DMC-1600 User Manual - Galil Motion Control

DMC-1600 User Manual - Galil Motion Control
USER MANUAL
DMC-1600
Manual Rev. 1.0h
By Galil Motion Control, Inc.
Galil Motion Control, Inc.
270 Technology Way
Rocklin, California 95765
Phone: (916) 626-0101
Fax: (916) 626-0102
Internet Address: [email protected]
URL: www.galilmc.com
Rev 8/2011
Using This Manual
Your DMC-1600 motion controller has been designed to work with both servo and stepper
type motors. Installation and system setup will vary depending upon whether the controller
will be used with stepper motors or servo motors. To make finding the appropriate
instructions faster and easier, icons will be next to any information that applies exclusively to
one type of system. Otherwise, assume that the instructions apply to all types of systems.
The icon legend is shown below.
Attention: Pertains to servo motor use.
Attention: Pertains to stepper motor use.
Please note that many examples are written for the DMC-1640 four-axes controller or the
DMC-1680 eight axes controller. Users of the DMC-1630 3-axis controller, DMC-1620
2-axes controller or DMC-1610 1-axis controller should note that the DMC-1630 uses the
axes denoted as XYZ, the DMC-1620 uses the axes denoted as XY, and the DMC-1610 uses
the X-axis only.
WARNING: Machinery in motion can be dangerous! It is the responsibility of the user to
design effective error handling and safety protection as part of the machine. Galil shall not be
liable or responsible for any incidental or consequential damages.
Contents
Contents
i
Chapter 1 Overview
1
Introduction ............................................................................................................................... 1
Overview of Motor Types.......................................................................................................... 2
Standard Servo Motor with +/- 10 Volt Command Signal .......................................... 2
Brushless Servo Motor with Sinusoidal Commutation................................................ 2
Stepper Motor with Step and Direction Signals .......................................................... 2
DMC-1600 Functional Elements ............................................................................................... 3
Microcomputer Section ............................................................................................... 3
Motor Interface............................................................................................................ 3
Communication ........................................................................................................... 3
General I/O .................................................................................................................. 4
System Elements ......................................................................................................... 4
Motor........................................................................................................................... 4
Amplifier (Driver) ....................................................................................................... 4
Encoder........................................................................................................................ 5
Watch Dog Timer ........................................................................................................ 5
Chapter 2 Getting Started
7
The DMC-1600 Motion Controller............................................................................................ 7
Elements You Need ................................................................................................................... 8
Installing the DMC-1600 ........................................................................................................... 9
Step 1. Determine Overall Motor Configuration ......................................................... 9
Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-1600................................................................. 10
Step 3. Install the Communications Software............................................................ 11
Step 4. Install the DMC-1600 in the PC .................................................................... 11
Step 5. Establish Communication using Galil Software............................................ 11
Step 6. Determine the Axes to be Used for Sinusoidal Commutation ....................... 12
Step 7. Make Connections to Amplifier and Encoder. .............................................. 13
Step 8a. Connect Standard Servo Motors .................................................................. 15
Step 8b. Connect Sinusoidal Commutation Motors................................................... 20
Step 8c. Connect Step Motors ................................................................................... 23
Step 9. Tune the Servo System.................................................................................. 23
Design Examples ..................................................................................................................... 24
Example 1 - System Set-up ....................................................................................... 24
Example 2 - Profiled Move ....................................................................................... 24
DMC-1600
Contents • i
Example 3 - Multiple Axes........................................................................................ 25
Example 4 - Independent Moves ............................................................................... 25
Example 5 - Position Interrogation............................................................................ 25
Example 6 - Absolute Position .................................................................................. 26
Example 7 - Velocity Control.................................................................................... 26
Example 8 - Operation Under Torque Limit ............................................................. 26
Example 9 - Interrogation.......................................................................................... 27
Example 10 - Operation in the Buffer Mode ............................................................. 27
Example 11 - Using the On-Board Editor ................................................................. 27
Example 12 - Motion Programs with Loops.............................................................. 27
Example 13 - Motion Programs with Trippoints ....................................................... 28
Example 14 - Control Variables ................................................................................ 28
Example 15 - Linear Interpolation............................................................................. 29
Example 16 - Circular Interpolation .......................................................................... 29
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
32
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 32
Using Optoisolated Inputs ....................................................................................................... 32
Limit Switch Input..................................................................................................... 32
Home Switch Input.................................................................................................... 33
Abort Input ................................................................................................................ 33
Uncommitted Digital Inputs ...................................................................................... 34
Wiring the Optoisolated Inputs................................................................................................ 34
Using an Isolated Power Supply................................................................................ 35
Bypassing the Opto-Isolation: ................................................................................... 36
Analog Inputs .......................................................................................................................... 36
Amplifier Interface .................................................................................................................. 36
TTL Outputs ............................................................................................................................ 37
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
38
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 38
Galil SmartTERM.................................................................................................................... 39
Communication Settings.......................................................................................................... 44
Windows Servo Design Kit (WSDK) ...................................................................................... 48
Creating Custom Software Interfaces ...................................................................................... 49
DOS, Linux, and QNX tools.................................................................................................... 52
Command Format and Controller Response............................................................................ 53
Binary Command Format .......................................................................................... 53
Controller Event Interrupts and User Interrupts ...................................................................... 55
Hardware Level Communications ........................................................................................... 57
Determining the Base Address .................................................................................. 57
Communication Registers.......................................................................................... 57
Secondary FIFO Memory Map................................................................................................ 59
Explanation of Status Information and Axis Switch Information.............................. 62
Chapter 5 Command Basics
64
Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 64
Command Syntax - ASCII....................................................................................................... 64
Coordinated Motion with more than 1 axis ............................................................... 65
Command Syntax - Binary ...................................................................................................... 66
Binary Command Format .......................................................................................... 66
Binary command table............................................................................................... 67
Controller Response to DATA ................................................................................................ 68
Interrogating the Controller ..................................................................................................... 68
ii • Contents
DMC-1600
Interrogation Commands ........................................................................................... 68
Interrogating Current Commanded Values................................................................ 69
Operands.................................................................................................................... 69
Command Summary.................................................................................................. 70
Chapter 6 Programming Motion
72
Overview ................................................................................................................................. 72
Independent Axis Positioning.................................................................................................. 73
Command Summary - Independent Axis .................................................................. 74
Independent Jogging................................................................................................................ 76
Command Summary - Jogging .................................................................................. 76
Operand Summary - Independent Axis ..................................................................... 77
Linear Interpolation Mode ....................................................................................................... 77
Specifying Linear Segments...................................................................................... 78
Command Summary - Linear Interpolation............................................................... 80
Operand Summary - Linear Interpolation.................................................................. 80
Example - Linear Move............................................................................................. 80
Example - Multiple Moves........................................................................................ 82
Coordinated Motion Sequences ............................................................................................... 83
Specifying the Coordinate Plane ............................................................................... 83
Specifying Vector Segments ..................................................................................... 84
Additional commands................................................................................................ 84
Command Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence .............................................. 86
Operand Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence................................................. 86
Electronic Gearing ................................................................................................................... 88
Command Summary - Electronic Gearing ................................................................ 88
Electronic Cam ........................................................................................................................ 90
Command Summary – Electronic CAM.................................................................... 93
Contour Mode.......................................................................................................................... 95
Specifying Contour Segments ................................................................................... 95
Additional Commands............................................................................................... 97
Command Summary - Contour Mode ....................................................................... 97
Stepper Motor Operation ....................................................................................................... 101
Specifying Stepper Motor Operation....................................................................... 101
Using an Encoder with Stepper Motors................................................................... 102
Command Summary - Stepper Motor Operation..................................................... 102
Operand Summary - Stepper Motor Operation........................................................ 103
Stepper Position Maintenance Mode (SPM).......................................................................... 103
Error Limit............................................................................................................... 104
Correction................................................................................................................ 104
Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder) ............................................................................................. 107
Backlash Compensation .......................................................................................... 108
Motion Smoothing ................................................................................................................. 110
Using the IT and VT Commands (S curve profiling): ............................................. 110
Homing .................................................................................................................................. 111
High Speed Position Capture (The Latch Function) .............................................................. 114
Fast Firmware Operation ....................................................................................................... 114
Chapter 7 Application Programming
116
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 116
Using the DMC-1600 Editor to Enter Programs.................................................................... 116
Edit Mode Commands............................................................................................. 117
Program Format ..................................................................................................................... 117
Using Labels in Programs ....................................................................................... 118
DMC-1600
Contents • iii
Special Labels.......................................................................................................... 118
Commenting Programs............................................................................................ 119
Executing Programs - Multitasking ....................................................................................... 120
Debugging Programs ............................................................................................................. 121
Program Flow Commands ..................................................................................................... 123
Event Triggers & Trippoints.................................................................................... 123
Event Trigger Examples: ......................................................................................... 125
Conditional Jumps ................................................................................................... 127
Using If, Else, and Endif Commands ...................................................................... 129
Subroutines.............................................................................................................. 131
Stack Manipulation.................................................................................................. 132
Auto-Start Routine .................................................................................................. 132
Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions ................................................. 132
Mathematical and Functional Expressions ............................................................................ 135
Mathematical Operators .......................................................................................... 135
Bit-Wise Operators.................................................................................................. 136
Functions ................................................................................................................. 137
Variables................................................................................................................................ 138
Programmable Variables ......................................................................................... 138
Operands................................................................................................................................ 139
Special Operands (Keywords) ................................................................................. 140
Arrays .................................................................................................................................... 140
Defining Arrays....................................................................................................... 140
Assignment of Array Entries ................................................................................... 141
Automatic Data Capture into Arrays ....................................................................... 142
Deallocating Array Space........................................................................................ 143
Input of Data (Numeric and String) ....................................................................................... 143
Input of Data............................................................................................................ 143
Output of Data (Numeric and String) .................................................................................... 144
Sending Messages ................................................................................................... 144
Displaying Variables and Arrays............................................................................. 146
Interrogation Commands ......................................................................................... 146
Formatting Variables and Array Elements .............................................................. 148
Converting to User Units......................................................................................... 148
Programmable Hardware I/O................................................................................................. 149
Digital Outputs ........................................................................................................ 149
Digital Inputs........................................................................................................... 150
Input Interrupt Function .......................................................................................... 150
Analog Inputs .......................................................................................................... 151
Example Applications............................................................................................................ 152
Wire Cutter .............................................................................................................. 152
X-Y Table Controller .............................................................................................. 153
Speed Control by Joystick ....................................................................................... 155
Position Control by Joystick.................................................................................... 156
Backlash Compensation by Sampled Dual-Loop .................................................... 156
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection
158
Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 158
Hardware Protection .............................................................................................................. 158
Output Protection Lines........................................................................................... 158
Input Protection Lines ............................................................................................. 159
Software Protection ............................................................................................................... 159
Programmable Position Limits ................................................................................ 159
Off-On-Error ........................................................................................................... 160
Automatic Error Routine ......................................................................................... 160
iv • Contents
DMC-1600
Limit Switch Routine .............................................................................................. 160
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting
162
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 162
Installation ............................................................................................................................. 162
Communication...................................................................................................................... 163
Stability.................................................................................................................................. 163
Operation ............................................................................................................................... 163
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
164
Overview ............................................................................................................................... 164
Operation of Closed-Loop Systems ....................................................................................... 166
System Modeling ................................................................................................................... 167
Motor-Amplifier...................................................................................................... 168
Encoder.................................................................................................................... 170
DAC ........................................................................................................................ 171
Digital Filter ............................................................................................................ 171
ZOH......................................................................................................................... 172
System Analysis..................................................................................................................... 172
System Design and Compensation......................................................................................... 174
The Analytical Method............................................................................................ 174
Appendices
178
Electrical Specifications ........................................................................................................ 178
Servo Control .......................................................................................................... 178
Stepper Control........................................................................................................ 178
Input/Output ............................................................................................................ 178
Power Requirement ................................................................................................. 179
Performance Specifications ................................................................................................... 179
Connectors for DMC-1600 Main Board ................................................................................ 180
Pin-Out Description for DMC-1600 ...................................................................................... 181
Extended I/O of the DMC-1600 Controller ........................................................................... 183
Configuring the I/O of the DMC-1600.................................................................... 183
Connector Description:............................................................................................ 184
Note for Interfacing to External I/O Racks.............................................................. 187
Jumper Description for DMC-1600 ....................................................................................... 188
Accessories and Options........................................................................................................ 189
PC/AT Interrupts and Their Vectors...................................................................................... 190
ICM-1900 Interconnect Module ............................................................................................ 190
ICM-1900 Drawing ............................................................................................................... 194
AMP-19X0 Mating Power Amplifiers................................................................................... 194
Coordinated Motion - Mathematical Analysis....................................................................... 195
DMC-1600/DMC-1000 Comparison ..................................................................................... 198
List of Other Publications ...................................................................................................... 199
Training Seminars.................................................................................................................. 199
Contacting Us ........................................................................................................................ 200
WARRANTY ........................................................................................................................ 201
Index
DMC-1600
202
Contents • v
Chapter 1 Overview
Introduction
The DMC-1600 series motion control cards install directly into a compact PCI bus. This
controller series offers many enhanced features including high speed communications, nonvolatile program memory, fast encoder speeds, and improved cabling for EMI reduction.
The DMC-1600 provides two communication channels: a high speed FIFO for sending and
receiving commands and a secondary channel which gives high speed access to status and
parameters. The DMC-1600 allows for high speed servo control up to 12 million encoder
counts/sec and step motor control up to 3 million steps per second. Sample rates as low as
62.5μsec per axis are available.
A 2 Meg Flash EEPROM provides non-volatile memory for storing application programs,
parameters, arrays and firmware. New firmware revisions are easily upgraded in the field without
removing the controller from the system.
The DMC-1600 can be used with step motors, servo motors, and hydraulics, on any combination
of axes. Each axis is configurable by the user for optimum flexibility.
The DMC-1600 achieves superior precision through use of a 16-bit motor command output DAC
and a sophisticated PID filter that features velocity and acceleration feedforward an extra pole
filter, and integration limits. Designed to solve complex motion problems, the DMC-1600 can be
used for applications involving jogging, point-to-point positioning, vector positioning, electronic
gearing, multiple move sequences, and contouring. The controller eliminates jerk by
programmable acceleration and deceleration with profile smoothing. For smooth following of
complex contours, the DMC-1600 provides continuous vector feed of an infinite number of linear
and arc segments. The DMC-1600 electronic gearing mode features operation for multiple
masters axes as well as gantry.
For synchronization with outside events, the DMC-1600 provides uncommitted I/O, including 8
general use digital inputs, 72 general use digital outputs, and 8 analog inputs for interface to
joysticks, sensors, and pressure transducers. Dedicated optoisolated inputs are provided for
forward and reverse limits, abort, home, and definable input interrupts. The DMC-1600 is a plug
and play device making it easy to set-up. Commands can be sent in either Binary or ASCII.
Additional software is available to autotune, view trajectories on a PC screen, translate CAD.DXF
files into motion, and create powerful, application-specific operator interfaces with Visual Basic.
Drivers for Dos, Windows 3.1, 95, 98, 2000, ME, XP and NT are available.
DMC-1600
Chapter 1 Overview • 1
Overview of Motor Types
The DMC-1600 can provide the following types of motor control:
1.
Standard servo motors with +/- 10 volt command signals
2.
Brushless servo motors with sinusoidal commutation
3.
Step motors with step and direction signals
4.
Other actuators such as hydraulics - For more information, contact Galil.
The user can configure each axis for any combination of motor types, providing maximum
flexibility.
Standard Servo Motor with +/- 10 Volt Command Signal
The DMC-1600 achieves superior precision through use of a 16-bit motor command output DAC
and a sophisticated PID filter that features velocity and acceleration feedforward, an extra pole
filter, and integration limits.
The controller is configured by the factory for standard servo motor operation. In this
configuration, the controller provides an analog signal (+/- 10Volt) to connect to a servo amplifier.
This connection is described in Chapter 2.
Brushless Servo Motor with Sinusoidal Commutation
The DMC-1600 can provide sinusoidal commutation for brushless motors (BLM). In this
configuration, the controller generates two sinusoidal signals for connection with amplifiers
specifically designed for this purpose.
Note: The task of generating sinusoidal commutation may be accomplished in the brushless motor
amplifier. If the amplifier generates the sinusoidal commutation signals, only a single command
signal is required and the controller should be configured for a standard servo motor (described
above).
Sinusoidal commutation in the controller can be used with linear and rotary BLMs. However, the
motor velocity should be limited such that a magnetic cycle lasts at least 6 milliseconds*. For
faster motors, please contact the factory.
To simplify the wiring, the controller provides a one-time, automatic set-up procedure. The
parameters determined by this procedure can then be saved in non-volatile memory to be used
whenever the system is powered on.
The DMC-1600 can control BLMs equipped with or without Hall sensors. If hall sensors are
available, once the controller has been setup, the controller will automatically estimates the
commutation phase upon reset. This allows the motor to function immediately upon power up.
The Hall effect sensors also provide a method for setting the precise commutation phase. Chapter
2 describes the proper connection and procedure for using sinusoidal commutation of brushless
motors.
* 6 Milliseconds per magnetic cycle assumes a servo update of 1 msec (default rate).
Stepper Motor with Step and Direction Signals
The DMC-1600 can control stepper motors. In this mode, the controller provides two signals to
connect to the stepper motor: Step and Direction. For stepper motor operation, the controller does
not require an encoder and operates the stepper motor in an open loop fashion. Chapter 2
describes the proper connection and procedure for using stepper motors.
2 • Chapter 1 Overview
DMC-1600
DMC-1600 Functional Elements
The DMC-1600 circuitry can be divided into the following functional groups as shown in Figure
1.1 and discussed below.
WATCHDOG TIMER
68331
MICROCOMPUTER
WITH
2 Meg RAM
2 Meg FLASH EEPROM
2ND FIFO
Primary
FIFOS
HIGH-SPEED
MOTOR/ENCODER
INTERFACE
FOR
X,Y,Z,W
PLUG & PLAY
DMA BUS
ISA BUS
8 UNCOMMITTED
ANALOG INPUTS
8 PROGRAMMABLE,
OPTOISOLATED
INPUTS
+/- 10 VOLT OUTPUT FOR
SERVO MOTORS
PULSE/DIRECTION OUTPUT
FOR STEP MOTORS
HIGH SPEED ENCODER
COMPARE OUTPUT
I/O INTERFACE
INTERRUPTS
ISOLATED LIMITS AND
HOME INPUTS
MAIN ENCODERS
AUXILIARY ENCODERS
8 PROGRAMMABLE
OUTPUTS
HIGH-SPEED LATCH FOR EACH AXIS
Figure 1.1 - DMC-1600 Functional Elements
Microcomputer Section
The main processing unit of the DMC-1600 is a specialized 32-bit Motorola 68331 Series
Microcomputer with 256K RAM and 256K Flash EEPROM. The RAM provides memory for
variables, array elements and application programs. The flash EEPROM provides non-volatile
storage of variables, programs, and arrays. It also contains the DMC-1600 firmware.
Motor Interface
Galil’s GL-1800 custom, sub-micron gate array performs quadrature decoding of each encoder at
up to 12 MHz, generates a +/-10 Volt analog signal (16 Bit D-to-A) for input to a servo amplifier,
and generates step and direction signal for step motor drivers.
Communication
The communication interface with the host PC contains a primary and secondary communication
channel. The primary channel uses a bi-directional FIFO (AM470) and includes PC interrupt
DMC-1600
Chapter 1 Overview • 3
handling circuitry. The secondary channel can be enabled where data is placed into the DMC1600 FIFO buffer.
General I/O
The DMC-1600 provides interface circuitry for 8 bidirectional, optoisolated inputs, 8 TTL outputs
and 8 analog inputs with 12-Bit ADC (16-bit optional). The general inputs can also be used as
high speed latches for each axes. A high speed encoder compare output is also provided.
System Elements
As shown in Fig. 1.2, the DMC-1600 is part of a motion control system which includes amplifiers,
motors and encoders. These elements are described below.
Power Supply
Computer
DMC-1600 Controller
Amplifier (Driver)
Encoder
Motor
Figure 1.2 - Elements of Servo systems
Motor
A motor converts current into torque which produces motion. Each axis of motion requires a
motor sized properly to move the load at the required speed and acceleration. (Galil's "Motion
Component Selector" software can help you with motor sizing). Contact Galil at 800-377-6329 if
you would like this product.
The motor may be a step or servo motor and can be brush-type or brushless, rotary or linear. For
step motors, the controller can be configured to control full-step, half-step, or microstep drives.
An encoder is not required when step motors are used.
Amplifier (Driver)
For each axis, the power amplifier converts a +/-10 Volt signal from the controller into current to
drive the motor. For stepper motors, the amplifier converts step and direction signals into current.
The amplifier should be sized properly to meet the power requirements of the motor. For
brushless motors, an amplifier that provides electronic commutation is required or the controller
must be configured to provide sinusoidal commutation. The amplifiers may be either pulse-widthmodulated (PWM) or linear. They may also be configured for operation with or without a
tachometer. For current amplifiers, the amplifier gain should be set such that a 10 Volt command
generates the maximum required current. For example, if the motor peak current is 10A, the
amplifier gain should be 1 A/V. For velocity mode amplifiers, 10 Volts should run the motor at
the maximum speed.
4 • Chapter 1 Overview
DMC-1600
Encoder
An encoder translates motion into electrical pulses which are fed back into the controller. The
DMC-1600 accepts feedback from either a rotary or linear encoder. Typical encoders provide two
channels in quadrature, known as CHA and CHB. This type of encoder is known as a quadrature
encoder. Quadrature encoders may be either single-ended (CHA and CHB) or differential
(CHA,CHA-,CHB,CHB-). The DMC-1600 decodes either type into quadrature states or four times
the number of cycles. Encoders may also have a third channel (or index) for synchronization.
For stepper motors, the DMC-1600 can also interface to encoders with pulse and direction signals.
There is no limit on encoder line density, however, the input frequency to the controller must not
exceed 3,000,000 full encoder cycles/second (12,000,000 quadrature counts/sec). For example, if
the encoder line density is 10000 cycles per inch, the maximum speed is 300 inches/second. If
higher encoder frequency is required, please consult the factory.
The standard voltage level is TTL (zero to five volts), however, voltage levels up to 12 Volts are
acceptable. (If using differential signals, 12 Volts can be input directly to the DMC-1600. Singleended 12 Volt signals require a bias voltage input to the complementary inputs).
The DMC-1600 can accept analog feedback instead of an encoder for any axis. For more
information see description of analog feedback in Chapter 2 under section entitled "Test the
encoder operation".
To interface with other types of position sensors such as resolvers or absolute encoders, Galil can
customize the controller and command set. Please contact Galil to talk to one of our applications
engineers about your particular system requirements.
Watch Dog Timer
The DMC-1600 provides an internal watch dog timer which checks for proper microprocessor
operation. The timer toggles the Amplifier Enable Output (AEN) which can be used to switch the
amplifiers off in the event of a serious DMC-1600 failure. The AEN output is normally high.
During power-up and if the microprocessor ceases to function properly, the AEN output will go
low. The error light for each axis will also turn on at this stage. A reset is required to restore the
DMC-1600 to normal operation. Consult the factory for a Return Materials Authorization (RMA)
Number if your DMC-1600 is damaged.
DMC-1600
Chapter 1 Overview • 5
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY
6 • Chapter 1 Overview
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started
The DMC-1600 Motion Controller
Figure 2-1 - Outline of the DMC-1600
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 7
U14
Flash EEPROM
JP1
Master Reset & UPGRD jumpers
U9/U2
1
RAM
JP3
INCOM & LSCOM jumpers. Used for bypassing
opto-isolation for the limit, home, and abort switches
and the digital inputs IN1 - IN8. See section
“Bypassing Opto-Isolation”, Chap3.
U30
Motorola 68331 microprocessor
JP5
Jumpers used for configuring stepper motor operation
on axes X-W
U22
GL-1800 custom gate array
JP6
?
J1
100-pin high density connector (Axes X-W)
(Part number Amp #2-178238-9)
JP7
?
J5
36-pin high density connector for the auxiliary
encoder signals.
J101
100-pin high density connector for extended I/O
(Part number Amp #2-178238-9)
Elements You Need
Before you start, you must get all the necessary system elements. These include:
1.
DMC-1610, 1620, 1630, or DMC-1640 Motion Controller, (1) 100-pin cable, and (1)
ICM-1900 interconnect module.
2.
Servo motors with Optical Encoder (one per axis) or step motors.
3.
Power Amplifiers.
4.
Power Supply for Amplifiers.
5.
PC (Personal Computer - ISA bus).
6.
Utilities Disk for DMC-1600 which contains Plug and Play drivers, and
communication utilities.
7.
WSDK-16 or WSDK-32 is optional but recommend for first time users.
The motors may be servo (brush type or brushless) or steppers. The amplifiers should be suitable
for the motor and may be linear or pulse-width-modulated. An amplifier may have current
feedback, voltage feedback or velocity feedback.
For servo motors in current mode, the amplifiers should accept an analog signal in the +/-10 Volt range
as a command. The amplifier gain should be set so that a +10V command will generate the maximum
required current. For example, if the motor peak current is 10A, the amplifier gain should be 1 A/V.
For velocity mode amplifiers, a command signal of 10 Volts should run the motor at the maximum
required speed. Set the velocity gain so that an input signal of 10V, runs the motor at the maximum
required speed.
For step motors, the amplifiers should accept step and direction signals. For start-up of a step motor
system refer to “Connecting Step Motors” on page 20.
The WSDK software is highly recommended for first time users of the DMC-1600. It provides
step-by-step instructions for system connection, tuning and analysis.
8 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
Installing the DMC-1600
Installation of a complete, operational DMC-1600 system consists of 9 steps.
Step 1. Determine overall motor configuration.
Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-1600.
Step 3. Install the communications software.
Step 4. Install the DMC-1600 in the PC.
Step 5. Establish communications with the Galil Communication Software.
Step 6. Determine the Axes to be used for sinusoidal commutation.
Step 7. Make connections to amplifier and encoder.
Step 8a. Connect standard servo motors.
Step 8b. Connect sinusoidal commutation motors
Step 8c. Connect step motors.
Step 9. Tune the servo system
Step 1. Determine Overall Motor Configuration
Before setting up the motion control system, the user must determine the desired motor
configuration. The DMC-1600 can control any combination of standard servo motors, sinusoidally
commutated brushless motors, and stepper motors. Other types of actuators, such as hydraulics
can also be controlled, please consult Galil.
The following configuration information is necessary to determine the proper motor configuration:
Standard Servo Motor Operation:
The DMC-1600 has been setup by the factory for standard servo motor operation providing an
analog command signal of +/- 10V. No hardware or software configuration is required for
standard servo motor operation.
Sinusoidal Commutation:
Sinusoidal commutation is configured through a single software command, BA. This
configuration causes the controller to reconfigure the number of available control axes.
Each sinusoidally commutated motor requires two DAC's. In standard servo operation, the DMC1600 has one DAC per axis. In order to have the additional DAC for sinusoidal commutation, the
controller must be designated as having one additional axis for each sinusoidal commutation axis.
For example, to control two standard servo axes and one axis of sinusoidal commutation, the
controller will require a total of four DAC's and the controller must be a DMC-1640.
Sinusoidal commutation is configured with the command, BA. For example, BAX sets the X axis
to be sinusoidally commutated. The second DAC for the sinusoidal signal will be the highest
available DAC on the controller. For example: Using a DMC-1640, the command BAX will
configure the X axis to be the main sinusoidal signal and the 'W' axis to be the second sinusoidal
signal.
The BA command also reconfigures the controller to indicate that the controller has one less axis
of 'standard' control for each axis of sinusoidal commutation. For example, if the command BAX
is given to a DMC-1640 controller, the controller will be re-configured to a DMC-1630 controller.
By definition, a DMC-1630 controls 3 axes: X,Y and Z. The 'W' axis is no longer available since
the output DAC is being used for sinusoidal commutation.
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 9
Further instruction for sinusoidal commutation connections are discussed in Step 6.
Stepper Motor Operation:
To configure the DMC-1600 for stepper motor operation, the controller requires a jumper for each
stepper motor and the command, MT, must be given. The installation of the stepper motor jumper
is discussed in the following section entitled "Installing Jumpers on the DMC-1600". Further
instructions for stepper motor connections are discussed in Step 8c.
Step 2. Install Jumpers on the DMC-1600
Master Reset and Upgrade Jumpers
JP1 contains two jumpers, MRST and UPGRD. The MRST jumper is the Master Reset jumper.
With MRST connected, the controller will perform a master reset upon PC power up or upon the
reset input going low. Whenever the controller has a master reset, all programs, arrays, variables,
and motion control parameters stored in EEPROM will be ERASED.
The UPGRD jumper enables the user to unconditionally update the controller’s firmware. This
jumper is not necessary for firmware updates when the controller is operating normally, but may
be necessary in cases of corrupted EEPROM. EEPROM corruption should never occur, however,
it is possible if there is a power fault during a firmware update. If EEPROM corruption occurs,
your controller may not operate properly. In this case, install the UPGRD Jumper and use the
update firmware function on the Galil Terminal to re-load the system firmware.
Opto-Isolation Jumpers
The inputs and limit switches are optoisolated. If you are not using an isolated power supply, the
internal +5V supply from the PC may be used to power the optoisolators. This is done by
installing the jumpers on JP3. LSCOM to VCC will power the limit switch optoisolators, and
INCOM to VCC will power the general input optoisolators.
Note: Using the PC’s internal +5V supply to power the optoisolators will effectively bypass the
optoisolation and fail to provide any isolation for the inputs and limit switches.
Stepper Motor Jumpers
For each axis that will be used for stepper motor operation, the corresponding stepper mode (SM)
jumper must be connected. The stepper motor jumpers, labeled JP5 for axes X through W are
located directly beside the GL-1800 IC’s on the main board (see the diagram for the DMC-1600).
The individual jumpers are labeled SMX, SMY, SMZ and SMW for axes 1 through 4.
(Optional) Motor Off Jumper
The state of the motor upon power up may be selected with the placement of a hardware jumper
on the controller. With a jumper installed at the OPT location (next to the stepper motor
jumpers), the controller will be powered up in the ‘motor off’ state. The SH command will then
need to be issued in order for the motor(s) to be enabled. With no jumper installed, the controller
will immediately enable the motor(s) upon power up.
10 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
Step 3. Install the Communications Software
After applying power to the computer, you should install the Galil software that enables
communication between the controller and PC.
Using Dos:
Using the Galil Software CD-ROM, go to the directory DMCDOS. Type “INSTALL” at the DOS
prompt and follow the directions.
Using Windows SE, 98, NT, ME, XP or 2000 (32 bit versions):
The Galil Software CD-ROM will automatically begin the installation procedure when the CDROM is installed. After installing the Galil CD-ROM software on your computer, you can easily
install other software components as desired. To install the basic communications software, run
the Galil Software CD-ROM and choose “DMCWIN32 – Windows Utilities and Programming
Libraries, WIN95, 98, NT”. This will install the Galil Terminal that can be used for
communication.
Step 4. Install the DMC-1600 in the PC
The DMC-1600 is installed directly into the Compact PCI bus. The procedure is outlined below.
1. Make sure the host computer is in the power-off condition.
2. Remove unit cover.
3. Remove the metal plate covering the expansion bus slot where the DMC-1600 will be
inserted.
4. Insert DMC-1600 card in the expansion bus and secure with screw.
5. Attach 100-pin cable to your controller card. If you are using a Galil ICM-1900 or
AMP-19X0, this cable connects into the J2 connection on the interconnect module. If
you are not using a Galil interconnect module, you will need to appropriately
terminate the cable to your system components, see the appendix for cable pin outs.
The auxiliary encoder connections are accessed through the 36-pin connector, J5.
Note: The part number for the 100-pin connector is #2-178238-9 from AMP.
6.
Turn power on to computer.
7.
The operating system should recognize the DMC-1600 as a new device.
8.
The Plug and Play feature will automatically configure the controller for your
computers available resources. The installation will also automatically add this
information to the Galil Registry.
Step 5. Establish Communication using Galil Software
DMC-1600 DOS Users
All that is required for installation of the DMC-1600 in DOS is the DMCTERM software. Within
DMCTERM, the DMC-1600 should be selected from the card options, and the DOS drivers will
automatically register the card with a correct address and IRQ.
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 11
After providing the setup information, the terminal should indicate, “Attempting to connect to
controller”, followed by the colon “:” being sent. This indicates a successful connection. Note:
The BIOS for your PC when using DOS should be set for Non-Plug and Play OS for successful
communication.
Using Windows98SE, ME, NT, 2000, XP:
In order for the windows software to communicate with a Galil controller, the controller must be
registered in the Galil Registry, listing the controller information and address. Under Windows
NT/2000, the DMC-1600 controller is registered by initializing the Galil Driver. To do this,
install the DTERM32 software program (DMCWIN32.exe) or the Galil Servo Design Kit
Software (WSDK32.exe). Begin the software and add the DMC-1600 controller to the registry.
The registry is available from the pull down menu, Registry, from DTERM32 and from the pull
down menu, File, from the WSDK software. After registering the controller, re-boot the system.
Under the Options Menu, select, Start Device Driver. Then select the terminal to begin
communicating directly with the controller.
Dterm32 will find the DMC-1600 controller and automatically insert the controller information
into the registry. The registry entry also displays timeout and delay information. These are
advanced parameters that should only be modified by advanced users (see software documentation
for more information).
Communication is established by selecting the Terminal Menu. Select the controller by
highlighting it. Once the entry has been selected, click on the OK button. If communication is
established, the terminal window will open and a colon prompt will be displayed. From the top
line of the terminal, commands can be sent to the controller. Command syntax is described in the
Command Reference and later sections.
If you are not properly communicating with the controller, the program will pause for 3-15
seconds. The top of the screen will display the message “Status: not connected with Galil motion
controller” and the following error will appear: “STOP - Unable to establish communication with
the Galil controller. A time-out occurred while waiting for a response from the Galil controller.”
If this message appears, you must click OK. Contact Galil if you are unable to communicate with
your controller.
Step 6. Determine the Axes to be Used for Sinusoidal
Commutation
* This step is only required when the controller will be used to control a brushless motor(s) with
sinusoidal commutation.
The command, BA is used to select the axes of sinusoidal commutation. For example, BAXZ sets
X and Z as axes with sinusoidal commutation.
Notes on Configuring Sinusoidal Commutation:
The command, BA, reconfigures the controller such that it has one less axis of 'standard' control
for each axis of sinusoidal commutation. For example, if the command BAX is given to a DMC1640 controller, the controller will be re-configured to be a DMC-1630 controller. In this case the
highest axis is no longer available except to be used for the 2nd phase of the sinusoidal
commutation. Note that the highest axis on a controller can never be configured for sinusoidal
commutation.
The first phase signal is the motor command signal. The second phase is derived from the highest
DACX on the controller. When more than one axis is configured for sinusoidal commutation, the
highest sinusoidal commutation axis will be assigned to the highest DAC and the lowest
sinusoidal commutation axis will be assigned to the lowest available DAC. Note the lowest axis is
the X axis.
12 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
Example: Sinusoidal Commutation Configuration using a DMC-1640
BAXY
This command causes the controller to be reconfigured as a DMC-1620 controller. The X and Y
axes are configured for sinusoidal commutation. The first phase of the X axis will be the motor
command X signal. The second phase of the X axis will be Z signal. The first phase of the Y axis
will be the motor command Y signal. The second phase of the Y axis will be the motor command
W signal.
Step 7. Make Connections to Amplifier and Encoder.
Once you have established communications between the software and the DMC-1600, you are
ready to connect the rest of the motion control system. The motion control system typically
consists of an ICM-1900 Interface Module, an amplifier for each axis of motion, and a motor to
transform the current from the amplifier into torque for motion. Galil also offers the AMP-19X0
series Interface Modules, which are ICM-1900’s equipped with servo amplifiers for brush type
DC motors.
If you are using an ICM-1900, connect the 100-pin ribbon cable to the DMC-1600 and to the
connector located on the AMP-19x0 or ICM-1900 board. The ICM-1900 provides screw
terminals for access to the connections described in the following discussion.
System connection procedures will depend on system components and motor types. Any
combination of motor types can be used with the DMC-1600. If sinusoidal commutation is to be
used, special attention must be paid to the reconfiguration of axes.
Here are the first steps for connecting a motion control system:
Step A. Connect the motor to the amplifier with no connection to the controller. Consult
the amplifier documentation for instructions regarding proper connections. Connect
and turn-on the amplifier power supply. If the amplifiers are operating properly, the
motor should stand still even when the amplifiers are powered up.
Step B. Connect the amplifier enable signal.
Before making any connections from the amplifier to the controller, you need to
verify that the ground level of the amplifier is either floating or at the same potential
as earth.
WARNING: When the amplifier ground is not isolated from the power line or when it has a different potential
than that of the computer ground, serious damage may result to the computer controller and amplifier.
If you are not sure about the potential of the ground levels, connect the two ground
signals (amplifier ground and earth) by a 10 kΩ resistor and measure the voltage
across the resistor. Only if the voltage is zero, connect the two ground signals
directly.
The amplifier enable signal is used by the controller to disable the motor. This
signal is labeled AMPENX for the X axis on the ICM-1900 and should be connected
to the enable signal on the amplifier. Note that many amplifiers designate this signal
as the INHIBIT signal. Use the command, MO, to disable the motor amplifiers check to insure that the motor amplifiers have been disabled (often this is indicated
by an LED on the amplifier).
This signal changes under the following conditions: the watchdog timer activates, the
motor-off command, MO, is given, or the OE1 command (Enable Off-On-Error) is
given and the position error exceeds the error limit. As shown in Figure 3-4, AEN
can be used to disable the amplifier for these conditions.
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 13
The standard configuration of the AEN signal is TTL active high. In other words,
the AEN signal will be high when the controller expects the amplifier to be enabled.
The polarity and the amplitude can be changed if you are using the ICM-1900
interface board. To change the polarity from active high (5 volts = enable, zero volts
= disable) to active low (zero volts = enable, 5 volts = disable), replace the 7407 IC
with a 7406. Note that many amplifiers designate the enable input as ‘inhibit’.
To change the voltage level of the AEN signal, note the state of the resistor pack on
the ICM-1900. When Pin 1 is on the 5V mark, the output voltage is 0-5V. To
change to 12 volts, pull the resistor pack and rotate it so that Pin 1 is on the 12 volt
side. If you remove the resistor pack, the output signal is an open collector, allowing
the user to connect an external supply with voltages up to 24V. The user should
provide current limiting resistors in this case.
Step C. Connect the encoders
For stepper motor operation, an encoder is optional.
For servo motor operation, if you have a preferred definition of the forward and
reverse directions, make sure that the encoder wiring is consistent with that
definition.
The DMC-1600 accepts single-ended or differential encoder feedback with or
without an index pulse. If you are not using the AMP-19x0 or the ICM-1900 you
will need to consult the appendix for the encoder pinouts for connection to the
motion controller. The AMP-19x0 and the ICM-1900 can accept encoder feedback
from a 10-pin ribbon cable or individual signal leads. For a 10-pin ribbon cable
encoder, connect the cable to the protected header connector labeled X ENCODER
(repeat for each axis necessary). For individual wires, simply match the leads from
the encoder you are using to the encoder feedback inputs on the interconnect board.
The signal leads are labeled CHA (channel A), CHB (channel B), and INDEX. For
differential encoders, the complement signals are labeled CHA-, CHB-, and INDEX.
Note: When using pulse and direction encoders, the pulse signal is connected to
CHA and the direction signal is connected to CHB. The controller must be
configured for pulse and direction with the command CE. See the command
summary for further information on the command CE.
Step D. Verify proper encoder operation.
Start with the X encoder first. Once it is connected, turn the motor shaft and
interrogate the position with the instruction TPX <return>. The controller response
will vary as the motor is turned.
At this point, if TPX does not vary with encoder rotation, there are three
possibilities:
1.
The encoder connections are incorrect - check the wiring as necessary.
2.
The encoder has failed - using an oscilloscope, observe the encoder signals.
Verify that both channels A and B have a peak magnitude between 5 and 12
volts. Note that if only one encoder channel fails, the position reporting varies
by one count only. If the encoder failed, replace the encoder. If you cannot
observe the encoder signals, try a different encoder.
3.
There is a hardware failure in the controller - connect the same encoder to a
different axis. If the problem disappears, you probably have a hardware failure.
Consult the factory for help.
Step E. Connect Hall Sensors if available.
14 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
Hall sensors are only used with sinusoidal commutation and are not necessary for
proper operation. The use of hall sensors allows the controller to automatically
estimate the commutation phase upon reset and also provides the controller the
ability to set a more precise commutation phase. Without hall sensors, the
commutation phase must be determined manually.
The Hall effect sensors are connected to the digital inputs of the controller. These
inputs can be used with the general use inputs (bits 1-8), the auxiliary encoder inputs
(bits 81-96), or the extended I/O inputs of the DMC-1600 controller (bits 17-80).
Note: The general use inputs are optoisolated and require a voltage connection at the
INCOM point - for more information regarding the digital inputs, see Chapter 3,
Connecting Hardware.
Each set of sensors must use inputs that are in consecutive order. The input lines are
specified with the command, BI. For example, if the Hall sensors of the Z axis are
connected to inputs 6, 7 and 8, use the instruction:
BI ,, 6
or
BIZ = 6
Step 8a. Connect Standard Servo Motors
The following discussion applies to connecting the DMC-1600 controller to standard servo motor
amplifiers:
The motor and the amplifier may be configured in the torque or the velocity mode. In the torque
mode, the amplifier gain should be such that a 10 Volt signal generates the maximum required
current. In the velocity mode, a command signal of 10 Volts should run the motor at the
maximum required speed.
Step by step directions on servo system setup are also included on the WSDK (Windows Servo
Design Kit) software offered by Galil. See section on WSDK for more details.
Check the Polarity of the Feedback Loop
It is assumed that the motor and amplifier are connected together and that the encoder is operating
correctly (Step B). Before connecting the motor amplifiers to the controller, read the following
discussion on setting Error Limits and Torque Limits. Note that this discussion only uses the X
axis as an example.
Step A. Set the Error Limit as a Safety Precaution
Usually, there is uncertainty about the correct polarity of the feedback. The wrong
polarity causes the motor to run away from the starting position. Using a terminal
program, such as DMCTERM, the following parameters can be given to avoid
system damage:
Input the commands:
ER 2000 <CR> Sets error limit on the X axis to be 2000 encoder counts
OE 1 <CR>
Disables X axis amplifier when excess position error exists
If the motor runs away and creates a position error of 2000 counts, the motor
amplifier will be disabled. Note: This function requires the AEN signal to be
connected from the controller to the amplifier.
Step B. Set Torque Limit as a Safety Precaution
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 15
To limit the maximum voltage signal to your amplifier, the DMC-1600 controller has
a torque limit command, TL. This command sets the maximum voltage output of the
controller and can be used to avoid excessive torque or speed when initially setting
up a servo system.
When operating an amplifier in torque mode, the v
voltage output of the controller will be directly related to the torque output of the
motor. The user is responsible for determining this relationship using the
documentation of the motor and amplifier. The torque limit can be set to a value that
will limit the motors output torque.
When operating an amplifier in velocity or voltage mode, the voltage output of the
controller will be directly related to the velocity of the motor. The user is
responsible for determining this relationship using the documentation of the motor
and amplifier. The torque limit can be set to a value that will limit the speed of the
motor.
For example, the following command will limit the output of the controller to 1 volt
on the X axis:
TL 1 <CR>
Note: Once the correct polarity of the feedback loop has been determined, the torque
limit should, in general, be increased to the default value of 9.99. The servo will not
operate properly if the torque limit is below the normal operating range. See
description of TL in the command reference.
