Getting Started with the Control System Toolbox

Getting Started with the Control System Toolbox
Control System Toolbox
For Use with MATLAB
®
Computation
Visualization
Programming
Getting Started
Version 5
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Getting Started with the Control System Toolbox
 COPYRIGHT 2000 by The MathWorks, Inc.
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Printing History: September 2000 First printing
New for MATLAB 6.0 (Release 12)
Contents
Introduction
1
What Is the Control System Toolbox? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Using the Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Typographic Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
Building Models
2
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Linear Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
Linear Model Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
SISO Example: the DC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4
Constructing SISO Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6
Discrete Time Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10
Adding Delays to Linear Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
LTI Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11
MIMO Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
MIMO Example: Jet Transport Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Constructing MIMO Transfer Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accessing I/O Pairs in MIMO Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2-13
2-13
2-15
2-17
Arrays of Linear Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
Model Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
i
Interconnecting Linear Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Feedback Interconnection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-23
Continuous/Discrete Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Discrete DC Motor Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Model Order Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Example: Gasifier Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
Analyzing Models
3
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
LTI Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Example: Time and Frequency Responses
of the DC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4
Right-Click Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6
Displaying Response Characteristics on a Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8
Changing Plot Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11
Showing Multiple Response Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13
Comparing Multiple Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
ii
Contents
Functions for Time and Frequency Response . . . . . . . . . . .
Time and Frequency Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plotting MIMO Model Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Data Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plotting and Comparing Multiple Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Creating Custom Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-18
3-18
3-20
3-23
3-24
3-27
Simulink LTI Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Using the Simulink LTI Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Comparing Linear and Nonlinear Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bode Plots of Linearized Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifying Operating Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3-30
3-30
3-31
3-38
3-43
Designing Compensators
4
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
The SISO Design Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Opening the SISO Design Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Importing Models into the SISO Design Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Feedback Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Responses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-3
4-3
4-5
4-6
4-7
Bode Diagram Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Example: DC Motor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Adjusting the Compensator Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8
Right-Click Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Adjusting the Bandwidth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-9
Adding an Integrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12
Adding a Lead Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14
Moving Compensator Poles and Zeros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17
Changing Units on a Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-19
Adding a Notch Filter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20
Root Locus Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Electrohydraulic Servomechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Changing the Compensator Gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Adding Poles and Zeros to the Compensator . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Editing Compensator Pole and Zero Locations . . . . . . . . . . . .
Exporting the Compensator and Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Storing and Retrieving Intermediate Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-24
4-25
4-30
4-31
4-36
4-39
4-40
Functions For Compensator Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Root Locus Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pole Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: LQG Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: LQG Design for Set Point Tracking . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4-42
4-42
4-42
4-46
4-51
4-55
iii
Learning More
5
iv
Contents
Demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Plot Preferences and Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The MathWorks Online . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-4
1
Introduction
What Is the Control System Toolbox? . . . . . . . . . 1-2
Installation
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3
Using the Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4
Related Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6
Typographic Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8
1
Introduction
What Is the Control System Toolbox?
MATLAB® has a rich collection of functions immediately useful to the control
engineer or system theorist. Complex arithmetic, eigenvalues, root-finding,
matrix inversion, and FFTs are just a few examples of MATLAB’s important
numerical tools. More generally, MATLAB’s linear algebra, matrix
computation, and numerical analysis capabilities provide a reliable foundation
for control system engineering as well as many other disciplines.
The Control System Toolbox builds on the foundations of MATLAB to provide
functions designed for control engineering. The Control System Toolbox is a
collection of algorithms, written mostly as M-files, that implements common
control system design, analysis, and modeling techniques. Convenient
graphical user interfaces (GUI’s) simplify typical control engineering tasks.
Control systems can be modeled as transfer functions, in zero-pole-gain, or
state-space form, allowing you to use both classical and modern control
techniques. You can manipulate both continuous-time and discrete-time
systems. Conversions between various model representations are provided.
Time responses, frequency responses, and root loci can be computed and
graphed. Other functions allow pole placement, optimal control, and
estimation. Finally, the Control System Toolbox is open and extensible. You
can create custom M-files to suit your particular application.
1-2
Installation
Installation
Instructions for installing the Control System Toolbox can be found in the
MATLAB Installation Guide for your platform. We recommend that you store
the files from this toolbox in a directory named control off the main matlab
directory. To determine if the Control System Toolbox is already installed on
your system, check for a subdirectory named control within the main toolbox
directory or folder.
The Control System Toolbox provides demonstration files that show how to use
the toolbox to perform control design tasks in various settings. To launch these
demos, type
demo
at the MATLAB prompt and select “Control System Toolbox” under the
“Toolboxes” heading. In addition, “Design Case Studies” in the online
documentation contains detailed examples of various design problems.
1-3
1
Introduction
Using the Documentation
If you are a new user, this manual, Getting Started with the Control System
Toolbox, is written for you. Specifically, you will learn:
• How to build and manipulate linear time-invariant models of dynamical
systems
• How to analyze such models and plot their time and frequency responses
• How to design compensators using root locus and pole placement techniques
In addition, this guide discusses model order reduction, linear quadratic
Gaussian (LQG) techniques and presents examples that show how to use these
techniques.
This guide is available online under “Control System Toolbox.” The rest of the
toolbox documentation is also available online; click “Control System Toolbox”
to open its product page, which is a road map with links to the Control System
Toolbox documentation online and to PDF versions of the same documentation.
If you are an experienced toolbox user, see the online documentation for
detailed discussions of control system design topics, including the following:
• “Release Notes” — For details on the latest release
• “Creating and Manipulating Models” — In-depth information on how to
create and manipulate linear models and LTI (linear time-invariant) arrays,
which are data objects that you can use to store collections of linear models
in one variable
• “Customization” — Setting plot properties, including how to set preferences
that persist from session to session
• “Design Case Studies” — Worked examples, including Kalman filtering and
MIMO design
• “Reliable Computations” — Numerical stability and accuracy issues
• “GUI Reference” — Complete descriptions of the LTI Viewer and SISO
Design Tool, which are graphical user interfaces (GUI’s) that you can use to
analyze systems and design SISO compensators
All toolbox users should use the online “Control System Toolbox Function
Reference” for reference information on functions and tools. For functions,
reference descriptions include a synopsis of the function’s syntax, as well as a
1-4
Using the Documentation
complete explanation of options and operation. Many reference descriptions
also include helpful examples, a description of the function’s algorithm, and
references to additional reading material. For GUI-based tools, the
descriptions include options for invoking the tool.
1-5
1
Introduction
Related Products
The MathWorks provides several associated products that are especially
relevant to the kinds of tasks you can perform with the Control System
Toolbox. For more information about any of these products, see either:
• The online documentation for that product, if it is installed or if you are
reading the documentation from the CD
• The MathWorks Web site, at http://www.mathworks.com; see the “products”
section
The table below lists MathWorks products that complement the functionality
of the Control System Toolbox.
1-6
Product
Description
Fuzzy Logic Toolbox
Tools for developing fuzzy logic algorithms
Linear Matrix Inequality
Toolbox
Convex optimization algorithms for solving
linear matrix inequalities (LMI), with
application to robust control, multi-objective
control, and gain scheduling
Model Predictive Control
Toolbox
A complete set of tools for implementing model
predictive control strategies.
µ-Analysis and Synthesis
Toolbox
Computational algorithms for the structured
singular value, µ, applicable to robustness and
performance analysis for systems with
modeling and parameter uncertainties
Nonlinear Control
Design Blockset
An optimization-based approach to control
system design that tunes parameters based on
user-defined time-domain performance
constraints
Robust Control Toolbox
Tools for modeling, analysis, and design of
“robust” multivariable feedback control
systems using H∞ techniques
Related Products
Product
Description
Simulink
A comprehensive environment for modeling,
simulating, and analyzing dynamical systems
in block diagram format
System Identification
Toolbox
Tool for building linear models of dynamical
systems from noisy time series (input-output
data)
1-7
1
Introduction
Typographic Conventions
This manual uses some or all of these conventions.
Item
Convention to Use
Example
Example code
Monospace font
To assign the value 5 to A,
enter
A = 5
Function names/syntax
Monospace font
The cos function finds the
cosine of each array element.
Syntax line example is
MLGetVar ML_var_name
Keys
Boldface with an initial
Press the Return key.
capital letter
Literal strings (in syntax
descriptions in Reference
chapters)
Mathematical
expressions
MATLAB output
Monospace bold for
f = freqspace(n,'whole')
literals
Italics for variables
Standard text font for
functions, operators, and
constants
Monospace font
This vector represents the
polynomial
p = x2 + 2x + 3
MATLAB responds with
A =
5
1-8
Menu names, menu items, and
controls
Boldface with an initial
capital letter
Choose the File menu.
New terms
Italics
An array is an ordered
collection of information.
String variables (from a finite
list)
Monospace italics
sysc = d2c(sysd, 'method')
2
Building Models
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2
Linear Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3
MIMO Models
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13
Arrays of Linear Models
Model Characteristics
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-18
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21
Interconnecting Linear Models
. . . . . . . . . . . 2-22
Continuous/Discrete Conversions . . . . . . . . . . 2-24
Model Order Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-26
2
Building Models
Introduction
This chapter discusses how to build models of linear, time invariant (LTI)
dynamical systems using functions from the Control System Toolbox. It begins
by developing a simple single-input, single-output (SISO) model of a DC motor
and describes the various model representations possible, including:
• Transfer functions
• State-space
• Zero/pole/gain
• Frequency response data
This chapter then describes how to build multiple-input multiple-output
(MIMO) models by presenting a jet transport model. It also discusses topics
related to creating general LTI models, including:
• How to access model characteristics
• Conversions between model representations
• Building larger models from smaller ones
• Accessing and manipulating I/O pairs
• LTI objects, which are MATLAB objects that store multiple linear models in
a single variable
This chapter also discusses discrete-time systems, including analog to
discrete-time conversion, sample time specification, and how to introduce time
delays in your linear system. The last section describes functions that perform
model order reduction and presents an example of how to perform a model
order reduction.
2-2
Linear Models
Linear Models
Typically, control engineers begin by developing a mathematical description of
the dynamical system that they want to control. This to-be-controlled system
is called a plant. As an example of a plant, this section uses the DC motor. This
section develops the differential equations that describe the electromechanical
properties of a DC motor with an inertial load. It then shows you how to use
the Control System Toolbox to build linear models based on these equations.
Linear Model Representations
The Control System Toolbox supports the following model representations:
• State-space models (SS) of the form
dx
------ = Ax + Bu
dt
y = Cx + Du
where A, B, C, and D are matrices of appropriate dimensions, x is the state
vector, and u and y are the input and output vectors.
• Transfer functions (TF), for example,
s+2
H ( s ) = --------------------------2
s + s + 10
• Zero-pole-gain (ZPK) models, for example,
( z + 1 + j ) ( z + 1 – j )H ( z ) = 3 -------------------------------------------------( z + 0.2 ) ( z + 0.1 )
• Frequency response data (FRD) models, which consist of sampled
measurements of a system’s frequency response. For example, you can store
experimentally collected frequency response data in an FRD model.
Note The design of FRD models is a specialized subject that this guide does
not address. See “Frequency Response Data (FRD) Models” under “Creating
and Manipulating Models” in the online documentation for a discussion of this
topic.
2-3
2
Building Models
SISO Example: the DC Motor
A simple model of a DC motor driving an inertial load shows the angular rate
of the load, ω ( t ) , as the output and applied voltage, v app ( t ) , as the input. The
ultimate goal of this example is to control the angular rate by varying the
applied voltage. This picture shows a simple model of the DC motor.
i(t)
R
+
L
vapp(t)
+
vemf(t)
-
-
I
Load
L
Inertial
DC Motor
Kfω(τ)
Viscous
friction
Load J
τ(t)
Torque
ω(t)
Angular rate
Figure 2-1: A Simple Model of a DC Motor Driving an Inertial Load
In this model, the dynamics of the motor itself are idealized; for instance, the
magnetic field is assumed to be constant. The resistance of the circuit is
denoted by R and the self-inductance of the armature by L. If you are
unfamiliar with the basics of DC motor modeling, consult any basic text on
physical modeling. The important thing here is that with this simple model and
basic laws of physics, it is possible to develop differential equations that
describe the behavior of this electromechanical system. In this example, the
relationships between electric potential and mechanical force are Faraday’s
law of induction and Ampère’s law for the force on a conductor moving through
a magnetic field.
2-4
Linear Models
Mathematical Derivation
The torque τ seen at the shaft of the motor is proportional to the current i
induced by the applied voltage,
τ ( t ) = Km i( t )
where Km, the armature constant, is related to physical properties of the motor,
such as magnetic field strength, the number of turns of wire around the
conductor coil, and so on. The back (induced) electromotive force, v emf , is a
voltage proportional to the angular rate ω seen at the shaft,
v emf ( t ) = K b ω ( t )
where Kb, the emf constant, also depends on certain physical properties of the
motor.
The mechanical part of the motor equations is derived using Newton’s law,
which states that the inertial load J times the derivative of angular rate equals
the sum of all the torques about the motor shaft. The result is this equation,
dω
J
=
τi = – Kf ω ( t ) + Km i ( t )
dt
å
where K f ω is a linear approximation for viscous friction.
Finally, the electrical part of the motor equations can be described by
v app ( t ) – v emf ( t ) = L
di
+ Ri ( t )
dt
or, solving for the applied voltage and substituting for the back emf,
v app ( t ) = L
di
+ Ri ( t ) + K b ω ( t )
dt
This sequence of equations leads to a set of two differential equations that
describe the behavior of the motor, the first for the induced current,
Kb
di
R
1
= – ---- i ( t ) – ------- ω ( t ) + ---- v app ( t )
dt
L
L
L
2-5
2
Building Models
and the second for the resulting angular rate.
1
dω
1
= – --- K f ω ( t ) + --- K m i ( t )
J
dt
J
State-Space Equations for the DC Motor
Given the two differential equations derived in the last section, you can now
develop a state-space representation of the DC motor as a dynamical system.
The current i and the angular rate ω are the two states of the system. The
applied voltage, v app , is the input to the system, and the angular velocity ω is
the output.
R Kb
– ---- – ------1
d i
L L ⋅ i + ---- ⋅ v
=
L
app ( t )
dt ω
Km Kf
ω
0
-------- – -----J
J
y ( t ) = 0 1 ⋅ i + [ 0 ] ⋅ v app ( t )
ω
Figure 2-2: State-Space Representation of the DC Motor Example
Constructing SISO Models
Once you have a set of differential equations that describe your plant, you can
construct SISO models using simple commands in the Control System Toolbox.
The following sections discuss:
• Constructing a state-space model of the DC motor
• Converting between model representations
• Creating transfer function and zero/pole/gain models directly
• LTI objects, the data containers for linear models
2-6
Linear Models
Constructing a State-Space Model of the DC Motor
Listed below are nominal values for the various parameters of a DC motor.
R=
L=
Km
Kb
Kf
J=
2.0 % Ohms
0.5 % Henrys
= .015 % Torque constant
= .015 % emf constant
= 0.2 % Nms
0.02 % kg.m^2/s^2
Given these values, you can construct the numerical state-space
representation using the ss function.
A = [-R/L -Kb/L; Km/J -Kf/J]
B = [1/L; 0];
C = [0 1];
D = [0];
sys_dc = ss(A,B,C,D)
This is the output of the last command.
a =
x1
x2
x1
-4
0.75
x1
x2
u1
2
0
y1
x1
0
y1
u1
0
x2
-0.03
-10
b =
c =
x2
1
d =
2-7
2
Building Models
Converting Between Model Representations
Now that you have a state-space representation of the DC motor, you can
convert to other model representations, including transfer function (TF) and
zero/pole/gain (ZPK) models.
