TerraQSAR - Daphnia

TerraQSAR - Daphnia
TerraQSAR™ - Daphnia
Daphnia magna 48-hr LC50
Estimation Software, vs. 1.1
User Manual
Copyright © 2008, TerraBase Inc.
Purpose
TerraQSAR™ - Daphnia is a holistic, probabilistic-algorithm-based neural
network software program, designed and optimized solely for the computation of
Daphnia magna 48-hr LC50 values of organic (carbon-containing) substances with a
defined chemical structure.
Table of Contents
Purpose .......................................................................................................................1
Table of Contents ........................................................................................................1
Introduction.................................................................................................................2
Theory.........................................................................................................................2
Computation Process ...................................................................................................2
Data Set...................................................................................................................2
Fragments................................................................................................................3
Input Query .............................................................................................................3
Computation............................................................................................................3
Results.....................................................................................................................3
SMILES Notation........................................................................................................4
Literature.....................................................................................................................5
Acknowledgement.......................................................................................................8
Security Features .........................................................................................................8
Legal ...........................................................................................................................9
License Agreement ..................................................................................................9
Trademarks and Copyrights ...................................................................................14
Program Interface ......................................................................................................15
Technical Requirements ............................................................................................22
Installation Instructions .............................................................................................22
Part 1. Installation of the Accelrys software ...........................................................22
Part 2. Installation of TerraQSAR ..........................................................................22
Customer Support......................................................................................................22
Introduction
Welcome to TerraQSAR™, a breakthrough development in toxicity estimation
software, developed by TerraBase Inc.
TerraQSAR™ toxicity estimation software is based on the probabilistic neural network
methodology using the molecular structure of the substances under investigation. The
TerraQSAR™ - Daphnia program estimates the 48-hr LC50 (lethal concentration to 50%
of the population) of organic compounds.
TerraQSAR modules use as input a chemical’s SMILES code (2-D or 3-D), which is an
international code for the representation of chemical structures and amenable to computer
analysis.
The TerraQSAR™ - Daphnia module computes the partition coefficient and its base-10
logarithmic derivative, as well as the molecular weight (MW) of substances entered.
Theory
The field of artificial intelligence and neural network application is experiencing
rapid growth in all aspects of technology. From elevator control to drug design, neural
network methods have lots to contribute to product development, operating improvements,
and frequently enable the customer to tackle problems, which were inaccessible hitherto.
The TerraQSAR products exploit the neural network methodologies developed in recent
years by researchers and programmers both within and outside the company. In contrast to
linear methodologies, such as simple regression methods, principal components analysis
and others, neural networks make use of non-linear relationships, which makes them
particularly useful for chemical/biological problems where different and/or unknown
modes of action are known or likely to be present, in addition to linear relationships.
Important information on both the theory and specific aspects of this software can be found
in the references given in the Literature.
Computation Process
Data Set
The TerraQSAR™ - Daphnia computation program is based on a data set of
measured values for ~1,000 organic (carbon-containing) compounds. These data are
available from TerraBase Inc.’s TerraTox™ - Explorer database.
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Fragments
Major fragments used in the TerraQSAR modules have been described in detail in
several publications listed in the Literature, especially the works by Kaiser et al. An
overview of basic fragment types considered is given in Table 1 below.
Table 1. Examples of fragments used in TerraQSAR.
Fragment type
Acidity fragment
Aliphatic ring fragment
Aromatic ring fragment
Atom fragment
Bond fragment
Group fragment
Hydrophobicity fragment
Ionization fragment
Polarity fragment
Reactivity fragment
Stereo fragment
Weight fragment
Examples
C(=O)O, S(=O)(=O)O
C1CCCCC1, C1CCCC1
c1ccccc1, c1ccccn1
C, H, N, O
C-C, C=C, C#C
C-O-H, C-O-C, O=C-O-C
C(C)(C)C, CCCC
[O-], [Na+]
O=N(=O)CC(O)
C=CC=O
Cl[[email protected]](C)N, Cl[[email protected]@H](C)N
molecular weight
Input Query
All TerraQSAR modules use the SMILES string code as input. For additional
comments about the SMILES code, refer to the paragraph on SMILES Notation.
Computation
The computer evaluates the number and type of fragments present in the query
string and computes the resulting estimate on the basis of the same types of fragments
present in a data set of ~1000 compounds for which measured values have been published
in the literature. Computation time varies with the complexity of the queried structure and
speed of the computer. Typically, for compounds without chiral centers, and a molecular
weight of <200, computation time on a 2 GHz machine takes <5 seconds.
Results
Figure 1 shows the measured vs. predicted values for all ~1,000 compounds used in
the development of the TerraQSAR – Daphnia estimation program, as obtained from the
program. The data cover approximately ten orders of magnitude, ranging from
approximately log(1/LC50) = -3 to log(1/LC50) = +7. TerraQSAR – Daphnia should
only be used with caution for organophosphates, as we believe that certain literature data
for these types of compounds are erroneous and, consequently, have been omitted from the
training set.
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8.00
6.00
4.00
2.00
0.00
-4.00
-2.00
0.00
2.00
4.00
6.00
8.00
-2.00
-4.00
Fig. 1. Plot of the measured (abscissa) vs. predicted (ordinate) Daphnia magna 48-hr LC50
values for all ~1,000+ compounds in the training set; units are log(1/LC50), with
LC50 in mM. Leave-one-out cross-validation RMSE = 0.18.
SMILES Notation
The Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry System (SMILES) has been developed
by D. Weininger at the beginning of the 1980’s. It is far superior to the previously used
Wiswesser Line Notation (WLN) for coding and depicting chemical structures, by being
simple, intuitive, and machine readable. For an excellent tutorial on the SMILES notation,
refer to the Daylight Corp. web site.
Recently, Accelrys Inc. introduced a variety of software modules allowing the
visualization of SMILES codes as chemical structure drawings. In this process, Accelrys
introduced changes to the common (Daylight Corp.) interpretation of SMILES codes by
their software. As a result, lower case “c”, formerly only interpreted as sp2 carbon, is now
interpreted as either as sp2 or sp3 carbon, depending on its surrounding and connections to
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other atoms. The determinant here is whether or not the carbon atom is part of an aromatic
ring, as defined by the Hueckel rules. This has ramifications for the correct interpretation
of SMILES strings by the TerraQSAR programs, as they are built on the backbone of the
Accelrys software. Therefore, all users are cautioned to ascertain that their SMILES codes
follow the rules of the Accelrys software, i.e., to ascertain that only sp2 carbons in ring
systems which satisfy Hueckel conditions for aromaticity are given in lower case “c”; all
other sp2 carbons, whether in rings or not, must be entered as capital “C”. Some examples
of valid and not valid SMILES strings are listed below in Table 2.
Table 2. Valid and not valid examples of Accelrys’ SMILES code.
SMILES valid
Substance
SMILES not valid
a
cyclopentadiene
c1cccC1
C1=CC=CC1
a
coumarin
c1cc2OC(=O)ccc2cc1
c1cc2OC(=O)C=Cc2cc1
a
The SMILES strings shown as “not valid” are valid per se, however, the
interpretation of these codes are the hydrogen-saturated compounds cyclopentane
and 3,4-dihydrocoumarin, respectively.
Literature
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in Civil and Structural Engineering. Topping, B.H.V. (Ed.), pp. 11-18 (1993).
Daylight Chemical Information Systems, Inc. (2002);
http://www.daylight.com/smiles/f_smiles.html.
Eldred, D.V., C.L. Weikel, P.C. Jurs, and K.L.E. Kaiser. Prediction of fathead minnow acute
toxicity of organic compounds from molecular structure. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 12:
670-678 (1999).
Grabec, I. Self-organization of neurons described by the maximum-entropy principle. Biol.
Cybern., 63: 403-409 (1990).
Grabec, I. Optimization of kernel-type density estimator by the principle of maximal
self-consistency. Neural Parallel & Scientific Computations, 1: 83-92 (1993).
Hecht-Nielsen, R. Nearest matched filter classification of spatiotemporal patterns. Appl.
Optics, 26: 1892-1899 (1987).
Hecht-Nielsen, R. Neurocomputing. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Inc. (1990).
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Hertz, J., A. Rogh, and R. Palmer. Introduction to the Theory of Neural Computation.
Addison-Wesley, Redwood City, California (1991).
Johansson, E.M., F.U. Dowla, and D.M. Goodman. Backpropagation learning for
multi-layer feed-forward neural nets using the conjugate gradient method.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (1990).
Kaiser, K.L.E. The TerraQSAR advantage. Linear versus non-linear relationships.
http://www.terrabase-inc.com/tbr-3.htm (2004).
Kaiser, K.L.E., S.P. Niculescu, and M.B. McKinnon. On the simple linear regression, the
multiple linear regression and the elementary probabilistic neural network with
Gaussian kernel’s performance in modeling toxicity values to fathead minnow based
on Microtox data, the octanol/water partition coefficient and various structural
descriptors for a 419 compound data set. QSAR in Environmental Sciences - VII,
F. Chen and G. Schüürmann (Eds.), SETAC Press, Pensacola, FL, pp. 285-297
(1997).
Kaiser, K.L.E., S.P. Niculescu, and G. Schüürmann. Feed forward backpropagation neural
networks and their use in predicting the acute toxicity of chemicals to the fathead
minnow. Water Quality Res. J. Canada, 32: 637-657 (1997);
http://www.cciw.ca/wqrjc/32-3/32-3-637.htm.
Kaiser, K.L.E., S.P. Niculescu, and K.M. Gough. Neural network modeling of Vibrio
fischeri and fathead minnow acute toxicity data with molecular indicator variables
and physico-chemical bulk parameters. Poster, Workshop on Computational
Methods in Toxicology, Dayton, OH, April 20-22, (1998),
http://www.ccl.net/ccl/toxicology/abstracts/abs14.html.
Kaiser, K.L.E., and S.P. Niculescu. Using probabilistic neural networks to model the toxicity
of chemicals to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas): A study based on 865
compounds. Chemosphere, 38: 3237-3245 (1999).
Kaiser, K.L.E., and S.P. Niculescu. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) methodology for the
prediction of acute toxicity of chemicals to fathead minnow based solely on chemical
structure-derived input parameters. National Water Research Institute
Contribution, No. AEP-TN99-001, 39 p. (1999).
Kaiser, K.L.E., and S.P. Niculescu. Modeling the acute toxicity of chemicals to Daphnia
magna: a probabilistic neural network approach. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 20:
420-431 (2001).
Kaiser, K.L.E., S.P. Niculescu, and T.W. Schultz. Probabilistic neural network modeling of
the toxicity of chemicals to Tetrahymena pyriformis with molecular fragment
descriptors. SAR & QSAR Environ. Res., 13: 57-67 (2002).
Kaiser, K.L.E., and S.P. Niculescu. On the PNN modeling of estrogen receptor binding data
for carboxylic acid esters and organochlorine compounds. Water Qual. Res. J.
Canada, 36: 619-630 (2001); http://www.cciw.ca/wqrjc/36-3/36-3-619.htm.
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Kohonen, T. Self-Organization and Associative Memory, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag,
Berlin, (1988).
Kühne, R., K.L.E. Kaiser, S.P. Niculescu, and G. Schüürmann. Neural network to estimate
acute toxicity of chemicals to the fathead minnow and Vibrio fischeri bacteria.
SETAC 99 - Europe, Leipzig, May 1999, poster.
Martin, T.M., and D.M. Young. Prediction of the acute toxicity (96-hr LC50) of organic
compounds to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) using a group
contribution method. Chem. Res. Toxicol., 14: 1378-1385 (2001).
Masters, T. Practical Neural Network Recipes in C++. San Diego, Academic Press
(1993).
Niculescu, S.P., K.L.E. Kaiser, and G. Schüürmann. Influence of data preprocessing and
kernel selection on probabilistic neural network modeling of the acute toxicity of
chemicals to the fathead minnow and to Vibrio fischeri bacteria. Water Quality Res.
J. Canada, 33: 153-165 (1998); http://www.cciw.ca/wqrjc/33-1/33-1-153.htm.
Niculescu, S.P., and K.L.E. Kaiser. Modeling the relative binding affinity of steroids to the
progesterone receptor with probabilistic neural networks. Quant. Struct.-Act.
Relat., 20: 223-226 (2001).
Niculescu, S.P., K.L.E. Kaiser, and T.W. Schultz. Modeling the toxicity of chemicals to
Tetrahymena pyriformis using molecular fragment descriptors and probabilistic
neural networks. Archiv. Environ. Toxicol. Chem., 39: 289-298 (2000).
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http://www.ipd.uka.de/~prechelt/FAQ/nn7.html.
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http://accpc.com/nnfaq/FAQ.html.
Serra, J.R., P.C. Jurs, and K.L.E. Kaiser. Linear regression and computational neural
network prediction of Tetrahymena acute toxicity for aromatic compounds from
molecular structure. Chem. Res.Toxicol., 14: 1535-1545 (2001).
Shanno, D.F. Conjugate gradient methods with inexact searches. Math. Oper. Res., 3:
244-256 (1978).
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memory. ICNN, Conference Proc. (1988).
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Acknowledgement
TerraBase Inc. acknowledges with thanks the contributions of its contractors and
associates, especially Dr. A. Krajnc and M.B. McKinnon to the development of its
products.
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In order for the TerraQSAR program to function properly, the TerraQSAR CD has to be
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Other than for archival copies, to be used solely for backup and protection against
loss by the rightful user, duplication of this software is not permitted.
8
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the person or entity that first purchases a license for the Software, that the Software will perform
substantially in accordance with the Documentation for a period of six (6) months following receipt
of the Software when used on the recommended hardware configuration. Non-substantial
variations of performance from the Documentation does not establish a warranty right. THIS
LIMITED WARRANTY DOES NOT APPLY TO UPDATES, FONT SOFTWARE
CONVERTED INTO OTHER FORMATS, PRE-RELEASE, TRYOUT, PRODUCT SAMPLER,
NOT FOR RESALE (NFR) COPIES OF SOFTWARE, OR TO SOFTWARE THAT HAS BEEN
ALTERED BY YOU, TO THE EXTENT SUCH ALTERATIONS CAUSED A DEFECT. To
make a warranty claim, you must return the Software, at our expense, to the location where you
obtained it along with proof of purchase within such six (6) month period. If the Software does not
perform substantially in accordance with the Documentation, the entire liability of TerraBase and
your exclusive remedy shall be limited to either, at TerraBase's option, the replacement of the
Software, the reduction of the license fee, or a refund of the license fee you paid for the Software.
THE LIMITED WARRANTY SET FORTH IN THIS SECTION GIVES YOU SPECIFIC LEGAL
RIGHTS. For further warranty information, please contact TerraBase.
14.2 Limitation of Liability for Users Located in Germany and Austria. If you purchased a
license to the software in Germany or Austria then Section 8 does not apply, instead, TerraBase
may be liable without limitation for damages you have incurred under or in connection with this
Agreement only if the damage has been caused by the willful or grossly negligent act of TerraBase
or its agents. TerraBase is liable only to the extent of the typically foreseeable damage for such
12
damages which have been caused by any other negligent breach of a substantial contractual duty by
TerraBase or its agents. These aforementioned limitations apply irrespective of their legal basis, in
particular with regard to any pre-contractual or auxiliary contractual claims. The limitations shall
not apply, however, to any mandatory liability under the applicable German or Austrian Product
Liability Act, nor to any damage which is caused due to the breach of an express warranty to the
extent that such express warranty was intended to protect the user against the specific damage
incurred. The obligations under the second sentence shall not apply if any damage is caused by
your having altered the Software, or if the respective data carriers (media) have been damaged by
accident, misuse or inappropriate use, or if the damage concerned has been caused by the use of the
Software in connection with other software for which the Software was not designated to be used
according to the Documentation.
14.3 Pre-release Product Additional Terms. If the product you have received with this license
is pre-commercial release or beta Software ("Pre-release Software"), then the following Section
applies. To the extent that any provision in this Section is in conflict with any other term or
condition in this Agreement, this Section shall supercede such other term(s) and condition(s) with
respect to the Pre-release Software, but only to the extent necessary to resolve the conflict. You
acknowledge that the Software is a pre-release version, does not represent final product from
TerraBase, and may contain bugs, errors and other problems that could cause system or other
failures and data loss. Consequently, the Pre-release Software is provided to you "AS-IS", and
TerraBase disclaims any warranty or liability obligations to you of any kind. WHERE LEGALLY
LIABILITY CANNOT BE EXCLUDED FOR PRE-RELEASE SOFTWARE, BUT IT MAY BE
LIMITED, TERRABASE'S LIABILITY AND THAT OF ITS SUPPLIERS SHALL BE LIMITED
TO THE SUM OF FIFTY DOLLARS (U.S. $50) IN TOTAL. You acknowledge that TerraBase
has not promised or guaranteed to you that Pre-release Software will be announced or made
available to anyone in the future, that TerraBase has no express or implied obligation to you to
announce or introduce the Pre-release Software and that TerraBase may not introduce a product
similar to or compatible with the Pre-release Software. Accordingly, you acknowledge that any
research or development that you perform regarding the Pre-release Software or any product
associated with the Pre-release Software is done entirely at your own risk. During the term of this
Agreement, if requested by TerraBase, you will provide feedback to TerraBase regarding testing
and use of the Pre-release Software, including error or bug reports. If you have been provided the
Pre-release Software pursuant to a separate written agreement, such as the TerraBase Incorporated
Serial Agreement for Unreleased Products, your use of the Software is also governed by such
agreement. You agree that you may not and certify that you will not sublicense, lease, loan, rent, or
transfer the Pre-release Software. Upon receipt of a later unreleased version of the Pre-release
Software or release by TerraBase of a publicly released commercial version of the Software,
whether as a stand-alone product or as part of a larger product, you agree to return or destroy all
earlier Pre-release Software received from TerraBase and to abide by the terms of the End User
License Agreement for any such later versions of the Pre-release Software. Notwithstanding
anything in this Section to the contrary, if you are located outside Canada or the United States of
America, you agree that you will return or destroy all unreleased versions of the Pre-release
Software within thirty (30) days of the completion of your testing of the Software when such date is
earlier than the date for TerraBase's first commercial shipment of the publicly released
(commercial) Software.
14.4 Tryout, Product Sampler, NFR, Additional Terms. If the product you have received with
this license is a tryout, product sampler, or NFR copy of the Software ("Tryout Software"), then the
following Section applies until such time that you purchase a license to the full retail version of
such product. To the extent that any provision in this Section is in conflict with any other term or
condition in this Agreement, this Section shall supercede such other term(s) and condition(s) with
respect to the Tryout Software, but only to the extent necessary to resolve the conflict. YOU
ACKNOWLEDGE THAT THE TRYOUT SOFTWARE CONTAINS LIMITED
FUNCTIONALITY AND/OR FUNCTIONS FOR A LIMITED PERIOD OF TIME.
TERRABASE IS LICENSING THE SOFTWARE ON AN "AS IS" BASIS, SOLELY AS A
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DEMONSTRATION MODEL. If the Tryout Software is a timeout version, then the program will
terminate operations after a designated period of time (e.g. 15. 30. or 45 days) following
installation (the "Time Out Date"), which is specified in the Software. Upon such Time Out Date,
the license hereunder shall be terminated, unless extended by TerraBase upon your purchase of a
full retail license from TerraBase. You acknowledge that such Tryout Software shall cease
operation upon the Time Out Date and accordingly, access to any files or output created with such
Tryout Software or any product associated with the Tryout Software is done entirely at your own
risk. TERRABASE DISCLAIMS ANY WARRANTY OR LIABILITY OBLIGATIONS TO YOU
OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING. WHERE LEGALLY LIABILITY CANNOT BE EXCLUDED
FOR PRE-RELEASE SOFTWARE, BUT IT MAY BE LIMITED, TERRABASE'S LIABILITY
AND THAT OF ITS SUPPLIERS SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE SUM OF FIFTY DOLLARS
(U.S. $50) IN TOTAL.
15. This concludes the License Agreement for the TerraQSAR software. If you have any questions
regarding this Agreement or if you wish to request any information from TerraBase please use the
address and contact information included with this product to contact TerraBase.
Gen_WWCombined_USEnglish_8.7.00_11:14
Trademarks and Copyrights
Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows NT, Windows 2000, Windows ME, and
Windows XP are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation, Redmond, Washington, USA.
Other copyrights and trademarks are those of their respective owners.
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Program Interface
The program interface of the TerraQSAR toxicity prediction modules is shown in
Figure 2. It is simple, intuitive, and highly functional.
Program selection box
Manual / batch
toggle switch
About box
Fig. 2. The Program Interface as it appears on startup.
The Program selection box allows the user to switch between purchased program modules,
e.g., “FHM” for fathead minnow 96-hr LC50, “E2-RBA” for estrogen receptor binding
relative to 17beta-estradiol, “RMIV” for rat / mouse iv. LD50, etc. The second box
provides a toggle switch between switch between Manual mode and Batch mode
(available in the Professional version only). The About box contains important user
information.
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In the Manual mode, the user enters a SMILES (Simplified Molecular Input Line Entry
System) string, either by typing it into the Input field, or by pasting it from memory, when
copied into memory from another source, such as a TerraBase Inc. database output. Please
consult the section on SMILES Notation for important advice.
Example 1: Phenol has the SMILES string “c1ccccc1O”. Copying this string into
memory, for example from this text (making sure the quotation marks are omitted), and
pasting it into the Input field, will result in the appearance of the chemical structure of
phenol in the shaded, rectangular field below, as shown in Figure 3.
Input field
Calculate bar
Fig. 3. Result of entering or pasting the SMILES string for phenol (c1ccccc1O) into
the input field: the structure of phenol (excluding hydrogen atoms) will appear in
the field below.
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Once the user has ascertained that the structure of the compound is that of the
desired chemical, a simple click of the Calculate bar below the structure field will
result in the three fields below the bar to be filled with the predicted values for the
compound, as shown in Figure 4. Field 1 (pT) is the negative logarithm of the LC50
concentration in mmol/L; field 2 (mg/L) is the LC50 value in mg/L; and field 3
(MW) shows the molecular weight of the compound. Computation time varies with
the complexity of the structure and the computer specifics, ranging from a nearly
instantaneous result (~1 sec) for small structures to minutes for large molecules
with highly complex structures.
field 1
field 2
field 3
Fig. 4. Result of the execution of “Calculate”. The fields show the following values:
Field 1 (pT) is the negative logarithm of the millimolar LC50 concentration, field 2
(mg/L) is the LC50 value in mg/L, and field 3 shows the molecular weight of the
compound. Computation time ca. 2 sec at 2 GHz. Example computation for a
fathead minnow 96-hr LC50 value.
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Example 2: A more complex molecule, the insecticide p,p’-Methoxychlor, with the
SMILES and structure shown in Figure 5, has a computed LC50 value of 0.0076 mg/L, as
shown in Figure 5.
Fig. 5. Result of computation for the insecticide p,p’-Methoxychlor, SMILES
string shown in the input field, depicting the compound p,p-Methoxychlor, with its
computed 96-hr LC50 value for fathead minnow of 0.0076 mg/L. Example
computation for a fathead minnow 96-hr LC50 value.
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Example 3: The insecticide Noviflumuron, CAS 121451-02-3, has a predicted fathead
minnow 96-hr LC50 of 0.89 mg/L, as shown in Figure 6.
Fig. 6. Result of computation for the SMILES string shown in the input field,
depicting the insecticide Noviflumuron, with its computed 96-hr LC50 value for
the fathead minnow of 0.89 mg/L. Example computation for a fathead minnow
96-hr LC50 value.
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Example 4: The antibiotic compound Erythromycin B, CAS 527-75-3, with the
3D-SMILES code
C[[email protected]]1[[email protected]](O)[[email protected]@](OC)(C)C[[email protected]@H](O1)O[[email protected]@H]2[[email protected]@H](C)C(=O)O[[email protected]@H]
(CC)[[email protected]@](C)([H])[[email protected]@H](O)[[email protected]@H](C)C(=O)[[email protected]](C)C[[email protected]](O)(C)[[email protected]@H]([[email protected]@
H]2C)O[[email protected]@H]3O[[email protected]](C)C[[email protected]](N(C)C)[[email protected]]3O
(only a part of the SMILES code is visible in the Input field) has a predicted octanol/water
partition coefficient of -0.14, as shown in Figure 7; computation time ca. 50 sec at 2 GHz.
Fig. 7. Result of computation for the SMILES string shown in the input field,
depicting the antibiotic Erythromycin B, with the computed octanol/water partition
coefficient of -0.14. Example computation for an octanol/water partition
coefficient value.
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Example 5:
An anthraquinone dye, CAS 4478-06-2, with the molecular formula C42H22N2O6, and the
SMILES code:
c1cccc2C(=O)c3c(cccc3C(=O)c12)Nc4cccc5C(=O)c6cc(ccc6C(=O)c45)Nc6cccc7C(=O)
c8ccccc8C(=O)c67 (only a part of the SMILES code is visible in the Input field) and the
structure shown, has the predicted fathead minnow 96-hr LC50 of 8.1 mg/L, as shown in
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Result of computation for the SMILES string shown in the input field,
depicting an anthraquinone dye, with the computed 96-hr LC50 value for the
fathead minnow of 8.1 mg/L. Example computation for a fathead minnow 96-hr
LC50 value.
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Technical Requirements
Operating system: PC with Windows 98, NT, 2000, ME, XP (SP2), or Vista, operating
system.
Central processor unit (CPU): No specific requirement, duration of computations will
increase with decrease in CPU speed; 1.6 GHz or higher recommended.
Mouse or other pointing device: required.
Screen setting: Variable, 800 x 640, or higher.
CD-ROM drive: required.
Other: Presence of the TerraQSAR CD in the CD-ROM drive is required for program
execution.
Installation Instructions
The TerraQSAR software is a fully functional, stand-alone system, easy to install
or uninstall. It consists of two installation parts; we recommend installation in the order
mentioned.
Part 1. Installation of the Accelrys software
To install/un-install the Accelrys supporting software, necessary for the proper
functioning of the TerraQSAR program, follow the instructions in the README file.
Part 2. Installation of TerraQSAR
To install TerraQSAR, double click on the TerraQSAR-Setup file in the root
directory.
Customer Support
TerraBase Inc. is committed to effective customer support. With the rapid change
in PC technology, operating systems and other software and hardware developments, the
occasional hiccup is bound to happen. We will try our best to help customers with
problems related to our products, in most cases free of charge. Contact our help
department with any question and concern about our products, either by EMAIL, FAX, or
MAIL.
TerraBase Inc.
1063 King St. West, Suite 130
Hamilton, ON, L8S 4S3, Canada
Fax: 905-527-0263
Internet: http://www.terrabase.ca
Copyright © 2008, TerraBase Inc.
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