Step C. Enable Off-On-Error as a safety precaution. To limit the maximum distance the
motor will move from the commanded position, enable the Off-On-Error function
using the command , OE 1. If the motor runs away due to positive feedback or
another systematic problem the controller will disable the amplifier when the
position error exceeds the value set by the command, ER.
Step D. Disable motor with the command MO (Motor off).
Step E. Connect the Motor and issue SH
Once the parameters have been set, connect the analog motor command signal
(ACMD) to the amplifier input.
To test the polarity of the feedback, command a move with the instruction:
PR 1000 <CR>
Position relative 1000 counts
BGX <CR>
Begin motion on X axis
When the polarity of the feedback is wrong, the motor will attempt to run away. The
controller should disable the motor when the position error exceeds 2000 counts. If
the motor runs away, the polarity of the loop must be inverted.
Inverting the Loop Polarity
When the polarity of the feedback is incorrect, the user must invert the loop polarity and this may
be accomplished by several methods. If you are driving a brush-type DC motor, the simplest way
is to invert the two motor wires (typically red and black). For example, switch the M1 and M2
connections going from your amplifier to the motor. When driving a brushless motor, the polarity
reversal may be done with the encoder. If you are using a single-ended encoder, interchange the
signal CHA and CHB. If, on the other hand, you are using a differential encoder, interchange only
CHA+ and CHA-. The loop polarity and encoder polarity can also be affected through software
with the MT, and CE commands. For more details on the MT command or the CE command, see
the Command Reference section.
16 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
Sometimes the feedback polarity is correct (the motor does not attempt to run away) but the
direction of motion is reversed with respect to the commanded motion. If this is the case, reverse
the motor leads AND the encoder signals.
If the motor moves in the required direction but stops short of the target, it is most likely due to
insufficient torque output from the motor command signal ACMD. This can be alleviated by
reducing system friction on the motors. The instruction:
TTX (CR)
Tell torque on X
reports the level of the output signal. It will show a non-zero value that is below the friction level.
Once you have established that you have closed the loop with the correct polarity, you can move
on to the compensation phase (servo system tuning) to adjust the PID filter parameters, KP, KD
and KI. It is necessary to accurately tune your servo system to ensure fidelity of position and
minimize motion oscillation as described in the next section.
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 17
AUX encoder
input connector
26 pin header
Reset Switch
100 pin high density connector
AMP part # 2-178238-9
Error LED
W
Z
LSCO M
INCO M
M2W
M1W
M2Z
M1Z
EARTH
G ND
G ND
VAMP
VAMP
VCC
VCC
REV B
GALIL M OTION CONTROL
M A DE IN USA
ICM/ AMP-1900
Y
M2Y
M1Y
M2X
Filter
Chokes
M1X
X
J51
J6
J7
AUX encoder
input connector
DB25 female
+
DC Power Supply
-
Encoder
+
DC Servo Motor
Figure 2-2 - System Connections with the AMP-1900Amplifier. Note: this figure shows a Galil Motor and
Encoder which uses a flat ribbon cable for connection to the AMP-1900 unit.
18 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
AUX encoder
input connector
26 pin header
J51
Reset Switch
Error LED
100 pin high density connector
AMP part # 2-178238-9
J6
J7
U1 RP2
AUX encoder
input connector
DB25 female
-MAX
ADG202
-MBX
Motor Command
buffer circuit
-INX
+5 VDC
GND
U6
+INX
Encoder Wire Connections
Encoder:
ICM-1900:
Channel A+
+MAX
Channel A-MAX
Channel B+
+MBX
Channel B-MBX
Index Channel +
+INX
Index Channel -INX
VCC
VCC
REV D
GA LIL M OTION CONTROL
M ADE IN USA
LSCOM
INCOM
RP1
ICM/ A MP-1900
AMPENX
MO CMDX
G ND
Amp enable
buffer circuit
+MBX
+MAX
7407
+
Signal Gnd 2
-
+Ref In 4
+
BRUSH-TYPE
Inhibit 11
PWM SERVO
AMPLIFIER
MSA 12-80
Motor + 1
Motor - 2
Power Gnd 3
Power Gnd 4
High Volt 5
Enc oder
DC Brush
Servo Motor
DC Power Supply
Figure 2-3 System Connections with a separate amplifier (MSA 12-80). This diagram shows the connections
for a standard DC Servo Motor and encoder
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 19
Step 8b. Connect Sinusoidal Commutation Motors
When using sinusoidal commutation, the parameters for the commutation must be
determined and saved in the controller’s non-volatile memory. The servo can then
be tuned as described in Step 9.
Step A. Disable the motor amplifier
Use the command, MO, to disable the motor amplifiers. For example, MOX will
turn the X axis motor off.
Step B. Connect the motor amplifier to the controller.
The sinusoidal commutation amplifier requires 2 signals, usually denoted as Phase A
& Phase B. These inputs should be connected to the two sinusoidal signals
generated by the controller. The first signal is the axis specified with the command,
BA (Step 6). The second signal is associated with the highest analog command
signal available on the controller - note that this axis was made unavailable for
standard servo operation by the command BA.
When more than one axis is configured for sinusoidal commutation, the controller
will assign the second phase to the command output which has been made available
through the axes reconfiguration. The 2nd phase of the highest sinusoidal
commutation axis will be the highest command output and the 2nd phase of the
lowest sinusoidal commutation axis will be the lowest command output.
It is not necessary to be concerned with cross-wiring the 1st and 2nd signals. If this
wiring is incorrect, the setup procedure will alert the user (Step D).
Example: Sinusoidal Commutation Configuration using a
DMC-1640
BAXY
This command causes the controller to be reconfigured as a DMC-1620 controller.
The X and Y axes are configured for sinusoidal commutation. The first phase of the
X axis will be the motor command X signal. The second phase of the X axis will be
the motor command Z signal. The first phase of the Y axis will be the motor
command Y signal. The second phase of the Y axis will be the motor command W
signal.
Step C. Specify the Size of the Magnetic Cycle.
Use the command, BM, to specify the size of the brushless motors magnetic cycle in
encoder counts. For example, if the X axis is a linear motor where the magnetic
cycle length is 62 mm, and the encoder resolution is 1 micron, the cycle equals
62,000 counts. This can be commanded with the command:
BM 62000
On the other hand, if the Z axis is a rotary motor with 4000 counts per revolution and
3 magnetic cycles per revolution (three pole pairs) the command is:
BM,, 1333.333
Step D. Test the Polarity of the DACs and Hall Sensor Configuration.
Use the brushless motor setup command, BS, to test the polarity of the output DACs.
This command applies a certain voltage, V, to each phase for some time T, and
checks to see if the motion is in the correct direction.
The user must specify the value for V and T. For example, the command
20 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
BSX = 2,700
will test the X axis with a voltage of 2 volts, applying it for 700 millisecond for each
phase. In response, this test indicates whether the DAC wiring is correct and will
indicate an approximate value of BM. If the wiring is correct, the approximate value
for BM will agree with the value used in the previous step.
Note: In order to properly conduct the brushless setup, the motor must be allowed to
move a minimum of one magnetic cycle in both directions.
Note: When using Galil Windows software, the timeout must be set to a minimum of
10 seconds (time-out = 10000) when executing the BS command. This allows the
software to retrieve all messages returned from the controller.
If Hall Sensors are Available:
Since the Hall sensors are connected randomly, it is very likely that they are wired in
the incorrect order. The brushless setup command indicates the correct wiring of the
Hall sensors. The hall sensor wires should be re-configured to reflect the results of
this test.
The setup command also reports the position offset of the hall transition point and
the zero phase of the motor commutation. The zero transition of the Hall sensors
typically occur at 0°, 30° or 90° of the phase commutation. It is necessary to
inform the controller about the offset of the Hall sensor and this is done with the
instruction, BB.
Step E. Save Brushless Motor Configuration
It is very important to save the brushless motor configuration in non-volatile
memory. After the motor wiring and setup parameters have been properly
configured, the burn command, BN, should be given.
If Hall Sensors are Not Available:
Without hall sensors, the controller will not be able to estimate the commutation
phase of the brushless motor. In this case, the controller could become unstable until
the commutation phase has been set using the BZ command (see next step). It is
highly recommended that the motor off command be given before executing the BN
command. In this case, the motor will be disabled upon power up or reset and the
commutation phase can be set before enabling the motor.
Step F. Set Zero Commutation Phase
When an axis has been defined as sinusoidally commutated, the controller must have
an estimate for commutation phase. When hall sensors are used, the controller
automatically estimates this value upon reset of the controller. If no hall sensors are
used, the controller will not be able to make this estimate and the commutation phase
must be set before enabling the motor.
If Hall Sensors are Not Available:
To initialize the commutation without Hall effect sensor use the command, BZ. This
function drives the motor to a position where the commutation phase is zero, and sets
the phase to zero.
The BZ command argument is a real number, which represents the voltage to be
applied to the amplifier during the initialization. When the voltage is specified by a
positive number, the initialization process will end in the motor off (MO) state. A
negative number causes the process to end in the Servo Here (SH) state.
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 21
Warning: This command must move the motor to find the zero commutation phase.
This movement is instantaneous and will cause the system to jerk. Larger applied
voltages will cause more severe motor jerk. The applied voltage will typically be
sufficient for proper operation of the BZ command. For systems with significant
friction, this voltage may need to be increased and for systems with very small
motors, this value should be decreased.
For example, BZ -2
will drive the X axis to zero, using a 2V signal. The controller will then leave the
motor enabled. For systems that have external forces working against the motor,
such as gravity, the BZ argument must provide a torque 10x the external force. If the
torque is not sufficient, the commutation zero may not be accurate.
If Hall Sensors are Available:
The estimated value of the commutation phase is good to within 30°. This estimate
can be used to drive the motor but a more accurate estimate is needed for efficient
motor operation. There are 3 possible methods for commutation phase initialization:
Method 1. Use the BZ command as described above.
Method 2. Drive the motor close to commutation phase of zero and then use BZ
command. This method decreases the amount of system jerk by moving the motor
close to zero commutation phase before executing the BZ command. The controller
makes an estimate for the number of encoder counts between the current position and
the position of zero commutation phase. This value is stored in the operand _BZx.
Using this operand the controller can be commanded to move the motor. The BZ
command is then issued as described above. For example, to initialize the X axis
motor upon power or reset, the following commands may be given:
SHX
Enable X axis motor
PRX=-1*(_BZX)
Move X motor close to zero commutation phase
BGX
Begin motion on X axis
AMX
Wait for motion to complete on X axis
BZX=-1
Drive motor to commutation phase zero and leave
the motor on
Method 3. Use the command, BC. This command uses the hall transitions to
determine the commutation phase. Ideally, the hall sensor transitions will be
separated by exactly 60° and any deviation from 60° will affect the accuracy of this
method. If the hall sensors are accurate, this method is recommended. The BC
command monitors the hall sensors during a move and monitors the Hall sensors for
a transition point. When that occurs, the controller computes the commutation phase
and sets it. For example, to initialize the X axis motor upon power or reset, the
following commands may be given:
SHX
Enable X axis motor
BCX
Enable the brushless calibration command
PRX=50000
Command a relative position movement on X axis
BGX
Begin motion on X axis. When the hall sensors
detect a phase transition, the commutation phase is re-set.
22 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
Step 8c. Connect Step Motors
In Stepper Motor operation, the pulse output signal has a 50% duty cycle. Step motors operate
open loop and do not require encoder feedback. When a stepper is used, the auxiliary encoder for
the corresponding axis is unavailable for an external connection. If an encoder is used for position
feedback, connect the encoder to the main encoder input corresponding to that axis. The
commanded position of the stepper can be interrogated with RP or DE. The encoder position can
be interrogated with TP.
The frequency of the step motor pulses can be smoothed with the filter parameter, KS. The KS
parameter has a range between 0.5 and 8, where 8 implies the largest amount of smoothing. See
Command Reference regarding KS.
The DMC-1600 profiler commands the step motor amplifier. All DMC-1600 motion commands
apply such as PR, PA, VP, CR and JG. The acceleration, deceleration, slew speed and smoothing
are also used. Since step motors run open-loop, the PID filter does not function and the position
error is not generated.
To connect step motors with the DMC-1600 you must follow this procedure:
Step A. Install SM jumpers
Each axis of the DMC-1600 that will operate a stepper motor must have the
corresponding stepper motor jumper installed. For a discussion of SM jumpers, see
Step 2.
Step B. Connect step and direction signals from controller to motor amplifier
from the controller to respective signals on your step motor amplifier. (These signals
are labeled PULSX and DIRX for the x-axis on the ICM-1900). Consult the
documentation for your step motor amplifier.
Step C. Configure DMC-1600 for motor type using MT command. You can configure
the DMC-1600 for active high or active low pulses. Use the command MT 2 for
active high step motor pulses and MT -2 for active low step motor pulses. See
description of the MT command in the Command Reference.
Step 9. Tune the Servo System
Adjusting the tuning parameters is required when using servo motors (standard or sinusoidal
commutation). The system compensation provides fast and accurate response and the following
presentation suggests a simple and easy way for compensation. More advanced design methods
are available with software design tools from Galil, such as the Servo Design Kit (SDK software )
The filter has three parameters: the damping, KD; the proportional gain, KP; and the integrator,
KI. The parameters should be selected in this order.
To start, set the integrator to zero with the instruction
KI 0 (CR)
Integrator gain
and set the proportional gain to a low value, such as
KP 1 (CR)
Proportional gain
KD 100 (CR)
Derivative gain
For more damping, you can increase KD (maximum is 4095). Increase gradually and stop after
the motor vibrates. A vibration is noticed by audible sound or by interrogation. If you send the
command
TE X (CR)
DMC-1600
Tell error
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 23
a few times, and get varying responses, especially with reversing polarity, it indicates system
vibration. When this happens, simply reduce KD.
Next you need to increase the value of KP gradually (maximum allowed is 1023). You can
monitor the improvement in the response with the Tell Error instruction
KP 10 (CR)
Proportion gain
TE X (CR)
Tell error
As the proportional gain is increased, the error decreases.
Again, the system may vibrate if the gain is too high. In this case, reduce KP. Typically, KP
should not be greater than KD/4. (Only when the amplifier is configured in the current mode).
Finally, to select KI, start with zero value and increase it gradually. The integrator eliminates the
position error, resulting in improved accuracy. Therefore, the response to the instruction
TE X (CR)
becomes zero. As KI is increased, its effect is amplified and it may lead to vibrations. If this
occurs, simply reduce KI. Repeat tuning for the Y, Z and W axes.
For a more detailed description of the operation of the PID filter and/or servo system theory,
see Chapter 10 - Theory of Operation.
Design Examples
Here are a few examples for tuning and using your controller. These examples have remarks next
to each command - these remarks must not be included in the actual program.
Example 1 - System Set-up
This example shows various ways to assign parameters.
Instruction
Interpretation
KP10,10,10,10
Set gains for a,b,c,d (or X,Y,Z,W axes)
KP*=10
Alternate method for setting gain on all axes
KPX=10
Alternate method for setting X (or A) axis gain
KPA=10
Alternate method for setting A (or X) axis gain
KP, 20
Set Y axis gain only
Example 2 - Profiled Move
Objective: Rotate the X axis a distance of 10,000 counts at a slew speed of 20,000 counts/sec and
an acceleration and deceleration rates of 100,000 counts/s2. In this example, the motor turns and
stops:
Instruction
Interpretation
PR 10000
Distance
SP 20000
Speed
DC 100000
Deceleration
AC 100000
Acceleration
BG X
Start Motion
24 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
Example 3 - Multiple Axes
Objective: Move the four axes independently.
Instruction
Interpretation
PR 500,1000,600,-400
Distances of X,Y,Z,W
SP 10000,12000,20000,10000
Slew speeds of X,Y,Z,W
AC 100000,10000,100000,100000
Accelerations of X,Y,Z,W
DC 80000,40000,30000,50000
Decelerations of X,Y,Z,W
BG XZ
Start X and Z motion
BG YW
Start Y and W motion
Example 4 - Independent Moves
The motion parameters may be specified independently as illustrated below.
Instruction
Interpretation
PR ,300,-600
Distances of Y and Z
SP ,2000
Slew speed of Y
DC ,80000
Deceleration of Y
AC, 100000
Acceleration of Y
SP ,,40000
Slew speed of Z
AC ,,100000
Acceleration of Z
DC ,,150000
Deceleration of Z
BG Z
Start Z motion
BG Y
Start Y motion
Example 5 - Position Interrogation
The position of the four axes may be interrogated with the instruction, TP.
Instruction
Interpretation
TP
Tell position all four axes
TP X
Tell position - X axis only
TP Y
Tell position - Y axis only
TP Z
Tell position - Z axis only
TP W
Tell position - W axis only
The position error, which is the difference between the commanded position and the actual
position can be interrogated with the instruction TE.
DMC-1600
Instruction
Interpretation
TE
Tell error - all axes
TE X
Tell error - X axis only
TE Y
Tell error - Y axis only
TE Z
Tell error - Z axis only
TE W
Tell error - W axis only
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 25
Example 6 - Absolute Position
Objective: Command motion by specifying the absolute position.
Instruction
Interpretation
DP 0,2000
Define the current positions of X,Y as 0 and 2000
PA 7000,4000
Sets the desired absolute positions
BG X
Start X motion
BG Y
Start Y motion
After both motions are complete, the X and Y axes can be command back to zero:
PA 0,0
Move to 0,0
BG XY
Start both motions
Example 7 - Velocity Control
Objective: Drive the X and Y motors at specified speeds.
Instruction
Interpretation
JG 10000,-20000
Set Jog Speeds and Directions
AC 100000, 40000
Set accelerations
DC 50000,50000
Set decelerations
BG XY
Start motion
after a few seconds, command:
JG -40000
New X speed and Direction
TV X
Returns X speed
and then
JG ,20000
New Y speed
TV Y
Returns Y speed
These cause velocity changes including direction reversal. The motion can be stopped with the
instruction
ST
Stop
Example 8 - Operation Under Torque Limit
The magnitude of the motor command may be limited independently by the instruction TL.
Instruction
Interpretation
TL 0.2
Set output limit of X axis to 0.2 volts
JG 10000
Set X speed
BG X
Start X motion
In this example, the X motor will probably not move since the output signal will not be sufficient
to overcome the friction. If the motion starts, it can be stopped easily by a touch of a finger.
Increase the torque level gradually by instructions such as
Instruction
Interpretation
TL 1.0
Increase torque limit to 1 volt.
TL 9.98
Increase torque limit to maximum, 9.98 Volts.
The maximum level of 9.998 volts provides the full output torque.
26 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
Example 9 - Interrogation
The values of the parameters may be interrogated. Some examples …
Instruction
Interpretation
KP ?
Return gain of X axis.
KP ,,?
Return gain of Z axis.
KP ?,?,?,?
Return gains of all axes.
Many other parameters such as KI, KD, FA, can also be interrogated. The command reference
denotes all commands which can be interrogated.
Example 10 - Operation in the Buffer Mode
The instructions may be buffered before execution as shown below.
Instruction
Interpretation
PR 600000
Distance
SP 10000
Speed
WT 10000
Wait 10000 milliseconds before reading the next instruction
BG X
Start the motion
Example 11 - Using the On-Board Editor
Motion programs may be edited and stored in the controller’s on-board memory. When the
command, ED is given from the Galil DOS terminal (such as DMCTERM), the controller’s editor
will be started.
The instruction
ED
Edit mode
moves the operation to the editor mode where the program may be written and edited. The editor
provides the line number. For example, in response to the first ED command, the first line is zero.
Line #
Instruction
Interpretation
000
#A
Define label
001
PR 700
Distance
002
SP 2000
Speed
003
BGX
Start X motion
004
EN
End program
To exit the editor mode, input <cntrl>Q. The program may be executed with the command.
XQ #A
Start the program running
If the ED command is issued from the Galil Windows terminal software (such as DTERM32), the
software will open a Windows based editor. From this editor a program can be entered, edited,
downloaded and uploaded to the controller.
Example 12 - Motion Programs with Loops
Motion programs may include conditional jumps as shown below.
DMC-1600
Instruction
Interpretation
#A
Label
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 27
DP 0
Define current position as zero
V1=1000
Set initial value of V1
#Loop
Label for loop
PA V1
Move X motor V1 counts
BG X
Start X motion
AM X
After X motion is complete
WT 500
Wait 500 ms
TP X
Tell position X
V1=V1+1000
Increase the value of V1
JP #Loop,V1<10001
Repeat if V1<10001
EN
End
After the above program is entered, quit the Editor Mode, <cntrl>Q. To start the motion,
command:
XQ #A
Execute Program #A
Example 13 - Motion Programs with Trippoints
The motion programs may include trippoints as shown below.
Instruction
Interpretation
#B
Label
DP 0,0
Define initial positions
PR 30000,60000
Set targets
SP 5000,5000
Set speeds
BGX
Start X motion
AD 4000
Wait until X moved 4000
BGY
Start Y motion
AP 6000
Wait until position X=6000
SP 2000,50000
Change speeds
AP ,50000
Wait until position Y=50000
SP ,10000
Change speed of Y
EN
End program
To start the program, command:
XQ #B
Execute Program #B
Example 14 - Control Variables
Objective: To show how control variables may be utilized.
Instruction
Interpretation
#A;DP0
Label; Define current position as zero
PR 4000
Initial position
SP 2000
Set speed
BGX
Move X
AMX
Wait until move is complete
WT 500
Wait 500 ms
#B
28 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
V1 = _TPX
Determine distance to zero
PR -V1/2
Command X move 1/2 the distance
BGX
Start X motion
AMX
After X moved
WT 500
Wait 500 ms
V1=
Report the value of V1
JP #C, V1=0
Exit if position=0
JP #B
Repeat otherwise
#C
Label #C
EN
End of Program
To start the program, command
XQ #A
Execute Program #A
This program moves X to an initial position of 1000 and returns it to zero on increments of half
the distance. Note, _TPX is an internal variable which returns the value of the X position.
Internal variables may be created by preceding a DMC-1600 instruction with an underscore, _.
Example 15 - Linear Interpolation
Objective: Move X,Y,Z motors distance of 7000,3000,6000, respectively, along linear trajectory.
Namely, motors start and stop together.
Instruction
Interpretation
LM XYZ
Specify linear interpolation axes
LI 7000,3000,6000
Relative distances for linear interpolation
LE
Linear End
VS 6000
Vector speed
VA 20000
Vector acceleration
VD 20000
Vector deceleration
BGS
Start motion
Example 16 - Circular Interpolation
Objective: Move the XY axes in circular mode to form the path shown on Fig. 2-4. Note that the
vector motion starts at a local position (0,0) which is defined at the beginning of any vector
motion sequence. See application programming for further information.
DMC-1600
Instruction
Interpretation
VM XY
Select XY axes for circular interpolation
VP -4000,0
Linear segment
CR 2000,270,-180
Circular segment
VP 0,4000
Linear segment
CR 2000,90,-180
Circular segment
VS 1000
Vector speed
VA 50000
Vector acceleration
VD 50000
Vector deceleration
VE
End vector sequence
BGS
Start motion
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 29
Y
(-4000,4000)
(0,4000)
R=2000
(-4000,0)
(0,0) local zero
X
Figure 2-4 Motion Path for Example 16
30 • Chapter 2 Getting Started
DMC-1600
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY
DMC-1600
Chapter 2 Getting Started • 31
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
Overview
The DMC-1600 provides optoisolated digital inputs for forward limit, reverse limit, home, and
abort signals. The controller also has 8 optoisolated, uncommitted inputs (for general use) as
well as 8 TTL outputs and 8 analog inputs configured for voltages between +/- 10 volts.
The DMC-1610, 1620, 1630 and 1640 controllers have an additional 64 I/O which can be connected to
OPTO 22 racks.
This chapter describes the inputs and outputs and their proper connection.
If you plan to use the auxiliary encoder feature of the DMC-1600, you must also connect a 26-pin
IDC cable from the 26-pin J5 Auxiliary encoder connector on the DMC-1600 to the 26-pin header
connector on the AMP-19X0 or ICM-1900. This cable is not shipped unless requested when
ordering.
Using Optoisolated Inputs
Limit Switch Input
The forward limit switch (FLSx) inhibits motion in the forward direction immediately upon
activation of the switch. The reverse limit switch (RLSx) inhibits motion in the reverse direction
immediately upon activation of the switch. If a limit switch is activated during motion, the
controller will make a decelerated stop using the deceleration rate previously set with the DC
command. The motor will remain on (in a servo state) after the limit switch has been activated
and will hold motor position.
When a forward or reverse limit switch is activated, the current application program that is
running will be interrupted and the controller will automatically jump to the #LIMSWI subroutine
if one exists. This is a subroutine which the user can include in any motion control program and is
useful for executing specific instructions upon activation of a limit switch. Automatic Subroutines
are discussed in chapter 6.
After a limit switch has been activated, further motion in the direction of the limit switch will not
be possible until the logic state of the switch returns back to an inactive state. This usually
involves physically opening the tripped switch. Any attempt at further motion before the logic
state has been reset will result in the following error: “022 - Begin not possible due to limit
switch” error.
The operands, _LFx and _LRx, contain the state of the forward and reverse limit switches,
respectively (x represents the axis, X,Y,Z,W etc.). The value of the operand is either a ‘0’ or ‘1’
corresponding to the logic state of the limit switch. Using a terminal program, the state of a limit
32 • Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
DMC-1600
switch can be printed to the screen with the command, MG _LFx or MG _LFx. This prints the
value of the limit switch operands for the 'x' axis. The logic state of the limit switches can also be
interrogated with the TS command. For more details on TS see the Command Reference.
Home Switch Input
Homing inputs are designed to provide mechanical reference points for a motion control
application. A transition in the state of a Home input alerts the controller that a particular
reference point has been reached by a moving part in the motion control system. A reference point
can be a point in space or an encoder index pulse.
The Home input detects any transition in the state of the switch and toggles between logic states 0
and 1 at every transition. A transition in the logic state of the Home input will cause the controller
to execute a homing routine specified by the user.
There are three homing routines supported by the DMC-1600: Find Edge (FE), Find Index (FI),
and Standard Home (HM).
The Find Edge routine is initiated by the command sequence: FEX <return>, BGX <return>. The
Find Edge routine will cause the motor to accelerate, then slew at constant speed until a transition
is detected in the logic state of the Home input. The direction of the FE motion is dependent on
the state of the home switch. High level causes forward motion. The motor will then decelerate to
a stop. The acceleration rate, deceleration rate and slew speed are specified by the user, prior to
the movement, using the commands AC, DC, and SP. It is recommended that a high deceleration
value be used so the motor will decelerate rapidly after sensing the Home switch.
The Find Index routine is initiated by the command sequence: FIX <return>, BGX <return>. Find
Index will cause the motor to accelerate to the user-defined slew speed (SP) at a rate specified by
the user with the AC command and slew until the controller senses a change in the index pulse
signal from low to high. The motor then decelerates to a stop at the rate previously specified by
the user with the DC command. Although Find Index is an option for homing, it is not dependent
upon a transition in the logic state of the Home input, but instead is dependent upon a transition in
the level of the index pulse signal.
The Standard Homing routine is initiated by the sequence of commands HMX <return>, BGX
<return>. Standard Homing is a combination of Find Edge and Find Index homing. Initiating the
standard homing routine will cause the motor to slew until a transition is detected in the logic state
of the Home input. The motor will accelerate at the rate specified by the command, AC, up to the
slew speed. After detecting the transition in the logic state on the Home Input, the motor will
decelerate to a stop at the rate specified by the command, DC. After the motor has decelerated to
a stop, it switches direction and approaches the transition point at the speed of 256 counts/sec.
When the logic state changes again, the motor moves forward (in the direction of increasing
encoder count) at the same speed, until the controller senses the index pulse. After detection, it
decelerates to a stop and defines this position as 0. The logic state of the Home input can be
interrogated with the command MG _HMX. This command returns a 0 or 1 if the logic state is
low or high, respectively. The state of the Home input can also be interrogated indirectly with the
TS command.
For examples and further information about Homing, see command HM, FI, FE of the Command
Reference and the section entitled ‘Homing’ in the Programming Motion Section of this manual.
Abort Input
The function of the Abort input is to immediately stop the controller upon transition of the logic
state.
NOTE: The response of the abort input is significantly different from the response of an
activated limit switch. When the abort input is activated, the controller stops generating motion
DMC-1600
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware • 33
commands immediately, whereas the limit switch response causes the controller to make a
decelerated stop.
NOTE: The effect of an Abort input is dependent on the state of the off-on-error function for
each axis. If the Off-On-Error function is enabled for any given axis, the motor for that axis will
be turned off when the abort signal is generated. This could cause the motor to ‘coast’ to a stop
since it is no longer under servo control. If the Off-On-Error function is disabled, the motor will
decelerate to a stop as fast as mechanically possible and the motor will remain in a servo state.
All motion programs that are currently running are terminated when a transition in the Abort input
is detected. For information on setting the Off-On-Error function, see the Command Reference,
OE.
Uncommitted Digital Inputs
The DMC-1600 has 8 opto-isolated inputs. These inputs can be read individually using the
function @IN[x] where x specifies the input number (1 thru 8). These inputs are uncommitted and
can allow the user to create conditional statements related to events external to the controller. For
example, the user may wish to have the x-axis motor move 1000 counts in the positive direction
when the logic state of IN1 goes high.
IN9-IN16
INCOM 2
FLE,RLE,HOMEE
FLF,RLF,HOMEF
FLG,RLG,HOMEG
FLH,RLH,HOMEH
LSCOM 2
Note: When using the ICM-1100, the INCOM is different for IN9-IN16 from IN1-IN8.
A logic zero is generated when at least 1mA of current flows from the common to the input. A
positive voltage (with respect to the input) must be supplied at the common. This can be
accomplished by connecting a voltage in the range of +5V to +28V into INCOM of the input
circuitry from a separate power supply.
DMC-1610, 1620, 1630, 1640 controllers have 64 additional TTL I/O. The CO commands configures
each set of 8 I/O as inputs or outputs. The DMC-16X8 use two 50 pin headers which connect directly
via ribbon cable to an OPTO 22 (24 I/O) or Grayhill Opto rack (32 I/O).
The @ IN1 thru @ IN80 function checks the state of the inputs 1 thru 80.
Wiring the Optoisolated Inputs
Bi-Directional Capability.
All inputs can be used as active high or low - If you are using an isolated power supply you can
connect +5V to INCOM or supply the isolated ground to INCOM. Connecting +5V to INCOM
configures the inputs for active low. Connecting ground to INCOM configures the inputs for
active high.
The optoisolated inputs are configured into groups. For example, the general inputs, IN1-IN8,
and the ABORT input are one group. Figure 3.1 illustrates the internal circuitry. The INCOM
signal is a common connection for all of the inputs in this group.
34 • Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
DMC-1600
The optoisolated inputs are connected in the following groups
Group (Controllers with 1- 4 Axes)
Group (Controllers with 5 - 9 Axes)
Common
Signal
IN1-IN8, ABORT
IN1-IN16, ABORT
INCOM
FLX,RLX,HOMEX
FLY,RLY,HOMEY
FLZ,RLZ,HOMEZ
FLW,RLW,HOMEW
FLX,RLX,HOMEX,FLY,RLY,HOMEY
FLZ,RLZ,HOMEZ,FLW,RLW,HOMEW
FLE,RLE,HOMEE,FLF,RLF,HOMEF
FLG,RLG,HOMEG,FLH,RLH,HOMEH
LSCOM
LSCOM
FLSX
INCOM
IN1
HOMEX
RLSY
FLSY
HOMEY
RLSX
IN2
IN3
IN4
IN5
IN6
IN7
IN8 ABORT
Figure 3-1. The Optoisolated Inputs
Using an Isolated Power Supply
To take full advantage of opto-isolation, an isolated power supply should be used to provide the
voltage at the input common connection. When using an isolated power supply, do not connect
the ground of the isolated power to the ground of the controller. A power supply in the voltage
range between 5 to 28 Volts may be applied directly (see Figure 3-2). For voltages greater than 28
Volts, a resistor, R, is needed in series with the input such that
1 mA < V supply/(R + 2.2KΩ) < 15 mA
DMC-1600
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware • 35
LSCOM
(For Voltages > +28V)
LSCOM
2.2K
(For Voltages < -28V)
2.2K
Supply
Isolated
Isolated
Supply
FLS
Configuration to source current at the LSCOM
terminal and sink current at switch inputs
FLS
Configuration to sink current at the LSCOM
terminal and source current at switch inputs
Figure 3-2. Connecting a single Limit or Home Switch to an Isolated Supply
NOTE: As stated in Chapter 2, the wiring is simplified when using the ICM-1900 or AMP-19X0
interface board. This board accepts the signals from the ribbon cables of the DMC-1600 and
provides phoenix-type screw terminals. A picture of the ICM-1900 can be seen on pg 18. If an
ICM-1900 is not used, an equivalent breakout board will be required to connect signals from the
DMC-1600.
Bypassing the Opto-Isolation:
If no isolation is needed, the internal 5 Volt supply may be used to power the switches. This can
be done by connecting a jumper between the pins LSCOM or INCOM and 5V, labeled JP3. These
jumpers can be added on either the ICM-1900 (J52) or the DMC-1600. This can also be done by
connecting wires between the 5V supply and common signals using the screw terminals on the
ICM-1900 or AMP-19X0.
To close the circuit, wire the desired input to any ground (GND) terminal or pin out.
Analog Inputs
The DMC-1600 has eight analog inputs configured for the range between -10V and 10V. The
inputs are decoded by a 12-bit A/D decoder giving a voltage resolution of approximately .005V.
A 16-bit ADC is available as an option. The impedance of these inputs is 10 KΩ. The analog
inputs are specified as AN[x] where x is a number 1 thru 8.
Amplifier Interface
The DMC-1600 analog command voltage, AC MD, ranges between +/-10V. This signal, along
with GND, provides the input to the power amplifiers. The power amplifiers must be sized to
drive the motors and load. For best performance, the amplifiers should be configured for a current
mode of operation with no additional compensation. The gain should be set such that a 10 Volt
input results in the maximum required current.
The DMC-1600 also provides an amplifier enable signal, AEN. This signal changes under the
following conditions: the watchdog timer activates, the motor-off command, MO, is given, or the
36 • Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware
DMC-1600
OE1command (Enable Off-On-Error) is given and the position error exceeds the error limit. As
shown in Figure 3-4, AEN can be used to disable the amplifier for these conditions.
The standard configuration of the AEN signal is TTL active high. In other words, the AEN signal
will be high when the controller expects the amplifier to be enabled. The polarity and the
amplitude can be changed if you are using the ICM-1900 interface board. To change the polarity
from active high (5 volts= enable, zero volts = disable) to active low (zero volts = enable, 5 volts=
disable), replace the 7407 IC with a 7406. Note that many amplifiers designate the enable input as
‘inhibit’.
To change the voltage level of the AEN signal, note the state of the resistor pack on the ICM1900. When Pin 1 is on the 5V mark, the output voltage is 0-5V. To change to 12 volts, pull the
resistor pack and rotate it so that Pin 1 is on the 12 volt side. If you remove the resistor pack, the
output signal is an open collector, allowing the user to connect an external supply with voltages up
to 24V. A resistor should be put in line with the 24V supply to regulate current to 15mA.
DMC-1600
100-PIN
RIBBON
ICM-1900
ACMD
AEN
GND
INPUT
ENABLE
GND
AMP
Figure 3-4 - Connecting AEN to an amplifier
TTL Outputs
The DMC-1600 provides eight general use outputs, an output compare and an error signal output.
The general use outputs are TTL and are accessible through the ICM-1900 as OUT1 thru OUT8.
These outputs can be turned On and Off with the commands, SB (Set Bit), CB (Clear Bit), OB
(Output Bit), and OP (Output Port). For more information about these commands, see the
Command Summary. The value of the outputs can be checked with the operand _OP and the
function @OUT[] (see Chapter 7, Mathematical Functions and Expressions).
NOTE: For systems using the ICM-1900 interconnect module, the ICM-1900 has an option to
provide optoisolation on the outputs. In this case, the user provides an isolated power supply
(+5volts to +24volts and ground). For more information, consult Galil.
The output compare signal is TTL and is available on the ICM-1900 as CMP. Output compare is
controlled by the position of any of the main encoders on the controller. The output can be
programmed to produce an active low pulse (1usec) based on an incremental encoder value or to
activate once when an axis position has been passed. For further information, see the command
OC in the Command Reference.
The error signal output is available on the interconnect module as ERROR. This is a TTL signal
which is low when the controller has an error.
Note: When the error signal is low, the LED on the controller will be on which indicates an error
condition one of the following error conditions:
DMC-1600
1.
At least one axis has a position error greater than the error limit. The error limit is set by
using the command ER.
2.
The reset line on the controller is held low or is being affected by noise.
3.
There is a failure on the controller and the processor is resetting itself.
4.
There is a failure with the output IC which drives the error signal.
Chapter 3 Connecting Hardware • 37
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and
Communications
Introduction
Galil software is available for PC computers running Microsoft Windows® to communicate with DMC-1600
controllers. Standard Galil communications software utilities are available for Windows operating systems, which
includes SmartTERM and WSDK. These software packages operate under Windows 98SE, ME, NT4.0, 2000, and
XP, and include the necessary drivers. In addition, Galil offers software development tools ( DMCWin and
ActiveX Toolkit) to allow users to create their own application interfaces using programming environments such as
C, C++, Visual Basic, and LabVIEW.
Galil also offers some basic software drivers and utilities for non-Windows environments such as DOS, Linux, and
QNX. For users who prefer to develop their own drivers, details are provided in this chapter describing the
communication registers.
This chapter is an introduction to the software tools and communication techniques used by Galil. Figure-1
illustrates the software hierarchy that Galil communications software employs. At the application level, SmartTERM
and WSDK are the basic programs that the majority of users will need to communicate with the controller, to
perform basic setup, and to develop application code (.DMC programs) that is downloaded to the controller. At the
Galil API level, Galil provides software tools (ActiveX and API functions) for advanced users who wish to develop
their own custom application programs to communicate to the controller. Custom application programs can utilize
API function calls directly to our DLL’s, or use our ActiveX COM objects, which simplifies programming. At the
driver level, we provide fundamental hardware interface information for users who desire to create their own
drivers.
38 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
SmartTERM
/
WSDK
Application
Level
Galil ActiveX Controls (DMCShell.ocx,
DMCReg.ocx, DMCTerm.ocx, etc.)
DMC32.dll
DMCBUS32.dll
Galil API Level
GLWDMPCI.sys.
Driver Level
Hardware
Interface
DMC-1600
FIFO, IRQ
Figure 1 - Software Communications Hierarchy
Galil SmartTERM
SmartTERM is Galil’s basic communications utility that allows the user to perform basic tasks such as sending
commands directly to the controller, editing, downloading, and executing DMC programs, uploading and
downloading arrays, and updating controller firmware. The latest version of SmartTERM can be downloaded from
the Galil website at http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html
DMC-1600
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 39
Figure 4.1 - Galil SmartTERM layout
The following SmartTERM File menu items describe basic features of the application.
Download File...
Launches a file-open dialog box that
selects a file (usually a DMC file) to
be downloaded to the controller. This
command uses the DL command to
download the file, clearing all
programs in the controller's RAM.
Upload File...
Opens a file save-as dialog that creates
a file for saving the DMC program
that is in the controller's RAM. This
command uses the UL command to
upload the file.
Send File...
Launches a file-open dialog box that
selects a file (usually a DMC file) to
be sent to the controller. Each line of
the file is sent to the controller as a
command and is executed
immediately.
40 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
Download Array...
Opens the "Download Array" dialog
box that allows an array in the
controller's RAM to be defined and
populated with data. The dialog box
uses the DMC32.dll 's
DMCArrayDownload function to
download the array. The controller's
firmware must be recent enough to
support the QD command. Array
values specified in the data file must
be comma separated or CRLF
deliminated.
Upload Array...
Opens the "Upload Array" dialog box
that allows an array in the controller's
RAM to be saved to a file on the hard
disk. The dialog box uses the
DMC32.dll 's DMCArrayUpload
function to upload the array. The
controller's firmware must be recent
enough to support the QU command.
Convert File ASCII to Binary...
Opens a dialog box that allows
converting a file containing Galil
ASCII language commands to Galil
binary commands and saves the result
to the specified file name.
Convert File Binary to ASCII...
Opens a dialog box that allows
converting a file containing Galil
binary language commands to Galil
ASCII commands and saves the result
to the specified file name.
Send Binary File...
Launches a file-open dialog box that
selects a file (usually a DMC file) to
be sent to the controller. This file can
contain binary commands. Each line of
the file is sent to the controller as a
command and executed immediately.
The Tools menu items described below provide tasks such as updating firmware, diagnostics, accessing the registry
editor, and resetting the controller.
Select Controller...
DMC-1600
Opens the "Select Controller" dialog box
that displays the currently registered Galil
Motion Controllers. Selecting a controller
from the list and clicking on the OK button
or double-clicking a controller will cause
the application to close any current
connections to a controller and open a new
connection to the selected controller.
DMCTerminal only connects to a single
controller at a time. However, multiple
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 41
instances of the application can be open at
once.
Disconnect from Controller
Causes the currently open connection to a
Galil Motion Controller to be closed.
Controller Registration...
Opens the "Edit Registry" dialog box,
which allows the Galil Registry entries to
be edited or new entries for non Plug-andPlay controllers to be created or deleted.
DMC Program Editor...
Causes the terminal to enter "Smart
Terminal with Editor" mode. This is the
same as clicking on the "Smart Terminal
with Editor" mode button on the terminal
window's toolbar.
Reset Controller
Offers three "reset" options. "Reset
Controller" sends an RS command to the
controller. The RS command does not
clear burned variables, programs, or
parameters. "Master Reset" performs a
master reset on the controller. A Master
Reset does clear burned saved variables,
programs, or parameters. "Clear
Controller's FIFO" causes the controller's
output FIFO to be cleared of data.
Device Driver
The Device Driver menu selection is
available to operating systems and/or
controllers that have device drivers that
can be stopped and started. This includes
drivers on NT4.0 and serial and Ethernet
controllers on all operating systems.
Diagnostics
The "Diagnostics" menu allows
diagnostics to be stopped and started. It
also will load the diagnostics output file
specified in the Tools/Options menu to be
loaded into the editor window for analysis.
The "Test Controller" command tests the
current controller with a series of standard
communication tests.
Update Firmware...
The "Update Firmware" command allows
new firmware to be downloaded to the
currently connected controller. Selecting
this command will cause a file-open dialog
box to open, allowing the user to specify a
*.HEX file to be specified for download.
The latest firmware files can be
downloaded from Galil's website.
Display Data Record
Causes the Data Record dialog box to be
42 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
displayed for the currently connected
controller. The dialog automatically
configures itself to display the data record
for each type of Galil Motion Controller.
Options
The Options menu command causes the
Options dialog to be displayed. The
Options dialog box allows several
application options to be set. These option
settings are preserved between uses.
DMC Program Editor Window
The Program Editor Window is used to create application programs (.DMC) that are downloaded to the controller.
The editor window is also useful for uploading and editing programs already residing in the controller’s memory.
This window has basic text editing features such as copy, cut, paste, etc. Also the editor window File menu allows
an application program to be downloaded with compression (80 characters wide). This allows the user to write an
application program in the editor window that is longer than the normal line limitation (1000 lines) and download it
to the controller.
Additionally, dynamic syntax help is available by activating the syntax help button (“:A->” icon).
DMC Data Record Display
The DMC SmartTERM utility program includes a “Data Record” display window that is useful for observing the
current status of all the major functions of the controller including axis specific data, I/O status, application program
status, and general status. The data record is available through a secondary communications channel.
To display the Data Record (shown in Fig 4.2), select Display Data Record under the Tools menu of DMC
SmartTERM.