Transfer Function Representation. You can use tf to convert from the state-space
representation to the transfer function. For example, use this code to convert
to the transfer function representation of the DC motor.
sys_tf = tf(sys_dc)
Transfer function:
1.5
-----------------s^2 + 14 s + 40.02
Zero/Pole/Gain Representation. Similarly, the zpk function converts from
state-space or transfer function representations to the zero/pole/gain format.
Use this code to convert from the state-space representation to the zero/pole/
gain form for the DC motor.
sys_zpk = zpk(sys_dc)
Zero/pole/gain:
1.5
------------------(s+4.004) (s+9.996)
Note The state-space representation is best suited for numerical
computations. For highest accuracy, convert to state space prior to combining
models and avoid the transfer function and zero/pole/gain representations,
except for model specification and inspection. See “Reliable Computations”
online for more information on numerical issues.
2-8
Linear Models
Constructing Transfer Function and Zero/Pole/Gain Models
In the DC motor example, the state-space approach produced a set of matrices
that represents the model. If you choose a different approach, you can construct
the corresponding models using tf, zpk, ss, or frd.
sys
sys
sys
sys
=
=
=
=
tf(num,den)
zpk(z,p,k)
ss(a,b,c,d)
frd(response,frequencies)
%
%
%
%
Transfer function
Zero/pole/gain
State-space
Frequency response data
For example, if you want to create the transfer function of the DC motor
directly, use these commands.
s = tf('s');
sys_tf = 1.5/(s^2+14*s+40.02)
The Control System Toolbox builds this transfer function.
Transfer function:
1.5
-------------------s^2 + 14 s + 40.02
Alternatively, you can create the transfer function by specifying the numerator
and denominator with this code.
sys_tf = tf(1.5,[1 14 40.02])
Transfer function:
1.5
-----------------s^2 + 14 s + 40.02
To build the zero/pole/gain model, use this command.
sys_zpk = zpk([],[-9.996 -4.004], 1.5)
This is the resulting zero/pole/gain representation.
Zero/pole/gain:
1.5
------------------(s+9.996) (s+4.004)
2-9
2
Building Models
Discrete Time Systems
The Control Systems Toolbox provides full support for discrete time systems.
You can create discrete systems in the same way that you create analog
systems; the only difference is that you must specify a sample time period for
any model you build. For example,
sys_disc = tf(1, [1 1], .01);
creates a SISO model in the transfer function format.
Transfer function:
1
----z + 1
Sampling time: 0.01
Adding Time Delays to Discrete-Time Models
You can add time delays to discrete-time models by specifying an input or
output time delay when building the model. The time delay must be a
nonnegative integer that represents a multiple of the sampling time. For
example,
sys_delay = tf(1, [1 1], 0.01,'outputdelay',5);
produces a system with an output delay of 0.05 second.
Transfer function:
1
z^(-5) * ----z + 1
Sampling time: 0.01
For a complete description of time delays, see “Adding Time Delays to Models”
online under the Control System Toolbox.
2-10
Linear Models
Adding Delays to Linear Models
You can add time delays to linear models by specifying an input or output delay
when building a model. For example, to add an input delay to the DC motor,
use this code.
sys_tfdelay = tf(1.5, [1 14 40.02],'inputdelay',0.05)
The Control System Toolbox constructs the DC motor transfer function, but
adds a 0.05 second delay.
Transfer function:
1.5
exp(-0.05*s) * -----------------s^2 + 14 s + 40.02
For a complete description of adding time delays to models, see “Time Delays”
online under “Creating and Manipulating Models.”
LTI Objects
For convenience, the Control System Toolbox uses custom data structures
called LTI objects to store model-related data. For example, the variable
sys_dc created for the DC motor example is called an SS object. There are also
TF, ZPK, and FRD objects for transfer function, zero/pole/gain, and frequency
data response models respectively. The four LTI objects encapsulate the model
data and enable you to manipulate linear systems as single entities rather than
as collections of vectors or matrices.
To see what LTI objects contain, use the get command. This code describes the
contents of sys_dc from the DC motor example.
get(sys_dc)
a:
b:
c:
d:
e:
StateName:
Ts:
ioDelay:
InputDelay:
OutputDelay:
[2x2 double]
[2x1 double]
[0 1]
0
[]
{2x1 cell}
0
0
0
0
2-11
2
Building Models
InputName:
OutputName:
InputGroup:
OutputGroup:
Notes:
UserData:
{''}
{''}
{0x2 cell}
{0x2 cell}
{}
[]
You can manipulate the data contained in LTI objects using the set command;
see the Control System Toolbox online reference pages for descriptions of set
and get.
For more information on LTI properties, type ltiprops at the MATLAB
prompt. For a complete description of LTI objects, see “Creating and
Manipulating Models” online under the Control System Toolbox.
2-12
MIMO Models
MIMO Models
You can use the same functions that apply to SISO systems to create
multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) models, including arbitrary MIMO
transfer functions and zero/pole/gain models. This section begins with an
example of how to build a MIMO system. It then discusses how to build MIMO
transfer functions by concatenating SISO transfer functions and how to access
and manipulate individual SISO transfer functions contained in a MIMO
model.
MIMO Example: Jet Transport Aircraft
This example shows how to build a MIMO model of a jet transport. Since the
development of a physical model for a jet aircraft is lengthy, only the
state-space equations are presented here. See any standard text in aviation for
a more complete discussion of the physics behind aircraft flight.
The jet model during cruise flight at MACH = 0.8 and H = 40,000 ft. is
A = [-0.0558
0.5980
-3.0500
0
B = [ 0.0073
-0.4750
0.1530
0
C = [0
0
1
0
D = [0
0
0
0];
-0.9968
-0.1150
0.3880
0.0805
0.0802
-0.0318
-0.4650
1.0000
0.0415
0
0
0];
0
0.0077
0.1430
0];
0
0
0
1];
Use the following commands to specify this state-space model as an LTI object
and attach names to the states, inputs, and outputs.
states = {'beta' 'yaw' 'roll' 'phi'};
inputs = {'rudder' 'aileron'};
outputs = {'yaw rate' 'bank angle'};
2-13
2
Building Models
sys_mimo = ss(A,B,C,D,'statename',states,...
'inputname',inputs,...
'outputname',outputs);
You can display the LTI model by typing sys_mimo.
sys_mimo
a =
beta
yaw
roll
phi
beta
-0.0558
0.598
-3.05
0
yaw
-0.9968
-0.115
0.388
0.0805
beta
yaw
roll
phi
rudder
0.0073
-0.475
0.153
0
aileron
0
0.0077
0.143
0
yaw rate
bank angle
beta
0
0
yaw
1
0
rudder
0
0
aileron
0
0
roll
0.0802
-0.0318
-0.465
1
phi
0.0415
0
0
0
roll
0
0
phi
0
1
b =
c =
d =
yaw rate
bank angle
Continuous-time model.
The model has two inputs and two outputs. The units are radians for beta
(sideslip angle) and phi (bank angle) and radians/sec for yaw (yaw rate) and
roll (roll rate). The rudder and aileron deflections are in degrees.
2-14
MIMO Models
As in the SISO case, use tf to derive the transfer function representation.
tf(sys_mimo)
Transfer function from input "rudder" to output...
-0.475 s^3 - 0.2479 s^2 - 0.1187 s - 0.05633
yaw rate: --------------------------------------------------s^4 + 0.6358 s^3 + 0.9389 s^2 + 0.5116 s + 0.003674
0.1148 s^2 - 0.2004 s - 1.373
bank angle: --------------------------------------------------s^4 + 0.6358 s^3 + 0.9389 s^2 + 0.5116 s + 0.003674
Transfer function from input "aileron" to output...
0.0077 s^3 - 0.0005372 s^2 + 0.008688 s + 0.004523
yaw rate: --------------------------------------------------s^4 + 0.6358 s^3 + 0.9389 s^2 + 0.5116 s + 0.003674
0.1436 s^2 + 0.02737 s + 0.1104
bank angle: --------------------------------------------------s^4 + 0.6358 s^3 + 0.9389 s^2 + 0.5116 s + 0.003674
Constructing MIMO Transfer Functions
MIMO transfer functions are two-dimensional arrays of elementary SISO
transfer functions. There are two ways to specify MIMO transfer function
models:
• Concatenation of SISO transfer function models
• Using tf with cell array arguments
Concatenation of SISO models
Consider the following single-input, two-output transfer function.
s–1
-----------s+1
H(s ) =
s+2
---------------------------2
s + 4s + 5
You can specify H ( s ) by concatenation of its SISO entries. For instance,
2-15
2
Building Models
h11 = tf([1 -1],[1 1]);
h21 = tf([1 2],[1 4 5]);
or, equivalently,
s = tf('s')
h11 = (s-1)/(s+1);
h21 = (s+2)/(s^2+4*s+5);
can be concatenated to form H ( s ).
H = [h11; h21]
This syntax mimics standard matrix concatenation and tends to be easier and
more readable for MIMO systems with many inputs and/or outputs. See “Model
Interconnection Functions” in “Creating and Manipulating Models” online for
more details on concatenation operations for LTI systems.
Using the tf Function with Cell Arrays
Alternatively, to define MIMO transfer functions using tf, you need two cell
arrays (say, N and D) to represent the sets of numerator and denominator
polynomials, respectively. See the “Structures and Cell Arrays” in MATLAB’s
online documentation for more details on cell arrays.
For example, for the rational transfer matrix H ( s ) , the two cell arrays N and D
should contain the row-vector representations of the polynomial entries of
N(s) = s – 1
s+2
D(s) =
s+1
s2
+ 4s + 5
You can specify this MIMO transfer matrix H ( s ) by typing
N = {[1 -1];[1 2]};
% Cell array for N(s)
D = {[1 1];[1 4 5]}; % Cell array for D(s)
H = tf(N,D)
The Control System Toolbox responds with
Transfer function from input to output...
s - 1
#1: ----s + 1
2-16
MIMO Models
#2:
s + 2
------------s^2 + 4 s + 5
Notice that both N and D have the same dimensions as H. For a general MIMO
transfer matrix H ( s ), the cell array entries N{i,j} and D{i,j} should be
row-vector representations of the numerator and denominator of H ij ( s ), the
ijth entry of the transfer matrix H ( s ) .
Accessing I/O Pairs in MIMO Systems
Once you have defined a MIMO system, you can access and manipulate I/O
pairs by specifying input and output pairs of the system. For instance, if
sys_mimo is a MIMO system with two inputs and three outputs,
sys_mimo(3,1)
extracts the subsystem mapping the first input to the third output. Row indices
select the outputs and column indices select the inputs. Similarly,
sys_mimo(3,1) = tf(1,[1 0])
redefines the transfer function between the first input and third output as an
integrator.
2-17
2
Building Models
Arrays of Linear Models
You can specify and manipulate collections of linear models as single entities
using LTI arrays. For example, if you want to vary the Kb and Km parameters
for the DC motor and store the resulting state-space models, use this code.
K = [0.1 0.15 0.2]; % Several values for Km and Kb
A1 = [-R/L -K(1)/L; K(1)/J -Kf/J];
A2 = [-R/L -K(2)/L; K(2)/J -Kf/J];
A3 = [-R/L -K(3)/L; K(3)/J -Kf/J];
sys_lti(:,:,1)= ss(A1,B,C,D);
sys_lti(:,:,2)= ss(A2,B,C,D);
sys_lti(:,:,3)= ss(A3,B,C,D);
(Note that Kb and Km must be equal, so K represents both parameters in the
state-space equations.) The number of inputs and outputs must be the same for
all linear models encapsulated by the LTI array, but the model order (number
of states) can vary from model to model within a single LTI array.
The LTI array sys_lti contains the state-space models for each value of K.
Type sys_lti to see the contents of the LTI array.
Model sys_lti(:,:,1,1)
======================
a =
x1
x2
x1
-4
5
x2
-0.2
-10
x1
-4
7.5
x2
-0.3
-10
.
.
.
Model sys_lti(:,:,2,1)
======================
a =
x1
x2
.
.
.
2-18
Arrays of Linear Models
Model sys_lti(:,:,3,1)
======================
a =
x1
x2
x1
-4
10
x2
-0.4
-10
.
.
.
3x1 array of continuous-time state-space models.
You can manipulate the LTI array like any other object in the Control System
Toolbox. For example,
step(sys_lti)
produces a plot containing step responses for all three state-space models.
Figure 2-3: Step Responses for an LTI Array Containing Three Models
2-19
2
Building Models
LTI arrays are useful for performing batch analysis on an entire set of models.
For more information, see “Handling Multiple Models” online.
2-20
Model Characteristics
Model Characteristics
The Control System Toolbox contains commands to query model
characteristics such as the I/O dimensions, poles, zeros, and DC gain. These
commands apply to both continuous- and discrete-time model. Their LTI-based
syntax is summarized in the table below.
Table 2-1: Commands to Query Model Characteristics
Command
Description
size(model_name)
Number of inputs and outputs
ndims(model_name)
Number of dimensions
isct(model_name)
Returns 1 for continuous systems
isdt(model_name)
Returns 1 for discrete systems
hasdelay(model_name)
True if system has delays
pole(model_name)
System poles
zero(model_name)
System (transmission) zeros
dcgain(model_name)
DC gain
norm(model_name)
System norms (H2 and L∞)
covar(model_name,W)
Covariance of response to white noise
2-21
2
Building Models
Interconnecting Linear Models
You can perform simple operations on LTI models, such as addition,
multiplication, or concatenation. Addition performs a parallel interconnection.
For example, typing
tf(1,[1 0]) + tf([1 1],[1 2])
% 1/s + (s+1)/(s+2)
produces this transfer function.
Transfer function
s^2 + 2 s + 2
------------s^2 + 2 s
Multiplication performs a series interconnection. For example, typing
2 * tf(1,[1 0])*tf([1 1],[1 2])
% 2*1/s*(s+1)/(s+2)
produces this cascaded transfer function.
Transfer function:
2 s + 2
--------s^2 + 2 s
If the operands are models of different types, the resulting model type is
determined by precedence rules; see “Precedence Rules” under “Creating and
Manipulating Models” online for more information. State-space models have
highest precedence while transfer functions have lowest precedence. Hence the
sum of a transfer function and a state-space model is always a state-space
model.
Other available operations include system inversion, transposition, and
pertransposition; see “Arithmetic Operations” online under “Creating and
Manipulating Models.” The Control System Toolbox also supports matrix-like
indexing for extracting subsystems; see “Extracting and Modifying
Subsystems” online for more information.
2-22
Interconnecting Linear Models
You can also use the series and parallel functions as substitutes for
multiplication and addition, respectively.
Table 2-2: Equivalent Ways to Interconnect Systems
Operator
Function
Resulting Transfer Function
sys1 + sys2
parallel(sys1,sys2)
Systems in parallel
sys1 * sys2
series(sys2,sys1)
Cascaded systems
Feedback Interconnection
You can use the feedback and lft functions to derive closed-loop models. For
example,
sys_f = feedback(tf(1,[1 0]), tf([1 1],[1 2])
computes the closed-loop transfer function from r to you for the feedback loop
shown in Figure 2-4. The result is
Transfer function:
s + 2
------------s^2 + 3 s + 1
This figure shows the interconnected system in block diagram format.
r
+
Σ
−
1-s
y
s+1
-----------s+2
Figure 2-4: Feedback Interconnection
You can use the lft function to create more complicated feedback structures.
