
Bulletin 700 Type R Relay
Bulletin 700 Type RM Relay
24V dc
24V dc
700–N10
700–N13
Bulletin 700 Type R Relay
Bulletin 700 Type RM Relay
48V dc
48V dc
700–N16
700–N17
Bulletin 700 Type R Relay
Bulletin 700 Type RM Relay
115-125V dc
115-125V dc
700–N11
700–N14
Bulletin 700 Type R Relay
Bulletin 700 Type RM Relay
230-250V dc
230-250V dc
700–N12
700–N15
Bulletin 700 Type N, P, or PK Relay
150V max, ac or DC
700–N24
Miscellaneous electromagnetic
devices limited to 35 sealed VA
150V max, ac or DC
700–N24
Safety Considerations
Safety considerations are an important element of proper system installation.
Actively thinking about the safety of yourself and others, as well as the condition of
your equipment, is of primary importance. We recommend reviewing the following
safety considerations.
1-10
Installing Your Controller
Hardware
Disconnecting Main Power
ATTENTION: Explosion Hazard - Do not replace components or disconnect
equipment unless power has been switched off and the area is known to be
non-hazardous.
!
The main power disconnect switch should be located where operators and
maintenance personnel have quick and easy access to it. In addition to disconnecting
electrical power, all other sources of power (pneumatic and hydraulic) should be
de-energized before working on a machine or process controlled by a controller.
Safety Circuits
ATTENTION: Explosion Hazard - Do not connect or disconnect connectors while
circuit is live unless area is known to be non-hazardous.
!
Circuits installed on the machine for safety reasons, like overtravel limit switches,
stop push buttons, and interlocks, should always be hard-wired directly to the master
control relay. These devices must be wired in series so that when any one device
opens, the master control relay is de-energized thereby removing power to the
machine. Never alter these circuits to defeat their function. Serious injury or machine
damage could result.
Power Distribution
There are some points about power distribution that you should know:
•
The master control relay must be able to inhibit all machine motion by removing
power to the machine I/O devices when the relay is de-energized.
•
If you are using a dc power supply, interrupt the load side rather than the ac line
power. This avoids the additional delay of power supply turn-off. The dc power
supply should be powered directly from the fused secondary of the transformer.
Power to the dc input and output circuits is connected through a set of master
control relay contacts.
1-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Periodic Tests of Master Control Relay Circuit
Any part can fail, including the switches in a master control relay circuit. The failure
of one of these switches would most likely cause an open circuit, which would be a
safe power-off failure. However, if one of these switches shorts out, it no longer
provides any safety protection. These switches should be tested periodically to assure
they will stop machine motion when needed.
Power Considerations
The following explains power considerations for the micro controllers.
Isolation Transformers
You may want to use an isolation transformer in the ac line to the controller. This
type of transformer provides isolation from your power distribution system and is
often used as a step down transformer to reduce line voltage. Any transformer used
with the controller must have a sufficient power rating for its load. The power rating
is expressed in volt-amperes (VA).
Power Supply Inrush
The MicroLogix power supply does not require or need a high inrush current.
However, if the power source can supply a high inrush current, the MicroLogix power
supply will accept it. There is a high level of inrush current when a large capacitor on
the input of the MicroLogix is charged up quickly.
If the power source cannot supply high inrush current, the only effect is that the
MicroLogix input capacitor charges up more slowly. The following considerations
determine whether the power source needs to supply a high inrush current:
1-12
•
power-up sequence of devices in system
•
power source sag if it cannot source inrush current
•
the effect of the voltage sag on other equipment
If the power source cannot provide high inrush current when the entire system in an
application is powered, the MicroLogix powers-up more slowly. If part of an
application’s system is already powered and operating when the MicroLogix is
powered, the source voltage may sag while the MicroLogix input capacitor is
charging. A power source voltage sag can affect other equipment connected to the
same power source. For example, a voltage sag may reset a computer connected to
the same power source.
Loss of Power Source
The power supply is designed to withstand brief power losses without affecting the
operation of the system. The time the system is operational during power loss is
called “program scan hold-up time after loss of power.” The duration of the power
supply hold-up time depends on the type and state of the I/O, but is typically between
20 milliseconds and 3 seconds. When the duration of power loss reaches this limit,
the power supply signals the processor that it can no longer provide adequate dc
power to the system. This is referred to as a power supply shutdown.
Input States on Power Down
The power supply hold-up time as described above is generally longer than the
turn-on and turn-off times of the inputs. Because of this, the input state change from
“On” to “Off” that occurs when power is removed may be recorded by the processor
before the power supply shuts down the system. Understanding this concept is
important. The user program should be written to take this effect into account.
Other Types of Line Conditions
Occasionally the power source to the system can be temporarily interrupted. It is also
possible that the voltage level may drop substantially below the normal line voltage
range for a period of time. Both of these conditions are considered to be a loss of
power for the system.
Preventing Excessive Heat
For most applications, normal convective cooling keeps the controller within the
specified operating range. Ensure that the specified operating range is maintained.
Proper spacing of components within an enclosure is usually sufficient for heat
dissipation.
1-13
Hardware
Installing Your Controller
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
In some applications, a substantial amount of heat is produced by other equipment
inside or outside the enclosure. In this case, place blower fans inside the enclosure to
assist in air circulation and to reduce “hot spots” near the controller.
Additional cooling provisions might be necessary when high ambient temperatures
are encountered.
Note:
Do not bring in unfiltered outside air. Place the controller in an
enclosure to protect it from a corrosive atmosphere. Harmful
contaminants or dirt could cause improper operation or damage to
components. In extreme cases, you may need to use air conditioning to
protect against heat build-up within the enclosure.
Controller Spacing
The following figure shows the recommended minimum spacing for the controller.
(Refer to appendix A for controller dimensions.)
!
ATTENTION: Explosion Hazard - For Class I, Division 2 applications, this
product must be installed in an enclosure. All cables connected to the product must
remain in the enclosure or be protected by conduit or other means.
Top
Side
Side
A
A
Bottom
1-14
B
B
A. Greater than or equal to 50.8 mm (2 in.).
B. Greater than or equal to 50.8 mm (2 in.).
Installing Your Controller
Hardware
Mounting the Controller
This equipment is suitable for Class I, Division 2, Groups A, B, C, D or
non-hazardous locations only, when product or packaging is marked.
ATTENTION: Explosion Hazard:
!
•
Substitution of components may impair suitability for Class I, Division 2.
•
Be careful of metal chips when drilling mounting holes for your controller.
Drilled fragments that fall into the controller could cause damage. Do not drill
holes above a mounted controller if the protective wrap is removed.
•
Do not replace components or disconnect equipment unless power has been
switched off and the area is known to be non-hazardous.
•
Do not connect or disconnect connectors while circuit is live unless area is
known to be non-hazardous.
•
This product must be installed in an enclosure. All cables connected to the
product must remain in the enclosure or be protected by conduit or other
means.
•
The interior of the enclosure must be accessible only by the use of a tool.
•
For applicable equipment (for example, relay modules), exposure to some
chemicals may degrade the sealing properties of the materials used in these
devices:
– Relays, epoxy
It is recommended that you periodically inspect these devices for any
degradation of properties and replace the module if degradation is found.
The controller should be mounted horizontally within an enclosure, using a DIN rail
or mounting screws.
1-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using a DIN Rail
Use 35 mm (1.38 in.) DIN rails, such as item number 199–DR1 or 1492–DR5 from
Bulletin 1492.
To install your controller on the DIN rail:
1. Mount your DIN rail. (Make sure that
the placement of the controller on the
DIN rail meets the recommended
spacing requirements. Refer to
controller dimensions in appendix A).
2. Hook the top slot over the DIN rail.
3. While pressing the controller against
the rail, snap the controller into
position.
4. Leave the protective wrap attached
until you are finished wiring the
controller.
B
Side View
Protective Wrap
DIN
Rail
20146
A
C
Mounting
Template
Call-out
Dimension
A
84 mm (3.3 in.)
B
33 mm (1.3 in.)
C
16 mm (.63 in.)
DIN
Rail
To remove your controller from the DIN rail:
1. Place a screwdriver in the DIN rail
latch at the bottom of the controller.
2. Holding the controller, pry downward
on the latch until the controller is
released from the DIN rail.
Side View
DIN
Rail
20147
1-16
Installing Your Controller
Hardware
Using Mounting Screws
To install your controller using mounting screws:
Note:
Leave the protective wrap attached until you are finished wiring the
controller.
1. Use the mounting template from
the MicroLogix 1000 Programmable
Mounting
Template
Controllers Installation Instructions,
publication 1761-5.1.2 or MicroLogix
1000 (Analog) Programmable
Controllers Installation Instructions,
publication 1761-5.1.3, that was
shipped with your controller.
2. Secure the template to the
mounting surface. (Make sure
your controller is spaced
properly.)
3. Drill holes through the template
4. Remove the mounting template.
5. Mount the controller.
Protective Wrap
(remove after wiring)
1-17
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Mounting Your Controller Vertically
Your controller can also be mounted vertically within an enclosure using mounting
screws or a DIN rail. To insure the stability of your controller, we recommend using
mounting screws.
To insure the controller’s reliability, the following environmental specifications must
not be exceeded.
Top
A
Description:
Side
Side
A
A
Bottom
Specification:
Operating
Temperature
Discrete: 0oC to +45oC (+32oF to +113oF)➀
Operating Shock
(Panel mounted)
9.0g peak acceleration (11±-1 ms duration)
3 times each direction, each axis
Operating Shock
(DIN rail mounted)
7.0g peak acceleration (11±-1 ms duration)
3 times each direction, each axis
Analog: 0oC to +45oC (+32oF to +113oF)➀
A
➀ DC input voltage derated linearly from +30°C (30V to 26.4V).
Note:
1-18
When mounting your controller vertically, the nameplate should be
facing downward.
Wiring Your Controller
Wiring Your Controller
Hardware
2
This chapter describes how to wire your controller. Topics include:
•
grounding guidelines
•
sinking and sourcing circuits
•
wiring recommendations
•
wiring diagrams, input voltage ranges, and output voltage ranges
2-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Grounding Guidelines
In solid-state control systems, grounding helps limit the effects of noise due to
electromagnetic interference (EMI). Use the heaviest wire gauge listed for wiring
your controller with a maximum length of 152.4 mm (6 in.). Run the ground
connection from the ground screw of the controller (third screw from left on output
terminal rung) to the ground bus.
Note:
This symbol denotes a functional earth ground terminal which
provides a low impedance path between electrical circuits and earth
for non-safety purposes, such as noise immunity improvement.
Protective Wrap (remove after
wiring)
!
ATTENTION: All devices that connect to the user 24V power supply or the RS232 channel must be referenced to chassis ground or floating. Failure to follow this
procedure may result in property damage or personal injury.
ATTENTION: Chassis ground, user 24V ground, and RS-232 ground are
internally connected. You must connect the chassis ground terminal screw to chassis
ground prior to connecting any devices.
ATTENTION: On the 1761-L10BWB, 1761-L16BWB, 1761-L16BBB, 1761L20BWB-5A, 1761-L32BBB, and 1761-L32BWB controllers, the user supply 24V
dc IN and chassis ground are internally connected.
You must also provide an acceptable grounding path for each device in your
application. For more information on proper grounding guidelines, see the Industrial
Automation Wiring and Grounding Guidelines publication 1770–4.1.
!
2-2
ATTENTION: Remove the protective wrap before applying power to the
controller. Failure to remove the wrap may cause the controller to overheat.
Wiring Your Controller
Hardware
Sinking and Sourcing Circuits
Any of the MicroLogix 1000 DC inputs can be configured as sinking or sourcing
depending on how the DC COM is wired on the MicroLogix.
Type
Definition
Sinking Input
The input energizes when high-level voltage is applied to the input
terminal (active high). Connect the power supply VDC (-) to the
MicroLMicroLogix
Sourcing Input
The input energizes when low-level voltage is applied to the input
terminal (active low). Connect the power supply VDC (+) to the
MicroLogix DC COM terminal.
Sinking and Sourcing Wiring Examples
1761-L32BWA (Wiring diagrams also apply to 1761-L20BWA-5A, -L16BWA, -L10BWA.)
Sinking Inputs
Sourcing Inputs
14-30 VDC
VDC (+) for Sourcing
VDC (-) for Sourcing
VDC (+) for Sinking
VDC (-)
for Sinking
+ 24V DC OUT
DC
COM
I/0
I/1
I/2
I/3
DC
COM
I/4
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
Sourcing Inputs
I/9
I/10
I/11
I/12
I/13
I/14
I/15
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
Sinking Inputs
14-30 VDC
VDC (-) for Sourcing
VDC (-) for Sourcing
VDC (+) for Sinking
VDC (-)
for Sinking
+ 24V DC OUT
DC
COM
I/0
I/1
I/2
I/3
DC
COM
I/4
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
I/9
I/10
I/11
I/12
I/13
I/14
I/15
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
2-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761-L32BWB, -L32BBB (Wiring Diagrams also apply to 1761-L20BWB-5A, -L16BWB, L10BWB, -L16BBB.)
Sinking Inputs
Sourcing Inputs
14-30 VDC
VDC (+) for Sourcing
VDC (-) for Sourcing
VDC (+) for Sinking
VDC (-)
for Sinking
+ 24V DC OUT
DC
COM
I/0
I/1
I/2
I/3
DC
COM
I/4
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
Sourcing Inputs
I/9
I/10
I/11
I/12
I/13
I/14
I/15
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
Sinking Inputs
14-30 VDC
VDC (-) for Sourcing
VDC (-) for Sourcing
VDC (+) for Sinking
VDC (-)
for Sinking
+ 24V DC OUT
DC
COM
I/0
I/1
I/2
I/3
DC
COM
I/4
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
I/9
I/10
I/11
I/12
I/13
I/14
I/15
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
Wiring Recommendations
ATTENTION: Before you install and wire any device, disconnect power to the
controller system.
!
The following are general recommendations for wiring your controller system.
•
Each wire terminal accepts 2 wires of the size listed below:
Wire Type
2-4
Wire Size (2 wire maximum per terminal screw)
Solid
#14 to #22 AWG
Stranded
#16 to #22 AWG
Wiring Your Controller
Note:
Hardware
Refer to page 2-25 for wiring your high-speed counter.
The diameter of the terminal screw heads is 5.5 mm (0.220 in.). The
input and output terminals of the micro controller are designed for the
following spade lugs:
Call-out
C
E
L
W
X
C+X
Dimension
6.35 mm (0.250 in.)
10.95 mm (0.431 in.) maximum
14.63 mm (0.576 in.) maximum
6.35 mm (0.250 in.)
3.56 mm (0.140 in.)
9.91 mm (0.390 in.) maximum
We recommend using either of the following AMP spade lugs: part
number 53120-1, if using 22-16 AWG, or part number 53123-1, if using
16-14 AWG.
Note:
If you use wires without lugs, make sure the wires are securely captured
by the pressure plate. This is particularly important at the four end
terminal positions where the pressure plate does not touch the outside
wall.
20148i
2-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
ATTENTION: Be careful when stripping wires. Wire fragments that fall into the
controller could cause damage. Do not strip wires above a mounted controller if
the protective wrap is removed.
!
Protective Wrap
(remove after wiring)
ATTENTION: Remove the protective wrap before applying power to the
controller. Failure to remove the wrap may cause the controller to overheat.
!
ATTENTION: Calculate the maximum possible current in each power and
common wire. Observe all electrical codes dictating the maximum current
allowable for each wire size. Current above the maximum ratings may cause wiring
to overheat, which can cause damage.
ATTENTION: United States Only: If the controller is installed within a potentially
hazardous environment, all wiring must comply with the requirements stated in the
National Electrical Code 501-4 (b).
•
Allow for at least 50 mm (2 in.) between I/O wiring ducts or terminal strips and
the controller.
•
Route incoming power to the controller by a path separate from the device wiring.
Where paths must cross, their intersection should be perpendicular.
Note:
2-6
Do not run signal or communications wiring and power wiring in the
same conduit. Wires with different signal characteristics should be
routed by separate paths.
•
Separate wiring by signal type. Bundle wiring with similar electrical
characteristics together.
•
Separate input wiring from output wiring.
•
Label wiring to all devices in the system. Use tape, shrink-tubing, or other
dependable means for labeling purposes. In addition to labeling, use colored
insulation to identify wiring based on signal characteristics. For example, you
may use blue for dc wiring and red for ac wiring.
Wiring Your Controller
Hardware
Wiring Diagrams, Discrete Input and Output Voltage Ranges
The following pages show the wiring diagrams, discrete input voltage ranges, and
discrete output voltage ranges. Controllers with dc inputs can be wired as either
sinking or sourcing configurations. (Sinking and sourcing does not apply to ac
inputs.)
Note:
!
This symbol denotes a functional earth ground terminal which
provides a low impedance path between electrical circuits and earth
for non-safety purposes, such as noise immunity improvement.
ATTENTION: The 24V dc sensor power source should not be used to power
output circuits. It should only be used to power input devices (e.g. sensors,
switches). Refer to page 2-3 for information on MCR wiring in output circuits.
2-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761-L16AWA Wiring Diagram
79–132V ac
79–132V ac
L2/N
NOT
NOT AC
USED USED COM
L1
I/0
I/1
I/2
VAC
VDC
O/0 VDC
L2/N
I/3
AC
COM
O/1
VAC
VDC
L1
I/4
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
I/9
O/4
O/5
CR
CR
85–264 VAC
L1
L2/N
VAC
VAC
VAC
O/2 VDC
O/3 VDC
CR
CR
VAC 2
VDC 1
VAC 2
COM
VAC 1
VAC 1
COM
VDC 2
VDC 1
COM
VDC 3
VDC 2
COM
VDC 3
COM
1761-L16AWA Input Voltage Range
0V ac
20V ac
Off
79V ac
132V ac
On
Off
?
1761-L16AWA Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
2-8
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
Wiring Your Controller
79-132V ac
79-132V ac
L2/N
NOT NOT
USED USED
AC
COM
85-264 VAC
L1
L2/N
I/1
VAC
VDC O/0
I/2
L1
L2/N
L1
I/0
Hardware
1761-L32AWA Wiring Diagram
I/3
VAC
VDC O/1
AC
COM
I/4
VAC
VDC O/2
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
I/9
I/10
I/11
I/12
I/13
I/14
I/15
O/3
VAC
VDC O/4
O/5
O/6
O/7
VAC
VDC
O/8
O/9
O/10
O/11
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
VAC 2
VAC 2
COM
VAC 1
VDC 2
VDC 1
VDC 1
COM
VAC
VDC
VDC 2
COM
CR
CR
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
VDC 3
VDC 3
COM
VAC
VDC
VAC 1
COM
1761-L32AWA Input Voltage Range
0V ac
20V ac
Off
79V ac
Off
?
132V ac
On
1761-L32AWA Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
2-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761-L10BWA Wiring Diagram (Sinking Input Configuration)
Note:
Refer to page 2-3 for additional configuration options.
14-30V DC
VDC VDC+
COM
VDC+
VDC
COM
+ 24V DC OUT
DC
COM
85-264 VAC
L1
I/0
I/1
VAC
VDC O/0
L2/N
I/2
DC
COM
I/3
VAC
VDC
VAC
VDC
I/5
I/4
VAC
VDC
O/2
NOT
USED
NOT NOT NOT
USED USED USED
O/3
CR
CR
VDC 1
VAC 2
VAC 2
COM
VAC 1
VAC 1
COM
VDC 2
VDC 1
COM
CR
CR
VDC 3
VDC 2
COM
VDC 3
COM
1761-L10BWA Input Voltage Range
0V dc
0V dc
5V dc
5V dc
Off
14V dc
14V dc
Off
?
26.4V dc @ 55°C (131°F)
30V dc @ 30°C (86°F)
On
1761-L10BWA Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
2-10
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
Wiring Your Controller
Note:
Hardware
1761-L16BWA Wiring Diagrams (Sinking Input Configuration)
Refer to page 2-3 for additional configuration options.
14-30V DC
VDC
COM
VDC+
VDC+
VDC
COM
DC
COM
+ 24V DC OUT
85-264 VAC
L1
L2/N
I/0
I/1
VAC
VDC O/0
I/2
I/3
DC
COM
I/5
I/4
VAC
VDC O/2
VAC
VDC O/1
VAC
VDC
CR
I/6
O/3
I/7
I/8
I/9
VAC
VDC
O/4
O/5
CR
CR
CR
VDC 1
VAC 2
VAC 2
COM
VAC 1
VAC 1
COM
VDC 2
VDC 1
COM
VDC 3
VDC 2
COM
VDC 3
COM
1761-L16BWA Input Voltage Range
0V dc
0V dc
5V dc
5V dc
Off
14V dc
14V dc
26.4V dc @ 55°C (131°F)
30V dc @ 30°C (86°F)
On
Off
?
1761-L16BWA Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
2-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761-L32BWA Wiring Diagram (Sinking Input Configuration)
Note:
Refer to page 2-4 for additional configuration options.
14-30V DC
VDC
COM
VDC+
VDC+
VDC
COM
+ 24V DC OUT
DC
COM
85-264 VAC
L1
I/0
I/2
I/1
VAC
VDC O/0
L2/N
VAC
VDC
I/3
O/1
DC
COM
I/4
VAC
VDC O/2
CR
I/5
O/3
I/7
VAC
VDC
O/4
O/5
O/6
O/7
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
VAC 2
COM
VAC 1
I/9
I/10
I/11
VDC 2
VDC 1
VAC 2
I/8
I/6
VDC 1
COM
VAC
VDC
I/12
O/8
CR
I/14
I/13
O/9
I/15
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
O/10 O/11
CR
CR
CR
VDC 3
VDC 2
COM
VDC 3
COM
VAC 1
COM
1761-L32BWA Input Voltage Range
0V dc
0V dc
5V dc
5V dc
Off
14V dc
14V dc
26.4V dc @ 55°C (131°F)
30V dc @ 30°C (86°F)
On
Off
?
1761-L32BWA Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
2-12
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
Wiring Your Controller
Note:
Hardware
1761-L10BWB Wiring Diagram (Sinking Input Configuration)
Refer to page 2-4 for additional configuration options.
14-30V DC
14-30V DC
VDC+
VDC
COM
NOT NOT
USED USED
DC IN
+ 24V -
DC
COM
I/0
I/1
VAC
VDC O/0
I/2
VDC
COM
I/3
VAC
VDC O/1
DC
COM
VDC+
I/4
I/5
VAC
VDC
VAC
VDC O/2
CR
NOT
USED
NOT NOT NOT
USED USED USED
O/3
NOT NOT NOT
USED USED USED
CR
VAC 1
VDC 1
VDC 1
COM
VDC 3
VDC 2
VAC 1
COM
VDC 2
COM
VDC 3
COM
1761-L10BWB Input Voltage Range
0V dc
5V dc
Off
14V dc
26.4V dc @ 55°C (131°F)
On
Off
?
1761-L10BWB Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
2-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761-L16BWB Wiring Diagram (Sinking Input Configuration)
Note:
Refer to page 2-4 for additional configuration options.
NOT NOT DC
USED USED COM
DC IN
+ 24V -
14-30V DC
14-30V DC
VDC+
VDC
COM
I/0
I/1
VAC
VDC O/0
I/2
VDC
COM
I/3
VAC
VDC O/1
DC
COM
VDC+
I/4
VAC
O/2
VDC
I/5
I/6
VAC
VDC
O/3
CR
I/7
VAC
VDC
VDC 1
VDC 1
COM
VDC 2
COM
O/4
O/5
CR
VDC 4
VDC 3
VDC 2
VAC 1
COM
I/9
CR
CR
VAC 1
I/8
VDC 3
COM
VDC 4
COM
1761-L16BWB Input Voltage Range
0V dc
5V dc
Off
14V dc
26.4V dc @ 55°C (131°F)
On
Off
?
1761-L16BWB Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
2-14
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
Wiring Your Controller
Note:
Refer to page 2-4 for additional configuration options.
Sourcing Configuration
14-30 VDC
Sinking Configuration
14-30V DC
VDC
COM
NOT NOT
USED USED
DC
COM
DC IN
+ 24V -
Hardware
1761-L32BWB Wiring Diagram (Sinking Input Configuration)
VDC
COM
VDC+
VDC+
I/0
I/1
I/2
VAC
VDC
O/0
VAC
VDC O/1
I/3
DC
COM
VAC
VDC
I/4
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
I/9
I/10
O/2
O/3
VAC
VDC
O/4
O/5
O/6
O/7
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
VAC 1
VDC 1
VAC 1
COM
VDC 2
COM
I/12
I/13
VAC
VDC
O/8
O/9
O/10
O/11
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
VDC 3
VDC 2
I/11
VDC 3
COM
I/14
VDC 4
I/15
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
VDC 4
COM
VDC 1
COM
1761-L32BWB Input Voltage Range
0V dc
5V dc
Off
14V dc
26.4V dc @ 55° C (131°F)
On
Off
?
1761-L32BWB Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
2-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761-L32AAA Wiring Diagram
79-132V ac
79-132V ac
L2/N
NOT NOT
USED USED
AC
COM
85-264 VAC
L1
L2/N
I/0
I/1
VAC
VDC O/0
I/2
L1
L2/N
L1
I/3
VAC
VDC O/1
AC
COM
I/4
VAC
VDC O/2
I/6
I/7
I/8
I/9
I/10
I/11
I/12
I/13
I/14
I/15
O/3
VAC
VDC O/4
O/5
O/6
O/7
VAC
VDC
O/8
O/9
O/10
O/11
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
VAC 1
VAC 1
COM
VAC 0
I/5
VAC 3
VAC 2
VAC 2
COM
VAC 3
COM
CR
CR
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
VAC 4
VAC 4
COM
VAC 0
COM
1761-L32AAA Input Voltage Range
0V ac
20V ac
Off
79V ac
132V ac
On
Off
?
1761-L32AAA Output Voltage Range
0V ac
85V ac
Off
?
2-16
264V ac
Operating Range
Wiring Your Controller
Note:
Refer to page 2-4 for additional configuration options.
14-30V DC
14-30V DC
VDC
COM
NOT NOT DC
USED USED COM
DC IN
+ 24V -
Hardware
1761-L16BBB Wiring Diagrams (Sinking Input Configuration)
VDC
COM
VDC+
I/0
I/1
VAC
VDC
O/0
I/2
I/3
VAC
VDC
O/1
DC
COM
DC
24V+
VDC+
I/4
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
I/9
O/2
O/3
O/4
O/5
DC
24V-
NOT
USED
CR
VAC 2
VAC 1
VAC 1
COM
VDC 1
VDC 2
VAC 2
COM
VDC 2
COM
VDC 1
COM
1761-L16BBB Input Voltage Range
0V dc
5V dc
14V dc
Off
26.4V dc @ 55° C (131°F)
On
Off
?
1761-L16BBB Output Voltage Range
0V dc
20.4V dc
Off
?
26.4V dc
Operating Range
2-17
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761-L32BBB Wiring Diagram (Sinking Input Configuration)
Note:
Refer to page 2-4 for additional configuration options.
Sourcing Configuration
14-30 VDC
Sinking Configuration
14-30V DC
VDC
COM
NOT NOT
USED USED
DC
COM
I/0
VDC
COM
VDC+
VDC+
I/1
I/2
I/3
O/0
VAC
VDC
O/1
I/4
I/5
I/6
I/7
I/8
I/9
I/10
I/11
I/12
I/13
DC
24V+ O/2
O/3
O/4
O/5
O/6
O/7
O/8
O/9
O/10
DC
O/11 24V-
DC
COM
I/14
I/15
I/16
I/17
I/18
I/19
DC IN
VAC
VDC
+ 24V -
VAC 2
VAC 1
VAC 1
COM
VDC 1
NOT
USED
VDC 2
VAC 2
COM
VDC 2
COM
VDC 1
COM
1761-L32BBB Input Voltage Range
0V dc
5V dc
14V dc
Off
26.4V dc @ 55° C (131°F)
On
Off
?
1761-L32BBB Output Voltage Range
0V dc
20.4V dc
Off
?
2-18
26.4V dc
Operating Range
Wiring Your Controller
Note:
Refer to pages 2-23 through 2-25 for additional information on analog
wiring.
79-132V ac
NOT
NOT AC
USED USED COM
85-264 VAC
L1
L2/N
L1
I/0
I/1
VAC
VDC O/0
Analog
Channels
79-132V ac
L2/N
I/2
L1
L2/N
I/3
AC
COM
VAC
VDC O/1
I/4
VAC
VDC O/2
I/5
O/3
I/8
I/9
VAC
VDC O/4
O/5
O/6
NOT
O/7 USED
CR
CR
CR
CR
I/6
CR
CR
I/7
I/10
I/11
IA
IA/0
SHD V(+)
IA/1
V(+)
OA OA/0
SHD V(+)
IA
(-)
OA/0
I(+)
IA
SHD
IA/2
I(+)
IA/3
I(+)
IA
(-)
OA
(-)
Analog
Channel
VAC 2
VAC 2
COM
VAC 1
VDC 2
VDC 1
VDC 1
COM
VDC 2
COM
VAC 1
COM
1761-L20AWA-5A Input Voltage Range
0V ac
20V ac
Off
79V ac
Off
?
132V ac
On
1761-L20AWA-5A Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
2-19
Hardware
1761-L20AWA-5A Wiring Diagram
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761-L20BWA-5A Wiring Diagram (Sinking Input Configuration)
Note:
Refer to page 2-4 for additional discrete configuration options.
Refer to pages 2-23 through 2-25 for additional information on analog
wiring.
14-30 VDC
VDC(-)
VDC(+)
Analog
Channels
VDC(+)
VDC(-)
DC
COM
+ 24V DC OUT
85-264 VAC
L1
L2/N
I/0
I/1
I/2
VAC
VDC O/0
I/3
DC
COM
VAC
VDC O/1
I/4
VAC
VDC O/2
I/5
I/6
O/3
I/8
I/9
I/10
I/11
VAC
VDC O/4
O/5
O/6
NOT
O/7 USED
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
I/7
IA
IA/0
SHD V(+)
OA OA/0
SHD V(+)
IA/1
V(+)
OA/0
I(+)
IA
(-)
IA
SHD
IA/2
I(+)
IA/3
I(+)
IA
(-)
OA
(-)
Analog
Channel
VAC 2
VAC 2
COM
VAC 1
VDC 2
VDC 1
VDC 2
COM
VDC 1
COM
VAC 1
COM
1761-L20BWA-5A Discrete Input Voltage Range
0V dc
0V dc
5V dc
5V dc
Off
14V dc
14V dc
26.4V dc @ 55° C (131° F)
30V dc @ 30° C (86° F)
On
Off
?
1761-L20BWA-5A Relay Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
2-20
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
Wiring Your Controller
Note:
Refer to page 2-4 for additional discrete configuration options.
Refer to pages 2-23 through 2-25 for additional information on analog
wiring.
14-30 VDC
VDC(-)
NOT
NOT DC
USED USED COM
I/0
I/1
I/2
DC IN
VAC
VDC O/0
+ 24V -
14-30 VDC
VDC(-)
VDC(+)
DC
COM
I/3
VAC
VDC O/1
I/4
I/5
VAC
VDC O/2
VAC 1
COM
VDC 1
I/6
O/3
I/8
I/7
I/9
I/10
VAC
VDC O/4
O/5
O/6
O/7
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
CR
VAC 1
Analog
Channels
VDC(+)
I/11
NOT
USED
IA/1
V(+)
OA/0
OA
SHD V(+)
IA
(-)
OA/0
I(+)
IA
SHD
IA/2
I(+)
IA/3
I(+)
IA
(-)
OA
(-)
Analog
Channel
VDC 3
VDC 2
IA
IA/0
SHD V(+)
VDC 3
COM
VDC 2
COM
VDC 1
COM
1761-L20BWB-5A Discrete Input Voltage Range
0V dc
5V dc
Off
14V dc
26.4V dc @ 55° C (131° F)
On
Off
?
1761-L20BWB-5A Relay Output Voltage Range
0V ac
0V dc
Off
?
5V ac
5V dc
264V ac
125V dc
Operating Range
2-21
Hardware
1761-L20BWB-5A Wiring Diagram (Sinking Input Configuration)
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Minimizing Electrical Noise on Analog Controllers
Inputs on analog employ digital high frequency filters that significantly reduce the
effects of electrical noise on input signals. However, because of the variety of
applications and environments where analog controllers are installed and operating, it
is impossible to ensure that all environmental noise will be removed by the input
filters.
Several specific steps can be taken to help reduce the effects of environmental noise
on analog signals:
•
install the MicroLogix 1000 system in a properly rated (i.e., NEMA) enclosure.
Make sure that the MicroLogix 1000 system is properly grounded.
•
use Belden cable #8761 for wiring the analog channels making sure that the drain
wire and foil shield are properly earth grounded at one end of the cable.
•
route the Belden cable separate from any other wiring. Additional noise immunity
can be obtained by routing the cables in grounded conduit.
A system may malfunction due to a change in the operating environment after a
period of time. We recommend periodically checking system operation, particularly
when new machinery or other noise sources are installed near the MicroLogix 1000
system.
Grounding Your Analog Cable
Use shielded communication cable (Belden #8761). The Belden cable has two signal
wires (black and clear), one drain wire and a foil shield. The drain wire and foil
shield must be grounded at one end of the cable. Do not earth ground the drain wire
and foil shield at both ends of the cable.
Foil Shield
Insulation
Black Wire
Clear Wire
2-22
Drain Wire
Wiring Your Controller
Hardware
Wiring Your Analog Channels
Analog input circuits can monitor current and voltage signals and convert them to
serial digital data. The analog output can support either a voltage or a current
function.
Sensor 2
(V) Voltage
Sensor 3
(I) Current
Sensor 1
(V) Voltage
Jumper
unused
inputs
I/10
I/11
IA
IA/0
SHD V(+)
VAC
VDC
O/4
O/5
O/6
IA/1
V(+)
IA
(-)
NOT
O/7 USED
IA
SHD
IA/2
I(+)
IA/3
I(+)
IA
(-)
OA
SHD
OA/0
V(+)
OA/0
I(+)
OA
(-)
You can configure either voltage or
current output operation
Sensor 4
(I) Current
-OR-
meter
For increased noise immunity, connect a ground wire directly from the shield
terminals to chassis ground.
4
Important:
2-Wire Transmitter
The controller does not provide loop power for analog inputs. Use
a power supply that matches the transmitter specifications.
Transmitter
Power +
Supply -
Controller
IA/0 - 3 (+)
IA (-)
Transmitter
3-Wire Transmitter
Power +
Supply 4-Wire Transmitter
Power +
Supply -
Supply
Signal
GND
Transmitter
+
-
+
-
Controller
IA/0 - 3 (+)
IA (-)
Controller
IA/0 - 3 (+)
IA (-)
2-23
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Analog Voltage and Current Input and Output Ranges
Analog Voltage Input Range
-24V dc
-10.5V dc
10.5V dc
Operating Range
Underrange
24V dc
Overrange
Analog Current Input Range
-50mA
-21 mA
21 mA
Operating Range
Underrange
Note:
50 mA
Overrange
The analog voltage inputs are protected to withstand the application of
±24V dc without damage to the controller. The analog current inputs
are protected to withstand the application of ±50 mA without damage.
Analog Voltage Output Range
0V dc
10V dc
Operating Range
Analog Current Output Range
4 mA
20 mA
Operating Range
Note:
The analog outputs are protected to withstand the short circuiting of the
voltage or current outputs without damage to the controller.
For information on analog signal and data word values using the nominal transfer
function formula, see page 5-5.
2-24
Wiring Your Controller
To wire the controller for high-speed counter applications use input terminals I/0, I/1,
I/2, and I/3. Refer to chapter 12 for information on using the high-speed counter.
Shielded cable is required for high-speed input signals 0-3 when the filter setting is
set to either 0.10 ms or 0.075 ms. We recommend Belden #9503 or equivalent for
lengths up to 305 m (1000 ft). Shields should be grounded only at the signal source
end of the cable. Ground the shield to the case of the signal source, so energy coupled
to the shield will not be delivered to signal source’s electronics.
2-25
Hardware
Wiring Your Controller for High-Speed Counter Applications
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Notes:
2-26
3
Connecting the System
This chapter describes how to wire your controller system. The method you use and
cabling required to connect your controller depends on what type of system you are
employing. This chapter also describes how the controller establishes communication
with the appropriate network.
For information on:
See page:
DF1 protocol connections
3-2
DH–485 network connections
3-6
Establishing communication
3-19
3-1
Hardware
Connecting the System
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Connecting the DF1 Protocol
There are two ways to connect the MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller to your
personal computer using the DF1 protocol: using an isolated point-to-point
connection, or using a modem. Descriptions of these methods follow.
ATTENTION: Chassis ground, user 24V ground, and RS-232 ground are
internally connected. You must connect the chassis ground terminal screw to chassis
ground prior to connecting any devices. It is important that you understand your
personal computer’s grounding system before connecting to the controller. An
optical isolator is recommended between the controller and your personal computer.
!
Making an Isolated Point-to-Point Connection
You can connect the MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller to your personal
computer using a serial cable from your personal computer’s serial port to the micro
controller.
Optical Isolator➀
(recommended)
Micro Controller
1761-CBL-PM02
Personal Computer
➀
3-2
We recommend using an AIC+, catalog number 1761–NET–AIC, as your optical isolator. See page 3-13
for specific AIC+ cabling information.
Connecting the System
5
4
3
2
1
9
8
7
6
Hardware
1761-CBL-PM02 Series B Cable
8-pin Mini Din
9-pin D-shell
6 78
3
5
4
20187
Programming Device
1 2
Controller
9-Pin
8-Pin
9
RI
24V
1
8
CTS
GND
2
7
RTS
RTS
3
6
DSR
RXD
4
5
GND
DCD
5
4
DTR
CTS
6
3
TXD
TXD
7
2
RXD
GND
8
1
DCD
Using a Modem
You can also use modems to connect a personal computer to one MicroLogix 1000
controller (using DF1 full-duplex protocol) or to multiple controllers (using DF1 halfduplex protocol), as shown in the illustration that follows. Do not attempt to use DH–
485 protocol through modems under any circumstance. (For information on types of
modems you can use with the micro controllers, see page D-9.)
3-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Modem
Cable
Personal Computer
Modem
DF1 full-duplex protocol (to 1 controller)
DF1 half-duplex master protocol (to multiple controllers)
Optical Isolator➀
(recommended)
Modem
Micro Controller
1761-CBL-PM02
DF1 full-duplex protocol or
DF1 half-duplex slave protocol
Programming
Device
Modem Cable
Modem
1761-CBL-PM02 Cable
Modem
Null Modem Optical Isolator➀ 9-pin
8-pin Mini Din
Controller
➀ We recommend using an AIC+, catalog number 1761–NET–AIC, as your optical isolator. See page 3-13 for
specific AIC+ cabling information.
3-4
Connecting the System
If you construct your own null modem cable, the maximum cable length is 15.24 m
(50 ft) with a 25-pin or 9-pin connector. Refer to the following typical pinout:
Optical Isolator
Modem
9-Pin
25-Pin
9-Pin
3
TXD
TXD
2
3
2
RXD
RXD
3
2
5
GND
GND
7
5
1
CD
CD
8
1
4
DTR
DTR
20
4
6
DSR
DSR
6
6
8
CTS
CTS
5
8
7
RTS
RTS
4
7
3-5
Hardware
Constructing Your Own Null Modem Cable
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Connecting to a DH–485 Network
Note:
Only Series C or later MicroLogix 1000 discrete controllers and all
MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers support DH-485 network
connections.
MicroLogix 1000 (Series C or later discrete
or MicroLogix 1000 analog)
1761-CBL-AM00
or
1761-CBL-HM02
PC
PC to port 1 or
port 2
connection from
port 1 or port 2 to
MicroLogix
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC)
1761-CBL-AP00
or
1761-CBL-PM02
1761-CBL-AP00
or
1761-CBL-PM02
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC)
24V dc
(user supply needed if not connected to a
MicroLogix 1000 controller)
24V dc
(user supplied)
MicroLogix DH-485 Network
1747-CP3
or
1761-CBL-AC00
DB-9 RS-232 port
mini-DIN 8 RS-232 port
DH-485 port
Recommended Tools
To connect a DH–485 network, you need tools to strip the shielded cable and to attach
the cable and terminators to the AIC+ Advanced Interface Converter. We recommend
the following equipment (or equivalent):
Description
3-6
Part Number
Manufacturer
Shielded Twisted Pair Cable #3106A or #9842
Belden
Stripping Tool
45–164
Ideal Industries
1/8” Slotted Screwdriver
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Connecting the System
The suggested DH–485 communication cable is either Belden #3106A or #9842. The
cable is jacketed and shielded with one or two twisted wire pairs and a drain wire.
One pair provides a balanced signal line, and one additional wire is used for a
common reference line between all nodes on the network. The shield reduces the
effect of electrostatic noise from the industrial environment on network
communication.
The communication cable consists of a number of cable segments daisy-chained
together. The total length of the cable segments cannot exceed 1219 m (4000 ft).
When cutting cable segments, make them long enough to route them from one AIC+
to the next with sufficient slack to prevent strain on the connector. Allow enough
extra cable to prevent chafing and kinking in the cable.
Use these instructions for wiring the Belden #3106A or #9842 cable. (If you are
using standard Allen-Bradley cables, see the Cable Selection Guide starting on page
3-12.)
3-7
Hardware
DH–485 Communication Cable
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Connecting the Communication Cable to the DH–485 Connector
Note:
A daisy-chained network is recommended. We do not recommend the
following:
A daisy-chained network is recommended. We do not recommend the following:
Belden
#3106A or
#9842
Belden
#3106A or
#9842
Belden
#3106A or
#9842
Connector
Connector
Connector
Incorrect
Single Cable Connection
Orange with White Stripes
White with Orange Stripes
Shrink Tubing
Recommended
6 Termination
5 A
4 B
3 Common
2 Shield
1 Chassis Ground
Drain Wire
Blue (#3106A) or
Blue with White Stripes (#9842)
Multiple Cable Connection
to Previous Device
to Successive Device
3-8
Connecting the System
The table below shows connections for Belden #3106A.
Connect this Wire
To this Terminal
Shield/Drain
Non-jacketed
Terminal 2 - Shield
Blue
Blue
Terminal 3 - (Common)
White with Orange Stripe
Terminal 4 - (Data B)
Orange with White Stripe
Terminal 5 - (Data A)
White/Orange
Hardware
For this Wire/Pair
The table below shows connections for Belden #9842.
For this Wire/Pair
Shield/Drain
Connect this Wire
Non-jacketed
Terminal 2 - Shield
White with Blue Stripe
Cut back - no connection➀
Blue with White Stripe
Terminal 3 - (Common)
White with Orange Stripe
Terminal 4 - (Data B)
Orange with White Stripe
Terminal 5 - (Data A)
Blue/White
White/Orange
➀
To this Terminal
To prevent confusion when installing the communication cable, cut back the white with blue stripe wire
immediately after the the insulation jacket is removed. This wire is not used by DH–485.
Grounding and Terminating the DH–485 Network
Only one connector at the end of the link must have Terminals 1 and 2 jumpered
together. This provides an earth ground connection for the shield of the
communication cable.
Both ends of the network must have Terminals 5 and 6 jumpered together. This
connects the termination impedance (of 120Ω) that is built into each AIC+ as required
by the DH–485 specification.
End-of-Line Termination
Jumper
Jumper
Belden #3106A or #9842 Cable 1219 m
(4000ft) Maximum
Jumper
3-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Connecting the AIC+
Note:
Only Series C or later MicroLogix 1000 discrete controllers and all
MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers support DH-485 connections with
the AIC+.
You can connect an unpowered AIC+, catalog number 1761–NET–AIC, to the
network without disrupting network activity. In addition, if a MicroLogix 1000
controller powers an AIC+ that is connected to the network, network activity will not
be disrupted should the MicroLogix 1000 controller be removed from the AIC+.
The figure that follows shows the external wiring connections and specifications of
the AIC+.
AIC+ Advanced Interface Converter
(1761-NET-AIC)
3-10
Connecting the System
Description
Port 1 - DB-9 RS-232, DTE
Port 2 - mini-DIN 8 RS–232
Port 3 - DH–485 Phoenix plug
DC Power Source selector switch
(cable = port 2 power source, external = external power source connected to item 5)
Terminals for external 24V dc power supply and chassis ground
For additional information on connecting the AIC+, see the Advanced Interface
Converter (AIC+) and DeviceNet Interface (DNI) Installation Instructions,
Publication 1761–5.11.
DF1 Isolated Point-to-Point Connection
1761-CBL-AM00
or
1761-CBL-HM02
MicroLogix 1000
PC
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC)
Selection Switch Up
24V dc
(Not needed in this configuration
since the MicroLogix 1000 provides
power to the AIC+ via port 2.)
1747-CP3 or 1761-CBL-AC00
3-11
Hardware
Item
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
DH–485 Network Connection
PC
MicroLogix 1000 (Series C or later discrete
and all analog)
PC to port 1 or
port 2
connection from
port 1 or port 2 to
MicroLogix
1761-CBL-AM00
or
1761-CBL-HM02
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC)
1761-CBL-AP00
or
1761-CBL-PM02
24V dc
(user supply needed if not connected to a
MicroLogix 1000 controller)
1761-CBL-AP00
or
1761-CBL-PM02
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC)
24V dc
(user supplied)
MicroLogix DH-485 Network
1747-CP3
or
1761-CBL-AC00
DB-9 RS-232 port
mini-DIN 8 RS-232 port
DH-485 port
DF1 Isolated Modem Connection
1761-CBL-AM00
or
1761-CBL-HM02
MicroLogix 1000
Modem
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC)
Selection Switch Up
24V dc
(Not needed in this configuration since the
MicroLogix 1000 provides power to the
AIC+ via port 2.)
User supplied modem cable
For additional information on connections using the AIC+, see the Advanced
Interface Converter (AIC+) and DeviceNet Interface (DNI) Installation Instructions,
Publication 1761–5.11.
3-12
Connecting the System
If you construct your own modem cable, the maximum cable length is 15.24 m (50 ft)
with a 25-pin or 9-pin connector. Refer to the following typical pinout:
AIC+
Optical Isolator
Modem
9-Pin
25-Pin
9-Pin
3
TXD
TXD
2
3
2
RXD
RXD
3
2
5
GND
GND
7
5
1
CD
CD
8
1
4
DTR
DTR
20
4
6
DSR
DSR
6
6
8
CTS
CTS
5
8
7
RTS
RTS
4
7
3-13
Hardware
Constructing Your Own Modem Cable
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Cable Selection Guide
1747-CP3
1761-CBL-AC00
Cable
Length
Connections from
to AIC+
External
Power Supply
Required➁
1747-CP3
1761-CBL-AC00➀
3m (9.8 ft)
45cm (17.7 in)
Power Selection
Switch Setting➁
SLC 5/03 or SLC 5/04 processor, channel 0
port 1
yes
external
PC COM port
port 1
yes
external
PanelView 550 through NULL modem adapter
port 1
yes
external
DTAM Plus / DTAM Micro™
port 1
yes
external
Port 1 on another AIC+
port 1
yes
external
1761-CBL-AS09
1761-CBL-AS03
Cable
Length
Connections from
to AIC+
External
Power Supply
Required➀
1761-CBL-AS03
1761-CBL-AS09
3m (9.8 ft)
9.5m (31.17 ft)
Power Selection
Switch Setting➀
SLC 500 Fixed,
SLC 5/01, SLC 5/02, and SLC 5/03 processors
port 3
yes
external
PanelView 550 RJ45 port
port 3
yes
external
1761-CBL-HM02➁
1761-CBL-AM00
1761-CBL-AH02
Cable
Length
1761-CBL-AM00
1761-CBL-HM02➁
1761-CBL-AH02
45cm (17.7 in)
2m (6.5 ft)
2m (6.5 ft)
➀
➁
3-14
to AIC+
External
Power Supply
Required
Power Selection
Switch Setting
MicroLogix 1000
port 2
no
cable
port 2 on another AIC+
port 2
yes
external
Connections from
External power supply required unless the AIC+ is powered by the device connected to port 2,
then the selection switch should be set to cable.
Series B or higher cables are required for hardware handshaking.
Hardware
Connecting the System
1761-CBL-PM02➁
1761-CBL-AP00
1761-CBL-PH02
Cable
Length
Connections from
to AIC+
External
Power Supply
Required
1761-CBL-AP00
1761-CBL-PM02➁
1761-CBL-PH02
45cm (17.7 in)
2m (6.5 ft)
2m (6.5 ft)
➁
Power Selection
Switch Setting➁
SLC 5/03 or SLC 5/04 processors, channel 0
port 2
yes
external
MicroLogix 1000
port 1
yes➀
external➀
PanelView 550 through NULL modem adapter
port 2
yes
external
DTAM Plus / DTAM Micro
port 2
yes
external
PC COM port
port 2
yes
external
to AIC+
External
Power Supply
Power Selection
user supplied cable
Cable
Length
Connections from
Required➁
straight 9-25 pin
—
modem or other communication device
➀
➁
port 1
yes➀
Switch Setting➁
external➀
External power supply required unless the AIC+ is powered by the device connected to port 2,
then the selection switch should be set to cable.
Series B or higher cables are required for hardware handshaking.
3-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Recommended User-Supplied Components
These components can be purchased from your local electronics supplier.
Component
Recommended Model
external power supply and chassis ground
power supply rated for 20.4-28.8V dc
NULL modem adapter
standard AT
straight 9-25 pin RS–232 cable
see table below for port information if making own cables
1761-CBL-AP00 or 1761-CBL-PM02
DH-485 connector Port 3
DB-9 RS-232 Port 1
cable straight D
➀
➁
➂
3-16
Port 2➀
(1761–CBL–PM02 cable)
Port 1
DB–9 RS–232
Pin
Port 3
DH–485 Connector
received line signal detector (DCD)
same state as port 1’s DCD signal
chassis ground
received data (RxD)
received data (RxD)
cable shield
transmitted data (TxD)
transmitted data (TxD)
signal ground
DTE ready (DTR)➁
DTE ready (DTR)➂
DH–485 data B
signal common (GRD)
signal common (GRD)
DH–485 data A
DCE ready (DSR)➁
DCE ready (DSR)➂
termination
request to send (RTS)
request to send (RTS)
not applicable
clear to send (CTS)
clear to send (CTS)
not applicable
not applicable
not applicable
not applicable
An 8-pin mini DIN connector is used for making connections to port 2. This connector is not commercially available. If you
are making a cable to connect to port 2, you must configure your cable to connect to the Allen-Bradley cable shown above.
On port 1, pin 4 is electronically jumpered to pin 6. Whenever the AIC+ is powered on, pin 4 will match the state of pin 6.
In the 1761–CBL–PM02 cable, pins 4 and 6 are jumpered together within the DB–9 connector.
Connecting the System
!
ATTENTION: If you use an external power supply, it must be 24V dc. Permanent
damage will result if miswired with the wrong power source.
Set the DC Power Source selector switch to EXTERNAL before connecting the
power supply to the AIC+.
Bottom View
24VDC
DC
NEUT
CHS
GND
!
ATTENTION: Always connect the CHS GND (chassis ground) terminal to the
nearest earth ground. This connection must be made whether or not an external 24V
dc supply is used.
In normal operation with the MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller connected to
port 2 of the AIC+, the controller powers the AIC+. Any AIC+ not connected to a
controller requires a 24V dc power supply. The AIC+ requires 104 mA at 24V dc.
If both the controller and external power are connected to the AIC+, the power
selection switch determines what device powers the AIC+.
3-17
Hardware
Powering the AIC+
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Power Options
Below are two options for powering the AIC+:
•
•
Use the 24V dc user power supply (200 mA maximum) built into the MicroLogix
controller. The AIC+ is powered through a hard-wired connection using a
communication cable (1761–CBL–HM02, or equivalent) connected to port 2.
Use an external DC power supply with the following specifications:

operating voltage: 24V dc +20% / -15%

output current: 200 mA maximum

rated NEC
Make a hard-wired connection from the external supply to the screw terminals on
the bottom of the AIC+.
!
ATTENTION: If you use an external power supply, it must be 24V dc. Permanent
damage will result if miswired with the wrong power source.
Installing and Attaching the AIC+
1. Take care when installing the AIC+ in an enclosure so that the cable connecting
the MicroLogix 1000 controller to the AIC+ does not interfere with the enclosure
door.
2. Carefully plug the terminal block into the DH–485 port on the AIC+ you are
putting on the network. Allow enough cable slack to prevent stress on the plug.
3. Provide strain relief for the Belden cable after it is wired to the terminal block.
This guards against breakage of the Belden cable wires.
3-18
Connecting the System
When you connect a MicroLogix 1000 controller to a network, it automatically finds
which protocol is active (DF1 or DH–485), and establishes communication
accordingly. Therefore, no special configuration is required to connect to either
network.
However, to shorten the connection time, you can specify which protocol the
controller should attempt to establish communication with first. This is done using
the Primary Protocol bit, S:0/10. The default setting for this bit is DF1 (0). If the
primary protocol bit is set to DF1, the MicroLogix 1000 controller will attempt to
connect using the configured DF1 protocol; either full-duplex or half-duplex slave.
To have the controller first attempt DH–485 communication, set this bit to 1.
For DH–485 networks that will only contain MicroLogix controllers, at least one
controller must have its primary protocol bit set to 1 so that the network can be
initialized.
Automatic Protocol Switching
The MicroLogix 1000 Series D or later discrete and all MicroLogix 1000 analog
controllers perform automatic protocol switching between DH–485 and the
configured DF1 protocol. (The controller cannot automatically switch between DF1
full-duplex and DF1 half-duplex slave.) This feature allows you to switch from active
communication on a DF1 half-duplex network to the DH–485 protocol to make
program changes.
Simply disconnect the MicroLogix controller from the DF1 half-duplex network and
connect it to your personal computer. The controller recognizes the computer is
attempting to communicate using the DH–485 protocol and automatically switches to
it. When your program changes are complete, you can disconnect your computer,
reconnect the modem, and the controller automatically switches back to the
configured DF1 protocol. For example, if you are using the DH–485 protocol to
make program changes and you connect an HHP, you can switch to active
communication on a DF1 full-duplex network.
The following baud rate limitations affect autoswitching:
•
If the configured DH–485 baud rate is 19200, the configured DF1 baud rate must
be 4800 or greater.
•
If the configured DH–485 baud rate is 9600, the configured DF1 baud rate must
be 2400 or greater.
3-19
Hardware
Establishing Communication
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Notes:
3-20
Programming Overview
Programming Overview
This chapter explains how to program the MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller.
Read this chapter for basic information about:
•
principles of machine control
•
understanding file organization and addressing
•
understanding how processor files are stored and accessed
•
applying ladder logic to your schematics
•
a model for developing your program
Programming
4
4-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Principles of Machine Control
The controller consists of a built–in power supply, central processing unit (CPU),
inputs, which you wire to input devices (such as pushbuttons, proximity sensors, limit
switches), and outputs, which you wire to output devices (such as motor starters,
solid–state relays, and indicator lights).
Programming
Device
User Input Devices
User Output Devices
Memory
(Programs and Data)
Outputs
Inputs
CPU
Processor
Power Supply
MicroLogix
4-2
CR
Programming Overview
With the logic program entered into the controller, placing the controller in the Run
mode initiates an operating cycle. The controller’s operating cycle consists of a series
of operations performed sequentially and repeatedly, unless altered by your program
logic.
overhead
input
scan
service
comms
Programming
program
scan
Operating Cycles
output
scan
.
input scan - the time required for the controller to scan and read all input data;
typically accomplished within µseconds.
program scan - the time required for the processor to execute the instructions in
the program. The program scan time varies depending on the instructions used
and each instruction’s status during the scan time.
Note:
Subroutine and interrupt instructions within your logic program may
cause deviations in the way the operating cycle is sequenced.
output scan - the time required for the controller to scan and write all output
data; typically accomplished within µseconds.
service communications - the part of the operating cycle in which
communication takes place with other devices, such as an HHP or personal
computer.
housekeeping and overhead - time spent on memory management and updating
timers and internal registers.
4-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
You enter a logic program into the controller using a programming device. The logic
program is based on your electrical relay print diagrams. It contains instructions that
direct control of your application.
Understanding File Organization
The processor provides control through the use of a program you create, called a
processor file. This file contains other files that break your program down into more
manageable parts.
Processor File Overview
Most of the operations you perform with the programming device involve the
processor file and the two components created with it: program files and data files
Processor File
Program Files
(14 Maximum)
Data Files
(8 Maximum)
The programming device stores processor files on hard disk (or floppy disk).
Monitoring and editing of processor files is done in the workspace of the computer.
After you select a file from disk and edit it, you then save the file hard to disk,
replacing the original disk version with the edited version. The hard disk is the
recommended location for a processor file.
4-4
Programming Overview
PROGRAMMING DEVICE
Hard Disk
Workspace
01
01
02
Processor files are created in the offline mode using the programming device. These
files are then restored (downloaded), to the processor for online operation.
Program Files
Program files contain controller information, the main ladder program, interrupt
subroutines, and any subroutine programs. These files are:
•
System Program (file 0) - This file contains various system related information
and user–programmed information such as processor type, I/O configuration,
processor file name, and password.
•
Reserved (file 1) - This file is reserved.
•
Main Ladder Program (file 2) - This file contains user–programmed instructions
defining how the controller is to operate.
•
User Error Fault Routine (file 3) - This file is executed when a recoverable fault
occurs.
•
High–Speed Counter Interrupt (file 4) - This file is executed when an HSC
interrupt occurs. It can also be used for a subroutine ladder program.
•
Selectable Timed Interrupt (file 5) - This file is executed when an STI occurs. It
can also be used for a subroutine ladder program.
•
Subroutine Ladder Program (files 6 - 15) - These are used according to
subroutine instructions residing in the main ladder program file or other
subroutine files.
4-5
Programming
03
04
Uniquely named
processor files
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Data Files
Data files contain the status information associated with external I/O and all other
instructions you use in your main and subroutine ladder program files. In addition,
these files store information concerning processor operation. You can also use the
files to store “recipes” and look–up tables if needed.
These files are organized by the type of data they contain. The data file types are:
•
Output (file 0) - This file stores the state of the output terminals for the controller.
•
Input (file 1) - This file stores the status of the input terminals for the controller.
•
Status (file 2) - This file stores controller operation information. This file is
useful for troubleshooting controller and program operation.
•
Bit (file 3) - This file is used for internal relay logic storage.
•
Timer (file 4) - This file stores the timer accumulator and preset values and status
bits.
•
Counter (file 5) - This file stores the counter accumulator and preset values and
the status bits.
•
Control (file 6) - This file stores the length, pointer position, and status bits for
specific instructions such as shift registers and sequencers.
•
Integer (file 7) - This file is used to store numeric values or bit information.
Understanding How Processor Files are Stored and Accessed
The MicroLogix 1000 programmable controller uses two devices for storing
processor files: RAM and EEPROM. The RAM provides easy access storage (i.e., its
data is lost on a power down), while the EEPROM provides long–term storage (i.e.,
its data is not lost on a power down). The diagram below shows how the memory is
allocated in the micro controller’s processor.
4-6
Programming Overview
RAM
EEPROM
CPU Workspace
Retentive Data
Program Files
Backup Data
Retentive Data
Program Files
Programming
CPU
The memory device that is used depends on the operation being performed. This
section describes how memory is stored and accessed during the following
operations:
•
download
•
normal operation
•
power down
•
power up
Download
When the processor file is downloaded to the micro controller, it is first stored in the
volatile RAM. It is then transferred to the non–volatile EEPROM, where it is stored
as both backup data and retentive data.
RAM
EEPROM
CPU Workspace
Retentive Data
Program Files
Backup Data
Retentive Data
Program Files
CPU
Note:
Programming Device
If you want to ensure that the backup data is the same for every micro
controller you are using, save the program to disk before downloading it
to a micro controller.
4-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Normal Operation
During normal operation, both the micro controller and your programming device can
access the processor files stored in the RAM. Any changes to retentive data that occur
due to program execution or programming commands affect only the retentive data in
the RAM.
The program files are never modified during normal operation. However, both the
CPU and your programming device can read the program files stored in RAM.
RAM
EEPROM
CPU Workspace
Retentive Data
Program Files
Backup Data
Retentive Data
Program Files
CPU
Programming Device
Power Down
When a power down occurs, only the retentive data is transferred from the RAM to
the EEPROM. (The program files do not need to be saved to the EEPROM since they
cannot be modified during normal operation.) If for some reason power is lost before
all of the retentive data is saved to the EEPROM, the retentive data is lost. This may
occur due to an unexpected reset or a hardware problem.
RAM
EEPROM
CPU Workspace
Retentive Data
Program Files
Backup Data
Retentive Data
Program Files
CPU
4-8
Programming Device
Programming Overview
Power Up
During power up, the micro controller transfers the program files from the EEPROM
to the RAM. The retentive data is also transferred to the RAM, provided it was not
lost on power down, and normal operation begins.
CPU Workspace
Retentive Data
Program Files
Backup Data
Retentive Data
Program Files
CPU
Programming Device
If retentive data was lost on power down, the backup data from the EEPROM is
transferred to the RAM and used as the retentive data. In addition, status file bit S2:5/
8 (retentive data lost) is set and a recoverable major error occurs when going to run.
RAM
EEPROM
CPU Workspace
Retentive Data
Program Files
Backup Data
Retentive Data
Program Files
CPU
Programming Device
4-9
Programming
RAM
EEPROM
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Addressing Data Files
For the purposes of addressing, each data file type is identified by a letter (identifier)
and a file number.
File Type
Identifier
File Number
Output
Input
Status
Bit
Timer
Counter
Control
Integer
O
I
S
B
T
C
R
N
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
The addresses are made up of alphanumeric characters separated by delimiters.
Delimiters include the colon, slash, and period.
Specifying Logical Addresses
The format of a logical address, xf:e, corresponds directly to the location in data
storage.
4-10
Where:
Is the:
x
File Type:
O -- output
I -- input
S -- status
B -- binary
T -- Timer
C -- counter
R -- control
N -- integer
f
File #:
0 -- output
1 -- input
2 -- status
3 -- binary
4 -- timer
5 -- counter
6 -- control
7 -- integer
:
File delimiter: Colon or semicolon delimiter separates file and structure/word numbers.
e
Element number: 0 to:
0 -- output
1 -- input
32 -- status
31 -- binary
39 --timer
31 -- counter
15 -- control
104 -- integer
Programming Overview
You assign logical addresses to instructions from the highest level (element) to the
lowest level (bit). Addressing examples are shown in the table below.
To specify the address
of a:
Use these parameters:➀
Word within an integer file
N 7 : 2
Word within a structure
file (e.g., a timer file)
Programming
File Type
File Number
File Delimiter
Word Number
T 4 : 7 . ACC
File Type
File Number
File Delimiter
Structure Number
Delimiter
Word
Bit within an integer file
N 7 : 2 / 5
File Type
File Number
File Delimiter
Word Number
Bit Delimiter
Bit Number
Bit within a bit file
B 3 / 31
File Type
File Number
Bit Delimiter
Bit Number
Bit files are bit stream continuous files, and therefore you can
address them in two ways: by word and bit, or by bit alone.
Bit within a structure file
(e.g., a control file)
R 6 : 7 / DN
File Type
File Number
File Delimiter
Structure Number
Delimiter
Mnemonic
➀
Some programming devices support short addressing. This allows you to eliminate the file number and file
delimiter from addresses. (For example: N7:2=N2, T4:12.ACC=T12.ACC, B3:2/12=B2/12) Consult your
programming device’s user manual for information on addressing capabilities.
4-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
You can also address at the bit level using mnemonics for timer, counter, or control
data types. The available mnemonics depend on the type of data. See chapters 6
through 13 for more information.
Specifying Indexed Addresses
The indexed address symbol is the # character. Place the # character immediately
before the file–type identifier in a logical address. You can use more than one indexed
address in your ladder program.
Enter the offset value in word 24 of the status file (S:24). All indexed instructions use
the same word S:24 to store the offset value. The processor starts operation at the
base address plus the offset. You can manipulate the offset value in your ladder logic
before each indexed address operation.
When you specify indexed addresses, follow these guidelines:
!
•
Make sure the index value (positive or negative) does not cause the indexed
address to exceed the file type boundary.
•
When an instruction uses more than two indexed addresses, the processor uses the
same index value for each indexed address.
•
Set the index word to the offset value you want immediately before enabling an
instruction that uses an indexed address.
ATTENTION: Instructions with a # sign in an address manipulate the offset value
stored at S:24. Make sure you monitor or load the offset value you want prior to
using an indexed address. Otherwise unpredictable machine operation could occur
with possible damage to equipment and/or injury to personnel.
Example of Indexed Addressing
The following Masked Move (MVM) example uses an indexed address in the source
and destination addresses. If the offset value is 10 (stored in S:24), the processor
manipulates the data stored at the base address plus the offset.
4-12
Programming Overview
In this example, the processor uses the following addresses:
Value
Base Address
Offset Value in S:24
Offset Address
Source
N7:10
10
N7:20
Destination
N7:50
10
N7:60
The file instructions below manipulate data table files. These files are addressed with
the # sign. They store an offset value in word S:24 (index register), just as with
indexed addressing discussed in the last section.
File Abbreviation
COP
FLL
BSL
BSR
FFL
FFU
LFL
LFU
SQO
SQC
SQL
File Name
Copy File
Fill File
Bit Shift Left
Bit Shift Right
(FIFO Load)
(FIFO Unload)
(LIFO Load)
(LIFO Unload)
Sequencer Output
Sequencer Compare
Sequencer Load
ATTENTION: If you are using file instructions and also indexed addressing, make
sure that you monitor and/or load the correct offset value prior to using an indexed
address. Otherwise, unpredictable operation could occur, resulting in possible
personal injury and/or damage to equipment.
!
Numeric Constants
You can enter numeric constants directly into many of the instructions you program.
The range of values for most instructions is -32,768 through +32,767. These values
can be displayed or entered in several radixes. The radixes that can be displayed are:
•
Integer
•
Binary
•
ASCII
•
Hexadecimal
4-13
Programming
Addressing File Instructions - Using the File Indicator (#)
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
When entering values into an instruction or data table element, you can specify the
radix of your entry using the “&” special operator. The radixes that can be used to
enter data into an instruction or data table element are:
•
Integer (&N)
•
Binary (&B)
•
ASCII (&A)
•
Hexadecimal (&H)
•
BCD (&D)
•
Octal (&O)
Numeric constants are used in place of data file elements. They cannot be
manipulated by the user program. You must enter the offline program editor to
change the value of a constant.
Applying Ladder Logics to Your Schematics
The logic you enter into the micro controller makes up a ladder program. A ladder
program consists of a set of instructions used to control a machine or a process.
Ladder logic is a graphical programming language based on electrical relay diagrams.
Instead of having electrical rung continuity, ladder logic is looking for logical rung
continuity. A ladder diagram identifies each of the elements in an electromechanical
circuit and represents them graphically. This allows you to see how your control
circuit operates before you actually start the physical operation of your system.
I
I
][
]/[
0
O
1
( )1
input instructions
In a ladder diagram each of the input devices are represented in series or parallel
combinations across the rung of the ladder. The last element on the rung is the output
that receives the action as a result of the conditional state of the inputs on the rung.
4-14
Programming Overview
Each output instruction is executed by the controller when the rung is scanned and the
conditions on the rung are true. When the rung is not scanned or the logic conditions
on the rung do not create a true logic path, the output is not executed.
In the following illustration, the electromechanical circuit shows PB1 and PB2, two
pushbuttons, wired in series with an alarm horn. PB1 is a normally open pushbutton,
and PB2 is normally closed. This same circuit is shown in ladder logic by two
contacts wired in series with an output. Contact I/0 and I/1 are examine–if–closed
instructions.➀ (For more information on this instruction, refer to page 6-4.)
Ladder Logic Program
Electromechanical Circuit
➀
I
I
O
][
][
()
0
1
1
Contact I1 would be an examine–if–open instruction ( ]/[ ) if PB2 was a normally open electromechanical
circuit.
The table below shows how these circuits operate. The table shows all possible
conditions for the electromechanical circuit, the equivalent state of the ladder logic
instructions, and the resulting output state.
If PB1 is:
I/0 state is:
And PB2 is:
I/1 state is: Then the Alarm Horn (O/1) is:
not pushed
0
not pushed
1
silent
not pushed
0
pushed
0
silent
pushed
1
not pushed
1
alarm
pushed
1
pushed
0
silent
Developing Your Logic Program - A Model
The following diagram can help you develop your application program. Each process
block represents one phase of program development. Use the checklist at the right of
the process block to help you identify the tasks involved with each process.
4-15
Programming
The programming device allows you to enter a ladder logic program into the micro
controller.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Program Development
Process
Design
Functional Specification
Perform
Detailed Analysis
Determine if Special
Programming Features
are Needed
Prepare a general description of how you want your automated
process to operate.
Identify the hardware requirements.
Match inputs and outputs with actions of the process.
Add these actions to the functional specifications.
Do you need:
Special interrupt routines?
High-speed counting features?
Sequencing Operations?
FIFO or LIFO stack operations?
Create Logic
Program
Use worksheets if necessary to create program.
Confirm I/O
Addresses
Make sure I/O addresses match correct input and output devices.
Enter/Edit
Program
Enter program using the programming device.
Check for
Completeness
Review your functional specification and detailed analysis for
missing or incomplete information.
Monitor/Troubleshoot
Program
Monitor and, if necessary, troubleshoot the program that you
entered.
Accept
Program
Resulting programs should match functional specifications.
Run Program
4-16
Program Development
Checklist
Using Analog
Using Analog
This chapter describes the operation of the MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers.
Topics include:
•
I/O Image
•
I/O Configuration
•
Input Filter and Update Times
•
Converting Analog Data
Programming
5
5-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
I/O Image
The input and output image files of the MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers have the
following format:
Address
Input Image
Output Image
Address
I:0.0
Discrete Input Word 0
Discrete Output Word 0
O:0.0
I:0.1
Discrete Input Word 1
Reserved
O:0.1
I:0.2
Reserved
Reserved
O:0.2
I:0.3
Reserved
Reserved
O:0.3
I:0.4
Analog Input 0 (Voltage)
Analog Output 0 (Voltage or Current)
O:0.4
I:0.5
Analog Input 1 (Voltage)
I:0.6
Analog Input 2 (Current)
I:0.7
Analog Input 3 (Current)
Input words 0 and 1 contain discrete input data. Unused inputs in the discrete inputs
image space are reset during each input scan. Input words 2 and 3 are reserved and
are not updated by the controller. These inputs have no direct effect on controller
operation, but they can be modified like other data bits.
Input words 4-7 contain the status of the four analog input channels respectively.
Analog input image words are cleared at Going To Run (GTR). For enabled channels,
the analog input image is updated on a cyclical basis.
Output word 0 contains discrete output data. Output words 1-3 are reserved output
image space. Unused outputs in both the discrete output image space and the reserved
output image space have no direct effect on controller operation. But these outputs
can be modified like other data bits. Output word 4 holds the value of the analog
output channel.
5-2
Using Analog
I/O Configuration
The analog input channels are single–ended (unipolar) circuits and can be
individually enabled or disabled. The default is all input channels enabled. The two
voltage inputs accept ±10.5V dc, and the two current inputs accept ±21 mA.
The output must be configured for either voltage or current, not both. This is
determined by the output configuration. When in the Run mode and the output is
configured for voltage, the voltage output terminal is active and the current output
terminal is inactive. Similarly, when in the Run mode and the output is configured for
current, the current output terminal is active and the voltage output terminal is
inactive. When the system is not in Run mode, both the voltage and current outputs
are inactive.
Input Filter and Update Times
The MicroLogix analog input filter is programmable. The slower the filter setting, the
more immune the analog inputs are to electrical noise. The more immune the analog
inputs are to electrical noise, the slower the inputs will be to update. Similarly, the
faster the filter setting, the less immune the analog inputs are to electrical noise. The
less immune the analog inputs are to electrical noise, the faster the inputs will be to
update.
Programmable Filter Characteristics
1st Notch Freq
(Hz)
Filter Bandwidth
(-3 dB Freq Hz)
Settling Time
(mSec)
Resolution
(Bits)
10
2.62
100.00
16
50
13.10
20.00
16
60➀
15.72
16.67
16
250
65.50
16.00
15
➀ 60 Hz is the default setting.
5-3
Programming
The analog output channel is also a single–ended circuit. You can configure either
voltage (0V dc to +10V dc) or current (+4 to +20 mA) output operation. The default
is voltage output.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
The total update time for each channel is a combination of the Update Time and the
Settling Time. When more than one analog input channel is enabled, the maximum
update for each channel is equal to one ladder scan time plus the channel’s Update
Time plus Settling Time. When only one analog input channel is enabled, the
maximum update for the channel is equal to the Update Time plus one ladder scan
time.
Update Examples
Example 1 - All (4) channels enabled with 60 Hz filter selected (default settings).
Maximum Update Time =
(4) x ladder scan time
+ (4) x 16.67 ms
+ (4) x 66.67 ms
= 333.36 + (4) x ladder scan times
(Each channel will be updated approximately three times per second.)
Example 2 - 1 channel enabled with 250 Hz filter selected.
Maximum Update Time = ladder scan time + 4ms
Input Channel Filtering
The analog input channels incorporate on–board signal conditioning. The purpose of
this conditioning is to reject the AC power line noise that can couple into an analog
input signal while passing the normal variations of the input signal.
Frequency components of the input signal at the filter frequency are rejected.
Frequency components below the filter bandwidth (-3 dB frequency) are passed with
under 3 dB of attenuation. This pass band allows the normal variation of sensor
inputs such as temperature, pressure and flow transducers to be input data to the
processor.
Noise signals coupled in at frequencies above the pass band are sharply rejected. An
area of particular concern is the 50/60 Hz region, where pick–up from power lines can
occur.
5-4
Using Analog
Converting Analog Data
The analog input circuits are able to monitor current and voltage signals and convert
them to digital data. There are six terminals assigned to the input channels that
provide two voltage inputs, two current inputs and two return signals (commons).
The following table shows sample Analog Signal and Data Word values using the
nominal transfer function formula:
N=Iin x 32767/21
where Iin (analog signal) is in milliamperes (mA)
N=Vin x 32767/10.5
where Vin (analog signal) is in volts (V)
N=(Iout - 4 mA) x 32767/16 mA where Iout (analog signal) is in milliamperes
(mA)
N=Vout x 32767/10V
where Vout (analog signal) is in volts (V)
Analog Signal
Data Word
Input
Output
0V
0
0
5V
15603
16384
10V
31207
32767
4 mA
6241
0
11 mA
17164
14336
20 mA
31207
32767
Converting Analog Input Data
Analog inputs convert current and voltage signals into 16–bit two’s complement
binary values. To determine an approximate voltage that an input value represents,
use one of the equations shown on the following page.
5-5
Programming
The analog outputs can support either a current or voltage function. There are three
terminals assigned to the output channels that provide one voltage output, one current
output and a common (shared) terminal.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
10.5V
------------------ × inputvalue = inputvoltage ( V )
32, 767
➀The Input Value is the decimal value of the word in the input image for the
corresponding analog input.
For example, if an input value of 16,021 is in the input image, the calculated value is:
10.5V
------------------ × 16, 201 = 5.1915 ( V )
32, 767
To determine an approximate current that an input value represents, you can use the
following equation:
21mA
------------------ × inputvalue = inputcurrent ( mA )
32, 767
➁The Input Value is the decimal value of the word in the input image for the
corresponding analog input.
For example, if an input value of 4096 is in the input image, the calculated value is:
21mA
------------------ × 4096 = 2.65mA
32, 767
It should be noted that the actual value may vary within the accuracy limitations of the
module.
Converting Analog Output Data
Use the following equation to determine the decimal value for the current output:
32, 767
------------------ × [ DesiredCurrentOutput ( mA ) ] = OutputDecimalValue
16mA
For example, if an output value of 8mA is desired, the value to be put in the
corresponding word in the output image can be calculated as follows:
32, 767
------------------ × ( 8mA – 4mA ) = 8192
16mA
Use the following equation to determine the decimal value for the voltage output:
32, 767
------------------ × [ DesiredVoltageOutput ( Vdc ) ] = OutputDecimalValue
16mA
For example, if an output value of 1V dc is desired, the value to be put in the
corresponding word in the output image can be calculated as follows:
32, 767
------------------ × 1Vdc = 3277
10Vdc
5-6
Using Basic Instructions
6
Using Basic Instructions
•
what the instruction symbol looks like
•
typical execution time for the instruction
•
how to use the instruction
Programming
This chapter contains general information about the basic instructions and explains
how they function in your application program. Each of the basic instructions
includes information on:
In addition, the last section contains an application example for a paper drilling
machine that shows the basic instructions in use.
Bit Instructions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Purpose
Page
Name
XIC
Examine if Closed
Examines a bit for an On condition.
6-3
XIO
Examine if Open
Examines a bit for an Off condition.
6-4
OTE
Output Energize
Turns a bit On or Off.
6-4
OTL and
Output Latch and
Output Unlatch
OTL turns a bit on when the rung is executed,
and this bit retains its state when the rung is not
executed or a power cycle occurs. OTU turns a
bit off when the rung is executed, and this bit
retains its state when the rung is not executed
or when power cycle occurs.
6-5
OTU
OSR
One–Shot Rising
Triggers a one time event.
6-6
6-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Timer/Counter Instructions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Purpose
Page
Name
TON
Timer On–Delay
Counts timebase intervals when the instruction
is true.
6-10
TOF
Timer Off–Delay
Counts timebase intervals when the instruction
is false.
6-11
RTO
Retentive Timer
Counts timebase intervals when the instruction
is true and retains the accumulated value when
the instruction goes false or when power cycle
occurs.
6-13
CTU
Count Up
Increments the accumulated value at each
false–to–true transition and retains the
accumulated value when the instruction goes
false or when power cycle occurs.
6-17
CTD
Count Down
Decrements the accumulate value at each
false–to–true transition and retains the
accumulated value when the instruction goes
false or when power cycle occurs.
6-18
RES
Reset
Resets the accumulated value and status bits
of a timer or counter. Do not use with TOF
timers.
6-20
About the Basic Instructions
These instructions, when used in ladder programs represent hardwired logic circuits
used for the control of a machine or equipment.
The basic instructions are separated into three groups: bit, timer, and counter. Before
you learn about the instructions in each of these groups, we suggest that you read the
overview that precedes the group:
6-2
•
Bit Instructions Overview
•
Timer Instructions Overview
•
Counter Instructions Overview
Using Basic Instructions
Bit Instructions Overview
These instructions operate on a single bit of data. During operation, the controller
may set or reset the bit, based on the logical continuity of ladder rungs. You can
address a bit as many times as your program requires.
Using the same address with multiple output instructions is not
recommended.
Bit instructions are used with the following data files:
•
Output and input data files. These represent external outputs and inputs.
•
The status data file (file 2).
•
The bit data file (B3:). These are the internal coils used in your program.
•
Timer, counter, and control data files (T4:, C5:, and R6:). These instructions use
various control bits.
•
The integer data file (N7:). Use these addresses (at the bit level) as your program
requires.
Examine if Closed (XIC)
] [
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
1.54
1.72
Use the XIC instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is On. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the instruction is evaluated
as true. When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the
instruction is evaluated as false.
Bit Address State
XIC Instruction
0
False
1
True
Examples of devices that turn on or off include:
•
a push button wired to an input (addressed as I1:0/4)
•
an output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O0:0/2)
•
a timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN)
6-3
Programming
Note:
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Examine if Open (XIO)
]/[
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
1.54
1.72
Use an XIO instruction in your ladder program to determine if a bit is Off. When the
instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is off (0), then the instruction is evaluated
as true. When the instruction is executed, if the bit addressed is on (1), then the
instruction is evaluated as false.
Bit Address State
XIO Instruction
0
True
1
False
Examples of devices that turn on or off include:
•
motor overload normally closed (N.C.) wired to an input (I1:0/10)
•
an output wired to a pilot light (addressed as O0:0/4)
•
a timer controlling a light (addressed as T4:3/DN)
Output Energize (OTE)
Use an OTE instruction in your ladder program to turn On a bit when rung conditions
are evaluated as true.
( )
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
4.43
4.43
An example of a device that turns on or off is an output wired to a pilot light
(addressed as O0:0/4).
OTE instructions are reset when:
•
You enter or return to the REM Run or REM Test mode or power is restored.
•
The OTE is programmed within an inactive or false Master Control Reset (MCR)
zone.
Note:
6-4
A bit that is set within a subroutine using an OTE instruction remains set
until the subroutine is scanned again.
Using Basic Instructions
Output Latch (OTL) and Output Unlatch (OTU)
OTL and OTU are retentive output instructions. OTL can only turn on a bit, while
OTU can only turn off a bit. These instructions are usually used in pairs, with both
instructions addressing the same bit.
(L)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
OTL 4.97
OTU 4.97
3.16
3.16
!
ATTENTION: Using fatal error conditions, physical outputs are turned off. Once
the error conditions are cleared, the controller resumes operation using the data table
value of the operand.
Using OTL
When you assign an address to the OTL instruction that corresponds to the address of
a physical output, the output device wired to this screw terminal is energized when the
bit is set (turned on or enabled).
When rung conditions become false (after being true), the bit remains set and the
corresponding output device remains energized.
When enabled, the latch instruction tells the controller to turn on the addressed bit.
Thereafter, the bit remains on, regardless of the rung condition, until the bit is turned
off (typically by a OTU instruction in another rung).
6-5
Programming
Your program can examine a bit controlled by OTL and OTU instructions as often as
necessary.
(U)
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using OTU
When you assign an address to the OTU instruction that corresponds to the address of
a physical output, the output device wired to this screw terminal is de–energized when
the bit is cleared (turned off or disabled).
The unlatch instruction tells the controller to turn off the addressed bit. Thereafter,
the bit remains off, regardless of the rung condition, until it is turned on (typically by
a OTL instruction in another rung).
One–Shot Rising (OSR)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
13.02
11.48
The OSR instruction is a retentive input instruction that triggers an event to occur one
time. Use the OSR instruction when an event must start based on the change of state
of the rung from false to true.
When the rung conditions preceding the OSR instruction go from false to true, the
OSR instruction will be true for one scan. After one scan is complete, the OSR
instruction becomes false, even if the rung conditions preceding it remain true. The
OSR instruction will only become true again if the rung conditions preceding it
transition from false to true.
The controller allows you to use one OSR instruction per output in a rung.
Entering Parameters
The address assigned to the OSR instruction is not the one–shot address referenced by
your program, nor does it indicate the state of the OSR instruction. This address
allows the OSR instruction to remember its previous rung state.
Use a bit address from either the bit or integer data file. The addressed bit is set (1)
for one scan when rung conditions preceding the OSR instruction are true (even if the
OSR instruction becomes false); the bit is reset (0) when rung conditions preceding
the OSR instruction are false.
Note:
The bit address you use for this instruction must be unique. Do not use it
elsewhere in the program.
Do not use an input or output address to program the address parameter
of the OSR instruction.
6-6
Using Basic Instructions
I:1.0
] [
0
B3
]/[
1
B3
[OSR]
0
O:3.0
( )
0
B3
] [
2
B3
[OSR]
3
O:3.0
( )
1
Timer Instructions Overview
Each timer address is made of a 3–word element. Word 0 is the control word, word 1
stores the preset value, and word 2 stores the accumulated value.
15
14
13
EN
TT
DN
Word
Internal Use
0
Preset Value
1
Accumulator Value
2
EN = Timer Enable Bit
TT = Timer Timing Bit
DN = Timer Done Bit
Entering Parameters
Accumulator Value (ACC)
This is the time elapsed since the timer was last reset. When enabled, the timer
updates this continually.
Preset Value (PRE)
Specifies the value which the timer must reach before the controller sets the done bit.
When the accumulated value becomes equal to or greater than the preset value, the
done bit is set. You can use this bit to control an output device.
Preset and accumulated values for timers range from 0 to +32,767. If a timer preset or
accumulated value is a negative number, a runtime error occurs.
6-7
Programming
Example Rung
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Timebase
The timebase determines the duration of each timebase interval. The timebase is
selectable as 0.01 (10 ms) second or 1.0 second.
Timer Accuracy
Timer accuracy refers to the length of time between the moment a timer instruction is
enabled and the moment the timed interval is complete.
Timing accuracy is -0.01 to +0 seconds, with a program scan of up to 2.5 seconds.
The 1–second timer maintains accuracy with a program scan of up to 1.5 seconds. If
your programs can exceed 1.5 or 2.5 seconds, repeat the timer instruction rung so that
the rung is scanned within these limits.
Note:
Timing could be inaccurate if Jump (JMP), Label (LBL), Jump to
Subroutine (JSR), or Subroutine (SBR) instructions skip over the rung
containing a timer instruction while the timer is timing. If the skip
duration is within 2.5 second, no time will be lost; if the skip duration
exceeds 2.5 seconds, an undetectable timing error occurs. When using
subroutines, a timer must be executed at least every 2.5 seconds to
prevent a timing error.
Addressing Structure
Address bits and words using the format Tf:e.s/b
Format
Tf:e
6-8
Explanation
T
Timer file
f
File number. The only valid file number is 4.
:
Element delimiter
e
Element
number
.
Word element
s
subelement
/
Delimiter
b
bit
Ranges from 0 - 39. These are 3–word elements. See figure
on page 6-7.
Using Basic Instructions
•
T4:0/15 or T4:0/EN Enable bit
•
T4:0/14 or T4:0/TT Timer timing bit
•
T4:0/13 or T4:0/DN Done bit
•
T4:0.1 or T4:0.PRE Preset value of the timer
•
T4:0.2 or T4:0.ACC Accumulator value of the timer
•
T4:0.1/0 or T4:0.PRE/0 Bit 0 of the preset value
•
T4:0.2/0 or T4:0.ACC/0 Bit 0 of the accumulated value
Programming
Addressing Examples
6-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Timer On–Delay (TON)
Use the TON instruction to delay the turning on or off of an output. The TON
instruction begins to count timebase intervals when rung conditions become true. As
long as rung conditions remain true, the timer increments its accumulated value
(ACC) each scan until it reaches the preset value (PRE). The accumulated value is
reset when rung conditions go false, regardless of whether the timer has timed out.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
38.34
30.38
Using Status Bits
This Bit
Is Set When
And Remains Set Until
One of the Following
Timer Done Bit DN (bit 13)
accumulated value is equal
to or greater than the
preset value
rung conditions go false
Timer Enable Bit EN (bit 14)
rung conditions are true
rung conditions go false
Timer Timing Bit TT (bit 15)
rung conditions are true
and the accumulated value
is less than the preset
value
rung conditions go false or
when the done bit is set
When the controller changes from the REM Run or REM Test mode to the REM
Program mode or user power is lost while the instruction is timing but has not reached
its preset value, the following occurs:
6-10
•
Timer Enable (EN) bit remains set.
•
Timer Timing (TT) bit remains set.
•
Accumulated value (ACC) remains the same.
Using Basic Instructions
On returning to the REM Run or REM Test mode, the following can happen:
Result
If the rung is true:
EN bit remains set.
TT bit remains set.
ACC value is reset.
If the rung is false:
EN bit is reset.
TT bit is reset.
ACC value is reset.
Timer Off–Delay (TOF)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
39.42
31.65
Use the TOF instruction to delay turning on or off an output. The TOF instruction
begins to count timebase intervals when the rung makes a true–to–false transition. As
long as rung conditions remain false, the timer increments its accumulated value
(ACC) each scan until it reaches the preset value (PRE). The controller resets the
accumulated value when rung conditions go true regardless of whether the timer has
timed out.
Using Status Bits
This Bit
Is Set When
And Remains Set Until
One of the Following
Timer Done Bit DN (bit 13)
rung conditions are true
rung conditions go false
and the accumulated value
is greater than or equal to
the preset value
Timer Timing Bit TT (bit 14)
rung conditions are false
and the accumulated value
is less than the preset
value
rung conditions go true or
when the done bit is reset
Timer Enable Bit EN (bit 15)
rung conditions are true
rung conditions go false
6-11
Programming
Condition
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
When the controller changes from the REM Run or REM Test mode to the REM
Program mode, or user power is lost while a timer off–delay instruction is timing but
has not reached its preset value, the following occurs:
•
Timer Enable (EN) bit remains set.
•
Timer Timing (TT) bit remains set.
•
Timer Done (DN) bit remains set.
•
Accumulated value (ACC) remains the same.
On returning to the REM Run or REM Test mode, the following can happen:
Condition
!
If the rung is true:
TT bit is reset.
DN bit remains set.
EN bit is set.
ACC value is reset.
If the rung is false:
TT bit is reset.
DN bit is reset.
EN bit is reset.
ACC value is set equal to the preset value.
ATTENTION: The Reset (RES) instruction cannot be used with the TOF instruction
because RES always clears the status as well as the accumulated value. (See page 620.)
Note:
6-12
Result
The TOF times inside an inactive MCR Pair.
Using Basic Instructions
Retentive Timer (RTO)
RTO
RETENTIVE TIMER ON
Timer
T4:2
Time Base
0.01
Preset
120
Accum
0
(EN)
(DN)
Use the RTO instruction to turn an output on or off after its timer has been on for a
preset time interval. The RTO instruction is a retentive instruction that lets the timer
stop and start without resetting the accumulated value (ACC).
True
False
38.34
27.49
•
Rung conditions become false.
•
You change controller operation from the REM Run or REM Test mode to the
REM Program mode.
•
The controller loses power.
•
A fault occurs.
Programming
The RTO instruction retains its accumulated value when any of the following occurs:
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Using Status Bits
This Bit
Is Set When
And Remains Set Until
One of the Following
Timer Done Bit DN (bit 13)
accumulated value is equal
to or greater than the
preset value
the appropriate RES
instruction is enabled
Timer Timing Bit TT (bit 14)
rung conditions are true
and the accumulated value
is less than the preset
value
rung conditions go false or
when the done bit is set
Timer Enable Bit EN (bit 15)
rung conditions are true
rung conditions go false
Note:
To reset the retentive timer’s accumulated value and status bits after the
RTO rung goes false, you must program a reset (RES) instruction with
the same address in another rung.
6-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
When the controller changes from the REM Run or REM Test mode to the REM
Program or REM Fault mode, or user power is lost while the timer is timing but not
yet at the preset value, the following occurs:
•
Timer Enable (EN) bit remains set.
•
Timer Timing (TT) bit remains set.
•
Accumulated value (ACC) remains the same.
On returning to the REM Run or REM Test mode or when power is restored, the
following can happen:
Condition
Result
TT bit remains set.
If the rung is true:
EN bit remains set.
ACC value remains the same and resumes incrementing.
TT bit is reset.
If the rung is false:
DN bit remains in its last state.
EN bit is reset.
ACC value remains in its last state
6-14
Using Basic Instructions
Counter Instructions Overview
Each Counter address is made of a 3–word data file element. Word 0 is the control
word, containing the status bits of the instruction. Word 1 is the preset value. Word 2
is the accumulated value.
The control word for counter instructions includes six status bits, as indicated below.
14
13
12
11
10
CU
CD
DN
OV
UN
UA
09
08
07
06
05
04
03
02
Not Used
01
00
Word
0
Preset Value
1
Accumulator Value
2
Programming
15
CU = Count up enable bit
CD = Count down enable bit
DN = Done bit
OV = Overflow bit
UN = Underflow bit
UA = Update accumulator (HSC only)
For high–speed counter instruction information, see chapter 12.
Entering Parameters
Accumulator Value (ACC)
This is the number of false–to–true transitions that have occurred since the counter
was last reset.
Preset Value (PRE)
Specifies the value which the counter must reach before the controller sets the done
bit. When the accumulator value becomes equal to or greater than the preset value,
the done status bit is set. You can use this bit to control an output device.
Preset and accumulated values for counters range from -32,768 to +32,767, and are
stored as signed integers. Negative values are stored in two’s complement form.
6-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Addressing Structure
Address bits and words using the format Cf:e.s/b
Format
Cf:e
Note:
Explanation
C
Counter file
f
File number. The only valid file number is 5.
:
Element delimiter
e
Element
number
.
Word
element
s
subelement
/
Delimiter
b
bit
Ranges from 0 - 39. These are 3–word elements. See
figure on page 6-15.
If assigned to a high-speed counter instruction, C5:0 is not available as
an address for any other counter instructions. For more information on
high-speed counter instructions, see chapter 12.
Addressing Examples
6-16
•
C5:0/15 or C5:0/CU Count up enable bit
•
C5:0/14 or C5:0/CD Count down enable bit
•
C5:0/13 or C5:0/D0N Done bit
•
C5:0/12 or C5:0/OV Overflow bit
•
C5:0/11 or C5:0/UN Underflow bit
•
C5:0/10 or C5:0/UA Update accumulator bit
•
C5:0.1 or C5:0.PRE Preset value of the counter
•
C5:0.2 or C5:0.ACC Accumulator value of the counter
•
C5:0.1/0 or C5:0.PRE/0 Bit 0 of the preset value
•
C5:0.2/0 or C5:0.ACC/0 Bit 0 of the accumulated value
Using Basic Instructions
How Counters Work
The figure below demonstrates how a counter works. The count value must remain in
the range of -32,768 to +32,767. If the count value goes above +32,767 or below 32,768, a counter status overflow (OV) or underflow (UN) bit is set.
A counter can be reset to zero using the reset (RES) instruction. (See
page 6-20.)
(CTU)
Count Up
+32,767
0
Counter Accumulated Value
Count Down
(CTD)
Underflow
Overflow
Count Up (CTU)
The CTU is an instruction that counts false–to–true rung transitions. Rung transitions
can be caused by events occurring in the program (from internal logic or by external
field devices) such as parts traveling past a detector or actuating a limit switch.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
29.84
26.67
When rung conditions for a CTU instruction have made a false–to–true transition, the
accumulated value is incremented by one count, provided that the rung containing the
CTU instruction is evaluated between these transitions. The ability of the counter to
detect false–to–true transitions depends on the speed (frequency) of the incoming
signal.
Note:
The on and off duration of an incoming signal must not be faster than the
scan time 2x (assuming a 50% duty cycle).
The accumulated value is retained when the rung conditions again become false. The
accumulated count is retained until cleared by a reset (RES) instruction that has the
same address as the counter reset.
6-17
Programming
-32,768
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using Status Bits
This Bit
Is Set When
And Remains Set Until
One of the Following
Count Up Overflow Bit OV
(bit 12)
accumulated value wraps
around to -32,768 (from
+32,767) and continues
counting up from there
a RES instruction having
the same address as the
CTU instruction is executed
OR the count is
decremented less than or
equal to +32,767 with a
CTD instruction
Done Bit DN (bit 13)
accumulated value is equal
to or greater than the
preset value
the accumulated value
becomes less than the
preset
Count Up Enable Bit CU
(bit 15)
rung conditions are true
rung conditions go false
OR a RES instruction
having the same address
as the CTU instruction is
enabled
The accumulated value is retained after the CTU instruction goes false, or when
power is removed from and then restored to the controller. Also, the on or off status
of counter done, overflow, and underflow bits is retentive. The accumulated value
and control bits are reset when the appropriate RES instruction is enabled. The CU
bits are always set prior to entering the REM Run or REM Test modes.
Count Down (CTD)
The CTD is a retentive output instruction that counts false–to–true rung transitions.
Rung transitions can be caused by events occurring in the program such as parts
traveling past a detector or actuating a limit switch.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
32.19
27.22
6-18
When rung conditions for a CTD instruction have made a false–to–true transition, the
accumulated value is decremented by one count, provided that the rung containing the
CTD instruction is evaluated between these transitions.
Using Basic Instructions
The accumulated counts are retained when the rung conditions again become false.
The accumulated count is retained until cleared by a reset (RES) instruction that has
the same address as the counter reset.
Using Status Bits
Is Set When
And Remains Set Until
One of the Following
Count Down Underflow Bit
UN (bit 11)
accumulated value wraps
around to +32,768 (from 32,767) and continues
counting down from there
a RES instruction having
the same address as the
CTD instruction is enabled.
OR the count is
incremented greater than
or equal to +32,767 with a
CTU instruction
Done Bit DN (bit 13)
accumulated value is equal
to or greater than the
preset value
the accumulated value
becomes less than the
preset
Count Down Enable Bit CD
(bit 14)
rung conditions are true
rung conditions go false
OR a RES instruction
having the same address
as the CTD instruction is
enabled
The accumulated value is retained after the CTD instruction goes false, or when
power is removed from and then restored to the controller. Also, the on or off status
of counter done, overflow, and underflow bits is retentive. The accumulated value
and control bits are reset when the appropriate RES instruction is executed. The CD
bits are always set prior to entering the REM Run or REM Test modes.
6-19
Programming
This Bit
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Reset (RES)
Use a RES instruction to reset a timer or counter. When the RES instruction is
executed, it resets the data having the same address as the RES instruction.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
15.19
4.25
Using a RES instruction for a:
The controller resets the:
Timer
(Do not use a RES instruction
with a TOF.)
ACC value to 0
DN bit
TT bit
EN bit
Counter
ACC value to 0
OV bit
UN bit
DN bit
CU bit
CD bit
Control
POS value to 0
EN bit
EU bit
DN bit
EM bit
ER bit
UL bit
IN and FD go to last state
Note:
If using this instruction to reset the HSC accumulator, see page 12-21.
When resetting a counter, if the RES instruction is enabled and the counter rung is
enabled, the CU or CD bit is reset.
If the counter preset value is negative, the RES instruction sets the accumulated value
to zero. This in turn causes the done bit to be set by a count down or count up
instruction.
!
6-20
ATTENTION: Because the RES instruction resets the accumulated value, and the
done, timing, and enabled bits, do not use the RES instruction to reset a timer address
used in a TOF instruction. Otherwise, unpredictable machine operation or injury to
personnel may occur.
Using Basic Instructions
Basic Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine Application
Example
This section provides ladder rungs to demonstrate the use of basic instructions. The
rungs are part of the paper drilling machine application example described in
appendix E. You will be adding the main program in file 2 and adding a subroutine to
file 6
The rungs shown on the following page are referred to as the program’s “start-up”
logic. They determine the conditions necessary to start the machine in motion by
monitoring the start and stop push buttons. When the start push button is pressed, it
enables the conveyor to move and starts spinning the drill bit. When the stop button is
pressed, it disables the conveyor motion and turns off the drill motor.
The start-up logic also checks to make sure the drill is fully retracted (in the home
position) before allowing the conveyor to move.
Drill Home
I/5
Drill On/Off O/1
Manuals with
Drilled Holes
Conveyor Belt
6-21
Programming
Adding File 2
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 2:3➀
Starts the conveyor in motion when the start button is pressed. However, another
condition must also be met before we start the conveyor: The drill must be in its
fully retracted position (home). This run also stops the conveyor when the stop
button is pressed.
|
START
|Drill
STOP
Machine
|
|
Button
|Home LS
Button
RUN
|
|
Latch
|
|
I:1.0
I:1.0
I:1.0
B3:0
|
|-+----] [--------] [-----+----]/[--------------------------------------( )----|
| |
6
5
|
7
0
|
| | Machine
|
|
| |
RUN
|
|
| | Latch
|
|
| |
B3:0
|
|
| +----] [----------------+
|
|
0
|
Rung 2:4
Applies the above start logic to the conveyor and drill motor.
| Machine
Drill
|Conveyor
|
|
RUN
Home LS
|Enable
|
| Latch
|
|
B3
I:0
O:0
|
|----] [---------------------------------------------+----] [--------( )-----+-|
|
0
|
5
5
| |
|
|
Drill
| |
|
|
Motor ON
| |
|
|
O:0
| |
|
+---------------( )-----+ |
|
1
|
➀ Rungs 2:0 through 2:2 will be added in chapter 12.
6-22
Using Basic Instructions
Adding File 6
This subroutine controls the up and down motion of the drill for the paper drilling
machine.
Drill Home
I/5
Drill On/Off O/1
Drill Retract O/2
Drill Forward O/3
Rung 6.0
This section of ladder logic controls the up/down motion of the drill for the
book drilling machine. When the conveyor positions the book under the drill, the
DRILL SEQUENCE START bit is set. This rung uses that bit to begin the drilling
operation. Because the bit is set for the entire drilling operation, the OSR is
required to be able to turn off the forward signal so the drill must retract.
| Drill
|Drill Subr|
Drill
|
| Sequence |
OSR
|
Forward
|
| Start
|
|
|
B3
B3
O
|
|----] [-------[OSR]---------------------------------------------------(L)-----|
|
32
48
3
|
Rung 6:1
When the drill has drilled through the book, the body of the drill will actuate
the DRILL DEPTH limit switch. When this happens, the DRILL FORWARD signal is
turned off and the DRILL RETRACT signal is turned on. The drill is automatically
on power up if it is not actuating the DRILL HOME limit switch.
|
Drill
Drill
|
|
Depth LS
Forward
|
|
I
O
|
|-+----] [----------------+-------------------------------------+----(U)-----+-|
| |
4
|
|
3
| |
| | 1’st
|Drill
|
| Drill
| |
| | Pass
|Home LS
|
| Retract
| |
| |
S:1
I:1.0
|
|
O
| |
| +----] [--------]/[-----+
+----(L)-----+ |
|
15
5
2
|
6-23
Programming
Drill Depth
I/4
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 6:2
When the drill is retracting (after drilling a hole), the body of the drill will
actuate the DRILL HOME limit switch. When this happens the DRILL RETRACT signal
is turned off, the DRILL SEQUENCE START bit is turned off to indicate the
drilling process is complete, and the conveyor is restarted.
| Drill
|Drill
Drill
|
| Home LS
|Retract
Retract
|
|
I
O
O:0
|
|----] [--------] [---------------------------------------------+----(U)-----+-|
|
5
2
|
2
| |
|
| Drill
| |
|
| Sequence
| |
|
| Start
| |
|
|
B3
| |
|
+----(U)-----+ |
|
|
32
| |
|
| Conveyor
| |
|
| Start/Stop | |
|
|
| |
|
|
O:0
| |
|
+----(L)-----+ |
|
0
|
Rung 6.3
|
|
|-------------------------------------+END+------------------------------------|
|
|
6-24
Using Comparison Instructions
7
Using Comparison Instructions
•
what the instruction symbol looks like
•
typical execution time for the instruction
•
how to use the instruction
Programming
This chapter contains general information about comparison instructions and explains
how they function in your application program. Each of the comparison instructions
includes information on:
In addition, the last section contains an application example for a paper drilling
machine that shows the comparison instructions in use.
Comparison Instructions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Purpose
Page
Name
EQU
Equal
Test whether two values are equal.
7-3
NEQ
Not Equal
Test whether one value is not equal to a second
value.
7-3
LES
Less Than
Test whether one value is less than a second
value.
7-3
LEQ
Less Than or Equal Test whether one value is less than or equal to a
second value.
7-4
GRT
Greater Than
Test whether one value is greater than another.
7-4
GEQ
Greater Than or
Equal
Test whether one value is greater than or equal
to a second value.
7-4
MEQ
Masked
Comparison for
Equal
Test portions of two values to see whether they
are equal. Compares 16–bit data of a source
address to 16–bit data at a reference address
through a mask.
7-5
LIM
Limit Test
Test whether one value is within the limit range
of two other values.
7-6
7-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
About the Comparison Instructions
Comparison instructions are used to test pairs of values to condition the logical
continuity of a rung. As an example, suppose a LES instruction is presented with two
values. If the first value is less than the second, then the comparison instruction is
true.
To learn more about the compare instructions, we suggest that you read the Compare
Instructions Overview that follows.
Comparison Instructions Overview
The following general information applies to comparison instructions.
Indexed Word Addresses
When using comparison instructions, you have the option of using indexed word
addresses for instruction parameters specifying word addresses. Indexed addressing
is discussed in chapter 5.
7-2
Using Comparison Instructions
Equal (EQU)
Use the EQU instruction to test whether two values are equal. If source A and source
B are equal, the instruction is logically true. If these values are not equal, the
instruction is logically false.
True
False
21.52
6.60
Source A must be a word address. Source B can be either a constant or word address.
Negative integers are stored in two’s complement form.
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Not Equal (NEQ)
Use the NEQ instruction to test whether two values are not equal. If source A and
source B are not equal, the instruction is logically true. If the two values are equal,
the instruction is logically false.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
21.52
6.60
Source A must be a word address. Source B can be either a constant or word address.
Negative integers are stored in two’s complement form.
Less Than (LES)
Use the LES instruction to test whether one value (source A) is less than another
(source B). If the value at source A is less than the value of source B the instruction is
logically true. If the value at source A is greater than or equal to the value of source
B, the instruction is logically false.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
23.60
6.60
Source A must be a word address. Source B can be either a constant or word address.
Negative integers are stored in two’s complement form.
7-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Less Than or Equal (LEQ)
Use the LEQ instruction to test whether one value (source A) is less than or equal to
another (source B). If the value at source A is less than or equal to the value of source
B, the instruction is logically true. If the value at source A is greater than the value of
source B, the instruction is logically false.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
23.60
6.60
Source A must be a word address. Source B can be either a constant or word address.
Negative integers are stored in two’s complement form.
Greater Than (GRT)
Use the GRT instruction to test whether one value (source A) is greater than another
(source B). If the value at source A is greater than the value of source B, the
instruction is logically true. If the value at source A is less than or equal to the value
of source B, the instruction is logically false.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
23.60
6.60
Source A must be a word address. Source B can be either a constant or word address.
Negative integers are stored in two’s complement form.
Greater Than or Equal (GEQ)
Use the GEQ instruction to test whether one value (source A) is greater than or equal
to another (source B). If the value at source A is greater than or equal to the value of
source B, the instruction is logically true. If the value at source A is less than the
value of source B, the instruction is logically false.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
7-4
True
False
23.60
6.60
Source A must be a word address. Source B can be either a constant or word address.
Negative integers are stored in two’s complement form.
Using Comparison Instructions
Masked Comparison for Equal (MEQ)
MEQ
MASKED EQUAL
Source
Mask
Use the MEQ instruction to compare data of a source address with data of a reference
address. Use of this instruction allows portions of the data to be masked by a separate
word.
Compare
True
False
23.60
6.60
Entering Parameters
•
Source is the address of the value you want to compare.
•
Mask is the address of the mask through which the instruction moves data. The
mask can be a hexadecimal value (constant).
•
Compare is an integer value or the address of the reference.
If the 16 bits of data at the source address are equal to the 16 bits of data at the
compare address (less masked bits), the instruction is true. The instruction becomes
false as soon as it detects a mismatch. Bits in the mask word mask data when reset;
they pass data when set.
7-5
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Limit Test (LIM)
Use the LIM instruction to test for values within or outside a specified range,
depending on how you set the limits.
LIM
LIMIT TEST
Low Lim
Test
High Lim
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
23.60
6.60
Entering Parameters
The Low Limit, Test, and High Limit values can be word addresses or constants,
restricted to the following combinations:
•
If the Test parameter is a constant, both the Low Limit and High Limit parameters
must be word addresses.
•
If the Test parameter is a word address, the Low Limit and High Limit parameters
can be either a constant or a word address.
True/False Status of the Instruction
If the Low Limit has a value equal to or less than the High Limit, the instruction is
true when the Test value is between the limits or is equal to either limit. If the Test
value is outside the limits, the instruction is false, as shown below.
False
True
False
-32,768
+32,767
Low Limit
High Limit
Example, low limit less than high limit:
7-6
Low
Limit
High
Limit
Instruction is True
when Test value is
Instruction is False
when Test value is
5
8
5 through 8
-32,768 through 4 and 9 through 32,767
Using Comparison Instructions
If the Low Limit has a value greater than the High Limit, the instruction is false when
the Test value is between the limits. If the Test value is equal to either limit or outside
the limits, the instruction is true, as shown below.
True
False
True
-32,768
+32,767
Low Limit
Programming
High Limit
Example, low limit greater than high limit:
Low
Limit
High
Limit
Instruction is True when Test value is
Instruction is False
when Test value is
8
5
-32,768 through 5 and 8 through 32,767
6 and 7
7-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Comparison Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine
Application Example
This section provides ladder rungs to demonstrate the use of comparison instructions.
The rungs are part of the paper drilling machine application example described in
appendix E. You will be adding an instruction to file 2 and beginning a subroutine in
file 7.
Adding to File 2
To begin you will need to return to the rungs first entered in chapter 6. One more
instruction needs to be added to the first rung to keep track of the drill life. This rung
is indicated below by the shading. Notice that text has also been added to the rung
comment.
Note:
Do not add this instruction if you are using a 16 I/O controller. Address
O:0/6 is only valid for 32 I/O controllers.
Rung 2:3
Starts the conveyor in motion when the start button is pressed. However, there
are other conditions that must also be met before we start the conveyor. They
are: the drill must be in its fully retracted position (home); the drill bit must
not be past its maximum useful life. This rung also stops the conveyor when the
stop button is pressed or when the drill life is exceeded.
|
START
|Drill
STOP
|change
|
Machine
|
|
Button
|Home LS
Button
|drill bit |
RUN
|
|
|NOW
|
Latch
|
|
I:0
I:0
I:0
O:0
B3
|
|-+----] [--------][-----+----]/[--------]/[------------------( )----|
| |
6
5
|
7
6
0
|
| | Machine
|
|
| |
RUN
|
|
| | Latch
|
|
| |
B3
|
|
| +----] [---------------+
|
|
0
|
7-8
Using Comparison Instructions
Beginning a Subroutine in File 7
This section of ladder keeps track of the total inches of paper the current drill bit has
drilled through. As the current bit wears out, a light illuminates on the operator panel,
below, to warn the operator to change the drill bit.
For 32 I/O controllers: If the operator ignores this warning too long, this ladder shuts
the machine down until the operator changes the bit.
Start I:1/6
Stop I:1/7
Thumbwheel for
Thickness in 1/4”
Change Tool Soon
O:3/4
Change Tool Now
O:3/6
5 Hole
Tool Change Reset
3 Hole
I:1/11-I:1/14
(Keyswitch)
I:1/8
Programming
OPERATOR PANEL
7 Hole
I:1/9-I:1/10
7-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 7:0➀
This rung examines the number of 1/4” thousands that have accumulated over the
life of the current drill bit. If the bit has drilled between 100,000-101,999 1/
4” increments of paper, then the “change drill” light illuminates steadily. When
the value is between 102,000-103,999, then the “change drill” light will flash at
a 1.28 second rate.
When the value reaches 105,000, then the “change drill”
light flashes, and the “change drill now” light illuminates.
|
1/4”
100,000
|
|
Thousands
1/4”
|
|
increments
|
|
have
|
|
occurred
|
|
+GEQ---------------+
B3
|
|-------+-+GRTR THAN OR EQUAL+---------------------------------------( )-----+-|
|
| |Source A
N7:11|
16
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Source B
100|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
1/4”
102,000
| |
|
|
Thousands
1/4”
| |
|
|
increments | |
|
|
have
| |
|
|
occurred
| |
|
| +GEQ---------------+
B3
| |
|-------+-+GRTR THAN OR EQUAL+---------------------------------------( )-----+-|
|
| |Source A
N7:11|
17
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Source B
102|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
1/4”
change
| |
|
|
Thousands
drill bit | |
|
|
NOW
| |
|
| +GEQ---------------+
O:0
| |
|
+-+GRTR THAN OR EQUAL+---------------------------------------( )-----+ |
|
| |Source A
N7:11|
6
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Source B
105|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
100,000
|102,000
change
| |
|
|
1/4”
|1/4”
drill
| |
|
|
increments|increments
bit
| |
|
|
have
|have
soon
| |
|
|
occurred |occurred
| |
|
|
B3
B3
O:0
| |
|
+-+----------------------] [--------]/[-----------------+----( )-----+ |
|
|
16
17
|
4
|
|
|
100,000
|102,000
|1.28
|
|
|
|
1/4”
|1/4”
|second
|
|
|
|
increments|increments|free
|
|
|
|
have
|have
|running
|
|
|
|
occurred |occurred |clock bit
|
|
|
|
B3
B3
S:4
|
|
|
+-----------------------] [-------] [--------] [------+
|
|
16
17
7
|
➀
➁
7-10
More rungs are added to this subroutine at the end of chapters 8 and 9.
This branch accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Therefore, do not include this branch if you
are using a 16 I/O controller.
Using Math Instructions
8
Using Math Instructions
•
what the instruction symbol looks like
•
typical execution time for the instruction
•
how to use the instruction
Programming
This chapter contains general information about math instructions and explains how
they function in your logic program. Each of the math instructions includes
information on:
In addition, the last section contains an application example for a paper drilling
machine that shows the math instructions in use.
Math Instructions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Purpose
Page
Name
ADD
Add
Adds source A to source B and stores the result in
the destination.
8-4
SUB
Subtract
Subtracts source B from source A and stores the
result in the destination.
8-5
MUL
Multiply
Multiplies source A by source B and stores the result
in the destination.
8-8
DIV
Divide
Divides source A by source B and stores the result in
the destination and the math register.
8-9
DDV
Double Divide
Divides the contents of the math register by the
source and stores the result in the destination and
the math register.
8-10
CLR
Clear
Sets all bits of a word to zero.
8-11
SQR
Square Root
Calculates the square root of the source and places
the integer result in the destination.
8-11
SCL
Scale Data
Multiplies the source by a specified rate, adds to an
offset value, and stores the result in the destination.
8-12
8-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
About the Math Instructions
These instructions perform the familiar four function math operations. The majority
of the instructions take two input values, perform the specified arithmetic function,
and output the result to an assigned memory location.
For example, both the ADD and SUB instructions take a pair of input values, add or
subtract them, and place the result in the specified destination. If the result of the
operation exceeds the allowable value, an overflow or underflow bit is set.
To learn more about the math instructions, we suggest that you read the Math
Instructions Overview that follows.
Math Instructions Overview
The following general information applies to math instructions.
Using Indexed Word Addresses
You have the option of using indexed word addresses for instruction parameters
specifying word addresses. Indexed addressing is discussed in chapter 5.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
The arithmetic status bits are found in Word 0, bits 0-3 in the controller status file.
After an instruction is executed, the arithmetic status bits in the status file are updated:
With this Bit:
8-2
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
sets if carry is generated; otherwise cleared.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
indicates that the actual result of a math instruction does
not fit in the designated destination.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
indicates a 0 value after a math, move, or logic
instruction.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
indicates a negative (less than 0) value after a math,
move, or logic instruction.
Using Math Instructions
Overflow Trap Bit, S:5/0
Minor error bit (S:5/0) is set upon detection of a mathematical overflow or division by
zero. If this bit is set upon execution of an END statement or a Temporary End
(TND) instruction, the recoverable major error code 0020 is declared.
Changes to the Math Register, S:13 and S:14
Status word S:13 contains the least significant word of the 32–bit values of the MUL
and DDV instructions. It contains the remainder for DIV and DDV instructions. It
also contains the first four BCD digits for the Convert from BCD (FRD) and Convert
to BCD (TOD) instructions.
Status word S:14 contains the most significant word of the 32–bit values of the MUL
and DDV instructions. It contains the unrounded quotient for DIV and DDV
instructions. It also contains the most significant digit (digit 5) for TOD and FRD
instructions.
8-3
Programming
In applications where a math overflow or divide by zero occurs, you can avoid a
controller fault by using an unlatch (OTU) instruction with address S:5/0 in your
program. The rung must be between the overflow point and the END or TND
statement.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Add (ADD)
Use the ADD instruction to add one value (source A) to another value (source B) and
place the result in the destination. Source A and B can either be a word address or
constant.
SUB
SUBTRACT
Source A
Source B
Dest
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
33.09
6.78
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
8-4
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
sets if carry is generated; otherwise resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if overflow is detected at destination; otherwise
resets. On overflow, the minor error flag is also set. The
value -32,768 or 32,767 is placed in the destination. If
S:2/14 (math overflow selection bit) is set, then the
unsigned, truncated overflow remains in the destination.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative; otherwise resets.
Using Math Instructions
Subtract (SUB)
Use the SUB instruction to subtract one value (Source B) from another (source A) and
place the result in the destination. Source A and B can either be a word address or
constant.
SUB
SUBTRACT
Source A
Source B
Dest
True
False
33.52
6.78
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
sets if borrow is generated; otherwise resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if underflow; otherwise reset. On underflow, the
minor error flag is also set. The value -32,768 or 32,767
is placed in the destination. If S:2/14 (math overflow
selection bit) is set, then the unsigned, truncated overflow
remains in the destination.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative; otherwise resets.
8-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
32–Bit Addition and Subtraction
You have the option of performing 16–bit or 32–bit signed integer addition and
subtraction. This is facilitated by status file bit S:2/14 (math overflow selection bit).
Math Overflow Selection Bit S:2/14
Set this bit when you intend to use 32–bit addition and subtraction. When S:2/14 is
set, and the result of an ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV, or NEG instruction cannot be
represented in the destination address (due to math underflow or overflow):
•
The overflow bit S:0/1 is set.
•
The overflow trap bit S:5/0 is set.
•
The destination address contains the unsigned truncated least significant 16 bits of
the result.
When S:2/14 is reset (default condition), and the result of an ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV,
or NEG instruction cannot be represented in the destination address (due to math
underflow or overflow):
•
The overflow bit S:0/1 is set.
•
The overflow trap bit S:5/0 is set.
•
The destination address contains 32767 if the result is positive or -32768 if the
result is negative.
Note:
The status of bit S:2/14 has no effect on the DDV instruction. Also, it has
no effect on the math register content when using MUL and DIV
instructions.
Example of 32–bit Addition
The following example shows how a 16–bit signed integer is added to a 32–bit signed
integer. Remember that S:2/14 must be set for 32–bit addition.
Note:
The value of the most significant 16 bits (B3:3) of the 32-bit number is
increased by 1 if the carry bit S:0/0 is set and it is decreased by 1 if the
number being added (B3:1) is negative.
To avoid a major error from occurring at the end of the scan, you must unlatch
overflow trap bit S:5/0 as shown.
8-6
Using Math Instructions
Add 16-bit value B3:1 to 32-bit value B3:3 B3:2
Add Operation
Binary
Hex
Decimal➀
Addend
Addend
B3:3 B3:2
B3:1
0000 0000 0000 0011 0001 1001 0100 0000
0101 0101 1010 1000
0003 1940
55A8
203,072
21,928
Sum
B3:3 B3:2
0000 0000 0000 0011 0110 1110 1110 1000
0003 6EE8
225,000
B3
] [
The programming device displays 16-bit decimal values only. The decimal value of a 32-bit integer is derived from
the displayed binary or hex value. For example, 0003 1940 Hex is 164x3 +163x1 + 161x4 + 160x0 = 203,072.
ADD
B3
[OSR]
1
0
ADD
Source A
B3:1
0101010110101000
Source B
B3:2
0001100101000000
Dest
B3:2
0001100101000000
0
ADD
Source A
When rung goes true for a
single scan, B3:1 is added to
B3:2. The result is placed in
B3:2
If a carry is generated (S:0/0
set), 1 is added to B3:3.
ADD
S:0
] [
Programming
➀
1
Source B
B3:3
0000000000000011
Dest
B3:3
0000000000000011
B3
] [
31
SUB
SUBTRACT
Source A
B3:3
0000000000000011
Source B
1
If B3:1 is negative (B3/31 set), 1
is subtracted from B3:3.
Dest
B3:3
0000000000000011
S:5
(U)
0
Overflow trap bit S:5/0 is
unlatched to prevent a major
error from occurring at the end of
the scan.
END
8-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Multiply (MUL)
Use the MUL instruction to multiply one value (source A) by another (source B) and
place the result in the destination. Source A and B can either be a word address or
constant.
MUL
MULTIPLY
Source A
Source B
Dest
If the result is larger than +32,767 or smaller than -32,767 (16–bits), the 32–bit result
is placed in the math register.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
57.96
6.78
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if overflow is detected at destination; otherwise
resets. On overflow, the minor error flag is also set. The
value -32,768 or 32,767 is placed in the destination. If
S:2/14 (math overflow selection bit) is set, then the
unsigned, truncated overflow remains in the destination.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative; otherwise resets.
Changes to the Math Register
The math register contains the 32–bit signed integer result of the multiply operation.
This result is valid at overflow.
8-8
Using Math Instructions
Divide (DIV)
Use the DIV instruction to divide one value (source A) by another (source B), and
place the rounded quotient in the destination. If the remainder is 0.5 or greater, the
destination is rounded up.
DIV
DIVIDE
Source A
Source B
Dest
True
False
147.87
6.78
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if division by zero or overflow is detected; otherwise
resets. On overflow, the minor error flag is also set. The
value 32,767 is placed in the destination. If S:2/14 (math
overflow selection bit) is set, then the unsigned, truncated
overflow remains in the destination.
S:0/2
Zero(Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets; undefined if
overflow is set.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative; otherwise resets; undefined if
overflow is set.
Changes to the Math Register
The unrounded quotient is placed in the most significant word, the remainder is
placed in the least significant word.
8-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Double Divide (DDV)
The 32–bit content of the math register is divided by the 16–bit source value and the
rounded quotient is placed in the destination. If the remainder is 0.5 or greater, the
destination is rounded up.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
157.06
6.78
This instruction typically follows a MUL instruction that creates a 32–bit result.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if division by zero or if result is greater than 32,767 or
less than -32,768; otherwise resets. On overflow, the
minor error flag is also set. The value 32,767 is placed in
the destination.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative; otherwise resets; undefined if
overflow is set.
Changes to the Math Register
Initially contains the dividend of the DDV operation. Upon instruction execution the
unrounded quotient is placed in the most significant word of the math register. The
remainder is placed in the least significant word of the math register.
8-10
Using Math Instructions
Clear (CLR)
Use the CLR instruction to set the destination to zero. All of the bits reset.
CLR
CLEAR
Dest
True
False
20.80
4.25
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
always resets.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
always sets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
always resets.
Square Root (SQR)
When this instruction is evaluated as true, the square root of the absolute value of the
source is calculated and the rounded integer result is placed in the destination.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
71.25
6.78
The instruction calculates the square root of a negative number without overflow or
faults. In applications where the source value may be negative, use a comparison
instruction to evaluate the source value to determine if the destination may be invalid.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
sets if the source is negative; otherwise cleared.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
always resets.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets when destination value is zero.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
always resets.
8-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Scale Data (SCL)
When this instruction is true, the value at the source address is multiplied by the rate
value. The rounded result is added to the offset value and placed in the destination.
SCL
SCALE
Source
Rate [/10000]
Offset
Note:
Dest
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
169.18
6.78
Anytime an underflow or overflow occurs in the destination file, minor
error bit S:5/0 must be reset. This must occur before the end of the
current scan to prevent major error code 0020 from being declared. This
instruction can overflow before the offset is added.
Entering Parameters
The value for the following parameters is between -32,768 to 32,767.
•
Source can either be a constant or a word address.
•
Rate is the positive or negative value you enter divided by 10,000. It can be a
constant or a word address.
•
Offset can either be a constant or a word address.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
is reserved.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if an overflow is detected; otherwise resets. On
overflow, minor error bit S:5/0 is also set and the value 32,768 or 32,767 is placed in the destination. The
presence of an overflow is checked before and after the
offset value is applied.➀
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets when destination value is zero.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if the destination value is negative; otherwise resets.
➀
8-12
The Controller:
If the result of the Source times the Rate, divided by 10000 is greater than 32767, the SCL instruction
overflows, causing error 0020 (Minor Error Bit), and places 32767 in the Destination. This occurs
regardless of the current offset.
Using Math Instructions
The following example takes a 0V to 10V analog input from a MicroLogix 1000
analog controller and scales the raw input data to a value between 0 and 100%. The
input value range is 0V to 10V which corresponds to 0 to 31,207 counts. The scaled
value range is 0 to 100 percent.
Application Example - Convert Voltage Input to Percent
Programming
100
(Scaled Max.)
Scaled Value
(percent)
(Scaled Min.)
0
0V
(Input Min.)
13,107 10V
(Input Max.)
Input Value
Calculating the Linear Relationship
Use the following equations to calculate the scaled units:
Scaled value = (input value x rate) + offset
Rate = (scaled max. - scaled min.) / (input max. - input min.)
(100 - 0) / (31,207 - 0)
= .00320 (or 32/10000)
Offset = scaled min. - (input min. x rate)
0 - (0 x .00320) = 0
8-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Math Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine Application Example
This section provides ladder rungs to demonstrate the use of math instructions. The
rungs are part of the paper drilling machine application example described in
appendix E. You will be adding to the subroutine in file 7 that was started in chapter
7.
Rung 7:1
This rung resets the number of 1/4” increments and the 1/4” thousands when the
“drill change reset” keyswitch is energized. This should occur following each
drill bit change.
| drill
1/4”
|
| change
Thousands
|
| reset
|
| keyswitch
|
|
I:0
+CLR---------------+
|
|----] [------------------------------------------------+-+CLEAR
+-+-|
|
8
| |Dest
N7:11| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +----------------+ | |
|
|
1/4”
| |
|
|
increments
| |
|
|
| |
|
| +CLR-------------+ | |
|
+-+CLEAR
+-+ |
|
|Dest
N7:10|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+----------------+
|
Rung 7:5➀
Keep a running total of how many inches of paper have been drilled with the
current drill bit. Every time a hole is drilled, add the thickness (in 1/4”s) to
the running total (kept in 1/4”s). The OSR is necessary because the ADD executes
every time the rung is true, and the drill body would actuate the DRILL DEPTH
limit switch for more than 1 program scan.
Integer N7:12 is the integerconverted value of the BCD thumbwheel on inputs I:0/11 - I:0/14.
| Drill
|Tool Wear
1/4”
|
| Depth LS | OSR 1
increments |
|
|
|
I:0
B3
+ADD---------------+ |
|----] [-------[OSR]--------------------------------------+ADD
+-|
|
4
24
|Source A
N7:12| |
|
|
0| |
|
|Source B
N7:10| |
|
|
0| |
|
|Dest
N7:10| |
|
|
0| |
|
+------------------+ |
➀
8-14
Rungs 7:2 through 7:4 are added at the end of Chapter 9.
Rung 7:6
When the number of 1/4” increments surpasses 1000, finds out how many increments
we are past 1000 and stores in N7:20. Add 1 to the total of 1000 1/4”’
increments, and re-initializes the 1/4” increments accumulator to how many
increments were beyond 1000.
|
1/4”
|
|
increments
|
|
|
| +GEQ---------------+
+SUB---------------+
|
|-+GRTR THAN OR EQUAL+--------------------------------+-+SUBTRACT
+-+-|
| |Source A
N7:10|
| |Source A
N7:10| | |
| |
0|
| |
0| | |
| |Source B
1000|
| |Source B
1000| | |
| |
|
| |
| | |
| +------------------+
| |Dest
N7:20| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
|
1/4”
| |
|
|
Thousands
| |
|
| +ADD---------------+ | |
|
+-+ADD
+-+ |
|
| |Source A
1| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| |Source B
N7:11| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:11| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
|
| |
|
|
| |
|
|
| |
|
|
1/4”
| |
|
|
Increments
| |
|
| +MOV---------------+ | |
|
+-+MOVE
+-+ |
|
|Source
N7:20|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
|Dest
N7:10|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 7:7
|
|
|-------------------------------------+END+------------------------------------|
|
|
8-15
Programming
Using Math Instructions
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Notes:
8-16
Using Data Handling Instructions
9
Using Data Handling Instructions
•
what the instruction symbol looks like
•
typical execution time for the instruction
•
how to use the instruction
Programming
This chapter contains general information about the data handling instructions and
explains how they function in your application program. Each of the instructions
includes information on:
In addition, the last section contains an application example for a paper drilling
machine that shows the data handling instructions in use.
Data Handling Instructions
\
Instruction
Mnemonic
Purpose
Page
Name
TOD
Convert to BCD
Converts the integer source value to BCD
format and stores it in the destination.
9-3
FRD
Convert from BCD
Converts the BCD source value to an integer
and stores it in the destination.
9-4
DCD
Decode 4 to 1 of 16
Decodes a 4–bit value (0 to 15), turning on
the corresponding bit in the 16–bit
destination.
9-8
ENC
Encode 1 of 16 to 4
Encodes a 16–bit source to a 4–bit value.
Searches the source from the lowest to the
highest bit, and looks for the first set bit. The
corresponding bit position is written to the
destination as an integer.
9-9
COP and
FLL
Copy File and Fill File The COP instruction copies data from the
source file to the destination file The FLL
instruction loads a source value into each
position in the destination file.
9-10
9-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Instruction
Mnemonic
Purpose
Page
Name
MOV
Move
Moves the source value to the destination.
9-15
MVM
Masked Move
Moves data from a source location to a
selected portion of the destination.
9-16
AND
And
Performs a bitwise AND operation.
9-18
OR
Or
Performs a bitwise inclusive OR operation.
9-19
XOR
Exclusive Or
Performs a bitwise Exclusive OR operation.
9-20
NOT
Not
Performs a NOT operation.
9-21
NEG
Negate
Changes the sign of the source and stores it
in the destination.
9-22
FFL and
FFU
FIFO Load and FIFO
Unload
The FFL instruction loads a word into a FIFO
stack on successive false–to–true transitions.
The FFU unloads a word from the stack on
successive false–true transitions. The first
word loaded is the first to be unloaded.
9-25
LFL and
LFU
LIFO Load and LIFO
Unload
The LFL instruction loads a word into a LIFO
stack on successive false–to–true transitions.
The LFU unloads a word from the stack on
successive false–to–true transitions. The last
word loaded is the first to be unloaded.
9-26
About the Data Handling Instructions
Use these instructions to convert information, manipulate data in the controller, and
perform logic operations.
In this chapter you will find a general overview preceding groups of instructions.
Before you learn about the instructions in each of these groups, we suggest that you
read the overview. This chapter contains the following overviews:
9-2
•
Move and Logical Instructions Overview
•
FIFO and LIFO Instructions Overview
Using Data Handling Instructions
Convert to BCD (TOD)
Use this instruction to convert 16–bit integers into BCD values.
The source must be a word address. The destination parameter can be a word address
in a data file, or it can be the math register, S:13 and S:14.
True
False
49.64
6.78
If the integer value you enter is negative, the sign is ignored and the conversion occurs
as if the number was positive.
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if the BCD result is larger than 9999. On overflow,
the minor error flag is also set.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if destination value is zero.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if the source word is negative; otherwise resets.
Changes to the Math Register
Contains the 5–digit BCD result of the conversion. This result is valid at overflow.
Note:
To convert numbers larger than 9999 decimal, the destination must be
the Math Register (S:13). You must reset the Minor Error Bit (S:5/0) to
prevent an error.
9-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example
The integer value 9760 stored at N7:3 is converted to BCD and the BCD equivalent is
stored in N7:0. The maximum BCD value is 9999.
MPS displays the destination value in
BCD format.
MSB
MSB
9
7
6
0
N7:3
Decimal
0010
0110
0010
0000
9
7
6
0
N7:0
4-digit BCD
1001
0111
0110
0000
Convert from BCD (FRD)
Use this instruction to convert BCD values to integer values.
The source parameter can be a word address in a data file, or it can be the math
register, S:13. The destination must be a word address.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
49.64
6.78
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
S:0/0
9-4
Carry (C)
The Controller:
always resets.
Using Data Handling Instructions
The Controller:
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if non–BCD value is contained at the source or the
value to be converted is greater than 32,767; otherwise
reset. On overflow, the minor error flag is also set.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if destination value is zero.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
always resets.
Note:
S:1
]/[
15
Always provide ladder logic filtering of all BCD input devices prior to
performing the FRD instruction. The slightest difference in point-topoint input filter delay can cause the FRD instruction to overflow due to
the conversion of a non-BCD digit.
EQU
EQUAL
Source A
Source B
FRD
N7:1
0
I:0.0
0
FROM BCD
Source
Dest
I:0.0
0
N7:2
0
MOV
MOVE
Source
Dest
I:0.0
0
N7:1
0
The two rungs shown cause the controller to verify that the value I:0 remains the same
for two consecutive scans before it will execute the FRD. This prevents the FRD
from converting a non–BCD value during an input value change.
Note:
To convert numbers larger than 9999 BCD, the source must be the Math
Register (S:13). You must reset the Minor Error Bit (S:5.0) to prevent an
error.
9-5
Programming
With this Bit:
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example
The BCD value 32,760 in the math register is converted and stored in N7:0. The
maximum source value is 32767, BCD.
MPS displays S:13 and
S:14 in BCD.
S:14
0000 0000 0000 0011
15
0
0
0
0
3
3
S:13
0010 0111 0110 0000
15
0 5-digit BCD
2
7
6
0
2
7
6
0
N7:0 Decimal 0111 1111 1111 1000
You should convert BCD values to integer before you manipulate them in your ladder
program. If you do not convert the values, the controller manipulates them as integers
and their value may be lost.
Note:
9-6
If the math register (S:13 and S:14) is used as the source for the FRD
instruction and the BCD value does not exceed 4 digits, be sure to clear
word S:14 before executing the FRD instruction. If S:14 is not cleared
and a value is contained in this word from another math instruction
located elsewhere in the program, an incorrect decimal value will be
placed in the destination word.
Using Data Handling Instructions
Clearing S:14 before executing the FRD instruction is shown below:
Programming
0001 0010 0011 0100
S:13 and S:14 are
displayed in BCD format.
0000 0100 1101 0010
When the input condition I:0/1 is set (1), a BCD value (transferred from a 4–digit
thumbwheel switch for example) is moved from word N7:2 into the math register.
Status word S:14 is then cleared to make certain that unwanted data is not present
when the FRD instruction is executed.
9-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Decode 4 to 1 of 16 (DCD)
When executed, this instruction sets one bit of the destination word. The particular bit
that is turned On depends on the value of the first four bits of the source word. See
the table below.
Use this instruction to multiplex data in applications such as rotary switches, keypads,
and bank switching.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
27.67
6.78
Source
Destination
Bit 15-04 03 02 01 00 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Entering Parameters
•
Source is the address that contains the information to be decoded. Only the first
four bits (0-3) are used by the DCD instruction. The remaining bits may be used
for other application specific needs.
•
Destination is the address of the word where the decoded data is to be stored.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
Unaffected.
9-8
Using Data Handling Instructions
Encode 1 of 16 to 4 (ENC)
When the rung is true, this output instruction searches the source from the lowest to
the highest bit, and looks for the first set bit. The corresponding bit position is written
to the destination as an integer as shown in the table below.
True
False
54.80
6.78
Source
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Destination
Bit 15 14 13 12 11 10 09 08 07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 15-04 03 02 01 00
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
Entering Parameters
•
Source is the address of the word to be encoded. Only one bit of this word should
be on at any one time. If more than one bit in the source is set, the destination bits
will be set based on the least significant bit that is set. If a source of zero is used,
all of the destination bits will be reset and the zero bit will be set.
•
Destination is the address that contains the bit encode information. Bits 4-15 of
the destination are reset by the ENC instruction.
9-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
The arithmetic status bits are found in Word 0, bits 0-3 in the controller status file.
After an instruction is executed, the arithmetic status bits in the status file are updated:
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if more than one bit in the source is set; otherwise
reset. The math overflow bit (S:5/0) is not set.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if destination value is zero.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
always resets.
Copy File (COP) and Fill File (FLL) Instructions
The destination file type determines the number of words that an instruction transfers.
For example, if the destination file type is a counter and the source file type is an
integer, three integer words are transferred for each element in the counter–type file.
After a COP or FLL instruction is executed, index register S:24 is cleared to zero.
Execution Times (µsec) when:
True
False
COP 2731+5.06/word
7
FLL 26.86+3.62/word
7
9-10
Using Data Handling Instructions
Using COP
This instruction copies blocks of data from one location into another. It uses no status
bits. If you need an enable bit, program an output instruction (OTE) in parallel using
an internal bit as the output address. The following figure shows how file instruction
data is manipulated.
Destination
Programming
Source
File to File
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameters when programming this instruction:
•
Source is the address of the first word in the file to be copied. You must use the
file indicator (#) in the address.
•
Destination is the address of the first word in the file where the data is to be
stored. You must use the file indicator (#) in the address.
•
Length is the number of words or elements in the file to be copied. See the table
on the next page.
then you can specify a maximum length of:
If the destination file type is a(n):
Discrete
Analog
Output
1
5
Input
2
8
Status
33
33
Bit
32
32
Timer
40
40
Counter
32
32
Control
16
16
Integer
105
105
Note:
The maximum lengths apply when the source is of the same file type.
9-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
All elements are copied from the source file into the destination file each time the
instruction is executed. Elements are copied in ascending order.
If your destination file type is a timer, counter, or control file, be sure the source
words corresponding to the status elements of your destination file contain zeros.
Using FLL
The following figure shows how file instruction data is manipulated. The instruction
fills the words of a file with a source value. It uses no status bits. If you need an
enable bit, program a parallel output that uses a storage address.
Destination
Source
Word to File
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameters when programming this instruction:
•
Source is a constant or element address. The file indicator (#) is not required for
an element address.
•
Destination is the starting address of the file you want to fill. You must use the
file indicator (#) in the address.
•
Length is the number of words or elements in the file to be filled.
If the destination file type is a:
Output
Input
Status
Bit
Timer
Counter
Control
Integer
9-12
then you can specify a maximum length of:
Discrete
Analog
1
5
2
8
33
33
32
32
40
40
32
32
16
16
105
105
Using Data Handling Instructions
All elements are filled from the source value (typically a constant) into the specified
destination file each scan the rung is true. Elements are filled in ascending order.
Move and Logical Instructions Overview
The following general information applies to move and logical instructions.
•
Source is the address of the value on which the logical or move operation is to be
performed. It can be a word address or a constant. If the instruction has two
source operands, it will not accept constants in both operands.
•
Destination is the address where the resulting data is stored. It must be a word
address.
Using Indexed Word Addresses
You have the option of using indexed word addresses for instruction parameters
specifying word addresses. Indexed addressing is discussed in chapter 4.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
The arithmetic status bits are found in Word 0, bits 0-3 in the controller status file.
After an instruction is executed, the arithmetic status bits in the status file are updated:
Bit
Name
Description
S:0/0
Carry (C)
Set if a carry is generated; otherwise cleared.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
Indicates that the actual result of a math
instruction does not fit in the designated
destination.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
Indicates a 0 value after a math, move, or logic
instruction.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
Indicates a negative (less than 0) value after a
math, move, or logic instruction.
9-13
Programming
Entering Parameters
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Overflow Trap Bit, S:5/0
Minor error bit (S:5/0) is set upon detection of a mathematical overflow or division by
zero. If this bit is set upon execution of an END statement, or a TND instruction, a
major error occurs.
In applications where a math overflow or divide by zero occurs, you can avoid a
controller fault by using an unlatch (OTU) instruction with address S:5/0 in your
program. The rung must be between the overflow point and the END or TND
statement.
Changes to the Math Register, S:13 and S:14
Move and logical instructions do not affect the math register.
9-14
Using Data Handling Instructions
Move (MOV)
This output instruction moves the source data to the destination location. As long as
the rung remains true, the instruction moves the data each scan.
True
False
25.05
6.78
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameters when programming this instruction:
•
Source is the address or constant of the data you want to move.
•
Destination is the address where the instruction moves the data.
If you wish to move one word of data without affecting the math flags, use a copy
(COP) instruction with a length of 1 word instead of the MOV instruction.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
always resets.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative (most significant bit is set);
otherwise resets.
9-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Masked Move (MVM)
The MVM instruction is a word instruction that moves data from a source location to
a destination, and allows portions of the destination data to be masked by a separate
word. As long as the rung remains true, the instruction moves the data each scan.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
33.28
6.78
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameters when programming this instruction:
•
Source is the address of the data you want to move.
•
Mask is the address of the mask through which the instruction moves data; the
mask can be a hex value (constant).
•
Destination is the address where the instruction moves the data.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
9-16
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
always resets.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative; otherwise resets.
Using Data Handling Instructions
Operation
Programming
When the rung containing this instruction is true, data at the source address passes
through the mask to the destination address. See the following figure.
B3:2 before move
1111111111111111
source B3:0
0101010101010101
Mask F0F0
1111000011110000
B3:2 after move
0101111101011111
Mask data by setting bits in the mask to zero; pass data by setting bits in the mask to
one. The mask can be a constant value, or you can vary the mask by assigning a direct
address. Bits in the destination that correspond to zeros in the mask are not altered.
9-17
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
And (AND)
The value at source A is ANDed bit by bit with the value at source B and then stored
in the destination.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
34.00
6.78
Truth Table
Dest = A AND B
A
B
Dest
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
Source A and B can either be a word address or a constant; however, both sources
cannot be a constant. The destination must be a word address.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
9-18
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
always resets.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if most significant bit is set; otherwise resets.
Using Data Handling Instructions
Or (OR)
The value at source A is ORed bit by bit with the value at source B and then stored in
the destination.
True
False
33.68
6.78
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Truth Table
Dest = A OR B
A
B
Dest
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
1
Source A and B can either be a word address or a constant; however, both sources
cannot be a constant. The destination must be a word address.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
always resets.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative (most significant bit is set)
otherwise resets.
9-19
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Exclusive Or (XOR)
The value at source A is Exclusive ORed bit by bit with the value at source B and then
stored in the destination.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
33.64
6.92
Truth Table
Dest = A XOR B
A
B
Dest
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
1
0
Source A and B can either be a word address or a constant; however, both sources
cannot be a constant. The destination must be a word address.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
9-20
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
always resets.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative (most significant bit is set);
otherwise resets.
Using Data Handling Instructions
Not (NOT)
The source value is NOTed bit by bit and then stored in the destination (one’s
complement).
True
False
28.21
6.92
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Truth Table
Dest = NOT A
A
Dest
0
1
1
0
The source and destination must be word addresses.
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
always resets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
always resets.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative (most significant bit is set);
otherwise resets.
9-21
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Negate (NEG)
Use the NEG instruction to change the sign of a value. If you negate a negative value,
the result is a positive; if you negate a positive value, the result is a negative. The
destination contains the two’s complement of the source.
The source and destination must be word addresses.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
29.48
6.78
Updates to Arithmetic Status Bits
9-22
With this Bit:
The Controller:
S:0/0
Carry (C)
clears if 0 or overflow, otherwise sets.
S:0/1
Overflow (V)
sets if overflow, otherwise reset. Overflow occurs only if 32,768 is the source. On overflow, the minor error flag is
also set. The value 32,767 is placed in the destination. If
S:2/14 is set, then the unsigned, truncated overflow
remains in the destination.
S:0/2
Zero (Z)
sets if result is zero; otherwise resets.
S:0/3
Sign (S)
sets if result is negative; otherwise resets.
Using Data Handling Instructions
FIFO and LIFO Instructions Overview
FIFO instructions load words into a file and unload them in the same order as they
were loaded. The first word in is the first word out.
LIFO instructions load words into a file and unload them in the opposite order as they
were loaded. The last word in is the first word out.
Enter the following parameters when programming these instructions:
•
Source is a word address or constant (-32,768 to 32,767) that becomes the next
value in the stack.
•
Destination (Dest) is a word address that stores the value that exits from the stack.
This Instruction:
Unloads the Value from:
FIFO’s FFU
First word
LIFO’s LFU
The last word entered
•
FIFO/LIFO is the address of the stack. It must be an indexed word address in the
bit, input, output, or integer file. Use the same FIFO address for the associated
FFL and FFU instructions; use the same LIFO address for the associated LFL and
LFU instructions.
•
Length specifies the maximum number of words in the stack. Address the length
value by mnemonic (LEN).
•
Position is the next available location where the instruction loads data into the
stack. This value changes after each load or unload operation. Address the
position value by mnemonic (POS).
•
Control is the address of the control structure. The control structure stores the
status bits, the stack length, and the position value. Do not use the control file
address for any other instruction.
9-23
Programming
Entering Parameters
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Status bits of the control structure are addressed by mnemonic. These include:

Empty Bit EM (bit 12) is set by the controller to indicate the stack is empty.

Done Bit DN (bit 13) is set by the controller to indicate the stack is full. This
inhibits loading the stack.

FFU/LFU Enable Bit EU (bit 14) is set on a false–to–true transition of the
FFU/LFU rung and is reset on a true–to–false transition.

FFL/LFL Enable Bit EN (bit 15) is set on a false–to–true transition of the
FFL/LFL rung and is reset on a true–to–false transition.
Effects on Index Register S:24
The value present in S:24 is overwritten with the position value when a false–to–true
transition of the FFL/FFU or LFL/LFU rung occurs. For the FFL/LFL, the position
value determined at instruction entry is placed in S:24. For the FFU/LFU, the
position value determined at instruction exit is placed in S:24.
When the DN bit is set, a false–to–true transition of the FFL/LFL rung does not
change the position value or the index register value. When the EM bit is set, a false–
to–true transition of the FFU/LFU rung does not change the position value or the
index register value.
9-24
Using Data Handling Instructions
FIFO Load (FFL) and FIFO Unload (FFU)
FFL and FFU instructions are used in pairs. The FFL instruction loads words into a
user–created file called a FIFO stack. The FFU instruction unloads words from the
FIFO stack in the same order as they were entered.
Operation
Destination
N7:11
FFU instruction unloads
data from stack #N7:12 at
position 0, N7:12
Programming
Instruction parameters have been programmed in the FFL - FFU instruction pair
shown below.
Position
N7:12
0
N7:13
1
N7:14
2
3
4
5
6
34 words are allocated
for FIFO stack starting at
N7:12, ending at N7:45
7
Source
8
N7:10
9
FFL instruction loads data
into stack #7:12 at the
next available position, 9
in this case.
N7:45
33
Loading and Unloading of Stack #N7:12
FFL Instruction
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
61.13
33.67
When rung conditions change from false–to–true, the controller sets the FFL enable
bit (EN). This loads the contents of the Source, N7:10, into the stack structure
indicated by the Position number, 9. The position value then increments.
The FFL instruction loads an element at each false–to–true transition of the rung, until
the stack is filled (34 elements). The controller then sets the done bit (DN), inhibiting
further loading.
9-25
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
FFU Instruction
When rung conditions change from false–to–true, the controller sets the FFU enable
bit (EU). This unloads the contents of the element at stack position 0 into the
Destination, N7:11. All data in the stack is shifted one element toward position zero,
False and the highest numbered element is zeroed. The position value then decrements.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
73.78+
4.34/word
34.90 The FFU instruction unloads an element at each false–to–true transition of the rung,
until the stack is empty. The controller then sets the empty bit (EM).
LIFO Load (LFL) and LIFO Unload (LFU)
LFL and LFU instructions are used in pairs. The LFL instruction loads words into a
user–created file called a LIFO stack. The LFU instruction unloads words from the
LIFO stack in the opposite order as they were entered.
Operation
Instruction parameters have been programmed in the LFL - LFU instruction pair
shown below.
LFL
LIFO LOAD
Source
LIFO
Control
Length
Position
Destination
N7:10
#N7:12
R6:0
34
9
(EN)
(DN)
(EM)
N7:11
LFU instruction unloads
data from stack #N7:12 at
position 8.
Position
N7:12
0
N7:13
1
N7:14
2
3
4
LFU
LIFO UNLOAD
LIFO
Dest
Control
Length
Position
5
#N7:12
N7:11
R6:0
34
9
(EU)
(DN)
(EM)
6
34 words are allocated
for FIFO stack starting at
N7:12, ending at N7:45
7
Source
8
N7:10
9
LFL instruction loads data
into stack #N7:12 at the
next available position, 9
in this case.
N7:45
33
Loading and Unloading of Stack #N7:12
9-26
Using Data Handling Instructions
LFL Instruction
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
61.13
33.67
When rung conditions change from false–to–true, the controller sets the LFL enable
bit (EN). This loads the contents of the Source, N7:10, into the stack element
indicated by the Position number, 9. The position value then increments.
The LFL instruction loads an element at each false–to–true transition of the rung,
until the stack is filled (34 elements). The controller sets the done bit (DN), inhibiting
further loading.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
64.20
35.08
When rung conditions change from false–to–true, the controller sets the LFU enable
bit (EU). This unloads data from the last element loaded into the stack (at the position
value minus 1), placing it in the Destination, N7:11. The position value then
decrements.
The LFU instruction unloads one element at each false–to–true transition of the rung,
until the stack is empty. The controller then sets the empty bit (EM).
9-27
Programming
LFU Instruction
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Data Handling Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine
Application Example
This section provides ladder rungs to demonstrate the use of data handling
instructions. The rungs are part of the paper drilling machine application example
described in appendix E. You will be adding to the subroutine in file 7 that was
started in chapter 7.
Rung 7:2➀
This rung moves the single digit BCD thumbwheel value into an internal Integer
register. This is done to properly align the four BCD input signals prior to
executing the BCD to Integer instruction (FRD). The thumbwheel is used to allow
the operator to enter the thickness of the paper that is to be drilled.
The
thickness is entered in 1/4” increments. This provides a range of 1/4” to 2.25”
|
BCD bit 0 |FRD bit 0
|
|
I:0
N7:14
|
|---------------------------------------------------+----] [--------( )------+-|
|
|
11
0
| |
|
| BCD bit 1 |FRD bit 1 | |
|
|
I:0
N7:14
| |
|
+----] [---------( )-----+ |
|
|
12
1
| |
|
| BCD bit 2 |FRD bit 2 | |
|
|
I:0
N7:14
| |
|
+----] [---------( )-----+ |
|
|
13
2
| |
|
| BCD bit 3 |FRD bit 3 | |
|
|
I:0
N7:14
| |
|
+----] [---------( )-----+ |
|
14
3
|
➀
9-28
This rung accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Therefore, do not include this rung if you are
using a 16 I/O controller.
Rung 7:3
This rung converts the BCD thumbwheel value from BCD to Integer. This is done
because the controller operates upon integer values. This rung also “debounces”
the thumbwheel to ensure that the conversion only occurs on valid BCD values.
Note that invalid BCD values can occur while the operator is changing the BCD
thumbwheel. This is due to input filter propagation delay differences between
the 4 input circuits that provide the BCD input value.
| 1’st
previous
debounced
| pass
scan’s
BCD value
| bit
BCD input
|
value
|
S:1
+EQU-----------------+
+FRD----------------+
|
|-+---]/[----+EQUAL
+-+-----------+FROM BCD
+-+----+---|
| |
15 |Source A
N7:13| |
|Source
N7:14| |
|
|
| |
|
0| |
|
0000| |
|
|
| |
|Source B
N7:14| |
|Dest
N7:12| |
|
|
| |
|
0| |
|
0| |
|
|
| |
+--------------------+ |
+-------------------+ |
|
|
| |
| Math
Math
|
|
|
| |
| Overflow
Error
|
|
|
| |
| Bit
Bit
|
|
|
| |
|
S:0
S:5
|
|
|
| |
+----] [--------------(U)---------+
|
|
| |
1
0
|
|
| |
this
|
|
| |
scan’s
|
|
| |
BCD input
|
|
| |
value
|
|
| |
+MOV-------------------+ |
|
| +-----------------------------------------------+MOVE
+-+
|
|
|Source
N7:14|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
|Dest
N7:13|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+----------------------+
|
9-29
Programming
Using Data Handling Instructions
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 7:4
This rung ensures that the operator cannot select a paper thickness of 0. If
this were allowed, the drill bit life calculation could be defeated, resulting in
poor quality holes due to a dull drill bit.
Therefore, the minimum paper
thickness that is used to calculate drill bit wear is 1/4”.
|
debounced
debounced
|
|
BCD
BCD
|
|
value
value
|
| +EQU---------------+
+MOV-----------------+ |
|-+EQUAL
+----------------------------------+MOVE
+-|
| |Source A
N7:12|
|Source
1| |
| |
0|
|
| |
| |Source B
0|
|Dest
N7:12| |
| |
|
|
0| |
| +------------------+
+--------------------+ |
9-30
Using Program Flow Control Instructions
10
Using Program Flow Control Instructions
•
what the instruction symbol looks like
•
typical execution time for the instruction
•
how to use the instruction
Programming
This chapter contains general information about the program flow instructions and
explains how they function in your application program. Each of the instructions
includes information on:
In addition, the last section contains an application example for a paper drilling
machine that shows the program flow control instructions in use.
Program Flow Control Instructions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Name
Purpose
Page
JMP and
LBL
Jump to Label and
Label
Jump forward or backward to the specified label
instruction.
10-2
JSR, SBR,
and RET
Jump to
Subroutine,
Subroutine, and
Return from
Subroutine
Jump to a designated subroutine and return.
10-4
MCR
Master Control
Reset
Turn off all non–retentive outputs in a section of
ladder program.
10-7
TND
Temporary End
Mark a temporary end that halts program
execution.
10-8
SUS
Suspend
Identifies specific conditions for program
debugging and system troubleshooting.
10-8
IIM
Immediate Input
with Mask
Program an Immediate Input with Mask.
10-9
IOM
Immediate Output
with Mask
Program an Immediate Output with Mask.
10-9
10-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
About the Program Flow Control Instructions
Use these instructions to control the sequence in which your program is executed.
Jump (JMP) and Label (LBL)
Use these instructions in pairs to skip portions of the ladder program.
If the Rung Containing the
Jump Instruction is:
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
JMP 9.04
LBL 1.45
6.78
0.99
Then the Program:
True
Skips from the rung containing the JMP instruction to the
rung containing the designated LBL instruction and
continues executing. You can jump forward or backward.
False
Does not execute the JMP instruction.
Jumping forward to a label saves program scan time by omitting a program segment
until needed. Jumping backward lets the controller execute program segments
repeatedly.
Note:
Be careful not to jump backwards an excessive number of times. The
watchdog timer could time out and fault the controller. Use a counter,
timer, or the “program scan” register (system status register, word S:3,
bits 0-7) to limit the amount of time you spend looping inside of JMP/
LBL instructions.
Entering Parameters
Enter a decimal label number from 0 to 999. You can place up to 1,000 labels in each
subroutine file.
Using JMP
The JMP instruction causes the controller to skip rungs. You can jump to the same
label from one or more JMP instruction.
10-2
Using Program Flow Control Instructions
Using LBL
This input instruction is the target of JMP instructions having the same label number.
You must program this instruction as the first instruction of a rung. This instruction
has no control bits.
Note:
Do not jump (JMP) into a MCR zone. Instructions that are programmed
within the MCR zone starting at the LBL instruction and ending at the
‘END MCR’ instruction will always be evaluated as though the MCR
zone is true, regardless of the true state of the “Start MCR” instruction.
10-3
Programming
You can program multiple jumps to the same label by assigning the same label
number to multiple JMP instructions. However, label numbers must be unique.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Jump to Subroutine (JSR), Subroutine (SBR), and Return (RET)
The JSR, SBR, and RET instructions are used to direct the controller to execute a
separate subroutine file within the ladder program and return to the instruction
following the JSR instruction.
Note:
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
JSR 22.24
SBR 1.45
RET 31.11
4.25
0.99
3.16
!
10-4
If you use the SBR instruction, the SBR instruction must be the first
instruction on the first rung in the program file that contains the
subroutine.
Use a subroutine to store recurring sections of program logic that must be executed
from several points within your application program. A subroutine saves memory
because you program it only once.
Update critical I/O within subroutines using immediate input and/or output
instructions (IIM, IOM), especially if your application calls for nested or relatively
long subroutines. Otherwise, the controller does not update I/O until it reaches the
end of the main program (after executing all subroutines).
ATTENTION: Outputs controlled within a subroutine remain in their last state until
the subroutine is executed again.
Using Program Flow Control Instructions
Nesting Subroutine Files
Nesting subroutines allows you to direct program flow from the main program to a
subroutine and then on to another subroutine.
You can nest up to eight levels of subroutines. If you are using an STI subroutine,
HSC interrupt subroutine, or user fault routine, you can nest subroutines up to three
levels from each subroutine.
Main
Program
Level 1
Subroutine File 6
Level 2
Subroutine File 7
Programming
The following figure illustrates how subroutines may be nested.
Level 3
Subroutine File 8
Example of Nesting Subroutines to Level 3
An error occurs if more than the allowable levels of subroutines are called (subroutine
stack overflow) or if more returns are executed than there are call levels (subroutine
stack underflow).
Using JSR
When the JSR instruction is executed, the controller jumps to the subroutine
instruction (SBR) at the beginning of the target subroutine file and resumes execution
at that point. You cannot jump into any part of a subroutine except the first instruction
in that file.
You must program each subroutine in its own program file by assigning a unique file
number (4-15).
10-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using SBR
The target subroutine is identified by the file number that you entered in the JSR
instruction. This instruction serves as a label or identifier for a program file as a
regular subroutine file.
This instruction has no control bits. It is always evaluated as true. The instruction
must be programmed as the first instruction of the first rung of a subroutine. Use of
this instruction is optional; however, we recommend using it for clarity.
Using RET
This output instruction marks the end of subroutine execution or the end of the
subroutine file. It causes the controller to resume execution at the instruction
following the JSR instruction.
The rung containing the RET instruction may be conditional if this rung precedes the
end of the subroutine. In this way, the controller omits the balance of a subroutine
only if its rung condition is true.
Without an RET instruction, the END instruction (always present in the subroutine)
automatically returns program execution to the instruction following the JSR
instruction in your calling ladder file.
10-6
Using Program Flow Control Instructions
Master Control Reset (MCR)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
3.98
4.07
Use MCR instructions in pairs to create program zones that turn off all the non–
retentive outputs in the zone. Rungs within the MCR zone are still scanned, but scan
time is reduced due to the false state of non–retentive outputs. Non–retentive outputs
are reset when their rung goes false.
If the MCR Rung that Starts
the Zone is:
Then the Controller:
True
Executes the rungs in the MCR zone based on each
rung’s individual input condition (as if the zone did not
exist).
False
Resets all non–retentive output instructions in the MCR
zone regardless of each rung’s individual input conditions.
MCR zones let you enable or inhibit segments of your program, such as for recipe
applications.
When you program MCR instructions, note that:
•
You must end the zone with an unconditional MCR instruction.
•
You cannot nest one MCR zone within another.
•
Do not jump into an MCR zone. If the zone is false, jumping into it activates the
zone.
Note:
!
The MCR instruction is not a substitute for a hard-wired master control
relay that provides emergency stop capability. You still must install a
hard-wired master control relay to provide emergency I/O power
shutdown.
ATTENTION: If you start instructions such as timers or counters in an MCR zone,
instruction operation ceases when the zone is disabled. Re-program critical operations
outside the zone if necessary.
10-7
Programming
(MCR)
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Temporary End (TND)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
7.78
3.16
This instruction, when its rung is true, stops the controller from scanning the rest of
the program file, updates the I/O, and resumes scanning at rung 0 of the main program
(file 2). If this instruction’s rung is false, the controller continues the scan until the
next TND instruction or the END statement. Use this instruction to progressively
debug a program, or conditionally omit the balance of your current program file or
subroutines.
Note:
If you use this instruction inside a nested subroutine, execution of all
nested subroutines is terminated.
Do not execute this instruction form the user error fault routine (file 3),
high-speed counter interrupt routine (file 4), or selectable timed
interrupt routine (file 5) because a fault will occur.
Suspend (SUS)
SUS
SUSPEND
Suspend ID
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
10.85
7.87
When this instruction is executed, it causes the controller to enter the Suspend Idle
mode and stores the Suspend ID in word 7 (S:7) at the status file. All outputs are de–
energized.
Use this instruction to trap and identify specific conditions for program debugging
and system troubleshooting.
Entering Parameters
Enter a suspend ID number from -32,768 to +32,767 when you program the
instruction.
10-8
Using Program Flow Control Instructions
Immediate Input with Mask (IIM)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
35.72
6.78
This instruction allows you to update data prior to the normal input scan. Data from a
specified input is transferred through a mask to the input data file, making the data
available to instructions following the IIM instruction in the ladder program.
For the mask, a 1 in an input’s bit position passes data from the source to the
destination. A 0 inhibits data from passing from the source to the destination.
Entering Parameters
For all micro controllers specify I1:0.0. For 16 I/O controllers, I1:0/0-9 are valid and
I1:0/10-15 are considered unused inputs. (They do not physically exist.) For 32 I/O
controllers, I1:0/0-15 and I1:1/0-3 are valid. Specify I1:1 if you want to immediately
update the last four input bits.
Mask - Specify a Hex constant or register address.
Immediate Output with Mask (IOM)
This instruction allows you to update the outputs prior to the normal output scan.
Data from the output image is transferred through a mask to the specified outputs.
The program scan then resumes.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
41.59
6.78
Entering Parameters
For all micro controllers specify O0:0.0. For 16 I/O controllers, O0:0/0-5 are valid
and O0:0/6-15 are considered unused outputs. (They do not physically exist.) For 32
I/O controllers, O0:0/0-11 are valid and O0:0/12-15 are considered unused outputs.
Mask - Specify a Hex constant or register address.
10-9
Programming
IIM
IMMEDIATE INPUT w MASK
Slot
Mask
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Program Flow Control Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine
Application Example
This section provides ladder rungs to demonstrate the use of program flow control
instructions. The rungs are part of the paper drilling machine application example
described in appendix E. You will be adding to the main program in file 2. The new
rungs are needed to call the other subroutines containing the logic necessary to run the
machine.
Rung 2:5
This rung calls the drill sequence subroutine.
This subroutine manages the
operation of a drilling sequence and restarts the conveyor upon completion of the
drilling sequence
|
+JSR-----------------+ |
|-------------------------------------------------------+JUMP TO SUBROUTINE +-|
|
|SBR file number
6| |
|
+--------------------+ |
Rung 2:6
This rung calls the subroutine that tracks the amount of wear on the current
drill bit.
|
+JSR-----------------+ |
|-------------------------------------------------------+JUMP TO SUBROUTINE +-|
|
|SBR file number
7| |
|
+--------------------+ |
Rung 2:7
|
|
|--------------------------------------+END+-----------------------------------|
|
|
10-10
Using Application Specific Instructions
11
Using Application Specific Instructions
•
what the instruction symbol looks like
•
typical execution time for the instruction
•
how to use the instruction
Programming
This chapter contains general information about the application specific instructions
and explains how they function in your application program. Each of the instructions
includes information on:
In addition, the last section contains an application example for a paper drilling
machine that shows the application specific instructions in use.
Application Specific Instructions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Name
Purpose
Page
BSL and
BSR
Bit Shift Left and
Bit Shift Right
Loads a bit of data into a bit array, shifts the
pattern of data through the array, and unloads
the last bit of data in the array. The BSL shifts
data to the left and the BSR shifts data to the
right.
11-5
SQO and
SQC
Sequencer Output
and Sequencer
Compare
Control sequential machine operations by
transferring 16–bit data through a mask to
image addresses.
11-7
SQL
Sequencer Load
Capture referenced conditions by manually
stepping the machine through its operating
sequences.
11-14
STD and
STE
Selectable Timer
Interrupt Disable
and Enable
Output instructions, associated with the
Selectable Timed Interrupt function. STD and
STE are used to prevent an STI from occurring
during a portion of the program.
11-20
STS
Selectable Timer
Interrupt Start
Initiates a Selectable Timed Interrupt.
11-22
11-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Instruction
Mnemonic
INT
Purpose
Page
Associated with Selectable Timed Interrupts or
HSC Interrupts.
11-22
Name
Interrupt
Subroutine
About the Application Specific Instructions
These instructions simplify your ladder program by allowing you to use a single
instruction or pair of instructions to perform common complex operations.
In this chapter you will find a general overview preceding groups of instructions.
Before you learn about the instructions in each of these groups, we suggest that you
read the overview. This chapter contains the following overviews:
11-2
•
Bit Shift Instructions Overview
•
Sequencer Instructions Overview
•
Selectable Timed Interrupt (STI) Function Overview
Using Application Specific Instructions
Bit Shift Instructions Overview
The following general information applies to bit shift instructions.
Entering Parameters
•
File is the address of the bit array you want to manipulate. You must use the file
indicator (#) in the bit array address.
•
Control is the address of the control element that stores the status byte of the
instruction, the size of the array (in number of bits). Note that the control address
should not be used for any other instruction.
The control element is shown below.
15
13
11
10
Word 0
EN
DN
ER
UL
Word 1
Size of bit array (number of bits
Word 2
Reserved
00
Not Used
Status bits of the control element may be addressed by mnemonic. They include:

Unload Bit UL (bit 10) is the instruction’s output.

Error Bit ER (bit 11), when set, indicates the instruction detected an error
such as entering a negative number for the length or position. Avoid using the
unload bit when this bit is set.

Done Bit DN (bit 13), when set, indicates the bit array shifted one position.

Enable Bit EN (bit 15) is set on a false–to–true transition of the rung and
indicates the instruction is enabled.
11-3
Programming
Enter the following parameters when programming these instructions:
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
When the register shifts and input conditions go false, the enable, done, and error bits
are reset.
•
Bit Address is the address of the source bit. The status of this bit is inserted in
either the first (lowest) bit position (BSL) or last (highest) bit position (BSR).
•
Length (size of bit array) is the number of bits in the bit array, up to 1680 bits. A
length value of 0 causes the input bit to be transferred to the UL bit.
A length value that points past the end of the programmed file causes a major error to
occur. If you alter a length value with your ladder program, make certain that the
altered value is valid.
The instruction invalidates all bits beyond the last bit in the array (as defined by the
length) up to the next word boundary.
Effects on Index Register S:24
The shift operation clears the index register S:24 to zero.
11-4
Using Application Specific Instructions
Bit Shift Left (BSL)
True
False
53.71+
5.24/word
19.80
For wraparound operation, set the bit address to the last bit of the array or to the UL
bit.
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
When the rung goes from false–to–true, the controller sets the enable bit (EN bit 15)
and the data block is shifted to the left (to a higher bit number) one bit position. The
specified bit at the bit address is shifted into the first bit position. The last bit is
shifted out of the array and stored in the unload bit (UL bit 10). The shift is
completed immediately.
Operation
The following figure shows the operation of the BSL instruction shown above.
Source Bit
I:22/12
Data block is shifted one bit at a time from
bit 16 to bit 73.
31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23
47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39
63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55
RESERVED
73 72 71
22
38
54
70
21
37
53
69
20
36
52
68
19
35
51
67
18
34
50
66
17
33
49
65
16
32
48
64
58 Bit Array #B3:1
Unload Bit
(R6:14/10)
If you wish to shift more than one bit per scan, you must create a loop in your
application using the JMP, LBL, and CTU instructions.
11-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Bit Shift Right (BSR)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
53.34+
3.98/word
19.80
When the rung goes from false–to–true, the controller sets the enable bit (EN bit 15)
and the data block is shifted to the right (to a lower bit number) one bit position. The
specified bit at the bit address is shifted into the last bit position. The first bit is
shifted out of the array and stored in the unload bit (UL bit 10). The shift is
completed immediately.
For wraparound operation, set the bit address to the first bit of the array or to the UL
bit.
Operation
The following figure shows the operation of the BSR instruction shown above.
Unload Bit
(R6:15/10)
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35
34
33
32
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
69
68
67
66
65
64
INVALID
38 Bit Array
#B3:2
Data block is shifted one bit at a time from
bit 69 to bit 32.
Source Bit
I:23/06
If you wish to shift more than one bit per scan, you must create a loop in your
application using the JMP, LBL, and CTU instructions.
11-6
Using Application Specific Instructions
Sequencer Instructions Overview
The following general information applies to sequencer instructions.
Effects on Index Register S:24
Sequencer Output (SQO) and Sequencer Compare (SQC)
These instructions transfer 16–bit data to word addresses for the control of sequential
machine operations.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
SQO 60.52
SQC 60.52
27.40
27.40
11-7
Programming
The value present in the index register S:24 is overwritten when the sequencer
instruction is true. The index register value will equal the position value of the
instruction.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameters when programming these instructions:
•
File is the address of the sequencer file. You must use the file indicator (#) for this
address.
Sequencer file data is used as follows:
Instruction
Sequencer File Stores
SQO
Data for controlling outputs
SQC
Reference data for monitoring inputs
•
Mask (SQO, SQC) is a hexadecimal code or the address of the mask word or file
through which the instruction moves data. Set mask bits to pass data and clear
mask bits to prevent the instruction from operating on corresponding destination
bits. Use a mask word or file if you want to change the mask according to
application requirements.
If the mask is a file, its length will be equal to the length of the sequencer file. The
two files track automatically.
•
Source is the address of the input word or file for a SQC from which the
instruction obtains data for comparison to its sequencer file.
•
Destination is the address of the output word or file for a SQO to which the
instruction moves data from its sequencer file.
Note:
•
11-8
You can address the mask, source, or destination of a sequencer
instruction as a word or file. If you address it as a file (using file
indicator (#) the instruction automatically steps through the source,
mask, or destination file.
Control (SQO, SQC) is the control structure that stores the status byte of the
instruction, the length of the sequencer file, and the current position in the file.
You should not use the control address for any other instruction.
15
13
11
08
Word 0
EN
DN
ER
FD
Word 1
Length of sequencer file
Word 2
Position
00
Using Application Specific Instructions

Found Bit FD (bit 08) - SQC only. When the status of all non–masked bits in
the source address match those of the corresponding reference word, the FD bit
is set. This bit is assessed each time the SQC instruction is evaluated while the
rung is true.

Error Bit ER (bit 11) is set when the controller detects a negative position
value, or a negative or zero length value. When the ER bit is set, the minor
error bit (S5:2) is also set. Both bits must be cleared.

Done Bit DN (bit 13) is set by the SQO or SQC instruction after it has
operated on the last word in the sequencer file. It is reset on the next false–to–
true rung transition after the rung goes false.

Enable EN (bit 15) is set by a false–to–true rung transition and indicates the
SQO or SQC instruction is enabled.
•
Length is the number of steps of the sequencer file starting at position 1. The
maximum number you can enter is 104 words. Position 0 is the startup position.
The instruction resets (wraps) to position 1 at each cycle completion.
•
Position is the word location or step in the sequencer file from/to which the
instruction moves data.
You may use the RES instruction to reset a sequencer. All control bits (except FD)
will be reset to zero. The Position will also be set to zero. Program the address of
your control register in the RES (e.g., R6:0).
11-9
Programming
Status bits of the control structure include:
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using SQO
This output instruction steps through the sequencer file whose bits have been set to
control various output devices.
When the rung goes from false–to–true, the instruction increments to the next step
(word) in the sequencer file. Data stored there is transferred through a mask to the
destination address specified in the instruction. Data is written to the destination
word every time the instruction is executed.
The done bit is set when the last word of the sequencer file is transferred. On the next
false–to–true rung transition, the instruction resets the position to step one.
If the position is equal to zero at startup, when you switch the controller from the
program mode to the run mode instruction operation depends on whether the rung is
true or false on the first scan.
•
If true, the instruction transfers the value in step zero.
•
If false, the instruction waits for the first rung transition from false–to–true and
transfers the value in step one.
The bits mask data when reset and pass data when set. The instruction will not
change the value in the destination word unless you set mask bits.
The mask can be fixed or variable. It will be fixed if you enter a hexadecimal code. It
will be variable if you enter an element address or a file address for changing the
mask with each step.
The following figure indicates how the SQO instruction works.
11-10
Destination O:14.0
15
0000
8 7
0101
0
0000
1010
Mask Value 0F0F
15
8 7
0
0000 1111 0000 1111
Sequencer Output File #B10:1
Word
B10:1
2
3
4
5
0000
1010
1111
0101
0000
0000
0010
0101
0101
1111
0000
1111
0100
0101
0000
0000
0101
1010
0101
1111
Step
0
1
2
3
4
External Outputs
Associated with O:14
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
Current Step
11
12
13
14
15
Programming
Using Application Specific Instructions
ON
ON
ON
ON
11-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using SQC
When the status of all non–masked bits in the source word match those of the
corresponding reference word, the instruction sets the found bit (FD) in the control
word. Otherwise, the found bit (FD) is cleared.
The bits mask data when reset and pass data when set.
The mask can be fixed or variable. If you enter a hexadecimal code, it is fixed. If you
enter an element address or a file address for changing the mask with each step, it is
variable.
When the rung goes from false–to–true, the instruction increments to the next step
(word) in the sequencer file. Data stored there is transferred through a mask and
compared against the source for equality. While the rung remains true, the source is
compared against the reference data for every scan. If equal, the FD bit is set in the
SQCs control counter.
Applications of the SQC instruction include machine diagnostics. The following
figure explains how the SQC instruction works.
11-12
Using Application Specific Instructions
Programming
Input Word I:3.0
0010 0100 1001 1101
Mask Value FFF0
1111 1111 1111 0000
Sequencer Ref File #B10:11
Word
B10:11
12
13 0010 0100 1001 0000
14
15
Step
0
1
2
3
4
SQC FD bit is set when the instruction detects that an input word matches
(through mask) its corresponding reference word.
The FD bit R6:21/FD is set in the example, since the input word matches the
sequencer reference value using the mask value.
11-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Sequencer Load (SQL)
The SQL instruction stores 16–bit data into a sequencer load file at each step of
sequencer operation. The source of this data can be an I/O or internal word address, a
file address, or a constant.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
53.41
28.12
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameters when programming this instruction:
•
File is the address of the sequencer file. You must use the file indicator (#) for this
address.
•
Source can be a word address, file address, or a constant (-32768 to 32767).
If the source is a file address, the file length equals the length of the sequencer
load file. The two files step automatically, according to the position value.
•
Length is the number of steps of the sequencer load file (and also of the source if
the source is a file address), starting at position 1. The maximum number you can
enter is 104 words. Position 0 is the startup position. The instruction resets
(wraps) to position 1 at each cycle completion.
•
Position is the word location or step in the sequencer file to which data is moved.
•
Control is a control file address. The status bits, length value, and position value
are stored in this element. Do not use the control file address for any other
instruction.
The control element is shown below:
15
11-14
14
Word 0
EN
Word 1
Length
Word 2
Position
13
DN
12
11
ER
10
09
08
07
06
05
04
03
02
01
00
Using Application Specific Instructions
Status bits of the control structure include:
Error Bit ER (bit 11) is set when the controller detects a negative position
value, or a negative or zero length value. When the ER bit is set, the minor
error bit (S5:2) is also set. Both bits must be cleared.

Done Bit DN (bit 13) is set after the instruction has operated on the last word
in the sequencer load file. It is reset on the next false–to–true rung transition
after the rung goes false.

Enable Bit EN (bit 15) is set on a false–to–true transition of the SQL rung and
reset on a true–to–false transition.
Programming

11-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Operation
Instruction parameters have been programmed in the SQL instruction shown below.
Input word I:0.0 is the source. Data in this word is loaded into integer file #N7:30 by
the sequencer load instruction.
Source I:1.0
15
0000
8 7
0101 0000
0
1010
Sequencer Output File #B10:1
Word
N:7:30
31
32
33
34
0000
1010
1111
0101
0000
0000
0010
0101
0101
1111
0000
1111
0100
0101
0000
0000
0101
1010
0101
1111
Step
0
1
2
3
4
External Inputs Associated with
I:1.0
00
01
02
03
04
05
06
Current Step
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
ON
ON
ON
ON
When rung conditions change from false–to–true, the SQL enable bit (EN) is set. The
control element R6:4 increments to the next position in the sequencer file, and loads
the contents of source I:0.0 into the corresponding location in the file. The SQL
instruction continues to load the current data into this location each scan that the rung
remains true. When the rung goes false, the enable bit (EN) is reset.
11-16
Using Application Specific Instructions
The instruction loads data into a new file element at each false–to–true transition of
the rung. When step 4 is completed, the done bit (DN) is set. Operation cycles to
position 1 at the next false–to–true transition of the rung after position 4.
If the source were a file address such as #N7:40, files #N7:40 and #N7:30 would both
have a length of 5 (0-4) and would track through the steps together per the position
value.
The Selectable Timed Interrupt (STI) function allows you to interrupt the scan of the
application program automatically, on a periodic basis, to scan a subroutine file.
Afterwards the controller resumes executing the application program from the point
where it was interrupted.
Basic Programming Procedure for the STI Function
To use the STI function in your application file:
1. Enter the desired ladder rungs in File 5. (File 5 is designated for the STI
subroutine.)
2. Enter the setpoint (the time between successive interrupts) in word S:30 of the
status file. The range is 10-2550 ms (entered in10 ms increments). A setpoint of
zero disables the STI function.
Note:
The setpoint value must be a longer time than the execution time of the
STI subroutine file, or a minor error bit is set.
Operation
After you restore your program and enter the REM Run or REM Test mode, the STI
begins operation as follows:
1. The STI timer begins timing.
2. When the STI interval expires, the program scan is interrupted and the STI
subroutine file is scanned; the STI timer is reset.
3. If while executing the STI (file 5), another STI interrupt occurs the STI pending
bit (S:2/0) is set.
11-17
Programming
Selectable Timed Interrupt (STI) Function Overview
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
4. If while an STI is pending, the STI timer expires, the STI lost bit (S:5/10) is set.
5. When the STI subroutine scan is completed, scanning of the program resumes at
the point where it left off, unless an STI is pending. In this case the subroutine is
immediately scanned again.
6. The cycle repeats.
For identification of your STI subroutine, include an INT instruction as the first
instruction on the first rung of the file.
STI Subroutine Content
The STI subroutine contains the rungs of your application logic. You can program
any instruction inside the STI subroutine except a TND instruction. IIM or IOM
instructions are needed in an STI subroutine if your application requires immediate
update of input or output points. End the STI subroutine with an RET instruction.
JSR stack depth is limited to 3. You may call other subroutines to a level 3 deep from
an STI subroutine.
Interrupt Latency and Interrupt Occurrences
Interrupt latency is the interval between the STI timeout and the start of the interrupt
subroutine. STI interrupts can occur at any point in your program, but not necessarily
at the same point on successive interrupts. The table below shows the interaction
between an interrupt and the controller operating cycle.
STI
Input Scan
Program Scan
Between instruction updates
Output Scan
Communication
Controller Overhead
Between communication packets
At start and end
Events in the Processor Operating Cycle
11-18
Using Application Specific Instructions
Note that STI execution time adds directly to the overall scan time. During the
latency period, the controller is performing operations that cannot be disturbed by the
STI interrupt function.
Interrupt Priorities
Interrupt priorities are as follows:
1. User Fault Routine
3. Selectable Timed Interrupt
An executing interrupt can only be interrupted by an interrupt having a higher
priority.
Status File Data Saved
Data in the following words is saved on entry to the STI subroutine and re–written
upon exiting the STI subroutine.
•
S:0 Arithmetic flags
•
S:13 and S:14 Math register
•
S:24 Index register
11-19
Programming
2. High–Speed Counter
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Selectable Timed Disable (STD) and Enable (STE)
These instructions are generally used in pairs. The purpose is to create zones in
which STI interrupts cannot occur.
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
STD 6.69
STE 10.13
3.16
3.16
Using STD
When true, this instruction resets the STI enable bit and prevents the STI subroutine
from executing. When the rung goes false, the STI enable bit remains reset until a
true STS or STE instruction is executed. The STI timer continues to operate while the
enable bit is reset.
Using STE
This instruction sets the STI enable bit and allows execution of the STI subroutine.
When the rung goes false, the STI enable bit remains set until a true STD instruction
is executed. This instruction has no effect on the operation of the STI timer or
setpoint. When the enable bit is set, the first execution of the STI subroutine can
occur at any point up to the full STI interval.
STD/STE Zone Example
In the program that follows, the STI function is in effect. The STD and STE
instructions in rungs 6 and 12 are included in the ladder program to avoid having STI
subroutine execution at any point in rungs 7 through 11.
The STD instruction (rung 6) resets the STI enable bit and the STE instruction (rung
12) sets the enable bit again. The STI timer increments and may time out in the STD
zone, setting the pending bit S:2/0 and lost bit S:5/10.
The first pass bit S:1/15 and the STE instruction in rung 0 are included to insure that
the STI function is initialized following a power cycle. You should include this rung
any time your program contains an STD/STE zone or an STD instruction.
11-20
Using Application Specific Instructions
Programming
Program File 3
STI interrupt
execution does not
occur between
STD and STE.
11-21
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Selectable Timed Start (STS)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
24.59
6.78
Use the STS instruction to condition the start of the STI timer upon entering the REM
Run mode - rather than starting automatically. You can also use it to set up or change
setpoint/frequency of the STI routine that will be executed when the STI timer
expires.
This instruction is not required to configure a basic STI interrupt application.
The STS instruction requires you to enter the parameter for the STI setpoint. Upon a
true execution of the rung, this instruction enters the setpoint in the status file (S:30),
overwriting the existing data. At the same time, the STI timer is reset and begins
timing; at timeout, the STI subroutine execution occurs. When the rung goes false, the
STI function remains enabled at the setpoint you’ve entered in the STS instruction.
Interrupt Subroutine (INT)
This instruction serves as a label or identifier of a program file as an interrupt
subroutine (INT label) versus a regular subroutine (SBR label).
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
1.45
0.99
11-22
This instruction has no control bits and is always evaluated as true. The instruction
must be programmed as the first instruction of the first rung of the subroutine. Use of
this instruction is optional; however, we recommend using it.
Using Application Specific Instructions
Application Specific Instructions in the Paper Drilling Machine
Application Example
This portion of the subroutine tells the conveyor where to stop to allow a hole to be
drilled. The stop positions will be different for each hole pattern (3 hole, 5 hole, 7
hole), so separate sequencers are used to store and access each of the three hole
patterns.
Note:
Address I:0/10 is only valid for 32 I/O controllers. If you use a 16 I/O
controller, only the 5 hole drill pattern can be used.
OPERATOR PANEL
Start I:1/6
Stop I:1/7
Thumbwheel for Thickness
in 1/4 in.
Change Drill Soon
Change Drill Now
O:3/4
O:3/6
5 Hole
Drill Change Reset
3 Hole
I:1/11-I:1/14
(Keyswitch)
I:1/8
Hole Selector
Switch
7 Hole
I:1/9-I:1/10
Drill
Drilled
Holes
11-23
Programming
This section provides ladder rungs to demonstrate the use of application specific
instructions. The rungs are part of the paper drilling machine application example
described in appendix E. You will begin a subroutine in file 4.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 4:0
Resets the hole count sequencers each time that the low preset is reached. The
low preset has been set to zero to cause an interrupt to occur each time that a
reset occurs. The low preset is reached anytime that a reset C5:0 or hardware
reset occurs. This ensures that the first preset value is loaded into the HSC at
each entry into the REM Run mode and each time that the external reset signal is
activated.
|
interrupt
3 hole
|
|
occurred
preset
|
|
due to
sequencer
|
|
low preset
|
|
reached
|
| +INT--------------------+
C5:0
R6:4
|
|-+INTERRUPT SUBROUTINE
+----] [-----------------------------+---(RES)-----+-|
| +-----------------------+
IL
|
| |
|
| 5 hole
| |
|
| preset
| |
|
| sequencer
| |
|
|
R6:5
| |
|
+----(RES)----+ |
|
|
| |
|
| 7 hole
| |
|
| preset
| |
|
| sequencer
| |
|
|
R6:6
| |
|
+----(RES)----+ |
|
|
11-24
Using Application Specific Instructions
| hole
|hole
3 hole
|
| selector |selector
preset
|
| switch
|switch
sequencer
|
| bit 0
|bit 1
|
|
I:0
I:0
+SQO---------------+
|
|----]/[-------] [---------+-----------------------+SEQUENCER OUTPUT +-(EN)-+-|
|
9
10
|
|File
#N7:50+-(DN)-+-|
|
|
|Mask
FFFF|
| |
|
|
|Dest
N7:7|
| |
|
|
|Control
R6:4|
| |
|
|
|Length
5|
| |
|
|
|Position
0|
| |
|
|
+------------------+
| |
|
|
| |
|
|
| |
|
|
force the
| |
|
|
sequencer
| |
|
|
to increment
| |
|
|
on next scan
| |
|
|
R6:4
| |
|
+--------------------------(U)--------------------+ |
|
|
EN
| |
➀
This rung accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include this rung if you are using a 16
I/O controller.
11-25
Programming
Rung 4:1➀
This rung keeps track of the hole number that is being drilled and loads the next
correct HSC preset based on the hole count. This rung is only active when the
“hole selector switch” is in the “3-hole” position. The sequencer uses step 0 as
a null step upon reset. It uses the last step as a “go forever” in anticipation
of the “end of manual” hard wired external reset.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 4:2
This rung is identical to the previous rung except that it is only active when
the “hole selector switch” is in the “5-hole” position.
| hole
|hole
5 hole
|
| selector |selector
preset
|
| switch
|switch
sequencer
|
| bit 0
|bit 1➀
|
|
I:0
I:0
+SQO-------------+
|
|----] [--------] [---------+------------------------+SEQUENCER OUTPUT+-(EN)-+-|
|
9
10
|
|File
#N7:55+-(DN) | |
|
|
|Mask
FFFF|
| |
|
|
|Dest
N7:7|
| |
|
|
|Control
R6:5|
| |
|
|
|Length
7|
| |
|
|
|Position
0|
| |
|
|
+----------------+
| |
|
|
| |
|
|
force the
| |
|
|
sequencer
| |
|
|
to increment
| |
|
|
on the next scan
| |
|
|
R6:5
| |
|
+---------------------------(U)------------------+ |
|
|
EN
| |
➀
11-26
This rung accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include this rung if you are using a 16
I/O controller.
Rung 4:3➀➁
This rung is identical to the 2 previous rungs except that it is only active when
the “hole selector switch” is in the “7-hole” position.
| hole
|hole
7 hole
|
| selector |selector
preset
|
| switch
|switch
sequencer
|
| bit 0
|bit 1
|
|
I:0
I:0
+SQO-------------+
|
|----] [--------] [---------+------------------------+SEQUENCER OUTPUT+-(EN)-+-|
|
9
10
|
|File
#N7:62+-(DN) | |
|
|
|Mask
FFFF|
| |
|
|
|Dest
N7:7|
| |
|
|
|Control
R6:6|
| |
|
|
|Length
9|
| |
|
|
|Position
0|
| |
|
|
+----------------+
| |
|
|
force the
| |
|
|
sequencer
| |
|
|
to increment
| |
|
|
on the next scan
| |
|
|
R6:6
| |
|
+---------------------------(U)------------------+ |
|
EN
| |
➀
➁
This rung accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include this rung if you are using a 16
I/O controller.
More rungs will be added to this subroutine at the end of chapter 12.
11-27
Programming
Using Application Specific Instructions
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Notes:
11-28
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
12
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
•
what the instruction symbol looks like
•
typical execution time for the instruction
•
how to use the instruction
Programming
This chapter contains general information about the high–speed counter instructions
and explains how they function in your application program. Each of the instructions
includes information on:
In addition, the last section contains an application example for a paper drilling
machine that shows the high–speed counter instructions in use.
High–Speed Counter Instructions
Instruction
Mnemonic
Name
Purpose
Page
HSC
High–Speed Counter
Applies configuration to the high–speed
counter hardware, updates the image
accumulator, enables counting when the
HSC is true, and disables counting when
the HSC rung is false.
12-6
HSL
High–Speed Counter
Load
Configures the low and high presets, the
output patterns, and mask bit patterns.
12-18
RES
High–Speed Counter
Reset
Writes a zero to the hardware accumulator
and image accumulator.
12-21
RAC
High–Speed Counter
Reset Accumulator
Writes the value specified to the hardware
accumulator and image accumulator.
12-22
HSE
HSD
High–Speed Counter
Interrupt Enable
High–Speed Counter
Interrupt Disable
Enables or disables execution of the high–
speed counter interrupt subroutine when a
high preset, low preset, overflow, or
underflow is reached.
12-23
OTE
Update High–Speed
Counter Image
Accumulator
Provides you with real–time access to the
hardware accumulator value by updating
the image accumulator.
12-24
12-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
About the High–Speed Counter Instructions
The high–speed counter instructions used in your ladder program configure, control,
and monitor the controllers’ hardware counter. The hardware counter’s accumulator
increments or decrements in response to external input signals. When the high–speed
counter is enabled, data table counter C5:0 is used by the ladder program for
monitoring the high–speed counter accumulator and status. The high–speed counter
operates independent of the controller scan.
When using the high–speed counter, make sure you adjust your input filters
accordingly. See page A-9 for more information on input filters.
Before you learn about these instructions, read the overview that follows on the next
page. Refer to page 2-25 for information on wiring your controller for high–speed
counter applications.
High–Speed Counter Instructions Overview
Use the high–speed counter to detect and store narrow (fast) pulses, and its
specialized instructions to initiate other control operations based on counts reaching
preset values. These control operations include the automatic and immediate
execution of the high–speed counter interrupt routine (file 4) and the immediate
update of outputs based on a source and mask pattern you set.
12-2
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Counter Data File Elements
The high–speed counter instructions reference counter C5:0. The HSC instruction is
fixed at C5:0. It is comprised of three words. Word 0 is the status word, containing
15 status bits. Word 1 is the preset value. Word 2 is the accumulated value. Once
assigned to the HSC instruction, C5:0 is not available as an address for any other
counter instructions.
08 07 06
LP IV IN
Preset Value
Accumulator Value
05
IH
04
IL
03
PE
02
LS
01
IE
00
Word
0
1
2
Programming
15 14 13 12 11 10 09
CU CD DN OV UN UA HP
CU = Counter Up Enable Bit
CD = Counter Down Enable Bit
DN = High Preset Reached Bit
OV = Overflow Occurred Bit
UN = Underflow Occurred Bit
UA = Update High-Speed Counter Accumulator Bit
HP = Accumulator ≥ High Preset Bit
LP = Accumulator ≤ Low Preset Bit
IV = Overflow Caused High-Speed Counter Interrupt Bit
IN = Underflow Caused High-Speed Counter Interrupt Bit
IH = High Preset Reached Caused Interrupt Bit
IL = Low Preset Reached Caused Interrupt Bit
PE = High-Speed Counter Interrupt Pending Bit
LS = High-Speed Counter Interrupt Lost Bit
IE = High-Speed Counter Interrupt Enable Bit
Counter preset and accumulated values are stored as signed integers.
Using Status Bits
The high–speed counter status bits are retentive. When the high–speed counter is first
configured, bits 3-7, 14, and 15 are reset and bit 1 (IE) is set.
•
Counter Up Enable Bit CU (bit 15) is used with all of the high–speed counter
types. If the HSC instruction is true, the CU bit is set to one. If the HSC
instruction is false, the CU bit is set to zero. Do not write to this bit.
12-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
•
Counter Down Enable Bit CD (bit 14) is used with the Bidirectional Counters
(modes 3-8). If the HSC instruction is true, the CD bit is set to one. If the HSC
instruction is false, the CD bit is set to zero. Do not write to this bit.
•
High Preset Reached Bit DN (bit 13) For the Up Counters (modes 1 and 2), this
bit is an edge triggered latch bit. This bit is set when the high preset is reached.
You can reset this bit with an OTU instruction or by executing an RAC or RES
instruction.
Note:
•
The DN bit is a reserved bit for all other Counter options (modes 3-8).
Overflow Occurred Bit OV (bit 12) For the Up Counters (modes 1 and 2), this
bit is set by the controller when the high preset is reached if the DN bit is set
Tip:
•
Underflow Occurred Bit UN (bit 11) is a reserved bit for the Up Counters
(modes 1 and 2). Do not write to this bit
Tip:
For the Bidirectional Counters (modes 3-8), the UN bit is set by
the controller when the hardware accumulator transitions from
-32768 to +32767. You can reset this bit with an OTU instruction
or by executing an RAC or RES instruction.
•
Update High–Speed Counter Accumulator Bit UA (bit 10) is used with an
OTE instruction to update the instruction image accumulator value with the
hardware accumulator value. (The HSC instruction also performs this operation
each time the rung with the HSC instruction is evaluated as true.)
•
Accumulator ≥ High Preset Bit HP (bit 9) is a reserved bit for all Up
Counters(modes 1 and 2).
Note:
•
12-4
For the Bidirectional Counters (modes 3-8), the OV bit is set by
the controller after the hardware accumulator transitions from
32,767 to -32,768. You can reset the bit with an OTU instruction
or by executing an RAC or RES instruction for both the up and
bidirectional counters.
For the Bidirectional Counters (modes 3-8), if the hardware
accumulator becomes greater than or equal to the high preset, the
HP bit is set. If the hardware accumulator becomes less than the
high preset, the HP bit is reset by the controller. Do not write to
this bit. (Exception - you can set or reset this bit during the initial
configuration of the HSC instruction. See page 12-6 for more
information.)
Accumulator ≤ Low Preset Bit LP (bit 8) is a reserved bit for all Up Counters.
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Overflow Caused High–Speed Counter Interrupt Bit IV (bit 7) is set to
identify an overflow as the cause for the execution of the high–speed counter
interrupt routine. The IN, IH, and IL bits are reset by the controller when the IV
bit is set. Examine this bit at the start of the high–speed counter interrupt routine
(file 4) to determine why the interrupt occurred.
Note:
For the Bidirectional Counters, if the hardware accumulator
becomes less than or equal to the low preset, the LP bit is set by
the controller. If the hardware accumulator becomes greater than
the low preset, the LP bit is reset by the controller. Do not write
to this bit. (Exception - you can set or reset this bit during the
initial configuration of the HSC instruction. See page 12-6 for
more information.)
•
Underflow Caused User Interrupt Bit IN (bit 6) is set to identify an underflow
as the cause for the execution of the high–speed counter interrupt routine. The IV,
IH, and IL bits are reset by the controller when the IN bit is set. Examine this bit
at the start of the high–speed counter interrupt routine (file 4) to determine why
the interrupt occurred.
•
High Preset Reached Caused User Interrupt Bit IH (bit 5) is set to identify a
high preset reached as the cause for the execution of the high–speed counter
interrupt routine. The IV, IN, and IL bits are reset by the controller when the IH
bit is set. Examine this bit at the start of the high–speed counter interrupt routine
(file 4) to determine why the interrupt occurred.
•
Low Preset Reached Caused High–Speed Counter Interrupt Bit IL (bit 4) is
set to identify a low preset reached as the cause for the execution of the high–
speed counter interrupt routine. The IV, IN, and IH bits are reset by the controller
when the IL bit is set. Examine this bit at the start of the high–speed counter
interrupt routine (file 4) to determine why the interrupt occurred.
•
High–Speed Counter Interrupt Pending Bit PE (bit 3) is set to indicate that a
high–speed counter interrupt is waiting for execution. This bit is cleared by the
controller when the high–speed counter interrupt routine begins executing. This
bit is reset if an RAC or RES instruction is executed. Do not write to this bit.
•
High–Speed Counter Interrupt Lost Bit LS (bit 2) is set if a high–speed
counter interrupt occurs while the PE bit is set. You can reset this bit with an OTU
instruction or by executing an RAC or RES instruction.
•
High–Speed Counter Interrupt Enable Bit IE (bit 1) is set when the high–
speed counter interrupt is enabled to run when a high–speed counter interrupt
condition occurs. It is reset when the interrupt is disabled. This bit is also set
when the high–speed counter is first configured. Do not write to this bit.
12-5
Programming
•
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
High–Speed Counter (HSC)
HSC
HIGH SPEED COUNTER
Type
Counter
C5:0
High Preset
0
Accum
0
(CU)
(CD)
(DN)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
21.00
21.00
Use this instruction to configure the high–speed counter. Only one HSC instruction
can be used in a program. The high–speed counter is not operational until the first
true execution of the HSC instruction. When the HSC rung is false, the high–speed
counter is disabled from counting, but all other HSC features are operational.
The Counter address of the HSC instruction is fixed at C5:0.
After the HSC is configured, the image accumulator (C5:0.ACC) is updated with the
current hardware accumulator value every time the HSC instruction is evaluated as
true or false.
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameters when programming this instruction:
•
Type indicates the counter selected. Refer to page 12-7 for making your high–
speed counter selection. Each type is available with reset and hold functionality.
•
High Preset is the accumulated value that triggers a user–specified action such as
updating outputs or generating a high–speed counter interrupt.
•
Accumulator is the number of accumulated counts.
The following terminology is used in the following table to indicate the status of
counting:
12-6
•
Up↑ - increments by 1 when the input energizes (edge).
•
Down↑ - decrements by 1 when the input energizes (edge).
•
Reset↑ - resets the accumulator to zero when the input energizes (edge).
•
Hold - disables the high–speed counter from counting while the input is energized
(level).
•
Count - increments or decrements by 1 when the input energizes (edge).
•
Direction - allows up counts when the input is de–energized and down counts
while the input is energized (level).
•
A - input pulse in an incremental (quadrature) encoder (edge/level).
•
B - input pulse in an incremental (quadrature) encoder (edge/level).
•
Z - reset pulse in an incremental (quadrature) encoder (edge/level).
•
↑ - the signal is active on the rising edge only (off to on).
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
The table below lists the function key you press to choose the type of high–speed
counter you want.
Input Terminal Used
High-Speed Counter Functionality
I/0
I/1
I/2
I/3
[F1] Up
Up Counter operation uses a singleended input.
Up↑
Not Used Not Used Not Used
[F2] Up
(with reset and hold)
Up Counter operation uses a single
input with external reset and hold
inputs.
Up↑
Not Used Reset↑
[F3] Pulse and direction
Bidirectional operation uses both pulse
and direction inputs.
Count↑
Direction
Not Used Not Used
[F4] Pulse and direction
(with external reset and hold)
Bidirectional operation uses both pulse
and direction inputs with external reset
and hold inputs.
Count↑
Direction
Reset↑
[F5] Up and down
Bidirectional operation uses both pulse
and direction inputs.
Up↑
Down↑
Not Used Not Used
[F6] Up and down
(with external reset and hold)
Bidirectional operation uses both pulse
and direction inputs with external reset
and hold inputs.
Up↑
Down↑
Reset↑
[F7] Encoder
Bidirectional operation uses quadrature
encoder inputs.
A
B
Not Used Not Used
[F8] Encoder
(with external reset and hold)
Bidirectional operation uses both
A
quadrature encoder inputs with external
reset and hold inputs.
B
Z
Hold
Hold
Hold
Hold
One difference between Up Counters and Bidirectional Counters is that for
Bidirectional Counters the accumulator and preset values are not changed by the
high–speed counter when the presets are reached. The RAC and HSL instructions
must be used for this function. The Up Counters clear the accumulator and re–load
the high preset values whenever the preset is reached.
12-7
Programming
High-Speed Counter Type
and Function Key
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using the Up Counter and the Up Counter with Reset and Hold
Up counters are used when the parameter being measured is uni–directional, such as
material being fed into a machine or as a tachometer recording the number of pulses
over a given time period.
Both types of Up Counters operate identically, except that the Up Counter with reset
and hold uses external inputs 2 and 3.
For the Up Counter, each Off–to–On state change of input I:0/0 adds 1 to the
accumulator until the high preset is reached. The accumulator is then automatically
reset to zero. The Up Counter operates in the 0 to +32,767 range inclusive and can be
reset to zero using the Reset (RES) instruction.
When the HSC instruction is first executed true, the:
•
Accumulator C5:0:0.ACC is loaded to the hardware accumulator.
•
High preset C5:0:0.PRE is loaded to the hardware high preset.
Operation
If you move data to the high preset without using the RAC instruction (with a MOV)
after the high–speed counter has been configured, the data is loaded to the instruction
image but is not loaded to the hardware. The modified high preset value is not loaded
to the hardware until the existing hardware high preset is reached, or an RAC or RES
instruction is executed.
The high preset value loaded to the hardware must be between 1 and 32,767 inclusive
or an error INVALID PRESETs LOADED TO HIGH SPEED COUNTER (37H) occurs.
Any value between -32,768 and +32,767 inclusive can be loaded to the hardware
accumulator.
The Following Condition
Occurs when
either the hardware accumulator transitions from the
hardware high preset -1 to the hardware high preset, or
A high preset is reached
the hardware accumulator is loaded with a value greater than
or equal to the hardware high preset, or
the hardware high preset is loaded with a value that is less
than or equal to the hardware accumulator.
12-8
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
•
Hardware and instruction accumulators are reset.
•
Instruction high preset is loaded to the hardware high preset.
•
If the DN bit is not set, the DN bit is set. The IH bit is also set and the IL, IV, and
IN bits are reset.
•
If the DN bit is already set, the OV bit is set. The IV bit is also set and the IL, IV
and IN bits are reset.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled.
The following tables summarize what the input state must be for the corresponding
high–speed counter action to occur:
Up Counter
Input State
High–Speed
Counter
Action
Input
Direction
(I/1)
Input
Input Hold
HSC Rung
Reset (I/2)
(I/3)
Turning Off–to–On
NA
NA
NA
True
Count Up
NA
NA
NA
NA
False
Hold Count
Off, On, or Turning
Off
NA
Off, On, or NA
Turning Off
NA
Hold Count
Input Count (I/O)
NA (Not Applicable)
12-9
Programming
When a high preset is reached, no counts are lost.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Up Counter with Reset and Hold
Input state
Input Count (I/O)
Input
Direction
(I/1)
Input
Reset (I/2)
Input Hold
(I/3)
HSC Rung
High–Speed
Counter
Action
Turning Off–to–On
NA
Off, On, or
Turning Off
Off
True
Count Up
NA
NA
Off, On, or
Turning Off
On
NA
Hold Count
NA
NA
Off, On, or
Turning Off
NA
False
Hold Count
Off, On, or Turning
Off
NA
Off, On, or
Turning Off
NA
NA
Hold Count
NA
NA
Turning On
NA
NA
Reset to 0
NA (Not Applicable)
Using the Bidirectional Counter and the Bidirectional Counter with Reset
and Hold
Bidirectional counters are used when the parameter being measured can either
increment or decrement. For example, a package entering and leaving a storage bin is
counted to regulate flow through the area.
The Bidirectional Counters operate identically except for the operation of inputs 1
and 0. For the Pulse and Direction type, input 0 provides the pulse and input 1
provides the direction. For the Up and Down type, input 0 provides the Up count and
input 1 provides the Down count. Both types are available with and without reset and
hold. Refer to page 12-7 for more information regarding Bidirectional Counter types.
For the Bidirectional Counters, both high and low presets are used. The low preset
value must be less than the high preset value or an error INVALID PRESETs LOADED
TO HIGH SPEED COUNTER (37H) occurs.
Bidirectional Counters operate in the -32,768 to +32,767 range inclusive and can be
reset to zero using the Reset (RES) instruction.
12-10
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Operation
When the HSC instruction is first executed true, the:
•
Instruction accumulator is loaded to the hardware accumulator.
•
Instruction high preset is loaded to the hardware high preset.
Any instruction accumulator value between -32,768 and +32,767 inclusive can be
loaded to the hardware.
The Following Condition
Occurs when
either the hardware accumulator transitions from the
hardware high preset -1 to the hardware high preset, or
A high preset is reached
the hardware accumulator is loaded with a value greater than
or equal to the hardware high preset, or
the hardware high preset is loaded with a value that is less
than or equal to the hardware accumulator.
When a high preset is reached, the:
•
HP bit is set.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled. The IH bit is set and the IL, IV, and IN bits are reset.
Unlike the Up Counters, the accumulator value does not get reset and the high preset
value does not get loaded from the image to the hardware high preset register.
The Following Condition
Occurs when
either the hardware accumulator transitions from the
hardware low preset +1 to the hardware low preset, or
A low preset is reached
the hardware accumulator is loaded with a value less than or
equal to the hardware low preset, or
the hardware low preset is loaded with a value that is greater
than or equal to the hardware accumulator.
12-11
Programming
After the first true HSC instruction execution, data can only be transferred to the
hardware accumulator via an RES or RAC instruction, or to the hardware high and
low presets via the HSL instruction.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
When the low preset is reached, the:
•
LP bit is set.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled. The IL bit is set and the IH, IV, and IN bits are reset.
An overflow occurs when the hardware accumulator transitions from +32,767 to 32,768. When an overflow occurs, the:
•
OV bit is set.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled. The IV bit is set and the IH, IL, and IN bits are reset.
An underflow occurs when the hardware accumulator transitions from -32,768 to
+32,767. When an underflow occurs, the:
•
UN bit is set.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled. The IN bit is set and the IH, IL, and IV bits are reset.
The following tables summarize what the input state must be for the corresponding
high–speed counter action to occur:
Bidirectional Counter (Pulse/direction)
Input State
Input
Direction
(I/1)
High–Speed
Input
Input Hold
Counter
Action
HSC Rung
Reset (I/2)
(I/3)
Turning Off–to–On
Off
NA
NA
True
Count Up
Turning Off–to–On
On
NA
NA
True
Count Down
NA
NA
NA
NA
False
Hold Count
Off, On, or Turning
Off
NA
NA
NA
NA
Hold Count
Input Count (I/0)
NA (Not Applicable)
12-12
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Bidirectional Counter with Reset and Hold (Pulse/direction)
Input State
High–Speed
Input
Input Hold
HSC Rung Counter Action
Reset (I/2)
(I/3)
Turning Off–to–On
Off
Off, On, or Off
Turning Off
True
Count Up
Turning Off–to–On
On
Off, On, or Off
Turning Off
True
Count Down
NA
NA
Off, On, or NA
Turning Off
False
Hold Count
NA
NA
Off, On, or On
Turning Off
NA
Hold Count
Off, On, or Turning
Off
NA
Off, On, or NA
Turning Off
NA
Hold Count
NA
NA
Turning On NA
NA
Reset to 0
Programming
Input
Direction
(I/1)
Input Count (I/0)
NA (Not Applicable)
Bidirectional Counter (Up/down count)
Input State
HSC Rung
High–Speed
Counter Action
True
Count Up
Off, On, or Turning Off Turning Off–to–On
True
Count Down
NA
False
Hold Count
NA
Hold Count
Input Up Count
(I/0)
Turning Off–to–On
Input Down Count
(I/1)
Off, On, or Turning Off
NA
Off, On, or Turning Off Off, On, or Turning Off
NA (Not Applicable)
12-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Bidirectional Counter with Reset and Hold (Up/down count)
Input State
High-Speed
Counter
Action
Input Up Count
(I/0)
Input Down
Count
(I/1)
Input Reset Input Hold
HSC Rung
(I/2)
(I/3)
Turning Off-toOn
Off, On, or
Turning Off
Off, On, or
Turning Off
Off
True
Count Up
Off, On, or
Turning Off
Turning Off–
to–On
Off, On, or
Turning Off
Off
True
Count Down
NA
NA
Off, On, or
Turning Off
NA
False
Hold Count
NA
NA
Off, On, or
Turning Off
On
NA
Hold Count
Off, On, or
Turning Off
Off, On, or
Turning Off
Off, On, or
Turning Off
NA
NA
Hold Count
NA
NA
Turning On
NA
NA
Reset to 0
NA (Not Applicable)
When up and down input pulses occur simultaneously, the high–speed counter counts
up, then down.
Using the Bidirectional Counter with Reset and Hold with a Quadrature
Encoder
The Quadrature Encoder is used for determining direction of rotation and position for
rotating, such as a lathe. The Bidirectional Counter counts the rotation of the
Quadrature Encoder.
Bidirectional Counters operate in the -32,768 to +32,767 range inclusive and can be
reset to zero using the reset (RES) instruction. The following figure shows a
quadrature encoder connected to inputs 0, 1, and 2. The count direction is determined
by the phase angle between A and B. If A leads B, the counter increments. If B leads
A, the counter decrements.
The counter can be reset using the Z input. The Z outputs from the encoders typically
provide one pulse per revolution.
12-14
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Input 0
A
Input 1
B
Quadrature Encoder
Input 2
Z
(Reset input)
Forward Rotation
Reverse Rotation
Programming
A
B
2
1
3
2
1
Count
Operation
For the Bidirectional Counters, both high and low presets are used. The low preset
value must be less than the high preset value or an error INVALID PRESETs LOADED
TO HIGH SPEED COUNTER (37H) occurs.
When the HSC instruction is first executed true, the:
•
Instruction accumulator is loaded to the hardware accumulator.
•
Instruction high preset is loaded to the hardware high preset.
Any instruction accumulator value between -32,768 and +32,767 inclusive can be
loaded to the hardware.
After the first true HSC instruction execution, data can only be transferred to the
hardware accumulator via an RES or RAC instruction, or to the hardware high and
low presets via the HSL instruction.
The Following Condition
Occurs when
either the hardware accumulator transitions from the
hardware high preset -1 to the hardware high preset, or
A high preset is reached
the hardware accumulator is loaded with a value greater than
or equal to the hardware high preset, or
the hardware high preset is loaded with a value that is less
than or equal to the hardware accumulator.
12-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
When a high preset is reached, the:
•
HP bit is set.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled. The IH bit is set and the IL, IN, and IV bits are reset.
Unlike the Up Counters, the accumulator value does not reset and the high preset
value does not get loaded from the image to the hardware high preset register.
The Following Condition
Occurs when
either the hardware accumulator transitions from the
hardware low preset +1 to the hardware low preset, or
A low preset is reached
the hardware accumulator is loaded with a value less than or
equal to the hardware low preset, or
the hardware low preset is loaded with a value that is greater
than or equal to the hardware accumulator.
When a low preset is reached, the:
•
LP bit is set.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled. The IL bit is set and the IH, IN, and IV bits are reset.
An overflow occurs when the hardware accumulator transitions from +32,767 to 32,768. When an overflow occurs, the:
•
OV bit is set.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled. The IV bit is set and the IH, IL, and IN bits are reset.
An underflow occurs when the hardware accumulator transitions from -32,768 to
+32,767. When an underflow occurs, the:
•
UN bit is set.
•
High–speed counter interrupt file (program file 4) is executed if the interrupt is
enabled. The IN bit is set and the IH, IL, and IV bits are reset.
The following tables summarize what the input state must be for the corresponding
high–speed counter action to occur:
12-16
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Bidirectional Counter (Encoder)
Input A
(I/0)
Input B
(I/1)
HSC Rung
High–Speed
Counter Action
Turning On
Off
True
Count Up
Turning Off
Off
True
Count Down
NA
On
NA
Hold Count
NA
NA
False
Hold Count
Off or On
NA
NA
Hold Count
Programming
Input State
NA (Not Applicable)
Bidirectional Counter with Reset and Hold (Encoder)
Input State
Input A
(I/0)
Input B
(I/1)
Input Z
(I/2)
Input
Hold(I/3)
HSC Rung
High–Speed
Counter Action
Turning On Off
Off
Off
True
Count Up
Turning Off Off
Off
Off
True
Count Down
Off or On
NA
Off
NA
NA
Hold Count
NA
On
Off
NA
NA
Hold Count
NA
NA
Off
NA
False
Hold Count
NA
NA
Off
On
NA
Hold Count
Off
Off
On➀
NA
NA
Reset to 0
NA (Not Applicable)
➀ The optional hardware high–speed counter reset is the logical coincidence of . A × B × Z
12-17
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
High–Speed Counter Load (HSL)
HSL
HSC LOAD
Counter
Source
Length
C5:0
(CU)
5
(DN)
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
66.00
7.00
This instruction allows you to set the low and high presets, low and high output
source, and the output mask. When either a high or low preset is reached, you can
instantly update selected outputs.
If you are using the HSL instruction with the Up Counter, the high preset must be ≥ 1
and ≤ +32,767 or an error INVALID PRESETs LOADED TO HIGH SPEED COUNTER
(37H) occurs. For the bidirectional counters, the high preset must be greater than the
low preset or an error INVALID PRESETs LOADED TO HIGH SPEED COUNTER
(37H) occurs.
The Counter referenced by this instruction has the same address as the HSC
instruction counter and is fixed at C5:0.
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameters when programming this instruction:
•
Source is an address that identifies the first of five data words used by the HSL.
The source can be either an integer or binary file element.
•
Length is the number of elements starting from the source. This number is
always 5.
Operation
The HSL instruction allows you to configure the high–speed counter to
instantaneously and automatically update external outputs whenever a high or low
preset is reached. The physical outputs are automatically updated in less than 30 µs.
(The physical turn–on time of the outputs is not included in this amount.) The output
image is then automatically updated at the next poll for user interrupts or IOM
instruction, whichever occurs first.
With this instruction, you can change the high preset for the up counters or both the
high and low presets for Bidirectional Counters during run. You can also modify the
output mask configuration during run.
The source address is either an integer or binary file element. For example, if N7:5 is
selected as the source address, the additional parameters for the execution of this
instruction would appear as shown in the following table.
12-18
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Up Counter
Only
Bidirectional
Counters
Description
N7:5
Output Mask
Output Mask
Identifies which group of bits in the
output file (word 0) are controlled.
000F=bits 3-0
00F0=bits 7-4
0003=bits 0 and 1
00FF= bits 7-0
N7:6
Output Source
Output High
Source
(Up count.) The status of bits in this
word are written “through” the mask to
the actual outputs.
N7:7
High Preset
High Preset
(Up count.) When the accumulator
reaches this value, the output source is
written through the output mask to the
actual outputs, and the HSC subroutine
(file 4) is scanned.
N7:8
Reserved
Output Low
Source
(Down count.) The status of bits in this
word are written “through” the mask to
the actual outputs.
N7:9
Reserved
Low Preset
(Down count.) When the accumulator
reaches this value, the output source is
written through the output mask to the
actual outputs, and the HSC subroutine
(file 4) is scanned.
The bits in the output mask directly correspond to the physical outputs. If a bit is set
to 1, the corresponding output can be changed by the high–speed counter. If a bit is
set to 0, the corresponding output cannot be changed by the high–speed counter.
The bits in the high and low sources also directly correspond to the physical outputs.
The high source is applied when the high preset is reached. The low source is applied
when the low preset is reached. The final output states are determined by applying
the output source over the mask and updating only the unmasked outputs (those with a
1 in the mask bit pattern).
You can always change the state of the outputs via the user program or programming
device regardless of the output mask. The high–speed counter only modifies selected
outputs and output image bits based on source and mask bit patterns when the presets
are reached. The last device that changes the output image (i.e., user program or
high–speed counter) determines the actual output pattern.
12-19
Programming
Parameter
Image
Location
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
!
ATTENTION: Forces override any output control from either the high-speed counter
or from the output image. Forces may also be applied to the high-sped counter inputs.
Forced inputs are recognized by the high-speed counter (e.g., a forced count input
off and on increments the high-speed accumulator).
The high–speed counter hardware is updated immediately when the HSL instruction
is executed regardless of high–speed counter type (Up Counter or Bidirectional
Counter). For the Up Counters, the last two registers are ignored since the low preset
does not apply.
If a fault occurs due to the HSL instruction, the HSL parameters are not loaded to the
high–speed counter hardware. You can use more than one HSL instruction in your
program. The HSL instructions can have different image locations for the additional
parameters.
!
12-20
ATTENTION: Do not change a preset value and an output mask/source with the
same HSL instruction as the accumulator is approaching the old preset value.
ATTENTION: If the high-speed counter is enabled and the HSL instruction is
evaluated true, the high-speed counter parameters in the HSL instruction are applied
immediately without stopping the operating of the high-speed counter. If the same
HSL instruction is being used to change the high-speed counter controlled mask/
source and the preset, the mask/source is changed first and the preset second. (The
preset is changed within 40 after the mask/source). If the original preset is reached
after the new mask/source is applied but before the new preset is applied, the new
outputs are applied immediately.
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
High–Speed Counter Reset (RES)
The RES instruction allows you to write a zero to the hardware accumulator and
image accumulator.
True
False
51.00
6.00
The Counter referenced by this instruction has the same address as the HSC
instruction counter and is entered as C5:0.
Programming
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
Operation
Execution of this instruction immediately:
•
removes pending high–speed counter interrupts
•
resets the hardware and instruction accumulators
•
reset the PE, LS, OV, UN, and DN status bits
•
loads the instruction high preset to the hardware high preset (if the high–speed
counter is configured as an up counter)
•
resets the IL, IH, IN, or IV status bits
You can have more than one RES instruction in your program.
12-21
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
High–Speed Counter Reset Accumulator (RAC)
RAC
RESET TO ACCUM VALUE
Counter
C5:0
Source
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
56.00
6.00
This instruction allows you to write a specific value to the hardware accumulator and
image accumulator.
The Counter referenced by this instruction has the same address as the HSC
instruction counter and is fixed at C5:0.
Entering Parameters
Enter the following parameter when programming this instruction:
•
Source represents the value that is loaded to the accumulator. The source can be a
constant or an address.
Operation
Execution of the RAC:
•
removes pending high–speed counter interrupts
•
resets the PE, LS, OV, UN, and DN status bits
•
loads a new accumulator value to the hardware and instruction image
•
loads the instruction high preset to the hardware high preset (if the high–speed
counter is configured as an Up Counter)
•
resets the IL, IH, IN, or IV status bits
The source can be a constant or any integer element in files 0-7. The hardware and
instruction accumulators are updated with the new accumulator value immediately
upon instruction execution.
You can have more than one RAC instruction per program referencing the same
source or different sources.
12-22
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
High–Speed Counter Interrupt Enable (HSE) and Disable (HSD)
C5:0
HSD
HSC INTERRUPT DISABLE
COUNTER
C5:0
These instructions enable or disable a high–speed counter interrupt when a high
preset, low preset, overflow, or underflow is reached. Use the HSD and HSE in pairs
to provide accurate execution for your application.
The Counter referenced by these instructions have the same address as the HSC
instruction counter and is fixed at C5:0.
Programming
HSE
HSC INTERRUPT ENABLE
COUNTER
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
HSE 10.00
HSD 8.00
7.00
7.00
Using HSE
Operation
When the high–speed counter interrupt is enabled, user subroutine (program file 4) is
executed when:
•
A high or low preset is reached.
•
An overflow or underflow occurs.
When in Test Single Scan mode and in an idle condition, the high–speed counter
interrupt is held off until the next scan trigger is received from the programming
device. The high–speed counter accumulator counts while idle.
If the HSE is subsequently executed after the pending bit is set, the interrupt is
executed immediately.
The default state of the high–speed counter interrupt is enabled (the IE bit is set to 1).
12-23
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
If the high–speed counter interrupt routine is executing and another high–speed
counter interrupt occurs, the second high–speed counter interrupt is saved but is
considered pending. (The PE bit is set.) The second interrupt is executed
immediately after the first one is finished executing. If a high–speed counter interrupt
occurs while a high–speed counter interrupt is pending, the most recent high–speed
counter interrupt is lost and the LS bit is set.
Using HSD
Operation
The HSD instruction disables the high–speed counter interrupt, preventing the
interrupt subroutine from being executed.
If the HSE is subsequently executed after the pending bit is set, the interrupt is
executed immediately.
This HSD instruction does not cancel an interrupt, but results in the pending bit (C5:0/
3) being set when:
•
A high or low preset is reached.
•
An overflow or underflow occurs.
Update High–Speed Counter Image Accumulator (OTE)
C5:0
( )
UA
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
51.00
6.00
When an OUT bit instruction is addressed for the high–speed counter (C5:0) UA bit,
the value in the hardware accumulator is written to the value in the image accumulator
(C5:0.ACC). This provides you with real–time access to the hardware accumulator
value. This is in addition to the automatic transfer from the hardware accumulator to
the image accumulator that occurs each time the HSC instruction is evaluated.
Operation
This instruction transfers the hardware accumulator to the instruction accumulator.
When the OTE/UA instruction is executed true, the hardware accumulator is loaded to
the instruction image accumulator (C5:0.ACC).
12-24
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
What Happens to the HSC When Going to REM Run Mode
At the first true HSL instruction execution after going–to–run, the Low Preset is
initialized to -32,768 and the output mask and high and low output patterns are
initialized to zero. Use the HSL instruction during the first pass to restore any values
necessary for your application.
You can modify the behavior of the high–speed counter at REM Run mode entry by
adjusting the HSC parameters prior to the first true execution of the HSC instruction.
The following example ladder rungs demonstrate different ways to adjust the HSC
parameters.
12-25
Programming
Once initialized, the HSC instruction retains its previous state when going through a
mode change or power cycle. This means that the HSC Accumulator (C5:0.ACC) and
High Preset values are retained. Outputs under the direct control of the HSC also
retain their previous state. The Low Preset Reached and High Preset Reached bits
(C0/LP and C0/HP) are also retained. They are examined by the HSC instruction
during the high–speed counter’s first true evaluation in the REM Run mode to
differentiate a retentive REM Run mode entry from an external or initial Accumulator
(C5:0.ACC) modification.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example 1
To enter the REM Run mode and have the HSC Outputs, ACC, and Interrupt
Subroutine resume their previous state, apply the following:
(Rung 2:0)
No action required. (Remember that all OUT instructions are zeroed when entering
the REM Run mode. Use SET/RST instructions in place of OUT instructions in your
conditional logic requiring retention.)
| S:1
+HSL--------------+ |
|--] [------------------------------------+HSC LOAD
+-|
|
15
|Counter
C5:0| |
|
|Source
N7:0| |
|
|Length
5| |
|
+-----------------+ |
Rung 2:1
|
+HSC-------------------+
|
|-------------------------------+HIGH SPEED COUNTER
+-(CU)-|
|
|Type Encoder (Res,Hld)+-(CD) |
|
|Counter
C5:0+-(DN) |
|
|High Preset
1000|
|
|
|Accum
0|
|
|
+----------------------+
|
12-26
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Example 2
To enter the REM Run mode and retain the HSC ACC value while having the HSC
Outputs and Interrupt Subroutine reassert themselves, apply the following:
Rung 2:0
Unlatch the C5:0/HP and C5:0/LP bits during the first scan BEFORE the HSC
instruction is executed for the first time.
Programming
| S:1
+HSL--------------+ |
|--] [------------------------------------+HSC LOAD
+-|
|
15
|Counter
C5:0| |
|
|Source
N7:0| |
|
|Length
5| |
|
+-----------------+ |
Rung 2:1
| S:1
C5:0
|
|--] [---------------------------------------------+-(U)--+|--|
|
15
|
HP | |
|
| C5:0 | |
|
+--(U)--+ |
|
LP
|
Rung 2:2
|
+HSC--------------------+
|
|------------------------------+HIGH SPEED COUNTER
+-(CU)-|
|
|Type Encoder (Res,Hld) +-(CD) |
|
|Counter
C5:0 +-(DN) |
|
|High Preset
1000 |
|
|
|Accum
0 |
|
|
+-----------------------+
|
12-27
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example 3
To enter the REM Run mode and have the HSC ACC and Interrupt Subroutine resume
their previous state, while externally initializing the HSC outputs, apply the
following:
Rung 2:0
Unlatch or Latch the output bits under HSC control during the first scan after
the HSC instruction is executed for the first time. (Note: you could place this
rung before the HSC instruction; however, this is not recommended.)
| S:1
+HSL--------------+ |
|--] [------------------------------------+HSC LOAD
+-|
|
15
|Counter
C5:0| |
|
|Source
N7:0| |
|
|Length
5| |
|
+-----------------+ |
Rung 2:1
|
+HSC--------------------+
|
|------------------------------+HIGH SPEED COUNTER
+-(CU)-|
|
|Type Encoder (Res,Hld) +-(CD) |
|
|Counter
C5:0 +-(DN) |
|
|High Preset
1000 |
|
|
|Accum
0 |
|
|
+-----------------------+
|
Rung 2:2
This rung is programmed with the knowledge of an HSL mask of 0007 (outputs 0-2
are used) and initializes the HSC outputs each REM Run mode entry. Outputs O/0
and O/1 are off, while Output 0/2 is on.
| S:1
O:0
|
|--] [--------------------------------------------+--(U)--+|--|
|
15
|
0
| |
|
| O:0
| |
|
+--(U)---+ |
|
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1
| |
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| O:0
| |
|
+--(L)---+ |
|
2
|
12-28
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
High-Speed Counter Instruction in the Paper Drilling Machine
Application Example
The ladder rungs in this section demonstrate the use of the HSC instruction in the
paper drilling machine application example started in chapter 6. Refer to appendix E
for the complete paper drilling machine application example.
Drilled
Holes
Drill Depth
I:1/4
Quadrature A-B Encoder and Drive
I:1/0 I:1/1
Drill On/Off O:3/1
Drill Retract O:3/2
Drill Forward O:3/3
Programming
Drill Home
I:1/5
Photo-Eye Reset I:1/2
Counter Hold I:1/3
Photo-Eye
Reflector
Conveyor Enable wired in series to the Drive O:3/5
Conveyor Drive Start/Stop wired in series to the Drive O:3/0
The main program file (file 2) initializes the HSC instruction, monitors the machine
start and stop buttons, and calls other subroutines necessary to run the machine. Refer
to the comments preceding each rung for additional information.
Rung 2:0
Initializes the high-speed counter each time the REM Run mode is
entered.
The high-speed counter data area (N7:5 - N7:9)
corresponds with the starting address (source address) of the
HSL instruction.
The HSC instruction is disabled each entry
into the REM run mode until the first time that it is executed
as true.
(The high preset was “pegged” on initialization to
prevent a high preset interrupt from occurring during the
initialization process.)
| 1’st
Output Mask
|
| Pass
(only use bit 0
|
|
ie. O:0/0)
|
|
S:1
+MOV---------------+
|
|----] [-----------------------------+-+MOVE
+-+-|
|
15
| |Source
1| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:5| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
12-29
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
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12-30
| High Output Pattern |
| (turn off O:0/0)
|
|
|
| +MOV---------------+ |
+-+MOVE
+-+
| |Source
0| |
| |
| |
| |Dest
N7:6| |
| |
0| |
| +------------------+ |
| High Preset Value
|
| (counts to next hole)|
|
| +MOV---------------+ |
+-+MOVE
+-+
| |Source
32767| |
| |
| |
| |Dest
N7:7| |
| |
0| |
| +------------------+ |
| Low output pattern
|
|
(turn on O:0/0
|
|
each reset)
|
|
| +MOV---------------+ |
+-+MOVE
+-+
| |Source
1| |
| |
| |
| |Dest
N7:8| |
| |
0| |
| +------------------+ |
| Low preset value
|
| (cause low preset
|
|
int at reset)
|
|
| +MOV---------------+ |
+-+MOVE
+-+
| |Source
0| |
| |
| |
| |Dest
N7:9| |
| |
0| |
| +------------------+ |
| High Speed Counter |
|
|
| +HSL---------------+ |
+-+HSC LOAD
+-+
|Counter
C5:0|
|Source
N7:5|
|Length
5|
+-------------------+
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Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Rungs 2.0 and 2.2 are required to write several parameters to the high-speed counter
data file area. These two rungs are conditioned by the first pass bit during one scan
when the controller is going from REM program to REM Run mode.
|
High Speed Counter
|
|
+HSC--------------------+
|
|------------------------------+HIGH SPEED COUNTER
+-(CU)-|
|
|Type Encoder (Res,Hld) +-(CD) |
|
|Counter
C5:0+-(DN) |
|
|High Preset
1250|
|
|
|Accum
1|
|
|
+-----------------------+
|
Rung 2:2
Forces a high-speed counter low preset interrupt to occur each REM Run mode
entry. An interrupt can only occur on the transition of the high-speed counter
accum to a preset value (accum reset to 1, then 0). This is done to allow the
high-speed counter interrupt subroutine sequencers to initialize. The order of
high-speed counter initialization is: (1)load high-speed counter parameters
(2)execute HSL instruction (3)execute true HSC instruction (4)(optimal) force
high-speed counter interrupt to occur.
| 1’st
High Speed Counter
|
| Pass
|
|
S:1
+RAC-------------------+
|
|----] [-------------------------+-+RESET TO ACCUM VALUE +-+-|
|
15
| |Counter
C5:0| | |
|
| |Source
1| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| +----------------------+ | |
|
| High Speed Counter
| | |
|
|
| | |
|
|
C5:0
| | |
|
+---(RES)----------------+ | |
12-31
Programming
Rung 2:1
This HSC instruction is not placed in the high-speed counter interrupt
subroutine.
If this instruction were placed in the interrupt subroutine, the
high-speed counter could never be started or initialized (because an interrupt
must first occur in order to scan the high-speed counter interrupt subroutine).
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
The high-speed counter is used to control the conveyor position. The high-speed
counter counts pulses supplied by the conveyer’s encoder via hardware inputs I:0/0
and I:0/1. Hardware inputs I:0/2 (reset) and I:0/3 (hold) are connected to a photoswitch ensuring the HSC instruction only counts encoder pulses when a manual is in
front of the drill and that the high-speed counter is reset at the leading edge of each
manual.
The high-speed counter clears the conveyer drive output bit (O:0/0) each time a low
preset is reached. As a result, the drive decelerates and stops the conveyer motor. The
high-speed counter clears the output within microseconds ensuring accuracy and
repeatability.
The high-speed counter sets the conveyor output bit (O:0/0) each time a low preset is
reached. As a result, the drive accelerates and maintains the conveyer motor.
When the manual has travelled the specified distance set by the high-speed counter
high preset value, the high-speed counter interrupt subroutine signals the main
program to perform the drilling sequence. For more information regarding the
interrupt subroutine used in this program, refer to the application example in chapter
11.
This example uses the Quadrature Encoder with reset and hold instruction. The highspeed counter accumulator increments and decrements based on the quadrature
relationship of the encoder’s A nd B inputs (I:0/0 and I:0/1). The accumulator is
cleared to zero when the reset is activated or when the RES instruction is executed.
All presets are entered as a relative offset to the leading edge of a manual. The presets
for the hole patterns are stored in the SQO instructions. (Refer to chapter 11 for the
SQO instruction). The high-speed counter external reset input (I:0/2) and the external
hold input (I:0/3) are wired in parallel to prevent the high-speed counter from
counting while the reset is active.
The input filter delays for both the high-speed counter A and B inputs (I:0/0) and (I:0/
1) as well as the high-speed counter reset and hold inputs (I:0/2 and I:0/3) can be
adjusted. Refer to page A-9 for more information on adjusting filters.
12-32
Using High–Speed Counter Instructions
Rung 4:5
Interrupt occurred due to low preset reached.
| C5:0
+RET---------------+-|
|----] [---------------------------------+RETURN
+ |
|
IL
+------------------+ |
Rung 4:6
Signals the main program (file 2) to initiate a drilling sequence. The highspeed counter has already stopped the conveyor at the correct position using its
high preset output pattern data (clear O:0/0). This occurred within microseconds
of the high preset being reached (just prior to entering this high-speed counter
interrupt subroutine). The drill sequence subroutine resets the drill sequence
start bit and sets the conveyor drive bit (O:0/0) upon completion of the drilling
sequence.
Programming
| interrupt occurred
|
Drill Sequence Start |
| due to high preset reached |
|
|
C5:0
B3
|
|----] [---------------------------------------------(L)------|
|
IH
32
|
Rung 4:7
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+-------------------------|
12-33
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Notes:
12-34
Using the Message Instruction
13
Using the Message Instruction
•
types of communication
•
what the MSG instruction symbol looks like
•
typical execution time for the MSG instruction
•
how to use the MSG instruction
•
application examples and timing diagrams
Note:
Programming
This chapter contains information about communications and the message (MSG)
instruction. Specifically, this chapter contains information on:
Only Series C or later MicroLogix 1000 discrete controllers and all
MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers support the MSG instruction.
Message Instruction
Instruction
Mnemonic
MSG
Name
Message Read/
Write
Purpose
Page
This instruction transfers data from one node to
another via the communication port. When the
instruction is enabled, the message is sent to a
communication buffer. Replies are processed at
the end of scan.
13-3
13-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Types of Communication
Communication is the ability of a device to send data or status to other devices. This
capability typically falls into one of two categories: initiator (master) or responder
(slave). Each of these are described below:
Initiator (Master) Communication
Initiator products can begin communication processes, which includes requesting
information from other devices (reading) or sending information to other products
(writing). In addition, initiator products are usually capable of replying to other
devices MicroLogixwhen they make requests to read information. The Series C or
later MicroLogix 1000 discrete controllers and all MicroLogix 1000 analog
controllers are in this class.
Initiator products can begin communication processes with other initiator products
(peer–to–peer communication) or with responder (slave) products (initiator–to–
responder communication).
Responder (Slave) Communication
Responder products can only reply to other products. These devices are not capable
of initiating an exchange of data; they only reply to requests made from initiator
products. The Series A and B MicroLogix 1000 discrete controllers are in this class.
13-2
Using the Message Instruction
Message Instruction (MSG)
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
7
Execution Times
(µsec) when:
True
False
180➀
48
The MSG is an output instruction that allows the controller to initiate an exchange of
data with other devices. The relationship with the other devices can be either peer–
to–peer communication or master–to–slave communication. The type of
communication required by a particular application determines the programming
configuration requirements of the MSG instruction.
➀
This only includes the amount of time needed to set up the operation requested. It does not include the
time it takes to service the actual communication, as this time varies with each network configuration. As
an example, 144ms is the actual communication service time for the following configuration: 3 nodes on
DH–485 (2=MicroLogix 1000 programmable controllers and 1=PLC–500 A.I. Seriest™ programming
software), running at 19.2K baud, with 2 words per transfer.
Entering Parameters
After you place the MSG instruction on a rung, specify whether the message is to be a
read or write. Then specify the target device and the control block for the MSG
instruction.
•
Read/Write - read indicates that the local processor (processor in which the
instruction is located) is receiving data; write indicates that the processor is
sending data.
•
Target Device - identifies the type of command used to establish communication.
The target device can be a MicroLogix 1000 controller or SLC family processor
using SLC commands, or a common interface file by selecting the CIF format.
Valid options are:

SLC500/ML1000 - Allows communication between a MicroLogix 1000
controller and any other MicroLogix 1000 controller or SLC 500 family
processor.

485CIF - (common interface file) Allows communication between a
MicroLogix 1000 controller and a non–MicroLogix 1000/SLC 500 device. The
CIF data is automatically delivered to integer file 9 in SLC 500 processors or
file 7 in MicroLogix 1000 controllers. The 485CIF protocol is also used for
PLC–2 type messages to PLC–5 processors.
•
Control Block Address - an integer file address that you select. It consists of 7
integer words, containing the status bits, target file address, and other data
associated with the MSG instruction.
•
Control Block Length - fixed at seven elements. This field cannot be altered.
13-3
Programming
MSG
READ/WRITE MESSAGE
Read/write
Target Device
Control Block
Control Block Length
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Note:
When running a MicroLogix 1000 program on an SLC 5/03 or SLC5/04
processor, or on channel 0 of an SLC 5/05 processor, the MSG control
block length increases from 7 to 14 words. If you plan to run a
MicroLogix 1000 program with one of these processors, make sure that
the program has at least 7 unused words following each MSG control
block.
The table that follows illustrates combinations of message types and target devices
and their valid file types.
Command Type
Message
Type
SLC500/ML1000
Write
MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N
SLC500/ML1000
Read
MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N
CIF
Write
MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N MicroLogix 1000
N7
CIF
Read
MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N MicroLogix 1000
N7
SLC500/ML1000
Write
MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N SLC 500
O➃,I➃,S,B,T,C,R,N
SLC500/ML1000
Read
MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N SLC 500
O➃,I➃,S,B,T,C,R,N
CIF
Write
MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N SLC 500
N9
CIF
Read
MicroLogix 1000
O,I,S,B,T,C,R,N SLC 500
N9
➀
➁
➂
➃
13-4
Initiating Device
Valid File
Types
Target Device➀➁➂
Valid File Types
The DF1 Full–Duplex protocol can be used if the target device supports it. Such devices include MicroLogix 1000 controllers
(any series), SLC 5/03, SLC 5/04 and SLC 5/05 processors, and PLC–5 processors (CIF command type only).
The DH–485 protocol can be used if the target device supports it. Such devices include MicroLogix 1000 controllers (except for
Series A and B discrete controllers) and SLC 500, SLC 5/01, SLC 5/02, SLC 5/03, SLC 5/04 or SLC 5/05 processors.
The DF1 Half–Duplex protocol can also be used with Series D or later discrete and all analog MicroLogix 1000 controllers, but
a master is required, such as an SLC 5/03, SLC 5/04 or SLC 5/05 processor.
SLC 500, SLC 5/01, and SLC 5/02 processors do not support O or I file access from a MSG instruction. SLC 5/03, SLC 5/04
and SLC 5/05 processors do support O and I file access, but only when unprotected.
Using the Message Instruction
Control Block Layout
The control block layouts shown below illustrate SLC500/ML1000 type messages.
Control Block Layout - SLC100/ML1000
14
13
12
11
EN ST DN ER
10
09
08
EW NR TO
07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 Word
Error Code
0
Node Number
1
Reserved for length (in elements)
2
File Number
3
File Type (O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N)
4
Element Number
5
Subelement Number
6
Programming
15
Control Block Layout - 485CIF
15
14
13
12
EN ST DN ER
11
10
09
08
EW NR TO
07 06 05 04 03 02 01 00 Word
Error Code
0
Node Number
1
Reserved for Length (in elements)
2
Offset Bytes
3
Not used
4
Not used
5
Not used
6
13-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Using Status Bits
Read/Write:
Target Device:
Control Block:
Local Destination File
Address:
Target Node:
Target File Address:
Message Length in elements
READ
ignore if timed 0 TO
out:
SLC500/
ML1000
N7:0
***
0
***
***
to be retired: 0 NR
awaiting 0 EW
execution:
error: 0 ER
message done: 0 DN
message 0 ST
transmitting:
message enabled:
EN
control bit N7:0/8
address:
ERROR CODE: 0
Error Code Desc:
MSG Instruction Status Bits
The right column in the display above lists the various MSG instruction status bits.
These are explained below:
•
Time Out Bit TO (bit 08) Temporarily set this bit (1) to error out (error code
37) an existing MSG instruction. This bit has no effect unless the ST bit has first
been set due to receiving an ACK (an acknowledge). Your application must
supply its own timer whose preset value is the MSG timeout value. This bit is
reset on any false–to–true MSG rung transition.
•
Negative Response Bit NR (bit 09) is set if the target processor is responding to
your message, but can not process the message at the present time. The NR bit is
reset at the next false–to–true MSG rung transition that has a transmit buffer
available. It is used to determine when to send retries. The ER bit is also set at
this time. Use this feedback to initiate a retry of your message at a later time.
This bit is used with DH–485 protocol only.
•
Enabled and Waiting Bit EW (bit 10) is set on any false–to–true MSG rung
transition. This bit is reset when an ACK or NAK (no acknowledge) is received,
or on any true–to–false MSG rung transition.
Note:
13-6
The operation of the EW bit has changed since Series C.
•
Error Bit ER (bit 12) is set when message transmission has failed. The ER bit
is reset the next time the MSG rung goes from false to true.
•
Done Bit DN (bit 13) is set when the message is transmitted successfully. The
DN bit is reset (cleared) the next time the MSG rung goes from false to true.
•
Start Bit ST (bit 14) is set when the processor receives acknowledgment from
the target device. This identifies that the target device has started to process the
MSG request. The ST bit is reset when the DN, ER, or TO bit is set or on a false–
to–true MSG rung transition.
•
Enable Bit EN (bit 15) is set only if the transmit buffer is available. If the
transmit buffer is not available, the EN flag remains false. When the transmit
buffer becomes available, the EN flag goes true. It remains set until the next false
rung execution after the MSG completes (DN bit set) or an error occurs (ER bit
set).
Note:
The operation of the EN bit has changed since Series C.
The operation associated with a message read or write instruction is
send when you enable the instruction. Replies are processed at the end of
the scan.
Controller Communication Status Bit
When using the MSG instruction, you should also use the following controller
communication status bit:
Active Protocol Bit (S:0/11) This is a read only bit that indicates which
communication protocol is currently enabled or functioning; where 0 = DF1 (default)
and 1 = DH–485. Use this bit in your program to restrict message operation to the
specific protocol in use.
13-7
Programming
Using the Message Instruction
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Timing Diagram for a Successful MSG Instruction
The following section illustrates a successful timing diagram for a Series D or later
MicroLogix 1000 discrete controller, or a MicroLogix 1000 analog controller, MSG
instruction.
Rung goes True.
Control Block Status Bits
Bit 10 EW
Enabled and Waiting
Bit 15 EN
Enabled
Bit 14 ST
Start
Bit 13 DN
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
Done
Bit 12 ER
1
0
Error
Bit 9 NR
1
0
Negative Response
Bit 8 TO
Time Out
13-8
1
0
Target node receives
packet.
Target node sent
reply.
Target node processes packet
successfully and returns data (read) or
writes data (success).
Using the Message Instruction
The EW bit is set (1) and the ST, DN, NR, and TO flags are cleared. If the
transmit buffer is not available, the EN flag remains false (0).
If the Target Node successfully receives the MSG packet, it sends back an ACK
(an acknowledge). The ACK causes the processor to clear bit S:2/7. (Bit S:2/7 is
valid for Series C discrete only). Note that the Target Node has not yet examined
the MSG packet to see if it understands your request. It is replying to the initial
connection.
At the next end of scan, the EW bit is cleared (0) and the ST bit is set (1). Once
the ST bit is set, the processor will wait indefinitely for a reply from the Target
Node. The Target Node is not required to respond within any given time frame.
During this time, no other MSG instruction will be serviced.
Note:
If the Target Node faults or power cycles during the time frame after the
ST bit is set and before the reply is returned, you will never receive a
reply. No other MSG instructions will be able to be serviced unless this
MSG is terminated in error using the TO bit. This is why it is
recommended you use a timer in conjunction with the TO bit to clear any
pending instructions. (When the TO bit is set [1] it clears pending
messages.) Typically message transactions are completed within a
couple of seconds. It is up to the programmer to determine how long to
wait before clearing the buffer and then re-transmitting.
Step 4 is not shown in the timing diagram.
If you do not receive an ACK, step 3 does not occur. Instead a NAK (no
acknowledge) or no response at all is received. When this happens, the ST bit
remains clear. A NAK indicates:

the Target Node is too busy, or

it received a MSG packet with a bad checksum.
No response indicates:

either the Target Node is not there, or

it does not respond because the MSG packet was corrupted in transmission.
13-9
Programming
When rung conditions go true and the transmit buffer becomes available, the EN
flag goes true (1). The EN bit remains set until either the DN, ER, or TO bit is
set. The TO bit has no effect unless the ST bit has first been set.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
When a NAK occurs, the EW bit is cleared at the next end of scan. (Note that the
NR bit will only be set for DH–485 and NAK conditions. An error code 02H,
Target Node is busy, is received which causes the NR bit to be set.) The ER bit is
also set which indicates that the MSG instruction failed.
Monitor the NR bit. If it is set, indicating that the Target Node is busy, you may
want to initiate some other process (e.g., an alarm or a retry later). The NR bit is
cleared when the rung logic preceding the MSG changes from false to true.
When an ACK occurs, the Target Node sends one of three responses shown in
Step 6.
Following the successful receipt of the packet, the Target Node sends a reply
packet. The reply packet will contain one of the following responses:
I have successfully performed your write request.
I have successfully performed your read request, and here is your data.
I have not performed your request because of an error.
At the next end of scan, following the Target Node’s reply, the MicroLogix 1000
controller examines the MSG packet from the target device. If the reply contains
“I have successfully performed your write request,” the DN bit is set and the ST
bit is cleared. The MSG instruction is complete. If the MSG rung is false, the
EN bit is cleared the next time the MSG instruction is scanned.
If the reply contains “I have successfully performed your read request, and here is
your data,” the data is written to the appropriate data table, the DN bit is set, and
the ST bit is cleared. The MSG instruction function is complete. If the MSG
rung is false, the EN bit is cleared the next time the MSG instruction is scanned.
If the reply contains “I have not performed your request, because of an error,” the
ER bit is set and the ST bit is cleared. The MSG instruction function is complete.
If the MSG rung is false, the EN bit is cleared the next time the MSG instruction
is scanned.
MSG Instruction Error Codes
Note:
Any MSG instruction that is in progress during a network protocol
switch will not be processed and will be discarded. For more information
on network protocol switching, see page 3-19.
When an error condition occurs, the error code is stored in the lower byte of the first
control word assigned to the MSG instruction.
13-10
Using the Message Instruction
Error
Code
02H
Target node is busy.
03H
Target node cannot respond because message is too large.
04H
Target node cannot respond because it does not understand the command
parameters OR the control block may have been inadvertently modified.
05H
Local processor is offline (possible duplicate node situation).
06H
Target node cannot respond because requested function is not available.
07H
Target node does not respond.
08H
Target node cannot respond.
09H
Local modem connection has been lost.
0AH
Buffer unavailable to receive SRD reply.
0BH
Target node does not accept this type of MSG instruction.
0CH
Received a master link reset.
10H
Target node cannot respond because of incorrect command parameters or
unsupported command.
15H
Local channel configuration parameter error exists.
18H
Broadcast (Node Address 255) is not supported.
Programming
Description of Error Condition
1AH➀
Target node cannot respond because another node is file owner (has sole file
access).
1BH➀
Target node cannot respond because another node is program owner (has sole
access to all files).
37H
Message timed out in local processor.
39H
Message was discarded due to a communication protocol switch.
3AH
Reply from target is invalid.
50H
Target node is out of memory.
60H
Target node cannot respond because file is protected.
E7H
Target node cannot respond because length requested is too large.
EBH
Target node cannot respond because target node denies access.
ECH
Target node cannot respond because requested function is currently unavailable.
FAH
Target node cannot respond because another node is file owner (has sole file
access).
FBH
Target node cannot respond because another node is program owner (has sole
access to all files).
➀
Error codes 1A and 1B valid for Seriec C discrete only.
13-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Note:
For 1770-6.5.16 DF1 Protocol and Command Set users:
The MSG error code reflects the STS field of the reply to your MSG
instruction.
Codes E0 - EF represent EXT STS codes 0 - F.
Codes F0 - FC represent EXT STS codes 10-1C.
13-12
Using the Message Instruction
Application Examples that Use the MSG Instruction
Example 1
Application example 1 shows how you can implement continuous operation of a
message instruction.
Programming
0
1
2
* MSG instruction
status bits:
12 = ER
13 = DN
15 = EN
Operation Notes
Bit S:0/11 ensures that the MSG instruction will only be processed when the active protocol is
DH-485. Bit S:1/7 ensures that DH-485 is communicating before sending the MSG. Bit B3/1
enables the MSG instruction. When the MSG instruction done bit (N7:0.13) is set, it unlatches
the MSG enable bit (N7:0/13) is set, it unlatches the MSG enable bit (N7:0/15) so that the MSG
instruction will be re-enabled in the next scan. This provides continuous operation.
The MSG error bit will also unlatch the enable bit. This provides continuous operation even if an
error occurs.
13-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example 2
Application example 2 involves a MicroLogix 1000 controller transmitting its first input
word to another MicroLogix 1000 controller. This is commonly referred to as “change
of state” or “report on exception” messaging. Using this type of logic significantly
reduces network traffic, which in turn significantly improves network throughput.
This is the message control rung. The logic preceding the MSG instruction on this rung dictates when the MSG instruction is processed.
In this example, the MSG instruction will only be processed when the active protocol is DH-485 and when there is no other
communication. Once the MSG instruction is enabled, it locks itself into operation regardless of the preceding logic on the rung.
DH-485
Active
S:0
] [
11
Comms
Active
S:1
]/[
7
If the input status has changed,
enable the MSG.
NEQ
Not Equal
Source A
Source B
MSG
I:1.0
0
N7:10
0
READ/WRITE MESSAGE
Read/write
READ
Target Device SLC500/ML1000
Control Block
N7:50
Control Block Length
7
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
This rung controls when the MSG instruction is unlatched or reset. The MSG instruction must be reset before it can re-transmit new
information. Either of the following two conditions will reset the MSG instruction: 1)when communication to the target device has been
completed successfully, or 2)when an error is detected in the communication sequence (occurs after all retries have been exhausted.
Using the error bit to reset the MSG is primarily used to stop the MSG instruction from being totally locked out.
MSG Done
N7:50
] [
13
MSG Enabled
N7:50
( )
15
MSG Error
N7:50
] [
12
This rung is used to set up the “report by exception” operation. This move command updates N7:10, by making it identical to I:1.0. When
the processor starts a new scan sequence (when rung 2.0 is scanned), it updates (reads) the input image. If an input has changed from
the previous scan, the NEQ instruction will be true and MSG will be processed. The MSG Enabled bit ensures that the MOV will not be
processed until after the MSG is successfully completed. This minimizes the chances that input changes are missed during MSG
operation.
DH-485
Active
S:0
] [
11
Comms
Active
S:1
]/[
7
MSG
Enabled
N7:50
]/[
15
MOV
MOVE
Move
Dest
END
13-14
I:1.0
0
N7:10
0
Using the Message Instruction
Example 3
Application example 3 involves a MicroLogix 1000 controller and an SLC 5/01
processor communicating on a DH–485 network. Interlocking is provided to verify
data transfer and to shut down both processors if communication fails.
Programming
A temperature–sensing device, connected as an input to the MicroLogix 1000
controller, controls the on–off operation of a cooling fan, connected as an output to
the SLC 5/01 processor. The MicroLogix 1000 and SLC 5/01 ladder programs are
explained on the following pages.
13-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
0
I:1.0
] [
5
N7:0
( )
1
1
S:1
] [
15
T4:0
(RES)
Temperature-sensing Input
Device
First Pass Bit
N7:0
(L)
0
Bit 1 of the message word.
Used for fan control.
Bit 0 of the message word.
This is the interlock bit.
B3
(U)
0
TON
2
TIMER ON DELAY
Timer
T4:0
Time Base
0.01
Preset
400
Accum
0
First Pass Bit
3
S:1
] [
15
S:4
] [
6
1280 ms Clock Bit
Message Write
Done Bit
5
6
Message Read
Done Bit
(DN)
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
Write message instruction. The
source and target file addresses are
N7:0
Target node: 3
Message length: 1 word.
B3
(L)
0
N10:0
] [
13*
MSG
READ/WRITE MESSAGE
Read/write
READ
Target Device
500CPU
Control Block
N11:0
Control Block Length
7
(EN)
(DN)
(ER)
B3
(L)
10
T4:0
] [
DN
Read message instruction. The
destination and target file addresses
are N7:0
Target node: 3
Message length: 1 word.
Latch - This alarm instruction
notifies the application if the
interlock bit N7:0/0 remains set for
more than 4 seconds.
T4:0
(RES)
N11:0 N7:0
] [
]/[
13*
0
N7:0
(U)
0
B3
(U)
0
N11:0
(U)
15*
N10:0
(U)
15*
7
END
Operation notes appear on the following page.
13-16
4-second Timer
MSG
READ/WRITE MESSAGE
Read/write
WRITE
Target Device
500CPU
Control Block
N10:0
Control Block Length
7
B3
] [
0
4
(EN)
* MSG instruction
status bits:
13 = DN
15 = EN
Using the Message Instruction
Program File 2 of SLC 5/01 Processor at Node 3
0
First Pass Bit
N7:0
(U)
0
S:1
] [
15
Bit 0 of the message
word. This is the interlock
bit.
T4:0
(RES)
TON
TIMER ON DELAY
Timer
T4:0
Time Base
0.01
Preset
400
Accum
0
2
T4:0
] [
DN
3
N7:0
] [
0
4
B3
] [
1
(EN)
(DN)
B3
(L)
10
B3
( )
1
B3
[OSR]
0
T4:0
(RES)
O:1.0
( )
0
N7:0
] [
1
6
Latch Instruction - This
alarm notifies the
application if the interlock
bit N7:0/0 is not set after 4
seconds.
N7:0
(U)
0
Bit 1 of the message word.
Used for fan control.
5
4-second Timer
Programming
1
O:1/0 energizes cooling
fan.
END
Operation Notes, SLC 5/02 and SLC 5/01 programs
Message instruction parameters: N7:0 is the message word. It is the
target file address (SLC 5/01 processor) and the local source and
destination addresses (SLC 5/02 processor) in the message
instructions.
N7:0/0 of the message word is the interlock bit; it is written to the 5/01
processor as a 1 (set) and read from SLC 5/01 processor as a 0 (reset).
N7:0/1 of the message word controls cooling fan operation; it is written
to the SLC 5/01 processor as a 1 (set) if cooling is required or as a 0
(reset) if cooling is not required. It is read from the SLC 5/01 processor
as either 1 or 0.
Word N7:0 should have a value of 1 or 3 during the message write
execution. N7:0 should have a value of 0 or 2 during the message read
execution.
Message
0 instruction operation: The message write instruction in the
SLC 5/02 processor is initiated every 1280 ms by clock bit S:4/6. Th
done bit of the message write instruction initiates the message read
instruction.
B3/0 latches the message write instruction. B3/0 is unlatched when t
message read instruction done bit is set, provided that the interlock b
N7:0/0 is reset.
Communication failure: In the SLC 5/02 processor, bit B3/10 become
set if interlock bit N7:0/0 remains set (1) for more than 4 seconds. In t
SLC 5/01 processor, bit B3/10 becomes set if interlock bit N7:0/0
remains set (1) for more than 4 seconds. Your application can detec
this event, take appropriate action, then unlatch bit B3/10.
Program initialization: The first pass bit S:1/15 initializes the ladder
programs on run mode entry.
SLC 5/02 processor: N7:0/0 is latched; timer T4:0 is reset; B3/0 is
unlatched (rung 1), then latched (rung 3). S SLC 5/01 processor: N7:0/0
is unlatched; timer T4:0 is reset.
13-17
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example 4
Application example 4 shows you how to use the timeout bit to disable an active
message instruction. In this example, an output is energized after five unsuccessful
attempts (two seconds duration) to transmit a message.
0
DH-485 Active
Protocol Bit
B3/1 is latched (external
to this example) to initiate
the message instruction.
1
2
3
2-second timer. Each attempt
at transmission has a 2-second
duration.
Counter allows 5
attempts.
After timeout error, unlatch the
MSG EN bit to retrigger for
another attempt.
4
N7:0/8* is the message
instruction timeout bit.
5
The fifth attempt latches O0:1/
0 and unlatches the initiate
message instruction bit.
6
* MSG instruction
status bits:
8 = TO
12 = ER
13 = DN
7
Operation Notes
The timeout bit is latched (rung 4) after a period of 2 seconds. This
clears the message instruction from processor control on the next scan.
The message instruction is then re-enabled for a second attempt at
transmission. After 5 attempts, O:1/0 is latched and B3/1 is unlatched.
13-18
A successful attempt at transmission resets the counter, unlatches O:1/
0, and unlatches B3/1.
Using the Message Instruction
Example 5
Programming
Application example 5 shows you how to link message instructions together to
transmit serially, one after another. In this example a MSG Write is followed by a
MSG Read which causes the serial transmission.
13-19
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
This run starts messaging each REM Run or RUN mode entry by clearing the EN bit of the first MSG instruction.
2.0
This rung sets the timeout value. (when using a SLC 5/03 or SLC 5/04 processor, this rung and rung 2:2 are not
required because you can enter the value 6 into the Timeout value field in the MSG instruction block.)
2.1
Same as above rung.
2.2
The MSG instruction energizes upon entry into the REM Run or RUN mode. No input conditions are required.
2.3
The MSG instruction is energized when the previous MSG instruction completes.
2.4
This rung resets all MSG instruction when the last MSG instruction has completed.
2.5
2.6
13-20
Troubleshooting Your System
Troubleshooting Your System
This chapter describes how to troubleshoot your controller. Topics include:
•
understanding the controller LED status
•
controller error recovery model
•
identifying controller faults
•
calling Allen-Bradley for assistance
Troubleshooting
14
14-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Understanding the Controller LED Status
Between the time you apply power to the controller and the time it has to establish
communication with a connected programming device, the only form of
communication between you and the controller is through the LEDs.
When Operating Normally
When power is applied, only the power LED turns on and remains on. This is part of
the normal powerup sequence.
When the controller is placed in REM Run mode, the run LED also turns on and
remains on, as shown on the right in the figure below. If a force exists, the force LED
is on as well.
When powered up:
When placed in RRUN:
Refer to the following key to determine the
status of the LED indicators:
Indicates the LED is OFF.
Indicates the LED is ON.
Indicates the LED is FLASHING.
Status of LED does not matter.
14-2
POWER
RUN
FAULT
POWER
RUN
FAULT
FORCE
FORCE
Troubleshooting Your System
When an Error Exists
If an error exists within the controller, the controller LEDs operate as described in the
following tables.
If the LEDs indicate:
The
Following
Error Exists
POWER
RUN
FAULT
FORCE
No input
power or
power supply
error
Probable Cause
Recommended Action
No Line Power
Verify proper line voltage and connections to the
controller.
Power Supply
Overloaded
This problem can occur intermittently if power supply is
overloaded when output loading and temperature varies.
If the LEDs indicate:
FORCE
Probable Cause
Hardware
faulted
Processor
Memory Error
Cycle power. Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists
Loose Wiring
Verify connections to the controller.
Recommended Action
Troubleshooting
POWER
RUN
FAULT
The
Following
Error Exists
14-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
If the LEDs indicate:
POWER
RUN
FAULT
The
Following
Error Exists
Application
fault
FORCE
Refer to the following key to determine the
status of the LED indicators:
Indicates the LED is OFF.
Indicates the LED is ON.
Indicates the LED is FLASHING.
Status of LED does not matter.
14-4
Probable Cause
Hardware/
Software Major
Fault Detected
Recommended Action
1. Monitor Status File Word S:6 for major error code.
2. Remove hardware/software condition causing fault.
3. Press F10 to clear the fault.
4. Attempt a controller REM Run mode entry. If
unsuccessful, repeat recommended action steps
above or contact your local Allen-Bradley distributor.
Troubleshooting Your System
Controller Error Recovery Model
Use the following error recovery model to help you diagnose software and hardware
problems in the micro controller. The model provides common questions you might
ask to help troubleshoot your system. Refer to the recommended pages within the
model and to S:6 of the status file on page B-18 for further help.
Identify the error code
and description.
No
Is the error hardware
related?
Start
Yes
Claer fault using either
function key F9 or F10.
Are the wire
connections tight?
Correct the condition
causing the fault.
Tighten wire
connections.
Yes
Is the Power
LED On?
Place the controller in
REM PROGram mode.
No
Does the
No
controller have power
supplied?
No
Troubleshooting
Refer to appendix B for
probable cause and
recommended action.
Check power.
Yes
Yes
Is the Run LED On
constantly?
Refer to page 14-3 for
probable cuase and
recommended action.
No
Yes
No
Return controller to REM
RUN or any of the REM
tTest modes.
Is the Fault LED On?
Yes
Test and verify system
operation.
Refer to page 14-3 for
probable cuase and
recommended action.
Is an input or
output LED showing
proper status?
No
Yes
Refer to page 14-4 for
probable cuase and
recommended action.
14-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Identifying Controller Faults
While a program is executing, a fault may occur within the operating system or your
program. When a fault occurs, you have various options to determine what the fault is
and how to correct it. This section describes how to clear faults and provides a list of
possible advisory messages with recommended corrective actions.
Automatically Clearing Faults
You can automatically clear a fault when cycling power to the controller by setting
either one or both of the following status bits in the status file:
!
•
Fault Override at Powerup bit (S:1/8)
•
Run Always bit (S:1/12)
ATTENTION: Clearing a fault using the Run Always bit (S:1/12) causes the
controller to immediately enter the REM Run mode. Make sure you fully
understand the use of this bit before incorporating it into your program. Refer to
page B-8 for more information.
Refer to appendix B for more information on status bits.
Note:
You can declare your own application-specific major fault by writing
your own unique value to S:6 and then setting bit S:1/13 to prevent
reusing system defined codes. The recommended values for user defined
faults is FF00 to FF0F.
Manually Clearing Faults Using the Fault Routine
The occurrence of recoverable or non-recoverable user faults causes file 3 to be
executed. If the fault is recoverable, the subroutine can be used to correct the problem
and clear the fault bit S:1/13. The controller then continues in the REM Run mode.
The subroutine does not execute for non-user faults. The user-fault routine is
discussed in chapter 4.
14-6
Troubleshooting Your System
Fault Messages
Error
Code
(Hex)
Advisory
Message
Description
Recommended Action
• Re-download the program and
enter the REM Run mode.
• Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists.
0001
DEFAULT
PROGRAM
LOADED
The default program is loaded to the
controller memory. This occurs:
• on power up if the power down occurred
in the middle of a download
• if the user program is corrupt at power
up, the default program is loaded.
0002
UNEXPECTED
RESET
The controller was unexpectedly reset due • Refer to proper grounding
guidelines in chapter 2.
to a noisy environment or internal hardware
failure. If the user program downloaded to • Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists.
the controller is valid, the initial data
downloaded with the program is used. The
Retentive Data Lost Bit (S:5/8) is set. If the
user program is invalid, the default program
is loaded.
0003
EEPROM
MEMORY IS
CORRUPT
While power cycling to your controller, a
noise problem may have occurred. Your
program may be valid, but retentive data
will be lost.
• Try cycling power again.
• Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists.
0004
RUNTIME
MEMORY
INTEGRITY
ERROR
While the controller was in the RUN mode
or any test mode, the ROM or RAM
became corrupt. If the user program is
valid, the program and initial data
downloaded to the controller is used and
the Retentive Data Lost Bit (S:5/8) is set. If
the user program is invalid, error 0003
occurs.
• Cycle power on your unit.
• Download your program and reinitialize any necessary data.
• Start up your system.
• Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists.
14-7
Troubleshooting
This section contains fault messages that can occur during operation of the
MicroLogix 1000 programmable controllers. Each table lists the error code
description, the probable cause, and the recommended corrective action.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Error
Code
(Hex)
Advisory
Message
Description
Recommended Action
0005
RETENTIVE
The data files (input, output, timer, counter,
DATA HAS BEEN integer, binary, control, and status) are
LOST
corrupt.
• Cycle power on your unit.
• Download your program and reinitialize any necessary data.
• Start up your system.
• Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists.
0008
FATAL
INTERNAL
SOFTWARE
ERROR
The controller software has detected an
invalid condition within the hardware or
software after completing power-up
processing (after the first 2 seconds of
operation).
• Cycle power on your unit.
• Download your program and reinitialize any necessary data.
• Start up your system.
• Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists.
0009
FATAL
INTERNAL
HARDWARE
ERROR
The controller software has detected an
invalid condition within the hardware during
power-up processing (within the first 2
seconds of operation).
• Cycle power on your unit.
• Download your program and reinitialize any necessary data.
• Start up your system.
• Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists.
0010
INCOMPATIBLE
PROCESSOR
The downloaded program is not configured
for a micro controller.
If you want to use a micro controller
with the program, reconfigure your
controller with your programming
software (choose Bul. 1761).
0016
STARTUP
PROTECTION
AFTER
POWERLOSS;
S:1/9 IS SET
The system has powered up in the REM
Run mode. Bit S:1/13 is set and the userfault routine is run before beginning the first
scan of the program.
• Either reset bit S:1/9 if this is
consistent with your application
requirements, and change the
mode back to REM Run, or
• clear S:1/13, the major fault bit.
0018
USER
PROGRAM IS
INCOMPATIBLE
WITH
OPERATING
SYSTEM
An incompatible program was downloaded.
Either the program does not have the
correct number of files or it does not have
the correct size data files. The default
program is loaded.
• Check the configuration and make
sure the correct processor is
selected.
• If you want to use a micro
controller with the program,
reconfigure your controller with
your programming software
(choose Bul. 1761).
14-8
Troubleshooting Your System
Advisory
Message
Description
Recommended Action
0020
MINOR ERROR
AT END OF
SCAN, SEE S:5
A minor fault bit (bits 0-7) in S:5 was set at
the end of scan.
• Enter the status file display and
clear the fault.
• Return to the REM Run mode.
0022
WATCHDOG
TIMER
EXPIRED, SEE
S:3
The program scan time exceeded the
watchdog timeout value (S:3H).
• Verify if the program is caught in a
loop and correct the problem.
• Increase the watchdog timeout
value in the status file.
0024
INVALID STI
INTERRUPT
SETPOINT, SEE
S:30
An invalid STI interval exists (not between 0 Set the STI interval between the
and 255).
values of 0 and 255.
0025
TOO MANY
JSRs IN STI
SUBROUTINE
There are more than 3 subroutines nested
in the STI subroutine (file 5).
• Correct the user program to meet
the requirements and restrictions
for the JSR instruction.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
0027
TOO MANY
JSRs IN FAULT
SUBROUTINE
There are more than 3 subroutines nested
in the fault routine (file 3).
• Correct the user program to meet
the requirements and restrictions
for the JSR instruction.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
002A
INDEXED
ADDRESS TOO
LARGE FOR
FILE
The program is referencing through indexed Correct the user program to not go
addressing an element beyond a file
beyond file boundaries.
boundary.
002B
TOO MANY
JSRs IN HSC
There are more than 3 subroutines nested
in the high-speed counter routine (file 4).
• Correct the user program to meet
the requirements and restrictions
for the JSR instruction.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
0030
SUBROUTINE
NESTING
EXCEEDS LIMIT
OF 8
There are more than 8 subroutines nested
in the main program file (file 2).
• Correct the user program to meet
the requirements and restrictions
for the main program file.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
14-9
Troubleshooting
Error
Code
(Hex)
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Error
Code
(Hex)
Advisory
Message
Description
Recommended Action
0031
UNSUPPORTED The program contains an instruction(s) that
INSTRUCTION
is not supported by the micro controller.
DETECTED
For example SVC or PID.
0032
SQO/SQC
A sequencer instruction length/position
• Correct the program to ensure that
the length and position
CROSSED DATA parameter points past the end of a data file.
parameters do not point past the
FILE
data file.
BOUNDARIES
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
0033
BSL/BSR/FFL/
The length parameter of a BSL, BSR, FFL,
FFU/LFL/LFU
FFU, LFL, or LFU instruction points past
CROSSED DATA the end of a data file.
FILE
BOUNDARIES
• Correct the program to ensure that
the length parameter does not
point past the data file.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
0034
NEGATIVE
VALUE IN
TIMER PRESET
OR
ACCUMULATOR
A negative value was loaded to a timer
preset or accumulator.
• If the program is moving values to
the accumulated or preset word of
a timer, make certain these values
are not negative.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
0035
ILLEGAL
INSTRUCTION
(TND) IN
INTERRUPT
FILE
The program contains a Temporary End
(TND) instruction in file 3, 4, or 5 when it is
being used as an interrupt subroutine.
• Correct the program.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
0037
INVALID
PRESETS
LOADED TO
HIGH-SPEED
COUNTER
Either a zero (0) or a negative high preset
was loaded to counter (C5:0) when the
HSC was an Up counter or the high preset
was lower than or equal to the low preset
when the HSC was a Bidirectional counter.
• Check to make sure the presets
are valid.
• Correct the program, reload, and
enter the REM Run mode.
14-10
• Modify the program so that all
instructions are supported by the
controller.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
Troubleshooting Your System
Advisory
Message
Description
Recommended Action
0038
SUBROUTINE
RETURN
INSTRUCTION
(RET) IN
PROGRAM FILE
2
A RET instruction is in the main program
file (file 2).
• Remove the RET instruction.
• Reload the program and enter the
REM Run mode.
0040
OUTPUT
VERIFY WRITE
FAILURE
When outputs were written and read back
by the controller, the read failed. This may
have been caused by noise.
• Refer to proper grounding
guidelines in chapter 2.
• Start up your system.
• Contact your local Allen-Bradley
representative if the error persists.
0041➀
EXTRA OUTPUT An extra output bit was set when the Extra
BIT(S) TURNED Output Select (S:0/8) bit in the status file
ON
was reset. For 16-point controllers this
includes bits 6-15. For 32-point controllers
this includes bits 12-15.
➀
• Set S:0/8 or change your
application to prevent these bits
from being turned on.
• Correct the program, reload, and
enter the REM Run mode.
Valid for Series A - C discrete only.
Calling Allen-Bradley for Assistance
If you need to contact Allen-Bradley or local distributor for assistance, it is helpful to
obtain the following (prior to calling):
•
controller type, series letter, firmware (FRN) number (on controller’s side label)
•
controller LED status
•
controller error codes (found in S:6 of status file)
14-11
Troubleshooting
Error
Code
(Hex)
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
A
Hardware Reference
This appendix lists the controller:
•
specifications
•
dimensions
•
replacement parts
For AIC+ specifications, see the Advanced Interface Converter (AIC+) and
DeviceNet Interface (DNI) Installation Instructions, Publication 1761–5.11.
A-1
Hardware Reference
Controller Specifications
Controller Types
Catalog Number
Description
10 pt. ac input, 6 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L32AWA
20 pt. ac input, 12 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L20AWA–5A
12 pt. ac input, 4 pt. analog input, 8 pt. relay output, 1 pt. analog output, ac
power supply controller
1761–L10BWA
6 pt. dc input, 4 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L16BWA
10 pt. dc input, 6 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L20BWA–5A
12 pt. dc input, 4 pt. analog input, 8 pt. relay output, 1 pt. analog output, ac
power supply controller
1761–L32BWA
20 pt. dc input, 12 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L10BWB
6 pt. dc input, 4 pt. relay output, dc power supply controller
1761–L16BWB
10 pt. dc input, 6 pt. relay output, dc power supply controller
1761–L20BWB–5A
12 pt. dc input, 4 pt. analog input, 8 pt. relay output, 1 pt. analog output, dc
power supply controller
1761–L32BWB
20 pt. dc input, 12 pt. relay output, dc power supply controller
1761–L16BBB
10 pt. dc input, 4 pt. FET and 2 pt. relay outputs, dc power supply controller
1761–L32BBB
20 pt. dc input, 10 pt. FET and 2 pt. relay outputs, dc power supply
controller
1761–L32AAA
20 pt. ac input, 10 pt. triac and 2 pt. relay outputs, ac power supply
controller
Reference
1761–L16AWA
A-2
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
General Specifications
Description:
Specification: 1761-L
16AWA 20AWA-5A 32AWA 10BWA 16BWA 20BWA-5A 32BWA 32AAA 16BBB 10BWB 16BWB 20BWB-5A 32BWB 32BBB
Memory Size/Type
1 K EEPROM (approximately 737 instruction words: 437 data words)
Power Supply
Voltage
85-264V ac, 47-63 Hz
Power
Supply
Usage
120V ac
15 VA
20 VA
19 VA
24 VA
26 VA
30VA
29 VA
16 VA
240V ac
21 VA
27 VA
25 VA
32 VA
33 VA
38 VA
36 VA
22 VA
24V dc
Not Applicable
20.4-26.4V dc
Power Supply Max. 30A for 8ms
Not Applicable
5W
10W
7W
30A for 4 ms
50A for 4
ms
30A for 4 ms
Inrush Current➀
24V dc Sensor
Not Applicable
Power (V dc at mA)
200 mA
Max Capacitive
Load (User 24V dc)
200 µF
Not Applicable
Power Cycles
50,000 minimum
Operating Temp.
Horizontal mounting: 0°C to +55°C (+32°F to +131°F) for horizontal mounting
Vertical mounting➁: 0°C to +45°C (+32°F to + 113°F) for discrete; 0°C to +40°C (+32°F to +104°F) for analog
Storage Temp.
-40°C to +85°C (-40°F to +185°F)
Operating Humidity 5 to 95% noncondensing
Vibration
Operating: 5 Hz to 2k Hz, 0.381 mm (0.015 in.) peak to peak/2.5g panel mounted,➂ 1hr per axis
Non-operating: 5 Hz to 2k Hz, 0.762 mm (0.030 in.) peak to peak/5g, 1hr per axis
Shock➃
Operating: 10g peak acceleration (7.5g DIN rail mounted)➄ (11±1 ms duration) 3 times each direction, each axis
Non-operating: 20g peak acceleration (11±1 ms duration), 3 times each direction, each axis
Agency Certification •
•
(when product or
•
packaging is
marked)
Terminal Screw
Torque
➀
➁
➂
➃
➄
C-UL Class I, Division 2 Groups A, B, C, D certified
UL listed (Class I, Division 2 Groups A, B, C, D certified)
CE/RCM/EAC compliant for all applicable directives
0.9 N-m maximum (8.0 in.-lbs)
Refer to page 1-12 for additional information on power supply inrush.
DC input voltage derated linearly from 30°C (30V to 26.4V).
DIN rail mounted controller is 1g.
Refer to page 1-18 for vertical mounting specifications.
Relays are derated an additional 2.5g on 32 pt. controllers.
A-3
Hardware Reference
Description:
Specification: 1761-L
16AWA 20AWA-5A 32AWA 10BWA 16BWA 20BWA-5A 32BWA 32AAA 16BBB 10BWB 16BWB 20BWB-5A 32BWB 32BBB
Electrostatic
Discharge
IEC801-2 @ 8K V Discrete I/O
4K V Contact, 8k V Air for Analog I/O
Radiated
Susceptibility
IEC801-3 @10V/m, 27 Hz - 1000 MHz except for
3V/m, 87 MHz - 108 MHz, 174 MHz - 230 MHz and 470 MHz - 790 MHz
Fast Transient
IEC801-4 @ 2K V Power Supply, I/O; 1K V Comms
Isolation
1500V ac
Refer to page 1-12 for additional information on power supply inrush.
DC input voltage derated linearly from 30°C (30V to 26.4V).
DIN rail mounted controller is 1g.
Refer to page 1-18 for vertical mounting specifications.
Relays are derated an additional 2.5g on 32 pt. controllers.
Input Specifications
Description
Specification
100–120V ac Controllers
24V dc Controllers
Voltage
Range
79 to132V ac
47 to 63 Hz
14 to 30V dc
On Voltage
79V ac min.
132V ac max.
14V dc min.
24V dc nominal
26.4V dc max. @ 55°C (131°F)
30.0V dc max. @ 30°C (86°F)
Off Voltage
20V ac
5V dc
On Current
5.0 mA min. @ 79V ac 47 Hz
12.0 mA nominal @ 120V ac 60 Hz
16.0 mA max. @ 132V ac 63 Hz
2.5 mA min. @ 14V dc
8.0 mA nominal @ 24V dc
12.0 mA max. @ 30V dc
Off Current
2.5 mA max.
1.5 mA max.
Nominal
Impedance
12K ohms @ 50 Hz
10K ohms @ 60 Hz
3K ohms
Inrush
Maximum
250 mA max.➀
Not Applicable
➀
Reference
➀
➁
➂
➃
➄
To reduce the inrush maximum to 35 mA, apply a 6.8K ohm, 5w resistor in series with the input. The
on-state voltage increases to 92V ac as a result.
A-4
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
dc Input Derating Graph
30
25
20
15
V dc
10
5
0
20
30
40
50
(68°)
(86°)
(104°)
(122°)
10
0
(50°)
(32°)
60
(140°)
General Output Specifications
Type
Relay
MOSFET
Triac
Voltage
See Wiring Diagrams, page 2-8.
Maximum Load
Current
Refer to the Relay
Contact Rating
Table.
1.0A per point @ 55° C (131° F)
1.5A per point @ 30° C (86° F)
0.5A per point @ 55° C (131° F)
1.0A per point @ 30° C (86° F)
Minimum Load
Current
10.0 mA
1 mA
10.0 mA
Current per Controller
1440 VA
3A for L16BBB
6A for L32BBB
1440 VA
Current per Common
8.0A
3A for L16BBB
6A for L32BBB
Not Applicable
Maximum Off State
Leakage Current
0 mA
1 mA
2 mA @ 132V ac
4.5 mA @ 264V ac
➀
A-5
Repeatability is once every 2 seconds at 55° C (131° F).
Hardware Reference
Type
Relay
MOSFET
Triac
Off to On Response
10 ms max.
0.1 ms
8.8 ms @ 60 Hz
10.6 ms @ 50 Hz
On to Off Response
10 ms max.
1 ms
11.0 ms
Surge Current per
Point
Not Applicable
4A for 10 ms➀
10A for 25 ms➀
Relay life – Electrical
Refer to Relay Life
Chart
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Relay life –
Mechanical
20,000,000 cycles
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
➀
Repeatability is once every 2 seconds at 55° C (131° F).
Relay Life Chart
300
100
250-VAC/30-VDC resistive load
50
30
10
5 250-VAC/30 VDC inductive load
(cosφ=0.4/ L/R=7 ms)
3
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Reference
Number of operations (x 104)
500
Switching capacity(A)
A-6
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Relay Contact Rating Table (applies to all Bulletin 1761 controllers)
Amperes
Maximum
Volts
Break
240V ac
7.5A
0.75A
120V ac
15A
1.5A
125V dc
24V dc
➀
!
Make
Amperes
Continuous
per Point
Voltamperes
Make
2.5A
1800 VA
0.22A➀
1.0A
28 VA
1.2A➀
2.0A
28 VA
Break
180 VA
For dc voltage applications, the make/break ampere rating for relay contacts can be determined by
dividing 28 VA by the applied dc voltage. For example, 28 VA ÷ 48V dc = 0.58A. For dc voltage
applications less than 48V, the make/break ratings for relay contacts cannot exceed 2A. For dc voltage
applications greater than 48V, the make/break ratings for relay contacts cannot exceed 1A
ATTENTION: Do not exceed the “Current per common” specification.
Analog Input Specifications
Description
Voltage Input Range
-10.5 to +10.5V dc - 1LSB
Current Input Range
-21 to +21 mA - 1LSB
Type of Data
16-bit signed integer
Input Coding -21 to +21 mA - 1LSB, -10.5 to +10.5V dc - 1LSB
-32,768 to +32,767
Voltage Input Impedance
210K Ω
Current Input Impedance
160 Ω
Input Resolution➀
16 bit
Non-linearity
< 0.002%
➀
A-7
Specification
The analog input update rate and input resolution are a function of the input filter selection. For additional information, see
page 5-3.
Hardware Reference
Description
Specification
Overall Accuracy 0°C to +55°C
±0.7% of full scale
Overall Accuracy Drift 0°C to +55°C (max.)
±0.176%
Overall Accuracy at +25°C (+77°F) (max.)
±0.525%
Voltage Input Overvoltage Protection
24V dc
Current Input Overcurrent Protection
±50 mA
Input to Output Isolation
Field Wiring to Logic Isolation
➀
30V rated working/500V test 60 Hz/1s
The analog input update rate and input resolution are a function of the input filter selection. For additional information, see
page 5-3.
Analog Output Specifications
Specification
Voltage Output Range
0 to 10V dc -1LSB
Current Output Range
4 to 20 mA - 1LSB
Type of Data
16-bit signed integer
Non-linearity
0.02%
Step Response
2.5 ms (at 95%)
Load Range - Voltage Output
1K Ω to ∞ Ω
Load Range - Current Output
0 to 500 Ω
Output Coding 4 to 20 mA - 1 LSB, 0 to 10Vdc - 1LSB
0 to 32,767
Voltage Output Miswiring
can withstand short circuit
Current Output Miswiring
can withstand short circuit
Output Resolution
15 bit
Analog Output Settling Time
3 msec (maximum)
Overall Accuracy 0°C to +55°C
±1.0% of full scale
Overall Accuracy Drift 0°C to +55°C (max.)
±0.28%
Overall Accuracy at +25°C (+77°F) (max.) - Current Output
0.2%
Field Wiring to Logic Isolation
30V rated working/500V isolation
Reference
Description
A-8
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Input Filter Response Times (Discrete)
The input filter response time is the time from when the external input voltage reaches
an on or off state to when the micro controller recognizes that change of state. The
higher you set the response time, the longer it takes for the input state change to reach
the micro controller. However, setting higher response times also provides better
filtering of high frequency noise.
You can apply a unique input filter setting to each of the three input groups:
•
0 and 1
•
2 and 3
•
4 to x; where x=9 for 16 I/O point controllers, and x=19 for 32 I/O point
controllers
The minimum and maximum response times associated with each input filter setting
can be found in the tables that follow.
Response Times for High-Speed dc Inputs 0 to 3 (applies to 1761-L10BWA, 1761-L16BWA, L20BWA-5A, -L32BWA, -L10BWB, -L16BWB, -L20BWB-5A, -L32BWB, -L16BBB, and
-L32BBB controllers)
Maximum High-Speed
Counter Frequency
@ 50% Duty Cycle (Khz)
Nominal Filter
Setting (ms)
Maximum ON
Delay (ms)
Maximum OFF
Delay (ms)
6.600
0.075
0.075
0.075
5.000
0.100
0.100
0.100
2.000
0.250
0.250
0.250
1.000
0.500
0.500
0.500
0.500
1.000
1.000
1.000
0.200
2.000
2.000
2.000
0.125
4.000
4.000
4.000
0.062
8.000➀
8.000
8.000
0.031
16.000
16.000
16.000
➀
A-9
This is the default setting.
Hardware Reference
Response Times for dc Inputs 4 and Above (applies to 1761-L10BWA, 1761-L16BWA,
-L20BWA-5A, -L32BWA, -L10BWB, -L16BWB, -L20BWB-5A, -L32BWB, -L16BBB, and
-L32BBB controllers)
Nominal Filter
Setting (ms)
Maximum ON
Delay (ms)
Maximum OFF
Delay (ms)
0.50
0.500
0.500
1.00
1.00
1.000
2.00
2.000
2.000
4.00
4.000
4.000
8.00➀
8.000
8.000
16.00
16.000
16.000
➀
This is the default setting.
Response Times for ac Inputs (applies to 1761-L16AWA, -L20AWA-5A, -L32AWA, and
-L32AAA controllers)
Nominal Filter
Setting (ms)➀
➀
20.0
Maximum OFF
Delay (ms)
20.0
There is only one filter setting available for the ac inputs. If you make
another selection the controller changes it to the ac setting and sets the
input filter modified bit (S:5/13).
Reference
8.0
Maximum ON
Delay (ms)
A-10
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Controller Dimensions
Refer to the following table for the controller dimensions.
Controller: 1761- Length: mm (in.) Depth: mm (in.)➀ Height: mm (in.)
L10BWA
120 (4.72)
L16AWA
133 (5.24)
L16BWA
120 (4.72)
L20AWA-5A
73 (2.87)
L20BWA-5A
L32AWA
200 (7.87)
L32BWA
80 (3.15)
L32AAA
L10BWB
L16BBB
120 (4.72)
L16BWB
40 (1.57)
L20BWB-5A
L32BBB
200 (7.87)
L32BWB
➀
Add approximately 13 mm (0.51 in.) when using the 1761-CBL-PM02 or 1761CBL-HM02 communication cables.
For a template to help you install your controller, see the MicroLogix 1000
Programmable Controllers Installation Instructions, publication 1761–5.1.2 or the
MicroLogix 1000 (Analog) Programmable Controllers Installation Instructions,
publication 1761–5.1.3 that were shipped with your controller.
A-11
Hardware Reference
Replacement Parts
Description
Catalog Number
10 pt. ac input, 6 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L16AWA
12 pt. ac and 4 pt. analog inputs, 8 pt. relay and 1 pt. analog outputs, ac
power supply controller
1761–L20AWA–5A
20 pt. ac input, 12 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L32AWA
6 pt. dc input, 4 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L10BWA
10 pt. dc input, 6 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L16BWA
12 pt. dc and 4 pt. analog inputs, 8 pt. relay and 1 pt. analog outputs, ac
power supply controller
1761–L20BWA–5A
20 pt. dc input, 12 pt. relay output, ac power supply controller
1761–L32BWA
6 pt. dc input, 4 pt. relay output, dc power supply controller
1761–L10BWB
10 pt. dc input, 6 pt. relay output, dc power supply controller
1761–L16BWB
12 pt. dc and 4 pt. analog inputs, 8 pt. relay and 1 pt. analog outputs, dc
power supply controller
1761–L20BWB–5A
20 pt. dc input, 12 pt. relay output, dc power supply controller
1761–L32BWB
10 pt. dc input, 4 pt. FET and 2 pt. relay outputs, dc power supply controller
1761–L16BBB
20 pt. dc input, 10 pt. FET and 2 pt. relay outputs, dc power supply controller 1761–L32BBB
Terminal doors for -L16AWA (2 doors per package)
1761–RPL–T16A
Terminal doors for -L16BWA (2 doors per package)
1761–RPL–T16B
Terminal doors for -L32AWA, -L32BWA, or -L32AAA (2 doors per package)
1761–RPL–T32X
Communications door (1 door per package)
1761–RPL–COM
DIN rail latches (2 per package)
1761–RPL–DIN
2.00 m (6.56 ft) cable (DIN-to-DIN) for use with the MicroLogix 1000 HHP
1761–CBL–HM02
Hand-Held Programmer (includes 1761–CBL–HM02 communication cable)
1761–HHP–B30
Memory module for 1761–HHP–B30 (stores 1 program)
1761–HHM–K08
Memory module for 1761–HHP–B30 (stores 8 programs)
1761–HHM–K64
Memory module door for 1761–HHP–B30 (1 door per package)
1761–RPL–TRM
Reference
20 pt. ac input, 10 pt. triac and 2 pt. relay outputs, ac power supply controller 1761–L32AAA
A-12
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
A-13
Programming Reference
B
Programming Reference
This appendix lists the:
•
anterior status file
•
instruction execution times and instruction memory usage
Controller Status File
The status file lets you monitor how your operating system works and lets you direct
how you want it to work. This is done by using the status file to set up control bits
and monitor both hardware and programming device faults and other status
information.
Do not write to reserved words in the status file. If you intend writing to
status file data, it is imperative that you first understand that function
fully.
Reference
Note:
B-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
The status file S: contains the following words:
Word
B-2
Function
Page
S:0
Arithmetic Flags
B-3
S:1L (low byte)
Controller Mode Status/Control (low)
B-5
S:1H (high byte)
Controller Mode Status/Control (Hi)
B-5
S:2L (low byte)
Controller Alternate Mode Status/Control (low)
B-8
S:2H (high byte)
Controller Alternate Mode Status/Control (Hi)
B-8
S:3L (low byte)
Current Scan Time
B-11
S:3H (high byte)
Watchdog Scan Time
B-11
S:4
Timebase
B-12
S:5
Minor Error Bits
B-12
S:6
Major Error Code
B-20
S:7
Suspend Code
B-22
S:8 to S:12
Reserved
B-22
S:13, S:14
Math Register
B-22
S:15L (low byte)
DF1 Full or Half–Duplex Node Address
B-23
S:15H (high byte) DF1 Full or Half–Duplex Baud Rate
B-23
S:16L (low byte)
B-23
DH–485 Node Address
S:16H (high byte) DH–485 Baud Rate
B-23
S:17 to S:21
Reserved
B-23
S:22
Maximum Observed Scan Time
B-24
S:23
Reserved
B-24
S:24
Index Register
B-24
S:25 to S:29
Reserved
B-24
S:30
STI Setpoint
B-24
S:31 and S:32
Reserved
B-24
Programming Reference
Status File Descriptions
The following tables describe the status file functions, beginning at address S:0 and
ending at address S:32.
Each status bit is classified as one of the following:
•
Status - Use these words, bytes, or bits to monitor controller operation or
controller status information. The information is seldom written to by the user
program or programming device (unless you want to reset or clear a function such
as a monitor bit).
•
Dynamic Configuration - Use these words, bytes, or bits to select controller
options while online with the controller.
•
Static Configuration - Use these words, bytes, or bits to select controller options
while in the offline program mode, prior to downloading the user program.
Bit
S:0
Arithmetic and Scan
Status Flags
S:0/0
Carry
➀
NA
Classification
Description
The arithmetic flags are assessed by the
controller following the execution of certain
math and data handling instructions. The
state of these bits remain in effect until certain
math or data handling instructions in the
program are executed.
Status
This bit is set by the controller if a
mathematical carry or borrow is generated.
Otherwise the bit remains cleared. This bit is
assessed as if a function of unsigned math.
When a STI, high–speed counter, or Fault
Routine interrupts normal execution of your
program, the original value of S:0/0 is restored
when execution resumes.
Reference
Address
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
B-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
Bit
Classification
Description
S:0/1
Overflow
Status
This bit is set by the controller when the result
of a mathematical operation does not fit in its
destination. Otherwise the bit remains
cleared. Whenever this bit is set, the overflow
trap bit S:5/0 is also set except for the ENC bit.
Refer to S:5/0. When a STI, high–speed
counter, or Fault Routine interrupts normal
execution of your program, the original value
of S:0/1 is restored when execution resumes.
S:0/2
Zero
Status
This bit is set by the controller when the result
of certain math or data handling instructions is
zero. Otherwise the bit remains cleared.
When a STI, high–speed counter, or Fault
Routine interrupts normal execution of your
program, the original value of S:0/2 is restored
when execution resumes.
S:0/3
Sign
Status
This bit is set by the controller when the result
of certain math or data handling instructions is
negative. Otherwise the bit remains cleared.
When a STI, high–speed counter, or Fault
Routine interrupts normal execution of your
program, the original value of S:0/3 is restored
when execution resumes.
S:0/4 to S:0/7
Reserved
NA
NA
S:0/8➀
Extend I/O
Configuration
Static Configuration
This bit must be set by the user when unused
outputs are written to. If reset and unused
outputs are turned on the controller will fault
(41H).
S:0/9
Reserved
NA
NA
S:0/10
Primary Protocol
Static Configuration
This bit defines the protocol that the controller
will initially use when attempting to establish
communication, where:
0 = DF1 (default setting)
1 = DH–485
➀
NA
B-4
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Programming Reference
Address
Bit
Classification
Description
S:0/11
Active Protocol
Status
This bit is updated by the controller during a
protocol switch. It indicates which protocol is
currently being used for communication,
where:
0 = DF1
1 = DH–485
S:0/12
Selected DF1
Protocol
Status
This bit allows the user to determine which
DF1 protocol is configured, where:
0 = DF1 Full–Duplex (default setting)
1 = DF1 Half–Duplex Slave
S:0/13 to S:0/15
Reserved
NA
NA
S:1/0 to S:1/4
Controller Mode
Status/ Control
Status
Bits 0-4 function as follows:
0 0000 = (0) Remote Download in progress
0 0001 = (1) Remote Program mode
0 0011 = (3) Suspend Idle (operation halted by
SUS instruction execution)
0 0110 = (6) Remote Run mode
0 0111 = (7) Remote Test continuous mode
0 1000 = (8) Remote Test single scan mode
S:1/5
Forces Enabled
Status
This bit is set by the controller (1) to indicate
that forces are always enabled.
S:1/6
Forces Installed
Status
This bit is set by the controller to indicate that
forces have been set by the user.
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Reference
➀
NA
B-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
S:1/7
Bit
Comms Active
Classification
Status
Description
This bit is set when the controller receives
valid data from the communication port. For
DF1 protocols, the bit is reset if the controller
does not receive valid data from the
programming port for 10 seconds.
Note: In DF1 half–duplex mode, simple polls
by the DF1 master or replies to received
messages will not reset the timer. A poll with
a command is required to reset the timer.
For DH–485, the bit is reset as soon as the
DH–485 link layer determines that no other
devices are active on the link.
Application Note: For DF1 half–duplex, you
can use this bit to enable a timer (via an XIO
instruction) to sense whether the DF1 master
is actively communicating to the slave. The
preset of the timer is determined by the total
network timing.
S:1/8
➀
NA
B-6
Fault Override at
Powerup
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Static Configuration
When set, this bit causes the controller to
clear the Major Error Halted bit S:1/13 and
Minor error bits S:5/0 to S:5/7 on power up if
the processor had previously been in the REM
Run mode and had faulted. The controller
then attempts to enter the REM Run mode.
Set this bit offline only.
Programming Reference
Address
S:1/9
Bit
Startup Protection
Fault
Classification
Static Configuration
Description
When this bit is set and power is cycled while
the controller is in the REM Run mode, the
controller executes the user–fault routine prior
to the execution of the first scan of your
program. You have the option of clearing the
Major Error Halted bit S:1/13 to resume
operation in the REM Run mode. If the user–
fault routine does not reset bit S:1/13, the fault
mode results.
Program the user–fault routine logic
accordingly. When executing the startup
protection fault routine, S:6 (major error fault
code) will contain the value 0016H.
S:1/10 to S:1/11
NA
NA
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Reference
➀
NA
Reserved
B-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
S:1/12
Bit
Run Always
Classification
Static Configuration
Description
When set, this bit causes the controller to
clear S:1/13 before attempting to enter RUN
mode when power is applied or if an
unexpected reset occurs. If this bit is not set,
the controller powers up in the previous mode
it was in before losing power, unless the
controller was in REM test mode. If the
controller was in REM test mode when power
was removed, the controller enters REM
program mode when power is applied.
This bit overrides any faults existing at power
down.
Setting the Run Always bit causes the
controller to enter the REM Run mode if an
unexpected reset occurs, regardless of the
mode that the controller is in before the reset
occurred. Unexpected resets may occur due
to electromagnetic noise, improper grounding,
or an internal controller hardware failure.
Make sure your application is designed to
safely handle this situation
➀
NA
B-8
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Programming Reference
S:1/13
➀
NA
Bit
Major Error Halted
Classification
Dynamic
Configuration
Description
This bit is set by the controller any time a
major error is encountered. The controller
enters a fault condition. Word S:6, the Fault
Code will contain a code that can be used to
diagnose the fault condition. Any time bit S:1/
13 is set, the controller:
• either places all outputs in a safe state
(outputs are off) and energizes the fault
LED,
• or enters the user–fault routine with outputs
active (if in REM Run mode), allowing the
fault routine ladder logic to attempt
recovery from the fault condition. If the
user–fault routine determines that recovery
is required, clear S:1/13 using ladder
logic prior to exiting the fault routine. If the
fault routine ladder logic does not
understand the fault code, or if the routine
determines that it is not desirable to
continue operation, the controller exits the
fault routine with bit S:1/13 set. The
outputs are placed in a safe state and the
FAULT LED is energized.
When you clear bit S:1/13 using a
programming device, the controller mode
changes from fault to Remote Program. You
can move a value to S:6, then set S:1/13 in
your ladder program to generate an
application specific major error. All application
generated faults are recoverable regardless of
the value used.
Note: Once a major fault state exists, you
must correct the condition causing the fault,
and you must also clear this bit in order for the
controller to accept a mode change attempt
(into REM Run or REM Test). Also, clear S:6
to avoid the confusion of having an error code
but no fault condition.
Note: Do not re-use error codes that are
defined later in this appendix as application
specific error codes. Instead, create your own
unique codes. This prevents you from
confusing application errors with system
errors. We recommend using error codes
FFOO to FFOF to indicate application specific
major errors.
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
B-9
Reference
Address
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
S:1/14
Bit
OEM Lock
Classification
Static Configuration
Description
Using this bit you can control access to a
controller file.
To program this feature, select “Future Access
Disallow” when saving your program.
When this bit is cleared, it indicates that any
compatible programming device can access
the ladder program (provided that password
conditions are satisfied).
S:1/15
First Pass
Status
Use this bit to initialize your program as the
application requires. When this bit is set by
the controller, it indicates that the first scan of
the user program is in progress (following
power up in the RUN mode or entry into a
REM Run or REM Test mode). The controller
clears this bit following the first scan.
This bit is set during execution of the startup
protection fault routine. Refer to S:1/9 for
more information.
S:2/0
➀
NA
B-10
STI Pending
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Status
When set, this bit indicates that the STI timer
has timed out and the STI routine is waiting to
be executed. This bit is cleared upon starting
the STI routine, ladder program, exit of the
REM Run or Test mode, or execution of a true
STS instruction.
Programming Reference
Address
S:2/1
Bit
STI Enabled
Classification
Status and Static
Configuration
Description
This bit may be set or reset using the STS,
STE, or STD instruction. If set, it allows
execution of the STI if the STI setpoint S:30 is
non–zero. If clear, when an interrupt occurs,
the STI subroutine does not execute and the
STI Pending bit is set. The STI Timer
continues to run when this bit is disabled. The
STD instruction clears this bit.
S:2/2
STI Executing
Status
When set, this bit indicates that the STI timer
has timed out and the STI subroutine is
currently being executed. This bit is cleared
upon completion of the STI routine, ladder
program, or REM Run or Test mode.
S:2/3 to S:2/4
Reserved
NA
NA
S:2/5➀
Incoming Command
Pending Bit
Status
This bit is set when the processor determines
that another node on the network has
requested information or supplied a command
to it. This bit can be set at any time. This bit is
cleared when the processor services the
request (or command).
S:2/6➀
Message Reply
Pending Bit
Status
This bit is set when another node on the
network has supplied the information you
requested in the MSG instruction of your
processor. This bit is cleared when the
processor stores the information and updates
your MSG instruction.
➀
NA
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
B-11
Reference
If this bit is set or reset editing the status file
online, the STI is not affected. If this bit is set,
the bit allows execution of the STI. If this bit is
reset editing the status file offline, the bit
disallows execution of the STI.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
Bit
Classification
Description
S:2/7➀
Outgoing Message
Command Pending
Bit
Status
This bit is set when one or more messages in
your program are enabled and waiting, but no
message is being transmitted at the time. As
soon as transmission of a message begins,
the bit is cleared. After transmission, the bit is
set again if there are further messages
waiting. It remains cleared if there are no
further messages waiting.
S:2/8 to S:2/13
Reserved
NA
NA
➀
NA
B-12
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Programming Reference
Address
S:2/14
Bit
Math Overflow
Selection
Classification
Dynamic
Configuration
Description
Set this bit when you intend to use 32–bit
addition and subtraction. When S:2/14 is set,
and the result of an ADD, SUB, MUL, or DIV
instruction cannot be represented in the
destination address (underflow or overflow),
• the overflow bit S:0/1 is set,
• the overflow trap bit S:5/0 is set,
• and the destination address contains the
unsigned truncated least significant 16 bits
of the result.
The default condition of S:2/14 is reset (0).
When S:2/14 is reset, and the result of an
ADD, SUB, MUL, or DIV instruction cannot be
represented in the destination address
(underflow or overflow),
• the overflow bit S:0/1 is set,
• the overflow trap bit S:5/0 is set,
• and the destination address contains
32767 if the result is positive or - 32768 if
the result is negative.
Note, the status of bit S:2/14 has no effect on
the DDV instruction. Also, it has no effect on
the math register content when using MUL
and DIV instructions.
S:2/15
➀
NA
Reserved
NA
Reference
To provide protection from inadvertent
alteration of your selection, program an
unconditional OTL instruction at address S:2/
14 to ensure the new math overflow operation.
Program an unconditional OTU instruction at
address S:2/14 to ensure the original math
overflow operation.
NA
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
B-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
S:3L
Bit
Current Scan Time
Classification
Status
Description
The value of this byte tells you how much time
elapses in a program cycle. A program cycle
includes:
• scanning the ladder program,
• housekeeping,
• scanning the I/O,
• servicing of the communication channel.
The byte value is zeroed by the controller each
scan, immediately preceding the execution of
rung 0 of program file 2 (main program file).
The byte is incremented every 10 ms
thereafter, and indicates, in 10 ms increments,
the amount of time elapsed in each scan. If
this value ever equals the value in S:3H
Watchdog, a user watchdog major error will be
declared (code 0022).
The resolution of the scan time value is +0 to
90 ms (-10 ms). Example: The value 9
indicates that 80-90 ms has elapsed since the
start of the program cycle.
S:3H
➀
NA
B-14
Watchdog Scan
Time
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Dynamic
Configuration
This byte value contains the number of 10 ms
ticks allowed to occur during a program cycle.
The default value is 10 (100 ms), but you can
increase this to 255 (2.55 seconds) or
decrease it to 1, as your application requires.
If the program scan S:3L value equals the
watchdog value, a watchdog major error will
be declared (code 0022).
Programming Reference
Address
S:4
Bit
Timebase
Classification
Status
Description
All 16 bits of this word are assessed by the
controller. The value of this word is zeroed
upon power up in the REM Run mode or entry
into the REM Run or REM Test mode. It is
incremented every 10 ms thereafter.
Application note: You can write any value to
S:4. It will begin incrementing from this value.
You can use any individual bit of this word in
your user program as a 50% duty cycle clock
bit. Clock rates for S:4/0 to S:4/15 are: 20, 40,
80, 160, 320, 640, 1280, 2560, 5120, 10240,
20480,40960, 81920, 163840, 327680, and
655320 ms.
The application using the bit must be
evaluated at a rate more than two times faster
than the clock rate of the bit. In the example
below, bit S:4/3 toggles every 80 ms,
producing a 160 ms clock rate. To maintain
accuracy of this bit in you application, the
instruction using bit S:4/3 (O:1/0 in this case)
must be evaluated at least once every 79.999
ms.
S:4
160 ms
][
3
O:1
()
0
➀
NA
Reference
Both S:4/3 and
S:4/3 cycles in 160 ms Output O:1/0 toggle
every 80 ms. O:1/0
must be evaluated at
least once every
79.999 ms.
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
B-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
Bit
S:5
Minor Error Bits
S:5/0
Overflow Trap
Classification
Description
The bits of this word are set by the controller
to indicate that a minor error has occurred in
your ladder program. Minor errors, bits 0 to 7,
revert to major error 0020H if any bit is
detected as being set at the end of the scan.
These bits are automatically cleared on a
power cycle.
Dynamic
Configuration
When this bit is set by the controller, it
indicates that a mathematical overflow has
occurred in the ladder program. See S:0/1 for
more information.
If this bit is ever set upon execution of the END
or TND instruction, major error (0020) is
declared. To avoid this type of major error
from occurring, examine the state of this bit
following a math instruction (ADD, SUB, MUL,
DIV, DDV, NEG, SCL, TOD, or FRD), take
appropriate action, and then clear bit S:5/0
using an OTU instruction with S:5/0.
S:5/1
Reserved
NA
NA
S:5/2
Control Register
Error
Dynamic
Configuration
The LFU, LFL, FFU, FFL, BSL, BSR, SQO,
SQC, and SQL instructions are capable of
generating this error. When bit S:5/2 is set, it
indicates that the error bit of a control word
used by the instruction has been set.
If this bit is ever set upon execution of the END
or TND instruction, major error (0020) is
declared. To avoid this type of major error
from occurring, examine the state of this bit
following a control register instruction, take
appropriate action, and then clear bit S:5/2
using an OTU instruction with S:5/2.
➀
NA
B-16
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Programming Reference
Address
Bit
Classification
Description
S:5/3
Major Error Detected
While Executing
user–fault routine
Dynamic
Configuration
When set, the major error code (S:6)
represents the major error that occurred while
processing the fault routine due to another
major error.
S:5/4 to S:5/7
Reserved
NA
NA
S:5/8
Retentive Data Lost
Status
This bit is set whenever retentive data is lost.
This bit remains set until you clear it. While
set, this bit causes the controller to fault prior
to the first true scan of the program.
S:5/9
Reserved
NA
NA
S:5/10
STI Lost
Status
This bit is set whenever the STI timer expires
while the STI routine is either executing or
disabled and the pending bit (s:2/0) is already
set.
S:5/11 to S:5/12
Reserved
NA
NA
S:5/13
Input Filter Selection
Modified
Status
This bit is set whenever the discrete input filter
selection in the controller is made compatible
with the hardware. Refer to page A-8 for more
information.
S:5/14 to S:5/15
Reserved
NA
NA
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Reference
➀
NA
B-17
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
S:6
Bit
Major Error Code
Classification
Status
Description
A hexidecimal code is entered in this word by
the controller when a major error is declared.
Refer to S:1/13. The code defines the type of
fault, as indicated on the following pages. This
word is not cleared by the controller.
Error codes are presented, stored, and
displayed in a hexadecimal format.
If you enter a fault code as a parameter in an
instruction in your ladder program, you must
convert the code to decimal.
Note: You can declare your own application
specific major fault by writing a unique value to
S:6 and then setting bit S:1/13.
Interrogate the value of S:6 in the user-fault
routine to determine the type of fault that
occurred.
Fault Classifications: Faults are classified as
Non-User, Non-Recoverable, and
Recoverable.
Error code description and classifications are
listed on the following pages. Categories are:
• powerup errors
• going–to–run errors
• run errors
• download errors
➀
NA
Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Not applicable.
Each fault is classified as one of the following:
B-18
•
Non–User — A fault caused by various conditions that cease ladder program
execution. The user–fault routine is not run when this fault occurs.
•
Non–Recoverable — A fault caused by the user that cannot be recovered from.
The user–fault routine is run when this fault occurs. However, the fault cannot be
cleared.
Programming Reference
•
Recoverable — A fault caused by the user that can be recovered from in the user–
fault routine by resetting major error halted bit (S:1/13). The user–fault routine is
run when this fault occurs.
Refer to chapter 14, Troubleshooting, for more information regarding programming
device advisory messages
Fault Classification
User
S:6
➀
Error Code
(Hex)
Powerup Errors
Non–User
0001
The default program was
loaded.
X
0002
Unexpected reset occurred.
X
0003
EEPROM memory is corrupt.
X
0008
A fatal internal programming
device error occurred.
X
0009
A fatal internal hardware error
occurred.
X
Address
Error Code
(Hex)
S:6
0005
Retentive data is lost.
0010
The download program is not a
controller program.
0016
Startup protection after power
loss, S:1/9 is set. The user must
check for a retentive data lost
condition if the user-fault routine
was executed with startup
protection.
Going-to-Run (GTR) Errors➀
Non–
Recoverable
Recoverable
Fault Classification
User
Non–
Non–User
Recoverable
Recoverable
X
X
Reference
Address
X
Going–to–Run errors occur when the controller is going from any mode to REM Run mode or from any non–Run mode (PRG, SUS)
to Test mode.
B-19
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
S:6
Error Code
(Hex)
0004
A runtime memory integrity error
occurred.
0020
A minor error at the end of the
scan. Refer to S:5.
0022
The watchdog timer expired.
Refer to S:3H.
X
0024
Invalid STI interrupt setpoint.
Refer to S:30.
X
0025
There are excessive JSRs in the
STI subroutine (file 5).
X
0027
There are excessive JSRs in the
fault subroutine (file 3).
X
002A
The indexed address is too large
for the file.
X
002A
The indexed address is too large
for the file.
X
0030
The subroutine nesting exceeds
a limit of 8 (file 2).
X
0031
An unsupported instruction was
detected.
0032
An SQO/SQC instruction
crossed data file boundaries.
X
0033
The LFU, LFL, FFU, FFL, BSL,
OR BSR instruction crossed
data file boundaries.
X
0034
A negative value for a timer
accumulator or preset value was
detected.
X
➀ Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
B-20
Run Errors
Fault Classification
User
NonNon–User
Recoverable
Recoverable
X
X
X
Programming Reference
Address
S:6
Error Code
(Hex)
Run Errors
Fault Classification
User
NonNon–User
Recoverable
Recoverable
0035
An illegal instruction (TND)
occurred in the interrupt file.
0037
Invalid presets were loaded to
the high–speed counter.
X
0037
Invalid presets were loaded to
the high–speed counter.
X
0040
An output verify write occurred.
X
0041➀
Extra output bit(s) turned on.
X
X
➀ Valid for Series A-C discrete only.
Error Code (Hex)
Download Errors
S:6
0018
The user program is incompatible
with the operating system.
X
Reference
Address
Fault Classification
User
NonNon–User
Recoverable
Recoverable
B-21
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
S:7
Bit
Suspend Code
Classification
Status
Description
When a non-zero value appears in S:7, it indicates that
the SUS instruction identified by this value has been
evaluated as true, and the Suspend Idle mode is in effect.
This pinpoints the condition in the application that caused
the Suspend Idle mode. This value is not cleared by the
control.
Use the SUS instruction with startup troubleshooting or
as runtime diagnostics for detection of system errors.
S:8 to S:12
Reserved
NA
NA
S:13 and S:14
Math Register
Status
Use this double register to produce 32-bit signed divide
and multiply operations, precision divide or double divide
operations, and 5-digit BCD conversions.
These two words are used in conjuction with the MUL,
DIV, DDV, FRD, and TOD math instructions. The math
register value is assessed upon execution of the
instruction and remains valid until the next MUL, DIV,
DDV, FRD, or TOD instruction is executed in the user
program.
An explanation of how the math register operates is
included with the instruction definitions.
If you store 32–bit signed data values, you must manage
this data type without the aid of an assigned 32–bit data
type. For example, combine B3:0 and B3:1 to create a
32–bit signed data value. We recommend that you start
all 32–bit values on an even or odd word boundary for
ease of application and viewing. Also, we recommend
that you design, document, and view the contents of 32–
bit signed data in either the hexadecimal or binary radix.
When an STI, high-speed counter, or Faults Routine
interrupts normal execution of your program, the original
value of the math register is restored when execution
resumes.
B-22
Programming Reference
Address
Bit
Classification
Description
S:15L
DF1 Node
Address
Status
This byte value contains the node address of your
processor on the DF1 link. It is used when executing
Message (MSG) instructions over the DF1 link. The
default node address of a processor is 1. Valid node
addresses are 0-254. To change a processor node
address you must use a programming device.
S:15H
DF1 Baud Rate
Status
The controller baud rate options are:
• 300
• 600
• 1200
• 2400
• 4800
• 9600 (default)
• 19200
• 38400
To change the baud rate from the default value you must
use a programming device.
DH–485 Node
Address
Status
This byte value contains the node address of your
processor on the DH–485 link. Each device on the DH–
485 link must have a unique address between the
decimal values 1-31. To change a processor node
address, you must use a programming device.
S:16H
DH–485 Baud
Rate
Status
NA
S:17 to S:21
Reserved
NA
NA
Reference
S:16L
B-23
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Address
S:22
Bit
Maximum
Observed Scan
Time
Classification
Dynamic
Configuration
Description
This word indicates the maximum observed interval
between consecutive program cycles.
This value indicates, in 10 ms increments, the time
elapsed in the longest program cycle of the controller.
Refer to S:3L for more information regarding the program
cycle. The controller compares each last scan value to
the value contained in S:22. If the controller determines
that the last scan value is larger than the value stored at
S:22, the last scan value is written to S:22.
Resolution of the maximum observed scan time value is
+0 to -10ms. For example, the value 9 indicates that 8090 ms was observed as the longest program cycle.
Interrogate this value if you need to determine or verify
the longest scan time of your program.
S:23
Reserved
NA
NA
S:24
Index Register
Status
This word indicates the element offset used in indexed
addressing.
When an STI, high-speed counter, or Fault Routine
interrupts normal execution of your program, the original
value of this register is restored when execution resumes.
S:25 to S:29
Reserved
NA
NA
S:30
STI Setpoint
Dynamic
Configuration
You enter the timebase to be used in the selectable timed
interrupt (STI). The time can range from 10 to 2550 ms.
(This is in 10ms increments, so valid values are from 0255.) Your STI routine executes per the value you enter.
Write a zero value to disable the STI.
To provide protection from inadvertent alteration of your
selection, program an unconditional MOV instruction
containing the setpoint value of your STI to S:30, or
program a CLR instruction at S:30 to prevent STI
operation.
If the STI is initiated while in the REM Run mode by
loading the status registers, the interrupt starts timing
from the end of the program scan in which the status
registers were loaded.
S:31 to S:32
B-24
Reserved
NA
NA
Programming Reference
Instruction Execution Times and Memory Usage
The table below lists the execution times and memory usage for the controller
instructions. Any instruction that takes longer than 15 µs (true or false execution
time) to execute performs a poll for user interrupts.
Mnemonic
False Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
True Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
Memory Usage
(user words)
Name
Instruction Type
6.78
33.09
1.50
Add
Math
AND
6.78
34.00
1.50
And
Data Handling
BSL
19.80
53.71 + 5.24 x
position value
2.00
Bit Shift Left
Application Specific
BSR
19.80
53.34 + 3.98 x
position value
2.00
Bit Shift Right
Application Specific
CLR
4.25
20.80
1.00
Clear
Math
COP
6.60
27.31 + 5.06/
word
1.50
File Copy
Data Handling
CTD
27.22
32.19
1.00
Count Down
Basic
CTU
26.67
29.84
1.00
Count Up
Basic
DCD
6.78
27.67
1.50
Decode 4 to 1 of
16
Data Handling
DDV
6.78
157.06
1.00
Double Divide
Math
DIV
6.78
147.87
1.50
Divide
Math
ENC
6.78
54.80
1.50
Encode 1 of 16 to Data Handling
4
EQU
6.60
21.52
1.50
Equal
Comparison
FFL
33.67
61.13
1.50
FIFO Load
Data Handling
FFU
34.90
73.78 + 4.34 x
position value
1.50
FIFO Unload
Data Handling
FLL
6.60
26.86 + 3.62/
word
1.50
Fill File
Data Handling
Reference
ADD
B-25
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Mnemonic
False Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
True Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
Memory Usage
(user words)
Name
Instruction Type
FRD
5.52
56.88
1.00
Convert from
BCD
Data Handling
GEQ
6.60
23.60
1.50
Greater Than or
Equal
Comparison
GRT
6.60
23.60
1.50
Greater Than
Comparison
HSC
21.00
21.00
1.00
High–Speed
Counter
High–Speed Counter
HSD
7.00
8.00
1.25
High–Speed
Counter Interrupt
Disable
High–Speed Counter
HSE
7.00
10.00
1.25
High–Speed
Counter
Interrupt. Enable
High–Speed Counter
HSL
7.00
66.00
1.50
High–Speed
Counter Load
High–Speed Counter
IIM
6.78
35.72
1.50
Immediate Input
with Mask
Program Flow
Control
INT
0.99
1.45
0.50
Interrupt
Subroutine
Application Specific
IOM
6.78
41.59
1.50
Immediate
Program Flow
Output with Mask Control
JMP
6.78
9.04
1.00
Jump to Label
Program Flow
Control
JSR
4.25
22.24
1.00
Jump to
Subroutine
Program Flow
Control
LBL
0.99
1.45
0.50
Label
Program Flow
Control
LEQ
6.60
23.60
1.50
Less Than or
Equal
Comparison
LES
6.60
23.60
1.50
Less Than
Comparison
B-26
Programming Reference
Mnemonic
False Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
True Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
Memory Usage
(user words)
Name
Instruction Type
LIM
7.69
36.93
1.50
Limit Test
Comparison
LFL
33.67
61.13
1.50
LIFO Load
Data Handling
LFU
35.08
64.20
1.50
LIFO Unload
Data Handling
MCR
4.07
3.98
0.50
Master Control
Reset
Program Flow
Control
MEQ
7.69
28.39
1.50
Masked
Comparison for
Equal
Comparison
MOV
6.78
25.05
1.50
Move
Data Handling
MSG
26
180➀➁
34.75
Message
Communication
➁
This only includes the amount of time needed to set up the operation requested. It does not include the time it takes to service the actual
communication, as this time varies with each network configuration. As an example, 144ms is the actual communication service time
for the following configuration: 3 nodes on DH–485 (2=MicroLogix 1000 programmable controllers and 1=PLC–500 A.I. Seriest
programming software), running at 19.2K baud, with 2 words per transfer.
Add 7.3 µseconds per word for MSG instructions that perform writes.
MUL
6.78
57.96
1.50
Multiply
Math
MVM
6.78
33.28
1.50
Masked Move
Data Handling
NEG
6.78
29.48
1.50
Negate
Data Handling
NEQ
6.60
21.52
1.50
Not Equal
Comparison
NOT
6.78
28.21
1.00
Not
Data Handling
OR
6.78
33.68
1.50
Or
Data Handling
OSR
11.48
13.02
1.00
One–Shot Rising
Basic
OTE
4.43
4.43
0.75
Output Energize
Basic
OTE (high–
7.00
speed counter)
12.00
0.75
Update High–
Speed Counter
Image
Accumulator
High–Speed Counter
OTL
3.16
4.97
0.75
Output Latch
Basic
OTU
3.16
4.97
0.75
Output Unlatch
Basic
B-27
Reference
➀
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Mnemonic
False Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
True Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
Memory Usage
(user words)
Name
Instruction Type
RAC
6.00
56.00
1.00
High–Speed
Counter Reset
Accumulator
High–Speed Counter
RES (timer/
counter)
4.25
15.19
1.00
Reset
Basic
RES (high–
6.00
speed counter)
51.00
1.00
High–Speed
Counter Reset
High–Speed Counter
RET
3.16
31.11
0.50
Return from
Subroutine
Program Flow
Control
RTO
27.49
38.34
1.00
Retentive Timer
Basic
SBR
0.99
1.45
0.50
Subroutine
Program Flow
Control
SCL
6.78
169.18
1.75
Scale Data
Math
SQC
27.40
60.52
2.00
Sequencer
Compare
Application Specific
SQL
28.12
53.41
2.00
Sequencer Load
Application Specific
SQO
27.40
60.52
2.00
Sequencer
Output
Application Specific
SQR
6.78
71.25
1.25
Square Root
Math
STD
3.16
6.69
0.50
Selectable Timer
Interrupt Disable
Application Specific
STE
3.16
10.13
0.50
Selectable Timer
Interrupt Enable
Application Specific
STS
6.78
24.59
1.25
Selectable Timer
Interrupt Start
Application Specific
SUB
6.78
33.52
1.50
Subtract
Math
SUS
7.87
10.85
1.50
Suspend
Program Flow
Control
TND
3.16
7.78
0.50
Temporary End
Program Flow
Control
B-28
Programming Reference
Mnemonic
False Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
True Execution
Time (approx.
µseconds)
Memory Usage
(user words)
Name
Instruction Type
TOD
6.78
49.64
1.00
Convert to BCD
Data Handling
TOF
31.65
39.42
1.00
Timer Off–Delay
Basic
TON
30.38
38.34
1.00
Timer On–Delay
Basic
XIC
1.72
1.54
0.75
Examine If
Closed
Basic
XIO
1.72
1.54
0.75
Examine If Open
Basic
XOR
6.92
33.64
1.50
Exclusive Or
Data Handling
User Interrupt Latency
The user interrupt latency is the maximum time from when an interrupt condition
occurs (e.g., STI expires or HSC preset is reached) to when the user interrupt
subroutine begins executing (assumes that there are no other interrupt conditions
present).
Reference
If you are communicating with the controller, the maximum user interrupt latency is
872 µs. If you are not communicating with the controller, the maximum user interrupt
latency is 838 µs.
B-29
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Estimating Memory Usage for Your Control System
Use the following to calculate memory usage for your control system.
1.
Determine the total instruction words used by the instructions
in your program and enter the result. Refer to the table on
page B-25.
2.
Multiply the total number of rungs by 0.75 and enter the
result. Do not count the END rungs in each file.
177
3.
To account for controller overhead, use 177.
110
4.
To account for application data, use 110.
5.
Total steps 1 through 4. This is the estimated total memory
usage of your application system. Remember, this is an
estimate, actual compiled programs may differ by ±12%.
6.
To determine the estimated amount of memory remaining in
the controller you have selected, do the following:
Total Memory Usage:
1024
Subtract the total memory usage from 1024.
Total Memory Usage
(from above): Total Memory
Remaining:
The result of this calculation will be the estimated total
memory remaining in your selected controller.
Note:
B-30
The calculated memory usage may vary from the actual compiled
program by ±12%.
Programming Reference
Execution Time Worksheet
Use this worksheet to calculate your execution time for ladder program.
Procedure
1.
Input scan time, output scan time, housekeeping time, and
forcing.
2.
Estimate your program scan time:
4.
210 µs (discrete)
330 µs with forcing (analog)
250 µs without forcing
________
(analog)
A. Count the number of program rungs in your logic program and
multiply by 6.
________
µs
B. Add up your program execution times when all instructions are
true. Include interrupt routines in this calculation.➀
________
µs
A. Without communications, add sections 1 and 2
________
µs
B. With communications, add sections 1 and 2 and multiply by
1.05
________
µs
To determine your maximum scan time in ms, divide your
controller scan time by 1000.
________
m
s
Estimate your controller scan time:
➀If a subroutine executes more than once per scan, include each subroutine execution scan time.
Reference
3.
Maximum Scan Time
B-31
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Notes:
B-32
Valid Addressing Modes and File Types for Instruction Parameters
C
Valid Addressing Modes and File
Types for Instruction Parameters
Reference
This appendix lists all of the available programming instructions along with their
parameters, valid addressing modes, and file types.
C-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Available File Types
The following file types are available:
Abbreviation
File Type
O
Output
I
Input
S
Status
B
Binary
T
Timer
C
Counter
R
Control
N
Integer
All file types are word addresses, unless otherwise specified.
Available Addressing Modes
The following addressing modes are available:
•
immediate
•
direct
•
indirect
Immediate Addressing
Indicates that a constant is a valid file type.
Direct Addressing
The data stored in the specified address is used in the instruction. For example:
N7:0
ST20:5
T4:8.ACC
C-2
Valid Addressing Modes and File Types for Instruction Parameters
Indexed Direct Addressing
You may specify an address as being indexed by placing the “#” character in front of
the address. When an address of this form is encountered in the program, the
processor takes the element number of the address and adds to it the value contained
in the Index Register S:24, then uses the result as the actual address. For example:
#N7:10 where S:24 = 15
The actual address used by the instruction is N7:25.
ADD
AND
BSL
BSR
➀
Description
Add
Logical AND
Bit Shift Left
Bit Shift Right
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
source A
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source A
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
file
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
Not Applicable
control
direct
R (element level)
Not Applicable
bit address
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
(bit level)
length
(contained in the
control register)
file
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
Not Applicable
control
direct
R (element level)
Not Applicable
bit address
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
(bit level)
0-2048
Reference
Instruction
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
C-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Instruction
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
length
(contained in the
control register)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
0-2048
CLR
Clear
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
COP
Copy File
source
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
destination
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
length
immediate
counter
direct
preset
(contained in the
counter register)
-32,768-32,767
accum
(contained in the
counter register)
-32,768-32,767
counter
direct
preset
(contained in the
counter register)
-32,768-32,767
accum
(contained in the
counter register)
-32,768-32,767
source
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source A
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
CTD
CTU
DCD
DDV
DIV
➀
C-4
Description
Count Down
Count Up
Decode 4 to 1
of 16
Double Divide
Divide
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
1-128; 1-42 when
destination is T,C,R
C (element level)
C (element level)
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Valid Addressing Modes and File Types for Instruction Parameters
ENC
EQU
FFL
FFU
➀
Description
Encode 1 of 16
to 4
Equal
FIFO Load
FIFO Unload
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source A
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
source
direct, indexed
direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
FIFO array
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
Not Applicable
FIFO control
direct
R (element level)
Not Applicable
length
(contained in the
control register)
1-128
position
(contained in the
control register)
0-127
FIFO array
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
destination
direct, indexed
direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
FIFO control
direct
R (element level)
length
(contained in the
control register)
1-128
position
(contained in the
control register)
0-127
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Reference
Instruction
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
C-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Instruction
FLL
Fill File
FRD
Convert from
BCD
GEQ
GRT
HSC
➀
C-6
Description
Greater Than
or Equal
Greater Than
High–Speed
Counter
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
source
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
destination
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
(element level)
length
immediate
source
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source A
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
source A
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
type
immediate
counter
direct
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
1-128; 1-42 when
destination is T,C,R
0-7, where:
0=up
1=up&reset/hold
2=pulse/direction
3=pule/direction&
reset/hold
4=up/down
5=up/down & reset/
hold
6=encoder
7=encoder & reset/
hold
C5:0. C5:1
(element level)
Not Applicable
Valid Addressing Modes and File Types for Instruction Parameters
Description
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
preset
(contained in the
counter register)
-32,768-32,767
accum
(contained in the
counter register)
-32,768-32,767
HSD
HSC Interrupt
Disable
counter
direct
C
Not Applicable
HSE
HSC Interrupt
Enable
counter
direct
C
Not Applicable
HSL
HSC Load
counter
direct
C
Not Applicable
source
direct
B, N
Not Applicable
length
IIM
Immediate
slot
Input with Mask
INT
Interrupt
Subroutine
IOM
Immediate
Output with
Mask
always 5
direct
I
Not Applicable
mask
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
length
immediate
1-10
Not Applicable
slot
direct
O
Not Applicable
mask
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
length
immediate
1-32
JMP
Jump
label number
immediate
0-999
JSR
Jump to
Subroutine
subroutine file
number
immediate
3-255
LBL
Label
label number
immediate
0-999
➀
Reference
Instruction
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
C-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Instruction
LEQ
LES
LFL
LFU
LIM
➀
C-8
Description
Less Than or
Equal To
Less Than
LIFO Load
LIFO Unload
Limit Test
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
source A
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
source A
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
source
immediate, direct,
indexed direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R,
N➀
-32,768-32,767
LIFO array
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
Not Applicable
LIFO control
direct
R (element level)
Not Applicable
length
(contained in the
control register)
1-128
position
(contained in the
control register)
0-127
LIFO array
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
destination
direct, indexed
direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
LIFO control
direct
R (element level)
length
(contained in the
control register)
1-128
position
(contained in the
control register)
0-127
low limit
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
compare
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Valid Addressing Modes and File Types for Instruction Parameters
MOV
MSG
Description
Move
Message
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Multiply
MVM
➀
Masked Move
Valid Value Ranges
source
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
f–min-f–max
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
read/write
immediate
0=read,1=write
target device
immediate
2=500CPU,
4=485CIF
control block
direct
control block
length
immediate
local address
direct
target node
(contained in the
control register)
target address
direct
message
length
MUL
Valid File Types
N
Not Applicable
7
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
0-254 for DF1;
0-31 for DH–485
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N 0-255
T, C, R
1-13
I, O, S, B, N
1-41
source A
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source mask
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
Reference
Instruction
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
C-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Instruction
NEG
NEQ
NOT
OR
Description
Negate
Not Equal
Logical NOT
Logical OR
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
source
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source A
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
source
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
source A
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
source B
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
OSR
One-Shot
Rising
bit address
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
OTE
Output
Energize
bit address
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
OTL
Output Latch
bit address
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
OTU
Output Unlatch
bit address
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
RAC
HSC Reset
Accumulator
counter
direct
C
source
immediate, direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
structure
direct
T, C, R (element
level)
RES
➀
C-10
Timer/Counter
Reset
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Valid Addressing Modes and File Types for Instruction Parameters
Instruction
Description
RES
High–Speed
Counter Reset
RET
Return
RTO
Retentive
Timer
SBR
Subroutine
SCL
Scale
➀
Sequencer
Compare
structure
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
direct
Valid File Types
T, C, R (element
level)
Valid Value Ranges
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
timer
direct
T (element level)
Not Applicable
time base
immediate
0.01 or 1.00
preset
(contained in the
timer register)
0-32,767
accum
(contained in the
timer register)
0-32,767
Not Applicable
source
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
rate
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
offset
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
file
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
Not Applicable
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
Reference
SQC
Instruction
Parameters
C-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Instruction
SQC
SQL
➀
C-12
Description
Sequencer
Compare
Sequencer
Load
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
file
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
mask
immediate, direct,
indexed direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
source
direct, indexed
direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
control
direct
R (element level)
length
(contained in the
control register)
1-255
position
(contained in the
control register)
0-255
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
file
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
source
direct, indexed
direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
control
direct
R (element level)
length
(contained in the
control register)
1-255
position
(contained in the
control register)
0-255
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
Valid Addressing Modes and File Types for Instruction Parameters
SQO
SQR
Description
Sequencer
Output
Square Root
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
file
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, N
Not Applicable
mask
direct, indexed
direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
destination
direct, indexed
direct➀
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
control
direct
R (element level)
Not Applicable
length
1-255
position
0-255
source
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
STD
Selectable
Timed Disable
Not Applicable
STE
Selectable
Timed Enable
Not Applicable
STS
Selectable
Timed Start
SUB
Subtract
SUS
Suspend
TND
Temporary End
TOD
Convert to
BCD
➀
file
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N always equal 5
time
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N 0-255
source A
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,76 f–minf–max
source B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767 f–
min-f–max
suspend ID
immediate,
Reference
Instruction
-32,768-32,767
Not Applicable
source
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
C-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Instruction
TOF
TON
Description
Timer Off–
Delay
Timer On–
Delay
Instruction
Parameters
Valid Addressing
Mode(s)
Valid File Types
Valid Value Ranges
destination
direct
O, I. S. B. T, C, R, N Not Applicable
timer
direct
T (element level)
time base
immediate
0.01 or 1.00
preset
(contained in the
timer register)
0-32,767
accum
(contained in the
timer register)
0-32,767
timer
direct
time base
immediate
0.01 or 1.00
preset
(contained in the
timer register)
0-32,767
accum
(contained in the
timer register)
0-32,767
T (element level)
Not Applicable
Not Applicable
XIC
Examine if
Closed
source bit
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
(bit level)
XIO
Examine if
Open
source bit
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
(bit level)
XOR
Exclusive OR
address A
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
address B
immediate, direct,
indexed direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N -32,768-32,767
destination
direct, indexed
direct
O, I, S, B, T, C, R, N Not Applicable
➀
C-14
Indexed addressing is not allowed when using T, C, or R addresses.
Understanding the Communication Protocols
D
Understanding the Communication
Protocols
Use the information in this appendix to understand the differences in communication
protocols. The following protocols are supported from the RS-232 communication
channel:
•
DF1 Full-Duplex and DF1 Half-Duplex Slave
All MicroLogix 1000 controllers support the DF1 full-duplex protocol. Series D
or later and all MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers also support DF1 half-duplex
slave protocol.
•
DH-485
Series C or later and all MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers can communicate on
DH-485 networks using an AIC+ Advanced Interface Converter.
For information about required network connecting equipment, see chapter 3,
Connecting the System.
RS-232 Communication Interface
RS-232 is an Electronics Industries Association (EIA) standard that specifies the
electrical, mechanical, and functional characteristics for serial binary communication.
It provides you with a variety of system configuration possibilities. (RS-232 is a
definition of electrical characteristics; it is not a protocol.)
Reference
One of the biggest benefits of the RS-232 interface is that it lets you integrate
telephone and radio modems into your control system (using the appropriate DF1
protocol only; not DH–485 protocol). The distance over which you are able to
communicate with certain system devices is virtually limitless.
D-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
DF1 Full-Duplex Protocol
DF1 Full-Duplex communication protocol combines data transparency (ANSI American National Standards Institute - specification subcategory D1) and 2-way
simultaneous transmission with embedded responses (subcategory F1).
The MicroLogix 1000 controllers support the DF1 Full-Duplex protocol via RS-232
connection to external devices, such as computers, the Hand-Held Programmer
(catalog number 1761–HHP–B30), or other MicroLogix 1000 controllers. (For
information on connecting to the Hand-Held Programmer, see its user manual,
publication 1761–6.2).
DF1 Full-Duplex Operation
DF1 Full-Duplex protocol (also referred to as DF1 point-to-point protocol) is useful
where RS-232 point-to-point communication is required. This type of protocol
supports simultaneous transmissions between two devices in both directions. DF1
protocol controls message flow, detects and signals errors, and retries if errors are
detected.
DF1 Full-Duplex Configuration Parameters
When the system mode driver is DF1 Full-Duplex, the following parameters can be
changed:
Parameter
Baud Rate
Options
Toggles between the communication rate of 300, 600, 1200, 2400,
4800➀, 9600, 19200, and 38400➀.
Default
9600➁
Node Address
Valid range is 0-254 decimal for MicroLogix 1000 Series C and later
discrete and all MicroLogix 1000 analog. Not configurable for
MicroLogix 1000 Series A and B discrete.
1
Parity
None
No Parity
Stop Bits
None
1
➀
➁
➂
D-2
Applicable only to MicroLogix 1000 Series D or later discrete and all MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers.
If retentive communication data is lost, default is 1200 for MicroLogix 1000 Series A, B, or C discrete only. For MicroLogix 1000 Series
D or later discrete and all MicroLogix 1000 analog, if retentive communication data is lost, baud rate defaults to 9600.
N=255 for MicroLogix 1000 Series A and B discrete. N=6 for MicroLogix 1000 Series C and later discrete and all MicroLogix 1000
analog.
Understanding the Communication Protocols
Parameter
Options
Default
Error Detection
None
CRC
DLE NAK retries
None
N retries➂
DLE ENQ retries
None
N retries➂
ACK Timeout
None
1s
Duplicate Packet
Detection
None
Enabled
Control Line
None
No Handshaking
Embedded Responses
None
Enabled
➂
Applicable only to MicroLogix 1000 Series D or later discrete and all MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers.
If retentive communication data is lost, default is 1200 for MicroLogix 1000 Series A, B, or C discrete only. For MicroLogix 1000 Series
D or later discrete and all MicroLogix 1000 analog, if retentive communication data is lost, baud rate defaults to 9600.
N=255 for MicroLogix 1000 Series A and B discrete. N=6 for MicroLogix 1000 Series C and later discrete and all MicroLogix 1000
analog.
Reference
➀
➁
D-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example DF1 Full-Duplex Connections
For information about required network connecting equipment, see chapter 3,
Connecting the System
.
Micro Controller
Optical Isolator➀
(recommended)
1761-CBL-PM02
Personal Computer
Modem
Cable
Personal Computer
Modem
Optical Isolator➀
(recommended)
Modem
➀
D-4
Micro Controller
1761-CBL-PM02
We recommend using an AIC+, catalog number 1761–NET–AIC, as your optical isolator. See page 3-14
for specific AIC+ cabling information.
Understanding the Communication Protocols
DF1 Half-Duplex Slave Protocol
DF1 half-duplex slave protocol provides a multi-drop single master/multiple slave
network. In contrast to DF1 full-duplex, communication takes place in one direction
at a time. You can use the RS-232 port on the MicroLogix as both a half-duplex
programming port, as well as a half-duplex peer-to-peer messaging port.
The master device initiates all communication by “polling” each slave device. The
slave device may only transmit message packets when it is polled by the master. It is
the master’s responsibility to poll each slave on a regular and sequential basis to allow
slaves to send message packets back to the master. During a polling sequence, the
master polls a slave either repeatedly until the slave indicates that it has no more
message packets to transmit or just one time per polling sequence, depending on how
the master is configured.
An additional feature of the DF1 half-duplex protocol is that it is possible for a slave
device to enable a MSG instruction in its ladder program to send or request data to/
from another slave. When the initiating slave is polled, the MSG instruction
command packet is sent to the master. The master recognizes that the command
packet is not intended for it but for another slave, so the master immediately
rebroadcasts the command packet to the intended slave. When the intended slave is
polled, it sends a reply packet to the master with the data the first slave requested.
The master again recognizes that the reply packet is intended for another slave, so the
master immediately rebroadcasts the reply packet to that slave. This slave-to-slave
transfer is a function of the master device and is also used by programming software
to upload and download programs to processors on the DF1 half-duplex link.
Typically, the master maintains an active node table that indicates which slaves are
active (slaves that responded the last time they were polled) and which slaves are
inactive (slaves that did not respond the last time they were polled). The active slaves
are polled on a regular basis. The inactive slaves are only polled occasionally to
check if any have come back online.
DF1 half-duplex supports up to 255 devices (address 0 to 254) with address 255
reserved for master broadcasts. The MicroLogix supports broadcast reception but
cannot initiate a broadcast command. The MicroLogix supports half-duplex modems
using Request-To-Send/Clear-To-Send (RTS/CTS) hardware handshaking.
D-5
Reference
Several Allen-Bradley products support DF1 half-duplex master protocol. They
include the SLC 5/03™, SLC 5/04™, and SLC 5/05™, and enhanced PLC–5®
processors. Rockwell Software WINtelligent LINX™ and RSLinx (version 2.x and
higher) also support DF1 half-duplex master protocol.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
DF1 Half-Duplex Slave Configuration Parameters
When the system mode driver is DF1 half-duplex slave the following parameters can
be viewed and changed only when the programming software is online with the
processor. The DF1 half-duplex slave parameters are not stored as part of the
controller downloadable image (with the exception of the baud rate and node
address). If a failed MicroLogix 1000 controller is replaced and the backed-up
controller image is downloaded to the replacement controller, these parameters will
remain at default until manually changed. Therefore, be sure to fully document any
non-default settings to the DF1 half-duplex slave configuration parameters.
Parameter
Description
Default
Baud Rate
Toggles between the communication rate of 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600,
19,200, and 38.4K.
9600
Node Address
Valid range is 0-254 decimal.
1
Control Line
Toggles between No Handshaking and Half-Duplex Modem.
No Handshaking
Duplicate Packet
Detection
Detects and eliminates duplicate responses to a message. Duplicate packets
may be sent under “noisy” communication conditions when the sender’s retries
are not set to 0. Toggles between Enabled and Disabled.
Enabled
Error Detection
Toggles between CRC and BCC.
CRC
RTS Off Delay
Specifies the delay time between when the last serial character is sent to the
modem and when RTS will be deactivated. Gives modem extra time to transmit
the last character of a packet. The valid range is 0-255 and can be set in
increments of 5 ms.
0
RTS Send Delay
Specifies the time delay between setting RTS (request to send) until checking for
the CTS (clear to send) response. For use with modems that are not ready to
respond with CTS immediately upon receipt of RTS. The valid range is 0-255
and can be set in increments of 5 ms.
0
Poll Timeout
Poll Timeout only applies when a slave device initiates a MSG instruction. It is
the amount of time that the slave device will wait for a poll from the master
device. If the slave device does not receive a poll within the Poll Timeout, a MSG
instruction error will be generated, and the ladder program will need to requeue
the MSG instruction. The valid range is 0-65535 and can be set in increments of
20 ms. If you are using a MSG instruction, it is recommended that a Poll Timeout
value of zero not be used. Poll Timeout is disabled if set to zero.
3000 (60s)
D-6
Understanding the Communication Protocols
Parameter
Description
Default
Pre-send Time
Delay
Delay time before transmission. Required for 1761NET–AIC physical half-duplex
networks. The 1761–NET–AIC needs delay time to change from transmit to
0
receive mode. The valid range is 0-255 and can be set in increments of 5 ms.
Message Retries
Specifies the number of times a slave device will attempt to resend a message
packet when it does not receive an ACK from the master device. For use in noisy
environments where message packets may become corrupted in transmission.
The valid range is 0-255.
3
EOT
Suppression
Slave does not respond when polled if no message is queued. Saves modem
transmission power when there is no message to transmit. Toggles between Yes
and No.
No
Rockwell Software WINtelligent LINX, RSLinx 2.0 (or higher), SLC 5/03,
SLC 5/04 and SLC 5/05, or PLC-5 processors configured for DF1 HalfDuplex Master
RS-232
(DF1 Protocol)
Modem
MicroLogix 1000
Programmable Controller
(Series D)
Modem
SLC 5/03 Processor
Modular Controller
Modem
MicroLogix 1000
Programmable Controller
(Series D)
Modem
Modem
MicroLogix 1000
™
Programmable Controller SLC 500
Fixed
I/O
Controller
(Series D)
with 1747-KE Interface
Module
Reference
Modem
D-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Considerations When Communicating as a DF1 Slave on a Multi-drop Link
When communication is between either your programming software and a
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controller or between two MicroLogix
Programmable Controllers via a slave-to-slave connection on a larger multi-drop link,
the devices depend on a DF1 Master to give each of them polling permission to
transmit in a timely manner. As the number of slaves increases on the link (up to
254), the time between when your programming software or the MicroLogix
Controller is polled also increases. This increase in time may become larger if you
are using low baud rates.
As these time periods grow, the following values may need to be changed to avoid
loss of communication:
•
programming software – increase poll timeout and reply timeout values
•
MicroLogix Programmable Controller – increase poll timeout
Ownership Timeout
When a program download sequence is started by a software package to download a
ladder logic program to a MicroLogix controller, the software takes “file ownership”
of the processor. File ownership prevents other devices from reading from or writing
to the processor while the download is in process. If the controller were to respond to
a device’s read commands during the download, the processor could respond with
incorrect information. Similarly, if the controller were to accept information from
other devices, the information could be lost because the program download sequence
could immediately overwrite the information. Once the download is completed, the
programming software returns the file ownership to the controller, so other devices
can communicate with it again.
With the addition of DF1 half-duplex slave protocol, the controller clears the file
ownership if no supported commands are received from the owner within the timeout
period. If the file ownership were not cleared after a download sequence interruption,
the processor would not accept commands from any other devices because it would
assume another device still had file ownership.
If a download sequence is interrupted, due to noise caused by electromagnetic
interference, discontinue communications to the controller for the ownership timeout
period and restart the program download. The ownership timeout period is set to 60
seconds as a default for all protocols. However, if you are using DF1 half-duplex, and
the poll timeout value is set to greater than 60 seconds, the poll timeout value will be
used instead of the ownership timeout. After the timeout, you can re-establish
communications with the processor and try the program download again. The only
other way to clear file ownership is to cycle power on the processor.
D-8
Understanding the Communication Protocols
Using Modems with MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers
The types of modems that you can use with MicroLogix 1000 controllers include dialup phone modems, leased-line modems, radio modems and line drivers. For point-topoint full-duplex modem connections that do not require any modem handshaking
signals to operate, use DF1 full-duplex protocol. For point-to-multipoint modem
connections, or for point-to-point modem connections that require Request-to-Send/
Clear-To-Send (RTS/CTS) handshaking, use DF1 half-duplex slave protocol. In this
case, one (and only one) of the other devices must be configured for DF1 half-duplex
master protocol. Do not attempt to use DH–485 protocol through modems under any
circumstance.
Note:
Only Series D or later MicroLogix 1000 discrete controllers and all
MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers support RTS/CTS modem
handshaking and only when configured for DF1 half-duplex slave
protocol with the control line parameter set to “Half-Duplex Modem”.
No other modem handshaking lines (i.e. Data Set Ready, Carrier Detect
and Data Terminal Ready) are supported by any MicroLogix 1000
controllers.
Dial-Up Phone Modems
Dial-up phone line modems support point-to-point full-duplex communications.
Normally a MicroLogix 1000 controller, on the receiving end of the dial-up
connection, will be configured for DF1 full-duplex protocol. The modem connected
to the MicroLogix 1000 controller must support auto-answer and must not require any
modem handshaking signals from the MicroLogix 1000 (i.e., DTR or RTS) in order to
operate. The MicroLogix 1000 has no means to cause its modem to initiate or
disconnect a phone call, so this must be done from the site of the remote modem.
Leased-line modems are used with dedicated phone lines that are typically leased
from the local phone company. The dedicated lines may be in a point-to-point
topology supporting full-duplex communications between two modems or in a pointto-multipoint topology supporting half-duplex communications between three or
more modems. In the point-to-point topology, configure the MicroLogix 1000
controllers for DF1 full-duplex protocol (as long as the modems used do not require
DTR or RTS to be high in order to operate). In the point-to-multipoint topology,
configure the MicroLogix 1000 controllers for DF1 half-duplex slave protocol with
the control line parameter set to “Half-Duplex Modem”.
D-9
Reference
Leased-Line Modems
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Radio Modems
Radio modems may be implemented in a point-to-point topology supporting either
half-duplex or full-duplex communications, or in a point-to-multipoint topology
supporting half-duplex communications between three or more modems. In the
point-to-point topology using full-duplex radio modems, configure the MicroLogix
1000 controllers for DF1 full-duplex protocol (as long as the modems used do not
require DTR or RTS to be high in order to operate). In the point-to-point topology
using half-duplex radio modems, or point-to-multipoint topology using half-duplex
radio modems, configure the MicroLogix 1000 controllers for DF1 half-duplex slave
protocol. If these radio modems require RTS/CTS handshaking, configure the control
line parameter to “Half-Duplex Modem”.
Line Drivers
Line drivers, also called short-haul “modems”, do not actually modulate the serial
data, but rather condition the electrical signals to operate reliably over long
transmission distances (up to several miles). Allen-Bradley’s AIC+ Advanced
Interface Converter is a line driver that converts an RS–232 electrical signal into an
RS–485 electrical signal, increasing the signal transmission distance from 50 to 4000
feet. In a point-to-point line driver topology, configure the MicroLogix 1000
controller for DF1 full-duplex protocol (as long as the line drivers do not require DTR
or RTS to be high in order to operate). In a point-to-multipoint line driver topology,
configure the MicroLogix 1000 controllers for DF1 half-duplex slave protocol. If
these line drivers require RTS/CTS handshaking, configure the control line parameter
to “Half-Duplex Modem”.
DH–485 Communication Protocol
The information in this section describes the DH–485 network functions, network
architecture, and performance characteristics. It will also help you plan and operate
the MicroLogix 1000 on a DH–485 network.
Note:
D-10
Only Series C or later MicroLogix 1000 discrete controllers and all
MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers support the DH–485 network.
Understanding the Communication Protocols
DH–485 Network Description
The DH–485 protocol defines the communication between multiple devices that coexist on a single pair of wires. This protocol uses RS–485 half-duplex as its physical
interface. (RS–485 is a definition of electrical characteristics; it is not a protocol.)
RS–485 uses devices that are capable of co-existing on a common data circuit, thus
allowing data to be easily shared between devices.
The DH–485 network offers:
•
interconnection of 32 devices
•
multi-master capability
•
token passing access control
•
the ability to add or remove nodes without disrupting the network
•
maximum network length of 1219 m (4000 ft)
The DH–485 protocol supports two classes of devices: initiators and responders. All
initiators on the network get a chance to initiate message transfers. To determine
which initiator has the right to transmit, a token passing algorithm is used.
The following section describes the protocol used to control message transfers on the
DH–485 network.
DH–485 Token Rotation
A node holding the token can send any valid packet onto the network. Each node is
allowed only one transmission (plus two retries) each time it receives the token. After
a node sends one message packet, it attempts to give the token to its successor by
sending a “token pass” packet to its successor.
The allowable range of the node address of an initiator is 0 to 31. The allowable
address range for all responders is 1 to 31. There must be at least one initiator on the
network.
D-11
Reference
If no network activity occurs, the initiator sends the token pass packet again. After
two retries (a total of three tries) the initiator will attempt to find a new successor.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
DH–485 Configuration Parameters
When the system mode driver is DH–485 Master, the following parameters can be
changed:
Parameter
Description
Default
Baud Rate
Toggles between the communication rate of 9600 and 19200.
19200
Node Address
This is the node address of the processor on the DH–485
network. The valid range is 1-31.
1
Max Node
Address
This is the maximum node address of an active processor (fixed
at 31). Set the node addresses of the devices on the network to
low, sequential numbers for best performance.
31
Token Hold
Factor
Determines the number of transactions allowed to make each
DH–485 token rotation. (fixed at 1)
1
DH–485 Network Initialization
Network initialization begins when a period of inactivity exceeding the time of a link
dead timeout is detected by an initiator on the network. When the time for a link dead
timeout is exceeded, usually the initiator with the lowest address claims the token.
When an initiator has the token it will begin to build the network. The network
requires at least one initiator to initialize it.
Building a network begins when the initiator that claimed the token tries to pass the
token to the successor node. If the attempt to pass the token fails, or if the initiator
has no established successor (for example, when it powers up), it begins a linear
search for a successor starting with the node above it in the addressing.
When the initiator finds another active initiator, it passes the token to that node, which
repeats the process until the token is passed all the way around the network to the first
node. At this point, the network is in a state of normal operation.
Devices that use the DH–485 Network
In addition to the Series C or later MicroLogix 1000 discrete controllers and all
MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers, the devices shown in the following table also
support the DH–485 network.
Note:
D-12
You cannot connect the Hand-Held Programmer, 1761–HHP–B30, to the
AIC+.
Understanding the Communication Protocols
Description
1747-L511,
-L514,
-L524,
-L531, SLC 500
L532 -L541,
Processors
-L542,
-L543, L551, -L552,
-L553
Installation
Requirement
Function
Publication
SLC Chassis
These processors support a variety of I/O
requirements and functionality.
1747–6.2
SLC Chassis
Provides an interface for SLC 500 devices to foreign
devices. Program in BASIC to interface the 3 channels
(2 RS232 and 1 DH–485) to printers, modems, or the
DH–485 network for data collection.
1746–6.1
1746–6.2
1746–6.3
1785-KA5
DH+TM/DH– (1771) PLC
485
Chassis
Gateway
Provides communication between stations on the
PLC–5r (DH+) and SLC 500 (DH–485) networks.
Enables communication and data transfer from PLC®
to SLC 500 on DH–485 network. Also enables
programming software programming or data
acquisition across DH+ to DH–485.
1785–6.5.5
1785–1.21
2760-RB
Flexible
Interface
Module
(1771) PLC
Chassis
Provides an interface for SLC 500 (using protocol
cartridge 2760–SFC3) to other A-B PLCs and devices.
Three configurable channels are available to interface
with Bar Code, Vision, RF, Dataliner™, and PLC
systems.
2760–ND001
1784-KTX,
-KTXD
PC DH–485
IM
IBM XT/AT
Provides DH–485 using RSLinx
Computer Bus
1784–6.5.22
PCMCIA slot
in computer
and
Interchange
Provides DH–485 using RSLinx
1784–6.5.19
NA
Provides hand-held programming, monitoring,
configuring, and troubleshooting capabilities for SLC
500 processors.
1747–NP002
1746-BAS
BASIC
Module
1784-PCMK PCMCIA IM
1747-PT1
Hand-Held
Terminal
D-13
Reference
Catalog
Number
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Catalog
Number
Description
Installation
Requirement
1747-DTAM,
2707-L8P1,
-L8P2,
-L40P1,
-L40P2,
-V40P1,
-V40P2, V40P2N,
-M232P3,
and
-M485P3
DTAM,
DTAM Plus,
and DTAM
Micro
Operator
Interfaces
Panel Mount
Provides electronic operator interface for SLC 500
processors.
1747–ND013
2707–800,
2707–803
2711-K5A2,
-B5A2,
-K5A5,
-B5A5,
-K5A1,
-B5A1,
-K9A2,
-T9A2,
-K9A5,
-T9A5,
-K9A1, and
-T9A1
PanelView
550 and
PanelView
900
Operator
Terminals
Panel Mount
Provides electronic operator interface for SLC 500
processors.
2711–802,
2711–816
NA = Not Applicable
D-14
Function
Publication
Understanding the Communication Protocols
Important DH–485 Network Planning Considerations
Carefully plan your network configuration before installing any hardware. Listed
below are some of the factors that can affect system performance:
•
amount of electrical noise, temperature, and humidity in the network environment
•
number of devices on the network
•
connection and grounding quality in installation
•
amount of communication traffic on the network
•
type of process being controlled
•
network configuration
The major hardware and software issues you need to resolve before installing a
network are discussed in the following sections.
Hardware Considerations
You need to decide the length of the communication cable, where you route it, and
how to protect it from the environment where it will be installed.
When the communication cable is installed, you need to know how many devices are
to be connected during installation and how many devices will be added in the future.
The following sections will help you understand and plan the network.
Number of Devices and Length of Communication Cable
The maximum length of the communication cable is 1219 m (4000 ft). This is the
total cable distance from the first node to the last node on the network.
D-15
Reference
You must install an AIC+ Advanced Interface Converter, catalog number 1761–NET–
AIC, for each node on the network. If you plan to add nodes later, provide additional
advanced interface converters during the initial installation to avoid recabling after the
network is in operation.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Planning Cable Routes
Follow these guidelines to help protect the communication cable from electrical
interference:
•
Keep the communication cable at least 1.52 m (5 ft) from any electric motors,
transformers, rectifiers, generators, arc welders, induction furnaces, or sources of
microwave radiation.
•
If you must run the cable across power feed lines, run the cable at right angles to
the lines.
•
If you do not run the cable through a contiguous metallic wireway or conduit,
keep the communication cable at least 0.15 m (6 in.) from ac power lines of less
than 20A, 0.30 m (1 ft) from lines greater than 20A, but only up to 100k VA, and
0.60 m (2 ft) from lines of 100k VA or more.
•
If you run the cable through a contiguous metallic wireway or conduit, keep the
communication cable at least 0.08 m (3 in.) from ac power lines of less than 20A,
0.15 m (6 in.) from lines greater than 20A, but only up to 100k VA, and 0.30 m (1
ft) from lines of 100k VA or more.
Running the communication cable through conduit provides extra protection from
physical damage and electrical interference. If you route the cable through
conduit, follow these additional recommendations:

Use ferromagnetic conduit near critical sources of electrical interference. You
can use aluminum conduit in non-critical areas.

Use plastic connectors to couple between aluminum and ferromagnetic conduit.
Make an electrical connection around the plastic connector (use pipe clamps
and the heavy gauge wire or wire braid) to hold both sections at the same
potential.

Ground the entire length of conduit by attaching it to the building earth ground.

Do not let the conduit touch the plug on the cable.

Arrange the cables loosely within the conduit. The conduit should contain only
serial communication cables.

Install the conduit so that it meets all applicable codes and environmental
specifications.
For more information on planning cable routes, see Industrial Automation Wiring and
Grounding Guidelines, Publication Number 1770–4.1.
D-16
Understanding the Communication Protocols
Software Considerations
Software considerations include the configuration of the network and the parameters
that can be set to the specific requirements of the network. The following are major
configuration factors that have a significant effect on network performance:
•
number of nodes on the network
•
addresses of those nodes
•
baud rate
The following sections explain network considerations and describe ways to select
parameters for optimum network performance (speed). See your programming
software’s user manual for more information.
Number of Nodes
The number of nodes on the network directly affects the data transfer time between
nodes. Unnecessary nodes (such as a second programming terminal that is not being
used) slow the data transfer rate. The maximum number of nodes on the network is
32.
Setting Node Addresses
The best network performance occurs when node addresses are assigned in sequential
order. Initiators, such as personal computers, should be assigned the lowest
numbered addresses to minimize the time required to initialize the network. The valid
range for the MicroLogix 1000 controllers is 1-31 (controllers cannot be node 0). The
default setting is 1. The node address is stored in the controller status file (S:16L).
The best network performance occurs at the highest baud rate, which is 19200. This
is the default baud rate for a MicroLogix 1000 device on the DH–485 network. All
devices must be at the same baud rate. This rate is stored in the controller status file
(S:16H).
D-17
Reference
Setting Controller Baud Rate
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example DH–485 Connections
The following network diagrams provide examples of how to connect Series C or later
MicroLogix 1000 discrete and all MicroLogix 1000 analog controllers to the DH–485
network using the AIC+. For more information on the AIC+, see the Advanced
Interface Converter and DeviceNet Interface Installation Instructions, Publication
1761–5.11.
DH–485 Network with a MicroLogix 1000 Controller
PC
MicroLogix 1000 (Series C or later)
PC to port 1 or
port 2
connection from port
1 or port 2 to
1761-CBL-AM00
or
1761-CBL-HM02
MicroLogix
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC
1761-CBL-AP00
or
1761-CBL-PM02
1761-CBL-AP00
or
1761-CBL-PM02
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC
24V dc
(user supply needed if not connected to a
MicroLogix 1000 controller)
MicroLogix DH-485 Network
D-18
1747-CP3
or
1761-CBL-AC00
Understanding the Communication Protocols
Typical 3-Node Network
PanelView™ 550
MicroLogix 1000
(Series C or later)
1761-CBL-AM00
or
1761-CBL-HM02
RJ45 port
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC
PC
1761-CBL-AS09
or
1761-CBL-AS03
Selection Switch Up
DB-9RS-232 port
mini-DIN 8 RS-232 port
24V dc
(Not needed in this configuration since
the MicroLogix 1000 provides
power to the AIC+ via port 2.)
1747-CP3
or
1761-CBL-AC00
Reference
DH-485/DF1 port
D-19
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Networked Operator Interface Device and MicroLogix Controller
PanelView™550
1761-CBL-AS09
or
1761-CBL-AS03
PC
PC to port 1 or
port 2
RS-232 port
NULL modem adapter
connection from NULL modem
adapter to port 1 or port 2
1761-CBL-AP00
or
1761-CBL-PM02
1761-CBL-AP00
or
1761-CBL-PM02
1747-CP3
or
1761-CBL-AC00
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC
24V dc
(User supplied)
1747-CP3
or
1761-CBL-AC00
24V dc
(User supplied)
DH-485 Network
1747-AIC
AIC+
(1761-NET-AIC
Selection
Switch Up
1747-CBL-AM00
or
1761-CBL-HM02
24V dc
(Not needed in this
configuration since the
MicroLogix 1000 provides
power to the AIC+ via port 2.)
MicroLogix 1000
(Series C or later)
SLC 5/03 processor
DB-9 RS-232 port
mini-DIN 8 RS-232 port
DH-485/DF1 port
D-20
Understanding the Communication Protocols
MicroLogix Remote Packet Support
Series D MicroLogix controllers and all MicroLogix analog controllers can respond
to communication packets (or commands) that do not originate on the local DH–485
network. This is useful in installations where communication is needed between the
DH–485 and DH+ networks.
The example below shows how to send messages from a PLC device or a PC on the
DH+ network to a MicroLogix 1000 controller on the DH–485 network. This method
uses an SLC 5/04 processor bridge connection.
When using this method:
•
PLC-5 devices can send read and write commands to MicroLogix controllers.
•
MicroLogix 1000 controllers can respond to MSG instructions received. The
MicroLogix controllers cannot initiate MSG instructions to devices on the DH+
network.
•
PC can send read and write commands to MicroLogix controllers.
•
PC can do remote programming of MicroLogix controllers.
PLC-5
PLC-5
DH+ Network
SLC 5/04
Modular I/O Controller
Reference
MicroLogix 1000
Programmable
Controller
DH-485 Network
SLC 5/03 System
MicroLogix 1000
Programmable
Controller
MicroLogix 1000
Programmable Controller
D-21
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Notes:
D-22
Application Example Programs
Application Example Programs
This appendix is designed to illustrate various instructions described previously in
this manual. Application example programs include:
•
paper drilling machine using most of the software instructions
•
time driven sequencer using TON and SQO instructions
•
event driven sequencer using SQC and SQO instructions
•
bottle line example using the HSC instruction (Up/down counter)
•
pick and place machine example using the HSC instruction (Quadrature Encoder
with reset and hold)
•
RPM calculation using HSC, RTO, timer, and math instructions
•
on/off circuit using basic, program flow, and application specific instructions
•
spray booth using bit shift and FIFO instructions
•
adjustable time delay example using timer instructions
Because of the variety of uses for this information, the user of and those responsible
for applying this information must satisfy themselves as to the acceptability of each
application and use of the program. In no event will Allen–Bradley Company be
responsible or liable for indirect or consequential damages resulting from the use of
application of this information.
The illustrations, charts, and examples shown in this appendix are intended solely to
illustrate the principles of the controller and some of the methods used to apply them.
Particularly because of the many requirements associated with any particular
installation, Allen–Bradley Company cannot assume responsibility or liability for
actual use based upon the illustrative uses and applications.
Reference
E
E-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Paper Drilling Machine Application Example
For a detailed explanation of:
E-2
•
XIC, XIO, OTE, RES, OTU, OTL, and OSR instructions, see chapter 6.
•
EQU and GEQ instructions, see chapter 7.
•
CLR, ADD, and SUB instructions, see chapter 8.
•
MOV and FRD instructions, see chapter 9.
•
JSR and RET instructions, see chapter 10.
•
INT and SQO instructions, see chapter 11.
•
HSC, HSL, and RAC instructions, see chapter 12.
Application Example Programs
This machine can drill 3 different hole patterns into bound manuals. The program
tracks drill wear and signals the operator that the bit needs replacement. The machine
shuts down if the signal is ignored by the operator.
OPERATOR PANEL
Start I:1/6
Stop I:1/7
Change Drill Soon
Change Drill Now
O:3/6
O:3/4
Thumbwheel for Thickness
in 1/4 in.
5 Hole
Drill Change Reset
3 Hole
I:1/11-I:1/14
(Keyswitch)
Drilled
Holes
I:1/9-I:1/10
I:1/8
Drill Home
I:1/5
Drill Depth
I:1/4
7 Hole
Drill On/Off O:3/1
Drill Retract O:3/2
Drill Forward O:3/3
Photo-Eye Reset I:1/2
Counter Hold I:1/3
Quadrature A-B Encoder and Drive
I:1/0 I:1/1
Photo-Eye
Reflector
Conveyor Enable wired in series to the Drive O:3/5
Conveyor Drive Start/Stop wired in series to the Drive O:3/0
Undrilled books are placed onto a conveyor taking them to a single spindle drill. Each
book moves down the conveyor until it reaches the first drilling position. The
conveyor stops moving and the drill lowers and drills the first hole. The drill then
retracts and the conveyor moves the same book to the second drilling position. The
drilling process is repeated until there are the desired holes per book.
E-3
Reference
Paper Drilling Machine Operation Overview
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Drill Mechanism Operation
When the operator presses the start button, the drill motor turns on. After the book is
in the first drilling position, the conveyor subroutine sets a drill sequence start bit, and
the drill moves toward the book. When the drill has drilled through the book, the drill
body hits a limit switch and causes the drill to retract up out of the book. When the
drill body is fully retracted, the drill body hits another limit switch indicting that it is
in the home position. Hitting the second limit switch unlatches the drill sequence start
bit and causes the conveyor to move the book to the next drilling position.
Conveyor Operation
When the start button is pressed, the conveyor moves the books forward. As the first
book moves close to the drill, the book trips a photo-eye sensor. This tells the machine
where the leading edge of the book is. Based on the position of the selector switch, the
conveyor moves the book until it reaches the first drilling position. The drill sequence
start bit is set and the first hole is drilled. The drill sequence start bit is not unlatched
and the conveyor moves the same book to the second drilling position. The drilling
process is repeated until there are the desired holes per book. The machine then looks
for another book to break the photo-eye beam and the process is repeated. The
operator can change the number of drilled holes by changing the selector switch.
Drill Calculation and Warning
The program tracks the number of holes drilled and the number of inches of material
that have been drilled through using a thumbwheel. The thumbwheel is set to the
thickness of the book per 1/4 inch. (If the book is 1 1/2 inches thick, the operator
would set the thumbwheel to 6.) When 25,000 inches have been drilled, the Change
Drill Soon pilot light flashes. When 26,000 inches have been drilled, the Change Drill
Now pilot light turn on and the machine turns off. The operator changes drill bits and
then resets the internal drill wear counter by turning the Drill Change Reset keyswitch
E-4
Application Example Programs
Paper Drilling Machine Ladder Program
Rung 2:0
Initializes the high-speed counter each time the REM Run mode is entered. The
high-speed counter data area (N7:5 - N7:9)corresponds with the starting address
(source address) of the HSL instruction. The HSC instruction is disabled each
entry into the REM run mode until the first time that it is executed as true.
(The high preset was “pegged” on initialization to prevent a high preset
interrupt from occurring during the initialization process.)
Reference
| 1’st
Output Mask
|
| Pass
(only use bit 0
|
|
ie: O:0/0)
|
|
S:1
+MOV---------------+
|
|----] [------------------------------------+-+MOVE
+-+-|
|
15
| |Source
1| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:5| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
| High Output Pattern | |
|
|
(turn off O:0/0)
| |
|
|
| |
|
| +MOV---------------+ | |
|
+-+MOVE
+-+ |
|
| |Source
0| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:6| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
| High Preset Value
| |
|
| (counts to next hole)| |
|
|
| |
|
| +MOV---------------+ | |
|
+-+MOVE
+-+ |
|
| |Source
32767| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:7| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
| Low Output Pattern | |
|
|
(turn on O:0/0
| |
|
|
each reset
| |
|
| +MOV---------------+ | |
|
+-+MOVE
+-+ |
|
| |Source
1| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:8| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
E-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
|
| Low preset value
| |
|
| (cause low preset
| |
|
|
int at reset)
| |
|
|
| |
|
| +MOV---------------+ | |
|
+-+MOVE
+-+ |
|
| |Source
0| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:9| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
|
| |
|
| High Speed Counter | |
|
|
| |
|
| +HSL---------------+ | |
|
+-+HSC LOAD
+-+ |
|
| |Counter
C5:0| | |
|
| |Source
N7:5| | |
|
| |Length
5| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
Rung 2:1
This HSC instruction is not placed in the high-speed counter interrupt
subroutine.
If this instruction were placed in the interrupt subroutine, the
high-speed counter could never be started or initialized (because an interrupt
must first occur in order to scan the high-speed counter interrupt subroutine).
|
High Speed Counter
|
|
+HSC--------------------+
|
|-------------------------------------+HIGH SPEED COUNTER
+-(CU)-|
|
|Type Encoder (Res,Hld)+-(CD) |
|
|Counter
C5:0+-(DN) |
|
|High Preset
1250|
|
|
|Accum
1|
|
|
+-----------------------+
|
E-6
Application Example Programs
Rung 2:2
Forces a high-speed counter low preset interrupt to occur each REM Run mode
entry. An interrupt can only occur on the transition of the high-speed counter
accum to a preset value (accum reset to 1, then 0). This is done to allow the
high-speed counter interrupt subroutine sequencers to initialize. The order of
high-speed counter HSL initialization is: (1)load high-speed counter parameters
(2)execute HSL instruction (3)execute true HSC instruction (4)(optional) force
high-speed counter interrupt to occur.
| 1’st
High Speed Counter
|
| Pass
|
|
S:1
+RAC------------------+
|
|----] [------------------------------------+-+RESET TO ACCUM VALUE +-+-|
|
15
| |Counter
C5:0| | |
|
| |Source
1| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| +---------------------+ | |
|
|
High Speed
| |
|
|
Counter
| |
|
|
C5:0
| |
|
+----(RES)----------------+ |
Rung 2:3
Starts the conveyor in motion when the start button is pressed. However, another
condition must also be met before we start the conveyor: the drill bit must be in
its fully retracted position (home). This rung also stops the conveyor when the
stop button is pressed.
|
START
|Drill
STOP
|change
|
Machine
|
|
Button
|Home LS
Button
|drill bit |
RUN
|
|
|NOW
|
Latch
|
|
I:0
I:0
I:0
O:0
B3
|
|-+----] [--------] [-----+----]/[--------]/[-----------------( )-----|
| |
6
5
|
7
6➀
0
|
| | Machine
|
|
| |
RUN
|
|
| | Latch
|
|
| |
B3
|
|
| +----] [----------------+
|
|
0
|
Rung 2:4
Applies the above start logic to the conveyor and drill motor.
➀
Reference
| Machine
Drill |Conveyor
|
|
RUN
Home LS
|Enable
|
| Latch
|
|
B3
I:0
O:0
|
|----] [------------------------------------+----] [--------( )-----+-|
|
0
|
5
5
| |
|
|
Drill
| |
|
|
Motor ON
| |
|
|
O:0
| |
|
+---------------( )-----+ |
|
1
|
This intruction accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include this instruction if you are
using a 16 I/O controller.
E-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 2:5
Calls the drill sequence subroutine. This subroutine manages the operation of a
drilling sequence and restarts the conveyor upon completion of the drilling
sequence.
|
+JSR---------------+ |
|------------------------------------------------+JUMP TO SUBROUTINE+-|
|
|SBR file number 6| |
|
+------------------+ |
Rung 2:6
Calls the subroutine that tracks the amount of wear on the current drill bit.
|
+JSR---------------+ |
|------------------------------------------------+JUMP TO SUBROUTINE+-|
|
|SBR file number 7| |
|
+------------------+ |
Rung 2:7
|-------------------------------------+END+---------------------------|
|
|
Rung 4:0
Resets the hole count sequencers each time that the low preset is reached. The
low preset has been set to zero to cause an interrupt to occur each time that a
reset occurs. The low preset is reached anytime that a reset C5:0 or hardware
reset occurs. This ensures that the first preset value is loaded into the highspeed counter at each entry into the REM Run mode and each time that the external
reset signal is activated.
|
interrupt
3 hole
|
|
occurred
preset
|
|
due to
sequencer
|
|
low preset
|
|
reached
|
| +INT--------------------+
C5:0
R6:4
|
|-+INTERRUPT SUBROUTINE
+----] [---------------------+---(RES)----+-|
| +-----------------------+
IL
|
| |
|
| 5 hole
| |
|
| preset
| |
|
| sequencer | |
|
|
R6:5
| |
|
+---(RES)----+-|
|
|
| |
|
| 7 hole
| |
|
| preset
| |
|
| sequencer | |
|
|
R6:6
| |
|
+---(RES)----+ |
E-8
Application Example Programs
Rung 4:1➀
Keeps track of the hole number that is being drilled and loads the correct highspeed counter preset based on the hole count. This rung is only active when the
“hole selector switch” is in the “3-hole” position. The sequencer uses step 0 as
a null step upon reset. If uses the last step as a “go forever” in anticipation
of the “end of manual” hard wired external reset.
| hole
|hole
3 hole
|
| selector |selector
preset
|
| switch
|switch
sequencer
|
| bit 0
|bit 1
|
|
I:0
I:0
+SQO---------------+
|
|----]/[--------] [---------------------+-+SEQUENCER OUTPUT +-(EN)-+-|
|
9
10
| |File
#N7:50+-(DN) | |
|
| |Mask
FFFF|
| |
|
| |Dest
N7:1|
| |
|
| |Control
R6:4|
| |
|
| |Length
5|
| |
|
| |Position
0|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
| |
|
| force the
| |
|
| sequencer
| |
|
| to increment
| |
|
| on next scan
| |
|
|
R6:4
| |
|
+----(U)--------------------+ |
|
EN
|
Rung 4:2
Is identical to the previous rung except that it is only active when the “hole
selector switch” is in the “5-hole” position.
➀
➁
Reference
| hole
|hole
5 hole
|
| selector |selector
preset
|
| switch
|switch
sequencer
|
|
| bit 0
|bit 1➁
|
I:0
I:0
+SQO---------------+
|
|----] [--------]/[---------------------+-+SEQUENCER OUTPUT +-(EN)-+-|
|
9
10
| |File
#N7:55+-(DN) | |
|
| |Mask
FFFF|
| |
|
| |Dest
N7:7|
| |
|
| |Control
R6:5|
| |
|
| |Length
7|
| |
|
| |Position
0|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
| force the
| |
|
| sequencer
| |
|
| to increment
| |
|
| on next scan
| |
|
|
R6:5
| |
|
+----(U)--------------------+ |
|
EN
|
This rung accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include it if you are using a 16 I/O
controller.
This instruction accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include it if you are using a 16
I/O controller.
E-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 4:3➀
Is identical to the 2 previous rungs except that it is only active when the “hole
selector switch” is in the “7-hole” position.
| hole
|hole
7 hole
|
| selector |selector
preset
|
| switch
|switch
sequencer
|
| bit 0
|bit 1
|
|
I:0
I:0
+SQO---------------+
|
|----] [--------] [---------------------+-+SEQUENCER OUTPUT +-(EN)-+-|
|
9
10
| |File
#N7:62+-(DN) | |
|
| |Mask
FFFF|
| |
|
| |Dest
N7:7|
| |
|
| |Control
R6:6|
| |
|
| |Length
9|
| |
|
| |Position
0|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
| force the
| |
|
| sequencer
| |
|
| to increment
| |
|
| on the next
| |
|
| scan
| |
|
|
R6:6
| |
|
+----(U)--------------------+ |
|
EN
|
Rung 4:4
Ensures that the high-speed counter preset value (N7:7) is immediately applied to
the HSC instruction.
|
High Speed Counter |
|
+HSL--------------+ |
|-------------------------------------------------+HSC LOAD
+-|
|
|Counter
C5:0| |
|
|Source
N7:5| |
|
|Length
5| |
|
+-----------------+ |
Rung 4:5
Interrupt occurred due to low preset reached.
| C5:0
+RET--------------+-|
|----][-------------------------------------------+RETURN
+ |
|
IL
+-----------------+ |
➀
E-10
This rung accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include this rung if you are using a 16
I/O controller.
Application Example Programs
Rung 4:6
Signals the main program (file 2) to initiate a drilling sequence. The highspeed counter has already stopped the conveyor at the correct position using its
high preset output pattern data (clear O:0/0). This occurred within microseconds
of the high preset being reached (just prior to entering this high-speed counter
interrupt subroutine). The drill sequence subroutine resets the drill sequence
start bit and sets the conveyor drive bit (O:0/0) upon completion of the drilling
sequence.
| interrupt occurred
|
Drill Sequence Start |
| due to high preset reached |
|
|
C5:0
B3
|
|----] [------------------------------------------------------(L)-----|
|
IH
32
|
Rung 4:7
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
Rung 6:0
This section of ladder logic controls the up/down motion of the drill for the
book drilling machine. When the conveyor positions the book under the drill, the
DRILL SEQUENCE START bit is set. This rung uses that bit to begin the drilling
operation. Because the bit is set for the entire drilling operation, the ISR is
required to be able to turn off the forward signal so the drill can retract.
| Drill
|Drill Subr|
Drill
|
| Sequence |
OSR
|
Forward
|
| Start
|
|
|
B3
B3
O:0
|
|---] [--------[OSR]-----------------------------------------(L)------|
|
32
48
3
|
Rung 6:1
When the drill has drilled through the book, the body of the drill actuates the
DRILL DEPTH limit switch. When this happens, the DRILL FORWARD signal is turned
off and the DRILL RETRACT signal is turned on.
The drill is also retracted
automatically on power up if it is not actuation the DRILL HOME limit switch.
Reference
|
Drill
Drill
|
|
Depth LS
Forward
|
|
I:0
O:0
|
|-+----] [----------------+----------------------------+----(U)-----+-|
| |
4
|
|
3
| |
| | 1’st
|Drill
|
| Drill
| |
| | Pass
|Home LS
|
| Retract
| |
| |
S:1
I:0
|
|
O:0
| |
| +----] [--------]/[-----+
+----(L)-----+ |
|
15
5
2
|
E-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 6:2
When the drill is retracting (after drilling a hole), the body of the drill
actuates the DRILL HOME limit switch. When this happens the DRILL RETRACT signal
is turned off, the DRILL SEQUENCE START bit is turned off to indicate the
drilling process is complete, and the conveyor is restarted.
| Drill
|Drill
Drill
|
| Home LS
|Retract
Retract
|
|
I:0
O:0
O:0
|
|----] [--------] [------------------------------------+----(U)-----+-|
|
5
2
|
2
| |
|
| Drill
| |
|
| Sequence
| |
|
| Start
| |
|
|
B3
| |
|
+----(U)-----+ |
|
|
32
| |
|
| Conveyor
| |
|
| Start/Stop | |
|
|
| |
|
|
O:0
| |
|
+----(L)-----+ |
|
0
|
Rung 6:3
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
Rung 7:0
Examines the number of 1/4 in. thousands that have accumulated over the life of
the current drill bit. If the bit has drilled between 100,000-101,999 1/4 in.
increments of paper, the “change drill” light illuminates steadily.
When the
value is between 102,000-103,999, the “changed drill” light flashes at a 1.28
seconds rate. When the value reaches 105,000, the “change drill" light flashes
and the “Change drill now” light illuminates.
|
1/4 in.
100,000
|
|
Thousands
1/4 in.
|
|
increments
|
|
have
|
|
occurred
|
|
+GEQ---------------+
B3
|
|---+-+GRTR THAN OR EQUAL+----------------------------------( )-----+-|
|
| |Source A
N7:11|
16
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Source B
100|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
1/4 in.
102,000
| |
|
|
Thousands
1/4 in.
| |
|
|
increments | |
|
|
have
| |
|
|
occurred
| |
E-12
Application Example Programs
|
+GEQ---------------+
B3
|
|---+-+GRTR THAN OR EQUAL+----------------------------------( )-----+-|
|
| |Source A
N7:11|
17
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Source B
102|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
1/4 in.
change
| |
|
|
Thousands
drill bit | |
|
|
NOW
| |
| ➀ | +GEQ---------------+
O:0
| |
|
+-+GRTR THAN OR EQUAL+----------------------------------( )-----+ |
|
| |Source A
N7:11|
6
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Source B
105|
| |
|
| |
|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
100,000
|102,000
change
| |
|
|
1/4 in.
|1/4 in.
drill
| |
|
|
increments|increments
bit
| |
|
|
have
|have
soon
| |
|
|
occurred |occurred
| |
|
|
B3
B3
O:0
| |
|
+-+-------------------] [---------]/[----------------+--( )-----+ |
|
|
16
17
|
4
|
|
|
100,000
|102,000
|1.28
|
|
|
|
1/4 in.
|1/4 in.
|second
|
|
|
|
increments|increments|free
|
|
|
|
have
|have
|running
|
|
|
|
occurred |occurred |clock bit
|
|
|
|
B3
B3
S:4
|
|
|
+-------------------] [---------] [--------] [-----+
|
|
16
17
7
|
The branch accesses I/O only avilable with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include this branch if you are using
a 16 I/O controller.
Reference
➀
E-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 7:1
Resets the number of 1/4 in. increments and the 1/4 in. thousands when the “drill
change reset” keyswitch is energized. This should occur following each drill bit
change.
| drill change
1/4 in.
|
| reset keyswitch
Thousands
|
|
I:0
+CLR---------------+
|
|----] [-------------------------------------+-+CLEAR
+-+-|
|
8
| |Dest
N7:11| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
|
1/4 in.
| |
|
|
increments
| |
|
|
| |
|
| +CLR---------------+ | |
|
+-+CLEAR
+-+ |
|
|Dest
N7:10|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 7:2➀
Moves the single digit BCD thumbwheel value into an internal integer register.
This is done to properly align the four BCD input signals prior to executing the
BCD to Integer instruction (FRD). The thumbwheel is used to allow the operator
to enter the thickness of the paper that is to be drilled.
The thickness is
entered in 1/4 in. increments. This provides a range of 1/4 in. to 2.25 in.
|
BCD bit 0 |FRD bit 0
|
|
I:0
N7:14
|
|-------------------------------------------+----] [--------( )-----+-|
|
|
11
0
| |
|
BCD bit 0 |FRD bit 0
|
|
I:0
N7:14
|
|-------------------------------------------+----] [--------( )-----+-|
|
|
12
1
| |
|
BCD bit 0 |FRD bit 2
|
|
I:0
N7:14
|
|-------------------------------------------+----] [--------( )-----+-|
|
|
13
2
| |
|
BCD bit 0 |FRD bit 0
|
|
I:0
N7:14
|
|-------------------------------------------+----] [--------( )-----+-|
|
|
14
3
| |
➀
E-14
This rung accesses I/O only available with 32 I/O controllers. Do not include this rung if you are using a 16
I/O controller.
Application Example Programs
Rung 7:3
Converts the BCD thumbwheel value from BCD to integer. This is done because the
controller operates upon integer values.
This rung also “debounces” the
thumbwheel to ensure that the conversion only occurs on valid BCD value. Note
that invalid BCD values can occur while the operator is changing the BCD
thumbwheel. This is due to input filter propagation delay differences between
the 4 input circuits that provide the BCD input value.
| 1’st
previous
debounced
|
| pass
scan’s
BCD value
|
| bit
BCD input
|
|
value
|
|
S:1
+EQU---------------+
+FRD---------------+
|
|-+--]/[-------+EQUAL
+-+-------+FROM BCD
+-+--+-|
| |
15
|Source A
N7:13| |
|Source
N7:14| | | |
| |
|
0| |
|
0000| | | |
| |
|Source B
N7:14| |
|Dest
N7:12| | | |
| |
|
0| |
|
0| | | |
| |
+------------------+ |
+------------------+ | | |
| |
| Math
Math
| | |
| |
| Overflow
Error
| | |
| |
| Bit
Bit
| | |
| |
|
S:0
S:5
| | |
| |
+----] [----------(U)--------+ | |
| |
1
0
| |
| |
this
| |
| |
scan’s
| |
| |
BCD input
| |
| |
value
| |
| |
+MOV--------------+ | |
| +---------------------------------------------+MOVE
+-+ |
|
|Source
N7:14|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
|Dest
N7:13|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+-----------------+
|
Rung 7:4
Ensures that the operator cannot select a paper thickness of 0. If this were
allowed, the drill bit life calculation could be defeated resulting in poor
quality holes due to a dull drill bit. Therefore the minimum paper thickness
used to calculate drill bit wear is 1/4 in.
Reference
|
debounced
debounced
|
|
BCD
BCD
|
|
value
value
|
| +EQU---------------+
+MOV---------------+ |
|-+EQUAL
+---------------------------+MOVE
+-|
| |Source A
N7:12|
|Source
1| |
| |
0|
|
| |
| |Source B
0|
|Dest
N7:12| |
| |
|
|
0| |
| +------------------+
+------------------+ |
E-15
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 7:5
Keeps a running total of how many inches of paper have been drilled with the
current drill bit. Every time a hole is drilled, adds the thickness (in 1/4 ins)
to the running total (kept in 1/4 ins). The OSR is necessary because the ADD
executes every time the rung is true, and the drill body would actuate the DRILL
DEPTH limit switch for more than 1 program scan. Integer N7:12 is the integerconverted value of the BCD thumbwheel on inputs I:0/11 - I:0/14.
| Drill
|Drill Wear
1/4 in.
|
| Depth LS | OSR 1
increments
|
|
|
|
I:0
B3
+ADD---------------+ |
|----] [-------[OSR]-----------------------------+ADD
+-|
|
4
24
|Source A
N7:12| |
|
|
0| |
|
|Source B
N7:10| |
|
|
0| |
|
|Dest
N7:10| |
|
|
0| |
|
+------------------+ |
Rung 7:6
When the number of 1/4 in. increments surpasses 1000, finds out how many
increments are past 1000 and stores in N7:20. Add 1 to the total of ‘1000 1/4
in.’ increments, and re-initializes the 1/4 in. increments accumulator to how
many increments were beyond 1000.
|
1/4 in.
|
|
increments
|
|
|
| +GEQ---------------+
+SUB---------------+
|
|-+GRTR THAN OR EQUAL+-----------------------+-+SUBTRACT
+-+-|
| |Source A
N7:10|
| |Source A
N7:10| | |
| |
0|
| |
0| | |
| |Source B
1000|
| |Source B
1000| | |
| |
|
| |
| | |
| +------------------+
| |Dest
N7:20| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
|
1/4 in.
| |
|
|
Thousands
| |
|
| +ADD---------------+ | |
|
+-+ADD
+-+ |
|
| |Source A
1| | |
|
| |
| | |
|
| |Source B
N7:11| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:11| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
E-16
Application Example Programs
|
|
1/4 in.
| |
|
|
increments
| |
|
|
| |
|
| +MOV---------------+ | |
|
+-+MOVE
+-+ |
|
|Source
N7:20|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
|Dest
N7:10|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 7:7
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
Time Driven Sequencer Application Example
The following application example illustrates the use of the TON and SQO
instructions in a traffic signal at an intersection. The timing requirements are:
•
Red light - 30 seconds
•
Yellow light - 15 seconds
•
Green light - 60 seconds
•
XIC, XIO, and TON instructions, see chapter 6.
•
SQO and SQC instructions, see chapter 11.
Reference
The timer, when it reaches its preset, steps the sequencer that in turn controls which
traffic signal is illuminated. For a detailed explanation of:
E-17
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Time Driven Sequencer Ladder Program
Rung 2:0
The function of this rung is called a regenerative timer. Every time the timer
reaches its preset, the DONE bit is set for one scan - this causes this rung to
become FALSE for one scan and resets the timer. On the following scan, when this
rung becomes TRUE again, the timer begins timing.
| Timer
Timer
|
| Enable
|
| T4:0
+TON---------------+
|
|---]/[-------------------------------------+TIMER ON DELAY
+-(EN)-|
|
DN
|Timer
T4:0+-(DN) |
|
|Time Base
0.01|
|
|
|Preset
1|
|
|
|Accum
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 2:1
Controls the RED, GREEN, and YELLOW lights wired to outputs O:0/0 - O:0/2, and
controls how long the regenerative timer times between each step. When this rung
goes from false-to-true (by the timer reaching its preset), the first sequencer
changes which traffic light is illuminated, and the second sequencer changes the
preset of the timer to determine how long this next light is illuminated.
|
RED, GREEN, and
|
|
YELLOW lights
|
| T4:0
+SQO---------------+
|
|--] [----------------------------------+-+SEQUENCER OUTPUT +-(EN)-+-|
|
DN
| |File
#N7:0+-(DN) | |
|
| |Mask
0007+
| |
|
| |Dest
O:0.0|
| |
|
| |Control
R6:0|
| |
|
| |Length
3|
| |
|
| |Position
0|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
Timer Presets
| |
|
|
for each lights
| |
|
| +SQO---------------+
| |
|
+-+SEQUENCER OUTPUT +-(EN)-+ |
|
|File
#N7:5+-(DN)
|
|
|Mask
FFFF|
|
|
|Dest
T4:0.PRE|
|
|
|Control
R6:1|
|
|
|Length
3|
|
|
|Position
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 2:2
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
E-18
Application Example Programs
Data Files
Address
15
N7:0
0000
N7:1
0000
N7:2
0000
N7:3
0000
Data
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0000
0
0000
0100
0010
0001
Data Table
Address
Data
N7:0
0
4
(Radix=Decimal)
2
1
0
0
6000
1500
3000
Event Driven Sequencer Application Example
The following application example illustrates how the FD (found) bit on an SQC
instruction can be used to advance a SQO to the next step (position). This application
program is used when a specific order of events is required to occur repeatedly. By
using this combination, you can eliminate using the XIO, XIC, and other instructions.
For a detailed explanation of:
•
XIC, XIO, and RES instruction, see chapter 6.
•
SQO and SQC instructions, see chapter 11.
Event Driven Sequencer Ladder Program
Rung 2:0
Ensures that the SQO always resets to step (position) 1 each REM Run mode entry.
(This rung actually resets the control register’s position and EN enable bit to
0. Due to this the following rung sees a false to true transition and asserts
step (position) 1 on the first scan).
Reference
Eliminate this rung for retentive operation.
| S:1
R6:0
|
|--] [------------------------------------------------------(RES)----|
|
15
|
|
|
E-19
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 2:1
The SQC instruction and SQO instruction share the same Control Register. This is
acceptable due to the careful planning of the rungstate condition.
You could
cascade (branch) many more SQO instructions below the SQO if you desired, all
using the same Control Register (R6:0 in this case). Notice that we are only
comparing Inputs 0-3 and are only asserting Outputs 0-3 (per our Mask value).
| R6:0
+SQC---------------+
|
|--]/[----------------------------+-------+SEQUENCER COMPARE +-(EN)-+-|
|
FD
|
|File
#N7:0+-(DN) | |
|
|
|Mask
000F+-(FD) | |
|
|
|Source
I:0.0|
| |
|
|
|Control
R6:0|
| |
|
|
|Length
9|
| |
|
|
|Position
2|
| |
|
|
+------------------+
| |
|
| R6:0 +SQO---------------+
| |
|
+--]/[--+SEQUENCER OUTPUT +-(EN)-+ |
|
FD |File
#N7:10+-(DN)
|
|
|Mask
000F|
|
|
|Dest
O:0.0|
|
|
|Control
R6:0|
|
|
|Length
9|
|
|
|Position
2|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 2:2
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
The following displays the FILE DATA for both sequencers. The SQC compare data
starts at N7:0 and ends at N7:9. While the SQO output data starts at N7:10 and
ends at N7:19. Please note that step 0 of the SQO is never active. The reset
rung combined with the rung logic of sequencers guarantees that the sequencers
always start at step 1. Both sequencers also “roll over” to step 1. “Roll OVer”
to step 1 is integral to all sequencer instructions.
SQC Compare Data
Addresses
N7:0
0
N7:10 0
E-20
Data
1
2
0
1
(Radix=Decimal)
3
4
5
6
2
3
4
5
7
6
8
7
9
8
Application Example Programs
Bottle Line Example
The following application example illustrates how the controller high-speed counter
is configured for an Up/down counter. For a detailed explanation of:
•
XIC, OTL, OTU, and OTE instructions, see chapter 6.
•
GRT, LES, and GEQ instruction, see chapter 7.
•
HSC and HSL instructions, see chapter 12.
Sensor OUT I:0/1
Sensor IN I:0/0
Conveyor
Bottle Fill and
Cap Machine
Conveyor
Stop Fill O:0/0
Slow Fill O:0/1
Holding Area
Conveyor
Packing Machine
Slow Pack O:0/2
Bottle Line Operation Overview
A conveyor feeds filled bottles past a proximity sensor (IN) to a holding area. The
proximity sensor is wired to the I/0 terminal (up count) of the conveyor controller.
The bottles are then sent to another conveyor past a proximity switch (OUT) to the
packing machine. The proximity switch is wired to the I/1 terminal (down count) on
the same controller.
E-21
Reference
The controller on the conveyor, within the specified area above, regulates the speeds
of the bottle fill and packing machines. Each machine is connected to a separate
controller that communicates with the conveyor controller. The following ladder
program is for the conveyor controller.
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Bottle Line Ladder Program
Rung 2:0
Loads the high-speed counter with the following parameters:
N7:0 - 0001h Output Mask - Effect only O:0.0
N7:1 - 0001h Output Pattern for High Preset - Energize O:0/0 upon high preset
N7:2 - 350d High Preset - Maximum numbers of bottles for the holding area
N7:3 - 0000h Output Pattern for Low Preset - not used
N7:4 - 0d Low Preset - not used
| First Pass
|
|
Bit
|
|
S:1
+HSL---------------+ |
|----] [-----------------------------------------+HSC LOAD
+-|
|
15
|Counter
C5:0| |
|
|Source
N7:0| |
|
|Length
5| |
|
+------------------+ |
Rung 2:1
Starts up the high-speed counter with the above parameters. Each time the rung
is evaluated, the hardware accumulator is written to C5:0.ACC.
|
+HSC---------------+
|
|-------------------------------------------+HIGH SPEED COUNTER+-(CU)-|
|
|Type
Up/Down+-(CD) |
|
|Counter
C5:0+-(DN) |
|
|Preset
350|
|
|
|Accum
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 2:2
Packing machine running too fast for the filling machine. Slow down the packing
machine to allow the filler to catch up.
|
Slow Pack |
| +LES---------------+
O:0
|
|-+LESS THAN
+----------------------------------------(L)-----|
| |Source A C5:0.ACC|
2
|
| |
0|
|
| |Source B
100|
|
| |
|
|
| +------------------+
|
Rung 2:3
If the packer was slowed down to allow the filler to catch up, wait until the
holding area is approximately 2/3 full before allowing the packer to run at full
speed again.
|
Slow Pack |
Slow Pack |
| +GRT---------------+
O:0
O:0
|
|-+GREATER THAN
+----] [---------------------------------(U)-----|
| |Source A C5:0.ACC|
2
2
|
| |
0|
|
| |Source B
200|
|
| |
|
|
| +------------------+
|
E-22
Rung 2:4
Filling machine running too fast for the packing machine. Slow down the filling
machine to allow the packer to catch up.
|
Slow Fill |
| +GRT---------------+
O:0
|
|-+GREATER THAN
+----------------------------------------(L)-----|
| |Source A C5:0.ACC|
1
|
| |
0|
|
| |Source B
250|
|
| |
|
|
| +------------------+
|
Rung 2:5
If the filler was slowed down to allow the packer to catch up, wait until the
holding area is approximately 1/3 full before allowing the filler to run at full
speed again.
|
Slow Fill |
Slow Fill |
| +LES---------------+
O:0
O:0
|
|-+LESS THAN
+----] [---------------------------------(U)-----|
| |Source A C5:0.ACC|
1
1
|
| |
0|
|
| |Source B
150|
|
| |
|
|
| +------------------+
|
Rung 2:6
If the high-speed counter reached its high preset of 350 (indicates that the
holding area reached maximum capacity), it would energize O:0/0, shutting down
the filling operation. Before re-starting the filler, allow the packer to empty
the holding area until it is about 1/3 full.
| HSC Interr
Fill Stop
|
| due to
|
| High Preset
|
|
|
|
C5:0
+LES---------------+
O:0
|
|----] [-----+LESS THAN
+----------------------+----(U)-----+-|
|
IH
|Source A C5:0.ACC|
|
0
| |
|
|
0|
|
| |
|
|Source B
150|
|
| |
|
|
|
|
| |
|
+------------------+
|
| |
|
| HSC Interr | |
|
| due to
| |
|
| High Preset| |
|
|
| |
|
|
C5:0 | |
|
+----(U)-----+ |
|
IH
|
Rung 2:7
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
Data Table
Addresses Data
N7:0
(Radix=Decimal)
1
1
350 0
0
E-23
Reference
Application Example Programs
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Pick and Place Machine Example
The following application example illustrates how the controller high-speed counter
is configured for the up and down counter using an encoder with reset and hold. For a
detailed explanation of:
•
XIC, XIO, OTE, RES, OTU, OTL, and TON instructions, see chapter 6.
•
GRT and NEQ instructions, see chapter 7.
•
MOV instruction, see chapter 9.
•
HSC and HSL instructions, see chapter 12.
Storage Bins
H
G
F
E
D
C
B
A
Conveyor
Gripper O:0/0
Rail
Home Position
Encoder
A - I:0/0
B - I:0/1
C - I:0/2
Master PLC Outputs
Wired to Inputs:
I:0/5
I:0/6
I:0/7
Pick and Place Machine Operation Overview
A pick and place machine takes parts from a conveyor and drops them into the
appropriate bins. When the pick and place head is positioned over the conveyor with a
gripped part, the master PLC communicates to the controller controlling the gripper
which bin to drop the part into. This information is communicated by energizing three
outputs that are wired to the controller’s inputs. Once the controller has this
information, it grabs the part and moves down the rail. When the gripper reaches the
appropriate bin, it opens and the part falls into the bin. The gripper then returns to the
conveyor to retrieve another part.
E-24
Application Example Programs
The position of the pick and place head is read by the controller via a 1000 line
quadrature encoder wired to the controller’s high-speed counter inputs. When the
gripper is in the home position, the Z pulse from the encoder resets the high-speed
counter. The number of pulses the head needs to travel to reach each bin location is
sorted in a data table starting at address N7:10 and ending at N7:17. The controller
uses indexed addressing to locate the correct encoder count from the data table and
load the information into the high preset of the high-speed counter.
Rung 2:0
The following 3 rungs take information from the other programmable controller and
load it into the INDEX REGISTER.
This will be used to select the proper bin
location from the table starting at N7:10.
| Output
|
|
| from
|
|
| barcode
|
Index Reg |
|
I:0
S:24
|
|----] [------------------------------------------------------( )-----|
|
5
0
|
Rung 2:1
| Output
|
|
| from
|
|
| barcode
|
Index Reg |
|
I:0
S:24
|
|----] [------------------------------------------------------( )-----|
|
6
1
|
Rung 2:2
|
| Output
|
|
| from
|
|
| barcode
|
Index Reg |
|
I:0
S:24
|
|----] [------------------------------------------------------( )-----|
|
7
2
|
Rung 2:3
Indexes into the table of bin locations and places the correct number of encoder
counts into the high preset of the high-speed counter.
|
+MOV---------------+ |
|------------------------------------------------+MOVE
+-|
|
|Source
#N7:10| |
|
|
100| |
|
|Dest
N7:2| |
|
|
100| |
|
+------------------+ |
E-25
Reference
Pick and Place Machine Ladder Program
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 2:4
Loads the high-speed counter with the following parameters:
N7:0 - 0001h - Output Mask - high-speed counter control only O:0/0 (gripper)
N7:1 - 000h - Output Pattern for High Preset - turn OFF gripper (release part)
N7:2 - 100d - High Preset - loaded from table in the rung above
N7:3 - 0001h - Output Pattern for Low Preset - turn ON gripper (grab part)
N7:4 0d - Low Preset - home position when encoder triggers Z-reset
|
Home
|
|
Position
|
|
Reached
|
|
C5:0
+HSL---------------+ |
|-+----] [-----+---------------------------------+HSC LOAD
+-|
| |
LP
|
|Counter
C5:0| |
| |
|
|Source
N7:0| |
| |
|
|Length
5| |
| |
|
+------------------+ |
| | First Pass |
|
| |
Bit
|
|
| |
S:1
|
|
| +----] [-----+
|
|
15
|
Rung 2:5
Start up the high-speed counter with the above parameters. Each time this rung
is evaluated the hardware accumulator is written to C5:0.ACC.
|
+HSC--------------------+
|
|--------------------------------------+HIGH SPEED COUNTER
+-(EN)-|
|
|Type Encoder (Res,Hld)+-(CD) |
|
|Counter
C5:0+-(DN) |
|
|Preset
100|
|
|
|Accum
-2|
|
|
+-----------------------+
|
Rung 2:6
When the pick and place head reaches either its home position to pick up a part
or its destination bin to drop off a part, start up a dwell timer. The purpose
of this is to keep the head stationary long enough for the gripper to either grab
or release the part.
|
Bin
|
|
Location
Dwell Timr
|
|
Reached
|
|
C5:0
+TON---------------+
|
|-+----] [-----+----------------------------+TIMER ON DELAY
+-(EN)-|
| |
HP
|
|Timer
T4:0+-(DN) |
| |
|
|Time Base
0.01|
|
| |
|
|Preset
100|
|
| |
|
|Accum
100|
|
| |
|
+------------------+
|
| | Home
|
|
| | Position
|
|
| | Reached
|
|
| |
C5:0
|
|
| +----] [-----+
|
|
LP
|
E-26
Application Example Programs
Rung 2:7
When the pick and place head is positioned over the proper bin, turn off the
forward motor. At the same time the high-speed counter will tell the gripper to
release the part and start the dwell timer. After the dwell time has expired,
start up the reverse motor to send the head back to its home position to pick up
another part.
| Bin
Motor
|
| Location
FORWARD
|
| Reached
|
|
C5:0
O:0
|
|----] [------------------------------------+---------------(U)-----+-|
|
HP
|
1
| |
|
| Dwell
|Motor
| |
|
| Done
|REVERSE
| |
|
|
T4:0
O:0
| |
|
+----] [--------(L)-----+ |
|
DN
2
|
Rung 2:8
When the pick and place head is positioned at its home position, turn off the
reverse motor. At the same time the high-speed counter will tell the gripper to
grab the next part and start the dwell timer. After the dwell time has expired,
start up the forward motor to send the head out to its drip off bin.
| Home
Motor
|
| Position
REVERSE
|
| Reached
|
|
C5:0
O:0
|
|----] [------------------------------------+--------------(U)------+-|
|
HP
|
2
| |
|
| Dwell
|Motor
| |
|
| Done
|REVERSE
| |
|
|
T4:0
O:0
| |
|
+----] [--------(L)-----+ |
|
DN
1
|
Rung 2:9
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
Data Table
0
0
Reference
Addresses Data
(Radix=Decimal)
N7:0
1
0
100 1
0
0
0
0
0
N7:10 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 0
E-27
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
RPM Calculation Application Example
The following application example illustrates how to calculate the frequency and
RPM of a device (such as an encoder) connected to a high-speed counter. The
calculated values are only valid when counting up. For a detailed explanation of:
•
XIC, XIO, CTU, and TON instructions, see chapter 6.
•
LES instruction, see chapter 7.
•
CLR, MUL, DIV, DDV, ADD, and SUB instructions, see chapter 8.
•
MOV instruction, see chapter 9.
RPM Calculation Operation Overview
This is done by manipulating the number of counts that have occurred in the highspeed counter accumulator (C0.ACC) over time. To determine this you must provide
the following application specific information:
•
N7:2 - Counts per Revolution. (i.e., the number of encoder pulses per revolution
i.e., the number of pulses until reset). This value is entered in whole counts. For
example, you would enter the value 1000 into N7:2 for a 1000 count A/B/Z
encoder.
•
T4:0. PRE - The Rate Measurement Period (i.e., the amount of time in which to
sample the accumulation of counts). This value is entered in .01 second intervals.
For example, enter the value 10 into T4:0.PRE for a .1 second rate measurement
period. For an accurate frequency and RPM calculation to occur, the value entered
must divide evenly into 100. For example valid=20, 10, 5, 4, 2, 1 and invalid=11,
9, 8, 7, 6, 3.
Once you have entered these 2 values, the following information is provided:
•
N7:1 - Counts per last Rate Measurement Period. This value is updated each end
of Rate Measurement Period with the number of counts that have elapsed. Use this
value if your application requires high-speed calculations such as velocity.
•
N7:4 - Frequency. This value is updated once per second with the number of
pulses that occurred in the last second. This value (frequency) is calculated:
pulses
Frequency ( Hz ) = --------------------1 sec ond
E-28
Application Example Programs
•
N7:5 - RPM. This value is calculated once per second using the frequency value
N7:4 together with the counts per revolution value N7:2. For example, if N7:4
contained the value 2000 (indicates 2000 Hz) and you had specified a 1000 count
encoder in N7:2, the RPM calculation for N7:5 would be 120. This equates to 2
encoder revolutions per second. Refer to the following calculation:
pulses 1revolution 60 sec onds
RPM = --------------------- × ------------------------------- × --------------------------1 sec ond
pulses
1minute
2000pulses 1revolution 60 sec onds
120RPM = ----------------------------- × ------------------------------- × --------------------------1 sec ond
1000pulses
1minute
Reference
To maintain validity, you must ensure that you cannot accumulate more pulses per
rate period than counts per revolution. For example, if you have selected a 1000 pulse
encoder, you cannot have more than 999 counts occur in any 1 rate measurement
period. If you determine that you exceed this rule, simply lower your Rate
Measurement Period T4:0.PRE.
E-29
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
RPM Calculation Ladder Program
Rung 2:0
Ensures that the measurement value is initialized each REM Run mode entry.
|
Last timeout
|
|
First
value storage
|
|
Pass
register
|
|
S:1
+MOV---------------+
|
|----] [---------------------------------------+-+MOVE
+-+-|
|
15
| |Source
C5:0.ACC| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:0| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
|
Frequency
| |
|
|
determination
| |
|
|
counter
| |
|
|
C5:0
| |
|
+-----(RES)------------+ |
|
|
Counts last rate
| |
|
|
measurement
| |
|
|
period
| |
|
| +CLR---------------+ | |
|
+-+CLEAR
+-+-|
|
| |Dest
N7:1| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
|
Frequency in
| |
|
|
Hertz period
| |
|
| +CLR---------------+ | |
|
+-+CLEAR
+-+-|
|
| |Dest
N7:4| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
|
|
RPM based on
| |
|
|
counts per turn
| |
|
|
register N7:2
| |
|
| +CLR---------------+ | |
|
+-+CLEAR
+-+-|
|
| |Dest
N7:5| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +------------------+ | |
E-30
Application Example Programs
Rung 2:1
Sets the rate measurement period. In this case we are calculating a new rate
value once every 100ms. Value N7:1 is updated once every 100ms with the number
of counts that have occurred in the last 100mns period. Note that the preset
value must divide evenly into 100 in order to accurately determine frequency and
RPM (determined later in this program).
| Rate Period |
|
| Expiration |
Rate measurement
|
| Bit
|
period
|
|
T4:0
+TON---------------+
|
|----]/[--------------------------------------+TIMER ON DELAY
+-(EN)-|
|
DN
|Timer
T4:0+-(DN) |
|
|Time Base
0.01|
|
|
|Preset
10|
|
|
|Accum
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 2:2
Calculates and stores the number of counts that have occurred since the last time
that it was executed as true in N7:1 (last time=last rate measurement timer
(t4:0) expiration).
The LES instruction allows for 10 counts of backlash to
occur (you can adjust as needed). The add instruction is configured for a 1000
count encoder using N7:2. (Change this register to match the number of counts
generated each Z reset.)
Reference
| Rate Period
Counts last rate
|
| Expiration Bit
measurement period
|
|
|
| T4:0
+SUB---------------+
|
|--] [----+---------------------------------+SUBTRACT
+------+-|
|
DN |
|Source A C5:0.ACC|
| |
|
|
|
0|
| |
|
|
|Source B
N7:0|
| |
|
|
|
0|
| |
|
|
|Dest
N7:1|
| |
|
|
|
0|
| |
|
|
+------------------+
| |
|
| If
Counts last rate
Counts last rate
| |
|
| negative
measurement period
measurement period
| |
|
| math flag
| |
|
| S:0
+LES---------------+ +ADD---------------+
| |
|
+--] [------+LESS THAN
+--+ADD
+------+ |
|
|
3
|Source A
N7:1| |Source A
N7:2|
| |
|
|
|
0| |
1000|
| |
|
|
|Source B
-10| |Source B
N7:1|
| |
|
|
|
| |
0|
| |
|
|
+------------------+ |Dest
N7:1|
| |
|
|
|
0|
| |
|
|
+------------------+
| |
E-31
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
E-32
|
Last timeout value
|
|
storage register
|
|
+MOV---------------+
|
|---------------------------------+MOVE
+------+
|
|Source
C5:0.ACC|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
|Dest
N7:0|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
|
Determine 1 second
|
|
count. ie: # of
|
|
rate periods
|
|
+DIV---------------+
|
|---------------------------------+DIVIDE
+------+
|
|Source A
100|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|Source B T4:0.PRE|
|
|
|
10|
|
|
|Dest
C5:1.PRE|
|
|
|
10|
|
|
+------------------+
|
|
Frequency
|
|
determination
|
|
counter
|
|
+CTU---------------+
|
|---------------------------------+COUNT UP
+-(CU)-+
|
|Counter
C5:1+-(DN) |
|
|Preset
10|
|
|
|Accum
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
|
Frequency
|
|
calculation
|
|
register
|
|
+ADD---------------+
|
|---------------------------------+ADD
+------+
|
|Source A
N7:1|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
|Source B
N7:3|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
|Dest
N7:3|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
| 1 second
Frequency
|
| has now
in Hertz
|
| elapsed
|
| C5:1
+MOV---------------+
|
+---] [---+--+MOVE
+-+-------------------------+
DN | |Source
N7:3| |
| |
0| |
| |Dest
N7:4| |
| |
0| |
| +------------------+ |
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Application Example Programs
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Rung 2:3
| Frequency
|
| calculation
|
| register
|
| +CLR---------------+ |
+--+CLEAR
+-+
| |Dest
N7:3| |
| |
0| |
| +------------------+ |
| Frequency
|
| determination
|
| counter
|
|
C5:1
|
+---------(RES)---------+
| Temporary reg.
|
| (math reg is real
|
| destination
|
| +MUL---------------+ |
+--+MULTIPLY
+-+
| |Source A
N7:4| |
| |
0| |
| |Source B
60| |
| |
| |
| |Dest
N7:6| |
| |
0| |
| +------------------+ |
| RPM based on
|
| counts per turn
|
| register N7:2
|
| +DDV---------------+ |
+--+DOUBLE DIVIDE
+-+
| |Source
N7:2| |
| |
1000| |
| |Dest
N7:5| |
| |
0| |
| +------------------+ |
|
Math overflow
|
|
error bit
|
|
S:5
|
+---------(U)-----------+
0
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|
Reference
|
+HSC---------------+
|
|-------------------------------------------+HIGH SPEED COUNTER+-(CU)-|
|
|Type Up (Res,Hld)+-(CD) |
|
|Counter
C5:0+-(DN) |
|
|High Preset
1000|
|
|
|Accum
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 2:4
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
E-33
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
On/Off Circuit Example
The following application example illustrates how to use an input to toggle an output
either on or off. For a detailed explanation of:
•
XIC, XIO, OTE, OTU, OTL, and OSR instructions, see chapter 6.
•
JMP and LBL instructions, see chapter 10.
If the output is off when the input is energized, the output is turned on. If the output is
on when the input is energized, the output is turned off.
On/Off Circuit Ladder Program
Rung 2:0
Does a one-shot from the input push button to an internal bit - the internal bit
is true for only one scan. This prevents toggling of the physical output in case
the push button is held “ON” for more than one scan (always the case).
| push button|OSR #1
|
push button |
|
Input
|
|
false-to|
|
|
true
|
|
I:0
B3
B3
|
|----] [-------[OSR]-----------------------------------------( )-----|
|
0
1
0
|
Rung 2:1
If the push button input has gone from false-to-true and the output is presently
OFF, turn the output ON and jump over the following rung to the rest of the
programs. If the JMP instruction was missing, the following run would be true
and would turn the output back OFF.
|push button|Toggling
Toggling
|
| false-to- |Output
Output
|
| true
|
|
|
B3
O:0
O:0
|
|----] [--------]/[------------------------------------+----(L)-----+-|
|
0
0
|
0
| |
|
| Go to rest | |
|
| of program | |
|
|
| |
|
|
1
| |
|
+---(JMP)----+ |
|
|
E-34
Application Example Programs
Rung 2:2
If the push button input has gone from false-to-true and the output is presently
ON, turns the output OFF.
|push button|Toggling |
Toggling
|
| false-to- |Output
|
Output
|
| true
|
|
|
B3
O:0
O:0
|
|----] [--------] [-------------------------------------------(U)-----|
|
0
0
0
|
Rung 2:3
Contains the label corresponding to the jump instruction in rung 1.
remainder of your actual program would be placed below this rung.
The
| Go to rest|
Dummy Bit |
| of program|
|
|
|
|
|
1
B3
|
|---[LBL]-----------------------------------------------------( )-----|
|
2
|
Rung 2:4
Reference
|
|
|-------------------------------+END+---------------------------------|
|
|
E-35
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Spray Booth Application Example
The following application example illustrate the use of bit shift and FIFO instructions
in an automated paint spraying operation. For a detailed explanation of:
•
XIC and OTE instructions, see chapter 6.
•
EQU and LIM instructions, see chapter 7.
•
FFU and FFL instructions, see chapter 9.
•
BSL instruction, see chapter 11.
Paint Spray Booth
Position
1
Bar Code Reader
I:0/2,3,4
2
3
4
Input Proximity
Switch I:0/1
Paint Sprayer Signals
B3/0
B3/1
B3/2
B3/3
Spray Enable
O:0/3
Blue Paint Gun
O:0/0
Yellow Paint Gun
O:0/1
Red Paint Gun
O:0/2
Bit Shift
FIFO
E-36
N7:3
N7:2
N7:1
N7:0
Blue
Red
Blue
Blue
Application Example Programs
Spray Booth Operation Overview
An overhead conveyor with part carriers (hooks) carries parts froma previous
operation to the spray booth. Before the part enters the spray booth, 2 items are
checked on the conveyor. The first check is for part presence and the second check is
for the needed color. This information is stored and accessed later when the part
carrier is in the paint spraying area. A proximity switch is used to check for the
presence of a part on the carrier, and a barcode reader is used to determine color
choice.When the part carrier reaches the spraying area, the previously stored
information is accessed. If there is a part on the carrier, it is painted according to its
bar code and if the carrier is free, paint is not dispensed.
The bit shift and FIFO instructions store the part presence and color information
before each carrier enters the spray booth. Both of these instructions place data into
their data structures every time a part carrier actuates the shift limit switch.
If the proximity switch senses a part on the carrier, a 1 is shifted into the shift register.
If the carrier is free as it passes the shift limit switch, a 0 is shifted into the shift
register. The shift register tracks the part carriers approaching the spraying area.
The FIFO does the same type of shifting, except rather than shifting one bit at a time,
the FIFO shifts an entire word at a time. Just before the part carrier actuates the
SHIFT limit switch, the barcode reader reads the barcode on the part to determine
what color the part should be painted. The barcode reader has three outputs that it sets
according to what color the part should be. These outputs are:
•
wired to the controller as inputs I:0/2, I:0/3, and I:0/4
•
combined together to form an integer which is decoded later in the program
Reference
This integer is then shifted into the FIFO when the carrier actuates the SHIFT limit
switch.
E-37
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Once the presence and color data is loaded into the shift register and FIFO, they are
shifted to new memory locations each time another part carrier actuates the SHIFT
limit switch. After three additional shifts, the first part carrier is in front of the spray
guns, ready for its part to be painted. At this point, the part presence data has been
shifted into B3/3, and the color data has been shifted into N7:0. The program now
checks B3/3 - if there is a “1” in this location, that means that there is a part hanging
on the part carrier and the SPRAY ENABLE output is energized. The program also
checks N7:0 to determine which color to paint the part. As the program is checking
the shift register for the presence of a part at the spray guns, it is also decoding the
color information at N7:0 and energizing the appropriate spray guns. Since we are
only using three colors, the only valid color codes are 1, 2, and 3. If any other number
is in N7:0 when a part is ready to be painted, the color defaults to BLUE.
Since our program accesses the data while it is still in the two data structures, after the
part has been painted, the presence and color information for the part is shifted out of
the data structures and lost.
Spray Booth Ladder Program
Rung 2:0
These three rungs read the color information coming from the barcode decoder
outputs and load this into integer N7:4. This color is loaded into the FIFO when
the part carrier actuates the SHIFT LIMIT SWITCH.
| Low Bit
|
Color
|
| from Bar |
Select
|
| Code
|
Word
|
| Decoder
|
|
|
I:0
N7:4
|
|----] [-----------------------------------------------------( )------|
|
2
0
|
Rung 2:1
| Middle Bit|
Color
|
| from Bar |
Select
|
| Code
|
Word
|
| Decoder
|
|
|
I:0
N7:4
|
|----] [-----------------------------------------------------( )------|
|
3
1
|
Rung 2:2
| High Bit |
Color
|
| from Bar |
Select
|
| Code
|
Word
|
| Decoder
|
|
|
I:0
N7:4
|
|----] [-----------------------------------------------------( )------|
|
4
2
|
E-38
Application Example Programs
Rung 2:3
When the part carrier actuates the SHIFT LIMIT SWITCH, three things happen in
this rung: (1) the color of the previously painted part is unloaded from the FIFO
to make room for the color of the new part, (2) the color of the new part is
loaded into the FIFO, (3) the presence or absence of a part on the part carrier
is shifted into the Shift Register.
| Shift
Unload color
|
| Limit
of previously
|
| Switch
painted part
|
|
|
|
I:0
+FFU----------------+
|
|
] [--------------------------------+-+FIFO UNLOAD
+-(EU)-+-|
|
0
| |FIFO
#N7:0+-(DN) | |
|
| |Dest
N7:10+-(EM) | |
|
| |Control
R6:0|
| |
|
| |Length
4|
| |
|
| |Position
4|
| |
|
| +-------------------+
| |
|
|
Load color of
| |
|
|
new part
| |
|
| +FFL----------------+
| |
|
+ +FIFO LOAD
+-(EU) | |
|
| |Source
N7:4+-(DN) | |
|
| |FIFO
#N7:0+-(EM) | |
|
| |Control
R6:0|
| |
|
| |Length
4|
| |
|
| |Position
4|
| |
|
| +-------------------+
| |
|
|
Load the presence
| |
|
|
of the new part
| |
|
|
| |
|
| +BSL----------------+
| |
|
+ +BIT SHIFT LEFT
+-(EU)-+ |
|
| |File
#B3:0+-(DN)
|
|
| |Control
R6:1|
|
|
| |Bit Address
4|
|
|
| |Length
4|
|
|
| +-------------------+
|
Reference
Rung 2:4
If there is a part on the part carrier now entering the spraying area, energize
the paint sprayer. If there is not a part on the part carrier, do not energize
the sprayer, so you can save paint.
| BSL
Spray
|
| position 4
Enable
|
|
|
|
B3
O:0
|
|---] [------------------------------------------------------( )-------|
|
3
3
|
E-39
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 2:5
Decodes color select word. If N7:0=1 then energize the blue paint gun. Or if
N7:0= an invalid color selection, default the color of the part to blue and
energize the blue paint gun.
|
Blue Gun
|
|
+EQU---------------+
O:0
|
|-+-+EQUAL
+-+------------------------------------( )-----|
| | |Source A
N7:0| |
0
|
| | |
0| |
|
| | |Source B
1| |
|
| | |
| |
|
| | +------------------+ |
|
| |
|
|
| | +LIM---------------+ |
|
| +-+LIMIT TEST
|-+
|
|
|Low Limit
4|
|
|
|
|
|
|
|Test
N7:0|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
|High Lim
1|
|
|
|
|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 2:6
Decodes color select word. If N7:0=2 then energize the yellow paint gun.
|
Yellow Gun
|
| +EQU---------------+
O:0
|
|-+EQUAL
+----------------------------------------( )-----|
| |Source A
N7:0|
1
|
| |
0|
|
| |Source B
2|
|
| | |
| |
|
| | +------------------+ |
|
Rung 2:7
Decodes color select word. If N7:0=3 then energize the red paint gun.
|
Red Gun
|
| +EQU---------------+
O:0
|
|-+EQUAL
+----------------------------------------( )-----|
| |Source A
N7:0|
2
|
| |
0|
|
| |Source B
3|
|
| |
|
|
| +------------------+
|
Rung 2:8
|
|
|--------------------------------+END+--------------------------------|
|
|
E-40
Application Example Programs
Adjustable Timer Application Example
The following application example illustrates the use of timers to adjust the drill dwell
time at the end of the machines downstroke. For a detailed explanation of:
•
XIC, TON, and OSR instructions, see chapter 6.
•
LES and GRT instructions, see chapter 7.
•
ADD and SUB instructions, see chapter 8.
Valid dwell times are 5.0 seconds to 120.0 seconds. Adjustments are made in 2.5
second intervals.
Each time I/8 and I/9 is depressed, the timer preset or delay is adjusted up or down
accordingly. By altering the value of N7:0, the amount of change can be increased or
decreased. The constants in the LES and GRT instructions, and in the source and
destination of the ADD and SUB instructions, could be changed easily to integers for
even greater flexibility.
Adjustable Timer Ladder Program
Rung 2:0
Adds 2.5 seconds to Timer delay each time the increment push button is depressed.
Do not exceed 120.0 seconds delay. Note that N7:0=250.
Reference
| Increment
|
| Timer preset
|
| I:0
+LES---------------+
B3
+ADD---------------+
|
|--] [------+LESS THAN
+------[OSR]---+ADD
+----|
|
8
|Source A T4:0.PRE|
0 |Source A T4:0.PRE|
|
|
|
500|
|
500|
|
|
|Source B
11750|
|Source B
N7:0|
|
|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|Dest
T4:0.PRE|
|
|
|
500|
|
|
+------------------+
|
E-41
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Rung 2:1
Subtracts 2.5 seconds from Timer delay each time the decrement push button is
depressed. Do not go below 5.0 seconds delay.
| Decrement
|
| Timer preset
|
| I:0
+GRT---------------+
B3
+SUB---------------+
|
|--] [------+GREATER THAN
+------[OSR]---+SUBTRACT
+----|
|
8
|Source A T4:0.PRE|
0 |Source A T4:0.PRE|
|
|
|
500|
|
500|
|
|
|Source B
750|
|Source B
N7:0|
|
|
|
|
|
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|Dest
T4:0.PRE|
|
|
|
500|
|
|
+------------------+
|
Rung 2:2
|
|
|
|
|
+TON---------------+
|
|--] [---Input condition to allow-------------+TIMER ON DELAY
+----|
|
dwell time on the drill.
|Timer
T4:0|
|
|
|Timebase
0.01|
|
|
|Preset
500|
|
|
|Accum
0|
|
|
+------------------+
|
E-42
Optional Analog Input Software Calibration
F
Optional Analog Input Software
Calibration
Reference
This appendix helps you calibrate an analog input channel using software offsets to
increase the expected accuracy of an analog input circuit. Examples of equations and
a ladder diagram are provided for your reference. Software calibration reduces the
error at a given temperature by scaling the values read at calibration time.
F-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Calibrating an Analog Input Channel
The following procedure can be adapted to all analog inputs; current or voltage. For
this example, the 1761–L20BWA–5A with a 4 mA to 20 mA input is used. The
overall error for the MicroLogix 1000 is guaranteed to be not more than ± 0.525 at
25°C.
The overall error of ± 0.525% at 20 mA equates to ± 164 LSB of error, or a code
range of 31043 to 31371. Any value in this range is returned by an analog input
channel at 20 mA. The expected nominal value at 20 mA is 31207. After performing
a software calibration, the overall error is reduced to 5 LSB (0.018%), or a code range
of 31202 to 31212.
The graph shown below shows the linear relationship between the input value and the
resulting scaled value. The values in this graph are from the example program.
20 mA = 31207
(scale Hi)
Scaled
Value
40 mA = 6241
(scale low)
6292
Low Value from card
31352
Hi Value from card
Input Value
Scaled Value vs. Input Value
F-2
Optional Analog Input Software Calibration
Calculating the Software Calibration
Use the following equation to perform the software calibration:
Scaled Value = (input value x slope) + offset
Slope = (scaled max. - scaled min.) / (input max. - input min.)
Offset = Scaled min. - (input min. x slope)
Calibration Procedure
1. Heat up / cool down your MicroLogix 1000 system to the temperature in which it
will normally be operating.
2. Determine the scaled high and low values you wish to use in your application. In
this example, scaled high value (which corresponds to 20 mA) is 31207 and scaled
low value (which corresponds to 4 mA) is 6241.
3. Using an analog calibration source connected to the analog input channel or your
system’s input device placed at the 4 mA position, capture the low value by setting
and then resetting the CAL_LO_ENABLE bit. Ensure that your low value lies
within the conversion range of your analog input.
4. Using an analog calibration source connected to the analog input channel or your
system’s input device placed at the 20 mA position, capture the high value by
setting and then resetting the CAL_HI_ENABLE bit. Ensure that your high value
lies within the conversion range of your analog input.
5. Set and then reset the CALIBRATE bit. This causes the MicroLogix to calculate
the slope and offset values used to perform the error correction to the analog input.
The analog channel is now calibrated to ± 5 LSB at the calibration temperature.
Reference
The recommended calibration period is once every 6 months. If an application has a
wide range of operating temperatures, a software calibration should be performed
every 3 to 4 months.
F-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Example Ladder Diagram
The following ladder diagram uses 3 internal bits to perform the calibration
procedure. CAL_LO_ENABLE causes the ladder to capture the 4 mA calibration
value and CAL_HI_ENABLE causes the ladder to capture the 20 mA calibration
value. CALIBRATE causes the ladder diagram to scale the hi and low values to the
nominal values, which provides the slope and offset values used to calibrate the
analog input channel.
Once the calibration procedure is complete, set the CONVERSION ENABLE bit to a
“1”. The calibration numbers can then be used to scale the raw analog data. The
corrected analog input data will be placed in memory location ANALOG_SCALED.
The following symbols are used in this example:
CAL_LO_ENABLE
= B3/500
CAL_HI_ENABLE
= B3/501
CALIBRATE
= B3/502
CONVERSION ENABLE = B3/503
F-4
ANALOG_IN
= I:0.4
LO_CAL_VALUE
= N7:90
HI_CAL_VALUE
= N7:91
CAL_SPAN
= N7:92
SCALE_HI
= N7:93
SCALE_LOW
= N7:94
SCALE_SPAN
= N7:95
SLOPE_X10K
= N7:97
OFFSET
= N7:100
ANALOG_SCALED
= N7:101
Rung 2:0
| CAL_LO_ENABLE
|
|
B3/504
+MOV---------------+ |
|----] [------[OSR]---------------------------------------+MOVE
+-|
|
|Source
ANALOG_IN| |
|
|
?| |
|
|Dest LO_CAL_VALUE| |
|
|
?| |
|
+------------------+ |
Rung 2:1
| CAL_HI_ENABLE
|
|
B3/505
+MOV---------------+ |
|----] [------[OSR]---------------------------------------+MOVE
+-|
|
|Source
ANALOG_IN| |
|
|
?| |
|
|Dest HI_CAL_VALUE| |
|
|
?| |
|
+------------------+ |
Rung 2:2
| CALIBRATE
|
|
B3/506
+SUB--------------------+
|
|----] [------[OSR]------------------------------+-+SUBTRACT
+-+-|
|
| |Source A
HI_CAL_VALUE| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| |Source B
LO_CAL_VALUE| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| |Dest
CAL_SPAN| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +-----------------------+ | |
|
| +SUB---------------+
| |
|
+-+SUBTRACT
+------| |
|
| |Source A SCALE_HI|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Source B SCALE_LO|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Dest
SCALE_SPAN|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
| +MUL--------------------+ | |
|
+-+MULTIPLY
+-+ |
|
| |Source A
SCALE_SPAN| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| |Source B
10000| | |
|
| |
10000| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:96| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +-----------------------+ | |
|
| +DDV---------------+
| |
|
+-+DOUBLE DIVIDE
+------+ |
|
| |Source
CAL_SPAN|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Dest
SLOPE_X10K|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
F-5
Reference
Optional Analog Input Software Calibration
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
|
| +MUL--------------------+ | |
|
+-+MULTIPLY
+-+ |
|
| |Source A
LO_CAL_VALUE| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| |Source B
SLOPE_X10K| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| |Dest
N7:98| | |
|
| |
0| | |
|
| +-----------------------+ | |
|
| +DDV---------------+
| |
|
+-+DOUBLE DIVIDE
+------+ |
|
| |Source
10000|
| |
|
| |
10000|
| |
|
| |Dest
N7:99|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
| +SUB---------------+
| |
|
+-+SUBTRACT
+------+ |
|
| |Source A SCALE_LOW|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Source B
N7:99|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| |Dest
OFFSET|
| |
|
| |
0|
| |
|
| +------------------+
| |
|
|
Overflow| |
|
|
Trap
| |
|
|
S2:5/0 | |
|
+-------------------(U)-----+ |
|
|
Rung 2:3
|
|
|
|
| CONVERSION_ENABLE
+SCL--------------------+
|
|----] [-----------------------------------------+-+SCALE
+-+-|
|
| |Source A
ANALOG_IN| | |
|
| |
?| | |
|
| |Rate[/10000] SLOPE_X10K| | |
|
| |
?| | |
|
| |Offset
OFFSET| | |
|
| |
?| | |
|
| |Dest
ANALOG_SCALE| | |
|
| +-----------------------+ | |
|
|
|------------------------------------+END+-------------------------------------|
F-6
Glossary
Glossary
The following terms are used throughout this manual. Refer to the Allen-Bradley
Industrial Automation Glossary, Publication Number AG–7.1, for a complete guide to
Allen-Bradley technical terms.
address: A character string that uniquely identifies a memory location. For example,
I:1/0 is the memory address for the data located in the Input file location word1, bit 0.
AIC+ Advanced Interface Converter: a device that provides a communication link
between various networked devices. (Catalog Number 1761–NET–AIC.)
application: 1) A machine or process monitored and controlled by a controller. 2)
The use of computer- or processor-based routines for specific purposes.
backup data: Data downloaded with the program.
baud rate: The speed of communication between devices on a network. All devices
must communicate at the same baud rate.
bit: The smallest storage location in memory that contains either a 1 (ON) or a 0
(OFF).
block diagrams: A schematic drawing.
Boolean operators: Logical operators such as AND, OR, NAND, NOR, NOT, and
Exclusive–OR that can be used singularly or in combination to form logic statements
or circuits. Can have an output response be true or false.
branch: A parallel logic path within a rung of a ladder program.
channel: Refers to the analog signals available on the controller’s terminal block.
Each channel is configured for connection to a voltage or current source input device,
and has its own data and diagnostic status words.
communication scan: A part of the controller’s operating cycle. Communication
with other devices, such as software running on a personal computer, takes place.
controller: A device, such as a programmable controller, used to monitor input
devices and control output devices.
G-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
controller overhead: An internal portion of the operating cycle used for
housekeeping and set-up purposes.
control profile: The means by which a controller determines which outputs turn on
under what conditions.
counter: 1) An electro-mechanical relay-type device that counts the occurrence of
some event. May be pulses developed from operations such as switch closures,
interruptions of light beams, or other discrete events.
2) In controllers a software counter eliminates the need for hardware counters. The
software counter can be given a preset count value to count up or down whenever the
counted event occurs.
CPU (Central Processing Unit): The decision-making and data storage section of a
programmable controller.
data table: The part of the processor memory that contains I / O values and files
where data is monitored, manipulated, and changed for control purposes.
DIN rail: Manufactured according to Deutsche Industrie Normenausshus (DIN)
standards, a metal railing designed to ease installation and mounting of your
controller.
download: Data is transferred from a programming or storage device to another
device.
DTE (Data Terminal Equipment): Equipment that is attached to a network to send
or receive data, or both.
EMI: Electromagnetic interference.
encoder: 1) A rotary device that transmits position information. 2) A device that
transmits a fixed number of pulses for each revolution.
false: The status of an instruction that does not provide a continuous logical path on a
ladder rung.
FIFO (First-In-First-Out): The order that data is entered into and retrieved from a
file.
file: A collection of information organized into one group.
G-2
Glossary
full-duplex: A bidirectional mode of communication where data may be transmitted
and received simultaneously (contrast with half-duplex).
half-duplex: A communication link in which data transmission is limited to one
direction at a time.
hard disk: A storage area in a personal computer that may be used to save processor
files and reports for future use.
high byte: Bits 8-15 of a word.
input device: A device, such as a push button or a switch, that supplies signals
through input circuits to the controller.
inrush current: The temporary surge current produced when a device or circuit is
initially energized.
instruction: A mnemonic and data address defining an operation to be performed by
the processor. A rung in a program consists of a set of input and output instructions.
The input instructions are evaluated by the controller as being true or false. In turn,
the controller sets the output instructions to true or false.
instruction set: The set of general purpose instructions available with a given
controller.
I / O (Inputs and Outputs): Consists of input and output devices that provide and/or
receive data from the controller.
jump: Change in normal sequence of program execution, by executing an instruction
that alters the program counter (sometimes called a branch). In ladder programs a
JUMP (JMP) instruction causes execution to jump to a labeled rung.
ladder logic: A program written in a format resembling a ladder-like diagram. The
program is used by a programmable controller to control devices.
least significant bit (LSB): The digit (or bit) in a binary word (code) that carries the
smallest value of weight. For the analog controllers, 16-bit two’s complement binary
codes are used in the I / O image in the card.
LED (Light Emitting Diode): Used as status indicator for processor functions and
inputs and outputs.
G-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
LIFO (Last-In-First-Out): The order that data is entered into and retrieved from a
file.
low byte: Bits 0-7 of a word.
logic: A process of solving complex problems through the repeated use of simple
functions that can be either true or false. General term for digital circuits and
programmed instructions to perform required decision making and computational
functions.
Master Control Relay (MCR): A mandatory hardwired relay that can be
de-energized by any series-connected emergency stop switch. Whenever the MCR is
de-energized, its contacts open to de-energize all application I / O devices.
mnemonic: A simple and easy to remember term that is used to represent a complex
or lengthy set of information.
modem: Modulator/demodulator. Equipment that connects data terminal equipment
to a communication line.
modes: Selected methods of operation. Example: run, test, or program.
negative logic: The use of binary logic in such a way that “0” represents the voltage
level normally associated with logic 1 (for example, 0 = +5V, 1 = 0V). Positive is
more conventional (for example, 1 = +5V, 0 = 0V).
network: A series of stations (nodes) connected by some type of communication
medium. A network may be made up of a single link or multiple links.
nominal input current: The current at nominal input voltage.
normally closed: Contacts on a relay or switch that are closed when the relay is
de-energized or the switch is de-activated; they are open when the relay is energized
or the switch is activated. In ladder programming, a symbol that will allow logic
continuity (flow) if the referenced input is logic “0” when evaluated.
normally open: Contacts on a relay or switch that are open when the relay is
de-energized or the switch is de-activated. (They are closed when the relay is
energized or the switch is activated.) In ladder programming, a symbol that will allow
logic continuity (flow) if the referenced input is logic “1” when evaluated.
offset: The steady-state deviation of a controlled variable from a fixed point.
G-4
Glossary
offline: Describes devices not under direct communication. For example, when
programming in APS.
one-shot: A programming technique that sets a bit for only one program scan.
online: Describes devices under direct communication. For example, when APS is
monitoring the program file in a controller.
operating voltage: For inputs, the voltage range needed for the input to be in the On
state. For outputs, the allowable range of user-supplied voltage.
output device: A device, such as a pilot light or a motor starter coil, that receives
data from the controller.
overall accuracy: The worst case deviation of the output voltage or current from the
ideal over the full output range is the overall accuracy. For inputs, the worst case
deviation of the digital representation of the input signal from the ideal over the full
input range is the overall accuracy. This is expressed in percent of full scale.
processor: A Central Processing Unit. (See CPU.)
processor file: The set of program and data files used by the controller to control
output devices. Only one processor file may be stored in the controller at a time.
program file: The area within a processor file that contains the ladder logic program.
program mode: When the controller is not executing the processor file and all
outputs are de-energized.
program scan: A part of the controller’s operating cycle. During the scan the ladder
program is executed and the Output data file is updated based on the program and the
Input data file.
programming device: Executable programming package used to develop ladder
diagrams.
protocol: The packaging of information that is transmitted across a network.
read: To acquire data from a storage place. For example, the processor READs
information from the input data file to solve the ladder program.
relay: An electrically operated device that mechanically switches electrical circuits.
G-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
relay logic: A representation of the program or other logic in a form normally used
for relays.
REM Run mode: REMote run mode during which the processor scans or executes
the ladder program, monitors input devices, energizes output devices, and acts on
enabled I / O forces.
restore: To download (transfer) a program from a personal computer to a controller.
reserved bit: A status file location that the user should not read or write to.
retentive data: Information associated with data files (timers, counters, inputs, and
outputs) in a program that is preserved through power cycles. Program files 2-15 are
not effected by retentive data.
RS–232: An EIA standard that specifies electrical, mechanical, and functional
characteristics for serial binary communication circuits. A single-ended serial
communication interface.
run mode: When the processor file in the controller is being executed, inputs are
read, the program is scanned, and outputs are energized and de-energized.
rung: Ladder logic is comprised of a set of rungs. A rung contains input and output
instructions. During Run mode, the inputs on a rung are evaluated to be true or false.
If a path of true logic exists, the outputs are made true. If all paths are false, the
outputs are made false.
save: To upload (transfer) a program stored in memory from a controller to a
personal computer; OR to save a program to a computer hard disk.
scan time: The time required for the controller to execute the instructions in the
program. The scan time may vary depending on the instructions and each
instruction’s status during the scan.
sinking: A term used to describe current flow between an I / O device and controller
I / O circuit — typically, a sinking device or circuit provides a path to ground, low, or
negative side of power supply.
sourcing: A term used to describe current flow between an I / O device and
controller I / O circuit — typically, a sourcing device or circuit provides a path to the
source, high, or positive side of power supply.
G-6
Glossary
status: The condition of a circuit or system, represented as logic 0 (OFF) or 1 (ON).
terminal: A point on an I / O module that external I / O devices, such as a push
button or pilot light, are wired to.
throughput: The time between when an input turns on and the corresponding output
turns on.
true: The status of an instruction that provides a continuous logical path on a ladder
rung.
update time: For analog inputs, the time between updates to the memory of the
analog controller of the digital value representing the analog input signal.
For analog outputs, the time from the digital code being received at the analog
controller to the analog output signal of the digital code being output at the terminals
of the output channel.
upload: Data is transferred to a programming or storage device from another device.
user interrupt poll: While executing the user program, the controller firmware
checks for user interrupts that need servicing.
watchdog timer: A timer that monitors a cyclical process and is cleared at the
conclusion of each cycle. If the watchdog runs past its programmed time period, it
will cause a fault.
workspace: The main storage available for programs and data and allocated for
working storage.
write: To copy data to a storage device. For example, the processor WRITEs the
information from the output data file to the output modules.
G-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Notes:
G-8
Index
Index
Numerics
1761L10BWA
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-10
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-10
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-10
1761L10BWB
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-13
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-13
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-13
1761L16AWA
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-8
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-8
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-8
1761L16BBB
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-17
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-17
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-17
1761L16BWA
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-11
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-11
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-11
1761L16BWB
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-14
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-14
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-14
1761L20AWA5A
features, 1-3
input voltage range, 2-19
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-19
Index-1
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
type, 1-2
wiring diagram, 2-19
1761L20BWA5A
features, 1-3
input voltage range, 2-20
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-20
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
type, 1-2
wiring diagram, 2-20
1761L20BWB5A
features, 1-3
input voltage range, 2-21
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-21
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
type, 1-2
wiring diagram, 2-21
1761L32AAA
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-16
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-16
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-16
1761L32AWA
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-9
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-9
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
Index-2
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
1761L32BBB
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-18
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-18
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-18
1761L32BWA
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-12
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-12
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-12
1761L32BWB
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
input voltage range, 2-15
mounting, 1-15
output voltage range, 2-15
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
spacing, 1-14
troubleshooting, 14-2
type, 1-2
wiring, 2-4
wiring diagram, 2-15
32bit addition and subtraction, 8-6
example, 8-6
math overflow selection bit S
Index
2/14, 8-6
A
accessing processor files
normal operation, 4-8
power up, 4-9
Add (ADD), 8-4
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-4
ADD, Add, 8-4
addressing
data files, 4-10
indexed, 4-12
logical, 4-10
using mnemonics, 4-12
addressing modes, C-2
direct addressing, C-2
immediate addressing, C-2
indexed addressing, C-3
AIC+
applying power to, 3-17
attaching to the network, 3-18
connecting, 3-10
isolated modem, 3-12
network, 3-12
pointtopoint, 3-11
installing, 3-18
recommended user supplied components, 3-16
selecting cable, 3-14
AllenBradley
contacting for assistance, P-5, 14-11
AllenBradley Support, P-5
analog
I/O configuration, 5-3
I/O image, 5-2
input current range, 2-24
input filter and update times, 5-3
input software calibration, F-1
input voltage range, 2-24
output current range, 2-24
output voltage range, 2-24
voltage and current ranges, 2-24
analog channels
wiring, 2-23
analog controllers, 1-2
minimizing electrical noise, 2-22
analog input specifications, A-7
analog output specifications, A-8
And (AND), 9-18
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-18
AND, And, 9-18
application example programs
paper drilling machine, E-2
using the MSG instruction, 13-13
application specific instructions, 11-2
about, 11-2
bit shift instructions
overview, 11-3
Bit Shift Left (BSL), 11-5
Bit Shift Right (BSR), 11-6
Selectable Timed Interrupt (STI) function
overview, 11-17
sequencer instructions
overview, 11-7
applying ladder logic to your schematics, 4-14
automatic protocol switching, 3-19
B
basic instructions, 6-2
about, 6-2
bit instructions
overview, 6-3
counter instructions
overview, 6-15
timer instructions
overview, 6-7
baud rate
DF1, B-23
DH-485, B-23
limitations for autoswitching, 3-19
bidirectional counter
operation, 12-11
bidirectional counter with quadrature encoder
Index-3
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
operation, 12-15
bidirectional counter with reset and hold
operation, 12-11
bidirectional counter with reset and hold with
quadrature encoder
operation, 12-15
bit file (B3
), 4-6
bit instructions
Examine if Closed (XIC), 6-3
Examine if Open (XIO), 6-4
OneShot Rising (OSR), 6-6
Output Energize (OTE), 6-4
Output Latch (OTL), 6-5
Output Unlatch (OTU), 6-5
overview, 6-3
bit shift instructions
overview, 11-3
effects on index register S
24, 11-3
Bit Shift Left (BSL), 11-5
effect on index register S
24, 11-4
entering parameters, 11-3
using
operation, 11-5
Bit Shift Right (BSR), 11-6
effects on index register S
24, 11-4
entering parameters, 11-3
using
operation, 11-6
BSL, Bit Shift Left, 11-5
BSR, Bit Shift Right, 11-6
C
cables
planning routes for DH485 connections, D-16
selection guide for the AIC+, 3-14
calibating an analog input channel, F-2
CE mark, 1-2
Index-4
channel configuration
DF1 full-duplex, D-2
DF1 half-duplex, D-6
Clear (CLR), 8-11
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-11
clearing faults, 14-6
CLR, Clear, 8-11
Common Techniques Used in this Manual, P-5
communication
establishing with controller, 3-19
types of, 13-2
communication protocols
DF1 fullduplex, D-2
DF1 halfduplex, D-5
DH485, D-10
comparison instructions, 7-1, 7-2
about, 7-2
Equal (EQU), 7-3
Greater Than (GRT), 7-4
Greater Than or Equal (GEQ), 7-4
Less Than (LES), 7-3
Less Than or Equal (LEQ), 7-4
Limit Test (LIM), 7-6
Masked Comparison for Equal (MEQ), 7-5
Not Equal (NEQ), 7-3
overview, 7-2
indexed word addresses, 7-2
connecting the system, 3-1
AIC+, 3-10
DF1 fullduplex protocol, 3-2
DH485 network, 3-6
contact protection methods, 1-8
contacting AllenBradley for assistance, P-5
contactors (bulletin 100), surge suppressors for, 110
Contents of this Manual, P-2
controller
determining faults, 14-2
dimensions, A-11
fault messages, 14-7
features, 1-3
grounding, 2-2
Index
installation, 1-1
mounting, 1-15
mounting template, A-11
operating cycle, 4-3
replacement parts, A-12
spacing, 1-14
specifications, A-2
status file, B-1
troubleshooting, 14-2
types, 1-2, A-2
16 I/O, 1-2
32 I/O, 1-2
wiring
for highspeed counter operation, 2-25
recommendations, 2-4
wire type, 2-4
controller faults, 14-2
controller operation, normal, 14-2
controllers
analog, 1-2
Convert from BCD (FRD), 9-4
example, 9-6
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-4
Convert to BCD (TOD), 9-3
changes to the math register, 9-3
example, 9-4
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-3
converting analog data, 5-5
Converting Analog Input Data, 5-5, 5-6
COP, Copy File, 9-10
Copy File (COP), 9-10
using, 9-11
entering parameters, 9-11
Count Down (CTD), 6-18
using status bits, 6-19
Count Up (CTU), 6-17
using status bits, 6-18
counter instructions
Count Down (CTD), 6-18
Count Up (CTU), 6-17
overview, 6-15
addressing structure, 6-16
entering parameters, 6-15
how counters work, 6-17
Reset (RES), 6-20
CTD, Count Down, 6-18
CTU, Count Up, 6-17
D
data files, 4-6
addressing, 4-10
organization, 4-6
types, 4-10
file indicator (#), 4-13
data handling instructions, 9-2
about, 9-2
Convert from BCD (FRD), 9-4
Convert to BCD (TOD), 9-3
Copy File (COP), 9-10
Decode 4 to 1 of 16 (DCD), 9-8
Encode 1 of 16 to 4 (ENC), 9-9
FIFO and LIFO instructions
overview, 9-23
Fill File (FLL), 9-10
in the paper drilling machine application
example, 9-28
move and logical instructions
overview, 9-13
DCD, Decode 4 to 1 of 16, 9-8
DDV, Double Divide, 8-10
Decode 4 to 1 of 16 (DCD), 9-8
entering parameters, 9-8
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-8
developing your logic program-a model, 4-15
DF1 fullduplex protocol
configuration parameters, D-2
connecting, 3-2
description, D-2
example system configuration, D-4
using a modem, 3-3, D-9
DF1 halfduplex protocol
configuration parameters, D-6
description, D-5
Index-5
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
DH-485 communication protocol
configuration parameters, D-12
DH485 network
configuration parameters, D-17
connecting, 3-6
description, D-11
devices that use the network, D-12
example system configuration, D-18
installation, 3-6
protocol, D-11
token rotation, D-11
dimensions
controller, A-11
DIN rail, 1-16
mounting dimensions, 1-16
direct addressing, C-2
displaying values, 4-13
DIV, Divide, 8-9
Divide (DIV), 8-9
changes to the math register, 8-9
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-9
Double Divide (DDV), 8-10
changes to the math register, 8-10
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-10
E
Electronics Industries Association (EIA), D-1
EMC Directive, 1-2
emergencystop switches, 1-5
ENC, Encode 1 of 16 to 4, 9-9
Encode 1 of 16 to 4 (ENC), 9-9
entering parameters, 9-9
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-10
entering
numeric constants, 4-13
values, 4-14
EQU, Equal, 7-3
Equal (EQU), 7-3
error recovery model, 14-5
errors, 14-3
hardware, 14-3
Index-6
identifying, 14-6
MSG instruction, 13-10
establishing communication, 3-19
European Union Directive compliance, 1-2
Examine if Closed (XIC), 6-3
Examine if Open (XIO), 6-4
example programs
paper drilling machine, E-2
using the MSG instruction, 13-13
Exclusive Or (XOR), 9-20
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-20
execution times
listing, B-1
worksheet, B-31
F
fault messages, 14-7
fault recovery procedure, 14-6
fault routine, 14-6
FFL, FIFO Load, 9-25
FFU, FIFO Unload, 9-25
FIFO and LIFO instructions
FIFO Load (FFL), 9-25
FIFO Unload (FFU), 9-25
LIFO Load (LFL), 9-26
LIFO Unload (LFU), 9-26
overview, 9-23
effects on index register S
24, 9-24
entering parameters, 9-23
FIFO Load (FFL), 9-25
operation, 9-25
FIFO Unload (FFU), 9-25
operation, 9-25
file indicator (#), 4-13
file organization
data files, 4-6
program files, 4-4
file types, C-2
Fill File (FLL), 9-10
using, 9-12
Index
entering parameters, 9-12
filter
input, 5-3
filter response times, A-9
filtering
input channel, 5-4
FLL, Fill File, 9-10
FRD, Convert from BCD, 9-4
G
general specifications, A-3
GEQ, Greater Than or Equal, 7-4
Greater Than (GRT), 7-4
Greater Than or Equal (GEQ), 7-4
grounding the controller, 2-2
GRT, Greater Than, 7-4
H
hardware
features, 1-3
heat protection, 1-13
highspeed counter
wiring, 2-25, 12-7
HighSpeed Counter (HSC), 12-6
entering parameters, 12-6
types of, 12-7
bidirectional counter, 12-10
bidirectional counter with reset and hold,
12-10
bidirectional counter with reset and hold
with a quadrature encoder, 12-14
up counter, 12-8
up counter with reset and hold, 12-8
what happens when going to REM Run, 12-25
highspeed counter instructions, 12-2
about, 12-2
HighSpeed Counter (HSC), 12-6
HighSpeed Counter Interrupt Disable (HSD),
12-23
HighSpeed Counter Interrupt Enable (HSE), 1223
HighSpeed Counter Load (HSL), 12-18
HighSpeed Counter Reset Accumulator (RAC),
12-22
overview, 12-2
HighSpeed Counter Interrupt Disable (HSD), 12-23
using HSD, 12-24
operation, 12-24
HighSpeed Counter Interrupt Enable (HSE), 12-23
using HSE, 12-23
operation, 12-23
HighSpeed Counter Load (HSL), 12-18
entering parameters, 12-18
operation, 12-18
HighSpeed Counter Reset Accumulator (RAC), 1222
entering parameters, 12-22
operation, 12-22
HSC, HighSpeed Counter, 12-6
HSD, HighSpeed Counter Interrupt Disable, 12-23
HSE, HighSpeed Counter Interrupt Enable, 12-23
HSL, HighSpeed Counter Load, 12-18
I
I/O configuration
analog, 5-3
I/O image
analog, 5-2
identifying controller faults, 14-6
IIM, Immediate Input with Mask, 10-9
Immediate Input with Mask (IIM), 10-9
entering parameters, 10-9
Immediate Output with Mask (IOM), 10-9
entering parameters, 10-9
indexed addressing, 4-12, C-2
example, 4-12
specifying, 4-12
Input Channel Filtering, 5-4
input current range
analog, 2-24
input file (I
), 4-6
Index-7
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
Input Filter
analog, 5-3
input filter settings, A-9
input specifications, A-4
Input States on Power Down, 1-13
input voltage ranges
1761L10BWA, 2-10
1761L10BWB, 2-13
1761L16AWA, 2-8
1761L16BBB, 2-17
1761L16BWA, 2-11
1761L16BWB, 2-14
1761L20AWA5A, 2-19
1761L20BWA5A, 2-20
1761L20BWB5A, 2-21
1761L32AAA, 2-16
1761L32AWA, 2-9
1761L32BBB, 2-18
1761L32BWA, 2-12
1761L32BWB, 2-15
analog, 2-24
installing
the micro controller, 1-1
instruction execution time
worksheet, B-31
instruction memory usage
worksheet, B-30
instruction set, C-1
integer file (N7
), 4-6
interrupt latency
STI, 11-18
user, B-29
interrupt priorities, 11-19
IOM, Immediate Output with Mask, 10-9
isolated link coupler
installing, 3-7
J
JMP, Jump, 10-2
JSR, Jump to Subroutine, 10-4
Index-8
Jump (JMP), 10-2
entering parameters, 10-2
using, 10-2
Jump to Subroutine (JSR), 10-4
nesting subroutine files, 10-5
using, 10-5
L
Label (LBL), 10-2
entering parameters, 10-2
using, 10-3
ladder logic
applying to your schematics, 4-14
developing your logic program, 4-15
LBL, Label, 10-2
LEDs, 14-2
error with controller, 14-3
normal controller operation, 14-2
LEQ, Less Than or Equal, 7-4
LES, Less Than, 7-3
Less Than (LES), 7-3
Less Than or Equal (LEQ), 7-4
LFL, LIFO Load, 9-26
LFU, LIFO Unload, 9-26
LIFO Load (LFL), 9-26
operation, 9-26
LIFO Unload (LFU), 9-26
operation, 9-26
LIM, Limit Test, 7-6
Limit Test (LIM), 7-6
entering parameters, 7-6
logical address, 4-10
logical addresses, specifying
using mnemonics, 4-12
M
machine control
principles of, 4-2
manuals
related, P-3
Masked Comparison for Equal (MEQ), 7-5
Index
entering parameters, 7-5
Masked Move (MVM), 9-16
entering parameters, 9-16
operation, 9-17
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-16
Master Control Relay, 1-4
Master Control Reset (MCR), 10-7
master/sender communication, 13-2
math instructions, 8-2
32bit addition and subtraction, 8-6
about, 8-2
Add (ADD), 8-4
Clear (CLR), 8-11
Divide (DIV), 8-9
Double Divide (DDV), 8-10
in the paper drilling machine application
example, 8-14
Multiply (MUL), 8-8
overview, 8-2
changes to the math register, S
13 and S
14, 8-3
overflow trap bit, S
5/0, 8-3
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-2
using indexed word addresses, 8-2
Scale Data (SCL), 8-12
Square Root (SQR), 8-11
Subtract (SUB), 8-5
using arithmetic status bits, 9-10
MCR, Master Control Reset, 10-7
MEQ, Masked Comparison for Equal, 7-5
Message (MSG), 13-1
application examples, 13-13
control block layout, 13-5
entering parameters, 13-3
error codes, 13-10
timing diagram, 13-8
using status bits, 13-6
mnemonic, using
in logical addresses, 4-12
model for developing a logic program, 4-15
modem cable
constructing your own, 3-13
modems
dialup phone, D-9
leasedline, D-9
line drivers, D-10
radio, D-10
using with MicroLogix™ controllers, D-9
monitoring
controller operation
fault recovery procedure, 14-6
motor starters (bulletin 509)
surge suppressors, 1-10
motor starters (bulletin 709)
surge suppressors, 1-10
mounting template, A-11
mounting the controller
using a DIN rail, 1-16
using mounting screws, 1-17
vertically, 1-18
MOV, Move, 9-15
Move (MOV), 9-15
entering parameters, 9-15
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-15
move and logical instructions
And (AND), 9-18
Exclusive Or (XOR), 9-20
Masked Move (MVM), 9-16
Move (MOV), 9-15
Negate (NEG), 9-22
Not (NOT), 9-21
Or (OR), 9-19
overview, 9-13
changes to the math register, S
13 and S
14, 9-14
entering parameters, 9-13
overflow trap bit, S
5/0, 9-14
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-13
using indexed word addresses, 9-13
MSG, Message, 13-1
Index-9
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
MUL, Multiply, 8-8
Multiply (MUL), 8-8
changes to the math register, 8-8
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-8
MVM, Masked Move, 9-16
N
NEG, Negate, 9-22
Negate (NEG), 9-22
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-22
NEQ, Not Equal, 7-3
nesting subroutine files, 10-5
node address (S
15L), B-23
nominal transfer function, 5-5
Not (NOT), 9-21
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-21
Not Equal (NEQ), 7-3
NOT, Not, 9-21
null modem cable, 3-5
number systems, 4-13
radices used, 4-13
numeric constants, 4-13
O
OneShot Rising (OSR), 6-6
entering parameters, 6-6
example rung, 6-7
operating cycle
controller’s, 4-3
Or (OR), 9-19
updates to arithmetic status bits, 9-19
OR, Or, 9-19
OSR, OneShot Rising, 6-6
OTE, Output Energize, 6-4
OTL, Output Latch, 6-5
OTU, Output Unlatch, 6-5
output contact protection
selecting, 1-8
output current range
analog, 2-24
Index-10
Output Energize (OTE), 6-4
output file (O
), 4-6
Output Latch (OTL), 6-5
using, 6-5
output specifications, A-5
Output Unlatch (OTU), 6-5
using, 6-6
output voltage ranges
1761L10BWA, 2-10
1761L10BWB, 2-13
1761L16AWA, 2-8
1761L16BBB, 2-17
1761L16BWA, 2-11
1761L16BWB, 2-14
1761L20AWA5A, 2-19
1761L20BWA5A, 2-20
1761L20BWB5A, 2-21
1761L32AAA, 2-16
1761L32AWA, 2-9
1761L32BBB, 2-18
1761L32BWA, 2-12
1761L32BWB, 2-15
analog, 2-24
overflow trap bit, S
5/0, 8-3
overview
bit instructions, 6-3
comparison instructions, 7-2
counter instructions, 6-15
FIFO and LIFO instructions, 9-23
highspeed counter instructions, 12-2
math instructions, 8-2
move and logical instructions, 9-13
Selectable Timed Interrupt (STI) function, 1117
timer instructions, 6-7
ownership timeout, D-8
P
Power Considerations
Index
Input States on Power Down, 1-13
Isolation Transformers, 1-12
Loss of Power Source, 1-13
other line conditions, 1-13
overview, 1-12
Power Supply Inrush, 1-12
Power Distribution, 1-11
preventing excessive heat, 1-13
principles of machine control, 4-2
processor files
organization, 4-4
overview, 4-4
data files, 4-6
program files, 4-5
storing and accessing, 4-6
download, 4-7
normal operation, 4-8
power down, 4-8
power up, 4-9
program constants, 4-13
program development model, 4-15
program faults
determining, 14-2
program files, 4-4, 4-5
program flow control instructions, 10-2
about, 10-2
Immediate Input with Mask (IIM), 10-9
Immediate Output with Mask (IOM), 10-9
in the paper drilling machine application
example, 10-10
Jump (JMP), 10-2
Jump to Subroutine (JSR), 10-4
Label (LBL), 10-2
Master Control Reset (MCR), 10-7
Return (RET), 10-4
Subroutine (SBR), 10-4
Suspend (SUS), 10-8
Temporary End (TND), 10-8
programming overview, 4-1
protection methods for contacts, 1-8
protocol switching
automatic, 3-19
publications
related, P-3
Purpose of this Manual, P-1
Q
quadrature encoder input, 12-14
R
RAC, HighSpeed Counter Reset Accumulator, 1222
related publications, P-3
relay contact rating table, A-7
relays, surge suppressors for, 1-10
remote packet support, D-21
replacement parts
controller, A-12
RES, Reset, 6-20
Reset (RES), 6-20
resetting the highspeed counter accumulator,
12-21
operation, 12-21
RET, Return, 10-4
Retentive Timer (RTO), 6-13
using status bits, 6-13
Return (RET), 10-4
nesting subroutine files, 10-5
using, 10-6
RS232 communication interface, D-1
RTO, Retentive Timer, 6-13
S
Safety Considerations
Disconnecting Main Power, 1-11
overview, 1-10
Periodic Tests of Master Control Relay Circuit,
1-12
Power Distribution, 1-11
Safety Circuits, 1-11
SBR, Subroutine, 10-4
Scale Data (SCL), 8-12
Index-11
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
application example, 8-13
entering parameters, 8-12
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-12
SCL, Scale Data, 8-12
Selectable Timed Disable (STD), 11-20
example, 11-20
using, 11-20
Selectable Timed Enable (STE), 11-20
example, 11-20
using, 11-20
Selectable Timed Interrupt (STI) function
basic programming procedure, 11-17
operation, 11-17
interrupt latency and interrupt occurrences,
11-18
interrupt priorities, 11-19
status file data saved, 11-19
subroutine content, 11-18
overview, 11-17
Selectable Timed Disable (STD), 11-20
Selectable Timed Enable (STE), 11-20
Selectable Timed Start (STS), 11-22
STD/STE zone example, 11-20
Selectable Timed Start (STS), 11-22
selected DF1 protocol bit, S
0/12, B-5
Selecting Surge Suppressors, 1-8
Sequencer Compare (SQC), 11-7
entering parameters, 11-8
using, 11-12
sequencer instructions
overview, 11-7
effects on index register S
24, 11-7
Sequencer Compare (SQC), 11-7
Sequencer Load (SQL), 11-14
Sequencer Output (SQO), 11-7
Sequencer Load (SQL), 11-14
entering parameters, 11-14
operation, 11-16
Sequencer Output (SQO), 11-7
entering parameters, 11-8
Index-12
using, 11-10
sinking and sourcing circuits
overview, 2-3
wiring examples, 2-3
slave/receiver communication, 13-2
spacing the controller, 1-14
specifications
analog input, A-7
analog output, A-8
general, A-3
general output, A-5
input, A-4
input filter response times, A-9
relay contact rating, A-7
SQC, Sequencer Compare, 11-7
SQL, Sequencer Load, 11-14
SQO, Sequencer Output, 11-7
SQR, Square Root, 8-11
Square Root (SQR), 8-11
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-11
status data file (S2
), 4-6
status file
descriptions, B-3
overview, B-1
STD, Selectable Timed Disable, 11-20
STE, Selectable Timed Enable, 11-20
STI, Selectable Timed Interrupt, 11-17
interrupt latency, 11-17
storing processor files
download, 4-7
power down, 4-8
power up, 4-9
STS, Selectable Timed Start, 11-22
SUB, Subtract, 8-5
Subroutine (SBR), 10-4
nesting subroutine files, 10-5
using, 10-6
Subtract (SUB), 8-5
updates to arithmetic status bits, 8-5
surge suppressors, 1-8
for contactor, 1-10
Index
for motor starters, 1-10
for relays, 1-10
recommended, 1-10
SUS, Suspend, 10-8
Suspend (SUS), 10-8
entering parameters, 10-8
system configuration
DH485 connection examples, D-18
system connection, 3-1
T
Temporary End (TND), 10-8
timer file (T4
), 4-6
timer instructions
overview
addressing structure, 6-8
entering parameters, 6-7
Retentive Timer (RTO), 6-13
Timer OffDelay (TOF), 6-11
Timer OnDelay (TON), 6-10
Timer OffDelay (TOF), 6-11
using status bits, 6-11
Timer OnDelay (TON), 6-10
using status bits, 6-10
timing diagram
message instruction, 13-8
TND, Temporary End, 10-8
TOD, Convert to BCD, 9-3
TOF, Timer OffDelay, 6-11
TON, Timer OnDelay, 6-10
troubleshooting
automatically clearing faults, 14-6
contacting AllenBradley for assistance, P-5, 1411
controller error recovery model, 14-5
determining controller faults, 14-2
identifying controller faults, 14-6
manually clearing faults, 14-6
understanding the controller LED status, 14-2
using the fault routine, 14-6
U
understanding file organization, 4-4
addressing data files, 4-10
numeric constants, 4-13
processor file overview, 4-4
specifying indexed addresses, 4-12
specifying logical addresses, 4-10
using the file indicator (#), 4-13
up counter
operation, 12-8
up counter with reset and hold
operation, 12-8
update times
analog inputs, 5-3
updating the highspeed counter accumulator, 12-24
user interrupt latency, B-29
V
valid addressing modes, C-1
varistors
recommended, 1-9
voltage ranges
discrete, 2-7
W
wire types, 2-4
wiring
analog channels, 2-23
wiring diagrams, 2-7
1761L10BWA, 2-10
1761L10BWB, 2-13
1761L16AWA, 2-8
1761L16BBB, 2-17
1761L16BWA, 2-11
1761L16BWB, 2-14
1761L20AWA5A, 2-19
1761L20BWA5A, 2-20
1761L20BWB5A, 2-21
1761L32AAA, 2-16
1761L32BBB, 2-18
Index-13
MicroLogix 1000 Programmable Controllers User Manual
1761L32BWA, 2-12
1761L32BWB, 2-15
wiring recommendations, 2-4
X
XIC, Examine if Closed, 6-3
XIO, Examine if Open, 6-4
XOR, Exclusive Or, 9-20
Index-14
Allen-Bradley, a Rockwell Automation Business, has been helping its customers improve
productivity and quality for more than 90 years. We design, manufacture and support a broad range
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Publication 1761-UM003B-EN-P – June 2015
Supersedes Publication 1761-6.3 – July 1998
Copyright 2015 Rockwell Automation, Inc. All rights reserved.
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