DMC-1600
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 43
Figure 4.2 - Data Record Display for a DMC-1840
The Data Record display is user customizable so that all, or just parts, of the record can be displayed. To modify the
display, right click on an object to access the options. For detailed information about the features of the Galil DMC
SmartTERM including the Data Record, please consult Help Topics under the Help menu.
Communication Settings
The Galil SmartTERM application installation (as well as WSDK, ActiveX, and DMCWIN32
installations) includes the necessary drivers and .DLL files required to communicate with the Galil
controller. The drivers are automatically installed and default communications settings are applied
44 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
to the device by the driver when a card is installed as per the installation procedure outlined in
Ch.2. However, some advanced settings are available to modify the communications methods and
data record access. These settings are accessed through the Galil Registry Editor after the card is
properly installed.
Galil Registry Editor
The “Edit Registry” dialog box (shown in Fig 4.3) can be accessed by selecting Controller
Registration… under the Tools menu (or by selecting the toolbar icon with the magnifying glass)
within DMC SmartTERM. The Edit Registry dialog shows the current controller models installed
to the PC along with their associated I/O addresses, interrupt lines, and controller serial numbers.
The Galil Registry is part of the DMCReg.ocx ActiveX object (refer to Fig 4.1). This ActiveX
control is used to create, maintain, and modify the critical communication parameters, which are
discussed next.
Figure 4.3 - Galil Registry Editor
Setting Communications Parameters and Methods
To access the Controller Communication Parameters dialog, highlight the desired controller in the
Galil Registry Editor accessed through SmartTERM and select the Properties command button.
The timeout property under the General Parameters tab (shown in Fig 4.4) allows the user to
select the timeout period that the Galil software waits for a response from the controller before
generating an error. If the controller does not reply with the data response and a colon (or just a
colon for commands that do not invoke responses), then the Galil software API will generate the
timeout error code -1 (A time-out occurred while waiting for a response from the Galil controller).
The default setting for the timeout is 5000ms, which should be sufficient for most cases.
DMC-1600
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 45
Figure 4.4 - General Communications Parameters Dialog
Advanced communications settings are available under the Communications Method tab to
allow different methods of communications to be utilized (shown in Fig 4.5). The version 7 (and
higher) drivers and .DLL’s allow for three different methods of communications: Interrupt, Stall,
and Delay.
Figure 4.5 - Controller Communications Method Dialog Box
46 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
Interrupt Communications Method
The interrupt method overall is the most efficient of the three methods. The software
communications method uses a hardware interrupt to notify the application that a response or
unsolicited data is available. This allows for greater efficiency and response time, since the drivers
do not have to “poll” the buffers for the data. Additionally, the interrupt method allows for data
record caching.
The interrupt method uses bus level interrupts (IRQ) from the controller to notify the PC that data
is available. This requires that the Controller be configured with a valid interrupt line. For DMC1600 controllers the interrupt is configured automatically. Firmware version 2.0m (and greater) is
required for the “communications interrupt” method to be available. For complete information on
the different communications methods, select the More Info button on the Communications
parameters dialog box.
Data Record Cache Depth
With the “interrupt communications” method enabled, the driver will cache data records for
retrieval via API function calls. This makes it possible to not 'miss' any data records, even if the
DR command has been configured to refresh the data record every two milliseconds. For example,
a program could poll at a relatively long frequency (say every 50 milliseconds), and not miss any
data. The cache depth can be set when the interrupt communication method is selected. The data
record cache functions like a FIFO. Reading the data records removes them from the cache. If the
cache is full and a new data record arrives from the controller, the new data record is placed in the
cache and the oldest data record in the cache is discarded. If multiple handles to a controller are
open, the first handle to retrieve the data record(s) will possess the only copy available. When an
application needs only the most recent data record available, the cache depth should be set to 1.
Stall Thread and Delay Thread Methods
Users can also choose between "Delay" and "Stall" methods. These methods affect how the
software "waits" for a response from the controller when a command is sent. If a controller is
configured with the "Delay" method, the thread waiting for a command response gives up its time
slice, allowing other processes running on the operating system to proceed. This method can
slow communication, but results in negligible CPU utilization. The second method, the
"Stall" method, uses the opposite strategy. The thread that performs I/O with the controller
maintains ownership of the CPU and polls the controller until a response is received. This
approach is essentially the same method employed in previous versions (< V7) of the Galil
communication DLLs and drivers. While the "Stall" method does not have to wait for its thread to
become eligible for execution, it does result in 100% CPU utilization while communicating with
the controller.
Data Record Refresh Rate
Under the PCI Bus Parameters tab, the rate at which the data record is sent to the software
drivers can be configured. The period between refreshes can be set from 2 - 256 ms (assuming the
standard TM setting of 1000 is set). The Galil communications .DLL will use this value to send
the appropriate DR command to the controller when a communications session is opened.
Additionally, for DMC-1700 users, the dialog box (shown in Fig 4.6) allows the user to select
between two Data Record Access methods: DMA or Secondary FIFO.
DMC-1600
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 47
Figure 4.7 - DMC-1600 Data Record Parameters
Windows Servo Design Kit (WSDK)
The Galil Windows Servo Design Kit includes advanced tuning and diagnostic tools that allows the user to
maximize the performance of their systems, as well as aid in setup and configuration of Galil controllers. WSDK is
recommended for all first time users of Galil controllers. WSDK has an automatic servo tuning function that adjusts
the PID filter parameters for optimum performance and displays the resulting system step response. A four-channel
storage scope provides a real-time display of the actual position, velocity, error and torque. WSDK also includes
impulse, step and frequency response tests, which are useful for analyzing system stability, bandwidth and
resonances. WSDK can be purchased from Galil via the web at http://store.yahoo.com/galilmc/wsdk32.html.
Features Include:
•
•
•
•
•
Automatic tuning for optimizing controller PID filter parameters
Provides impulse, step and frequency response tests of actual hardware
Four-channel storage scope for displaying real-time position, velocity, error and torque
Displays X versus Y position for viewing 2-D motion path
Terminal editor and program editor for easy communication with the controller
48 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
Figure 4.8- WSDK Main Screen
Creating Custom Software Interfaces
Galil provides programming tools so that users can develop their own custom software interfaces to a Galil
controller. These tools include the ActiveX Toolkit and DMCWin.
ActiveX Toolkit
Galil's ActiveX Toolkit is useful for the programmer who wants to easily create a custom operator interface to a
Galil controller. The ActiveX Toolkit includes a collection of ready-made ActiveX COM controls for use with
Visual Basic, Visual C++, Delphi, LabVIEW and other ActiveX compatible programming tools. The most common
environment is Visual Basic 6, but Visual Basic.NET, Visual C++, Wonderware, LabVIEW and HPVEE have all
been tested by Galil to work with the .OCX controls.
The ActiveX Toolkit can be purchased from Galil at http://store.yahoo.com/galilmc/actoolsoffor.html
The ActiveX toolkit can save many hours of programming time. Built-in dialog boxes are provided for quick
parameter setup, selection of color, size, location and text. The toolkit controls are easy to use and provide context
sensitive help, making it ideal for even the novice programmer.
ActiveX Toolkit Includes:
DMC-1600
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 49
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
a terminal control for sending commands and editing programs
a polling window for displaying responses from the controller such as position and speed
a storage scope control for plotting real time trajectories such as position versus time or X versus Y
a send file control for sending contour data or vector DMC files
a continuous array capture control for data collection, and for teach and playback
a graphical display control for monitoring a 2-D motion path
a diagnostics control for capturing current configurations
a display control for input and output status
a vector motion control for tool offsets and corner speed control
For more detailed information on the ActiveX Toolkit, please refer to the user manual at
http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/activex.pdf.
DMCWin Programmers Toolkit
DMCWin is a programmer's toolkit for C/C++ and Visual Basic users. The toolkit includes header files for the Galil
communications API, as well as source code and examples for developing Windows® programs that communicate to
Galil Controllers. The Galil communications API includes functions to send commands, download programs,
download/upload arrays, access the data record, etc. For a complete list of all the functions, refer to the DMCWin
user manual at http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/dmcwin.pdf.
This software package is free for download and is available at http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html.
Galil Communications API with C/C++
When programming in C/C++, the communications API can be used as included functions or
through a class library. All Galil communications programs written in C must include the
DMCCOM.H file and access the API functions through the declared routine calls. C++ programs
can use the DMCCOM.H routines or use the class library defined in DMCWIN.H.
After installing DMCWin into the default directory, the DMCCOM.H header file is located in
C:\Program Files\Galil\DMCWIN\INCLUDE. C++ programs that use the class library need the
files DMCWIN.H and DMCWIN.CPP, which contain the class definitions and implementations
respectively. These can be found in the C:\ProgramFiles\Galil\DMCWIN\CPP directory.
To link the application with the DLL’s, the DMC32.lib file must be included in the project and is
located at C:\Program Files\Galil\DMCWIN\LIB
Example: A simple console application that sends commands to the controller
To initiate communication, declare a variable of type HANDLEDMC (a long integer) and pass the address of that
variable in the DMCOpen() function. If the DMCOpen() function is successful, the variable will contain the handle
to the Galil controller, which is required for all subsequent function calls. The following simple example program
written as a Visual C console application tells the controller to move the X axis 1000 encoder counts. Remember to
add DMC32.LIB to your project prior to compiling.
#include <windows.h>
#include <dmccom.h>
long rc;
HANDLEDMC hDmc;
HWND hWnd;
int main(void)
{
// Connect to controller number 1
50 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
rc = DMCOpen(1, hWnd, &hDmc);
if (rc == DMCNOERROR)
{
char szBuffer[64];
// Move the X axis 1000 counts
rc = DMCCommand(hDmc, "PR1000;BGX;", szBuffer,
sizeof(szBuffer));
// Disconnect from controller number 1 as the last action
rc = DMCClose(hDmc);
}
return 0;
}
Galil Communications API with Visual Basic
Declare Functions
To use the Galil communications API functions, add the module file included in the
C:\ProgramFiles\Galil\DMCWIN\VB directory named DMCCOM40.BAS. This module declares
the routines making them available for the VB project. To add this file, select ‘Add Module’ from
the ‘Project’ menu in VB5/6.
Sending Commands in VB
Most commands are sent to the controller with the DMCCommand() function. This function
allows any Galil command to be sent from VB to the controller. The DMCCommand() function
will return the response from the controller as a string. Before sending any commands the
DMCCOpen() function must be called. This function establishes communication with the
controller and is called only once.
This example code illustrates the use of DMCOpen() and DMCCommand(). A connection is made
to controller #1 in the Galil registry upon launching the application. Then, the controller is sent the
command ‘TPX’ whenever a command button is pressed. The response is then placed in a text
box. When the application is closed, the controller is disconnected.
To use this example, start a new Visual Basic project, place a Text Box and a Command Button on
a Form, add the DMCCOM40.BAS module, and type the following code:
Dim m_nController As Integer
Dim m_hDmc As Long
Dim m_nRetCode As Long
Dim m_nResponseLength As Long
Dim m_sResponse As String * 256
Private Sub Command1_Click()
m_nRetCode = DMCCommand(m_hDmc, "TPX", m_sResponse, m_nResponseLength)
Text1.Text = Val(m_sResponse)
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Load()
m_nResponseLength = 256
DMC-1600
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 51
m_nController = 1
m_nRetCode = DMCOpen(m_nController, 0, m_hDmc)
End Sub
Private Sub Form_Unload(Cancel As Integer)
m_nRetCode = DMCClose(m_hDmc)
End Sub
Where:
‘m_nController’ is the number for the controller in the Galil registry.
‘m_hDmc’ is the DMC handle used to identify the controller. It is returned by DMCOpen.
‘m_nRetCode’ is the return code for the routine.
‘m_nResponseLength’ is the response string length which must be set to the size of the response
string.
‘m_sResponse’ is the string containing the controller response to the command.
DOS, Linux, and QNX tools
Galil offers unsupported code examples that demonstrate communications to the controller using
the following operating systems.
DOS
DOS based utilities & Programming Libraries for Galil controllers, which includes a terminal,
utilities to upload and download programs, and source code for BASIC and C programs.
Download DMCDOS at http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html#dos.
Linux
Galil has developed code examples for the Linux operating system. The installation includes sample drivers to
establish communication with Galil PCI and ISA controllers. The current version of the software has been tested
under Redhat 6.X O.S. Source code for the drivers and other utilities developed for Linux are available to customers
upon request. Linux drivers are available for ISA and PCI cards under Kernal 2.2. Drivers are also available for the
PCI card only for Kernal 2.4.
For more information on downloading and installing the Linux drivers for Galil controllers, download the Linux
manual at: http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/lnxmanual.pdf.
QNX
Galil offers sample drivers for ISA and PCI cards for the QNX 4.24 operating system. We also
offer drivers and utilities for QNX 6.2 for PCI only. Download at
http://www.galilmc.com/support/download.html#linux.
52 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
Command Format and Controller Response
Instructions may be sent in Binary or ASCII format. Binary communication allows for faster data processing since
the controller does not have to first decode the ASCII characters.
ASCII Command mode
In the ASCII mode, instructions are represented by two characters followed by the appropriate parameters. Each
instruction must be terminated by a carriage return or semicolon.
The controller decodes each ASCII character (one byte) one at a time. It takes approximately 350 sec for the
controller to decode each command and execute it.
After the instruction is decoded, the controller returns a colon (:) if the instruction was valid or a question mark (?) if
the instruction was not valid.
For instructions that return data, such as Tell Position (TP), the controller will return the data followed by a carriage
return, line feed, and colon (:).
An echo function is also provided to enable associating the response with the command sent. The echo is enabled
by sending the command EO 1 to the controller.
Binary Command Mode
Some commands have an equivalent binary value for the controllers. These values are listed in the Command
Reference next to the command in parentheses in hexadecimal format . Binary communication mode can be
executed much faster than ASCII commands since the controller does not have to first decode the ASCII characters.
Binary format can only be used when commands are sent from the PC and cannot be embedded in an application
program.
Binary Command Format
All binary commands have a 4 byte header followed by data fields. The 4 bytes are specified in
hexadecimal format.
Binary Header Format:
Byte 1 specifies the hexadecimal command number between 80 to FF.
Byte 2 specifies the # of bytes in each field as 0, 1, 2, 4 or 6 as follows:
00
No datafields (i.e. SH or BG)
01
One byte per field
02
One word (2 bytes per field)
04
One long word (4 bytes) per field
06
Galil real format (4 bytes integer and 2 bytes fraction)
Byte 3 specifies whether the command applies to coordinated motion on the “S” or “T” axis as follows:
Bit 1 =
Bit 0 =
DMC-1600
T axis coordinated motion movement
S axis coordinated motion movement
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 53
For example, the command STS commands motion to stop on the S axis vector motion. The third byte for the
equivalent binary command would then be 01.
Byte 4 specifies the axis # or data field as follows
Bit 7 = H axis or 8th data field
Bit 6 = G axis or 7th data field
Bit 5 = F axis or 6th data field
Bit 4 = E axis or 5th data field
Bit 3 = D axis or 4th data field
Bit 2 = C axis or 3rd data field
Bit 1 = B axis or 2nd data field
Bit 0 = A axis or 1st data field
Data Fields Format
Data fields must be consistent with the format byte and the axes byte. For example, the command
“PR 1000,, -500” would be:
A7 02 00 05 03 E8 xx xx FE 0C
where
A7 is the command number for PR
02 specifies 2 bytes for each data field
00 coordinated motion is not active for PR
05 specifies bit 0 is active for A axis and bit 2 is active for C axis (20 + 22=5)
03 E8 represents 1000
xx xx represents inactive data for the B axis (xx xx can be any values since byte 4 was configured to ignore
it)
FE OC represents -500
Example
The command “STABC” to stop motion on just axis A, B, and C would be:
A1 00 00 07
where
A1 is the command number for ST
00 specifies 0 data fields
00 specifies the command does not apply to the coordinated motion
07 specifies stop A (bit 0), B (bit 1) and C (bit 2) (20+21+22 =7)
For more information and a complete list of all Galil binary commands, please refer to the Optima
Series Bus-Based Command Reference at http://www.galilmc.com/support/manuals/optcom.pdf.
54 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
Controller Event Interrupts and User Interrupts
The DMC-1600 provides a hardware interrupt line that will, when enabled, interrupt the PC bus, which will allow
the controller to notify the host application of particular events occurring on the controller. Interrupts free the host
from having to poll for the occurrence of certain events such as motion complete or excess position error.
The DMC-1600 uses only one of the PC’s interrupts; however, it is possible to interrupt on multiple conditions. For
this reason, the controller provides a status byte register that contains a byte designating each condition.
The DMC-1600 provides an interrupt buffer that is 16 deep. This allows for multiple interrupt conditions to be
stored in sequence of occurrence without loss of data.
The DMC-1600 provides two command forms of interrupt functionality, EI and UI. Specific interrupt conditions can
be enabled using the EI command, or explicit user defined interrupts can be sent using the UI command.
Enabling Event Interrupts (EI command)
To enable certain conditions, use the command EIm,n. Where the first field “m” represents a 16bit value of conditions described in the table below. For example, to enable interrupts on X and Y
motion complete and position error, set EI515 (i.e. 515=20+21+29). Once the EI command is
enabled for a specific condition, an interrupt will occur for every instance of that condition, except
for the items marked with an asterisk (*), they must be re-enabled after every occurrence.
Bit Number
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
Condition
X motion complete
Y motion complete
Z motion complete
W motion complete
E motion complete
F motion complete
G motion complete
H motion complete
All axes motion complete
Excess position error*
Limit switch
Watchdog timer
Reserved
Application program stopped
Command done †
Inputs* (uses n for mask)
†Not used when using new version 7 drivers.
The argument “n” enables interrupts for the first 8 general inputs. To enable interrupts for the desired inputs, set bit
15 of the “m” argument, then set the desired inputs using the 8-bit mask for the “n” argument. For example, to
enable interrupt on inputs 1-4, set EI32768,15. Note that the input interrupts must be reset for all inputs after any
input has caused an interrupt.
DMC-1600
Bit number
Input
0
1
2
Input 1
Input 2
Input 3
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 55
3
4
5
6
7
Input 4
Input 5
Input 6
Input 7
Input 8
User Interrupts (UI command)
The DMC-1600 also provides 16 User Interrupts which can be sent by executing the command UIn, where n is an
integer between 0 and 15. The UI command does not require the EI command. UI commands are useful in DMC
programs to let the host application know that certain points within the DMC program have occurred.
Servicing Interrupts
Once an interrupt occurs, the controller sends a Status Byte to the host computer. The Status Byte returned denotes
what condition has occurred, as described in the table below.
Status Byte (hex)
00
D9
DA
DB
F0 thru FF
E1 thru E8
C0
C8
D8
D7
D6
D5
D4
D3
D2
D1
D0
Condition
No interrupt
Watchdog timer activated
Command done
Application program done
User interrupt (UI)
Input interrupt
Limit switch occurred
Excess position error
All axis motion complete
H axis motion complete
G axis motion complete
F axis motion complete
E axis motion complete
W axis motion complete
Z axis motion complete
Y axis motion complete
X axis motion complete
The recommended method to utilize the interrupts in a host application is to use a pre-defined interrupt service
routine, which on interrupt, will automatically execute and return the Status Byte. For example, when using the
ActiveX toolkit DMCShell control with VB, the DMCShell1_DMCInterrupt() event procedure (shown below) will
automatically execute and return the StatusByte in the argument. This StausByte can then be used in a case structure
as the key to notify the host application of a specific event or condition.
In this VB example below, the event procedure will display a message box every time the X-axis motion is
complete, assuming the command EI1 was sent to the controller. Note: the argument is returned as 208 since the
status byte is returned as an integer (i.e. D0 hex = 208 decimal).
Private Sub DMCShell1_DMCInterrupt(StatusByte As Integer)
If StatusByte = 208 Then
MsgBox "X axis complete"
End If
End Sub
56 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
Hardware Level Communications
This section of the chapter describes in detail the structures used to communicate with the controller at the register
interface level. The information in this section is intended for advanced programmers with extensive knowledge of
ISA and PCI bus operation.
For main bi-directional communication, the DMC-1600 features a 512 character write FIFO buffer, and a 512
character read buffer. This permits sending commands at high speeds ahead of their actual processing by the DMC1600. The DMC-1600 also provides a secondary FIFO, for access to the data record.
Note: This chapter provides an in-depth look at how the controller communicates over the PCI bus at the register
interface level. For most users, we recommend using the drivers supplied by Galil to provide the necessary tools for
communicating with the controller.
Determining the Base Address
The base address “N” is assigned its value by the BIOS and/or Operating System. The FIFO address N is referenced
in the PCI configuration space at BAR2 (offset 18H). The following PCI information (HEX) can be used to identity
the DMC-1600 controller:
PCI Device Identification
DEVICE ID
VENDOR ID
SUBSYSTEM ID
SUBSYSTEM VENDOR ID
9050H
10B5H
1640H
1079H
Read, Write, and Control Registers
The DMC-1600 provides four registers used for communication. The main communications FIFO register for
sending commands and receiving responses occupies address N. The control register used to monitor the main
communications status occupies address N+4. The reset register occupies address N+8 and is used for resetting the
controller and/or main read/write FIFO registers as well as retrieving the IRQ status byte. The secondary FIFO for
accessing the data record occupies address N+C.
Communication Registers
Register
Address
Read/Write
Description
Main FIFO
N
Read / Write
Send commands and receive responses
CONTROL
N+4
Read / Write
For FIFO status control
IRQ / RESET
N+8
Read / Write
For IRQ status byte and controller reset
Secondary FIFO
N+C
Read only
For data record access
Simplified Communication Procedure
The simplest approach for communicating with the DMC-1800 is to check bits 0 and 2 of the
CONTROL register at address N+4. Bit 0 is for WRITE STATUS and bit 2 is for READ
STATUS.
Read Procedure - To receive data from the DMC-1800, read the control register at address N+4
and check bit 2. If bit 2 is zero, the DMC-1600 has data to be read in the READ register at
address N. Bit 2 must be checked for every character read.
DMC-1600
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 57
Write Procedure - To send data to the DMC-1800, read the control register at address N+4 and
check bit 0. If bit 0 is zero, the DMC-1600 FIFO buffer is not full and a character may be written
to the WRITE register at address N. If bit 0 is one, the buffer is full and any additional data will
be lost.
Any high-level computer language such as C, Basic, Pascal or Assembly may be used to
communicate with the DMC-1600 as long as the READ/WRITE procedure is followed as
described above, so long as the base address is known.
FIFO Control Register at N+4
Status Bit
Read/Write
Meaning
7
Read Only
If 1, Secondary FIFO empty
6
Read/Write
IRQ enable: Write 1 to enable IRQ
Write 0 to disable IRQ
Read 1 = IRQ enabled
5
Read/Write
IRQ status: Write 1 to clear IRQ
Read 1 = IRQ pending
4
Read/Write
Freeze Status of Secondary FIFO:
Write 1 to freeze 2nd FIFO
Write 0 to clear freeze of 2nd FIFO
Read 1 = 2nd FIFO frozen
3
Read Only
If 1, Secondary FIFO is busy updating
2
Read Only
If 1, DMC to PC Buffer empty, No data to be read
1
Read Only
If 0, PC to DMC buffer not half full. Can write at least 255 bytes.
If 1, buffer is more than half full.
0
Read Only
If 1, PC to DMC Buffer full, Do not write data
Half Full Flag
The Half Full flag (Bit 1 of the control register) can be used to increase the speed of writing large
blocks of data to the controller. When the half full bit is zero, the write buffer is less than half full.
In this case, up to 255 bytes can be written to the controller at address N without checking the
buffer full status (bit 0 of the control register).
Reading the Data Record from the Secondary FIFO
To read the data record from the secondary FIFO, first the “freeze” bit (bit 4 of N+4) of the
control register must be set. Then wait for the controller to finish updating the last data record by
monitoring the “busy” status bit (bit3 of N+4). When bit 3 is “0” the data record can be read.
Since the Secondary FIFO at N+C is 4 bytes wide, data may be read in 1 byte, 2 byte or 4 byte
increments. Read the data at N+C until bit 7 of N+4 is 1, signifying that the FIFO is empty. After
the data has been read, un-freeze the secondary FIFO by setting bit 4 of N+4 to “0”, which allows
the controller to continue to refresh the data record at the defined rate specified by the DR
command.
58 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
Enabling and Reading IRQ’s
In order to service interrupts from the IRQ line, the IRQ control register (Status Byte) must first be
enabled. This is done by setting bit 6 of the control register (N+4) equal to “1”.
When interrupted, first the interrupt routine must verify that the interrupt originated from the
DMC-1600 controller. This is done by checking that the IRQ enable and IRQ status bits (bit 5 and
6 of N+4) are high. The Status Byte can then be read by reading the IRQ register at N+8. The
returned Status Byte indicates what event generated the interrupt (for more information on specific
interrupt events, see the EI and UI commands in the Command Reference or the previous section
“Controller Event Interrupts…” in this chapter).
Once the Status Byte has been read, the interrupt must be cleared by writing a “1” to bit-5 of N+4.
Note: to preserve values of other bits, the interrupt service routine should read N+4 and write this
value back to N+4 to clear the interrupt.
Resetting the PC-to-DMC FIFO - To reset the output FIFO, write data to address N+8 where bit
2 is high and all other bits are low.
Resetting the DMC-to-PC FIFO - To reset the input FIFO, write data to address N+8 where bit 1
is high and all other bits are low.
Resetting the Controller - Clearing the FIFO is useful for emergency resets or Abort. For
example, to reset the controller, clear the FIFO, then send the RS command. If the controller is not
responding, it may be necessary to provide a hardware reset to the controller. This can be
accomplished by writing data to address N+8 where bit 7 is high.
Reset Register at N+8
Status Bit
Purpose
Logic State
Meaning
7
WRITE
1
Reset Controller
2
WRITE
1
Reset PC_to_DMC FIFO
1
WRITE
1
Reset DMC_to_PC FIFO
Secondary FIFO Memory Map
DMC-1600
ADDR
TYPE
ITEM
00-01
UW
sample number
02
UB
general input block 0 (inputs 1-8)
03
UB
general input block 1 (inputs 9-16)
04
UB
general input block 2 (inputs 17-24)
05
UB
general input block 3 (inputs 25-32)
06
UB
general input block 4 (inputs 33-40)
07
UB
general input block 5 (inputs 41-48)
08
UB
general input block 6 (inputs 49-56)
09
UB
general input block 7 (inputs 57-64)
10
UB
general input block 8 (inputs 65-72)
11
UB
general input block 9 (inputs 73-80)
12
UB
general output block 0 (outputs 1-8)
13
UB
general output block 1 (outputs 9-16)
14
UB
general output block 2 (outputs 17-24)
15
UB
general output block 3 (outputs 25-32)
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 59
16
UB
general output block 4 (outputs 33-40)
17
UB
general output block 5 (outputs 41-48)
18
UB
general output block 6 (outputs 49-56)
19
UB
general output block 7 (outputs 57-64)
20
UB
general output block 8 (outputs 65-72)
21
UB
general output block 9 (outputs 73-80)
22
UB
error code
23
UB
general status
24-25
UW
segment count of coordinated move for S plane
26-27
UW
coordinated move status for S plane
28-31
SL
distance traveled in coordinated move for S plane
32-33
UW
segment count of coordinated move for T plane
34-35
UW
coordinated move status for T plane
36-39
SL
distance traveled in coordinated move for T plane
40-41
UW
x,a axis status
42
UB
x,a axis switches
43
UB
x,a axis stopcode
44-47
SL
x,a axis reference position
48-51
SL
x,a axis motor position
52-55
SL
x,a axis position error
56-59
SL
x,a axis auxiliary position
60-63
SL
x,a axis velocity
64-65
SW
x,a axis torque
66-67
SW
x,a axis analog input
68-69
UW
y,b axis status
70
UB
y,b axis switches
71
UB
y,b axis stopcode
72-75
SL
y,b axis reference position
76-79
SL
y,b axis motor position
80-83
SL
y,b axis position error
84-87
SL
y,b axis auxiliary position
88-91
SL
y,b axis velocity
92-93
SW
y,b axis torque
94-95
SW
y,b axis analog input
96-97
UW
z,c axis status
98
UB
z,c axis switches
99
UB
z,c axis stopcode
100-103
SL
z,c axis reference position
104-107
SL
z,c axis motor position
108-111
SL
z,c axis position error
112-115
SL
z,c axis auxiliary position
116-119
SL
z,c axis velocity
120-121
SW
z,c axis torque
122-123
SW
z,c axis analog input
124-125
UW
w,d axis status
60 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
DMC-1600
126
UB
w,d axis switches
127
UB
w,d axis stop code
128-131
SL
w,d axis reference position
132-135
SL
w,d axis motor position
136-139
SL
w,d axis position error
140-143
SL
w,d axis auxiliary position
144-147
SL
w,d axis velocity
148-149
SW
w,d axis torque
150-151
SW
w,d axis analog input
152-153
UW
e axis status
154
UB
e axis switches
155
UB
e axis stop code
156-159
SL
e axis reference position
160-163
SL
e axis motor position
164-167
SL
e axis position error
168-171
SL
e axis auxiliary position
172-175
SL
e axis velocity
176-177
SW
e axis torque
178-179
SW
e axis analog input
180-181
UW
f axis status
182
UB
f axis switches
183
UB
f axis stopcode
184-187
SL
f axis reference position
188-191
SL
f axis motor position
192-195
SL
f axis position error
196-199
SL
f axis auxiliary position
200-203
SL
f axis velocity
204-205
SW
f axis torque
206-207
SW
f axis analog input
208-209
UW
g axis status
210
UB
g axis switches
211
UB
g axis stopcode
212-215
SL
g axis reference position
216-219
SL
g axis motor position
220-223
SL
g axis position error
224-227
SL
g axis auxiliary position
228-231
SL
g axis velocity
232-233
SW
g axis torque
234-235
SW
g axis analog input
236-237
UW
h axis status
238
UB
h axis switches
239
UB
h axis stopcode
240-243
SL
h axis reference position
244-247
SL
h axis motor position
248-251
SL
h axis position error
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 61
252-255
SL
h axis auxiliary position
256-259
SL
h axis velocity
260-261
SW
h axis torque
262-263
SW
h axis analog input
Note: UB = Unsigned Byte, UW = Unsigned Word, SW = Signed Word, SL = Signed Long
Word
Explanation of Status Information and Axis Switch Information
General Status Information (1 Byte)
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Program
Running
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Trace on
Echo On
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Latch
Occurred
State of
Latch
Input
N/A
N/A
State of
Forward
Limit
State of
Reverse
Limit
State of
Home
Input
SM
Jumper
Installed
BIT 15
BIT 14
BIT 13
BIT 12
BIT 11
BIT 10
BIT 9
BIT 8
Move in
Progress
Mode of
Motion
PA or
PR
Mode of
Motion
PA only
(FE)
Find
Edge in
Progress
Home
(HM) in
Progress
1st Phase
of HM
complete
2nd Phase
of HM
complete
or FI
command
issued
Mode of
Motion
Coord.
Motion
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
Negative
Direction
Move
Mode of
Motion
Motion
is
slewing
Motion
is
stopping
due to
ST of
Limit
Switch
Motion
is
making
final
decel.
Latch is
armed
Off-OnError
enabled
Motor
Off
Axis Switch Information (1 Byte)
Axis Status Information (1 Word)
Contour
Coordinated Motion Status Information for S or T Plane (2 Byte)
BIT 15
BIT 14
BIT 13
BIT 12
BIT 11
BIT 10
BIT 9
BIT 8
Move in
Progress
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
BIT 7
BIT 6
BIT 5
BIT 4
BIT 3
BIT 2
BIT 1
BIT 0
N/A
N/A
Motion
is
slewing
Motion
is
stopping
Motion
is
making
N/A
N/A
N/A
62 • Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications
DMC-1600
due to
ST or
Limit
Switch
final
decel.
Notes Regarding Velocity, Torque and Analog Input Data
The velocity information that is returned in the data record is 64 times larger than the value returned when
using the command TV (Tell Velocity). See command reference for more information about TV.
The torque information is represented as a number in the range of +/-32544. Maximum negative torque of
–9.9982 V is represented by –32544. Maximum positive torque of 9.9982 V is represented by 32544.
Torque information is then scaled linearly as 1v=~3255.
The analog input is stored as a 16-bit value (+/-32768), which represents an analog voltage range of +/10V.
DMC-1600
Chapter 4 - Software Tools and Communications • 63
Chapter 5 Command Basics
Introduction
The DMC-1600 provides over 100 commands for specifying motion and machine parameters.
Commands are included to initiate action, interrogate status and configure the digital filter. These
commands can be sent in ASCII or binary.
In ASCII, the DMC-1600 instruction set is BASIC-like and easy to use. Instructions consist of
two uppercase letters that correspond phonetically with the appropriate function. For example, the
instruction BG begins motion, and ST stops the motion. In binary , commands are represented by
a binary code ranging from 80 to FF.
ASCII commands can be sent "live" over the bus for immediate execution by the DMC-1600, or
an entire group of commands can be downloaded into the DMC-1600 memory for execution at a
later time. Combining commands into groups for later execution is referred to as Applications
Programming and is discussed in the following chapter. Binary commands cannot be used in
Applications programming.
This section describes the DMC-1600 instruction set and syntax. A summary of commands as
well as a complete listing of all DMC-1600 instructions is included in the Command Reference
chapter.
Command Syntax - ASCII
DMC-1600 instructions are represented by two ASCII upper case characters followed by
applicable arguments. A space may be inserted between the instruction and arguments. A
semicolon or <enter> is used to terminate the instruction for processing by the DMC-1600
command interpreter. Note: If you are using a Galil terminal program, commands will not be
processed until an <enter> command is given. This allows the user to separate many commands
on a single line and not begin execution until the user gives the <enter> command.
IMPORTANT: All DMC-1600 commands are sent in upper case.
For example, the command
PR 4000 <enter>
Position relative
PR is the two character instruction for position relative. 4000 is the argument which represents the
required position value in counts. The <enter> terminates the instruction. The space between PR
and 4000 is optional.
For specifying data for the X,Y,Z and W axes, commas are used to separate the axes. If no data is
specified for an axis, a comma is still needed as shown in the examples below. If no data is
64 • Chapter 5 Command Basics
DMC-1600
specified for an axis, the previous value is maintained. The space between the data and instruction
is optional.
To view the current values for each command, type the command followed by a ? for each axis
requested.
PR 1000
Specify X only as 1000
PR ,2000
Specify Y only as 2000
PR ,,3000
Specify Z only as 3000
PR ,,,4000
Specify W only as 4000
PR 2000, 4000,6000, 8000
Specify X Y Z and W
PR ,8000,,9000
Specify Y and W only
PR ?,?,?,?
Request X,Y,Z,W values
PR ,?
Request Y value only
The DMC-1600 provides an alternative method for specifying data. Here data is specified
individually using a single axis specifier such as X,Y,Z or W. An equals sign is used to assign
data to that axis. For example:
PRX=1000
Specify a position relative movement for the X axis of 1000
ACY=200000
Specify acceleration for the Y axis as 200000
Instead of data, some commands request action to occur on an axis or group of axes. For example,
ST XY stops motion on both the X and Y axes. Commas are not required in this case since the
particular axis is specified by the appropriate letter X Y Z or W. If no parameters follow the
instruction, action will take place on all axes. Here are some examples of syntax for requesting
action:
BG X
Begin X only
BG Y
Begin Y only
BG XYZW
Begin all axes
BG YW
Begin Y and W only
BG
Begin all axes
BG ABCDEFGH
Begin all axes
BG D
Begin D only
Coordinated Motion with more than 1 axis
When requesting action for coordinated motion, the letter S is used to specify the coordinated
motion. For example:
DMC-1600
BG S
Begin coordinated sequence
BG SW
Begin coordinated sequence and W axis
Chapter 5 Command Basics • 65
Command Syntax - Binary
Some commands have an equivalent binary value. Binary communication mode can be executed
much faster than ASCII commands. Binary format can only be used when commands are sent
from the PC and cannot be embedded in an application program.
Binary Command Format
All binary commands have a 4 byte header and are followed by data fields. The 4 bytes are
specified in hexadecimal format.
Header Format:
Byte 1 specifies the command number between 80 to FF. The complete binary command number
table is listed below.
Byte 2 specifies the # of bytes in each field as 0,1,2,4 or 6 as follows:
00
No data fields (i.e. SH or BG)
01
One byte per field
02
One word (2 bytes per field)
04
One long word (4 bytes) per field
06
Galil real format (4 bytes integer and 2 bytes fraction)
Byte 3 specifies whether the command applies to a coordinated move as follows:
00
No coordinated motion movement
01
Coordinated motion movement
For example, the command STS designates motion to stop on a vector motion. The third byte for
the equivalent binary command would be 01.
Byte 4 specifies the axis # or data field as follows
Bit 7 = H axis or 8th data field
Bit 6 = G axis or 7th data field
Bit 5 = F axis or 6th data field
Bit 4 = E axis or 5th data field
Bit 3 = D axis or 4th data field
Bit 2 = C axis or 3rd data field
Bit 1 = B axis or 2nd data field
Bit 0 = A axis or 1st data field
Data fields Format
Data fields must be consistent with the format byte and the axes byte. For example, the command
PR 1000,, -500 would be
A7 02 00 05 03 E8 FE 0C
where
A7 is the command number for PR
02 specifies 2 bytes for each data field
00 S is not active for PR
05 specifies bit 0 is active for A axis and bit 2 is active for C axis (20 + 22=5)
66 • Chapter 5 Command Basics
DMC-1600
03 E8 represents 1000
FE OE represents -500
Example
The command ST XYZS would be
A1 00 01 07
where
A1 is the command number for ST
00 specifies 0 data fields
01 specifies stop the coordinated axes S
07 specifies stop X (bit 0), Y (bit 1) and Z (bit 2) 20+21+23 =7
Binary command table
DMC-1600
Command
No.
Command
No.
Command
No.
reserved
80
reserved
ab
reserved
d6
KP
81
reserved
ac
reserved
d7
KI
82
reserved
ad
RP
d8
KD
83
reserved
ae
TP
d9
DV
84
reserved
af
TE
da
AF
85
LM
b0
TD
db
KF
86
LI
b1
TV
dc
PL
87
VP
b2
RL
dd
ER
88
CR
a3
TT
de
IL
89
TN
b4
TS
df
TL
8a
LE, VE
b5
TI
e0
MT
8b
VT
b6
SC
e1
CE
8c
VA
b7
reserved
e2
OE
8d
VD
b8
reserved
e3
FL
8e
VS
b9
reserved
e4
BL
8f
VR
ba
TM
e5
AC
90
reserved
bb
CN
e6
DC
91
reserved
bc
LZ
e7
SP
92
CM
bd
OP
e8
IT
93
CD
be
OB
e9
FA
94
DT
bf
SB
ea
FV
95
ET
c0
CB
eb
GR
96
EM
c1
II
ec
DP
97
EP
c2
EI
ed
DE
98
EG
c3
AL
ee
OF
99
EB
c4
reserved
ef
GM
9a
EQ
c5
reserved
f0
Chapter 5 Command Basics • 67
reserved
9b
EC
c6
reserved
f1
reserved
9c
reserved
c7
reserved
f2
reserved
9d
AM
c8
reserved
f3
reserved
9e
MC
c9
reserved
f4
reserved
9f
TW
ca
reserved
f5
BG
a0
MF
cb
reserved
f6
ST
a1
MR
cc
reserved
f7
AB
a2
AD
cd
reserved
f8
HM
a3
AP
ce
reserved
f9
FE
a4
AR
cf
reserved
fa
FI
a5
AS
d0
reserved
fb
PA
a6
AI
d1
reserved
fc
PR
a7
AT
d2
reserved
fd
JG
a8
WT
d3
reserved
fe
MO
a9
WC
d4
reserved
ff
aa
reserved
d5
SH
Controller Response to DATA
The DMC-1600 returns a : for valid commands.
The DMC-1600 returns a ? for invalid commands.
For example, if the command BG is sent in lower case, the DMC-1600 will return a ?.
:bg <enter>
invalid command, lower case
?
DMC-1600 returns a ?
When the controller receives an invalid command the user can request the error code. The error
code will specify the reason for the inval1d command response. To request the error code, type
the command: TC1 For example:
?TC1 <enter>
Tell Code command
1 Unrecognized command
Returned response
There are many reasons for receiving an invalid command response. The most common reasons
are: unrecognized command (such as typographical entry or lower case), command given at
improper time (such as during motion), or a command out of range (such as exceeding maximum
speed). A complete listing of all codes is listed in the TC command in the Command Reference
section.
Interrogating the Controller
Interrogation Commands
The DMC-1600 has a set of commands that directly interrogate the controller. When the
command is entered, the requested data is returned in decimal format on the next line followed by
a carriage return and line feed. The format of the returned data can be changed using the Position
68 • Chapter 5 Command Basics
DMC-1600
Format (PF), Variable Format (VF) and Leading Zeros (LZ) command. See Chapter 7 and the
Command Reference.
Summary of Interrogation Commands
RP
Report Command Position
RL
Report Latch
∧
Firmware Revision Information
SC
Stop Code
TB
Tell Status
TC
Tell Error Code
R ∧V
TD
Tell Dual Encoder
TE
Tell Error
TI
Tell Input
TP
Tell Position
TR
Trace
TS
Tell Switches
TT
Tell Torque
TV
Tell Velocity
For example, the following example illustrates how to display the current position of the X axis:
TP X <enter>
Tell position X
0000000000
Controllers Response
TP XY <enter>
Tell position X and Y
0000000000,0000000000
Controllers Response
Interrogating Current Commanded Values.
Most commands can be interrogated by using a question mark (?) as the axis specifier. Type the
command followed by a ? for each axis requested.
PR 1000
Specify X only as 1000
PR ,2000
Specify Y only as 2000
PR ,,3000
Specify Z only as 3000
PR ,,,4000
Specify W only as 4000
PR 2000,4000,6000,8000
Specify X Y Z and W
PR ,8000,,9000
Specify Y and W only
PR ?,?,?,?
Request X,Y,Z,W values
PR ,?
Request Y value only
The controller can also be interrogated with operands.
Operands
Most DMC-1600 commands have corresponding operands that can be used for interrogation.
Operands must be used inside of valid DMC expressions. For example, to display the value of an
operand, the user could use the command:
MG ‘operand’
DMC-1600
Chapter 5 Command Basics • 69
All of the command operands begin with the underscore character (_). For example, the value of
the current position on the X axis can be assigned to the variable ‘V’ with the command:
V=_TPX
The Command Reference denotes all commands which have an equivalent operand as "Used as an
Operand". Also, see description of operands in Chapter 7.
Command Summary
For a complete command summary, see Command Reference manual.
70 • Chapter 5 Command Basics
DMC-1600
THIS PAGE LEFT BLANK INTENTIONALLY
DMC-1600
Chapter 5 Command Basics • 71
Chapter 6 Programming Motion
Overview
The DMC-1600 provides several modes of motion, including independent positioning and
jogging, coordinated motion, electronic cam motion, and electronic gearing. Each one of these
modes is discussed in the following sections.
The DMC-1610 is a single axis controller and uses X-axis motion only. Likewise, the DMC-1620
uses X and Y, the DMC-1630 uses X,Y and Z, and the DMC-1640 uses X,Y,Z and W. The
DMC-1650 uses A,B,C,D, and E. The DMC-1660 uses A,B,C,D,E, and F. The DMC-1670 uses
A,B,C,D,E,F and G. The DMC-1680 uses the axes A,B,C,D,E,F,G, and H.
The example applications described below will help guide you to the appropriate mode of motion.
EXAMPLE APPLICATION
MODE OF MOTION
COMMANDS
Absolute or relative positioning where each axis is
independent and follows prescribed velocity profile.
Independent Axis Positioning
PA,PR
SP,AC,DC
Velocity control where no final endpoint is prescribed.