This function constructs the linear fractional transformation of two systems.
See the online reference page for more information.
2-23
2
Building Models
Continuous/Discrete Conversions
The commands c2d, d2c, and d2d perform continuous to discrete, discrete to
continuous, and discrete to discrete (resampling) conversions, respectively.
sysd = c2d(sysc,Ts)
sysc = d2c(sysd)
sysd1= d2d(sysd,Ts)
% Discretization w/ sample period Ts
% Equivalent continuous-time model
% Resampling at the period Ts
Various discretization/interpolation methods are available, including
zero-order hold (default), first-order hold, Tustin approximation with or
without prewarping, and matched zero-pole. For example,
sysd = c2d(sysc,Ts,'foh')
sysc = d2c(sysd,'tustin')
% Uses first-order hold
% Uses Tustin approximation
Discrete DC Motor Model
You can digitize the DC motor plant using the c2d function and selecting an
appropriate sample time. Choosing the right sample time involves many
factors, including the performance you want to achieve, the fastest time
constant in your system, and the speed at which you expect your controller to
run. For this example, choose a time constant of 0.01 second. See “SISO
Example: the DC Motor” on page 2-4, for the construction of the SS object
sys_dc.
Ts=0.01;
sysd=c2d(sys_dc,Ts)
a =
x1
x2
x1
0.96079
0.006994
x1
x2
u1
0.019605
7.1595e-005
b =
2-24
x2
-0.00027976
0.90484
Continuous/Discrete Conversions
c =
y1
x1
0
y1
u1
0
x2
1
d =
Sampling time: 0.01
Discrete-time model.
To see the discrete-time transfer function for the digital DC motor, use tf to
convert the model.
fd=tf(sysd)
Transfer function:
7.16e-005 z + 6.833e-005
-----------------------z^2 - 1.866 z + 0.8694
Sampling time: 0.01
2-25
2
Building Models
Model Order Reduction
You can derive reduced-order models with the following commands.
Model Order Reduction
balreal
Input/output balancing
minreal
Minimal realization (pole/zero cancellation)
modred
State deletion in I/O balanced realization
sminreal
Structurally minimal realization
Use minreal to delete uncontrollable or unobservable state dynamics in
state-space models, or cancel pole/zero pairs in transfer functions or
zero-pole-gain models. Use sminreal to remove any states that are structurally
decoupled from the inputs or outputs. For already minimal models, you can
further reduce the model order using a combination of balreal and modred.
Example: Gasifier Model
This example presents a model of a gasifier, a device that converts solid
materials into gases. The original model is nonlinear. To load a linearized
version of the model, type
load ltiexamples
at the MATLAB prompt; the gasifier example is stored in the variable named
gasf. If you type
size(gasf)
MATLAB responds with
State-space model with 4 outputs, 6 inputs, and 25 states.
Before attempting model order reduction, inspect the pole and zero locations by
using pzmap(gasf) and then zooming in near the origin. If you don’t know how
to use the zoom feature on plots, see “Zooming” on page 4-28 for an example.
2-26
Model Order Reduction
This figure shows the results.
Figure 2-5: Pole-Zero Map of the Gasifier Model (Zoomed In)
Since the model displays near pole-zero cancellations, it’s a good candidate for
model reduction.
SISO Model Order Reduction
As an illustration of the model order reduction tools, this example focuses on a
single input/output pair of the gasifier, input #5 to output #3.
sys35 = gasf(3,5);
To enhance the numerical stability, first scale the system realization with
ssbal.
sys1 = ssbal(sys35);
Then use minreal to eliminate uncontrollable or unobservable states.
sys1 = minreal(sys1);
size(sys1)
2-27
2
Building Models
MATLAB responds with
State-space model with 1 output, 1 input, and 15 states.
The result is a 15th order system. Use this command
bode(sys35,sys1);
to compare the Bode magnitude and phase of the 25th order model to the
reduced order model. This figure shows the result.
Figure 2-6: Comparison of Full 25 State Model to the 15 State Reduced Order
Models
As the figure shows, there is very little difference in the responses.
Finally, try eliminating states that are weakly affecting the I/O map by using
the balreal and modred functions. First, attempt a balanced realization.
[sys1,G] = balreal(sys1);
Use format short e to view the Hankel singular values stored in variable G.
2-28
Model Order Reduction
G =
4.5468e+003
2.6009e+003
1.8601e+003
2.5140e+002
1.5081e+002
1.1993e+001
1.1524e+001
1.0940e+001
2.8766e+000
1.3706e+000
3.5426e-001
2.2556e-002
1.2496e-002
1.0725e-002
6.2703e-005
Small Hankel singular values indicate that the associated states are weakly
coupled. You can try discarding the last five states (associated with the five
smallest Hankel singular values).
sys2 = modred(sys1,11:15);
size(sys2)
% Down to 10 states
MATLAB responds with
State-space model with 1 output, 1 input, and 10 states.
Type
bode(sys35,sys2);
to compare the magnitude and phase of the 10th order model to the 25th order
model.
2-29
2
Building Models
This figure shows the result.
Figure 2-7: Comparison of 25 and 10 State Models
The figure shows good agreement until the frequency reaches 5 rad/sec. This
may be acceptable since gasifiers are often low bandwidth systems, and since
the models still agree at smaller frequencies. Try experimenting with
discarding more Hankel values. With each further reduction, the match to the
25th order model will continue to degrade.
MIMO Model Order Reduction
You can choose not to restrict yourself to individual input/output pairs. The
following code does model order reduction on the full MIMO gasifier model.
sys1 = ssbal(gasf)
% Scaling
% Compute the minimal realization and balance the model
sys2 = minreal(sys1);
% Down to 17 states
[sys3,G] = balreal(sys2);
2-30
Model Order Reduction
% Discard smallest entry of G by using modred
sys3 = modred(sys3,17);
% Down to 16 states
After you get to 16 states, the reduced-order MIMO model begins to deteriorate
when compared to the full 25 state MIMO model. Try reducing the model
further to see which channels suffer the most degradation.
The MathWorks would like to thank ALSTOM Power UK for kindly permitting
us to use their gasifier model for this example. This model was issued as part
of the ALSTOM Benchmark Challenge on Gasifier Control; for more details see
Dixon, R., (1999), “Advanced Gasifier Control,” Computing & Control
Engineering Journal, IEE, Vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 93-96.
2-31
2
Building Models
2-32
3
Analyzing Models
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2
LTI Viewer . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Time and Frequency Responses
of the DC Motor . . . . . . . . . .
Right-Click Menus . . . . . . . . . . .
Displaying Response Characteristics on a Plot
Changing Plot Type . . . . . . . . . .
Showing Multiple Response Types . . . . .
Comparing Multiple Models . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . 3-4
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Functions for Time and Frequency Response
Time and Frequency Responses . . . . . . . .
Plotting MIMO Model Responses . . . . . . .
Data Markers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plotting and Comparing Multiple Systems . . .
Creating Custom Plots . . . . . . . . . . .
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. 3-23
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. 3-27
Simulink LTI Viewer . . . . . . .
Using the Simulink LTI Viewer . . . .
Comparing Linear and Nonlinear Models
Bode Plots of Linearized Models . . .
Specifying Operating Conditions . . .
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3-4
3-6
3-8
3-11
3-13
3-14
3
Analyzing Models
Introduction
This chapter shows how you can analyze models using tools provided by the
Control System Toolbox. It begins by introducing the LTI Viewer, a graphical
user interface (GUI) that simplifies the analysis of linear, time-invariant
systems.
The chapter continues with a discussion of commands provided by the Control
System Toolbox for plotting the time and frequency responses of linear models.
This set of commands provides an open and extensible environment for the
analysis of control systems. You can use these commands when you need more
flexibility than the LTI Viewer provides.
Finally, this chapter discusses the Simulink LTI Viewer, for use with
Simulink. You can use this tool to linearize models or parts of models, analyze
linearized models, and compare linear and nonlinear models.
The LTI Viewer is a GUI for viewing and manipulating the response plots of
linear models. You can display the following plot types for linear models using
the LTI Viewer:
• Step and impulse responses
• Bode and Nyquist plots
• Nichols plots
• Singular values of the frequency response
• Pole/zero plots
• Response to a general input signal
• Unforced response starting from given initial states (only for state-space
models)
Note that time responses and pole/zero plots are available only for transfer
function, state-space, and zero/pole/gain models.
3-2
Introduction
Note The LTI Viewer displays up to six different plot types simultaneously.
You can also analyze the response plots of several linear models at once.
However, all models must have the same input and output sizes. If your
models have unequal input or output sizes, you must display them in different
LTI Viewers.
3-3
3
Analyzing Models
LTI Viewer
This picture shows an LTI Viewer with two response plots.
Use the File menu to
import models and the
Edit menu to delete
existing ones.
Right-click anywhere in a
plot region to open a
menu of options for that
plot.
Left-click directly on a
curve for information
about the curve at that
particular point.
Figure 3-1: The LTI Viewer with Step Response and Bode Plots
The next section presents an example that shows you how to import a system
into the LTI Viewer and how to customize the viewer to fit your requirements.
Example: Time and Frequency Responses
of the DC Motor
The section entitled “SISO Example: the DC Motor” on page 2-4 presented a DC
motor example. If you have not yet built that example, type
load ltiexamples
at the MATLAB prompt. This loads several LTI models, including a state-space
representation of the DC motor called sys_dc.
3-4
LTI Viewer
Opening the LTI Viewer
To open the LTI Viewer, type
ltiview
This opens an LTI Viewer with an empty step response plot window by default.
Importing Models into the LTI Viewer
To import the DC motor model, select Import under the File menu. This opens
the LTI Browser dialog box, which lists all the models available in your
MATLAB workspace.
Figure 3-2: The LTI Browser with the DC Motor Model Selected
Select sys_dc from the list of available models and click OK to close the
browser. This imports the DC motor model into the LTI Viewer.
To select more than one model at a time, do the following:
• To select individual (noncontiguous) models, select one model and hold down
the Ctrl key while selecting additional models. To deselect any models, hold
down the Ctrl key while you click on the highlighted model names.
• To select a list of contiguous models, select the first model and hold down the
Shift key while selecting the last model you want in the list.
3-5
3
Analyzing Models
The picture below shows the LTI Viewer with a step response for the DC motor
example.
The steady-state value
of the step response
The status bar describes
the last action you have
taken. It also provides
information about
accessing LTI Viewer
menu options.
Figure 3-3: Step Response for the DC Motor Example in the LTI Viewer
Alternatively, you can open the LTI Viewer and import the DC motor example
directly from the MATLAB prompt.
ltiview('step', sys_dc)
See the ltiview reference page for a complete list of options.
Right-Click Menus
The LTI Viewer provides a set of controls and options that you can access by
right-clicking your mouse. Once you have imported a model into the LTI
Viewer, the options you can select include:
• Plot Type — Change the plot type. Available types include step, impulse,
Bode, Bode magnitude, Nichols, Nyquist, and sigma plots.
• Systems — Select or deselect any models that you included when you created
the response plot.
3-6
LTI Viewer
• Characteristics — Add information about the plot. The characteristics
available change from plot to plot. For example, Bode plots have stability
margins available, but step responses have rise time and steady-state values
available.
• Zoom — Zoom in and out of plot regions.
• Grid — Add grids to your plots.
• Properties — Open the Property Editor.
You can use this editor to customize various attributes of your plot. See
“Setting Plot Properties a nd Preferences” in the Control System Toolbox
online documentation for a full description of the Property Editor.
Alternatively, you can open the Property Editor by double-clicking in an
empty region of the response plot.
3-7
3
Analyzing Models
Displaying Response Characteristics on a Plot
For example, to see the rise time for the DC motor step response, right-click
your mouse and select Rise Time under Characteristics, as this picture
illustrates.
Figure 3-4: Using Right-Click Menus to Display the Rise Time for a Step
Response
The rise time is defined as the amount of time it takes the step response to go
from 10% to 90% of the steady-state value.
3-8
LTI Viewer
The LTI Viewer calculates and displays the rise time for the step response.
The dot marks the 90%
value for the rise time.
This line shows when the
response reaches 10% of its
steady-state value.
This line shows when the
response reaches 90% of its
steady-state value.
Figure 3-5: DC Motor Step Response with the Rise Time Displayed
To display the values of any plot characteristic marked on a plot, place your
mouse on the blue dot that marks the characteristic. This opens a data marker
with the relevant information displayed. To make the marker persistent,
left-click on the blue dot.
3-9
3
Analyzing Models
For example, this picture shows the rise time value for the DC motor step
response.
Place your cursor over
the blue dot to display a
data marker with the
system name and the
90% rise time value.
Left-click on the blue dot
to make the data marker
persistent.
Figure 3-6: Using Your Mouse to Get the Rise Time Values
Note that you can left-click anywhere on a particular plot line to see the
response values of that plot at that point. You must either place your cursor
over the blue dot or left-click, however, if you want to see the rise time value.
For more information about data markers, see “Data Markers” on page 3-23.
3-10
LTI Viewer
Changing Plot Type
You can view other plots using the right-click menus in the LTI Viewer. For
example, if you want to see the open loop Bode plots for the DC motor model,
select Plot Type and then Bode from the right-click menu.
Figure 3-7: Changing the Step Response to a Bode Plot
3-11
3
Analyzing Models
Selecting Bode changes the step response to a Bode plot for the DC motor
model.
Figure 3-8: Bode Plot for the DC Motor Model
3-12
LTI Viewer
Showing Multiple Response Types
If you want to see, for example, both a step response and a Bode plot at the
same time, you have to reconfigure the LTI Viewer. To view different response
types in a single LTI Viewer, select Plot Configurations under the Edit menu.
This opens the Plot Configurations dialog box.
Select Response type for each
pane in the selected arrangement.
Figure 3-9: Using the Plot Configurations Dialog Box to Reconfigure the LTI
Viewer
You can select up to six plots in one viewer. Choose the Response type for each
plot area from the right-hand side menus from eight available plot types:
• Step
• Impulse
• Bode (magnitude and phase)
• Bode Magnitude (only)
• Nyquist
• Nichols
• Sigma
• Pole/zero
3-13
3
Analyzing Models
Comparing Multiple Models
This section shows you how to import and manipulate multiple models in one
LTI Viewer. For example, if you have designed a set of compensators to control
a system, you can compare the closed-loop step responses and Bode plots using
the LTI Viewer.
A sample set of closed-loop transfer function models is included (along with
some other models) in the MAT-file ltiexamples.mat. Type
load ltiexamples
to load the provided transfer functions. The three closed-loop transfer function
models, Gcl1, Gcl2, and Gcl3, are for a satellite attitude controller.
In this example, you analyze the response plots of the Gcl1 and Gcl2 transfer
functions.
Initializing the LTI Viewer with Multiple Plots
To load the two models Gcl1, and Gcl2 into the LTI Viewer, select Import
under the File menu and select the desired models in the LTI Browser. See
“Importing Models into the LTI Viewer” on page 3-5 for a description of how to
select groups of models. If necessary, you can reconfigure the viewer to display
both the step responses and Bode plots of the two systems using the Viewer
Configuration dialog box. See “Showing Multiple Response Types” on page
3-13 for a discussion of this feature.
Alternatively, you can open an LTI Viewer with both systems and both the step
responses and Bode plots displayed. Type
ltiview({'step';'bode'},Gcl1,Gcl2)
to do this.
3-14
LTI Viewer
Either approach opens the following LTI Viewer.
Place your cursor on
a curve to see which
system it represents.
The information
displays in the status
panel at the bottom
of the LTI Viewer.
Two response curves
are plotted on each
plot region.
Figure 3-10: Multiple Response Plots in a Single LTI Viewer
Inspecting Response Characteristics
To mark the settling time on the step responses presented in this example, do
the following:
• Right-click anywhere in the plot region of the step response plots. This opens
the right-click menu list in the plot region.
• Place your mouse pointer on the Characteristics menu item, and select
Settling Time with your left mouse button.
To mark the stability margins of the Bode plot in this example, open the
right-click menu and select Stability Margins (min) under the
Characteristics menu item.
3-15
3
Analyzing Models
Your LTI Viewer should now look like this.
Place your cursor
on the blue or
green dots to see
phase margin data.
Figure 3-11: Multiple Plots with Response Characteristics Added
The minimum stability margins, meaning the smallest magnitude phase and
gain margins, display as green and blue markers on the Bode phase diagram.
If you want to see all the gain and phase margins of a system, select Stability
Margins (all) under the Characteristics menu item.
3-16
LTI Viewer
Toggling Model Visibility
If you have imported more than one model, you can select and deselect which
models to plot in the LTI Viewer using right-click menus. For example, if you
import the following three models into the viewer, you can choose to view any
combination of the three you want.
s=tf('s');
sys1=1/(s^2+s+1);
sys2=1/(s^2+s+2);
sys3=1/(s^2+s+3);
This picture shows how to deselect the second of the three models using
right-click menu options.
Select/deselect the
systems you want to
add or remove from
the LTI Viewer under
Systems in the
right-click menu. The
menu lists only systems
that you have imported
into the LTI Viewer.
Figure 3-12: Using Right-Click Menus to Select/Deselect Plotted Systems
The Systems menu lists all the imported models. A system is selected if a check
mark is visible to the left of the system name.
3-17
3
Analyzing Models
Functions for Time and Frequency Response
The Control System Toolbox provides the LTI Viewer, a GUI that is suitable
for a wide range of applications. There are situations, however, where you may
want a more open and extensible environment. The Control System Toolbox
provides a set of functions that provide the basic time and frequency domain
analysis plots used in control system engineering. These functions apply to any
kind of linear model (continuous or discrete, SISO or MIMO, or arrays of
models). You can only apply the frequency domain analysis functions to FRD
models.
Use the LTI Viewer when a GUI-driven environment is desirable. On the other
hand, use functions when you want customized plots. If you want to include
data unrelated to your models, you must use functions instead of the LTI
Viewer (which only plots model data)
The next sections discuss time and frequency response functions and how to
use these functions to create customized plots of linear model responses.
Time and Frequency Responses
Time responses investigate the time-domain transient behavior of linear
models for particular classes of inputs and disturbances. You can determine
such system characteristics as rise time, settling time, overshoot, and
steady-state error from the time response. The Control System Toolbox
provides functions for step response, impulse response, initial condition
response, and general linear simulations. For example, you can simulate the
response to white noise inputs using lsim and the MATLAB function randn.
In addition to time-domain analysis, the Control System Toolbox provides
functions for frequency-domain analysis using the following standard plots:
• Bode plots
• Nichols plots
• Nyquist plots
• Singular value plots
3-18
Functions for Time and Frequency Response
This table lists available time and frequency response functions and their use.
Table 3-1: Functions for Frequency and Time Response
Functions
Description
bode
Bode plot
evalfr
Computes the frequency response at a single complex
frequency (not for FRD models)
freqresp
Computes the frequency response for a set of
frequencies
gensig
Input signal generator (for lsim)
impulse
Impulse response plot
initial
Initial condition response plot
lsim
Simulation of response to arbitrary inputs
margin
Computes and plots gain and phase margins
nichols
Nichols plot
nyquist
Nyquist plot
pzmap
Pole-zero map
step
Step response plot
These functions can be applied to single linear models or LTI arrays.
The functions step, impulse, and initial automatically generate an
appropriate simulation horizon for the time response plots. Their syntax is
step(model_name)
impulse(model_name)
initial(model_name,x0)
% x0 = initial state vector
where model_name is any continuous or discrete LTI model or LTI array.
Frequency-domain plots automatically generate an appropriate frequency
range as well.
3-19
3
Analyzing Models
Plotting MIMO Model Responses
For MIMO models, time and frequency response functions produce an array of
plots with one plot per I/O channel (or per output for initial and lsim). For
example,
h = [tf(10,[1 2 10]) , tf(1,[1 1])]
step(h)
produces the following plot.
Figure 3-13: Step Responses for a MIMO Model
The simulation horizon is automatically determined based on the model
dynamics. You can override this automatic mode by specifying a final time,
step(h,10) % Simulates from 0 to 10 seconds
or a vector of evenly spaced time samples.
t = 0:0.01:10
step(h,t)
3-20
% Time samples spaced every 0.01 second
Functions for Time and Frequency Response
Right-Click Menus
All the time and frequency response functions provide right-click menus that
allow you to customize your plots. This picture shows the plots from
Figure 3-13, Step Responses for a MIMO Model, on page 3-20, with the
right-click menu open.
Figure 3-14: Using the Right-Click Menu in a Step Response Plot
The options you can select include:
• Systems — Select or deselect any models that you included when you created
the response plot.
• Characteristics — Add information about the plot. The characteristics
available change from plot to plot. For example, Bode plots have stability
margins available, but step responses have rise time and steady-state values
available.
3-21
3
Analyzing Models
• Axes Grouping — Change the grouping of your plots. Available options are
All, None, Inputs, and Outputs. You can group all the plots together, place
each in a separate plot region (none), or group the inputs or outputs together.
• I/O Selector — Open the I/O Selector Window.
Use this window to select/deselect which inputs and outputs to plot.
• Zoom — Zoom in and out of plot regions.
• Grid — Add grids to your plots.
• Properties — Open the Property Editor, which you can use to customize
various attributes of your plot. See “Customization” in the Control System
Toolbox online documentation for a full description of the Property Editor.
Alternatively, you can open the Property Editor by double-clicking in an
empty region of the response plot.
3-22
Functions for Time and Frequency Response
Data Markers
In addition to right-click menus, the Control System Toolbox provides plot data
markers. These allow you to identify key data points on your plots. This figure,
using the same plot as Figure 3-13, shows markers on the plots.
Place your cursor on an
active characteristic,
shown as a blue dot here,
to see its name and
numerical value.
Left-click anywhere on a
plot to see the system
name, I/O labels, time,
and value at that point.
Figure 3-15: Using Plot Markers to Identify Data Points
You can move a data marker by:
• Grabbing the black located at the corner of the marker
• Dragging the marker with your mouse
The time and amplitude values will change as you move the marker. This does
not apply to markers that display plot characteristics (e.g., peak value or rise
time). In the case of plot characteristic data markers, you can view them by
placing your cursor over the dot that represents the active characteristic. To
make the data marker persistent, left-click on the marker.
3-23
3
Analyzing Models
Note Data markers do not apply to the SISO Design Tool, which displays
data about plot characteristics in the status panel at the bottom of the SISO
Design Tool window.
Right-Click Menus
Right-click on any data marker to open a property menu for the marker.
Property options for the marker include:
• Font Size — Change the font size.
• Alignment — Change the position of the marker. Available options are
top-right, top-left, bottom-right, and bottom-left.
• Interpolation — By default, data markers linearly interpolate between
points along the plotted curve. Select None to force the markers to snap to
nearest points along the plotted curve.
• Raise — If two markers overlap, raise brings the selected marker to the
front.
• Delete — Delete the selected marker. Alternatively, left-click anywhere in
the empty plot region to delete all markers in the plot.
Plotting and Comparing Multiple Systems
You can use the command line response-plotting functions to plot the response
of continuous and discrete linear models on a single plot. To do so, invoke the
corresponding command line function using the list sys1,..., sysN of models as
the inputs.
step(sys1,sys2,...,sysN)
impulse(sys1,sys2,...,sysN)
3-24
Functions for Time and Frequency Response
...
bode(sys1,sys2,...,sysN)
nichols(sys1,sys2,...,sysN)
...
All models in the argument lists of any of the response plotting functions
(except for sigma) must have the same number of inputs and outputs. To
differentiate the plots easily, you can also specify a distinctive color/linestyle/
marker for each system just as you would with the plot command. For
example,
bode(sys1,'r',sys2,'y--',sys3,'gx')
plots sys1 with solid red lines, sys2 with yellow dashed lines, and sys3 with
green x markers.
You can plot responses of multiple models on the same plot. These models do
not need to be all continuous-time or all discrete-time.
Example: Comparing Continuous and Discretized Systems
The following example compares a continuous model with its zero-order-hold
discretization.
sysc = tf(1000,[1 10 1000])
sysd = c2d(sysc,0.2)
% ZOH sampled at 0.2 second
step(sysc,'--',sysd,'-')
% Compare step responses
3-25
3
Analyzing Models
These commands produce the plot shown below.
Figure 3-16: Comparison of a Continuous Model to Its Discretized Version
Use this command to compare the Bode plots of the two systems.
bode(sysc,'--',sysd,'-')
3-26
% Compare Bode responses
Functions for Time and Frequency Response
The Control System Toolbox creates this plot.
Figure 3-17: Comparison of Bode Plots for a Continuous Model and Its
Discretized Version
A comparison of the continuous and discretized responses reveals a drastic
undersampling of the continuous-time system. Specifically, there are hidden
oscillations in the discretized time response and aliasing conceals the
continuous-time resonance near 300 rad/sec.
Creating Custom Plots
Time and frequency response commands are useful for creating custom plots.
You can mix model response plots with other data views using response
commands together with plot, subplot, and hold.
Example: Custom Plots
For example, the following sequence of commands displays the Bode plot, step
response, pole/zero map, and some additional data in a single figure window.
3-27
3
Analyzing Models
h = tf([4 8.4 30.8 60],[1 4.12 17.4 30.8 60]);
subplot(221)
bode(h)
subplot(222)
step(h)
subplot(223)
pzmap(h)
subplot(224)
plot(rand(1, 100))
% Any data can go here
title('Some noise')
Your plot should look similar to this illustration.
Figure 3-18: Example of Model and Nonmodel Data Plotted in One Window
For information about plot, subplot, hold, and other options for plotting
general data, see “Basic Plotting Commands” and the individual entries for
functions in the “MATLAB Function Reference.” These documents are
available in MATLAB’s online help.
3-28
Functions for Time and Frequency Response
Note Each of the plots generated by response analysis functions in
Figure 3-18 (bode, step, and pzmap) has its own right-click menu (similar to
those in the LTI Viewer). To activate the right-click menus, place your mouse
in the plot region and right-click. The menu contents depend on what type of
plot you have selected.
3-29
3
Analyzing Models
Simulink LTI Viewer
If you have Simulink, you can use the Simulink LTI Viewer, a version of the
LTI Viewer that performs linear analysis on any portion of a Simulink model.
The Simulink LTI Viewer features:
• Drag-and-drop blocks that identify the location for the inputs and outputs of
the portion of a Simulink model you want to analyze.
• The ability to specify the operating conditions about which the Simulink
model is linearized for analysis in the LTI Viewer.
• Access to all time and frequency response analysis tools featured in the LTI
Viewer.
• The ability to compare a set of (linearized) models obtained by varying either
the operating conditions or some model parameter values.
Using the Simulink LTI Viewer
To learn about the Simulink LTI Viewer, this section presents an example that
shows you how to linearize a portion of the Simulink model for an F14 jet
aircraft. To open the F14 jet aircraft model, type
f14
at the MATLAB prompt.
3-30
Simulink LTI Viewer
This opens the following diagram.
Figure 3-19: Nonlinear Model of F14 Aircraft Pitch Axis
This Simulink model, f14, contains static nonlinearities. You can use the
Simulink LTI Viewer to analyze linearized versions of this model.
Comparing Linear and Nonlinear Models
Suppose you want to compare the linearized step response between the Stick
Input to the Pitch Rate, q, to the step response of the original nonlinear model.
The basic procedure for carrying out this type of analysis is outlined in the
remaining sections of this chapter, which present the F14 example in detail.
3-31
3
Analyzing Models
Opening the Simulink LTI Viewer
To open a Simulink LTI Viewer linked to the f14 Simulink model:
1 Go to the Tools menu on the Simulink model
2 Select Linear Analysis
When you select Linear Analysis, two new windows open, an empty Simulink
LTI Viewer window and a Simulink diagram called
Model_Inputs_and_Outputs, which contains Input Point and Output Point
blocks.
This figure shows how to open the Model_Inputs_and_Outputs diagram.
Select Linear Analysis from the Simulink model Tools
menu to open the Simulink LTI Viewer and the
Model_ Inputs_and_Outputs window.
This set of Simulink blocks opens when you select Linear
Analysis . Use these blocks to specify the inputs and outputs
of the portion of the Simulink model you want to analyze.
Your Tools menu may differ from this
one, depending on which MathWorks
products you have installed.
Figure 3-20: Opening the Model_Inputs_and_Outputs Dialog Box from Simulink
The next section shows how you can select inputs and outputs for the linearized
model.
3-32
Simulink LTI Viewer
Specifying the Simulink Model Portion for Analysis
To specify the portion of the Simulink model you want to analyze, mark its
input and output signals on the Simulink model using the Input Point and
Output Point blocks in the Model_Inputs_and_Outputs window. This defines
an input/output relationship that is linearized and analyzed by the LTI Viewer.
This to-be-linearized portion of your model is called the analysis model.
To designate the input and output signals of your analysis model, insert Input
Point and Output Point blocks on the corresponding signal lines in your
Simulink diagram.
To set up the analysis model for the f14 Simulink model:
1 Insert an Input Point block on the line going to the Stick Input.
2 Insert an Output Point block on the line labeled q (the pitch rate).
3-33
3
Analyzing Models
This picture illustrates the procedure for adding linearization input and output
points to the f14 model.
.
Select an Input Point block,
drag it, and release it on the
Simulink model. Place it on
the Stick Input line. This
point will be the input to the
linearized model.
Select an Output Point block and
place it in the F14 model on the q
(pitch rate) line.
Figure 3-21: Selecting Input and Output Points for the Linearized Portion of the F14 Model
3-34
Simulink LTI Viewer
Keep the following in mind when using the Input Point and Output Point
blocks to specify analysis models:
• You can place the Input Point and Output Point blocks on any scalar or
vector signal line in the Simulink model, with the exception of signal lines
connected to any block in the Power System Blockset.
• You can insert Input Point and Output Point blocks at different levels of a
Simulink model hierarchy.
• There is no limit on the number of these blocks you can use. If you have
multiple input and/or output points in your model, you can find each I/O
system listed under the Systems menu available by right-clicking in the plot
region.
Default Operating Conditions
The operating conditions are the values of the state and input vectors about
which the linearization of the analysis model occurs. Initial conditions are the
values of the state and input vectors at time t=0. By default, Simulink sets the
initial conditions to zero; for more information on setting initial conditions in
Simulink, see the Using Simulink manual.
The Simulink LTI Viewer by default assumes that the operating conditions are
the initial conditions set in Simulink for the model. This is the case in the F14
example, where the initial and operating conditions are set to zero. You can,
however, select any operating conditions you require; see “Specifying
Operating Conditions” on page 3-43 for more information.
Performing Linear Analysis
Once you have specified your analysis model, and (optionally) set the operating
conditions, you are ready to analyze it with the Simulink LTI Viewer.
3-35
3
Analyzing Models
To perform the linearization and import your linearized f14 model into the LTI
Viewer, select Get Linearized Model on the Simulink menu on the LTI
Viewer. This produces the following response plot.
The Simulink LTI Viewer
displays the selected
response plot for the
linearized model.
The default plot type is a
step response.
Figure 3-22: Step Response from Stick Input to Pitch Rate for the Linearized
F14 Model
Each time you select Get Linearized Model in the LTI Viewer’s Simulink
menu, the LTI Viewer relinearizes the model and adds the new analysis model
to the list of models available to the viewer. The Simulink LTI Viewer
maintains a history of the linearized models, which is useful for comparing
models when varying parameters.
You can view the linearized models in the LTI Viewer or change the plot type
using the right-click menus.
Comparing the Step Response of the Linear and Nonlinear F14 Models
To compare the linear and nonlinear step responses, you must generate a step
response for the original (nonlinear) f14 model.
3-36
Simulink LTI Viewer
To do this, follow these steps:
1 Replace the Signal Generator block with a Step block. Set the Step time to
0 in this block.
2 Add a Scope block to the line labeled q (pitch rate) in the diagram.
3 Set the Stop time in the Parameters dialog box to 3 seconds.
4 Run the model.
The output to the Pitch Rate Scope block is on the left side of this picture.
Figure 3-23: Comparison of Step Responses from Stick Input to Pitch Rate for
the Nonlinear and Linear F14 Models, Respectively
As these two graphs demonstrate, the agreement between the linear and
nonlinear models is quite good.
3-37
3
Analyzing Models
Bode Plots of Linearized Models
You can use the Simulink LTI Viewer to compare Bode plots for various
controllers. For example, you can change the gain Ki in the F14 controller
shown below and compare the Bode magnitudes.
Figure 3-24: F14 Controller
3-38
Simulink LTI Viewer
Open-Loop Bode Response for the F14 Model
To specify open-loop analysis models, you must understand how Simulink
performs linearization on the model. Placing the Input Point and Output Point
blocks on your Simulink model does not break any connection or isolate any
component.
For example, consider the following simple diagram.
Delete this line to isolate
the plant, P, for open
loop analysis.
Based on the location of the Input Point and Output Point blocks, you might
think that the analysis model specified by these blocks is simply the plant
model, P. However, due to the feedback loop, this analysis model is actually the
closed-loop transfer function P ⁄ ( 1 + PK ) .
If you want to analyze the (open-loop) plant P instead, you need to open the
loop, for example, by deleting the line between the Sum and Input Point blocks.
By default, the Simulink LTI Viewer performs closed-loop analysis whenever
your diagram contains feedback loops between your Input and Output Point
blocks. If you want an open loop Bode response plot, you must open the
feedback path somewhere in the model by removing feedback lines.
3-39
3
Analyzing Models
In the F14 example, one way to create an open-loop model is to delete the
feedback lines from pitch rate, q, and angle of attack, Alpha, back to the F14
controller. This picture shows the f14 model with the feedback paths deleted.
This picture shows the
deletion of the alpha
and q feedback loops
to create an open-loop
analysis model.
Compare this to
Figure 3-19, Nonlinear
Model of F14 Aircraft
Pitch Axis, on page
3-31.
Figure 3-25: F14 Model with the Pitch Rate, q, and Angle of Attack, Alpha,
Feedback Paths Removed
Once you have removed the feedback paths, you can proceed with open-loop
analysis of your linearized model.
Comparing Bode Magnitudes in the Simulink LTI Viewer
The Simulink LTI Viewer maintains a history of plots, so you can vary Ki in the
controller and compare the changes in the Bode response. Each time you
change Ki, select Get Linearized Model under the Simulink menu and the
3-40
Simulink LTI Viewer
viewer will plot the new results. This picture shows the open-loop Bode
magnitude for three values of Ki.
K1= -20.0
K1=-3.8640
K1=-10.0
Figure 3-26: Open-Loop Bode Magnitudes for Three Values of K1
This example compares Bode magnitudes for several values of a parameter.
You can, however, alter other elements of your analysis model for comparison.
These elements include:
• Any of the analysis model parameters
• The operating conditions
• The location of any of the Input Point or Output Point blocks
3-41
3
Analyzing Models
Saving Analysis Models
The analysis models obtained each time you select Get Linearized Model are
stored only in the Simulink LTI Viewer workspace. You can save these models
into the main MATLAB workspace by selecting Export from the Simulink LTI
Viewer File menu.
Selecting Export opens the window shown below.
Stores the selected
analysis model in
a MAT-file.
Stores the selected
analysis model in
the MATLAB workspace.
Lists all the analysis models
currently in the Simulink LTI Viewer
workspace.
Figure 3-27: Exporting Analysis Models From the LTI Viewer Workspace
If you save models to a MAT-file, MATLAB prompts you to name the file. The
variable names contained in that file are the same as those you selected from
the Export List. The variable names of each model you save to the MATLAB
workspace are also the same as those listed in the Export List. It’s up to you
to modify the names of these variables after you’ve saved them.
Removing Input Points and Output Points
There are two ways you can remove Input Point or Output Point blocks from
the Simulink model:
1 One by one: Select the Input Point or Output Point block you want to remove
and delete it as you would any other Simulink block.
2 All at once: To remove all Input Point and Output Point blocks, select
Remove Input/Output Points from the Simulink menu in the LTI Viewer.
When you delete an Input Point or an Output Point block, the signal lines
coming into and out of this block are automatically reconnected.
3-42
Simulink LTI Viewer
Specifying Operating Conditions
If you have nonlinear components in your Simulink model, the Simulink LTI
Viewer automatically linearizes them when you select Get Linearized Model.
The Simulink LTI Viewer uses the initial state values you set in the Simulink
diagram as default settings for linearization points for the states in the
diagram. You also have the option to linearize about the operating conditions
of your choice.
If you want your analysis model to be linearized about a zero state, or other
state and input operating conditions, you must specify the desired operating
points in the Operating Point dialog box before selecting Get Linearized
Model.
To open the Operating Point dialog box, select Set Operating Point in the
Simulink menu. This picture shows the open Operating Point dialog box.
Uses initial conditions for
the states from the
Simulink diagram. This is
the default setting.
Sets the state values to
zero for each
linearization.
Sets the states to values
specified in the Value
fields. If you select this
option, specify the state
values in the Value field.
Each state has its own
field.
Figure 3-28: The Operating Point Dialog Box for Changing Linearization
Points
3-43
3
Analyzing Models
To change the default operating point behavior, follow these steps:
1 Change the radio button selection (under Linearize about:) from the default
to either:
- Set all state values for the linearization to zero
- Define your own state values for the linearization
2 Use the fields under Value to specify the operating conditions for each input
(and state) listed in the Operating Point window. You do not have to specify
the states if you choose the Zero state values radio button.
Once you have selected new operating conditions, press OK. This action opens
a new dialog box, which is pictured below.
Select Yes to finish the process.
Note the following:
• The inputs listed on the Operating Point window correspond to the Inport
blocks on the top level of your Simulink model.
• All states and inputs in the Simulink diagram are listed in the Operating
Point window, not just those associated with your analysis model.
• If you want to change the operating conditions, you need only change those
values associated with your analysis model.
• While the Operating Point window is in the User-defined initial state
values mode, the values listed in the window remain in effect throughout
your Simulink LTI Viewer session unless you change these.
• While the Operating Point window is in the Initial state in Simulink
diagram mode, the linearization values used by the Simulink LTI Viewer
are updated as you change any state values in your Simulink diagram.
3-44
Simulink LTI Viewer
• To change the initial state values of your Simulink diagram:
a Select Parameters under the Simulation menu on your Simulink
diagram.
b Choose the Workspace I/O tab in the Simulation Parameters window.
c
Load initial states from the MATLAB workspace using the appropriate
field.
3-45
3
Analyzing Models
3-46
4
Designing Compensators
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2
The SISO Design Tool . . . . . . . . .
Opening the SISO Design Tool . . . . . .
Importing Models into the SISO Design Tool
Feedback Structure . . . . . . . . . . .
Loop Responses . . . . . . . . . . . .
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Bode Diagram Design . . . . . .
Example: DC Motor . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Compensator Gain . .
Right-Click Menus . . . . . . . .
Adjusting the Bandwidth . . . . .
Adding an Integrator . . . . . . .
Adding a Lead Network . . . . . .
Moving Compensator Poles and Zeros
Changing Units on a Plot . . . . .
Adding a Notch Filter . . . . . . .
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. 4-20
Root Locus Design . . . . . . . . . .
Example: Electrohydraulic Servomechanism
Changing the Compensator Gain . . . . .
Adding Poles and Zeros to the Compensator .
Editing Compensator Pole and Zero Locations
Exporting the Compensator and Models . .
Storing and Retrieving Intermediate Designs
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Functions For Compensator Design . .
Root Locus Design . . . . . . . . . . .
Pole Placement . . . . . . . . . . . .
Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) Design .
Example: LQG Design . . . . . . . . .
Example: LQG Design for Set Point Tracking
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4-3
4-3
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4-42
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4-46
4-51
4-55
4
Designing Compensators
Introduction
This chapter discusses how to build compensators using functions from the
Control System Toolbox. It begins with a description of the SISO Design Tool,
a graphical user interface (GUI) that simplifies the task of designing
controllers. Through two design examples, a DC motor and an electrohydraulic
servomechanism, this chapter shows you how to use the SISO Design Tool to
design compensators by root locus and Bode diagram design techniques, and
how to analyze the resulting designs.
If you need to develop custom applications, or must perform MIMO (multiple
input multiple output) design, the Control System Toolbox provides a set of
commands that implement a variety of design algorithms, including root locus
design, pole placement, and linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) design.
4-2
The SISO Design Tool
The SISO Design Tool
The SISO Design Tool is a graphical user interface (GUI) that facilitates the
design of compensators for single-input, single-output feedback loops. The
SISO Design Tool allows you to iterate rapidly on your designs and perform the
following tasks:
• Manipulate closed-loop dynamics using root locus techniques
• Shape open-loop Bode responses
• Add compensator poles and zeros
• Add and tune lead/lag networks and notch filters
• Inspect closed-loop responses (using the LTI Viewer)
• Adjust phase and gain margins
• Convert models between discrete and continuous time
Opening the SISO Design Tool
This section shows how to open the SISO Design Tool with the DC motor
example developed in Chapter 2, “Building Models,” imported.
If you have not built the DC motor model, type
load ltiexamples
at the MATLAB prompt. This loads a collection of linear models, including the
DC motor. To open the SISO Design Tool and import the DC motor, type
sisotool(sys_dc)
at the MATLAB prompt.
4-3
4
Designing Compensators
This command opens the SISO Design Tool with the root locus and open loop
Bode diagrams for the DC motor plotted by default.
Click in the Current
Compensator panel to
edit the compensator.
The feedback structure
for design. Use the FS
button to toggle between
feedback structures.
Right-click in any of these
regions to see design and
display options for the
SISO Design Tool. Note
that the Root Locus and
Open-loop Bode
Diagrams have different
sets of options.
This panel displays useful
tips about how to use the
SISO Design Tool and
information about the
status of your design.
Figure 4-1: SISO Design Tool with the DC Motor Example
The SISO Design Tool displays:
• Poles as x’s
• Zeros as o’s
• Gain and phase margins (by default) in the lower left-hand corners of the
Bode magnitude and phase plots
4-4
The SISO Design Tool
Importing Models into the SISO Design Tool
If you type
sisotool
at the MATLAB prompt, an empty SISO Design Tool opens. You can import the
DC motor model by selecting Import Model under the File menu. This opens
the Import System Data dialog box, which is shown below.
Place the DC motor model
( sys_dc) in the field
marked G (Plant).
Figure 4-2: Importing the DC Motor Model into the SISO Design Tool
Follow these steps to import the DC motor model:
1 Select sys_dc under SISO Models
2 Place it into the G field under Design Model by pressing the right arrow
button to the left of G
3 Press OK
4-5
4
Designing Compensators
Feedback Structure
The SISO Design Tool by default assumes that the compensator is in the
forward path, i.e., that the feedback structure looks like this picture.
Figure 4-3: The Default Feedback Structure — Compensator in the Forward
Path
In this picture, the lettered boxes represent the following:
• G — plant
• H — sensor dynamics
• F — prefilter
• C — compensator
The default values for F, H, and C are all 1. Note that this means that by
default, the compensator has unity gain. G contains the DC motor model,
sys_dc.
Alternative Feedback Structure
Clicking the FS button toggles between the default feedback structure and a
feedback structure that places the compensator in the feedback path. This
picture shows the alternate feedback stucture.
Figure 4-4: Alternate Feedback Structure with the Compensator in the
Feedback Loop
4-6
The SISO Design Tool
Loop Responses
As you iterate on a compensator design, you may find it convenient to be able
to examine the various loop responses (for example, step or impulse responses).
To view, for example, the closed-loop step response, select Plant Output (Step)
under Loop Responses from the Tools menu. This opens an LTI Viewer with
the closed-loop step response of the DC motor. For instructions on how to
operate the LTI Viewer, see “LTI Viewer” on page 3-4.
This figure shows the resulting plot.
Figure 4-5: LTI Viewer Showing the Step Response for the DC Motor
As this plot shows, the step response of the DC motor is about 1.5 seconds,
which is too slow for many applications. Also, there is a large steady-state
error. The following sections show how to use Bode diagram techniques for
improving the response time and steady-state error of the DC motor step
response.
As you iterate on a design, the LTI Viewer associated with your SISO Design
Tool will automatically update the response plots you have chosen.
4-7
4
Designing Compensators
Bode Diagram Design
One technique for compensator design is to work with Bode diagrams of the
open-loop response (loop shaping). Using Bode diagrams, you can design to
gain and phase margin specifications, adjust the bandwidth, and add notch
filters for disturbance rejection.
Example: DC Motor
The following sections use the DC motor example to show how create a
compensator using Bode diagram design techniques. From “SISO Example: the
DC Motor” on page 2-4, the transfer function of the DC motor is
Transfer function:
1.5
-----------------s^2 + 14 s + 40.02
For this example, the design criteria are as follows:
• Rise time of less than 0.5 second
• Steady-state error of less than 5%
• Overshoot of less than 10%
• Gain margin greater than 20 dB
• Phase margin greater than 40 degrees
Adjusting the Compensator Gain
Figure 4-5 on page 4-7 shows that the closed-loop step response is too slow. The
simplest approach to speeding up the response is to increase the gain of the
compensator. To increase the gain:
1 Move the mouse pointer over the Bode magnitude line. Notice how the
pointer becomes a hand.
2 Grab the Bode magnitude line by holding down the left mouse button when
the hand appears.
4-8
Bode Diagram Design
3 Drag the Bode plot line upward.
4 Release the mouse button. The gain and poles changes as the closed-loop set
point is recomputed.
The SISO Design Tool calculates the compensator gain, and the value appears
in the C(s) text box on the GUI.
Alternatively, you can set the gain by entering the desired value in the C(s)
field in the Current Compensator panel.
Right-Click Menus
The SISO Design Tool has right-click menus available in any of the plot
regions. The menus are customized for each plot type; open the Bode
magnitude menu by right-clicking your mouse in the white space of the Bode
magnitude plot. This menu appears.
Figure 4-6: Right-Click Menu for the Bode Magnitude Plot
The right-click menus contain numerous features. The DC motor example
makes use of many of the available features; for a complete discussion of the
right-click menus, see the online help for the SISO Design Tool in “Tool and
Viewer Reference.”
Adjusting the Bandwidth
Since the design requirements include a 0.5 second rise time, try setting the
gain so that the DC crossover frequency is about 3 rad/sec. The rationale for
setting the bandwidth to 3 rad/sec is that, to a first-order approximation, this
should correspond to about a 0.33 second time constant.
To make the crossover easier to see, select Grid from the right-click menu. This
creates a grid for the Bode magnitude plot. Left-click on the Bode magnitude
4-9
4
Designing Compensators
plot and drag the curve until you see the curve crossing over the 0 dB line (on
the y axis) at 3 rad/sec. This changes both the SISO Design Tool display and
the LTI Viewer step response.
This figure shows the SISO Design Tool.
Use the hand to move the
Bode magnitude plot up
or down. The SISO Design
Tool recalculates the
compensator gain as you
move the hand.
Increasing the
Compensator gain
changed the phase
margin from infinity to
120°. The SISO Design
Tool adds a brown stem
to show the new phase
margin.
Figure 4-7: Root Locus and Bode Plots for the DC Motor
For a crossover at 3 dB, the compensator gain should be about 38. By default,
the SISO Design Tool displays gain and phase margin information in the lower
left-hand corners of the Bode diagrams. In the Bode magnitude plot, it also tells
you if your closed-loop system is stable or unstable.
4-10
Bode Diagram Design
This plot shows the associated closed-loop step response in the LTI Viewer.
Figure 4-8: Closed-Loop Step Response for the DC Motor with a Compensator
Gain = 38
The step response shows that the steady-state error and rise time have
improved somewhat, but you must design a more sophisticated controller to
meet all the design specifications, in particular, the steady-state error
requirement.
4-11
4
Designing Compensators
Adding an Integrator
One way to eliminate steady-state error is to add an integrator. To do this,
select Add and then Integrator from the right-click menu. This figure shows
the process.
Figure 4-9: Using the Right-Click Menu to Add an Integrator
Notice adding the integrator changed the crossover frequency of the system.
Readjust the compensator gain to bring the crossover back to 3 dB; the gain
should be about 100.
4-12
Bode Diagram Design
Once you have added the integrator and readjusted the compensator gain, the
SISO Design Tool shows a red ‘x’ at the origin of the root locus plot.
Adding an integrator
changed the gain
margin from infinity to
11.5 dB. The SISO
Design Tool displays the
gain margin as a brown
stem.
Figure 4-10: The SISO Design Tool Displays the Integrator on the Root Locus
Plot
4-13
4
Designing Compensators
This figure shows the closed-loop step response.
Use the right-click menu
to display the Peak
Response and Rise
Time (listed under
Characteristics).
Figure 4-11: The Step Response for the DC Motor with an Integrator in the
Compensator
The step response is settling around 1, which satisfies the steady-state error
requirement. This is because the integrator forces the system to zero
steady-state error. The figure shows, however, that the peak response is 1.3, or
about 30% overshoot, and that the rise time is roughly 0.4 second. So a
compensator consisting of an integrator and a gain is not enough to satisfy the
design requirements, which require that the overshoot be less than 10%.
Adding a Lead Network
Part of the design requirements is a gain margin of 20 dB or greater and a
phase margin of 40° or more. In the current compensator design, the gain
margin is 11.5 dB and the phase margin is 38.1°, both of which fail to meet the
design requirements. So two goals left are to shorten the rise time while
improving the stability margins. One approach is to increase the gain to speed
up the response, but the system is already underdamped, and increasing the
gain will decrease the stability margin as well. You might try experimenting
4-14
Bode Diagram Design
with the compensator gain to verify this. The only option left is to add dynamics
to the compensator.
One possible solution is to add a lead network to the compensator. To make this
easier to do on the diagram, zoom in on the x-axis. First, select Zoom In-X from
the right-click menu; then select a region of the Bode magnitude plot by
left-clicking and dragging your mouse. The range from 1 to about 50 rad/sec is
good. This picture shows the process.
The SISO Design Tool
will zoom in on this
region of the x-axis
when you release your
mouse.
Figure 4-12: Zooming in on the X-Axis of the Bode Plots
4-15
4
Designing Compensators
To add the lead network, choose Add and then Lead in the right-click menu for
the Open-Loop Bode diagram. This figure shows the process of adding a lead
network to your controller.
Place the lead about
here (to the right of the
rightmost pole in the
diagram).
Figure 4-13: Adding a Lead Network to the DC Motor Compensator Using
Right-Click Menus
Selecting a lead network causes your cursor to change to an ‘x.’ Position this ‘x’
on the Bode magnitude curve slightly to the right of the rightmost pole and
4-16
Bode Diagram Design
click. Your SISO Design Tool and LTI Viewer plots should now look similar to
these.
Figure 4-14: Root Locus, Bode, and Step Response Plots for the DC Motor with a Lead Network
The Step Response plot shows that the rise time is now about 0.4 second and
peak response is 1.25 rad/sec (i.e., the overshoot is about 25%). Although the
rise time meets the requirement, the overshoot is still too large, and the
stability margins are still unacceptable, so you must tune the lead parameters.
Moving Compensator Poles and Zeros
To improve the response speed, move the lead network zero closer to the
leftmost (slowest) pole of the DC motor plant (denoted by a blue ‘x’). To do this,
just grab the zero and drag it with your mouse. Try positioning the zero near
the slowest plant pole.
Now try moving the lead network pole to the right. Notice how the gain margin
increases as you do this. You can also use the gain to increase the gain margin;
grab the Bode magnitude curve and drag it upward with your mouse to see the
gain and gain margin increase.
4-17
4
Designing Compensators
As you tune these parameters, take a look at the LTI Viewer. You will see the
closed-loop step response alter with each parameter change you make. The
figure below shows the final values for a design that meets the specifications.
You can move red
(compensator) poles and
zeros by dragging them
with your mouse.
Figure 4-15: Final Design Parameters for the DC Motor Compensator
The values for this final design are as follows:
• Poles at 0 and -28
• Zero at -4.3
• Gain = 84
You can use the Edit Compensator dialog box to specify the exact values.
Double-click in the Current Compensator panel to open the window. This
figure shows that the gain margin is 22 dB, and the phase margin is 66°. To see
if the design meets the rise time and overshoot requirements, go to the
closed-loop step response, right-click in an empty region of the plot, and select
4-18
Bode Diagram Design
Characteristics and then Rise Time and Peak Overshoot. This figure shows
the plot with the rise time and overshoot denoted by large dots on the curve.
Left-click on the blue
dots to display these
data markers.
Figure 4-16: Step Response for the Final Compensator Design
The step response shows that the rise time is 0.45 second, and the peak
amplitude is 1.03 rad/sec, or an overshoot of 3%. These results meet the design
specifications.
Changing Units on a Plot
The Control System Toolbox provides editors for setting plot options. If you
want, for example, to change the frequency units on all the Bode plots created
4-19
4
Designing Compensators
in the SISO Design Tool from rad/sec to Hertz, select SISO Tool Preferences
under Edit in the menu bar. This opens the SISO Tool Preferences editor.
Figure 4-17: The SISO Tool Preferences Editor
Use the menu options on the Units page to make the change. This unit change
persists for the entire session.
For more information about property and preference setting, see
“Customization” online under the Control System Toolbox.
Adding a Notch Filter
If you know that you have disturbances to your system at a particular
frequency, you can use a notch filter to attenuate the gain of the system at that
frequency. To add a notch filter, select Add Notch from the right-click menu
and place the filter at the frequency you want to attenuate. A black ‘x’ will
appear next to the mouse arrow; place it at the frequency you want to
attenuate.
4-20
Bode Diagram Design
This figure shows the result.
See Figure 4-15 for a
close look at the notch
filter parameters.
Figure 4-18: The SISO Tool with a Notch Filter Added to the DC Motor
Compensator
Note that to add the notch filter it was necessary to zoom out, since the notch
frequency is at a higher frequency than Figure 4-15 on page 4-18 displayed.
To see the notch filter parameters in more detail, select Zoom X-Y in the
right-click menu for the Bode magnitude plot. Left-click and drag your mouse
to draw a box around the notch filter. When you release the mouse, the SISO
Design Tool will zoom in on the selected region.
4-21
4
Designing Compensators
This figure zooms in on the notch filter to show the adjustable parameters.
Drag the block
diamonds to change the
width of the notch.
Move the red ⊗ down
to deepen the notch.
Figure 4-19: Manipulating Notch Filter Parameters
To understand how adjusting the notch filter parameters affects the filter,
consider the notch filter transfer function.
2
2
s + 2ξ 1 ω n s + ω n
-------------------------------------------2
2
s + 2ξ 2 ω n s + ω n
The three adjustable parameters are ξ1, ξ2, and ωn. The ratio of ξ2/ξ1 sets the
depth of the notch, and ωn is the natural frequency of the notch. This diagram
4-22
Bode Diagram Design
shows how moving the red ⊗ and black diamonds change these parameters,
and hence the transfer function of the notch filter.
♦
Adjust ωn.
♦
Adjust ξ for ξ2/ξ1 constant (i.e., adjust the width of the
notch while holding the notch depth constant).
⊗
Adjust ξ2/ξ1 (depth of the notch).
Figure 4-20: A Close Look at Notch Filter Parameters
4-23
4
Designing Compensators
Root Locus Design
A common technique for meeting design criteria is root locus design. This
approach involves iterating on a design by manipulating the compensator gain,
poles, and zeros in the root locus diagram.
The root locus diagram shows the trajectories of the closed-loop poles of a
feedback system as a single system parameter varies over a continuous range
of values. Typically, the root locus method is used to tune the loop gain of a
SISO control system by specifying a feedback gain the closed-loop pole
locations.
Consider, for example, the tracking loop
r
+
P(s)
y
–
k
H(s)
where P ( s ) is the plant, H ( s ) is the sensor dynamics, and k is a scalar gain to
be adjusted. The closed-loop poles are the roots of
q ( s ) = 1 + k P ( s )H ( s )
The root locus technique consists of plotting the closed-loop pole trajectories in
the complex plane as k varies. You can use this plot to identify the gain value
associated with a desired set of closed-loop poles.
The DC motor design example focused on the Bode diagram feature of the SISO
Design Tool. Each of the design options available on the Bode diagram side of
the tool have a counterpart on the root locus side. To demonstrate these
techniques, this example presents an electrohydraulic servomechanism.
The SISO Design Tool’s root locus and Bode diagram design tools provide
complementary perspectives on the same design issues; each perspective offers
insight into the design process. Since the SISO Design Tool displays both root
locus and Bode diagrams, you can also choose to combine elements of both
perspectives in making your design decisions.
4-24
Root Locus Design
Example: Electrohydraulic Servomechanism
A simple version of an electrohydraulic servomechanism model consists of:
• A push-pull amplifier (a pair of electromagnets)
• A sliding spool in a vessel of high pressure hydraulic fluid
• Valve openings in the vessel to allow for fluid to flow
• A central chamber with a piston-driven ram to deliver force to a load
• A symmetrical fluid return vessel
This figure shows a schematic of this servomechanism.
Piston-driven ram
Figure 4-21: An Electrohydraulic Servomechanism
The force on the spool is proportional to the current in the electromagnet coil.
As the spool moves, the valve opens, allowing the high pressure hydraulic fluid
to flow through the chamber. The moving fluid forces the piston to move in the
opposite direction of the spool. Control System Dynamics, by R. N. Clark,
(Cambridge University Press, 1996) derives linearized models for the
electromagnetic amplifier, the valve spool dynamics, and the ram dynamics; it
also provides a detailed description of this type of servomechanism.
4-25
4
Designing Compensators
If you want to use this servomechanism for position control, you can use the
input voltage to the electromagnet to control the ram position. When
measurements of the ram position are available, you can use feedback for the
ram position control, as shown in the figure below.
Reference
Position
+
C(s)
Applied
Voltage
Gservo(s)
Ram
Position
—
Compensator
Plant
Figure 4-22: Feedback Control Structure for an Electrohydraulic
Servomechanism
Your task is to design the compensator, C(s).
Plant Transfer Function
If you have not already done so, type
load ltiexamples
to load a collection of linear models that include Gservo, which is a linearized
plant transfer function for the electrohydraulic position control mechanism.
Typing Gservo at the MATLAB prompt displays the servomechanism (plant)
transfer function.
Gservo
Zero/pole/gain from input "Voltage" to output "Ram position":
40000000
----------------------------s (s+250) (s^2 + 40s + 9e004)
Design Specifications
For this example, you want to design a controller so that the step response of
the closed-loop system meets the following specifications:
• The 2% settling time is less than 0.05 second.
• The maximum overshoot is less than 5%.
4-26
Root Locus Design
The remainder of this section discusses how to use the SISO Design Tool to
design a controller to meet these specifications.
Opening the SISO Tool
Open the SISO Design Tool and import the model by typing
sisotool(Gservo)
at the MATLAB prompt. This opens the SISO Design Tool with the
servomechanism plant imported.
Figure 4-23: SISO Design Tool Showing the Root Locus and Bode Plots for the
Electrohydraulic Servomechanism Plant
4-27
4
Designing Compensators
Zooming
Using the right-click menu in the root locus, select X-Y under Zoom. Hold down
the mouse’s left button and drag the mouse to select a region for zooming. For
this example, reduce the root locus region to about -500 to 500 in both the xand y-axes. This figure illustrates the zooming in process.
Hold down your mouse’s
left button to select a
rectangular region for
zooming in. When you
let go of the button, the
SISO Design Tool replots
the root locus with the
new axis boundaries.
To undo the zoom, select
Zoom Out in the
right-click menu.
Figure 4-24: Zooming in on a Region in the Root Locus Plot
Alternatively, you use the zoom icons on the toolbar:
•
— Zoom in X-Y
•
— Zoom in X
•
— Zoom in Y
•
— Zoom out
As in the DC motor example, open an LTI Viewer by selecting Plant Output
(Step) in the Loop Responses menu under Tools in the menu bar. You now
4-28
Root Locus Design
should have two windows, the SISO Design Tool and the associated LTI Viewer
side by side.
Figure 4-25: SISO Design Tool and Associated LTI Viewer for the Electrohydraulic Servomechanism
The step response plot shows that the rise time is on the order of 2 seconds,
which is much too slow given the system requirements. The following sections
describe how to use frequency design techniques in the SISO Design Tool to
design a compensator that meets the requirements specified in “Design
Specifications” on page 4-26
4-29
4
Designing Compensators
Changing the Compensator Gain
The simplest thing to do is change the compensator gain, which by default is
unity. You can change the gain by grabbing the red squares on the root locus
plot and moving them along the curve. This figure shows the procedure.
Move the red squares to
change the compensator
gain. The SISO Design
Tool calculates the
compensator gain C(s)
and displays it in the
Current Compensator
panel.
Figure 4-26: Changing the Compensator Gain in the Root Locus Plot
Experiment with different gains and view the closed-loop response in the
associated LTI Viewer.
Alternatively, you can change the compensator gain by entering values into the
C(s) field in the Current Compensator panel.
Closed-Loop Response
Change the gain to 20 by editing the text box next to Gain, and pressing the
Enter key. Notice that the locations of the closed-loop poles on the root locus
are recalculated for the new gain set point.
4-30
Root Locus Design
This figure shows the associated closed-loop step response for the gain of 20.
Select Settling Time
under Characteristics
in the LTI Viewer’s
right-click menu to
display the settling for
this response.
Figure 4-27: Step Response with the Settling Time for C(s) = 20
This closed-loop response does not meet the desired settling time requirement
(0.05 seconds or less) and exhibits unwanted ringing. The next section shows
how to design a compensator so that you meet the required specifications.
Adding Poles and Zeros to the Compensator
You may have noticed that increasing the gain makes the system
underdamped. Further increases force the system into instability, so meeting
the design requirements with only a gain in the compensator is not possible.
There are three sets of parameters that specify the compensator: poles, zeros,
and gain. Once you have selected the gain, you can add poles or zeros to the
compensator.
4-31
4
Designing Compensators
Adding Poles to the Compensator
Try adding a complex conjugate compensator pole pair on the root locus plot:
1 Open the right-click menu and select Add and then Complex Pole.
2 Click on the root locus plot region where you would like to add one of the
complex poles.
This figure shows these two steps.
Select Add/Complex Pole in the right-click
menu.
Add the poles by placing the ‘x’ on the Bode
magnitude plot. The SISO Design Tool places
the poles at the location that you mark.
Figure 4-28: Adding a Complex Pair of Poles to the Compensator
Try placing the ‘x’ somewhere to the left of the complex pole pair near the
imaginary axis (the figure above shows a good spot). Once you have added the
complex pair of poles, the LTI Viewer response plots change and both the root
locus and Bode plots display the new poles. This figure shows the SISO Design
4-32
Root Locus Design
Tool with the new poles added. For clarity, you may want to zoom out further,
as was done here.
The Current
Compensator displays
the new complex pair of
poles. If you see NumC
or DenC, widen the GUI
to see the full transfer
function.
The SISO Design Tool
displays the new poles
as a pair of red x’s on
the root locus plot.
Figure 4-29: The Result of Adding a Complex Pair of Poles to the
Compensator
4-33
4
Designing Compensators
Adding Zeros to the Compensator
The procedure for adding zeros to the compensator is exactly the same. Try
adding a pair of complex zeros just to the left of complex closed-loop poles you
just added to the compensator. This figure shows the results.
Figure 4-30: Electrohydraulic Servomechanism Example with Complex Zeros Added
If your step response is unstable, lower the gain by grabbing a red box in the
right-hand plane and moving it into the left-half plane. In this example, the
resulting step response is stable, but it still doesn’t meet the design criteria
since the 2% settling time is greater than 0.05 second.
As you can see, the compensator design process can involve some trial and
error. You can try dragging the compensator poles, compensator zeros, or the
closed-loop poles around the root locus until you meet the design criteria
The next section shows you how to place poles and zeros by specifying their
numerical values. It also presents a solution that meets the design
specifications for the servomechanism example.
4-34
Root Locus Design
Viewing Damping Ratios
If you want to place, for example, a pair of complex poles on your diagram at a
particular damping ratio, select Design Constraints from the right-click menu
in the root locus. This opens the Design Constraints editor.
Check Damping Ratio and specify 0.707 to see lines on the
root locus corresponding to a 0.707 damping ratio.
Figure 4-31: The Design Constraints Editor
Applying damping ratios to the root locus plot results in a pair of lines at the
desired slope, as this figure shows.
Figure 4-32: Root Locus Displaying 0.707 Damping Ratio Lines
4-35
4
Designing Compensators
Try moving the complex pair of poles you’ve added to the design so that they
are on the 0.707 damping ratio line. You can experiment with different
damping ratios to see the effect on the design.
Editing Compensator Pole and Zero Locations
A quick way to change poles and zeros is simply to grab them with your mouse
and move them around the root locus plot region. If you want to specify precise
numerical values, however, you should use the Edit Compensator window to
change the gain value and the pole and zero locations of your compensator.
There are three ways to open the Edit Compensator window from the SISO
Design Tool:
• Select Edit Compensator under the Edit menu on the menu bar.
• Select Edit Compensator in the right-click menu. This option is available in
both the root locus and Bode plot right-click menus.
• Double-click your mouse in the Current Compensator panel.
Whichever method you choose, the following window appears.
Toggle between Zero/Pole Location
and Damping/Natural Frequency
formats.
Use these fields to place poles and
zeros at exact locations.
Use the Gain field to change the
compensator gain.
Figure 4-33: Use the Edit Compensator Window to Add, Delete and Move
Compensator Poles and Zeros
You can use the Edit Compensator window to:
• Edit the compensator gain
• Edit the locations of compensator poles and zeros
• Add compensator poles and zeros
• Delete compensator poles and zeros
4-36
Root Locus Design
For this example, edit the poles to be at – 110 ± 140i and the zeros at
– 70 ± 270i . Set the compensator gain to 23.3.
Your SISO Design Tool now looks like this.
Figure 4-34: SISO Design Tool with the Final Values for the Electrohydraulic
Servomechanism Design Example
4-37
4
Designing Compensators
To see that this design meets the design requirements, take a look at the step
response of the closed-loop system.
Figure 4-35: Closed-Loop Step Response for the Final Design of the
Electrohydraulic Servomechanism Example
The step response looks good. As you can see, the settling time is less than 0.05
second, and the overshoot is less than 5%. You have met the design
specifications.
4-38
Root Locus Design
Exporting the Compensator and Models
Now that you have successfully designed your compensator, you may want to
save your design parameters for future implementation. You can do this by
selecting Export from the File menu on the SISO Design Tool. The window
shown below opens.
Double-click on any cell in the
Export As column to edit the name
for export.
Figure 4-36: SISO Tool Export Window
The variables listed in the Export As List are either previously named by you
(in the Import System Data window) or have default names. To export your
compensator to the workspace:
1 Select Compensator C in the Component List. If you want to change the
export name, double-click in the cell for compensator C.
2 Click on the Export to Workspace button.
If you go to the MATLAB prompt and type
who
the compensator is now in the workspace, in the variable named C.
Type
C
to see that this variable is stored in zpk format.
4-39
4
Designing Compensators
To select multiple components, use the Shift key if they are all adjacent and
the Ctrl key if they are not.
Selecting Export to Disk opens the window shown below.
You can save your models as MAT-files in any directory you want. The default
name for the MAT-file is the name of your original model; you can change the
name to anything you want. If you save multiple components, they are stored
in a single MAT-file.
Storing and Retrieving Intermediate Designs
You can store and retrieve intermediate compensators while you iterate on
your compensator design. To store intermediate designs, select Store under
Compensator in the menu bar of the SISO Design Tool. This window opens.
The default name is UntitledC_1; the suffix increments when you store
additional compensators. You can rename the designs by editing the Store as
field.
4-40
Root Locus Design
To retrieve intermediate designs, select Retrieve under the Compensator
menu. This opens the Compensator Designs window.
Figure 4-37: The Compensator Designs Window
To retrieve a design, select it from the list of names and press Retrieve. The
SISO Design Tool automatically reverts to the selected compensator design.
Note that you can rename the stored compensator by editing the name in the
selected Name cell.
The Compensator Designs window also lists the order of each compensator
design, and, if the compensator is digital, the sample time. The default sample
time value for continuous-time compensators is 0.
You can delete an intermediate design by selecting it and pressing the Delete
button.
4-41
4
Designing Compensators
Functions For Compensator Design
The term control system design refers to the process of selecting feedback gains
that meet design specifications in a closed-loop control system. Most design
methods are iterative, combining parameter selection with analysis,
simulation, and insight into the dynamics of the plant. In addition to the SISO
Design Tool, the Control System Toolbox provides a set of commands that you
can use for a broader range of control applications, including:
• Classical SISO design
• Modern MIMO design techniques such as pole placement and linear
quadratic Gaussian (LQG) methods
Root Locus Design
The following table summarizes the commands for designing compensators
using root locus design techniques.
Function
Description
pzmap
Pole-zero map
rlocus
Evans root locus plot
sgrid
Continuous ω n, ζ grid for root locus plots
sisotool
Root Locus Design GUI
zgrid
Discrete ω n, ζ grid for root locus plots
Pole Placement
The closed-loop pole locations have a direct impact on time response
characteristics such as rise time, settling time, and transient oscillations. Root
locus uses compensator gains to move closed-loop poles to achieve design
specifications for SISO systems. You can, however, use state-space techniques
to assign closed-loop poles. This design technique is known as pole placement,
which differs from root locus in the following ways:
• Using pole placement techniques, you can design dynamic compensators.
• Pole placement techniques are applicable to MIMO systems.
4-42
Functions For Compensator Design
Pole placement requires a state-space model of the system (use ss to convert
other model formats to state space). In continuous time, such models are of the
form
x· = Ax + Bu
y = Cx + Du
where u is the vector of control inputs, x is the state vector, and y is the vector
of measurements.
State-Feedback Gain Selection
Under state feedback u = – Kx , the closed-loop dynamics are given by
x· = ( A – BK ) x
and the closed-loop poles are the eigenvalues of A – BK . Using the place
command, you can compute a gain matrix K that assigns these poles to any
desired locations in the complex plane (provided that ( A, B ) is controllable).
For example, for state matrices A and B, and vector p that contains the desired
locations of the closed loop poles,
K = place(A,B,p);
computes an appropriate gain matrix K.
State Estimator Design
You cannot implement the state-feedback law u = – Kx unless the full state
x is measured. However, you can construct a state estimate ξ such that the
law u = – Kξ retains similar pole assignment and closed-loop properties. You
can achieve this by designing a state estimator (or observer) of the form
·
ξ = Aξ + Bu + L ( y – Cξ – Du )
The estimator poles are the eigenvalues of A – LC , which can be arbitrarily
assigned by proper selection of the estimator gain matrix L , provided that
(C, A) is observable. As a rule of thumb, the estimator dynamics should be
faster than the controller dynamics (eigenvalues of A – BK ).
Use the place command to calculate the L matrix
L = place(A',C',q)
4-43
4
Designing Compensators
where A and C are the state and output matrices, and q is the vector containing
the desired closed-loop poles for the observer.
Replacing x by its estimate ξ in u = – Kx yields the dynamic output-feedback
compensator
·
ξ = A – LC – ( B – LD )K ξ + Ly
u = – Kξ
Note that the resulting closed-loop dynamics are
x· = A – BK BK
e·
0
A – LC
x ,
e
e = x–ξ
Hence, you actually assign all closed-loop poles by independently placing the
eigenvalues of A – BK and A – LC .
Example. Given a continuous-time state-space model
sys_pp = ss(A,B,C,D)
with seven outputs and four inputs, suppose you have designed:
• A state-feedback controller gain K using inputs 1, 2, and 4 of the plant as
control inputs
• A state estimator with gain L using outputs 4, 7, and 1 of the plant as sensors
• Input 3 of the plant as an additional known input
You can then connect the controller and estimator and form the dynamic
compensator using this code.
controls = [1,2,4];
sensors = [4,7,1];
known = [3];
regulator = reg(sys_pp,K,L,sensors,known,controls)
4-44
Functions For Compensator Design
Pole Placement Tools
The Control System Toolbox contains functions to:
• Compute gain matrices K and L that achieve the desired closed-loop pole
locations.
• Form the state estimator and dynamic compensator using these gains.
The following table summarizes the commands for pole placement.
Command
Description
acker
SISO pole placement
estim
Form state estimator given estimator gain
place
MIMO pole placement
reg
Form output-feedback compensator given
state-feedback and estimator gains
The function acker is limited to SISO systems and should only be used for
systems with a small number of states. The function place is a more general
and numerically robust alternative to acker.
Caution Pole placement can be badly conditioned if you choose unrealistic
pole locations. In particular, you should avoid:
• Placing multiple poles at the same location.
• Moving poles that are weakly controllable or observable. This typically
requires high gain, which in turn makes the entire closed-loop
eigenstructure very sensitive to perturbations.
4-45
4
Designing Compensators
Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) Design
Linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control is a modern state-space technique
for designing optimal dynamic regulators. It enables you to trade off regulation
performance and control effort, and to take into account process disturbances
and measurement noise. Like pole placement, LQG design requires a
state-space model of the plant (use ss to convert other model formats to state
space). This section focuses on the continuous-time case (see the reference
pages for dlqr and kalman for details on discrete-time LQG design).
LQG design addresses the following regulation problem.
w
(disturbance)
y
Plant
u
Regulator
y
+
v (noise)
+
The goal is to regulate the output y around zero. The plant is subject to
disturbances w and is driven by controls u . The regulator relies on the noisy
measurements y = y + v to generate these controls. The plant state and
measurement equations are of the form
x· = Ax + Bu + Gw
y = Cx + Du + Hw + v
and both w and v are modeled as white noise.
The LQG regulator consists of an optimal state-feedback gain and a Kalman
state estimator. You can design these two components independently as shown
next.
4-46
Functions For Compensator Design
Optimal State-Feedback Gain
In LQG control, the regulation performance is measured by a quadratic
performance criterion of the form
J(u) =
∞
ò0 { x
T
T
T
Qx + 2x Nu + u Ru } dt
The weighting matrices Q, N, and R are user specified and define the trade-off
between regulation performance (how fast x ( t ) goes to zero) and control effort.
The first design step seeks a state-feedback law u = – Kx that minimizes the
cost function J ( u ) . The minimizing gain matrix K is obtained by solving an
algebraic Riccati equation. This gain is called the LQ-optimal gain.
Syntax. Given the (A,B,C,D) matrices of the system, and the weighting matrices
Q, R, and N, use the lqr command to construct the LQ-optimal gain, K.
K= lqr(A,B,Q,R,N)
If N is omitted, by default its value is 0.
Kalman State Estimator
As in the case of pole placement, the LQ-optimal state feedback u = – Kx is not
implementable without full state measurement. It is possible, however, to
derive a state estimate xˆ such that u = – Kxˆ remains optimal for the
output-feedback problem. This state estimate is generated by the Kalman filter
d ˆ·
x = Axˆ + Bu + L ( y – Cxˆ – Du )
dt
with inputs u (controls) and y (measurements). The noise covariance data
T
E ( ww ) = Q n ,
T
E ( vv ) = R n ,
T
E ( wv ) = N n
determines the Kalman gain L through an algebraic Riccati equation.
The Kalman filter is an optimal estimator when dealing with Gaussian white
noise. Specifically, it minimizes the asymptotic covariance
T
lim E ( ( x – xˆ ) ( x – xˆ ) )
t→∞
4-47
4
Designing Compensators
of the estimation error x – xˆ .
u
Kalman
estimator
y
xˆ
Syntax. Use the kalman function to construct a Kalman filter.
[kest,L,P] = kalman(sys_kf,Qn,Rn,Nn);
returns a state-space model kest of the Kalman estimator given the plant
model sys_kf and the noise covariance data, Qn, Rn, and Nn. The plant model
equations are the following.
x· = Ax + Bu + Gw
y = Cx + Du + Hw + v
where w and v are modeled as white noise. L is the Kalman gain and P the
covariance matrix.
The figure below shows the required dimensions for Qn, Rn, and Nn. If Nn is 0,
you can omit it.
Length (y) Length (w)
Length (w) Length (y)
Qn
Nn
.
*
Rn
Figure 4-38: Required Dimensions for Qn, Rn, and Nn
For a complete example of a Kalman filter implementation, see “Kalman
Filtering” under “Case Studies” online.
4-48
Functions For Compensator Design
LQG Regulator
To form the LQG regulator, simply connect the Kalman filter and LQ-optimal
gain K as shown below.
w
Plant
y
u
u
–K
xˆ
+
Kalman
filter
v
y
+
LQG regulator
This regulator has state-space equations
dˆ
x = A – LC – ( B – LD )K xˆ + Ly
dt
u = – Kxˆ
Syntax. Assuming you have constructed the Kalman filter, kest, and the
compensator, K, use the lqgreg command to create the LQG regulator.
regulator = lqgreg(kest, K);
See the example “LQG Regulation” under “Case Studies” online for a more
complete discussion of construction LQG regulators.
LQG Design Tools
The Control System Toolbox contains functions to perform the three LQG
design steps outlined above. These functions cover both continuous and
4-49
4
Designing Compensators
discrete problems as well as the design of discrete LQG regulators for
continuous plants. The following table summarizes the LQG design commands.
4-50
Command
Description
care
Solve continuous-time algebraic Riccati equations
dare
Solve discrete-time algebraic Riccati equations
dlqr
LQ-optimal gain for discrete systems
kalman
Kalman estimator
kalmd
Discrete Kalman estimator for continuous plant
lqgreg
Form LQG regulator given LQ gain and Kalman
filter
lqr
LQ-optimal gain for continuous systems
lqrd
Discrete LQ gain for continuous plant
lqry
LQ-optimal gain with output weighting
Functions For Compensator Design
Example: LQG Design
As an example of LQG design, consider the regulation problem illustrated
below.
Plant
w
10
--------------s + 10
d +
u+d
100
------------------------------2
s + s + 100
+
y
u
+
F( s)
y
+
n
LQG regulator
Figure 4-39: Simple Regulation Loop
The goal is to regulate the plant output y around zero. The input disturbance
d is low frequency with power spectral density (PSD) concentrated below 10
rad/sec. For LQG design purposes, it is modeled as white noise driving a
low-pass filter with a cutoff at 10 rad/sec, as this picture shows.
w (white noise)
10
--------------s + 10
Shaping filter
d (colored noise)
4-51
4
Designing Compensators
This figure shows the Bode magnitude of the shaping filter.
This data marker verifies
that 10 rad/sec is the
-3 dB point.
Figure 4-40: Bode Magnitude of the Low-Pass Filter
There is some measurement noise n , with noise intensity given by
E ( n 2 ) = 0.01
Use the cost function
J(u) =
∞
ò0 ( 10y 2 + u 2 ) dt
to specify the trade-off between regulation performance and cost of control.
Note that an open-loop state-space model is
x· = Ax + Bu + Bd
y = Cx + n
(state equations)
(measurements)
where ( A, B, C ) is a state-space realization of 100 ⁄ ( s 2 + s + 100 ) .
4-52
Functions For Compensator Design
The following commands design the optimal LQG regulator F ( s ) for this
problem.
sys = ss(tf(100,[1 1 100])) % state-space plant model
% Design LQ-optimal gain K
K = lqry(sys,10,1) % u = –Kx minimizes J(u)
% Separate control input u and disturbance input d
P = sys(:,[1 1]);
% input [u;d], output y
% Design Kalman state estimator Kest.
Kest = kalman(P,1,0.01)
% Form LQG regulator = LQ gain + Kalman filter.
F = lqgreg(Kest,K)
The last command returns a state-space model F of the LQG regulator F ( s ) .
Note that lqry, kalman, and lqgreg perform discrete-time LQG design when
applied to discrete plants.
To validate the design, close the loop with feedback, create and add the
lowpass filter in series with the closed-loop system, and compare the open- and
closed-loop impulse responses by using the impulse function.
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Designing Compensators
% Close loop
clsys = feedback(sys,F,+1)
% Note positive feedback.
% Create the lowpass filter and add it in series with clsys.
s = tf('s');
lpf= 10/(s+10) ;
clsys_fin = lpf*clsys;
% Open- vs. closed-loop impulse responses
impulse(sys,'r--',clsys_fin,'b-')
This figure compares the open- and closed-loop impulse responses for this
example.
Figure 4-41: Comparison of Open- and Closed-Loop Impulse Response for the
LQG Example
4-54
Functions For Compensator Design
Example: LQG Design for Set Point Tracking
The standard LQG problem is to regulate the plant output around zero. The
previous section, “Example: LQG Design,” describes the classical LQG
regulation problem.
You can also apply the LQG design technique to tracking problems, where the
goal is to track a reference input (or set point) to the system. To recast the
regulator as a tracking problem, you must compare the output y to the
reference signal. The goal is then to drive the error between the output and the
reference to zero. A common practice is to add an integrator to the error signal,
e = y − r, to drive it to zero.
This Simulink block diagram shows a tracking problem in aircraft autopilot
design. To open this diagram, type lqrpilot at the MATLAB prompt.
Figure 4-42: A Tracking Loop
Key features of this diagram to note are the following:
• The State Space block in the figure contains the linearized airframe.
• sf_aerodyn is an S-Function block that contains the nonlinear equations for
(θ,φ) = (0,15°)
4-55
4
Designing Compensators
• The error signal between φ and the φ ref is passed through an integrator.
This aids in driving the error to zero.
State-Space Equations for an Airframe
Beginning with the standard state-space equation
x· = Ax + Bu
where
x = [ u, v, w, p, q, r, θ, φ ]
T
the variables u, v, and w are the three velocities with respect to the body frame,
which is shown in the figure below.
v
u
w
Figure 4-43: A Body Coordinate Frame for an Aircraft
The variables θ and φ are roll and pitch, and p, q, and r are the roll, pitch, and
yaw rates, respectively.
4-56
Functions For Compensator Design
The airframe dynamics are nonlinear. The equation below shows the nonlinear
components added to the state space equation.
– g sin θ
g cos θ sin φ
g cos θ cos φ
0
x· = Ax + Bu +
0
0
0
q cos φ – r sin φ
( q sin φ + r cos φ ) ⋅ tan θ
Figure 4-44: Nonlinear Component of the State-Space Equation
To see the numerical values for A and B, type
load lqrpilot
A, B
at the MATLAB prompt.
Trimming
For LQG design purposes, the nonlinear dynamics are trimmed at φ = 15°
and p, q, r, and θ set to zero. Since u, v, and w do not enter into the nonlinear
term in Figure 4-44, this amounts to linearizing around ( φ, θ ) = ( 0, 15° ) with
all remaining states set to zero. The resulting state matrix of the linearized
model is called A15.
4-57
4
Designing Compensators
Problem Definition
The goal to perform a steady coordinated turn, as shown in this figure.
θ=60°
Figure 4-45: An Aircraft Making a 60° Turn
To achieve this goal, you must design a controller that commands a steady turn
by going through a 60° roll. In addition, assume that θ , the pitch angle, is
required to stay as close to zero as possible.
4-58
Functions For Compensator Design
Results
To calculate the LQG gain matrix, K, type
lqrdes
at the MATLAB prompt. Then start the lqrpilot model with the nonlinear
model, sf_aerodyn, selected. This figure shows the response of φ to the 60°
step command.
Figure 4-46: Tracking the Roll Step Command
As you can see, the system tracks the commanded 60° roll in about 60 seconds.
4-59
4
Designing Compensators
Another goal was to keep θ , the pitch angle, relatively small. This figure shows
how well the LQG controller did.
Figure 4-47: Minimizing the Displacement in the Pitch Angle, Theta
Finally, this figure shows the control inputs.
Figure 4-48: The Control Inputs for the LQG Tracking Problem
4-60
Functions For Compensator Design
Try adjusting the Q and R matrices in lqrdes.m and inspecting the control
inputs and the system states, making sure to rerun lqrdes to update the LQG
gain matrix K. Through trial-and-error, you may improve the response time of
this design. Also, compare the linear and nonlinear designs to see the effects of
the nonlinearities on the system performance.
4-61
4
Designing Compensators
4-62
5
Learning More
Demos . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . .
Setting Plot Preferences and Properties
The MathWorks Online . . . . . . .
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5-2
5-2
5-3
5-4
5
Learning More
Demos
To see more Control System Toolbox examples, type
demo
at the MATLAB prompt. This opens the MATLAB Demo window. Select
“Control System Toolbox” under “Toolboxes” to list the available demos.
Alternatively, you can access the demos from MATLAB’s Launch Pad. Select
“Demos” under “Control System Toolbox” to see a list of demos.
Online Help
For a more detailed explanation of any of the topics covered in this book, see
the documentation listed under “Control System Toolbox” in the Help
Navigator.
The Help Navigator supports string searches. You can specify strings and the
online manuals that you want to search. To begin a search, click the Search
tab. There is also an index available; click the Index tab to view it.
Aside from this book, Getting Started with the Control System Toolbox, the
online documentation contains the following topics:
• “Release Notes” — For details on the latest release, including new features
• “Creating and Manipulating Models” — In-depth information on how to
create and manipulate linear models and LTI arrays, which are data objects
that you can use to store collections of linear models in one variable
• “Customization” — A description of the Property and Preference Editors,
which you can use to set plot options, such titles, fonts, units, and grids
• “Design Case Studies” — Worked examples, including Kalman filtering and
MIMO design
• “Reliable Computations” — Numerical stability and accuracy issues
• “GUI Reference” — Complete descriptions of the LTI Viewer and SISO
Design Tool, which are graphical user interfaces (GUI’s) that you can use to
analyze systems and design SISO compensators
• “Function Reference” — A complete guide to all the functions in the Control
System Toolbox. Functions are listed by category and alphabetically.
5-2
Setting Plot Preferences and Properties
The Control System Toolbox provides three graphical user interfaces (GUI’s),
that give you control over the visualization of time and frequency plots
generated by the toolbox:
• Toolbox Preferences
• Tool Preferences
• Plot Properties
Preferences refer to global options that you can save from session to session or
to any LTI Viewer or SISO Design Tool that you open during a single session;
properties are options that apply only to the current window. This section gives
an overview of the three GUI’s; see the online help system for a complete
descriptions
Although you can set plot properties in any response plot, you can use the
Toolbox Preferences Editor to set properties for any response plot the Control
System Toolbox generates. This figure shows the inheritance hierarchy from
toolbox preference to plot properties.
Toolbox Preferences
Persist across sessions
User Preferences
Inheritance
Tool Preferences
Specific to an instance
of a tool
Inheritance
Saved
to disk
Not saved
to disk
SISO
Tool
SISODesign
Design Tool
LTI Viewer
Not saved
to disk
Plot Properties
Specific to an instance
of a plot
Response
Response Plot
Plot
Response
Plot
Response Plot
Response
Response Plot
Plot
Figure 5-1: Preference and Property Inheritance Hierarchy
5-3
5
Learning More
You can activate preference and plot editors by doing the following:
• Toolbox preferences — Select Toolbox Preferences under File in either the
LTI Viewer or the SISO Design Tool.
• Tool preferences — Select SISO Tool Preferences under Edit for the SISO
Design Tool and Viewer Preferences under Edit in the LTI Viewer.
• Plot properties — Double-click on any response plot created by the Control
System Toolbox or select Properties from the right-click menus.
For a complete discussion of how to use property and preference editors, see
“Setting Plot Properties and Preferences” in the online help under “Control
System Toolbox.”
The MathWorks Online
For the very latest information about the Control System Toolbox and other
MathWorks products, point your Web browser to
http://www.mathworks.com
and use your Internet news reader to access the newsgroup
comp.soft-sys.matlab
Many books that use MATLAB and the Control System Toolbox to explain
control engineering concepts are available from different publishers. A booklet
entitled MATLAB Based Books is available from The MathWorks and an
up-to-date list is available on the Web site.
5-4
Index
B
building models
MIMO 2-13
SISO 2-6
E
estimator
gain 4-43
Kalman 4-47
exporting compensators and models 4-39
C
cell array 2-16
changing
units on a plot 4-19
comparing
models in plots 3-24
compensators
editing in SISO Design Tool 4-36
exporting 4-39
feedback (state estimator design) 4-44
concatenation, model 2-15
conventions in our documentation (table) 1-8
covariance
noise 4-47
F
final time. See time response
frequency response 3-20
customizing plots 3-27
plotting 3-24
functions
time and frequency response 3-18
G
gain
estimator, Kalman 4-47
selection 4-24
state-feedback 4-47
D
data markers 3-23
denominator
specification 2-16
design
Kalman estimator 4-47
LQG Tracker, example of 4-55
LQG, description of 4-46
LQG, example of 4-51
LQG, syntax 4-49
pole placement 4-42
regulators 4-49
root locus 4-42
state estimator 4-43
state estimator, Kalman 4-47
H
Help Navigator 5-2
I
input 2-3
input point block 3-35
See also Simulink LTI Viewer
installation 1-3
K
Kalman estimator
continuous 4-47
I-1
Index
gain 4-47
steady-state 4-47
Kalmanfilter. See Kalman estimator
L
linear models
comparing multiple models in plots 3-24
exporting 4-39
frequency response. See frequency response
model order reduction 2-26
time response. See time response
LQG (linear quadratic-gaussian) method
continuous LQ regulator 4-47
design See design, LQG
gain,optimal state-feedback 4-47
Kalman state estimator 4-47
LQ-optimal gain 4-47
regulator,designing 4-53
regulator,forming 4-49
weighting matrices 4-47
LTI Viewer 3-4
adding plot types 3-13
changing models 3-17
changing plot types 3-11
command line initializing 3-14
comparing multiple models 3-14
importing models 3-5
models, importing 3-5
opening 3-5
plot options, rise time 3-8
plot options, settling time 3-15
right-click menus 3-6
Simulink models. See Simulink LTI Viewer
I-2
M
markers, data 3-23
MathWorks web site 5-4
MIMO 3-20
Model Inputs and Outputs block set 3-32
model order reduction 2-26
N
noise
covariance 4-47
white 3-18
numerator
specification 2-16
O
online help 5-2
operations on LTI models
concatenation 2-15
output 2-3
output point block 3-35
See also Simulink LTI Viewer
overshoot 3-18
P
plotting
changing units 4-19
customizing plots 3-27
frequency response. See frequency response
multiple systems 3-24
right-click menus 3-21
time responses 3-18
pole placement 4-42
conditioning 4-45
Index
R
reduced-order models 2-26
regulation 4-46, 4-52
performance 4-47
related products 1-6
Riccati equation 4-47
right-click menus
LTI Viewer 3-6
plot responses 3-21
rise time 3-18
root locus
compensator gain 4-30
designing 4-42
root locus design 4-24
functions for 4-42
S
settling time 3-18
Simulink LTI Viewer 3-30, 3-32
analysis models
exporting 3-42
specifying 3-35
opening 3-32
operating conditions, setting 3-43
specifying models for 3-32
SISO Design Tool 4-3
adding a lead network 4-14
adding a notch filter 4-20
adding an integrator 4-12
adding poles and zeros 4-31
changing the compensator gain, Bode
magnitude 4-8
changing the compensator gain, root locus
4-30
changing the feedback structure 4-6
compensators, editing 4-36
importing models 4-5
opening 4-3
root locus design 4-24
state
estimator 4-43
estimator, Kalman 4-47
vector 2-3
state estimator design
regulators/compensators 4-44
state-space models 2-3
steady state error 3-18
T
time response 3-18
customizing plots 3-27
final time 3-20
MIMO 3-20
plotting 3-24
time range 3-20
to white noise 3-18
vector of time samples 3-20
transfer functions 2-3
MIMO 2-15
typographic conventions 1-8
U
units,changing on a plot 4-19
W
white noise 3-18
See also noise
I-3
Index
Z
zero-pole-gain (ZPK) models 2-3
I-4
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