User Guide

User Guide
MANJARO LINUX 0.8.12
USER GUIDE
THE MANJARO DEVELOPMENT TEAM
Copyright © 2015 the Manjaro Development Team.
Licensed under the Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Licence (the “Licence”); you may not use this
file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the Licence at:
https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/legalcode
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the Licence is
distributed on an “as is” basis, without warranties or conditions of any kind, either express or implied. See
the Licence for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the Licence.
The source code for this documentation can be downloaded from:
https://github.com/manjaro/manjaro-user-guide/
user guide
The Manjaro Development Team
Core Team
Alexandre A. Arnt Developer
Guillaume Benoit Server Manager, Developer, Packager
Ramon Buldó Developer, Packager
Alexandru Ianu Systems Integrator, Packager
Łukasz Matysiak Developer
Rob McCathie Systems Integrator, Packager
Wlad Meixner Web Developer, Web Consultant
Mateusz Mikolajczyk Developer
Demiray Muhterem Manjaro KDE Edition Maintainer, Turkish IRC
and web support, Manjaro Artwork
Philip Müller Project Leader, Project Management and Coordination,
Mirrors Manager, Packager, Developer, Web Developer
Roland Singer Founder, Designer, Developer, Web Developer, Packager
Artwork
Lane Wiscombe (anex) Manjaro Artwork, MATE Community Edition
Maintainer
OpenRC Team
Artoo Packaging, Porting, Infrastructure
Aaditya Bagga Documentation, Testing, ISOs
Community and Support
Ringo de Kroon Community Support and IRC Manager
dicktater Community Global Moderator
Esclapion LXQt Community Edition Maintainer, Community Support
excalibur1234 Community Support
Jonathan Community Global Moderator
shariebeth Community Global Moderator
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manjaro linux 0.8.12
Documentation
Jonathon Fernyhough Editor of the User Guide 0.8.9-0.8.12, Community Moderation
Sabras Wiki
Alumni
Carl Duff Community, Documentation and Wiki Management, Scripting and Configuration
Cumali Cinnamon and Gnome Community Editions Maintainer
Dan S. Openbox Editions Maintainer
Handy Global Moderator, Wiki Contributor, Community Support
Joshua Strot Developer, Graphics Developer
Acknowledgements
The awesome community on forum.manjaro.org and #manjaro
user guide
A note about Manjaro and Arch
Manjaro is based on another distribution called Arch Linux. As
such, it is also able to draw software packages from the communitymaintained Arch User Repository (AUR). However, please note that
Manjaro is not Arch, and any enquiries about the Manjaro operating
system should be directed towards the Manjaro forums and Internet
Relay Chat (IRC) channels alone. For example, although Ubuntu is
derived from Debian - and therefore shares some similarities with its
parent - there are still substantial differences between these operating
systems and how they work. Such is the case with Manjaro, which
is far from just being an “easy to install” or “pre-configured” Arch
operating system. Here are some of the key differences between the
Manjaro and Arch operating systems:
• Manjaro is developed independently from Arch, and by a completely different team.
• Manjaro is designed to be accessible to newcomers, while Arch is
aimed at experienced users.
• Manjaro draws software from its own independent repositories.
These repositories also contain software packages not provided by
Arch.
• Manjaro provides its own distribution-specific tools such as the
Manjaro Hardware Detection (MHWD) utility, and the Manjaro
Settings Manager (MSM).
• Manjaro has numerous subtle differences in how it works when
compared to Arch.
To reiterate, although Manjaro is indeed an Arch-derivative, it is not
Arch!
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Contents
Introduction
11
I Getting Manjaro
Downloading Manjaro
13
15
Checking a downloaded disc image for errors
Writing a disc image
II
Installing Manjaro
19
23
29
Booting the Live environment
31
Using the graphical automatic installer
33
Using the graphical installer - experienced users
Installing on a UEFI system
Advanced installation methods
47
57
41
10
III
manjaro linux 0.8.12
Welcome to Manjaro
The Manjaro desktop
Getting help
95
63
69
Maintaining your system
Index
61
75
Introduction
About Manjaro
Manjaro is a user-friendly GNU/Linux distribution based on the independently developed Arch Linux. Within the Linux community,
Arch itself is renowned for being an exceptionally fast, powerful,
and lightweight distribution that provides access to the very latest
cutting-edge software. However, Arch is also traditionally aimed at
more experienced or technically-minded users. As such, it is generally considered to be beyond the reach of many, especially those who
lack the technical expertise (or persistence) required to use it.
Developed in Austria, France, and Germany, Manjaro aims to
provide all of the benefits of Arch Linux combined with a focus on
user-friendliness and accessibility. Available in both 32- and 64-bit
versions, Manjaro is suitable for newcomers as well as experienced
Linux users. For newcomers, a user-friendly installer is provided, and
the system itself is designed to work fully “straight out of the box”
with features including:
• Pre-installed desktop environments
• Pre-installed graphical applications to easily install software and
update your system
• Pre-installed codecs to play multimedia files,
• Pre-installed access to the latest games
Features
Manjaro shares many of the same features as Arch, including:
• Speed, power, and efficiency
• Access to the very latest cutting- and bleeding-edge software
• A “rolling release” development model that provides the most
up-to-date system possible without the need to regularly install a
new operating system release
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manjaro linux 0.8.12
• Access to the Arch User Repositories
• The versatility to be shaped and moulded in every respect to suit
personal taste and preference.
However, Manjaro boasts a few extra features of its own, including:
• A simplified, user-friendly installation process
• Automatic detection of your computer’s hardware (e.g. graphics
cards)
• Automatic installation of the necessary software (e.g. graphics
drivers) for your system
• Dedicated software repositories that deliver fully tested and stable
software packages
• Support for the easy installation and use of multiple kernels
1: Welcome to Manjaro!
Part I
Getting Manjaro
Downloading Manjaro
Manjaro editions
There are three official editions of Manjaro available for download,
as well as a number of unofficial ’community’ editions. Two of the
three official editions come complete with a pre-installed desktop
environment and a selection of popular software applications, and
either of these would be a great choice for anyone who wants to try
out Manjaro on a Live-CD without having to install it first. If you
have the time it’s worth taking each for a test run to see which you
like best!
Xfce The Xfce desktop environment is designed to be lightweight
while retaining a familiar desktop interface. If you’re not sure
which edition to choose, this one is a good bet. Xfce edition disc
image files start with manjaro-xfce.
KDE This version includes the K Desktop Environment. It offers a
highly integrated environment with plenty of functionality and
options. It is also highly customisable and offers a slightly different feel than the other editions. KDE edition disc image files start
with manjaro-kde.
Net This edition of Manjaro provides only a base installation, stripped
of all but the most basic pre-installed software. Starting from the
command line, this is suitable for more experienced users who
may want to build their own Manjaro system from the ground up.
A disc image for a Net edition will always begin with manjaronet.
Each edition of Manjaro is available as 32- and 64-bit versions. Disc
images available for 32-bit systems will end in i686.iso and images
for 64-bit systems will end in x86_64.iso. A 64-bit operating system
won’t run on a 32-bit system, and although a 32-bit operating system
will run on a 64-bit system it won’t be able to make full use of its
resources. Try to make sure that you download the appropriate disc
image for your system!
To download Manjaro go to this
web address:http://manjaro.org/
get-manjaro/
When you purchase retail software it
generally comes on a disc, whether
a CD or a DVD. A ’Live-CD’ has
a version of the operating system
that will run without needing to be
installed. This is a feature of most
GNU/Linux and BSD-based operating
systems.
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manjaro linux 0.8.12
Xfce edition
KDE edition
Net edition
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Manjaro community editions
In addition to the three main Manjaro editions, there are a number
of editions that have certain software or desktop environments preinstalled. This user manual assumes you are using the Xfce version,
and all screenshots will be from this. However, the installation process and other software works in exactly the same way!
The edition names should give a clear indication of the desktop
environment they install. Unless you have a strong preference, we
suggest you stick with the Xfce version. You can of course change
later, or install other desktop environments too!
There are several main community editions: Cinnamon, GNOME,
MATE, Netbook, Openbox, Openbox OpenRC, and PekWM.
Downloading a disc image
Every release of Manjaro is available for download, whether the
current stable release, upcoming test builds, or previous versions
for historical interest. When you visit the download page you will
find a link to each of the three main editions in both 32- and 64-bit
versions, as well as a checksum file for each. A checksum can be used
to check the integrity of the disc image file you download to make
sure it hasn’t been corrupted during the download.
Stable releases of Manjaro are intended to be used by the general
public, so this will be the appropriate choice for the majority of
users. The current Manjaro release can always be downloaded
from the Get Manjaro page.1
Each of the stable releases, starting from 0.8.0, can also be
downloaded from the Stable Release section of the Sourceforge
website.2
Test builds of Manjaro are intended to be used by developers and
testers to identify any bugs or issues during the development process. These are not suitable for use as a main operating system
by the general public. However, should you wish to try out a test
build (preferably in a virtual machine), each current release can be
downloaded from the from the Test Build section of the Sourceforge website.3
1
http://manjaro.org/get-manjaro/
2
http://sourceforge.net/projects/
manjarolinux/files/release/
3
http://sourceforge.net/projects/
manjarodev/files/testbuild/
Checking a downloaded disc image for errors
Before burning your downloaded disc image (or using it as a virtual
disc in VirtualBox4 ) we strongly recommend that you first check that
it hasn’t been corrupted. The potential result of not checking first,
especially if you want to install Manjaro as your main operating system, should be obvious. In the best case, the installation will fail. In
the worst case a corrupted image will result in a corrupted installation.
To verify the integrity of the disc image you have to download
the appropriate checksum file. This will be available at the same
place where you downloaded the disc image file. For example, the
file manjaro-0.8.12-sha1sum.txt contains checksum hashes for all the
available disc image files and will have content similar to this:
831df1a4e06893de7663a159f5f22ddcfc386cc4
89240f1527d8ef8c8f8a57527fb64632a1160a16
6f0f26bd2a909343846c1acc8dddc3e128b6dbc4
602758c12061221566a823fa6886537f293be545
4dac7697b8c1f4ccc508d8e2ba52ad898d18aba7
d3220e2c74f9082e0e8b366b9ffd240bfceebde0
4
https://www.virtualbox.org/
manjaro-kde-0.8.10-i686.iso
manjaro-kde-0.8.10-x86_64.iso
manjaro-net-0.8.10-i686.iso
manjaro-net-0.8.10-x86_64.iso
manjaro-xfce-0.8.10-i686.iso
manjaro-xfce-0.8.10-x86_64.iso
MD5 and SHA-1
You may have seen there are two checksum files. One ends -sha1sum.txt,
the other ends -md5sum.txt. MD5 and SHA are two types of hashing
algorithms; the ’sha’ part of the checksum file name stands for Secure Hash Algorithm. These algorithms are used to generate a hash
code unique to the disc image file. The checksum file itself is just a
text document that contains hash codes that should match the code
generated by the MD5 or SHA-1 algorithm. Copies of the file can be
checked to make sure they are exactly the same - if the file is changed
in any way, either intentionally or by corruption, the code generated
will be different.
Whilst MD5 is commonly used, SHA-1 is newer and more secure
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manjaro linux 0.8.12
and is beginning to replace MD5. For the purpose of checking the integrity of the downloaded file MD5 is “good enough” but SHA-1 is a
better solution. The checking process is the same for both algorithms.
We recommend you use SHA-1. For more about hashing algorithms
Wikipedia has lots of information.5
If the code generated from the disc image matches that contained
in the checksum file, then the disc image file is fine. If the two codes
don’t match then it means that the disc image file has changed in
some way, most likely due to being corrupted. You can think of it like
someone using a password to identify who they are: if they provide
the wrong password, then something is probably wrong.
From this point on we’ll assume you are using the file manjaro0.8.12-sha1sum.txt.
Checking in Linux
Automatic verification
5
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Secure_Hash_Algorithm
Test builds have a slightly different
arrangement. Instead of a single file
with all checksums, each disc image file
has its own associated checksum file. If
you’re running the test build I’m sure
you can work it out!
The program sha1sum can automatically compare the checksum of
the disc image you downloaded against the value in the text file. The
process is very straightforward, but the end result might look a little
worrying!
For this example, I first open a terminal and change to the directory where I downloaded the disc image file and checksum file. I use
the command ls to check which files are present:
jonathon@box:~$ cd download
jonathon@box:~/download$ ls
manjaro-0.8.12-sha1sum.txt manjaro-xfce-0.8.12-x86_64.iso
As you can see I have downloaded the 64-bit Xfce edition. Next, I run
the sha1sum program to check against the values in the checksum
file:
jonathon@box:~/download$ sha1sum -c manjaro-0.8.12-sha1sum.txt
The next set of lines show the result of the checks. While the first
few lines look worrying this is to be expected - the program can’t
check disc image files that aren’t there! The second to last line is the
important one. It shows that sha1sum has successfully verified the
disc image I downloaded against the checksum value in the file.
sha1sum: manjaro-kde-0.8.12-i686.iso: No such file or directory
manjaro-kde-0.8.12-i686.iso: FAILED open or read
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sha1sum: manjaro-kde-0.8.12-x86_64.iso: No such file or directory
manjaro-kde-0.8.12-x86_64.iso: FAILED open or read
sha1sum: manjaro-net-0.8.12-i686.iso: No such file or directory
manjaro-net-0.8.12-i686.iso: FAILED open or read
sha1sum: manjaro-net-0.8.12-x86_64.iso: No such file or directory
manjaro-net-0.8.12-x86_64.iso: FAILED open or read
sha1sum: manjaro-xfce-0.8.12-i686.iso: No such file or directory
manjaro-xfce-0.8.12-i686.iso: FAILED open or read
sha1sum: manjaro-xfce-0.8.12-x86_64.iso: OK
sha1sum: WARNING: 7 listed files could not be read
Manual verification
To manually check the integrity of your downloaded file, first open
the downloaded manjaro-0.8.12-sha1sum.txt checksum file using a
text editor such as Gedit. Once the checksum file has been opened,
and the codes are visible, open up your terminal and change to the
directory where your downloaded disc image is stored.
1: Verifying the checksum displayed in gedit against the
output of sha1sum
For example, if your disc image file is located in a directory named
download, you would first change to that directory:
jonathon@box:~$ cd download
Then you can generate an SHA-1 hash code for the disc image using:
jonathon@box:~/download$ sha1sum manjaro-xfce-0.8.12-x86_64.iso
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manjaro linux 0.8.12
This command generates a hash code for the 64-bit Manjaro Xfce
0.8.12 disc image which can then be manually compared to the code
contained in the checksum file.
Checking in Microsoft Windows
Unlike Linux, Microsoft Windows does not have any suitable built-in
tools so you will need to download and install a checksum utility
application. A web search will turn up several examples of free software, or you can look on the Download.com website.6 Another free
checksum utility which has positive reviews is Raymond’s MD5
& SHA Checksum Utility.7 This is the program we will use in the
following example.
6
http://download.cnet.com/
7
http://raylin.
wordpress.com/downloads/
md5-sha-1-checksum-utility/
2: Verifying the checksum in
Microsoft Windows using Raymond’s MD5 & SHA Checksum
Utility.
Once you have downloaded the checksum utility, the checking
process is very straightforward. Simply Browse to the downloaded
disc image, select it, and click Open. The program will then calculate the checksums for the disc image file. To verify the checksum is
correct, open the manjaro-0.8.12-sha1sum.txt in a text editor such as
Notepad, copy the checksum for the disc image file you have downloaded, and paste it into the verification box. Then click Verify. If
there are no problems with the disc image file the program will inform you that the hash matched.
To speed up the process it’s probably
a good idea to deselect the hashes you
are not verifying.
Writing a disc image
A disc image is not a copy-and-paste duplication of files: it’s a bitfor-bit copy of the raw data that makes up the files and folders of
that disc. This is why just copying a disc image file to a disc (or USB
flashdrive) to begin installing won’t work: you’ll need to use a disc
burning or image writing application to translate that raw data into
the files and folders.
Once converted, the files can be used to run Manjaro in Live-CD
mode without having to install it to your system, and/or install Manjaro on your system. It’s important to note Manjaro will not have full
functionality when run in Live-CD mode. For example, you will not
be able to save any changes to the system, install updates or add new
applications.
Due to the amount of software included on the full edition disc
images you may need to use a DVD instead of a CD. Check the following table as a guide if you’re not sure:
Edition
KDE
Xfce
Net
Filename
manjaro-kde-0.8.12-i686.iso
manjaro-kde-0.8.12-x86_64.iso
manjaro-xfce-0.8.12-i686.iso
manjaro-xfce-0.8.12-x86_64.iso
manjaro-net-0.8.12-i686.iso
manjaro-net-0.8.12-x86_64.iso
Size
1.5GB
1.6GB
1.3GB
1.4GB
540MB
670MB
Media
DVD
There is an exception to this rule. If you
intend on installing Manjaro in a virtual
machine environment using Oracle’s
VirtualBox, then there will be no need
to burn the image as VirtualBox will
be able to read from the disc image file
directly as a virtual disc.
Table 1: Manjaro Edition disc
image file sizes
DVD
CD
Many people routinely use a DVD rather than a CD even for the
smallest disc image files. Not only is a DVD faster to burn but they
allow higher data access rates so the Live-CD loads faster and the
installation completes sooner.
However, with the increasing capacity and decreasing cost of USB
flash media this presents an even more attractive method than the
traditional burning process; it is far faster and more flexible than
using optical media. Both CD/DVD burning and USB flash media
installation methods are covered in this guide.
If your system will boot from a USB
device, and you have one of sufficient
capacity that you can erase, we recommend the use of a USB flash drive over
traditional CD/DVD media.
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manjaro linux 0.8.12
Burning to a CD/DVD in Linux
If not already installed, several different software burning applications should be available for installation from your distribution’s
Software Center / Software Manager / Package Manager / repositories. Popular burners include XFBurn, K3b, and Brasero. Which
one you choose is entirely down to personal choice, though your
operating system will usually install one suitable for your desktop
environment. To simplify things a little, the following steps for burning your downloaded Manjaro disc image use Brasero.
Xfce environments tend to include
XFBurn. KDE environments tend to
include K3b. GNOME environments
tend to include Brasero.
Burning using Brasero
1. Insert a blank CD/DVD.
2. Start the Brasero software burner.
3. Click the Burn Image - Burn an existing CD/DVD image to disc
button to open the Image Burning Setup window.
It’s a good idea to use rewriteable disc
(e.g. CD-RW or DVD-RW). Although
slightly more expensive individually
than a write-once disc you can reuse the
disc again and again, for example when
the next version of Manjaro is released!
4. Click the button beneath the title Select a disc image to write to
open up your file manager. Locate and double-click the downloaded disc image file to load it. Upon automatically returning to
the Image Burning Setup window, note that the disc image file is
now listed as the disc image to write.
5. The blank CD/DVD you inserted should be automatically listed underneath the title Select a disc to write to. If not, click the
button to select it manually.
6. Click the properties button to open the properties window, and
then click the button beneath the title Burning Speed. We strongly
recommend you select the slowest speed available. Once selected,
click the Close button.
7. Click the Burn button to start the burning process. If necessary,
follow any on-screen instructions provided.
Burning to a CD/DVD in Microsoft Windows
Newer versions of Microsoft Windows (Windows 7 and later) include
a disc image burner. If you do not have a newer version of Microsoft
Windows you will need to download one of the many free disc burning software utilities.
Burning using Windows Disc Image Burner
Selecting the disc image file and clicking on Burn disc image, or
simply double-clicking on the file itself, will start the Windows Disc
We strongly recommend you select the
slowest speed available when burning
to disc in order minimise the possibility
of corruption during the burning
process.
It’s also a good idea to avoid using
any applications which make intensive
use of system resources while burning,
and in particular avoid heavy disc
access. If the burner software can’t read
the disc image file quickly enough the
burning process can be interrupted.
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25
Image Burner program. This makes the process of burning to a disc
very straightforward:
1. Insert a blank CD/DVD into your disc drive.
2. Start Windows Disc Image Burner.
For more information about this
program see: http://windows.
microsoft.com/en-gb/windows7/
burn-a-cd-or-dvd-from-an-iso-file
3. Click Burn.
1: Windows Disc Image Burner
in Microsoft Windows 7
Burning using a third-party application
For versions of Microsoft Windows earlier than Windows 7 (e.g.
Windows XP) you will need to download and install third-party disc
burning software. There are many free examples available that will
be found by a web search, but here are some of the most popular:
Name
Imgburn
CDBurnerXP
InfraRecorder
Website
http://imgburn.com/
http://cdburnerxp.se/en/
http://infrarecorder.org/
Video tutorial
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XihCQgmeGV4
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LxYkFdwn1qI
The burning process for each of these applications is similar, with
small differences in user interface. The websites listed above will
provide information about features and screenshots of the applications themselves. For a little more information about each of these
applications, an overview of each is available in the CD/DVD Burning Article on the TechSupportAlert website.8 Alternative burning
software may also be found on the Download.com website,9 although
Table 2: Third-party disc burning software for Microsoft
Windows
8
http://www.techsupportalert.com/
best-free-cd-dvd-burning-software.
htm
9
http://download.cnet.com/
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manjaro linux 0.8.12
you will have to filter the search results to view only free applications. It will also be worthwhile to take the time to read any reviews
provided for your choice(s).
Writing to a USB flash drive in Linux
To take advantage of the faster access times and much quieter nature
of a USB flash drive, there are a number of methods of writing the
disc image file. One of the easiest is to use ImageWriter.
ImageWriter should be available for installation from your distribution’s Software Center / Software Manager / Package Manager /
repositories. Once Imagewriter has been downloaded and installed,
ensure that your USB flash drive is plugged in before starting the
application.
The process of using ImageWriter is very straightforward:
2: ImageWriter
https://en.opensuse.org/
SDB:Live_USB_stick
1. Click on the centre icon.
2. Navigate to where you downloaded the disc image file, and select
it.
3. Ensure that your USB flash drive has been selected from the dropdown menu.
4. Click on the Write button.
5. Once it has finished, reboot your system, making sure to select the
USB flash drive as the boot device.
Writing to a USB flash drive in Microsoft Windows
We recommend you use ImageWriter For Windows, which is a free
application designed to write disc images to USB flash drives as
well as Compact Flash (CF) and Secure Digital (SD) cards. Once
Imagewriter has been downloaded and installed, ensure that your
USB flash drive is plugged in before starting it.
If you find that ImageWriter is unable to start, you might have to
download Microsoft’s .NET 2.0 Runtime Framework. This is needed
by some software programs though it is normally already installed
on your Windows PC.
In addition, if an error message is displayed upon starting the
process on Windows Vista and later, you might need to open ImageWriter by first right-clicking on the icon, and then selecting the Run
as Administrator option.
For more detailed information about the software it’s worth reading the website, though the process is very straightforward:
3: Windows ImageWriter
http://sourceforge.net/
projects/win32diskimager/
Make sure that Windows Explorer is
closed before attempting to write the
disc image, otherwise it may block
access to the USB flash drive. If this
happens the following error message
will be displayed: system.componentModel.Win32Exception: Access is
denied.
user guide
1. Click the select button (folder icon).
2. Navigate to and select the Manjaro disc image.
3. Select your USB flash drive from the Device menu.
4. Click the Write button.
5. Once it has finished, reboot your system, making sure to select the
USB flash drive as the boot device.
If for some reason the writing process is unsuccessful the ImageWriter authors recommend that you use a partitioning tool to reformat the USB flash drive as a RAW partition type, then try again.
Unfortunately this process is outside the scope of this guide.
Re-partitioning your USB stick as a
RAW data type will result in all data
present being destroyed, and will
render it unusable for other purposes
until reformatted back to its original
partition type
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Part II
Installing Manjaro
Booting the Live environment
Booting the Live environment, whether from CD/DVD or USB flash
drive, will give you an overview of the Manjaro Linux environment
and let you test how well it will run on your machine. This is very
useful to check before committing to install a new operating system!
For best results you should be connected to the Internet. If you
have a wired Ethernet connection, and plug in before booting the
Live environment, Manjaro will automatically set up a connection.
If you have a wireless (Wi-Fi) connection you can set up the wireless
network once you have reached the Manjaro desktop.
The method of selecting the boot device varies considerably across
machines. You may need to hold one key, for example <Esc>, <Del>,
or <F10>, to select the boot device. Or, you may need to set the option in your BIOS. If you’re not sure, your machine’s user guide will
have detail of the method you need, alternatively a web search will
also quickly turn up the answer.
The boot menu
When you boot from your installation media (CD/DVD or USB flash
drive) you should be presented with the Manjaro boot screen. This
screen provides several options to help get the best experience from
the Live environment.
It is possible at this stage to set your preferred language and keyboard layout before using Manjaro. This means that you will be able
to use and install Manjaro in your native language straight away.
1: Boot menu
Setting your language and keyboard layout
First, set your preferred language by pressing the <F2> key. The options available can be highlighted for selection by using the arrow
keys on your keyboard. In this instance, English (UK) has been highlighted for the user.
Once selected, press <Enter> to confirm and to be taken back to
the boot menu.
2: Language selection
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Selecting the language will also set a keyboard layout appropriate
to that language, for example it will select QWERTY for English and
AZERTY for French. If this doesn’t match your layout, or perhaps
you have a US layout but speak German, press <F2> again, but this
time select Keyboard. Pick the language that matches your keyboard
layout, and press <Enter> to confirm and return to the boot menu.
Choosing the drivers
There are two main sets of drivers that can be used by Manjaro: Free
and non-Free. The differences are not minor, and your choice can
depend on your computer hardware.
Free drivers are open-source, like Manjaro itself, written and updated by a large community. For older hardware and that with
Intel-based integrated graphics, this is the best choice.
If in doubt, choose Free drivers. If you
want to play games, choose non-Free
drivers.
Non-Free drivers are closed-source, written and updated only by
the hardware manufacturers. This is generally the best choice for
newer hardware with AMD or Nvidia dedicated graphics. At the
time of writing, non-Free drivers are the best choice for Nvidia
graphics and AMD graphics newer than the 8000-series. For older
AMD and Nvidia hardware the Free drivers work very well. For
AMD graphics older than the HD5000-series Free drivers are the
best choice.
To start Manjaro with Free drivers, choose Start Manjaro Linux from
the boot menu.
To start Manjaro with non-Free drivers, choose Start (non-free
drivers) from the boot menu.
3: Start Manjaro Linux
Welcome to Manjaro
Once you select Start, Manjaro will boot up. You may see a lot of
scrolling text - don’t worry, this shows the system is working! After
a little while, assuming your hardware is compatible, you will be
presented with a Live desktop environment and a nice friendly welcome screen.
The welcome screen gives some links to common tasks, documentation (like the thing you’re reading now!) and the support channels.
There are also links to the installation programs. Don’t worry if you
close the welcome screen: you can load it again, and all the links are
also present elsewhere in the menus.
4: Welcome to Manjaro!
Using the graphical automatic installer
This guide is intended for those with limited technical knowledge
and experience. With these steps it won’t be necessary to manually
partition your computer’s hard disc or to manually edit any configuration files. However, the overall flexibility of the process is not as
great as the advanced installation process.
Where possible, make sure you are connected to the internet before booting from your installation media into the Live environment.
If you have a hard-wired connection via an Ethernet cable, then Manjaro will automatically connect to the internet without you having
to do anything. Otherwise, once you have booted into Manjaro’s
desktop, you will need to select and then connect to your wireless
network.
For a constantly-updated version, check out the wiki:
User guide: http://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php?title=Graphical_
Installation_Guide_for_Beginners_0.8.12
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Choose your language
1: If you selected your preferred
language before booting then it
should already be selected for
you.
Once selected, click Forward to
proceed to the next step.
Choose your location
2: The locations available to
choose will depend upon the
language you selected in the
previous step.
Once selected, click Forward to
proceed to the next step.
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Check the minimum requirements
3: Your computer will automatically be checked to make
sure that Manjaro can safely
be installed. This will include
checking that enough storage
space is available.
Once satisfied that your system
meets the minimum requirements necessary, click Forward
to proceed to the next step.
Although the absolute minimum
allowed is 6 Gigabytes, at least 15 Gigabytes of free space is recommended.
Set your timezone
While it’s not necessary to have an
active internet connection to install
Manjaro it’s highly recommended.
4: To set your timezone, either
click on the map or pick from
the menus. Zone is the continent you live on. Region is
the city closest to where you
live. We recommend keeping
Network Time Protocol synchronisation enabled so your
clock will never be wrong!
This relies on an active internet
connection, however.
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Choose your keyboard layout
5: Just because you live in a certain location that doesn’t mean
you have to use the keyboard
layout native to it. This screen
allows you to choose your keyboard layout and variant such
as ’Dvorak’ or one with ’dead
keys’ for extended punctuation.
To choose your desired layout
simply click first on a Layout,
then on a Variant. Variants
shown will depend on the
layout chosen.
Once satisfied that these details
are correct, click Forward to
proceed to the next step.
Set the installation type
6: To proceed with the ’automatic’ (and very easy) installation method make sure that the
Erase disc and install Manjaro
(automatic) option has been
selected. Be aware that this
will wipe the disc you choose
in the next step and erase all
its data.
Once complete, click Forward
to proceed to the next step.
It is generally recommended that
you Set your Home in a different
partition/volume. This keeps your
documents separate from the operating
system files.
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Choose your disk
7: If you have more than one
hard drive on your computer,
then you will need to decide
which one to wipe so you can
install Manjaro.
Once selected, click Install
Now! to proceed to the next
step.
Add your user account
8: Now it’s time to personalise
your installation! Enter your
real name, a name for your
computer (just enter ’manjaro’
if you can’t think of one), and
your username. Your username will be the name of your
personal account in Manjaro.
You will also need to enter your
intended password twice. Remember that the use of upper
and lower case letters matters
(e.g. ’abc123’ is not the same as
’ABC123’).
All done! Once satisfied that
these details are correct, click
Forward to view the installation
process.
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Installation...
9: The automatic installation
process is well underway. While
you wait for it to complete,
useful information about Manjaro and its community will be
displayed.
...complete!
10: Once the installation has
finished you will be asked
if you want to restart your
system. Select Yes to reboot
immediately, or No to close the
installer and continue using the
Manjaro Live environment.
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Boot your new operating system
11: When you reboot, if you
accidentally boot from the Live
CD or USB drive you used to
install Manjaro, you can choose
Boot from Hard Disk and press
<Enter>.
Log in
12: Once Manjaro has booted
enter your username and password and enjoy your fresh
Manjaro system!
If you like Manjaro, you might
consider joining the Manjaro
community on its forums or
IRC channel. We look forward
to meeting you!
Using the graphical installer - experienced users
This guide is intended for those with sufficient technical knowledge
to manually create their own partitions. As such, this guide focuses
on providing an example of how to use the ’Advanced’ installation
method in general, rather than outlining the entire installation process, or listing all the popular partition schemes that may be used.
This guide also assumes you have read the Automatic installation
guide steps 1-5 as these are exactly the same.
Where possible, make sure you are connected to the internet before booting from your installation media into the Live environment.
If you have a hard-wired connection via an Ethernet cable, then Manjaro will automatically connect to the internet without you having
to do anything. Otherwise, once you have booted into Manjaro’s
desktop, you will need to select and then connect to your wireless
network.
For a constantly-updated version of this guide, check out the wiki
page:
User guide: http://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php?title=Graphical_
Installation_Guide_for_Experienced_Users_0.8.12
For a refresher on partitioning your disk, check out the wiki pages on
partitioning and partitioning scenarios:
Partitioning: http://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php?title=Partitioning_
Overview_and_Existing_Partition_Tables
Partitioning scenarios: http://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php?title=
Cfdisk_Basic_Partitioning_Scenarios
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Start the advanced installation method
1: When you reach the sixth
step of the installation process,
select Manage your partitions
and where to install Manjaro (advanced) and then click
Forward to proceed.
Choose your disk
2: If you have more than one
hard drive on your computer
select the one you want to partition. This example already
has a partition layout, but we’re
going to start fresh by clicking
New partition table.
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Create a partition table
3: The partition table type you
chose will normally depend on
your system. Non-EFI systems
are normally best with MBR,
whereas EFI systems should
use GPT. Once you’re happy,
click OK to create the partition
table.
GPT on a non-EFI system
4: You will get a warning if you
create a GPT partition table
on a non-EFI system. You can
still proceed if you want, but
be aware of the extra partition.
Don’t delete it!
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A two-partition scenario
5: In this scenario we will cover
the most common partition layout. Root and Boot files will be
in a single partition and Home
in a second partition to keep
documents separate from system files. We’ll add an optional
swap partition in the remaining
space. As there are only three
partitions total, each can be
Primary partitions.
With the free space highlighted,
we’ll click +Add to create the
first partition.
Partition 1: Root and Boot
6: The first partition will contain the system and boot files (/
and /boot). As such, we must
allocate enough space for all
system programs. 20GB is generally sufficient, but if you have
a smaller disc you can reduce
this. We have selected EXT4
as the file system and made
sure to set the mountpoint to /
(root).
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Partition 2: Home
7: We’ve added a second partition to hold our user documents. It’s set to be 295GB in
size, with the EXT4 file system,
and the mountpoint is set to
/home (Home).
Swap partition
8: Finally, we’ve added a swap
partition. This will act as extra
(very, very slow) RAM if we
run out. It’s not really suitable
as anything other than a last
resort but can sometimes make
the difference between losing
work and quitting cleanly. This
is set to take the remainder of
the free space, about 4GB.
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Finalising the partitions
9: The partition layout is ready,
but before continuing it’s worth
checking over. You can change
and adapt the layout freely at
this point as nothing has been
written to disc.
Once you are happy, click Install now! to proceed.
Verify partitioning actions
10: As a final check, the installer will ask you to verify
that you want to write the partition layout to disc. If you want
to go back and make a change,
click Cancel. Otherwise to continue to install Manjaro, click
OK. The rest of the process is
the same as for the Automatic
installer, so we’re done here!
Installing on a UEFI system
UEFI is the commonly agreed on name for both the EFI & UEFI standards which merged. It does not include the old EFI v1, or Apple’s own
non-standard version of EFI.
If you have a relatively new computer (e.g. post-2012) it will probably have UEFI support; it certainly will if it came with Microsoft
Windows 8 or later installed. At this point in time, installing a Linux
distribution on a UEFI system can be tricky. Thankfully Manjaro’s
installer, Thus, does a good job of correctly setting up everything.
However, there are still important considerations, especially when it
comes to the partitioning table.
Booting in UEFI mode
The most important step is to ensure that your machine does not
have Secure Boot enabled. Only a very limited number of operating
systems will boot with this enabled. You must disable this in your
BIOS before proceeding; if you don’t know how to do this please
refer to your computer’s user manual.
Once you have booted the system from the Live CD/USB you
will be presented with the Manjaro boot selection screen. It has two
main options for the drivers it will use (either Free or non-Free). The
main difference is the lack of any option for language or keyboard
layout. However, this is actually not that important! When you run
Thus and choose your language and keyboard layout this will take
effect within the Live environment, along with setting these for the
installed system.
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1: In UEFI mode the Manjaro
boot selection screen looks
quite different. However, the
two main installation options
are still there.
Installing Manjaro as the only operating system
With Manjaro 0.8.12, Thus does an excellent job setting up your system. Once you have loaded the Live environment the installation
steps are exactly the same as for a non-UEFI installation. The main
difference is in the partition layout: this is important if you wish to
manually partition the drive to suit your own requirements.
In automatic mode, Thus creates a conservative partition layout
that will work on all systems. However, the key extra partition for
compatibility with UEFI systems is a fat32-formatted partition mounted at /boot/efi - make sure to include this if you partition manually!
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1: The partition layout created
by Thus in automatic mode
(with separate Home).
2: A manual partition layout.
Note the lack of a GRUB BIOS
partition; this is not necessary
with a GPT partition layout
under EFI.
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Installing alongside Microsoft Windows 8 or later
It is possible that you want install Manjaro but keep an existing Windows 8 installation on your computer. This is possible, but a little
more complicated to set up. It’s not for the faint-of-heart, and you
should make sure you have a backup of any important documents or
information before proceeding.
The following instructions assume you are using a machine with
UEFI enabled, Secure Boot disabled, and are using drives with a
GUID Partition Table (GPT).
Download the installation media
First, make sure you have downloaded a 64-bit version of Manjaro. It
doesn’t matter which edition you choose, but the filename must end
with x86_64.iso.
Next, create the Live media by burning the disc image to a DVD
or writing to a USB flash drive. The process is very similar to a nonUEFI installation, but for Windows users using USB media, Rufus10
is highly recommended. Rufus should use the following settings:
10
http://rufus.akeo.ie/
Device: "choose your USB" (Attention: choose correctly, the device
selected here will be formatted!)
Partition scheme: GPT partition scheme for UEFI computer
File system: FAT32 (Default)
Cluster size: 8192 bytes (Default)
Volume label: MJRO_0812
Format Options: Quick format. Create a bootable disk using: ISO
Image (Click on the DVD icon to select your downloaded disc
image). Create extended label and icon files.
Click Start, and you are done! (though it takes between around two
and five minutes to complete).
Boot the Live environment
Before booting, check your BIOS settings: UEFI must be on and Secure Boot off. Manjaro currently doesn’t support Secure Boot.
Boot with your Live media and select which set of drivers you
would like to use:
Boot Manjaro Linux ... (default) This chooses the open-source graphics
card drivers.
1: Rufus with recommended
settings
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Boot Manjaro Linux ... (nonfree) This option chooses the proprietary
graphics card drivers from Nvidia or AMD.
If you’re not sure which to use, refer back to the earlier section Booting the Live environment.
Adjust your partition sizes
Your computer will be set up with no free space into which Manjaro
can be installed. As such, you need to shrink the main Microsoft
Windows partition to make space! To do this, we will use GParted,
the GNOME Partition Editor.
2: Start GParted from the applications menu. The ’root’
password is ’manjaro’ (without
quotes).
3: Right click on the largest
NTFS partition and select Resize/Move
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4: Make space at the end of the
partition for Manjaro. Ideally
this should be at least 50GB,
but you can’t shrink the partition smaller than its used space
(minimum size). When you’re
happy with the new size, click
Resize/Move.
Once you are happy with the new partition layout, on the menu go
to Edit, Apply all operations. There will be a confirmation message;
to continue you must click Apply.
The resizing process will take some time. Perhaps another chance
to get a cup of tea! Once it has completed, close GParted and then
run Install Manjaro Linux.
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Start the advanced installation process
5: When you reach the sixth
step of the installation process,
select Manage your partitions
and where to install Manjaro (advanced) and then click
Forward to proceed.
6: On the partitioning screen
you can see the 100GB of free
space we just created. Note the
100MB fat32 partition: this is
the EFI boot partition needed
by Windows. At this point you
have two choices.
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7: Firstly, you can create another, new, EFI partition just
for Manjaro. This means
everything is kept separate
to Windows.
A partition of 100MB should
be enough, but the mountpoint
must be /boot/efi and the
partition type fat32.
8: Otherwise, you can reuse the
EFI partition created by Windows. This is normally quite
safe to do.
Select the mountpoint
/boot/efi but make sure you
do not format the partition or you won’t be able to boot
Windows!
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9: Create the rest of partitions
as normal. You need at least a
root partition (mountpoint /).
Click Install now!, confirm the
changes, and proceed with the
rest of the installation process!
Update the GRUB bootloader, or, Where did Windows go?
Sometimes the bootloader GRUB2 doesn’t detect an existing Microsoft Windows installation when installing. This means that only
Manjaro Linux will appear in the list of options when you boot the
machine.
This is easy to solve. Run the command:
sudo update-grub
in a terminal after booting into Manjaro and it will detect Windows
and add an entry to the boot menu.
Advanced installation methods
The text-based installer
The Manjaro Live environment provides two installation tools: along
with the graphical installer a text-based CLI installer is available.
This is suitable for advanced users who need extra control over the
installation process, for example if they want to set up RAID or alter
system configuration options. It’s also useful for very old machines
and is the only installation method available for the Net edition.
The text-based installer is only recommended for advanced
users.
1: The installation process steps
are very similar to the graphical
installer. However, much more
control is available.
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Set date and time
2: The first menu item allows
you to manually set your
timezone and check the date
and time set for your system.
Hard disk(s) preparation
3: The second menu item allows full control over the partition layout.
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Install system
4: The third menu item starts
the installation process. You
will get no confirmation before
the installation begins: make
certain that your partition layout is correct otherwise the
process will fail. The installation can take a little bit of time,
so make a cup of tea!
Configure system
5: The fourth item allows full
control of your new system’s
configuration. The options are
quite extensive!
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Install bootloader
6: Before rebooting you must
make sure to install the bootloader to the correct drive.
Without this, you won’t be able
to load Manjaro!
Quit
7: The final step exits the installer. You can continue using
the Live environment or reboot now to use your freshly
installed Manjaro.
Part III
Welcome to Manjaro
The Manjaro desktop
Congratulations on installing Manjaro Linux!
Once you have logged in you will be presented with the Manjaro
desktop. The Welcome Screen will load automatically and this gives
you some useful links to documentation, ways to get help and support from the Manjaro community, and some ways you can get involved with the project. Remember that Manjaro is free and opensource software: it relies on contributions from its user and developer
community!
1: The Manjaro Xfce Desktop
with Welcome Screen.
If you don’t want the welcome screen to load each time you log in,
just untick the box Show this dialog on startup. Don’t worry: you
can always find it again in the applications menu.
The applications menu is the easiest way of starting the software
programs that are installed on your Manjaro system. The icon for this
is in the corner of the screen. Go ahead and click on it now!
You can also press the “Windows” or
“Super” key on your keyboard. Handy!
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2: Software applications that
are installed will be displayed
in the applications menu.
You can see that the five main software applications have an item
in the “Favourites” menu. This allows rapid access to software you
most often use. To add or remove an item from the Favourites menu,
just right-click on it and select the option you want.
For now, let’s look in turn at these five applications to give an idea
of what awaits you!
3: Add to Favourites
4: Remove from Favourites
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Terminal Emulator
File Manager
5: Terminal Emulator, or
terminal, allows you to perform text-based commands.
Although it initially seems
unfriendly it is incredibly
powerful and allows access to
commands that are difficult to
accomplish with a graphical interface. In this example, I have
listed (ls) the files in my home
directory.
Learning how to use the
terminal is not needed
for running Manjaro. It’s
highly recommended, however; check out sites like
http://linuxcommand.org/
!
6: File Manager is a graphical
interface for managing your
documents and directories.
Most file managers work in
a similar way; if you’ve used
another, you can probably use
this one! Hint: you can find
this user guide in the Manjaro
directory!
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Web Browser
7: Web Browser allows you
to visit and view web pages
so you can read news stories,
check the weather forecast, and
all the rest. The software application that is installed will
depend on the Edition of Manjaro you installed, but they all
work in a similar way. If you
have a particular preference
you can easily add or remove
software.
Mail Reader
8: Mail Reader allows you to
read and send email. You will
have to add your email account
when you first run the application (in a similar way to all
mail readers) but once that is
set up you should be good to
go! As with the web browser,
there are a range of choices for
mail reader. For example, if you
prefer Claws or Sylpheed you
can install it!
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Add/Remove Software
9: The Package Manager allows
you to search for, install, and
remove software applications.
In this example I have searched
for the Chromium web browser,
and am about to install it. Once
I’m happy with my selections
I can click on the tick to continue.
There are two main software
managers in Manjaro: Pamac
(installed with the Xfce edition)
and Octopi (installed with the
KDE edition).
Getting help
There are a variety of ways of getting help and support about Manjaro, as well as finding out more about the project. You can just
browse, or register if you want to get involved!
Remember that Manjaro is run by its community. Without a community there would be no Manjaro!
Whichever method you use, we look forward to meeting you!
1: The welcome screen has links
to some excellent resources. It’s
well worth taking the time to
have a look at each of them.
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Discussion forum
http://forum.manjaro.org/
2: The Manjaro discussion
forum is a great place to find
out more about the project. You
can connect at any time, leave
questions or replies, and come
back to them later.
3: If English isn’t your preferred language you can try one
of the other forums. There’s an
up-to-date list on the Manjaro
homepage.
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IRC channels
http://manjaro.org/irc-channel/
4: To talk on the IRC channel you will have to connect
first. To make sure you’re human you’ll have to fill in a
CAPTCHA form.
5: Once connected you’ll be
able to talk in real-time with
people who can help. They are
a really friendly bunch!
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6: If English isn’t your preferred language, don’t worry.
There are four IRC channels
dedicated to English, German,
French, and Russian language
discussion.
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Mailing list
http://lists.manjaro.org/listinfo/manjaro-general
7: If you prefer to use email
there are several mailing lists
that you can use to stay upto-date with announcements
and development, as well as
ask questions. At the moment,
though, most people use either
the forums or IRC. Maybe it
will be you who gets people
using the mailing lists!
Wiki
http://wiki.manjaro.org/index.php?title=Main_Page
8: The wiki is essentially an online user manual. It has a huge
range of information, hints,
tips, and instructions on getting
the most out of your Manjaro
system. If you need to know
how to do something, chances
are it’s on the wiki!
Maintaining your system
Changing settings
While the Manjaro desktop comes with a set of defaults that should
work well for most people, you might want to change things like the
desktop wallpaper and colour scheme, or perhaps how your laptop
touchpad behaves.
Xfce settings manager
1: The Xfce desktop is highly
customisable. The settings for
your user account can be accessed both via the applications
menu and the Xfce settings
manager. Either way, there’s
a lot of tweaking you can do!
Don’t worry: the changes will
only affect your user account,
not any others you might have
added.
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Manjaro Settings Manager
2: The Manjaro Settings Manager provides a set of tools for
changing lower-level settings,
such as those you set during installation. System-wide
languages, keyboard layouts,
users, and hardware drivers are
all taken care of from here. It is
available under Settings in the
applications menu.
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Adding a printer
Manjaro comes with excellent printing support. Most printers can be
installed just by plugging them in!
If you installed a minimal or Net edition you may have to install
printing support first:
sudo pacman -S manjaro-printer
1: When you plug in your
printer, Manjaro should detect
this and automatically install
the correct drivers...
2: ... and make the printer
available!
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3: To check on the available
printers, find and open Print
Settings in the applications
menu.
4: If the printer was successfully installed it will show up
here. You’re ready to print!
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5: Otherwise, you can add the
printer manually. Click Add to
begin the process.
6: You will need to enter your
password to allow the printer
detection process. Once you’ve
typed in your password, click
OK.
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7: All detected printers will
show in the devices list. Select your printer, then click
Forward.
If your printer does not show
up it’s possible that your
printer isn’t compatible with
Manjaro. Due to the vast number of printers out there you
may need to install drivers
manually - please visit the
forum or IRC channel for help!
8: As Manjaro installs your
printer you can change some
settings like its name and location. These provide an easy
way of identifying the printer.
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9: Your printer should now
show in Printer Settings, where
you can view the print queue
and change the printer settings.
Happy printing!
Updating software
After logging in you may notice a couple of pop-ups informing you
of software updates. This is great! It means your internet connection is working correctly, and that there is new software ready and
waiting for you!
Pamac
1: Pamac’s Update Manager is
available from the system tray.
In this screenshot it has a red
icon, indicating there are software updates. An update check
is performed automatically; all
you have to do is click Apply
and any updates will proceed
automatically!
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Octopi
Octopi is an alternative software manager for Manjaro. It is installed
with the Openbox and KDE editions as it is based on the QT toolset.
It also has a very funky icon!
2: Octopi’s update notifier is
available from the system tray.
In this screenshot it has a red
icon, indicating there are software updates. An update check
is performed automatically;
all you have to do is click Yes
and any updates will proceed
automatically!
3: Alternatively, you can load
Octopi’s full interface. The
red star indicated there are
updated available, and the
number shows how many. To
show what is available, click
on the red icon. To install the
updates, click on the arrow next
to the red icon and then click
on Install.
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Installing new software
There’s a huge amount of software freely available in the Manjaro
repositories. If you are connected to the internet you can download
and install as many of this as you want at no cost! No advertising is
embedded, no data gathering performed - you get just the software
application, unlike with some other operating systems.
Pamac
1: Pamac allows easy access
to the available software. All
software applications in the
repositories are free; no need to
worry about purchase or licensing costs. Once you’ve found
the package you want to install,
right-click and select Install,
then click the tick in the top-left
corner to confirm.
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2: The packages to be installed
are listed so you can check
this is what you want to do.
When you are happy with the
selection, click OK and the software will be downloaded and
installed.
3: To stop other users removing
important software from the
system you will have to provide
an administrative password. If
you don’t know this you can’t
go any further. There are methods to reset this password if
needed; visit the forum or IRC
channel to find out more. Enter
your administrative password
and click OK.
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4: The software packages will
be downloaded and installed.
You don’t have to do anything
else!
5: The new software will show
as installed within Pamac.. You
can close Pamac now if you
want.
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6: The new software is available
in the application menu ready
for you to use.
Octopi
The process of installing new software using Octopi is very similar to
Pamac.
7: Octopi allows easy access
to the available software. Do
note that the search process
is slightly different to Pamac
as you can select whether to
search by package name or
package description. Once
you’ve found the package you
want to install, right-click and
select Install, then click the
tick in the top-left corner to
confirm.
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8: Some software will have
other packages it can optionally
use if they are installed. These
“optional dependencies” can be
selected here or ignored - you
can always install them later if
you want to!
9: The packages to be installed
are listed so you can check
this is what you want to do.
When you are happy with the
selection, click Yes and the software will be downloaded and
installed.
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10: Octopi will show a confirmation that it installed the new
software. You can close Octopi
now if you want.
11: The new software is available in the application menu
ready for you to use.
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Using Pacman
Pacman is the Arch Linux package manager. This underpins Pamac
and Octopi but doesn’t have a graphical interface. Instead, it is used
by typing commands on the terminal. The commands allow you to
install, upgrade, configure, and remove software.
Synchronising with the Manjaro repositories
As new packages are added to the repositories you will need to regularly synchronise the package lists. This is normally taken care of
automatically on a regular basis by the software managers, but to
perform this manually type the following into the terminal:
sudo pacman -Sy
This will only download the package lists if there has been a change.
Occasionally you may want to force the package lists to be downloaded. To do this, type:
sudo pacman -Syy
Updating software
Pacman will allow you to perform an update of software already
installed:
sudo pacman -Su
It’s a good idea to check whether the package lists are up-to-date at
the same time:
sudo pacman -Syu
You can also force a package list synchronisation before performing
an update:
sudo pacman -Syyu
Searching for software
1: sudo pacman -Syyu
Finding a package by name is really straightforward. For example, to
search for a text editor called Leafpad:
sudo pacman -Ss leafpad
Installing software
Installing a package is equally straightforward. For example, to install Leafpad:
sudo pacman -S leafpad
Many software applications depend on
other software packages. Thankfully,
pacman will automatically detect and
install these!
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Removing software
To remove a software package you need to know its name, but the
command is straightforward. To remove Leafpad:
sudo pacman -R leafpad
It’s also possible to remove a package and any dependencies it required when it was installed. Assuming those other packages are not
being used by another piece of software, they will become orphan
packages. These serve no function other than taking up space! To
remove a software package with its dependencies:
sudo pacman -Rs leafpad
A package may also create configuration files. Normally these are
left in place so your configuration is not lost, and can be reused if
you install the package again. However, if you want to remove these
configuration files too, the command is:
sudo pacman -Rns leafpad
If at a later date you want to remove all orphan packages and configuration files for packages that you removed some time ago, the
following command will do it:
sudo pacman -Rns $(pacman -Qtdq)
Be warned, though: this is an advanced command!
Other pacman commands
It’s a good idea to become familiar with the pacman commands. It
can be a very useful tool in case the other software managers refuse
to complete an installation, for example if an installation process is
interrupted. The pacman man page is very informational:
man pacman
To exit, press q.
Updating the mirror list
Manjaro Linux packages are hosted on a number of servers across the
world; these servers mirror the official Manjaro software repository.
When you first install Manjaro it will try to work out which server
is closest to you so that software downloads complete as quickly as
possible.
Sometimes, though, the list of mirrors can get old. New mirrors
can become available, and some mirrors are removed. Updates to
man is short for manual
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Manjaro will regularly trigger an update of the mirror list, but sometimes it’s useful to do this manually.
To update the mirror list use the following command:
sudo pacman-mirrors -g
This will test the speed of all currently available mirrors and set your
machine to use the best for you. Once this command has completed,
you should force a download of the package lists:
sudo pacman -Syyu
2: sudo pacman-mirrors -g
Choosing mirrors
If you would like more control over which mirrors to use, run the
command:
sudo pacman-mirrors -i
This will allow you to select which mirror, or mirrors, to try when
checking for software updates and downloading new packages. It’s
normally best to choose mirrors that are geographically close to you,
so if you’re in Canada then Canadian and US servers are generally a
good bet. Of course, you’re free to choose whichever you want!
To reset back to an automatic choice, run this command:
sudo pacman-mirrors -g -c all
Remember to force a download of the package lists to use the new
mirrors!
Switching branches
When you install Manjaro you will be using the stable branch. This
set of packages has the most testing and so is the best for most users.
However, you may want to help test packages before they move to
the stable repository:
sudo pacman-mirrors -g -b testing
The testing repository has packages that have been checked by the
Manjaro development team to make sure they work correctly. However, the amount of testing done is much smaller than for the stable
branch - but this is how they get tested!
If you want to live on the bleeding edge, you can switch to the
unstable branch. This is normally used by the Manjaro developers.
Packages from the unstable branch can cause problems, so this is not
something to do lightly:
sudo pacman-mirrors -g -b unstable
3: sudo pacman-mirrors -i
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After switching branches you will need to force an update of the
package lists:
sudo pacman -Syyu
If you switch away from the stable branch, but want to move back,
it’s actually pretty easy:
sudo pacman-mirrors -g -b stable
This will leave the newer packages on your system and these will be
replaced as the stable branch catches up. However, if you want to
force a downgrade of packages back to the stable version, use:
sudo pacman -Syyuu
Fixing installation errors
Occasionally, an installation can go wrong. The downloaded file
might be corrupted, or the process might be interrupted if you lose
power. Most of the time it’s relatively easy to get your system back to
a working state!
The most common error you will be something like:
:: Synchronising package databases...
error: failed to update core (unable to lock database)
error: failed to update extra (unable to lock database)
error: failed to update community (unable to lock database)
error: failed to update multilib (unable to lock database)
error: failed to synchronise any databases
error: failed to init transaction (unable to lock database)
error: could not lock database: File exists
if you’re sure a package manager is not already running,
you can remove /var/lib/pacman/db.lck
This means pacman thinks it is already running. If it is, and you try
to force an installation or removal of software, the package database
can be left in an inconsistent state. This would be bad. So, the first
thing to check is whether an installer is running. One of the easiest
ways to check is to run a terminal command:
ps x | grep pacman
This might look complicated, but it’s just two small commands joined
(piped) together. First,
ps x
produces a list of running processes for all users. Second,
grep pacman
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searches for the text “pacman”. The pipe, |, takes the output from
the first and feeds it to the second. To check whether another program is running you can just change the text “pacman” to something
else:
ps x | grep pamac
ps x | grep octopi
Once you are sure an installer is not running, you can delete pacman’s lock file:
sudo rm /var/lib/pacman/db.lck
Then try running the install process again!
If a problem persists, there is a series of commands that will fix
most issues:
sudo
sudo
sudo
sudo
rm -f /var/lib/pacman/db.lck
pacman-mirrors -g
pacman -Syyuu
pacman -Suu
In order, these commands:
• Remove pacman’s lock file;
• Update the mirror list;
• Forces an update of the package lists and an update of any packages to bring them in line with the current repository state;
• Ensures no packages are left out of line with the current repository
state.
To make things easier, Manjaro 0.8.12 includes a command alias11
that runs the above four commands:
fixit
More information
Remember - there is plenty of information on the wiki http://wiki.
manjaro.org/ and discussion forum http://forum.manjaro.org/.
11
https://forum.manjaro.org/index.php?topic=12383.0
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Index
Add/Remove Software, 67
Adding a printer, 77
Advanced installation, 41
Automatic installation, 33
branches, 91
Burning to a CD/DVD, 24
desktop, 63
Downloading, 15
editions, 15
errors, checking for, 19
Favourites, 64
Features, 11
File Manager, 65
Fixing installation errors, 92
forum, 70
help, 69
Installing new software, 83
Introduction, 11
IRC, 71
Licence, documentation, 4
Live environment, 31
Mail Reader, 66
Mailing list, 73
Maintaining your system, 75
Manjaro Development Team, The, 5
Microsoft Windows 8, 50
mirror, 90
Octopi, 82
pacman, 89
pacman-mirrors, 91
Pamac, 81
printer, 77
settings, 75
Switching branches, 91
Terminal Emulator, 65
text-based installer, 57
UEFI, 47
Updating software, 81
USB flash drive, 26
Web Browser, 66
Wiki, 73
Writing a disc image, 23
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