Adaptec | 1460B - APA Storage Controller Fast SCSI 10 MBps | Specifications | Adaptec 1460B - APA Storage Controller Fast SCSI 10 MBps Specifications

Adaptec 1460B - APA Storage Controller Fast SCSI 10 MBps Specifications
Technical Reference
APA-1460 SlimSCSI
PCMCIA-to-SCSI Host Adapter
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Adaptec, Inc.
691 South Milpitas Boulevard
Milpitas, CA 95035
Copyright © 1994, Adaptec, Inc.
All rights reserved. Adaptec and the Adaptec logo
are registered trademarks of Adaptec, Inc.
Printed in Singapore
STOCK NO: 510671-00 Rev. A LL 08/94
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APA-1460 SlimSCSI
PCMCIA-to-SCSI Host Adapter
Technical Reference
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Copyright
Copyright © 1994 Adaptec, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical,
photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior written consent of Adaptec, Inc., 691 South
Milpitas Blvd., Milpitas, CA 95035.
Trademarks
Adaptec, the Adaptec logo, AHA, and PhaseEngine are registered trademarks and SlimSCSI and
EZ-SCSI are trademarks of Adaptec, Inc.
IBM, OS/2, and AT are registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation.
Microsoft and MS-DOS are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation.
NetWare is a registered trademark of Novell, Inc.
Toshiba is a registered trademark of Toshiba Corporation.
UNIX is a registered trademark of Unix System Laboratories.
486 is a trademark of Intel Corporation.
Changes
The material in this document is for information only and is subject to change without notice. While
reasonable efforts have been made in the preparation of this document to assure its accuracy,
Adaptec, Inc. assumes no liability resulting from errors or omissions in this document, or from the
use of the information contained herein.
Adaptec reserves the right to make changes in the product design without reservation and without
notification to its users.
Adaptec Technical Support
Adaptec products have been specifically developed for easy installation and use. We believe that
our documents and the onscreen instructions and help are complete and clear enough to meet your
needs. If you need more assistance, please contact us.
●
The Adaptec Electronic Bulletin Board Service (BBS) provides information on software upgrades,
new releases, technical advice, and other topics. The BBS is available 24 hours a day at
408-945-7727; 1200/2400/9600/14400 baud, 8 data bits, 1 stop bit, no parity.
●
To contact the Adaptec Technical Support Hot Line, call 800-959-SCSI (7274) or 408-945-2550;
M–F: 6:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Pacific Time.
Interactive Fax Service
The Adaptec Interactive Fax Service provides the latest online information about Adaptec products
and services. The Adaptec Interactive Fax Service is available 23 hours a day, 7 days a week, at
408-957-7150.
Ordering Software and Cables
To order Adaptec software and SCSI cables, call 800-442-SCSI (7274), M–F: 6:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.,
Pacific Time. If you are calling from outside the U.S. and Canada, the number is 408-957-SCSI (7274).
Literature Hotline
To request additional documentation for Adaptec products, call 800-934-2766, M–F: 5:00 a.m. to
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FCC Compliance Statement
This equipment has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital device, pursuant to Part
15 of the FCC rules. These limits are designed to provide reasonable protection against harmful interference in
residential installations. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency energy, and if not
installed and used in accordance with the instructions, may cause harmful interference to radio communications.
However, there is no guarantee that interference will not occur in a particular installation.
If this equipment does cause interference to radio or television equipment reception, which can be determined
by turning the equipment off and on, the user is encouraged to try to correct the interference by one or more of
the following measures:
• Reorient or relocate the receiving antenna
• Move the equipment away from the receiver
• Plug the equipment into an outlet on a circuit different from that to which the receiver is powered
• If necessary, the user should consult the dealer or an experienced radio/television technician for additional
suggestions
CAUTION: Only equipment certified to comply with Class B (computer input/output devices, terminals, printers, etc.) should be attached to this equipment, and must have shielded interface cables.
Finally, any changes or modifications to the equipment by the user not expressly approved by the grantee or
manufacturer could void the user’s authority to operate such equipment.
Each host adapter is equipped with an FCC compliance label which shows only the FCC identification number.
The full text of the associated label follows:
This device complies with part 15 of the FCC rules. Operation is subject to the following two conditions:
(1) this device may not cause harmful interference and (2) this device must accept any interference
received, including interference that may cause undesired operation.
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Table of Contents
Preface
Inside This Document vii
Conventions vii
1
Introduction
About This Chapter 1-1
Overview 1-3
Features 1-3
Related Documents 1-4
2
Conformance to Industry Specifications
About This Chapter 2-1
Conformance to PCMCIA Standards 2-3
Conformance to SCSI Standards 2-3
3
Product Specifications
About This Chapter 3-1
Electrical Specifications 3-3
PCMCIA 3-3
SCSI 3-3
Mechanical Specifications 3-3
APA-1460 Card Dimensions 3-3
APA-1460 Cable Dimensions 3-3
Termination Power 3-4
Internal Bus Pull-up Resistor 3-4
Cable Specifications 3-4
4
Connector Pinout
About This Chapter 4-1
Connectors 4-3
PCMCIA 68-pin Bus Interface Connector 4-3
SCSI 50-pin Shielded Connector 4-5
APA-1460 Card and Cable Connector 4-6
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Functional Specification
About This Chapter 5-1
Functional Specification 5-3
PCMCIA Attribute Memory Space 5-3
APA-1460 CIS 5-3
Configuration Option Register 5-4
APA-1460 Initialization 5-4
SCSI I/O Register Map 5-4
Address Mapping 5-5
Attribute Memory - 0000h to 1FFFh, 8 KBytes (Read/Write) 5-5
Configuration Register - 2000h (Read/Write) 5-5
I/O Address - 340h to 35Fh or 140h to 15Fh 5-5
Common Memory 5-5
About the Updateable Attribute Memory 5-6
Power Down Mode 5-7
Plug and Play and SCAM 5-7
Glossary
Index
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Preface
Inside This Document
This document describes the mechanical, electrical, and other functional
characteristics of the APA-1460 PCMCIA-to-SCSI host adapter. This document is targeted primarily at two audiences: individuals who need a
detailed technical reference for APA-1460 information; and software engineers who are writing code for the APA-1460 host adapter.
Chapter 1
Introduction
provides an overview of the APA-1460 PCMCIA-to-SCSI host adapter.
Chapter 2
Conformance to Industry Specifications
explains how the APA-1460 conforms to PCMCIA and SCSI standards.
Chapter 3
Product Specifications
lists electrical and mechanical specifications for the APA-1460.
Chapter 4
Connector Pinout
lists the signal names for the pins on the PCMCIA, SCSI, and Card/Cable
connectors.
Chapter 5
Functional Specification
describes the two types of PCMCIA bus cycles to which the APA-1460
responds.
Conventions
The following typographic conventions are used in this document.
bold
Used for keystrokes (… press the Enter key …).
Helvetica
Used for operator entry that must be typed exactly as shown
(… device=c:aspi2dos.sys …) and for messages on the screen
(… Enter Password …).
Helvetica Italics
Used as a place holder for text you must determine and type in (… enter
nn for number …). Also used for program and file names that appear in
body text (… the autoexec.bat file …).
Italics
Used for emphasis (… is only supported …) and for document reference
(… refer to Chapter 1, Introduction…).
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SMALL CAPITALS
Used for register names, signal names, and commands
Hexadecimal Numbers
Are followed by an ‘h’, e.g., 330h.
End Mark
The ❐ symbol marks the end of the text for each chapter.
❒
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1
Introduction
About This Chapter
Read this chapter to find out
■
An overview of the APA-1460 PCMCIA-to-SCSI host adapter
■
A list of related documents which provide additional information related to the APA-1460
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Introduction
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1
Overview
The Adaptec APA-1460 PCMCIA-to-SCSI Host Adapter is a PCMCIA Type II add-in card
which allows computers equipped with a PCMCIA Type II, Type III, or Toshiba ® Type IV
socket to connect to a wide range of SCSI devices, including CD-ROM, hard disk, and tape.
PCMCIA (Personal Computer Memory Card International Association) is a widely
accepted industry standard for small form factor add-in cards. Such add-in cards generally fall into two categories:
■
Memory add-in products including solid state and rotating media
■
I/O add-in products, typically including fax-modems, network adapters, and SCSI
host adapters
PCMCIA is especially popular with notebook and subnotebook computers because of its
small, credit card size form factor and it is also supported on some desktop platforms.
SCSI is a well known and widely accepted peripheral interface bus standard. Most
CD-ROMs and many high-performance, high-capacity hard disks and tape drives implement the SCSI standard as well as scanners, high-speed laser printers, and digital
cameras.
The APA-1460 combines these two interface standards, permitting PCMCIA-equipped
host computers to communicate with SCSI devices at data rates up to 2 MBytes/sec. The
APA-1460 design addresses concerns present in the PCMCIA and SCSI worlds, many of
which are listed below in Features.
The APA-1460 is comprised of two physical parts: the Type II PCMCIA card, containing
the PCMCIA and SCSI electronics, and a custom SCSI cable. Reference to these two parts
is made throughout the document as the Card and Cable, respectively; both terms are capitalized for clarity. It is understood that APA-1460 refers collectively to the Card and
Cable.
Features
■
PIO Mode data transfer, overlapping mode address 340h or 140h
■
Power down Mode
■
Updateable attribute memory
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Fast SCSI support
■
Plug and Play support
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SCAM support (software support to be added later)
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Based on PCMCIA 2.1 Specification
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Conforms to the PCMCIA Specification, Release 2.1
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Light-weight, yet rugged packaging
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Fully compliant with SCSI-1 electrical specifications (software implements SCSI-2
commands)
■
ASPI (Advanced SCSI Programming Interface) compatibility
■
Hardware compatibility with a wide range of PCMCIA platforms (current software
is compatible with x86 platforms)
Related Documents
In several cases, this document refers you to other related documents. Some of these documents are highly recommended, such as the AIC-6360 Data Book. You should have a
working familiarity with PCMCIA and SCSI prior to reading this document.
The following documents provide additional detailed technical information related to the
APA-1460.
■
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI-2) Specification, ANSI X3.131-1994.
■
PCMCIA Specification, Release 2.1
■
AIC-6360 Data Book
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2
Conformance to Industry
Specifications
About This Chapter
Read this chapter to find out
■
Conformance requirements to PCMCIA standards
■
Conformance requirements to SCSI standards
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Conformance to Industry Specifications
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2
Conformance to industry specifications is an important requirement in today’s marketplace, especially with PCMCIA and SCSI. Conformance helps to guarantee the widest
range of compatibility for a product such as the APA-1460, with host computer platforms
and devices.
Conformance to PCMCIA Standards
Electrically, mechanically, and functionally, the APA-1460 was designed in conformance
with Release 2.1 of the PCMCIA Specification.
The PCMCIA electrical specifications are written to ensure that no damage occurs when a
PCMCIA compatible card is plugged into a PCMCIA compatible computer (voltage and
signal levels are correct, etc.) The electrical specifications also guarantee that cards may be
safely plugged and unplugged from a computer while the power is on, which is referred
to as hot swapping. The APA-1460 supports hot swapping.
The PCMCIA standard allows several physical form factors: Type I, Type II, Type III, and
Toshiba Type IV with certain allowable variations, such as Type II Extended. The
APA-1460 Card follows the form factor of a standard Type II card. When the APA-1460
Cable is plugged into the APA-1460 Card, the combination most closely resembles a
Type II Extended product with regard to key physical dimensions.
Functionally, in addition to the I/O mapped SCSI registers (see the AIC-6360 Data Book),
the APA-1460 also implements a PCMCIA Attribute Memory Space. Configuration information in the form of a CIS (Card Information Structure) is stored in this memory space. The
CIS may be read by the PCMCIA host to automatically configure the APA-1460 using the
information stored therein.
Conformance to SCSI Standards
The APA-1460 is fully compatible with the SCSI-1 electrical specification. In fact, the
APA-1460 is based on the AIC-6360 SCSI protocol controller. Using this protocol controller,
the APA-1460 supports asynchronous and synchronous SCSI data transfer rates up to
10 MBytes/sec. The APA-1460 hardware supports SCSI arbitration, and disconnect/
reconnect features (though these features may or may not be taken advantage of by driver
software).
To save power and reduce noise on the SCSI cable, the APA-1460 uses active termination.
Active termination reduces terminator power consumption by nearly 100% in standby
mode and reduces reflections on the SCSI cable.
Using the SCSI-1 electrical interface, the APA-1460 software can send SCSI-2 commands to
those devices which require them. In this way, the APA-1460 is fully compatible with most
SCSI-2 devices on the market. (Most SCSI-2 devices claim SCSI-2 compliance by virtue of
their command set definition and are actually based on SCSI-1 electrical designs.)
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ASPI compatibility is another key aspect of the APA-1460‘s compliance with industry
standards for SCSI. ASPI is a software device driver model which allows a broad range of
SCSI device driver and application programs to be written which are not dependent on
the design of the SCSI host adapter.
ASPI support for the DOS and Windows operating systems is currently available for the
APA-1460.
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Product Specifications
About This Chapter
Read this chapter to find out
■
Electrical specifications for the APA-1460
■
Mechanical specifications for the APA-1460
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Product Specifications
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3
Electrical Specifications
PCMCIA
Electrical Specification:
Transfer Rate:
Data Path:
Voltage Requirements:
Power Consumption:
I/O Addressing
Requirements:
Interrupt Channels:
PCMCIA Release 2.1
2 MBytes/sec. (16-bit data path)
8- or 16-bit
+5 V dc
500 mW (est.)
32 consecutive addresses, 1 of 2 ranges possible
1 of 4 options (9, 10, 11, 12)
SCSI
Electrical Specification:
Transfer Rate:
Data Format:
Termination:
Termination Power:
Cable wire:
ANSI X3.131-1986
Up to10 MBytes/sec. synchronous mode (Fast SCSI)
8-bit with parity
Active
Not provided (causes excessive battery drain on host)
32 wires with 5 individual bundles and impedance matched
80 ohm, high-performance cable
Mechanical Specifications
Form Factor:
APA-1460 Card, PCMCIA Type II
with 32-wire SCSI Cable, optional high or low density SCSI
connector
APA-1460 Card Dimensions
Length:
Width:
Height:
PCMCIA Connector:
Card/Cable Connector:
3.370 inches (85.60 mm)
2.126 inches (54 mm)
0.196 inches (5 mm)
68-pin (2 row x 34 pin) female, keyed
32-pin (1 row x 32 pin) female, keyed
APA-1460 Cable Dimensions
Length:
SCSI Connector:
Card/Cable Connector:
3 feet
50-pin shielded male (Centronics-style), high or low density
32-pin (1 row x 32 pin) male
Note: Detailed mechanical drawings of the Card and Cable are
available.
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Termination Power
No external termination power is provided in this design.
Internal Bus Pull-up Resistor
There are eight 100 K-ohm pull-up resistors in D0-D7 line, to ensure software compatibility. The aspi2dos initialization routine will check Port A and Port B status of the AIC-6360
chip in order to decide which host adapter or what options to choose (parity checking,
Fast SCSI etc.). In this case, because there are no jumpers inside the APA-1460 Card,
aspi2dos must get an FFh to recognize and configure this Card properly. The pull-up
resistors ensure the FFh status.
Cable Specifications
You can connect up to seven external SCSI devices to the APA-1460. The APA-1460 comes
with either a high-density or low-density 50-pin SCSI-2 compatible connector on the
Cable. To connect more than one device, daisy-chain the additional devices to the first
SCSI device.
Note: The APA-1460 supports only single-ended SCSI devices. Differential SCSI
devices may be damaged if connected to the host adapter bus. Most SCSI devices
currently produced are single-ended SCSI devices. Consult you SCSI device
documentation.
When the SCSI bus contains a Fast SCSI host adapter, such as the APA-1460, and one or
more Fast SCSI device, the total length of all SCSI cables connected to the SCSI bus,
including the APA-1460 Cable, must not exceed 3 meters (9.8 feet) to ensure reliable operation. If no Fast SCSI devices are connected, the total length of all cables must not exceed
6 meters (19.7 feet). See your device documentation to determine if it is a Fast SCSI device.
Make sure your external SCSI cables are of high quality and adhere to the SCSI specification. The SCSI specification requires external device cables to be constructed of 50 wires in
25 twisted pairs (signal pairs), with a characteristic impedance of no less than 90 ohms
(90 to 105 ohm recommended).
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Connector Pinout
About This Chapter
Read this chapter to find out
■
The PCMCIA and SCSI connector pinouts
■
The APA-1460 Card and Cable connector pinout
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Connector Pinout
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4
Connectors
PCMCIA 68-pin Bus Interface Connector
The following table gives the pinout for the PCMCIA 68-pin bus interface connector.
Signals and pins specified as N/C are not connected on the APA-1460 Card. For these signals, the PCMCIA standard signal name follows in parenthesis, for reference only.
The PCMCIA 68-pin connector is keyed so that it is impossible to plug the Card in upside
down or backwards.
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Table 4-1. PCMCIA 68-pin Bus Interface Connector Pinout
4-4
Signal Name
Pin
Pin
Signal Name
GND
1
35
GND
D3
2
36
-CD1
D4
3
37
D11
D5
4
38
D12
D6
5
39
D13
D7
6
40
D14
-CE1
7
41
D15
A10
8
42
-CE2
-OE
9
43
N/C (RFSH)
A11
10
44
-IORD
A9
11
45
-IOWR
A8
12
46
N/C (A17)
A13
13
47
N/C (A18)
A14
14
48
N/C (A19)
-WE/PGM
15
49
N/C (A20)
-IREQ
16
50
N/C (A21)
Vcc
17
51
Vcc
N/C (Vpp1)
18
52
N/C (App2)
N/C (A16)
19
53
N/C (A22)
N/C (A15)
20
54
N/C (A23)
A12
21
55
N/C (A24)
A7
22
56
N/C (A25)
A6
23
57
N/C (RFU)
A5
24
58
RESET
A4
25
59
N/C (-WAIT)
A3
26
60
-INPACK
A2
27
61
-REG
A1
28
62
N/C (SPKR)
A0
29
63
N/C (STSCHG)
D0
30
64
D8
D1
31
65
D9
D2
32
66
D10
-IOIS16
33
67
-CD2
GND
34
68
GND
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Connector Pinout
SCSI 50-pin Shielded Connector
The following table gives the pinout for the SCSI 50-pin shielded connector. This pinout is
functionally identical to that shown in the SCSI Specification (see page -4, Related Documents). There are several GND signals which are not connected in the APA-1460 Cable.
Also, pin 38, +TERMPWR, is not connected in the APA-1460 Cable, and thereby the
APA-1460 does not provide termination power to the external device.
Table 4-2. SCSI 50-Pin Shielded Connector Pinout
Signal Name
Pin
Pin
Signal Name
GND
1
26
-DB0
GND
2
27
-DB1
GND
3
28
-DB2
GND
4
29
-DB3
GND
5
30
-DB4
GND
6
31
-DB5
GND
7
32
-DB6
GND
8
33
-DB7
GND
9
34
-DBP
N/C (GND)
10
35
N/C (GND)
N/C (GND)
11
36
N/C (GND)
N/C (GND)
12
37
N/C (GND)
N/C (GND)
13
38
N/C (GND)
N/C (GND)
14
39
N/C (GND)
N/C (GND)
15
40
N/C (GND)
GND
16
41
-ATN
N/C (GND)
17
42
N/C (GND)
GND
18
43
-BSY
GND
19
44
-ACK
GND
20
45
-RST
GND
21
46
-MSG
GND
22
47
-SEL
GND
23
48
-C/D
GND
24
49
-REQ
GND
25
50
-I/O
There is a drain wire in the APA-1460 Cable which electrically connects the metal shield of
the SCSI 50-pin shielded connector, the aluminum-mylar foil cable shield, and the shield
GND (see APA-1460 Card and Cable Connector on page 4-6).
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APA-1460 Card and Cable Connector
The APA-1460 Card and Cable connector is the interface between the APA-1460 Card and
APA-1460 Cable. There are actually two connectors, one female mounted on the APA-1460
Card and the mating male connector on the APA-1460 Cable. The signals themselves correspond to the SCSI signals of the same names as shown on page 4-5, SCSI 50-pin Shielded
Connector. The logic for driving and receiving the SCSI bus signals is contained entirely in
the APA-1460 Card. The APA-1460 Cable is a passive cable assembly.
The following table lists the APA-1460 Card and Cable connector pin assignments.
Table 4-3. APA-1460 Card and Cable Connector Pin Assignments
Signal Name
Pin
Pin
Signal Name
D0
1
17
DPAR
GND
2
18
GND
D1
3
19
Term Power (NC)
GND
4
20
Term Power (NC)
D2
5
21
ATN
GND
6
22
BSY
D3
7
23
RST
GND
8
24
GND
D4
9
25
MSG
GND
10
26
SEL
D5
11
27
CD
GND
12
28
IO
D6
13
29
GND
GND
14
30
REQ
D7
15
31
GND
GND
16
32
ACK
❒
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5
Functional Specification
About This Chapter
Read this chapter to find out
■
PCMCIA attribute memory space
■
APA-1460 Card Information Structure (CIS)
■
APA-1460 registers and address mapping
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Functional Specification
5
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Functional Specification
Functionally, the APA-1460 responds to two types of PCMCIA bus cycles, Attribute Memory Space read/write cycles (configuration) and I/O cycles (SCSI protocol controller
access).
PCMCIA Attribute Memory Space
PCMCIA cards were originally memory add-in cards only. As such, certain
PCMCIA terminology is geared toward memory devices (e.g., ROM/RAM). The Attribute
Memory Space is a read/write address space, which in the PCMCIA Specification, may be
as large as 64 MBytes. The APA-1460 only decodes the first 16 KBytes of this address space
(address lines above A13 are ignored). The primary purpose of the Attribute Memory
Space is to provide a separately addressable region on each PCMCIA add-in card which is
dedicated to configuration functions. Both memory (typically read-only) and memorymapped registers reside in this space.
The APA-1460 decoding of the Attribute Memory Space is shown in the table below:
Address Range
Function
Access
0 - 1FFFh
Attribute Memory ROM (CIS)
Read-only
2000 - 3FFFh
Configuration Option Register
Read/Write
4000h
Reserved
n/a
The Attribute Memory ROM (including the CIS) and the Configuration Option Register
are discussed further in the following two sections.
APA-1460 CIS
There is an 8 KByte ROM on the APA-1460. Currently, only the first few hundred bytes of
this ROM are actually used. This small amount of memory is all that is required to store
the APA-1460 CIS as discussed in the next paragraph.
The PCMCIA Specification defines a card metaformat. This metaformat defines a set of structures to be read through the Attribute Memory Space which define certain configuration
information pertinent to the add-in card. A master structure, which contains this set of
structures, is the CIS. The key information stored in the APA-1460 CIS is listed below:
■
Manufacturer:
"Adaptec, Inc"
■
Product:
"APA-1460 SCSI Host Adapter"
■
Version:
"Version 0.01"
■
Device Speed:
250 ns/cycle
■
Configuration
Register Base Address: 2000h
■
I/O Space Description: 16-bit, 10 I/O address lines used, 2 ranges
(actually, 8 ranges are possible, only 4 are defined)
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I/O Space Ranges:
340h, 140h
■
Interrupt Channels:
9, 10, 11, 12 (level sensitive interrupts)
Other information may be added to the APA-1460 CIS in future revisions.
Configuration Option Register
The APA-1460 Configuration Option Register is an 8-bit wide write-only register into
which the PCMCIA host computer writes a configuration value based on information
read from the APA-1460 CIS.
Bit
Definition
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
SRESET
Resv’d
Resv'd
Resv'd
IOEN
Resv’d
Resv’d
Primary
Writing a 1 to SRESET forces the APA-1460 into a soft reset state and has the same effect as
a PCMCIA bus reset. If it is necessary to reconfigure the APA-1460, SRESET should be
strobed high. SRESET should be written as a 0 for normal operation.
The Resv'd bits are reserved and should be written as 0’s.
IOEN should be written as a 1 to indicate that the state of Primary is valid.
Address Range
Primary
340h - 35Fh
1
140h - 15Fh
0
Refer to the AIC-6360 Data Book for further information regarding I/O address decoding.
APA-1460 Initialization
On power-up, PCMCIA cards do not respond to I/O cycles, only memory cycles
(Attribute Memory Space cycles). It is necessary to write a value to the APA-1460 Configuration Option Register in order to enable I/O cycle access.
The trickier part of PCMCIA initialization is that the PCMCIA host controller chipset used by
the PCMCIA host computer. As of this writing, there are roughly a dozen implementations,
some of which are similar and some radically dissimilar.
The PCMCIA committee has defined Card and Socket Services in order to simplify the initialization and operation interface to the PCMCIA hardware. Refer to page -4, Related Documents, for further sources of information on this topic.
SCSI I/O Register Map
Once the APA-1460 has been properly initialized, it responds to a single I/O address
range consisting of 32 registers. These registers map directly to the corresponding registers in the AIC-6360 SCSI protocol controller. For example, if the selected I/O address
range is 340 - 35Fh, then I/O address 340h is AIC-6360 register 0, 341h is register 1, and so
forth.
The AIC-6360 interrupt is available and is routed directly to the PCMCIA IREQ signal. An
interrupt channel must be selected by configuring the PCMCIA host controller chipset.
See the AIC-6360 Data Book for more information on the AIC-6360.
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Functional Specification
Address Mapping
Attribute Memory - 0000h to 1FFFh, 8 KBytes (Read/Write)
Attribute memory is used for recording CIS (Card Information Structure) and is only partially decoded (when A13 is low). Read/write of repeated data occurs every other 8 KByte
block.
Configuration Register - 2000h (Read/Write)
This register is also partially decoded (only when A13 is high). Read/write of the same
register occurs every other 8 KByte block. Any read/write operation within the 8 KByte
range gets the same data or changes this register.
Bit
7
SRST
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
1
X
X
IOEN
X
X
PRIMARY
X
SRST 1: software reset
0: regular operation2
IOEN 1: I/O ports are enabled
0: I/O ports are disabled2
PRIMARY 1: primary address (340h)
0: alternate address (140h) 2
1
In the PCMCIA Specification, this bit is defined as Lev1IREQ. In fact, this is the way the host notifies the card which interrupt protocol
should be used for the host’s acceptance. When it is set, the host recognizes the interrupt in Level Mode (interrupt must stay active till
accepted). When it is reset, the host recognizes the interrupt in Pulsed Mode (accepted by signal transition). In this design, because the
interrupt signal is fully controlled by the AIC-6360 internal register, we can choose either Level or Pulsed Mode interrupt through software. In the CIS, the default interrupt mode is set to level mode. Currently there is no internal function circuit attached to it.
2 Reset condition
I/O Address - 340h to 35Fh or 140h to 15Fh
Overlapping Address Mode is used in the design for software compatibility with the current ASPI driver. Check the AIC-6360 Data Book for port definitions.
Special purpose port: Port B (35Bh or 15Bh) - write only
Bit
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
X
TERM_EN
X
X
X
X
X
X
TERM_EN 1: active termination enabled
0: active termination disabled (power down)1
1 Reset condition
Common Memory
Common Memory is not applicable for the APA-1460.
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About the Updateable Attribute Memory
The total size of the Attribute Memory is 8 KBytes, ranging from 0000h to 1FFFh. Internally, an EEPROM is used to meet design requirements. During the Attribute Memory
Read cycle, there is no difference from reading regular memory. During the write cycle, a
special escape sequence must be followed to enable the write operation (see ATMEL data
sheets).
Sample code to enable the chip write protection:
write_enable
proc
push
es
push
bx
push
cx
mov
ax, mapped_seg
mov
es, ax
mov
bx, 1555h
mov
byte ptr es:[bx], 0aah
mov
bx, 0aaah
mov
byte ptr es:[bx], 55h
mov
bx, 1555h
mov
byte ptr es:[bx], 0a0h
pop
cx
pop
bx
pop
es
:select the segment
; write AAh to 1555h
; write 55h to 0AAAh
; write A0h to 1555h
ret
write_enable
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Functional Specification
Power Down Mode
In order to save host computer battery power, a special power down mode is incorporated
into the design. There are two steps to power down the card, first set bit 7 of DMACNTRL1
register to put the AIC-6360 in Sleep Mode, then reset bit 6 of Port B register to disable the
active terminator. If the system wants to go back to normal operation mode, just follow
the steps in reverse order, enable the active terminator first, then clear bit 7 of
DMACNTRL1 register.
Plug and Play and SCAM
Current implementation is no different than a non-SCAM host.
Refer to the PCMCIA Plug and Play and SCAM Specifications.
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Glossary
A
transfer and is not affected by external timing constraints, such as cable length and
circuit response time.
Adaptec EZ-SCSI™
A software program that automatically
configures your computer to use the
Adaptec SCSI host adapter and SCSI
devices connected to it. Adaptec EZ-SCSI
copies applications and device drivers to
the computer’s hard disk drive. In nearly
every case, the computer and SCSI devices
are configured correctly when the default
values are accepted.
AIC-6360
Adaptec’s SCSI protocol chip, which provides an interface between the ISA bus and
the SCSI bus.
B
BIOS
Basic Input/Output System. Software
coded into computer chips for various purposes. The BIOS on the motherboard of a
computer is the special program used to
boot and control the computer. Most
Adaptec host adapters include an onboard
BIOS that initializes the SCSI bus, runs
bootup diagnostics, and performs other
functions.
BIOS Address
ASIC
Application Specific Integrated Circuit. An
integrated circuit designed solely for a specific function (e.g., the AIC-3350 Plug and
Play interface chip in AHA®-1530P/1532P
host adapters).
ASPI Manager
A software module that provides an interface between ASPI modules, a host adapter(s), and the SCSI devices connected to the
adapter. A single ASPI manager can handle
multiple I/O requests from multiple ASPI
modules. ASPI managers are written for a
specific operating system—such as DOS,
OS/2®, or NetWare®—and a specific family
of host adapters.
ASPI Module
Device-level code specific to a particular
kind of SCSI device that communicates
with the ASPI manager. The EZ-SCSI ASPI
modules are aspidisk and aspicd.
Asynchronous Data Transfer
A method of transferring data over the
SCSI bus. In an asynchronous data transfer,
bytes are sent in irregular intervals. Start
and stop bits are used to signal the beginning and end of bytes. Asynchronous data
transfer is slower than synchronous data
The address in computer memory where
the host adapter BIOS code is stored when
you boot the computer.
Bus
A pathway for data in a computer. All computers have an expansion bus, which is
designed to accept add-on (expansion)
devices, such as modems, sound cards, and
video adapters. Expansion devices use the
bus to send data to and receive data from
the computer ’s CPU or memory. ISA, EISA,
and PCMCIA are the major bus standards
used in computers.
Bus Device Reset
A SCSI message that clears all pending
activity in the SCSI peripheral device to
which it is addressed.
Byte
An 8-bit unit of data. A byte is normally the
smallest addressable unit of memory and
the smallest unit of data transfer on the
SCSI bus.
C
CD-ROM
Compact Disk Read Only Memory. A
high-capacity disc medium for storing data
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files and software programs. Like the audio
CDs used in consumer CD players, the data
on CD-ROM discs cannot be changed once
it is encoded. A single CD-ROM can hold
600 MBytes or more of data.
Driver
See Device Driver.
E
EEPROM
CD-ROM Drive
A disk device used to retrieve data and
software programs from CD-ROMs (compact disks) for use on computer systems.
Some CD-ROM drives are installed internally in the computer case, others are used
as external devices. Most CD-ROM drives
can also play audio CDs.
Electrically-Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory. An integrated circuit typically used to store configuration information. Some host adapters have an EEPROM
that contains configuration information.
The data stored in an EEPROM can be
updated while it is installed in the host
adapter.
Common Command Set
External SCSI Device
A de facto standard SCSI command set for
communication with hard disk drives. The
Common Command Set (CCS) is the basis
for the SCSI-2 command set for all types of
peripheral devices.
A SCSI device such as a hard disk drive or
tape drive installed outside the computer
case. External SCSI devices are connected
to the SCSI bus with round cables that have
layered twisted pair assemblies with electrical shielding.
Conventional Memory
The first 640 KBytes of computer memory.
DOS uses this memory area to run software
applications.
D
See Adaptec EZ-SCSI.
F
Fast SCSI
Device Driver
A software program that enables a computer to communicate with peripheral
devices, such as hard disk drives and
CD-ROM drives. Each type of device needs
a different driver. Device drivers are stored
on a computer’s hard disk and are typically
loaded into memory at boot time.
Disconnect/Reconnect
Disconnect occurs when a target releases
control of the SCSI bus, allowing the bus to
go to the Bus Free phase. Reconnect occurs
when a target selects an initiator to continue an operation after a disconnect. This
features allows the device to use the SCSI
bus while other devices prepare to transfer
data or complete commands.
DOS
Disk Operating System. An operating system developed by Microsoft® Corporation
for use with their x86 family of processors.
DOS is used on most personal computers.
Glossary-2
EZ-SCSI
A SCSI standard that allows data to be
transferred at up to 10 MBytes/sec on an
8-bit SCSI bus and up to 20 MBytes/sec on
a 16-bit (Wide) SCSI bus. The Fast SCSI bus
is limited to 3 meters of cable.
FIFO
First In/First Out. An integrated circuit
that buffers data in such a manner that each
byte placed in the buffer is removed from
the buffer in the same order.
G
GByte
Gigabyte. A measure of computer storage.
One GByte equals 1,073,741,824 bytes. (A
byte is the amount of storage needed to
hold one character.)
H
Host
A microcomputer system in which a SCSI
host adapter is installed. The host uses soft-
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Glossary
ware to request the services of the host
adapter in transferring information to and
from peripheral devices attached to the
host adapter.
Host Adapter
A printed circuit board or integrated circuit
that installs in a standard microcomputer
system and provides a SCSI bus connection
so that SCSI devices can be connected to
the microcomputer.
K
KByte
Kilobyte. A measure of computer storage.
One KByte equals 1024 bytes. (A byte is the
amount of storage needed to hold one
character.)
L
Logical Drive
Any computer that emulates exactly the
IBM PC-AT and uses an ISA backplane bus.
A computer disk storage device that can be
addressed as a specific drive letter, such as
C or D. A single physical disk device, such
as a hard disk drive, can be partitioned into
two or more logical drives with different
drive letters.
Industry Standard Architecture
Logical Unit
See ISA.
A device that is addressed when an initiator (usually the host adapter) sends a Read
or Write command to a target. For example,
a tape drive is a target and the tape cartridge in the drive is the Logical Unit (LU).
Most SCSI targets have only one LU; a single SCSI target can have up to eight LUs.
I
IBM® PC-AT® Compatible
Initiator
A SCSI device that requests an operation to
be performed by another SCSI device (the
target). The initiator provides all the command information and parameters required
to perform the operation, but the target carries out the details of the operation. The
host adapter is usually called the initiator;
other devices on the SCSI bus, such as disk
drives, are called SCSI targets.
Logical Unit Number
An encoded 3-bit identifier for a logical
unit.
LU
See Logical Unit.
Interrupt Request Channel
See IRQ.
LUN
See Logical Unit Number.
IRQ
Interrupt Request Channel. An electrical
channel through which a hardware device
can send a message to get the immediate
attention of the computer’s Central Processing Unit (CPU).
ISA
Industry Standard Architecture. The type
of computer bus used in most computers.
An ISA bus enables expansion devices such
as network cards, video adapters, and
modems to send data to and receive data
from the computer’s CPU and memory
either 8 bits or 16 bits at a time. Expansion
devices are plugged into sockets in the
computer motherboard. ISA is sometimes
called the AT bus, because it was first used
in the IBM PC/AT.
M
MByte
Megabyte. A measure of computer storage.
One MByte equals 1,048,576 bytes. (A byte
is the amount of storage needed to hold one
character.)
O
Operating System
The software that controls the basic operation of the host computer. Examples are
MS-DOS®, UNIX® and Netware.
OS
See Operating System.
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P
Programmed Input/Output
PAL
Programmable Array Logic. Programmable
logic elements used for decoding and control functions.
Parity Checking
A SCSI feature used to verify whether data
has been transmitted correctly over the
SCSI bus. A check bit is added to each byte
of data to make the sum of all the 1 bits
either odd or even, depending on the protocol. If the sum of the bits is even when it
should be odd, or vice-versa, data has been
corrupted and an error message appears.
PC-AT
A family of small computers sold by IBM,
also called the Personal Computer-AT family of computers. The name is trademarked
by IBM.
PCMCIA
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. A widely accepted
industry standard for small form factor
add-in cards. Such add-in cards generally
fall into two categories: memory add-in
products and I/O add-in products.
Peripheral Device
Any optional input or output device, such
as a printer or CD-ROM drive, that connects to a computer’s CPU. For SCSI
peripherals this connection is made via the
SCSI bus.
PIO
See Programmed Input/Output.
A method of data transfer in which the host
microprocessor transfers data to and from
memory. PIO enables very fast data transfer
rates, especially in single-tasking operating
systems like DOS.
R
RAM
Random Access Memory. Memory of
which any byte can be accessed directly in a
single memory cycle. Information can be
read from and written to the memory.
ROM
Read-Only Memory. Memory in which any
byte can be read but not written.
S
SCSI
Small Computer Systems Interface. A bus
interface standard that defines physical and
electrical characteristics for hardware
devices. (The original SCSI standard is
sometimes called SCSI-1.) SCSI provides a
standard interface that enables many different kinds of devices, such as disk drives,
magneto-optical disks, CD-ROM drives,
and tape drives to interface with the host
computer.
SCSI-2
A computer bus interface standard that
adds features to the SCSI-1 standard.
Included among these features are 32-bit
data transfer, command queuing, Fast SCSI,
and support for a wider variety of peripheral devices.
SCSI Bus
Plug and Play
A hardware and software mechanism that
provides an automatic way for the system
to self configure and optimally allocate system resources such as memory, I/O ports,
IRQ, and DMA channels between Plug and
Play cards and other devices in the system.
One or more SCSI peripheral devices and a
host adapter, connected by cables in a
daisy-chain configuration. The bus may
include both internal and external SCSI
devices. In a computer with two or more
host adapters, each adapter has its own
separate SCSI bus.
Port Address
SCSI Device
Or I/O Port Address. A window through
which software programs send commands
to the host adapter board.
A device such as a host adapter, hard disk
drive, or CD-ROM drive that conforms to
the SCSI interface standard and is attached
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Glossary
to a SCSI bus cable. The device may be an
initiator, a target, or capable of both types
of operation.
SCSI ID
A unique identifier assigned to SCSI
devices that enables them to communicate
with a computer when they are attached to
a host adapter via the SCSI bus. Each SCSI
host adapter board has eight available SCSI
IDs with the numbers 0 through 7 (or 0
through 15 for Wide SCSI adapters).
Usually the host adapter itself is assigned
SCSI ID 7, and hard disk devices are
assigned to SCSI IDs 0 and 1.
Termination
A physical requirement of the SCSI bus.
The devices at the physical ends of the SCSI
bus must have terminating resistors either
installed or enabled; devices in the middle
of the bus must have terminating resistors
either removed or disabled. Proper termination allows electrical signals to be transmitted reliably on the SCSI bus.
W
Word
A 2-byte (16-bit) unit of data.
❒
SCSI Protocol Controller
A device that provides an input/output
interface between an ISA expansion bus
and a SCSI bus. Adaptec's AIC-6360 provide these functions on a single computer
chip.
Small Computer Systems Interface
See SCSI.
Synchronous Data Transfer
A high-speed data transfer method in
which data on the SCSI bus is clocked with
fixed-length, fixed-frequency strobe pulses.
The acknowledgments may be delayed several clock periods from the data requests.
Synchronous data transfer can be used only
for data transmission on the SCSI bus. It
cannot be used for Command, Message,
and Status transmission.
Synchronous Data Transfer Negotiation
The process in which the host adapter and
the peripherals on the SCSI bus negotiate
the data transfer frequency and the delay
between requests and acknowledgments.
This negotiation process is required for
synchronous data transfer.
T
Target (or Target Device)
A SCSI device that performs an operation
requested by an initiator. The initiator is
usually the host adapter. The target may be
a peripheral device such as a disk drive
performing a data transfer for an initiator.
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▼ ▼ ▼ ▼ ▼
Index
A
M
active termination 2-3
ASPI compatibility 1-4, 2-4
aspi2dos 3-4
asynchronous transfer 2-3
attribute memory 1-3, 5-5, 5-6
attribute memory space 2-3, 5-3, 5-4
mechanical specifications 3-3
metaformat 5-3
B
bus cycles 5-3
C
Card Information Structure 2-3, 5-3, 5-5
chip write protection 5-6
CIS
see Card Information Structure
compatibility 1-4
configuration option register 5-3, 5-4, 5-5
related documents 1-4
data path 3-3
differential devices 3-4
disconnect/reconnect 2-3
drain wire 4-5
S
E
electrical specifications 2-3, 3-3
Fast SCSI 1-3, 3-4
features 1-3
form factor 1-3, 2-3
H
PCMCIA bus reset 5-4
PCMCIA connector 3-3, 4-3, 4-6
PCMCIA socket
Type I 2-3
Type II 1-3, 2-3
Type II Extended 2-3
Type III 1-3, 2-3
Type IV, Toshiba 1-3, 2-3
Plug and Play 1-3, 5-7
power consumption 2-3, 3-3
power down mode 5-7
pull-up resistor 3-4
R
D
F
P
sample code 5-6
SCAM support 1-3, 5-7
SCSI arbitration 2-3
SCSI connector 3-3, 4-5, 4-6
SCSI devices
CD-ROM 1-3
hard disk 1-3
tape 1-3
SCSI protocol controller 2-3, 5-3, 5-4
SCSI-2 compliance 2-3
single-ended devices 3-4
synchronous transfer 2-3
hot swapping 2-3
I
I/O address 5-5
I/O cycles 5-4
interrupt channel 3-3, 5-4
IREQ signal 5-4
T
termination power 2-3, 3-3, 3-4, 4-5
transfer rate 3-3
❒
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