Chapter 34 Sediment reference manual

Chapter 34 Sediment reference manual

Chapter 34

Sediment reference manual

34.1

External routines

34.1.1

Allocate Sediment Arrays.f90

allocate sed arrays

SUBROUTINE allocate sed arrays

File

Allocate Sediment Arrays.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Allocate sediment arrays

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

deallocate sed arrays

SUBROUTINE deallocate sed arrays

File

Allocate Sediment Arrays.f90

1463

1464 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Deallocate sediment arrays

Arguments

None

Calling procedures simulation end

34.1.2

Sediment Bottom Fluxes.F90

bottom flux sed

SUBROUTINE bottom flux sed

File

Sediment Bottom Fluxes.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Bottom sediment flux

Reference

Sections 7.6.3 and 7.7.1

Arguments

None

Called external procedures

bottom stress waves

Calling procedures

sediment advdiff, sediment suspendedload, sediment totalload

bottom stress sed

SUBROUTINE bottom stress sed

File

Sediment Bottom Fluxes.f90

34.1. EXTERNAL ROUTINES

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Bottom (skin) stress as used in the sediment transport module

Arguments

None

Calling procedures

sediment equation

1465

bottom stress waves

SUBROUTINE bottom stress waves

CHARACTER (LEN=lennode), INTENT(IN):: cnode

File

Sediment Bottom Fluxes.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Wave-induced bottom stresses

Arguments cnode grid node where the total stress is evaluated

Calling procedures

bottom flux sed, sediment bedload, sediment totalload

critical shear stress

SUBROUTINE critial shear stress

File

Sediment Bottom Fluxes.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Critical shear stress

1466 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

Reference

Section 7.6.4.2

Arguments

None

Calling procedures

sediment equation

34.1.3

Sediment Density Equations.F90

baroclinic gradient sed cubic

SUBROUTINE baroclinic gradient sed cubic(zcoord,dzx,dzy,dzz,cdir)

CHARACTER (LEN=1) :: cdir

REAL, INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(0:ncloc+1,0:nrloc+1,nz) :: dzx, dzy, dzz

REAL, INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(1-nhalo:ncloc+nhalo,&

& 1-nhalo:nrloc+nhalo,nz) :: zcoord

File

Sediment Density Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Sediment component of the baroclinic pressure gradient (cube-H method)

Reference

Sections 5.3.13.3 and equation (7.22)

Arguments zcoord dzx dzy dzz cdir

Z -coordinate at W-nodes

Harmonic derivative of the X -coordinate

Harmonic derivative of the Y -coordinate

Harmonic derivative of the Z -coordinate

Direction of the gradient ( ‘X’, ‘Y’ )

Called external procedures hcube deriv, hcube fluxes

Calling procedures baroclinic gradient

[m]

34.1. EXTERNAL ROUTINES 1467

baroclinic gradient sed sigma

SUBROUTINE baroclinic gradient sed sigma(zcoord,cdir)

CHARACTER (LEN=1), INTENT(IN) :: cdir

REAL, INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(1-nhalo:ncloc+nhalo,&

& 1-nhalo:nrloc+nhalo,nz) :: zcoord

File

Sediment Density Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Sediment component of the baroclinic pressure gradient (second order method)

Reference

Sections 5.3.13.1 and equation (7.22)

Arguments zcoord cdir

Z -coordinate array at the W-nodes

Direction of the gradient ( ‘X’, ‘Y’ )

Calling procedures baroclinic gradient

[m]

baroclinic gradient sed z

SUBROUTINE barcolinic gradient sed z(sigint,kint,cdir)

CHARACTER (LEN=1) :: cdir

INTEGER, INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc,2:nz+1,2) :: kint

REAL, INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc,2:nz+1,2) :: sigint

File

Sediment Density Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Sediment component of the baroclinic density gradient (Z-level method)

1468 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

Reference

Sections 5.3.13.2 and equation (7.22)

Arguments sigint kint cdir

Interpolated sigma coordinates

Counter for the interpolated coordinates

Direction of the gradient ( ‘X’, ‘Y’ )

Calling procedures baroclinic gradient

buoyancy frequency sed

SUBROUTINE buoyancy frequency sed(bgrad)

REAL, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(0:ncloc+1,0:nrloc+1,2:nz) :: bgrad

File

Sediment Density Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Sediment contribution to the squared buoyancy frequency N

2

Reference

Equation (7.20)

Arguments bgrad (Non-averaged) buoyancy gradient

Calling procedures buoyancy frequency

[1/s

2

]

equation of state sed

SUBROUTINE equation of state sed

File

Sediment Density Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

34.1. EXTERNAL ROUTINES

Purpose

Density and expansion coefficients of a water-sediment mixture

Reference

Section 7.2.3

Arguments

None

Calling procedures equation of state

1469

34.1.4

Sediment Equations.F90

ackerswhite params

SUBROUTINE ackerswhite params(dstar,maskvals,nw,mw,aw,cw)

LOGICAL, INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(1:ncloc,1:nrloc), :: maskvals

REAL, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(1:ncloc,1:nrloc) :: dstar

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(1:ncloc,1:nrloc) :: aw, cw, mw, nw

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Parameters for the Ackers & White (1973) formula

Reference

Equation (7.91)

Arguments dstar Dimensionless particle diameter d

∗ maskvals Mask array to exclude dry points nw, mw, aw, cw Parameters for the Ackers & White (1973) formula

Calling procedures

sediment suspendedload, sediment totalload

1470 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

bartnicki filter

SUBROUTINE bartnicki filter(psic,novars,ivarid)

INTEGER,INTENT(IN):: ivarid, novars

REAL, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(1-nhalo:ncloc+nhalo,&

& 1-nhalo:nrloc+nhalo,nz,novars) :: psic

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Apply the Bartnicki filter to a scalar field to eliminate negative values

Reference

Section 7.7.4

Arguments psic novars ivarid

C-node scalar quantity

Size of last “variable” dimension

Key id of psic

Calling procedures

sediment advdiff

[ psic ]

bed slope arrays

SUBROUTINE bed slope arrays

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Bed slopes at different grid nodes

Arguments

None

Calling procedures

sediment equation

34.1. EXTERNAL ROUTINES

beta factor

SUBROUTINE beta factor

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Ratio of sediment diffusivity to eddy viscosity β

Reference

Equation (7.136)

Arguments

None

Calling procedures

sediment advdiff

diff coef waves

SUBROUTINE diff coef waves

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Sediment diffusivity including wave effects

Reference

Section 7.6.4.2

Arguments

None

Called external procedures

bottom stress waves

Calling procedures

sediment advdiff

1471

1472 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

equilibrium concentration

SUBROUTINE equilibrium concentration

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Determine equilibrium concentration c a

Reference

Section 7.6.3

Arguments

None

Called external procedures

equilibrium timescale, sediment suspendedload

Calling procedures

sediment advdiff

equilibrium timescale

SUBROUTINE equilibrium timescale

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Determine dimensionless equilibrium time scale T e

Reference

Equations (7.130)–(7.133)

Arguments

None

Calling procedures

equilibrium concentration

34.1. EXTERNAL ROUTINES 1473

median particle diameter

SUBROUTINE median particle diameter

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Calculates the median particle diameter d

50 from a size distribution

Arguments

None

Calling procedures

sediment equation

sediment advdiff

SUBROUTINE sediment advdiff

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Solves the advection-diffusion transport equations for each size fraction

Reference

Section 7.6

Arguments

None

Called external procedures

bartnicki filter,

beta factor,

bottom flux sed,

define profobc spec,

diff coef waves,

equilibrium concentration,

open boundary conds prof,

settling velocity,

transport at C 4d1, transport at C 4d2, update nest data prof, update profobc data

Calling procedures

sediment equation

1474 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

sediment bedload

SUBROUTINE sediment bedload

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Apply one of the formulations for bed load transport

Reference

Section 7.4

Arguments

None

Called external procedures

bottom stress waves

Calling procedures

sediment equation, sediment totalload

sediment equation

SUBROUTINE sediment equation

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Main sediment routine

Reference

Chapter 7

Arguments

None

34.1. EXTERNAL ROUTINES 1475

Called external procedures

bed slope arrays,

bottom stress sed,

critical shear stress,

kinematic viscosity,

median particle diameter, sediment advdiff,

sedi-

ment bedload, sediment totalload

Calling procedures coherens main, initialise model

sediment suspendedload

SUBROUTINE sediment suspendedload

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Apply one of the formulations for suspended load

Reference

Section 7.5

Arguments

None

Called external procedures

ackerswhite params,

bottom flux sed, bottom flux sed,

thetastar engelund hansen

Calling procedures

equilibrium concentration, sediment equation

sediment totalload

SUBROUTINE sediment totalload

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

1476 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

Purpose

Apply one of the formulations for total load

Reference

Section 7.5

Arguments

None

Called external procedures

ackerswhite params, bottom flux sed, sediment bedload, settling velocity, thetastar engelund hansen

Calling procedures

sediment equation

settling velocity

SUBROUTINE settling velocity

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Apply one of the formulations for the settling velocity

Reference

Section 7.3.3

Arguments

None

Calling procedures

sediment advdiff, sediment totalload

thetastar engelund hansen

SUBROUTINE thetastar engelund hansen(theta,mask,thetastar)

REAL, INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc) :: theta

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc) :: thetastar

LOGICAL, INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc) :: mask

34.1. EXTERNAL ROUTINES 1477

File

Sediment Equations.F90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Computes θ

∗ in the Engelund & Hansen (1967) formula

Reference

Equation (7.87)

Arguments theta Shields parameter thetastar Modified Shields parameter for Engelund & Hansen (1967) formula mask Mask to exclude dry points

Calling procedures

sediment suspendedload, sediment totalload

34.1.5

Sediment Finalisation.f90

write sedics

SUBROUTINE write sedics

File

Sediment Finalisation.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Write the initial conditions for sediments to a file in standard COHE-

RENS format.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures coherens main, initialise model

1478 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

write sed spec

SUBROUTINE write sed spec

File

Sediment Finalisation.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Write the particle attributes to a file in standard COHERENS format.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.1.6

Sediment Initialisation.f90

exchange sedics

SUBROUTINE exchange sedics

File

Sediment Initialisation.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Perform exchange communications for sediment arrays, storing the initial conditions into the respective halos.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.1. EXTERNAL ROUTINES

initialise sediment arrays

SUBROUTINE initialise sediment arrays

1479

File

Sediment Initialisation.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Initialise a series of sediment arrays, not obtained from the initial conditions file.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

read sedics

SUBROUTINE read sedics

File

Sediment Initialisation.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Read the initial conditions for sediments from a file in standard CO-

HERENS format.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

1480 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

read sed spec

SUBROUTINE read sed spec

File

Sediment Initialisation.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Read the particle attributes from a file in standard COHERENS format.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.1.7

Sediment Parameters.f90

assign cif vars sed

SUBROUTINE assign cif vars sed(cname,cvals,numvars)

CHARACTER (LEN=lenname), INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL :: cname

CHARACTER (LEN=lencifvar), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(MaxCIFvars) :: cvals

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: numvars

File

Sediment Parameters.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Convert a data string from a CIF input line to the appropriate numerical, logical or character values of the corresponding sediment variables.

Reference

Section 9.4

Arguments cname cvals

Variable name(s)

Data values in string format

34.2. MODULE ROUTINES 1481 numvars Number of sediment variables read from the CIF input line

Calling procedures read cif params

write cif vars sed

SUBROUTINE write cif vars sed

File

Sediment Parameters.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Write the CIF for sediment model setup.

Reference

Section 9.4

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.2

Module routines

34.2.1

check sediments.f90

check sed ics

SUBROUTINE check sedics

File check sediments.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Check initial conditions for sediments, as e.g. defined in usrdef sedics .

1482 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

check sed params

SUBROUTINE check sed params

File check sediments.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Check setup parameters and switches for the sediment model setup, as e.g. defined in usrdef sed params .

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.2.1.1

default sediments.f90

default sedics

SUBROUTINE default sedics

File default sediments.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Set the default initial conditions for the sediment model.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.2. MODULE ROUTINES

default sed params

SUBROUTINE default sed params

File default sediments.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Default settings of sediment parameters and switches

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.2.2

reset sediments.f90

reset sedics

SUBROUTINE reset sedics

File reset sediments.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Reset the initial conditions of the sediment model where needed.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

1483

1484 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

reset sed params

SUBROUTINE reset sed params

File reset sediments.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Reset the parameters and switches of the sediment model where needed.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.2.3

sediment output.f90

define sed0d int2d

SUBROUTINE define sed0d int2d(ivarid,f,out2d)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, ivarid

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc) :: out2d

File sediment output.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Define 2-D sediment data for area integrated/averaged output.

Arguments f ivarid out2d

Variable key id

Fraction number (if needed)

Data area as defined on the model grid

Calling procedures define out0d vals

34.2. MODULE ROUTINES

define sed0d int3d

SUBROUTINE define sed0d int3d(ivarid,f,out3d)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, ivarid

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc,nz) :: out3d

File sediment output.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Define 3-D sediment data for area integrated/averaged output.

Arguments ivarid f out3d

Variable key id

Fraction number (if needed)

Data area as defined on the model grid

Calling procedures define out0d vals

define sed0d vals

SUBROUTINE define sed0d vals(ivarid,f,outdat)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, ivarid

REAL, INTENT(OUT) :: outdat

File sediment output.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Define 0-D sediment output data.

Arguments ivarid f outdat

Variable key id

Fraction number (if needed)

Returned output data value

Calling procedures define out0d vals

1485

1486 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

define sed2d int1d

SUBROUTINE define sed2d int1d(ivarid,i,j,f,nzdim,out1d)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, i, ivarid, j, nzdim

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(nzdim) :: out1d

File sediment output.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Define sediment data for vertically integrated/averaged output.

Arguments f j i ivarid nzdim out1d

Variable key id

X-index of the output location

Y-index of the output location

Fraction number (if needed)

(Vertical) size of the profile

Returned vertical profile data

Calling procedures define out2d vals

define sed2d vals

SUBROUTINE define out2d vals(ivarid,i,j,f,outdat)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, i, ivarid, j

REAL, INTENT(OUT) :: outdat

File sediment output.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Define 2-D sediment output data at a given location.

Arguments

34.2. MODULE ROUTINES f j i ivarid outdat

Calling procedures define out2d vals

Variable key id

X-index of the output location

Y-index of the output location

Fraction number (if needed)

Returned output data

1487

define sed3d vals

SUBROUTINE define sed3d vals(ivarid,i,j,k,f,cnode,outdat)

CHARACTER (LEN=lennode), INTENT(IN) :: cnode

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, i, ivarid, j, k

REAL, INTENT(OUT) :: outdat

File sediment output.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Define 3-D output data at a given location.

Arguments j i f ivarid k cnode

Variable key id

X-index of the output location

Y-index of the output location vertical index of the output location

Fraction number (if needed)

Defines the vertical node, i.e.

’C’ or ’W’ , where a W-node quantity is evaluated (see Section 20.1.1.1 for details)

Returned output data outdat

Calling procedures define out2d vals, define out3d vals

1488 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

34.2.4

sedvars routines.f90

inquire sedvar

SUBROUTINE inquire sedvar(varid,f90 name,long name,units,node,vector name,&

& data type,nodim,shape,dom dims,halo size,varatts)

CHARACTER (LEN=lenname), INTENT(OUT) :: f90 name

CHARACTER (LEN=lendesc), INTENT(OUT) :: long name, vector name

CHARACTER (LEN=lenunit), INTENT(OUT) :: units

CHARACTER (LEN=lennode), INTENT(OUT) :: node

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: varid

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT) :: data type, nodim

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(4) :: dom dims, halo size, shape

TYPE (VariableAtts), INTENT(OUT) :: varatts

File sedvars routines.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Returns attributes of a sediment array variable given its variable key id.

Arguments varid Variable key id f90 name Returned FORTRAN 90 name attribute long name Returned long name attribute units Returned units attribute node Returned grid node where the variable is defined on the model grid vector name Returned vector name attribute data type Returned data type attribute nodim shape

Returned array rank

Returned array shape dom dims Returned array shape without halo halo size Returned halo sizes varatts Variable attributes returned as a variable of type VariableAtts

34.2. MODULE ROUTINES

Calling procedures inquire var

1489

set sedfiles atts

SUBROUTINE set sedfiles atts(iddesc,ifil,iotype)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iddesc, ifil, iotype

File sedvars routines.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Define the global attributes of a forcing file for the sediment model.

Arguments iddesc ifil iotype

Forcing file key id

File number of the forcing file

I/O type of the forcing file

1: Input file

2: Output file

Calling procedures set modfiles atts

set sedvars atts

SUBROUTINE set sedvars atts(iddesc,ifil,ivarid,nrank,nshape,numvarsid,novars)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iddesc, ifil, novars

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(novars) :: ivarid, nrank, numvarsid

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(novars,4) :: nshape

File sedvars routines.f90

Type

Module subroutine

Purpose

Define the variable attributes of a forcing file for the sediment model.

1490 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

Arguments iddesc ifil ivarid nrank

Forcing file key id

File number of the forcing file

Returned variable key idids

Returned variable ranks nshape Returned variable shapes numvarsid Returned variable indices in case the last dimension is a variable dimension, undefined otherwise novars Number of variables (coordinate plus data) in the forcing file

Calling procedures set modvars atts

34.3

User defined routines

34.3.1

Usrdef Sediment.f90

usrdef sed params

SUBROUTINE usrdef sed params

File

Usrdef Sediment.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Define switches and parameters for the sediment model.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

34.4. SEDIMENT MODEL VARIABLES

usrdef sedics

SUBROUTINE usrdef sedics

File

Usrdef Sediment.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Define initial conditions for the sediment model.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

usrdef sed spec

SUBROUTINE usrdef sed spec

File

Usrdef Sediment.f90

Type

Subroutine

Purpose

Define particle attributes for the sediment fractions.

Arguments

None

Calling procedures initialise model

1491

34.4

Sediment model variables

34.4.1

Sediment arrays

REAL, ALLOCATABLE, DIMENSION(:) :: dp, rhos, tau cr cst, ws cst

REAL, ALLOCATABLE, DIMENSION(:,:) :: bdragcoefatc sed, bdragcoefatu sed, &

1492 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

& bdragcoefatv sed, bed_slope x, bed_slope x atu, bed_slope x atv, &

& bed slope_y, bed slope y atu, bed slope y atv, bstresatc sed, &

& bstresatc wav, bstresatu wav, bstresatv wav, d50 bed, ubstresatc sed, &

& ubstresatu sed, ubstresatv sed, vbstresatc sed, vbstresatu sed, &

& vbstresatv sed, zroughatc sed, zroughatu sed, zroughatv sed

REAL, ALLOCATABLE, DIMENSION(:,:,:) :: bed fraction, beta sed, &

& bottom sed flux, ceq, cref, ctot, height c, qbedatu, qbedatv, &

& qsusatc, qtotatu, qtotatv, tau cr, t equil

INTEGER, ALLOCATABLE, DIMENSION(:,:,:) :: cell layer

REAL, ALLOCATABLE, DIMENSION(:,:,:,:) :: beta state sed, cvol, sedsrcuser, &

& obcsedatu, obcsedatv

& vdiffcoef_sed, wfall

File sedarrays.f90

Type

Module

Purpose

Sediment arrrays

Description bdragcoefatc sed Bottom drag coefficient at the C-nodes using skin roughness bdragcoefatu sed Bottom drag coefficient at the U-nodes using skin roughness bdragcoefatv sed Bottom drag coefficient at the V-nodes using skin roughness bed fraction Fractional amounts of sediments at the sea bed (between 0 and 1) bed slope x Bed slope in the X-direction at the C-nodes bed slope x atu Bed slope in the X-direction at the U-nodes bed slope x atv Bed slope in the X-direction at the V-nodes bed slope y Bed slope in the Y-direction at the C-nodes bed slope y atu Bed slope in the Y-direction at the U-nodes bed slope y atv Bed slope in the Y-direction at the V-nodes

34.4. SEDIMENT MODEL VARIABLES 1493 beta sed beta state sed Expansion factor β c fraction) in equation of state (per sediment

[m

3

/m

3

] bottom sed flux Upward net sediment flux at the sea bed E

D per fraction [m/s] bstresatc sed

Ratio between sediment eddy diffusivity and eddy viscosity β bstresatc wav

Bed shear stress using skin roughness at the C-nodes

[m

2

/s

2

]

Bed shear stress due to wave effects at the C-nodes

[m

2

/s

2

] bstresatu wav Bed shear stress due to wave effects at the U-nodes

[m

2

/s

2

] bstresatv wav Bed shear stress due to wave effects at the V-nodes

[m

2

/s

2

] cell layer The vertical layer (cell) for applying the bottom sediment flux ceq cref

Equilibrium sediment concentration c eq

[m

3

/m

3

]

(per fraction)

Near bed reference sediment concentration c a per fraction

(at height c )

[m

3

/m

3

] ctot cvol dp d50 bed height c

Volumetric sediment concentration (sum over all fractions) [m

3

/m

3

]

Volumetric sediment concentration c (per sediment fraction) [m

3

/m

3

]

Particle diameter d [m]

Median grain size (by mass) d

50 at the sea bed [m]

The elevation a at which the near bed boundary conditions is applied (per fraction) [m] obcsedatu obcsedatv qbedatu

Storage array for sediment concentrations in case the open boundary conditions at the U-nodes require the solution of a differential equation in time

Storage array for sediment concentrations in case the open boundary conditions at the V-nodes require the solution of a differential equation in time

Bed load q b 1

(per sediment fraction) in the X-direction at the U-nodes [m

2

/s]

1494 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL qbedatv qsusatc qtotatu qtotatv rhos sedsrcuser tau cr tau cr cst t equil

Bed load q b 1

(per sediment fraction) in the Y-direction at the V-nodes [m

2

/s]

Suspended load q s nodes

(per sediment fraction) at the C-

[m

2

/s]

Total load q t 1

(per sediment fraction) in the X-direction at the U-nodes [m

2

/s]

Total load q t 2

(per sediment fraction) in the Y-direction at the V-nodes [m

2

/s]

Particle density ρ s

[kg/m

3

]

Sediment source defined by the user (per sediment fraction) [m

3

/s]

Critical bed shear stress τ cr

[m

2

/s

2

]

(per sediment fraction)

Spatially uniform critical shear stress τ cr per fraction

[m

2

/s

2

]

Non-dimensional equilibrium time scale T e tion)

(per fracubstresatc sed X-component of the skin bed shear stress at the Cnodes [m

2

/s

2

] ubstresatu sed X-component of the skin bed shear stress at the Unodes [m

2

/s

2

] ubstresatv sed X-component of the skin bed shear stress at the Vnodes [m

2

/s

2

] vbstresatc sed Y-component of the skin bed shear stress at the Cnodes [m

2

/s

2

] vbstresatu sed Y-component of the skin bed shear stress at the Unodes [m

2

/s

2

] vbstresatv sed Y-component of the skin bed shear stress at the Vnodes [m

2

/s

2

] vdiffcoef sed Vertical eddy diffusivity D

V tion) for sediment (per frac-

[m

2

/s] wfall Settling velocity w s

(per sediment fraction) [m/s] ws cs Spatially uniform settling velocity w s per fraction [m/s] zroughatc sed Skin roughness length at the C-nodes [m] zroughatu sed Skin roughness length at the U-nodes zroughatv sed Skin roughness length at the V-nodes

[m]

[m]

34.4. SEDIMENT MODEL VARIABLES 1495

34.4.2

Key ids of sediment variables

MODULE sedids

!---start key id number

INTEGER, PARAMETER, PRIVATE :: n0 = MaxModArids

!---sediment particle attributes

INTEGER, PARAMETER :: &

& iarr dp = n0+1, iarr rhos = n0+2, iarr tau cr cst = n0+3,

....

File sedids.f90

Type

Module

Purpose

Definitions of key ids for sediment variables. The key id name has the form iarr ?

where ?

is the FORTRAN name of the variable.

34.4.3

Sediment model parameters

REAL, PARAMETER :: beta sed max = 1.5, beta sed min = 1.0

INTEGER:: maxitbartnicki = 100, nf = 1, nrquad sed = 7, nrquad wav = 10

REAL :: alpha VR = 2.19, a leussen = 0.02, beta sed cst = 1.0, &

& b leussen = 0.0024, cgel = 0.0, cmax = 0.65, coef bed grad = 1.3, &

& floc VR max = 10.0, floc VR min = 1.0, height c cst = 0.01, &

& maxRV = 0.1, minRV = 1.0E-05, n RichZaki = 4.6, parth coef = 1.0E-08, &

& parth exp = 1.0, wu exp = -0.6, zrough sed cst, z0 coef = 30.0

File sedarrays.f90

Type

Module

Purpose

Sediment arrrays

Description alpha VR Exponent

(2007b)

α in the flocculation equation (7.48) by Van Rijn

1496 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL a leussen Coefficient a in the (7.46) flocculation equation by Van Leussen

(1994) [s] beta sed cst Constant value of the eddy diffusivity to viscosity ratio as used in equation (7.136) if iopt sed beta=2 beta sed max Maximum value for the ratio β of sediment diffusivity to eddy viscosity beta sed min Minimum value for the ratio β of sediment diffusivity to eddy viscosity b leussen cgel cmax

Coefficient b in the (7.46) flocculation equation by Van Leussen

(1994) [s

2

]

Volumetric gelling concentration used for hindered settling of mud and flocculation [m

3

/m

3

]

Volumetric maximum concentration for sand at the sea bed used in equations (7.104), (7.114) for total load and for calulating the reference concentration in the Smith

& McLean (1977) formula (7.124) [m

3

/m

3

] coef bed grad Coefficient β s used in the bed slope formula (7.83) of

Koch & Flokstra (1981) floc VR max Maximum value for the flocculation factor φ loc tion (7.48) by Van Rijn (2007b) in equafloc VR min Minimum value for the flocculation factor φ loc in equation (7.48) by Van Rijn (2007b) height c cst Constant reference height a (normalised by the water depth) if iopt sed bbc=0 maxitbartnicki Maximum number of iterations used by the bartnicki filter maxRV Maximum value for the reference height by the water depth) a (normalised minRV Minimum value for the reference height a (normalised by the water depth)

Number of sediment fractions nf nrquad sed Number of vertical locations used by the Gauss-Legendre numerical integration scheme for depth averaging of sediment (equilibrium) sediment profiles nrquad wav Number of time steps used by the Gauss-Legendre numerical integration scheme for phase-averaging over a wave period

34.4. SEDIMENT MODEL VARIABLES 1497 n RichZaki parth coef parth exp wu exp

Exponent n in equation (7.43) for hindered settling by

Richardson & Zaki (1954)

Coefficient M in the formulation (7.126) for erosion of mud by Partheniades (1965) [m/s]

Exponent n p in the formulation (7.126) for erosion of mud by Partheniades (1965)

Exponent m used to calculate the hiding factor (7.36) in the Wu et al.

(2000) formulation zrough sed cst Uniform roughness length used to obtain the (skin) bed stress if iopt sed tau=2 [ m ] z0 coef Factor by which z

0 is multiplied to determine the minimum depth for averaging used in the boundary condition at the sea bed in the EFDC method ( iopt sed bbc type

= 2 or 3 )

34.4.4

Sediment switches

!---on-off

INTEGER :: iopt sed mode = 2, iopt sed nodim = 3, iopt sed type = 2

!---type of equation

INTEGER :: iopt sed bedeq = 1, iopt sed ceqeq = 1, &

& iopt sed dens = 0, iopt sed toteq = 1

!---suspended sediment transport

INTEGER :: iopt sed bbc= 1, iopt sed beta = 1, iopt sed wave diff = 0

!---settling velocity

INTEGER :: iopt sed floc = 0, iopt sed hindset = 0, iopt sed vadv = 3, &

& iopt sed ws = 1

!---bed load

INTEGER :: iopt sed eha = 1, iopt sed hiding = 0, iopt sed median = 1, &

& iopt sed slope = 0, iopt sed tau = 1, iopt sed taucr = 1

!---numerical

INTEGER :: iopt sed bbc type = 3, iopt sed filter = 0

File sedarrays.f90

Type

Module

Purpose

Sediment arrrays

1498 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

Description iopt sed bbc Type of boundary condition at the sea bed.

0: no bed boundary conditions (no flux to and from the bed)

1: using reference concentration (7.124) from Smith

& McLean (1977)

2: using reference concentration from (7.125) Van Rijn

(1984a)

3: deposition taken as an advective flux at the bottom, erosion parameterised using equation (7.126) from Partheniades (1965) iopt sed bbc type Selects the method to transpose the near bed boundary condition to the computational grid (see Section 7.7.1.1).

It is strongly recommended not to change the default value.

1: EFDC method applied to lowest cell (not recommended)

2: EFDC method applied to the first the cell above the bottom (not recommended)

3: using the Rouse profile iopt sed bedeq Type of formulation for bed load transport.

iopt sed beta

2: Engelund & Fredsøe (1976)

3: Van Rijn (1984b)

4: Wu et al.

(2000)

5: Soulsby (1997). This equation includes wave effects.

6: Van Rijn (2003). This formula includes wave effects.

7: Van Rijn (2007a). This method includes wave effects.

The type of equation used for β , the ratio between the eddy viscosity and eddy diffusivity.

1: β = 1

2: β is defined by the user (parameter beta cst ).

34.4. SEDIMENT MODEL VARIABLES 1499

3: Van Rijn (1984b) formulation (7.136) iopt sed ceqeq The type of model for determining the equilibrium sediment concentration used to evaluate the sediment flux at the sea bed for 2-D sand transport.

iopt sed dens iopt sed eha

1: numerical integration of the Rouse profile

2: using q t

/U determined with the equation of Engelund & Hansen (1967). The precise form is also determined by the switch iopt sed eha .

3: using q t

/U using the formulation by Ackers &

White (1973)

4: using q s

/U using the formulation by Van Rijn

(2003). This formulation is very similar to Van Rijn

(1984b), but takes wave stresses into account.

5: Using q s

/U and the method of Wu et al.

(2000).

Disables (0) or enables (1) effects of sediments in the equation of state and density stratification.

Switch to select the type of formulation in the Engelund & Hansen (1967) total load formula. (7.86).

iopt sed filter iopt sed floc

1: original form

2: Chollet & Cunge (1979) form as function of θ

The type of filter used to prevent the occurrence of negative concentrations.

0: no filter

1: Bartnicki (1989) filter.

Type of flocculation factor for the settling velocity.

0: flocculation effect disabled

1: Van Leussen (1994) equation (7.46)

2: Van Rijn (2007b) equation (7.48)

3: combination of the two previous methods iopt sed hiding Type of formulation for the hiding factor.

0: hiding disabled

1: Wu et al.

(2000) equation (7.36)

2: Ashida & Michiue (1972) equation (7.37)

1500 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL iopt sed hindset Type of formulation for hindered settling.

0: hindered settling disabled

1: Richardson & Zaki (1954) equation (7.43)

2: Winterwerp & van Kesteren (2004) formula (7.44) iopt sed median Method for calculating the median size d

50 bed.

at the sea

1: no interpolation

2: linear interpolation (not recommended, especially for a low number of fractions) iopt sed mode Type of mode for applying the sediment transport model.

1: bedload transport only computed by a formula, which is determined by iopt sed bedeq

2: suspended load transport only (computed with the advection-diffusion equation)

3: bedload and suspended transport (i.e. option 1 and 2 together)

4: total load transport computed with a formula, which is determined by iopt sed toteq iopt sed nodim Type of grid mode for the sediment transport.

2: depth averaged transport

1

3: 3-D sediment transport iopt sed slope iopt sed tau

Bed slope effects for bed load.

0: bed slope effects disabled

1: bed slope effect effects enabled and using the Koch

& Flokstra (1981) formulation for bed load

Type of roughness length formulation for sediments.

1: the same as for the hydrodynamics

2: used-defined constant roughness length zrough sed cst

3: user-defined spatially non-uniform value

Selects type of method for the critical shear stress.

iopt sed taucr

1: user-defined value for each fraction

1

Note that iopt sed nodim is always set to 2 if iopt grid nodim = 2 .

34.4. SEDIMENT MODEL VARIABLES 1501 iopt sed toteq

2: Brownlie (1981) equation (7.31)

3: Soulsby & Whitehouse (1997) equation (7.32)

4: Wu et al.

(2000) equation (7.33)

Type of method for total load transport.

1: Engelund & Hansen (1967). The precise form is also determined by the switch iopt sed eha .

2: Ackers & White (1973)

3: Madsen & Grant (1976). This equation includes wave effects.

4: Wu et al.

(2000). Total load is calculated as the sum of suspended and bed load.

5: Van Rijn (2003). This equation includes wave effects and total load is the sum of suspended and bed load.

6: Van Rijn (2007a). This equation includes wave effects and total load is the sum of suspended and bed load.

iopt sed type Type of sediment.

1: sand (non-cohesive)

2: mud (cohesive) iopt sed vadv Disables (0), enables ( > 0) vertical settling of sediments and selects the type of numerical advection scheme if > 0 and vertical advection for (non-sediment) scalars is disabled ( iopt adv scal=0 ). If iopt adv scal > 0 , then either iopt sed vadv=0 or set equal to iopt adv scal .

iopt sed wave diff Selects the turbulent diffusion coefficient due to waves.

iopt sed ws

0: no diffusion coefficient

1: according to Van Rijn (2007b)

Type of method for the settling velocity.

1: user-defined value for each fraction

2: Camenen (2007) formulation (7.39) for sand

3: Camenen (2007) formulation (7.39) for mud

4: Stokes formula (7.40)

5: Soulsby (1997) formula (7.41)

6: Zhang & Xie (1993) equation (7.42)

1502 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

34.5

Interfaces

A series of “generic” routines for sediment transport are called from the physical (“main”) part of COHERENS . If the user wants to couple COHERENS with an alternative sediment module, different from the one in COHERENS , the user must provide these routines. Empty routines, with only a declaration part of arguments are allowed. A complete list is given below.

The routine declarations are given below without further explanation.

Further details about the meaning of the routine and arguments are found in this chapter.

34.5.1

External routine interfaces

SUBROUTINE allocate sed arrays

! Allocate sediment arrays

...

END SUBROUTINE allocate sed arrays

SUBROUTINE assign cif vars sed(iddesc,cname,cvals,numvars)

! convert data strings from the sediment CIF to the format (numeric or

! non-numeric) in COHERENS

CHARACTER (LEN=lenname), INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL :: cname

CHARACTER (LEN=lencifvar), INTENT(IN), DIMENSION(MaxCIFvars) :: cvals

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iddesc, numvars

...

END SUBROUTINE assign cif vars sed

SUBROUTINE baroclinic gradient sed cubic(zcoord,dzx,dzy,dzz,cdir)

! sediment contribution for the baroclinic

! density gradient (cube-H method)

CHARACTER (LEN=1) :: cdir

REAL, DIMENSION(0:ncloc+1,0:nrloc+1,nz), INTENT(IN) :: dzx, dzy, dzz

REAL,DIMENSION(1-nhalo:ncloc+nhalo,&

& 1-nhalo:nrloc+nhalo,nz), INTENT(IN) :: zcoord

...

END SUBROUTINE baroclinic gradient sed cubic

SUBROUTINE baroclinic gradient sed sigma(zcoord,cdir)

! sediment contribution for the baroclinic

! density gradient (sigma second order method)

CHARACTER (LEN=1) :: cdir

34.5. INTERFACES 1503

REAL,DIMENSION(1-nhalo:ncloc+nhalo,&

& 1-nhalo:nrloc+nhalo,nz), INTENT(IN) :: zcoord

...

END SUBROUTINE baroclinic gradient sed sigma

SUBROUTINE baroclinic gradient sed z(sigint,kint,cdir)

! sediment contribution for the baroclinic

! density gradient (z-level method)

CHARACTER (LEN=1) :: cdir

INTEGER, DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc,2:nz+1,2), INTENT(IN) :: kint

REAL, DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc,2:nz+1,2), INTENT(IN) :: sigint

...

END SUBROUTINE baroclinic gradient sed z

SUBROUTINE buoyancy frequency sed(bgrad)

! sediment contribution to the squared buoyancy frequency

REAL, DIMENSION(0:ncloc+1,0:nrloc+1,2:nz), INTENT(INOUT) :: bgrad

...

END SUBROUTINE buoyancy frequency sed

SUBROUTINE deallocate sed arrays

! deallocate sediment arrays

...

END SUBROUTINE deallocate sed arrays

SUBROUTINE equation of state sed

! sediment contribution to density, sediment expansion coefficient

...

END SUBROUTINE equation of state sed

SUBROUTINE exchange sedics

! exchange the sediment arrays defined by the sediment initial conditions

...

END SUBROUTINE exchange sedics

SUBROUTINE initialise sediment arrays

! initialise sediment model

...

END SUBROUTINE initialise sediment arrays

SUBROUTINE read sedics

1504 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

! read the initial conditions for the sediment model from

! a file in standard COHERENS format

...

END SUBROUTINE read sedics

SUBROUTINE read sed spec

! read sediment specifiers (particle attributes) from

! a file in standard COHERENS format

...

END SUBROUTINE read sed spec

SUBROUTINE sediment equation

! main unit of the sediment transport model

...

END SUBROUTINE sediment equation

SUBROUTINE write cif vars sed

! write the sediment CIF

...

END SUBROUTINE write cif vars sed

SUBROUTINE write sedics

! write the initial conditions for the sediment model to

! a file in standard COHERENS format

...

END SUBROUTINE write sedics

SUBROUTINE write sed spec

! write sediment specifiers (particle attributes) to

! a file in standard COHERENS format

...

END SUBROUTINE write sed spec

34.5.2

Module routine interfaces

MODULE check sediments

! check sediment model parameters and arrays for errors

CONTAINS

SUBROUTINE check sedics

! check initial conditions in the sediment model

34.5. INTERFACES 1505

...

END SUBROUTINE check sedics

SUBROUTINE check sed params

! check sediment switches and parameters

...

END SUBROUTINE check sed params

END MODULE check sediments

MODULE default sediments

! default settings for the sediment model

CONTAINS

SUBROUTINE default sedics

! default initial conditions in the sediment model

...

END SUBROUTINE default sedics

SUBROUTINE default sed params

! default settings for sediment switches and parameters

...

END SUBROUTINE default sed params

END MODULE default sediments

MODULE reset sediments

! reset sediment parameters and arrays where needed

CONTAINS

SUBROUTINE reset sedics

! reset initial conditions in the sediment model

...

END SUBROUTINE reset sedics

SUBROUTINE reset sed params

! reset sediment switches and parameters

...

END SUBROUTINE reset sed params

END MODULE reset sediments

MODULE sediment output

! routines for sediment user output data

CONTAINS

SUBROUTINE define sed0d int2d(ivarid,f,out2d)

! define 2-D sediment data for area integrated/averaged output

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, ivarid

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc) :: out2d

1506 CHAPTER 34. SEDIMENT REFERENCE MANUAL

...

END SUBROUTINE define sed0d int2d

SUBROUTINE define sed0d int3d(ivarid,f,out3d)

! define 3-D sediment data for area integrated/averaged output

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, ivarid

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(ncloc,nrloc,nz) :: out3d

...

END SUBROUTINE define sed0d int3d

SUBROUTINE define sed0d vals(ivarid,f,outdat)

! define 0-D sediment output data

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, ivarid

REAL, INTENT(OUT) :: outdat

...

END SUBROUTINE define sed0d vals

SUBROUTINE define sed2d int1d(ivarid,i,j,f,nzdim,out1d)

! define sediment data for vertically integrated/averaged output

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, i, ivarid, j, nzdim

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(nzdim) :: out1d

...

END SUBROUTINE define sed2d int1d

SUBROUTINE define sed2d vals(ivarid,i,j,f,outdat)

! define 2-D sediment output data at a given location

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, i, ivarid, j

REAL, INTENT(OUT) :: outdat

...

END SUBROUTINE define sed2d vals

SUBROUTINE define sed3d vals(ivarid,i,j,k,f,cnode,outdat)

! define 3-D output data at a given location

CHARACTER (LEN=lennode) :: cnode

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: f, i, ivarid, j, k

REAL, INTENT(OUT) :: outdat

...

END SUBROUTINE define sed3d vals

END MODULE sediment output

MODULE sedvars routines

! attributes of sediment variables and forcing files

CONTAINS

SUBROUTINE inquire sedvar(varid,f90 name,long name,units,node,vector name,&

& data type,nodim,shape,dom dims,halo size,varatts)

! returns attributes of a sediment array variable given its

34.5. INTERFACES 1507

! variable key id

CHARACTER (LEN=lenname), INTENT(OUT), OPTIONAL :: f90 name

CHARACTER (LEN=lendesc), INTENT(OUT), OPTIONAL :: long name, vector name

CHARACTER (LEN=lenunit), INTENT(OUT), OPTIONAL :: units

CHARACTER (LEN=*), INTENT(OUT), OPTIONAL :: node

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: varid

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), OPTIONAL :: data type, nodim

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(4) :: dom dims, halo size, shape

TYPE (VariableAtts), INTENT(OUT), OPTIONAL :: varatts

...

END SUBROUTINE inquire var

SUBROUTINE set sedfiles atts(iddesc,ifil,iotype)

! global attributes of a forcing file in the sediment model

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iddesc, ifil, iotype

...

END SUBROUTINE set sedfiles atts

SUBROUTINE set sedvars atts(iddesc,ifil,ivarid,nrank,nshape,numvarsid,novars)

! variable attributes of a forcing file in the sediment model

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iddesc, ifil, novars

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(novars) :: ivarid, nrank, numvarsid

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(novars,4) :: nshape

...

END SUBROUTINE set sedvars atts

END MODULE sedvars routines

34.5.3

User defined routines

SUBROUTINE usrdef sed params

! define parameters and switches for the sediment model

...

END SUBROUTINE usrdef sed params

SUBROUTINE usrdef sedics

! define intitial conditions for the sediment model

...

END SUBROUTINE usrdef sedics

SUBROUTINE usrdef sed spec

! define particle properties in the sediment model

...

END SUBROUTINE usrdef sed spec

1508

COHERENS

A Coupled Hydrodynamical-Ecological Model for Regional and Shelf Seas

Release Notes

Last update: August, 2013

Patrick Luyten

Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS-MUMM)

Gulledelle 100, 1200 Brussels, Belgium

Version V2.0

Coherens Version : V2.0

previous release : V1 (release 8.4)

Revision : 113 svn path : http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.0

Date of release : 2010-10-04

File (code) : coherensV20 r109.tar.gz

File (manual) : manualV20 r124.pdf

Description

This version represents a full update of the first version of coherens, released in April 2000 (more than ten years ago). Most important changes are:

1. The code is re-written in FORTRAN 90.

2. Implementation of parallelisation using the MPI message MPI library

(available as an option).

3. Options for curvilinear grids in the horizontal and generalised σ -coordinates in the vertical.

4. One-way nesting

5. Standard formats (including netCDF ) for forcing and user-defined output

6. ”Usrdef” files where the user can define all model setup.

7. Improvement of numerical schemes:

• baroclinic pressure gradients

• additional types of open and surface boundary conditions

• additional turbulence schemes

1

8. A drying/wetting algorithm.

9. Possibility to run the model in 1-D (water column), 2-D (depth-averaged mode) and 3-D mode

10. Forcing data can be read from several files with different time resolution.

11. Possibility to launch different simulation within one run.

12. The user can specify different times within the simulation period when initial conditions are written for eventual re-starts of the program.

Model code

See Coherens V2.0 User Manual

User instructions

See Coherens V2.0 User Manual

2

Version V2.1.0

Coherens Version : V2.1.0

previous release : V2.0

Revision : 139 svn path : http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.1.0

Date of release : 2010-11-10

File (code)

File (manual)

: coherensV210 r136.tar.gz

: in preparation

Implementations

1. A new optional utility, called the CIF (“Central Input File”) has been implemented, which can be considered as an extension of the namelist file utility. The aim is to define all model setup parameters by reading the CIF instead of calling a usrdef routine.

Parameters can be re-set by editing the CIF without re-programming the usrdef routines.

The following routines are no longer called if the CIF option is selected.

usrdef parallel, usrdef init params, usrdef mod params, usrdef tsr params, usrdef avr params, usrdef anal freqs, usrdef anal params

The CIF can be created by the user as an ASCII file or be generated by the program itself.

The syntax of the file is described below.

2. Forcing parameters and data, defined in a usrdef routine, can be written to a file in standard COHERENS format. Although the utility was

3

already available in the previous version, a series of program bugs had to be removed. The utility has been fully tested.

The output file is created and written (eventually over-written) if the status file attribute is set to ‘W’ , i.e.

modfiles(idesc,ifil,2)%status=‘W’

The following usrdef calls can be made redundant in this way usrdef partition, usrdef phsics, usrdef 1dsur spec, usrdef 2dobc spec, usrdef profobc spec, usrdef 1dsur data, usrdef 2dobc data, usrdef profobc data, usrdef rlxobc spec, usrdef surface absgrd, usrdef surface relgrd, usrdef surface data, usrdef nstgrd spec, usrdef surface nstgrd abs, usrdef surface nstgrd rel

3. The routine usrdef parallel has been removed. The three parameters, which could previously be defined in this routines, are now defined as follows parallel set The parameter is automatically set to .TRUE.

if the compiler option -DMPI is added in options.cpp

, and to .FALSE.

otherwise. In that case MPI will be initialised and finalised.

For a parallel run the parameter nprocs must take a value greater than 1.

shared read Shared reading by all processes is now taken as .TRUE.

This means that the parameter (and its opposite noshared read ) are longer needed and they are therefore removed from the code. As a consequence all copy operations have been deleted in the source code. Details are given below.

idmaster The parameter is now defined in usrdef mod params (or in the CIF).

Instructions for users

The defruns file

Three parameters are read from each line of the defruns , separated by a ‘,’ .

The general systax is runtitle,status,filename where

4

runtitle The title of the simulation which has the same meaning as before status The status of the CIF

‘0’ The CIF utility is switched off (both for reading and writing).

This is the default condition.

‘R’ Model setup parameters are read from a CIF.

‘W’ Model setup parameters are written to a CIF.

filename Name of the CIF file. If not given, the default name TRIM(runtitle)//‘.cifmodA’ is taken. This parameter is obviously not used if status equals ‘0’

Defaults are taken (except for runtitle which must always be given) when the value is an empty string, one blank or several blanks. All blanks are ignored on the input line.

Consider the following example conesA,, conesA,R, conesA,W,myciffile

The first line initiates the run conesA without CIF, the second one reads the setup from the file conesA.cifmodA

, the third writes the CIF data to the file myciffile .

Lines can be commented if the first character is a ‘!’ . This replaces, for compatibility with the CIF syntax below, the ‘#’ character used in previous versions.

The CIF file

syntax of a CIF

As shown in the example below, each data line in the CIF has the following syntax varname = value 1, value 2, ..., value n where varname is the FORTRAN name of a model parameter and value 1 to value n are the input values of the parameter, separated by the data separator ‘,’ . The file is read line-wise. The data strings value 1 , value 2 ,

. . . are converted to the appropriate (numeric, logical, character) data format associated with the variable FORTRAN variable varname . The following rules apply

5

If a comment character ‘!’ appears in the string, all characters in the string, starting from this character are ignored. However, the comment character can only appear at the first position of the data line (in which case the entire line is ignored) or after the last character of the last data string.

If varname is a scalar, it is obvious that only one value needs to be given and there is no data separator. In case of a vector, the number of data can be lower than the size of the vector in which case the non-defined values are set to their defaults. However if a vector has a specified

“physical” size, all expected data must be given. Examples are the arrays index obc (physical size given by nconobc ) or ntrestart (physical size given by norestarts ).

If the model parameter represents a multi-dimensional array (of rank m ), the first m-1 data strings represent the vector index for the first m-1 dimensions, the subsequent the values for each array index of the last dimension. As before, the number of values does not need to be equal to the size of the last dimension, unless a “physical” size is expected.

If the variable is a derived type scalar variable, the data strings represent each component in the order as given by the TYPE definition in datatypes.f90

. Derived type arrays are initialised element-wise, i.e. a separate line for each array element. The first data string(s) are the array indices of the first, . . . , last array dimension.

The first array index for the variable modfiles is not given by a numeric value but by its file descriptor format in string format, e.g. the string modgrid corresponds to the key id io modgrd whose numeric value is set by the program to 3.

If a data string contains only blanks or equals the null string, the value of the corresponding model parameter is undefined, in which case its default value is retained. When the CIF is written by the program, all variables (even defaults) are defined in the data strings.

No error occurs if a model scalar or array parameter does not appear on any input line in which case the default value is retained.

The characters in the string varname are case insentitive. If the CIF is written by the program, the names are always given in upper case characters.

6

When a CIF is written by the program, all setup parameters are included in the file. The values are either the default settings or the re-defined values from a call to the appropriate usrdef routine or the ones reset by the program after a call to a reset routine. Only exception to this rule is the parameter cold start which is always written as

.FALSE.

and can only be changed by editing the CIF manually.

CIF blocks

A CIF file is composed of six blocks which much be given in a specific order.

Each block corresponds to a usrdef routine (given in parentheses below) where the parameters could be defined in absence of the CIF.

1: monitoring parameters ( usrdef init params )

2: general model setup parameters ( usrdef mod params )

3: parameters for the setup of time series output ( usrdef out params )

4: parameters for the setup of time averaged output ( usrdef avr params )

5: definitions for making harmonic analyses ( usrdef anal freqs )

6: parameters for harmonic output ( usrdef anal params )

The following rules apply for CIF blocks

A CIF block is terminated by a line whose first character is the block separator ‘#’ (the rest of the line is ignored).

A block may be empty but the separator lines must always be there.

This means that the file must contain 6 lines (including the last one) starting with a ‘#’ . An empty block is represented by two consecutive separator lines.

Empty blocks are written by the program in the following cases

block 3: no time series output ( iopt out tsers=0 )

block 4: no time averaged output ( iopt out avrgd=0 )

blocks 5 and 6: no harmonic output ( iopt out anal=0 )

On the other hand, a block may be non-empty even when the appropriate switch is zero. In that case the input lines are read by the program, but no assignment is made.

7

CIF special characters

The CIF utility uses the following special characters

‘,’ separates the data strings on an input line

‘=’ separates the string varname from the data strings. Must be on all input lines except those starting with a ‘!’ or ‘#’ character

‘!’ indicates the start of a comment. All characters on the input line at and beyond this character are ignored.

‘#’ block separator. Must always be the first character on a separator line.

These special characters cannot be used in the string varname or in a data string representing a string variable. For this reason the ‘,’ character between seconds and milliseconds in a date/time string is now replaced by a ‘:’ .

order of definitions

Each scalar or array parameter must be defined within its specific block.

However, the order of definition within a block is, in principle, irrelevant.

However, if the number of data on an input line depends on a “physical size” dimension parameter defined by another model parameter, this size parameter must appear on a previous data line.

Test cases

The test case results are exactly the same as in the previous version (V2.0)

2

.

To illustrate the use of the CIF utility, the test case runs can be set up in two modes, depending on different choices for the defruns file. In the first case, the defruns file located in the test case directory is taken and the setup is as before.

In the second case, instructions for installation are the same as before except that the following copy has to be made in the working directory cp cifruns defruns

The simulation of a test case now proceeds in two phases:

1. The test is run with the cold start option set to .TRUE.

and the CIF status in defruns set to ‘W’ . The program creates a CIF file and a series of forcing files in COHERENS standard format.

2

A small change is seen in output parameters of test cases rhone and bohai due to a small bug in the program. This will be repaired in the next version.

8

2. The test is run again with the CIF status set to ‘R’ and input forcing using the previously written standard files.

Model code

The following changes are made with respect to version V2.0:

1.

Model Initialisation.F90

The switch parallel set is defined in coherens start .

Routine read cif mod params is called from initialise model if the

CIF status is set to ‘R’ .

Routine simulation start which reads the defruns file, is completely re-written. Error coding is provided.

2.

Model Parameters.f90

The following routines are added assign cif vars Converts the data string(s) in the CIF input line to the appropriate numerical, logical or string format.

read cif mod params General routines for reading a CIF file. The actual data conversion is made by calling read cif line and assign cif vars .

write cif mod params Writes the CIF for physical model setup.

Since copy operations between processes have been removed from the program, the routine copy mod params has been deleted.

3.

cif routines.f90

This is a new file with utility routines needed for the CIF implementation.

4. Since reading is now always performed in shared mode, all copy operations invoked when the now deleted parameter shared read was set to

.FALSE.

have been removed. This affects the routines in the following files

Grid Arrays.F90

define global grid, open boundary arrays

Open Boundary Data 2D.f90

define 2dobc data, define 2dobc spec

Open Boundary Data Prof.f90

define profobc data, define profobc spec

9

Nested Grids.F90

define nstgrd locs, define nstgrd spec

Parallel Initialisation.f90

Relaxation.f90

domain decomposition define rlxobc spec

Surface Boundary Data 1D.f90

define 1dsur data, define 1dsur spec

Surface Data 1D.f90

define surface data

Surface Grids.f90

define surface input grid, define surface output grid

For the same reason the following routines are deleted from the code: inout paral.f90

read copy vars paral comms.f90

copy filepars, copy gridpars 2d, copy hgrid 2d, copy outgpars 1d, copy statlocs 1d, copy varatts 1d

5. The default value for the status attribute of all forcing files is ‘0’ (undefined). This means that a usrdef routine (except usrdef init params ) is called only if the status of the corresponding forcing file is reset to

‘R’ .

Compatibility with previous versions

An application, which has been set up with version V2.0, can be made compatible with V2.1.0, taking account of the following changes:

1. The status attribute is set to ‘0’ by default.

2. For application without CIF, each line in defruns should end by two colons (’ ,, ’).

3. Lines in defruns are commented by putting a ‘!’ instead of ‘#’ as the first character on the input line.

4. The routines usrdef parallel no longer exists.

5. The switch parallel set is set automatically.

6. The switch shared read no longer exists.

7. An (eventual) non default value for idmaster is defined in usrdef mod params .

10

Recommendations for developers

When a developer wants to couple the model with a new compartment (e.g.

biology, sediments, . . . ), a separate CIF can be created to read or write the setup parameters for the specific compartment. Taking the case of a new sediment module (activated when the switch iopt sed > 0 ) as an example, this can be implemented as follows:

1. Increase the value of the system parameter MaxCIFTypes in syspars.f90

by 1.

2. Create a new CIF key id, e.g.

icif sed in iopars.f90

.

3. The new CIF has two attributes, status and filename , which, contrary to the model CIF, are not defined in defruns , but by the usual program procedures

Set the values by default in default mode params : ciffiles(icif sed)%status = ’0’ ciffiles(icif sed)%filename = ’’

The user can be activate the file by resetting the status and (eventually) the filename atribute in usrdef mod params : ciffiles(icif sed)%status = ?

ciffiles(icif sed)%filename = ?

Since the two attributes are considered as general model parameters, their values should be included in the model CIF. This means that the following code has to be added in assign cif vars

CASE (’CIFFILES’)

CALL check cif lbound novars(iddesc,numvars,3)

CALL conv from chars(cvals(1),icif,iddesc,1)

CALL conv from chars(cvals(2),ciffiles(icif)%status,iddesc,2)

CALL conv from chars(cvals(3),ciffiles(icif)%filename,iddesc,3) and in write cif mod params icif *: DO icif=3,MaxCIFTypes

CALL conv to chars(cvals(1),icif) cvals(2) = ciffiles(icif)%status cvals(3) = ciffiles(icif)%filename

CALL write cif line(iddesc,cvals(1:3),’CIFFILES’)

ENDDO icif *

11

4. Create a new subroutine assign cif vars sed for converting the CIF data strings to the values of the sediment parameters. The routine can be constructed using the formats given in assign cif vars .

5. Insert the following routine call at the beginning of routine assign cif vars :

IF (iddesc.EQ.icif sed) CALL assign cif vars sed

6. Read the new CIF at the appropriate place in routine initialise model :

IF (ciffiles(icif sed)%status.EQ.’R’) THEN

CALL read cif mod params(icif sed,iopt sed.GT.0.0)

ENDIF

7. Write the new CIF if requested by adding the following code in coherens main :

IF (master.AND.iopt sed.GT.0.AND.ciffiles(icif sed)%status.EQ.’W’) THEN

CALL write cif mod params(icif sed)

CALL close filepars(ciffiles(icif sed))

ENDIF

Parts of the CIF produced for test case plume.

COLD START = F

LEVPROCS INI = 3

LEVPROCS RUN = 3

INILOG FILE = plume1A.inilogA

RUNLOG FILE = plume1A.runlogA

RUNLOG COUNT = 8640

MAX ERRORS = 50

LEVPROCS ERR = 2

ERRLOG FILE = plume1A.errlogA

WARNING = T

WARLOG FILE = plume1A.warlogA

LEVTIMER = 3

TIMING FILE = plume1A.timingA

TIMER FORMAT = 1

#

IOPT ADV SCAL = 3

IOPT ADV TURB = 0

12

IOPT ADV TVD = 1

IOPT ADV 2D = 3

IOPT ADV 3D = 3

IOPT ARRINT HREG = 0

IOPT ARRINT VREG = 0

IOPT ASTRO ANAL = 0

IOPT ASTRO PARS = 0

IOPT ASTRO TIDE = 0

...

NC = 121

NR = 41

NZ = 20

NOSBU = 80

NOSBV = 120

NRVBU = 0

NRVBV = 1

NONESTSETS = 0

NORLXZONES = 0

NPROCS = 1

NPROCSX = 1

NPROCSY = 1

IDMASTER = 0

CSTARTDATETIME = 2003/01/03;00:00:00:000

CENDDATETIME = 2003/01/06;00:00:00:000

DELT2D = 30.

IC3D = 10

ICNODAL = 0

TIME ZONE = 0.

ATMPRES REF = 101325.

BDRAGCOEF CST = 0.

BDRAGLIN = 0.

...

NCONOBC = 1

INDEX OBC = 46

NCONASTRO = 0

ALPHA BLACK = 0.2

ALPHA MA = 10.

ALPHA PP = 5.

BETA MA = 3.33

BETA XING = 2.

...

13

NORESTARTS = 1

NTRESTART = 8640

INTITLE = plume1A

OUTTITLE = plumeA

MAXWAITSECS = 3600

NOWAITSECS = 0

NRECUNIT = 4

NOSETSTSR = 4

NOSTATSTSR = 0

NOVARSTSR = 9

NOSETSAVR = 0

NOSTATSAVR = 0

NOVARSAVR = 0

NOSETSANAL = 1

NOFREQSANAL = 1

NOSTATSANAL = 0

NOVARSANAL = 7

MODFILES = inicon,1,1,U,R,plumeA.phsicsU,0,0,0,0,F,F,

MODFILES = modgrd,1,1,A,R,plumeA.modgrdA,0,0,0,0,F,F,

MODFILES = 2uvobc,1,1,U,R,plume1A.2uvobc1U,0,0,0,0,F,F,

MODFILES = 3uvobc,1,1,A,R,plume1A.3uvobc1A,0,0,0,0,F,F,

MODFILES = salobc,1,1,A,R,plume1A.salobc1A,0,0,0,0,F,F,

MODFILES = 2uvobc,2,1,U,R,plume1A.2uvobc2U,0,0,1,0,F,F,

MODFILES = 3uvobc,2,1,A,R,plume1A.3uvobc2A,0,0,1,0,F,F,

MODFILES = salobc,2,1,A,R,plume1A.salobc2A,0,0,1,0,F,F,

SURFACEGRIDS = 1,1,0,0,1000.,1000.,0.,0.

#

TSRVARS = 1,0,0,width,Plume width,km,

TSRVARS = 2,0,0,hfront,Plume length,km,

TSRVARS = 3,161,2,umvel,X-component of depth-mean current,m/s,

Depth-mean current

TSRVARS = 4,170,2,vmvel,Y-component of depth-mean current,m/s,

Depth-mean current

TSRVARS = 5,113,2,zeta,Surface elevation,m,

TSRVARS = 6,162,3,uvel,X-component of current,m/s,Current

TSRVARS = 7,171,3,vvel,Y-component of current,m/s,Current

TSRVARS = 8,175,3,wphys,Physical vertical velocity,m/s,Physical current

TSRVARS = 9,204,3,sal,Salinity,PSU,

IVARSTSR = 1,6,7,8,9

IVARSTSR = 2,6,7,8,9

IVARSTSR = 3,6,7,8,9

14

IVARSTSR = 4,1,2,3,4,5

TSR3D = 1,T,U,plumeA 1.tsout3U,T,,2

TSR3D = 2,T,U,plumeA 2.tsout3U,T,,2

TSR3D = 3,T,U,plumeA 3.tsout3U,T,,2

TSR0D = 4,T,A,plumeA 4.tsout0A,T,,2

TSR2D = 4,T,U,plumeA 4.tsout2U,T,,2

TSRGPARS = 1,T,F,F,F,2003/01/03;00:00:00:000,3,0,0,1,120,1,1,40,1,20,20,1,0,

8640,360

TSRGPARS = 2,T,F,F,F,2003/01/03;00:00:00:000,3,0,0,30,30,1,1,40,1,1,20,1,0,

8640,360

TSRGPARS = 3,T,F,F,F,2003/01/03;00:00:00:000,3,0,0,1,120,1,5,5,1,1,20,1,0,

8640,360

TSRGPARS = 4,T,F,F,F,2003/01/03;00:00:00:000,2,0,0,30,30,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,0,

8640,12

#

#

INDEX_ANAL = 46

NOFREQSHARM = 1

IFREQSHARM = 1,1

#

ANALVARS = 1,161,2,umvel,X-component of depth-mean current,m/s,

Depth-mean current

ANALVARS = 2,170,2,vmvel,Y-component of depth-mean current,m/s,

Depth-mean current

ANALVARS = 3,113,2,zeta,Surface elevation,m,

ANALVARS = 4,162,3,uvel,X-component of current,m/s,Current

ANALVARS = 5,171,3,vvel,Y-component of current,m/s,Current

ANALVARS = 6,175,3,wphys,Physical vertical velocity,m/s,Physical current

ANALVARS = 7,204,3,sal,Salinity,PSU,

IVARSANAL = 1,1,2,3,4,5,6,7

IVARSELL = 1,1,10

IVECELL2D = 1,1,2

IVECELL3D = 1,1,2

RES2D = 1,T,A,plumeA 1.resid2A,T,,2

RES3D = 1,T,A,plumeA 1.resid3A,T,,2

AMP2D = 1,1,T,A,plumeA 1.1amplt2A,T,,2

PHA2D = 1,1,T,A,plumeA 1.1phase2A,T,,2

ELL2D = 1,1,T,A,plumeA 1.1ellip2A,T,,2

ELL3D = 1,1,T,A,plumeA 1.1ellip3A,T,,2

ANALGPARS = 1,T,F,F,F,2003/01/03;06:00:00:000,3,0,0,1,120,1,1,40,1,1,20,1,0,

8640,1440

15

#

16

Version V2.1.1

Coherens Version : V2.1.1

previous release : V2.1.0

Revision : 160 svn path : http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.1.1

Date of release : 2011-01-07

File (code) : coherensV210 r149.tar.gz

File (manual) : in preparation

Implementations

A verification procedure has been created through an external shell script for testing new developments or to compare different versions of the code.

The script is documented elsewhere and is not considered as a new model development. However, since the script uses the results of all test cases, a few modifications of the model code and in the setup of the test cases were necessary.

1. A new CPP compiler switch VERIF together with a new model switch iopt verif have been created. If the compiler option is inserted in options.cpp

, the verification switch iopt verif is set to 1. Otherwise, its value is 0. Its value cannot be re-defined by the user.

2. Once the verification switch is activated, the following parameters for time series output are reset (if necessary)

Only one output set is allowed, i.e.

nosetstsr=1 .

All output files are in netCDF format.

Names of output variables must be different from the names of the test parameters defined in Usrdef Output.f90

.

17

User output files must keep their default attributes.

The output grid must extend over the whole domain.

3. A few other changes and corrections have been made further discussed below.

Test cases

The setup of the test case parameters, defined in Usrdef Output.f90

, is changed as follows cones The parameters xmin, xplus, ymin, yplus have the same meaning as before, but are calculated by interpolation giving a higher precision.

Output at 12.5 minutes intervals.

csnsp Output at daily intervals.

river Output at 3 hours intervals.

plume Output at 3 hours intervals.

rhone Two new parameters etot and bdissip are added. Output at 6 hours intervals.

Model code

The following changes have been with repsect to version V2.1.0.

1. Implementations for the verification procedure.

Model Initialisation.F90

The switch iopt verif is defined in coherens start depending on the whether VERIF is set in options.cpp

.

reset model.F90

Attributes of the user output files and output grid are reset in routines reset out files and reset out gpars if iopt verif=1 .

2. Routine default out gpars in default model.f90

: all output data grids are set, by default, to the full (physical) model grid xlims = (/1,nc-1,1/); ylims = (/1,nr-1,1/); zlims = (/1,nz,1/)

3. The “namelist” utility has become redundant by implementation of the

CIF, and has been removed from the code.

18

The parameter MaxNMLTypes is removed in syspars.f90

.

The variable nmlfiles and the key ids nml * are removed from iopars .

Routines read mod params and write mod params are deleted in

Model parameters.f90

.

Routine reset nml params is removed in reset model.F90

.

Settings of default attributes for nmlfiles are deleted in default init params .

The read and write calls for namelist files are removed in initialise model .

Namelist definitions are removed in modules gridpars, iopars, paralpars, physpars, switches, timepars, turbpars .

4. The definition of the parameter gacc ref in the previous versions caused a conflict with the CIF utility. A new parameter gacc mean has been defined which has the same meaning as gacc ref as in the previous versions

If gacc ref is defined, gacc mean=gacc ref .

If gacc ref is undefined and the grid is Cartesian, gacc mean is defined by the geodesic formula at the latitude given by dlat ref .

If gacc ref is undefined and the grid is spherical, gacc mean is defined by the geodesic formula applied at each C-node point and averaged over the physical domain.

In this way, the parameter gacc ref can be written to the CIF while retaining its initial setup value.

5. A small discrepancy was discovered when test cases rhone and bohai are run without and with CIF. This has been removed by making a small correction in the definitions of the model grid (i.e. replacing fractions by numerical values).

6. A correction has to be made in the setup of all test cases so that the test cases can be run without and with CIF. The code line cold start = .TRUE.

is changed to

IF (ciffiles(icif model)%status.EQ.’W’) cold start = .TRUE.

19

in the usrdef init params routine for all test cases.

7. A bug was found in the nesting procedure for baroclinic currents. The correct the error in a robust way the shapes of vertical profiles at open boundaries has been modified so that the first dimension refers to the horizontal position and the second to the vertical dimension.

This means in particular that

• obcvel3d(nz,0:noprofs),profvel(nz,maxprofs,2:nofiles,2) becomes obcvel3d(0:noprofs,nz) , profvel(maxprofs,nz,2:nofiles,2) in current cor .

• obcsal3d(nz,0:noprofs),profsal(nz,maxprofs,2:nofiles,2) becomes obcsal3d(0:noprofs,nz) , profsal(maxprofs,nz,2:nofiles,2) in salinity equation .

• obctemp3d(nz,0:noprofs),proftmp(nz,maxprofs,2:nofiles,2) becomes obctemp3d(0:noprofs,nz) , proftmp(maxprofs,nz,2:nofiles,2) in temperature equation .

• obcdata(nzdat,0:noprofs) becomes obcdata(0:noprofs,nzdat) .

• psiprofdat(nzdat,numprofs,numvars) becomes psiprofdat(numprofs,nzdat,numvars) in usrdef profobc data .

A similar switch of dimensions has been made in array arguments of routines defined in Open Boundary Data Prof.f90

.

8. The positions of the arguments representing the shape of vertical profile arrays at open boundary arrays have been switched in the calls of the following routines

Open Boundary Conditions.f90

: open boundary conditions 3d , open boundary conds prof

Open Boundary Data Prof.f90

: define profobc data, read profobc data , write profobc data

Usrdef Model.f90

: usrdef profobc data

For example

SUBROUTINE usrdef profobc data(iddesc,ifil,ciodatetime,psiprofdat,nzdat,&

& numprofs,numvars) becomes

SUBROUTINE usrdef profobc data(iddesc,ifil,ciodatetime,psiprofdat,&

& numprofs,nzdat,numvars)

20

Compatibility with previous versions

To make an application, set up under version V2.1.0, compatible with V2.1.1

the following needs to be taken into account

The namelist utility has been removed (and replaced by the CIF utility).

The shape of the array psiprofdat and the positions of the arguments nzdat, numprofs have been modified in usrdef profobc data (see above).

21

22

Version V2.1.2

Coherens Version : V2.1.2

previous release : V2.1.1

Revision : 237 svn path : http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.1.2

Date of release : 2011-05-20

File (code) : coherensV212 r237.tar.gz

File (manual) : in preparation

Implementations

user output

Data values for user output can be defined automatically by the program if the user defines non-zero values for the variable key ids either in the CIF or in the corresponding usrdef * params routines. New variable attributes are available which can be set by the user and allow to apply an operator on the output variable(s).

If the key id of an output variable is set with a non-zero value, all metadata and output values are automatically generated by the program.

Otherwise, both metadata and output values need to be defined by the user.

If all key ids are positive, the following routines are no longer called usrdef tsr0d vals, usrdef tsr2d vals, usrdef tsr3d vals, usrdef avr0d vals, usrdef avr2d vals, usrdef avr3d vals, usrdef anal0d vals, usrdef anal2d vals, usrdef anal3d vals

In the mixed case, i.e. if not all variables (with attributes stored in tsrvars, avrvars or alnalvars ) are defined with a non-zero key id, the

23

values of the ones with zero id need to be defined in the appropriate usrdef * vals routines while the other ones are defined by the program itself.

A series of additional variable attributes have been implemented to allow for different types of output

The operator attribute oopt . If the rank of the result is different from the one implemented by the variable’s rank, the rank attribute must be set to the rank of the result. For example, the domain average of a 3-D variable has a rank of 0. The attribute has one of the following values oopt null No operator is applied (default).

oopt mean Result depends on the rank of the model variable and the rank of the output data.

If the rank of the result is 0, the output value is the domain average in case of a 3-D or the surface average in case of a 2-D variable. Land areas are excluded in the averaging.

If the rank of the output value is 2, the result is the depth averaged value.

oopt max Result depends on the rank of the model variable and the rank of the output data.

If the rank of the result is 0, the output value is the domain maximum in case of a 3-D or the surface maximum in case of a 2-D variable. Land areas are excluded.

If the rank of the output value is 2, the result is the maximum over the water depth.

oopt min Result depends on the rank of the model variable and the rank of the output data.

If the rank of the result is 0, the output value is the domain minimum in case of a 3-D or the surface minimum in case of a 2-D variable. Land areas are excluded.

If the rank of the output value is 2, the result is the minimum over the water depth.

24

oopt klev Produces the value of a 3-D variable at the vertical level given by the attribute klev . Rank of the result is

2.

oopt dep Produces the value of a 3-D variable at a specified depth given by the attribute dep . Rank of the result is 2.

The attribute klev defines the output vertical level in case oopt equals oopt klev .

The attribute dep defines the output water depth (measured positively from the surface) in case oopt equals oopt dep . Result is 0, if dep is larger than the total water depth at the output location.

The node attribute is only used for 3-D variables defined at Wnodes on the model grid. If node is set to ‘C’ (default), the vertical profile of the variable is first interpolated at the C-node before the operator is applied. It is remarked that quantities defined at U- or

V-nodes are always interpolated at C-nodes first before applying the operator.

open boundary conditions

multi-variable arrays

In view of the implementation of biological and sediment models foreseen in future version of COHERENS , the setup of open boundary conditions and the input of open boundary data for 3-D scalars has been adapted so that open boundary conditions can be defined and open boundary data can be obtained for multi-variable arrays (such as biological state variables or different sediment fractions). Since the current version only contains a physical component and the open boundary conditions and data are defined separately for each variable (baroclonic current, temperature, salinity), the procedures have not fully tested. Instructions for users of the current version and compatibility with previous versions are discussed below.

baroclinic mode

Two additional open boundary conditions for the baroclinic current have been implemented

1. Second order gradient condition. In case of ragged open boundaries the

(first order) zero gradient condition may yield spurious discontinuities

25

of the vertical current at the first interior node. The effect is reduced when using the second order condition

1 ∂ h

1

∂ξ

1 h

1 h

1 h

2

∂ξ

1

( h

2 h

3

δu ) i

= 0 ,

1 ∂ h

2

∂ξ

2 h

1 h

1 h

2

∂ξ

2

( h

1 h

3

δv ) i

= 0 (1) at respectively U- and V-node open boundaries. The discretised version

of 1 at U-nodes becomes

δu i

=

− h u

2; i +1: i

1 h u

2; i h u

2; i +2: i

2 h u

2; i h u

3; i +1: i

1 h u

3; i h u

3; i +2: i

2 h u

3; i h h c

1; i : i

1 h h c

2; i : i

1

1 + h c

1; i +1: i

2 h c

1; i : i

1 h c

2; i : i

1 c

2; i +1: i

2 c

1; i +1: i − 2 h c

2; i +1: i − 2

δu

δu i +2: i

2 i +1: i

1

(2) at U-nodes. A similar expression applies at V-nodes.

2. A local solution for the baroclinic current is obtained by solving the equation, obtained from the 3-D and 2-D momentum equations without advection and horizontal diffusion.

∂δu

∂t

2Ω sin φδv = F

1 b

F b

1

H

1 ∂

+ h

3

∂s

ν

T

∂δu h

3

∂s

+

τ b 1

τ s 1

H at U-nodes and

(3)

∂δv

∂t

+ 2Ω sin φδu = F

2 b

F b

2

H

1 ∂

+ h

3

∂s

ν

T h

3

∂δv

∂s

+

τ b 2

τ s 2

H

(4) at V-node open boundaries. At the surface and the bottom the diffusive fluxes are set to zero.

2-D open boundary conditions

A relaxation condition can (optionally) be applied for all exterior 2-D data

(transports and elevation) in case the model is set up with the default initial conditions (zero transports and elevations). In that case the exterior data function ψ e

( ξ

1

, ξ

2

, t ) is multiplied by the factor α r

( t ) = min( t/T r

, 1), where T r is the relaxation period. The method avoids the development of discontinuities during the initial propagation of (e.g.) a tidal wave into the domain.

26

Instructions for users

user output

Automatic generation of user output data is selected by defining an output variable with a zero key id attribute ivarid and, eventually, defining the additional variable attributes oopt, klev, dep . The only other attribute which must be defined always, is the output dimension of the variable nrank . In case of a user-defined variable with a zero ivarid , all attributes must be supplied by the user. Its value must then be defined in the approriate usrdef * vals routine with the appropriate index in the output data vector. For example, if X is a user-defined 2-D variable and defined as the second 2-D variable in tsrvars , its output value is defined in usrdef tsr2d vals using out2ddat(2) = X(i,j)

open boundary conditions

The routine usrdef profobc spec is called with different arguments

SUBROUTINE usrdef profobc spec(iddesc,itypobu,itypobv,iprofobu,&

& iprofobv,iprofrlx,noprofsd,indexprof,&

& indexvar,novars,nofiles)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iddesc, nofiles, novars

INTEGER, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(2:nofiles) :: noprofsd

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(nobu) :: itypobu

INTEGER, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(nobv) :: itypobv

INTEGER, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(nobu,novars) :: iprofobu

INTEGER, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(nobv,novars) :: iprofobv

INTEGER, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(novars*(nobu+nobv),2:nofiles) :: indexprof

INTEGER, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(novars*(nobu+nobv),2:nofiles) :: indexvar

INTEGER, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(norlxzones) :: iprofrlx

The arguments have the same meaning as before except that

Since novars (number of variables in case of multi-variable model arrays) equals 1 in the current implementation, the new second dimension for iprofobu and iprofobv can be omitted.

The previous argument novarsd has been removed.

Argument iobctype is replaced by indexvar and should not be defined in the current implementation.

27

The type of open boundary condition is selected at each open boundary point by the value of itypobu or itypobv . When the routine is called for baroclinic currents ( iddesc=io 3uvobc ) their meaning is modified as follows

0: (First order) zero gradient condition or specified profile

1: Second order zero gradient condition

2: Local solution

3: Radiation condition using the baroclinic internal wave speed

4: Orlanski condition

A more detailed explanation will be presented in future release notes.

Routine is usrdef profobc data is now declared as follows

SUBROUTINE usrdef profobc data(iddesc,ifil,ciodatetime,psiprofdat,numprofs)

CHARACTER (LEN=lentime), INTENT(INOUT) :: ciodatetime

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: iddesc, ifil, numprofs

REAL, INTENT(INOUT), DIMENSION(numprofs,nz) :: psiprofdat

The following changes have been made

The arguments nzdat and numvars have been removed.

The third dimension of psiprofdat has been removed.

The code in the routine must contain the statement

USE gridpars

The relaxation condition at open boundaries for the 2-D mode is defined by the new parameter ntobcrlx which equals T r

/ ∆

2 D

. Default is zero in which case no relaxation is applied. The parameter is defined either in usrdef mod params or in the CIF.

Test cases

No changes are made to the definition of the test cases. The output test parameters are mostly the same as in the previous version. Most output data are automatically generated so that most usrdef * vals routines become empty.

28

Model code

user output

The generation of 0-D time series output is illustrated by the following code lines in routine time series

IF (tsr0d(iset)%defined) THEN outvars(1:noutvars0d) = tsrvars(ivarstsr0d(iset,1:noutvars0d))

CALL define out0d vals(out1dsub,noutvars0d,&

& outvars=outvars(1:noutvars0d))

IF (ANY(outvars(1:noutvars0d)%ivarid.EQ.0)) THEN

CALL usrdef tsr0d vals(outdat(1:novars0d),novars0d)

WHERE (outvars(1:noutvars0d)%ivarid.EQ.0) out1dsub = outdat(ivarstsr0d(iset,1:noutvars0d))

END WHERE

ENDIF

ENDIF

The routine define out0d vals provides the output data for the variables with a specified variable key id. The routine usrdef tsr0d vals has the same meaning as in the previous versions. A similar procedure is taken for 2-D and 3-D output and for time averaging and harmonic analysis.

The define routines are declared as follows

SUBROUTINE define out0d vals(outdat,novars,outvars,ivarid,oopt)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: novars

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(novars) :: outdat

INTEGER, INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: ivarid, oopt

TYPE (VariableAtts), INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: outvars which defines 2-D output data. The arguments have the following meaning outdat Returned output values novars Number of (0-D) output data outvars Attributes of the output variables. Must be present only when ivarid is not present.

ivarid Key ids of the output variables. Must be present only if outvars is not present.

oopt Operator attributes selecting the type of output if outvars is not present. Default is oopt null .

29

SUBROUTINE define out2d vals(outdat,i,j,novars,outvars,ivarid,oopt,&

& klev,dep,node)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: i, j, novars

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(novars) :: outdat

CHARACTER (LEN=lennode), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: node

INTEGER, INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: ivarid, klev, oopt

REAL, INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: dep

TYPE (VariableAtts), INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: outvars which defines 2-D output data. The arguments have the following meaning i outdat Returned output values

(Local) grid index in the X-direction j (Local) grid index in the Y-direction novars Number of (2-D) output data outvars Attributes of the output variables. Must be present only when ivarid is not present.

ivarid Key ids of the output variables. Must be present only if outvars is not present.

oopt Operator attributes selecting the type of output if outvars is not present. Default is oopt null .

klev klev attributes if outvars is not present and the corresponding oopt value equals oopt klev dep dep attributes if outvars is not present and the corresponding oopt value equals oopt dep node node attributes if outvars is not present. Should be defined only for

3-D variables located at W-nodes on the model grid in which case output is taken at the node given by cnode . Allowed values are ‘C’

(default) and ‘W’ .

SUBROUTINE define out3d vals(outdat,i,j,k,novars,outvars,ivarid,node)

INTEGER, INTENT(IN) :: i, j, k, novars

REAL, INTENT(OUT), DIMENSION(novars) :: outdat

CHARACTER (LEN=lennode), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: node

INTEGER, INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: ivarid

TYPE (VariableAtts), INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(novars) :: outvars which defines 3-D output data. The arguments have the following meaning

30

i outdat Returned output values

(Local) grid index in the X-direction j k

(Local) grid index in the Y-direction

Vertical grid index novars Number of (3-D) output data outvars Attributes of the output variables. Must be present only when ivarid is not present.

ivarid Key ids of the output variables. Must be present only if outvars is not present.

node node attributes if outvars is not present. Should be defined only for

3-D variables located at W-nodes on the model grid in which case output is taken at the node given by cnode . Allowed values are ‘C’

(default) and ‘W’ .

other

The interfaces of the routines in Open Boundary Data Prof.f90

have been modified. Details are found in the model code.

The new (and already existing) algorithms for the baroclinic current are defined in open boundary conds 3d (and removed from current corr ).

The relaxation condition for 2-D open boundary data are applied in update 2dobc data .

The new attributes for output variables are added to the CIF.

The following routines have been added

intpol1d model to dep in grid.interp.F90

tvd limiter 0d in utility routines.F90

bug corrections

In the previous versions an error may occur when non-uniform averaging is applied for model grid arrays if either iopt arrint hreg or iopt arrint vreg are set to 1. The correction has been made in routine grid spacings by defining all horizontal grid spacing arrays over a virtual extended computational domain.

A correction is made in the calculation of the Richardson number in turbulence routines.F90

.

31

Compatibility with previous versions

Version V2.1.2 is compatible with tV2.1.1 except that

Additional parameters appear in the CIF (new attributes of user output variables).

The arrays itypobu and itypobv have a slightly different meaning if applied for defining the open boundary conditions for the baroclinic mode.

32

Version V2.2

Coherens Version : V2.2

previous release : V2.1.2

Revision : 367 svn path : http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.2

Date of release : 2011-10-14

File (code)

File (manual)

: coherensV2.2.tar.gz

: manualV2.1.2.pdf

Implementations

3-D masks

This version has primarily been created to anticipate the implementation of structures at velocity nodes (e.g. thins dams, groines, current deflection walls, . . . ), foreseen in a future version. For this reason, the pointer arrays nodeatu and nodeatv have been re-defined with an extra vertical dimension.

In this way, a dynamic 3-D mask can be implemented in the future to simulate

(e.g.) the flow over a thin dam, which extends above/below the water surface at low/high tide.

momentum fluxes at corner points

In analogy with the pointer arrays at velocity nodes, a new 3-D array nodeatuv has been created at corner nodes (replacing the pointer arrays nodeate, nodeatx, nodeaty in the previous versions). These nodes are used in the program for the evaluation of the cross-stream advective and diffusive fluxes for horizontal momentum and are located at the intersection of two U- and two

V-interfaces. Main difference, with the previous version(s), is that a corner node is declared as wet if at least one of the adjacent U-nodes and one of

33

the adjacent V-nodes is wet (see below). The new definition is of importance near ragged coastal and open sea boundaries.

The concept of X- and Y-nodes is no longer retained, except at open boundaries (see below).

open boundaries at corner nodes

The previous definitions are changed as follows:

A corner node is defined as a X-node open boundary if both neighbouring U-nodes are open boundaries or one of the neighbouring U-nodes is an open boundary and the other a land boundary.

A corner node is defined as a Y-node open boundary if both neighbouring V-nodes are open boundaries or one of the neighbouring V-nodes is an open boundary and the other a land boundary.

open boundary conditions at corner nodes

In several applications of COHERENS , especially those using ragged open boundaries, instabilities were observed near the open boundaries. These took the form of growing vortices, eventually leading to a crash of the program.

Using the notations in the User documentation (see Chapter Numerical Methods) the following changes and new implementations have been made.

Two schemes are now available to evaluate the cross-stream advective fluxes in the u -equation at Y-open boundary nodes (analogous expressions apply for the v -equation and 2-D momentum equations):

1. The first one uses a zero gradient condition

F uv

12; ij

= F uv

12; i,j +1: j − 1

(5) which is the same as before.

2. The flux is determined using the upwind scheme (where possible).

This means that

F uv

12; ij

=

1

2 v uv ij

(1 + s ij

) u i,j

1: j

+ (1

− s ij

) u i,j : j

1

(6) where s ij

= 1 in case of an inflow condition and either

(i,j-1:j) is a U-open boundary

(i-1,j) is a closed (land or coastal) V-node

34

(i,j) is a closed V-node.

In all other cases, s ij

=

1.

The cross-stream diffusive fluxes in the u -equation are avaluated as follows (analogous expressions apply for the v -equation and 2-D mode equations)

If either (i,j-1:j) is a U-open boundary, or (i-1,j) is a closed (land or coastal) V-node, or (i,j) is a closed V-node, the flux is calculated in the same way as for an internal node.

Otherwise, if (i,j-1:j) is an interior U-node, then the zero gradient condition D uv

12; ij

= D uv

12; i,j +1: j

1 is applied.

Otherwise, the flux is set to zero, i.e.

D uv

12; ij

= 0

relaxation condition for advection

An optional relaxation scheme has been implemented which reduces the impact of advection within a user-defined distance from the open boundaries.

In that case, the advective terms are multiplied by the relaxation factor

α or

= min( d/d max

, 1) (7) where d is the distance to the nearest open boundary. Experiments showed that, with an appropriate choice of the maximum relaxation distance d max

, the unstable vortex motions no longer propagate into the domain.

The scheme replaces the previous scheme, selected by iopt obc int which has been removed from the code.

interpolation routines

The routines in array interp.f90

for interpolating a model array from one grid node to another one have been modified to take account of 3-D masks and coastal boundaries at velocity nodes. This is further discussed below.

Model code

pointer arrays

The following changes have been made

The pointer arrays nodeatu and nodeatv have an extra vertical dimension .

35

The arrays nodeatx, nodeaty, nodeate have been removed.

New 3-D pointer arrays nodeatuw, nodeatvw and nodeatuv are introduced.

The pointer array nodeatc at C-nodes has the same meaning as before.

The arrays are declared with the following shapes

REAL, DIMENSION(1-nhalo:ncloc+nhalo,1-nhalo:nrloc+nhalo,nz) :: &

& nodeatu, nodeatv, nodeatuv

REAL, DIMENSION(1-nhalo:ncloc+nhalo,1-nhalo:nrloc+nhalo,nz+1) :: &

& nodeatuw, nodeatvw and have the following meaning nodeatu Pointer at U-node cell faces

0: dry (land) cell face

1: coastal or structure velocity boundary

2: interior wet U-node

3: open sea boundary

4: river open boundary nodeatv Pointer at V-node cell faces

0: dry (land) cell face

1: coastal or structure velocity boundary

2: interior wet V-node

3: open sea boundary

4: river open boundary nodeatuw Pointer at UW-node cell faces

0: dry (land) cell face or bottom cell ( 1 ) or surface cell ( nz+1 )

1: coastal or structure velocity boundary

2: interior wet UW-node

3: open sea boundary

4: river open boundary nodeatvw Pointer at VW-node cell faces

0: dry (land) cell face or bottom cell ( 1 ) or surface cell ( nz+1 )

36

1: coastal or structure velocity boundary

2: interior wet VW-node

3: open sea boundary

4: river open boundary nodeatuv Pointer at corner nodes

0: at least two surrrounding U-nodes or at least two surrrounding

V-nodes are dry

1: interior wet node, i.e. at most one surrounding U-node and at most one surrounding V-node is dry and none of the four surrounding velocity nodes are open boundaries

2: X-node open boundary, in which case at least one of the surrounding U-nodes is an open boundary while the other one is either a closed node or open boundary, but the node is not a

Y-node open boundary

3: Y-node open boundary, in which case at least one of the surrounding V-nodes is an open boundary while the other one is either a closed node or open boundary, but the node is not an

X-node open boundary

4: the node is both a X- and a Y-node open boundary

Important to note that structures can only be defined at interior sea nodes which excludes coastal and open boundaries. This means that if nodeatu, nodeatv, nodeatuv have different values along the vertical, these values must be either 1 or 2 for the first two arrays and 0 or 1 for the third one. The same applies for nodeatuw , nodeatvw , with exception of the surface ( nz+1 ) and bottom ( 1 ) level where the value is always 0.

open boundaries

1. The parameters nobx, noby and the logical open boundary arrays westobx, soutoby have the same meaning as before, taking account that a

X-open boundary is defined at a corner node where nodeatuv equals 2 or 4, and a Y-open boundary where nodeatuv equals 3 or 4.

2. The type of open boundary condition for cross-stream advective (2-D and 3-D) fluxes at corner nodes is selected by the new switch iopt obc advflux

1: zero gradient condition (5.286) which is the default

37

2: quasi upwind scheme (5.287)

3. The switch iopt obc int and (consequently) the arrays itypintobu, itypintobv have been removed.

4. The relaxation condition for advection near open boundaries is selected by the new switch iopt obc relax :

0: relaxation scheme disabled (default)

1: relaxation scheme enabled. In that case the parameter distrlx obc

(representing the parameter d max

) must be defined by the user in usrdef mod params or in the CIF.

interpolation routines

The grid interpolation routines, defined in array interp.f90

, have been rewritten. The name and meaning of each routine is the same before. There are however some important changes:

The argument intsrce selects which points at the source node are taken into account. The meaning depends on the type of node and is documented internally in the source code and externally in the Reference

Manual.

The argument intdest selects at which points on the destination node interpolation is performed. The meaning depends on the type of node and is documented internally in the source code and externally in the

Reference Manual.

Vertical interpolation is (obviously) not allowed on land. This means, in particular, that W-, UW- and VW-nodes are excluded as source or destination nodes on land.

A clear distinction has now been made between velocity nodes at coastal boundaries and at closed land cell faces.

The arguments lbounds and ubounds are respectively the lower and upper boundaries of the interpolating array at the source node. Contrary to the previous versions, the interpolating array is assumed to be 3-D so that the two vectors must have a size of 3. Interpolation of a 2-D

(horizontal) array is performed by taking the same value for lbounds(3) and ubounds(3) .

38

structures

When structures will be implemented in the program, the bottom/surface boundary conditions are not always applied at the bottom/surface level itself but at a level k greater than 1 or lower nz . The following parameters are defined

The switch iopt structs disables/enables the use of structures in the model domain. If enabled (1), the bottom/surface conditions (and formulation of the bottom stress) are applied at vertical levels determined by masksuratu, masksuratv or maskbotatu, maskbotatv (defined below).

The switch is currently disabled (0).

The bottom and surface levels are defined by the following arrays masksuratu 3-D array at the U-nodes, which is set to .TRUE.

at the vertical level where the surface boundary condition is applied masksuratv 3-D array at the V-nodes, which is set to .TRUE.

at the vertical level where the surface boundary condition is applied maskbotatu 3-D array at the U-nodes, which is set to .TRUE.

at the vertical level where the bottom boundary condition is applied maskbotatv 3-D array at the V-nodes, which is set to .TRUE.

at the vertical level where the bottom boundary condition is applied

source code

The source code has been changed at many places, due to the introduction of 3-D masks at velocity nodes. This applies in particular for the advection

( Advection Terms.F90

) and diffusion routines ( Diffusion Terms.F90

) and for routines performing array interpolation on the model grid ( array interp.f90

).

The vertical k -loops have been replaced at several places by WHERE statements using 3-D masks.

The interpolation routines have been modified to take account of velocity nodes with a non-uniform dry/wet status along the vertical.

Application of the bottom and surface boundary conditions at velocity nodes in case iopt structs=1 .

39

As a consequence of these changes, the CPU time increases by about 10–20%.

This has been confirmed by comparing the simulation times of the test cases with those performed using version V2.1.2. The problem will be more fully investigated at a later stage.

Test cases

The setup of the test cases has not been changed

3

. Since the code has been

modified at several places, the output parameters slightly differ from the ones obtained with V2.1.2.

Compatibility with previous versions

Version V2.2 is compatible with V2.1.2 except that the switch iopt obc int and the open boundary setup arrays itypintobu, itypintobv have been removed.

3

Sole exception is that the switch iopt obc int has been removed and iopt obc advflux is set to 2 in test case optos csm .

40

Version V2.3

Coherens Version : V2.3

previous release : V2.2

Revision : 438 svn path : http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.3

Date of release : 2012-03-12

File (code)

File (manual)

: coherensV2.3.tar.gz

: manualV2.3.pdf

Implementations

inundation schemes

The existing drying/wetting scheme has been extended by implementing socalled “mask functions”. They are defined as criteria for “masking” grid cells according to their condition (dry or wet). When the criterion evaluates as .TRUE. at a particular grid cell, the mask function will “mask in” the cell. Hence, they will be considered for the solution of the hydrodynamic equations. On the other hand, if grid cells become dry, the mask criterion will “mask out” such grid cells and updates of quantitites defined at these cells will be suspended. The process is repeated at the start of each predictor time step.

Eleven mask functions are defined and can be used in combined form.

They can be divided in four groups. The first group compares the water depths of a cell and its neighbours with a threshold value d th of the following six criteria: and is composed max( H i,j

, H i

1 ,j

, H i +1 ,j

, H i,j

1

, H i,j +1

) < d th min( H i,j

, H i

1 ,j

, H i +1 ,j

, H i,j

1

, H i,j +1

) < d th

41

(8)

(9)

mean( H i,j

, H i − 1 ,j

, H i +1 ,j

, H i,j − 1

, H i,j +1

) < d th max( H i − 1 ,j

, H i +1 ,j

, H i,j − 1

, H i,j +1

) < d th min( H i

1 ,j

, H i +1 ,j

, H i,j

1

, H i,j +1

) < d thd mean( H i

1 ,j

, H i +1 ,j

, H i,j

1

, H i,j +1

) < d td

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13) where “mean” denotes an averaged value (excluding land cells which are permanently dry).

A second group of criteria verifies the “status” of the current grid cell and/or its neighbours. The status is defined by the function

N which evaluates to 0 at dry and 1 at sea cells. The following criteria, used to prevent the formation of isolated dry or wet cells, have been implemented: max(

N i

1 ,j

,

N i +1 ,j

,

N i,j

1

,

N i,j +1

) = 0 min(

N i

1 ,j

,

N i +1 ,j

,

N i,j

1

,

N i,j +1

) = 0

(14)

(15)

The third group is a variant of the previous one and checks, in addition, whether the total water depth of the grid cell is lower than the threshold value: max(

N i − 1 ,j

,

N i +1 ,j

,

N i,j − 1

,

N i,j +1

) = 0 and H i,j

< d th min(

N i

1 ,j

,

N i +1 ,j

,

N i,j

1

,

N i,j +1

) = 0 and H i,j

< d th

(16)

(17)

The last scheme is intended for channel flows and overflowing dykes. The criterion uses the total and mean water depths at the grid cell and its neighbours min( h i

1

H i

1

, h i +1

H i +1

) > h i

(18)

If one (or more) of the above criteria evaluates as .TRUE.

, the grid cell is (temporarily) set to dry. In that case the surrounding velocity nodes are blocked and the currents set to zero. The same criteria are verified at the next 3-D time step. The cell will be come wet again as soon as the (combined) criterion evaluates to .FALSE.

The above criteria can be in applied in combination. This means that, if several criteria have been activated by the user, the cell becomes dry if at least one of them turns .TRUE.

The cell becomes wet again if all of them evaluate to .FALSE.

In analogy with the existing algorithm in COHERENS a number of terms in the momentum equations are multiplied by the “drying” factor α and a minimum water depth is applied at each (2-D) time step. In version V2.3, these minima are determined as follows:

H c ij

H min

, ζ ij

H min

− h ij

(19)

42

at C-nodes,

H u ij

= min( H c i

1 ,j

, H c ij

) if min( H c i

1 ,j

, H c ij

) < H crit at U-nodes, and

H v ij

= min( H c i,j − 1

, H c ij

) if min( H c i,j − 1

, H c ij

) < H crit at V-nodes.

(20)

(21)

other

1. By default, user output files are written as netCDF ( ‘N’ ) or unformatted binary ( ‘U’ ) files depending on whether -DCDF compiler option has been specified or not. These defaults can be reset by the user in the usrdef tsr params, ...

routines in the appropriate Usrdef files.

2. The status of open boundary forcing files is (re)set to ‘N’ (undefined) if the appropriate switch is not set. For example, modfiles(io 2uvobc,:,:)%status is set to ‘0’ is iopt obc 2D =0.

Model code

The following files have been created or modified

Inundation Schemes.f90

The following routines, only called if iopt fld is non-zero, are defined here mask function The routine is called by coherens main at the start of the predictor time step and

• evaluates one or more mask criteria

• set a cell to dry (at the C-node) if the criteria return .TRUE.

• block the surrounding U- and V-velocity nodes

• set the currents to zero at blocked velocity nodes minimum depths

Use (19)–(21) to set the total water depths and surface

elevations to their minimum values where necessary.

The routine is called from water depths .

drying factor Evaluates the drying factor α at each 2-D time step.

The routines is called from surface elevation .

43

Grid Arrays.F90

A new routine store depths old for storing the old water depths has been created. The routine is called before mask function from coherens main at the start of the predictor step.

depths.f90

When the total water depth is reset to its minimum value, artificial water is added to the water column. This means that mass conservation has been violated. The program stores this “depth deficit” at each time step into the depth error array deptotatc err

WHERE (depmeanatc(1:ncloc,1:nrloc).GT.0.0.AND.&

& deptotatc(1:ncloc,1:nrloc).LT.dmin fld) deptotatc err = deptotatc err - deptotatc(1:ncloc,1:nrloc) + &

& dmin fld

END WHERE

Note that the array is always positive and can only increase in time.

gridpars.f90

The parameters nowetatc, nowetatcloc, nowetu, nowetuloc, nowetv, nowetvloc, nowetuv, nowetuvloc have been removed. The following parameters are added noseaatc Number of sea (dry or wet, but excluding permanent land points) C-node points on the global domain noseaatcloc Number of sea (dry or wet, but excluding permanent land points) C-node points on the local domain nowetatc Number of currently active (wet) C-node points on the global domain nowetatcloc Number of currently active (wet) C-node points on the local domain paralpars.f90

The arrays nowetcprocs, nowetuprocs, nowetvprocs, nowetuvprocs have been removed.

physpars.f90

The following parameters have been added dthd fld User-defined treshold depth d th

. Default is 0.1 m nofldmasks Number of implemented mask functions.

44

fld mask(nofldmasks) Enables (1) or disables (0) a specific mask function. Default is fld mask(1)=1, fld mask(2:)=0 . This can be changed by the user.

switches.f90

iopt CDF Enables/disables netCDF output (0/1). The switch is switched on automatically if the program is compiled with the -DCDF

CPP option and cannot be set by the user.

iopt fld Selects the type of drying/wetting algorithm

0: Drying/wetting disabled

1: Without using the dynamic mask function

2: Dynamic mask function enabled inout routines.f90

A few bugs (typing errors) have been corrected.

paral utilities.f90

The sum2 vars generic routine has an additional (optional) argument

LOGICAL, INTENT(IN), OPTIONAL, DIMENSION(:,:[,:]) :: mask

If present, grid points where mask is .FALSE.

are excluded in calculating the sum. Otherwise, the mask is defined internally. The principal reason for implementing the new argument is that cells which are temporarily set to dry, are excluded if the argument is not present.

They can be put in again by providing the mask as an argument, e.g.

mask=depmeanatc(1:ncloc,1:nrloc).GT.0.0

.

reset model.F90

The status attribute of the open boundary forcing files is set to ‘0’ if the corresponding switch is zero.

Instructions for users

The procedures for setting up an application with the drying/wetting algorithms are as follows usrdef mod params

1. Enable the inundation scheme by setting iopt fld to 1 or 2.

45

2. If iopt fld=2 , select the mask criteria by setting the elements of the vector fld mask to 0 or 1. In most cases, the default scheme is sufficient. Note that the array is not used if iopt fld=1 .

3. Define the depth parameters dmin fld, dcrit fld, dthd fld . Defaults are (0.02,0.1,0.1) . The threshold depth dthd fld is only used when iopt fld=2 .

All these parameters can alternatively be defined in the CIF.

usrdef grid

If it is the intention to apply COHERENS for the simulating the flooding of (intially dry) land arrays or obstacles, the following procedure is recommended

1. Define the topographic height (e.g.

h max

) of the highest points on land which can potentially be flooded by a rising sea level.

2. Increase the reference mean sea level by adding h max to the initial bathymetry (with respect to the standard mean sea level).

3. Note that grid points with a zero mean water depth are considered by the model as permanently dry land points and cannot be flooded. Negative depth values are not allowed.

usrdef phsics

Reset the initial surface elevation to take account of the changed reference level

ζ new in

= ζ old in

− h max

(22) where ζ old in is the sea level with respect to the standard level. If, by this procedure, the total water depth becomes negative (more precisely lower than d min

) the total depth will be reset to d min

. In case a dynamic mask is applied, these grid cells may be (temporarily) set to dry

(depending on the type of mask function) at the initial time.

usrdef 2dobc data

If residual (non-harmonic) elevation data are used as open boundary forcing, the previous change in mean sea level must be taken into account.

Test cases

Two new inundation test case have been implemented

46

flood2d

Flooding and drying inside a channel. The following experiments are defined

‘A’ Flooding/drying of land masses over a sloping bottom by an oscillating (tidal) current. No dynamic mask is used.

‘B’ The same as experiment ‘A’ , now using a dynamic mask.

‘C’ Flooding/drying over an obstacle located in the middle of the channel by an oscillating (tidal) current. No dynamic mask is used.

‘D’ The same as experiment ‘C’ , now using a dynamic mask.

flood3d

Flooding and drying inside a rectangular basin. An oscillating current enters the basin on the western side. All other sides of the basin are closed. All experiments use a mask function.

‘A’ Flooding/drying over a spherical hill in the middle of the basin.

‘A’ Flooding/drying over a double-peaked hill in the middle of the basin.

‘C’ Flooding/drying over a spherical atoll. The inner side of the atoll is taken as dry at the initial time.

‘D’ The same as experiment ‘C’ , now in depth-averaged mode.

Test case parameters, in particular for testing mass conservation, are defined for each experiment. Further details about the setup and output parameters of these test cases are described in the User Manual.

The three optos test cases are modified as follows:

1. Harmonically analysed values of surface elevation and currents (elliptic parameters) at selected stations are defined as test case parameters.

2. The drying/wetting algorithm with dynamic mask has been activated.

3. Each optos test is run for a one month period. Disadvantage is a significantly increased computing time.

Compatibility with previous versions

The setup of applications made with Version 2.2 can be used without modification with Version 2.3.

47

48

Version V2.4

Coherens Version : V2.4

previous release : V2.3

Revision svn path

: 447

: http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.4

Date of release : 2012-04-03

File (code)

File (manual)

: coherensV2.4.tar.gz

: manualV2.4.pdf

Implementations

implicit algorithm

A semi-implicit algorithm has been implemented for the free surface term in the momentum equations. With this method, there is no longer need to solve the depth-integrated momentum equations (unless a 2-D grid has been selected). The stringent CFL stability criterium is relaxed by treating the terms that provoke the barotropic mode in an implicit manner. Difference with the previous explicit version is that the surface slope term is taken at the new time level. Horizontal advection and diffusion are calculated, as before, at the old time level.

After an explicit “predictor” step, velocities are corrected with the implicit free surface correction in the “corrector” step. In this method, the free surface correction follows from the inversion of the elliptic free surface correction equation obtained from the 2-D continuity equation. Because of the non-linear dependency of the equations on the free surface height through the h

3

-term, an iterative scheme has been implemented in addition.

For clarity, a new superscript is introduced indicating the iteration level.

As such ϕ n +1 ,it +1 denotes the value of ϕ at the new time level n + 1, obtained after performing iteration it . The procedure consists of the following steps

49

1. At the first iteration ζ n +1 , 1

= ζ n and h n +1 , 1

3

= ( h + ζ n

)∆ σ .

2. Using the notations, defined in Chapter 5 of the User Manual, the momentum equations are solved at the predictor step using the latest values for h

3 and ζ : h n +1 ,it

3 u p

− h n

3 u n

= f v n

− h v n

3

∆ n ; u t h u

1 h u

2

( u n

∆ u y h uv

1

− v

− A n ; u h 1

( u

∆ u x h c

2 n

)

− A h 2

)

θ a

A v

( u n

) u p

)

(1

θ a

)

A v

( u n

)

+ θ v

D mv u p

) + (1

θ v

)

D mv

( u n

)

− g h n +1 ,it

3 h n

3

∆ u x

P a

ρ

0 h u

1

+ F

1 b ; n

+ F t ; n +1

1

+

D mh 1

( τ n

11

) +

D mh 2 u x

ζ h n +1 ,it u

1

( τ n

12

) (23)

1 h n

3 h n +1 ,it

3

˜ p

∆ t

− h n

3 v n

=

− f u n

− A h 1

( v n

)

− A h 2

( v n

) u n ; v

− h v

1 h v

2

( v n

∆ v x h uv

2

− u n ; v

∆ v y h c

1

)

θ a

A v

(˜ p

)

(1

θ a

+ θ v

D mv

(˜ p

) + (1

θ v

)

D mv

( v n

)

− g h n +1 ,it

3 h n

3

∆ v y

ρ

0

P h v

2 a

+ F b ; n

2

+ F t ; n +1

2

+

D mh 1

( τ n

21

) +

D mh 2 v y

ζ h n +1 ,it v

2

( τ n

22

)

)

A v

( v n

)

(24) where the surface slope is taken at the previous iteration level. The equations are solved as in the previous versions of COHERENS . The predicted currents ( u p

, v p u p

, ˜ p

) after applying an implicit correction for the Coriolis terms.

3. The free surface correction ζ

0 is defined as

ζ

0

= ζ n +1 ,it +1

ζ n +1 ,it

(25)

The corrected depth-integrated current is then obtained by adding an implicit correction term

U n +1 ,it +1

V n +1 ,it +1

= U p

= V p

H n +1 ,it ; u

∆ tg h

1

H n +1 ,it ; v

∆ tg h

2

∂ζ

∂ξ

1

∂ζ

0

∂ξ

0

2

(26)

(27)

50

where ( U p

, V p

) are the depth integrated values of ( u p

, v p

).

The values for ζ

0 follow from inversion of the elliptic equation that

arises by introducing (26)–(27) into the 2-D continuity equation

+ h

1

1 h

2

∆ c x

ζ n +1 ,it

∆ t

ζ n

+

ζ

0 t

1

=

− h

1 h

2

∆ th u

2 g u

H n +1 ,it ; u h u

1

∆ u x

ζ

0

+ ∆ c y

∆ c x

( h u

2

U p

) + ∆ c y

( h v

1

V p

)

∆ th v

1 g v h

H n +1 ,it ; v v

2

∆ v y

ζ

0

(28)

Equation (5.36) can be written as a linear system of equations with non-zero values only on the diagonal and five sub-diagonals

A ij

ζ

0 i − 1 ,j

+ B i,j

ζ

0 i,j − 1

+ C ij

ζ

0 i,j

+ D ij

ζ

0 i,j +1

+ E ij

ζ

0 i +1 ,j

= F ij

(29)

Since the decomposition (26)–(27) can no longer be used at open boun-

daries, U n +1 or V n +1 are firstly written as a sum of explicit and implicit

(involving ζ

0

) terms which are then substituted into the continuity equation. Details of this procedure are given in the User Documentation.

4. The free surface elevation is updated

ζ n +1 ,it +1

= ζ n +1 ,it

+ ζ

0

(30)

5. The total water depth is updated

H n +1 ,it +1

= H n +1 ,it

+ ζ

0

(31)

6. The depth-integrated velocity fields are corrected using (26)–(27).

7. The values of U n +1 ,it +1 and V n +1 ,it +1 are evaluated at the open boundaries by applying the open boundary conditions.

8. The predicted values u p

, v p of the horizontal current are corrected to en-

sure that the depth-integrated currents obtained from equations (26)–

(27) are identical to the depth-integrated values of the 3-D current.

The corrected values are then given by u n +1

=

H n +1 ,it ; u u p

+ U n +1 ,it +1

U p

H n +1 ,it +1; u v n +1

=

H n +1 ,it ; v v p

+ V n +1 ,it +1

V p

H n +1 ,it +1; v

(32)

(33)

51

9. A convergence check is performed by comparing the norm of ζ

0 threshold value , i.e.

with a k

ζ

0 k

= max( ζ

0

)

≤ imp

(34)

A new iteration is started when the criterion is not satisfied.

At present, no algorithm has been programmed within the COHERENS source code to solve the linear system, arising from the discretisation of the 2-

D continuity equation. Routines have, however, been provided to solve (5.37) with the external PETSc library which is activated in the program by setting the -DPETSC compiler option. Different algorithms (linear solvers and preconditioners) are available, whose default values (Incomplete Cholesky preconditioner in combination with a GMRES solver) can be changed by the user. Since the solvers are iterative, a tolerance level has to be provided.

In summary, application of the implicit scheme involves two iteration loops. The inner loop solves the linear system for ζ

0 and is controlled by the routines of the PETSc library. The maximum number of iterations of the outer loop (needed for convergence of the h

3

-factor) is set by the user with the parameter maxitsimp .

open boundary condition

For reasons of compatibility with the implicit scheme, the open boundary condition using the characteristic method with a zero normal gradient has been rewritten without the term on the right hand side arising from the continuity condition. This means that the previous formulation at U-open boundaries

∂R u i

∂t c

=

∓ h

1 h

2

∂ξ

2

( h

1

V ) +

∂h

2

∂ξ

1

U + f V + HF

1 t

+ τ s 1

τ b 1

(35) becomes

∂R u i

∂t

= f V + HF

1 t

+ τ s 1

τ b 1

(36)

A similar change is made at V-nodes. A more appropriate implicit version of this condition will be implemented in a future model version.

Model code

routines

The following files have been created or modified:

52

Hydrodynamic Equations.F90

hydrodynamic equation Main routines for solving the 2-D and/or 3-D momentum and continuity equations using either the explicit or implicit scheme current pred Solve the 3-D momentum equations for the predicted currents using either the explicit or implicit (step 2 of the algorithm) method.

current 2d Solve the 2-D momentum equations. In case of a 3-D grid ( iopt grid nodim=3 ), the routine is called only as part of the mode splitting algorithm (explicit method). The routine is called at all time steps with the explicit and implicit scheme in case of a 2-D grid ( iopt grid nodim ).

correct free surf current corr surface elevation

Performs steps 3 to 7 of the implicit algorithm.

The routine is not called in case of an explicit scheme.

Applies the corrector step for both the explicit and implicit (step 8 of the algorithm) method.

The same as before, but the routine is not called by the implicit scheme.

Open Boundary Conditions.f90

open boundary conds impl Insert the terms arising from the open boundary conditions at the appropriate places in the matrix system (5.37).

petsc routines.f90

Series of routines for solving the system of linear equations using the

PETSc library. The routines are called only if the compiler option

-DPETSC has been defined.

Transport Equations.F90

The transport equations for currents have been (slightly) modified so that they can be used both with the explicit and implicit method. The changes are purely technical and not documented.

53

arrays

The following new arrays are defined for internal purposes only: currents.f90

umvel old Depth-mean current u at the old time level t n vmvel old Depth-mean current v at the old time level t n depths.f90

deptotatu prev Total water depth at the U-nodes and the previous (outer) iteration deptotatv prev Total water depth at the V-nodes and the previous (outer) iteration dzeta Difference ζ

0 between the surface elevation at the next and previous iteration zeta old Surface elevation at the old time level t n obconds.f90

obc2uvatu old Value of obc2uvatu at the old time level t n obc2uvatv old Value of obc2uvatv at the old time level t n

switches

The following switches have been (re)defined in switches.f90

: iopt mode 2D Status of the 2-D mode. Its value is set internally and cannot be changed by the user.

0: The 2-D mode is disabled. Transports U , V and surface elevations ζ are set to their (zero) default values and are not updated.

1: Transports and elevation are initialised, but not updated in time

2: Transports and elevations are initialised and updated in time

54

iopt mode 3D iopt petsc

Status of the 3-D mode. Its value is set internally and cannot be changed by the user.

0: The 3-D current are set to their default (zero) values and are not updated.

1: The 3-D current is initialised, but not updated in time.

2: The 3-D current is initialised and updated in time.

Enables/disables the use of the PETSc library. Its value is set internally and switched on if -DPETSC is provided as compiler option.

0: PETSc is switched off

1: PETSc is switched on iopt hydro impl Disables/enables the implicit scheme.

iopt curr

0: The momentum equations are solved with the explicit scheme (default).

1: The momentum equations are solved using the implicit algorithm. The compiler option -DPETSC must be set.

Type of current fields.

0: Currents and elevations are set to their default (zero) values and are not updated.

1: Currents and elevations are initialised but not updated in time.

2: Currents are initialised but not updated in time.

iopt petsc solver Type of solver used by PETSc . For details, see the PETSc

User Manual.

1: Richardson (KSPRICHARDSON)

2: Chebychev (KSPCHEBYCHEV)

3: Conjugate Gradient (KSPCG)

4: Biconjugate Gradient (KSPBICG)

5: Generalised Minimal Residual (KSPGMRES)

6: BiCGSTAB (KSPBCGS)

7: Conjugate Gradient Squared (KSPCGS)

8: Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residual (1) (KSPTFQMR)

55

9: Transpose-Free Quasi-Minimal Residual (2) (KSPTCQMR)

10: Conjugate Residual (KSPCR)

11: Least Squares Method (KSPLSQR)

12: Shell for no KSP method (KSPPREONLY) iopt petsc precond Type of preconditioner used by PETSc . For details, see the PETSc User Manual.

1: Jacobi (PCJACOBI)

2: Block Jacobi (PCBJACOBI)

3: SOR (and SSOR) (PCSOR)

4: SOR with Eisenstat trick (PCEISENSTAT)

5: Incomplete Cholesky (PCICC)

6: Incomplete LU (PCILU)

7: Additive Schwarz (PCASM)

8: Linear solver (PCKSP)

9: Combination of preconditioners (PCCOMPOSITE)

10: LU (PCLU)

11: Cholesky (PCCHOLESKY)

12: No preconditioning (PCNONE)

model parameters

physpars.f90

itsimp noitsimp maxitsimp dzetaresid

Current iteration number for the outer loop of the implicit scheme

Last iteration number of the outer loop

Largest allowed iteration number for the outer loop

Value of k

ζ

0 k

. Its value is saved at the last iteration until the next time step.

dzetaresid conv Threshold value for the outer loop imp used in the convergence criterium petsc tol Relative tolerance used by PETSc for solving the linear system. (The parameters atol, dtol, maxits used by

PETSc in the solution procedure are set to the PETSc defaults).

56

timepars.f90

delt2d In the explicit (mode splitting) case, the time step for the 2-D mode. In case an implicit scheme is taken, the time step used for all transport equations.

Instructions for users

model setup

The following new switches and model parameters can be set by the user in usrdef mod params or in the CIF. Default is given in parentheses.

iopt curr Type of current fields (2) iopt hydro impl Selects explicit or implicit scheme (0) iopt petsc solver Type of solver used by PETSc (5) iopt petsc precond Type of preconditioner used by PETSc (5) maxitsimp Maximum number of iterations allowed for the outer loop

(1) dzetaresid conv petsc tol

Threshold value imp

(10

− 14

)

Relative tolerance used by PETSc (10

7

)

compilation

The procedures have been changed so that COHERENS can be compiled with or without the PETSc library. Note that the implicit scheme can only be used in the latter case. Difference with the previous version is that the file options.cpp

has been removed and replaced by coherensflags.cmp

. This file is read by the Makefile and contains definitions of machine-dependent macros. A default (empty) version, located in the

comps

directory is listed below.

1 :#

2 :# Version - @COHERENScoherensflags.cmp

V2.4

3 :#

4 :# $Date: 2013-04-23 10:59:00 +0200 (Tue, 23 Apr 2013) $

5 :#

6 :# $Revision: 556 $

57

7 :#

8:

9 :# options for compilation with CPP

10:## -DALLOC :allocates/deallocates local arrays

11:## -DMPI :includes MPI library

12:## -DCDF :includes netCDF library

13:## -DVERIF :enables output for verification procedure

14:## -DPETSC : includes PETSc library

15:

16:CPPDFLAGS =

17:

18:# netCDF directory path

19:#NETCDF PATH = /usr/local

20:

21:# netCDF library file

22:#NETCDF LIB FILE = netcdf

23:

24:# netCDF include options

25:#FCIFLAGS NETCDF = -I$(NETCDF PATH)/include

26:

27:# netCDF library options

28:#FLIBS NETCDF = -L$(NETCDF PATH)/lib -l$(NETCDF LIB FILE)

29:

30:# PETSc directories

31:#PETSC DIR = /home/patrick/petsc/petsc-3.1-p5

32:#PETSC ARCH = linux-gfort

33:

34:# PETSc include options

35:#CPPIFLAGS = -I$(PETSC DIR)/include -I$(PETSC DIR)/include/mpiuni

-I$(PETSC DIR)/$(PETSC ARCH)/include

36:#FCIFLAGS PETSC = -I$(PETSC DIR)/include -I$(PETSC DIR)/include/mpiuni

-I$(PETSC DIR)/$(PETSC ARCH)/include

37:

38:# environment variables for PETSc

39:# include $(PETSC DIR)/conf/variables

40:

41:# PETSc libary options

42:#FLIBS PETSC = $PETSC LIB

The macros, which can be defined by the user, are on the following lines

Line 16: compiler options for the CPP (previously defined in options.cpp

).

58

The following options are implemented

-DALLOC Enables allocation of local arrays

-DMPI Allows the use of MPI routine calls

-DCDF Allows the use of netCDF routine calls

-DVERIF Used to run the test cases with the verification procedure

-DPETSC Allows the use of PETSc routine calls.

Line 19: installation path of the netCDF library. The compiler then expects that the library file and the compiled netCDF modules are found in respectively the directories $NETCDF PATH/lib and

$NETCDF PATH/include

Line 22: name of the netCDF library file

Line 25: compiler include options for netCDF

Line 28: options for compilation with the netCDF library

Line 31: directory path where the PETSc library is installed

Line 32: directory where the PETSc installation for a specific fortran compiler is located

Line 35: CPP include options for PETSc

Line 36: FORTRAN include options for PETSc

Line 39: input file with definitions of PETSc variables

Line 42: options for compilation with the PETSc library

The following changes are to be made by the user

If -DCDF is defined on line 16, lines 19, 22, 25 and 28 must be uncommented and changed where necessary.

If -DPETSC is defined on line 16 then:

The installation path names of PETSc must be defined on lines 31–

32. The meaning of PETSC DIR and PETSC ARCH is explained in the PETSc manual.

59

Either 35 or 36 must be uncommented (without further modification), depending on the compiler. In case of a gfortran compiler, only CPPIFLAGS needs to be defined, while for an intel compiler only line 36 needs to be uncommented

Lines 39 and 42 must be uncommented without further modification.

The procedure for setting up the model for an implicit application is as follows

Install the PETSc library using the instructions given in the PETSc installation manual.

Add the -DPETSC compiler option and uncomment/change the lines in coherensflags.cmp

, as explained above

Set the switch iopt hydro impl to 1 and (where needed) other parameters, listed in the section model setup, in usrdef mod params .

installation

Test cases and user application can be installed on a working directory with the shell script install test

. An updated version is now available. The script is now used with optional arguments install test [-t test name ] [-u test dir ] [-o flag file ] where

-t

-u

-o

Installs the pre-defined test case test name , e.g.

cones .

Installs a user defined application. The setup Usrdef * and defruns files are copied from directory test dir to the directory where install test is executed.

Copies the file flag file with the user-specific compilation instructions (see above) to the file coherensflags.cmp

in the working directory.

The link

COHERENS

must be defined before using the script.

The options -t and -u are mutually exclusive.

If neither -t or -u are present, no application has been defined, but the program can still be compiled.

60

If -o is not present, the file coherensflags.cmp

in the

comps

directory is copied by default.

The script creates the following links

SOURCE directory path of the “main” source code

BSOURCE directory path of the biological source code

COMPS directory path of the files for compilation of the “main” code

BCOMPS directory path of the files for compilation of the biological source code

SCR directory path of the scr directory

SETUP path of the directory where the files for the application are located

DATA directory path of the data directory

Test cases

Test cases cones, front, pycno and csnsp are as before.

All other test cases are run in either explicit or implicit mode, depending on whether -DPETSC has been specified.

In the implicit case, the name of the test case file is as before but with a “2” added after the name of the experiment. For example, fredyA.tst

and fredyA2.tst

are the result files for experiment fredyA and respectively the explicit and implicit case.

The switches iopt mode 2D and iopt mode 3D are no longer user-defined.

The switch iopt curr is defined where necessary.

Except for cones, front, pycno and csnsp , which are the same as before, the explicit results may be (slightly) different from version V2.3.

The zero gradient open boundary condition in test case rhone has been replaced by the Orlanski condition.

Compatibility with previous versions

Installation and compilation have been changed with respect to the previous

Version 2.3. The switches iopt mode 2D and iopt mode 3D are no longer userdefined. The type of current field is now defined with the new switch iopt curr

(see above). All other aspects of user setup are the same as previous. Note that the results may become slightly different.

61

62

Version V2.4.1

Coherens Version : V2.4.1

previous release : V2.4

Revision : 469 svn path : http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.4.1

Date of release : 2012-05-30

File (code)

File (manual)

: coherensV2.4.1.tar.gz

: manualV2.4.pdf

Implementations

A CPU performance study was conducted showing that some of the model grid interpolations in array interp.f90

have a better CPU performance using

2-D masks and weight functions. The type of interpolation is defined with the switch iopt structs which has now the following purpose:

0: The 3-D mask and weighting functions are replaced by 2-D versions in some grid interpolation routines. This is the default value.

1: Grid interpolation is performed as before.

Since the structure module has not yet been implemented, it is recommended to keep the default value.

Model code

The switch iopt structs is introduced in the following interpolation routines, defined in array interp.f90

:

Carr at U, Carr at UV, Carr at V, Uarr at C, Uarr at UV,

Uarr at UV, Varr at C, Varr at U, Varr at UV

63

Test cases

There are no changes.

Compatibility with previous versions

Version V2.4.1 is fully compatible with the previous one (V2.4).

64

Version V2.4.2

Coherens Version : V2.4.2

previous release

Revision svn path

: V2.4.1

: 584

: http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.4.2

Date of release

Code

: 2013-04-16

: coherensV2.4.2.tar.gz

User documentation : User Documentation V2.4.2.pdf

Reference manual : Reference Manual V2.4.2.pdf

Implementations

Compared to the previous (V2.4.1) versions there are a few minor new implementations.

Data flag for bathymetry

In the previous versions of COHERENS mean water depths must be nonnegative and grid points with a zero bathymetric value are considered as permanent land points. In order to allow flooding of land areas, the suggestion was made for the user to raise the mean water level by an amount (say) h ref

, while decreasing the sea surface elevation initally by the same amount.

In this way, the (initial) total water depth remains the same whereas grid points on land with a height above the (real) mean water level below h ref may become inundated.

Disadvantage of this method is that open boundary conditions, such as tidal harmonics, need to be adapted as well, while it creates problems for performing harmonic analysis. To overcome the problem, a data flag for mean water depths has now been implemented. Default is zero, but this value can be reset by the user. When a mean water depth takes the value

65

of this flag, the corresponding grid points are considered as permanent land cells, otherwise the point is taken as wet or temporarily dry. Land topography is then represented by negative mean water depths. Land flooding can then be simulated without changing the reference mean water level.

Drag coefficient

Two changes are made with respect to the calculation of the bottom drag coefficient. The expression used in the code is derived from the logarithmic profile of the current in the bottom boundary layer

|

u

( z )

|

= u

∗ b

κ z ln( z

0

) (37) where u

2

∗ b

= τ b

/ρ and z

0

the bottom roughness length. From (37) one obtains

τ b

= ρC db

|

u

b

|

2

= ρC db u

2 b

+ v

2 b

(38) with

C db

= h

κ ln( z b

/z

0

) i

2 and z b is the height of the lowest C-node above the sea bed.

(39)

1. The log-layer approximation is only valid if z b a problem in case the grid cell is drying and z b z

0

. This may create

→ z

0

, C db

→ ∞

. To prevent too large drag coefficients, a lower limit has been imposed of the form z b

/z

0

> ξ min

. In the previous versions this limit was set internally to a value of 1.5. In the current version ξ min is user-defined. Default value is 2 yielding a maximum of 0.333 for C db

.

2. When COHERENS is applied in depth averaged mode ( iopt grid nodim=2 ), the drag law was previously applied with z b

= H/ 2 where H is the total water depth. A more realistic method, implemented in the current ver-

sion is to take the depth average of (37). Provided

(39) is recovered with

z b

= H/e = 0 .

736 H/ 2.

z

0

H , equation

Model code

The following new parameters are defined physpars.f90

66

depmeanflag Data flag marking land points in the bathymetry in m.

Default is 0.

zbtoz0lim Value of the critical ratio r for z b

/z

0

. Default is 2.0.

syspars.f90

enap Euler’s number e = 2 .

718282.

The parameters depmean flag and zbtoz0lim can be defined by the user in usrdef mod params or through the CIF.

Test cases

The following test cases have been modified:

The 2-D experiments bohaiA, bohaiB, bohaiC are no longer defined with a constant drag coefficient, but with a constant roughness height

( iopt bstres drag=3 ) using the same value as for the 3-D experiments

D–F .

All inundation experiments flood2d, flood3d are now defined with a uniform roughness height of 0.001 m, instead of a constant bottom drag coefficient. This causes a stronger flow retardation during drying phases. Test case output parameters are therefore significantly different.

Compatibility with previous versions

This version is compatible with previous versions without changes.

67

68

Version V2.5

Coherens Version : V2.5

previous release

Revision svn path

: V2.4.2

: 576

: http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.5

Date of release

Code

: 2013-05-31

: coherensV2.5.tar.gz

User documentation : User Documentation V2.5.pdf

Reference manual : Reference Manual V2.5.pdf

Implementations

An extended sediment transport module has been implemented. This version can therefore be considered as a major update of the code.

Details are described in Chapter 7 of the User Documentation. The main features are:

• a module for the advective-diffusive transport of suspended sediments

• different fractions for the simulation of graded sediments

• near-bed boundary conditions for sand as well as mud

• various methods for bed and total load transport

• different formulae for the settling velocity (including hindered settling, flocculation), critical shear stress, . . . .

• turbulence damping caused by vertical stratification due to sediment concentrations

• turbidity flows caused by horizontal sediment concentration gradients.

69

A first version of a surface wave module has been implemented.

A full current-wave interaction module is foreseen for a future COHERENS version.

The aim here is to provide wave parameters used in some of the formulations for bed and total load transport.

Installation

file directories

Some changes are made to the file directory tree, as shown in Figure 1.1.

A new directory

physics

has been created containing all files releated to the “physical core” part of COHERENS . The

/code/physics/source

and

/code/physics/comps

directories are the analogues of

/code/source

, respectively

/code/comps

in the previous releases.

The source code and compilation files for the new sediment model are in

/code/sediments/source

and

/code/sediments/comps

.

The

/code/scr

directory has been moved to the root directory

/coherens/V2.5

.

compilation

The following new macros are defined in coherensflags.cmp

:

# physics directory path

PHYSMOD = COHERENS/code/physics

# sediment directory path

#SEDMOD = $(PHYSMOD)

SEDMOD = COHERENS/code/sediment where PHYSMOD and SEDMOD are the path names of the physical and sediment main directories. The first one should not be changed. For the sediments the following options are available:

1. If SEDMOD is set to $(PHYSMOD) , the code is compiled without sediments. Since the main code of COHERENS now contains “generic” calls to a number of routines used for sediments, a number of dummy routines are provided in

/physics/source

. They are there only to prevent

70

COHERENS V2.5

program directory tree

V2.5

physics comps source code sediments biology comps source comps source examples setups data cones

.....

ptests tutorial eclwf − xlf linux − gfort osf − dig scr utils decomp

Figure 1.1: COHERENS directory structure errors during compilation and do not contain actual code. A complete

listing of these routines (and related files) is presented in Chapter 34

of the User Documentation.

2. If SEDMOD is set to the sediment directory

COHERENS/code/sediment

, the code is compiled with the COHERENS sediment module.

3. The user may provide his/hers own sediment module, in which case

SEDMOD should be set to a path where the user has located the source code (i.e.

in $(SEDMOD)/source ) and the files for compilation (in $(SEDMOD)/comps ). Note that, in that case, the previously mentioned generic routines need to be provided by the user.

Model code and setup

switches

The following switches have been added in switches.f90

: iopt curr wfall Type of formulation for the settling of particulate matter.

71

iopt kinvisc iopt obc sed

1: settling enabled without correction terms

2: settling enabled with the correction terms (7.117)–(7.118) included. This option is currently disabled.

Formulation for kinematic viscosity.

0: user-defined uniform value kinvisc cst (default)

1: ITTC (1978) relation (7.24)

(General) type of open boundary conditions for sediments.

0: default conditions at all open boundaries (default option)

1: non-default conditions for at least one open boundary point iopt scal depos Discretisation for the deposition (vertical advective flux at the sea bed) of particulate matter.

0: Deposition flux is set to zero.

1: first order (upwind) scheme (default)

2: second order scheme using extrapolation iopt sed Disables/enables (0/1) the activation of an external sediment module. Default is off.

iopt turb kinvisc Selects the type of background mixing mixing.

0: user-defined constant value vdifmom cst (default)

1: kinematic viscosity as selected by iopt kinvisc iopt waves Type of wave input.

0: wave input disabled (default)

1: wave height, period and wave direction

2: wave height, period, velocity, excursion and direction

A parabolic eddy viscosity profile can be selected by setting iopt turb alg=6 .

key ids

forcing attributes

io fincon Forcing id for final conditions. In the previous versions this key id was the same as the one for initial conditions ( io inicon ).

io sednst output file(s) for sediment nesting

72

io sedobc definitions of open boundary conditions for sediment variables (file number equals 1) or input of open boundary data (file number larger than 1) io sedspc (time-independent) arrays used for the setup of a sediment model

(particle attributes in the COHERENS sediment model) io wavgrd surface wave grid io wavsur surface wave data

other

igrd waves key id of a surface wave grid ics sed initial condition file number for sediments itm sed timer key id for sediment routines

model parameters and arrays

The following parameter can be defined in usrdef mod params or the CIF kinvisc cst Constant value for the kinematic viscosity if iopt kinvisc=1 . Default is 1.E0-06 m/s

2

.

The following arrays need to be defined in usrdef nstgrd spec in case sediment fractions are used for nesting nosednst(nonestsets) number of fractions for each sub-grid intsed(nf,nonestsets) fraction numbers for each sub-grid where nf equals the number of sediment fractions (defined in the setup of the sediment model).

A series of wave arrays are introduced

4

wavedir* Wave direction [rad] wavexcurs* Near-bottom wave excursion amplitude [m] wavefreq Peak wave frequency [rad/s] waveheight* Significant wave height [m] wavenum Wave number [1/m] waveperiod* Peak wave period at [s]

4

The arrays marked by a “*” can be used for input in usrdef surface data depending on the value of iopt waves .

73

waveuvel Near-bottom wave orbital velocity in the X-direction [m/s] wavevel* Near-bottom wave orbital velocity [m/s] wavevvel Near-bottom wave orbital velocity in the Y-direction [m/s]

model output

The derived type arrays tsrvars, avrvars, analvars have an additional (optional) attribute numvar representing the variable number in case of multi-variable arrays, such as sediment fractions. The number then represents the last index of the data variable (e.g. fraction number).

model routines

The following new routines have been implemented

Diffusion Coefficients.F90

kinematic viscosity calculates kinematic viscosity as function of temperature using equation (7.24)

• math library.F90

gauss squad Returns the locations and weights for numerical integration using the Gauss-Legendre quadrature method.

poly all roots Finds all roots of a polynomial using Laguerre’s method.

Divides two polynomials.

poly diff vector mag arr at* Calculates the magnitude and/or phase of a vector array at the C-, U- or V-node.

vector mag var at* Calculates the magnitude and/or phase of a scalar vector at the C-, U- or V-node.

For technical reasons a number of routines have been moved from turbulence routines.F90

to the following files:

• buoyancy frequency to Density Equations.F90

• shear frequency to Hydrodynamic Equations.F90

• dissip lim conds, dissip to zlmix, zlmix lim conds, zlmix to dissip to Turbulence Equations.F90

74

Calls to “generic” routines for sediments are made from the following routines: baroclinic gradient, buoyancy frequency, coherens main, define out0d vals, define out2d vals, define out3d vals, equation of sate, initialise model, inquire var, set modfiles atts, set modvars atts, simulation end

Test cases

Seven additional test cases for sediments are implemented. For details see

Chapter 29 of the User Documentation.

Compatibility with previous versions

Except for the changes in coherensflags.cmp

and the new test cases the setup and test cases of version 2.5 are backwards compatible.

75

76

Version V2.5.1

Coherens Version : V2.5.1

previous release : V2.5

Revision svn path

Date of release

: 613

: http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.5.1

: 2013-08-08

Code : coherensV2.5.1.tar.gz

User documentation : User Documentation V2.5.1.pdf

Reference manual : Reference Manual V2.5.1.pdf

Implementations

Novel features have been implemented for the generation of model grids in the horizontal and vertical directions.

horizontal

In this release an option has been provided to align a rectangular model grid (i.e. grids for which h

1

( ξ

1

), h

2

( ξ

2

)) with specific features such as coast lines, bathymetric contours or open boundaries by means of a simple grid rotation. In the spherical case, this is achieved by a coordinate transformation obtained by displacing the North Pole to a new location, in the Cartesian case by rotating the coordinate axes.

For more details, see Section 4.1.3 of the User Documentation.

vertical

A new switch iopt vtype transf is introduced which automatically generates several vertical grid transforms discussed in Section 4.1.4 of the Documentation.

77

Model code and setup

switches

iopt grid vtype transf This new switch allows to select automatically different types of vertical grids transformation. Default is zero.

iopt grid node

0 : uniform vertical grid ( iopt grid vtype=1 ) or userdefined

11: log-transformation (4.23) at the bottom following

Davies & Jones (1991) if iopt grid vtype=2

12: log-transformation (4.24) at the surface following

Davies & Jones (1991) if iopt grid vtype=2

13: transformation with enhanced resolution near the bottom and/or the bottom as defined in Burchard

& Bolding (2002)

21: Song & Haidvogel (1994) transformation given by

(4.33) and (4.35) if iopt grid vtype=3

This switch allowed, in previous releases, to define bathymetry and vertical grid either at C- or at corner nodes. However, the latter option seems to provide no real advantage and becomes problematic in channels having a width of just one grid spacing. For this reason, the first option will always be selected in the code and the switch is no longer available in the current implementation.

model setup parameters

A rotated (Cartesian or rectangular spherical) grid is selected by defining the following new attributes for the user-defined derived type variable surfacegrids(igrd model,1) : rotated must be set to .TRUE.

in case of a rotated grid. Default is .FALSE.

.

gridangle grid rotation angle α (see Section 4.1.3) (decimal degrees). Must be between 0 and 180

0

.

y0rot transformed latitude of the reference location in case of a rotated grid (decimal degrees). Only used for spherical (rotated) grids.

78

The following additional setup parameters are introduced for making vertical grid transforms (default in parentheses).

b SH dl BB du BB

Parameter b in the Song & Haidvogel (1994) vertical grid transformation (0.1)

Parameter d l in the Burchard & Bolding (2002) vertical grid transformation (4.26) (1.5)

Parameter d u in the Burchard & Bolding (2002) vertical grid transformation (4.26) (1.5) hcrit SH Parameter h crit formation (0.1) in the Song & Haidvogel (1994) vertical grid transsigstar DJ Parameter σ

∗ in the Davies & Jones (1991) vertical grid transformations (4.23) and (4.24) (0.0) sig0 DJ Parameter σ

0 in the Davies & Jones (1991) vertical grid transformations (4.23) and (4.24) (0.1) theta SH Parameter θ in the Song & Haidvogel (1994) vertical grid transformation (8.0)

Test cases

No new test cases have been defined for this release.

Compatibility with previous versions

This version is compatible with previous versions without changes.

79

80

Version V2.6

Coherens Version : V2.6

previous release

Revision svn path

: V2.5.1

: 683

: http://svn.mumm.ac.be/svn/root/coherens/versions/V2.6

Date of release

Code

: 2014-03-13

: coherensV2.6.tar.gz

User documentation : User Documentation V2.6.pdf

Reference manual : Reference Manual V2.6.pdf

Implementations

Modules for hydraulic structures and discharges have been installed within this version of the code. A description can be found in Chapter 6 of the User

Documentation. New features are:

Dry cells which can be taken as permanently dry during the simulation.

Thin dams, which are defined as infinitely thin vertical walls. They are located at velocity nodes and prohibit flow exchange and fluxes of scalars between the two adjacent computational grid cells without reducing the total wet surface and the volume of the model.

Weirs which are similar to thin dams, except that a weir can be inundated, in which case an energy loss is generated. This structure will work as a thin dam in cases where the total water depth upstream of the structure is less than the crest level of the structure. In this case a blocking of flow exchange is imposed by the module. Groynes are typical examples of weirs.

Barriers which have an opening close to the bottom, where users can define the width of the opening and the height of the sill.

81

A discharge module has been implemented. Discharges are represented as sources or sinks in the continuity, momentum and scalar equations supplied at specified (fixed or moving) locations at the surface, bottom or within the water column (e.g. discharge structures, pumping stations, discharge from moving ships . . . ) by adding water to the water column with a specified salinity, temperature or contimant concentration. The discharge may or may not have a preferential direction.

Model setup

To apply COHERENS with structures and/or discharges the following switches and general parameters may need to be defined in Usrdef Model.f90

.

iopt dischr Disables/enables (0/1) the discharge module.

iopt drycel Disables/enables (0/1) the dry cell module.

iopt thndam Disables/enables (0/1) the thin dam module.

iopt weibar Disables/enables (0/1) the weirs/barriers module.

numdis number of discharge locations numdry number of dry cells numthinu number of thin dams at U-nodes numthinv number of thin dams at V-nodes numwbaru number of weirs/barriers at U-nodes numwbarv number of weirs/barriers at V-nodes

For details see Chapter 14.

The following additional key ids are available (where a “*” marks a forcing with time series data which can be spread over multiple files).

io drycel dry cell locations io thndam thin dam locations io weibar weirs/barries locations and parameters io disspc discharge specifiers io disloc* discharge locations io disvol* volume discharge data io discur* momentum discharge data io dissal* salinity discharge data io distmp* temperature discharge data

82

A new setup file Usrdef Structures.f90

has been created for setting up appplications with structures and/or discharges. The file contains the following routines

• usrdef dry cells : setup of the dry cells module

• usrdef thin dams : setup of the thin dams module

• usrdef weirs : setup of the weirs/barriers module

• usrdef dischr spec : specifiers for the discharge module

• usrdef dischr data : defines discharge data

For more details see Chapter 18.

Model code

The following new source files have been created

1.

structures.f90

Declaration of paramameters for structures and discharges. See Section 33.18 in the Reference Manual.

2.

Structures Model.f90

Program unit with all routines related to structures and discharges.

See Section 30.22 in the Reference Manual.

A list of most relevant changes in existing source files is given below.

1.

Density Equations.F90

salinity equation Routines update dischr data and scalar discharge

(defined in Structures Model.f90

) are called in case the discharge module (for salinity) is activated.

temperature equation Routines update dischr data and scalar discharge

(defined in Structures Model.f90

) are called in case the discharge module (for salinity) is activated.

2.

Grid Arrays.F90

A new routine update pointer arrays is created which sets currents to zero at blocking velocity interfaces. The routine is called by the weirs/barriers and inundation modules.

83

3.

Harmonic Analysis.f90

The first dimensions of lstatprocs have been interchanges, i.e.

lstatprocs(nprocs,maxstats,nosetsanal) becomes lstatprocs(maxstats,nprocs,nosetsanal)

4.

Hydrodynamic Equations.F90

A number of new calls (defined in Structures Model.f90

are implemented in the following routines (depending on whether the weirs/barriers or discharge module has been activated for the specific routine).

current pred : momentum discharge 3d, weirs loss, weirs sink current 2d : momentum discharge 2d, weirs loss, weir sink surface elevation: surface discharge

5.

Inundation Schemes.f90

Routine update pointer arrays is called in mask function .

6.

Model Finalisation.f90

The energy losses are written (in write phsics ) to the final condition file for weirs/barriers.

7.

Model Initialisation.f90

If the weirs/barrier unit has been activated, two additional vector arrays are read (in read phsics ) from the initial condition file.

wbarelossu: energy losses at U-nodes wbarelossv: energy losses at V-nodes

8.

Nested Grids.F90

The first two dimensions of the arrays indexnstc, indexnstu, indexnstv, indexnstuv have been interchanged.

9.

array interp.f90

Bugs have been corrected in Cvar at U and VWvar at U .

10.

grid.f90

The arrays klevbotatu, klevbotatv, klevsuratu, klevsuratv have become redundant and removed at all places in the source code.

Parameters nobuloc1, nobvloc1, nobxloc1, nobyloc1 have be renamed to respectively nobuloc ext, nobvloc ext, nobxloc ext, nobyloc ext for transparancy.

84

Parameters nobuloc2, nobvloc2, nobxloc2, nobyloc2 are not used in the code and have therefore been removed.

11.

inout paral.f90

combine write stats glb This generic routine replaces and extends the old routine combine write obc . The routine combines the elements of a real global array whose elements in the first dimension are defined at different domains on the parallel grid and writes the resulting array to the appropriate output file. For a syntax description see Section 31.11.

combine write stats loc This generic routine replaces the old routine combine write stats . The routine combines arrays defined locally on different sub-domains of the parallel grid to a global array which is written to the appropriate output file. For a syntax description see Section 31.11.

12.

paral comms.f90

combine stats glb This generic routine replaces and extends the old routine combine obc . The routine combines the elements of a real global array whose elements in the first dimension are defined at different domains on the parallel grid. For a syntax description see Section 31.17.

combine stats loc This generic routine replaces the old routine combine stats . The routine combines arrays defined locally on different sub-domains of the parallel grid to a global array. For a syntax description see Section 31.17.

13.

switches.f90

The switch iopt structs has been replaced (for transparency of the code) by iopt arrint 3D having the same purpose. The switch is automatically switched on if the weirs/barrizers module is activated.

Test cases

The following three new test cases have been implemented for testing the structures and discharge modules.

85

drythin Simulates the tidal flows around obstacles, either represented by a block of dry cells or a series of thin dams within an open channel.

weirbar A series of experiments are defined simulating the tidal flows over weirs and barriers within an open channel.

discharges The experiments are designed to test the various options of the discharge module.

Compatibility with previous versions

This version is compatible with previous versions without changes (taking account of the minor modifications mentioned above). The old test cases can be run as before.

86

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