Motion stops on Stop command.
Independent Jogging
JG
AC,DC,SP
ST
Motion Path described as incremental position points versus
time.
Contour Mode
CM
CD
DT
WC
2,3 or 4 axis coordinated motion where path is described by
linear segments.
Linear Interpolation
LM
LI,LE
VS,VR
VA,VD
2-D motion path consisting of arc segments and linear
segments, such as engraving or quilting.
Coordinated Motion
VM
VP
CR
VS,VR
VA,VD
VE
72 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
Third axis must remain tangent to 2-D motion path, such as
knife cutting.
Coordinated motion with tangent axis specified
VM
VP
CR
VS,VA,VD
TN
VE
Electronic gearing where slave axes are scaled to master axis Electronic Gearing
which can move in both directions.
GA
GR
GM (if gantry)
Master/slave where slave axes must follow a master such as
conveyer speed.
Electronic Gearing
GA
GR
Moving along arbitrary profiles or mathematically
prescribed profiles such as sine or cosine trajectories.
Contour Mode
CM
CD
DT
WC
Teaching or Record and Play Back
Contour Mode with Automatic Array Capture
CM
CD
DT
WC
RA
RD
RC
Backlash Correction
Dual Loop
DV
Following a trajectory based on a master encoder position
Electronic Cam
EA
EM
EP
ET
EB
EG
EQ
Smooth motion while operating in independent axis
positioning
Independent Motion Smoothing
IT
Smooth motion while operating in vector or linear
interpolation positioning
Vector Smoothing
VT
Smooth motion while operating with stepper motors
Stepper Motor Smoothing
KS
Gantry - two axes are coupled by gantry
Gantry Mode
GR
GM
Independent Axis Positioning
In this mode, motion between the specified axes is independent, and each axis follows its own
profile. The user specifies the desired absolute position (PA) or relative position (PR), slew speed
(SP), acceleration ramp (AC), and deceleration ramp (DC), for each axis. On begin (BG), the
DMC-1600 profiler generates the corresponding trapezoidal or triangular velocity profile and
position trajectory. The controller determines a new command position along the trajectory every
sample period until the specified profile is complete. Motion is complete when the last position
command is sent by the DMC-1600 profiler. Note: The actual motor motion may not be complete
when the profile has been completed, however, the next motion command may be specified.
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 73
The Begin (BG) command can be issued for all axes either simultaneously or independently.
XYZ or W axis specifiers are required to select the axes for motion. When no axes are specified,
this causes motion to begin on all axes.
The speed (SP) and the acceleration (AC) can be changed at any time during motion, however, the
deceleration (DC) and position (PR or PA) cannot be changed until motion is complete.
Remember, motion is complete when the profiler is finished, not when the actual motor is in
position. The Stop command (ST) can be issued at any time to decelerate the motor to a stop
before it reaches its final position.
An incremental position movement (IP) may be specified during motion as long as the additional
move is in the same direction. Here, the user specifies the desired position increment, n. The new
target is equal to the old target plus the increment, n. Upon receiving the IP command, a revised
profile will be generated for motion towards the new end position. The IP command does not
require a begin. Note: If the motor is not moving, the IP command is equivalent to the PR and
BG command combination.
Command Summary - Independent Axis
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
PR X,Y,Z,W
Specifies relative distance
PA x,y,z,w
Specifies absolute position
SP x,y,z,w
Specifies slew speed
AC x,y,z,w
Specifies acceleration rate
DC x,y,z,w
Specifies deceleration rate
BG XYZW
Starts motion
ST XYZW
Stops motion before end of move
IP x,y,z,w
Changes position target
IT x,y,z,w
Time constant for independent motion smoothing
AM XYZW
Trippoint for profiler complete
MC XYZW
Trippoint for "in position"
The lower case specifiers (x,y,z,w) represent position values for each axis.
The DMC-1600 also allows use of single axis specifiers such as PRY=2000
74 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
Operand Summary - Independent Axis
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_ACx
Return acceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
_DCx
Return deceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
_SPx
Returns the speed for the axis specified by ‘x’
_Pax
Returns current destination if ‘x’ axis is moving, otherwise returns the current commanded
position if in a move.
_PRx
Returns current incremental distance specified for the ‘x’ axis
Example - Absolute Position Movement
PA 10000,20000
Specify absolute X,Y position
AC 1000000,1000000
Acceleration for X,Y
DC 1000000,1000000
Deceleration for X,Y
SP 50000,30000
Speeds for X,Y
BG XY
Begin motion
Example - Multiple Move Sequence
Required Motion Profiles:
X-Axis
Y-Axis
Z-Axis
500 counts
Position
10000 count/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec2
Acceleration
1000 counts
Position
15000 count/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec2
Acceleration
100 counts
Position
5000 counts/sec
Speed
500000 counts/sec
Acceleration
This example will specify a relative position movement on X, Y and Z axes. The movement on
each axis will be separated by 20 msec. Fig. 6.1 shows the velocity profiles for the X,Y and Z
axis.
DMC-1600
#A
Begin Program
PR 2000,500,100
Specify relative position movement of 1000, 500 and 100 counts for X,Y and Z
axes.
SP 15000,10000,5000
Specify speed of 10000, 15000, and 5000 counts / sec
AC 500000,500000,500000
Specify acceleration of 500000 counts / sec2 for all axes
DC 500000,500000,500000
Specify deceleration of 500000 counts / sec2 for all axes
BG X
Begin motion on the X axis
WT 20
Wait 20 msec
BG Y
Begin motion on the Y axis
WT 20
Wait 20 msec
BG Z
Begin motion on Z axis
EN
End Program
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 75
VELOCITY
(COUNTS/SEC)
X axis velocity profile
20000
Y axis velocity profile
15000
Z axis velocity profile
10000
5000
TIME (ms)
0
20
40
60
80
100
Figure 6.1 - Velocity Profiles of XYZ
Notes on fig 6.1: The X and Y axis have a ‘trapezoidal’ velocity profile, while the Z axis has a
‘triangular’ velocity profile. The X and Y axes accelerate to the specified speed, move at this
constant speed, and then decelerate such that the final position agrees with the command position,
PR. The Z axis accelerates, but before the specified speed is achieved, must begin deceleration
such that the axis will stop at the commanded position. All 3 axes have the same acceleration and
deceleration rate, hence, the slope of the rising and falling edges of all 3 velocity profiles are the
same.
Independent Jogging
The jog mode of motion is very flexible because speed, direction and acceleration can be changed
during motion. The user specifies the jog speed (JG), acceleration (AC), and the deceleration
(DC) rate for each axis. The direction of motion is specified by the sign of the JG parameters.
When the begin command is given (BG), the motor accelerates up to speed and continues to jog at
that speed until a new speed or stop (ST) command is issued. If the jog speed is changed during
motion, the controller will make a accelerated (or decelerated) change to the new speed.
An instant change to the motor position can be made with the use of the IP command. Upon
receiving this command, the controller commands the motor to a position, which is equal to the
specified increment, plus the current position. This command is useful when trying to synchronize
the position of two motors while they are moving.
Note that the controller operates as a closed-loop position controller while in the jog mode. The
DMC-1600 converts the velocity profile into a position trajectory and a new position target is
generated every sample period. This method of control results in precise speed regulation with
phase lock accuracy.
Command Summary - Jogging
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
AC x,y,z,w
Specifies acceleration rate
BG XYZW
Begins motion
76 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
DC x,y,z,w
Specifies deceleration rate
IP x,y,z,w
Increments position instantly
IT x,y,z,w
Time constant for independent motion smoothing
JG +/-x,y,z,w
Specifies jog speed and direction
ST XYZW
Stops motion
Parameters can be set with individual axes specifiers such as JGY=2000 (set jog speed for Y axis
to 2000) or ACYH=400000 (set acceleration for Y and H axes to 400000).
Operand Summary - Independent Axis
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_ACx
Return acceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
_DCx
Return deceleration rate for the axis specified by ‘x’
_SPx
Returns the jog speed for the axis specified by ‘x’
_TVx
Returns the actual velocity of the axis specified by ‘x’ (averaged over .25 sec)
Example - Jog in X only
Jog X motor at 50000 count/s. After X motor is at its jog speed, begin jogging Z in reverse
direction at 25000 count/s.
#A
AC 20000,,20000
Specify X,Z acceleration of 20000 cts / sec
DC 20000,,20000
Specify X,Z deceleration of 20000 cts / sec
JG 50000,,-25000
Specify jog speed and direction for X and Z axis
BG X
Begin X motion
AS X
Wait until X is at speed
BG Z
Begin Z motion
EN
Example - Joystick Jogging
The jog speed can also be changed using an analog input such as a joystick. Assume that for a 10
Volt input the speed must be 50000 counts/sec.
#JOY
Label
JG0
Set in Jog Mode
BGX
Begin motion
#B
Label for loop
V1 [email protected][1]
Read analog input
VEL=V1*50000/10
Compute speed
JG VEL
Change JG speed
JP #B
Loop
Linear Interpolation Mode
The DMC-1600 provides a linear interpolation mode for 2 or more axes. In linear interpolation
mode, motion between the axes is coordinated to maintain the prescribed vector speed,
acceleration, and deceleration along the specified path. The motion path is described in terms of
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 77
incremental distances for each axis. An unlimited number of incremental segments may be given
in a continuous move sequence, making the linear interpolation mode ideal for following a piecewise linear path. There is no limit to the total move length.
The LM command selects the Linear Interpolation mode and axes for interpolation. For example,
LM YZ selects only the Y and Z axes for linear interpolation.
When using the linear interpolation mode, the LM command only needs to be specified once
unless the axes for linear interpolation change.
Specifying Linear Segments
The command LI x,y,z,w or LI a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h specifies the incremental move distance for each
axis. This means motion is prescribed with respect to the current axis position. Up to 511
incremental move segments may be given prior to the Begin Sequence (BGS) command. Once
motion has begun, additional LI segments may be sent to the controller.
The clear sequence (CS) command can be used to remove LI segments stored in the buffer prior to
the start of the motion. To stop the motion, use the instructions STS or AB. The command, ST,
causes a decelerated stop. The command, AB, causes an instantaneous stop and aborts the
program, and the command AB1 aborts the motion only.
The Linear End (LE) command must be used to specify the end of a linear move sequence. This
command tells the controller to decelerate to a stop following the last LI command. If an LE
command is not given, an Abort AB1 must be used to abort the motion sequence.
It is the responsibility of the user to keep enough LI segments in the DMC-1600 sequence buffer
to ensure continuous motion. If the controller receives no additional LI segments and no LE
command, the controller will stop motion instantly at the last vector. There will be no controlled
deceleration. LM? or _LM returns the available spaces for LI segments that can be sent to the
buffer. 511 returned means the buffer is empty and 511 LI segments can be sent. A zero means
the buffer is full and no additional segments can be sent. As long as the buffer is not full,
additional LI segments can be sent at PC bus speeds.
The instruction _CS returns the segment counter. As the segments are processed, _CS increases,
starting at zero. This function allows the host computer to determine which segment is being
processed.
Additional Commands
The commands VS n, VA n, and VD n are used to specify the vector speed, acceleration and
deceleration. The DMC-1600 computes the vector speed based on the axes specified in the LM
mode. For example, LM XYZ designates linear interpolation for the X,Y and Z axes. The vector
speed for this example would be computed using the equation:
2
2
2
2
VS =XS +YS +ZS , where XS, YS and ZS are the speed of the X,Y and Z axes.
The controller always uses the axis specifications from LM, not LI, to compute the speed.
VT is used to set the S-curve smoothing constant for coordinated moves. The command AV n is
the ‘After Vector’ trippoint, which halts program execution until the vector distance of n has been
reached.
An Example of Linear Interpolation Motion:
#LMOVE
label
DP 0,0
Define position of X and Y axes to be 0
LMXY
Define linear mode between X and Y axes.
LI 5000,0
Specify first linear segment
78 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
LI 0,5000
Specify second linear segment
LE
End linear segments
VS 4000
Specify vector speed
BGS
Begin motion sequence
AV 4000
Set trippoint to wait until vector distance of 4000 is reached
VS 1000
Change vector speed
AV 5000
Set trippoint to wait until vector distance of 5000 is reached
VS 4000
Change vector speed
EN
Program end
In this example, the XY system is required to perform a 90° turn. In order to slow the speed
around the corner, we use the AV 4000 trippoint, which slows the speed to 1000 count/s. Once
the motors reach the corner, the speed is increased back to 4000 cts / s.
Specifying Vector Speed for Each Segment
The instruction VS has an immediate effect and, therefore, must be given at the required time. In
some applications, such as CNC, it is necessary to attach various speeds to different motion
segments. This can be done by two functions: < n and > m
For example:
LI x,y,z,w < n >m
The fist command, < n, is equivalent to commanding VSn at the start of the given segment and
will cause an acceleration toward the new commanded speeds, subjects to the other constraints.
The second function, > m, requires the vector speed to reach the value m at the end of the
segment. Note that the function > m may start the deceleration within the given segment or during
previous segments, as needed to meet the final speed requirement, under the given values of VA
and VD.
Note, however, that the controller works with one > m command at a time. As a consequence, one
function may be masked by another. For example, if the function >100000 is followed by >5000,
and the distance for deceleration is not sufficient, the second condition will not be met. The
controller will attempt to lower the speed to 5000, but will reach that at a different point.
As an example, consider the following program.
#ALT
Label for alternative program
DP 0,0
Define Position of X and Y axis to be 0
LMXY
Define linear mode between X and Y axes.
LI 4000,0 <4000 >1000
Specify first linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
LI 1000,1000 < 4000 >1000
Specify second linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
LI 0,5000 < 4000 >1000
Specify third linear segment with a vector speed of 4000 and end speed 1000
LE
End linear segments
BGS
Begin motion sequence
EN
Program end
Changing Feed Rate:
The command VR n allows the feed rate, VS, to be scaled between 0 and 10 with a resolution of
.0001. This command takes effect immediately and causes VS to be scaled. VR also applies
when the vector speed is specified with the ‘<’ operator. This is a useful feature for feed rate
override. VR does not ratio the accelerations. For example, VR .5 results in the specification VS
2000 to be divided in half.
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 79
Command Summary - Linear Interpolation
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
LM xyzw
LM abcdefgh
Specify axes for linear interpolation
(same) controllers with 5 or more axes
LM?
Returns number of available spaces for linear segments in DMC-1600 sequence buffer.
Zero means buffer full. 512 means buffer empty.
LI x,y,z,w < n
Specify incremental distances relative to current position, and assign vector speed n.
LI a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h <
n
VS n
Specify vector speed
VA n
Specify vector acceleration
VD n
Specify vector deceleration
VR n
Specify the vector speed ratio
BGS
Begin Linear Sequence
CS
Clear sequence
LE
Linear End- Required at end of LI command sequence
LE?
Returns the length of the vector (resets after 2147483647)
AMS
Trippoint for After Sequence complete
AV n
Trippoint for After Relative Vector distance, n
VT
S curve smoothing constant for vector moves
Operand Summary - Linear Interpolation
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_AV
Return distance traveled
_CS
Segment counter - returns number of the segment in the sequence, starting at zero.
_LE
Returns length of vector (resets after 2147483647)
_LM
Returns number of available spaces for linear segments in DMC-1600 sequence buffer.
Zero means buffer full. 512 means buffer empty.
_VPm
Return the absolute coordinate of the last data point along the trajectory.
(m=X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G or H)
To illustrate the ability to interrogate the motion status, consider the first motion segment of our
example, #LMOVE, where the X axis moves toward the point X=5000. Suppose that when
X=3000, the controller is interrogated using the command ‘MG _AV’. The returned value will be
3000. The value of _CS, _VPX and _VPY will be zero.
Now suppose that the interrogation is repeated at the second segment when Y=2000. The value of
_AV at this point is 7000, _CS equals 1, _VPX=5000 and _VPY=0.
Example - Linear Move
Make a coordinated linear move in the ZW plane. Move to coordinates 40000,30000 counts at a
vector speed of 100000 counts/sec and vector acceleration of 1000000 counts/sec2.
LM ZW
Specify axes for linear interpolation
LI,,40000,30000
Specify ZW distances
LE
Specify end move
80 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
VS 100000
Specify vector speed
VA 1000000
Specify vector acceleration
VD 1000000
Specify vector deceleration
BGS
Begin sequence
Note that the above program specifies the vector speed, VS, and not the actual axis speeds VZ and
VW. The axis speeds are determined by the DMC-1600 from:
VS = VZ 2 + VW 2
The resulting profile is shown in Figure 6.2.
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 81
30000
27000
POSITION W
3000
0
0
4000
36000
40000
POSITION Z
FEEDRATE
0
0.1
0.5
0.6
TIME (sec)
VELOCITY
Z-AXIS
TIME (sec)
VELOCITY
W-AXIS
TIME (sec)
Figure 6.2 - Linear Interpolation
Example - Multiple Moves
This example makes a coordinated linear move in the XY plane. The Arrays VX and VY are used
to store 750 incremental distances which are filled by the program #LOAD.
#LOAD
Load Program
DM VX [750],VY [750]
Define Array
COUNT=0
Initialize Counter
82 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
N=10
Initialize position increment
#LOOP
LOOP
VX [COUNT]=N
Fill Array VX
VY [COUNT]=N
Fill Array VY
N=N+10
Increment position
COUNT=COUNT+1
Increment counter
JP #LOOP,COUNT<750
Loop if array not full
#A
Label
LM XY
Specify linear mode for XY
COUNT=0
Initialize array counter
#LOOP2;JP#LOOP2,_LM=
0
If sequence buffer full, wait
JS#C,COUNT=500
Begin motion on 500th segment
LI
Specify linear segment
VX[COUNT],VY[COUNT]
COUNT=COUNT+1
Increment array counter
JP #LOOP2,COUNT<750
Repeat until array done
LE
End Linear Move
AMS
After Move sequence done
MG "DONE"
Send Message
EN
End program
#C;BGS;EN
Begin Motion Subroutine
Coordinated Motion Sequences
The DMC-1600 allows a long 2-D path consisting of linear and arc segments to be prescribed.
Motion along the path is continuous at the prescribed vector speed even at transitions between
linear and circular segments. The DMC-1600 performs all the complex computations of linear
and circular interpolation, freeing the host PC from this time intensive task.
The coordinated motion mode is similar to the linear interpolation mode. Any pair of two axes
may be selected for coordinated motion consisting of linear and circular segments. In addition, a
third axis can be controlled such that it remains tangent to the motion of the selected pair of axes.
Note that only one pair of axes can be specified for coordinated motion at any given time.
The command VM m,n,p where ‘m’ and ‘n’ are the coordinated pair and p is the tangent axis
(Note: the commas which separate m,n and p are not necessary). For example, VM XWZ selects
the XW axes for coordinated motion and the Z-axis as the tangent.
Specifying the Coordinate Plane
The DMC-1600 allows for 2 separate sets of coordinate axes for linear interpolation mode or
vector mode. These two sets are identified by the letters S and T.
To specify vector commands the coordinate plane must first be identified. This is done by issuing
the command CAS to identify the S plane or CAT to identify the T plane. All vector commands
will be applied to the active coordinate system until changed with the CA command.
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 83
Specifying Vector Segments
The motion segments are described by two commands; VP for linear segments and CR for circular
segments. Once a set of linear segments and/or circular segments have been specified, the
sequence is ended with the command VE. This defines a sequence of commands for coordinated
motion. Immediately prior to the execution of the first coordinated movement, the controller
defines the current position to be zero for all movements in a sequence. Note: This ‘local’
definition of zero does not affect the absolute coordinate system or subsequent coordinated motion
sequences.
The command VP x,y specifies the coordinates of the end points of the vector movement with
respect to the starting point. The command CR r,q,d defines a circular arc with a radius r, starting
angle of q, and a traversed angle d. The notation for q is that zero corresponds to the positive
horizontal direction, and for both q and d, the counter-clockwise (CCW) rotation is positive.
Up to 511 segments of CR or VP may be specified in a single sequence and must be ended with
the command VE. The motion can be initiated with a Begin Sequence (BGS) command. Once
motion starts, additional segments may be added.
The Clear Sequence (CS) command can be used to remove previous VP and CR commands which
were stored in the buffer prior to the start of the motion. To stop the motion, use the instructions
STS or AB1. ST stops motion at the specified deceleration. AB1 aborts the motion
instantaneously.
The Vector End (VE) command must be used to specify the end of the coordinated motion. This
command requires the controller to decelerate to a stop following the last motion requirement. If a
VE command is not given, an Abort (AB1) must be used to abort the coordinated motion
sequence.
It is the responsibility of the user to keep enough motion segments in the DMC-1600 sequence
buffer to ensure continuous motion. If the controller receives no additional motion segments and
no VE command, the controller will stop motion instantly at the last vector. There will be no
controlled deceleration. LM? or _LM returns the available spaces for motion segments that can be
sent to the buffer. 511 returned means the buffer is empty and 511 segments can be sent. A zero
means the buffer is full and no additional segments can be sent. As long as the buffer is not full,
additional segments can be sent at PC bus speeds.
The operand _CS can be used to determine the value of the segment counter.
Additional commands
The commands VS n, VA n and VD n are used for specifying the vector speed, acceleration, and
deceleration.
VT is the s curve smoothing constant used with coordinated motion.
Specifying Vector Speed for Each Segment:
The vector speed may be specified by the immediate command VS. It can also be attached to a
motion segment with the instructions
VP x,y < n >m
CR r,θ,δ < n >m
The first command, <n, is equivalent to commanding VSn at the start of the given segment and
will cause an acceleration toward the new commanded speeds, subjects to the other constraints.
The second function, > m, requires the vector speed to reach the value m at the end of the
segment. Note that the function > m may start the deceleration within the given segment or during
84 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
previous segments, as needed to meet the final speed requirement, under the given values of VA
and VD.
Note, however, that the controller works with one > m command at a time. As a consequence, one
function may be masked by another. For example, if the function >100000 is followed by >5000,
and the distance for deceleration is not sufficient, the second condition will not be met. The
controller will attempt to lower the speed to 5000, but will reach that at a different point.
.Changing Feed rate:
The command VR n allows the feed rate, VS, to be scaled between 0 and 10 with a resolution of
.0001. This command takes effect immediately and causes VS scaled. VR also applies when the
vector speed is specified with the ‘<’ operator. This is a useful feature for feed rate override. VR
does not ratio the accelerations. For example, VR .5 results in the specification VS 2000 to be
divided by two
Compensating for Differences in Encoder Resolution:
By default, the DMC-1600 uses a scale factor of 1:1 for the encoder resolution when used in
vector mode. If this is not the case, the command, ES can be used to scale the encoder counts.
The ES command accepts two arguments which represent the number of counts for the two
encoders used for vector motion. The smaller ratio of the two numbers will be multiplied by the
higher resolution encoder. For more information, see ES command in Chapter 11, Command
Summary.
Trippoints:
The AV n command is the After Vector trippoint, which waits for the vector relative distance of n
to occur before executing the next command in a program.
Tangent Motion:
Several applications, such as cutting, require a third axis (i.e. a knife blade), to remain tangent to
the coordinated motion path. To handle these applications, the DMC-1600 allows one axis to be
specified as the tangent axis. The VM command provides parameter specifications for describing
the coordinated axes and the tangent axis.
VM m,n,p
m,n specifies coordinated axes p specifies tangent axis such as X,Y,Z,W p=N turns off tangent axis
Before the tangent mode can operate, it is necessary to assign an axis via the VM command and
define its offset and scale factor via the TN m,n command. m defines the scale factor in
counts/degree and n defines the tangent position that equals zero degrees in the coordinated
motion plane. The operand _TN can be used to return the initial position of the tangent axis.
Example:
Assume an XY table with the Z-axis controlling a knife. The Z-axis has a 2000 quad counts/rev
encoder and has been initialized after power-up to point the knife in the +Y direction. A 180°
circular cut is desired, with a radius of 3000, center at the origin and a starting point at (3000,0).
The motion is CCW, ending at (-3000,0). Note that the 0° position in the XY plane is in the +X
direction. This corresponds to the position -500 in the Z-axis, and defines the offset. The motion
has two parts. First, X,Y and Z are driven to the starting point, and later, the cut is performed.
Assume that the knife is engaged with output bit 0.
#EXAMPLE
DMC-1600
Example program
VM XYZ
XY coordinate with Z as tangent
TN 2000/360,-500
2000/360 counts/degree, position -500 is 0 degrees in XY plane
CR 3000,0,180
3000 count radius, start at 0 and go to 180 CCW
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 85
VE
End vector
CB0
Disengage knife
PA 3000,0,_TN
Move X and Y to starting position, move Z to initial tangent position
BG XYZ
Start the move to get into position
AM XYZ
When the move is complete
SB0
Engage knife
WT50
Wait 50 msec for the knife to engage
BGS
Do the circular cut
AMS
After the coordinated move is complete
CB0
Disengage knife
MG "ALL DONE"
EN
End program
Command Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION.
VM m,n
Specifies the axes for the planar motion where m and n represent the planar axes and p is
the tangent axis.
VP m,n
Return coordinate of last point, where m=X,Y,Z or W.
CR r,Θ, ±ΔΘ
Specifies arc segment where r is the radius, Θ is the starting angle and ΔΘ is the travel
angle. Positive direction is CCW.
VS s, t
Specify vector speed or feed rate of sequence.
VA s, t
Specify vector acceleration along the sequence.
VD s, t
Specify vector deceleration along the sequence.
VR s, t
Specify vector speed ratio
BGST
Begin motion sequence, S or T.
CSST
Clear sequence, S or T
AV s, t
Trippoint for After Relative Vector distance.
AMST
Holds execution of next command until Motion Sequence is complete.
TN m,n
Tangent scale and offset.
ES m,n
Ellipse scale factor.
VT s, t
S curve smoothing constant for coordinated moves
LM?
Return number of available spaces for linear and circular segments in DMC-1600
sequence buffer. Zero means buffer is full. 512 means buffer is empty.
CAS or CAT
Specifies which coordinate system is to be active (S or T)
Operand Summary - Coordinated Motion Sequence
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_VPM
The absolute coordinate of the axes at the last intersection along the sequence.
_AV
Distance traveled.
_LM
Number of available spaces for linear and circular segments in DMC-1600 sequence
buffer. Zero means buffer is full. 512 means buffer is empty.
_CS
Segment counter - Number of the segment in the sequence, starting at zero.
_VE
Vector length of coordinated move sequence.
86 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
When AV is used as an operand, _AV returns the distance traveled along the sequence.
The operands _VPX and _VPY can be used to return the coordinates of the last point specified
along the path.
Example:
Traverse the path shown in Fig. 6.3. Feed rate is 20000 counts/sec. Plane of motion is XY
VM XY
Specify motion plane
VS 20000
Specify vector speed
VA 1000000
Specify vector acceleration
VD 1000000
Specify vector deceleration
VP -4000,0
Segment AB
CR 1500,270,-180
Segment BC
VP 0,3000
Segment CD
CR 1500,90,-180
Segment DA
VE
End of sequence
BGS
Begin Sequence
The resulting motion starts at the point A and moves toward points B, C, D, A. Suppose that we
interrogate the controller when the motion is halfway between the points A and B.
The value of _AV is 2000
The value of _CS is 0
_VPX and _VPY contain the absolute coordinate of the point A
Suppose that the interrogation is repeated at a point, halfway between the points C and D.
The value of _AV is 4000+1500π+2000=10,712
The value of _CS is 2
_VPX,_VPY contain the coordinates of the point C
C (-4000,3000)
D (0,3000)
R = 1500
B (-4000,0)
A (0,0)
Figure 6.3 - The Required Path
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 87
Electronic Gearing
This mode allows up to 8 axes to be electronically geared to some master axes. The masters may
rotate in both directions and the geared axes will follow at the specified gear ratio. The gear ratio
may be different for each axis and changed during motion.
The command GAX yzw or GA ABCDEFGH specifies the master axes. GR x,y,z,w specifies the
gear ratios for the slaves where the ratio may be a number between +/-127.9999 with a fractional
resolution of .0001. There are two modes: standard gearing and gantry mode. The gantry mode
is enabled with the command GM. GR 0,0,00 turns off gearing in both modes. A limit switch or
ST command disable gearing in the standard mode but not in the gentry mode.
The command GM x,y,z,w select the axes to be controlled under the gantry mode. The parameter
1 enables gantry mode, and 0 disables it.
GR causes the specified axes to be geared to the actual position of the master. The master axis is
commanded with motion commands such as PR, PA or JG.
When the master axis is driven by the controller in the jog mode or an independent motion mode,
it is possible to define the master as the command position of that axis, rather than the actual
position. The designation of the commanded position master is by the letter, C. For example,
GACX indicates that the gearing is the commanded position of X.
An alternative gearing method is to synchronize the slave motor to the commanded vector motion
of several axes performed by GAS. For example, if the X and Y motor form a circular motion, the
Z axis may move in proportion to the vector move. Similarly, if X,Y and Z perform a linear
interpolation move, W can be geared to the vector move.
Electronic gearing allows the geared motor to perform a second independent or coordinated move
in addition to the gearing. For example, when a geared motor follows a master at a ratio of 1:1, it
may be advanced an additional distance with PR, or JG, commands, or VP, or LI.
Command Summary - Electronic Gearing
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
GA n
Specifies master axes for gearing where:
n = X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H for main encoder as master
n = CX,CY,CZ or CW or CA, CB, CC, CD, CE, CF,CG,CH for commanded position.
n = DX,DY,DZ or DW or DA, DB, DC, DD, DE, DF,DG,DH for auxiliary encoders
n = S vector move as master
GR x,y,z,w
Sets gear ratio for slave axes. 0 disables electronic gearing for specified axis.
GR a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
Sets gear ratio for slave axes. 0 disables electronic gearing for specified axis.
GM a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
X = 1 sets gantry mode, 0 disables gantry mode
MR x,y,z,w
Trippoint for reverse motion past specified value. Only one field may be used.
MF x,y,z,w
Trippoint for forward motion past specified value. Only one field may be used.
Example - Simple Master Slave
Master axis moves 10000 counts at slew speed of 100000 counts/sec. Y is defined as the master.
X,Z,W are geared to master at ratios of 5,-.5 and 10 respectively.
GA Y,,Y,Y
Specify master axes as Y
GR 5,,-.5,10
Set gear ratios
PR ,10000
Specify Y position
SP ,100000
Specify Y speed
88 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
BGY
Begin motion
Example - Electronic Gearing
Objective: Run two geared motors at speeds of 1.132 and -0.045 times the speed of an external
master. The master is driven at speeds between 0 and 1800 RPM (2000 counts/rev encoder).
Solution: Use a DMC-1630 controller, where the Z-axis is the master and X and Y are the geared
axes.
MO Z
Turn Z off, for external master
GA Z, Z
Specify Z as the master axis for both X and Y.
GR 1.132,-.045
Specify gear ratios
Now suppose the gear ratio of the X-axis is to change on-the-fly to 2. This can be achieved by
commanding:
GR 2
Specify gear ratio for X axis to be 2
Example - Gantry Mode
In applications where both the master and the follower are controlled by the DMC-1600 controller,
it may be desired to synchronize the follower with the commanded position of the master, rather
than the actual position. This eliminates the coupling between the axes which may lead to
oscillations.
For example, assume that a gantry is driven by two axes, X,Y, on both sides. This requires the
gantry mode for strong coupling between the motors. The X-axis is the master and the Y-axis is
the follower. To synchronize Y with the commanded position of X, use the instructions:
GA, CX
Specify the commanded position of X as master for Y.
GR,1
Set gear ratio for Y as 1:1
GM,1
Set gantry mode
PR 3000
Command X motion
BG X
Start motion on X axis
You may also perform profiled position corrections in the electronic gearing mode. Suppose, for
example, that you need to advance the slave 10 counts. Simply command
IP ,10
Specify an incremental position movement of 10 on Y axis.
Under these conditions, this IP command is equivalent to:
PR,10
Specify position relative movement of 10 on Y axis
BGY
Begin motion on Y axis
Often the correction is quite large. Such requirements are common when synchronizing cutting
knives or conveyor belts.
Example - Synchronize two conveyor belts with trapezoidal velocity correction.
DMC-1600
GA,X
Define X as the master axis for Y.
GR,2
Set gear ratio 2:1 for Y
PR,300
Specify correction distance
SP,5000
Specify correction speed
AC,100000
Specify correction acceleration
DC,100000
Specify correction deceleration
BGY
Start correction
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 89
Electronic Cam
The electronic cam is a motion control mode which enables the periodic synchronization of
several axes of motion. Up to 7 axes can be slaved to one master axis. The master axis encoder
must be input through a main encoder port.
The electronic cam is a more general type of electronic gearing which allows a table-based
relationship between the axes. It allows synchronizing all the controller axes. For example, the
DMC-1680 controller may have one master and up to seven slaves.
To illustrate the procedure of setting the cam mode, consider the cam relationship for the slave
axis Y, when the master is X. Such a graphic relationship is shown in Figure 6.8.
Step 1. Selecting the master axis
The first step in the electronic cam mode is to select the master axis. This is done with the
instruction
EAp where p = X,Y,Z,W
p is the selected master axis
For the given example, since the master is x, we specify EAX
Step 2. Specify the master cycle and the change in the slave axes.
In the electronic cam mode, the position of the master is always expressed modulo one cycle. In
this example, the position of x is always expressed in the range between 0 and 6000. Similarly,
the slave position is also redefined such that it starts at zero and ends at 1500. At the end of a
cycle when the master is 6000 and the slave is 1500, the positions of both x and y are redefined as
zero. To specify the master cycle and the slave cycle change, we use the instruction EM.
EM x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w specify the cycle of the master and the total change of the slaves over one cycle.
The cycle of the master is limited to 8,388,607 whereas the slave change per cycle is limited to
2,147,483,647. If the change is a negative number, the absolute value is specified. For the given
example, the cycle of the master is 6000 counts and the change in the slave is 1500. Therefore, we
use the instruction:
EM 6000,1500
Step 3. Specify the master interval and starting point.
Next we need to construct the ECAM table. The table is specified at uniform intervals of master
positions. Up to 256 intervals are allowed. The size of the master interval and the starting point
are specified by the instruction:
90 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
EP m,n
where m is the interval width in counts, and n is the starting point.
For the given example, we can specify the table by specifying the position at the master points of
0, 2000, 4000 and 6000. We can specify that by
EP 2000,0
Step 4. Specify the slave positions.
Next, we specify the slave positions with the instruction
ET[n]=x,y,z,w
where n indicates the order of the point.
The value, n, starts at zero and may go up to 256. The parameters x,y,z,w indicate the
corresponding slave position. For this example, the table may be specified by
ET[0]=,0
ET[1]=,3000
ET[2]=,2250
ET[3]=,1500
This specifies the ECAM table.
Step 5. Enable the ECAM
To enable the ECAM mode, use the command
EB n
where n=1 enables ECAM mode and n=0 disables ECAM mode.
Step 6. Engage the slave motion
To engage the slave motion, use the instruction
EG x,y,z,w
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 91
where x,y,z,w are the master positions at which the corresponding slaves must be engaged.
If the value of any parameter is outside the range of one cycle, the cam engages immediately.
When the cam is engaged, the slave position is redefined, modulo one cycle.
Step 7. Disengage the slave motion
To disengage the cam, use the command
EQ x,y,z,w
where x,y,z,w are the master positions at which the corresponding slave axes are disengaged.
3000
2250
1500
0
2000
4000
6000
Master X
Figure 6.4 - Electronic Cam Example
This disengages the slave axis at a specified master position. If the parameter is outside the master
cycle, the stopping is instantaneous.
To illustrate the complete process, consider the cam relationship described by
the equation:
Y = 0.5 * X + 100 sin (0.18*X)
where X is the master, with a cycle of 2000 counts.
The cam table can be constructed manually, point by point, or automatically by a program. The
following program includes the set-up.
92 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
The instruction EAX defines X as the master axis. The cycle of the master is 2000. Over that
cycle, Y varies by 1000. This leads to the instruction EM 2000,1000.
Suppose we want to define a table with 100 segments. This implies increments of 20 counts each.
If the master points are to start at zero, the required instruction is EP 20,0.
The following routine computes the table points. As the phase equals 0.18X and X varies in
increments of 20, the phase varies by increments of 3.6°. The program then computes the values
of Y according to the equation and assigns the values to the table with the instruction ET[N] = ,Y.
Instruction
Interpretation
#SETUP
Label
EAX
Select X as master
EM 2000,1000
Cam cycles
EP 20,0
Master position increments
N=0
Index
#LOOP
Loop to construct table from equation
P = N∗3.6
Note 3.6 = 0.18∗20
S = @SIN [P] *100
Define sine position
Y = N *10+S
Define slave position
ET [N] =, Y
Define table
N = N+1
JP #LOOP, N<=100
Repeat the process
EN
Command Summary – Electronic CAM
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
EA p
Specifies master axes for electronic cam where:
P = X,Y,Z or W or A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H for main encoder as master
EB n
Enables the ECAM
EC n
ECAM counter – sets the index into the ECAM table
EG x,y,z,w
Engages ECAM
EM x,y,z,w
Specifies the change in position for each axis of the CAM cycle.
EP m,n
Defines CAM table entry size and offset
EQ m,n
Disengages ECAM at specified position
ET[n]
Defines the ECAM table entries
EW
Widen segment (see Application Note #2444)
Now suppose that the slave axis is engaged with a start signal, input 1, but that both the
engagement and disengagement points must be done at the center of the cycle: X = 1000 and Y =
500. This implies that Y must be driven to that point to avoid a jump.
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 93
This is done with the program:
Instruction
Interpretation
#RUN
Label
EB1
Enable cam
PA,500
starting position
SP,5000
Y speed
BGY
Move Y motor
AM
After Y moved
AI1
Wait for start signal
EG,1000
Engage slave
AI - 1
Wait for stop signal
EQ,1000
Disengage slave
EN
End
The following example illustrates a cam program with a master axis, Z, and two slaves, X and Y.
Instruction
Interpretation
#A;V1=0
Label; Initialize variable
PA 0,0;BGXY;AMXY
Go to position 0,0 on X and Y axes
EA Z
Z axis as the Master for ECAM
EM 0,0,4000
Change for Z is 4000, zero for X, Y
EP400,0
ECAM interval is 400 counts with zero start
ET[0]=0,0
When master is at 0 position; 1st point.
ET[1]=40,20
2nd point in the ECAM table
ET[2]=120,60
3rd point in the ECAM table
ET[3]=240,120
4th point in the ECAM table
ET[4]=280,140
5th point in the ECAM table
ET[5]=280,140
6th point in the ECAM table
ET[6]=280,140
7th point in the ECAM table
ET[7]=240,120
8th point in the ECAM table
ET[8]=120,60
9th point in the ECAM table
ET[9]=40,20
10th point in the ECAM table
ET[10]=0,0
Starting point for next cycle
EB 1
Enable ECAM mode
JGZ=4000
Set Z to jog at 4000
EG 0,0
Engage both X and Y when Master = 0
BGZ
Begin jog on Z axis
#LOOP;JP#LOOP,V1=0
Loop until the variable is set
EQ2000,2000
Disengage X and Y when Master = 2000
MF,, 2000
Wait until the Master goes to 2000
ST Z
Stop the Z axis motion
EB 0
Exit the ECAM mode
EN
End of the program
94 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
The above example shows how the ECAM program is structured and how the commands can be
given to the controller. The next page provides the results captured by the WSDK program. This
shows how the motion will be seen during the ECAM cycles. The first graph is for the X axis, the
second graph shows the cycle on the Y axis and the third graph shows the cycle of the Z axis.
Figure 6.5 – WSDK program results – Three Storage Scopes
Contour Mode
The DMC-1600 also provides a contouring mode. This mode allows any arbitrary position curve
to be prescribed for 1 to 8 axes. This is ideal for following computer generated paths such as
parabolic, spherical or user-defined profiles. The path is not limited to straight line and arc
segments and the path length may be infinite.
Specifying Contour Segments
The Contour Mode is specified with the command, CM. For example, CMXZ specifies
contouring on the X and Z axes. Any axes that are not being used in the contouring mode may be
operated in other modes.
A contour is described by position increments which are described with the command, CD x,y,z,w
over a time interval, DT n. The parameter, n, specifies the time interval. The time interval is
n
defined as 2 ms, where n is a number between 1 and 8. The controller performs linear
interpolation between the specified increments, where one point is generated for each millisecond.
Consider, for example, the trajectory shown in Fig. 6.4. The position X may be described by the
points:
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 95
Point 1
X=0 at T=0ms
Point 2
X=48 at T=4ms
Point 3
X=288 at T=12ms
Point 4
X=336 at T=28ms
The same trajectory may be represented by the increments
Increment 1
DX=48
Time=4
DT=2
Increment 2
DX=240
Time=8
DT=3
Increment 3
DX=48
Time=16
DT=4
When the controller receives the command to generate a trajectory along these points, it
interpolates linearly between the points. The resulting interpolated points include the position 12
at 1 msec, position 24 at 2 msec, etc.
The programmed commands to specify the above example are:
#A
CMX
Specifies X axis for contour mode
DT 2
Specifies first time interval, 22 ms
CD 48;WC
Specifies first position increment
DT 3
Specifies second time interval, 23 ms
CD 240;WC
Specifies second position increment
DT 4
Specifies the third time interval, 24 ms
CD 48;WC
Specifies the third position increment
DT0;CD0
Exits contour mode
EN
POSITION
(COUNTS)
336
288
240
192
96
48
TIME (ms)
0
4
SEGMENT 1
8
SEGMENT 2
12
16
20
24
28
SEGMENT 3
Figure 6.6 - The Required Trajectory
96 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
Additional Commands
The command, WC, is used as a trippoint "When Complete". This allows the DMC-1600 to use
the next increment only when it is finished with the previous one. Zero parameters for DT
followed by zero parameters for CD exit the contour mode.
If no new data record is found and the controller is still in the contour mode, the controller waits
for new data. No new motion commands are generated while waiting. If bad data is received, the
controller responds with a ?.
Command Summary - Contour Mode
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
CM XYZW
Specifies which axes for contouring mode. Any non-contouring axes may be operated in
other modes.
CM
ABCDEFGH
Contour axes for DMC-1680
CD x,y,z,w
Specifies position increment over time interval. Range is +/-32,000. Zero ends contour
mode.
CD
a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h
Position increment data for DMC-1680
DT n
Specifies time interval 2n msec for position increment, where n is an integer between 1 and
8. Zero ends contour mode. If n does not change, it does not need to be specified with each
CD.
WC
Waits for previous time interval to be complete before next data record is processed.
General Velocity Profiles
The Contour Mode is ideal for generating any arbitrary velocity profiles. The velocity profile can
be specified as a mathematical function or as a collection of points.
The design includes two parts: Generating an array with data points and running the program.
Generating an Array - An Example
Consider the velocity and position profiles shown in Fig. 6.7. The objective is to rotate a motor a
distance of 6000 counts in 120 ms. The velocity profile is sinusoidal to reduce the jerk and the
system vibration. If we describe the position displacement in terms of A counts in B milliseconds,
we can describe the motion in the following manner:
(1 − cos( 2π
ω=
Α
Β
Χ=
AT
B
−
A
2π
Β))
sin( 2 π B )
Note: ω is the angular velocity; X is the position; and T is the variable, time, in milliseconds.
In the given example, A=6000 and B=120, the position and velocity profiles are:
X = 50T - (6000/2π) sin (2π T/120)
Note that the velocity, ω, in count/ms, is
ω = 50 [1 - cos 2π T/120]
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 97
Figure 6.7 - Velocity Profile with Sinusoidal Acceleration
The DMC-1600 can compute trigonometric functions. However, the argument must be expressed
in degrees. Using our example, the equation for X is written as:
X = 50T - 955 sin 3T
A complete program to generate the contour movement in this example is given below. To
generate an array, we compute the position value at intervals of 8 ms. This is stored at the array
POS. Then, the difference between the positions is computed and is stored in the array DIF.
Finally the motors are run in the contour mode.
Contour Mode Example
Instruction
Interpretation
#POINTS
Program defines X points
DM POS[16]
Allocate memory
DM DIF[15]
C=0
Set initial conditions, C is index
T=0
T is time in ms
#A
V1=50*T
V2=3*T
Argument in degrees
V3=-955*@SIN[V2]+V1
Compute position
[email protected][V3]
Integer value of V3
POS[C]=V4
Store in array POS
T=T+8
C=C+1
JP #A,C<16
#B
Program to find position differences
C=0
#C
98 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
D=C+1
DIF[C]=POS[D]-POS[C]
Compute the difference and store
C=C+1
JP #C,C<15
EN
End first program
#RUN
Program to run motor
CMX
Contour Mode
DT3
4 millisecond intervals
C=0
#E
CD DIF[C]
Contour Distance is in DIF
WC
Wait for completion
C=C+1
JP #E,C<15
DT0
CD0
Stop Contour
EN
End the program
Teach (Record and Play-Back)
Several applications require teaching the machine a motion trajectory. Teaching can be
accomplished using the DMC-1600 automatic array capture feature to capture position data. The
captured data may then be played back in the contour mode. The following array commands are
used:
DM C[n]
Dimension array
RA C[]
Specify array for automatic record (up to 4 for DMC-1640)
RD _TPX
Specify data for capturing (such as _TPX or _TPZ)
RC n,m
Specify capture time interval where n is 2n msec, m is number of records to be
captured
RC? or _RC
Returns a 1 if recording
Record and Playback Example:
#RECORD
Begin Program
DM XPOS[501]
Dimension array with 501 elements
RA XPOS[]
Specify automatic record
RD _TPX
Specify X position to be captured
MOX
Turn X motor off
RC2
Begin recording; 4 msec interval
#A;JP#A,_RC=1
Continue until done recording
#COMPUTE
Compute DX
DM DX[500]
Dimension Array for DX
C=0
Initialize counter
#L
Label
D=C+1
DMC-1600
DELTA=XPOS[D]XPOS[C]
Compute the difference
DX[C]=DELTA
Store difference in array
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 99
C=C+1
Increment index
JP #L,C<500
Repeat until done
#PLAYBCK
Begin Playback
CMX
Specify contour mode
DT2
Specify time increment
I=0
Initialize array counter
#B
Loop counter
CD XPOS[I];WC
JP #B,I<500
Specify contour data I=I+1 Increment array counter
Loop until done
DT 0;CD0
End contour mode
EN
End program
For additional information about automatic array capture, see Chapter 7, Arrays.
Virtual Axis
The DMC-1600 controller has an additional virtual axis designated as the N axis. This axis has no
encoder and no DAC. However, it can be commanded by the commands:
AC, DC, JG, SP, PR, PA, BG, IT, GA, VM, VP, CR, ST, DP, RP.
The main use of the virtual axis is to serve as a virtual master in ECAM modes, and to perform an
unnecessary part of a vector mode. These applications are illustrated by the following examples.
ECAM Master Example
Suppose that the motion of the XY axes is constrained along a path that can be described by an
electronic cam table. Further assume that the ecam master is not an external encoder but has to be
a controlled variable.
This can be achieved by defining the N axis as the master with the command EAN and setting the
modulo of the master with a command such as EMN= 4000. Next, the table is constructed. To
move the constrained axes, simply command the N axis in the jog mode or with the PR and PA
commands.
For example,
PAN = 2000
BGN
will cause the XY axes to move to the corresponding points on the motion cycle.
Sinusoidal Motion Example
The x axis must perform a sinusoidal motion of 10 cycles with an amplitude of 1000 counts and a
frequency of 20 Hz.
This can be performed by commanding the X and N axes to perform circular motion. Note that
the value of VS must be
VS=2π * R * F
where R is the radius, or amplitude and F is the frequency in Hz.
Set VA and VD to maximum values for the fastest acceleration
INSTRUCTION
INTERPRETATION
VMXN
Select axes
VA 68000000
Maximum Acceleration
100 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
VD 68000000
Maximum Deceleration
VS 125664
VS for 20 Hz
CR 1000, -90, 3600
Ten cycles
VE
BGS
Stepper Motor Operation
When configured for stepper motor operation, several commands are interpreted differently than
from servo mode. The following describes operation with stepper motors.
Specifying Stepper Motor Operation
In order to command stepper motor operation, the appropriate stepper mode jumpers must be
installed. See chapter 2 for this installation.
Stepper motor operation is specified by the command MT. The argument for MT is as follows:
2 specifies a stepper motor with active low step output pulses
-2 specifies a stepper motor with active high step output pulses
2.5 specifies a stepper motor with active low step output pulses and reversed direction
-2.5 specifies a stepper motor with active high step output pulse and reversed direction
Stepper Motor Smoothing
The command, KS, provides stepper motor smoothing. The effect of the smoothing can be
thought of as a simple Resistor-Capacitor (single pole) filter. The filter occurs after the motion
profiler and has the effect of smoothing out the spacing of pulses for a more smooth operation of
the stepper motor. Use of KS is most applicable when operating in full step or half step operation.
KS will cause the step pulses to be delayed in accordance with the time constant specified.
When operating with stepper motors, you will always have some amount of stepper motor
smoothing, KS. Since this filtering effect occurs after the profiler, the profiler may be ready for
additional moves before all of the step pulses have gone through the filter. It is important to
consider this effect since steps may be lost if the controller is commanded to generate an
additional move before the previous move has been completed. See the discussion below,
Monitoring Generated Pulses vs. Commanded Pulses.
The general motion smoothing command, IT, can also be used. The purpose of the command, IT,
is to smooth out the motion profile and decrease 'jerk' due to acceleration.
Monitoring Generated Pulses vs. Commanded Pulses
In general, it is necessary to make sure that the controller has completed generating all step pulses
before making additional moves. If additional motion commands are given while step motor is
already moving, some steps may be missed.* This is most particularly important when moving
back and forth. For example, when operating with servo motors, the trippoint AM (After Motion)
is used to determine when the motion profiler is complete and is prepared to execute a new motion
command. However when operating in stepper mode, the controller may still be generating step
pulses when the motion profiler is complete. This is caused by the stepper motor smoothing filter,
KS. To understand this, consider the steps the controller executes to generate step pulses:
First, the controller generates a motion profile in accordance with the motion commands.
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 101
Second, the profiler generates pulses as prescribed by the motion profile. The pulses that are
generated by the motion profiler can be monitored by the command, RP (Reference Position). RP
gives the absolute value of the position as determined by the motion profiler. The command, DP,
can be used to set the value of the reference position. For example, DP 0, defines the reference
position of the X axis to be zero.
Third, the output of the motion profiler is filtered by the stepper smoothing filter. This filter adds
a delay in the output of the stepper motor pulses. The amount of delay depends on the parameter
which is specified by the command, KS. As mentioned earlier, there will always be some amount
of stepper motor smoothing. The default value for KS is 2 which corresponds to a time constant
of 6 sample periods.
Fourth, the output of the stepper smoothing filter is buffered and is available for input to the
stepper motor driver. The pulses which are generated by the smoothing filter can be monitored by
the command, TD (Tell Dual). TD gives the absolute value of the position as determined by
actual output of the buffer. The command, DP sets the value of the step count register as well as
the value of the reference position. For example, DP 0, defines the reference position of the X
axis to be zero.
Stepper Smoothing Filter
(Adds a Delay)
Motion Profiler
Reference Position (RP)
Output Buffer
Output
(To Stepper Driver)
Step Count Register (TD)
*Note: Although steps can be missed by over lapping moves, when the last stepper motion has
been completed the stepper will be in the correct position.
Motion Complete Trippoint
When used in stepper mode, the MC command will hold up execution of the proceeding
commands until the controller has generated the same number of steps out of the step count
register as specified in the commanded position. The MC trippoint (Motion Complete) is
generally more useful than AM trippoint (After Motion) since the step pulses can be delayed from
the commanded position due to stepper motor smoothing.
Using an Encoder with Stepper Motors
An encoder may be used on a stepper motor to check the actual motor position with the
commanded position. If an encoder is used, it must be connected to the main encoder input. Note:
The auxiliary encoder is not available while operating with stepper motors. The position of the
encoder can be interrogated by using the command, TP. The position value can be defined by
using the command, DE.
Note: Closed loop operation with a stepper motor is not possible.
Command Summary - Stepper Motor Operation
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
DE
Define Encoder Position (When using an encoder)
DP
Define Reference Position and Step Count Register
IT
Motion Profile Smoothing - Independent Time Constant
KS
Stepper Motor Smoothing
102 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
LC
Low Current Stepper Mode (toggles amp enable line when holding position)
MT
Motor Type (2,-2,2.5 or -2.5 for stepper motors)
RP
Report Commanded Position
TD
Report number of step pulses generated by controller
TP
Tell Position of Encoder
Operand Summary - Stepper Motor Operation
OPERAND
DESCRIPTION
_DEx
Contains the value of the step count register for the 'x' axis
_DPx
Contains the value of the main encoder for the 'x' axis
_ITx
Contains the value of the Independent Time constant for the 'x' axis
_KSx
Contains the value of the Stepper Motor Smoothing Constant for the 'x' axis
_MTx
Contains the motor type value for the 'x' axis
_RPx
Contains the commanded position generated by the profiler for the 'x' axis
_TDx
Contains the value of the step count register for the 'x' axis
_TPx
Contains the value of the main encoder for the 'x' axis
Stepper Position Maintenance Mode (SPM)
The Galil controller can be set into the Stepper Position Maintenance (SPM) mode to handle the
event of stepper motor position error. The mode looks at position feedback from the main encoder
and compares it to the commanded step pulses. The position information is used to determine if
there is any significant difference between the commanded and the actual motor positions. If such
error is detected, it is updated into a command value for operator use. In addition, the SPM mode
can be used as a method to correct for friction at the end of a microstepping move. This capability
provides closed-loop control at the application program level. SPM mode can be used with Galil
and non-Galil step drives.
SPM mode is configured, executed, and managed with seven commands. This mode also utilizes
the #POSERR automatic subroutine allowing for automatic user-defined handling of an error
event.
Internal Controller Commands (user can query):
QS
Error Magnitude (pulses)
User Configurable Commands (user can query & change):
DMC-1600
OE
Profiler Off-On Error
YA
Step Drive Resolution (pulses / full motor step)
YB
Step Motor Resolution (full motor steps / revolution)
YC
Encoder Resolution (counts / revolution)
YR
Error Correction (pulses)
YS
Stepper Position Maintenance enable, status
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 103
A pulse is defined by the resolution of the step drive being used. Therefore, one pulse could be a
full step, a half step or a microstep.
When a Galil controller is configured for step motor operation, the step pulse output by the
controller is internally fed back to the auxiliary encoder register. For SPM the feedback encoder
on the stepper will connect to the main encoder port. Enabling the SPM mode on a controller
with YS=1 executes an internal monitoring of the auxiliary and main encoder registers for that
axis or axes. Position error is then tracked in step pulses between these two registers (QS
command).
QS = TD −
TP × YA × YB
YC
Where TD is the auxiliary encoder register(step pulses) and TP is the main encoder
register(feedback encoder). Additionally, YA defines the step drive resolution where YA = 1 for
full stepping or YA = 2 for half stepping. The full range of YA is up to YA = 9999 for
microstepping drives.
Error Limit
The value of QS is internally monitored to determine if it exceeds a preset limit of three full motor
steps. Once the value of QS exceeds this limit, the controller then performs the following actions:
1.
The motion is maintained or is stopped, depending on the setting of the OE command. If
OE=0 the axis stays in motion, if OE=1 the axis is stopped.
2.
YS is set to 2, which causes the automatic subroutine labeled #POSERR to be executed.
Correction
A correction move can be commanded by assigning the value of QS to the YR correction move
command. The correction move is issued only after the axis has been stopped. After an error
correction move has completed and QS is less than three full motor steps, the YS error status bit is
automatically reset back to 1; indicating a cleared error.
Example: SPM Mode Setup
The following code demonstrates what is necessary to set up SPM mode for a full step drive, a
half step drive, and a 1/64th microstepping drive for an axis with a 1.8o step motor and 4000
count/rev encoder. Note the necessary difference is with the YA command.
Full-Stepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA1;
Step resolution of the full-step drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
104 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
WT50;
Allow slight settle time
YS1;
Enable SPM mode
Half-Stepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA2;
Step resolution of the half-step drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
WT50;
Allow slight settle time
YS1;
Enable SPM mode
1/64th Step Microstepping Drive, X axis:
#SETUP
OE1;
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA64;
Step resolution of the microstepping drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
WT50;
Allow slight settle time
YS1;
Enable SPM mode
Example: Error Correction
The following code demonstrates what is necessary to set up SPM mode for the X axis, detect
error, stop the motor, correct the error, and return to the main code. The drive is a full step drive,
with a 1.8o step motor and 4000 count/rev encoder.
#SETUP
OE1;
DMC-1600
Set the profiler to stop axis upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2,-2,-2,-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA2;
Step resolution of the drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 105
SHX;
Enable axis
WT100;
Allow slight settle time
#MOTION
Perform motion
SP512;
Set the speed
PR1000;
Prepare mode of motion
BGX;
Begin motion
#LOOP;JP#LOOP;
Keep thread zero alive for #POSERR to run in
REM When error occurs, the axis will stop due to OE1. In REM #POSERR, query
the status YS and the error QS, correct, REM and return to the main code.
#POSERR;
Automatic subroutine is called when YS=2
WT100;
Wait helps user see the correction
spsave=_SPX;
Save current speed setting
JP#RETURN,_YSX<>2;
Return to thread zero if invalid error
SP64;
Set slow speed setting for correction
MG”ERROR= “,_QSX
YRX=_QSX;
Else, error is valid, use QS for correction
MCX;
Wait for motion to complete
MG”CORRECTED, ERROR NOW= “,_QSX
WT100;
Wait helps user see the correction
#RETURN
SPX=spsave;
Return the speed to previous setting
REO;
Return from #POSERR
Example: Friction Correction
The following example illustrates how the SPM mode can be useful in correcting for X axis
friction after each move when conducting a reciprocating motion. The drive is a 1/64th
microstepping drive with a 1.8o step motor and 4000 count/rev encoder.
#SETUP;
Set the profiler to continue upon error
KS16;
Set step smoothing
MT-2,-2,-2,-2;
Motor type set to stepper
YA64;
Step resolution of the microstepping drive
YB200;
Motor resolution (full steps per revolution)
YC4000;
Encoder resolution (counts per revolution)
SHX;
Enable axis
WT50;
Allow slight settle time
YS1;
Enable SPM mode
106 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
#MOTION;
Perform motion
SP16384;
Set the speed
PR10000;
Prepare mode of motion
BGX;
Begin motion
MCX
JS#CORRECT;
Move to correction
#MOTION2
SP16384;
Set the speed
PR-10000;
Prepare mode of motion
BGX;
Begin motion
MCX
JS#CORRECT;
Move to correction
JP#MOTION
#CORRECT;
Correction code
spx=_SPX
#LOOP;
Save speed value
SP2048;
Set a new slow correction speed
WT100;
Stabilize
JP#END,@ABS[_QSX]<10; End correction if error is within defined tolerance
YRX=_QSX;
Correction move
MCX
WT100;
Stabilize
JP#LOOP;
Keep correcting until error is within tolerance
#END;
End #CORRECT subroutine, returning to code
SPX=spx
EN
Dual Loop (Auxiliary Encoder)
The DMC-1600 provides an interface for a second encoder for each axis except for axes
configured for stepper motor operation and axis used in circular compare. When used, the second
encoder is typically mounted on the motor or the load, but may be mounted in any position. The
most common use for the second encoder is backlash compensation, described below.
The second encoder may be a standard quadrature type, or it may provide pulse and direction. The
controller also offers the provision for inverting the direction of the encoder rotation. The main
and the auxiliary encoders are configured with the CE command. The command form is CE
x,y,z,w (or a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h for controllers with more than 4 axes) where the parameters x,y,z,w each
equal the sum of two integers m and n. m configures the main encoder and n configures the
auxiliary encoder.
Using the CE Command
DMC-1600
m=
Main Encoder
n=
Second Encoder
0
Normal quadrature
0
Normal quadrature
1
Pulse & direction
4
Pulse & direction
2
Reverse quadrature
8
Reversed quadrature
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 107
3
Reverse pulse & direction
12
Reversed pulse & direction
For example, to configure the main encoder for reversed quadrature, m=2, and a second encoder
of pulse and direction, n=4, the total is 6, and the command for the X axis is
CE 6
Additional Commands for the Auxiliary Encoder
The command, DE x,y,z,w, can be used to define the position of the auxiliary encoders. For
example,
DE 0,500,-30,300
sets their initial values.
The positions of the auxiliary encoders may be interrogated with the command, DE?. For example
DE ?,,?
returns the value of the X and Z auxiliary encoders.
The auxiliary encoder position may be assigned to variables with the instructions
V1= _DEX
The command, TD XYZW, returns the current position of the auxiliary encoder.
The command, DV XYZW, configures the auxiliary encoder to be used for backlash
compensation.
Backlash Compensation
There are two methods for backlash compensation using the auxiliary encoders:
1.
7Continuous dual loop
2.
Sampled dual loop
To illustrate the problem, consider a situation in which the coupling between the motor and the
load has a backlash. To compensate for the backlash, position encoders are mounted on both the
motor and the load.
The continuous dual loop combines the two feedback signals to achieve stability. This method
requires careful system tuning, and depends on the magnitude of the backlash. However, once
successful, this method compensates for the backlash continuously.
The second method, the sampled dual loop, reads the load encoder only at the end point and
performs a correction. This method is independent of the size of the backlash. However, it is
effective only in point-to-point motion systems which require position accuracy only at the
endpoint.
Continuous Dual Loop - Example
Connect the load encoder to the main encoder port and connect the motor encoder to the dual
encoder port. The dual loop method splits the filter function between the two encoders. It applies
108 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
the KP (proportional) and KI (integral) terms to the position error, based on the load encoder, and
applies the KD (derivative) term to the motor encoder. This method results in a stable system.
The dual loop method is activated with the instruction DV (Dual Velocity), where
DV
1,1,1,1
activates the dual loop for the four axes and
DV
0,0,0,0
disables the dual loop.
Note that the dual loop compensation depends on the backlash magnitude, and in extreme cases
will not stabilize the loop. The proposed compensation procedure is to start with KP=0, KI=0 and
to maximize the value of KD under the condition DV1. Once KD is found, increase KP gradually
to a maximum value, and finally, increase KI, if necessary.
Sampled Dual Loop - Example
In this example, we consider a linear slide which is run by a rotary motor via a lead screw. Since
the lead screw has a backlash, it is necessary to use a linear encoder to monitor the position of the
slide. For stability reasons, it is best to use a rotary encoder on the motor.
Connect the rotary encoder to the X-axis and connect the linear encoder to the auxiliary encoder of
X. Assume that the required motion distance is one inch, and that this corresponds to 40,000
counts of the rotary encoder and 10,000 counts of the linear encoder.
The design approach is to drive the motor a distance, which corresponds to 40,000 rotary counts.
Once the motion is complete, the controller monitors the position of the linear encoder and
performs position corrections.
This is done by the following program.
Instruction
Interpretation
#DUALOOP
Label
CE 0
Configure encoder
DE0
Set initial value
PR 40000
Main move
BGX
Start motion
#Correct
Correction loop
AMX
Wait for motion completion
V1=10000-_DEX
Find linear encoder error
V2=-_TEX/4+V1
Compensate for motor error
JP#END,@ABS[V2]<2
Exit if error is small
PR V2*4
Correction move
BGX
Start correction
JP#CORRECT
Repeat
#END
EN
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 109
Motion Smoothing
The DMC-1600 controller allows the smoothing of the velocity profile to reduce the mechanical
vibration of the system.
Trapezoidal velocity profiles have acceleration rates which change abruptly from zero to
maximum value. The discontinuous acceleration results in jerk which causes vibration. The
smoothing of the acceleration profile leads to a continuous acceleration profile and reduces the
mechanical shock and vibration.
Using the IT and VT Commands (S curve profiling):
When operating with servo motors, motion smoothing can be accomplished with the IT and VT
command. These commands filter the acceleration and deceleration functions to produce a smooth
velocity profile. The resulting velocity profile, known as S curve, has continuous acceleration and
results in reduced mechanical vibrations.
The smoothing function is specified by the following commands:
IT x,y,z,w
Independent time constant
VT n
Vector time constant
The command, IT, is used for smoothing independent moves of the type JG, PR, PA and the
command, VT, is used to smooth vector moves of the type VM and LM.
The smoothing parameters, x,y,z,w and n are numbers between 0 and 1 and determine the degree
of filtering. The maximum value of 1 implies no filtering, resulting in trapezoidal velocity
profiles. Smaller values of the smoothing parameters imply heavier filtering and smoother moves.
The following example illustrates the effect of smoothing. Fig. 6.8 shows the trapezoidal velocity
profile and the modified acceleration and velocity.
Note that the smoothing process results in longer motion time.
Example - Smoothing
PR 20000
Position
AC 100000
Acceleration
DC 100000
Deceleration
SP 5000
Speed
IT .5
Filter for S-curve
BG X
Begin
110 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
ACCELERATION
VELOCITY
ACCELERATION
VELOCITY
Figure 6.8 - Trapezoidal velocity and smooth velocity profiles
Homing
The Find Edge (FE) and Home (HM) instructions may be used to home the motor to a mechanical
reference. This reference is connected to the Home input line. The HM command initializes the
motor to the encoder index pulse in addition to the Home input. The configure command (CN) is
used to define the polarity of the home input.
The Find Edge (FE) instruction is useful for initializing the motor to a home switch. The home
switch is connected to the Homing Input. When the Find Edge command and Begin is used, the
motor will accelerate up to the slew speed and slew until a transition is detected on the Homing
line. The motor will then decelerate to a stop. A high deceleration value must be input before the
find edge command is issued for the motor to decelerate rapidly after sensing the home switch.
The Home (HM) command can be used to position the motor on the index pulse after the home
switch is detected. This allows for finer positioning on initialization. The command sequence
HM and BG causes the following sequence of events to occur.
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 111
1.
Upon begin, motor accelerates to the slew speed. The direction of its motion is
determined by the state of the homing input. A zero (GND) will cause the motor to
start in the forward direction; +5V will cause it to start in the reverse direction. The
CN command is used to define the polarity of the home input.
2.
Upon detecting the home switch changing state, the motor begins decelerating to a
stop.
3.
The motor then traverses very slowly back until the home switch toggles again.
4.
The motor then traverses forward until the encoder index pulse is detected.
5.
The DMC-1600 defines the home position (0) as the position at which the index was
detected.
Example:
#HOME
Label
AC 1000000
Acceleration Rate
DC 1000000
Deceleration Rate
SP 5000
Speed for Home Search
HM X
Home X
BG X
Begin Motion
AM X
After Complete
MG "AT HOME"
Send Message
EN
End
#EDGE
Label
AC 2000000
Acceleration rate
DC 2000000
Deceleration rate
SP 8000
Speed
FE Y
Find edge command
BG Y
Begin motion
AM Y
After complete
MG "FOUND HOME"
Send message
DP,0
Define position as 0
EN
End
112 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
MOTION BEGINS
TOWARD HOME
DIRECTION
POSITION
MOTION REVERSE
TOWARD HOME
DIRECTION
POSITION
MOTION TOWARD INDEX
DIRECTION
POSITION
INDEX PULSES
POSITION
HOME SWITCH
POSITION
Figure 6.9 - Motion intervals in the Home sequence
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 113
High Speed Position Capture (The Latch Function)
Often it is desirable to capture the position precisely for registration applications. The DMC-1600
provides a position latch feature. This feature allows the position of the main or auxiliary
encoders of X,Y,Z or W to be captured within 25 microseconds of an external low input signal.
Faster latch times are available to <1 usec. Please contact Galil. The general inputs 1 through 4
and 9 thru 12 correspond to each axis.
1 through 4:
9 through 12
IN1 X-axis latch
IN9
E-axis latch
IN2 Y-axis latch
IN10
F-axis latch
IN3 Z-axis latch
IN11
G-axis latch
IN4 W-axis latch
IN12
H-axis latch
Note: To insure a position capture within 25 microseconds, the input signal must be a transition
from high to low.
The DMC-1600 software commands, AL and RL, are used to arm the latch and report the latched
position. The steps to use the latch are as follows:
1.
Give the AL XYZW command or ABCDEFGH for DMC-1680, to arm the latch for
the main encoder and ALSXSYSZSW for the auxiliary encoders.
2.
Test to see if the latch has occurred (Input goes low) by using the _AL X or Y or Z
or W command. Example, V1=_ALX returns the state of the X latch into V1. V1 is
1 if the latch has not occurred.
3.
After the latch has occurred, read the captured position with the RL XYZW
command or _RL XYZW.
Note: The latch must be re-armed after each latching event.
Example:
#Latch
Latch program
JG,5000
Jog Y
BG Y
Begin motion on Y axis
AL Y
Arm Latch for Y axis
#Wait
#Wait label for loop
JP #Wait,_ALY=1
Jump to #Wait label if latch has not occurred
Result=_RLY
Set value of variable ‘Result’ equal to the report position of y axis
Result=
Print result
EN
End
Fast Firmware Operation
The DMC-1600 motion controllers can operate in a mode which allows for very fast servo update
rates. This mode is known as 'fast mode' and allows the following update rates:
DMC-1610
125 usec
DMC-1620
125 usec
DMC-1630
250 usec
DMC-1640
250 usec
DMC-1650
375 usec
114 • Chapter 6 Programming Motion
DMC-1600
DMC-1660
375 usec
DMC-1670
500 usec
DMC-1680
500 usec
In order to run the DMC-1600 motion controller in fast mode, the fast firmware must be uploaded.
This can be done through the Galil terminal software such as DMCTERM and WSDK. The fast
firmware is included with the controller utilities. In order to set the desired update rates, use the
command TM.
When operating the controller with the fast firmware, some functionality is limited. The following
functions are disabled:
Gearing Mode
Ecam Mode
Pole (PL)
Analog Feedback (AF)
Stepper Motor Operation (MT 2,-2,2.5,-2.5)
Trippoints allowed only in thread 0
DMA channel
Tell Velocity Interrogation Command (TV)
Aux Encoders (TD)
Dual Velocity (DV)
Peak Torque Limit (TK)
Notch Filter (NB, NF, NZ)
Second Field of EI
DMC-1600
Chapter 6 Programming Motion • 115
Chapter 7 Application
Programming
Overview
The DMC-1600 provides a powerful programming language that allows users to customize the
controller for their particular application. Programs can be downloaded into the DMC-1600
memory freeing the host computer for other tasks. However, the host computer can send
commands to the controller at any time, even while a program is being executed. Only ASCII
commands can be used for application programming.
In addition to standard motion commands, the DMC-1600 provides commands that allow the
DMC-1600 to make its own decisions. These commands include conditional jumps, event triggers
and subroutines. For example, the command JP#LOOP, n<10 causes a jump to the label #LOOP
if the variable n is less than 10.
For greater programming flexibility, the DMC-1600 provides user-defined variables, arrays and
arithmetic functions. For example, with a cut-to-length operation, the length can be specified as a
variable in a program which the operator can change as necessary.
The following sections in this chapter discuss all aspects of creating applications programs. The
program memory size is 80 characters x 1000 lines.
Using the DMC-1600 Editor to Enter Programs
Application programs for the DMC-1600 may be created and edited either locally using the DMC1600 editor or remotely using another editor and then downloading the program into the
controller. (Galil's Terminal and SDK-software software provide an editor and UPLOAD and
DOWNLOAD utilities).
The DMC-1600 provides a line Editor for entering and modifying programs. The Edit mode is
entered with the ED instruction. (Note: The ED command can only be given when the controller
is in the non-edit mode, which is signified by a colon prompt).
In the Edit Mode, each program line is automatically numbered sequentially starting with 000. If
no parameter follows the ED command, the editor prompter will default to the last line of the last
program in memory. If desired, the user can edit a specific line number or label by specifying a
line number or label following ED.
116 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
ED
Puts Editor at end of last program
:ED 5
Puts Editor at line 5
:ED #BEGIN
Puts Editor at label #BEGIN
Line numbers appear as 000,001,002 and so on. Program commands are entered following the
line numbers. Multiple commands may be given on a single line as long as the total number of
characters doesn't exceed 80 characters per line.
While in the Edit Mode, the programmer has access to special instructions for saving, inserting
and deleting program lines. These special instructions are listed below:
Edit Mode Commands
<RETURN>
Typing the return key causes the current line of entered instructions to be saved. The editor will
automatically advance to the next line. Thus, hitting a series of <RETURN> will cause the editor
to advance a series of lines. Note, changes on a program line will not be saved unless a <return>
is given.
<cntrl>P
The <cntrl>P command moves the editor to the previous line.
<cntrl>I
The <cntrl>I command inserts a line above the current line. For example, if the editor is at line
number 2 and <cntrl>I is applied, a new line will be inserted between lines 1 and 2. This new line
will be labeled line 2. The old line number 2 is renumbered as line 3.
<cntrl>D
The <cntrl>D command deletes the line currently being edited. For example, if the editor is at line
number 2 and <cntrl>D is applied, line 2 will be deleted. The previous line number 3 is now
renumbered as line number 2.
<cntrl>Q
The <cntrl>Q quits the editor mode. In response, the DMC-1600 will return a colon.
After the Edit session is over, the user may list the entered program using the LS command. If no
operand follows the LS command, the entire program will be listed. The user can start listing at a
specific line or label using the operand n. A command and new line number or label following the
start listing operand specifies the location at which listing is to stop.
Example:
Instruction
Interpretation
:LS
List entire program
:LS 5
Begin listing at line 5
:LS 5,9
List lines 5 thru 9
:LS #A,9
List line label #A thru line 9
:LS #A, #A +5
List line label #A and additional 5 lines
Program Format
A DMC-1600 program consists of DMC-1600 instructions combined to solve a machine control
application. Action instructions, such as starting and stopping motion, are combined with
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 117
Program Flow instructions to form the complete program. Program Flow instructions evaluate
real-time conditions, such as elapsed time or motion complete, and alter program flow
accordingly.
Each DMC-1600 instruction in a program must be separated by a delimiter. Valid delimiters are
the semicolon (;) or carriage return. The semicolon is used to separate multiple instructions on a
single program line where the maximum number of instructions on a line is limited by 80
characters. A carriage return enters the final command on a program line.
Using Labels in Programs
All DMC-1600 programs must begin with a label and end with an End (EN) statement. Labels
start with the pound (#) sign followed by a maximum of seven characters. The first character must
be a letter; after that, numbers are permitted. Spaces are not permitted.
The maximum number of labels which may be defined is 254.
Valid labels
#BEGIN
#SQUARE
#X1
#BEGIN1
Invalid labels
#1Square
#123
A Simple Example Program:
#START
Beginning of the Program
PR 10000,20000
Specify relative distances on X and Y axes
BG XY
Begin Motion
AM
Wait for motion complete
WT 2000
Wait 2 sec
JP #START
Jump to label START
EN
End of Program
The above program moves X and Y 10000 and 20000 units. After the motion is complete, the
motors rest for 2 seconds. The cycle repeats indefinitely until the stop command is issued.
Special Labels
The DMC-1600 has some special labels, which are used to define input interrupt subroutines, limit
switch subroutines, error handling subroutines, and command error subroutines. See section on
Auto-Start Routine
The DMC-1600 has a special label for automatic program execution. A program which has been
saved into the controller’s non-volatile memory can be automatically executed upon power up or
reset by beginning the program with the label #AUTO. The program must be saved into nonvolatile memory using the command BP.
Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions on page on page 132.
118 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
#ININT
Label for Input Interrupt subroutine
#LIMSWI
Label for Limit Switch subroutine
#POSERR
Label for excess Position Error subroutine
#MCTIME
Label for timeout on Motion Complete trip point
#CMDERR
Label for incorrect command subroutine
Commenting Programs
Using the command, NO
The DMC-1600 provides a command, NO, for commenting programs. This command allows the
user to include up to 78 characters on a single line after the NO command and can be used to
include comments from the programmer as in the following example:
#PATH
NO 2-D CIRCULAR PATH
VMXY
NO VECTOR MOTION ON X AND Y
VS 10000
NO VECTOR SPEED IS 10000
VP -4000,0
NO BOTTOM LINE
CR 1500,270,-180
NO HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VP 0,3000
NO TOP LINE
CR 1500,90,-180
NO HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VE
NO END VECTOR SEQUENCE
BGS
NO BEGIN SEQUENCE MOTION
EN
NO END OF PROGRAM
Note: The NO command is an actual controller command. Therefore, inclusion of the NO
commands will require process time by the controller.
Using REM Statements with the Galil Terminal Software.
If you are using Galil software to communicate with the DMC-1600 controller, you may also
include REM statements. ‘REM’ statements begin with the word ‘REM’ and may be followed by
any comments which are on the same line. The Galil terminal software will remove these
statements when the program is downloaded to the controller. For example:
#PATH
REM 2-D CIRCULAR PATH
VMXY
REM VECTOR MOTION ON X AND Y
VS 10000
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 119
REM VECTOR SPEED IS 10000
VP -4000,0
REM BOTTOM LINE
CR 1500,270,-180
REM HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VP 0,3000
REM TOP LINE
CR 1500,90,-180
REM HALF CIRCLE MOTION
VE
REM END VECTOR SEQUENCE
BGS
REM BEGIN SEQUENCE MOTION
EN
REM END OF PROGRAM
These REM statements will be removed when this program is downloaded to the controller.
Executing Programs - Multitasking
The DMC-1600 can run up to 8 independent programs simultaneously. These programs are called
threads and are numbered 0 through 7, where 0 is the main thread. Multitasking is useful for
executing independent operations such as PLC functions that occur independently of motion.
The main thread differs from the others in the following ways:
1. Only the main thread, thread 0, may use the input command, IN.
2. When input interrupts are implemented for limit switches, position errors or command errors,
the subroutines are executed as thread 0.
To begin execution of the various programs, use the following instruction:
XQ #A, n
Where n indicates the thread number. To halt the execution of any thread, use the instruction
HX n
where n is the thread number.
Note that both the XQ and HX commands can be performed by an executing program.
The example below produces a waveform on Output 1 independent of a move.
#TASK1
Task1 label
AT0
Initialize reference time
CB1
Clear Output 1
#LOOP1
Loop1 label
AT 10
Wait 10 msec from reference time
SB1
Set Output 1
AT -40
Wait 40 msec from reference time, then initialize reference
CB1
Clear Output 1
JP #LOOP1
Repeat Loop1
120 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
#TASK2
Task2 label
XQ #TASK1,1
Execute Task1
#LOOP2
Loop2 label
PR 1000
Define relative distance
BGX
Begin motion
AMX
After motion done
WT 10
Wait 10 msec
JP #LOOP2,@IN[2]=1
Repeat motion unless Input 2 is low
HX
Halt all tasks
The program above is executed with the instruction XQ #TASK2,0 which designates TASK2 as
the main thread (i.e. Thread 0). #TASK1 is executed within TASK2.
Debugging Programs
The DMC-1600 provides commands and operands which are useful in debugging application
programs. These commands include interrogation commands to monitor program execution,
determine the state of the controller and the contents of the controllers program, array, and
variable space. Operands also contain important status information which can help to debug a
program.
Trace Commands
The trace command causes the controller to send each line in a program to the host computer
immediately prior to execution. Tracing is enabled with the command, TR1. TR0 turns the trace
function off. Note: When the trace function is enabled, the line numbers as well as the command
line will be displayed as each command line is executed.
Data which is output from the controller is stored in an output FIFO buffer. The output FIFO
buffer can store up to 512 characters of information. In normal operation, the controller places
output into the FIFO buffer. The software on the host computer monitors this buffer and reads
information as needed. When the trace mode is enabled, the controller will send information to
the FIFO buffer at a very high rate. In general, the FIFO will become full since the software is
unable to read the information fast enough. When the FIFO becomes full, program execution will
be delayed until it is cleared. If the user wants to avoid this delay, the command CW,1 can be
given. This command causes the controller to throw away the data which can not be placed into
the FIFO. In this case, the controller does not delay program execution.
Break and Single Step Commands
The commands BK and SL can be used to single step through an application program. See the
command reference for details.
Error Code Command
When there is a program error, the DMC-1600 halts the program execution at the point where the
error occurs. To display the last line number of program execution, issue the command, MG _ED.
The user can obtain information about the type of error condition that occurred by using the
command, TC1. This command reports back a number and a text message which describes the
error condition. The command, TC0 or TC, will return the error code without the text message.
For more information about the command, TC, see the Command Reference.
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 121
Stop Code Command
The status of motion for each axis can be determined by using the stop code command, SC. This
can be useful when motion on an axis has stopped unexpectedly. The command SC will return a
number representing the motion status. See the command reference for further information.
RAM Memory Interrogation Commands
For debugging the status of the program memory, array memory, or variable memory, the DMC1600 has several useful commands. The command, DM ?, will return the number of array
elements currently available. The command, DA ?, will return the number of arrays which can be
currently defined. For example, a standard DMC-1610 will have a maximum of 8000 array
elements in up to 30 arrays. If an array of 100 elements is defined, the command DM ? will return
the value 7900 and the command DA ? will return 29.
To list the contents of the variable space, use the interrogation command LV (List Variables). To
list the contents of array space, use the interrogation command, LA (List Arrays). To list the
contents of the Program space, use the interrogation command, LS (List). To list the application
program labels only, use the interrogation command, LL (List Labels).
Operands
In general, all of the operands provide information which may be useful in debugging an
application program. Below is a list of operands which are particularly valuable for program
debugging. To display the value of an operand, the message command may be used. For
example, since the operand, _ED contains the last line of program execution, the command MG
_ED will display this line number.
_ED contains the last line of program execution. Useful to determine where program stopped.
_DL contains the number of available labels.
_UL contains the number of available variables.
_DA contains the number of available arrays.
_DM contains the number of available array elements.
_AB contains the state of the Abort Input
_LFx contains the state of the forward limit switch for the 'x' axis
_LRx contains the state of the reverse limit switch for the 'x' axis
Debugging Example:
The following program has an error. It attempts to specify a relative movement while the X-axis
is already in motion. When the program is executed, the controller stops at line 003. The user can
then query the controller using the command, TC1. The controller responds with the
corresponding explanation:
:ED
Edit Mode
000 #A
Program Label
001 PR1000
Position Relative 1000
002 BGX
Begin
003 PR5000
Position Relative 5000
004 EN
End
<cntrl> Q
Quit Edit Mode
:XQ #A
Execute #A
122 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
?003 PR5000
Error on Line 3
:TC1
Tell Error Code
?7 Command not valid
while running.
Command not valid while running
:ED 3
Edit Line 3
003 AMX;PR5000;BGX
Add After Motion Done
<cntrl> Q
Quit Edit Mode
:XQ #A
Execute #A
Program Flow Commands
The DMC-1600 provides instructions to control program flow. The DMC-1600 program
sequencer normally executes program instructions sequentially. The program flow can be altered
with the use of event triggers, trippoints, and conditional jump statements.
Event Triggers & Trippoints
To function independently from the host computer, the DMC-1600 can be programmed to make
decisions based on the occurrence of an event. Such events include waiting for motion to be
complete, waiting for a specified amount of time to elapse, or waiting for an input to change logic
levels.
The DMC-1600 provides several event triggers that cause the program sequencer to halt until the
specified event occurs. Normally, a program is automatically executed sequentially one line at a
time. When an event trigger instruction is decoded, however, the actual program sequence is
halted. The program sequence does not continue until the event trigger is "tripped". For example,
the motion complete trigger can be used to separate two move sequences in a program. The
commands for the second move sequence will not be executed until the motion is complete on the
first motion sequence. In this way, the DMC-1600 can make decisions based on its own status or
external events without intervention from a host computer.
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 123
DMC-1600 Event Triggers
Command
Function
AM X Y Z W or S
(A B C D E F G H)
Halts program execution until motion is complete on
the specified axes or motion sequence(s). AM with no
parameter tests for motion complete on all axes. This
command is useful for separating motion sequences in
a program.
AD X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halts program execution until position command has
reached the specified relative distance from the start of
the move. Only one axis may be specified at a time.
AR X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halts program execution until after specified distance
from the last AR or AD command has elapsed. Only
one axis may be specified at a time.
AP X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halts program execution until after absolute position
occurs. Only one axis may be specified at a time.
MF X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halt program execution until after forward motion
reached absolute position. Only one axis may be
specified. If position is already past the point, then
MF will trip immediately. Will function on geared
axis or aux. inputs.
MR X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halt program execution until after reverse motion
reached absolute position. Only one axis may be
specified. If position is already past the point, then
MR will trip immediately. Will function on geared
axis or aux. inputs.
MC X or Y or Z or W
(A or B or C or D or E or F or G or H)
Halt program execution until after the motion profile
has been completed and the encoder has entered or
passed the specified position. TW x,y,z,w sets
timeout to declare an error if not in position. If
timeout occurs, then the trippoint will clear and the
stop code will be set to 99. An application program
will jump to label #MCTIME.
AI +/- n
Halts program execution until after specified input is
at specified logic level. n specifies input line.
Positive is high logic level, negative is low level. n=1
through 8 for DMC-1610, 1720, 1730, 1740. n=1
through 24 for DMC-1650, 1760, 1770, 1780. n=1
through 80 for DMC-17X8.
AS X Y Z W S
(A B C D E F G H)
Halts program execution until specified axis has
reached its slew speed.
AT +/-n
Halts program execution until n msec from reference
time. AT 0 sets reference. AT n waits n msec from
reference. AT -n waits n msec from reference and sets
new reference after elapsed time.
AV n
Halts program execution until specified distance along
a coordinated path has occurred.
WT n
Halts program execution until specified time in msec
has elapsed.
124 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
Event Trigger Examples:
Event Trigger - Multiple Move Sequence
The AM trippoint is used to separate the two PR moves. If AM is not used, the controller returns a
? for the second PR command because a new PR cannot be given until motion is complete.
#TWOMOVE
Label
PR 2000
Position Command
BGX
Begin Motion
AMX
Wait for Motion Complete
PR 4000
Next Position Move
BGX
Begin 2nd move
EN
End program
Event Trigger - Set Output after Distance
Set output bit 1 after a distance of 1000 counts from the start of the move. The accuracy of the
trippoint is the speed multiplied by the sample period.
#SETBIT
Label
SP 10000
Speed is 10000
PA 20000
Specify Absolute position
BGX
Begin motion
AD 1000
Wait until 1000 counts
SB1
Set output bit 1
EN
End program
Event Trigger - Repetitive Position Trigger
To set the output bit every 10000 counts during a move, the AR trippoint is used as shown in the
next example.
DMC-1600
#TRIP
Label
JG 50000
Specify Jog Speed
BGX;n=0
Begin Motion
#REPEAT
# Repeat Loop
AR 10000
Wait 10000 counts
TPX
Tell Position
SB1
Set output 1
WT50
Wait 50 msec
CB1
Clear output 1
n=n+1
Increment counter
JP #REPEAT,n<5
Repeat 5 times
STX
Stop
EN
End
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 125
Event Trigger - Start Motion on Input
This example waits for input 1 to go low and then starts motion. Note: The AI command actually
halts execution of the program until the input occurs. If you do not want to halt the program
sequences, you can use the Input Interrupt function (II) or use a conditional jump on an input, such
as JP #GO,@IN[1] = -1.
#INPUT
Program Label
AI-1
Wait for input 1 low
PR 10000
Position command
BGX
Begin motion
EN
End program
Event Trigger - Set output when at speed
#ATSPEED
Program Label
JG 50000
Specify jog speed
AC 10000
Acceleration rate
BGX
Begin motion
ASX
Wait for at slew speed 50000
SB1
Set output 1
EN
End program
Event Trigger - Change Speed along Vector Path
The following program changes the feed rate or vector speed at the specified distance along the
vector. The vector distance is measured from the start of the move or from the last AV command.
#VECTOR
Label
VMXY;VS 5000
Coordinated path
VP 10000,20000
Vector position
VP 20000,30000
Vector position
VE
End vector
BGS
Begin sequence
AV 5000
After vector distance
VS 1000
Reduce speed
EN
End
126 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
Event Trigger - Multiple Move with Wait
This example makes multiple relative distance moves by waiting for each to be complete before
executing new moves.
#MOVES
Label
PR 12000
Distance
SP 20000
Speed
AC 100000
Acceleration
BGX
Start Motion
AD 10000
Wait a distance of 10,000 counts
SP 5000
New Speed
AMX
Wait until motion is completed
WT 200
Wait 200 ms
PR -10000
New Position
SP 30000
New Speed
AC 150000
New Acceleration
BGX
Start Motion
EN
End
Define Output Waveform Using AT
The following program causes Output 1 to be high for 10 msec and low for 40 msec. The cycle
repeats every 50 msec.
#OUTPUT
Program label
AT0
Initialize time reference
SB1
Set Output 1
#LOOP
Loop
AT 10
After 10 msec from reference,
CB1
Clear Output 1
AT -40
Wait 40 msec from reference and reset reference
SB1
Set Output 1
JP #LOOP
Loop
EN
Conditional Jumps
The DMC-1600 provides Conditional Jump (JP) and Conditional Jump to Subroutine (JS)
instructions for branching to a new program location based on a specified condition. The
conditional jump determines if a condition is satisfied and then branches to a new location or
subroutine. Unlike event triggers, the conditional jump instruction does not halt the program
sequence. Conditional jumps are useful for testing events in real-time. They allow the DMC1600 to make decisions without a host computer. For example, the DMC-1600 can decide
between two motion profiles based on the state of an input line.
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 127
Command Format - JP and JS
FORMAT:
DESCRIPTION
JS destination, logical condition
Jump to subroutine if logical condition is satisfied
JP destination, logical condition
Jump to location if logical condition is satisfied
The destination is a program line number or label where the program sequencer will jump if the
specified condition is satisfied. Note that the line number of the first line of program memory is 0.
The comma designates "IF". The logical condition tests two operands with logical operators.
Logical operators:
OPERATOR
DESCRIPTION
<
less than
>
greater than
=
equal to
<=
less than or equal to
>=
greater than or equal to
<>
not equal
Conditional Statements
The conditional statement is satisfied if it evaluates to any value other than zero. The conditional
statement can be any valid DMC-1600 numeric operand, including variables, array elements,
numeric values, functions, keywords, and arithmetic expressions. If no conditional statement is
given, the jump will always occur.
Examples:
Number
V1=6
Numeric Expression
V1=V7*6
@ABS[V1]>10
Array Element
V1<Count[2]
Variable
V1<V2
Internal Variable
_TPX=0
I/O
V1>@AN[2]
_TVX>500
@IN[1]=0
Multiple Conditional Statements
The DMC-1600 will accept multiple conditions in a single jump statement. The conditional
statements are combined in pairs using the operands “&” and “|”. The “&” operand between any
two conditions, requires that both statements must be true for the combined statement to be true.
The “|” operand between any two conditions, requires that only one statement be true for the
combined statement to be true. Note: Each condition must be placed in parenthesis for proper
evaluation by the controller. In addition, the DMC-1600 executes operations from left to right.
For further information on Mathematical Expressions and the bit-wise operators ‘&’ and ‘|’, see
pg 135.
For example, using variables named V1, V2, V3 and V4:
128 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
JP #TEST, (V1<V2) & (V3<V4)
In this example, this statement will cause the program to jump to the label #TEST if V1 is less
than V2 and V3 is less than V4. To illustrate this further, consider this same example with an
additional condition:
JP #TEST, ((V1<V2) & (V3<V4)) | (V5<V6)
This statement will cause the program to jump to the label #TEST under two conditions; 1. If V1
is less than V2 and V3 is less than V4. OR 2. If V5 is less than V6.
Using the JP Command:
If the condition for the JP command is satisfied, the controller branches to the specified label or
line number and continues executing commands from this point. If the condition is not satisfied,
the controller continues to execute the next commands in sequence.
Conditional
Meaning
JP #Loop,COUNT<10
Jump to #Loop if the variable, COUNT, is less than 10
JS #MOVE2,@IN[1]=1
Jump to subroutine #MOVE2 if input 1 is logic level high. After the subroutine
MOVE2 is executed, the program sequencer returns to the main program location
where the subroutine was called.
JP #BLUE,@ABS[V2]>2
Jump to #BLUE if the absolute value of variable, V2, is greater than 2
JP #C,V1*V7<=V8*V2
Jump to #C if the value of V1 times V7 is less than or equal to the value of V8*V2
JP#A
Jump to #A
Example Using JP command:
Move the X motor to absolute position 1000 counts and back to zero ten times. Wait 100 msec
between moves.
#BEGIN
Begin Program
COUNT=10
Initialize loop counter
#LOOP
Begin loop
PA 1000
Position absolute 1000
BGX
Begin move
AMX
Wait for motion complete
WT 100
Wait 100 msec
PA 0
Position absolute 0
BGX
Begin move
AMX
Wait for motion complete
WT 100
Wait 100 msec
COUNT=COUNT-1
Decrement loop counter
JP #LOOP,COUNT>0
Test for 10 times thru loop
EN
End Program
Using If, Else, and Endif Commands
The DMC-1600 provides a structured approach to conditional statements using IF, ELSE and
ENDIF commands.
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 129
Using the IF and ENDIF Commands
An IF conditional statement is formed by the combination of an IF and ENDIF command. The IF
command has as its arguments one or more conditional statements. If the conditional statement(s)
evaluates true, the command interpreter will continue executing commands which follow the IF
command. If the conditional statement evaluates false, the controller will ignore commands until
the associated ENDIF command is executed OR an ELSE command occurs in the program (see
discussion of ELSE command below).
Note: An ENDIF command must always be executed for every IF command that has been
executed. It is recommended that the user not include jump commands inside IF conditional
statements since this causes re-direction of command execution. In this case, the command
interpreter may not execute an ENDIF command.
Using the ELSE Command
The ELSE command is an optional part of an IF conditional statement and allows for the
execution of command only when the argument of the IF command evaluates False. The ELSE
command must occur after an IF command and has no arguments. If the argument of the IF
command evaluates false, the controller will skip commands until the ELSE command. If the
argument for the IF command evaluates true, the controller will execute the commands between
the IF and ELSE command.
Nesting IF Conditional Statements
The DMC-1600 allows for IF conditional statements to be included within other IF conditional
statements. This technique is known as 'nesting' and the DMC-1600 allows up to 255 IF
conditional statements to be nested. This is a very powerful technique allowing the user to specify
a variety of different cases for branching.
Command Format - IF, ELSE and ENDIF
FORMAT:
DESCRIPTION
IF conditional statement(s)
Execute commands proceeding IF command (up to ELSE command) if
conditional statement(s) is true, otherwise continue executing at ENDIF
command or optional ELSE command.
ELSE
Optional command. Allows for commands to be executed when argument
of IF command evaluates not true. Can only be used with IF command.
ENDIF
Command to end IF conditional statement. Program must have an ENDIF
command for every IF command.
130 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
Example using IF, ELSE and ENDIF:
#TEST
Begin Main Program "TEST"
II,,3
Enable input interrupts on input 1 and input 2
MG "WAITING FOR INPUT 1, INPUT 2"
Output message
#LOOP
Label to be used for endless loop
JP #LOOP
Endless loop
EN
End of main program
#ININT
Input Interrupt Subroutine
IF (@IN[1]=0)
IF conditional statement based on input 1
IF (@IN[2]=0)
2nd IF conditional statement executed if 1st IF conditional true
MG "INPUT 1 AND INPUT 2 ARE ACTIVE"
Message to be executed if 2nd IF conditional is true
ELSE
ELSE command for 2nd IF conditional statement
MG "ONLY INPUT 1 IS ACTIVE
Message to be executed if 2nd IF conditional is false
ENDIF
End of 2nd conditional statement
ELSE
ELSE command for 1st IF conditional statement
MG"ONLY INPUT 2 IS ACTIVE"
Message to be executed if 1st IF conditional statement
ENDIF
End of 1st conditional statement
#WAIT
Label to be used for a loop
JP#WAIT,(@IN[1]=0) | (@IN[2]=0)
Loop until both input 1 and input 2 are not active
RI0
End Input Interrupt Routine without restoring trippoints
Subroutines
A subroutine is a group of instructions beginning with a label and ending with an end command
(EN). Subroutines are called from the main program with the jump subroutine instruction JS,
followed by a label or line number, and conditional statement. Up to 8 subroutines can be nested.
After the subroutine is executed, the program sequencer returns to the program location where the
subroutine was called unless the subroutine stack is manipulated as described in the following
section.
Example:
An example of a subroutine to draw a square 500 counts per side is given below. The square is
drawn at vector position 1000,1000.
DMC-1600
#M
Begin Main Program
CB1
Clear Output Bit 1 (pick up pen)
VP 1000,1000;LE;BGS
Define vector position; move pen
AMS
Wait for after motion trippoint
SB1
Set Output Bit 1 (put down pen)
JS #Square;CB1
Jump to square subroutine
EN
End Main Program
#Square
Square subroutine
V1=500;JS #L
Define length of side
V1=-V1;JS #L
Switch direction
EN
End subroutine
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 131
#L;PR V1,V1;BGX
Define X,Y; Begin X
AMX;BGY;AMY
After motion on X, Begin Y
EN
End subroutine
Stack Manipulation
It is possible to manipulate the subroutine stack by using the ZS command. Every time a JS
instruction, interrupt or automatic routine (such as #POSERR or #LIMSWI) is executed, the
subroutine stack is incremented by 1. Normally the stack is restored with an EN instruction.
Occasionally it is desirable not to return back to the program line where the subroutine or interrupt
was called. The ZS1 command clears 1 level of the stack. This allows the program sequencer to
continue to the next line. The ZS0 command resets the stack to its initial value. For example, if a
limit occurs and the #LIMSWI routine is executed, it is often desirable to restart the program
sequence instead of returning to the location where the limit occurred. To do this, give a ZS
command at the end of the #LIMSWI routine.
Auto-Start Routine
The DMC-1600 has a special label for automatic program execution. A program which has been
saved into the controllers non-volatile memory can be automatically executed upon power up or
reset by beginning the program with the label #AUTO. The program must be saved into nonvolatile memory using the command, BP.
Automatic Subroutines for Monitoring Conditions
Often it is desirable to monitor certain conditions continuously without tying up the host or DMC1600 program sequences. The DMC-1600 can monitor several important conditions in the
background. These conditions include checking for the occurrence of a limit switch, a defined
input, position error, or a command error. Automatic monitoring is enabled by inserting a special,
predefined label in the applications program. The pre-defined labels are:
SUBROUTINE
DESCRIPTION
#LIMSWI
Limit switch on any axis goes low
#ININT
Input specified by II goes low
#POSERR
Position error exceeds limit specified by ER
#MCTIME
Motion Complete timeout occurred. Timeout period set by TW command
#CMDERR
Bad command given
#AUTOERR
Nonvolatile memory checksum error (use in conjunction with _RS)
For example, the #POSERR subroutine will automatically be executed when any axis exceeds its
position error limit. The commands in the #POSERR subroutine could decode which axis is in
error and take the appropriate action. In another example, the #ININT label could be used to
designate an input interrupt subroutine. When the specified input occurs, the program will be
executed automatically.
NOTE: An application program must be running for automatic monitoring to function.
Example - Limit Switch:
This program prints a message upon the occurrence of a limit switch. Note, for the #LIMSWI
routine to function, the DMC-1600 must be executing an applications program from memory.
This can be a very simple program that does nothing but loop on a statement, such as #LOOP;JP
132 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
#LOOP;EN. Motion commands, such as JG 5000 can still be sent from the PC even while the
"dummy" applications program is being executed.
:ED
Edit Mode
000 #LOOP
Dummy Program
001 JP #LOOP;EN
Jump to Loop
002 #LIMSWI
Limit Switch Label
003 MG "LIMIT OCCURRED"
Print Message
004 RE
Return to main program
<control> Q
Quit Edit Mode
:XQ #LOOP
Execute Dummy Program
:JG 5000
Jog
:BGX
Begin Motion
Now, when a forward limit switch occurs on the X axis, the #LIMSWI subroutine will be
executed.
Notes regarding the #LIMSWI Routine:
1) The RE command is used to return from the #LIMSWI subroutine.
2) The #LIMSWI subroutine will be re-executed if the limit switch remains active.
The #LIMSWI routine is only executed when the motor is being commanded to move.
Example - Position Error
:ED
Edit Mode
000 #LOOP
Dummy Program
001 JP #LOOP;EN
Loop
002 #POSERR
Position Error Routine
003 V1=_TEX
Read Position Error
004 MG "EXCESS POSITION ERROR"
Print Message
005 MG "ERROR=",V1=
Print Error
006 RE
Return from Error
<control> Q
Quit Edit Mode
:XQ #LOOP
Execute Dummy Program
:JG 100000
Jog at High Speed
:BGX
Begin Motion
Now, if the position error on the X axis exceeds that specified by the ER command, the #POSERR
routine will execute.
NOTE: The RE command is used to return from the #POSERR subroutine
NOTE: The #POSERR routine will continue to be executed until the position error is cleared (is
less than the ER limit).
Example - Input Interrupt:
#A
DMC-1600
Label
II1
Input Interrupt on 1
JG 30000,,,60000
Jog
BGXW
Begin Motion
#LOOP;JP#LOOP;EN
Loop
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 133
#ININT
Input Interrupt
STXW;AM
Stop Motion
#TEST;JP #TEST, @IN[1]=0
Test for Input 1 still low
JG 30000,,,6000
Restore Velocities
BGXW
Begin motion
RI0
Return from interrupt routine to Main Program and do not re-enable trippoints
Example - Motion Complete Timeout
#BEGIN
Begin main program
TW 1000
Set the time out to 1000 ms
PA 10000
Position Absolute command
BGX
Begin motion
MCX
Motion Complete trip point
EN
End main program
#MCTIME
Motion Complete Subroutine
MG “X fell short”
Send out a message
EN
End subroutine
This simple program will issue the message “X fell short” if the X axis does not reach the
commanded position within 1 second of the end of the profiled move.
Example - Command Error
#BEGIN
Begin main program
IN "ENTER SPEED", SPEED
Prompt for speed
JG SPEED;BGX;
Begin motion
JP #BEGIN
Repeat
EN
End main program
#CMDERR
Command error utility
JP#DONE,_ED<>2
Check if error on line 2
JP#DONE,_TC<>6
Check if out of range
MG "SPEED TOO HIGH"
Send message
MG "TRY AGAIN"
Send message
ZS1
Adjust stack
JP #BEGIN
Return to main program
#DONE
End program if other error
ZS0
Zero stack
EN
End program
The above program prompts the operator to enter a jog speed. If the operator enters a number out
of range (greater than 8 million), the #CMDERR routine will be executed prompting the operator
to enter a new number.
In multitasking applications, there is an alternate method for handling command errors from
different threads. Using the XQ command along with the special operands described below allows
the controller to either skip or retry invalid commands.
OPERAND
FUNCTION
_ED1
Returns the number of the thread that generated an error
134 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
_ED2
Retry failed command (operand contains the location of the failed command)
_ED3
Skip failed command (operand contains the location of the command after the failed
command)
The operands are used with the XQ command in the following format:
XQ _ED2 (or _ED3),_ED1,1
Where the “,1” at the end of the command line indicates a restart; therefore, the existing program
stack will not be removed when the above format executes.
The following example shows an error correction routine which uses the operands.
Example - Command Error w/Multitasking
#A
Begin thread 0 (continuous loop)
JP#A
EN
End of thread 0
#B
Begin thread 1
N=-1
Create new variable
KP N
Set KP to value of N, an invalid value
TY
Issue invalid command
EN
End of thread 1
#CMDERR
Begin command error subroutine
IF _TC=6
If error is out of range (KP -1)
N=1
Set N to a valid number
XQ _ED2,_ED1,1
Retry KP N command
ENDIF
IF _TC=1
If error is invalid command (TY)
XQ _ED3,_ED1,1
Skip invalid command
ENDIF
EN
End of command error routine
Mathematical and Functional Expressions
Mathematical Operators
For manipulation of data, the DMC-1600 provides the use of the following mathematical
operators:
DMC-1600
OPERATOR
FUNCTION
+
Addition
-
Subtraction
*
Multiplication
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 135
/
Division
&
Logical And (Bit-wise)
|
Logical Or (On some computers, a solid vertical line appears as a broken line)
()
Parenthesis
The numeric range for addition, subtraction and multiplication operations is +/2,147,483,647.9999. The precision for division is 1/65,000.
Mathematical operations are executed from left to right. Calculations within a parentheses have
precedence.
Examples:
SPEED=7.5*V1/2
The variable, SPEED, is equal to 7.5 multiplied by V1 and divided by 2
COUNT=COUNT+2
The variable, COUNT, is equal to the current value plus 2.
RESULT=_TPX-(@COS[45]*40)
Puts the position of X - 28.28 in RESULT. 40 * cosine of 45° is 28.28
[email protected][1]&@IN[2]
TEMP is equal to 1 only if Input 1 and Input 2 are high
Bit-Wise Operators
The mathematical operators & and | are bit-wise operators. The operator, &, is a Logical And.
The operator, |, is a Logical Or. These operators allow for bit-wise operations on any valid DMC1600 numeric operand, including variables, array elements, numeric values, functions, keywords,
and arithmetic expressions. The bit-wise operators may also be used with strings. This is useful
for separating characters from an input string. When using the input command for string input, the
input variable will hold up to 6 characters. These characters are combined into a single value
which is represented as 32 bits of integer and 16 bits of fraction. Each ASCII character is
represented as one byte (8 bits), therefore the input variable can hold up to six characters. The
first character of the string will be placed in the top byte of the variable and the last character will
be placed in the lowest significant byte of the fraction. The characters can be individually
separated by using bit-wise operations as illustrated in the following example:
#TEST
Begin main program
IN "ENTER",LEN{S6}
Input character string of up to 6 characters into variable ‘LEN’
[email protected][LEN]
Define variable ‘FLEN’ as fractional part of variable ‘LEN’
FLEN=$10000*FLEN
Shift FLEN by 32 bits (IE - convert fraction, FLEN, to integer)
LEN1=(FLEN&$00FF)
Mask top byte of FLEN and set this value to variable ‘LEN1’
LEN2=(FLEN&$FF00)/$100
Let variable, ‘LEN2’ = top byte of FLEN
LEN3=LEN&$000000FF
Let variable, ‘LEN3’ = bottom byte of LEN
LEN4=(LEN&$0000FF00)/$100
Let variable, ‘LEN4’ = second byte of LEN
LEN5=(LEN&$00FF0000)/$10000
Let variable, ‘LEN5’ = third byte of LEN
LEN6=(LEN&$FF000000)/$1000000
Let variable, ‘LEN6’ = fourth byte of LEN
MG LEN6 {S4}
Display ‘LEN6’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN5 {S4}
Display ‘LEN5’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN4 {S4}
Display ‘LEN4’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN3 {S4}
Display ‘LEN3’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN2 {S4}
Display ‘LEN2’ as string message of up to 4 chars
MG LEN1 {S4}
Display ‘LEN1’ as string message of up to 4 chars
EN
136 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
This program will accept a string input of up to 6 characters, parse each character, and then
display each character. Notice also that the values used for masking are represented in
hexadecimal (as denoted by the preceding ‘$’). For more information, see section Sending
Messages.
To illustrate further, if the user types in the string “TESTME” at the input prompt, the controller
will respond with the following:
T
Response from command MG LEN6 {S4}
E
Response from command MG LEN5 {S4}
S
Response from command MG LEN4 {S4}
T
Response from command MG LEN3 {S4}
M
Response from command MG LEN2 {S4}
E
Response from command MG LEN1 {S4}
Functions
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
@SIN[n]
Sine of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
@COS[n]
Cosine of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
@TAN[n]
Tangent of n (n in degrees, with range of -32768 to 32767 and 16-bit fractional resolution)
@ASIN*[n]
Arc Sine of n, between -90° and +90°. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees.
@ACOS* [n}
Arc Cosine of n, between 0 and 180°. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees.
@ATAN* [n]
Arc Tangent of n, between -90° and +90°. Angle resolution in 1/64000 degrees
@COM[n]
1’s Complement of n
@ABS[n]
Absolute value of n
@FRAC[n]
Fraction portion of n
@INT[n]
Integer portion of n
@RND[n]
Round of n (Rounds up if the fractional part of n is .5 or greater)
@SQR[n]
Square root of n (Accuracy is +/-.0001)
@IN[n]
Return digital input at general input n (where n starts at 1)
@OUT[n]
Return digital output at general output n (where n starts at 1)
@AN[n]
Return analog input at general analog in n (where n starts at 1)
* Note that these functions are multi-valued. An application program may be used to find the
correct band.
Functions may be combined with mathematical expressions. The order of execution of
mathematical expressions is from left to right and can be over-ridden by using parentheses.
Examples:
DMC-1600
[email protected][V7]
The variable, V1, is equal to the absolute value of variable V7.
V2=5*@SIN[POS]
The variable, V2, is equal to five times the sine of the variable, POS.
[email protected][1]
The variable, V3, is equal to the digital value of input 1.
V4=2*([email protected][5])
The variable, V4, is equal to the value of analog input 5 plus 5, then multiplied by 2.
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 137
Variables
For applications that require a parameter that is variable, the DMC-1600 provides 254 variables.
These variables can be numbers or strings. A program can be written in which certain parameters,
such as position or speed, are defined as variables. The variables can later be assigned by the
operator or determined by program calculations. For example, a cut-to-length application may
require that a cut length be variable.
Example:
PR POSX
Assigns variable POSX to PR command
JG RPMY*70
Assigns variable RPMY multiplied by 70 to JG command.
Programmable Variables
The DMC-1600 allows the user to create up to 254 variables. Each variable is defined by a name
which can be up to eight characters. The name must start with an alphabetic character, however,
numbers are permitted in the rest of the name. Spaces are not permitted. Variable names should
not be the same as DMC-1600 instructions. For example, PR is not a good choice for a variable
name.
Examples of valid and invalid variable names are:
Valid Variable Names
POSX
POS1
SPEEDZ
Invalid Variable Names
REALLONGNAME
; Cannot have more than 8 characters
123
; Cannot begin variable name with a number
SPEED Z
; Cannot have spaces in the name
Assigning Values to Variables:
Assigned values can be numbers, internal variables and keywords, functions, controller parameters
and strings;
The range for numeric variable values is 4 bytes of integer (231)followed by two bytes of fraction
(+/-2,147,483,647.9999).
Numeric values can be assigned to programmable variables using the equal sign.
Any valid DMC-1600 function can be used to assign a value to a variable. For example,
[email protected][V2] or [email protected][1]. Arithmetic operations are also permitted.
To assign a string value, the string must be in quotations. String variables can contain up to six
characters which must be in quotation.
Examples:
POSX=_TPX
Assigns returned value from TPX command to variable POSX.
SPEED=5.75
Assigns value 5.75 to variable SPEED
[email protected][2]
Assigns logical value of input 2 to variable INPUT
V2=V1+V3*V4
Assigns the value of V1 plus V3 times V4 to the variable V2.
138 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
VAR="CAT"
Assign the string, CAT, to VAR
Assigning Variable Values to Controller Parameters
Variable values may be assigned to controller parameters such as SP or PR.
PR V1
Assign V1 to PR command
SP VS*2000
Assign VS*2000 to SP command
Displaying the Value of Variables at the Terminal
Variables may be sent to the screen using the format, variable =. For example, V1= , returns the
value of the variable V1.
Example - Using Variables for Joystick Control
The example below reads the voltage of an X-Y joystick and assigns it to variables VX and VY to
drive the motors at proportional velocities, where
10 Volts = 3000 rpm = 200000 c/sec
Speed/Analog input = 200000/10 = 20000
#JOYSTIK
Label
JG 0,0
Set in Jog mode
BGXY
Begin Motion
#LOOP
Loop
[email protected][1]*20000
Read joystick X
[email protected][2]*20000
Read joystick Y
JG VX,VY
Jog at variable VX,VY
JP#LOOP
Repeat
EN
End
Operands
Operands allow motion or status parameters of the DMC-1600 to be incorporated into
programmable variables and expressions. Most DMC-1600 commands have an equivalent
operand - which are designated by adding an underscore (_) prior to the DMC-1600 command.
The command reference indicates which commands have an associated operand.
Status commands such as Tell Position return actual values, whereas action commands such as KP
or SP return the values in the DMC-1600 registers. The axis designation is required following the
command.
Examples of Internal Variables:
POSX=_TPX
Assigns value from Tell Position X to the variable POSX.
VAR1=_KPX*2
Assigns value from KPX multiplied by two to variable, VAR1.
JP #LOOP,_TEX>5
Jump to #LOOP if the position error of X is greater than 5
JP #ERROR,_TC=1
Jump to #ERROR if the error code equals 1.
Operands can be used in an expression and assigned to a programmable variable, but they cannot
be assigned a value. For example: _KPX=2 is invalid.
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 139
Special Operands (Keywords)
The DMC-1600 provides a few additional operands which give access to internal variables that are
not accessible by standard DMC-1600 commands.
KEYWORD
FUNCTION
_BGn
*Returns a 1 if motion on axis ‘n’ is complete, otherwise returns 0.
_BN
*Returns serial # of the board.
_DA
*Returns the number of arrays available
_DL
*Returns the number of available labels for programming
_DM
*Returns the available array memory
_HMn
*Returns status of Home Switch (equals 0 or 1)
_LFn
Returns status of Forward Limit switch input of axis ‘n’ (equals 0 or 1)
_LRX
Returns status of Reverse Limit switch input of axis ‘n’ (equals 0 or 1)
_UL
*Returns the number of available variables
TIME
Free-Running Real Time Clock (off by 2.4% - Resets with power-on).
Note: TIME does not use an underscore character (_) as other keywords.
* - These keywords have corresponding commands while the keywords _LF, _LR, and TIME do
not have any associated commands. All keywords are listed in the Command Summary, Chapter
11.
Examples of Keywords:
V1=_LFX
Assign V1 the logical state of the Forward Limit Switch on the X-axis
V3=TIME
Assign V3 the current value of the time clock
V4=_HMW
Assign V4 the logical state of the Home input on the W-axis
Arrays
For storing and collecting numerical data, the DMC-1600 provides array space for 8000 elements.
The arrays are one dimensional and up to 30 different arrays may be defined. Each array element
31
has a numeric range of 4 bytes of integer (2 )followed by two bytes of fraction
(+/-2,147,483,647.9999).
Arrays can be used to capture real-time data, such as position, torque and analog input values. In
the contouring mode, arrays are convenient for holding the points of a position trajectory in a
record and playback application.
Defining Arrays
An array is defined with the command DM. The user must specify a name and the number of
entries to be held in the array. An array name can contain up to eight characters, starting with an
uppercase alphabetic character. The number of entries in the defined array is enclosed in [ ].
Example:
DM POSX[7]
Defines an array names POSX with seven entries
DM SPEED[100]
Defines an array named speed with 100 entries
DM POSX[0]
Frees array space
140 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
Assignment of Array Entries
Like variables, each array element can be assigned a value. Assigned values can be numbers or
returned values from instructions, functions and keywords.
Array elements are addressed starting at count 0. For example the first element in the POSX array
(defined with the DM command, DM POSX[7]) would be specified as POSX[0].
Values are assigned to array entries using the equal sign. Assignments are made one element at a
time by specifying the element number with the associated array name.
NOTE: Arrays must be defined using the command, DM, before assigning entry values.
Examples:
DM SPEED[10]
Dimension Speed Array
SPEED[1]=7650.2
Assigns the second element of the array, SPEED the value 7650.2
SPEED[1]=
Returns array element value
POSX[10]=_TPX
Assigns the 11th element of the array POSX the returned value from the tell
position command.
CON[2][email protected][POS]*2
Assigns the third element of the array CON the cosine of the variable POS
multiplied by 2.
TIMER[1]=TIME
Assigns the second element of the array timer the returned value of the TIME
keyword.
Using a Variable to Address Array Elements
An array element number can also be a variable. This allows array entries to be assigned
sequentially using a counter.
For example:
#A
Begin Program
COUNT=0;DM POS[10]
Initialize counter and define array
#LOOP
Begin loop
WT 10
Wait 10 msec
POS[COUNT]=_TPX
Record position into array element
POS[COUNT]=
Report position
COUNT=COUNT+1
Increment counter
JP #LOOP,COUNT<10
Loop until 10 elements have been stored
EN
End Program
The above example records 10 position values at a rate of one value per 10 msec. The values are
stored in an array named POS. The variable, COUNT, is used to increment the array element
counter. The above example can also be executed with the automatic data capture feature
described below.
Uploading and Downloading Arrays to On Board Memory
Arrays may be uploaded and downloaded using the QU and QD commands.
QU array[],start,end,delim
QD array[],start,end
where array is an array name such as A[].
Start is the first element of array (default=0)
End is the last element of array (default=last element)
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 141
Delim specifies whether the array data is separated by a comma (delim=1) or a carriage return
(delim=0).
The file is terminated using <control>Z, <control>Q, <control>D or \.
Automatic Data Capture into Arrays
The DMC-1600 provides a special feature for automatic capture of data such as position, position
error, inputs or torque. This is useful for teaching motion trajectories or observing system
performance. Up to four types of data can be captured and stored in four arrays. The capture rate
or time interval may be specified. Recording can done as a one time event or as a circular
continuous recording.
Command Summary - Automatic Data Capture
COMMAND
DESCRIPTION
RA n[],m[],o[],p[]
Selects up to four arrays for data capture. The arrays must be defined with the
DM command.
RD type1,type2,type3,type4
Selects the type of data to be recorded, where type1, type2, type3, and type 4
represent the various types of data (see table below). The order of data type is
important and corresponds with the order of n,m,o,p arrays in the RA command.
RC n,m
The RC command begins data collection. Sets data capture time interval where
n is an integer between 1 and 8 and designates 2n msec between data. m is
optional and specifies the number of elements to be captured. If m is not
defined, the number of elements defaults to the smallest array defined by DM.
When m is a negative number, the recording is done continuously in a circular
manner. _RD is the recording pointer and indicates the address of the next array
element. n=0 stops recording.
RC?
Returns a 0 or 1 where, 0 denotes not recording, 1 specifies recording in progress
Data Types for Recording:
DATA TYPE
DESCRIPTION
_DEX
2nd encoder position (dual encoder)
_TPX
Encoder position
_TEX
Position error
_SHX
Commanded position
_RLX
Latched position
_TI
Inputs
_OP
Output
_TSX
Switches (only bit 0-4 valid)
_SCX
Stop code
_NOX
Status bits
_TTX
Torque (reports digital value +/-8097)
Note: X may be replaced by Y,Z or W for capturing data on other axes.
Operand Summary - Automatic Data Capture
_RC
Returns a 0 or 1 where, 0 denotes not recording, 1 specifies recording in progress
_RD
Returns address of next array element.
142 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
Example - Recording into An Array
During a position move, store the X and Y positions and position error every 2 msec.
#RECORD
Begin program
DM XPOS[300],YPOS[300]
Define X,Y position arrays
DM XERR[300],YERR[300]
Define X,Y error arrays
RA XPOS[],XERR[],YPOS[],YERR[]
Select arrays for capture
RD _TPX,_TEX,_TPY,_TEY
Select data types
PR 10000,20000
Specify move distance
RC1
Start recording now, at rate of 2 msec
BG XY
Begin motion
#A;JP #A,_RC=1
Loop until done
MG "DONE"
Print message
EN
End program
#PLAY
Play back
N=0
Initial Counter
JP# DONE,N>300
Exit if done
N=
Print Counter
X POS[N]=
Print X position
Y POS[N]=
Print Y position
XERR[N]=
Print X error
YERR[N]=
Print Y error
N=N+1
Increment Counter
#DONE
Done
EN
Deallocating Array Space
Array space may be deallocated using the DA command followed by the array name. DA*[0]
deallocates all the arrays.
Input of Data (Numeric and String)
Input of Data
The command, IN, is used to prompt the user to input numeric or string data. Using the IN
command, the user may specify a message prompt by placing a message in quotations. When the
controller executes an IN command, the controller will wait for the input of data. The input data is
assigned to the specified variable or array element.
An Example for Inputting Numeric Data
#A
IN "Enter Length", LENX
EN
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 143
In this example, the message “Enter Length” is displayed on the computer screen. The controller
waits for the operator to enter a value. The operator enters the numeric value which is assigned to
the variable, LENX.
Cut-to-Length Example
In this example, a length of material is to be advanced a specified distance. When the motion is
complete, a cutting head is activated to cut the material. The length is variable, and the operator is
prompted to input it in inches. Motion starts with a start button which is connected to input 1.
The load is coupled with a 2 pitch lead screw. A 2000 count/rev encoder is on the motor, resulting
in a resolution of 4000 counts/inch. The program below uses the variable LEN, to length. The IN
command is used to prompt the operator to enter the length, and the entered value is assigned to
the variable LEN.
#BEGIN
LABEL
AC 800000
Acceleration
DC 800000
Deceleration
SP 5000
Speed
LEN=3.4
Initial length in inches
#CUT
Cut routine
AI1
Wait for start signal
IN "enter Length(IN)", LEN
Prompt operator for length in inches
PR LEN *4000
Specify position in counts
BGX
Begin motion to move material
AMX
Wait for motion done
SB1
Set output to cut
WT100;CB1
Wait 100 msec, then turn off cutter
JP #CUT
Repeat process
EN
End program
Inputting String Variables
String variables with up to six characters may input using the specifier, {Sn} where n represents
the number of string characters to be input. If n is not specified, six characters will be accepted.
For example, IN "Enter X,Y or Z", V{S} specifies a string variable to be input.
Output of Data (Numeric and String)
Numerical and string data can be output from the controller using several methods. The message
command, MG, can output string and numerical data. Also, the controller can be commanded to
return the values of variables and arrays, as well as other information using the interrogation
commands (the interrogation commands are described in chapter 5).
Sending Messages
Messages may be sent to the bus using the message command, MG. This command sends
specified text and numerical or string data from variables or arrays to the screen.
Text strings are specified in quotes and variable or array data is designated by the name of the
variable or array. For example:
MG "The Final Value is", RESULT
144 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
In addition to variables, functions and commands, responses can be used in the message
command. For example:
MG "Analog input is", @AN[1]
MG "The Value of KDX is ", _KDX
Formatting Messages
String variables can be formatted using the specifier, {Sn} where n is the number of characters, 1
thru 6. For example:
MG STR {S3}
This statement returns 3 characters of the string variable named STR.
Numeric data may be formatted using the {Fn.m} expression following the completed MG
statement. {$n.m} formats data in HEX instead of decimal. The actual numerical value will be
formatted with n characters to the left of the decimal and m characters to the right of the decimal.
Leading zeros will be used to display specified format.
For example::
MG "The Final Value is", RESULT {F5.2}
If the value of the variable RESULT is equal to 4.1, this statement returns the following:
The Final Value is 00004.10
If the value of the variable RESULT is equal to 999999.999, the above message statement returns
the following:
The Final Value is 99999.99
The message command normally sends a carriage return and line feed following the statement.
The carriage return and the line feed may be suppressed by sending {N} at the end of the
statement. This is useful when a text string needs to surround a numeric value.
Example:
#A
JG 50000;BGX;ASX
MG "The Speed is", _TVX {F5.1} {N}
MG "counts/sec"
EN
When #A is executed, the above example will appear on the screen as:
The speed is 50000 counts/sec
Using the MG Command to Configure Terminals
The MG command can be used to configure a terminal. Any ASCII character can be sent by using
the format {^n} where n is any integer between 1 and 255.
Example:
MG {^07} {^255}
sends the ASCII characters represented by 7 and 255 to the bus.
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 145
Summary of Message Functions:
FUNCTION
DESCRIPTION
""
Surrounds text string
{Fn.m}
Formats numeric values in decimal n digits to the right of the decimal point
and m digits to the left
{$n.m}
Formats numeric values in hexadecimal
{^n}
Sends ASCII character specified by integer n
{N}
Suppresses carriage return/line feed
{Sn}
Sends the first n characters of a string variable, where n is 1 thru 6.
Displaying Variables and Arrays
Variables and arrays may be sent to the screen using the format, variable= or array[x]=. For
example, V1= , returns the value of V1.
Example - Printing a Variable and an Array element
#DISPLAY
Label
DM POSX[7]
Define Array POSX with 7 entries
PR 1000
Position Command
BGX
Begin
AMX
After Motion
V1=_TPX
Assign Variable V1
POSX[0]=_TPX
Assign the first entry
V1=
Print V1
Interrogation Commands
The DMC-1600 has a set of commands that directly interrogate the controller. When these
command are entered, the requested data is returned in decimal format on the next line followed
by a carriage return and line feed. The format of the returned data can be changed using the
Position Format (PF), and Leading Zeros (LZ) command. For a complete description of
interrogation commands, see chapter 5.
Using the PF Command to Format Response from Interrogation Commands
The command, PF, can change format of the values returned by theses interrogation commands:
BL ?
LE ?
DE ?
PA ?
DP ?
PR ?
EM ?
TN ?
FL ?
VE ?
IP ?
TE
TP
The numeric values may be formatted in decimal or hexadecimal* with a specified number of
digits to the right and left of the decimal point using the PF command.
Position Format is specified by:
PF m.n
146 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
where m is the number of digits to the left of the decimal point (0 thru 10) and n is the number of
digits to the right of the decimal point (0 thru 4) A negative sign for m specifies hexadecimal
format.
Hex values are returned preceded by a $ and in 2's complement. Hex values should be input as
signed 2's complement, where negative numbers have a negative sign. The default format is PF
10.0.
If the number of decimal places specified by PF is less than the actual value, a nine appears in all
the decimal places.
Examples:
:DP21
Define position
:TPX
Tell position
0000000021
Default format
:PF4
Change format to 4 places
:TPX
Tell position
0021
New format
:PF-4
Change to hexadecimal format
:TPX
Tell Position
$0015
Hexadecimal value
:PF2
Format 2 places
:TPX
Tell Position
99
Returns 99 if position greater than 99
Removing Leading Zeros from Response to Interrogation Response
The leading zeros on data returned as a response to interrogation commands can be removed by
the use of the command, LZ.
Example - Using the LZ command
LZ0
Disables the LZ function
TP
Tell Position Interrogation Command
-0000000009, 0000000005, 0000000000, 0000000007
Response from Interrogation Command
(With Leading Zeros)
LZ1
Enables the LZ function
TP
Tell Position Interrogation Command
-9, 5, 0, 7
Response from Interrogation Command
(Without Leading Zeros)
Local Formatting of Response of Interrogation Commands
The response of interrogation commands may be formatted locally. To format locally, use the
command, {Fn.m} or {$n.m} on the same line as the interrogation command. The symbol F
specifies that the response should be returned in decimal format and $ specifies hexadecimal. n is
the number of digits to the left of the decimal, and m is the number of digits to the right of the
decimal. For example:
Examples:
DMC-1600
TP {F2.2}
Tell Position in decimal format 2.2
-05.00, 05.00, 00.00, 07.00
Response from Interrogation Command
TP {$4.2}
Tell Position in hexadecimal format 4.2
FFFB.00,$0005.00,$0000.00,$0007.00
Response from Interrogation Command
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 147
Formatting Variables and Array Elements
The Variable Format (VF) command is used to format variables and array elements. The VF
command is specified by:
VF m.n
where m is the number of digits to the left of the decimal point (0 thru 10) and n is the number of
digits to the right of the decimal point (0 thru 4).
A negative sign for m specifies hexadecimal format. The default format for VF is VF 10.4
Hex values are returned preceded by a $ and in 2's complement.
:V1=10
Assign V1
:V1=
Return V1
0000000010.0000
Default format
:VF2.2
Change format
:V1=
Return V1
10.00
New format
:VF-2.2
Specify hex format
:V1=
Return V1
$0A.00
Hex value
:VF1
Change format
:V1=
Return V1
9
Overflow
Local Formatting of Variables
PF and VF commands are global format commands that effect the format of all relevant returned
values and variables. Variables may also be formatted locally. To format locally, use the
command, {Fn.m} or {$n.m} following the variable name and the ‘=’ symbol. F specifies
decimal and $ specifies hexadecimal. n is the number of digits to the left of the decimal, and m is
the number of digits to the right of the decimal. For example:
Examples:
:V1=10
Assign V1
:V1=
Return V1
0000000010.0000
Default Format
:V1={F4.2}
Specify local format
0010.00
New format
:V1={$4.2}
Specify hex format
$000A.00
Hex value
:V1="ALPHA"
Assign string "ALPHA" to V1
:V1={S4}
Specify string format first 4 characters
ALPH
The local format is also used with the MG* command.
Converting to User Units
Variables and arithmetic operations make it easy to input data in desired user units such as inches
or RPM.
148 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
The DMC-1600 position parameters such as PR, PA and VP have units of quadrature counts.
Speed parameters such as SP, JG and VS have units of counts/sec. Acceleration parameters such
as AC, DC, VA and VD have units of counts/sec2. The controller interprets time in milliseconds.
All input parameters must be converted into these units. For example, an operator can be
prompted to input a number in revolutions. A program could be used such that the input number
is converted into counts by multiplying it by the number of counts/revolution.
Example:
#RUN
Label
IN "ENTER # OF REVOLUTIONS",N1
Prompt for revs
PR N1*2000
Convert to counts
IN "ENTER SPEED IN RPM",S1
Prompt for RPMs
SP S1*2000/60
Convert to counts/sec
IN "ENTER ACCEL IN RAD/SEC2",A1 Prompt for ACCEL
AC A1*2000/(2*3.14)
Convert to counts/sec2
BG
Begin motion
EN
End program
Programmable Hardware I/O
Digital Outputs
The DMC-1600 has an 8-bit uncommitted output port for controlling external events. The
DMC-1650 through DMC-1680 has an additional 8 outputs. The DMC-1600 has an additional 64
I/O (configured as inputs or outputs with CO command). Each bit on the output port may be set
and cleared with the software instructions SB (Set Bit) and CB(Clear Bit), or OB (define output
bit).
For example:
Instruction
Function
SB6
Sets bit 6 of output port
CB4
Clears bit 4 of output port
The Output Bit (OB) instruction is useful for setting or clearing outputs depending on the value of
a variable, array, input or expression. Any non-zero value results in a set bit.
Instruction
Function
OB1, POS
Set Output 1 if the variable POS is non-zero. Clear Output 1 if POS equals 0.
OB 2, @IN [1]
Set Output 2 if Input 1 is high. If Input 1 is low, clear Output 2.
OB 3, @IN [1]&@IN [2]
Set Output 3 only if Input 1 and Input 2 are high.
OB 4, COUNT [1]
Set Output 4 if element 1 in the array COUNT is non-zero.
The output port can be set by specifying an 8-bit word using the instruction OP (Output Port).
This instruction allows a single command to define the state of the entire 8-bit output port, where
20 is output 1, 21 is output 2 and so on. A 1 designates that the output is on.
For example:
Instruction
DMC-1600
Function
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 149
OP6
Sets outputs 2 and 3 of output port to high. All other bits are 0. (21 + 22 = 6)
OP0
Clears all bits of output port to zero
OP 255
Sets all bits of output port to one.
(20 + 21 + 22 + 23 + 24 + 25 + 26 + 27)
The output port is useful for setting relays or controlling external switches and events during a
motion sequence.
Example - Turn on output after move
#OUTPUT
Label
PR 2000
Position Command
BG
Begin
AM
After move
SB1
Set Output 1
WT 1000
Wait 1000 msec
CB1
Clear Output 1
EN
End
Digital Inputs
The DMC-1600 has eight digital inputs for controlling motion by local switches. The @IN[n]
function returns the logic level of the specified input 1 through 8.
For example, a Jump on Condition instruction can be used to execute a sequence if a high
condition is noted on an input 3. To halt program execution, the After Input (AI) instruction waits
until the specified input has occurred.
Example:
JP #A,@IN[1]=0
Jump to A if input 1 is low
JP #B,@IN[2]=1
Jump to B if input 2 is high
AI 7
Wait until input 7 is high
AI –6
Wait until input 6 is low
Example - Start Motion on Switch
Motor X must turn at 4000 counts/sec when the user flips a panel switch to on. When panel switch
is turned to off position, motor X must stop turning.
Solution: Connect panel switch to input 1 of DMC-1600. High on input 1 means switch is in on
position.
Instruction
Function
#S;JG 4000
Set speed
AI 1;BGX
Begin after input 1 goes high
AI -1;STX
Stop after input 1 goes low
AMX;JP #S
After motion, repeat
EN;
Input Interrupt Function
The DMC-1600 provides an input interrupt function which causes the program to automatically
execute the instructions following the #ININT label. This function is enabled using the II m,n,o
command. The m specifies the beginning input and n specifies the final input in the range. The
150 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
parameter o is an interrupt mask. If m and n are unused, o contains a number with the mask. A 1
designates that input to be enabled for an interrupt, where 20 is bit 1, 21 is bit 2 and so on. For
example, II,,5 enables inputs 1 and 3 (20 + 22 = 5).
A low input on any of the specified inputs will cause automatic execution of the #ININT
subroutine. The Return from Interrupt (RI) command is used to return from this subroutine to the
place in the program where the interrupt had occurred. If it is desired to return to somewhere else
in the program after the execution of the #ININT subroutine, the Zero Stack (ZS) command is
used followed by unconditional jump statements.
IMPORTANT: Use the RI instruction (not EN) to return from the #ININT subroutine.
Examples - Input Interrupt
#A
Label #A
II 1
Enable input 1 for interrupt function
JG 30000,-20000
Set speeds on X and Y axes
BG XY
Begin motion on X and Y axes
#B
Label #B
TP XY
Report X and Y axes positions
WT 1000
Wait 1000 milliseconds
JP #B
Jump to #B
EN
End of program
#ININT
Interrupt subroutine
MG "Interrupt has
occurred"
Displays the message
ST XY
Stops motion on X and Y axes
#LOOP;JP
#LOOP,@IN[1]=0
Loop until Interrupt cleared
JG 15000,10000
Specify new speeds
WT 300
Wait 300 milliseconds
BG XY
Begin motion on X and Y axes
RI
Return from Interrupt subroutine
Analog Inputs
The DMC-1600 provides eight analog inputs. The value of these inputs in volts may be read using
the @AN[n] function where n is the analog input 1 through 8. The resolution of the Analog-toDigital conversion is 12 bits (16-bit ADC is available as an option). Analog inputs are useful for
reading special sensors such as temperature, tension or pressure.
The following examples show programs which cause the motor to follow an analog signal. The
first example is a point-to-point move. The second example shows a continuous move.
Example - Position Follower (Point-to-Point)
Objective - The motor must follow an analog signal. When the analog signal varies by 10V,
motor must move 10000 counts.
Method: Read the analog input and command X to move to that point.
DMC-1600
Instruction
Interpretation
#Points
Label
SP 7000
Speed
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 151
AC 80000;DC 80000
Acceleration
#Loop
[email protected][1]*1000
Read analog input and compute position
PA VP
Command position
BGX
Start motion
AMX
After completion
JP #Loop
Repeat
EN
End
Example - Position Follower (Continuous Move)
Method: Read the analog input, compute the commanded position and the position error.
Command the motor to run at a speed in proportions to the position error.
Instruction
Interpretation
#Cont
Label
AC 80000;DC 80000
Acceleration rate
JG 0
Start job mode
BGX
Start motion
#Loop
[email protected][1]*1000
Compute desired position
VE=VP-_TPX
Find position error
VEL=VE*20
Compute velocity
JG VEL
Change velocity
JP #Loop
Change velocity
EN
End
Example Applications
Wire Cutter
An operator activates a start switch. This causes a motor to advance the wire a distance of 10".
When the motion stops, the controller generates an output signal which activates the cutter.
Allowing 100 ms for the cutting completes the cycle.
Suppose that the motor drives the wire by a roller with a 2" diameter. Also assume that the
encoder resolution is 1000 lines per revolution. Since the circumference of the roller equals 2π
inches, and it corresponds to 4000 quadrature, one inch of travel equals:
4000/2π = 637 count/inch
This implies that a distance of 10 inches equals 6370 counts, and a slew speed of 5 inches per
second, for example, equals 3185 count/sec.
The input signal may be applied to I1, for example, and the output signal is chosen as output 1.
The motor velocity profile and the related input and output signals are shown in Fig. 7.1.
The program starts at a state that we define as #A. Here the controller waits for the input pulse on
I1. As soon as the pulse is given, the controller starts the forward motion.
Upon completion of the forward move, the controller outputs a pulse for 20 ms and then waits an
additional 80 ms before returning to #A for a new cycle.
Instruction
152 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
Function
DMC-1600
#A
Label
AI1
Wait for input 1
PR 6370
Distance
SP 3185
Speed
BGX
Start Motion
AMX
After motion is complete
SB1
Set output bit 1
WT 20
Wait 20 ms
CB1
Clear output bit 1
WT 80
Wait 80 ms
JP #A
Repeat the process
START PULSE I1
MOTOR VELOCITY
OUTPUT PULSE
output
TIME INTERVALS
move
wait
ready
move
Figure 7.1 - Motor Velocity and the Associated Input/Output signals
X-Y Table Controller
An X-Y-Z system must cut the pattern shown in Fig. 7.2. The X-Y table moves the plate while
the Z-axis raises and lowers the cutting tool.
The solid curves in Fig. 7.2 indicate sections where cutting takes place. Those must be performed
at a feed rate of 1 inch per second. The dashed line corresponds to non-cutting moves and should
be performed at 5 inch per second. The acceleration rate is 0.1 g.
The motion starts at point A, with the Z-axis raised. An X-Y motion to point B is followed by
lowering the Z-axis and performing a cut along the circle. Once the circular motion is completed,
the Z-axis is raised and the motion continues to point C, etc.
Assume that all of the 3 axes are driven by lead screws with 10 turns-per-inch pitch. Also assume
encoder resolution of 1000 lines per revolution. This results in the relationship:
1 inch = 40,000 counts
and the speeds of
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 153
1 in/sec = 40,000 count/sec
5 in/sec = 200,000 count/sec
an acceleration rate of 0.1g equals
0.1g = 38.6 in/s2 = 1,544,000 count/s2
Note that the circular path has a radius of 2" or 80000 counts, and the motion starts at the angle of
270° and traverses 360° in the CW (negative direction). Such a path is specified with the
instruction
CR 80000,270,-360
Further assume that the Z must move 2" at a linear speed of 2" per second. The required motion is
performed by the following instructions:
Instruction
Function
#A
Label
VM XY
Circular interpolation for XY
VP 160000,160000
Positions
VE
End Vector Motion
VS 200000
Vector Speed
VA 1544000
Vector Acceleration
BGS
Start Motion
AMS
When motion is complete
PR,,-80000
Move Z down
SP,,80000
Z speed
BGZ
Start Z motion
AMZ
Wait for completion of Z motion
CR 80000,270,-360
Circle
VE
VS 40000
Feed rate
BGS
Start circular move
AMS
Wait for completion
PR,,80000
Move Z up
BGZ
Start Z move
AMZ
Wait for Z completion
PR -21600
Move X
SP 20000
Speed X
BGX
Start X
AMX
Wait for X completion
PR,,-80000
Lower Z
BGZ
AMZ
CR 80000,270,-360
Z second circle move
VE
VS 40000
BGS
AMS
PR,,80000
154 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
Raise Z
DMC-1600
BGZ
AMZ
VP -37600,-16000
Return XY to start
VE
VS 200000
BGS
AMS
EN
Y
R=2
4
B
C
4
9.3
A
0
X
Figure 7.2 - Motor Velocity and the Associated Input/Output signals
Speed Control by Joystick
The speed of a motor is controlled by a joystick. The joystick produces a signal in the range
between -10V and +10V. The objective is to drive the motor at a speed proportional to the input
voltage.
Assume that a full voltage of 10 Volts must produce a motor speed of 3000 rpm with an encoder
resolution of 1000 lines or 4000 count/rev. This speed equals:
3000 rpm = 50 rev/sec = 200000 count/sec
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 155
The program reads the input voltage periodically and assigns its value to the variable VIN. To get
a speed of 200,000 ct/sec for 10 volts, we select the speed as
Speed = 20000 x VIN
The corresponding velocity for the motor is assigned to the VEL variable.
Instruction
#A
JG0
BGX
#B
[email protected][1]
VEL=VIN*20000
JG VEL
JP #B
EN
Position Control by Joystick
This system requires the position of the motor to be proportional to the joystick angle.
Furthermore, the ratio between the two positions must be programmable. For example, if the
control ratio is 5:1, it implies that when the joystick voltage is 5 Volts, corresponding to 1028
counts, the required motor position must be 5120 counts. The variable V3 changes the position
ratio.
Instruction
Function
#A
Label
V3=5
Initial position ratio
DP0
Define the starting position
JG0
Set motor in jog mode as zero
BGX
Start
#B
[email protected][1]
Read analog input
V2=V1*V3
Compute the desired position
V4=V2-_TPX-_TEX
Find the following error
V5=V4*20
Compute a proportional speed
JG V5
Change the speed
JP #B
Repeat the process
EN
End
Backlash Compensation by Sampled Dual-Loop
The continuous dual loop, enabled by the DV1 function is an effective way to compensate for
backlash. In some cases, however, when the backlash magnitude is large, it may be difficult to
stabilize the system. In those cases, it may be easier to use the sampled dual loop method
described below.
This design example addresses the basic problems of backlash in motion control systems. The
objective is to control the position of a linear slide precisely. The slide is to be controlled by a
rotary motor, which is coupled to the slide by a lead screw. Such a lead screw has a backlash of 4
micron, and the required position accuracy is for 0.5 micron.
156 • Chapter 7 Application Programming
DMC-1600
The basic dilemma is where to mount the sensor. If you use a rotary sensor, you get a 4 micron
backlash error. On the other hand, if you use a linear encoder, the backlash in the feedback loop
will cause oscillations due to instability.
An alternative approach is the dual-loop, where we use two sensors, rotary and linear. The rotary
sensor assures stability (because the position loop is closed before the backlash) whereas the linear
sensor provides accurate load position information. The operation principle is to drive the motor
to a given rotary position near the final point. Once there, the load position is read to find the
position error and the controller commands the motor to move to a new rotary position which
eliminates the position error.
Since the required accuracy is 0.5 micron, the resolution of the linear sensor should preferably be
twice finer. A linear sensor with a resolution of 0.25 micron allows a position error of +/-2 counts.
The dual-loop approach requires the resolution of the rotary sensor to be equal or better than that
of the linear system. Assuming that the pitch of the lead screw is 2.5mm (approximately 10 turns
per inch), a rotary encoder of 2500 lines per turn or 10,000 count per revolution results in a rotary
resolution of 0.25 micron. This results in equal resolution on both linear and rotary sensors.
To illustrate the control method, assume that the rotary encoder is used as a feedback for the Xaxis, and that the linear sensor is read and stored in the variable LINPOS. Further assume that at
the start, both the position of X and the value of LINPOS are equal to zero. Now assume that the
objective is to move the linear load to the position of 1000.
The first step is to command the X motor to move to the rotary position of 1000. Once it arrives
we check the position of the load. If, for example, the load position is 980 counts, it implies that a
correction of 20 counts must be made. However, when the X-axis is commanded to be at the
position of 1000, suppose that the actual position is only 995, implying that X has a position error
of 5 counts, which will be eliminated once the motor settles. This implies that the correction
needs to be only 15 counts, since 5 counts out of the 20 would be corrected by the X-axis.
Accordingly, the motion correction should be:
Correction = Load Position Error - Rotary Position Error
The correction can be performed a few times until the error drops below +/-2 counts. Often, this is
performed in one correction cycle.
Example motion program:
Instruction
Function
#A
Label
DP0
Define starting positions as zero
LINPOS=0
PR 1000
Required distance
BGX
Start motion
#B
AMX
Wait for completion
WT 50
Wait 50 msec
LIN POS = _DEX
Read linear position
ER=1000-LINPOS-_TEX
Find the correction
JP #C,@ABS[ER]<2
Exit if error is small
PR ER
Command correction
BGX
JP #B
Repeat the process
#C
EN
DMC-1600
Chapter 7 Application Programming • 157
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software
Protection
Introduction
The DMC-1600 provides several hardware and software features to check for error conditions and
to inhibit the motor on error. These features help protect the various system components from
damage.
WARNING: Machinery in motion can be dangerous! It is the responsibility of the user to design
effective error handling and safety protection as part of the machine. Since the DMC-1600 is an
integral part of the machine, the engineer should design his overall system with protection against
a possible component failure on the DMC-1600. Galil shall not be liable or responsible for any
incidental or consequential damages.
Hardware Protection
The DMC-1600 includes hardware input and output protection lines for various error and
mechanical limit conditions. These include:
Output Protection Lines
Amp Enable - This signal goes low when the motor off command is given, when the position
error exceeds the value specified by the Error Limit (ER) command, or when off-on-error
condition is enabled (OE1) and the abort command is given. Each axis amplifier has separate
amplifier enable lines. This signal also goes low when the watch-dog timer is activated, or upon
reset. Note: The standard configuration of the AEN signal is TTL active low. Both the polarity
and the amplitude can be changed if you are using the ICM-1900 interface board. To make these
changes, see section entitled ‘Amplifier Interface’ pg 36.
Error Output - The error signal output is available on the interconnect module as ERROR. This
is a TTL signal which is low when the controller has an error.
Note: When the error signal is low, the LED on the controller will be on which indicates an error
condition one of the following error conditions:
1.
At least one axis has a position error greater than the error limit. The error limit is set by
using the command ER.
2.
The reset line on the controller is held low or is being affected by noise.
3.
There is a failure on the controller and the processor is resetting itself.
4.
There is a failure with the output IC which drives the error signal.
158 • Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection
DMC-1600
Input Protection Lines
Abort - A low input stops commanded motion instantly without a controlled deceleration. For
any axis in which the Off-On-Error function is enabled, the amplifiers will be disabled. This
could cause the motor to ‘coast’ to a stop. If the Off-On-Error function is not enabled, the motor
will instantaneously stop and servo at the current position. The Off-On-Error function is further
discussed in this chapter.
Forward Limit Switch - Low input inhibits motion in forward direction. If the motor is moving
in the forward direction when the limit switch is activated, the motion will decelerate and stop. In
addition, if the motor is moving in the forward direction, the controller will automatically jump to
the limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI (if such a routine has been written by the user). The CN
command can be used to change the polarity of the limit switches.
Reverse Limit Switch - Low input inhibits motion in reverse direction. If the motor is moving in
the reverse direction when the limit switch is activated, the motion will decelerate and stop. In
addition, if the motor is moving in the reverse direction, the controller will automatically jump to
the limit switch subroutine, #LIMSWI (if such a routine has been written by the user). The CN
command can be used to change the polarity of the limit switches.
Software Protection
The DMC-1600 provides a programmable error limit. The error limit can be set for any number
between 1 and 32767 using the ER n command. The default value for ER is 16384.
Example:
ER 200,300,400,500
Set X-axis error limit for 200, Y-axis error limit to 300, Z-axis error limit to 400
counts, W-axis error limit to 500 counts
ER,1,,10
Set Y-axis error limit to 1 count, set W-axis error limit to 10 counts.
The units of the error limit are quadrature counts. The error is the difference between the
command position and actual encoder position. If the absolute value of the error exceeds the value
specified by ER, the DMC-1600 will generate several signals to warn the host system of the error
condition. These signals include:
Signal or Function
State if Error Occurs
# POSERR
Jumps to automatic excess position error subroutine
Error Light
Turns on
OE Function
Shuts motor off if OE1
AEN Output Line
Goes low
The Jump on Condition statement is useful for branching on a given error within a program. The
position error of X,Y,Z and W can be monitored during execution using the TE command.
Programmable Position Limits
The DMC-1600 provides programmable forward and reverse position limits. These are set by the
BL and FL software commands. Once a position limit is specified, the DMC-1600 will not accept
position commands beyond the limit. Motion beyond the limit is also prevented.
Example:
DMC-1600
DP0,0,0
Define Position
BL -2000,-4000,-8000
Set Reverse position limit
FL 2000,4000,8000
Set Forward position limit
JG 2000,2000,2000
Jog
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection • 159
BG XYZ
Begin
(motion stops at forward limits)
Off-On-Error
The DMC-1600 controller has a built in function which can turn off the motors under certain error
conditions. This function is know as ‘Off-On-Error”. To activate the OE function for each axis,
specify 1 for X,Y,Z and W axis. To disable this function, specify 0 for the axes. When this
function is enabled, the specified motor will be disabled under the following 3 conditions:
1.
The position error for the specified axis exceeds the limit set with the command, ER
2.
The abort command is given
3.
The abort input is activated with a low signal.
Note: If the motors are disabled while they are moving, they may ‘coast’ to a stop because they are
no longer under servo control.
To re-enable the system, use the Reset (RS) or Servo Here (SH) command.
Examples:
OE 1,1,1,1
Enable off-on-error for X,Y,Z and W
OE 0,1,0,1
Enable off-on-error for Y and W axes and disable off-on-error for W and Z axes
Automatic Error Routine
The #POSERR label causes the statements following to be automatically executed if error on any
axis exceeds the error limit specified by ER. The error routine must be closed with the RE
command. The RE command returns from the error subroutine to the main program.
NOTE: The Error Subroutine will be entered again unless the error condition is gone.
Example:
#A;JP #A;EN
"Dummy" program
#POSERR
Start error routine on error
MG "error"
Send message
SB 1
Fire relay
STX
Stop motor
AMX
After motor stops
SHX
Servo motor here to clear error
RE
Return to main program
NOTE: An applications program must be executing for the #POSERR routine to function.
Limit Switch Routine
The DMC-1600 provides forward and reverse limit switches which inhibit motion in the
respective direction. There is also a special label for automatic execution of a limit switch
subroutine. The #LIMSWI label specifies the start of the limit switch subroutine. This label
causes the statements following to be automatically executed if any limit switch is activated and
that axis motor is moving in that direction. The RE command ends the subroutine.
The state of the forward and reverse limit switches may also be tested during the jump-oncondition statement. The _LR condition specifies the reverse limit and _LF specifies the forward
160 • Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection
DMC-1600
limit. X,Y,Z, or W following LR or LF specifies the axis. The CN command can be used to
configure the polarity of the limit switches.
Limit Switch Example:
#A;JP #A;EN
Dummy Program
#LIMSWI
Limit Switch Utility
V1=_LFX
Check if forward limit
V2=_LRX
Check if reverse limit
JP#LF,V1=0
Jump to #LF if forward
JP#LR,V2=0
Jump to #LR if reverse
JP#END
Jump to end
#LF
#LF
MG "FORWARD LIMIT"
Send message
STX;AMX
Stop motion
PR-1000;BGX;AMX
Move in reverse
JP#END
End
#LR
#LR
MG "REVERSE LIMIT"
Send message
STX;AMX
Stop motion
PR1000;BGX;AMX
Move forward
#END
End
RE
Return to main program
NOTE: An applications program must be executing for #LIMSWI to function.
DMC-1600
Chapter 8 Hardware & Software Protection • 161
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting
Overview
The following discussion may help you get your system to work.
Potential problems have been divided into groups as follows:
1.
Installation
2.
Communication
3.
Stability and Compensation
4.
Operation
The various symptoms along with the cause and the remedy are described in the following tables.
Installation
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
Motor runs away when connected to amplifier with
no additional inputs.
Amplifier offset too
large.
Adjust amplifier offset
Same as above, but offset adjustment does not stop
the motor.
Damaged amplifier.
Replace amplifier.
Same as above, but offset adjustment does not stop
the motor.
Damaged amplifier.
Replace amplifier.
Controller does not read changes in encoder position.
Wrong encoder
connections.
Check encoder wiring.
Same as above
Bad encoder
Check the encoder signals.
Replace encoder if necessary.
Same as above
Bad controller
Connect the encoder to
different axis input. If it works,
controller failure. Repair or
replace.
162 • Chapter 9 Troubleshooting
DMC-1600
Communication
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
Using the Galil provided terminal,
cannot communicate with
controller.
Address selection in
communication does not match
jumpers.
Check address jumper positions,
and change if necessary. The
addresses 1000 or 816 are
recommended. Note -- for address
1000, jumper A2 and A4 . For
address 816, jumper A7, A6, A3,
A2.
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
Motor runs away when the loop is
closed.
Wrong feedback polarity.
Invert the polarity of the loop by
inverting the motor leads (brush type)
or the encoder.
Motor oscillates.
Too high gain or too little
damping.
Decrease KI and KP. Increase KD.
Stability
Operation
DMC-1600
SYMPTOM
CAUSE
REMEDY
Controller rejects command.
Responded with a ?
Anything.
Interrogate the cause with TC or
TC1.
Motor does not complete move.
Noise on limit switches stops the
motor.
To verify cause, check the stop
code (SC). If caused by limit
switch noise, reduce noise.
During a periodic operation, motor
drifts slowly.
Encoder noise
Interrogate the position
periodically. If controller states
that the position is the same at
different locations it implies
encoder noise. Reduce noise. Use
differential encoder inputs.
Same as above.
Programming error.
Avoid resetting position error at
end of move with SH command.
Chapter 9 Troubleshooting • 163
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
Overview
The following discussion covers the operation of motion control systems. A typical motion
control system consists of the elements shown in Fig 10.1.
COMPUTER
CONTROLLER
DRIVER
ENCODER
MOTOR
Figure 10.1 - Elements of Servo Systems
The operation of such a system can be divided into three levels, as illustrated in Fig. 10.2. The
levels are:
1. Closing the Loop
2. Motion Profiling
3. Motion Programming
The first level, the closing of the loop, assures that the motor follows the commanded position.
This is done by closing the position loop using a sensor. The operation at the basic level of
closing the loop involves the subjects of modeling, analysis, and design. These subjects will be
covered in the following discussions.
The motion profiling is the generation of the desired position function. This function, R(t),
describes where the motor should be at every sampling period. Note that the profiling and the
closing of the loop are independent functions. The profiling function determines where the motor
should be and the closing of the loop forces the motor to follow the commanded position
164 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1600
The highest level of control is the motion program. This can be stored in the host computer or in
the controller. This program describes the tasks in terms of the motors that need to be controlled,
the distances and the speed.
LEVEL
3
MOTION
PROGRAMMING
2
MOTION
PROFILING
1
CLOSED-LOOP
CONTROL
Figure 10.2 - Levels of Control Functions
The three levels of control may be viewed as different levels of management. The top manager,
the motion program, may specify the following instruction, for example.
PR 6000,4000
SP 20000,20000
AC 200000,00000
BG X
AD 2000
BG Y
EN
This program corresponds to the velocity profiles shown in Fig. 10.3. Note that the profiled
positions show where the motors must be at any instant of time.
Finally, it remains up to the servo system to verify that the motor follows the profiled position by
closing the servo loop.
The following section explains the operation of the servo system. First, it is explained
qualitatively, and then the explanation is repeated using analytical tools for those who are more
theoretically inclined.
DMC-1600
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 165
X VELOCITY
Y VELOCITY
X POSITION
Y POSITION
TIME
Figure 10.3 - Velocity and Position Profiles
Operation of Closed-Loop Systems
To understand the operation of a servo system, we may compare it to a familiar closed-loop
operation, adjusting the water temperature in the shower. One control objective is to keep the
temperature at a comfortable level, say 90 degrees F. To achieve that, our skin serves as a
temperature sensor and reports to the brain (controller). The brain compares the actual
temperature, which is called the feedback signal, with the desired level of 90 degrees F. The
difference between the two levels is called the error signal. If the feedback temperature is too low,
the error is positive, and it triggers an action which raises the water temperature until the
temperature error is reduced sufficiently.
The closing of the servo loop is very similar. Suppose that we want the motor position to be at 90
degrees. The motor position is measured by a position sensor, often an encoder, and the position
feedback is sent to the controller. Like the brain, the controller determines the position error,
which is the difference between the commanded position of 90 degrees and the position feedback.
The controller then outputs a signal that is proportional to the position error. This signal produces
a proportional current in the motor, which causes a motion until the error is reduced. Once the
error becomes small, the resulting current will be too small to overcome the friction, causing the
motor to stop.
166 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1600
The analogy between adjusting the water temperature and closing the position loop carries further.
We have all learned the hard way, that the hot water faucet should be turned at the "right" rate. If
you turn it too slowly, the temperature response will be slow, causing discomfort. Such a slow
reaction is called overdamped response.
The results may be worse if we turn the faucet too fast. The overreaction results in temperature
oscillations. When the response of the system oscillates, we say that the system is unstable.
Clearly, unstable responses are bad when we want a constant level.
What causes the oscillations? The basic cause for the instability is a combination of delayed
reaction and high gain. In the case of the temperature control, the delay is due to the water
flowing in the pipes. When the human reaction is too strong, the response becomes unstable.
Servo systems also become unstable if their gain is too high. The delay in servo systems is
between the application of the current and its effect on the position. Note that the current must be
applied long enough to cause a significant effect on the velocity, and the velocity change must last
long enough to cause a position change. This delay, when coupled with high gain, causes
instability.
This motion controller includes a special filter which is designed to help the stability and accuracy.
Typically, such a filter produces, in addition to the proportional gain, damping and integrator. The
combination of the three functions is referred to as a PID filter.
The filter parameters are represented by the three constants KP, KI and KD, which correspond to
the proportional, integral and derivative term respectively.
The damping element of the filter acts as a predictor, thereby reducing the delay associated with
the motor response.
The integrator function, represented by the parameter KI, improves the system accuracy. With the
KI parameter, the motor does not stop until it reaches the desired position exactly, regardless of
the level of friction or opposing torque.
The integrator also reduces the system stability. Therefore, it can be used only when the loop is
stable and has a high gain.
The output of the filter is applied to a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The resulting output
signal in the range between +10 and -10 Volts is then applied to the amplifier and the motor.
The motor position, whether rotary or linear is measured by a sensor. The resulting signal, called
position feedback, is returned to the controller for closing the loop.
The following section describes the operation in a detailed mathematical form, including
modeling, analysis and design.
System Modeling
The elements of a servo system include the motor, driver, encoder and the controller. These
elements are shown in Fig. 10.4. The mathematical model of the various components is given
below.
DMC-1600
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 167
CONTROLLER
R
X
Σ
Y
DIGITAL
FILTER
ZOH
DAC
V
AMP
E
MOTOR
C
P
ENCODER
Figure 10.4 - Functional Elements of a Motion Control System
Motor-Amplifier
The motor amplifier may be configured in three modes:
1. Voltage Drive
2. Current Drive
3. Velocity Loop
The operation and modeling in the three modes is as follows:
Voltage Drive
The amplifier is a voltage source with a gain of Kv [V/V]. The transfer function relating the input
voltage, V, to the motor position, P, is
P V = KV
[ K S (ST
t
m
]
+ 1)( STe + 1)
where
Tm = RJ K t2
[s]
Te = L R
[s]
and
and the motor parameters and units are
Kt
Torque constant [Nm/A]
R
Armature Resistance Ω
J
Combined inertia of motor and load [kg.m2]
L
Armature Inductance [H]
When the motor parameters are given in English units, it is necessary to convert the quantities to
MKS units. For example, consider a motor with the parameters:
Kt = 14.16 oz - in/A = 0.1 Nm/A
R=2Ω
J = 0.0283 oz-in-s2 = 2.10-4 kg . m2
L = 0.004H
168 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1600
Then the corresponding time constants are
Tm = 0.04 sec
and
Te = 0.002 sec
Assuming that the amplifier gain is Kv = 4, the resulting transfer function is
P/V = 40/[s(0.04s+1)(0.002s+1)]
Current Drive
The current drive generates a current I, which is proportional to the input voltage, V, with a gain
of Ka. The resulting transfer function in this case is
P/V = Ka Kt / Js2
where Kt and J are as defined previously. For example, a current amplifier with Ka = 2 A/V with
the motor described by the previous example will have the transfer function:
P/V = 1000/s2
[rad/V]
If the motor is a DC brushless motor, it is driven by an amplifier that performs the commutation.
The combined transfer function of motor amplifier combination is the same as that of a similar
brush motor, as described by the previous equations.
Velocity Loop
The motor driver system may include a velocity loop where the motor velocity is sensed by a
tachometer and is fed back to the amplifier. Such a system is illustrated in Fig. 10.5. Note that the
transfer function between the input voltage V and the velocity ω is:
ω /V = [Ka Kt/Js]/[1+Ka Kt Kg/Js] = 1/[Kg(sT1+1)]
where the velocity time constant, T1, equals
T1 = J/Ka Kt Kg
This leads to the transfer function
P/V = 1/[Kg s(sT1+1)]
V
Σ
Ka
Kt/Js
Kg
Figure 10.5 - Elements of velocity loops
The resulting functions derived above are illustrated by the block diagram of Fig. 10.6.
DMC-1600
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 169
VOLTAGE SOURCE
E
V
1/Ke
(STm+1)(STe+1)
Kv
W
1
S
P
CURRENT SOURCE
I
V
Kt
JS
Ka
W
1
S
P
VELOCITY LOOP
V
1
Kg(ST1+1)
W
1
S
P
Figure 10.6 - Mathematical model of the motor and amplifier in three operational modes
Encoder
The encoder generates N pulses per revolution. It outputs two signals, Channel A and B, which
are in quadrature. Due to the quadrature relationship between the encoder channels, the position
resolution is increased to 4N quadrature counts/rev.
The model of the encoder can be represented by a gain of
Kf = 4N/2π
[count/rad]
For example, a 1000 lines/rev encoder is modeled as
Kf = 638
170 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1600
DAC
The DAC or D-to-A converter converts a 16-bit number to an analog voltage. The input range of
the numbers is 65536 and the output voltage range is +/-10V or 20V. Therefore, the effective gain
of the DAC is
K= 20/65536 = 0.0003
[V/count]
Digital Filter
The digital filter has three element in series: PID, low-pass and a notch filter. The transfer
function of the filter. The transfer function of the filter elements are:
PID
D(z) =
K ( Z − A) CZ
+
Z
Z −1
Low-pass
L(z) =
1− B
Z−B
Notch
N(z) =
( Z − z )( Z − z )
( Z − p)( Z − p)
The filter parameters, K, A, C and B are selected by the instructions KP, KD, KI and PL,
respectively. The relationship between the filter coefficients and the instructions are:
K = (KP + KD)
⋅4
A = KD/(KP + KD)
C = KI/2
B = PL
The PID and low-pass elements are equivalent to the continuous transfer function G(s).
G(s) = (P + sD + I/s) ∗ a/(S+a)
P = 4KP
⋅
D = 4T KD
I = KI/2T
a = 1/T ln (1/B)
where T is the sampling period.
For example, if the filter parameters of the DMC-1600 are
KP = 4
KD = 36
KI = 2
PL = 0.75
T = 0.001 s
the digital filter coefficients are
K = 160
A = 0.9
DMC-1600
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 171
C=1
a = 250 rad/s
and the equivalent continuous filter, G(s), is
G(s) = [16 + 0.144s + 1000/s} ∗ 250/ (s+250)
The notch filter has two complex zeros, Z and z, and two complex poles, P and p.
The effect of the notch filter is to cancel the resonance affect by placing the complex zeros on top
of the resonance poles. The notch poles, P and p, are programmable and are selected to have
sufficient damping. It is best to select the notch parameters by the frequency terms. The poles and
zeros have a frequency in Hz, selected by the command NF. The real part of the poles is set by
NB and the real part of the zeros is set by NZ.
The most simple procedure for setting the notch filter, identify the resonance frequency and set NF
to the same value. Set NB to about one half of NF and set NZ to a low value between zero and 5.
ZOH
The ZOH, or zero-order-hold, represents the effect of the sampling process, where the motor
command is updated once per sampling period. The effect of the ZOH can be modeled by the
transfer function
H(s) = 1/(1+sT/2)
If the sampling period is T = 0.001, for example, H(s) becomes:
H(s) = 2000/(s+2000)
However, in most applications, H(s) may be approximated as one.
This completes the modeling of the system elements. Next, we discuss the system analysis.
System Analysis
To analyze the system, we start with a block diagram model of the system elements. The analysis
procedure is illustrated in terms of the following example.
Consider a position control system with the DMC-1600 controller and the following parameters:
Kt = 0.1
Nm/A
Torque constant
J = 2.10-4
kg.m2
System moment of inertia
R=2
Ω
Motor resistance
Ka = 4
Amp/Volt
Current amplifier gain
KP = 12.5
Digital filter gain
KD = 245
Digital filter zero
KI = 0
No integrator
N = 500
Counts/rev
Encoder line density
T=1
ms
Sample period
The transfer function of the system elements are:
Motor
M(s) = P/I = Kt/Js2 = 500/s2 [rad/A]
Amp
172 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1600
Ka = 4 [Amp/V]
DAC
Kd = 0.0003 [V/count]
Encoder
Kf = 4N/2π = 318 [count/rad]
ZOH
2000/(s+2000)
Digital Filter
KP = 12.5, KD = 245, T = 0.001
Therefore,
D(z) = 1030 (z-0.95)/Z
Accordingly, the coefficients of the continuous filter are:
P = 50
D = 0.98
The filter equation may be written in the continuous equivalent form:
G(s) = 50 + 0.98s = .098 (s+51)
The system elements are shown in Fig. 10.7.
V
Σ
FILTER
ZOH
DAC
AMP
MOTOR
50+0.980s
2000
S+2000
0.0003
4
500
S2
ENCODER
318
Figure 10.7 - Mathematical model of the control system
The open loop transfer function, A(s), is the product of all the elements in the loop.
A = 390,000 (s+51)/[s2(s+2000)]
To analyze the system stability, determine the crossover frequency, ωc at which A(j ωc) equals
one. This can be done by the Bode plot of A(j ωc), as shown in Fig. 10.8.
DMC-1600
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 173
Magnitude
4
1
50
200
2000
W (rad/s)
0.1
Figure 10.8 - Bode plot of the open loop transfer function
For the given example, the crossover frequency was computed numerically resulting in 200 rad/s.
Next, we determine the phase of A(s) at the crossover frequency.
A(j200) = 390,000 (j200+51)/[(j200)2 . (j200 + 2000)]
α = Arg[A(j200)] = tan-1(200/51)-180° -tan-1(200/2000)
α = 76° - 180° - 6° = -110°
Finally, the phase margin, PM, equals
PM = 180° + α = 70°
As long as PM is positive, the system is stable. However, for a well damped system, PM should
be between 30 degrees and 45 degrees. The phase margin of 70 degrees given above indicated
overdamped response.
Next, we discuss the design of control systems.
System Design and Compensation
The closed-loop control system can be stabilized by a digital filter, which is preprogrammed in the
DMC-1600 controller. The filter parameters can be selected by the user for the best
compensation. The following discussion presents an analytical design method.
The Analytical Method
The analytical design method is aimed at closing the loop at a crossover frequency, ωc, with a
phase margin PM. The system parameters are assumed known. The design procedure is best
illustrated by a design example.
Consider a system with the following parameters:
Kt
174 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
Nm/A
Torque constant
DMC-1600
J = 2.10-4
kg.m2
System moment of inertia
R=2
Ω
Motor resistance
Ka = 2
Amp/Volt
Current amplifier gain
N = 1000
Counts/rev
Encoder line density
The DAC of the DMC-1600 outputs +/-10V for a 14-bit command of +/-8192 counts.
The design objective is to select the filter parameters in order to close a position loop with a
crossover frequency of ωc = 500 rad/s and a phase margin of 45 degrees.
The first step is to develop a mathematical model of the system, as discussed in the previous
system.
Motor
M(s) = P/I = Kt/Js2 = 1000/s2
Amp
Ka = 2
[Amp/V]
DAC
Kd = 10/32768 = .0003
Encoder
Kf = 4N/2π = 636
ZOH
H(s) = 2000/(s+2000)
Compensation Filter
G(s) = P + sD
The next step is to combine all the system elements, with the exception of G(s), into one function,
L(s).
L(s) = M(s) Ka Kd Kf H(s) =3.17∗106/[s2(s+2000)]
Then the open loop transfer function, A(s), is
A(s) = L(s) G(s)
Now, determine the magnitude and phase of L(s) at the frequency ωc = 500.
L(j500) = 3.17∗106/[(j500)2 (j500+2000)]
This function has a magnitude of
|L(j500)| = 0.00625
and a phase
Arg[L(j500)] = -180° - tan-1(500/2000) = -194°
G(s) is selected so that A(s) has a crossover frequency of 500 rad/s and a phase margin of 45
degrees. This requires that
|A(j500)| = 1
Arg [A(j500)] = -135°
However, since
DMC-1600
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 175
A(s) = L(s) G(s)
then it follows that G(s) must have magnitude of
|G(j500)| = |A(j500)/L(j500)| = 160
and a phase
arg [G(j500)] = arg [A(j500)] - arg [L(j500)] = -135° + 194° = 59°
In other words, we need to select a filter function G(s) of the form
G(s) = P + sD
so that at the frequency ωc =500, the function would have a magnitude of 160 and a phase lead of
59 degrees.
These requirements may be expressed as:
|G(j500)| = |P + (j500D)| = 160
and
arg [G(j500)] = tan-1[500D/P] = 59°
The solution of these equations leads to:
P = 160cos 59° = 82.4
500D = 160sin 59° = 137
Therefore,
D = 0.274
and
G = 82.4 + 0.2744s
The function G is equivalent to a digital filter of the form:
D(z) = 4KP + 4KD(1-z-1)
where
P = 4 ∗ KP
D = 4 ∗ KD ∗ T
and
4 ∗ KD = D/T
Assuming a sampling period of T=1ms, the parameters of the digital filter are:
KP = 20.6
KD = 68.6
The DMC-1600 can be programmed with the instruction:
KP 20.6
KD 68.6
In a similar manner, other filters can be programmed. The procedure is simplified by the
following table, which summarizes the relationship between the various filters.
176 • Chapter 10 Theory of Operation
DMC-1600
Equivalent Filter Form
DMC-1600
Digital
D(z) =[K(z-A/z) + Cz/(z-1)]∗ (1-B)/(Z-B)
Digital
D(z) = [4 KP + 4 KD(1-z-1) + KI/2(1-z-1)] ∗(1-B)/(Z-B)
⋅
KP, KD, KI, PL K = (KP + KD) 4
A = KD/(KP+KD)
C = KI/2
B = PL
Continuous
G(s) = (P + Ds + I/s) ∗ a/s+a
PID, T
P = 4 KP
D = 4 T*KD
I = KI/2T
a = 1/T ln(1/PL)
DMC-1600
Chapter 10 Theory of Operation • 177
Appendices
Electrical Specifications
Servo Control
ACMD Amplifier Command:
+/-10 Volts analog signal. Resolution 16-bit DAC or .0003
Volts. 3 mA maximum
A+,A-,B+,B-,IDX+,IDX- Encoder and Auxiliary
TTL compatible, but can accept up to +/-12 Volts.
Quadrature phase on CHA,CHB. Can accept single-ended
(A+,B+ only) or differential (A+,A-,B+,B-). Maximum
A,B edge rate: 12 MHz. Minimum IDX pulse width: 80
nsec.
Stepper Control
Pulse
TTL (0-5 Volts) level at 50% duty cycle. 3,000,000
pulses/sec maximum frequency
Direction
TTL (0-5 Volts)
Input/Output
Uncommitted Inputs, Limits, Home, Abort Inputs:
2.2K ohm in series with optoisolator. Active high or low requires at
least 2mA to activate. Can accept up to 28 Volts without additional
series resistor. Above 28 Volts requires additional resistor.
AN[1] thru AN[8] Analog Inputs:
Standard configuration is +/-10 Volt. 12-Bit Analog-to-Digital
converter. 16-bit optional.
OUT[1] thru OUT[8] Outputs:
TTL.
178 • Appendices
DMC-1600
Power Requirement
+5V
750 mA
+12V
40 mA
-12V
40mA
Performance Specifications
Normal Firmware
Fast Firmware
DMC-1610
250 μsec
125 μsec
DMC-1620
250 μsec
125 μsec
DMC-1630
375 μsec
250 μsec
DMC-1640
375 μsec
250 μsec
Position Accuracy:
+/-1 quadrature count
Minimum Servo Loop Update Time:
Velocity Accuracy:
Long Term
Phase-locked, better than .005%
Short Term
System dependent
Position Range:
+/-2147483647 counts per move
Velocity Range:
Up to 12,000,000 counts/sec servo;
3,000,000 pulses/sec-stepper
Velocity Resolution:
2 counts/sec
Motor Command Resolution:
16 bit or 0.0003 V
Variable Range:
+/-2 billion
Variable Resolution:
1 ⋅ 10-4
Array Size:
8000 elements, 30 arrays
Program Size:
1000 lines x 80 characters
DMC-1600
Appendices • 179
Connectors for DMC-1600 Main Board
J1 DMC-1640 (A-D AXES) MAIN;
J5-DMC-1640 AUXILIARY ENCODERS
100-PIN HIGH DENSITY (AMP 2-178238-9):
5):
36-PIN HIGH DENSITY (AMP 178238-
1 Analog GND
2 Ground
3 +5V
4 Error Output
5 Reset
6 Encoder-Compare Output
7 Ground
8 Ground
9 Motor command W
10 Sign W / Dir W
11 PWM W / Step W
12 Motor command Z
13 Sign Z / Dir Z
14 PWM Z / Step Z
15 Motor command Y
16 Sign Y/ Dir Y
17 PWM Y/ Step Y
18 Motor command X
19 Sign X/ Dir X
20 PWM X / Step X
21 Amp enable W
22 Amp enable Z
23 Amp enable Y
24 Amp enable X
25 A+ X
26 A- X
27 B+ X
28 B- X
29 I+ X
30 I- X
31 A+ Y
32 A- Y
33 B+ Y
34 B- Y
35 I+ Y
36 I- Y
37 A+ Z
38 A- Z
39 B+ Z
40 B- Z
41 I+ Z
42 I- Z
43 A+ W
44 A- W
45 B+ W
46 B- W
47 I+ W
48 I- W
49 +12V
50 +12V
180 • Appendices
51 nc
52 Ground
53 +5V
54 Limit common
55 Home W
56 Reverse limit W
57 Forward limit W
58 Home Z
59 Reverse limit Z
60 Forward limit Z
61 Home Y
62 Reverse limit Y
63 Forward limit Y
64 Home X
65 Reverse limit X
66 Forward limit X
67 Ground
68 +5V
69 Input common
70 Latch X
71 Latch Y
72 Latch Z
73 Latch W
74 Input 5
75 Input 6
76 Input 7
77 Input 8
78 Abort
79 Output 1
80 Output 2
81 Output 3
82 Output 4
83 Output 5
84 Output 6
85 Output 7
86 Output 8
87 +5V
88 Ground
89 Ground
90 Ground
91 Analog In 1
92 Analog In 2
93 Analog In 3
94 Analog In 4
95 Analog In 5
96 Analog In 6
97 Analog In 7
98 Analog In 8
99 -12V
100 -12V
1 +5V
2 Ground
3 A+ Aux X
4 A- Aux X
5 B+ Aux X
6 B- Aux X
7 A+ Aux Y
8 A- Aux Y
9 B+ Aux Y
10 B- Aux Y
11 A+ Aux Z
12 A- Aux Z
13 B+ Aux Z
14 B- Aux Z
15 A+ Aux W
16 A- Aux W
17 B+ Aux W
28 B- Aux W
19 NC
20 NC
21 NC
22 NC
23 NC
24 NC
25 NC
26 NC
27 NC
28 NC
29 NC
30 NC
31 NC
32 NC
33 NC
34 NC
35 NC
36 NC
DMC-1600
Notes: X,Y,Z,W are interchangeable designations for A,B,C,D axes.
For A Description of the Connectors of the Extended I/O, see section below, "Extended I/O of the DMC-1600
Controller”.
Pin-Out Description for DMC-1600
Outputs
Analog Motor Command
+/- 10 Volt range signal for driving amplifier. In servo mode, motor command output is
updated at the controller sample rate. In the motor off mode, this output is held at the OF
command level.
Amp Enable
Signal to disable and enable an amplifier. Amp Enable goes low on Abort and OE1.
PWM/STEP OUT
PWM/STEP OUT is used for directly driving power bridges for DC servo motors or for
driving step motor amplifiers. For servo motors: If you are using a conventional amplifier
that accepts a +/-10 Volt analog signal, this pin is not used and should be left open. The
switching frequency is 16.7 kHz. The PWM output is available in two formats: Inverter
and Sign Magnitude. In the Inverter mode, the PWM signal is .2% duty cycle for full
negative voltage, 50% for 0 Voltage and 99.8% for full positive voltage. In the Sign
Magnitude Mode (Jumper SM), the PWM signal is 0% for 0 Voltage, 99.6% for full
voltage and the sign of the Motor Command is available at the sign output.
PWM/STEP OUT
For step motors: The STEP OUT pin produces a series of pulses for input to a step motor
driver. The pulses may either be low or high. The pulse width is 50%. Upon Reset, the
output will be low if the SM jumper is on. If the SM jumper is not on, the output will be
tristate.
Sign/Direction
Used with PWM signal to give the sign of the motor command for servo amplifiers or
direction for step motors.
Error
The signal goes low when the position error on any axis exceeds the value specified by the
error limit command, ER.
Output 1-Output 8
These 8 TTL outputs are uncommitted and may be designated by the user to toggle relays
and trigger external events. The output lines are toggled by Set Bit, SB, and Clear Bit, CB,
instructions. The OP instruction is used to define the state of all the bits of the Output port.
DMC-1600
Appendices • 181
Inputs
Encoder, A+, B+
Position feedback from incremental encoder with two channels in quadrature, CHA and CHB.
The encoder may be analog or TTL. Any resolution encoder may be used as long as the
maximum frequency does not exceed 12,000,000 quadrature states/sec. The controller performs
quadrature decoding of the encoder signals resulting in a resolution of quadrature counts (4 x
encoder cycles). Note: Encoders that produce outputs in the format of pulses and direction may
also be used by inputting the pulses into CHA and direction into Channel B and using the CE
command to configure this mode.
Encoder Index, I+
Once-Per-Revolution encoder pulse. Used in Homing sequence or Find Index command to
define home on an encoder index.
Encoder, A-, B-, I-
Differential inputs from encoder. May be input along with CHA, CHB for noise immunity of
encoder signals. The CHA- and CHB- inputs are optional.
Auxiliary Encoder, Aux A+,
Aux B+, Aux I+, Aux A-, Aux
B-, Aux I-
Inputs for additional encoder. Used when an encoder on both the motor and the load is required.
Not available on axes configured for step motors.
Abort
A low input stops commanded motion instantly without a controlled deceleration (OE0). Also
aborts motion program.
Reset
A low input resets the state of the processor to its power-on condition. The previously saved
state of the controller, along with parameter values, and saved sequences are restored.
Forward Limit Switch
When active, inhibits motion in forward direction. Also causes execution of limit switch
subroutine, #LIMSWI. The polarity of the limit switch may be set with the CN command.
Reverse Limit Switch
When active, inhibits motion in reverse direction. Also causes execution of limit switch
subroutine, #LIMSWI. The polarity of the limit switch may be set with the CN command.
Home Switch
Input for Homing (HM) and Find Edge (FE) instructions. Upon BG following HM or FE, the
motor accelerates to slew speed. A transition on this input will cause the motor to decelerate to a
stop. The polarity of the Home Switch may be set with the CN command.
Input 1 - Input 8 (Isolated)
Input 17 - Input 80 (TTL)
Uncommitted inputs. May be defined by the user to trigger events. Inputs are checked with the
Conditional Jump instruction and After Input instruction or Input Interrupt. Input 1 is latch X,
Input 2 is latch Y, Input 3 is latch Z and Input 4 is latch W if the high speed position latch
function is enabled.
Latch
High speed position latch to capture axis position within 20 nanoseconds on occurrence of latch
signal. AL command arms latch. Input 1 is latch X, Input 2 is latch Y, Input 3 is latch Z and
Input 4 is latch W. Input 9 is latch E, input 10 is latch F, input 11 is latch G, input 12 is latch H.
182 • Appendices
DMC-1600
Extended I/O of the DMC-1600 Controller
The DMC-1600 controller offers 64 extended I/O points which can be configured as inputs or
outputs in 8 bit increments through software. The I/O points are accessed through a single 80 pin
High Density connector. Rev A&B DMC-16x0 controllers used a 100 pin HD connector.
Configuring the I/O of the DMC-1600
The 64 extended I/O points of the DMC-1600 series controller can be configured in blocks of 8.
The extended I/O is denoted as bits 17-80 and blocks 2-9.
The command, CO, is used to configure the extended I/O as inputs or outputs, in blocks of 8 bits.
The CO command has one field:
CO n
n is a decimal value which represents a binary number. Each bit of the binary number represents
one block of extended I/O. When set to 1, the corresponding block is configured as an output.
The least significant bit represents block 2 and the most significant bit represents block 9. The
decimal value can be calculated by the following formula. n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 8*n5 +16* n6
+32* n7 +64* n8 +128* n9 where nx represents the block. If the nx value is a one, then the block of
8 I/O points is to be configured as an output. If the nx value is a zero, then the block of 8 I/O
points will be configured as an input. For example, if block 4 and 5 are to be configured as
outputs, CO 12 is issued.
8-Bit I/O Block
Block
Binary Representation
0
17-24
2
2
25-32
3
2
33-40
4
2
41-48
5
2
1
2
3
4
49-56
6
2
57-64
7
2
65-72
8
2
73-80
9
2
5
6
7
Decimal Value of Bit
1
2
4
8
16
32
64
128
The simplest method for determining n:
Step 1. Choose which 8-bit I/O blocks that should be configured as outputs.
Step 2. From the table, determine the decimal value for each I/O block to be set as an output.
Step 3. Add up all of the values determined in step 2. This is the value to be used for n.
For example, if blocks 1 and 2 are to be outputs, then n is 3 and the command, CO3, should be
issued. Note: This calculation is identical to the formula: n = n2 + 2*n3 + 4*n4 + 8*n5 +16* n6
+32* n7 +64* n8 +128* n9 where nx represents the block.
DMC-1600
Appendices • 183
Saving the State of the Outputs in Non-Volatile Memory
The configuration of the extended I/O and the state of the outputs can be stored in the EEPROM
with the BN command. If no value has been set, the default of CO 0 is used (all blocks are
inputs).
Accessing extended I/O
When configured as an output, each I/O point may be defined with the SBn and CBn commands
(where n=9 through 56). OBn can also be used with n=9 through 56.
The command, OP, may be used to set the state of output bits. The OP command has 2
parameters. The first parameter sets the values of the main output port of the controller. The
second parameter sets the value of the extended I/O configured as outputs. The command syntax
for the command is the following:
OP m,a,b,c,d,e
where m is the decimal representation of the bits 1-8 (values from 0 to 255) and a,b,c,d,e represent
the extended I/O in consecutive groups of 16 bits. (values from 0 to 65535). Arguments which are
given for I/O points which are configured as inputs will be ignored. The following table describes
the arguments used to set the state of outputs.
Argument
Blocks
Bits
Description
m
0
1-8
General Outputs
a
2,3
17-32
Extended I/O
b
4,5
33-40
Extended I/O
c
6,7
41-48
Extended I/O
d
8,9
49-56
Extended I/O
When accessing I/O blocks configured as inputs, use the TIn command. The argument 'n' refers to
the block to be read (n=1 to 9).
Individual bits can be queried using the @IN[n] command (where n=9 to 80). If the following
command is issued;
MG @IN[17]
the controller will return the state of the least significant bit of block 2 (assuming block 2 is
configured as an input).
Connector Description:
The extended I/O connector is a single 100 pin High Density Connector used on Revs A&B
versions of the DMC-16x0.
J101
100-PIN HIGH DENSITY:
184 • Appendices
Pin
Signa
l
Bloc
k
Bit @IN[n],
@OUT[n]
Bit
No
1.
I/O
4
40
7
3.
I/O
4
39
6
5
I/O
4
38
5
7.
I/O
4
37
4
9.
I/O
4
36
3
11.
I/O
4
35
2
13.
I/O
4
34
1
DMC-1600
DMC-1600
15.
I/O
4
33
0
17.
I/O
3
32
7
19.
I/O
3
31
6
21.
I/O
3
30
5
23.
I/O
3
29
4
25.
I/O
3
28
3
27.
I/O
3
27
2
29.
I/O
3
26
1
31.
I/O
3
25
0
33.
I/O
2
24
7
35.
I/O
2
23
6
37.
I/O
2
22
5
39.
I/O
2
21
4
41.
I/O
2
20
3
43.
I/O
2
19
2
45.
I/O
2
18
1
47.
I/O
2
17
0
49.
+5V
-
-
-
2.
I/O
5
48
0
4.
I/O
5
47
1
6.
I/O
5
46
2
8.
I/O
5
45
3
10.
I/O
5
44
4
12.
I/O
5
43
5
14.
I/O
5
42
6
16.
I/O
5
41
7
18.
GND
-
-
-
20.
GND
-
-
-
22.
GND
-
-
-
24.
GND
-
-
-
26.
GND
-
-
-
28.
GND
-
-
-
30.
GND
-
-
-
32.
GND
-
-
-
34.
GND
-
-
-
36.
GND
-
-
-
38.
GND
-
-
-
40.
GND
-
-
-
42.
GND
-
-
-
44.
GND
-
-
-
46.
GND
-
-
-
48.
GND
-
-
-
50.
GND
-
-
-
51.
I/O
8
72
7
53.
I/O
8
71
6
Appendices • 185
186 • Appendices
55
I/O
8
70
5
57.
I/O
8
69
4
59.
I/O
8
68
3
61.
I/O
8
67
2
63.
I/O
8
66
1
65.
I/O
8
65
0
67.
I/O
7
64
7
69.
I/O
7
63
6
71.
I/O
7
62
5
73.
I/O
7
61
4
75.
I/O
7
60
3
77.
I/O
7
59
2
79.
I/O
7
58
1
81.
I/O
7
57
0
83.
I/O
6
56
7
85.
I/O
6
55
6
87.
I/O
6
54
5
89.
I/O
6
53
4
91.
I/O
6
52
3
93.
I/O
6
51
2
95.
I/O
6
50
1
97.
I/O
6
49
0
99.
+5V
-
-
-
52.
I/O
9
80
7
54.
I/O
9
79
6
56.
I/O
9
78
5
58.
I/O
9
77
4
60.
I/O
9
76
3
62.
I/O
9
75
2
64.
I/O
9
74
1
66.
I/O
9
73
0
68.
GND
-
-
-
70.
GND
-
-
-
72.
GND
-
-
-
74.
GND
-
-
-
76.
GND
-
-
-
78.
GND
-
-
-
80.
GND
-
-
-
82.
GND
-
-
-
84.
GND
-
-
-
86.
GND
-
-
-
88.
GND
-
-
-
90.
GND
-
-
-
92.
GND
-
-
-
94.
GND
-
-
-
DMC-1600
96.
GND
-
-
-
98.
GND
-
-
-
100.
GND
-
-
-
Note for Interfacing to External I/O Racks
The extended I/O connector can be made compatible with external I/O mounting racks such as
Grayhill 70GRCM32-HL and OPTO-22 G4PB24 by using the CB-50-80 and a 80 pin high density
cable. By connecting the CB-50-80, the user will be provided with 2 50pin IDC connectors which
are directly compatible with specific I/O mounting racks. When using the OPTO-22 G4PB24 I/O
mounting rack, the user will only have access to 48 of the 64 I/O points available on the controller.
Block 5 and Block 9 must be configured as inputs and will be grounded by the I/O rack.
DMC-1600
Appendices • 187
Jumper Description for DMC-1600
JUMPER
JP20
LABEL
FUNCTION (IF JUMPERED)
SMX
For each axis, the SM jumper selects the SM
SMY
magnitude mode for servo motors or selects
SMZ
stepper motors. If you are using stepper
SMW
motors, SM must always be jumpered. The Analog motor command is not valid with SM
jumpered.
SM E
SM F
SM G
SM H
JP21
OPT
Reserved
MRST
Master Reset enable. Returns controller to factory default settings and erases EEPROM.
Requires power-on or RESET to be activated.
188 • Appendices
DMC-1600
Accessories and Options
DMC-1610
1- axis motion controller
DMC-1620
2- axes motion controller
DMC-1630
3- axes motion controller
DMC-1640
4- axes motion controller
Cable-1600-1M
100-pin high density cable, 1 meter
Cable-1600-4M
100-pin high density cable, 4 meter
CB-50-100
50-pin to 100-pin converter board, includes two 50-pin ribbon
cables
Starter Kit
Includes DMC-1600, ICM-1900 or AMP 19X0, cable, utilities,
WSDK software, and manual
16-Bit ADC
Increased resolution for analog inputs
Sinusoidal Commutation Option
Sinusoidal Commutation for brushless motors
ICM-1900
Interconnect module
ICM-1900-Opto
Optoisolated digital outputs
AMP-1910
Interconnect module with 1-axis power amplifier
AMP-1920
Interconnect module with 2-axes power amplifier
AMP-1930
Interconnect module with 3-axes power amplifier
AMP-1940
Interconnect module with 4-axes power amplifier
DMC-1600 Utilities
Utilities for Plug & Play, firmware
WSDK-16
Servo Design Kit for Windows 3.X
WSDK-32
Servo Design Kit for Windows NT or Windows 95, 98, 2000, ME,
XP
VBX Tool Kit
Visual BasicTM Tool Kit (includes VBXs and OCXs)
Setup 16
Set-up software for Windows 3.X
Setup 32
Set-up software for Windows NT or Windows 95
CAD-to-DMC
AutoCADR DXF translator
HPGL
HPGL translator
DMC-1600
Appendices • 189
PC/AT Interrupts and Their Vectors
(These occur on the first 8259)
IRQ
VECTOR
USAGE
0
8 or 08h
Timer chip (DON'T USE THIS!)
1
9 or 09h
Keyboard (DON'T USE THIS!)
2
10 or 0ah
Cascade from second 8259 (DON'T USE THIS!)
3
11 or 0bh
COM2:
4
12 or 0ch
COM1:
5
13 or 0dh
LPT2:
6
14 or 0eh
Floppy (DON'T USE THIS!)
7
15 or 0fh
LPT1:
(These occur on the second 8259)
IRQ
VECTOR
USAGE
8
104 or 70h
Real-time clock (DON'T USE THIS!)
9
105 or 71h
Redirect-cascade (DON'T USE THIS!)
10
106 or 72h
11
107 or 73h
12
108 or 74h
Mouse DSR
13
109 or 75h
Math Co-processor exception
14
110 or 76h
Fixed Disk (DON'T USE THIS!)
15
111 or 77h
ICM-1900 Interconnect Module
The ICM-1900 interconnect module provides easy connections between the DMC-1600 series controllers and other
system elements, such as amplifiers, encoders, and external switches. The ICM- 1900 accepts the 100-pin main
cable and 25-pin auxiliary cable and breaks them into screw-type terminals. Each screw terminal is labeled for
quick connection of system elements. An ICM-1900 is required for each set of 4 axes.
The ICM-1900 is contained in a metal enclosure. A version of the ICM-1900 is also available with servo amplifiers
(see AMP-19X0).
Features
•
•
•
•
•
Breaks out DMC-1600 cables into individual screw-type terminals
Clearly identifies all terminals
Provides jumper for connecting limit and input supplies to 5 V supply from PC
Available with on-board servo drives (see AMP-19X0)
Can be configured for AEN high or low
Terminal #
Label
I/O
Description
1
+AAX
I
X Auxiliary encoder A+
190 • Appendices
DMC-1600
2
-AAX
I
X Auxiliary encoder A-
3
+ABX
I
X Auxiliary encoder B+
4
-ABX
I
X Auxiliary encoder B-
5
+AAY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder A+
6
-AAY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder A-
7
+ABY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder B+
8
-ABY
I
Y Auxiliary encoder B-
9
+AAZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder A+
10
-AAZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder A-
11
+ABZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder B+
12
-ABZ
I
Z Auxiliary encoder B-
13
+AAW
I
W Auxiliary encoder A+
14
-AAW
I
W Auxiliary encoder A-
15
+ABW
I
W Auxiliary encoder B+
16
-ABW
I
W Auxiliary encoder B-
17
GND
Signal Ground
18
+VCC
+ 5 Volts
19
OUTCOM
O
Output Common (for use with the opto-isolated output option)
20
ERROR
O
Error signal
21
RESET
I
Reset
22
CMP
O
Circular Compare output
23
MOCMDW
O
W axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
24
SIGNW
O
W axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
25
PWMW
O
W axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
26
MOCMDZ
O
Z axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
27
SIGNZ
O
Z axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
28
PWMZ
O
Z axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
29
MOCMDY
O
Y axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
30
SIGNY
O
Y axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
31
PWMY
O
Y axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
32
MOCMDX
O
X axis motor command to amp input (w / respect to ground)
33
SIGNX
O
X axis sign output for input to stepper motor amp
34
PWMX
O
X axis pulse output for input to stepper motor amp
35
GND
O
Signal Ground
36
+VCC
O
+ 5 Volts
37
AMPENW
O
W axis amplifier enable
38
AMPENZ
O
Z axis amplifier enable
39
AMPENY
O
Y axis amplifier enable
40
AMPENX
O
X axis amplifier enable
41
LSCOM
I
Limit Switch Common
42
HOMEW
I
W axis home input
43
RLSW
I
W axis reverse limit switch input
44
FLSW
I
W axis forward limit switch input
45
HOMEZ
I
Z axis home input
46
RLSZ
I
Z axis reverse limit switch input
DMC-1600
Appendices • 191
47
FLSZ
I
Z axis forward limit switch input
48
HOMEY
I
Y axis home input
49
RLSY
I
Y axis reverse limit switch input
50
FLSY
I
Y axis forward limit switch input
51
HOMEX
I
X axis home input
52
RLSX
I
X axis reverse limit switch input
53
FLSX
I
54
+VCC
X axis forward limit switch input
+ 5 Volts
55
GND
56
INCOM
I
Input common (Common for general inputs and Abort input)
Signal Ground
57
XLATCH
I
Input 1 (Used for X axis latch input)
58
YLATCH
I
Input 2 (Used for Y axis latch input)
59
ZLATCH
I
Input 3 (Used for Z axis latch input)
60
WLATCH
I
Input 4 (Used for W axis latch input)
61
IN5
I
Input 5
62
IN6
I
Input 6
63
IN7
I
Input 7
64
IN8
I
Input 8
65
ABORT
I
Abort Input
66
OUT1
O
Output 1
67
OUT2
O
Output 2
68
OUT3
O
Output 3
69
OUT4
O
Output 4
70
OUT5
O
Output 5
71
OUT6
O
Output 6
72
OUT7
O
Output 7
73
OUT8
O
Output 8
74
GND
75
AN1
I
Analog Input 1
76
AN2
I
Analog Input 2
77
AN3
I
Analog Input 3
78
AN4
I
Analog Input 4
79
AN5
I
Analog Input 5
80
AN6
I
Analog Input 6
81
AN7
I
Analog Input 7
Signal Ground
82
AN8
I
Analog Input 8
83
+MAX
I
X Main encoder A+
84
-MAX
I
X Main encoder A-
85
+MBX
I
X Main encoder B+
86
-MBX
I
X Main encoder B-
87
+INX
I
X Main encoder Index +
88
-INX
I
X Main encoder Index -
89
GND
Signal Ground
90
+VCC
+ 5 Volts
91
+MAY
192 • Appendices
I
Y Main encoder A+
DMC-1600
92
-MAY
I
Y Main encoder A-
93
+MBY
I
Y Main encoder B+
94
-MBY
I
Y Main encoder B-
95
+INY
I
Y Main encoder Index +
96
-INY
I
Y Main encoder Index -
97
+MAZ
I
Z Main encoder A+
98
-MAZ
I
Z Main encoder A-
99
+MBZ
I
Z Main encoder B+
100
-MBZ
I
Z Main encoder B-
101
+INZ
I
Z Main encoder Index +
102
-INZ
I
Z Main encoder Index -
103
GND
Signal Ground
104
+VCC
+ 5 Volts
105
+MAW
I
W Main encoder A+
106
-MAW
I
W Main encoder A-
107
+MBW
I
W Main encoder B+
108
-MBW
I
W Main encoder B-
109
+INW
I
W Main encoder Index +
110
-INW
I
111
+12V
+12 Volts
112
-12V
-12 Volts
W Main encoder Index -
Specifications
Dimensions: 13.5” x 2.675” x 6.88”
DMC-1600
Appendices • 193
ICM-1900 Drawing
13.500"
12.560"
11.620"
0.220"
2.000"
6.880"
4.940"
0.440"
Figure A.1 – ICM-1900 Drawing
AMP-19X0 Mating Power Amplifiers
The AMP-19X0 series are mating, brush-type servo amplifiers for the DMC-1600. The AMP-1910 contains 1
amplifier: the AMP-1920, 2 amplifiers; the AMP-1930, 3 amplifiers; and the AMP-1940, 4 amplifiers. Each
amplifier is rated for 7 amps continuous, 10 amps peak at up to 80 V. The gain of the AMP-19X0 is 1 amp/V. The
AMP-19X0 requires an external DC supply. The AMP-19X0 connects directly to the DMC-1600 and screw
terminals are provided for connection to motors, encoders, and external switches.
Features
• 7 amps continuous, 10 amps peak; 20 to 80V
• Available with 1, 2, 3, or 4 amplifiers
• Connects directly to DMC-1600 series controllers
• Screw-type terminals for easy connection to motors, encoders, and switches
• Steel mounting plate with 1/4” keyholes
Specifications
Minimum motor inductance: 1 mH
PWM frequency: 30 kHz
Ambient operating temperature: 0o to 70o C
Dimensions:
Weight:
Mounting: Keyholes -- 1/4” ∅
Gain: 1 amp/V
194 • Appendices
DMC-1600
Coordinated Motion - Mathematical Analysis
The terms of coordinated motion are best explained in terms of the vector motion. The vector
velocity, Vs, which is also known as the feed rate, is the vector sum of the velocities along the X
and Y axes, Vx and Vy.
Vs = Vx 2 + Vy 2
The vector distance is the integral of Vs, or the total distance traveled along the path. To illustrate
this further, suppose that a string was placed along the path in the X-Y plane. The length of that
string represents the distance traveled by the vector motion.
The vector velocity is specified independently of the path to allow continuous motion. The path is
specified as a collection of segments. For the purpose of specifying the path, define a special X-Y
coordinate system whose origin is the starting point of the sequence. Each linear segment is
specified by the X-Y coordinate of the final point expressed in units of resolution, and each
circular arc is defined by the arc radius, the starting angle, and the angular width of the arc. The
zero angle corresponds to the positive direction of the X-axis and the CCW direction of rotation is
positive. Angles are expressed in degrees, and the resolution is 1/256th of a degree. For example,
the path shown in Fig. A.2 is specified by the instructions:
VP
0,10000
CR
10000, 180, -90
VP
20000, 20000
Y
C
20000
10000
D
B
A
X
10000
20000
Figure A.2 - X-Y Motion Path
DMC-1600
Appendices • 195
The first line describes the straight line vector segment between points A and B. The next
segment is a circular arc, which starts at an angle of 180° and traverses -90°. Finally, the third line
describes the linear segment between points C and D. Note that the total length of the motion
consists of the segments:
A-B
Linear
10000 units
B-C
Circular
R Δθ 2π
= 15708
360
C-D
Linear
10000
Total
35708 counts
In general, the length of each linear segment is
Xk 2 + Yk 2
Lk =
Where Xk and Yk are the changes in X and Y positions along the linear segment. The length of
the circular arc is
Lk = R k ΔΘ k 2 π 360
The total travel distance is given by
n
D = ∑ Lk
k =1
The velocity profile may be specified independently in terms of the vector velocity and
acceleration.
For example, the velocity profile corresponding to the path of Fig. A.2 may be specified in terms
of the vector speed and acceleration.
VS
100000
VA
2000000
The resulting vector velocity is shown in Fig. A.3.
Velocity
10000
time (s)
Ta
0.05
Ts
0.357
Ta
0.407
Figure A.3 - Vector Velocity Profile
196 • Appendices
DMC-1600
The acceleration time, Ta, is given by
Ta =
VS
100000
=
= 0. 05s
VA 2000000
The slew time, Ts, is given by
Ts =
35708
D
− Ta =
− 0.05 = 0.307 s
VS
100000
The total motion time, Tt, is given by
Tt =
D
+ T a = 0. 407s
VS
The velocities along the X and Y axes are such that the direction of motion follows the specified
path, yet the vector velocity fits the vector speed and acceleration requirements.
For example, the velocities along the X and Y axes for the path shown in Fig. A.2 are given in Fig.
A.4.
Fig. A.4a shows the vector velocity. It also indicates the position point along the path starting at A
and ending at D. Between the points A and B, the motion is along the Y axis. Therefore,
Vy = Vs
and
Vx = 0
Between the points B and C, the velocities vary gradually and finally, between the points C and D,
the motion is in the X direction.
B
C
(a)
A
D
(b)
(c)
time
Figure A.4 - Vector and Axes Velocities
DMC-1600
Appendices • 197
DMC-1600/DMC-1000 Comparison
BENEFIT
DMC-1600
DMC-1000
Higher Speed communication Frees host
Two communication channels-MAIN &
Secondary FIFO
Only one channel- FIFO
Easy to install – self-configuring
Plug and Play
No Plug and Play
Programs don’t have to be downloaded from
PC but can be stored on controller
Non-Volatile Program Storage
No storage for programs
Can capture and save array data
Variable storage
No storage for variables
Parameters can be stored
Array storage
No storage for arrays
Firmware can be upgraded in field without
removing controller from PC
Flash memory for firmware
EPROM for firmware which must be
installed on controller
Faster servo operation – good for very high
resolution sensors
12 MHz encoder speed for servos
8 MHz
Faster stepper operation
3 MHz stepper rate
2 MHz
Higher servo bandwidth
62 μsec/axis sample time
125 μsec/axis
Expanded memory lets you store more
programs
1000 lines X 80 character program memory
500 line X 40 character
Expanded variables
254 symbolic variables
126 variables
Expanded arrays for more storage—great for
data capture
8000 array elements in 30 arrays
1600 elements in 14 arrays
Higher resolution for analog inputs
8 analog inputs with 16-bit ADC option
7 inputs with 12-bit ADC only
Better for EMI reduction
100-pin high density connector
60-pin IDC, 26-pin IDC, 20-pin IDC
(x2)
For precise registration applications
Output Position Compare
Available only as a special
More flexible gearing
Multiple masters allowed in gearing mode
One master for gearing
Flexible- Binary mode is higher speed
Binary and ASCII communication modes
ASCII only
Multiple threads
Up to 8 threads
Up to 4 threads
198 • Appendices
DMC-1600
List of Other Publications
"Step by Step Design of Motion Control Systems"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
"Motion Control Applications"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
"Motion Control by Microprocessors"
by Dr. Jacob Tal
Training Seminars
Galil, a leader in motion control with over 200,000 controllers working worldwide, has a proud
reputation for anticipating and setting the trends in motion control. Galil understands your need to
keep abreast with these trends in order to remain resourceful and competitive. Through a series of
seminars and workshops held over the past 15 years, Galil has actively shared its market insights
in a no-nonsense way for a world of engineers on the move. In fact, over 10,000 engineers have
attended Galil seminars. The tradition continues with three different seminars, each designed for
your particular skill set—from beginner to the most advanced.
MOTION CONTROL MADE EASY
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Those who need a basic introduction or refresher on how to successfully implement servo motion
control systems.
TIME: 4 hours (8:30 am-12:30 pm)
ADVANCED MOTION CONTROL
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Those who consider themselves a "servo specialist" and require an in-depth knowledge of motion
control systems to ensure outstanding controller performance. Also, prior completion of "Motion
Control Made Easy" or equivalent is required. Analysis and design tools as well as several design
examples will be provided.
TIME: 8 hours (8:00 am-5:00 pm)
PRODUCT WORKSHOP
WHO SHOULD ATTEND
Current users of Galil motion controllers. Conducted at Galil's headquarters in Rocklin, CA,
students will gain detailed understanding about connecting systems elements, system tuning and
motion programming. This is a "hands-on" seminar and students can test their application on
actual hardware and review it with Galil specialists.
TIME: Two days (8:30 am-5:00 pm)
DMC-1600
Appendices • 199
Contacting Us
Galil Motion Control
270 Technology Way
Rocklin, California 95765
Phone: 916-626-0101
Fax:
916-626-0102
Internet address: [email protected]
URL: www.galilmc.com
FTP: galilmc.com
200 • Appendices
DMC-1600
WARRANTY
All products manufactured by Galil Motion Control are warranted against defects in materials and
workmanship. The warranty period for controller boards is 1 year. The warranty period for all
other products is 180 days.
In the event of any defects in materials or workmanship, Galil Motion Control will, at its sole
option, repair or replace the defective product covered by this warranty without charge. To obtain
warranty service, the defective product must be returned within 30 days of the expiration of the
applicable warranty period to Galil Motion Control, properly packaged and with transportation
and insurance prepaid. We will reship at our expense only to destinations in the United States.
Any defect in materials or workmanship determined by Galil Motion Control to be attributable to
customer alteration, modification, negligence or misuse is not covered by this warranty.
EXCEPT AS SET FORTH ABOVE, GALIL MOTION CONTROL WILL MAKE NO
WARRANTIES EITHER EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED, WITH RESPECT TO SUCH
PRODUCTS, AND SHALL NOT BE LIABLE OR RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY INCIDENTAL
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
COPYRIGHT (3-97)
The software code contained in this Galil product is protected by copyright and must not be
reproduced or disassembled in any form without prior written consent of Galil Motion Control,
Inc.
DMC-1600
Appendices • 201
Index
A
Abort 33–34, 60, 79, 85, 159, 161, 179, 182–83
Off-On-Error 15, 35, 38, 159, 161
Stop Motion 79, 85, 135, 162
Absolute Position 74–76, 125–26, 130
Absolute Value 91, 130, 138, 160
Acceleration 127–28, 145, 150, 153–55, 197–98
Accessories 190
Address 142–43, 164, 191, 201
Almost Full Flags 59
AMP-1900 19
Ampflier Gain 4
Amplifier Enable 37, 159
Amplifier Gain 170, 173, 176
Analog Input 4, 33, 37, 78, 138–40, 141, 146, 152–
53, 157, 179
Analysis
SDK 117
Arithmetic Functions 117, 129, 137, 139, 149
Arm Latch 115
Array 3, 74, 83, 98–100, 117, 123, 129, 137, 141–49,
150, 180
Automatic Subroutine 133
CMDERR 120, 133, 135
LIMSWI 33, 120, 133, 160–62
MCTIME 120, 125, 133, 135
POSERR 120, 133–34, 160–61
Auxiliary Encoder 33, 89, 102–10, 102–10, 102–10,
183, 191, 193
Dual Encoder 70, 109, 143
B
Backlash 74, 108–10, 157–58
Backlash Compensation
Dual Loop 74, 102–10, 102–10, 102–10, 157
Begin Motion 119–22, 126–27, 134, 140, 144–45,
150, 152
Binary 1, 54, 65, 68
Bit-Wise 129, 137
Burn
202 • Index
EEPROM 3
Bypassing Optoisolation 37
C
Capture Data
Record 74, 98, 100, 141, 144
Circle 154–55
Circular Interpolation 84–87, 89, 143, 154–55
Clear Bit 150
Clear Sequence 79, 81, 85, 87
Clock 141
CMDERR 120, 133, 135
Code 54, 133, 140, 143–45, 153–54, 156–58
Command
Syntax 65–66
Command Summary 71, 75, 77, 81, 87, 141, 143
Commanded Position 76–77, 89–90, 135, 143, 153,
165–67
Communication 3
Almost Full Flag 59
FIFO 3
Compare Function 4
Compensation
Backlash 74, 108–10, 157–58
Conditional jump 35, 117, 124, 127–30, 152
Configuration
Jumper 37, 164
Contour Mode 73–74, 96–101
Control Filter
Damping 164, 168
Integrator 168
Proportional Gain 168
Coordinated Motion 66, 73, 84–87
Circular 84–87, 89, 143, 154–55
Contour Mode 73–74, 96–101
Ecam 91–92, 95
Electronic Cam 73–74, 91, 93
Electronic Gearing 73–74, 89–91
Gearing 73–74, 89–91
Linear Interpolation 73, 78–81, 83, 89, 96
DMC-1600
Cosine 74, 137–38, 142
Cycle Time
Clock 141
D
DAC 168, 172–74, 176
Damping 164, 168
Data Capture 142–43
Data Output
Set Bit 150
Debugging 122
Deceleration 145
Differential Encoder 15, 18, 164
Digital Filter 65, 172–73, 175–77
Digital Input 33, 35, 138, 151
Digital Output 138, 150
Clear Bit 150
Dip Switch
Address 142–43, 191, 201
Download 65, 117, 142
Dual Encoder 70, 109, 143
Backlash 74, 108–10, 157–58
Dual Loop 74, 102–10, 102–10, 102–10, 157
Dual Loop 74, 102–10, 102–10, 102–10, 157
Backlash 74, 108–10, 157–58
E
Ecam 91–92, 95
Electronic Cam 73–74, 91, 93
Echo 54
Edit Mode 117–18, 123, 134
Editor 117–18
EEPROM 3
Electronic Cam 73–74, 91, 93
Electronic Gearing 73–74, 89–91
Ellipse Scale 87
Enable
Amplifer Enable 37, 159
Encoder
Auxiliary Encoder 33, 89, 102–10, 102–10, 102–
10, 183, 191, 193
Differential 15, 18, 164
Dual Encoder 70, 109, 143
Index Pulse 15, 34, 112
Quadrature 5, 108, 150, 153, 160, 171
Error Code 54, 133, 140, 143–45, 153–54, 156–58
Error Handling 33, 120, 133, 160–62
Error Limit 15, 17, 38, 133, 159–61
Off-On-Error 15, 35, 38, 159, 161
Example
Wire Cutter 153
DMC-1600
F
Feedrate 80, 86, 87, 127, 154–55
FIFO 3
Filter Parameter
Damping 164, 168
Integrator 168
PID 18, 168, 178
Proportional Gain 168
Stability 109–10, 158, 163–64, 168, 174
Find Edge 34, 112
Flags
Almost full 59
Formatting 146, 147–49
Frequency 5, 174–76
Function 34–35, 54, 65, 79, 98–99, 109–11, 115, 117,
121–25, 127, 129, 133, 136–42, 146–47, 150–
53, 155, 157–58
Functions
Arithmetic 117, 129, 137, 139, 149
G
Gain
Proportional 168
Gear Ratio 89–90
Gearing 73–74, 89–91
H
Halt 79, 121–25, 127–28, 151
Abort 33–34, 60, 79, 85, 159, 161, 179, 182–83
Off-On-Error 15, 35, 38, 159, 161
Stop Motion 79, 85, 135, 162
Hardware 33, 56, 150, 159
Address 142–43, 164, 191, 201
Amplifier Enable 37, 159
Clear Bit 150
Jumper 37, 164
Offset Adjustment 163
Output of Data 145
Set Bit 150
TTL 5, 33, 159
Home Input 34, 112, 141
Homing 34, 112
Find Edge 34, 112
I
I/O
Amplifier Enable 37, 159
Analog Input 78
Clear Bit 150
Digital Input 33, 35, 138, 151
Digital Output 138, 150
Home Input 34, 112, 141
• 203
Output of Data 145
Set Bit 150
TTL 5, 33, 159
ICM-1100 15, 37, 38, 159
Independent Motion
Jog 77–78, 89, 95, 115, 126–27, 134–35, 140, 157,
160
Index Pulse 15, 34, 112
ININT 120, 133–35, 151–52
Input
Analog 78
Input Interrupt 57, 119, 127, 133–34, 151–52
ININT 120, 133–35, 151–52
Input of Data 144
Inputs
Analog 4, 33, 37, 138–40, 141, 146, 152–53, 157,
179
Installation 163
Integrator 168
Interconnect Module
ICM-1100 15, 37, 38, 159
Interface
Terminal 65
Internal Variable 129, 139, 140
Interrogation 69–70, 81, 88, 145, 147
Interrupt 119–21, 127, 133–34, 151–52
Invert 108, 164
J
Jog 77–78, 89, 95, 115, 126–27, 134–35, 140, 157,
160
Joystick 78, 140, 156–57
Jumper 37, 164
K
Keyword 129, 137, 139, 141–42
TIME 141–42
Limit Switch 33–34, 119–21, 133, 141, 160–62, 164
LIMSWI 33, 120, 133, 160–62
Linear Interpolation 73, 78–81, 83, 89, 96
Clear Sequence 79, 81, 85, 87
Logical Operator 129
M
Masking
Bit-Wise 129, 137
Math Function
Absolute Value 91, 130, 138, 160
Bit-Wise 129, 137
Cosine 74, 137–38, 142
Logical Operator 129
Sine 74, 94, 138
Mathematical Expression 129, 136, 138
MCTIME 120, 125, 133, 135
Memory 65, 99, 117, 123, 129, 133, 141, 142
Array 3, 74, 83, 98–100, 117, 123, 129, 137, 141–
49, 150, 180
Download 65, 117, 142
Upload 117
Message 84, 113, 122, 133–35, 137, 144–46, 152,
161–62
Modelling 165, 168–69, 173
Motion Complete
MCTIME 120, 125, 133, 135
Motion Smoothing 74, 111
S-Curve 79, 111
Motor Command 17, 173
Moving
Acceleration 127–28, 145, 150, 153–55, 197–98
Begin Motion 119–22, 126–27, 134, 140, 144–45,
150, 152
Circular 84–87, 89, 143, 154–55
Multitasking 121
Halt 79, 121–25, 127–28, 151
O
L
Label 37, 78–80, 84, 94–95, 100, 110, 113, 115, 117–
23, 125–34, 140–41, 145, 147, 150–53, 155,
157–58, 161
LIMSWI 160–62
POSERR 160–61
Special Label 119, 161
Latch 70, 115
Arm Latch 115
Data Capture 142–43
Position Capture 115
Record 74, 98, 100, 141, 144
Teach 100
Limit
Torque Limit 17
204 •
OE
Off-On-Error 159, 161
Off-On-Error 15, 35, 38, 159, 161
Offset Adjustment 163
Operand
Internal Variable 129, 139, 140
Operators
Bit-Wise 129, 137
Optoisolation 33, 35–36
Home Input 34, 112, 141
Output
Amplifier Enable 37, 159
ICM-1100 15, 37, 38
Motor Command 17, 173
Output of Data 145
DMC-1600
Clear Bit 150
Set Bit 150
P
PID 18, 168, 178
Play Back 74, 144
Plug and Play 1
POSERR 120, 133–34, 160–61
Position Error 17, 120, 133–34, 140, 143, 153, 158
Position Capture 115
Latch 70, 115
Teach 100
Position Error 15, 17, 38, 110, 120, 133–34, 140,
143, 153, 158, 159–61, 164, 167
POSERR 120, 133–34
Position Follow 152–53
Position Limit 160
Program Flow 119, 124
Interrupt 56, 119–21, 127, 133–34, 151–52
Stack 132, 135, 152
Programmable 139–40, 150, 157, 160
EEPROM 3
Programming
Halt 79, 121–25, 127–28, 151
Proportional Gain 168
Protection
Error Limit 15, 17, 38, 133, 159–61
Torque Limit 17
PWM 4
Q
Quadrature 5, 108, 150, 153, 160, 171
Quit
Abort 33–34, 60, 79, 85, 159, 161, 179, 182–83
Stop Motion 79, 85, 135, 162
R
Record 74, 98, 100, 141, 144
Latch 70, 115
Position Capture 115
Teach 100
Register 140
Reset 33, 60, 128, 159, 161
S
SB
Set Bit 150
Scaling
Ellipse Scale 87
S-Curve 79, 111
Motion Smoothing 74, 111
SDK 117
DMC-1600
Selecting Address 142–43, 164, 191, 201
Servo Design Kit
SDK 117
Set Bit 150
Sine 74, 94, 138
Single-Ended 5, 15, 18
Slew 74, 89, 112, 125, 127, 153
Smoothing 74, 79, 81, 85, 87, 111–12
Software
SDK 117
Terminal 65
Special Label 119, 161
Specification 79–80, 86
Stability 109–10, 158, 163–64, 168, 174
Stack 132, 135, 152
Zero Stack 135, 152
Status 65, 70, 81, 123–24, 140, 143
Interrogation 69–70, 81, 88, 145, 147
Stop Code 70, 143, 164
Tell Code 69
Step Motor
KS, Smoothing 74, 79, 81, 85, 87, 111–12
Stepper Position Maintenance 104
Stop
Abort 33–34, 60, 79, 85, 159, 161, 179, 182–83
Stop Code 54, 70, 133, 140, 143–45, 143, 153–54,
156–58, 164
Stop Motion 79, 85, 135, 162
Subroutine 33, 84, 120, 128–35, 152, 160–61
Automatic Subroutine 133
Synchronization 5, 91
Syntax 65–66
T
Tangent 74, 84, 86–87
Teach 100
Data Capture 142–43
Latch 70, 115
Play-Back 74, 144
Position Capture 115
Record 74, 98, 100, 141, 144
Tell Code 69
Tell Error 70
Position Error 17, 120, 133–34, 140, 143, 153, 158
Tell Position 70
Tell Torque 70
Terminal 33, 37, 65, 117, 140, 146
Theory 165
Damping 164, 168
Digital Filter 65, 172–73, 175–77
Modelling 165, 168–69, 173
PID 18, 168, 178
Stability 109–10, 158, 163–64, 168, 174
Time
Clock 141
• 205
TIME 141–42
Time Interval 96–98, 100, 143
Timeout 12, 13, 120, 125, 133, 135
MCTIME 120, 125, 133, 135
Torque Limit 17
Trigger 117, 124, 126–28, 167
Trippoint 75, 79–81, 86–87, 98, 125–26, 132
Troubleshooting 163
TTL 5, 33, 159
Tuning
SDK 117
Stability 109–10, 158, 163–64, 168, 174
Internal 129, 139, 140
Vector Acceleration 81–82, 87, 155
Vector Deceleration 81–82, 87
Vector Mode
Circle 154–55
Circular Interpolation 84–87, 89, 143, 154–55
Clear Sequence 79, 81, 85, 87
Ellipse Scale 87
Feedrate 80, 86, 87, 127, 154–55
Tangent 74, 84, 86–87
Vector Speed 78–85, 87, 127, 155
W
U
Upload 117
User Unit 149
V
Wire Cutter 153
Z
Zero Stack 135, 152
Variable
206 •
DMC-1600
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement