slides - ESA Microelectronics Section

slides - ESA Microelectronics Section
ESA Microprocessor Development
Status and Roadmap
Roland Weigand
European Space Agency
Microelectronics Section
DASIA 2011
Microelectronics Section
1
18-May-2011
ESA Microprocessor Development
DASIA 2011
Outline
• Microcontrollers
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Basic requirements
Candidate CPU architectures
Semiconductor Technology
Development activities
• LEON2 based standard components
– AT7913E status
– AT697 status
• LEON3 based SCOC3
– Status
– SW development
• LEON4 based NGMP development
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Architecture, features
First Silicon Implementation
History and Roadmap
Related activities
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2 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller General Requirements
• MESA Roundtable 11/2010: http://microelectronics.esa.int/cgi-bin/mesa.cgi
• Key requirement is to limit the overall system cost
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Affordable component price, low pin-count (<= 100) and easy-to-assemble package
No external RAM (~ 64 kByte on-chip) and – if possible – on-chip NV memory
Digital peripherals: I2C, SPI, SPW, CAN, 1553 (?)...
Analog peripherals: ADC, DAC, PWM / AWG, oscillator / PLL, voltage regulator
CPU Core selection (e.g. LEONs, AVR, XAP, ARM, PIC, Opencores...)
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Predictable CPU, caches are often not desired
Availability (and cost) of SW development tools
Adequate size of data path: 16 bit (preferred) or 32 bit (code density!)
Good code density to operate from embedded memory
Source code availability at ESA for support and inspection required
Availability as an IP-core for other implementations desired
• Environmental requirements
– TID (>= 50 krad), SEE tolerance fully user transparent (no SW scrubbing)
– Low power consumption, single rail supply
– Space qualified component (flow TBD: QML-Q/V, ESCC, MIL-883)
Microelectronics Section
3 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller Core Candidates (LEON2-FT)
• Advantages
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Available from ESA in full VHDL source code
No more licensing restrictions with respect to ASIC technology
Amba internal bus ready to connect existing peripheral IP cores
V8uC” activity with Sitael to remove caches (separate conference paper)
Compiler chain available in open source (GCC)
Well known to the space community
• Drawbacks
– 32-bit architecture might be oversized for most uC applications
– Poor code density (register windows, 32-bit addresses)
– Debug monitor (GRMON) not a free tool
Microelectronics Section
4 18-May-2011
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DASIA 2011
Microcontroller Core Candidates (LEON3-FT)
• Advantages
– European source (Aeroflex Gaisler), excellent support
– Amba internal bus ready to connect existing peripheral IP cores
– Compiler chain available in open source (GCC)
– Cache-less operation possible
– Well known to the
space community
– Flying on RTAX
FPGA devices
• Drawbacks
– Proprietary IP core, licence conditions, cost, source code availability TBD
– 32-bit architecture might be oversized for most uC applications
– Poor code density (register windows, 32-bit addresses)
– Debug monitor (GRMON) not a free tool
Microelectronics Section
5 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller Core Candidates (AVR)
• Advantages
– One of the leading microcontroller architectures worldwide
– European source IP core (Atmel Norway)
– Better code density than LEON2
– Many tools available from different
vendors or open source
http://www.bdmicro.com/devtools/
• Drawbacks
– 8-bit AVR not sufficient
– 32-bit AVR might be oversized for most uC applications
– Proprietary IP, licence conditions, cost and source code
availability TBD (open source clones of AVR8 exist)
– On-chip peripheral interface TBD
Microelectronics Section
6 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller Core Candidates (XAP)
• Advantages
– XAP4 16-bit architecture most suitable to requirements
– 64 kByte addressable memory fits requirements
– European source IP core (Cambridge Consultants, UK)
– Very good code density
– Supplier has shown interest
in space activities
– Evaluated in an ESA study
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Drawbacks
– Closed source Verilog IP core
– licence conditions and cost TBD
– Proprietary SW tools
– On-chip peripheral interface TBD
Microelectronics Section
7 18-May-2011
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DASIA 2011
Microcontroller Core Candidates (ARM)
• Advantages
– One of the leading embedded microcontroller architectures worldwide
– European source IP core
– Amba internal bus ready to connect existing peripheral IP cores
– ARM has shown interest in radiation
hardening activities
– SW tool chains widely available,
commercial and open source
• Drawbacks
– Code density of 32-bit ARM
(Thumb is better)
– Proprietary IP core
Source code usually not
disclosed
Microelectronics Section
8 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller Core Candidates (PIC)
• Advantages
– Open source IP: http://opencores.org/project,16f84
– Popular microcontroller
– Used by ÅAC Microtec in its Nano-RTU
– Development tools from various sources (free, open, commercial)
– Used by CNES (Myriade)
• Drawbacks
– Limited performance (8-bit)
– Open-source IP maturity
is questionable
– Legal implications of using
open-source IP
– On-chip peripheral interface TBD
Microelectronics Section
9 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller Core Candidates (OpenMSP430)
• Advantages
– Open source Verilog IP (LGPL licence)
http://opencores.org/project,openmsp430
– Compatible with TI MSP430 (follow-up of PDP-11)
– Many tools available from different vendors or open source
– 16-bit processor fits requirements
– 64 kB memory fits requirements
• Drawbacks
– Maturity of open-source IP TBD
– Legal implications of using
open-source IP TBD
– On-chip peripheral interface TBD
Microelectronics Section
10 18-May-2011
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DASIA 2011
Microcontroller Core Candidates (OpenRISC1200)
• Advantages
– Open source IP: http://opencores.org/openrisc,or1200
– Fault tolerant version exists and due to fly on an US satellite
http://opencores.org/newsletter,2010,09,#n5
– Proposed in an ESA activity by ÅAC Microtec
• Drawbacks
– Targeting higher performance:
32-bit CPU with 5-stage pipeline,
caches, MMU...
– On-chip peripheral interface TBD
– Maturity of open-source IP TBD
– Legal implications of using
open-source IP TBD
Microelectronics Section
11 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller Core Code Density Comparison
[V.M. Weaver, S.A. McKee, Code Density Concerns for New Architectures, ICCD09]
Code size of a given set of applications compiled for various architectures
• No extreme differences of code size, but
– PDP-11 (= OpenMSP430?) and AVR32 have higher code density
– SPARC, ARM are less optimal
• To be re-done with candidate CPU's and space-specific applications
• Comparison in an ESA study for power-control applications
– Identified XAP4 and OpenMSP430 (both 16-bit) as optimal
– LEON2 (32-bit) and 8032 (8-bit) have much higher code size
Microelectronics Section
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Microcontroller Core Candidates (Summary)
• Some candidates are more likely to be discarded
– ARM (cost of source code access, hardening to be done)
– PIC, AVR8 (lack of performance)
– OpenRISC (overdimensioned, questionable maturity)
– LEON3-FT (code density, cost of source code access TBD)
– LEON2-FT (code density, no cache-less operation possible)
• Remaining candidates need additional clarification / assessment
– AVR32, XAP4: Licensing conditions, source code availability and cost
– LEON2-V8uC: Maturity of the IP core, code density remains a problem
– OpenMSP430: IPR associated to the architecture
• Additional investigation required on all candidates
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Performance versus power consumption
Code density, gate count
Integration with peripheral IP cores
SW tool chains (availability, quality, cost)
Non-technical (licensing, cost, support)
Microelectronics Section
13 18-May-2011
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Semiconductor Technologies for Microcontrollers (1)
• Requirements
– Mixed signal capability
– Integration of a large amount of RAM
– SEU hardened standard cell library
– Non-volatile memory (NVM) desirable
– High-voltage (5 – 15V) IO's desirable
– Space qualification (process capability or wafer lot qualification)
• DARE-UMC 180 nm
– Mixed signal capability available
– Area and power consuming library, limitiations in memory compiler
– 90 nm could bring improvement, but funding currently on-hold
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Atmel 180 nm
– No analog design kits currently available
– Opening to mixed signal announced (P. Sauvage, ESCCON 2011
https://escies.org/GetFile?rsrcid=49199)
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Semiconductor Technologies for Microcontrollers (2)
• LFoundry 150 nm
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Mixed signal, 5V IO and NVM available
ESCC Space process capability study with DLR and Tesat
http://www.dlr.de/qp/en/desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-3091/4699_read-6881/
Radiation hardened standard cell library currently not available
Switch to 150 nm announced by Atmel
• Ramon Chips (Tower 180 nm)
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SEU hardened library available for 180 nm, 130 nm in preparation
Mixed signal capability
Device qualification possible (MIL-STD-883)
Cooperation agreement between ESA and Israel
Embedded NVM TBD
Export licence and commercial availability to be clarified
XFAB 180 nm
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Mixed signal, 5V IO and NVM available
Radiation hardened standard cell library currently not available
No space experience so far, but radiation evaluation and the
development of a rad-hard library proposed in an ESA activity
==> this is considered as a long term activity
Microelectronics Section
15 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller Development Activities at ESA
• V8UC development with Sitael – ongoing, to be closed by the end of 2011
– Cache-less version of LEON2FT – separate presentation at this conference
• Microcontroller-2015 (ref. # T701-317ED, TRP workplan 2011 - 2013)
– Open competition, to be released after further internal investigation
• Process Portable Mixed-Signal Micro-controller peripherals
– Network Partnering Initiative (NPI) with University of Seville (proposed, TBC)
• Qualification of Microcontroller planned under ECI3/4 (not yet approved)
• Radiation hardened Digital Power Controller (ETCA)
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Artes 5.2 with ETCA, feasibility study done, follow-up to be decided
http://microelectronics.esa.int/conferences/mesa2010/08_S2_1200_ETCA_Marc_Fossion.pdf
• HBRISC3 – Hardened Bi-RISC processor (SABCA)
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Cacheless, fully deterministic, linear program flow, dual FPU
Dedicated to hard real-time motor control
HBRISC2 developed in early 2000's, used in Vega
HBRISC3 developed for the Ariane 5 ME thrust vector control (TVC) unit
Standard component “Control Loop Processor” -- currently no funding
http://microelectronics.esa.int/conferences/mesa2010/05_S2_1100_SABCA_Marco_Ruiz.pdf
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Motion Control Chip (Aeroflex Gaisler, ÅAC Microtec, CSEM)
– TRP activity – separate presentation at this conference
Microelectronics Section
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Microcontroller – Conclusion (1)
• WHICH Processor IP?
Additional
investigation
at ESA
• WHICH Semiconductor technology?
Microelectronics Section
required
17 18-May-2011
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Microcontroller – Conclusion (2)
possible answers...
• WHICH Processor IP?
– Preferably ESA or open source IP or (LEON2FT, V8UC,
OpenMSP)
– Commercial IP (AVR, LEON3FT, XAP4), provided that source
code is delivered and an agreement is reached on conditions
and cost (access, maintenance, technical support)
• WHICH Semiconductor technology?
– Ramon Chips 180 attractive solution
• commercial availability to be clarified
– DARE 180 as a back-up
– Atmel and XFAB possible long term solutions
• pending qualification and development of rad-hard library
Microelectronics Section
18 18-May-2011
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DASIA 2011
LEON2FT based Microprocessors - AT7913E
• “Spacewire Remote Terminal Controller”
– Established on Atmel catalog, brief data sheet and SMD available
http://www.atmel.com/dyn/products/product_card.asp?part_id=4595
– Full user manual not yet available from Atmel, but provided at ESA site:
http://microelectronics.esa.int/components/AT7913E_UserManual-2-4.pdf
– Californium SEU testing performed at ESA
Heavy Ion test campaign planned with Atmel
– First missions:
BepiColombo, SolarOrbiter
Microelectronics Section
19 18-May-2011
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LEON2FT based Microprocessors - AT697
• Standard microprocessor based on LEON2FT with PCI 2.2 interface
– Established on Atmel catalog:
AT697E: http://www.atmel.com/dyn/products/product_card.asp?part_id=3178
AT697F: http://www.atmel.com/dyn/products/product_card.asp?part_id=4599
– Electrical Characterisation and SEU testing completed
– Preliminary “Advance Information” data sheets available
– Final release data sheets at
internal review (ESA/Atmel)
to be published soon
– Evaluation boards available
– ESCC evaluation/qualification:
to be completed this summer
– Selected by numerous projects
Orders booked since 2009:
626 EM (TSC695 ~ 1300)
376 FM (TSC695 ~ 2900)
– Backlog decreasing
– Packages LGA349, MQFP256
MCGA not available any more
Microelectronics Section
20 18-May-2011
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LEON3FT based Microprocessors - SCOC3
• Spacecraft Controller On-a Chip
http://www.astrium.eads.net/node.php?articleid=5360
– Electrical Characterisation completed
– Initial SW development by Astrium progressing
– SEU testing to be performed
– First missions: SEOSAT and ASTROTERRA (SPOT 6/7)
– Follow-up activities (ITTs to be released soon)
• On-board computer for planetary landers (MREP)
• SCOC3 SW support (BSP/drivers under Edisoft RTEMS 4.8.0 and ECSS software
standards (TRP)
– Comprehensive data-sheet/user manual available
– To be established as standard component,
commercialisation commitment from Astrium,
but no EM parts are available from Atmel
– FPGA-based Evaluation board (STARKIT)
developed under CNES contract
(separate paper at this conference)
– Package: LGA472 with 6-sigma columns (currently
assembled in the US, to be transferred to Europe)
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SCOC3 block diagram
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Next Generation Microprocessor (history)
• Preliminary study with the GINA project based on LEON3-SMP [DASIA 2006]
– ALR Pouponnot: “A Giga INstruction Architecture (GINA)”
ftp://ftp.estec.esa.nl/pub/wm/wme/Web/Gina2006.pdf
• Microprocessor roundtables 09/2006 and 11/2009
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http://conferences.esa.int/01C25/Microprocessors (access: cpulink/cpu4space)
http://microelectronics.esa.int/cgi-bin/mpsa.cgi
• NGMP development under TRP contract kicked off in June 2009
– PDR (verified VHDL-RTL) achieved in December 2010
– Preliminary Datasheet and Verification Report available
http://microelectronics.esa.int/ngmp/ngmp.htm
– FPGA prototypes on various boards available to the user community
– Activity includes development of SW environment (BSP, compiler, GRMON)
– Design is ready for synthesis in target technology
– Currently on hold because ST 65 nm space libraries not available
Microelectronics Section
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Next Generation Microprocessor (features)
• Key features of the NGMP architecture
– Upgrade from LEON3 to LEON4
• L2 cache, 128-bit AHB processor bus, Branch prediction
– 4 CPU cores with two shared FPUs (baseline)
– Multiple AHB bus structure to decouple IO and debug transfer
– Full MMU protection for processor and DMA IO peripherals
– Timer and interrupt infrastructure supporting AMP configurations
– Enhanced debug features
• DSU, trace buffers on PCI/AHB, performance counters
– Debug link via Ethernet, JTAG, USB or RMAP
– 64-bit DDR2 / SDRAM / PROM memory interface with background scrubbing unit
– High-Speed-Serial link interfaces (based on ST HSSL, details TBD)
– Spacewire router with 8 external Spacewire ports and 4 internal AHB DMA ports
– PCI 2.3 32-bit 66 MHz link
– 2 Ethernet links
– UARTs
– GPIOs
Microelectronics Section
24 18-May-2011
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Next Generation Microprocessor (block diagram)
Microelectronics Section
25 18-May-2011
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Next Generation Microprocessor (detailed block diagram)
Microelectronics Section
26 18-May-2011
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Next Generation Microprocessor (roadmap)
• Manufacture and test of prototypes in (non rad-hard) commercial technology
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TRP contract kicked off in April 2011, planned duration is 1 year
Target technology eASIC Nextreme-2 ( 45 nm structured ASIC)
Implementation at target speed (goal 400 MHz)
Evaluation boards will be available to the user community
Next phase: Proto-FM in target technology
– Budget approved in TRP work-plan 2011 – 2013 (T701-302ED)
– Includes radiation and functional validation
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On-hold: ST 65 nm space library not yet available
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Final phase: FM in target technology
– Manufacturing of flight models with bugfixes and user feedback
– Currently no funding (ECI...?)
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Related SW activities (TRP 2011 - 2013)
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System Impact of Distributed Multicore Systems (Hypervisor), ongoing
Development Environment for Future Leon Multi-core (T702-302SW)
Emulators of future NGMP multicore processors (T702-304SW)
Schedulability analysis techniques/tools for cached/multicore processors (T702308SW)
Microelectronics Section
27 18-May-2011
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Conclusion / Outlook
• ERC32 is a successful processor – and a mature product
• AT697 is almost ready, and already becoming a success story
– Atmel has full order books
– Logistic bottleneck improving, but yet to be fully recovered
– Documentation and support to be worked on
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SCOC3 in overall a successful development
– Commercialisation as standard ASIC to be consolidated
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Radiation testing to be performed
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Europeanisation of the 6-sigma columns
NGMP is progressing very well (on schedule)
– Key challenge is availability of the ST 65 nm space ASIC technology
– Backup (e.g. DARE 90 or Ramon 130) uncertain (funding!), possible performance degradation
• Microcontroller: 8032 is obsolete, a new microcontroller is key challenge for the coming years
– Mixed signal ASIC technology ??? - Mixed signal peripheral development
– Selection of processor IP (technical and non-technical criteria)
– ESA internal consolidation of main baselines before ITT
• Development of companion chips should be undertaken, for example:
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Spacecraft Management Unit (SMU) Core ASIC as companion chip to NGMP or AT697
• GSTP activity in preparation with RUAG Sweden
Microelectronics Section
28 18-May-2011
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