Stream Digital User Manual Application Guide

Stream Digital User Manual Application Guide
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 1 7/6/2012 11:38:16 AM
Application Guideline
Semi-Hermetic Stream Digital Compressors
4MFD-13X to 6MKD-50X
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1. Safety Information..................................................................................................................................................................
1
1.1 Icon explanation......................................................................................................................................................................
1.2 Safety statements....................................................................................................................................................................
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1
1.3 General instructions.................................................................................................................................................................
2. Product description.................................................................................................................................................................
2
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2.1 Common information about Copeland® brand products semi-hermetic Stream Digital compressors......................................
2.2 About this guideline.................................................................................................................................................................
3
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2.3 Nomenclature..........................................................................................................................................................................
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2.4 Nameplate information............................................................................................................................................................
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2.5 Application range ....................................................................................................................................................................
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2.6 Design features........................................................................................................................................................................
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3. Installation.............................................................................................................................................................................. 10
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3.2 Pressure safety controls ......................................................................................................................................................... 11
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3.3 Brazing procedure................................................................................................................................................................... 12
3.4 Screens.................................................................................................................................................................................... 12
4 Electrical connection ............................................................................................................................................................... 13
4.1 General recommendations .....................................................................................................................................................
4.2 Electrical installation ..............................................................................................................................................................
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4.3 Wiring diagrams .................................................................................................................................................................... 13
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4.4 Protection devices .................................................................................................................................................................. 16
4.5 CoreSense™ Diagnostics ........................................................................................................................................................ 16
4.6 Crankcase heaters .................................................................................................................................................................. 17
5 Starting up & operation............................................................................................................................................................ 18
5.1 Leak test ................................................................................................................................................................................ 18
5.2 System evacuation................................................................................................................................................................. 18
5.3 Preliminary checks – Pre-starting............................................................................................................................................ 18
5.4 Charging procedure................................................................................................................................................................. 18
5.5 Initial start-up .......................................................................................................................................................................... 19
5.6 Minimum run time................................................................................................................................................................... 19
6 Maintenance & repair............................................................................................................................................................... 20
6.1 Exchanging the refrigerant ..................................................................................................................................................... 20
6.2 Replacing a compressor ......................................................................................................................................................... 20
6.3 Lubrication and oil removal ..................................................................................................................................................... 20
6.4 Oil additives ............................................................................................................................................................................ 21
6.5 Unbrazing system components............................................................................................................................................... 21
7 Dismantling & disposal............................................................................................................................................................. 21
You are strongly advised to follow these safety instructions.
1.1
Icon explanation
WARNING
This icon indicates instructions to
avoid personal injury and material
damage.
High voltage
This icon indicates operations with a
danger of electric shock.
Danger of burning or frostbite
This icon indicates operations with a
danger of burning or frostbite.
Explosion hazard
This icon indicates operations with a
danger of explosion.
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CAUTION
This icon indicates instructions to
avoid property damage and possible
personal injury.
IMPORTANT
This icon indicates instructions to
avoid malfunction of the compressor.
NOTE
This
word
indicates
a
recommendation for easier operation.
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1.2
Safety statements
 Refrigerant compressors must be employed only for their intended use.
 Only qualified and authorized HVAC or refrigeration personnel are permitted to install,
commission and maintain this equipment.
 Electrical connections must be made by qualified electrical personnel.
 All valid standards for connecting electrical and refrigeration equipment must be
observed.
Use personal safety equipment.
Safety goggles, gloves,
protective clothing, safety boots and hard hats should be worn
where necessary.
Dismantling &
disposal
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Product
description
These instructions should be retained throughout the lifetime of the compressor.
Installation
These compressors are intended for installation in systems according to the EC Machines
directive. They may be put to service only if they have been installed in these systems according
to instructions and conform to the corresponding provisions of legislation. For relevant standards
please refer to Manufacturers Declaration, available on request.
Electrical
connection
Copeland® brand products semi-hermetic compressors are manufactured according to the latest
European safety standards. Particular emphasis has been placed on the user’s safety.
Starting up &
operation
Safety instructions
Maintenance &
repair
1
Safety
instructions
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1.3
General instructions
WARNING
System breakdown! Personal injuries! Never install a system in the field
and leave it unattended when it has no charge, a holding charge, or with the
service valves closed without electrically locking out the system.
System breakdown! Personal injuries! Only approved refrigerants and
refrigeration oils must be used.
WARNING
High shell temperature! Burning! Do not touch the compressor until it has
cooled down. Ensure that other materials in the area of the compressor do
not get in touch with it. Lock and mark accessible sections.
CAUTION
Overheating! Bearing damage! Do not operate compressors without
refrigerant charge or without being connected to the system.
IMPORTANT
Transit damage! Compressor malfunction! Use original packaging. Avoid
collisions and tilting.
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Product description
2.1
Common information about Copeland® brand products semi-hermetic
Stream Digital compressors
Safety
instructions
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 6 7/6/2012 11:38:17 AM
This manual covers semi-hermetic Stream Digital compressors. The semi-hermetic reciprocating
compressor family consists of different ranges. The Stream Digital series of 4M*D and 6M*D
models range from 13 hp to 50 hp.
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88
99
120
135
153
Product
description
Installation
78
2) R404A Evaporating -35°C, Condensing 40°C, Suction Gas Temperature 20°C, Subcooling 0K
Table 1: Stream Digital compressors range and performance - for full load (100%)
Semi-hermetic Stream Digital compressors are suitable for a wide range of applications in the
form of either single compressors, condensing units or as multi-compressor equipment.
The compressor is only one component which must be combined with many others to build a
functional and efficient refrigeration system.
Therefore the information in this manual relates to all semi-hermetic Stream Digital
compressors with standard equipment and accessories only.
2.2
About this guideline
This guideline is intended to enable users to ensure the safe installation, starting, operation and
maintenance of Digital semi-hermetic compressors.
This guideline is not intended to replace the system expertise available from system
manufacturers.
Dismantling &
disposal
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1) R404A Evaporating -10°C, Condensing 45°C, Suction Gas Temperature 20°C, Subcooling 0K
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Starting up &
operation
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13
22
15
25
17
27
22
30
25
32
27
35
32
40
40
50
Maintenance &
repair
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4MFD-13X
4MAD-22X
4MLD15X
4MHD-25X
4MMD-17X
4MID-27X
4MTD-22X
4MJD-30X
4MUD-25X
4MKD-32X
6MMD-27X
6MID-35X
6MTD-32X
6MJD-40X
6MUD-40X
6MKD-50X
Medium temperature 1) Low temperature 2)
Net
Footprint
Cooling
Cooling
Weight
mm
Capacity
Capacity
COP
COP
(kg)
(kW)
(kW)
33.4
2.4
11.4
1.4
177
33.6
2.4
10.8
1.4
178
38.7
2.3
13.2
1.5
180
38.8
2.4
12.5
1.4
187
42.6
2.3
14.7
1.5
182
42.8
2.4
13.9
1.4
188
47.8
2.3
16.5
1.5
183
48
2.3
16
1.4
190
381 x 305
54.2
2.3
18.7
1.5
186
54.2
2.4
17.7
1.4
202
61.8
2.3
21.6
1.4
215
64.2
2.4
20.3
1.4
219
70.4
2.3
25.1
1.5
221
72.4
2.3
23.6
1.4
223
79.8
2.3
28.4
1.4
225
82.1
2.3
26.6
1.4
230
Electrical
connection
Model
Nominal
Displacement
Horsepower
m 3/h
(hp)
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2.3
Nomenclature
The model designation contains the following technical information about Stream Digital
compressors:
2.4
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Nameplate information
All important information for identification of the compressor is printed on the nameplate located
below the compressor oil pump.
The type of refrigerant used should be stamped on the nameplate by the installer.
The date of production consists of the year and week of production. The year and month of
production are also part of the serial number (Jan. = A, Feb. = B, ... Dec. = L).
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Figure 1: Nameplate position
2.5
Application range
2.5.1 Qualified refrigerants and oils
IMPORTANT
It is essential that the glide of refrigerant blends (primarily R407C) is carefully
considered when adjusting pressure and superheat controls.
Oil recharge values can be taken from Copeland® brand products Selection Software on
www.emersonclimate.eu.
Qualified refrigerants
R404A, R407A,R407C, R134a, R22, R507
Copeland® brand
products standard oil
Emkarate RL 32 3MAF
Servicing oil
Emkarate RL 32 3MAF
Mobil EAL Arctic 22 CC
Table 2: Qualified refrigerants and oils for recharging and topping up
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To recharge:
 When the compressor is completely empty of oil, the amount of oil to be “recharged” is
typically 0.12 litre less than the original oil charge (oil will already be around the system).
To top up:
 During commissioning, planned maintenance or servicing, add oil so that the compressor oil
level is correct.
These high-pressure switches must be calibrated
and tested before putting the compressor into
service. They must stop the compressor if the
allowable pressure is exceeded.
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The complete cylinder head is under discharge
pressure.
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Figure 2: Exploded view of Digital mechanism
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Factory delivered 4M*D and 6M*D compressors include as standard configuration:
 one standard bank;
 one Digital modulated bank;
 one capacity-controlled bank (blocked suction std) only for 6M*D.
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2.6.2 Digital theory of operation
Digital technology is now available on the 4M*D and 6M*D Stream compressors. Applied to one
bank on a 4M*D compressor it provides 50 to 100% capacity modulation. When combined with a
blocked suction bank on a 6M*D compressor, it provides 33 to 100%.
Digital capacity control is achieved by using a proven internal unloading method, based on
blocking gas to the valve plate suction area. Capacity control can be achieved by varying the
percentage of duty cycle when the compressor is loaded and unloaded. The unloader piston
mechanism that controls the flow of suction gas into the cylinders is driven by a solenoid valve.
Bolts / studs
Solenoid valve
Solenoid valve gasket
Cylinder head
Installation
Each cylinder head has a plugged 1/8" - 27
NPTF tapped hole for connecting high-pressure
switches.
Electrical
connection
The 4M* and 6M* Digital head is fitted on the
terminal box side cylinder bank. 6MID1-40X,
6MJD1-45X, 6MKD1-50X compressors are
equipped with a capacity control on the central
cylinder bank.
Starting up &
operation
All compressors are fitted with Discus valve plates which cannot be dismantled. To maintain the
high capacity of these compressors the correct valve-plate-to-body gasket must always be
selected in case of exchange.
Maintenance &
repair
2.6.1 Compressor construction
Product
description
Design features
Dismantling &
disposal
2.6
Safety
instructions
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 8 7/6/2012 11:38:17 AM
Figure 3: Digital modulation components
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Loaded
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Unloaded
Gas enters compressors
Passes through body
Into valve plate
Compressed gas
Exits compressor
1. Gas enters compressors
2. Passes through body
3. Unloader mechanism blocks gas
before entering valve plate
Figure 4: Gas flow
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Loaded
1 Solenoid valve
Unloaded
2 Cylinder head
3 Valve plate
4, 5 Unloading piston
Figure 5: Cutaway view of the Digital cylinder head, loaded and unloaded
2.6.3 Digital control
Capacity modulation is achieved by energizing and de-energizing the solenoid valve. When the
solenoid valve is de-energized, the digital bank capacity is 100%. When the solenoid valve is
energized, the digital bank capacity is zero. Therefore, the capacity achieved is the time average
capacity.
Example: In a 20-second cycle, if the solenoid is de-energized for 16 seconds, and then
energized for 4 seconds, the resulting capacity will be approximately 80%.
For 4M*D Stream compressors, one bank of the compressor remains loaded 100% while the
digital bank will modulate 0 to 100% to provide the additional capacity. The capacity is 50 to
100% as one bank is modulating.
On a 6M*D with blocked suction the blocked suction bank will unload when demand capacity is
less than 67% and load when the demand capacity is higher than 67%. The digital bank will
continue to load and unload providing continuous capacity across the 33 to 100% range.
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Product
description
The digital modulation recommended cycle time is 20 seconds. For other values, check with
Application Engineering.
Safety
instructions
2.6.4 Recommended application settings for modulation on Stream Digital compressors
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The solenoid coil is available for several voltages: 24V, 120V and 240V.
Stream Digital compressors use special head and valve plate gaskets which have modifications
to ensure gas flow for proper digital modulation. Only Emerson gaskets may be used. All
compressor warranties are null and void if the Emerson gaskets are not used.
2.6.6 Compressor cooling
Compressor motors must always be cooled, and cylinder head cooling may also be needed at
certain operating conditions.
All Stream Digital compressors are suction-gas cooled. With suction-gas cooled compressors,
the motor is cooled by refrigerant gas that is led over the motor. An additional fan may be
required depending upon the operation conditions (see Copeland® brand products Selection
Software on www.emersonclimate.eu).
2.6.7 Unloaded start
With direct starting the motor of a compressor is switched directly into the mains by means of a
switch. The resulting breakaway starting current amounts to multiple times the rated motor
current (operating maximum), without consideration being given to transient phenomena. In the
case of high-powered motors the breakaway starting currents become so large that they lead to
disruptive voltage dips in the mains. The compressors that are subject to current limitation must
therefore by all means be equipped with starting load reduction to guarantee perfect starting
even when the voltages amount to less than approximately 85% of the voltage on the
nameplate.
2.6.8 Oil pumps
The oil pumps used for Stream Digital compressors are independent of their rotating direction.
Stream Digital compressors are delivered with CoreSense™ Diagnostics. The oil pump
integrates the electronic switch for integrating oil pressure safety functionality.
Electrical
connection
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Starting up &
operation
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Due to the high life cycle requirements in a hot gas environment, a special valve has been
developed. Due to reliability requirements, only Emerson solenoid valves may be used. All
compressor warranties are null and void if the Emerson valve is not used. Solenoid coils will be
sold separately for all Stream Digital compressors.
Maintenance &
repair
2.6.5 Digital solenoid valve / Gaskets
Dismantling &
disposal
The load and unload times will give the compressor an operating range during a 20-second
cycle. Minimum percent capacity would be 50% for 4M*D and 33% or 67% for 6M*D, depending
on compressor configuration. The compressor can also operate at a 100% load for the full
modulation sequence.
Installation
Figure 6: The digital signal from the controller activates the unloading
2.6.9 Oil pressure
Normal oil pressure is between 1.05 and 4.2 bar higher than crankcase pressure. Net oil
pressure can be read by connecting two pressure gauges to the compressor and comparing the
readings. One gauge should be connected to the oil pump. The second gauge should be
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2.6.11 Oil level
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All compressors are delivered with sufficient oil for normal operation. The optimum oil level
should be checked by operating the compressor until the system is stable and then comparing
the sight glass reading with the appropriate diagram below. Oil level should be min ⅛ and max ¼
of sight glass. For service compressors when an oil regulator is used the oil level should be min
⅛ and max ¾ of sight glass. The level can also be checked within 10 seconds of compressor
shut-down. For 4M*D and 6M*D compressors a higher oil level may be accepted when an oil
regulator is in use because the oil separator will reduce excessive oil circulation.
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Oil returns with the suction gases through a suction strainer and separates in the motor chamber
reaching the crankcase by way of an oil return relief valve in the partition between motor housing
and crankcase. This relief valve closes on compressor start-up due to the pressure difference
arising between motor side and crankcase, thus slowing down pressure decrease in the
crankcase over a certain period of time. It reduces the foaming of the oil/refrigerant mixture that
would occur if the pressure decreased rapidly. The valve does not reopen until the pressure has
been equalized by means of a crankcase ventilating valve. This second valve connects the
crankcase and suction side cylinder head. It reduces the pressure difference by means of a very
small bore in the plate of the valve so slowly that oil foams less and only limited oil/refrigerant
foam is transferred to the oil pump. Compressors with four and six cylinders have one crankcase
ventilating valve on the left cylinder bank.
Installation
2.6.10 Oil circulation
Electrical
connection
During irregular operating conditions, eg, a blockage of the suction filter, the pressure measured
at the suction shut-off valve of the compressor may differ widely from that measured at the
crankcase therefore pressure drops have to be avoided.
Safety
instructions
connected to the crankcase (T-fitting instead of plug on the compressor crankcase) or the
suction service valve.
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2.6.12 Application limits
4MAD1-22X, 4MHD1-25X, 4MID1-30X, 4MJD1-30X2, 4MKD1-32X
6MID1-40X, 6MJD1-45X, 6MKD1-50X
Full Capacity (100%)
Suction gas temperature = 0°C
Full Capacity (100%)
Suction gas temperature = 25°C
Digital + Fan Envelope
Digital without fan Envelope
Dismantling &
disposal
Figure 7: 4M*D and 6M*D compressors
Maintenance &
repair
Starting up &
operation
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Figure 8: Application envelopes for High and Medium temperature compressors used with R404A
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4MFD1-13X, 4MLD1-15X, 4MMD1-20X, 4MTD1-22X, 4MUD1-25X,
6MMD1-30X, 6MTD1-35X, 6MUD1-40X
Full Capacity (100%)
Superheat = 20K
Full Capacity (100%)
Suction gas temperature = 25°C
Digital + Fan envelope limit
Digital without fan envelope limit
Figure 9: Application envelopes for Medium and Low temperature compressors used with R404A
NOTE: Application envelopes with other refrigerants are available on request.
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2.6.13 Multiple compressor application
To ensure smooth and continuous modulation, selection of the digital and non digital
compressors capacities can be made according to the following rule.
Rule: For optimum suction pressure control, the following guideline is recommended in the
selection of fixed capacity and Digital compressors, per suction header:
- D > F1
- F2 < D+F1
- F3 < D+F1+F2
- ……
- FN < D+F1+2+....FN-1
where D = Capacity of the Stream Digital compressor
F1 --- FN = Capacity of the standard Stream compressor
The compressor selected should be the smallest compressor capacity that still covers all the
gaps between steps to ensure the most efficient system control.
Example: A 4M*D has a continuous capacity from 50 to 100%, therefore, when a 4M*D Stream
Digital compressor is selected, the fixed-capacity compressor beside it should have 50% to
100% of the full load of the digital compressor.
NOTE: For best results, the digital compressor needs to be the lead compressor. It must
be the first compressor “On” and last compressor “Off” in multiple compressor
applications.
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3
Installation
WARNING
High pressure! Injury to skin and eyes possible! Be careful when
opening connections on a pressurized item.
3.1
Compressor handling
3.1.1 Delivery
Please check whether the delivery is correct and complete. Any deficiency should be reported
immediately in writing.
Standard delivery:
 Suction and discharge shut-off valves
 Oil charge, oil sight glass
 Mounting kit
 CoreSense™ Diagnostics module
 Holding charge up to 2.5 bar(g) (dry air)
 Digital Solenoid valve (delivered mounted)
3.1.2 Transport and storage
WARNING
Risk of collapse! Personal injuries! Move compressors only with
appropriate mechanical or handling equipment according to weight. Keep in
the upright position. Stack pallets on top of each other when not exceeding
300 kg. Do not stack single boxes on top of each other. Keep the packaging
dry at all times.
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Figure 109
Compressors are individually packed and may be delivered on pallets depending on quantity and
size. Cooling fans are delivered in separate cartons. Accessories may be mounted or delivered
loose. Solenoid valves are never mounted (except the Digital head one).
3.1.3 Positioning and securing
IMPORTANT
Handling damage! Compressor malfunction! Only use the lifting eyes
whenever the compressor requires positioning. Using discharge or suction
connections for lifting may cause damage or leaks.
If possible, the compressor should be kept vertical during handling.
For safety reasons two lifting eyes should be fitted before moving a compressor (½" - 13 UNC).
Refer to drawings on Figure 11 to see how to apply other lifting methods.
In order to avoid refrigerant leaks or other damage the compressors should not be lifted by the
service valves or other accessories.
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6M*D
max. 260 kg
Product
description
Safety
instructions
4M*D
max. 220 kg
Figure 101
3.1.5 Mounting parts
To minimize vibration and start/stop impulses flexible mounting should be used. For this purpose
one set of spring mounting parts for each of the Stream models is delivered with each 4M* and
6M* compressor.
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Due to differences in weight (cylinder/motor side) different springs have to be used on both
sides. Springs have different colours for easier identification: violet on motor side and orange on
cylinder side.
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Transport
clamp
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Electrical
connection
Ensure the compressors are installed on a solid level base.
Installation
3.1.4 Installation location
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Transport position
Operational position
Starting up &
operation
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When Stream Digital compressors are mounted in racks rubber mounting parts should be used.
A compressor may be rigidly mounted, ie, without springs. In this case more shock and vibration
loading will be transmitted to the frame.
If the installation requires a very high level of vibration absorption, additional vibration absorbers
- available on the market - can be fitted between the rails and the foundation.
Pressure safety controls
3.2.1 High-pressure control
A high-pressure control with a maximum cut-out setting of 28 bar(g) is required.
The high-pressure cut-out should have a manual reset feature for the highest level of system
protection.
3.2.2 Low-pressure control
Dismantling &
disposal
3.2
Maintenance &
repair
Figure 112
The normal minimum cut-out setting is 0.1 bar(g) for R404A.
The low-pressure cut-out should have a manual reset feature for the highest level of system
protection.
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3.2.3 Maximum operating pressures
Maximum operating pressures according to EN 12693 shown on the compressor nameplate are
obligatory and must not be exceeded.


High-pressure side (HP):
Low-pressure side (LP):
28.0 bar
22.5 bar
NOTE: The compressor operating range may be restricted for various reasons. Check the
application range limitations in Copeland® brand products Selection Software on
www.emersonclimate.eu.
3.3
Brazing procedure
IMPORTANT
Blockage! Compressor breakdown! Maintain a flow of oxygen-free
nitrogen through the system at very low pressure during brazing. Nitrogen
displaces the air and prevents the formation of copper oxides in the system.
If allowed to form, the copper oxide material can later be swept through the
system and block screens such as those protecting capillary tubes, thermal
expansion valves, and accumulator oil return holes.
Contamination or moisture! Bearing failure! Do not remove the plugs until
the compressor is set into the unit. This minimises any entry of contaminants
and moisture.
Figure 12 shows the proper procedures for brazing the suction and discharge lines.
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 The copper-coated steel tubes on Stream Digital
compressors can be brazed in approximately the
same manner as any copper tube.
 Recommended brazing materials: any silfos
material is recommended, preferably with a minimum
of 5% silver. However, 0% silver is acceptable.
 Be sure tube fitting inner diameter and tube outer
diameter are clean prior to assembly.
 Using a double-tipped torch, apply heat in area 1.
 As the tube approaches brazing temperature,
Figure 12: Suction tube brazing
move the torch flame to area 2.
 Heat area 2 until braze temperature is attained, moving the torch up and down and rotating
around the tube as necessary to heat the tube evenly. Add braze material to the joint while
moving the torch around the joint to flow braze material around the circumference.
 After the braze material flows around the joint, move the torch to heat area 3. This will draw
the braze material down into the joint. The time spent heating area 3 should be minimal.
 As with any brazed joint, overheating may be detrimental to the final result.
To disconnect:
 Heat joint areas 2 and 3 slowly and uniformly until the braze material softens and the tube
can be pulled out of the fitting.
To reconnect:
 Recommended brazing materials: Silfos with minimum 5% silver or silver braze used on
other compressors.
3.4
Screens
CAUTION
Screen blocking! Compressor breakdown! Use screens with at least
0.6 mm openings.
The use of screens finer than 30 x 30 mesh (0.6 mm openings) anywhere in the system should
be avoided with these compressors. Field experience has shown that finer mesh screens used
to protect thermal expansion valves, capillary tubes or accumulators can become temporarily or
permanently plugged with normal system debris and block the flow of either oil or refrigerant to
the compressor. Such blockage can result in compressor failure.
12
C6.3.2/1211/E
4
Electrical connection
4.1
General recommendations
Safety
instructions
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 16 7/6/2012 11:38:17 AM
The compressor terminal box has a wiring diagram on the inside of its cover. Before connecting
the compressor, ensure the supply voltage, the phases and the frequency match the nameplate
data.
4.2
Electrical installation
Product
description
4.2.1 Three-phase motors
All compressors can be started direct-on-line.
The necessary position of bridges for direct-on-line start (depending on type of motor and/or
mains voltage) is shown in Chapter 4.3 Wiring diagrams.
4.2.2 Star / Delta motors (Y/∆) – Code E
Installation
With the help of bridges, this motor is interchangeable for star (Y) or delta (∆) operation. It is
suitable for two voltages, eg, 230V in delta, 400V in star connection. If the supply voltage and
the nominal voltage of the motor in ∆-connection are identical, the star connection motor can
also be used for starting (remove the bridges!).
4.2.3 Part winding motors (YY/Y) – Code A
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The first part winding, ie, the 2/3 winding on terminals 1-2-3, can be used for part-winding start
(remove the bridges!). After a time delay of 1 ± 0.1 seconds the second part winding, ie, the 1/3
winding on terminals 7-8-9, must be brought on line.
Electrical
connection
C
PWS motors contain two separate windings (2/3 + 1/3) which are internally connected in star
and operated in parallel. You cannot change the voltage by changing the electrical connections
as the motor is only suitable for one voltage.
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4.3
Wiring diagrams
The position of the jumpers in the terminal box and the recommended wiring diagrams are
shown in Figures 13 and 14.
Starting up &
operation
MY
Dismantling &
disposal
Maintenance &
repair
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C6.3.2/1211/E
13
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 17 7/6/2012 11:38:17 AM
4.3.1 Wiring diagram for part winding motors (AW…)
Part winding motors can be connected direct-on-line or part-winding start.
Direct-on-line start
Y-Y
Part-winding start
First start step 1–2-3
Y-Y
Part-winding motor:
Y–Y
Code A
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Legend
A4 ........Sensor module
A5 ........Terminal box compressor
CCH.....Crankcase heater
F6 ........Fuse for control circuit
F7 ........Fuse for control circuit
F8 ........Fuse for control circuit
F10 ......Thermal protection switch M2
K1 ....... Contactor M1
K4 ....... Contactor M1 for second part winding
M2....... Fan motor/condenser
M21..... Fan motor/condenser
Y7 ....... Solenoid valve digital discus head
Y21 ..... Solenoid valve capacity control 1
Y22 ..... Solenoid valve capacity control 2
Figure 134
14
C6.3.2/1211/E
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 18 7/6/2012 11:38:18 AM
4.3.2 Wiring diagram for Star / Delta motors (EW…)
Direct-on-line start
∆
Direct-on-line start
Y
Safety
instructions
Star / Delta motors can be connected direct-on-line or Star / Delta start.
Star / Delta start
Y-∆
Star / Delta
motor
Y-∆
Installation
Product
description
Code E
Electrical
connection
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Y
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MY
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Starting up &
operation
CMY
Maintenance &
repair
K
A4 ........Sensor module
A5 ........Terminal box compressor
CCH.....Crankcase heater
F6 ........Fuse for control circuit
F7 ........Fuse for control circuit
F8 ........Fuse for control circuit
F10 ......Thermal protection switch M2
K1 ........Contactor M1
Dismantling &
disposal
Legend
K2 ....... Y - Contactor M1
K3 ....... Δ - Contactor M1
M2....... Fan motor/condenser
M21..... Fan motor/condenser
Y7 ....... Solenoid valve digital discus head
Y21 ..... Solenoid valve capacity control 1
Y22 ..... Solenoid valve capacity control 2
Figure 145
C6.3.2/1211/E
15
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4.4
Protection devices
Independently from the internal motor protection, fuses must be installed before the compressor.
The selection of fuses has to be carried out according to VDE 0635, DIN 57635, IEC 269-1 or
EN 60-269-1.
4.5
CoreSense™ Diagnostics
CoreSense™ Diagnostics for all 4M*D and 6M*D semi-hermetic Stream compressors combines
oil and motor protection into one module, replacing OPS1/2 and the electronic module INT69TM.
In addition to diagnostics, it provides advanced protection against faults such as high discharge
temperature, locked rotor, single/missing phase, voltage imbalance, low voltage. The module is
capable of communication via Modbus® protocol. An external overload protection is not
necessary.
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Figure 156: CoreSense™ Diagnostics module
16
C6.3.2/1211/E
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 20 7/6/2012 11:38:18 AM
M
Y
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4.6
Crankcase heaters
IMPORTANT
Oil dilution! Bearing malfunction! Turn the crankcase heater on 12 hours
before starting the compressor.
MY
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A crankcase heater is used to prevent refrigerant migrating into the shell during standstill
periods. Heaters for 4M* and 6M* compressors are screwed into a sleeve (see Figure 18).
The crankcase heater is available in 120V, 230V and 480V.
The operation of 120V and 230V crankcase heater is controlled by the CoreSense™ Diagnostics
module, this is not possible with the 480V heater.
Figure 178: 100 Watt crankcase heater element
Dismantling &
disposal
CY
Electrical
connection
C
Starting up &
operation
NOTE: For more information please refer to Technical Information D7.8.4 “CoreSense™
Diagnostics for Stream refrigeration compressors”.
Maintenance &
repair
Figure 167: CoreSense™ wiring diagram
Installation
Product
description
Safety
instructions
For the electrical connection of the CoreSense™ Diagnostics module, please refer to the wiring
diagram below:
C6.3.2/1211/E
17
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 21 7/6/2012 11:38:18 AM
5
Starting up & operation
WARNING
Diesel effect! Compressor destruction! The mixture of air and oil at high
temperature can lead to an explosion. Avoid operating with air.
5.1
Leak test
The suction shut-off valve and discharge shut-off valve on the compressor must remain closed
during pressure testing to prevent air and moisture from entering the compressor. The test
pressure (dried nitrogen) must not exceed 20.5 bar provided no other system component’s
pressure is lower. In this case the lower pressure is the test pressure.
5.2
System evacuation
Before the installation is put into commission, remove the holding charge then evacuate with a
vacuum pump. Proper evacuation reduces residual moisture to 50 ppm. The installation of
adequately sized access valves at the furthest point from the compressor in the suction and
liquid lines is advisable. To achieve undisturbed operation the compressor valves are closed and
the system is evacuated down to 0.3 mbar / 0.225 Torr. Pressure must be measured using a
vacuum pressure (Torr) gauge on the access valves and not on the vacuum pump; this serves to
avoid incorrect measurements resulting from the pressure gradient along the connecting lines to
the pump. Then the compressor must be evacuated.
Due to the factory holding charge of dry air the compressor is under pressure (about 1 to
2.5 bar), this is to indicate the compressor does not leak.
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When plugs are removed from the compressor in order to connect a pressure gauge or to fill in
oil, the plug may pop out under pressure and oil can spurt out.
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5.3
Preliminary checks – Pre-starting
Discuss details of the installation with the installer. If possible, obtain drawings, wiring diagrams,
etc. It is ideal to use a check-list but always check the following:









5.4
Visual check of the electrics, wiring, fuses etc.
Visual check of the plant for leaks, loose fittings such as TXV bulbs etc.
Compressor oil level
Calibration of HP & LP switches and any pressure actuated valves
Check setting and operation of all safety features and protection devices
All valves in the correct running position
Pressure and compound gauges fitted
Correctly charged with refrigerant
Compressor electrical isolator location & position
Charging procedure
CAUTION
Low suction pressure operation! Compressor Damage! Do not operate
with a restricted suction. Do not operate with the low-pressure cut-out
bridged.
The system should be liquid-charged through the liquid-receiver shut-off valve or through a valve
in the liquid line. The use of a filter drier in the charging line is highly recommended. The majority
of the charge should be placed in the high side of the system to prevent bearing washout during
first-time start on the assembly line.
18
C6.3.2/1211/E
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 22 7/6/2012 11:38:18 AM
CAUTION
Oil dilution! Bearing malfunction! It is important to ensure that new
compressors are not subjected to liquid abuse. Turn the crankcase heater on
12 hours before starting the compressor.
CAUTION
High discharge pressure operation! Compressor damage! Do not use
compressor to test opening set point of high-pressure cut-out.
The compressor must be equipped according to our technical documentation considering the
application intended. Make sure of this before start-up.
For brazing connections where dissimilar or ferric metals are joined a silver alloy rod with a
minimum of 30% silver shall be used being either flux coated or with a separate flux.
Safety
instructions
Initial start-up
Product
description
5.5
With the exception of rubber-coated metallic gaskets (Wolverine) all gaskets should be oiled
before fitting. O-rings should also be oiled.
A compressor should never be operated beyond its approved application range! Check
by consulting the appropriate data sheet. To avoid motor damage the compressor MUST
NOT be started, nor may high-potential testing be carried out under vacuum
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Minimum run time
Emerson Climate Technologies recommends a maximum of 10 starts per hour. The most critical
consideration is the minimum run time required to return oil to the compressor after start-up.
Y
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MY
Electrical
connection
5.6
C
Installation
Bolt torque settings are listed in Appendix.
CY
Starting up &
operation
CMY
Dismantling &
disposal
Maintenance &
repair
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C6.3.2/1211/E
19
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6
Maintenance & repair
6.1
Exchanging the refrigerant
Qualified refrigerants and oils are given in Chapter 2.5.1.
It is not necessary to replace the refrigerant with new unless contamination due to an error such
as topping up the system with an incorrect refrigerant is suspected. To verify correct refrigerant
composition, a sample can be taken for chemical analysis. A check can be made during shut
down by comparing the refrigerant temperature and pressure using precision measurements at a
location in the system where liquid and vapour phases are present and when the temperatures
have stabilised.
In the event that the refrigerant needs replacing, the charge should be recovered using a
suitable recovery unit.
In the event that R22 in a system with mineral oil is to be replaced with R407C or R404A, the oil
must also be changed. Please refer to Technical Information C7.26.1 "Refrigerant Changeover
from HCFC to HFC Refrigerants".
6.2
Replacing a compressor
CAUTION
Inadequate lubrication! Bearing destruction! Exchange the accumulator
after replacing a compressor with a burned out motor. The accumulator oil
return orifice or screen may be plugged with debris or may become plugged.
This will result in starvation of oil to the new compressor and a second
failure.
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In the case of a motor burnout, the majority of contaminated oil will be removed with the
compressor. The rest of the oil is cleaned through the use of suction and liquid line filter driers. A
100% activated alumna suction line filter drier is recommended but must be removed after 72
hours. It is highly recommended that the suction accumulator be replaced if the system
contains one. This is because the accumulator oil-return orifice or screen may be plugged with
debris or may become plugged shortly after a compressor failure. This will result in starvation of
power usage.
6.3
Lubrication and oil removal
CAUTION
Chemical reaction! Compressor destruction! Do not mix up ester oils with
mineral oil and/or alkyl benzene when used with chlorine-free (HFC)
refrigerants.
The compressor is supplied with an initial oil charge. The standard oil charge for use with
refrigerants R404A / R407A / R407C / R407F / R134a is a polyolester (POE) lubricant Emkarate
RL 32 3MAF. In the field the oil level could be topped up with Mobil EAL Arctic 22 CC if 3MAF is
not available. The standard mineral oil for R22 is Suniso 3GS.
One disadvantage of POE is that it is far more hygroscopic than mineral oil (see Figure 19).
Only brief exposure to ambient air is needed for POE to absorb sufficient moisture to make it
unacceptable for use in a refrigeration system. Since POE holds moisture more readily than
mineral oil it is more difficult to remove it through the use of vacuum. Compressors supplied by
Emerson Climate Technologies contain oil with low moisture content, and it may rise during the
system assembling process. Therefore it is recommended that a properly sized filter-drier is
installed in all POE systems. This will maintain the moisture level in the oil to less than 50 ppm. If
oil is charged into a system, it is recommended to use POE with a moisture content no higher
than 50 ppm.
20
C6.3.2/1211/E
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6.4
Oil additives
Although Emerson Climate Technologies cannot comment on any specific product, from our own
testing and past experience, we do not recommend the use of any additives to reduce
compressor bearing losses or for any other purpose. Furthermore, the long term chemical
stability of any additive in the presence of refrigerant, low and high temperatures, and materials
commonly found in refrigeration systems is complex and difficult to evaluate without rigorously
controlled chemical laboratory testing. The use of additives without adequate testing may result
in malfunction or premature failure of components in the system and, in specific cases, in voiding
the warranty on the component.
6.5
Unbrazing system components
WARNING
Explosive flame! Burning! Oil-refrigerant mixtures are highly flammable.
Remove all refrigerant before opening the system. Avoid working with an
unshielded flame in a refrigerant charged system.
Before opening up a system it is important to remove all refrigerant from both the high and low
sides of the system. If the refrigerant charge is removed from a scroll-equipped unit from the
high side only, it is possible for the scrolls to seal, preventing pressure equalization through the
compressor. This may leave the low side shell and suction line tubing pressurized. If a brazing
torch is then applied to the low side while the low side shell and suction line contain pressure,
the pressurized refrigerant and oil mixture could ignite when it escapes and contacts the brazing
flame. To prevent this occurrence, it is important to check both the high and low sides with
manifold gauges before unbrazing. Instructions should be provided in appropriate product
literature and assembly (line repair) areas. If compressor removal is required, the compressor
should be cut out of system rather than unbrazed.
7
Dismantling & disposal
Removing oil and refrigerant:
Do not disperse in the environment.
Use the correct equipment and method of removal.
Dispose of oil and refrigerant properly.
Dispose of compressor properly.
C6.3.2/1211/E
Product
description
Installation
Electrical
connection
C
Starting up &
operation
If the moisture content of the oil in a refrigeration system reaches unacceptably high levels,
corrosion and copper plating may occur. The system should be evacuated down to 0.3 mbar or
lower. If there is uncertainty as to the moisture content in the system, an oil sample should be
taken and tested for moisture. Sight glass/moisture indicators currently available can be used
with the HFC refrigerants and lubricants; however, the moisture indicator will just show the
moisture content of the refrigerant. The actual moisture level of POE would be higher than the
sight glass indicates. This is due to the high hygroscopicity of the POE oil. To determine the
actual moisture content of the lubricant, samples have to be taken from the system and
analysed.
Maintenance &
repair
Figure 189: Absorption of moisture in ester oil in comparison to mineral oil in ppm by weight at 25°C and 50%
relative humidity (h=hours)
Dismantling &
disposal
The diagram below compares the hygroscopic characteristics of POE oil with mineral oil
(moisture absorption in PPM at 25°C and 50% relative humidity).
Safety
instructions
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 24 7/6/2012 11:38:18 AM
21
08_Application_Guide-Stream_Digital_REV_0705.pdf 25 7/6/2012 11:38:18 AM
Contact List
Emerson Climate Technologies
Asia Pacific Headquarters
10/F, Pioneer Building,
213 Wai Yip Street,
Kwun Tong, Kowloon, Hong Kong
Tel: (852) 2866 3108
Fax: (852) 2520 6227
Australia
Emerson Climate Technologies Australia
Pty Ltd
Unit R7, 391 Park Road
Regents Park, NSW 2143, Australia
Tel: (61 2) 9795 2800
Fax: (61 2) 9738 1699
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China - Beijing
Emerson Climate Technologies (Suzhou)
Co. Ltd
Beijing Branch
Room 1017 Canway Building,
66 Nan Lishi Road, XiCheng District,
Beijing 100045, PRC
Tel: (86 10) 5763 0488
Fax: (86 10) 5763 0499
China - Guangzhou
Emerson Climate Technologies (Suzhou)
Co. Ltd
Guangzhou Branch
508-509 R&F Yinglong Plaza,
No. 76 Huangpu Road West,
Guangzhou, PRC
Tel: (86 20) 2886 7668
Fax: (86 20) 2886 7622
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China - Shanghai
Emerson Climate Technologies
(Suzhou) Co. Ltd
Shanghai Branch
1801 Building B, New CaoHeJing
International Business Center,
391Guiping Rd, Shanghai 200233, PRC
Tel: (86 21) 3418 3999
Fax: (86 21) 3418 3988
India - Mumbai
Emerson Climate Technologies (India) Ltd
Unit No. 4,5,6 & 7, Bhaveshwar Arcade
LBS Marg, Opp. Shreyas Cinema
Ghatkopar (West)
Mumbai 400 086, Maharashtra, India
Tel: (91 22) 4270 8002/ 4270 8000
Fax: (91 22) 2500 6570
India - PUNE
Emerson Climate Technologies (India) Ltd
Plot No. 23, Rajiv Gandhi Infotech Park,
Phase - II, Hinjewadi,
Pune 411 057, Maharashtra, India
Tel: (91 20) 4200 2005
Fax: (91 20) 4200 2099
Indonesia
PT Emerson Indonesia
Wisma 46 - Kota BNI, 16th Floor, Suite 16.01,
Jl. Jend.Sudirman Kav.1.
Jakarta 10220, Indonesia
Tel: (62)21 2513003
Fax: (62)21 2510622
Middle East & Africa
Emerson Climate Technologies
PO Box 26382
South Jabel Ali Free Zone,
Dubai, UAE
Tel: (971 4) 811 8100
Fax: (971 4) 886 5465
Philippines
Emerson Climate Technologies
4th Floor San Miguel Properties Centre
#7 St. Francis Street, Ortigas Center,
Mandaluyong City, Philippines
Tel: (632) 689 7288 / (632) 479 5200
Fax: (632) 479 5271
Taiwan
Emerson Electric (Taiwan) Co. Ltd
3F No. 2 DunHua South Road Sec.1,
Taipei (105), Taiwan
Tel: (886 2) 8161 7688
Fax: (886 2) 81617614
Japan
Emerson Japan Ltd
Shin-Yokohama Tosho Building
No. 3, 3-9-5, Shin-Yokohama, Kohoku-ku
Yokohama 222-0033 Japan
Tel: (81 45)475 6371
Fax: (81 45)475 3565
Thailand - Bangkok
Emerson Electric (Thailand) Ltd
34th Floor Nation Tower
1858/133 Bangna Trad
Bangkok 10260 , Thailand
Tel: (66 2) 716 4700
Fax: (66 2) 751 4240/ 4241
Korea
Emerson Electric Korea Ltd.
3F POBA Gangnam Tower, 119 NonhyunDong, Gangnam-Gu, Seoul 135-010 Korea
Tel: (82 2) 3483-1500
Fax: (82 2) 592-7883
Vietnam
Emerson Climate Technologies - Vietnam
Suite 307-308,
123 Truong Dinh St., Dist.3
Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam
Tel: (84 8) 3932 2044
Fax: (84 8) 3932 2055
EmersonClimate.Eu
EmersonClimate.com/Asia
Asia 02 B02 01 - R00 Issued 5/2012
Malaysia
Emerson Electric (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.
Level M2, Blk A, Menara PKNS-PJ
Jalan Yong Shook Lin
46050 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia
Tel: (60 3) 7949 9222
Fax: (60 3) 7949 9333
Emerson, Copeland PerformanceAlert and Copeland Scroll are trademarks of Emerson Electric Co. or one of its affiliated companies.
©2012 Emerson Climate Technologies, Inc. All rights reserved.
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