MV-D1024 Series - Stemmer Imaging

MV-D1024 Series - Stemmer Imaging
User Manual
MV-D1024 Series
CMOS Area Scan Cameras
THE PERFECT EYE
MAN001 02/2006 V1.01
All information provided in this manual is believed to be accurate and reliable. No
responsibility is assumed by Photonfocus AG for its use. Photonfocus AG reserves the right to
make changes to this information without notice.
Reproduction of this manual in whole or in part, by any means, is prohibited without prior
permission having been obtained from Photonfocus AG.
1
2
Contents
1 Preface
1.1 About Photonfocus
1.2 Contact . . . . . . .
1.3 Sales Offices . . . .
1.4 Further information
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
5
5
5
5
5
.
.
.
.
2 How to get started
7
3 Product Specification
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2 Feature Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3 Technical Specification . . . . . . . . . . .
3.4 Framegrabber Configuration Parameters
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
11
11
11
12
14
4 Functionality
4.1 Image Acquisition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.1 Free-running and Trigger Mode . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.2 Exposure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.3 Maximum Frame Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1.4 Constant Frame Rate (CFR) . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2 Pixel response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.1 Linear Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.2 LinLog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.3 Skimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2.4 Gray level transformation with a Look-up table
4.3 Reduction of Image Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.1 Region of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.2 Multiple Regions of Interest . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3.3 Linehopping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4 Trigger modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5 Operating Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.1 Camera as Master . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5.2 Camera as Slave (MCLK mode) . . . . . . . . . .
4.6 CameraLink Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
17
18
18
18
20
20
21
21
21
22
22
5 Hardware Interface
5.1 Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1 CameraLink Connector . .
5.1.2 Power Supply . . . . . . .
5.1.3 Status Indicator . . . . . .
5.2 CameraLink Data Interface . . . .
5.3 Read-out Timing . . . . . . . . . .
5.3.1 Standard Read-out Timing
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
25
25
25
25
26
26
27
27
CONTENTS
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
3
CONTENTS
5.3.2 Constant Frame Rate (CFR) . . .
5.4 Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.2 Trigger ExSync . . . . . . . . . .
5.4.3 Trigger Start/Stop . . . . . . . .
5.4.4 Trigger ExSync/Exposure . . . .
5.4.5 Notes on using External Trigger
5.5 Master Clock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
29
30
30
30
30
32
33
34
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
6.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2 Installation Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1 DLL Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3 Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1 Camera Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2 The Camera Configuration Dialog . . . . . . .
6.3.3 The LUT Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4 Camera Maintenance Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.1 EEPROM Dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.2 EEPROM Update . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5 Camera Model Specific Settings for MV-D1024 Series
6.5.1 Linlog, Skimming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.2 Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6 Troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.1 Can’t Open Camera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.2 Invalid Header . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6.3 Troubleshooting using the LFSR . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
35
35
35
36
36
36
37
42
43
43
44
44
44
45
46
46
46
46
7 Mechanical, Optical and Environmental Considerations
7.1 Mechanical Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2 Optical Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.1 Mounting the Lens . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.2 Cleaning the Sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3 Compliance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
49
49
50
50
50
52
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
8 Warranty
53
8.1 Warranty Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
8.2 Warranty Claim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
9 References
55
A Pinouts
57
A.1 Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
A.2 CameraLink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
B Revision History
4
59
1
Preface
1.1
About Photonfocus
The Swiss company Photonfocus is one of the leading specialists in the development of CMOS
image sensors and corresponding industrial cameras for machine vision, security & surveillance
and automotive markets.
Photonfocus is dedicated to making the latest generation of CMOS technology commercially
available. Active Pixel Sensor (APS) and global shutter technologies enable high speed and
high dynamic range (120 dB) applications, while avoiding disadvantages, like image lag,
blooming and smear.
Photonfocus has proven that the image quality of modern CMOS sensors is now appropriate
for demanding applications. Photonfocus’ product range is complemented by custom design
solutions in the area of camera electronics and CMOS image sensors.
Photonfocus is ISO 9001 certified. All products are produced with the latest techniques in order
to ensure the highest degree of quality.
1.2
Contact
Photonfocus AG, Bahnhofplatz 10, CH-8853 Lachen SZ, Switzerland
Sales
Phone: +41 55 451 01 31
Email: [email protected]
Support
Phone: +41 55 451 01 37
Email: [email protected]
Table 1.1: Photonfocus Contact
1.3
Sales Offices
Photonfocus products are available through an extensive international distribution network;
details of the distributor nearest you can be found at www.photonfocus.com.
1.4
Further information
For further information on the products, documentation and software updates please see our
web site www.photonfocus.com or contact our distributors.
Photonfocus reserves the right to make changes to its products and documentation without notice. Photonfocus products are neither intended nor certified for
use in life support systems or in other critical systems. The use of Photonfocus
products in such applications is prohibited.
Photonfocus and LinLog are trademarks of Photonfocus AG. CameraLink is a
registered mark of the Automated Imaging Association. Product and company
names mentioned herein are trademarks or trade names of their respective companies.
5
1 Preface
Reproduction of this manual in whole or in part, by any means, is prohibited
without prior permission having been obtained from Photonfocus AG.
Photonfocus can not be held responsible for any technical or typographical errors.
6
2
How to get started
1.
Install a suitable frame grabber in your PC.
To find a compliant frame grabber, please see the frame grabber compatibility
list at www.photonfocus.com.
For US and Canada: Ensure the device downstream of the camera data path (e.g.
frame grabber, PC) is UL listed.
2.
Install the frame grabber software.
✎
3.
Without installed frame grabber software the camera configuration tool PFRemote will not be able to communicate to the camera. Please follow the instructions of the frame grabber supplier.
Remove the camera from its packaging. Please make sure the following items are included
with your camera:
•
Power supply connector (3-pole power plug)
•
Camera body cap
If any items are missing or damaged, please contact your dealership.
4.
Remove the camera body cap from the camera and mount a suitable lens.
Figure 2.1: Camera with protective cap and lens
Do not touch the sensor surface. Protect the image sensor from particles and
dirt!
To choose a lens, see
www.photonfocus.com.
the
Lens
Finder
in
the
’Support’
area
at
7
2 How to get started
Figure 2.2: Camera with frame grabber , power supply and CameraLink cable.
5.
Connect the camera to the frame grabber with a suitable CameraLink cable (see Fig. 2.2).
Do not connect or disconnect the CameraLink cable while camera power is on!
For more information about the CameraLink cable see Section 4.6.
6.
Connect a suitable power supply to the provided 3-pole power plug.
The pinout of the connector is shown in A.1, the connector assembly is shown in
Fig. A.2.
Check the correct supply voltage and polarity! Do not exceed the maximum
operating voltage of 5V dc (+10/-5%).
For US and Canada: Ensure a UL listed power supply marked "Class 2" is used
and rated 5V dc, min. 600mA. A suitable UL listed power supply is available from
Photonfocus.
7.
Connect the power supply to the camera (see Fig. 2.2).
✎
8.
The status LED on the rear of the camera will light red for a short moment, and
then flash green. For more information see Section 5.1.3.
Download the camera software PFRemote to your computer.
You can find the latest version of PFRemote on the support page at
www.photonfocus.com.
8
9.
Install the camera software PFRemote. Please follow the instructions of the PFRemote
setup wizard.
You can find more information about the camera software in Chapter 6.
Figure 2.3: Screen shot PFremote setup wizard
10. Start the camera software PFRemote and choose the communication port.
Please see section Section 6.3.1 for more information.
Figure 2.4: PFRemote start window
11. Check the status LED on the rear of the camera
✎
The status LED lights green when an image is being produced, and it is red when
serial communication is active. For more information see Section 5.1.3.
12. Backup the current camera settings by storing a complete EEPROM dump. See Section
6.4.1 for a description of the procedure.
13. You can display images using the software that is provided by the framegrabber
manufacturer.
9
2 How to get started
10
3
Product Specification
3.1
Introduction
The MV-D1024 series of CMOS cameras from Photonfocus is aimed at demanding applications
in industrial image processing. It provides an exceptionally high dynamic range of up to 120dB
at a resolution of 1024 x 1024 pixels and a frame rate of up to 150 full images per second. The
cameras are built around a monochrome CMOS image sensor, developed by Photonfocus. The
principal advantages are:
•
Low power consumption at high speeds
•
Resistance to blooming
•
Extremely high image contrast achieved by LinLog technology.
•
Ideal for high speed applications: global shutter, in combination with several
simultaneously selectable read out windows (Multiple ROI).
•
Software is provided to set camera parameters and store them within the camera.
•
The cameras have a CameraLink digital interface.
•
The compact size of only 55 x 55 x 46 mm3 makes the MV-D1024 series the perfect solution
for applications in which space is at a premium.
The general specification and features of the camera are listed in the following sections.
3.2
Feature Overview
MV-D1024-28-CL-10
Interface
Camera control
Configuration interface
Trigger modes
Features
MV-D1024-80-CL-8
MV-D1024-160-CL-8
CameraLink base configuration
PFRemote (Windows GUI) or programming library (Windows/Linux)
CLSERIAL (9600 baud)
free running / edge controlled / start-stop / combined
Linear Mode / LinLog Mode / Skimming
Region of Interest (ROI) / Multiple Regions of Interest (MROI)
Line Hopping / Master and Slave Mode (MCLK)
Table 3.1: Feature overview for MV-D1024 series. See Chapter 4 for more information.
11
3 Product Specification
3.3
Technical Specification
MV-D1024-28-CL-10
Technology
MV-D1024-80-CL-8
MV-D1024-160-CL-8
CMOS active pixel
Scanning system
progressive scan
Optical format / diagonal
1” / 15.42mm
Resolution
1024 x 1024 pixels
Pixel size
10.6µm x 10.6µm
Sensing area
10.9mm x 10.9mm
Random noise
< 0.5 DN RMS @ 8 bit / gain= 1
Fixed pattern noise (FPN)
< 2.5 DN RMS @ 8 bit / gain= 1
Dark current
2fA/pixel @ 30°C
200ke−
Full well capacity
Spectral sensitivity
Responsivity
400nm ... 900nm
3
120x10 DN/(J/m2 ) @ 610nm / 8 bit / gain = 1
Optical fill factor
35%
Dynamic range
> 120dB (with LinLog)
Color format
monochrome
Characteristic curve
linear or LinLog, skimming
Shutter mode
global shutter
Readout mode
sequential integration and readout
Exposure time
10µs...0.5s
Exposure time step resolution
35ns
50ns
25ns
Frame rate (full frame)
27fps
75fps
150fps
28MHz (35ns)
40MHz (25ns)
80MHz (12.5ns)
1
2
2
8 bit, 10 bit
8 bit
8 bit
yes, 10 bit to 8 bit
yes, 9 bit to 8 bit
no
Pixel clock
Camera taps
Greyscale resolution
Look-up table
Analog Gain
Digital Gain
1x or 4x
1x, 2x, 4x
1x, 2x
1x
Min. MCLK frequency
20MHz
10MHz
10MHz
Max. MCLK frequency
28.375MHz
20MHz
40MHz
Table 3.2: Camera specification
For an explanation of the terms used please refer to [AN015, Glossary].
For more information regarding responsivity refer to [AN008, Photometry versus
Radiometry].
12
MV-D1024-28-CL-10
Operating temperature
MV-D1024-80-CL-8
MV-D1024-160-CL-8
0°C ... 60°C
Power supply
+5V DC (+10% / -5%)
Max. power consumption
2.0 W
Lens mount
C-Mount
Dimensions
55 x 55 x 46 mm3
Mass
200 g
Conformity
CE
Mountings
1/4" thread (Tripod) / M5 threads / Microbench compatible
Table 3.3: Physical characteristics and operating ranges
Quantum Efficiency
80
QE Diode
QE Pixel incl. Fill factor
QE (Electrons/Photon) [%]
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
300
400
500
600
700
800
Wavelength [nm]
900
1000
1100
Figure 3.1: Spectral response
3.3 Technical Specification
13
3 Product Specification
3.4
Framegrabber Configuration Parameters
MV-D1024-28-CL-10
MV-D1024-80-CL-8
MV-D1024-160-CL-8
28MHz
40MHz
80MHz
1
2
2
10bit
8bit
8bit
Pixel Clock per Tap
Number of Taps
Greyscale resolution
CC-Signals
CC1: EXSYNC (common trigger signal), CC2: MCLK, CC3: not used, CC4: EXPOSURE
Table 3.4: Summary of parameters needed for framegrabber configuration
CameraLink port and bit assignments are CameraLink-compliant (see [CL, Camera Link
Specification]).
MV-D1024-28
MV-D1024-28
MV-D1024-80/-160
MV-D1024-80/-160
Bit
Tap 0, 8 Bit
Tap 0, 10 Bit
Tap 0, 8 Bit
Tap 1, 8 Bit
0 (LSB)
A0
A0
A0
B0
1
A1
A1
A1
B1
2
A2
A2
A2
B2
3
A3
A3
A3
B3
4
A4
A4
A4
B4
5
A5
A5
A5
B5
6
A6
A6
A6
B6
7 (MSB for 8 Bit Mode)
A7
A7
A7
B7
8
-
B0
-
-
9 (MSB for 10 Bit Mode)
-
B1
-
-
Table 3.5: CameraLink port and bit assignments for MV-D1024 series
C a m e r a t a p a s s ig n m e n t
( 0 ,0 )
0
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
1
1
0
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
1
0
1
0
1
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
1
1
Figure 3.2: Tap assignment for the 2 tap cameras MV-D1024-80 and MV-D1024-160; 0 = tap 0, 1 = tap 1
14
4
Functionality
This chapter serves as an overview of the camera configuration modes and explains camera
features. The goal is to describe what can be done with the camera; the setup is explained in
later chapters.
4.1
4.1.1
Image Acquisition
Free-running and Trigger Mode
By default the camera continuously delivers images with a certain configurable frame rate
("Free-running mode"). When the acquisition of an image needs to be synchronised to an
external event, a trigger can be used (refer to Section 4.4 and Section 5.4).
4.1.2
Exposure Control
The exposure time defines the period during which the image sensor integrates the incoming
light. Depending on the model, it can be configured from 10µs to 0.5s (see Table 3.2).
4.1.3
Maximum Frame Rate
The maximum frame rate depends on the speed grade of the camera model. In addition, the
maximum frame rate depends on the size of the image (see Region of Interest, Section 4.3.1).
On our website, there is a frame rate calculator, which gives you the maximum frame rate for a
given region of interest and exposure time.
4.1.4
Constant Frame Rate (CFR)
When the Constant Frame Rate mode (CFR mode) is switched on, the frame rate (number of
frames per second) can be varied from almost 0 up to the maximum frame rate. Thus, fewer
images can be acquired than would otherwise be possible.
When Constant Frame Rate is switched off, the camera delivers images as fast as possible,
depending on the exposure time and the read-out time.
Please see Section 5.4 for more information about constant frame rate and external trigger.
4.2
Pixel response
Normally, the camera offers a substantially linear response between input light signal and
output gray level. This can be modified by the use of LinLog or Skimming as described in the
following sections. In addition, a linear analog and / or digital gain (depending on model) may
be applied. Please see Table 3.2 for a comprehensive summary of model-dependent
information.
15
4 Functionality
4.2.1
Linear Response
High Gain
High gain mode provides an analog amplification of the image intensities by a nominal factor
of 4.
Gain x2, x4
Gain x2 and x4 are digital amplifications, which means that the digital image data are
multiplied by a factor 2 or 4 respectively, in the camera.
4.2.2
LinLog
The LinLog feature of CMOS image sensors from Photonfocus allows the user to adapt the
characteristics of the sensor to the requirements of the application. In situations involving high
intrascene contrast, compression of the upper grey level region can be achieved with the
LinLog technology. At low light intensities, each pixel shows a linear response. At high
intensities, the response changes to logarithmic compression. The transition region between
linear and logarithmic response can be smoothly adjusted and is continuously differentiable
and monotonic.
G ra y
V a lu e
S a tu r a tio n
1 0 0 %
L in e a r
R e s p o n s e
S tr o n g c o m p r e s s io n
0 %
L L 1
L L 2 = 0 , C O M P = 0
L ig h t In te n s ity
Figure 4.1: Simplest LinLog setup: LL2 = COMP = 0 (also called Linlog1 mode)
The three parameters LL1, LL2 and COMP are used to setup LinLog. In the simplest case, LL2 and
COMP are not used and are set to 0. The resulting response is shown in Fig. 4.1. The high light
intensities are logarithmically compressed, while the lower intensities show a linear behaviour.
The transition point between linear and logarithmic behaviour can be adjusted with the LL1
parameter. This mode is also called "LinLog1" mode.
However, for many applications, the compression as shown above may to be too strong.
Therefore the two additional configuration parameters LL2 and COMP were introduced. This
mode is also called "LinLog2" mode.
In LinLog2, the resulting response is defined by a combination of two linear-logarithmic curves.
LL1 defines the transition point for a weaker compression, while LL2 is used to define the
transition point for a stronger compression, as shown by Fig. 4.2.
The resulting curve is composed of a certain amount of the weak compression and a certain
amount of the strong compression. This amount is defined by the parameter COMP, as is
shown in Fig. 4.3.
16
G ra y
V a lu e
S a tu r a tio n
1 0 0 %
L in e a r
R e s p o n s e
W e a k c o m p r e s s io n
S tr o n g c o m p r e s s io n
0 %
L L 1
L L 2
L ig h t In te n s ity
Figure 4.2: Strong and weak compression
G ra y
V a lu e
S a tu r a tio n
1 0 0 %
R e s u ltin g L in lo g 2
R e s p o n s e
C O M P
0 %
L L 1
L L 2
L ig h t In te n s ity
Figure 4.3: Linlog2
For more information about setting up LinLog, please refer to [AN001, LinLog]
and [AN024, LinLog - Principles and Practical Example].
4.2.3
Skimming
Skimming is a Photonfocus proprietary technology to enhance detail in dark areas of an image.
Skimming provides an adjustable level of in-pixel gain for low signal levels. It can be used
together with LinLog to give a smooth monotonic transfer function from high gain at low
levels, through normal linear operation, to logarithmic compression for high signal levels.
For best image quality, Skimming requires a longer reset time after frame readout.
4.2 Pixel response
17
4 Functionality
G ra y
V a lu e
S a tu r a tio n
1 0 0 %
L in e a r
R e s p o n s e
0 %
S k im m in g
L ig h t In te n s ity
Figure 4.4: Skimming: an in-pixel gain for low signal levels
4.2.4
Gray level transformation with a Look-up table
Gray level transformation is remapping of the gray level values of an input image to new
values which are intended to enhance the image in some way. The look-up table (LUT) is used
to convert the grayscale value of each pixel of an image into another gray value. It is typically
used to implement a transfer curve for contrast expansion.
4.3
Reduction of Image Size
With Photonfocus cameras there are several possibilities to focus on the interesting parts of an
image, thus reducing the data rate and increasing the frame rate. The most commonly used
feature is region of interest.
4.3.1
Region of Interest
Some applications do not need full image resolution (e.g. 1024x1024 pixels). By reducing the
image size to a certain region of interest (ROI), the frame rate can be drastically increased. A
region of interest can be almost any rectangular window and is specified by its position within
the full frame and its width and height. Fig. 4.5 gives some possible configurations for a region
of interest, and Table 4.1 shows some numerical examples of how the frame rate can be
increased for the MV-D1024 models by reducing the ROI.
Both reductions in x- and y-direction result in a higher frame rate.
There are two restrictions when using a ROI (see below), but PFRemote and PFLib
API respectively ensure that the settings are correct without any user intervention.
Please note that the width of the ROI (x-direction) needs to be a multiple of 4. This restriction
does not apply in the y-direction, thus the minimum possible ROI size is 4x1.
18
b )
a )
c )
d )
Figure 4.5: ROI configuration examples
ROI Dimension
x Offset
MV-D1024-28
MV-D1024-80
MV-D1024-160
1024 x 1024
0
27 fps
75 fps
150 fps
512 x 512
256
105 fps
290 fps
585 fps
256 x 256
384
415 fps
1130 fps
2240 fps
132 x 128
448
1550 fps
4005 fps
7725 fps
132 x 16
448
11 005 fps
23 640 fps
38 360 fps
1024 x 1
0
20 715 fps
38 910 fps
56 980 fps
Table 4.1: Example: Frame rate increase for the MV-D1024 when using a reduced region of interest (exposure time 10 µs, rounded values)
However, in order to achieve the maximum possible frame rate, the size of the ROI must be at
least 128x1 pixels and it must be horizontally centered. In other words, the ROI must be placed
so that at least 64 pixels overlap the middle line on both sides, as shown in Fig. 4.6 a. If it does
not fulfill this rule (e.g. Fig. 4.6 b), the line pause parameter is adjusted from 8 to 32, which
reduces the maximum possible frame rate. The setting of the correct line pause is done
automatically by PFRemote and PFLib API respectively.
For an explanation of the linepause parameter, please see Section 5.3. To calculate how much the frame rate is decreased by using ROIs which do not sufficiently span the center line, refer to the formula below or use the frame rate
calculator in the support area of our website, and set linepause to 32.
³ 6 4 P ix e l
³ 6 4 P ix e l
Figure 4.6: ROI configuration restriction for fastest speed
4.3 Reduction of Image Size
19
4 Functionality
Calculation of the maximum frame rate
The frame rate depends on the exposure time, frame pause, ROI and line pause.
Frame time = (1 / frame rate)
Frame time ≥ (exposure time + read out time)
Frame time ≥ (TInt + tU (PY * (PX /taps + LP) + LP + CPRE + RESET + SKIM))
TInt
exposure time (10 µs . . . 0.5 s)
tU
pixel clock in ns (refer to Table 3.2)
PX
number of pixels in x-direction (4 . . . 1024 columns)
PY
number of pixels in y-direction (1 . . . 1024 rows)
LP
line pause (8 . . . 255, default 8). Is increased to 32 when condition according to
Figure 4.6 is not met.
CPRE
clocks between completed integration and begin of data transfer
(constant CPRE = 42 for all models)
RESET
reset time in clocks (constant, but model dependent - see Table 4.2)
SKIM
skimming reset time in clocks, only for skimming=ON (model dependent - see Table 4.2)
taps
number of taps (refer to Table 3.2)
Camera Model
RESET [clocks]
SKIM [clocks]
MV-D1024-28
12 - LP
LP - 1
MV-D1024-80
66 - LP
62
MV-D1024-160
34
62
Table 4.2: Model-dependent RESET and SKIM parameter
A calculator for calculating the maximum frame rate is available in the support area of the
Photonfocus website.
4.3.2
Multiple Regions of Interest
The MV-D1024 cameras can handle up to 17 different regions of interest. This feature can be
used to reduce the image data and increase the frame rate. A typical application example for
using multiple regions of interest (MROI) is a laser triangulation system with several laser lines.
The multiple ROIs are joined together and form a single image, which is transferred to the
frame grabber.
Overlapping windows are not allowed, and all windows must have the same width. The
maximum frame rate in MROI mode depends on the number of rows and columns being read
out. The total number of rows corresponds to the image size in the y-direction, and the total
number of columns (width of the MROI) gives the size in the x-direction. See Section 4.3.1 for
information on the calculation of the maximum frame rate.
4.3.3
Linehopping
Linehopping is another possibility to increase the frame rate. It transfers every nth row of an
image and thus reduces the image height by factor n. Line hopping can also be used together
with ROI or MROI.
20
Figure 4.7: Multiple Regions of Interest
4.4
Trigger modes
With a trigger signal the acquisition of an image can be synchronised with an external event.
This trigger signal can be either generated by the frame grabber itself or it can be generated
by an external source such as a light barrier.
For the MV-D1024 cameras, there are 3 different trigger modes available:
Exsync Trigger Mode In this trigger mode the camera is configured with a certain exposure
time. A trigger pulse starts the acquisition of an image.
Start/Stop Trigger Mode This trigger mode uses two trigger signals: The first one starts the
acquisition of an image, the second signal stops it. Thus, the exposure time is set by the
delay between the the two trigger signals.
ExSync/Exposure Trigger Mode In this trigger mode a trigger pulse starts the acquisition of an
image as in the Exsync trigger mode, but in addition the width of the trigger pulse also
controls the length of the exposure time.
For more information and the respective timing diagrams see Section 5.4.
4.5
4.5.1
Operating Modes
Camera as Master
By default, the camera is master and the frame grabber is slave. This means that the camera
generates the pixel clock and transfers it to the frame grabber.
2
1
3
4
5
6
A n a lo g Im a g e D a ta
7
D ig it a l Im a g e D a ta
A
1 o r 2 T a p s
C M O S S e n s o r
( n o t to s c a le )
In te r n a l C lo c k
f in
t
D
E x te r n a l P ix e l C lo c k
P C L K = T a p s * f in t
1 o r 2 T a p s
C a m e r a L in k
P C L K
In te r n a l C lo c k R e fe r e n c e
f in
t
Figure 4.8: Default operation mode: Camera is master
4.4 Trigger modes
21
4 Functionality
4.5.2
Camera as Slave (MCLK mode)
For certain applications the camera can be set in a slave mode (also called "master clock
mode", MCLK mode). In this case, the frame grabber is master and provides the pixel clock.
Examples of using the camera in slave mode are:
•
OEM applications using a custom-defined pixel clock
•
Low jitter synchronisation of two or more cameras (e.g. stereo vision)
2
1
3
4
5
6
A n a lo g Im a g e D a ta
7
D ig it a l Im a g e D a ta
A
1 o r 2 T a p s
C M O S S e n s o r
( n o t to s c a le )
M a s te r C lo c k
M C L K
D
1 o r 2 T a p s
E x te r n a l P ix e l C lo c k
P C L K = T a p s * M C L K
In te r n a l C lo c k
(n o t u s e d )
P C L K
C a m e r a L in k
M C L K
M C L K
Figure 4.9: Master Clock operation mode: pixel clock is provided externally
Please see Section 5.5 for more details about using the camera in MCLK mode.
4.6
CameraLink Serial Interface
A CameraLink camera can be controlled by the user via an RS232 compatible asynchronous
serial interface. This interface is contained within the CameraLink interface as shown in Fig.
4.10 and is physically not directly accessible. Instead, the serial communication is usually routed
through the frame grabber. For some frame grabbers it might be necessary to connect a serial
cable from the frame grabber to the serial interface of the PC.
C a m e ra
F ra m e g ra b b e r
P ix e l C lo c k
C C
S ig n a ls
C a m e r a L in k
C a m e r a L in k
Im a g e d a ta ,
F V A L , L V A L , D V A L
S e r ia l In te r fa c e
Figure 4.10: CameraLink serial interface for camera communication
.To interface different cameras to different frame grabbers, the CameraLink standard defines a
software API. It defines how the functions to initialise, read from, write to and close the serial
interface should look. The code behind these functions is frame grabber specific and is written
22
by the frame grabber manufacturer. The functions are then compiled into a DLL called
clserXXX.dll, where XXX is a unique identifier for the frame grabber manufacturer.
The PFRemote camera configuration tool as well as the PFLib API use the serial interface to
communicate with the camera and to control its functions. The serial interface is accessed via
the clserXXX.dll. Therefore, the appropriate clserXXX.dll for the frame grabber manufacturer
needs to be in the same directory as the PFRemote executable (e.g. C:\Program Files\PFRemote).
This DLL is usually located in the windows\system32 directory after installing the frame grabber
driver.
The serial configuration parameters are defined in the CameraLink standard and are as follows:
9600 baud, 1 start bit, 1 stop bit, no parity, no handshaking.
.
4.6 CameraLink Serial Interface
23
4 Functionality
24
5
Hardware Interface
5.1
Connectors
The MV-D1024 cameras are interfaced to external components via
•
a CameraLink connector
•
a connector for the power supply.
The connectors are located on the back of the camera. Fig. 5.1 shows the plugs and the status
LED which indicates camera operation.
Figure 5.1: Rear view of the camera
5.1.1
CameraLink Connector
The CameraLink interface and connector are specified in [CL, CameraLink Specification]. For
further details including the pinout please refer to Appendix A. This connector is used to
transmit configuration, image data and trigger signals.
5.1.2
Power Supply
The camera requires a single voltage input (see Table 3.3). The camera meets all performance
specifications using standard switching power supplies, although well-regulated linear supplies
provide optimum performance.
It is extremely important that you apply the appropriate voltages to your camera.
Incorrect voltages will damage the camera.
For US and Canada: Ensure a UL listed power supply marked "Class 2" is used
and rated 5V dc, min. 600mA. A suitable UL listed power supply is available from
Photonfocus.
For further details including the pinout please refer to Appendix A.
25
5 Hardware Interface
5.1.3
Status Indicator
A status LED on the back of the camera gives information about the status of the camera.
Red LED The status LED is red when the serial communication is active.
Green LED The LED shows a green light while an image is read out. The LED blinks with the
frame rate, however at high frame rates the LED changes to an apparently continuous
green light, with intensity proportional to the ratio of readout time over frame time.
For relatively long frame times and very small ROI settings the green pulse of the
LED might be too short to be visible in daylight conditions, even if the camera is
working properly.
When the camera is in default mode, the LED is red for a short time after the power has been
switched on and then flickers with the frame rate.
5.2
CameraLink Data Interface
The CameraLink standard contains signals for transferring the image data, control information
and the serial communication.
Data signals CameraLink data signals contain the image data. Depending on the MV-D1024
camera model, one or two taps with variable bit resolution are used to send the image
data from the camera to the frame grabber. In addition, handshaking signals such as FVAL,
LVAL and DVAL are transmitted over the same physical channel.
Camera control information Camera control signals (CC-signals) can be defined by the camera
manufacturer to provide certain signals to the camera. There are 4 CC-signals available
and all are unidirectional with data flowing from the frame grabber to the camera. For
example, the external trigger is provided by a CC-signal (see Table 5.1 for the CC
assignments of the MV-D1024 cameras).
CC1
EXSYNC
External Trigger. May be generated either by the frame grabber itself
(software trigger) or by en external event (hardware trigger).
CC2
MCLK
Master Clock. By default, the camera generates its own pixel clock.
However, when running in Master Clock mode, the frame grabber provides
the pixel clock for the camera via CC2. For further details please refer to
Section 5.5.
CC3
CTRL
Control. This signal is reserved for future purposes and is not used.
CC4
EXPOSURE
Is used in Start/Stop external trigger mode. The EXSYNC signal (CC1) marks
the beginning of the exposure time, while the SYNC signal (CC4) defines the
end of the exposure time.
Table 5.1: Summary of the Camera Control (CC) signals as used by Photonfocus
Pixel clock The pixel clock is generated by default on the camera and is provided to the frame
grabber for synchronisation. In the master clock mode (MCLK, Section 5.5), the pixel clock
can be provided externally.
26
Serial communication A CameraLink camera can be controlled by the user via an RS232
compatible asynchronous serial interface. This interface is contained within the
CameraLink interface and is physically not directly accessible. Refer to Section 4.6 for
more information.
1 T a p
C a m e ra
F ra m e g ra b b e r
P ix e l C lo c k
C C S ig n a ls
C a m e r a L in k
C a m e r a L in k
Im a g e d a ta ,
F V A L , L V A L , D V A L
S e r ia l In te r fa c e
Figure 5.2: 1-tap CameraLink system
2 T a p s
C a m e ra
F ra m e g ra b b e r
P ix e l C lo c k
C C S ig n a ls
C a m e r a L in k
C a m e r a L in k
Im a g e d a ta ,
F V A L , L V A L , D V A L
S e r ia l In te r fa c e
Figure 5.3: 2-tap CameraLink system
The frame grabber needs to be configured with the proper tap and resolution settings,
otherwise the image will be distorted or not displayed with the correct aspect ratio. Refer to
Section 3.4 for a summarised table of frame grabber relevant specifications. Fig. 5.2 and Fig.
5.3 show symbolically a 1-tap and a 2-tap system. For more information about taps refer to
[AN021, CameraLink].
5.3
5.3.1
Read-out Timing
Standard Read-out Timing
By default, the camera is in free running mode and delivers images with a pre-configured
frame rate without any external control signals. The sensor is always operated in
non-interleaved mode, which means that the sensor is read out after the preset exposure time.
Then the sensor is reset, a new exposure starts and the readout of the image information
begins again. The data is output on the rising edge of the pixel clock. The signals FRAME_VALID
5.3 Read-out Timing
27
5 Hardware Interface
(FVAL) and LINE_VALID (LVAL) mask valid image information. The signal SHUTTER indicates the
active integration phase of the sensor and is shown for clarity only.
Fig. 5.4 visualises the timing behaviour of the control and data signals.
P C L K
F r a m e T im e
S H U T T E R
E x p o s u re
T im e
F V A L
C P R E
L in e p a u s e
L in e p a u s e
L in e p a u s e
L V A L
F ir s t L in e
L a s t L in e
D V A L
D A T A
Figure 5.4: Timing diagram frame read-out
Frame time
Maximum frame time is defined as exposure time plus data read out
time.
Exposure time
Period during which the pixels are integrating the incoming light.
PCLK
Pixel clock on CameraLink interface.
SHUTTER
Internal signal, shown only for clarity. Is ’high’ during the exposure
time, during which the pixels integrate the incoming light and the
image is acquired. The actual exposure starts 4 clocks after the SHUTTER
signal transition.
FVAL (Frame Valid)
Is ’high’ while the data of one whole frame are transferred.
LVAL (Line Valid)
Is ’high’ while the data of one line are transferred. Example: To transfer
an image with 640x480 pixels, there are 480 LVAL within one FVAL active
high period. One LVAL lasts 640 pixel clock cycles.
DVAL (Data Valid)
Is ’high’ while data are valid.
DATA
Transferred pixel values. Example: For a 1024x1024 pixel image, there
are 1024 values transferred within one LVAL active high period, or
1024*1024 values within one FVAL period.
Line pause
A programmable delay before the first line and after every following
line when reading out the image data. A small line pause is needed for
correct sensor operation. Set by default to 8 clock cycles; typically does
not need to be adjusted by the user. See also Section 4.3.1.
Table 5.2: Explanation of control and data signals used in the timing diagram
28
5.3.2
Constant Frame Rate (CFR)
When the camera is in constant frame rate mode, the frame rate can be varied from almost 0
up to the maximum frame rate. Thus, fewer images can be acquired than determined by the
frame time. If the exposure and read-out time are smaller than the configured frame time, the
camera waits in an idle mode until the frame time has elapsed (see VBlank in Fig. 5.5).
E x p o s u r e tim e
a )
E x p o s u r e tim e
R e a d - o u t tim e
1 0 m s
1 2 m s
R e a d - o u t tim e
1 0 m s
1 2 m s
F r a m e tim e
b )
E x p o s u re
tim e
R e a d - o u t tim e
5 m s
1 2 m s
F r a m e tim e
E x p o s u re
tim e
R e a d - o u t tim e
5 m s
1 2 m s
V B la n k
V B la n k
F r a m e tim e
E x p o s u re
tim e
c )
2 m s
F r a m e tim e
R e a d - o u t tim e
E x p o s u re
tim e
V B la n k
1 2 m s
2 m s
R e a d - o u t tim e
V B la n k
1 2 m s
F r a m e tim e
F r a m e tim e
Figure 5.5: Constant Frame Rate = ON
On the other hand, if constant frame rate is switched off, the camera outputs images with
maximum speed, depending on the exposure time and the read-out time. The frame rate
depends directly on the exposure time. When using an external trigger, please see Section
5.4.5.
E x p o s u r e tim e
a )
E x p o s u r e tim e
R e a d - o u t tim e
1 0 m s
1 2 m s
1 2 m s
F r a m e tim e
b )
E x p o s u re
tim e
R e a d - o u t tim e
5 m s
1 2 m s
F r a m e tim e
E x p o s u re
tim e
5 m s
R e a d - o u t tim e
1 2 m s
F r a m e tim e
E x p o s u re
tim e
c )
2 m s
R e a d - o u t tim e
1 2 m s
F r a m e tim e
E x p o s u re
tim e
2 m s
F r a m e tim e
R e a d - o u t tim e
1 0 m s
R e a d - o u t tim e
1 2 m s
F r a m e tim e
Figure 5.6: Constant Frame Rate = OFF
5.3 Read-out Timing
29
5 Hardware Interface
5.4
Trigger
5.4.1
Overview
A trigger is an event that starts an exposure. The trigger signal is either generated on the
frame grabber (soft-trigger) or comes from an external device such as a light barrier.
For MV-D1024 cameras, there are three different trigger modes available. The trigger signal
ExSync must be routed by the frame grabber on CC1. One of the trigger modes uses an
additional signal called EXPOSURE, which must be provided on CC3.
1.
Trigger ExSync: The exposure is started with an edge of the ExSync signal. The length of
the exposure is defined by the exposure time preset in the camera.
2.
Trigger Start/Stop: The exposure is started with an edge of the ExSync signal and stopped
with the following edge of the EXPOSURE signal.
3.
Trigger Exposure: The exposure is started with an edge of the ExSync signal. The width of
the ExSync pulse gives the exposure time.
The polarity of the ExSync and Sync signals can be configured to be either active high (default)
or active low. Fig. 5.7 gives a summary of the available trigger modes.
P o la r ity A c tiv e H ig h
E x p o s u re S ta rt
1
E x p o s u re S to p
S o ftw a re
P o la r ity A c tiv e L o w
E x p o s u re S ta rt
E x S y n c
E x p o s u re S to p
S o ftw a re
T r ig g e r E x S y n c
E x S y n c
2
T r ig g e r S ta r t/S to p
E x S y n c
E x p o s u re
E x S y n c
E x p o s u re
3
T r ig g e r E x p o s u r e
E x S y n c
E x S y n c
E x S y n c
E x S y n c
R is in g E d g e
F a llin g E d g e
Figure 5.7: Trigger Overview
In the following sections, the timing of these three trigger modes is explained for active high
polarity, which is the default mode.
5.4.2
Trigger ExSync
In the ExSync trigger mode the image acquisition begins with the rising edge (active high) of
an external trigger pulse. The image is read out after the pre-set exposure time. After readout,
the sensor returns to the reset state and the camera waits for a new trigger pulse.
The data is output on the rising edge of the pixel clock, the CameraLink handshaking signals
FRAME_VALID (FVAL) and LINE_VALID (LVAL) mask valid image information. The signal SHUTTER in Fig.
5.8 indicates the active integration phase of the sensor and is shown for clarity only.
5.4.3
Trigger Start/Stop
In the Start/Stop trigger mode the exposure time is determined by the signals ExSync and Sync
as shown in Fig. 5.9.
The sensor is reset with the rising edge of an external trigger pulse (active high) and the
exposure of the image begins. If necessary, the polarity can be changed to be active low. The
integration ends with the rising edge of the external signal SYNC. The image is read out after
the exposure time has elapsed. After readout, the sensor returns to the reset state and the
30
P C L K
C F R = o ff: E X S Y N C
E X S Y N C
is ig n o r e d d u r in g th is tim e p e r io d
F r a m e T im e
S H U T T E R
E x p o s u re
T im e
F V A L
L in e p a u s e
C P R E
L in e p a u s e
L in e p a u s e
L V A L
F ir s t L in e
L a s t L in e
D V A L
D A T A
Figure 5.8: Trigger ExSync Timing diagram
camera waits for a new trigger pulse. The data is output on the rising edge of the pixel clock.
The CameraLink signals FRAME_VALID (FVAL) and LINE_VALID (LVAL) mask valid image information.
The signal SHUTTER indicates the active integration phase of the sensor and is shown for clarity
only.
P C L K
C F R = o ff: E X S Y N C
E X S Y N C
is ig n o r e d d u r in g th is tim e p e r io d
S Y N C
F r a m e T im e
S H U T T E R
E x p o s u re
T im e
F V A L
C P R E
L in e p a u s e
L in e p a u s e
L in e p a u s e
L V A L
F ir s t L in e
L a s t L in e
D V A L
D A T A
Figure 5.9: Trigger Start/Stop Timing diagram
5.4 Trigger
31
5 Hardware Interface
5.4.4
Trigger ExSync/Exposure
In the ExSync-Exposure trigger mode, the sensor is reset with the rising edge of an external
trigger pulse EXSYNC and the exposure of the image begins. If necessary, the polarity can be
changed to be active low. The integration ends with the falling edge of the EXSYNC signal. The
signal EXSYNC is clocked in the sensor control in such a way that the internal exposure control
becomes active one clock cycle later (see SHUTTER signal).
The image is read out after the exposure time has elapsed. After readout, the sensor returns to
the reset state and the camera waits for a new trigger pulse. The data is output on the rising
edge of the pixel clock. The CameraLink signals FRAME_VALID (FVAL) and LINE_VALID (LVAL) mask
valid image information. The signal SHUTTER indicates the active integration phase of the sensor
and is shown for clarity only.
P C L K
C F R = o ff: E X S Y N C
E X S Y N C
is ig n o r e d d u r in g th is tim e p e r io d
F r a m e T im e
S H U T T E R
E x p o s u re
T im e
F V A L
C P R E
L in e p a u s e
L in e p a u s e
L in e p a u s e
L V A L
F ir s t L in e
D V A L
D A T A
Figure 5.10: Trigger ExSync/Exposure Timing diagram
32
L a s t L in e
5.4.5
Notes on using External Trigger
Synchronous and Asynchronous Reset
The ’Constant Frame Rate’ (CFR) mode has a second meaning when used in triggered mode.
Synchronous Reset_table
CFR = on
The camera delivers images with a constant frame
rate as defined by the configured frame time. If the
trigger frequency exceeds the maximum frame
rate, the excess trigger pulses are discarded.
Asynchronous Reset_table
CFR = off
Excess trigger pulses are not blocked, and the
camera can be used in an asynchronous reset mode.
If a trigger pulse arrives during the read-out time,
the camera completes the output of the current
line, and then immediately starts a new exposure.
This means that not the full image will arrive at the
frame grabber.
Table 5.3: Synchronous and asynchronous reset configuration
LinLog
Full LinLog functionality is only available in the ExSync trigger mode (see Section
5.4.2).
The reason is that the parameter COMP depends on the length of the exposure time. When the
exposure time is determined by external parameters such as the length of the trigger pulse, the
camera cannot set the COMP parameter correctly. However, basic LinLog functionality (LinLog1,
with COMP and LL2 set to zero) is available in all trigger modes.
Trigger Delay
The total delay between the trigger edge and the camera exposure consists of the delay in the
frame grabber and the camera (Fig. 5.11). Usually, the delay in the frame grabber is relatively
large to avoid accidental triggers caused by voltage spikes (see Fig. 5.12).
.
For the delay in the frame grabber, please ask your frame grabber manufacturer. The camera
delay consists of a constant trigger delay and a variable delay (jitter). Refer to Table 5.4 for the
model-specific values.
Camera Model
Camera Trigger Delay (constant)
Max. Camera Trigger Jitter
MV-D1024-28
210 ns
35 ns
MV-D1024-80
300 ns
50 ns
MV-D1024-160
150 ns
25 ns
Table 5.4: Maximum camera trigger delay for the MV-D1024 series
5.4 Trigger
33
5 Hardware Interface
C a m e r a
l
C a m e r a L in k
T M
F r a m e G r a b b e r
C C 1
E X S Y N C
T r ig g e r S o u r c e
( e . g . L ig h t B a r r ie r )
T R I G G E R
S T R O B E
j
P O R T B
P O R T A
D A T A
k
T R I G G E R _ I n
S T R O B E _ A
I / O
F la s h
I / O
C o n t r o l
B o a r d
Figure 5.11: Trigger Delay visualisation from the trigger source to the camera
j
t
k
l
T R I G G E R
T r ig g e r S o u r c e
E X S Y N C
F r a m e g r a b b e r
I n t. E X S Y N C
C a m e r a
S h u tte r
C a m e r a
d _ F G
t
t
jit t e r
d _ c a m e r a
Figure 5.12: Timing Diagram for Trigger Delay
5.5
Master Clock
By default, the camera generates the pixel clock and provides it to the frame grabber for
synchronisation. For certain applications it may be helpful to put the camera into a slave mode
and provide it with an external pixel clock (see Section 4.5). As an example, the camera could
be used in MCLK mode in order to interface it to a special pixel clock frequency. Another
example would be a highly synchronous stereo vision application, where a common clock is
provided to 2 or more cameras.
The maximum MCLK is given by the CameraLink pixel clock frequency divided by
the number of taps. The lower limit of the MCLK frequency is given by the CameraLink specification. Please see [AN010, Camera Clock Concepts] and [AN007,
Camera Acquisition Mode] for more information.
The upper and lower MCLK limit depends on the camera model. Please see Table 3.2 for the
specification.
34
6
The PFRemote Control Tool
6.1
Overview
PFRemote is a graphical configuration tool for Photonfocus cameras. The latest release can be
downloaded from the support area of www.photonfocus.com.
All Photonfocus cameras can be either configured by PFRemote, or they can be programmed
with custom software using the PFLib SDK ([PFLIB]). As pictured in Fig. 6.1, PFRemote and PFLib
respectively control parameters of the camera. To grab an image and to process it, use the
software or SDK that was delivered with your frame grabber. If you have chosen to install the
PFLib SDK documentation during the PFRemote setup, you will find the documentation in your
\PFRemote directory.
P F R e m o te
U s e r A p p lic a tio n
F ra m e G ra b b e r
S o ftw a re
P F L ib
F ra m e G ra b b e r S D K
C a m e ra
F ra m e G ra b b e r
Figure 6.1: PFRemote and PFLib in context with the frame grabber software
PFRemote is available for Windows only. For a Linux or QNX system, we provide the necessary
source code to control the camera on request, but there is no graphical user interface available.
Please note that we do not provide any free support for Linux and QNX. Please
contact us for further information.
6.2
Installation Notes
Before installing PFRemote, make sure that your frame grabber software is installed correctly.
The PFRemote setup wizard will ask you to choose your frame grabber. It will then copy the
necessary files from your frame grabber installation to the \PFRemote directory.
If your CameraLink compatible frame grabber is not listed in the setup wizard, please do the
following:
•
During PFRemote installation, choose "Other CameraLink compliant Grabber" when
asked about the frame grabber.
•
After the installation, locate a CLSER*.DLL in your frame grabber’s software distribution (*
matches any vendor specific extension). This file is usually located in your
\windows\system32 directory or in the installation directory of the frame grabber software.
•
Copy the CLSER*.DLL into the PFRemote installation directory (usually C:\Program
Files\PFRemote) and rename it to CLSER.DLL.
•
Start PFRemote. The port names "cl0" and "cl1" are displayed.
35
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
6.2.1
DLL Dependencies
Several DLLs are necessary in order to be able to communicate with the cameras:
•
CAMDLL.DLL: DLL handling camera detection and switching to specific camera DLL. This DLL
is sometimes referred to as CAMWRAPPER.DLL.
•
CAMDLLmodel_specifier.DLL: Camera specific DLL, e.g. CAMDLL_MV1024.DLL
•
COMDLL.DLL: Communication DLL (frame grabber specific). This is a DLL which is normally
delivered with your frame grabber software. This COMDLL is not necessarily CameraLink
specific, but may depend on a CameraLink API compatible DLL which should also be
provided by your frame grabber manufacturer (as described above).
More information about these DLLs are available in the SDK documentation ([PFLIB]).
6.3
6.3.1
Usage
Camera Initialization
On start, PFRemote displays a list of available communication ports which is returned from the
COMDLL. For example, a COMDLL using the CameraLink standard ports results in the display below.
Figure 6.2: PFRemote port list
To open a camera on a specific port double click on the port name (e.g. cl0). Alternatively,
right click on the port name and choose Open & Configure.... The port is then queried for a
Photonfocus compatible camera.
Figure 6.3: PFRemote with configuration window after camera port was opened
Once the camera has successfully been opened, the configuration dialog is displayed (Fig. 6.4).
Instead of the port name, the camera model name is now displayed. Right clicking on the
camera model name will show further options:
36
Camera Port Options Menu
Info Shows camera information
Reset Resets the camera
Close Closes camera and frees the communication port
6.3.2
The Camera Configuration Dialog
The PFRemote configuration dialog is used to configure the camera. It uses tabs to configure
the following camera parameters:
Exposure/Trigger Setting of exposure time, frame time, trigger modes, master clock mode.
Window Setting of the region of interest, multiple regions of interest, linehopping.
Characteristics Setting of analog/digital gain, look-up table, LFSR (linear feedback shift
register, refer to Section 6.6.3).
LinLog/Skim Setting of the LinLog and skimming parameters.
Figure 6.4: PFRemote control panel
These parameters as well as the control buttons on the right side are explained in the
following sections.
Please refer to Chapter 4 for further explanation of the different camera modes.
Common Control Buttons
Reset to Defaults Reset the camera and reread the power-on values into the configuration
dialog box.
Store in EEPROM Store current settings (e.g. exposure time, ROI) in the camera EEPROM as
new boot-up values.
Note that High Gain, Skimming and digital gain settings cannot be stored into
the EEPROM. In case your application requires these settings also to be stored in
the EEPROM, please contact Photonfocus support.
6.3 Usage
37
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
Factory Reset Recover the factory settings from EEPROM. This may take some time.
Refer to Section 6.4 and [AN004] for more information about storing camera
settings into the EEPROM.
Exposure and Trigger Settings
Figure 6.5: Exposure and triggering control
Free Running In the Free Running mode, the camera continuously delivers images with a
frame rate (number of frames per second) that is determined by Frame Time. Refer to
Section 4.1 for further information.
Extern Sync In the Extern Sync mode, an image can be synchronized to an external event
(external trigger). Please refer to Section 5.4 for more details.
Advanced Configure advanced trigger modes (refer to next section).
Constant FrameRate When the Constant FrameRate box is ticked, the frame rate can be varied
from almost 0 up to the maximum frame rate. Thus, fewer images than the maximum
frame rate can be acquired. The frame rate can be adjusted with the Frame Time slider. If
Constant FrameRate is off, the camera delivers images as fast as possible. Refer to Section
4.1 for further information.
LinePause The LinePause parameter is a programmable delay before the first line and after
every following line when reading out the image data. A small line pause is needed for
correct sensor operation. Set by default to 8 clock cycles; typically does not need to be
adjusted by the user. Refer to Section 5.3 for further information.
Exposure Time The Exposure Time slider allows the adjustment of the exposure time in
milliseconds. Note that the Frame Time will be adjusted automatically if required by the
chosen exposure time. Refer to Section 4.1 for further information.
Frame Time This slider is only enabled when Constant FrameRate is active. It determines the
frame time in milliseconds. Note that the Exposure Time will be adjusted automatically if
required by the chosen frame time. Refer to Section 4.1 for further information.
Framerate The frame rate display is updated whenever a relevant parameter is changed. To
adjust the frame rate, configure Frame Time and Exposure Time respectively.
38
Figure 6.6: Exposure and triggering control
Advanced Triggering Modes
Slave mode External Master clock synchronization. Refer to Section 4.5 for more information.
Sync pulses high active By default, this box is ticked. If it is deselected, the trigger signals must
be low active.
Ext. Trigger with programmed exposure Default Mode. The exposure is started with an edge
of the ExSync signal. The length of the exposure is defined by the exposure time preset in
the camera.
Ext. Trigger exposure start, Exp stop The exposure is started with an edge of the ExSync signal
and stopped with the following edge of the Exposure signal.
Combined Trigger/Exposure The exposure is started with an edge of the ExSync signal. The
width of the ExSync pulse gives the exposure time.
Refer to Section 5.4 for timing diagrams and more information about the trigger
modes.
6.3 Usage
39
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
Region of Interest, LineHopping
Figure 6.7: Camera window settings
The region of interest is defined as a rectangle [x, y, w, h] where
x x-coordinate, starting from 0 in the upper left corner
y y-coordinate, starting from 0 in the upper left corner
w Window width
h Window height
The region of interest (ROI) is called ’window of interest’ (WOI) in PFRemote.
( 0 ,0 )
Figure 6.8: The origin (0,0) in the region of interest is in the top left corner of the image
Refer to Section 4.3.1 for restrictions when using a region of interest.
Not all framegrabbers can handle window changes while they are running. If
your frame grabber application crashes in this case, stop grabbing before adjusting the window size and make sure you have set the same window size in your
frame grabber software.
The LineHopping parameter defines the line readout stepping. For example, a number of 2
skips all odd lines.
40
MROI / Mask mode
In MROI mode, several ROIs of the same width can be grouped together to form a single image
that is transferred to the frame grabber. The main window defines the outer bounds and can
contain up to 16 masks. A mask defines the area that will be skipped during read-out (see the
gray shaded regions of the example in Fig. 6.9). The mask windows must not overlap. Masks
that are defined within the main window are active. Masks that are outside of the main
window will be ignored. In the MROI mode, the main window must contain at least one mask.
A mask is defined by its Y start value and the height H (see Table 6.1 for an example).
MROI Example
Assume that we are interested in five areas of the image, which results in four masks. The first
window should have a height of 96 pixels and start at the coordinate (x,y) = (120, 100). The
settings of the other masks are shown in Table 6.1 and Fig. 6.9. Since in this example only four
masks are used, it must be ensured that the fifth and all further masks are outside the main
window. For example, their Y value can be set to 1023.
Figure 6.9: MROI example: Image showing the MROI masks in gray (left), resulting image that is transferred
to the frame grabber (right)
Main WOI
X: 120, Y:100, W:800, H:696
Mask 0
Y: 192, H: 80
Mask 1
Y: 346, H: 60
Mask 2
Y: 460, H: 50
Mask 3
Y: 662, H: 40
Mask 4..15 (unused)
Y: 1023, H:1
Table 6.1: Example settings for MROI
6.3 Usage
41
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
Characteristic Curves, Amplification
Figure 6.10: Characteristics settings
High Gain Toggle High Gain amplification (refer to Section 4.2.1).
Resol. mode Choose camera gray level resolution (ADC resolution), digital gain, LUT or LFSR
(CameraLink reliability test, refer to Section 6.6.3).
LUT slot If available, switch to LUT number n.
Edit LUT Open LUT editor window (refer to Section 6.3.3).
6.3.3
The LUT Editor
Figure 6.11: LUT editor dialog
The LUT editor allows lookup tables to be created which digitally remap intensity values to
other values. This conversion is performed directly in the camera, where the input range [0,
2n -1] (n according to camera gray level resolution) is mapped to an output range of [0, 255].
The LUT editor canvas displays either spline curves or free points. In spline mode, the curve can
be defined with five control handles.
Editing of the LUT curve is performed by dragging the control points in Spline mode or simply
painting on the window in Free mode. Once the curve is ready to be uploaded, you should first
test it in the camera RAM (Default).
42
Pressing Send uploads the LUT data to the camera. This may take some time. If LUT mode is
not enabled, it is automatically turned on.
The LUT can be stored finally in one of the available EEPROM slots of the camera by selecting
the destination with the numeric control adjacent right of the Send button.
Furthermore, LUT tables can be downloaded from the camera and stored to disk with the
Receive button.
Depending on the curve mode, the curve parameters are either
•
Spline mode: Saved in a LUT spline set by entering the setting name in the LUT spline sets
selector and pressing Save
•
Free mode: Saved in a readable ASCII hex code dump file.
If in spline mode, a set can simply be chosen from the drop down control. Entries can be erased
with the Delete button.
6.4
Camera Maintenance Tools
The default settings that are stored in the camera can be up- or downloaded to the PC by using
a ’hex file’. This is a file containing a dump of the camera registers. Its content is protected by a
checksum and cannot be changed by the user.
Following maintenance functions are available:
Dump EEPROM Creates a dump of the camera default settings EEPROM to a hex file. Appends
to an already existing file.
Dump Settings Creates a dump of the camera settings only. Using EEPROM Recovery, these
settings can be copied onto other cameras without destroying the camera specific
calibration values.
EEPROM Recovery Restores the camera EEPROM from a hex file. Note that this file can not be
modified by the user without proper validation.
Do not transfer a complete EEPROM dump to another camera! This will destroy
the factory calibration data. If you need to transfer the camera settings to another camera, use Dump Settings.
6.4.1
EEPROM Dump
The currently stored camera settings can be downloaded to the PC by performing an EEPROM
dump. Use the PFRemote menu option Tools... Dump EEPROM which opens a file dialog box,
then choose a directory and name for the EEPROM dump. After that, the content of the
EEPROM is read from the camera. If you chose an already existing file, the new dump is
appended to the file (making it possible to read several camera EEPROMs into the same file).
The EEPROM read-out process may take over a minute.
We recommend creating a complete EEPROM dump as a backup after you received the camera.
6.4 Camera Maintenance Tools
43
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
6.4.2
EEPROM Update
In some cases, an EEPROM recovery or update is required to have your camera operate
correctly. This can happen when you have an older model and a warning appears when you
open the camera, or when the header of the EEPROM got corrupted.
When you have received an updated hex file from the Photonfocus support, you can upload it
to the camera by using the menu option Tools... EEPROM Recovery. After a successful upload
(taking up to 1 minute), you should close and reopen the camera port.
For obtaining a HEX file update, e-mail to <[email protected]> and include the
following:
1.
The serial number of your camera
2.
An EEPROM dump hex file of your camera, if possible (refer to Section 6.4.1).
Please check that the serial number of the hex file name (or inside the hex file)
matches the one of your camera before uploading. Uploading a wrong EEPROM
dump file will destroy the factory calibration.
6.5
Camera Model Specific Settings for MV-D1024 Series
6.5.1
Linlog, Skimming
Figure 6.12: Linlog settings panel
LinLog
For an explanation of the LinLog feature please refer to Section 4.2.2. For help about setting
up LinLog, see [AN001] and [AN024].
After power on, the LinLog Control is displayed as Default, because PFRemote
cannot determine the LinLog state from the camera. When you switch on LinLog
explicitely by selecting LinLog2 from the LinLog Control dropdown box, the LL1,
LL2 and COMP sliders will be enabled.
In other words, when you have LinLog turned on and store the settings into the EEPROM, the
LL1, LL2 and COMP sliders will be disabled after restarting PFRemote even if LinLog is actually
turned on, and the LinLog Control is set to Default. Switching LinLog Control to LinLog2
enables the sliders. Alternatively, you can press the Reset to Defaults button after power on.
44
Skimming
The Skimming mode allows darker areas to be brightened. Please refer to Section 4.2.3 for
details.
After starting PFRemote, the Skimming slider is disabled even if you switch on
the Skim checkbox. You can enable it by either pressing the Reset button or by
explicitely setting the LinLog Control to off or LinLog2.
6.5.2
Calibration
Figure 6.13: PFRemote calibration panel
Normally, the camera does not need to be calibrated as this is done after assembly. In some
cases recalibration or customisation for special application circumstances may be needed.
The calibration dialog is displayed via the menu Camera... Calibration
Voltage changes can always be undone by restoring the factory defaults via the configuration
dialog.
Entries which are greyed out cannot be changed by the user.
Offset Lowgain Black level offset voltage for the LowGain setting (i.e. HighGain off).
Offset Highgain Black level offset voltage for HighGain setting.
VSkim Skimming voltage. It is recommended to change skimming in the LinLog tab of the
camera configuration dialog rather than with this control.
For calibration, you need frame grabber software with real time histogram functionality. It is
also possible to do the calibration by looking at the minimal gray value of the grabbed image.
1.
Make sure that the sensor is receiving no light by either covering the C-mount with the
factory included camera body cap or by closing the iris of the lens. Set camera exposure
time to minimum.
2.
Make sure that HighGain is turned off and change the LowGain offset voltage such that
the black level peak displays as in Fig. 6.14 a.
3.
Do the same for HighGain: Activate HighGain via the check box and change the offset
such that the black level distribution looks like Fig. 6.14 b.
4.
Store the values in the EEPROM via the Store_in_EEPROM button.
6.5 Camera Model Specific Settings for MV-D1024 Series
45
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
Figure 6.14: Histogram for calibration: a) low gain, b) high gain
6.6
Troubleshooting
Please see also the FAQ on our website.
6.6.1
Can’t Open Camera
If you get an error "Com port busy or not initialized", there could be several reasons:
•
The camera is not connected to that port.
•
Another program is currently using the port.
•
The frame grabber’s serial port driver (CLSERIAL) does not work or is not properly
installed.
Errors such as "Command not acknowledged", "Generic communication failure", "Invalid
camera return code", "Communication timeout!", etc. are caused by wrong parity settings or
communication timeouts due to bad cables, improper RS232 bit rate settings, etc. Other errors,
such as "Unknown Error" are related to the frame grabber.
Before contacting Photonfocus for support, please check and report to us the following:
•
Is the status light on the camera flashing red when opening the port? Is the status light
blinking green at all?
•
What is the serial number of your camera?
•
Does the acquired image on the frame grabber look okay? If not, please attach the faulty
image to your error report.
6.6.2
Invalid Header
If your header appears to be invalid to PFRemote, you need to update your EEPROM. Contact
the Photonfocus support and request a header update. Then refer to Section 6.4.2 on how to
apply the update.
6.6.3
Troubleshooting using the LFSR
To control the quality of your image, enable the LFSR mode and check the histogram. If your
frame grabber application does not provide a real-time histogram, store the image and use a
graphics software to display the histogram.
In the LFSR (linear feedback shift register) mode the camera generates a constant test pattern
containing all gray levels. If the data transmission is error free, the histogram of the received
LFSR test pattern will be flat (Fig. 6.15). On the other hand, a non-flat histogram (Fig. 6.16)
46
indicates problems with the cable, the connectors or the frame grabber. This usually happens
when the CameraLink cable exceeds the maximum length or suffers from severe
electromagnetic interference. It can also occur when the camera-side and framegrabber-side of
a thin CameraLink cable are interchanged.
Figure 6.15: LFSR test pattern received at the frame grabber and typical histogram for error-free data
transmission
The LFSR pattern does not contain pixels with the gray value 0. To compensate
this, the gray level 1 is contained twice as much as every other gray level.
The LFSR test works only for an image width of 1024, otherwise the histogram
will not be flat.
Figure 6.16: LFSR test pattern received at the frame grabber and histogram containing transmission errors
CameraLink cables contain wire pairs, which are twisted in such a way that the
cable impedance matches with the LVDS driver and receiver impedance. Excess
stress on the cable results in transmission errors which causes distorted images.
Therefore, please do not stretch and bend a CameraLink cable.
In robots applications, the stress that is applied to the CameraLink cable is especially high due
to the fast movement of the robot arm. For such applications, special drag chain capable cables
are available.
6.6 Troubleshooting
47
6 The PFRemote Control Tool
48
7
Mechanical, Optical and Environmental Considerations
7.1
Mechanical Interface
The general mechanical data of the cameras are listed in section 3, Table 3.3.
9
55
30
55
30
32UNCF
10,45
45,12
0,75
13,95
32,25
31,7
38,1
54
O
3
R6
3,45
31,2
38,1
54
Figure 7.1: Mechanical Dimensions of the MV-D1024 models
During storage and transport, the camera should be protected against vibration, shock,
moisture and dust. The original packing protects the camera adequately from vibration and
shock during storage and transport. Please either retain this packing for possible later use or
dispose of it according to local regulations.
49
7 Mechanical, Optical and Environmental Considerations
7.2
Optical Interface
7.2.1
Mounting the Lens
Remove the protective cap from the C-/CS-mount thread of the camera and install the lens.
When removing the protective cap or changing the lens, the camera should always be held
with the opening facing downwards to prevent dust from falling onto the CMOS sensor. If the
lens is removed, the protective cap should be refitted. If the camera is operated in a dusty
environment, we recommend the use of a constant stream of clean air in front of the objective.
7.2.2
Cleaning the Sensor
The sensor is part of the optical path and should be handled like other optical components:
with extreme care.
Dust can obscure pixels, producing dark patches in the images captured. Dust is most visible
when the illumination is collimated. Dark patches caused by dust or dirt shift position as the
angle of illumination changes. Dust is normally not visible when the sensor is positioned at the
exit port of an integrating sphere, where the illumination is diffuse.
1.
The camera should only be cleaned in ESD-safe areas by ESD-trained personnel using wrist
straps. Ideally, the sensor should be cleaned in a clean environment. Otherwise, in dusty
environments, the sensor will immediately become dirty again after cleaning.
2.
Use a high quality, low pressure air duster (e.g. Electrolube EAD400D compressed air
spray) to blow off loose particles. This step alone is usually sufficient to clean the sensor of
the most common contaminants.
Workshop air supply is not appropriate and may cause permanent damage to
the sensor.
3.
If further cleaning is required, use a suitable lens wiper or Q-Tip moistened with an
appropriate cleaning fluid to wipe the sensor surface as described below. Examples of
suitable lens cleaning materials are given in Table 7.1. Cleaning materials must be
ESD-safe, lint-free and free from particles that may scratch the sensor surface.
Do not use ordinary cotton buds. These do not fulfil the above requirements and
permanent damage to the sensor may result.
4.
50
Wipe the sensor carefully and slowly. First remove coarse particles and dirt from the
sensor using Q-Tips soaked in 2-propanol, applying as little pressure as possible. Using a
method similar to that used for cleaning optical surfaces, clean the sensor by starting at
any corner of the sensor and working towards the opposite corner. Finally, repeat the
procedure with methanol to remove streaks. It is imperative that no pressure be applied
to the surface of the sensor or to the black globe-top material (if present) surrounding the
optically active surface during the cleaning process.
Product
Supplier
Remark
ESD safe and suitable for
class 100 environments.
Anticon Gold 9"x 9"
Wiper
Milliken
TX4025
Wiper
Texwipe
Transplex
Swab
Texwipe
Small Q-Tips SWABS
BB-003
Q-tips
Hans J. Michael GmbH,
Germany
Large Q-Tips SWABS
CA-003
Q-tips
Hans J. Michael GmbH,
Germany
Point Slim HUBY-340
Q-tips
Sharp
Methanol
Fluid
Johnson Matthey GmbH,
Germany
Semiconductor Grade
99.9% min (Assay), Merk
12,6024, UN1230, slightly
flammable and
poisonous.
2-Propanol (Iso-Propanol)
Fluid
Johnson Matthey GmbH,
Germany
Semiconductor Grade
99.5% min (Assay) Merk
12,5227, UN1219, slightly
flammable.
Table 7.1: Recommended materials for sensor cleaning
For cleaning the sensor, Photonfocus recommends the products available from the suppliers as
listed in Table 7.1.
.
7.2 Optical Interface
51
7 Mechanical, Optical and Environmental Considerations
7.3
Compliance
CE Compliance Statement
We,
Photonfocus AG,
CH-8853 Lachen, Switzerland
declare under our sole responsibility that the following products:
MV-D1024-28-CL-10, MV-D1024-80-CL-8, MV-D1024-160-CL-8
MV-D1024x128-28-CL-10, MV-D1024x128-80-CL-8,
MV-D1024x128-160-CL-8
MV-D752-28-CL-10, MV-D752-80-CL-8, MV-D752-160-CL-8
MV-D640-33-CL-10, MV-D640-66-CL-10, MV-D640-48-U2-10
MV-D640C-33-CL-10, MV-D640C-66-CL-10, MV-D640C-48-U2-10
HURRICANE-40, THUNDER-90, BLIZZARD-60 (CameraLink Models)
HURRICANE-40, THUNDER-90 (USB2.0 Models)
Digipeater CLB26
are in compliance with the below mentioned standards according to
the provisions of European Standards Directives:
EN
EN
EN
EN
EN
EN
EN
61
61
61
61
61
61
55
000
000
000
000
000
000
022
–6–3
–6–2
–4–6
–4–4
–4–3
–4–2
: 1994
:
:
:
:
:
:
2001
2001
1996
1996
1996
1995
Photonfocus AG, October 2005
Figure 7.2: CE compliance statement
52
8
Warranty
The manufacturer alone reserves the right to recognize warranty claims.
8.1
Warranty Terms
The manufacturer warrants to distributor and end customer that for a period of two years
from the date of the shipment from manufacturer or distributor to end customer (the
"Warranty Period") that:
•
the product will substantially conform to the specifications set forth in the applicable
documentation published by the manufacturer and accompanying said product, and
•
the product shall be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal use.
The distributor shall not make or pass on to any party any warranty or representation on
behalf of the manufacturer other than or inconsistent with the above limited warranty set.
8.2
Warranty Claim
The above warranty does not apply to any product that has been opened, modified or altered by any party other than manufacturer, or for any defects caused
by any use of the product in a manner for which it was not designed, or by the
negligence of any party other than manufacturer.
53
8 Warranty
54
9
References
All referenced documents can be downloaded from our website at www.photonfocus.com.
CL CameraLink Specification, October 2000
PFLIB PFLib Documentation, Photonfocus, August 2004
AN001 Application Note "LinLog", Photonfocus, December 2002
AN024 Application Note "LinLog - Principle and Practical Example", Photonfocus, March 2005
AN007 Application Note "Camera Acquisition Modes", Photonfocus, March 2004
AN008 Application Note "Photometry versus Radiometry", Photonfocus, April 2005
AN010 Application Note "Camera Clock Concepts", Photonfocus, July 2004
AN015 Application Note "Glossary", Photonfocus, July 2004
AN021 Application Note "CameraLink", Photonfocus, July 2004
AN024 Application Note "LinLog - Principle and Practical Example", Photonfocus, July 2004
55
9 References
56
A
Pinouts
A.1
Power Supply
The power supply plug is available from Binder connectors at www.binder-connector.de (see
also Section 5.1).
Power supply Plug Binder subminiature series 712, order# 99-0405-00-03
3
1
2
Figure A.1: Power Supply plug, 3-pole (rear view, solder side)
Pin
I/O
Name
Description
1
PW
VDD
+5V power supply
2
PW
GND
Ground
3
PW
DNC
Do not connect
Table A.1: Pinout of the power supply socket
For US and Canada: Ensure a UL listed power supply marked "Class 2" is used
and rated 5V dc, min. 600mA. A suitable UL listed power supply is available from
Photonfocus.
Figure A.2: Assembly of the power supply connector
57
A Pinouts
A.2
CameraLink
The pinout for the CameraLink 26 pin, 0.5" Mini D-Ribbon (MDR) connector is according to the
CameraLink standard ([CL]) and is listed here for reference only.
1
2
3
1 4
1 5
1 6
4
1 7
5
6
7
8
9
1 8
1 9
2 0
2 1
2 2
1 0
2 3
1 1
2 4
1 2
2 5
1 3
2 6
Figure A.3: CameraLink cable 3M MDR-26 plug (both ends)
PIN
IO
Name
Description
1
PW
SHIELD
Shield
2
O
N_XD0
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D0
3
O
N_XD1
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D1
4
O
N_XD2
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D2
5
O
N_XCLK
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Clock
6
O
N_XD3
Negative LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D3
7
I
I_SERTOCAM
Positive LVDS Input, Serial Communication to the camera
8
O
N_SERTOFG
Negative LVDS Output, Serial Communication from the camera
9
I
N_CC1
Negative LVDS Input, CC1
10
I
N_CC2
Positive LVDS Input, CC2
11
I
N_CC3
Negative LVDS Input, CC3
12
I
P_CC4
Positive LVDS Input, CC4
13
PW
SHIELD
Shield
14
PW
SHIELD
Shield
15
O
P_XD0
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D0
16
O
P_XD1
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D1
17
O
P_XD2
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D2
18
O
P_XCLK
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Clock
19
O
P_XD3
Positive LVDS Output, CameraLink Data D3
20
I
N_SERTOCAM
Negative LVDS Input, Serial Communication to the camera
21
O
P_SERTOFG
Positive LVDS Output, Serial Communication from the camera
22
I
P_CC1
Positive LVDS Input, CC1
23
I
N_CC2
Negative LVDS Input, CC2
24
I
P_CC3
Positive LVDS Input, CC3
25
I
N_CC4
Negative LVDS Input, CC4
26
PW
SHIELD
Shield
S
PW
SHIELD
Shield
Table A.2: Pinout CameraLink connector
58
B
Revision History
Revision
Date
Changes
1.0
June 2005
First release
1.01
February 2006
Updated frame rate formula
59
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement