User`s Manual - GeoMotions, LLC

User`s Manual - GeoMotions, LLC
3
SHAKE2000
A Computer Program
for the 1-D Analysis of
Geotechnical Earthquake
Engineering Problems
Pseudo-Absolute Acceleration (g)
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Period (sec)
User’s Manual
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Gustavo A. Ordóñez
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ShakEdit  Copyright Gustavo A. Ordonez, 1995-2011. All Rights Reserved.
SHAKE2000  Copyright Gustavo A. Ordonez, 2000-2011. All Rights Reserved.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. ii
SHAKE2000
A Computer Program for the 1-D Analysis of Geotechnical
Earthquake Engineering Problems
A software application that integrates
SHAKE
A Computer Program for Earthquake Response Analysis of Horizontally
Layered Sites
Per B. Schnabel, John Lysmer, H. Bolton Seed
University of California, Berkeley
and
SHAKE91
A Modified Version of SHAKE for Conducting Equivalent Linear Seismic
Response Analyses of Horizontally Layered Soil Deposits
I.M. Idriss and J.I. Sun
University of California, Davis
with
ShakEdit
A Pre and Postprocessor for SHAKE and SHAKE91
Gustavo A. Ordóñez
July 2011 - Revision
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. iii
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. iv
Terms and Conditions for Licensing the Software
YOU SHOULD READ THE FOLLOWING TERMS AND CONDITIONS CAREFULLY BEFORE USING THE
SOFTWARE. INSTALLATION OF THE SOFTWARE INTO YOUR COMPUTER INDICATES YOUR
ACCEPTANCE OF THESE TERMS AND CONDITIONS. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE WITH THEM, YOU
SHOULD RETURN THE PACKAGE PROMPTLY AND YOUR MONEY WILL BE REFUNDED. These
programs are provided by the authors. Title to the media on which the software is recorded and to the
documentation in support thereof is transferred to the customer, but title to the software is retained by the authors.
GeoMotions, LLC owns all intellectual property in the programs. GeoMotions, LLC permits you to use the
programs only in accordance with the terms of this agreement. You assume responsibility for the selection of the
software to achieve your intended results and for the installation of the software, the use of and the results obtained
from the software.
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License
You may use the software on only one machine at any one time.
You may copy the software for back up only in support of such use.
You may not use, copy, modify, or transfer the software, or any copy, in whole or part, except as expressly
provided in this document.
You may not sell, sub-license, rent, or lease this software.
You may not reverse engineer, decompile or disassemble the programs to obtain the source code.
Although the software was tested, you are solely responsible for using and interpreting the results obtained from
execution of the software.
When first using the software, you should compare the results from the software with manual calculations
and/or results from other computer software to verify the reliability of the program.
The software is not a teaching tool for one-dimensional seismic site response analysis.
The authors do not guarantee nor imply the accuracy or reliability of this software or related documentation. As
such, they cannot be held responsible for incorrect results or damages resulting from the use of this software. It
is the responsibility of the user to determine the usefulness and technical accuracy of this software in his/her
own environment.
This software was not developed as a network application. Thus, it should not be installed on a Network
Server.
Installation of the software onto your computer indicates your acceptance of the terms and conditions in this
agreement.
Terms
The license is effective until terminated. You may terminate it any time by destroying the software together with
any back-up copies. It will also terminate if you fail to comply with any term or condition of this agreement. You
agree upon such termination to destroy the software together with any back-up copies, modifications, and/or merged
portions in any form.
Warranty
The authors will correct any errors in the code at no charge after the purchase date of the software. Notification of a
suspected error must be made in writing, with a complete listing of the input and output files and description of the
error. If, in the judgment of the authors, the code does contain an error, the authors will (at their option) correct or
replace the copy at no cost to the user or refund the initial purchase price of the software. These warranties are
exclusive and in lieu of all other warranties, whether expressed or implied, including the implied warranties of
merchantability, fitness for a particular purpose and non-infringement. No oral or written information or advice
given by the authors, distributors, dealers or agents shall increase the scope of the above warranties or create any
new warranties. Some states do not allow the exclusion of implied warranties, so the above exclusion may not apply
to you. In that event, any implied warranties are limited in duration to ninety (90) days from the date of delivery of
the software. This warranty gives you specific legal rights. You may have rights, which vary from state to state.
Limitation of Liability
The software is a complex program which requires engineering expertise to use correctly. The authors assume
absolutely no responsibility for the correct use of this software. All results obtained should be carefully examined
by an experienced professional engineer to determine if they are reasonable and accurate. Although the authors
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. v
have endeavored to make the software error free, the program is not and cannot be certified as infallible. Therefore,
the authors make no warranty, either implicit or explicit, as to the correct performance or accuracy of this software.
In no event shall the authors be liable to anyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequential damage in
connection with or arising out of purchase or use of this software. The sole and exclusive liability to the authors,
regardless of the form of action, shall not exceed the purchase price of this software.
USB Hardware Key
Title to the USB Hardware Key(s) associated with a license belongs to GeoMotions, LLC. You are wholly
responsible for maintaining and safeguarding the USB Hardware Key. We reserve the right to determine the cost of
replacing a lost or stolen USB Hardware Key, up to and including the cost of a new license.
Support
The authors will provide telephone or electronic mail support, at no charge, to assist the licensee in the installation
of the software on his or her computer system. Additionally, general assistance may be provided in aiding the
licensee in understanding the capabilities of the various features of the software. However, no-cost assistance is not
provided for help in applying the software to specific user-defined problems. We reserve the right to determine
what qualifies as no-cost assistance, and what requires payment. In all instances, the user is encouraged to send the
problem description and/or data files to the authors by electronic mail in order to minimize the amount of time spent
trying to define the problem and/or to provide help with a problem.
Copyright Notice
The software and accompanying manual are copyrighted with all rights reserved by the authors, respectively. Under
United States Copyright Laws, the software and its accompanying documentation may not be copied, in whole or in
part, except to make a backup copy for archival purpose only. Any other copying, selling or otherwise distributing
this software is hereby expressly forbidden. All products and brand names are trademarks and/or registered
trademarks of their respective holders.
Export Law Assurances
You agree that the software will not be shipped, transferred or exported directly, into any country prohibited by the
United States Export Administration Act and the regulations there under nor will be used for any purpose prohibited
by the Act.
If you do not agree to these terms and conditions, please return the full product with proof of purchase within 30
days for a full refund, minus shipping and handling costs.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. vi
SHAKE2000
A Computer Program for the 1-D Analysis of
Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering Problems
User’s Manual
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. vii
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. viii
Table of Contents
SHAKE2000 .................................................................................................................................................................1
1.
2.
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................1
SHAKE ..............................................................................................................................................................2
2.1
Introduction ...............................................................................................................................................2
2.2
Theory ........................................................................................................................................................2
2.3
Propagation of harmonic shear waves in a one-dimensional system. .......................................................4
2.4
Ratio between rock outcrop motions and base rock motions .....................................................................6
2.5
Transient Motion .......................................................................................................................................8
2.6
Description of the Program SHAKE ..........................................................................................................9
3. ShakEdit - Graphical User Interface ................................................................................................................ 10
4. Program Execution .......................................................................................................................................... 11
4.1
Problem Definition .................................................................................................................................. 12
4.2
Options for SHAKE - Required Input Data ............................................................................................. 17
4.3
SHAKE2000's EDT File........................................................................................................................... 26
4.4
Processing Output Files in SHAKE2000 ................................................................................................. 28
4.5
Averaging Results .................................................................................................................................... 29
4.6
Partial Seismic Hazard Analysis with SHAKE2000 ................................................................................ 30
5. Modifications to the SHAKE Source Code ..................................................................................................... 31
SHAKE2000 Program Forms ................................................................................................................................... 35
AASHTO's Response Spectra.................................................................................................................................. 37
Acceleration Time History Plot Menu ..................................................................................................................... 38
Amplification Spectrum Plot Menu ......................................................................................................................... 39
Analysis Summary ................................................................................................................................................... 40
Average Calculated Results Menu ........................................................................................................................... 41
Average CPT Data ................................................................................................................................................... 42
Average Response Spectrum ................................................................................................................................... 46
Bray & Travasarou Simplified Displacement Analysis ........................................................................................... 47
Calculated Results Plot Menu .................................................................................................................................. 49
Choose Output Directory ......................................................................................................................................... 52
Company & Project Information ............................................................................................................................. 53
Conversion of Ground Motion File ......................................................................................................................... 55
Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Data .......................................................................... 62
Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Shear Wave Velocity (Vs) Data .............................................................................. 66
Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Data ..................................................................... 71
Database of Damping Ratio Curves ......................................................................................................................... 77
Database of Dynamic Material Properties ............................................................................................................... 78
Database of G/Gmax Curves ................................................................................................................................... 81
Dynamic Material Properties Model........................................................................................................................ 82
Earthquake Records Database ................................................................................................................................. 84
Earthquake Response Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 87
Edit/Add Ground Motion File Information.............................................................................................................. 93
EuroCode 8 Response Spectrum.............................................................................................................................. 97
Execute SHAKE ...................................................................................................................................................... 98
Fourier Spectrum Plot Menu ................................................................................................................................... 99
Graphics Print Menu .............................................................................................................................................. 100
Graphics Window .................................................................................................................................................. 102
Ground Motion Attenuation Relations .................................................................................................................. 104
Ground Motion Parameters.................................................................................................................................... 110
IBC Response Spectra ........................................................................................................................................... 113
Import Acceleration Data ...................................................................................................................................... 115
Import Data from CPT File.................................................................................................................................... 117
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. ix
Input File Order ..................................................................................................................................................... 120
Input File Order ..................................................................................................................................................... 120
Kalpha Correction Factor ...................................................................................................................................... 121
Legend Text ........................................................................................................................................................... 122
Liquefaction-Induced Ground Deformation .......................................................................................................... 123
Main Menu ............................................................................................................................................................ 125
Makdisi & Seed - Displacement Analysis ............................................................................................................. 129
Mean/Scaling Response Spectrum......................................................................................................................... 132
NEHRP Response Spectra ..................................................................................................................................... 137
Newmark Method - Displacement Analysis .......................................................................................................... 138
Newmark Method - Select Accelerogram File ...................................................................................................... 140
Newmark Method - Yield Acceleration Function.................................................................................................. 143
Number of Points on a Graph ................................................................................................................................ 144
Option 1 Editor: Dynamic Material Properties ...................................................................................................... 145
Option 2 Editor: Soil Profile .................................................................................................................................. 148
Option 2 Soil Column Layers ................................................................................................................................ 150
Option 3 Editor: Input (Object) Motion ................................................................................................................. 151
Option 4 Editor: Assignment of Object Motion .................................................................................................... 154
Option 5 Editor: Number of Iterations and Strain Ratio ........................................................................................ 155
Option 6 Editor: Acceleration at top of Sublayers ................................................................................................. 156
Option 6 Sublayers ................................................................................................................................................ 157
Option 7 Editor: Shear Strain and/or Stress Time History ..................................................................................... 158
Option 9 Editor: Response Spectrum ..................................................................................................................... 159
Option 10 Editor: Amplification Spectrum............................................................................................................ 160
Option 11 Editor: Fourier Spectrum ...................................................................................................................... 161
Options for Table of Results .................................................................................................................................. 162
Option List ............................................................................................................................................................. 163
Plot Dynamic Material Properties.......................................................................................................................... 164
Plot Object Motion ................................................................................................................................................ 165
Plot SPT, CPT or Vs Data ..................................................................................................................................... 169
Pore Water Pressure ............................................................................................................................................... 170
Print Menu ............................................................................................................................................................. 171
Probabilistic and Deterministic Liquefaction Analysis using SPT Data ................................................................ 173
Random Generation of EDT Options .................................................................................................................... 175
Rathje & Saygili Seismic Sliding Displacement.................................................................................................... 179
Ratio of Fourier/Response Spectra ........................................................................................................................ 180
Report Form Development .................................................................................................................................... 183
Response Spectra for Ground Motion.................................................................................................................... 185
Response Spectrum Plot Menu .............................................................................................................................. 188
Response Spectra - Site Effects Menu ................................................................................................................... 191
Rjb & Rx Distance ................................................................................................................................................. 192
SEISRISK III Attenuation Function ...................................................................................................................... 194
SEISRISK III Fault Data ....................................................................................................................................... 196
SEISRISK III Option List ...................................................................................................................................... 198
SEISRISK III Output Files .................................................................................................................................... 199
SEISRISK III Pre & Postprocessor ....................................................................................................................... 200
SEISRISK III Probability & Study Area ............................................................................................................... 204
SEISRISK III PSHA Contours .............................................................................................................................. 207
SEISRISK III Seismic Source Zone Data .............................................................................................................. 208
Settlement Analysis ............................................................................................................................................... 210
Shear Moduli Equations ........................................................................................................................................ 212
Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis ................................................................................................................ 217
Soil Profile Information ......................................................................................................................................... 221
SPT from Becker Penetration Test (BPT) Data ..................................................................................................... 222
Stress/Strain Time History Plot Menu ................................................................................................................... 223
Summary of Results of First Output File ............................................................................................................... 224
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. x
Target/User Defined Response Spectrum .............................................................................................................. 225
UBC 1997 Response Spectra ................................................................................................................................. 226
U.S. Geological Survey Seismic Hazard ............................................................................................................... 227
References ................................................................................................................................................................ 231
Conversion Factors .................................................................................................................................................. 249
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. xi
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. xii
SHAKE2000
1. Introduction
The evolution of the computer program SHAKE is typical of other FORTRAN programs originally developed for
the mainframe environment in the 1970s. At that time, punched computer cards served to input data and the
program output consisted of reams of numbers and crude graphical displays from a line printer. In the 1980s, the
program was ported to the PC environment. The initial code changes were those necessary simply to get an
executable program that ran on the engineer‟s desktop computer. Subsequent modifications have “tweaked” the
program. The thrust of these modifications has been to ease construction of the input file and to provide a number
of default settings for program operation and output. However, in its essentials, today‟s SHAKE is largely
unchanged from its mainframe incarnation. It still is not “user friendly”, but most importantly it is a robust analysis
tool proven in some twenty-five years of service.
Recent advances in computer technology, operating systems, and programming languages have allowed the
development of computer programs that greatly simplify the process of entering input data and presenting the results
in a more informative manner. Computer programs such as WESHAKE, ProShake and ShakEdit are examples of
the trend towards the development of the next generation of user-friendly, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering
software. Thus, integrating an analysis program with a user-friendly interface facilitates and greatly enhances the
interpretation of the dynamic behavior of a particular site. The integration of SHAKE and ShakEdit into an
affordable, quality computer program is the next logical upgrade of the SHAKE computer program.
For those of you who are familiar with the many advances in dynamic analysis programs, you may wonder why
invest this effort in a 33-year-old program for the one-dimensional, equivalent-linear analysis of site response? The
short answer is that with a minimal input file, a “reasonable approximation” of the site response can be obtained
with an analysis whose run time is a matter of seconds. Thus, the user has a powerful screening tool to gauge site
response and then determine whether more sophisticated modeling is warranted. The development of WESHAKE
by the Corps and ProShake by Dr. Steven Kramer, stand as a testament that others in the geotechnical community
appreciate the intrinsic value in this venerable analysis procedure.
We see as the long-term goal of this program the development of a reliable, efficient, and user-friendly computer
application that will help geotechnical earthquake engineers and researchers with the analysis of site-specific
response and the evaluation of earthquake effects on soil deposits. Hence, the main objective in the development of
SHAKE2000 is to add new features to transform it into an analysis tool for seismic analysis of soil deposits and
earth structures. As such, the governing philosophy in developing this new version of SHAKE was to lay before the
user a suite of tools designed to answer questions of interest to both academia and the consulting professional. We
then expect that SHAKE2000 will have a dual role in geotechnical earthquake engineering. First, it will be used as a
learning tool for students of geotechnical engineering. Second, it will serve practitioners of geotechnical earthquake
engineering as a scoping tool to provide a first approximation of the dynamic response of a site. Depending upon
the prediction of site response, the practitioner will judge whether more sophisticated dynamic modeling is
warranted.
The following sections of this manual provide the user with a description of the SHAKE program. In the first
sections, we have included the original documentation for the program to provide the user with the theoretical
background followed in the development of SHAKE. Following this description of SHAKE, we have included a
section about ShakEdit, the graphical user interface that was integrated with SHAKE to create this latest update. We
then briefly describe the modifications to the original SHAKE source code for the development of SHAKE91 and
SHAKE2000. The following section describes the methodology followed during a simplified seismic analysis, and
the options used to perform this analysis with SHAKE2000. The second part of this manual starts with a step-bystep, quick tutorial intended to explain how to use SHAKE2000 by following a simple example that covers most of
the features of the program. The last section of the manual describes each of the “forms” included in the program.
The development of SHAKE2000 is a work in progress. We would appreciate receiving suggestions about new
features that users would like included in the program, information on modifications that are recommended to make
the program easier to use, and information on any bug in the source code that needs to be fixed. SHAKE2000 will
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 1
be continuously updated/upgraded based on input from users and developments in geotechnical earthquake
engineering practice.
2. SHAKE
This section is a literal copy of the information provided in SHAKE, A Computer Program for Earthquake Response
Analysis of Horizontally Layered Sites; by Schnabel, P.B.; Lysmer, J.; and Seed, H.B. Report No. EERC 72-12,
Earthquake Engineering Research Center, College of Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, December
1972.
2.1
Introduction
Several methods for evaluating the effect of local soil conditions on ground response during earthquakes are
presently available. Most of these methods are based on the assumption that the main response in a soil deposit is
caused by the upward propagation of shear waves from the underlying rock formation. Analytical procedures based
on this concept incorporating nonlinear soil behavior have been shown to give results in good agreement with field
observations in a number of cases. Accordingly they are finding increasing use in earthquake engineering for
predicting responses within soil deposits and the characteristics of ground surface motions.
The analytical procedure generally involves the following steps:
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
Determine the characteristics of the motions likely to develop in the rock formation underlying the site, and
select an accelerogram with these characteristics for use in the analysis. The maximum acceleration,
predominant period, and effective duration are the most important parameters of an earthquake motion.
Empirical relationships between these parameters and the distance from the causative fault to the site have
been established for different magnitude earthquakes (Gutenberg and Richter, 1956; Seed et. al., 1969;
Schnabel and Seed, 1972). A design motion with the desired characteristics can be selected from the strong
motion accelerograms that have been recorded during previous earthquakes (Seed and Idriss, 1969) or from
artificially generated accelerograms (Housner and Jennings, 1964).
Determine the dynamic properties of the soil deposit. Average relationships between the dynamic shear
moduli and damping ratios of soils, as functions of shear strain and static properties, have been established
for various soil types (Hardin and Drnevich, 1970; Seed and Idriss, 1970). Thus, a relatively simple testing
program to obtain the static properties for use in these relationships will often serve to establish the
dynamic properties with a sufficient degree of accuracy. However more elaborate dynamic testing
procedures are required for especial problems and for cases involving soil types for which empirical
relationships with static properties have not been established.
Compute the response of the soil deposit to the base-rock motions. A one-dimensional method of analysis
can be used if the soil structure is essentially horizontal. Programs developed for performing this analysis
are in general based on either the solution to the wave equation (Kanai, 1951; Matthiesen et al., 1964;
Roesset and Whitman, 1969; Lysmer et al., 1971) or on a lumped mass simulation (Idriss and Seed, 1968).
More irregular soil deposits may require a finite element analysis.
In the following sections, the theory and use of a computer program based on the one-dimensional wave propagation
method are described. The program can compute the responses for a design motion given anywhere in the system.
Thus accelerograms obtained from instruments on soil deposits can be used to generate new rock motions which, in
turn, can be used as design motion for other soil deposits, see Fig. 1 (Schnabel et al., 1971). The program also
incorporates nonlinear soil behavior, the effect of the elasticity of the base rock and systems with variable damping.
2.2
Theory
The theory considers the response associated with vertical propagation of shear waves through the linear viscoelastic
system shown in Fig. 2. The system consists of N horizontal layers, which extend to infinity in the horizontal
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 2
Figure 1: Schematic representation of procedure for computing effects of local soil conditions on ground motions
(after Schnabel et al., 1972).
Figure 2: One-Dimensional System (after Schnabel et al., 1972).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 3
direction and has a halfspace as the bottom layer. Each layer is homogeneous and isotropic and is characterized by
the thickness, h, mass density, , shear modulus, G, and damping factor, .
2.3
Propagation of harmonic shear waves in a one-dimensional system.
Vertical propagation of shear waves through the system shown in Fig. 2 will cause only horizontal displacements:
u  ux, t 
(1)
which must satisfy the wave equation:
 2u
 2u
 3u
 2  G 2  2
t
x
x t
(2)
Harmonic displacements with frequency  can be written in the form:
ux, t   U x  e i t
(3)
Substituting Eq. 3 into Eq. 2 results in an ordinary differential equation:
 2U
G  i  2   2U
x
(4)
which has the general solution:
U x   Ee ikx  Fe ikx
(5)
 2
 2
k 
 *
G  i
G
(6)
in which:
2
where k is the complex wave number and G* is the complex shear modulus. The critical damping ratio, , is related
to the viscosity  by:
  2G
Experiments on many soil materials indicate that G and  are nearly constant over the frequency range which is of
main interest in the analysis. It is therefore convenient to express the complex shear modulus in terms of the critical
damping ratio instead of the viscosity:
G *  G  i  G 1 2i 
(7)
where G* can be assumed to be independent of frequency.
Equations 3 and 5 give the solution to the wave equation for a harmonic motion of frequency :
ux, t   Eei kx   t   Fe i kx   t 
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 4
(8)
where the first term represents the incident wave traveling in the negative x-direction (upwards) and the second term
represents the reflected wave traveling in the positive x-direction (downwards).
Equation 8 is valid for each of the layers in Fig. 2. Introducing a local coordinate system X for each layer, the
displacements at the top and bottom of layer m are:
um  X 0  Em  Fm ei t
(9)


um  X  hm   Em  eik m hm  Fm eik m hm  ei t
(10)
The shear stress on a horizontal plane is:
 x, t   G 
u
u
u

 G*
x
xt
x
(11)
or by Eq. 8:
 x, t   ikG* Eeikx  Fe ikx  ei t
(12)
and the shear stresses at the top and bottom of layer m are respectively:
 m  X  0  ik mGm* Em  Fm ei t
 m  X  hm   ik mGm* Eeik
m hm
(13)

 Fe ik m hm ei t
(14)
Stresses and displacements must be continuous at all interfaces. Hence, by Eqs. 9, 10, 13 and 14:
Em 1  Fm 1  Em eik m hm  Fm eik m hm
Em 1  Fm 1 

km Gm*
Em eik m hm  Fm eik m hm
km 1 Gm* 1
(15)

(16)
Subtraction and addition of Eqs. 15 and 16 yield the following recursion formulas for the amplitudes, Em+1 and Fm+1,
of the incident and reflected wave in layer m+1, expressed in terms of the amplitudes in layer m:
Em 1 
1
1
Em 1 m eik m hm  Fm 1 m eik m hm
2
2
(17)
Fm1 
1
1
Em 1  m eikmhm  Fm 1   m e ikmhm
2
2
(18)
where m is the complex impedance ratio
m 
*
m
*
m1
km G
km1 G
  G
  m
  m1 G
*
m
*
m1



1
2
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 5
(19)
which again is independent of frequency.
At the free surface, the shear stresses must be zero. In addition, Eq. 12 with 1 and X1 equal to zero gives E1 = F1,
i.e. the amplitudes of the incident and reflected waves are always equal at the free surface. Beginning with the
surface layer, repeated use of the recursion formulas Eqs. 17 and 18 leads to the following relationships between the
amplitudes in layer m and those in the surface layer:
Em  em   E1
(20)
Fm  f m   E1
(21)
The transfer functions em and fm are simply the amplitudes for the case E1 = F1 = 1, and can be determined by
substituting this condition into the above recursion formulas.
Other transfer functions are easily obtained from the em and fm functions. The transfer function An,m between the
displacements at level n and m is defined by:
An,m   
um
un
and by substituting Eqs. 9, 20 and 21:
An,m   
em    f m  
(22)
en    f n  
Based on these equations the transfer function A() can be found between any two layers in the system. Hence, if
the motion is known in any one layer in the system, the motion can be computed in any other layer.
The amplitudes, E and F can thus be computed for all layers in the system, and the strains and acceleration can be
derived from the displacement function. Accelerations are expressed by the equation:
ü x, t  
 2u
   2 Ee i kx   t   Fe i kx   t  
2
t
(23)
and strains by:
 
2.4
u
 ik Ee i kx   t   Fe i kx   t 
x


(24)
Ratio between rock outcrop motions and base rock motions
If the amplitudes of the incident and reflected wave components, EN and FN, in the elastic halfspace, Fig. 3a, are
known, the motions in the halfspace with the soil system removed, Fig. 3c, are easily computed. The shear stresses
are zero at any free surface; thus FN = EN, and the incident wave is completely reflected with a resulting amplitude
2EN at the free surface of the halfspace. The amplitude of the incident wave in the halfspace is independent of the
properties of the system above it since the reflected wave is completely absorbed in the halfspace and does not
contribute to the incident wave. The incident wave component, EN, is therefore equal in all systems shown in Fig. 3.
The ratio between the base motion, uN, and the motion, uN’, at the free surface may be computed from the transfer
function:
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 6
Figure 3: One-Dimensional System with Outcropping Layers (after Schnabel et al., 1972).
AN'   
u N e N    f N  

2e N  
u N'
(25)
The transfer function between the motion at the surface of the deposit, u1, and the motion at the free surface of the
halfspace is:
AN' ,1   
1
(26)
eN  
If the halfspace is the rock formation underlying a soil deposit, Eq. 25 shows the ratio between the motion in the
base rock and in the outcropping rock. The ratio between the amplitudes of the base rock motion and the
outcropping rock motion is always less than 1, with minimum values at the resonance frequencies of the deposit.
Transfer functions for the deposit used in the example are shown in Fig. 4. The amplitude of the base rock motion is
only 65% of the amplitude of the rock outcrop motion at the fundamental frequency of the deposit. This difference
is a function of the impedance ratio between the deposit and the rock and of the damping in the deposit.
The difference in the computed responses resulting from the use of a rigid base, relative to the use of an elastic base,
depend also on which frequencies are dominant in the rock motion. Rock motions with frequency dominance near
the resonant frequencies of the deposit will be considerably more affected than motions with frequency dominance
between the resonance frequencies, see Fig. 4. The effect of the elasticity of the base rock is, therefore, not only a
function of the impedance ratio between deposit and rock and of the damping in the deposit, but also of the
frequency distribution of the energy in the rock motion relative to the resonance frequencies of the deposit.
An approximation for the free surface motion for one of the layers in the system, Fig. 3.b, may be obtained in the
same way as for the halfspace, provided the incident wave component in the outcropping layer and in the layer
within the system are equal, i.e. Em = Em’. This is approximately the case when the properties of layer m and all
layers below are equal in the two systems and when the impedance, m Vm, is of the same order of magnitude as for
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 7
Figure 4: Transfer Functions (after Schnabel et al., 1972).
the halfspace. This is the case for example, in sedimentary rock layers overlying a crystalline rock base. For a more
accurate solution, the motion in outcropping layers must be computed in a separate system from the motion in the
halfspace.
2.5
Transient Motion
The expressions developed above are valid for steady state harmonic motions. The theory can be extended to
transient motions through the use of Fourier transformation.
A digitized seismogram with n equidistant acceleration values, üj(j t), j = 0, …., n-1, can be represented by a finite
sum of harmonic motions:
n/2

ü t    as ei s t  bs ei s t

(27)
s 0
where s, s = 0, …., n/2 are the equidistant frequencies:
s 
2
s
n  t
(28)
as and bs designate the complex Fourier coefficients:
as 
1 n 1
ü(t) e-i s t

n j 0
,
bs 
1 n 1
ü(t) ei s t

n j 0
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 8
(29)
and each term in Eq. 27 is a harmonic motion oscillating with frequency s.
If the series in Eq. 27 represent the motion in a layer m, a new series representing the motion in any other layer n, is
obtained by applying the appropriate amplification factor from Eq. 22 to each term in the series:
n/2

ü n t    Am, n  s   am, s ei s t  bm, s ei s t

(30)
s 0
The representation of a discrete motion with its Fourier transform gives an exact representation of the motion at the
discrete points t = j t, j = 0… n-1. Cyclic repetition of the motion with the period T = n t is implied in the
solution. The solution applies, therefore, to an infinite train of identical accelerograms rather than the given single
accelerogram. For systems with damping this is not of any significant consequence since the individual
accelerograms can be separated by a quiet zone of zeros causing the responses from one cycle to damp out before
the beginning of the next cycle.
The Fourier Transformation can be performed in several ways. The SHAKE program utilizes the Fast Fourier
Transform algorithm developed by Cooley and Tukey (1965), which is faster by a factor n/log n over the
conventional method. This technique computes all values in the series simultaneously. The method requires that the
number of terms in the series be some power of 2. A typical analysis using an acceleration record of 800 terms with
time step t = 0.02 seconds will use 1024 values in the Fast Fourier Transform, with all values between 800 and
1024 set equal to 0. This will satisfy both the requirements of a quiet zone after the acceleration record and that the
total number of terms must be a power of two.
2.6
Description of the Program SHAKE
Program SHAKE computes the response in a system of homogeneous, visco-elastic layers of infinite horizontal
extent subjected to vertically traveling shear waves. The system is shown in Fig. 2. The program is based on the
continuous solution to the wave equation (Kanai, 1951) adapted for use with transient motions through the Fast
Fourier Transform algorithm (Cooley and Tukey, 1965). The nonlinearity of the shear modulus and damping is
accounted for by the use of equivalent linear soil properties (Idriss and Seed, 1968; Seed and Idriss, 1970) using an
iterative procedure to obtain values for modulus and damping compatible with the effective strains in each layer.
The following assumptions are implied in the analysis:





The soil system extends infinitely in the horizontal direction.
Each layer in the system is completely defined by its value of shear modulus, critical damping ratio,
density, and thickness. These values are independent of frequency.
The responses in the system are caused by the upward propagation of shear waves from the underlying rock
formation.
The shear waves are given as acceleration values of equally spaced time intervals. Cyclic repetition of the
acceleration time history is implied in the solution.
The strain dependence of modulus and damping is accounted for by an equivalent linear procedure based
on an average, effective strain level computed for each layer.
The program is able to handle systems with variation in both moduli and damping and takes into account the effect
of the elastic base. The motion used as a basis for the analysis, the object motion, can be given in any one layer in
the system and new motions can be computed in any other layer.
The following set of operations can be performed by the program:


Read the input motion, find the maximum acceleration, scale the values up or down, and compute the
predominant period.
Read data for the soil deposit and compute the fundamental period of the deposit.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 9









Compute the maximum stresses and strains in the middle of each sublayer and obtain new values for
modulus and damping compatible with a specified percentage of the maximum strain.
Compute new motions at the top of any sublayer inside the system or outcropping from the system.
Print, plot and punch the motions developed at the top of any sublayer.
Plot Fourier Spectra for the motions.
Compute, print and plot response spectra for motions.
Compute, print and plot the amplification function between any two sublayers.
Increase or decrease the time interval without changing the predominant period or duration of the record.
Set a computed motion as anew object motion. Change the acceleration level and predominant period of
the object motion.
Compute, print and plot the stress or strain time-history in the middle of any sublayer.
These operations are performed by exercising the various available options in the program. A list of these options is
given in the following sections.
3. ShakEdit - Graphical User Interface
ShakEdit was originally developed as a 16-bit, Windows 3.1 application that provided a graphical interface for
SHAKE. It was originally conceived as an aid to the user in the creation of the input file and the graphical display
of the program‟s numeric output. It accomplished the first step by incorporating user-friendly screens to assist in
entering the arcane input data for the differing SHAKE options. The second step required the development of
routines for the processing and error checking of output data, and for displaying that output in forms familiar to the
geotechnical engineer.
Notable features of ShakEdit as a preprocessor for SHAKE are the following:



On-line help for every form used in the program.
A database of material properties [Option 1].
Incorporation of a number of equations used to estimate the maximum shear moduli, G max [Option 2].
The solution of a particular problem requires use of realistic ground motions (loading), modeling site dynamics
(response), and the interpretation and prediction of soil behavior subject to dynamic loading (analysis). To help the
engineer in the solution of this problem, ShakEdit evolved from its original formulation as strictly a pre and
postprocessor for SHAKE, to a computer program that the practicing engineer could employ to address geotechnical
aspects of earthquake engineering of a project site. It presently includes the following:









Numerous attenuation relations for estimating peak horizontal acceleration and velocity with distance; and,
for the pseudo acceleration and pseudo velocity response spectra.
Design spectra such as NEHRP, IBC, UBC 1997, EuroCode and AASHTO. These spectra and those from
attenuation relations can be plotted simultaneously with the spectra computed with SHAKE.
Calculation of permanent slope displacements due to earthquake shaking using the Newmark Method or the
Makdisi-Seed Method.
A postprocessor for SEISRISK III, a computer program for seismic hazard estimation developed by the
USGS.
Computation of cyclic stress ratio (CSR) based on 1) equivalent uniform shear stress using the peak shear
stress computed with SHAKE; or, 2) the simplified equation by Seed & Idriss (1971).
Estimation of the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) required to initiate liquefaction using SPT, CPT, Vs and/or
BPT test results.
Calculation of settlement induced by earthquake shaking.
An option to obtain the Peak Ground Acceleration from the gridded points used to make the 1996 USGS
National Seismic Hazard Maps based on latitude and longitude input.
Utilities to convert ground motion record files downloaded from the internet or obtained from other sources
to a format compatible with SHAKE.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 10



An option to compute the response spectra for a ground motion.
Evaluation of liquefaction induced ground deformation.
Printing of the output results for each graph in table form for inclusion in reports or other documents.
The foregoing provides the engineer with a suite of tools that facilitates the translation of the output from SHAKE
into predictions of liquefaction potential, and earthquake induced displacements of a site.
However, the most important feature of ShakEdit is its ability to graphically display the results from SHAKE and
other analyses. For example, values of peak acceleration are displayed vs. depth; time history accelerations are
displayed as values of acceleration vs. time; attenuation relations are displayed as a log-log graph of acceleration vs.
distance; etc.. Results from SEISRISK III can be displayed as contours, or 3-D surface graphs. The graphs can be
imported into another application such as a word processor for preparing presentations or engineering reports.
The development process of SHAKE2000 is ongoing. The program is continuously updated/upgraded based on
input from users and developments in geotechnical earthquake engineering practice.
4. Program Execution
SHAKE2000 was developed to provide the user with a user-friendly interface for SHAKE and to add new features
to transform it into an analysis tool for seismic analysis of soil deposits and earth structures. To this end, there are
three ways that SHAKE2000 can be used.
One approach to work with SHAKE2000 is to use the different features included in the Main Menu form (see
Figure 5) to work with an existing input file or output files.
Figure 5: Main Menu form of SHAKE2000.
In this form, you can use the SHAKE command button to perform the earthquake response analysis and create the
two output files. You can then use the Process First Output File and Process Second Output File options to
obtain the most significant results from the output files. These results can be plotted with the Plot Options (e.g.
Peak Acceleration, CSR, Shear Stress, etc.).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 11
A second alternative is to use the options included in the Earthquake Response Analysis form (see Figure 6) by
using either the Create New EDT File or the Edit Existing EDT File option in the Main Menu form. This form is
mainly used to create a new working file for SHAKE2000, or to edit an existing file. You would first use the Edit
command button to open different forms to enter/edit the data for each option that may be used for a SHAKE
analysis. Then, use the Add button to select only those options you want to use in your analysis to create the input
file, and the SHAKE button to perform the earthquake response analysis. After the analysis terminates, the Process
button is used to obtain the most significant results from the output files. The results can be graphically presented
by using the different Plot Options. This form does not include the options available in the Main Menu form to
perform other seismic analyses.
Figure 6: Earthquake Response Analysis form of SHAKE2000.
A third way SHAKE2000 can be applied as a tool in seismic analysis is to use any of the Other Analyses options in
the Main Menu form (e.g. Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis (Seed & Idriss 1971)) to perform other
seismic analyses, or to provide the user with supporting data (e.g. Ground Motion Attenuation Relations).
4.1
Problem Definition
SHAKE is a FORTRAN computer program originally developed based upon a batch-file format, i.e. a sequential
series of options saved in an ASCII (i.e. text) input file control the operation of the program. Each option is formed
by a number of “formatted” values, i.e. the values should be between specific columns. This was a major drawback
in the execution of SHAKE because either a misplaced value could crash the program, or the program could yield
erroneous results. This has been overcome with SHAKE2000, which includes user-friendly screens for each option
that provide the user with a simple way of entering the data. SHAKE2000 automatically saves the values in their
expected “positions” in the input file.
In Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering practice, a model of the problem to be analyzed with SHAKE is widely
known as a SHAKE Column. For convenience, we will adopt this term for use in this User's Manual.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 12
In order to set up a SHAKE Column to run an analysis with SHAKE2000, four components of the problem must be
specified:
1.
2.
3.
4.
A one-dimensional (i.e. 1-D) representation of the soil profile, further divided into layers.
Material properties for each layer of the SHAKE Column (e.g. G/G max and Damping Ratio vs. strain curves,
unit weight, thickness, etc.).
An acceleration time history representative of the design/analysis earthquake, and the location where the
motion is assigned in the SHAKE Column.
Selection of the results needed from the analysis.
Each of the above components is represented in SHAKE2000 by one or more options. A short description of the
options that can be used to perform a SHAKE analysis is provided below. For a more detailed explanation of each
option, please refer to the following section of this manual.
The options incorporated into SHAKE and supported in SHAKE2000 are as follows:
Option
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
9
10
11
Description
dynamic soil properties
data for soil profile
input (object) motion
assignment of object motion to the top of a specified sublayer or to the corresponding outcrop
number of iterations specified & ratio of uniform strain to maximum strain
sublayers at top of which peak accelerations & time histories are computed and saved
sublayer at top of which time history of shear stress or strain is computed and saved
response spectrum
amplification spectrum
Fourier amplitudes
These options can be divided in two groups:


Input Options that provide SHAKE with input data: Options 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
Analysis Options that direct SHAKE to use the input data to analyze the problem: Options 6, 7, 9, 10 and
11.
To create a SHAKE Column, the user needs to first collect some preliminary information such as detailed
subsurface profile information (e.g. geotechnical exploration), and to evaluate seismic information and select
appropriate design earthquake events (e.g. seismic hazard analysis). The former will provide the user with
information about soil layer distribution and thickness, soil types, groundwater level, depth to bedrock, unit weight,
shear wave velocities, SPTs, fines content, etc. The latter will provide the user with: an estimate of the peak ground
acceleration at the site; an estimation of a target response spectrum; the assessment of the earthquake magnitude
associated with this peak ground acceleration; and, the selection of representative acceleration time histories whose
response spectrum reasonably match the target response spectrum, or selection of ground motions recorded from
similar earthquakes for similar sites at comparable distances, or artificial ground motions, etc.. More detailed
information about these preliminary steps is beyond the scope of this User's Manual, and can be obtained from
several references in geotechnical earthquake engineering.
Once the above information has been collected, the user can start creating an input file for SHAKE. The first step is
to divide the soil profile into “layers”. These layers do not necessarily need to match the different stratigraphic units
in the soil profile. However, a layer should not be formed by two different “soil types”. For example, a soil profile
is shown in Figure 7 with a layering distribution for the SHAKE Column. Note that there are 4 main stratigraphic
units (i.e. soft silt, medium dense sand, medium dense to dense silty sand, and very dense sand and gravel). Each
stratigraphic unit has been subdivided in “layers” that represent each unit in the SHAKE Column (e.g. the Soft Silt
unit is now represented in the SHAKE Column by layers number 1 and 2). In this manual, a stratigraphic unit could
be a soil or another material such as layer of waste in a landfill. A maximum of 200 layers can be used in a SHAKE
Column.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 13
Figure 7: Example Soil Profile and SHAKE Column
The next step is the selection of dynamic material properties for each soil type. In SHAKE, the soil behavior under
irregular cyclic loading is modeled by using modulus reduction (G/G max) and damping () vs. strain curves. The
data for these curves are entered in Option 1. Each curve is formed by up to 20 strain and G/Gmax or  values.
Information on curves for different materials has been published in different journals, and a few are included in the
database of material properties provided with SHAKE2000.
These curves are entered sequentially in Option 1, and are assigned an index number based on the order they
occupied in Option 1. For example, in option 1 of Figure 8 there are G/G max and  curves for two materials: Sand
and Rock. The Sand would be assigned an index number of 1 and the rock a 2. This indexing is used in option 2 to
assign a set of curves to each layer in the SHAKE Column.
Following the selection of layers and dynamic material properties, the user needs to enter the specific data for each
layer that form the SHAKE Column. This is done in Option 2. The data required for each layer include: the soil
type which correspond to a set of G/G max and  curves entered in Option 1above (e.g. if the layer in the SHAKE
Column was part of a sand strata in the soil profile, and using the data in Option 1 shown in Figure 8, we will then
assign a value of 1 for the soil type in this layer); the thickness of the layer; the maximum shear modulus (G max) or
the maximum shear wave velocity (Vs); an initial estimate of damping; and, the total unit weight of the material. For
the calculation of Gmax, SHAKE2000 includes several equations based on other input parameters (e.g. K2max, N, qc,
etc.).
After the soil profile has been physically represented through options 1 and 2, the user needs to provide SHAKE
with information about the ground motion to be applied to the SHAKE Column. This is done with options 3 and 4.
Usually, the representative acceleration time history selected for the analysis is provided as a computer ASCII/text
file. In option 3 the user enters data about this file such as maximum number of values (e.g. 3800 in Figure 8); path
(e.g. directory in your hard disk where the file is saved, sample in Figure 8) and name of the file (sample1.eq in
Figure 8); the way the values are read from the file (i.e. the format, for example (8F9.6) in Figure 8; also the ground
motion file shown in Figure 9 has a format of 8F9.6, which means that the values are stored as 8 columns, or 8
values per line, each value formed by 9 figures, and of these 9 figures 6 form the decimal part of the value); number
of header lines in the file (e.g. 1 in Figure 8, or 3 in Figure 9); and, the number of acceleration values per line in the
file (e.g. 8 in Figure 8). Other information provided in Option 3 refers to the acceleration time history itself, such as
the time interval between acceleration values (e.g. 0.01 in Figure 8); a multiplication factor for adjusting
acceleration values (e.g. 1 in Figure 8) or the maximum acceleration to be used, i.e. the acceleration values read-in
will be scaled to provide the maximum acceleration (in Figure 8 these columns were left blank); and, maximum
frequency (i.e. frequency cut-off) to be used in the analysis (e.g. 15 in Figure 8).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 14
SHAKE2000 Input File
Option 1 - Dynamic Soil Properties Set No. 1
1
2
9
Sand S1
G/Gmax - S1 (SAND CP<1.0 KSC) 3/11 1988
0.0001 0.000316
0.001
0.00316
0.01
0.0316
0.1
1.00
1.00
0.978
0.934
0.838
0.672
0.463
0.253
0.057
9
Sand
Damping for SAND, February 1971
0.0001
0.001
0.003
0.01
0.03
0.1
0.3
10.00
1.00
1.6
3.12
5.8
9.5
15.4
20.9
30.00
8
Rock
G/Gmax - ROCK (Schnabel 1973)
0.0001
0.0003
0.001
0.003
0.01
0.03
0.1
1.00
1.00
0.99
0.95
0.9
0.81
0.725
5
Rock
Damping for ROCK (Schnabel 1973)
0.0001
0.001
0.01
0.1
1.00
0.4
0.8
1.5
3.00
4.6
2
1
2
Option 2 - SHAKE2000 Site - Column No. 1
2
1
10
SHAKE2000 Site - Column No. 1
1
1
5.5
753.0
0.05
0.13
2
1
3.3
890.0
0.05
0.13
3
1
3.3
858.0
0.05
0.13
4
1
3.3
945.0
0.05
0.13
5
1
3.3
1146.0
0.05
0.13
6
1
3.3
1470.0
0.05
0.13
7
1
3.3
1683.0
0.05
0.13
8
1
3.3
1737.0
0.05
0.13
9
1
3.3
1867.0
0.05
0.13
10
2
0.05
0.15
2500.0
Option 3 - Input motion SAMPLE1.EQ
3
3800 4096
0.01
(8F9.6)
c:\shake2000\sample\sample1.eq
1
15
1
8
Option 4 - Sublayer for input motion is No. 10
4
10
1
Option 5 - No. iterations 10, strain ratio 0.65
5
10
0.65
Option 6 - Acceleration time history for layers 1-10 of Column No. 1
6
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
0
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
Option 7 - Shear stress & strain time histories at Layer 4 - Column No. 1
7
4
0
1
2048
SHAKE2000 Site - Column No. 1
4
1
1
2048
SHAKE2000 Site - Column No. 1
Option 9 - Response spectrum at surface - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
9
1
0
6
0
32.2
0.01
0.025
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
Option 10 - Amplification spectrum between layers 10 & 1 - Column No. 1
10
10
1
1
0
0.125
Surface/half-space
Option 11 - Fourier spectrum for layers 1 & 10 of Column No. 1
11
1
0
2
3 2048
10
1
2
3 2048
Execution will stop when program encounters 0
0
Figure 8: Sample Input File for SHAKE
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 15
0.316
0.14
1.00
25.00
1.00
0.55
LOMA PRIETA EARTHQUAKE, LOS GATOS 10/18/89 - 90 degree - Near Fault Rock; PEER Ground Motion
LGPC
V
Loma Prieta Eqk,17 Oct 89, 37 01.32E, 122 00.61W,UCSC Station
No. Points: 5008
Time Step: 0.005 sec
-0.000029-0.000492-0.000793-0.000934-0.000959-0.000922-0.000866-0.000819
-0.000791-0.000782-0.000785-0.000794-0.000801-0.000804-0.000803-0.000798
-0.000792-0.000785-0.000779-0.000775-0.000771-0.000768-0.000765-0.000763
……………..
……………….
-0.033553-0.033664-0.033882-0.033816-0.032826-0.030158-0.025254-0.018188
-0.010279 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000
Figure 9: Sample of a Ground Motion File
In Option 4 this motion is assigned at the top of a sublayer (e.g., layer 10 in Figure 8), and is input as either a rock
outcrop or at the bedrock-soil interface at the base of the SHAKE Column (e.g., bedrock-soil interface using a code
of 1 in Figure 8).
The last of the Input Options is Option 5. As noted before, SHAKE uses an iterative procedure to calculate the shear
moduli and damping corresponding to the computed shear strains. This process ends when the maximum number of
iterations is reached or when convergence between the estimated and computed strain amplitudes occurs.
Accordingly, the user enters a value for the maximum number of iterations (e.g. 10 in Figure 8). The other
parameter entered in option 5 is the ratio between the effective and maximum strain (e.g. 0.65 in Figure 8). In each
iteration, the strains used to obtain new values of strain-dependent modulus and damping ratio are a fraction of the
peak strain computed from the previous iteration. From this option, results for maximum strain and maximum stress
at the mid-point are obtained for each layer.
After the Input Options are created, you can use the Analysis Options to conduct a seismic site response analysis of
the SHAKE Column. With these options you can obtain peak acceleration values and acceleration time histories at
the top of specific layers (option 6), shear stress/strain time histories at the top of a layer (option 7), response spectra
at the top of specific layers, amplification spectrum between any two layers (option 10), and Fourier spectrum at
specific layers (option 11).
In option 6 the user first enters the number of the layers at which peak acceleration values and acceleration time
histories are to be computed (e.g. 1 2 3 . …. 10 in Figure 8). Next, for each layer in the first row, a code describing
the layer as an outcrop, or as within the soil profile, is entered in the second row (e.g. 0 1 1 ….. 1 in Figure 8).
Then, in the last row you enter for each layer in the first row a 1 (one) to indicate if an acceleration time history at
the top of the layer is to be computed and saved in the output file, or a 0 (zero) otherwise (e.g. 1 0 0 1 …. 0 in
Figure 8). It is recommended that you include every layer of the SHAKE Column in this option. When you have
more than 15 layers, then additional sets of option 6 can be used to include the remaining layers in groups of up to
15 layers.
Option 7 is used to obtain time histories of shear stress or shear strain at the top of a specified layer. You need to
enter the number of the layer (e.g. 4 in Figure 8), a code of 0 (zero) to compute the strain time history or 1 (one) to
compute the stress time history (e.g. 0 in Figure 8), the number of values of the time history to be saved in the output
file (e.g. 2048 in Figure 8), and a label or identification that describes the time history (e.g. SHAKE2000 Site –
Column No. 1 in Figure 8). You can use the second line to either obtain the other time history (e.g. in Figure 8 the
first row the strain time history was selected, so in the second row the stress time history will be computed), or
obtain the stress or strain time history for a different layer.
Response spectra at the top of specified layers are obtained with Option 9. For this option, you need to enter first
the layer at which the spectra are to be computed (e.g. 1 for the surface layer in Figure 8), then a code that defines
the layer as an outcrop or within the soil profile (e.g. 0 in Figure 8 to define the layer as an outcrop). Then, enter the
value for the acceleration of gravity (e.g. 32.2 in Figure 8), and finally the values of damping ratio for which spectra
are to be computed (e.g. 0.01 0.025 …. 0.2 in Figure 8). In SHAKE2000, you don‟t need to enter the number of
damping ratios used in the analysis. This number is changed automatically every time you enter or delete a value of
damping ratio.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 16
The next to last option is Option 10. This option is used to compute the amplification spectrum between any two
layers. This spectrum is the ratio of the amplitude of motion at the top of the second layer divided by that at the top
of the first layer. First, enter the data for the lower layer (e.g. 10 in Figure 8), a code to define the layer as outcrop
or within (e.g. 1 in Figure 8 to define layer 10 as within), the number of the upper layer (e.g. 1 in Figure 8), an
outcrop/within code for this layer (e.g. 0 in Figure 8 to define layer 1 as an outcrop), the frequency step for which
the spectrum is calculated for 200 frequencies using this frequency step and starting with 0 (e.g. 0.125 in Figure 8),
and finally a description of the spectrum (e.g. Surface/half-space in Figure 8).
The last option in SHAKE2000 is Option 11, Fourier Spectrum of motion in any specified layer. First, enter the
number of the layer (e.g. 1 for the surface layer in Figure 8); then an outcrop/within code (e.g. 0 in Figure 8 to define
the first layer as an outcrop); next a code of 2 to save the computed spectrum in the output file; then the number of
times the spectrum is to be smoothed (e.g. 3 in Figure 8); and last, the number of values to be saved up to a
maximum of 2048. In this option, it is necessary that you enter information for two layers. Thus, provide data for a
second layer on the second line of the form, or repeat the data for the first layer.
In short, to create an input file for SHAKE2000 you need to enter data for options 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5; and then select
which analysis you want to conduct by entering data for options 6, 7, 9, 10 and/or 11. Then the options are saved,
preferably in sequential order, to an input file that will be read by SHAKE. Note that all the options can be used as
often as desired, to this end, SHAKE2000 allows you to create several sets of each option, up to a total of 32,000
sets for all of the options combined. In this way, you can create a database of options that you can later use to select
from when creating the input file.
4.2
Options for SHAKE - Required Input Data
Following is a description of the operations performed by the different options, the required format for the input
data, and explanations of some of the input parameters.
The various options can be executed and repeated in any logical sequence. The operations in an option will be
performed on the data given or computed in the program when the option is called, and the data may be changed at
any time during the execution by repeating the option with new data.
For example, in order to compute new motions in a soil deposit (Option 6), object motion (Option 3), soil profile
data (Option 2), specification of location of object motion (Option 4), dynamic soil property-strain relation (Option
1), and strain iterations (Option 5 - if strain compatible properties are desired), must precede Option 6. Soil
response for a new (additional) soil deposit may be obtained by repeating Options 2, 4, 5, and 6. The last-read soil
deposit may be subjected to a new earthquake by repeating Options 3, 5 and 6.
A sample input file was shown in Figure 8, and will be used to further clarify the data in each option. For clarity, a
few of the corresponding lines of data for each option are shown in bold-italic font. When the word (blank) is
included in the data lines shown in the option description, it only means that one of two choices was selected, and
that no value was included for the other choice. Please note that the column numbers are shown only for reference,
and to help track errors that may exist in older input files that have not been created with SHAKE2000. Although
the values in the input file need to be within specific column numbers, the user does not need to worry about the
formatting because SHAKE2000 will take care of it.
As can be seen in Figure 8, each option starts with the following two lines:
Line No. 1
columns 1 – 80
Line No. 2
columns 1 – 5
Identification information for this option (this line cannot be blank)
Option Number
Specific information for each option is provided in the following. Most of the descriptions for each option have
been taken literally from the SHAKE and SHAKE91 User Manuals, and other short course notes. However, Option
3 has been modified for SHAKE2000. Most options are also followed by a number of notes that describe in better
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 17
detail some of the data. These notes are also taken from the SHAKE and SHAKE91 manuals and short course
notes.
Option 1 - Dynamic Soil Properties
Figure 8:
Option 1 - Dynamic Soil Properties Set No. 1
1

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
Number of materials included (maximum is 13)
Figure 8:
2
then, for each material, the following input should be supplied:
first line
columns 1 – 5
columns 6 – 71
number of strain values to be read (maximum is 20)
identification for this set of modulus reduction values (see Note 1.1)
Figure 8:
9
Sand S1
G/Gmax - S1 (SAND CP<1.0 KSC) 3/11 1988
second & consecutive lines
columns 1 – 80
strain values, in percent, beginning with the lowest value. Eight entries per line
using consecutive lines (maximum is 20)
Figure 8:
0.0001
1.00
0.000316
columns 1 – 80
0.001
0.00316
0.01
0.0316
0.1
0.316
values of modulus reduction (G/Gmax) each corresponding to the shear strain
provided in the previous lines; these values should be in decimal not in percent.
Figure 8:
1.00
0.057
0.978
0.934
0.838
0.672
0.463
0.253
0.14
The second set for the same material will consist of identical information except that values of damping (in
percent) are provided as illustrated.
Figure 8:
9
Sand
0.0001
10.00
1.00
30.00
0.001
1.6
Damping for SAND, February 1971
0.003
0.01
0.03
3.12
5.8
9.5
0.1
0.3
1.00
15.4
20.9
25.00
After the last material set is completed, the following information is to be provided (Format: 16I5):
columns 1 – 5
number of materials to be used in this analysis
columns 6 – 10
first material number which will be used
columns 11 – 15
second material number to be used
. ............
. ............
etc. until all materials are identified.
Figure 8:
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 18
2
1
2
Values of G/Gmax and  versus strain for these N materials will then be saved in output file No. 1. This
feature was added for the convenience of the user who can include up to 13 sets of material properties in
the input file but for any one analysis uses fewer than 13. This feature also provides a check that the
intended material properties were utilized in the analysis.
Note 1.1: In SHAKE2000, you can enter a 12 character-long description of the material. This description
will be saved at the beginning of the identification for the material (ID(L,I) above), but will be used by
SHAKE2000 when displaying the table of results after processing the first output file. For example, in the
description for the shear modulus curve, Sand S1 will be entered in the material name field, and the G/Gmax
- S1 (SAND CP<1.0 KSC) 3/11 1988 in the material description field.
Option 2 - Soil Profile
Figure 8:
Option 2 - SHAKE2000 Site - Column No. 1
2

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
soil deposit number; may be left blank
columns 6 – 10
number of sublayers, including the half-space (see Note 2.1)
columns 16 – 51
identification for soil profile
Figure 8:
1

10
SHAKE2000 Site - Column No. 1
second and subsequent lines; one line for each sublayer, including the half-space
columns 1 – 5
sublayer number
columns 6 – 10
soil type (corresponding to numbers assigned to each material in Option 1).
[Note that if this material type is given as 0 (zero) for all sublayers, then the
calculations are conducted for only one iteration using the properties (modulus,
or shear wave velocity, and damping) specified in this input].
columns 16 – 25
thickness of sublayer, in feet or meters
columns 26 – 35
maximum shear modulus for the sublayer, in ksf or kN/m2 (leave blank if
maximum shear wave velocity for the sublayer is given)
columns 36 – 45
initial estimate of damping (decimal, see Note 2.2)
columns 46 – 55
total unit weight, in kcf or kN/m3
columns 56 – 65
maximum shear wave velocity for the sublayer, in ft/sec or m/sec (leave blank if
maximum shear modulus for the sublayer is given)
Figure 8:
1
2
1
1
……….
10
2
5.5
3.3
753.0
890.0
0.05
0.05
0.13
0.13
(blank)
(blank)
(blank)
0.05
0.15
2500.0
For the half-space no thickness should be specified, thus there is not a value in the third column for layer
number 10 above, and the fourth column is also blank because a value for shear wave velocity was entered
for layer 10 as shown in column seventh. A maximum of 200 layers can be defined for a SHAKE Column.
Note 2.1: With the wave propagation method, the responses can be computed in a homogeneous layer of
any thickness. A soil deposit will, however, have varying properties no only due to the variation in the soil
itself but also due to the differences in the strain-level induced during shaking. Since the soil deposit must
be represented by a set of homogeneous layers, each with a constant value of modulus and damping, the
thickness of each layer must be limited based on the variation in the soil properties. For a fairly uniform
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 19
deposit, a sublayer thickness increasing from about 5‟ at the surface to 50-200‟ below 100‟ depth should
give sufficient accuracy. Accuracy may be checked by making a trial run and comparing results with a
subsequent run where more layers and/or sublayers are used.
Note 2.2: The damping is in general used as initial value on the first iteration for the computation of straincompatible properties, but it can also be used directly to compute the responses for the values given, by
omitting Option 5 and by defining the soil type as 0. The results are not highly sensitive to errors in the
damping ratio and values selected between 0.05 to 0.15 will usually give strain-compatible values with 2 to
3 iterations.
Option 3 - Input (Object) Motion
Figure 8:
Option 3 - Input motion SAMPLE1.EQ
3

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
number, NV, of acceleration values to be read for input motion (see Notes 3.1
and 3.2)
columns 6 – 10
number, MA, of values for use in Fourier Transform; MA should be a power of
2 (typically, this number is 1024, 2048 or 4096). Note that MA should always
be greater than NV. The following may be used as a guide: for NV I 800, MA
can be 1024, for NV I 1800, MA can be 2048 and for NV <= 3800, MA can be
4096.
columns 11 – 20
time interval between acceleration values, in seconds (see Note 3.3)
columns 21 – 32
format for reading acceleration values
Figure 8:
3800 4096

0.01
(8F9.6)
second line after option number
columns 1 – 72
name and path of file for input (object) motion
Figure 8:
c:\shake2000\sample\sample1.eq

third line after option number
columns 1 – 10
multiplication factor for adjusting acceleration values; use only if columns 11 –
20 are left blank, i.e. you don‟t enter a maximum acceleration value.
columns 11 – 20
maximum acceleration to be used, in g's; the acceleration values read-in will be
scaled to provide the maximum acceleration specified in these columns; leave
columns 11 - 20 blank if a multiplication factor is specified in columns 1 - 10
columns 21 – 30
maximum frequency (i.e. frequency cut-off )to be used in the analysis (see Notes
3.4 and 3.5)
columns 31 – 35
number of header lines in file containing object motion
columns 36 – 40
number of acceleration values per line in file containing object motion (see Note
3.6)
Figure 8:
1
15
1
8
Note 3.1: The acceleration values between NV and MA are set equal to 0 in the program. Cyclic repetition of
the motion is implied in the Fourier transform and a quiet zone of 0's or low values are necessary to avoid
interference between the cycles. For most problems, a quiet zone of 2-4 seconds is adequate with longer time
required for profiles deeper than about 250 ft and/or damping values less than about 5 percent. If the NV
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 20
parameter is relatively close to (but less than) a particular power of 2, skip the next immediate power of 2 and
use the following value. For instance, if NV = 4000, it would be better to use MA = 8192, instead of 4096, to
insure that a proper “quiet zone” between successive trains of accelerograms develops. To insure that no
interference between each record is occurring, you can check the acceleration ratio for the quiet zone listed in
the Option 6 section of the output file. This ratio should be close to zero. If not, use a large power of 2. Make
sure MA > NV + 200. SHAKE2000 will allow you to enter a maximum value of 16000.
Note 3.2: Users should also be aware that the FFT routine implemented in SHAKE may become unstable if the
total number of time history data points is more than 4096. For this reason the maximum number limit should
not be increased (error report about SHAKE91 posted by Dr. Farhang Ostadan at the NISEE web site at
http://www.eerc.berkeley.edu).
Note 3.3: A change in the time interval will change the predominant period of the motion. If the time interval
and predominant period of the original motion are T1 and T1, respectively, a new predominant period T 2 is
obtained by changing the time interval to:
T 
T2   2  T1
 T1 
Note 3.4: Frequencies above 10-15 cps carry a relatively small amount of the energy in the earthquake motions,
and the amplitude of these frequencies can often be set equal to 0 without causing any significant change in the
responses within a soil system. Table 1 shows the maximum accelerations and strains in the soil system used in
the example run, section 6 of the original SHAKE manual, computed for the Pasadena motion with time interval
of 0.02 seconds and a maximum frequency of 25 c/sec. Results are also shown for the same motion with all
amplitudes above 5 c/sec set equal to 0. The difference in maximum acceleration was less than 6.5% and in
maximum strains less than 0.7% in the two cases. The difference in response spectral values was less than 1%
for periods above 0.2 sec and less than 10% for periods from 0.0 to 0.2 sec. In the computation of responses in
deep soil systems from a motion given near the surface of the deposit, errors in the higher frequencies will be
amplified and may cause erroneous results. To avoid this source of error, the amplitudes of all frequencies
above 10-20 cps may be set equal to 0, since these frequencies generally are of little interest and do not affect
the response. Several runs should be performed with different amounts of the higher frequencies removed to
investigate the effect on the response and to ensure a stable solution. Removal of the higher frequencies in a
motion has a smoothening effect on the acceleration time history as shown in Figure 10 for a segment of the
Pasadena Motion. In this case the maximum acceleration for the modified and original motions were
approximately equal, but the maximum accelerations may decrease or increase with the removal of the higher
frequencies depending on the shape of the acceleration curve near the maximum value.
Table 1: Effect of the Higher Frequencies on the Maximum Accelerations and Strains (after Schnabel et al.,
1972)
Depth
0
7
20
30
42
62
80
100
120
Maximum acceleration, g‟s
fmax = 25 c/sec
5 c/sec
0.0971
0.0962
0.0958
0.0949
0.0600
0.0599
0.0553
0.0556
0.0508
0.0507
0.0470
0.0469
0.0319
0.0299
0.0239
0.0235
0.0178
0.0189
Difference
%
0.9
0.3
0.1
0.6
0.2
0.2
6.3
1.7
6.2
Maximum strain, %
fmax = 25 c/sec
5 c/sec
0.00725
0.1292
0.0391
0.0287
0.00982
0.0505
0.0349
0.0320
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 21
0.00724
0.1283
0.0390
0.0287
0.00989
0.0504
0.0348
0.0319
Difference
%
0.1
0.7
0.3
0.7
0.2
0.3
0.3
Figure 10: Effect of the higher frequencies on the acceleration time history (after Schnabel et al., 1972).
Note 3.5: The maximum frequency is chosen consistently with the time step, DT. The maximum frequency that can
be analyzed is 1/(2 * DT). For example, if DT is 0.02 sec (which is commonly what many records have been
digitized to), the maximum frequency, FMAX, would be 25 cps. It is usually ok not to include all of the high
frequency motions (above say 20 cps or so) because they carry a relatively small portion of the total earthquake
energy. In addition, the elimination of higher frequencies accounts for a shorter execution time. The manual
illustrates this idea on Figure 5 of the original SHAKE manual (reproduced herein as Figure 10). FMAX = 20 cps is
good for a 0.02 sec time step.
Note 3.6: Please note that SHAKE91 permits the user to specify the format for the input time history. However,
unless the time history points are arranged to have an even number of points per line, the input to the program will
not be correct. For correct reading of the time history points, an even number of points should be given per line
(i.e. 2, 4, 8, etc.). (Error report about SHAKE91, posted by Dr. Farhang Ostadan at the NISEE web site at
http://www.eerc.berkeley.edu).
Option 4 - Assignment of Object Motion to a Specific Sublayer
Figure 8:
Option 4 - Sublayer for input motion is No. 10
4

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
number of sublayer at the top of which the object motion is assigned
columns 6 – 10
use 0 (zero) if the object motion is to be assigned as outcrop motion, otherwise use 1
(one) if the object motion is applied within the soil profile at the top of the assigned
sublayer (see Note 4.1)
Figure 8:
10
1
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 22
Note 4.1: Use 0 (zero) if the object motion is to be assigned as outcrop motion (refer to Section 2.2 of this manual
for more information), otherwise use 1 (one) if the object motion is applied within the soil profile at the top of the
assigned sublayer. Type of sublayer refers more to where the rock motion was recorded. Outcropping: motion was
recorded on a rock outcrop. For motions recorded on rock WITHIN the soil profile or felt to represent the motion in
the rock within the soil deposit. With a “1” the record will not be modified.
Option 5 - Number of Iterations & Ratio of Equivalent Uniform Strain to Maximum Strain
Figure 8:
Option 5 - No. iterations 10, strain ratio 0.65
5

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
parameter used to specify whether the strain-compatible soil properties are saved
after the final iteration; set = 1 if these properties are to be saved; otherwise leave
columns 1 - 5 blank
columns 6- 10
number of iterations (see Note 5.1)
columns 11 – 20
ratio of equivalent uniform strain divided by maximum strain; typically, this ratio
ranges from 0.4 to 0.75 depending on the input motion and which magnitude
earthquake it is intended to represent. The following equation may be used to
estimate this ratio:
ratio 
M 1
10
in which M is the magnitude of the earthquake. Thus, for M = 5, the ratio would be
0.4, for M = 7.5, the ratio would be 0.65 ... etc. (see Note 5.2)
Figure 8:
10
0.65
Note 5.1: The iterations stop when the specified maximum number of iterations (ITMAX) is reached or when the
difference between the modulus and damping used and the strain-compatible modulus and damping values is less
than the acceptable difference (ERR). Usually 3-5 iterations are sufficient to obtain an error of less than 5-10%.
The values given as “new values” in the final iteration are used in all computations following Option 4, and the
actual error is less than the error values given in the final iteration.
Note 5.2: The effective strain is used to compute new soil properties. The ratio between the effective and the
maximum strain has been empirically found to be between 0.5 and 0.7. The responses, however, are not highly
sensitive to this value and an estimate between 0.55 to 0.65 is usually adequate, with the higher value appropriate for
giving more uniform strain histories.
Option 6 - Computation of Acceleration at Top of Specified Sublayers
Figure 8:
Option 6 - Acceleration time history for layers 1-10 of Column No. 1
6
(Note that a maximum of fifteen sublayers can be specified at a time; if accelerations for more than 15 sublayers are
desired, then Option 6 can be repeated as many times as needed).

first line after option number
columns 1 – 75
array to indicate the numbers of the sublayers at the top of which the acceleration is
to be calculated (one number every five columns)
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 23
Figure 8:
1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
second line after option number
columns 1 – 75
array to specify type of each sublayer: 0 (zero) for outcropping or 1 (one) for within
the soil profile (one number every five columns, see Note 6.1)
Figure 8:
0

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
third line after option number
columns 1 – 75
array to specify the mode of output for the computed accelerations: 0 (zero) if only
maximum acceleration is desired or 1 (one) if both the maximum acceleration and
the time history of acceleration are to be calculated and saved (one number every
five columns)
Figure 8:
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
Note 6.1: Refer to Section 2.2 of the SHAKE section on this manual for more information.
Option 7 - Computation of Shear Stress or Strain Time History at Top of Specified Sublayers
Figure 8:
Option 7 - Shear stress & strain time histories at Layer 4 - Column No. 1
7
(Note that a maximum of two sublayers can be specified; if stress or strain time histories for more than two
sublayers are desired, then Option 7 can be repeated as many times as needed).

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
number of sublayer
columns 6- 10
set equal to 0 (zero) for strain or 1 (one) for stress
columns 11 – 15
set equal to one to save time history of strain or stress
columns 16 – 20
leave blank
columns 21 – 25
number of values to be saved; typically this should be equal to the number NV
(see Option 3 above)
columns 26 – 35
leave blank
columns 36 – 65
identification information
Figure 8:
4

0
1
2048
SHAKE2000 Site - Column No. 1
second line after option number
same as the above line for the second sublayer
Figure 8:
4
1
1
2048
SHAKE2000 Site - Column No. 1
Note that the time histories of shear stresses or strains are calculated at the top of the specified sublayer. Thus, if the
time history is needed at a specific depth within the soil profile, that depth should be made the top of a sublayer.
The time history of stresses or strains is saved in the second output file. This option should be specified after Option
6.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 24
Option 9 - Response Spectrum
Figure 8:
Option 9 - Response spectrum at surface - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
9

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
sublayer number
columns 6 – 10
set equal to 0 (zero) for outcropping or equal to 1 (one) for within
Figure 8:
1

0
second line after option number
columns 1 – 5
number of damping ratios to be used
columns 6 – 10
set equal to 0 (zero)
columns 11 – 20
acceleration of gravity: 32.2 ft/sec2 for English units or 9.81 m/sec2 for SI units.
Figure 8:
6

0
32.2
third line after option number
columns 1 – 60
array for damping ratios (in decimal, one value every 10 columns)
Figure 8:
0.01
0.025
0.05
0.1
0.15
0.2
Note 9.1: The acceleration response spectra computed by the internal routine of SHAKE occasionally may have
larger discrepancies in the higher frequency range. Use with caution if high frequency response is critical to your
project (error report posted by Dr. Farhang Ostadan in the NISEE web site).
Option 10 - Amplification Spectrum
Figure 8:
Option 10 - Amplification spectrum between layers 10 & 1 - Column No. 1
10

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
number of first sublayer
columns 6 – 10
set equal to 0 (zero) for outcropping or equal to 1 (one) for within
columns 11 –15
number of second sublayer
columns 16 – 20
set equal to 0 (zero) for outcropping or equal to 1 (one) for within
columns 21 – 30
frequency step (in cycles per second); the amplification spectrum is calculated
for 200 frequencies using this frequency step and starting with 0
columns 31 – 78
identification information
Figure 8:
10
1
1
0
0.125
Surface/half-space
[The amplification spectrum is the ratio of the amplitude of motion at the top of the second sublayer divided by that
at the top of the first sublayer].
If the amplification spectrum is desired for two other sublayers, Option 10 can be repeated as many times as needed.
Option 11 - Fourier Spectrum
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 25
Figure 8:
Option 11 - Fourier spectrum for layers 1 & 10 of Column No. 1
11

first line after option number
columns 1 – 5
number of the sublayer
columns 6 – 10
set equal to 0 (zero) for outcropping or equal to 1 (one) for within
columns 11 –15
set equal to 2 (two) if spectrum is to be saved to file
columns 16 – 20
number of times the spectrum is to be smoothed
columns 21 – 25
number of values to be saved
Figure 8:
1
0
2
3 2048
A second line is always needed when using Option 11. Thus, the user should either provide a second line for
another sublayer or repeat the information provided in the first line in a second line.
Figure 8:
10
1
2
3 2048
The following expression (Schnabel et al., 1972) is used to smooth the Fourier spectrum:
Ai 
Ai 1  2 Ai  Ai 1
4
in which Ai is the amplitude of the spectrum for the ith frequency.
It may be noted that calculation of Fourier amplitudes for a specific accelerogram is best accomplished in an
auxiliary program.
Program Termination:

Execution will stop when program encounters zero (0)
Figure 8:
0
4.3
SHAKE2000's EDT File
In this section, we will explain the main working file in SHAKE2000. This file is identified by the extension
*.EDT. This file is a database file that stores the data for the different options for SHAKE2000. You can have
several sets of data for each option, e.g., 8 sets of option 1 data, 6 sets of option 2, etc., up to a total of 32,000 for all
of the options combined. Then, you select from this database those options that you want to use in the analysis and
save them in an input file for SHAKE.
The difference between an *.EDT file and other files is that the options are saved sequentially, beginning with
option 1, and so on. For example, an EDT file for SHAKE2000 could be composed by the options shown in Figure
11.
The purpose of the *.EDT file is to create a database of options. The SAMPLE.EDT file shown in Figure 11
contains 1 set of option 1 data, 2 sets of option 2 data, 4 sets of option 6 data, 6 sets of option 9 data, etc..
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 26
Option 1 -- Dynamic material properties
:
Option 2 -- Soil profile with landfill included - Profile No. 1
:
Option 2 -- Soil profile without landfill - Profile No. 2
:
Option 3 -- Input motion: SAMPLE1.EQ
:
Option 3 -- Input motion: SAMPLE2.EQ
:
Option 4 -- Sublayer for input motion is No. 29
:
Option 4 -- Sublayer for input motion is No. 25
:
Option 6 -- Acceleration time history for layer: 6 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 6 -- Acceleration time history for layer: 21 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 6 -- Acceleration time history for layer: 15 - Profile No. 2
:
Option 6 -- Acceleration time history for layer: 21 - Profile No. 2
:
Option 7 -- Shear stress & strain time histories at Layer 6 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 7 -- Shear stress & strain time histories at Layer 21 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 7 -- Shear stress & strain time histories at Layer 2 - Profile No. 2
:
Option 7 -- Shear stress & strain time histories at Layer 21 - Profile No. 2
:
Option 9 -- Response spectrum at surface - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
:
Option 9 -- Response spectrum layer 10 - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
:
Option 9 -- Response spectrum layer 14 - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
:
Option 9 -- Response spectrum layer 20 - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
:
Option 9 -- Response spectrum layer 25 - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
:
Option 9 -- Response spectrum layer 29 - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
:
Option 10 -- Amplification spectrum between layers 29 & 1 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 10 -- Amplification spectrum between layers 25 & 1 - Profile No. 2
:
Option 11 --Fourier spectrum between layers 1 & 29 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 11 -- Fourier spectrum between layers 1 & 25 - Profile No. 2
:
Execution will stop when program encounters 0
0
Figure 11: SAMPLE.EDT File for SHAKE2000
By selecting specific options from this database, you could create different input files for SHAKE2000. For
example, you could create an input file, as shown on Figure 12, wherein the same soil profile is analyzed using two
different object motions. Notice the difference in the way the options are ordered in Figures 11 and 12. The options
in Figure 11 are ordered sequentially, beginning with option 1. Those on Figure 12 are ordered in a way that tells
SHAKE to conduct two analyses for the same soil profile.
To create an *.EDT file, you have two options. First, you may start from scratch by choosing the Create New EDT
File option from the main menu. Second, you can edit an existing file by choosing the Edit Existing EDT File
option. The former will create a file with a set of each option, and use default values for each. You will have to
enter your project's specific data for each option using the editing forms provided with SHAKE2000. The latter
allows you to simply modify existing data without the need to retype data that is similar to each project, like the
dynamic material properties.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 27
Start of first
analysis
Start of second
analysis
Option
:
Option
:
Option
:
Option
:
Option
:
Option
:
Option
:
Option
:
Option
:
Option
:
Option
1 - Dynamic material properties
2 - Soil profile with landfill included - Profile No. 1
3 - Input motion: SAMPLE1.EQ
4 - Sublayer for input motion is No. 29
5 - Number of Iterations & Strain Ratio Set No.
1
6 - Acceleration time history for layer: 6 - Profile No. 1
6 - Acceleration time history for layer: 21 - Profile No. 1
7 - Shear stress & strain time histories at Layer 6 - Profile No. 1
9 - Response spectrum at surface - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
10 - Amplification spectrum between layers 29 & 1 - Profile No. 1
11 - Fourier spectrum between layers 1 & 29 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 2 - Soil profile with landfill included - Profile No. 1
:
Option 3 - Input motion: SAMPLE2.EQ
:
Option 4 - Sublayer for input motion is No. 29
:
Option 5 - Number of Iterations & Strain Ratio Set No. 1
:
Option 6 - Acceleration time history for layer: 6 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 6 - Acceleration time history for layer: 21 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 7 - Shear stress & strain time histories at Layer 6 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 9 - Response spectrum at surface - Damping 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20%
:
Option 10 - Amplification spectrum between layers 29 & 1 - Profile No. 1
:
Option 11 - Fourier spectrum between layers 1 & 29 - Profile No. 1
:
Execution will stop when program encounters 0
0
Figure 12: Sample input file.
Once you have edited the data for each option, you can create an input file for SHAKE. Choose which options you
want to include in your file with the Earthquake Response Analysis form, as explained in the tutorial. Then, use
the Save command button to save the options in the order you selected, e.g. as shown in Figure 12. To differentiate
the input file from the database file, you should give it a different name and extension. The file does not need to
have the EDT extension; however, by default, when using the Edit Existing EDT File option, SHAKE2000 will
present you with a list of files that end with this extension.
4.4
Processing Output Files in SHAKE2000
During execution of the SHAKE analysis routine, two output files are created. The first file stores input data like
material properties, soil profile data, etc., output results like strain compatible properties, peak acceleration, and
response, amplification and Fourier spectrum data. The second output file stores acceleration and stress/strain time
histories.
First, we will explain how SHAKE2000 processes the first output file created by SHAKE, and separates the results
into data groups to create the graphics files. For example, with the data shown in Figure 12, you will conduct two
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 28
different analyses for the same soil profile. For the first analysis, the SAMPLE.EQ object motion is used, and for
the second analysis, a different object motion named SAMPLE2.EQ is used. When SHAKE2000 processes the first
output file, it will assume that when the data for Option 1 are found then a new set of results will follow. This set of
results will be named Analysis, and will have a number, beginning with 1 for the first set.
Referring to the data shown in Figure 12, SHAKE2000 will start processing the first output file, and will find the
first group of Option 1 data. Thus, the results that follow (i.e. for options 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11) will be
grouped under the name of Analysis No. 1. Information on the different options that form each analysis is saved in
an ASCII text file, identified with the *.ANZ extension, in the same directory where the other output files are stored.
To further identify this data group, the set is given a Soil Profile Identification name, which is the identification for
the soil profile entered in Option 2. For our example, it will be Soil profile with landfill included - Profile No. 1.
It is also given a profile number, or Soil Deposit No., which is the soil deposit number entered in Option 2. To
complete the group identification, an Earthquake name, which is the name of the object motion file entered in
Option 3, is included. Thus, for the first set of results, SHAKE2000 will include the following header in the
graphics files:
Soil Profile Identification: Soil profile with landfill included - Profile No. 1
Soil Deposit No.: 1
Analysis No.: 1
Earthquake: SAMPLE\SAMPLE1.EQ
A similar procedure is used for the second group of results, or the one computed using the second object motion.
SHAKE2000 will assume that this group starts with the second set of output data for Option 2. This second analysis
will be identified by:
Soil Profile Identification: Soil profile with landfill included - Profile No. 1
Soil Deposit No.: 1
Analysis No.: 2
Earthquake: SAMPLE\SAMPLE2.EQ
SHAKE2000 would then process the two output files and save the results in a series of files that will be used with
the plot options. The first file created, identified with the extension *.GRF, will contain results from options 5 and
6. Specifically, the layer number, depth to middle of layer, strain-compatible soil properties, maximum strain and
maximum stress obtained after the last iteration of option 5, and, the maximum acceleration and depth to top of layer
from option 6.
The next file, identified with the *.ACC extension, will save the acceleration time history computed for the layers,
as specified in option 6. Stress/Strain time histories for layers, specified with option 7, will be stored in the file with
the extension *.STR. Response spectrum data for specific layers and damping values, set through option 9, will be
stored in the file with the extension *.SPC. The file with the extension *.AMP will store the data for the
amplification spectra computed by option 10. Fourier amplitude spectrum data computed with option 11, are stored
in the file with the extension *.FOU. All these files are ASCII text files, thus, they can be used with other software
(e.g. Excel, 1-2-3, etc.), to plot the results.
You could process the second output file before you process the first file. However, some information that is
obtained from processing the first file such as the project name, the time step, and the analysis number will not be
known. Thus, when you process the second file first, this information will not be added to the *.ACC and *.STR
files. Further, values of 0.02 and 1 will be assumed for the time step and soil deposit number, respectively.
4.5
Averaging Results
When you conduct more than one analysis, as explained above, you may obtain average curves for the results. For
example, using the data in Figure 12, two analyses of the same soil profile were conducted using two different object
motions. Accordingly, two sets of results were obtained and saved for further processing by SHAKE2000 in the
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 29
graphics files. Now, you can use the results for each analysis and obtain, for example, an average curve for the
maximum acceleration on each layer, as explained in the quick tutorial.
You can obtain average curves for the following results from option 5: Strain-Compatible Damping, StrainCompatible Shear Modulus, Maximum Shear Strain, and Maximum Shear Stress; and from option 6, for the
Maximum Acceleration. The average curve can be obtained only if the soil profile is the same for each analysis, i.e.,
the number of layers and the thickness of each layer is the same. A form will be displayed showing the different sets
of results that may be used for averaging results. Each set will be identified, as explained on the previous page.
Therefore, it is up to you to select which analyses you would like to use to obtain averages.
A similar procedure is used to obtain average response spectrum for a specific layer of the soil profile. For example,
using the data in Figure 12, response spectra were obtained for layer 1 in each analysis. Thus, when choosing the
option to obtain averages you will be given a menu that shows each set identified by the Analysis number, the soil
deposit number as Profile No., the Soil Profile Identification, and the Earthquake name as shown below. You
can then select which analyses you would like to use for averaging the spectra.
Analysis No. 1 - Profile No. 1 - Soil profile with landfill included - sample\sample1.eq
Analysis No. 2 - Profile No. 1 - Soil profile with landfill included - sample\sample2.eq
A note of caution is due here. The above menu would show all of the analyses for which there is a response
spectrum for the layer and damping ratio you selected. For example, if to the data in Figure 12 we added a third
analyses for the soil profile itself, i.e., the landfill was not included, and option 9 was used to obtain response
spectrum for layer 1, the menu for the average spectrum will show you three options:
Analysis No. 1 - Profile No. 1 - Soil profile with landfill included.
Analysis No. 2 - Profile No. 1 - Soil profile with landfill included.
Analysis No. 3 - Profile No. 1 - Soil profile.
Now, layer number 1 (e.g. ground surface) for analysis number 3 is not the same as layer 1 (e.g. top of landfill) for
analyses 1 and 2. Thus, to obtain an average response spectrum for layer 1, you should only select the first two
analyses.
4.6
Partial Seismic Hazard Analysis with SHAKE2000
A Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) is conducted to determine the ground motion parameters to be used for a seismic
site response analysis. There are three main steps in a SHA: 1) identification of the seismic sources capable of
strong ground motions at the project site; 2) evaluation of the seismic potential for each capable source; and 3)
determination of the intensity of the design ground motions at the project site. This section will briefly explain how
SHAKE2000 can be used in the third step. Further information on steps one and two is beyond the scope of this
User‟s Manual.
Two ways of characterizing the intensity of the design ground motion, i.e. peak ground acceleration (PGA) and
acceleration response spectra can be determined from:
1.
2.
3.
Published codes and standards. In SHAKE2000, you can retrieve the Peak Ground Acceleration with 2%,
or 5%, or 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, from the files of gridded points used to make the
USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps.
A deterministic SHA. A series of attenuation relations are included in SHAKE2000 that can be used to
evaluate the peak ground acceleration and the acceleration response spectrum.
A probabilistic SHA. A pre and post-processor for the computer program SEISRISK III is included with
SHAKE2000. SEISRISK III is a computer program developed by the USGS, and is used to compute
maximum ground motion levels that have a specified probability of not being exceeded during fixed time
periods.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 30
A third characterization of the intensity of the design ground motion, earthquake magnitude and distance is beyond
the scope of this User‟s Manual.
After an appropriate PGA or spectrum has been selected, the next step is to select a representative time history to
perform the seismic response analysis of the site. There are a few procedures used to select a representative time
history. In the following, one of these will be briefly covered to demonstrate how SHAKE2000 can be used as a
tool in the selection.
1.
Select a record from an actual earthquake, or an artificially generated motion that closely matches a target
response spectrum. The response spectrum for a ground motion can be computed with SHAKE2000, and
compared to target spectra such as NEHRP, IBC, UBC, AASHTO, or from attenuation relations.
The main objective in the development of SHAKE2000 is to add new features to SHAKE to transform it into an
analysis tool for seismic analysis of soil deposits and earth structures. We expect that SHAKE2000 will have a dual
role in geotechnical earthquake engineering. First, it will be used as a learning tool for students of geotechnical
engineering. Second, it will serve practitioners of geotechnical earthquake engineering as a scoping tool to provide
a first approximation of the dynamic response of a site. Depending upon the prediction of site response, the
practitioner will judge whether more sophisticated dynamic modeling is warranted. To this end, Figure 13 shows a
simplified flow chart for the solution of the seismic analysis of soil deposits and/or earthen structures. In the figure,
we have noted those steps in the process for which a solution is available in SHAKE2000. We have also noted those
steps for which a computerized solution can be included, or modified, in SHAKE2000.
5. Modifications to the SHAKE Source Code
Idriss and Sun modified the SHAKE source code during the development of SHAKE91. The main modifications
incorporated in SHAKE91 included the following:





The number of sublayers was increased from 20 to 50.
All built-in modulus reduction and damping relationships were removed. The user specifies up to 13
different relationships as part of the input data to the program.
The maximum shear wave velocity or the maximum modulus is entered by the user.
The object motion is read from a separate file.
Other clean-up included: renumbering of options, elimination of infrequently used options, user specified
periods for calculating spectral ordinates ... etc.
For the latest update of SHAKE, we have performed a number of modifications that were needed to improve the
performance of the program and to better integrate SHAKE and ShakEdit. These include:








The name and path of the input and output files used are passed to the SHAKE routine, thus, the user will
no be longer asked to provide this information.
Permit the overwriting of existing output files.
Increase the number of points allowed in the earthquake time history.
Modify the structure of Option 3 to accommodate file names and paths of up to 72 characters for the
ground motion file.
The commands to save the results of Options 2, 5 and 6 to the output file have been modified to increase
the number of decimal figures that are printed.
Increase the size of the string variable for the path to the ground motion file in Option 3.
Error trapping that minimizes the likelihood of a fatal failure of SHAKE2000 due to an error during
execution of the SHAKE routine.
The number of layers was increased from 50 to 200.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 31
Problem definition (research, data
collection, etc.)
1
Included in SHAKE2000
Under development in SHAKE2000
3
Proposed for, or to be updated in SHAKE2000
2
Selection of earthquake ground motion:
 Attenuation Relationships1
 Codes1,2,3
 Ground motion records1,3
 Seismic hazard maps1
 Seismic Risk Analysis1,2
 Match spectra3, etc.
Develop input data for analysis:
 Material properties (G/Gmax and
damping ratio vs. strain curves)1
 Estimation of geotechnical
parameters based on field and/or
laboratory data1
 Creation of input file for analysis
phase1, etc..
Analysis results/Design data:
 Peak acceleration
 Response spectra
 Acceleration & Shear
Stress/Strain time histories
 Graphical representation1
Displacement analysis:
 Newmark Method1,3
 Makdisi & Seed1
 Liquefaction-induced lateral
spread
Analysis phase (SHAKE)1,2
Liquefaction analysis:
 CSR based on shear stresses from
SHAKE1
 CSR from simplified Seed &
Idriss equation1
 CRR from SPT1, BPT, Vs or CPT2
Earthquake induced settlement
analysis:
 Tokimatsu & Seed1
 Ishihara & Yoshimine1
Graphical and/or tabular representation of results1,2
Figure 13: Simplified Seismic Analysis
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 32
It is important to point out that due to the newest modifications to the source code, the input files created with
SHAKE2000 will not be compatible with previous versions of SHAKE. However, input files previously used for
SHAKE91 can be used with SHAKE2000.
While advanced users and researchers prefer manipulation of the individual output files, the majority of the users
prefer SHAKE2000 graphing options. The best way to learn these options (and the program) is to follow the step by
step tutorial saved in the Manual folder.
If you require additional help with running the program, you may e-mail to:
[email protected]
It is recommended to attach the *.EDT and input ground motion files to any e-mails when requesting technical
support. This will help us to identify the cause of any problems and/or to better understand the questions.
Free updates of the program can be downloaded from our web site at:
http://www.geomotions.com
The student version of the program is limited to 25 layers and 5 materials. Other limitations include: the Newmark
Analysis and simplified methods of displacement analysis are disabled. Also, graphs or tables can be printed, but
not copied to the Clipboard. When printing results, a “Student Version” string of characters is also printed. The
main purpose of the student version is to help the student learn about seismic site response analysis.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 33
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 34
SHAKE2000 Program Forms
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 35
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 36
AASHTO's Response Spectra
This form is used to define the coefficients to compute the AASHTO response spectra based on the following
equations (AASHTO, 1994):
Cs 
1.2 A S
T 2/3
C sm 
Where: Cs
Csm
A
S
T
Tm
1.2 A S
Tm2 / 3
=
=
=
=
=
=
elastic seismic response coefficient for single mode analysis
elastic seismic response coefficient for multimodal analysis
Acceleration coefficient from Article 3.2
Dimensionless coefficient for the soil profile characteristics of the site (Article 3.5).
Period
Period of the mth mode of vibration.
SHAKE2000 uses the value of Acceleration Coefficient, A, to compute the spectra for the same periods obtained
from SHAKE, using the above equation. For single mode or multimodal analysis, the value of C s will be > 2.5 A;
and, for soil profiles type III or type IV in areas where A >= 0.3, C s will not exceed 2.0 A.
The spectra for multimodal analysis are obtained by selecting the Multimodal option. An x will appear in the check
box when multimodal analysis is used by SHAKE2000. Further, the Fundamental Mode option will be enabled
when the Multimodal option is selected. If the Fundamental Mode option is not selected, then for soil profiles
types III and IV and for periods less than 0.3 seconds, SHAKE2000 will use the following formula to determine Csm:
C sm  A 0.8  4Tm 
Further, for multimodal analysis, when T m exceeds 4.0 seconds the value of Csm for that mode will be determined
with the following formula:
C sm 
3 AS
Tm4 / 3
The user needs to enter the value for A, and select the site classes. To select a site class, click on the check box next
to the class. An x will appear in the box when the class is selected. You can select all of the classes. Once you enter
a value for A and select at least one class, the Ok command button is enabled. You can click on Ok to return to the
Response Spectrum Menu form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 37
Acceleration Time History Plot Menu
A list of the different acceleration time histories computed with Option 6 is displayed on this window. To select a
history, click on it, and then click on the Ok button. Alternatively, you can double click on the history. The Cancel
button is used to return to the graph window without choosing a history.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 38
Amplification Spectrum Plot Menu
A list of the different plots is displayed on this window. To select a plot, click on it, and then click on the Ok
button. Alternatively, you can double click on the plot. The Cancel button is used to return to the graph window
without choosing a plot.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 39
Analysis Summary
This form displays a summary of the different options included in each analysis and found in the first and second
output files created by SHAKE. To return to the previous form, click on the Close button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 40
Average Calculated Results Menu
This form will display a list of sets of results that may be used to obtain average curves for damping, shear stress,
shear strain, shear modulus, or peak acceleration. Each element on the list represents an analysis conducted with
SHAKE2000 for which results were obtained with options 5 and 6. The label that SHAKE2000 uses to represent
each element is formed by the identification for the soil profile and soil deposit number used in Option 2, and by an
analysis number defined by SHAKE2000 based on the order that the results occupy on the first output file.
For example, the options displayed on this form would be something like:
Column No. 1 - Analysis No. 1 - Profile No. 2
Column No. 1 - Analysis No. 2 - Profile No. 2
For analysis No.1, you used an object motion named SAMPLE1.EQ, and for analysis No. 2, an object motion named
SAMPLE2.EQ. Thus, the results yielded by each analysis are different. You would select each analysis by clicking
on the check box next to each element of the list. Then, select one of the options on the bottom section of the form.
To plot the curves, click on the Ok button to display the graphics.
The Analysis button is used to display a summary list of the different options that form each analysis group. The
results contained in the first and second output files generated from the execution of SHAKE2000 are grouped in
sets, or analysis, depending on the order of the different options.
The All command button will select all of the plots available.
When plotting the PGA vs. Depth graph, the average options will be disabled if values of the incident PGA are
included in any of the plots.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 41
Average CPT Data
This form has two main functions. The first one is to present in a graphical form the CPT data by displaying plots of
qc, fs, U2, Rf and Soil Type vs. Depth. The second one is to provide the user with a tool to conduct depth averaging
of the values along the soil column. Depth averaging consists of obtaining, for each parameter, the average of the
values within a range increment.
Below each graph, there is a legend that identifies the data source. For example, Test denotes that the data plotted
are those measured during the CPT and read from the data file. When conducting depth averaging, the averaged
data will be identified by the word Avg.
There are several options that can be used to modify the plots. Options to modify aspects of the graphs such as
scale, marker, colors, etc. are included in the Graph Control property pages that are accessed by clicking on the
Property command button. In this form, each plot is an individual graph, thus, the Property button will display the
property pages for the last plot that has the focus. By default, the q c vs. depth plot has the focus when this form is
loaded. To change the focus, you need to left-click on a point on the graph. When you do this, the coordinates for
the point (e.g. depth and qc) are displayed in the text boxes located at the upper most right corner of the form.
If the CPT data file does not store values for the pore pressure behind the tip, U 2, then the plot of U2 vs. depth will
not be shown. The other plots will be scaled accordingly to fill in the graphics window.
The right-most graph displays the soil behavior type vs. depth based on the CPT data using either the soil
classification chart from Robertson et al. (1986), herein called the 1986 Chart, based on measured cone tip
resistance, qc, and friction ratio, Rf; or, the chart from Robertson (1990), herein called the 1990 Chart, based on
normalized cone resistance, Qt, and normalized friction ratio, FR. By default, the plot shows the soil types based on
the 1986 chart when the form is loaded. The user can switch between the two charts by choosing either the 1986
Chart or the 1990 Chart option. For the 1990 chart, the soil behavior type classification based on pore pressure
ratio, Bq, can be plotted by selecting the Bq Zone option. Note that both soil types (i.e. the ones based on
normalized friction ratio and the ones based on pore pressure ratio) are shown together on the plot. The symbols
that identify each soil classification are displayed on the bottom section of the graph. If values of U 2 are not read
from the data file, then the Bq Zone option will not be enabled. Furthermore, the soil type behavior from the 1990
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 42
chart will be approximated by using qc and fs. The Soil Column option is used to plot the soil profile using layers of
different colors. A description of the type of soil represented by each color is shown on the right side of the graph.
Two other options are used in the basic interpretation of CPT data. As noted in Harder and Von Gloh (1986), the
cumulative curves of cone resistance and friction ratio over depth can be used in the determination of the main soil
stratification. According to Harder and Von Gloh, the points at which the slope of the cumulative curve changes
mark the boundaries of the different soil layers. To plot the cumulative curve of the friction ratio, I R(z), click on the
Cum. Rf check box to select it (an x is shown when the check box is selected). The changes in slope along the I R(z)
curve delineate the boundaries for the main soil layers. The position of additional boundaries can be drawn by
plotting the cumulative curve of cone resistance, Iq(z). To do this, click on the Cum. Qc check box. These
additional boundaries may be considered as to represent “… different states of the same soil type”. To remove the
curves from the graph, click on the check box to deselect it.
Curves of normalized cone resistance, Qt, and normalized friction Ratio, FR, vs. depth can be plotted by clicking on
the Normalized check box to select it.
The total cone resistance, qt, and the total sleeve friction, ft, i.e. the values of qc and fs corrected for pore water
pressure, can be plotted by selecting the Corrected option. If there are no values for U2 then qt  qc. Similarly, if
there are no values of U3 then ft  fs.
By default, the graphs show all of the data read from the CPT file. To display only a range of data, click on the Plot
all check box to deselect it. The graphs will now only display the data for the range of depths shown on the Depth
column. Use the scroll bar to move up or down the data column.
As noted previously, this form is also used to average the data points within an average interval. The new CPT log
will then represent layers of “average interval” thickness, a depth to the mid point of the “layer”, and average values
for qc, fs, U2. Based on these average values, new values of qt, Rf, Qt, FR will be calculated and new soil behavior
interpretations will be determined. For example, in the figure below an “interval” of 2 feet was used to depth
average the CPT data. The open circles on the graphs correspond to the average values for each interval. For the
first “average layer” between depths of –0.065 and –2.065, each value of qc, fs, U2 was used to obtain an average
value using a weighted average approach based on the sampling interval (i.e. the interval between two CPT
readings, assumed constant for the entire log). The value of Rf is computed using the average values of qc and fs,
and thus is not obtained as a weighted average. When returning to the CRR analysis form, this first average layer
will then be represented as a point of depth 1.065 with values of q c, fs, U2 as shown by the average points.
qc (Bar)
0
fs (Bar)
25
0
0
-1
-1
-2
U2 (Bar)
1.5
-.8
Rf (%)
.2
0
Soil ('86 Chart)
8
0
0
0
-1
-1
-1
-2
-2
-2
-2
-3
-3
-3
-3
-3
-4
-4
-4
-4
-4
-5
-5
4
Depth (feet)
0
-5
-5
Test
Test Avg.
Test
Test Avg.
Test
Test Avg.
-5
Test
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 43
Test Avg.
Test
Test Avg.
Depth-averaging is conducted by first clicking on the check box for the Weighted average every option to select it.
Next, select an average interval by clicking on the up-down arrows next to the text box that shows the average
interval. After you set the interval, click on the Process command button to plot the average and field test curves.
To plot only the field test curve, click on the Test option to select it. Clicking on the Average option will display
the average curves only. Both the field test and average curves can be plotted simultaneously by clicking on the
Both option.
An alternative way of conducting depth averaging is by defining the boundaries of the different layers using the
Layer Top and Layer Bot. options shown next to the Depth column on the left hand side of the form. To define a
layer in this way, first choose the point on the CPT sounding that will be the top point of the layer, and then click on
the check box in the Layer Top column for this point to select it. Second, define the bottom boundary of the layer
by selecting the point on the CPT sounding on the Layer Bot. column. For example, for the previous figure, the
first layer could have been similarly defined by selecting the first CPT point as layer top, and by selecting the CPT
point with a depth of 1.968 feet as bottom of the layer. If the Weighted average every option is selected, then each
layer defined with the Layer Top and Layer Bot. options will be subdivided by layers of “average interval”
thickness. If you define layers this way, you need to define both, a top and a bottom point for each layer. Usually,
the bottom point of a layer is the top point of the next layer. Thus, both the Layer Top and Bot. check boxes are
selected. For the last layer, i.e. the bottom layer, usually the last point on the soil column is defined as a Layer Bot..
There are two options provided to correct the CPT cone resistance in thin sand layers: Robertson and Moss. The
correction by Robertson is done as recommended in Lunne et al. (1997); and the correction by Moss is as
recommended by R.E. Moss (2003). Both corrections use the value for cone diameter entered in the Import data
from CPT file form and the thickness of the layer defined in this form with the Layer Top and Layer Bot. options.
For the Robertson correction, SHAKE2000 uses the curve for a tip resistance ratio of 2, as recommended in Youd et
al. (1997, 2001) to obtain the Thin Layer Correction factor, K H. To correct the cone resistance for an “average
layer”, first define the layer with the Layer Top and Layer Bot. options. Then, for any CPT point within this
“average layer” click on the Thin Layer check box to select it. To correct for thin layer, click on the Process
command button after you have defined the layers in the soil column. If the Weighted average every check box is
not selected, then only the thin layer correction will be conducted. When the Weighted average every check box is
selected, the program will average the values in the layers after the thin layer correction is conducted.
When conducting either depth averaging or thin layer correction, it is necessary to define at least three layers. For
example, the first CPT value of the soil column is the layer top (Layer Top check box) point of the first layer; then,
the first point of the thin layer is also the layer bottom (Layer Bot. check box) point of the first layer and the layer
top (Layer Top check box) point of the second layer, i.e. the layer to be corrected for thin layer. For the third, or
bottom layer, the bottom point of the second layer, i.e. the layer to be corrected for thin layer in this example, is the
top point (Layer Top check box) and the very last CPT value is then the bottom point (Layer Bot. check box) of the
last layer. The tutorial provides a more detailed example on how to define the layers for depth averaging and/or thin
layer correction.
A few notes about depth averaging:




The top elevation of the very first layer will be either zero (i.e. ground surface), or the elevation of the very
first CPT data point minus half of the sampling interval.
Some of the layers will be either greater or smaller than the average interval selected. This is determined
by the location of the main stratification layers chosen with the Layer Top and Layer Bot. options; or, by
the position of the bottom average point with respect to the next CPT point.
For normalization of the data, the total stress above the very first layer will be determined from either the
soil column entered in the Simplified CSR form, or from the soil column from Option 2 of SHAKE, or
assumed to be equal to the depth to the first layer times an assumed unit weight of 120 pcf or 18.8 kN/m3.
It is assumed that the CPT log is continuous, i.e. every point in the CPT data file is separated from the
previous point by the same sampling interval.
To print the graphs, click on the Print command button to display the Graphics Print Menu form. After the values
have been averaged, click on the Ok command button to return to the Import Data from CPT File form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 44
If you conduct depth-averaging using the Layer Top, Layer Bot., Thin Layer and weighted average options, you
can save this “soil profile configuration” to a control file for future use. Click on the Save command button to
display the Save Average CPT Data file dialog form. Enter a file name and select a folder where the file is to be
saved and then click on Save. The information on this file can be later retrieved with the Open command button. In
this case, the layers will be set according to the information saved in the file.
The Plot profile option allows you to display the soil column created with the Soil Profile Information form,
which is displayed when you click on the Profile command button. In the Soil Profile Information form, you can
enter data for the bottom elevation of the soil layer, and a description of the soil type. This option is enabled after
you have entered the data for the soil layers. In addition, the depth to the water table used for the CRR analysis will
be shown as a triangle on the right side of the graph. When you select this option, (i.e. an x is shown on the check
box), the soil types will be replaced by the soil column.
The PW Pressure option is used to plot the change of groundwater pressure with depth. This option is only enabled
when pore pressure behind the tip, U2, are read from the data file.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 45
Average Response Spectrum
This form will display a list of sets of results that may be used to obtain average curves for response spectrum. Each
element on the list represents an analysis conducted with SHAKE2000 for which results were obtained with option
9.
For example, the options displayed on this form would be something like:
Analysis No. 1 - Profile No. 2
Analysis No. 2 - Profile No. 2
Analysis No. 3 - Profile No. 1
For analysis No.1 you used an object motion named SAMPLE1.EQ, and for analysis No. 2, an object motion named
SAMPLE2.EQ. Thus, the results yielded by each analysis are different. You would select each analysis by clicking
on the check box next to each element of the list, and then select an option from the bottom section of the form. To
plot the curves, click on the Ok button.
The Analysis button is used to display a summary list of the different options that form each analysis group. The
results contained in the first and second output files generated from the execution of SHAKE2000 are grouped in
sets, or analysis, depending on the order of the different options.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 46
Bray & Travasarou Simplified Displacement Analysis
This form is used to estimate permanent displacements induced by earthquake loading using the simplified method
proposed by Bray & Travasarou (2007).
The parameters for the model are entered in the respective text boxes. For more detailed information on the method
and the parameters used, please refer to Bray & Travasarou (2007).
By default, the graphs on the form will display the results based on the yield coefficient. To switch to a period
based graph, you will need to use a response spectrum using either a ground motion attenuation relation or a
spectrum computed from an acceleration time history. The Attenuate command button is used to display the
ground motion attenuation relations form. A response spectrum for an acceleration time history can be computed
using the response spectra for ground motion form displayed using the Other command button.
When using a response spectrum, the spectral acceleration at 1.5 times T s will be obtained from the spectrum and it
cannot be manually modified by the user. Similarly, when using a spectrum from attenuation relations, the
earthquake magnitude will be set equal to the magnitude used in the attenuation relation and cannot be manually
modified.
To switch between period or yield coefficient graphs, click on the respective option of the X Axis list.
To print a copy of the graphs, a summary of the input data and results or to copy the graph to the Windows
Clipboard for use by other applications, click on the Print command button to display the Print Menu form.
The properties of a graph (e.g. symbol color, axis values, etc.) can be modified using the property pages of the
graphics server. To display the property pages for a graph, first left-click on any point of the graph and then click on
the Property command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 47
The Reset command button will delete all the information on the form. The Save command button is used to save
the data in a text file for future use. These data can be retrieved using the Open command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 48
Calculated Results Plot Menu
The values for these options are stored in the *.GRF file. To choose a plot, place the cursor on the option and click
the left button on the mouse. Click Ok to display the graph.
Options:
Strain-Compatible Damping: Select this option to plot strain-compatible damping at the midpoint of the sublayer
versus Depth.
Strain-Compatible Shear Modulus: This option is used to plot the strain-compatible shear modulus at the
midpoint of the sublayer versus Depth.
Maximum Shear Strain: Select this option to plot the calculated shear strain at the midpoint of the sublayer versus
depth.
Maximum Shear Stress: A plot of maximum shear stress at the midpoint of the sublayer versus depth is displayed
when this option is selected.
Shear Wave Velocity: The shear wave velocity is calculated based on the maximum shear modulus and the unit
weight of the layer material, and plotted using this option.
Peak Acceleration: This option is used to plot the maximum acceleration at the top of the sublayer versus the depth.
Cyclic Stress Ratio: Plot of the ratio between the equivalent uniform shear stress to the vertical effective stress (or
CSR curve). The equivalent uniform shear stress is taken as 65% of the peak cyclic shear stress computed with
SHAKE. When you select this option, the SPT - BPT, CPT, Vs and CSR command buttons and the Water Depth
for CSR Analysis and UW input boxex are enabled. By default, a depth to water table of 0 feet or meters is set by
SHAKE2000. The depth to water table is used to estimate the effective stress using the total unit weights from
option 2, and saved in the *.GRF file. The unit weight of water can be changed for the user when a different value is
applicable to their specific application. Enter a different value for the unit weight of water in the UW text box.
The SPT - BPT, CPT, and Vs command buttons will display the respective Cyclic Resistance Ratio using form
used to estimate the cyclic resistance ratio, or the capacity of the soil to resist liquefaction, based on standard or
Becker penetration test, cone penetration test, or shear wave data, respectively. Once you have calculated the CRR
causing liquefaction, the CRR from SPT, CRR from CPT, or CRR from Vs check box will be enabled and an x
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 49
will appear in the box. This indicates that the CSR and CRR curves (i.e. the one computed using the shear stress
from SHAKE and the one obtained based on SPT, BPT, CPT or Vs results) will be plotted together. If you do not
want to plot the CRR curve, click on the check box to deselect it (i.e. the x will no longer appear in the check box).
The CSR command button is used to calculate the cyclic stress ratio using the simplified equation proposed by Seed
and Idriss in 1971. Use this button to display the Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio form. By default, SHAKE2000
will use the peak ground acceleration at the top of the soil column from Option 6, and the unit weights and depths
from Option 2 for the current set to compute the CSR's. You can still add or delete data; however, the new data will
not be used to modify the data in Option 2. After you enter data in this form, and upon returning to the Calculated
Results Plot Menu form, the Simple CSR check box will be enabled, and an x will appear in the box. This
indicates that the CSR curve calculated with the simplified equation will be plotted simultaneously with the CSR
curve calculated using the SHAKE results. To conduct a separate simplified CSR analysis, use the Simplified
Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis (Seed & Idriss 1971) option of the Main Menu form.
Updated correlations for the evaluation of liquefaction using SPT data have been recently presented by Cetin et al.
(1999) and Seed et al. (2001). This updated approach also includes a probabilistic evaluation of liquefaction. This
alternative approach can be used to evaluate liquefaction potential by clicking on the Probabilistic CRR check box
to select it. Further information on this approach is included in the Probabilistic and Deterministic Liquefaction
Analysis Using SPT section of this manual. Additionally, the probability of liquefaction can also be estimated
using shear wave velocity data using this option and the curves proposed by Juang et al. (2001, 2002). Further
information about this feature is provided in the Cyclic Resistance Ratio Using Shear Wave Velocity (Vs) Data of
this manual. Two methods are available for probabilistic liquefaction analysis using SPT data: Cetin (Seed et al.,
2003) and I & B (Idriss & Boulanger, 2010).
Settlement Analysis: The Settlement command button is enabled after you have performed the CRR analysis. This
button will open the Settlement Analysis form used to enter the data necessary to estimate the settlement in the soil
column due to earthquake shaking. The input data used in the liquefaction analysis (i.e. N 1,60, CSR) and the results
(e.g. factor of safety against liquefaction) are used together with the equivalent uniform shear strain to do the
settlement analysis. You can also perform a settlement analysis for a soil column of dry soil, however you still need
to use the Cyclic Resistance Ratio form to enter the SPT data for the column, and make sure that the depth to the
water table is greater than the depth to the bottom layer of the soil column.
To plot average results: For a specific profile, you can obtain average curves for the above options from the results
of the SHAKE analysis using the same soil profile (i.e. a profile with the same number of layers and each layer
of the same thickness). For example, say that you want to obtain average curves for a profile number 1 that is
formed by 29 layers. For the first analysis you will use the object motion saved as SAMPLE.EQ. The input file will
look like this for the first analysis:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Option 1
Option 2: profile No. 1
Option 3: SAMPLE.EQ
Option 4: Object motion on layer 29
Option 5: 10 iterations, 0.65 strain ratio
Option 6
Option 7
Option 9: Spectra for 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20% damping.
Option 10:
Option 11:
To obtain average results, you need to conduct a second analysis. Say that the second time you would like to use a
different object motion that is saved as SAMPLE2.EQ. Then your input file, after including the options for the
second analysis will look like:
1
2
3
4
Option 1
Option 2: profile No. 1
Option 3: SAMPLE.EQ
Option 4: Object motion on layer 29
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 50
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Option 5: 10 iterations, 0.65 strain ratio
Option 6
Option 7
Option 9: Spectra for 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20% damping.
Option 10:
Option 11:
Option 2: profile No.1
Option 3: SAMPLE2.EQ
Option 4: Object motion on layer 29
Option 5: 10 iterations, 0.65 strain ratio
Option 6
Option 7
Option 9: Spectra for 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20 damping.
Option 10:
Option 11:
After executing SHAKE and processing the first output file, the *.GRF file will contain the results for profile No. 1
obtained from the two analyses. To plot an average curve, first you need to select one of the above options by
clicking on the option button. Once you do this, the Ok and Mean command buttons will be enabled. Click on the
Mean button to display the Average Calculated Results Menu form. The Mean command button is disabled when
the Cyclic Stress Ratio option is selected.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 51
Choose Output Directory
This form is used to select the directory where the output files generated by SHAKE2000 will be stored. There is a
directory list box that shows the directories of the current drive, and a drive list box that can be used to change
drives. Once you have selected a directory, click on the Ok button to return to the Main Menu or the Earthquake
Response Analysis form. The output directory will be shown on the output directory cell.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 52
Company & Project Information
This form is used to enter textual information about your company and/or project that will be printed together with
your graph and form.
The information that can be entered on this form is divided into two groups: 1) information that is constant such as
your company name, address, etc.; and, 2) information that changes from project to project such as project number,
date, etc.
When you create your own forms, you can enter a description for the form on the text box next to the Description
label. This description can be up to 80 characters long, and will not be shown on the form.
To enter information on the form, first type in information for the Label column. This label is expected to be
constant, e.g. “Project No.:”. Then enter the information that changes in the text box for the Information column,
e.g. “99-1035”. Then enter the X and Y coordinates where the text will be printed on the paper. The origin of
coordinates, i.e. X = 0 & Y = 0, is the upper left corner of the paper sheet. The string of text formed by the
information on the Label and Information columns will be printed starting at the point defined by X and Y. If you
want to print the string centered at this point, then click on the check box of the Center column to select it (an x is
shown on the check box when this option is selected). The string will be vertically centered with respect to the Y
coordinate.
To change the font type, size, or style of a string, click on the Font command button to display the font dialog form.
Select a different font, size, or style and then click on Ok to return to the form. The information for the string's font
will be displayed on the Font, Style, and Size text boxes. Every time you move the cursor to a text box on the
Label or Information columns, the characteristics of the font for the string will be displayed on the respective text
boxes.
You can also display a logo on the page at a specific location. The position of the logo is determined by the
coordinates for the upper-left and bottom-right corners of a rectangle as entered in the coordinate text boxes at the
bottom of the form. This logo should be a bitmap, metafile or an icon type file. To select a logo, click on the Logo
command button to display the file dialog window, select a file, and then click on the Open command button. Then,
enter the coordinates for the box where in the logo will be displayed.
The example described in the following paragraph is for a letter size paper (8.5” x 11”) and portrait orientation. To
change paper type or orientation, click on the Printer command button to display the printer dialog window. For
this example, first place the cursor on the text box next to the Description label. Type in a description for the
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 53
information, e.g. “SHAKE2000 standard form”. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the text box on the Label
column for string No. 1, and enter Project. Next, press the Tab key twice to move the cursor to the text box on the
X left column and enter 6.05. Press the Tab key once, and enter 9.575 on the Y left column. Note that the string is
now shown on the bottom right corner of the form. Next, follow the same procedure to enter the following:
Label
File No.:
Date:
Initials:
X left
6.05
6.05
6.05
Y left
9.775
9.975
10.17
The coordinates in this example are such that the text will print on the bottom right corner of the form created in the
example of the Report Form Development section of this manual.
After you have entered the information, click on the Save command button to save the data on an ASCII text file.
The data can be retrieved for future use using the Open command button.
Each time you place the cursor on either the Label or Information columns the Add and Delete command buttons
are enabled. If you want to add data for a new line, place the cursor on the line where the new line will be located,
and click on the Add button. A new line will be created, and the coordinates and thickness for the new line will be
the same as those for the line immediately below. Now, you need to modify the information for the coordinates and
thickness for the new line. The Delete button is used to delete a line from the form. Place the cursor on either the
Label or Information columns, and then click on the Delete button. The data for the line will be removed from the
form, and the information for the other lines updated accordingly. The Reset command button will delete the
information for all of the lines.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 54
Conversion of Ground Motion File
This form is used to convert ground motion files to a format compatible with SHAKE; or to a format and units
compatible with other software applications. The ground motion file used as input in SHAKE is usually formed by
a series of acceleration values in g‟s saved in a formatted way that is compatible with the Format statement used in
the FORTRAN programming language. Today, the user can obtain ground motion records from a wide number of
sources. However, these files are not uniform in their formatting or processing. For example, ground motion files
can be downloaded through the Internet that are saved in units other than g‟s such as cm/sec 2. Other records may
include values for acceleration, velocity, and displacement in the same file, each as a column of data. Thus, the
main purpose of this form is to extract the acceleration data from the file, convert them to g‟s and save them to a
formatted text file that can be used by SHAKE.
This form has two other functions. First, it can be used to enter information about a new ground motion file and
then add the information to the database of ground motion files used by SHAKE2000. Second, the user can access
the form used to edit information about a ground motion file in the database.
Conversion of a ground motion file involves the following steps: 1) opening the original or source ground motion
file; 2) defining the way the data in the source file are to be read; and, 3) defining the way the data will be written to
the new converted ground motion file.
For the first step, use the Open command button to display the Open Source Ground Motion File dialog form,
change to a different folder and/or subdirectory if necessary, and click on the file that needs to be converted to select
it. This file needs to be a text or ASCII file. Then click on the Open command button of the dialog form to open it.
After a few seconds, the first few lines of the file (up to 99 lines) will be displayed on the top list box of the form.
The first three characters displayed in red are the numbers of each row of data in the file followed by a “|”. These
characters are not part of the source file and are only shown to number the rows. After the row numbers, the
alphanumeric characters that constitute the information saved in the file for each row are shown. Note that the
characters are displayed as blue on a white background, and that every tenth character is displayed in red. However,
if the tenth character is a “blank space” then the character is not shown. This is done to guide the user when
defining the order of the data in the file.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 55
During the second step, you need to define the way the data in the source file are to be read. To this end, there are
seven options available in SHAKE2000: Other, PEER, USGS, *.HEA file, *.AHL file, *.AVD file and
RSPMATCH, PEER AT2 and PEER ACC. The first option is used to manually define the way the data are to be
read. The PEER and USGS options are used to automatically convert files downloaded from the respective web
sites; and, the *.HEA file, *.AHL file and *.AVD file options are used to convert specific files created by
SHAKE2000. The RSPMATCH option is used to convert files created by the RSPMATCH program. To select
one of these options, click on the down-arrow of the Source File Type list to display the list of options, and select
the option that applies to your file.
The PEER option is used to convert files downloaded from the PEER Strong Motion Database at:
http://peer.berkeley.edu/smcat/search.html
The PEER AT2 option is used to convert files downloaded from the PEER Strong Motion Databases at:
http://peer.berkeley.edu/nga/search.html
http://peer2.berkeley.edu/peer_ground_motion_database/site
The PEER ACC option is used to convert files downloaded from the PEER Ground Motion Database at:
http://peer2.berkeley.edu/peer_ground_motion_database/site
The USGS option is used to convert files created with the Interactive Deaggregation feature of the United States
Geological Survey (USGS) web site at:
http://eqint.cr.usgs.gov/eq-men/html/deaggint2002-06.shtml
If necessary, the files downloaded from either web site, PEER or USGS, should be saved as Text files. This is done
by first, selecting the Save As… option of the File menu in your web browser. Second, by selecting the Text File
(*.txt) option of the Save as type option list.
The PEER and EDT File options work with the PEER AT2 and PEER ACC options of the Source File Type list.
When the PEER option is selected, you can select a number of AT2 or ACC files simultaneously. On the Open
Source Ground Motion File dialog form, click on the first file and then press the shift key and click on the last file.
All of the files between the first and last files will be selected. To select more than one file, but not in a continuous
way, use the ctrl key instead. All of the files will be automatically converted. Selecting the EDT File option allows
you to save the information about the converted files as Option 3 in an EDT file. You will be asked to enter the file
name and select a path to create the file. After converting the files, click on the down arrow for the Source Ground
Motion File list to select a file from the list to plot or to view the conversion results.
When using the PEER or USGS option, some basic information needed to read the source file is displayed on some
of the text boxes. For PEER files, it is assumed that the first 4 lines in the file are the header, and that the
acceleration values in the file are in g‟s. Further, the program will assume that the fourth line of the header section
includes the number of acceleration values and the time interval between acceleration values. Hence, the program
will use the value next to the NPTS= string for the number of acceleration values, and the value next to the DT=
string for the time interval. For example, in the section of the ground motion file downloaded from the PEER
website shown below, it is assumed that there are 11800 acceleration values and that the time interval is 0.005
seconds.
PEER STRONG MOTION DATABASE RECORD. PROCESSING BY PACIFIC ENGINEERING.
CHI-CHI 09/20/99, ALS, E (CWB)
ACCELERATION TIME HISTORY IN UNITS OF G. FILTER POINTS: HP=0.1 Hz LP=30.0 Hz
NPTS= 11800, DT= .00500 SEC
.9029319E-05
.9034156E-05
.9026870E-05
.9016792E-05
.9034652E-05
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 56
If the formatting or the information in the file do not match these assumptions, then it is recommended to use the
Other option as explained below.
The USGS option is similar to the PEER option in that specific information is searched to determine the number of
acceleration values and the time interval. However, the USGS files do not have a fixed number of header lines.
Accordingly, USGS files are first read to determine the number of header lines, and at the same time, determine the
number of acceleration values and time interval. To this end, the program will first search for the “npw2, dt, total
duration =” string. For example:
npw2, dt, total duration =
16384 0.00500
81.9
When this string is found, it is assumed that the time interval is the second value, e.g. 0.005 sec for the string above.
The program will then search for the “Begin Scaled Accelerogram Data” string and assume that the acceleration
values start one line after this position. The program will count the number of lines of data until it finds the “END
OF AGRAM DATA” string. It is also assumed that the acceleration values are in cm/sec 2 units. Once the number
of header lines, acceleration values and time interval are determined, the program will proceed to convert the ground
motion file.
Please note that the USGS files contain data for 6 seismograms. For example:
am0, am0b_m0fa=
1.642E+25 0.000E+00
npw2, dt, total duration = 16384 0.00500
*** Begin Scaled Accelerogram Data ***
T
A1(cm/s2)
A2
A3
0.0000
8.2623E-04 2.9951E-04 3.0377E-04
81.9
A4
A5
2.8430E-04 -3.0169E-04
A6
4.7918E-04
In the above section of a USGS file, the first column corresponds to the time for the acceleration value, and the A1
through A6 columns each correspond to a different seismogram. By default, the program will read the acceleration
values for the first column of acceleration data, i.e. the A1 column. If you wish to obtain the data for any of the
other acceleration columns, change the value on the Acceleration Column text box as explained below.
The *.AHL file option is used to convert files with the AHL extension (for Acceleration History at Layer), i.e. files
created by SHAKE2000 from the same acceleration time histories requested in Option 6 of SHAKE. The *.HEA
file option is used to convert files with the HEA extension (for Horizontal Equivalent Acceleration), i.e. files created
by SHAKE2000 from the shear stress time histories requested in Option 7 of SHAKE. For more information about
these files, refer to the Earthquake Response Analysis section of this manual. The *.AVD file option will convert
files with the AVD extension (for Acceleration Velocity Displacement), i.e. files created using the Save to file
option of the Plot Object Motion form. In this last option, by default, the acceleration data in column 2 of the file
will be converted. If you would like to use the baseline-corrected acceleration values instead, change the number in
the Acceleration Column text box to 5. For any other type of file, it is recommended to use the Other option.
The third option used to convert files is Other. With this option, you can choose one of two alternatives: 1) Free
Format Data: The data are separated by blank spaces and can be read sequentially one after another or by using a
specific sequence; or, 2) Formatted Data: The data can be obtained by reading a specific number of characters (with
or without blank spaces) sequentially or by using a specific sequence. Please note that if the data are separated by
characters other than blank spaces, such as “,” or “tabs”, then the data may not be read properly.

Free Format Data: If the data are separated by at least one, or more blank spaces, then select the Free Format
option. Next, enter the number of acceleration values that are to be read from the file in the text box below the
No. Values label. Then, enter the time interval between acceleration values in the text box below the Time
Step label. This value is used when plotting the converted motion and when adding the information about the
source or converted files to the database. Usually the first few lines in the source file provide information about
the motion such as earthquake magnitude, station, etc.; these lines are considered herein as the header lines.
Also, this is the number of lines that need to be skipped before reaching the section of the file where the
acceleration values are located. Enter the number of header lines in the text box below the No. Header Lines
label.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 57
If you selected the Free Format option, skip the next two text boxes and place the cursor on the text box below
the Number of Columns label. When reading the acceleration values in free format, the values should be
ordered in one of two ways. Either each row of data is formed only by values of acceleration; or, on each row
of data, there are also other values. For the second type, each row of data may have a column for period,
acceleration, velocity, and displacement. For example, in the section of the ground motion file below, each row
of data is formed only by acceleration values. There are 10 values of acceleration (in cm/sec 2) in each row:
SAMPLES/SEC=100 FILTER TYPE=BUTTERWORTH CORNER= 0.10 ORDER=3 DATA TYPE=AC
NO OF POINTS= 6228, UNITS=CM/SEC**2
-0.16
-0.16
-0.16
-0.16
-0.17
-0.18
-0.20
-0.20
-0.20
-0.22
-0.25
-0.27
-0.28
-0.27
-0.27
-0.29
-0.32
-0.35
-0.38
-0.39
If your source file is of the above type, skip the Number of Columns and Acceleration Column boxes, and
place the cursor on the text box below the Format label. On the other hand, each row of data on the file below
has one value for time, acceleration, velocity and displacement:
m0444r01 8.0 25.6 147.6
75.9
sec
cm/sec**2
cm/sec
0.00
-0.1934E+00 0.0000E+00
0.01
-0.1938E+00 -0.1900E-02
0.65
cm
0.0000E+00
0.0000E+00
If the source file is of this second type, enter the total number of columns of data on each row. For example, for
the above example you would enter a 4. Next, place the cursor on the text box below the Acceleration
Column. In this text box, you enter the number of the column that forms the acceleration value. In the above
example this is the second column, thus you would enter a 2. Then place the cursor on the Format text box.

Formatted Data: If you did not select the Free Format option, then you need to provide either the number of
values per row and the length as number of characters of the values; or, the number of data columns per row,
the number of the column with the acceleration values and the length as number of characters of the columns.
For the first alternative, you need to define the way the values are separated in each row by indicating the
number of values per row and the number of characters that form each value. The number of characters should
be the same for every value. For example:
4 values per row, each value is 15 characters long including blank spaces and exponent:
-.1059027E-04
-.1461820E-04
-.1690261E-04
-.1506594E-04
8 values per row, each value is 9 characters long including blank spaces:
0.00000 -0.00434
0.00860
0.00540 -0.00565 -0.00944 -0.00369 -0.00669
8 values per row, each value is 9 characters long:
-0.000001-0.000002-0.000001-0.000001 0.000000 0.000001 0.000000-0.000001
After you have entered the data for number of values, time step, and number of header lines, place the cursor on
the text box below the Values per Line label, and enter the number of values that are included in each line of
data (for the above examples: 4, 8, 8, respectively). Next, place the cursor on the text box below the No. Digits
label and enter the number of characters that form each value (for the above examples: 15, 9, 9, respectively).
Then enter the rest of the information as described previously.
For the second alternative, you need to provide the number of data columns on each row, the number of the
acceleration column, and the number of characters that form each column. For example:
m0444r01 8.0 25.6 147.6
75.9
0.65
sec
cm/sec**2
cm/sec
cm
0.00
-0.1934E+00 0.0000E+00 0.0000E+00
0.01
-0.1938E+00 -0.1900E-02 0.0000E+00
In the above section of a ground motion file, there are 4 columns of data per row (one each for time, acceleration,
velocity and displacement), the second column is the acceleration value, and each value is 12 characters long
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 58
including blank spaces and exponent. Thus, after entering data for number of values, time step, and number of
header lines, place the cursor on the text box below the No. Digits label and enter the number of characters that form
each value (e.g. 12). Then, place the cursor on the text box below the Number of Columns label and enter the total
number of columns of data on each row. For the above example, you would enter a 4. Next, place the cursor on the
text box below the Acceleration Column. In this text box, you enter the number of the column that forms the
acceleration value. In the above example this is the second column, thus you would enter a 2. To continue with the
conversion of the file, enter the rest of the information as described previously.
In the third step, you will define how the data will be written to the converted file. First, define the format, i.e. the
way the data are written to the file, of the acceleration values. The format string tells SHAKE2000 and SHAKE
how to read the ground motion values from the file. This string is based on the syntax used in the Format statement
of the FORTRAN computer language. In this statement edit descriptors specify how the values are read. In this
feature of SHAKE2000 the only two edit descriptors supported by SHAKE2000 are:
Fw.d
Ew.d [Ee]
Real values
Real values with exponents
In these descriptors, the field is w characters wide, with a fractional part d decimal digits wide, and an optional
exponent width of e. Remember that the field w also includes any blank spaces. You can also indicate that a given
data format is repeated a number of times. For example, 8F9.6 repeats a nine-character real value with six decimal
digits descriptor eight times. The first character on the format field should be a “(” and the last character a “)”, e.g.
(8F9.6). Examples of data saved in the ground motion files included with SHAKE2000 and the format used to
define them follow:
Format: (4E15.8E2) or (4E15.8):
-.10590270E-04 -.14618200E-04 -.16902610E-04 -.15065940E-04
Format: (8F9.5):
0.00000 -0.00434
0.00860
0.00540 -0.00565 -0.00944 -0.00369 -0.00669
Format: (8F10.6):
-0.000001 -0.000001 -0.000001 -0.000001
0.000000
0.000000
0.000000
0.000001
If you use the “E” descriptor and do not provide a value for exponent width, “e”, SHAKE2000 will use a default
value of 2. Please note that SHAKE91 permits the user to specify the format for the input time history. However,
unless the time history points are arranged to have an even number of points per line, the input to the program will
not be correct. For correct reading of the time history points, an even number of points should be given per line
(i.e. 2, 4, 8, etc.). (Error report about SHAKE91, posted by Dr. Farhang Ostadan at the NISEE web site at
http://www.eerc.berkeley.edu). In other words, the number of acceleration values in each row of a ground motion
file used by SHAKE should be an even number.
In a few cases, and depending on the number of decimal figures used for the acceleration values in the converted
file, the velocity or displacement time histories computed by double integration of the converted acceleration time
history may not be correct, e.g. they may increase or decrease without bounds. Accordingly, it is recommended to
use as many decimal figures as possible when converting the file. However, due to the nature of the programming
language used to create SHAKE, the acceleration time history values are limited to a maximum of 8 decimal figures.
Hence, it is recommended to use the default value of (8F12.8) for the Format Output string when creating the
converted file. Using this formatting string on several examples appears to provide an adequate conversion that
yields velocity/displacement time histories similar to those provided with the original, processed ground motion
record.
Next, you need to select a factor to convert the acceleration values in the source file to units compatible with
SHAKE, i.e. fractions of acceleration of gravity (g‟s), if necessary; or, to other units if you wish to use the converted
data as input for another software application. This can be done by selecting a factor that represents the units of the
acceleration data in the source file from the list of options shown on the Source Units list box; and, by selecting the
units of the converted file from the list of options shown on the Output Units list. After selecting the units, a
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 59
multiplication factor will be displayed on the Multiplier box. This is the multiplication factor that will be used to
convert the values from the units shown on the Source Units list box to the units shown on the Output Units list
box. For example, to convert values of acceleration from cm/sec 2 to g‟s, you need to divide each value by 980.665
cm/sec2; which is equivalent to multiplying each value by 1/980.665 = 0.00102. In the program, this is done by
selecting the cm/sec^2 option of the Source Units list and the g’s option of the Output Units list, respectively.
If the accelerations in the source file are in units that are not shown in the list, select the Other option of the Source
Units list, and then enter a multiplication factor in the Multiplier text box. This multiplication factor should be
appropriate to convert the source acceleration data to the units shown on the Output Units list. For example:
WESTERN WASHINGTON EARTHQUAKE
APR 13, 1949 - 1156 PST
55
EPICENTER 47 06 00N,122 42 00W
31
INSTR PERIOD
0.0770 SEC DAMPING
0.574
42
NO. OF POINTS
1094 DURATION
89.16 SEC
42
UNITS ARE SEC AND G/10.
23
RMS ACCLN OF COMPLETE RECORD
0.2455 G/10.
43
ACCELEROGRAM IS BAND-PASS FILTERED BETWEEN
0.070 AND 25.000 CYC/SEC
4454 INSTRUMENT AND BASELINE CORRECTED DATA
AT EQUALLY-SPACED INTERVALS OF
0.02
SEC.
PEAK ACCELERATION
161.63023 CMS/SEC/SEC AT 10.9400 SEC
-152
29
-51
-309
-364
-125
134
111
-176
-147
-49
86
88
-69
-103
-75
-234
-176
27
86
26
42
26
-185
17
-65
-181
The fifth line of the header section indicates that the units are seconds and G/10, and from the tenth line you can see
that the acceleration values are given in cm/sec2. Thus, to convert the values to g‟s, you need first to divide each
value by 10, and then divide the result by 980.665. For example for the first value of -152:
  152 


 10    0.015500
980.665
However, this is equivalent to multiplying each value by a factor of (1 / 9806.65) or 0.000102. Thus, you would
enter a value of 0.000102 in the Multiplier text box.
If you select the Other option of the Output Units list, you can enter a description of the other units (e.g. gals) in
the Other Units text box.
The RSPMATCH option of the Output Units list is used to convert files to a format compatible with the
RSPMATCH computer program.
After selecting the multiplication factor, place the cursor on the text box below the Database Header Line label (or
Option 3 Set ID – Line label, if converting a file for use in Option 3 of SHAKE). Here you would enter a value
that represents the line from the header section that will be used to identify the converted file in the database of
ground motion files or in the set identification of Option 3. For example, for the above record, you could use the
first line to be included in the database, thus you would enter a 1.
The last information needed before you convert the file is the number of the lines from the header section in the
source file that you would like to include in the converted file. To do this, place the cursor on the first text box
below the Lines from Source Header to be included in Converted Ground Motion File label. Here you can
select a specific line, or select a range of lines. To select one line, just enter the number of the line in the text box.
For example to select the first line from the source file enter a 1. To select a range of lines, enter the number of the
first line in the range followed by a “-” and then the number of the last line in the range. For example, if you would
like to select the first five lines of the header in the source file, you would enter 1-5 in the text box. There are 3 text
boxes in this section that you can use to select different lines from the header section. By default, the first four lines
in the header of the converted file will be created by SHAKE2000. The first line will include the name and path of
the source file; and, the second line will include the units of the acceleration values, the number of acceleration
values in the converted file (which may be slightly different from the original number in the source file), the time
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 60
step of the acceleration time history, and the format string used to write the data to the file. These four lines will
provide valuable information if the file is used with a different software application.
After you have entered the above information, you need to enter the name and path of the converted file. A default
file name and path are shown on the box next to the Converted Ground Motion File label. If you would like to
select a different file, first click on the Save command button to display the Save Converted Ground Motion File
dialog form. Enter the name of the file on the text box next to the File name label, or use the mouse to select a file
by highlighting it. Then click on the Save command button to return to the conversion form. Now, click on the
Convert command button to convert the source file to the units and format you selected. After a few seconds, the
first few lines (up to 99) of the converted file will be shown on the bottom list box.
After you have converted the file, you can plot the resulting motion using the Plot command button. You can also
add the information about this motion in the database of ground motions using the Dbase command button. Refer to
the Edit/Add Ground Motion File Information section of this manual for further information.
The Spectra command button is used to display the Response Spectra for Ground Motion form. This form can be
used to compute the response spectra for the converted ground motion.
Adding Information about a Ground Motion File to the Database: To do this, first click on the Ground Motion
File Utilities: Conversion & Database option of the Main Menu form to select it. Then, click on the Ok button to
display the conversion form. Next, click on the Open command button to display the Open Source Ground
Motion File dialog form. Change to the folder and subdirectory where the file is located if necessary, click on the
file to highlight it, and then use the Open button to open the file and return to the conversion form. After a few
seconds, the first few lines of the file (up to 99 lines) will be shown on the top list box of the form.
Once the file is opened, you need to enter as a minimum the information requested in the No. Values, Time Step,
No. Header Lines, Values per Line, Format and Database Header Line text boxes as described in the previous
section. Note that in this case, the information that you enter in the Format text box refers to the file that you want
to add to the database. If you do not enter a value for values per line, this information will be obtained from the data
entered in the format text box. After entering this information, click on the Dbase command button to display the
Edit/Add Ground Motion File Information form. Refer to that section on this manual for further information.
Editing the Database of Ground Motion Files: This form also allows you to access the form used to edit the
information available in the database of ground motion files. For more information about the database, refer to the
Database of Earthquake Records section of this manual. To access the editor form, click on the Dbase command
button to display the Edit/Add Ground Motion File Information form. Refer to that section of this manual for
more information about editing the database. Please note that to access the database form, you don‟t need to open a
file first.
Ground Motion Parameters: Various parameters used to characterize a ground motion can be obtained by using
the GMP command button. These parameters include peak ground acceleration, Arias Intensity, Root-Mean-Square
of the acceleration time history (RMSA), bracketed duration, Trifunac & Brady duration, predominant period,
average period and mean period. More information on these parameters is provided in the Ground Motion
Parameters section of this manual.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 61
Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Data
This form is used to evaluate the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) required to initiate liquefaction based on Cone
Penetration Test (CPT) data. There are four methods that can be used to evaluate the CRR: Juang et al. (Juang et al.,
2006); Moss, R.E. (Moss, R.E., 2003); Robertson & Wride (Robertson and Wride, 1998; Youd and Idriss, 1997;
Youd et al., 2001); Robertson (2009; Robertson and Cabal, 2009); and, Suzuki (Suzuki et al., 1997). In this form, it
is assumed that the user is familiar with the methodology followed to conduct a liquefaction analysis using CPT
data. For further information on the methods used in this form, please refer to the specific references.
CPT data for the evaluation of CRR can be entered either manually or by importing the data from a CPT data file.
Nowadays, results from a CPT sounding are recorded in digital form and stored in magnetic form for future use with
post-processing computer software. The user can setup SHAKE2000 to read these files and use the information
saved in them to evaluate the CRR. However, it is necessary that these files be ASCII or text files. To read the
information on these files, or to enter the CPT data manually, click on the Import command button to display the
Import data from CPT File form. With this form, the user can read files with different formats (i.e. the way in
which the data are organized as columns) and further process the data by conducting depth averaging.
For any method, data inputting begins by entering the earthquake magnitude in the Earthquake Magnitude text
box. By default, a value of 7.5 is set by SHAKE2000. Press the Tab key once, or use the mouse to place the cursor
on the Magnitude Scaling Factor text box. The magnitude correction factor is automatically computed, using the
values recommended by the author selected on the MSF options section, and displayed on the Magnitude Scaling
Factor box.
The depth to the water table cannot be changed in this form. In order to use a common depth to the water table
when conducting different analyses simultaneously (i.e. SPT, CPT and CSR), the depth to water table can only be
changed either on the Simplified CSR form or the Calculated Results Plot Menu form. When conducting
simultaneous liquefaction analyses using SPT and CPT data, then both the depth to the water table and the
earthquake magnitude should be the same for both analyses. If this is not the case, the most recent analysis
conducted will be retained in the computer memory, and the other analysis will need to be conducted again to reflect
the change on either of these parameters.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 62
The overburden pressure used to normalize the CPT field data should be the pressure that was effective at the time
the CPT test was conducted. The water table entered in the CPT Water Table Depth text box will be used to
compute the effective pressure applied in the normalization of the data. For the calculation of the cyclic resistance
ratio, the water depth shown in the CRR Water Table Depth text box is used instead for the effective pressure.
Depending on the type of analysis you are conducting, the cyclic stress ratio induced by the ground motion is
computed as:


CSR = cyclic shear stress / effective overburden pressure; where the cyclic shear stress is computed as
65% of the peak cyclic shear stress (Kramer, 1996). The peak cyclic shear stress is obtained from the
last iteration of Option 5 in SHAKE. This stress is at the mid point of the layer, thus, for other depths,
the stresses are linearly interpolated. The effective overburden pressure is computed using the unit
weights read from Option 2 of SHAKE, and using the depth to water table entered by the user. Or,
For the simplified cyclic stress ratio analysis, these data are obtained from the Simplified Cyclic
Stress Ratio Analysis form.
The information for the analysis, selected on the Calculated Results Menu form or entered in the Simplified
Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis form, is shown on the upper left corner of the screen.
To select a different analysis method, click on the corresponding method in the CPT method options. The values
for CRR will be recalculated and shown in the CRR column. By default, when using the Suzuki et al. option the
CRR will not be computed for values of adjusted tip resistance, q ta, less than 5 MPa. To extrapolate the curve for
values less than 5 MPa, click on the Extrapolate curve check box to select it. The Moss, R.E. option is enabled
only when the Cetin & Seed (2000) stress reduction option is selected in the CSR form. For the Moss, R.E.
method, the Cetin et al. and the No Ksigma options will be selected for CN and K, respectively. These settings are
set to conform to the methodologies used in developing these methods. Please note that after the CRR analysis has
been conducted, you will not be able to change the method of analysis. To use a different method, you will need to
repeat the same analysis from the beginning.
Values of magnitude scaling factor (MSF) can be calculated using the equations provided in the MSF Options: I.M.
Idriss (NCEER) (Youd and Idriss, 1997, 2001), I.M. Idriss (1999) (Idriss, 1999), Moss, R. et al. (Moss et al.,
2006), and Cetin et al. (Cetin et al., 2004). The User's MSF option, will allow you to enter a value between the low
(i.e. from Idriss (NCEER) equation) and high (i.e. from Andrus & Stokoe equation) limits for magnitudes up to 7.5.
After selecting this option, place the cursor on the text box next to the Magnitude Scaling Factor label, and type in
a new value. This value will be checked to verify that it falls within the recommended range. If other than the
User's MSF option is selected, the MSF will be recalculated with the equation for the new option. The Moss, R. et
al. equation is the relation for DWF presented in Moss et al. (2006).
In the settlement analysis, the program uses the equivalent clean sand penetration resistance, or N 1, 60cs value for the
Tokimatsu & Seed (1987) approach. Please note that this value is not used in the liquefaction analysis using CPT
data. By default, SHAKE2000 assumes that the N60 values will be entered manually, thus, the Manually option of
the SPT from options is selected when this form is first loaded. When this option is selected, you can enter the N60
value in the N60 column. The N60 value can also be estimated using the relationship by Robertson et al. (1986) by
selecting the Qt/N ratio option; with the Olsen’s chart option using the chart developed by R.S. Olsen (Youd and
Idriss, 1997); as recommended in the DMG Special Publication 117 using the DMG 117 option (California
Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, 2002); by using the Jefferies & Davies option
(Jefferies and Davies, 1993; Baez et al., 2000); or based on the relation by Lunne et al. (1997). When either one of
these relationships is selected, you will not be able to manually change the values shown on the N60 column.
By default, the From Rf Zone option is used to estimate the values for unit weight. This is done based on the charts
by Robertson & Campanella (Lunne, 1997; Robertson and Campanella, 1989). If a cyclic stress ratio analysis has
been conducted before, then the default option to estimate the unit weights will be CSR Analysis. Accordingly, the
unit weights entered in the CSR analysis (either in the Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio form; or, in Option 2 when
conducting a SHAKE analysis) are used to estimate the unit weights for every CPT point based on the depth of the
point. This option will not be enabled if data are not available for the simplified CSR analysis. A third option, CPT
File, can be selected if the values for unit weight are to be read from a CPT file using the Import data from CPT
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 63
file form. Please note that this option cannot be changed after the data have been entered manually or read from a
CPT file.
In order to transform the N60 values previously entered into N1,60, four options are provided to calculate the
overburden correction factor (CN): Idriss & Boulanger (Idriss and Boulanger, 2004); Liao & Whitman (Liao and
Whitman, 1986); Skempton et al. (Skempton, 1986; Jamiolkowski et al., 1985; Liao and Whitman, 1986); and,
Kayen et al. (Kayen et al. (1992) as referenced in Youd et al., 2001). Every time you select one of these options,
the data on the form will be automatically recalculated. This automatic recalculation also takes place when the
earthquake magnitude, energy ratio correction factor, or depth to water table values is modified. As recommended
in Youd et al. (2001), a maximum value of 1.7 will be set for C N by the program. The equations by Liao &
Whitman and by Kayen et al. are recommended for current engineering practice (Youd et al., 2001). The equations
by Skempton et al. and Jamiolkowski et al. are kept in the program to maintain compatibility with previous versions
of SHAKE2000. The equation by Skempton is used for effective vertical stress less than 1 tsf (or 95.76 kN/m2), and
the equation by Jamiolkowski et al. for stress greater than or equal to 1 tsf (or 95.76 kN/m 2).
To correct for fines content, the N1,60 determined for silty sands are corrected to equivalent clean sand penetration
resistance using the equations developed by Idriss and Seed (Youd and Idriss, 1977) and the fines content entered
manually in the % Fines column, or the estimated apparent fines from Robertson and Wride (1998). In the manual
method of entering the CPT data the Apparent Fines option is not selected by default and the fines content can be
entered manually in the text box for the % Fines column. Alternatively, the apparent fines content, as estimated
from Robertson and Wride, can be displayed by selecting either the Recommended, PI < 5% or PI > 20% options.
These options represent the different curves shown on Figure 9 of Robertson and Wride (1998). Please note that by
selecting one of these curves, it is assumed that the curve applies to the entire soil column.
As recommended by Seed and Harder (1990), the cyclic resistance ratio obtained from the chart will be “...
corrected for conditions with initial effective overburden stresses greater than 1 tsf”. The equation developed by
Hynes and Olsen (as referenced in Youd and Idriss, 1997) can be used to obtain K  when you select the Hynes &
Olsen option; and is also the equation recommended for current engineering practice (Youd and Idriss, 1997).
When using this equation, the relative density, Dr, values are approximated based on the N 1,60cs value. This
approximation is based on the relationship between Dr and N1,60 proposed by Torrey et al. (NUREG, 2000) for insitu, clean sandy soils not placed recently. The Harder & Boulanger option has been kept in the program to
maintain compatibility with previous versions of SHAKE2000. When the No Ksigma option is selected, a value of
1.0 will be automatically set for all correction factors, and the factor will not modify the cyclic resistance ratio
obtained from the chart. The Cetin & Hynes option is enabled whtn the Cetin & Seed (2000) r d option is selected in
the CSR form or when the CRR analysis is based on SHAKE results.
To estimate the correction factor for initial shear stress, or K , click on the Use Kalpha check box to select it, and
then on the Kalpha command button to display the Kalpha Correction Factor form. Please note that Youd and
Idriss (Youd and Idriss, 1997; Youd et al., 2001) recommend that K  not be used for routine engineering practice.
When using the Robertson & Wride analysis method, the liquefaction-induced lateral displacement can be estimated
using the method proposed by Zhang et al. (Zhang et al., 2004). After the factors of safety are calculated, the LDI
command button will be enabled. Please note that you may need to first plot the CSR/CRR vs. depth curves before
the LDI command button is enabled. Click on this button to compute the lateral displacement index and to display
the Liquefaction-Induced Ground Deformation form.
Every time you place the cursor on a CPT row, the Add and Remove command buttons are enabled. If you want to
add data for a new CPT, place the cursor on the row of data above which the new CPT is located, and click on the
Add button. A new row will be created, and the values in the new row will be the same as those for the row
immediately below. Now, you need to modify the values for the new CPT. The Remove button is used to delete a
CPT from the soil column. Place the cursor on any column of the CPT you want to delete, and then click on the
Remove button. The data for the CPT will be removed from the soil column, and the values for the other CPTs
updated accordingly.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 64
The results can be saved on an ASCII file using the Save command button. The file uses the *.CRR extension by
default. The Open button can be used to retrieve these data from the file. In addition to the data shown on the form,
the cyclic resistance ratio computed using the results from SHAKE2000 is also saved.
To plot the cyclic resistance ratio curve, click on the Plot command button. This button is enabled after data for at
least one CPT value are entered. The factor of safety against liquefaction can be displayed by clicking on the FSL
command button on the graph window. After the curves are plotted, the Report command button is enabled. This
button is used to display the Plot CPT Data form. This form will display a series of graphs that summarize the CPT
input data and the results of the liquefaction analysis. You can also display a graph of the soil column with soil type
information.
The Print command button is used to print the results of the cyclic resistance ratio analysis as a table. When you
click on the command button, the Print Results of Cyclic Resistance Ratio Analysis form is displayed. For the
different print options, see the Print Results of Cyclic Resistance Ratio Analysis section of the User's Manual.
To clear all the data from the form, use the Reset command button. The current data will be deleted and default
values for some of the variables will be displayed.
If a probabilistic analysis is conducted, the probability of liquefaction value will be shown on the PL column. When
using the Juang et al. method of CPT analysis, the probability value is obtained using the equation developed by
Juang et al. (2006):
PL 
1
 F 
1  S 
 0.74 
5.45
For the Moss, R.E. method, the probability value is obtained from the graph provided in Moss, R.E. (2003).
When using the Robertson (2009) method, the Sand-like Soils option is enabled. This option is used to plot only
the sand-like soils (i.e., Ic < 2.5) and to use only these soils for the settlement analysis.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 65
Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Shear Wave Velocity (Vs) Data
This form is used to evaluate the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) required to initiate liquefaction based on Shear Wave
Velocity (Vs) data, as recommended by Andrus and Stokoe (1999, 2000) and, Juang et al. (2001, 2002). It is
recommend that you review these references for more information on the procedure followed to estimate CRR using
Vs results, the correction factors, and the coefficients that are applied.
The methodology used in SHAKE2000 to evaluate liquefaction is based on the equation for factor of safety against
liquefaction for magnitude 7.5 earthquakes:
 CRR7.5 
FS  
  MSF  K   K
 CSR 
Where: CRR7.5
CSR
MSF
K =
K =
= Cyclic Resistance Ratio determined for magnitude 7.5 earthquakes
= Cyclic Stress Ratio induced by ground motion
= Magnitude Scaling Factor to adjust the base curve for magnitudes other than 7.5
Correction factor for high overburden stresses
Correction factor for static shear stresses
Please note that the above equation is slightly different than the one recommended in recent literature, in which the
MSF factor is applied to the CSR value. However, the above approach is used to maintain uniformity with the CRR
analyses using SPT and CPT data.
The CRR7.5 value is determined using the equations recommended for calculation of CRR7.5 based on the stresscorrected shear wave velocity, Vs1, for the Andrus and Stokoe (1999, 2000) method; or, based on the clean soil
equivalence of Vs1, or Vs1cs, for the Juang et al. (2001).
To obtain Vs1cs, the field measured Vs value is first corrected to account for overburden stress as recommended by
Andrus and Stokoe (2000) by:
P
Vs1  Vs C vs  Vs  a'
v




0.25
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 66
Where: Pa = reference stress of 100 kPa or about atmospheric pressure
 v'
= initial effective overburden stress
To account for fines content in the Juang et al. method, the clean soil equivalence of Vs1 of a soil, or Vs1cs, can be
calculated from:
Vs1cs  K Vs1
Where:
K 1
for FC ≤ 5%

V 
V 
K 1  FC  5 0.009  0.0109  s1   0.0038  s1 
 100 
 100 

2

 Vs1 
 Vs1  
K 1  30 0.009  0.0109 
  0.0038 
 
 100 
 100  

2



for 5% < FC < 35%
for FC ≥ 35%
As noted previously, the CRR values are also adjusted for overburden stresses greater than 100 kP a, and can also be
adjusted by the user for static shear stress. For high overburden pressure, Youd et al. (2001) recommend to use the
K correction factor obtained from the curves developed by Hynes and Olsen. For static shear stress, the user has
the option to use the curves recommended in the NCEER proceedings (Youd and Idriss, 1997) developed by Harder
and Boulanger (1997) or the curves developed by Idriss and Boulanger (2003) to obtain K .
The lower bound range of acceptable magnitude scaling factor, MSF, for magnitudes smaller than 7.5 is defined by
the equation proposed by Idriss (Youd and Idriss, 1997):
M 
MSF   w 
 7.5 
2.56
and the upper bound by the equation proposed by Andrus and Stokoe (Youd and Idriss, 1997):
M 
MSF   w 
 7.5 
3.3
For magnitudes greater than 7.5, the factors recommended by Idriss (Youd and Idriss, 1997; Youd et al., 2001) are
used in the program.
Depending on the type of analysis you are conducting, the cyclic stress ratio induced by the ground motion is
computed as:


CSR = cyclic shear stress / effective overburden pressure; where the cyclic shear stress is computed as
65% of the peak cyclic shear stress (Kramer, 1996). The peak cyclic shear stress is obtained from the
last iteration of Option 5 in SHAKE. This stress is at the mid point of the layer, thus, for other depths,
the stresses are linearly interpolated. The effective overburden pressure is computed using the unit
weights read from Option 2 of SHAKE, and using the depth to water table entered by the user. Or,
For the simplified cyclic stress ratio analysis, these data are obtained from the Simplified Cyclic
Stress Ratio Analysis form.
The information for the analysis, selected on the Calculated Results Menu form or entered in the Simplified
Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis form, is shown on the upper left corner of the screen.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 67
To begin, enter the earthquake magnitude in the Earthquake Magnitude text box. By default, a value of 7.5 is set
by SHAKE2000. Press the Tab key once, or use the mouse to place the cursor on the CRR Water Table Depth (ft)
text box. The magnitude correction factor is automatically computed, using the values recommended by the author
selected on the MSF options section, and displayed in the Magnitude Scaling Factor box. For the calculation of
the cyclic resistance ratio, the water depth shown in the CRR Water Table Depth (ft) text box is used for the
calculation of the effective pressure. The effective overburden pressure used to calculate C vs should be the pressure
that was effective at the time the Vs test was conducted (Andrus et al., 2004). The water table entered in the Cvs
Water Table Depth text box will be used to compute the effective pressure applied in the calculation of C vs. For
the calculation of the cyclic resistance ratio, the water depth shown in the CRR Water Table Depth text box is used
instead for the effective pressure.
Next, place the cursor on the Depth (ft) column and enter the depth for the measured shear wave velocity (V s) value.
Use the Tab key or the mouse to place the cursor on the Vs column. The vertical total stress will be automatically
computed based on the total unit weights and layer thickness used either in option 2 of SHAKE or in the values
entered in the simplified CSR form. The stresses will be displayed in the Total Stress column. The correction
factor for effective overburden pressures greater than 1 tsf (or 95.76 kN/m 2) will be displayed in the Ksigma column.
If the No Ksigma option of the Ksigma Options is selected, a value of 1.0 would be shown. The depth value
should be less than the depth to the half space layer if using the CRR form with results from a SHAKE analysis; or,
less than the depth to the midpoint of the final layer of the soil column if using the CRR form with the Simplified
Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis option. If the depth value for the Vs is greater, then the program will not accept data
for the current Vs.
Enter the measured shear wave velocity, or Vs value, and then press the Tab key once to move the cursor to the
Fines (%) column. The Vs1, or the measured Vs value normalized to an overburden pressure of 1 tsf (or 95.76
kN/m2), will be calculated and shown on the Vs1 column. Also, values for CSR, CRR and Safety Factor will be
calculated and shown on their respective columns. Please note that the CRR and Safety Factor values may still be
modified based on the values entered for fines content and K a1. Next, enter the percentage of fines, if any, and press
the Tab key once to place the cursor in the Ka1 column. In the Andrus & Stokoe method, the limiting upper value of
Vs1 is shown on the Vs1* column. For the Juang et al. method, the value for the clean soil equivalence of the stresscorrected shear wave velocity, Vs1,cs, is calculated as explained before and shown on the Vs1,cs column. If necessary,
enter the value to correct for aging or cementation, or K a1. For the Andrus & Stokoe method, you also need to select
an option for the correction factor to account for the effect of aging on CRR, or K a2. To do this, select one of the
options of the Soil deposit age list box.
The value of CRR is calculated after each value used in the above equation is entered. This value of CRR shown is
the value adjusted to the earthquake magnitude, Kalpha and for effective overburden stress. For values of V s1 greater
than Vs1* as defined by Andrus and Stokoe (2004), the soil is considered non-liquefiable and NL is shown in the
CRR column. Similarly, for Vs1,cs values greater than the limiting values set for by Juang et al. (2001), the soil is
considered non-liquefiable and NL is shown in the CRR column. The cyclic resistance ratio can be entered
manually. To do this, place the cursor on the CRR column, and enter the value. This value of CRR should be
adjusted to the earthquake magnitude used in your analysis, Kalpha and for effective overburden stress. The text color
for this value will be changed to red.
Values of magnitude scaling factor (MSF) for earthquakes up to 7.5 are calculated using either the equations by I.M.
Idriss (I.M. Idriss (NCEER), I.M. Idriss (1999) options), Cetin et al. (2004), or by Andrus and Stokoe (Andrus &
Stokoe option). The fourth option, User's MSF, will allow you to enter a value between the low (i.e. from I.M.
Idriss (NCEER) equation) and high (i.e. from Andrus & Stokoe equation) limits. After selecting this option, place
the cursor on the text box next to the Magnitude Scaling Factor label, and type in a new value. This value will be
checked to verify that it falls within the recommended range. If other than the User's MSF option is selected, the
MSF will be recalculated with the equation for the new option.
The user has the option of selecting either one of two methods to obtain the CRR 7.5 value. This can be done by
selecting either one of the CRR Method options. To use the method developed by Andrus and Stokoe (1999,
2000), click on the Andrus & Stokoe option. When the Juang et al. option is selected, SHAKE2000 will use the
curve developed by Juang et al. (2001).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 68
For the settlement analysis or for the calculation of K, the program uses the standard penetration test value
calculated based on the equation recommended by Andrus and Stokoe (1999):
Vs1  93.2 N1,60 
0.231
To correct for fines content, the N1,60 determined for silty sands are corrected to equivalent clean sand penetration
resistance, N1,60,cs, using the equations developed by Idriss and Seed (Youd and Idriss, 1977) and the fines content
entered manually in the Fines (%) column.
As recommended by Andrus and Stokoe (1999), the cyclic resistance ratio obtained from the curve can be corrected
for overburden stresses greater than 100 kPa. In SHAKE2000, the correction factor for effective overburden
pressures greater than 1 tsf (or 95.76 kN/m2), or K, can be estimated from either the recommended relationship by
Harder & Boulanger (Youd and Idriss, 1997); the Idriss & Boulanger (I.M. Idriss and R.W. Boulanger, 2004)
relationship; from the Cetin-Hynes relationship (Seed et al., 2003); or, from the proposed equation by Hynes &
Olsen (Youd et al., 2001). The equation developed by Hynes and Olsen (as referenced in Youd and Idriss, 1997)
can be used to obtain K when you select the Hynes & Olsen option; and, is also the equation recommended for
current engineering practice (Youd and Idriss, 1997). When using this equation, the relative density, D r, values are
approximated based on the N1,60cs value. This approximation is based on the relationship between D r and N1,60
proposed by Torrey et al. (NUREG, 2000) for in-situ, clean sandy soils not placed recently. The Harder &
Boulanger option has been kept in the program to maintain compatibility with previous versions of SHAKE2000,
and can be selected by clicking on the Seed & Harder option button. When the No Ksigma option is selected, a
value of 1.0 will be automatically set for all correction factors, and the factor will not modify the cyclic resistance
ratio obtained from the chart.
To estimate the correction factor for initial shear stress, or K , click on the No Kalpha check box to deselect it, and
then on the Kalpha command button to display the Kalpha Correction Factor form. Please note that Youd and
Idriss (1997) and Youd et al. (2001) recommend that K  not be used for routine engineering practice.
Every time you place the cursor on a Vs row, the Add and Remove command buttons are enabled. If you want to
add data for a new Vs, place the cursor on the row of data above which the new V s is located, and click on the Add
button. A new row will be created, and the values in the new row will be the same as those for the row immediately
below. Now, you need to modify the values for the new V s. The Remove button is used to delete Vs from the soil
column. Place the cursor on any column of the V s you want to delete, and then click on the Remove button. The
data for the Vs will be removed from the soil column, and the values for the other V s updated accordingly.
The results can be saved on an ASCII file using the Save command button. The file uses the *.CRR extension by
default. The Open button can be used to retrieve these data from the file. In addition to the data shown on the form,
the cyclic stress ratios are also saved.
To plot the cyclic resistance ratio curve, click on the Plot command button. This button is enabled after data for at
least one Vs value are entered. The factor of safety against liquefaction can be displayed by clicking on the FSL
command button on the graph window. After the curves are plotted, the Report command button is enabled. This
button is used to display the Plot Vs Data form. This form will display a series of graphs that summarize the V s
input data and the results of the liquefaction analysis. You can also display a graph of the soil column with soil type
information.
The Print command button is used to print the results of the cyclic resistance ratio analysis as a table. When you
click on the command button, the Print Results of Cyclic Resistance Ratio Analysis form is displayed. For the
different print options, see the Print Results of Cyclic Resistance Ratio Analysis section of the User's Manual.
To clear all the data from the form, use the Reset command button. The current data will be deleted and default
values for some of the variables will be displayed.
The depth to the water table cannot be changed on this form. In order to use a common depth to the water table
when conducting different analyses simultaneously (i.e. SPT, CPT, Vs and CSR), the depth to water table can only
be changed either on the Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis form or the Calculated Results Plot Menu form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 69
After you have entered the basic information, the “deterministic” value of cyclic stress ratio (CSR) to trigger
liquefaction and the factor of safety will be displayed on their respective columns.
If a probabilistic analysis is conducted, the probability of liquefaction value will be shown on the PL column. This
value is obtained using the equation developed by Juang et al. (2001):
PL 
1
 F 
1  S 
 0.73 
3.4
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 70
Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Data
This form is used to evaluate the cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) required to initiate liquefaction based on Standard
Penetration Test (SPT) results, as recommended by Seed et al. (1983, 1985), and recently reviewed in the
Proceedings of the NCEER Workshop on Evaluation of Liquefaction Resistance of Soils (Youd and Idriss, 1997;
Youd et al., 2001); and, Idriss and Boulanger (2004, 2006, 2008). Further information on the evaluation of cyclic
resistance ratio using SPT data is given by Kramer (1996) and Idriss & Youd (1997). It is recommend that you
review the references listed at the end of this manual for more information on the procedure followed to estimate the
cyclic resistance ratio using SPT results, the correction factors, the coefficients that are applied, and the limitations
on the applicability of each method.
The methodology used in SHAKE2000 to evaluate liquefaction is based on the equation for factor of safety against
liquefaction for magnitude 7.5 earthquakes:
 CRR7.5 
FS  
  MSF  K   K
 CSR 
Where:
CRR7.5
CSR
MSF
K
K
=
=
=
=
=
Cyclic Resistance Ratio determined for magnitude 7.5 earthquakes
Cyclic Stress Ratio induced by ground motion
Magnitude Scaling Factor to adjust the base curve for magnitudes other than 7.5
Correction factor for high overburden stresses
Correction factor for static shear stresses
There are three methods used to estimate CRR7.5: 1) using the simplified base curve recommended for calculation of
CRR7.5 from SPT data, developed by Seed et al. (1985) and recently modified, as indicated by Youd and Idriss
(1997) and Youd et al. (2001, 2003); 2) using the deterministic correlation proposed by Seed et al. (Seed et al., 2001,
2003); and, 3) using the proposed relationship by Boulanger and Idriss (Boulanger and Idriss, 2003). The method by
Cetin & Seed (Seed et al., 2001, 2003; Cetin and Seed, 2004, Cetin et al., 2004) is selected when the Cetin & Seed
(2000) option of the Stress Reduction Factor options in the Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis form is
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 71
selected. The relationship by Boulanger and Idriss is selected when the Idriss & Boulanger option of the Cn
Options is used. For this third method, the proposed relations for C N and K are used (Boulanger and Idriss, 2003).
N1,60 is the field-measured SPT, Nm, corrected by the following factors:
N1,60  N mCN CE CBCRCS
Where: Nm
CN
CE
CB
CR
CS
=
=
=
=
=
=
field-measured standard penetration resistance
factor to correct Nm for overburden pressure
correction for hammer energy ratio
correction for borehole diameter
correction for rod length
correction for samplers with or without liners
Different options for the above correction factors are explained below.
The cyclic resistance ratios are also adjusted for high overburden pressure and can be adjusted by the user for static
shear stress. For high overburden pressure, Youd et al. (2001) recommend to use the K  correction factor obtained
from the curves developed by Hynes and Olsen. For static shear stress, the user has the option to use the curves
recommended in the NCEER proceedings (Youd and Idriss, 1997) developed by Boulanger et al. to obtain K .
The lower bound of range of acceptable magnitude scaling factor, MSF, when using the User’s MSF option for
magnitudes smaller than 7.5 is defined by the equation proposed by Idriss (Youd and Idriss, 1997):
M 
MSF   w 
 7.5 
2.56
and the upper bound by the equation proposed by Andrus and Stokoe (Youd and Idriss, 1997):
M 
MSF   w 
 7.5 
3.3
For magnitudes greater than 7.5 the factors recommended by Idriss (Youd and Idriss, 1997; Youd et al., 2001) or
Cetin, K. et al (2004) are used in the program.
Depending on the type of analysis you are conducting, the cyclic stress ratio induced by the ground motion is
computed as:


CSR = cyclic shear stress / effective overburden pressure; where the cyclic shear stress is computed as
65% of the peak cyclic shear stress (Kramer, 1996). The peak cyclic shear stress is obtained from the
last iteration of Option 5 in SHAKE. This stress is at the mid point of the layer, thus, for other depths,
the stresses are linearly interpolated. The effective overburden pressure is computed using the unit
weights read from Option 2 of SHAKE, and using the depth to water table entered by the user. Or,
For the simplified cyclic stress ratio analysis, these data are obtained from the Simplified Cyclic
Stress Ratio Analysis form.
The information for the analysis, selected on the Calculated Results Menu form or entered in the Simplified
Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis form, is shown on the upper left corner of the screen.
To begin, enter the earthquake magnitude in the Earthquake Magnitude text box. By default, a value of 7.5 is set
by SHAKE2000. Press the Tab key once, or use the mouse to place the cursor on the CRR Water Table Depth
text box. The magnitude correction factor is automatically computed, using the values recommended by the author
selected on the MSF options section, and displayed in the Magnitude Scaling Factor box. Press the Tab key once
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 72
to place the cursor on the Cn Water Table Depth text box. The effective overburden pressure used to calculate C N
should be the pressure that was effective at the time the SPT test was conducted (Youd and Idriss, 1997). The water
table entered in the Cn Water Table Depth text box will be used to compute the effective pressure applied in the
calculation of CN. For the calculation of the cyclic resistance ratio, the water depth shown in the CRR Water Table
Depth text box is used instead for the effective pressure. Similarly, if an overburden fill is added in the CSR
analysis when using the simplified approach, the increase in pressure due to the overburden fill will not be
considered when normalizing the SPT data.
To select the correction for hammer energy efficiency, Ce, click on the arrow to open the list of energy ratios for
SPT and then select an SPT method. Use the Tab key to move the cursor to the text box next to the list. An average
value to correct the measured penetration resistance (N value) for 60% rod energy will be displayed (Seed et al.,
2003; Youd et al., 2001). For each method, you can enter a value within the range shown. You could also enter a
different value by choosing the Other energy ratio option from the list, and then entering the value in the text box.
There are two other correction factors that apply to the SPT. These are shown on the lower right corner of the form.
The Rod Length list shows the correction factors for different lengths of the drill rods. Seed et al. (1985)
recommend a value of 0.75 for N-values measured at depths between 0 to 10 feet (0 to 3 meters). This correction
is chosen by clicking on the Seed’s 0.75 for <= 10’ (or 3 m). The third option, Skempton, allows you to correct
according to different lengths of the rod as recommended by Skempton (1986). An “above ground rod extension”
value can be entered in the Above Ground Rod Extension text box. This value will be added to the depth of the
SPT value when computing the CR coefficient, but it will not be added to the depth on any other computation where
depth is required.
Please note that there are no specific guidelines as to the use of, and/or values for the above ground rod extension.
For example, Cetin et al. (2004) in the development of their method indicated that “ except for cases where rod
“stickup” (protrusion) above the top of the borehole was recorded, rod protrusion of 1.2 m (4 ft) above the top of
the borehole was assumed for donut hammers and for the USGS safety hammers, and rod protrusion of 2.1 m (7
ft) was assumed for all other safety hammers”. Idriss & Boulanger (2008) do not include recommendations for the
rod length extension; however, they used a value of 1.5 m on the example included in their publication. In the
program, the values in Cetin et al. and Idriss & Boulanger will be used as “starting point”. The value will also be
changed when selecting a different type of hammer for the energy ratio coefficient. However, the user should verify
that these values are applicable to his/her own application. It is recommended to review the references for each
method to determine its applicability and the values recommended.
The Sampler list shows correction factors for the case when the sampler is used without liners, as recommended by
Seed et al. (1985), Skempton (1986), or Cetin et al. (2004, 2006).
Every time you select a different energy correction factor, sampler, or rod length option, the correction factors will
be automatically updated and displayed on the respective data columns.
Next, place the cursor on the Depth column and enter the depth for the measured penetration resistance (N) value.
Use the Tab key or the mouse to place the cursor on the N (field) column. The vertical total stress will be
automatically computed based on the total unit weights and layer thickness used either in option 2 of SHAKE or in
the values entered in the simplified CSR form. The stresses will be displayed in the Total Stress column.
The overburden correction factor (CN) computed using the equation selected on the Cn Options, is displayed in the
Cn column. In addition, the values for SPT correction factors for energy, rod, and sampler are displayed. The
correction factor for effective overburden pressures greater than 1 tsf (or 95.76 kN/m2) will be displayed in the
Ksigma column. If the No Ksigma option of the Ksigma Options is selected, a value of 1.0 would be shown. The
depth value should be less than the depth to the half space layer if using the CRR form with results from a SHAKE
analysis; or, less than the depth to the midpoint of the final layer of the soil column if using the CRR form with the
Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis option. If the depth value for the SPT is greater, then the program will not
accept data for the current SPT.
Enter the measured penetration resistance, or N value. The N1,60, or the measured N value normalized to an
overburden pressure of 1 tsf (or 95.76 kN/m2) and corrected to an energy ratio of 60%, will be calculated and shown
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 73
on the N1,60 column. Press the Tab key until the cursor moves to the % Fines column and enter the percentage of
fines, if any. After placing the cursor on the next column, the cyclic resistance ratio required to initiate liquefaction
will be obtained from the respective chart and shown on the CRR column. The ratio is interpolated based on the
percent fines and N1, 60 values if necessary, and modified for a different earthquake magnitude using the magnitude
scaling factor. Enter the remaining data for the other N values.
Values of magnitude scaling factor (MSF) for earthquakes up to 7.5 are calculated using either the equation by I.M.
Idriss (I.M. Idriss options), Cetin et al., or by Andrus and Stokoe (Andrus & Stokoe option). The fourth option,
User's MSF, will allow you to enter a value between the low (i.e. from Idriss equation) and high (i.e. from Andrus
& Stokoe equation) limits. After selecting this option, place the cursor on the text box next to the Magnitude
Scaling Factor label, and type in a new value. This value will be checked to verify that it falls within the
recommended range. If other than the User's MSF option is selected, the MSF will be recalculated with the
equation for the new option.
Four options are provided to calculate the overburden correction factor (C N): Liao & Whitman (Liao and Whitman,
1986); Skempton et al. (Skempton, 1986; Jamiolkowski et al., 1985; Fear and McRoberts, 1995); Kayen et al.
(Kayen et al., 1992 as referenced in Youd et al., 2001); and Idriss & Boulanger (Boulanger and Idriss, 2003).
Every time you select one of these options, the data on the form will be automatically recalculated. This automatic
recalculation also takes place when the earthquake magnitude, energy ratio correction factor, or depth to water table
values is modified. As recommended in Youd et al. (2001), a maximum value of 1.7 will be set for C N by the
program. The equations by Liao & Whitman and by Kayen et al. are recommended for current engineering practice
(Youd et al., 2001). The equations by Skempton et al. and Jamiolkowski et al. are kept in the program to maintain
compatibility with previous versions of SHAKE2000. The equation by Skempton is used for effective vertical stress
less than 1 tsf (or 95.76 kN/m2), and the equation by Jamiolkowski et al. for stress greater than or equal to 1 tsf (or
95.76 kN/m2).
As recommended by Seed and Harder (1990), the cyclic resistance ratio obtained from the chart will be “...
corrected for conditions with initial effective overburden stresses greater than 1 tsf”. In SHAKE2000, the
correction factor for effective overburden pressures greater than 1 tsf (or 95.76 kN/m 2), or K, can be estimated from
either the relationship by Harder & Boulanger (Youd and Idriss, 1997); from the relationship by Cetin-Hynes (Cetin
et al., 2004); from the proposed equation by Hynes and Olsen (Youd et al., 2001); or, from the recently proposed
relations by Idriss & Boulanger (Idriss and Boulanger , 2003a,b; Boulanger and Idriss, 2003).
The equation developed by Hynes and Olsen (as referenced in Youd et al., 2001) can be used to obtain K  when you
select the Hynes & Olsen option; and, is also the equation recommended for current engineering practice (Youd et
al., 2001). When using this equation, the relative density, D r, values are approximated based on the N1,60cs value.
This approximation is based on the relationship between Dr and N1,60 proposed by Torrey et al. (NUREG, 2000) for
in-situ, clean sandy soils not placed recently. The Harder & Boulanger option has been kept in the program to
maintain compatibility with previous versions of SHAKE2000. When the No Ksigma option is selected, a value of
1.0 will be automatically set for all correction factors, and the factor will not modify the cyclic resistance ratio
obtained from the chart. The Idriss & Boulanger option will only be enabled when the Idriss & Boulanger option
of the Cn Options is selected. The Cetin – Hynes option is used when following the procedure recommended in
Cetin et al. (2004), and is enabled when the Cetin, K. et al. MSF option is selected.
To estimate the correction factor for initial shear stress, or K , click on the No Kalpha check box to deselect it, and
then on the Kalpha command button to display the Kalpha Correction Factor form. Please note that Youd and
Idriss (1997) and Youd et al. (2001) recommend that K  not be used for routine engineering practice.
Becker penetration test (BPT) blow count values can be used to conduct a liquefaction analysis by first converting
the blow counts to equivalent SPT N60 values, and then following the procedure described in this section. To use
BPT blow counts, click on the BPT command button to display the SPT from Becker Penetration Test (BPT)
Data form. Using this form, the BPT blow counts can be converted to equivalent N 60 values by using one of a
number of correlations. Please refer to the SPT from Becker Penetration Test (BPT) Data section of this manual
for further information. Please note that when using BPT blow counts, you need to use the SPT from Becker
Penetration Test (BPT) Data form to edit the depth and/or BPT blow count values. Further, the energy correction
options will be disabled, and a default value of 1 will be set for the energy correction ratio.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 74
When conducting a liquefaction analysis following the method recommended in the 1996 NCEER and 1998
NCEER/NSF Workshops (Youd et al., 2001), the liquefaction-induced lateral displacement can be estimated using
the method proposed by Zhang et al. (Zhang et al., 2004). After the factors of safety are calculated, the LDI
command button will be enabled. Please note that you may need to first plot the CSR/CRR vs. depth curves before
the LDI command button is enabled. Click on this button to compute the lateral displacement index and to display
the Liquefaction-Induced Ground Deformation form.
Every time you place the cursor on a SPT row, the Add and Remove command buttons are enabled. If you want to
add data for a new SPT, place the cursor on the row of data above which the new SPT is located, and click on the
Add button. A new row will be created, and the values in the new row will be the same as those for the row
immediately below. Now, you need to modify the values for the new SPT. The Remove button is used to delete a
SPT from the soil column. Place the cursor on any column of the SPT you want to delete, and then click on the
Remove button. The data for the SPT will be removed from the soil column, and the values for the other SPTs
updated accordingly.
The results can be saved on an ASCII file using the Save command button. The file uses the *.CRR extension by
default. The Open button can be used to retrieve these data from the file. In addition to the data shown on the form,
the cyclic stress ratios computed are also saved. This value is the ratio at the same depth as the N value. Thus, it is
obtained by interpolating between values at the midpoint of the soil layers used in SHAKE or in CSR analysis.
To plot the cyclic resistance ratio curve, click on the Plot command button. This button is enabled after data for at
least one SPT value are entered. The factor of safety against liquefaction can be displayed by clicking on the FSL
command button on the graph window. After you plotted the curves, the Report command button is enabled. This
button is used to display the Plot SPT Data form. This form will display a series of graphs that summarize the SPT
input data and the results of the liquefaction analysis. You can also display a graph of the soil column with soil type
information.
The Print command button is used to print the results of the cyclic resistance ratio analysis as a table. When you
click on the command button, the Print Results of Cyclic Resistance Ratio Analysis form is displayed. For the
different print options, see the Print Results of Cyclic Resistance Ratio Analysis section of the User's Manual.
To clear all the data from the form, use the Reset command button. The current data will be deleted and default
values for some of the variables will be displayed.
Notes:







When the depth to the water table is lower than the depth to the SPT, then “- - -” will be shown on the
cyclic resistance ratio column. Also, “> 0.5” is shown for those points on the chart located where the cyclic
resistance ratio curves become vertical lines. These points will not be shown on the plot, and a gap on the
curve is shown for the latter.
The value of CRR shown on the form is the value adjusted to the earthquake magnitude used in your
analysis.
When conducting simultaneous liquefaction analyses using SPT and CPT data, then both the depth to the
water table and the earthquake magnitude should be the same for both analyses. If this is not the case, the
most recent analysis conducted will be retained in the computer memory, and the other analysis will need
to be conducted again to reflect the change on either of these parameters.
The acceptable range of earthquake magnitude is 5.0 to 8.5.
The maximum and minimum values for K  depend on the equation selected.
Depth values should be greater than zero, and less than the depth to the half space for a SHAKE analysis;
or to midpoint of the last layer of the soil column for the simplified CSR analysis.
When SHAKE2000 recalculates the data after modifying a parameter (e.g. new depth to water table), those
values that were entered manually will not be modified. If you would like to use the value computed by
SHAKE2000 instead of the value entered manually, delete the current value, and then press the Tab key to
move the cursor to a different column. The computed value will be displayed after the cursor is moved to a
different column.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 75


When opening a file that saves Cyclic Resistance Ratio data from a previous analysis, the data will be
recalculated to reflect the current stress conditions for the current analysis. The data saved in the file will
not be modified, but the data displayed on the screen may be different due to the recalculation process. If
the depth for any SPT value in the file is greater than the depth to the base layer, the file will be closed, and
no more data will be read.
The cyclic resistance ratio can be entered manually. To do this, place the cursor on the CRR column, and
enter the value. This value of CRR should be adjusted to the earthquake magnitude used in your analysis,
K and for effective overburden stress. The text color for this value will be changed to red. Alternatively,
you can delete the computed value. Please note that although the values of CRR and FSL will be plotted,
settlement for the respective layers will not be computed. This option allows you to modify the CSR value,
or delete it, in the event there are layers in the soil profile that do not liquefy, or for which the procedure
described herein does not apply. The value of CRR will be computed again if a value of N is entered in the
respective column.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 76
Database of Damping Ratio Curves
When editing an existing *.EDT file, you can add damping ratio curves, one at a time, using the New and then the
MAT command buttons of the Option 1 Editor form. When you click on the button, the Database of Damping
Ratio Curves form will be displayed as shown above. The listing of all the damping ratio curves available in the
shakey2k.mat material database file will be shown in the list box.
To select a damping curve, click on the material to highlight it, and then on the Choose command button. You will
return to the Option 1 Editor form. You will be asked if you want to replace the current material properties data
with the ones just selected. You can also double-click on the material to select it and return to the Option 1 Editor
form.
The current damping data entered in the Option 1 form can be added to the database of material properties. First
click on the Dbase command button on the Option 1 editor form. Then, click on the Add command button. You
will be asked if you would like to add the data to the position highlighted in the list of materials.
Data for a specific material can be deleted from the database. To do this, highlight the material to be deleted and
then click on the Delete command button. You will be asked if you wish to continue with deletion of this material.
Periodically, we will post in the SHAKE2000 web site, a file that includes properties for other materials that became
available in the technical literature, or that were contributed by users of the program. After this file is downloaded,
click on the Update command button. You will be asked if you would like to continue with updating of the
database. If you click on Yes, the new data will be added to the end of the file.
This form is also used to select a damping curve for the Makdisi & Seed simplified displacement analysis.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 77
Database of Dynamic Material Properties
This form is used to select the shear modulus reduction and damping ratio curves for the current set of Option 1.
MAT File's Option List: When this form is displayed, the top list box will show the Modulus Reduction Curves
(G/Gmax) that are included in the *.MAT file, and the first curve will be highlighted. This list is used to select the
materials that will be included in the current data set of Option 1 for the *.EDT file. The vertical scroll bars on the
right side of the list box can be used to scroll between the options. To select a curve, click on it to highlight it, and
then click on the Add button. You can also double click on the curve to add it to the materials list.
The Order, Remove and Clear buttons are not enabled, i.e. they are grayed out. These buttons are enabled when a
curve from the selected materials list is selected. After selecting a curve, a number will be shown next to the
identification on the bottom list box. This number is the position of the material in Option 1, i.e. the material
number.
EDT File's Materials List: This list box will show the curves that will be included in the current set of Option 1. If
no curves have been selected before this form is displayed, then this list box will be empty. Once you have selected
the curves, you can reorganize them with the Order button, delete any with the Remove button, and delete all the
material curves from this list box with the Clear button.
To switch between the Modulus Reduction and the Damping Ratio curves, click on the Damping button. This
button will change to Moduli when the Damping Ratio curves are being displayed.
After you have selected the different materials, click on the Return command button to return to the Option 1 editor
form. You will be asked if you want to use the materials chosen for the current set of Option 1. Click on Yes to
accept them, or on No to remove them.
The database file is a text file named SHAKEY2K.MAT, and it is created in the directory where you installed
SHAKE2000. This file can be edited with a text processor, so that you can add materials to the database file.
However, you should keep the format of the file as shown below.
Format of SHAKE2YK.MAT:
SHAKE2000 ".MAT" File
Dynamic Material Properties Database
Number of Modulus Reduction Curves: 2
Number of Damping Ratio Curves:
3
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 78
Option 1 -- Dynamic material properties: Modulus Reduction Curves
10
0.0001
3.16
1.
0.02
9
0.0001
1.
1.
0.057
Clay PI=0
(CLAY PI = 0-10) Modulus Reduction Curves Feb. 1988
0.001
0.00316
0.01
0.0316
0.1
0.316
1.
10.
0.974
0.915
0.786
0.574
0.312
0.16
0.06
0.006
Sand CP<1
(SAND CP<1.0 KSC) Modulus Reduction Curves 3/11 1988
0.000316 0.001
0.00316
0.01
0.0316
0.1
0.316
0.978
0.934
0.838
0.672
0.463
0.253
0.14
Option 1 -- Dynamic material properties: Damping Ratio Curves
10
0.0001
3.16
2.0
26.0
9
0.0001
10.
1.
30.
8
0.0001
0.5
Clay
0.001
10.0
2.5
29.0
Sand
0.001
Damping CLAY
0.00316
0.01
May 24 - 1972
0.0316
0.1
0.316
1.0
13.75
20.0
Damping SAND, February 1971
0.003
0.01
0.03
0.1
0.3
1.
1.6
3.12
20.9
25.
Gravel
0.0003
1.
Damping Ratios for Gravelly Soils - Seed et al 1988
0.001
0.003
0.01
0.03
0.1
0.3
1.75
3.
5.5
9.5
15.5
21.
3.5
4.75
5.8
6.5
9.5
9.25
15.4
The first and second lines (i.e. SHAKE2000 ".MAT" File & Dynamic Material Properties
Database) should not be modified. Two curves for modulus reduction and three for damping are shown in the
above example. Thus, a 2 is shown in the Number of Modulus Reduction Curves: line, and a 3 in the
Number of Damping Ratio Curves: line. If you add a new curve, increase the number accordingly. You
can also delete curves, and will need to decrease the number accordingly. You can also reorganize the sets in a
different order; however, the format of the data should be kept the same.
There is a blank line after the number of curves lines, then a line that identifies the section for the Modulus
Reduction Curves (i.e., Option 1 -- Dynamic material properties: Modulus Reduction
Curves), followed by another blank line. The modulus reduction (G/Gmax) data for each material are entered next.
Each material follows the format described in the SHAKE2000 manual for option 1. In the first line (e.g. 10
Clay PI=0
(CLAY PI = 0-10) Modulus Reduction Curves Feb. 1988), enter the number of
strain values to be read in columns 1 - 5 (e.g. 10). In columns 10 through 80 enter the identification for this set of
modulus reduction values (e.g. Clay PI=0
(CLAY PI = 0-10) Modulus Reduction Curves
Feb. 1988). This identification label is formed by two segments. In columns 10 to 21 enter a label that can be
used to identify the material (e.g. Clay PI=0), and that together with the information entered in columns 22 to 80
(e.g. (CLAY PI = 0-10) Modulus Reduction Curves Feb. 1988), will form the identification label
for the material in the SHAKE2000 option 1 data. The information entered in columns 10 to 21 will be included in
the table of results to help you identify each soil layer with a material name. In the second and consecutive lines
enter the strain values, in percent, beginning with the lowest value (e.g. 0.0001
0.001
0.00316
0.01
0.0316
0.1
0.316
1.). Enter eight values per line using a format of
8F10.0, with a maximum of 8 values per line. It is also recommended that the numbers be right justified. After
entering the strain values, enter the values for Modulus Reduction (G/G max), each corresponding to the shear strain
provided in the previous lines, using the same format of 8F10.0 (e.g. 1.
0.974
0.915
0.786
0.574
0.312
0.16
0.06).
After the last set of Modulus Reduction data, there is a blank line, and then the identification line for the section of
the file where the damping ratio curves are saved (i.e. Option 1 -- Dynamic material properties:
Damping Ratio Curves). This line is followed by a blank line. The damping data for each material are
entered next. Each material follows the format described in the SHAKE2000 manual for option 1. In the first line
(e.g. 10
Clay
Damping CLAY May 24 - 1972), enter the number of strain values to be
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 79
read in columns 1 - 5 (e.g. 10). In columns 10 through 80 enter the identification for this set of damping values
(e.g. Clay
Damping CLAY May 24 - 1972). In the second and consecutive lines enter the
strain values, in percent, beginning with the lowest value (e.g. 0.0001
0.001
0.00316
0.01
0.0316
0.1
0.316
1.0). Enter eight values per line using a format of 8F10.0, with a
maximum of 8 values per line. After entering the strain values, enter the values for damping, each corresponding to
the shear strain provided in the previous lines, using the same format of 8F10.0 (e.g. 2.0
2.5
3.5
4.75
6.5
9.25
13.75
20.0).
After modifying the file, don't forget to update the number of curves for Modulus Reduction and Damping.
Some of the curves included with SHAKE2000 where obtained from the following references: Sukhmander Singh
and Bruce J. Murphy (1990); Kavazanjian, E. Jr.; Matasovic, N.; and Caldwell, J. (1998).; Idriss, I.M.; Fiegel,
Gregg; Hudson, Martin B.; Mundy, Peter K.; and Herzig, Roy (1995); Gazetas G. and Dakoulas, P. (1992); Seed,
H.B.; Wong, R. T.; Idriss, I.M.; and Tokimatsu, K. (1986); Vucetic, M. and Dobry, R. (1991); Rollins, K.M.; Evans,
M.D.; Diehl, N.B. and Daily, W.D. III (1998); Yegian, M.K.; Harb, J.N. and Kadakal, U. (1998); Makdisi, F.I. and
Seed, H.B. (1978); Schnabel, P.B. (1973); Seed, H.B. and Idriss, I.M. (1970); Sun, J.I.; Golesorkhi, R. and Seed,
H.B. (1988), Wehling et al. (2003); Darendeli, M. (2001); EPRI (1993); Roblee and Chiou (2004); Martirosyan et al.
(2003); Singh and Donovan (1977); Matasovic, N. (1993); and, Zekkos et al. (2008).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 80
Database of G/Gmax Curves
When editing an existing *.EDT file, you can add new G/Gmax curves, one at a time, using the New and then the
MAT command buttons of the Option 1 Editor form. When you click on the button, the G/Gmax Curves Database
form will be displayed as shown above. The listing of all the G/G max curves available in the shakey2k.mat material
database file will be shown in the list box.
To select a G/Gmax curve, click on the material to highlight it, and then on the Choose command button. You will
return to the Option 1 Editor form. You will be asked if you want to replace the current material properties data
with the ones just selected. You can also double-click on the material to select it and return to the Option 1 Editor
form.
The current G/Gmax data entered in the Option 1 form can be added to the database of material properties. To do
this, first click on the Dbase command button and then on the Add command button. You will be asked if you
would like to add the data to the position highlighted in the list of materials.
Data for a specific material can be deleted from the database. To do this, highlight the material to be deleted and
then click on the Delete command button. You will be asked if you wish to continue with deletion of this material.
Periodically, we will post in the SHAKE2000 web site, a file that includes properties for other materials that became
available in the technical literature, or that were contributed by users of the program. After this file is downloaded,
click on the Update command button. You will be asked if you would like to continue with updating of the
database. If you click on Yes, the new data will be added to the end of the file.
This form is also used to select a G/Gmax curve for the Makdisi & Seed simplified displacement analysis.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 81
Dynamic Material Properties Model
This form is used to enter the input data for different relationships for estimating normalized shear modulus and
material damping ratio of soils. The relationships included with SHAKE2000 are those developed by Darendeli,
M.B. (2001); Ishibashi and Zhang (1993); and, Zhang, Andrus and Juang (Zhang et al., 2005; Andrus et al., 2003;
Zhang et al., 2008).
For the Darendeli relationship, it is necessary to enter values for the mean effective confining stress, ‟m, in
atmospheres; the soil plasticity index as percentage; overconsolidation ratio; loading frequency; and, number of
loading cycles. For the Zhang, Andrus & Juang relationship you need to enter a value for mean effective
confining stress in kPa, select one of the Geologic Unit options, and enter a value for Plasticity Index (PI). For
each Geologic Unit option, a range of PI values is displayed on the PI label. For PI values other than those
presented in Andrus et al. (2003), the coefficients will be obtained through interpolation. The effective confining
stress in kN/m2 and plasticity index values should be provided when using the Ishibashi & Zhang relationship.
After entering the data for the model, select the property curve, i.e. Shear Modulus or Damping, to plot and then
click on the Plot command button to display the curve. When the graph is displayed up to 20 different values to
define the curve have been selected by default. Twenty is the maximum number of points used in SHAKE to define
both the shear modulus reduction and damping ratio curves. You can select different points by clicking on the point
with the mouse.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 82
Every time a symbol is chosen it changes to a light green square which is linked by a light green line to each chosen
symbol. The curve represented by the green symbols and green line will be the one used by SHAKE. In the graph
above, 20 points have been selected to define the curve.
To remove any point from the selected group, just click on it. The curve will be redrawn using only the remaining
symbols. After selecting the points, click on the Close command button to return to the model form. You need to
repeat the same process for the Damping ratio curve.
The mean effective confining stress, ‟m, used in these models is computed from:
 1  2 K o' 

 3 
 m'   v' 
Where; ‟v
K ‟o
= vertical effective stress
= coefficient of effective earth stress at rest
After points from both curves have been selected, i.e. the number of points for each curve is at least one, the Ok
command button will be enabled. Click on the Ok command button to return to the Option 1 editor form and add
the new curves to the set of material properties.
The Mean  Std. Dev. options to compute the mean  standard deviation curves are only enabled when the
Darendeli, M.B. or Zhang, Andrus & Juang model is being used to obtain the curves.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 83
Earthquake Records Database
This form is used to display a listing of earthquake records available in your system. Basic information for each
record is saved in the SHAKEY2K.EQ database file located in the same directory where SHAKE2000 is installed.
This file is an ASCII text file that can be modified either manually or through the Edit Database of Ground
Motion Files form to include new information about new records, or to edit current information.
To select an earthquake record, click on it to highlight it, and then click on the Choose button. You will return to
either, the Option 3 editor where the data will be displayed on the corresponding cells; or, to the Plot Object
Motion form, where the data will be displayed on the bottom section of the form.
Use the Directory command button to choose the path to the directory where the earthquake motion files are stored.
After clicking on this button, the Path to Earthquake Files form will be displayed. Use the mouse to select the
drive and directory, and then click on the Ok button. The directory will be displayed on the text box next to the
Path to Earthquake Files check box.
In the SHAKEY2K.EQ data file, the name of the earthquake ground motion file is stored as shown on the data box
below the Ground Motion File label. Due to the restrictions of SHAKE2000 to allow only 30 characters for this
path, it is difficult to include the entire path to the file in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file. For example, if the path to the
earthquake file is saved as quakes\alaska.eq in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file, but the physical path to the file in the hard
disk is c:\SHAKE2000\quakes\alaska.eq, and depending on the last directory path used, SHAKE2000 may not be
able to find the file to plot it. This is because SHAKE2000 will look for it in the last directory path from which data
was accessed, and if in this path the subdirectory quakes is not found, then the file alaska.eq will not be found
either and an error will occur during plotting. To work around this, use the Directory command button to select the
C:\SHAKE2000 path. Then SHAKE2000 will look for the correct subdirectory and file.
The following web sites provide ground motion records for download. Please note that the following Internet
addresses were valid at the time this User‟s Manual was written.
1.
Y.K. Wen and C.L. Wu; Generation of Ground Motions for Mid-America Cities. University of Illinois at
Urbana-Champaign.
http://mae.ce.uiuc.edu/Research/RR-1/Gmotions/Index.html
As noted in their web site: “Simulated ground motions for three cities (Memphis, TN, Carbondale, IL and St.
Louis, MO) and two soil conditions (hard rock outcrop and representative soil) are provided: 10 ground
motions for each city and soil condition combination. Each filename contains 7 characters: 1st alphabetical
letter indicates city location (m for Memphis, c for Carbondale, and l for St. Louis); 2nd and 3rd numeric letters
indicate exceedance probability level in 50 years; 5 th and 6th numeric letters indicate sequential number in each
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 84
earthquake set. The last alphabetical letter indicates soil condition (r for hard rock, s for representative soil).
For example:
"m10_01s" stands for m = Memphis, 10 = 10% in 50 years, 01 = sample number, s = representative soil.
In each file, the 1st line gives information used for generating ground motion, including file ID, moment
magnitude, focal depth (km), epicentral distance (km), closest horizontal distance to the surface projection of
rupture plane (km), epsilon (deviation from median attenuation). The 2 nd line gives the headline of the ground
motion data. Starting from the 3rd line is the ground motion data.”
2.
Woodward-Clyde Federal Services; SAC Joint Venture Steel Project Phase 2, Develop Suites of Time
Histories. Draft Report, Project Task: 5.4.1. March 21, 1997.
http://quiver.eerc.berkeley.edu:8080/studies/summary/5-4-1.html
As noted in their web site: “The purpose of this work is to provide response spectra and time histories for use in
topical investigations, case studies, and trial applications in the SAC Phase 2 Steel Project. Ground motion
estimates are provided in three locations of the United States (Boston, Seattle, and Los Angeles) corresponding
to seismic zones 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Suites of time histories are provided at two probabilities of occurrence
(2% in 50 years and 10% in 50 years) in each of these three locations for firm soil conditions. Time histories
are also provided for 50% in 50 years for Los Angeles. Time histories for soft soil profiles are provided for
10% in 50 years in all three locations. Near fault time histories are also provided for seismic zone 4
conditions.”
3.
Elgamal, A., Ashford, S., and Kramer, S., Eds.; 1st PEER Workshop on Characterization of Special Source
Effects. Workshop Report, UCSD, July 20-21, 1998, Pacific Center for Earthquake Engineering Research,
UC Berkeley, 1999.
http://peer.berkeley.edu/research/motions/workshop_report1.html
As noted in their web site: “The main objective of the 1st PEER Workshop on Characterization of Special
Source Effects was to work towards development of a set of reference ground-motion time-histories for a wide
range of earthquake magnitudes, site distances, and site characteristics. These ground motions are intended to
provide a common basis for subsequent PEER investigations. Representatives from SCEC, USGS, and private
industry as well as PEER researchers, participated in this effort. Particular attention was paid to the definition
of representative ground motions for urban areas in California and the Pacific Northwest. The workshop goals
included definition of an initial set of time-histories, and identification of required efforts towards the
development of a more comprehensive data set. During the workshop, a set of nineteen earthquake records was
selected. All selected motions will be accessible through a PEER Center web-site. The overall effort will be
finalized during the next workshop to address this topic, in early 1999.”
4.
PEER Strong Motion Database: This database contains over 1000 records from 140 earthquakes from
tectonically active regions, processed by Dr. Walt Silva of Pacific Engineering using publicly available
data from Federal, State, and private providers of strong motion data.
http://peer.berkeley.edu/smcat/search.html
http://peer.berkeley.edu/nga/search.html
5.
Mid-America Earthquake Center; Generation of Synthetic Ground Motions.
http://mae.ce.uiuc.edu/TaskStatements/RR-2.html
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 85
As noted in this web site: “This project will investigate the generation of synthetic ground motions resulting
from large New Madrid earthquakes. In this project, uncertainties in seismic and soil parameters used in
modeling of seismic source, path attenuation, and local site condition will be quantified. Then for a specific
combination of moment magnitude, epicentral distance, and site conditions, a set of synthetic ground motions
will be generated.”
The ground motions available at this site are saved in a Unix formatting, thus you will need to use a text
processor that can convert the file to a DOS format.
It is highly recommended that you use the above web sites to search for records given specific characteristics (e.g.
mechanism, soil classification, magnitude, etc.). When downloading a file from an internet site, you need to save
the file as a text file. Once you have an appropriate record for your analysis, you may need to transform the record
to a format compatible with SHAKE2000. You can use the Ground Motion File Utilities: Conversion &
Database option of the Main Menu to convert the file.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 86
Earthquake Response Analysis
1. EDT File:
An *.EDT file is an ASCII file that contains data for the different options used by SHAKE2000. The data are in the
format required so that the *.EDT file may be used as an input file for SHAKE2000. However, SHAKE2000 uses
this file as a database to create an input file. In other words, the *.EDT file can contain several sets for each option
(e.g. 6 different sets of Option 2), up to a combined total for all of the options of 32,000. Thus, when the file is
saved, the options will be saved in numeric order, and all the sets for each option will be grouped together.
EDT File's Option List: When this form is displayed, the list box will show the options that are included in the
*.EDT file, and the first option will be selected. This list is used to select the options that the user can edit and
options to be included in the input file. The vertical scroll bars on the right side of the list box can be used to scroll
between the options. To edit an option, click on it to highlight it and then click on the Edit button. You can also
double click on the option to edit it. If you want to remove an option from the *.EDT file, highlight it and then click
on the Delete button. The option cannot be un-erased. To create a specific option that is not included in the *.EDT
file, or to create a new set of an existent option, click on the New button. Click on this button to display the
SHAKE2000 – Option List form to select new options.
To save the *.EDT and Input files, click on the Save button. The files can be saved automatically after you edit an
option, or before you execute SHAKE, by selecting the Automatically save EDT & Input Files check box.
To print the EDT file, first click on the Print EDT File option to select it, and then click on the Print command
button. This will display the Print *.EDT and Input Files form.
The Check input data before running SHAKE option is selected by default. When this option is selected, the data
in the different options that form the input data will be checked to determine if there are any errors that may cause
problems during the execution of SHAKE. For example, a value of zero for the thickness of a layer will cause
SHAKE to crash when Option 5 is started. The program tries to detect this and other errors before execution of
SHAKE is started. The user will be provided with detailed information on the error. If you are sure that your data
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 87
are correct and do not wish to check the data before execution of SHAKE starts, click on the check box to de-select
this option.
The Create Excel *.CSV Files option can be used to save the output data from SHAKE as comma separated values
files that can be opened with Excel. The program will use the name shown in the Name of Plot Files text box and
add three letters to identify the data in the file. For example, SHAKEout-ACC.csv will save the acceleration time
histories obtained from option 6. The files will be created in the folder shown on the Directory of Output Files text
box.
For multiple analyses in sequence, the Repeat input list for each set of an option option facilitates the creation of
the input file. For example in the previous form, there are 3 sets of option 3 on the EDT list (i.e. top window of
options). To create an input file that includes an analysis for each of these sets, first add the list of options to the
input window (i.e. bottom window of options) to define an analysis (e.g., options 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 and 11).
Then, select the Repeat input list for each set of an option check box to select it. Next, click on any of the option
3 sets in the EDT list window and click on Add. You can then use this procedure to repeat the list of input options
for any of the other options included in the EDT list.
When the Automatically save EDT & Input Files option is selected (an x is shown on the check box) the EDT and
Input files will be automatically saved every time you return from editing an option (using the Edit command
button), or previously to execute SHAKE (with the SHAKE command button).
The Save Ground Motion Data for RFRS Analysis option is used when the results of the SHAKE analysis will be
used to conduct either a ratio of response spectra, RRS, or Fourier spectra, RFS, analysis of the ground surface
motions to the input outcropping rock motions. The results of the RRS analysis can be used to obtain a design soil
response spectrum by multiplying either the mean or the median curve of the RRS curves by the rock response
spectrum (Dobry et al., 2000; Martirosyan et al., 2002). A likely application of this method would be to obtain a
response spectrum for Site Class F soils as explained in section 3.4 of NEHRP Commentary (Building Seismic
Safety Council, 2004b). For the RRS or RFS analysis using SHAKE, the input motions used in Option 3 would
usually be defined as outcrop motions in Option 4. The program will save the information for the acceleration time
histories at the surface, i.e. usually layer number 1, computed with Option 6. The RRS or RFS analysis is then
conducted using the Ratio of Fourier/Response Spectra form displayed with the RFRS command button.
The Random generation of EDT data option is used to randomly generate sets of options 1, 2 and 3 based on
lower bound, mean value, upper bound value and standard deviation values for modulus reduction and damping
curves; thickness, Gmax and/or shear wave velocity; and peak acceleration. When this option is selected, the current
data will be deleted and a new file will be created. A message asking if this is acceptable will be displayed before
the new file is created. This new file will be formed by a default set of options. The Random command button will
be enabled. Additional information on this option is provided in the Random Generation of EDT Data section of
this user‟s manual.
After randomly generating the data, the input file will be automatically created following the listing of options
shown on the bottom list of the form. For this feature, only the first sets Options 1, 2, 4, and 9 will be used in the
creation of the input file. If there are additional sets of these options, these will be ignored. More than one set of
Option 5 can be included in the list of options save in the input file. When more than one Option 5 is found, the
program will assign the first set of Option 5 to the first of Option 3, the second set of Option 5 to the second set of
Option 3, etc.. If there are less Options 5 than Options 3, then the last set of Option 5 will be assigned to the
remaining Options 3. Further, although more than one set of Option 3 is acceptable, only one set should be included
in the list of input file options. However, if several sets of Option 3 were randomly generated, each set will be used
for the creation of the input file.
For example, assume that 2 sets of Option 1, 3 sets of Option 3, and 5 sets of Option 2 were randomly generated.
The program will then create SHAKE columns using the first set of Option 1, with the first set of Option 3 and each
of the five sets of Option 2, i.e. a total of 5 SHAKE columns will be created. Next, the second set of Option 3 will
be used together with the first set of Option 1 and each of the five sets of Option 2; i.e., and additional five SHAKE
columns will be created for a partial total of 10 columns up to this point. After the third set of Option 3 is used in a
similar manner (i.e. 15 columns so far), the process is repeated using the second set of Option 1 for an additional 15
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 88
SHAKE columns. At the end, 30 SHAKE columns will be generated. For each column, every other option selected
(i.e. Options 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10 or 11) will be added to the analysis. Depending on the number of analyses conducted,
the output files generated by SHAKE may be large, which may require some time to process. When plotting the
results, the mean and median values for the strain-compatible damping, strain-compatible shear modulus, maximum
shear strain, maximum shear stress, and peak acceleration will be computed based on a uniform layering of the data.
This new layering is used because the randomly generated soil profiles will probably have different thicknesses for
each layer.
2. Input File:
Input File: The top list box will show the options that are included in the *.EDT file. This list is used to select the
options that will be included in the SHAKE2000 input file. To include an option in the input file, first select the
option by clicking on it to highlight it, and then click on the Add button. The list of options shown on the input list
window forms a set. More than one set of input options can be created in order to create different input files. The
information about each set will be saved in the EDT file. To switch between sets, click on the down arrow next to
the description text box and select a different set.
The Order, Remove and Clear buttons are not enabled, i.e. they are grayed out. These buttons are enabled when an
option from the input file's option list is selected.
Input File's Option List: This list box will show the options that will be included in the SHAKE input file. If no
options have been selected before this form is displayed, then this list box will be empty. Once you have selected
the options, you can reorganize them with the Order button, remove any with the Remove button, delete all the
options from this list box with the Clear button, and create the input file with the Save button.
To create an input file for SHAKE2000, select the options you want to include from the top list (i.e. EDT File's
Option List) in the order they will be executed by SHAKE2000. The options selected will be shown on the bottom
list box (Input File's Option List) with the order number next to them. Then, use the Save command button to
store these options in the input file. A file dialog form will be displayed requesting you to enter the name for the
file. Alternatively, you can select to overwrite an existing file by selecting it.
To print the input file, first click on the Print Input File option to select it, and then click on the Print command
button. This will display the Print *.EDT and Input Files form.
A description for this set of input options is entered in the text box next to the Input Set Description label. To
create and/or delete a set, click on any of the options on the input list window and then click on the Clear command
button. On the message box, if you click on Yes, the current set will be deleted and a new set created. If you click
on No, the current set will be kept and a new set created. When a new set is created, a default description string is
entered in the description text box; and, the input list window is cleared. With each set of input options, the name
and path to the input file, the output directory, the name of the two output files and the name of the plot files are also
saved in the EDT file.
3. Execute SHAKE:
After you have created an input file, you will perform the earthquake response analysis using SHAKE.
Before you execute SHAKE, you need to enter the name of the two output files and select a directory path where
these files will be saved. Place the cursor on the text box next to the Output File No. 1 label and type in the name
for the first output file (i.e. the file that saves information on the material properties, soil column, ground motion,
peak acceleration, response spectra, etc.), followed by a period and the extension (e.g. OUT). SHAKE2000 will not
add an extension to the end of the file if it is not entered. You can enter up to 32 characters. Blank spaces are not
allowed. Next, place the cursor on the text box next to the Output File No. 2 label and type in the name for the
second output file (i.e. the file that saves acceleration and shear strain/stress time histories). These files will be
saved to the folder shown on the text box next to the Directory of Output Files label. To change the location of the
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 89
output directory, there is a command button located next to the text box (i.e. the button with the open folder icon).
Click on this button to display the Choose Output Directory form, select a different folder by double clicking on it,
and then click on the Ok button to return to this form.
Now, to execute SHAKE click on the SHAKE command button. The program will execute in a DOS window that
automatically closes upon program termination.
After you have executed SHAKE, you need to process the two output files created. SHAKE2000 will read the
output files and extract the information that is most useful to the user, and store it in a series of ASCII files that are
used by the Plot Data options described below. The name of the output files created with the Process command
button can be entered in the text box next to the Name of Plot Files label. By default, SHAKE2000 uses Output as
the name. For example, the Process command button will create the following files: OUTPUT.GRF,
OUTPUT.ACC and OUTPUT.STR. To change the name, place the mouse cursor in the box and delete the current
contents, then type the new name. A maximum of 8 characters is allowed as input for this text box.
To process the output files, click on the Process command button. If there were any errors during the execution of
SHAKE, then an error message will likely be displayed during the processing of the output files. In this case, it is
recommended to use the Display First SHAKE Output File option to display the first output file and proceed to the
option that may have caused the error, usually the last option saved in the output file. Then, review the information
provided in the output file and review the input data for this option to determine the reason for the error.
Processing of the first output file will create files that have the name entered in Name of Plot Files text box, and an
extension depending on the data saved in the file. The file with the extension GRF stores peak acceleration values
(from Option 6), peak shear strain and shear stress, damping and shear moduli data (from Option 5); the file with the
extension of SPC saves the response spectra data (from Option 9); the file with the extension AMP saves
amplification spectra (from Option 10); and the file with the extension FOU saves Fourier spectrum data (from
Option 11). These files can also be used by other software (e.g. Excel, etc.) to create similar graphs. Processing of
the second output file creates a file with the extension of ACC that saves acceleration time histories requested in
Option 6; and the file with extension STR that saves shear stress and shear strain time histories computed with
Option 7.
In addition, files that can be used in a Ratio of Response Spectra or in a Newmark Displacement Analysis are
created. These files are identified with the extension *.AHL (or acceleration history at layer) for those created from
the same acceleration time histories requested in Option 6; and, with the extension *.HEA (or horizontal equivalent
acceleration) for those created from the shear stress time histories requested in Option 7. The *.AHL files store the
same data saved in the *.ACC file, for example the OUTPUT.ACC file described previously. The difference is that
each AHL file only saves the acceleration time history for a layer. These files are given a name such as L##A#D###[email protected]@@@@@@@-$$$$$$$$.AHL or L##A#D#-##[email protected]@@@@@@@-$$$$$$$$.HEA, where L means layer
and is followed by two numbers which are the layer number; A stands for analysis, and the number following it is
the analysis number; and, D is for soil deposit and the number is the number of the soil deposit as defined in option
2. The numbers after the “-“ show the position of this time history in the output file. For example, the very first
time history in the second output file will have “-1” after the deposit number. The @@@@@@@@ string
identifies the soil profile in more detailed and it is obtained from the first 8 characters of the string entered in the
Identification for Soil Profile text box in Option 2. Similarly, the $$$$$$$$ string is the string of characters
entered in the Earthquake Identification text box in Option 3.
If the incident motion is requested in Option 6, then the acceleration time history file will have a name similar to the
names described above with the word “Incident” included. This file will have the “ACC” extension instead of the
“AHL” extension. For more detailed information about the incident and reflected waves refer to Section 2 of this
user‟s manual.
As recommended in Bray et al. (1995) for the seismic analysis of landfills, the HEA can be approximated from a 1D analysis from:
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 90
HEA(t ) 
Where
 h (t )
 z
HEA(t)
τh(t)
ρ
z
=
=
=
=
horizontal equivalent acceleration at time t
horizontal shear stress at depth z and time t
mass density of material above depth z
depth to top of layer
In SHAKE2000, to create the HEA time history at the top of a specific layer of the SHAKE column based on the
above equation, the shear stress time history obtained from Option 7 for that layer is used for τh(t); and, ρ and z are
obtained from Option 2 for the corresponding SHAKE analysis.
The AHL and HEA can be plotted using the Object Motion of the Main Menu form.
If there were any errors during the execution of SHAKE, then an error message will be likely displayed during the
processing of the output files.
4. Print & Plot Options:
After the output files are processed, you can use the Display Results of First Output File option to display the
results stored in the *.GRF file in a spreadsheet-like form.
The Print Results of First Output File option is used to create a table of the main results obtained from the first
output file, which can be printed. To do this, click on the option, and then on the Print button to display the form.
The Display First SHAKE Output File option is used to display the contents of the first output file created by
SHAKE. To do this, select this option and then click on the Display command button. This is useful, for example,
when trying to determine what caused SHAKE to crash. Usually when SHAKE crashes, the last option written to
the output file is the one most likely to have caused the problem. By reviewing the information on the first output
file, the user can determine what changes need to be made to correct the problem.
To execute a plot option click on the option to select it, and then click on the Plot button to plot the data saved in the
file. The file for each option is formed by using the path shown in the text box next to the Directory of Output
Files label, the file name shown in the Name of Plot Files text box, and the file extension for each option.
Peak Acceleration, CSR, Shear Stress: The following plots are created by choosing this option: Strain-Compatible
damping vs. Depth, Strain-Compatible Shear Modulus vs. Depth, Maximum Shear Strain vs. Depth, Maximum
Shear Stress vs. Depth, Peak Acceleration vs. Depth, and Cyclic Stress Ratio vs. Depth. The data for this option are
saved in the *.GRF file. The maximum acceleration values are obtained from the Option 6 output section, and the
other results from the Option 5 output section of the first SHAKE output file.
Acceleration time history: This option is used to plot the acceleration time history at the top of the layers specified
using Option 6 of SHAKE. The data are stored in the *.ACC file.
Shear Stress/Strain time history: Use this option to plot the stress or strain time history at the top of the layers
specified using Option 7 of SHAKE. The data are stored in the *.STR file.
Response Spectrum: Select this option to display plots of response spectrum for different damping ratios computed
from Option 9 of SHAKE. The different response spectra plotted are: Relative Displacement (Sd), Relative
Velocity (Sv), Pseudo-Relative Velocity (PSV), Absolute Acceleration (Sa), and Pseudo-Absolute Acceleration
(PSA) versus Period. The data for this option are saved in the *.SPC file.
Amplification Spectrum: Select this option to plot the amplification spectrum computed from Option 10 of
SHAKE. The data for this option are saved in the *.AMP file.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 91
Fourier Amplitude Spectrum: Use this option to plot the Fourier amplitude spectrum computed from Option 11 of
SHAKE. The data for this option are saved in the *.FOU file.
Material properties: This option is used to plot the dynamic material properties, i.e., shear modulus reduction and
damping ratio curves for the different materials. The data are obtained from the *.EDT (SHAKE2000 main file)
file. After selecting this option, click on the Plot button to display the form.
Object Motion: This option is used to plot the acceleration time history for an earthquake record. For example, you
can use this option to plot the object motion that is used as input for the SHAKE analysis. The form will be
displayed to allow you to select the object motion to be plotted.
Ground Motion Attenuation Relations: This option is used to plot attenuation relations for peak ground
acceleration and peak horizontal velocity with distance, and pseudo absolute acceleration and pseudo relative
velocity response spectra. Several equations are used, as described in the attenuation relations section of this
manual.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 92
Edit/Add Ground Motion File Information
This form is used to edit the database of ground motion files included with SHAKE2000. The information about the
files (e.g. file name, number of values, etc.) is saved in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file and can be accessed by different
features of SHAKE2000 to get the information for the ground motion. For example, this database can be accessed
from the Option 3 editor form to select a ground motion file used in the SHAKE analysis; or, from the response
spectra form to select a ground motion for which the response spectra is computed.
The editing functions that can be performed with this form are twofold. First, you can edit the data for an existing
ground motion file, or you can remove a file from the database. Second, you can add the information about a new
file in the database.
Edit Information about a Ground Motion File:
To display this form, you need to first select the Ground Motion File Utilities: Conversion & Database option of
the Main Menu form and then click on the Ok command button. This will display the Conversion of Ground
Motion File form. In this second form click on the Dbase command button to display the editing form. Once this
form is displayed, you can edit the information by entering the new values in their respective text boxes.
In the text box below the Description of Ground Motion File used in Database enter a string up to 128 characters
long that describes the motion and that is displayed in the list box. For example, the first ground motion in the
database is identified as Alaska (7/3072) – Sitka Record, M: 7.5, Dis: 48 km, Amax: 0.091g, Rock outcrop.
The name of the file is entered in the text box below the Ground Motion File text box. The information in this text
box can be added to the information shown on the Path to Earthquake Files text box to define the path to the file.
For example, when executing SHAKE2000 the path to the first ground motion will be specified as
c:\shake2000\quakes\alaska.eq when the path option is selected. You can also enter the name and a path if you
saved the files in different subdirectories. For example, you can enter quakes\alaska.eq if the file is saved in the
quakes subdirectory, and then on the path option you would select the c:\shake2000 folder as the path where the
file is located. Use the Directory command button to choose the path to the directory where the earthquake motion
files are stored. After clicking on this button, the Path to Earthquake Files form will be displayed. Use the mouse
to select the drive and directory, and then click on the Ok button. The directory will be displayed on the text box
next to the Path to Earthquake Files check box.
The total number of acceleration values that form the object motion file is entered in the text box below the No.
Values label.
In the text box below the Time Step label, enter the time interval between each acceleration value.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 93
The peak acceleration value of the ground motion can be entered in the text box below the Max. Acc. label. This
value can be used in Option 3 of SHAKE. Entering this value is optional.
In the text box below the No. Header label enter the number of lines at the beginning of the file that are used to
describe the object motion.
In the text box below the Values/Line label, enter the number of acceleration values on each line of the file. The
number entered in this box is used with the information entered in the Format text box to determine how many
values are to be read from each row of data in the file. Other examples of the information entered in this box are:
In the line below there are 4 values separated by blank spaces:
-.1059027E-04
-.1461820E-04
-.1690261E-04
-.1506594E-04
In the line below there are 8 values. Note that there are no blank spaces separating the values when a negative sign
is included:
-0.000001-0.000001-0.000001-0.000001 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000001
In the line below, there are 8 values, and there are blank spaces separating the values. The last number (e.g. 1) only
identifies the row number. Thus, you would enter an 8 in this cell for this specific example:
0.00000 -0.00434
0.00860
0.00540 -0.00565 -0.00944 -0.00369 -0.00669
1
The last information needed for the file is the Format value. The format string tells SHAKE and/or SHAKE2000
how to read the ground motion values from the file. This string is based on the syntax used in the Format statement
of the FORTRAN computer language. In this statement edit descriptors specify how the values are read. The edit
descriptors supported by SHAKE2000 in this feature are:
Fw.d
Ew.d [Ee]
Gw.d
Dw.d
Iw
Real values
Real values with exponents
Real values, extended range
Double-precision real values
Integer values
In these descriptors, the field is w characters wide, with a fractional part d decimal digits wide, and an optional
exponent width of e. Remember that the field w also includes any blank spaces and the sign. You can also indicate
that a given data format is repeated a number of times. For example, 8F9.6 repeats a nine-character real value with
six decimal digits descriptor eight times. The first character on the format field should be a “(” and the last character
a “)”, e.g. (8F9.6). Examples of data saved in the ground motion files included with SHAKE2000 and the format
used to define them follow:
Format: (4E15.7):
-.1059027E-04
-.1461820E-04
-.1690261E-04
-.1506594E-04
Format: (8F9.5):
0.00000 -0.00434
0.00860
0.00540 -0.00565 -0.00944 -0.00369 -0.00669
1
Format: (8F9.6):
-0.000001-0.000001-0.000001-0.000001 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000001
From the format string, SHAKE2000 gets the number of digits that form each value, and combines this number with
the value entered in the Values/Line box to determine the length of each value and the number of values to read
from a ground motion file. For more information on format types, please refer to a FORTRAN Programming
Language book.
After you have modified the information, click on the Edit command button to include the new information on the
database file. You will be asked if you want to proceed with the changes. However, even if you accept, the
information on the shakey2k.eq file will not be changed until after you leave this form using the Ok command
button. Thus, even if you have changed the information on several of the files, but ultimately elect not to modify the
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 94
information in the shakey2k.eq file, click on the Cancel command button to cancel all of the changes. To remove a
file from the database, click on the Delete command button. You will be asked if you want to proceed with removal
of the file‟s information or not.
Add Information about a New Ground Motion File:
To add information about a new file to the database of ground motion files, you first need to use the Conversion of
Ground Motion File form to open the file and enter the information described previously. To do this, first click on
the Ground Motion File Utilities: Conversion & Database option of the Main Menu form to select it. Then, click
on the Ok button to display the conversion form. Next, click on the Open command button to display the Open
Source Ground Motion File dialog form. Change to the folder and subdirectory where the file is located if
necessary, click on the file to highlight it, and then use the Open button to select the file and return to the conversion
form. After a few seconds, the first few lines of the file (up to 99 lines) will be shown on the top list box of the
form.
Once the file is opened, you need to enter as a minimum the information requested in the No. Values, Time Step,
No. Header Lines, Values per Line, Format and Database Header Line text boxes of the conversion form as
discussed in the Conversion of Ground Motion File section of this manual. After entering this information, click
on the Dbase command button to display the Edit/Add Ground Motion File Information form.
When you are adding information about a new file, the Edit and Delete command buttons are not displayed.
Instead, the Add command button is the only button displayed. Click on this button to include the information on
the database, and then on the Ok command button to modify the shakey2k.eq file. If you are adding data for a file
converted using the Conversion of Ground Motion File form, then the text boxes where the information are
displayed will not be enabled, i.e. you will not be able to modify the information. These boxes are enabled if you
are adding information about a file that has not been converted with the conversion form.
Edit the SHAKEY2K.EQ File with a Text Processor:
The database file can be modified manually using a text processor. Please remember that the formatting in the file
(i.e. the way the information is saved in columns) should not be modified. If you choose to do this, the following
section explains the way the information is saved in the file which will help you edit the file manually.
Earthquake Records File - SHAKEY2K.EQ Format:
SHAKE2000 ".EQ" File
Earthquake Database
Number of Earthquake Records: 4
|Identification
|Path
|No. Acc
|Time Step|Mx. Acc. |Header
|Values
Alaska (7/30/72) - Sitka Record, M: 7.5, Dis: 48 km, Amax: 0.091g, Rock outcrop
alaska.eq
2048
0.02
3
8
Apeel 7 - crystal spr, pulgas 0 deg
pulgas0.eq
2000
0.02
1
8
Apeel 7 - upper crystal spr. pulgas 90 deg
pulgas90.eq
2000
0.02
1
8
ANZA 02/25/80 1047, ANZA FIRE STATION, 225 (USGS STATION 5160) - PEER Database
azf225.eq
2058
0.0050
4
6
|Format
(8F9.6)
(8F9.6)
(8F9.6)
(6E15.7)
The first two lines in the file (i.e. SHAKE2000 ".EQ" File & Earthquake Database) should not be modified. The
third line (Number of Earthquake Records: 2363 ) is the number of records listed in the file. Every time you add
or delete a record, this number should be modified accordingly. For the above example there is information listed
for 4 different records. The next line is a blank line, followed by two lines that limit the fields for the information
necessary for each record. The next line is a blank line. Each record is described by two lines. The first line
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 95
(|Identification) describes the record (e.g. Alaska (7/30/72) - Sitka Record, M: 7.5, Dis: 48 km, Amax: 0.091g,
Rock outcrop). This line can contain as many as 128 characters. The following line, i.e.:
|Path
|No. Acc
|Time Step|Mx. Acc. |Header
|Values
|Format
gives information about the record that is used in Option 3 of SHAKE2000, and also to plot the object motion. The
first field (i.e. |Path) is 30 characters long, from columns 1 through 30, and describes the path in your hard drive
where the file is stored or the file name only. For the above example, the first record is saved as a file named
alaska.eq in the quakes directory of the hard drive. You could also only include the name without the subdirectory.
The |No. Acc field from columns 36 through 45 is the number of acceleration values in the object motion. The time
interval between acceleration values is entered in the |Time Step field, from columns 46 through 55. The next field
|Mx. Acc., from columns 56 through 65, is used to enter the maximum acceleration value to be used. If this field is
left blank, a value of zero will be assigned, and the multiplication factor for adjusting acceleration values used in
Option 3 will be assigned a value of one. The number of header lines in the file containing the object motion is
entered in the |Header field, from columns 66 through 75. The number of acceleration values per line in the object
motion file is entered in the |Values field, from columns 76 through 85. The format for reading the acceleration
values is entered in the |Format field, from columns 86 through 95.
After modifying the file, don't forget to update the number of earthquake records in the Number of Earthquake
Records line. The file should be saved as a text file, with no special formatting using a text processor.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 96
EuroCode 8 Response Spectrum
This form is used to select the options and/or enter the data necessary to plot a design response spectrum in
accordance with Part 1 of the EuroCode 8 (European Committee for Standardization, 2000).
To select a spectrum, first, choose one of the Spectrum Type options. Then, select a subsoil class from the Subsoil
Class options to determine the soil parameter, S. Next, enter a value for the design ground acceleration in the text
box adjacent to the ag label. Then, click on the Ok button to return to the Response Spectrum Plot Menu form.
The value of damping shown is the first value selected in the Response Spectrum Plot Menu form.
The value for the soil parameter, S, can be changed to 1.4 for the special case “ …when the subsoil includes an
alluvial surface layer with thickness varying between 5 and 20 m, underlain by much stiffer materials of class A”
(European Committee for Standardization, 2000). To do this, place the cursor on the text box adjacent to the S label
and enter 1.4. Please note that this is only allowed when Class B of the Subsoil Class options is selected. If a
different value is entered, the program will set the default value for the soil parameter based on the type of spectrum
selected.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 97
Execute SHAKE
This form provides a quick way of executing SHAKE using an input file that has been created before with the
Earthquake Response Analysis form.
Before you execute SHAKE, you need to enter the name of the two output files and select a directory path where
these files will be saved. Place the cursor on the text box next to the Output File No. 1 label and type in the name
for the first output file (i.e. the file that saves information on the material properties, soil column, ground motion,
peak acceleration, response spectra, etc.), followed by a period and the extension (e.g. OUT). SHAKE2000 will not
add an extension to the end of the file if it is not entered. You can enter up to 32 characters. Blank spaces are not
allowed. Next, place the cursor on the text box next to the Output File No. 2 label and type in the name for the
second output file (i.e. the file that saves acceleration and shear strain/stress time histories). These files will be
saved to the folder shown on the text box next to the Directory of Output Files label. To change the location of the
output directory, click on the Directory button to display the Choose Output Directory form, select a different
folder by double clicking on it, and then click on the Ok button to return to this form.
If you created an input file using the Earthquake Response Analysis form then the name and path to this file will
be shown on the text box next to the Input File label. Otherwise, you need to select an input file by first clicking on
the Input command button. This will display the Open SHAKE91 Input File dialog form. By default, files with
the extension *.IN will be shown. If necessary, change folders to the location where the input file is saved. Then
click on the file name to highlight it and then click on the Open command button to return to this form. The file
name will be shown next to the Input File label.
Now, to execute SHAKE click on the SHAKE command button. A DOS window will open and then automatically
close upon termination of the program.
To process the output files, click on the Close command button to return to the main menu form. The names and
paths to the output files will be shown on the text boxes next to the Process First Output File and Process Second
Output File labels on the Main Menu form. If there were any errors during the execution of SHAKE, then an error
message will likely be displayed during the processing of the output files. In this case, it is recommended to use a
text editor (e.g. Wordpad) to open the output files and proceed to the option that may have caused the error. Then,
review the information provided in the output file and review the input data for this option to determine the reason
for the error.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 98
Fourier Spectrum Plot Menu
A list of the different plots is displayed on this window. To select a plot, click on it, and then click on the Ok
button. Alternatively, you can double click on the plot. The Cancel button is used to return to the graph window
without choosing a plot.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 99
Graphics Print Menu
The graph can also be printed using the System Property Page of the graphics server. To do so, click on the toolbar
at the top of the graphics window to display the property pages. Select the System tab. You can also use this page
to save an image of the graph to a file in either metafile or bitmap format. For further information or help, click on
the question mark icon.
SHAKE2000 uses the standard Windows printer dialog form to select a printer and/or to change the properties of the
printer and paper used to print the graph. This form can be displayed by clicking on the Printer command button.
Every time the size or position of the graph is changed, the graph is automatically redrawn on the preview window.
To zoom in on the preview graph, double-click on it with the left mouse button. To zoom out, double-click on it
with the right mouse button.
Use the Copy command button to copy the graph to the clipboard. You can use then the Paste or Paste Special
commands on other Windows applications (i.e. Microsoft Word), to insert the graph into other documents.
X coordinate: This cell is used to enter the X coordinate from the top left corner of the graph. The origin of the
coordinate system is at the top left corner of the paper sheet. Use the Tab key to move to the other data cells, and
the Delete key to delete the contents of a cell. Once the value of this cell is modified, the margins shown will be
automatically updated.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 100
Y coordinate: This cell is used to enter the Y coordinate from the top left corner of the graph. The origin of the
coordinate system is at the top left corner of the paper sheet. Use the Tab key to move to the other data cells, and
the Delete key to delete the contents of a cell. Once the value of this cell is modified, the margins shown will be
automatically updated.
Graph width: Set the width of the graph using the units defined by the paper size set on the window's print setup
dialog. Use the Tab key to move to the other data cells, and the Delete key to delete the contents of a cell. Once the
value of this cell is modified, the margins shown will be automatically updated.
Graph height: Set the height of the graph using the units defined by the paper size set on the window's print setup
dialog. Use the Tab key to move to the other data cells, and the Delete key to delete the contents of a cell. Once the
value of this cell is modified, the margins shown will be automatically updated.
The paper dimensions shown in the Width and Height boxes will switch to update the paper orientation to portrait
or landscape. The margins shown will also be updated. Once you have entered the dimensions and position of the
graph, use the Print button to send a copy of the graph to the printer
To create the form that can be printed together with the graph, click on the Report command button to display the
Company & Project Information form, and then on the Form command button to display the Report Form
Development form.
Options:
Print in color: Select this option to print the graph in color using a color printer. By default, when the Graphics
Print Menu form is displayed, the graph is drawn in black & white. When this option is selected, an x will appear in
the check box, and the graph will be redrawn in color.
Print as a windows metafile: Select this option if you want to create a Windows metafile of the graph. Click on
Print to display the Windows Metafile dialog form. Enter the name of the file, and select a directory where the file
will be saved. Then click Save.
Print report form: Select this option to print a form on the same sheet of paper as the graph. To create the form,
click on the Report command button to display the Company & Project Information form, and then on the Form
command button to display the Report Form Development form.
Physical page: This option determines whether the logical page used by the printer control should correspond to the
entire physical page or only to its printable area. Most printers have a “logical” paper size that corresponds to the
printer's printable area, and a “physical” paper size that corresponds to the actual page size. The physical paper size
is always a little larger than the logical paper size. If this option is selected (an x is shown on the check box), the
program will print to the physical page. This option only works when the Print report form option is selected.
SPT, CPT or Vs Graphs: To change the position of any of the graphs on the paper, first click on the option button
for the graph to select it. Then, enter the new coordinates on the coordinate text boxes, or use the up-down arrows to
change the coordinates. If you don't want the graph to be printed, click on the appropriate check box of the Print
column to deselect it (i.e. the x is not shown on the box). Selecting or deselecting a graph does not modify the
position of the other graphs.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 101
Graphics Window
To obtain additional help for the graphics, click on the question mark icon shown on the toolbar at the top of the
graphics window. In addition, the property pages, accessed through the icons shown on the tool bar, can be used
to customize the graph.
The different layers forming the soil profile can be displayed by clicking on the Profile command button. Click
once more to remove the layers.
To display a menu of available plots, click on the Graph command button. A form showing the different plot
options will be displayed. The form displayed depends on what option is being plotted (i.e., response spectra, time
histories, etc.).
To change the number of points plotted, click on the Data button. This button is disabled when plotting the results
from the first SHAKE output file, or when plotting more than two response spectra curves.
To change the legends of the curves, click on the Legend command button. This will display the Legend Text
form.
To print a copy of the graph, or to copy the graph to the Windows Clipboard for use by other applications, click on
the Print command button to display the Graphics Print Menu form.
When plotting the results from the cyclic stress ratio analysis, the Data command button changes to FSL that you
can use to plot the factor of safety against liquefaction. The button changes to CSR that can be used to plot the
cyclic stress ratio curves again.
A summary of the different options that are included in the first and second output files created by SHAKE can be
shown by clicking on the Analysis command button. This button will display the Analysis Summary form. This
button is enabled only after executing either the Process first output file or Process second output file options of
the Main Menu form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 102
Point Coordinates: To display the X and Y coordinates of a specific point on the graph, click on any of the symbols
on the graph to display its coordinates in the text cells shown on the command button bar of the form.
The CSR button is used to redraw the CSR and CRR curves. This button changes to FSL, and can be used to
display the curve representing the factor of safety against liquefaction. These buttons are only enabled when the
cyclic stress ratio option has been selected.
The Plot Options, i.e. Mean, Mean  Standard Deviation, Median, Data and Data Range, are only enabled when
plotting results of analyses conducted using the random generation or ratio of response spectrum features. By
unselecting the option, the respective curve will be removed from the graph.
The graphics routine includes a number of property pages that can be used for customization of the graph. For
example, you could add a 3-D look to the graph, or change the colors. The property pages are accessed through the
icons on the toolbar. Some of these icons are not enabled (i.e. they will appear grayed-out). For example, click on
the System icon, the fourth icon from the left to display the System property page of the Graph Control.
More help on these pages can be obtained by clicking on the Help command button of these pages.
When plotting the significant duration of earthquake ground motions using the Abrahamson & Silva (1996),
Kempton & Stewart (2006) or Bommer, Stafford & Alarcon (2009) relation, the duration/distance pair for a user‟s
record can be plotted on the same graph for comparison purposes. To do this, first enter the record‟s distance and
duration in the respective text boxes and a label of up to 24 characters to describe this record; then, click on the Plot
user’s event option to select it.
If the incident PGA is obtained for a layer in Option 6, the word “Incident” and a green circle will be displayed at
the point of the PGA vs. Depth graph where this type of motion was requested. When plotting the acceleration time
history, the word “Incident” will also be displayed in the header line of the acceleration time history. For more
detailed information about the incident and reflected waves, please refer to Section 2 of this user‟s manual.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 103
Ground Motion Attenuation Relations
This section presents a number of ground motion attenuation relations that can be used to estimate the peak ground
acceleration or velocity with distance, and the pseudo-absolute acceleration or pseudo-relative velocity response
spectra. The reference for each attenuation relation is given, and the user is solely responsible for verifying that the
attenuation relations are appropriate for his/her particular problem, and that the data required for each attenuation
relation are entered in the appropriate units. It is recommended to review the references listed in this section to
obtain more detailed information about these attenuation relations and their uses.
The attenuation relations available in SHAKE2000 include:
Abrahamson & Silva (2008) – NGA. Reference: Abrahamson, N.A. and Silva, W. (2008).
Akkar & Bommer (2007) – Europe/Middle East. Reference: Akkar, S. and Bommer, J. (2007a, 2007b).
Ambraseys et al. (2005) – Europe/Middle East. Reference: Abramseys, N.N., Simpson, K.A., and
Bommer, J.J. (1996); and, Ambraseys et al. (2005a, 2005b).
4. Atkinson & Boore (2006) - ENA. Reference: Atkinson, G.M. and Boore, D.M. (2006).
5. Atkinson & Boore (2003) - Subduction. Reference: Atkinson, G.M. and Boore, D.M. (1997a); Atkinson,
G.M. and Boore, D.M. (2003, 2008).
6. Berge-Thierry et al. (2003) - Europe. Reference: Berge-Thierry, C., Cotton, F. and Scotti, O. (2003).
7. Boore, D. & Atkinson, G. (2008) – NGA. Reference: Boore, David and Atkinson, Gail (2008); Atkinson &
Boore (2011).
8. Boore, Joyner & Fumal (1997). Reference: Joyner, W.B., Boore, D.M. and Fumal, T.E. (1997).
9. Campbell, K.W. (2002) - CEUS. Reference: Campbell, K.W. (2002; 2003, personal communication;
2004).
10. Campbell & Bozorgnia (2003). References: Campbell, K.W. and Bozorgnia, Y. (2003a, 2003b, 2003c,
2004); Campbell, K.W. (2003).
1.
2.
3.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 104
11. Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008) - NGA. Reference: Campbell, K.W. and Bozorgnia, Y. (2008).
12. Campbell, Bozorgnia & Hachem (2010) – Relation for Inelastic response spectra. Reference: Bozorgnia et
al. (2010).
13. Chiou, B. & Youngs, R. (2008) – NGA. Reference: Chiou, Brian S. and Youngs, Robert R. (2008).
14. Danciu, Laurentiu and G-Akis Tselentis (2007) – Greece. Reference: Danciu, L. and G-Akis Tselentis
(2007).
15. Gregor et al. (2002) - Cascadia Subduction. Reference: Gregor et al. (2002).
16. Idriss, I.M. (2008) – NGA. Reference: Idriss, I.M. (2008).
17. Kanno et al. (2006) – Japan. Reference: Kanno et al. (2006).
18. Margaris et al. (2002) – Greece. Reference: Margaris, B.N. et al. (2002).
19. Sabetta & Pugliese (2009) - Italy. References: Sabetta, F. and Pugliese, A. (1987, 1996, 2009).
20. Sadigh et al. (1997). Reference: Sadigh et al. (1997).
21. SEA99 - Spudich et al. (1999). Reference: Spudich, P. et al. (1996); Spudich, P. et al. (1999); and, Pankow
& Pechmann (2004).
22. Stewart, Liu & Choi (2003). Reference: Stewart, Liu and Choi (2003).
23. Tavakoli & Pezeshk (2005) – ENA. Reference: Tavakoli & Pezeshk (2003).
24. Toro et al. (1997) - Gulf Region of NA. References: Toro, G.R., Abrahamson, N.A. and Schneider, J.F
(1997); Silva, W., Pyke, R., Youngs, R., and Idriss, I.M. (1996); Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
(1993); and, Toro, Gabriel R. (2002).
25. Toro et al. (1997) - Mid-Continent of NA. References: Toro, G.R., Abrahamson, N.A. and Schneider, J.F
(1997); Silva, W., Pyke, R., Youngs, R., and Idriss, I.M. (1996); Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
(1993); and, Toro, Gabriel R. (2002).
26. Youngs, Chiou, Silva & Humphrey (1997). Reference: Youngs, R.R., Chiou, S.J., Silva, W.J. and
Humphrey, J.R. (1997).
27. Zhao et al. (2006) – Japan. Reference: John X. Zhao et al. (2006).
Three equations for prediction of significant-duration are also provided:
28. Abrahamson & Silva (1996). Reference: Abrahamson and Silva (1996).
29. Bommer, Stafford & Alarcon (2009). Reference: Bommer et al. (2009).
30. Kempton & Stewart (2006). Reference: Kempton and Stewart (2006).
Please refer to the above references for detailed information on the use and application of these attenuation relations.
To plot an attenuation relation, first select what type of plot you would like to use by choosing one of the four
options on the top right section of the form. There are four options: Peak Ground Acceleration, Peak Ground
Velocity, Acceleration Spectrum, and Velocity Spectrum. Depending on what type of ground motion parameter
you choose, different relations will be available. For example, by default, when the Peak Ground Acceleration
option is chosen, most of the equations are enabled (i.e., they are not grayed out). If you choose the Peak Ground
Velocity option, then only the Atkinson & Boore (1997) - Cascadia; Atkinson & Boore (2006) ENA; Atkinson &
Silva (2000) – California; Campbell, K.W. (1997); Sabetta & Pugliese (1996); and, SEA99, Spudich et al. relations
will be enabled and the others will be disabled (i.e. shown as grayed out options).
Next, select which attenuation relations you want to use by clicking on the check box next to each. An x appears in
the box when an attenuation relation is selected. Use the Tab key or the mouse to place the cursor on the
Magnitude text box, and enter the earthquake magnitude. Enter the distance and depth in the Distance and Depth
text boxes, respectively. Select other options as explained below, depending on the relations chosen. The Plot
command button is enabled when at least one attenuation relation is selected. Click on the Plot button to display the
curve. Please note that the depth value used in the Campbell (1997) equation is the depth to basement rock. Thus, if
you are using several relations at the same time, use the Ground Motion Attenuation Relations - Parameters
form to enter depth values for each attenuation relation.
The Return button is used to return to the Main Menu form, or to return to the Response Spectrum Plot Menu form.
The Curve for specific period option allows you to plot the spectral acceleration or velocity attenuation curve (i.e.,
acceleration or velocity vs. Distance) for specific periods. When selecting more than one attenuation relation, the
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 105
attenuation curve will be displayed only for those equations that have coefficients for that specific period. Check the
Period column for each attenuation relation‟s coefficients to determine if a period value is acceptable. Enter the
value for the period in the text box next to the label.
Depending on the attenuation relation selected, there are other options that can be used. Some relations classify the
faulting mechanism of an earthquake into one of a number of categories. The different categories are shown in the
Style of Faulting section of the form. By default, the Strike Slip type is chosen. You can select other types by
clicking on any of the options shown. The type selected will be used for all of the relations that it applies to when
those relations are selected. Note that an attenuation relation will not be selected (i.e. an x is shown on the check
box) if the Style of Faulting option selected does not apply to this relation. The Subduction option in the Style of
Faulting list only applies to the Zhao et al. (2006) relation.
The Intraslab and Interface options apply to the Youngs, Chiou, Silva & Humphrey (1997); Atkinson & Boore
(2003); and Zhao et al. (2006) relations. By default, the Intraslab option is selected, thus the attenuation relation
for intraslab events will be used. To use the attenuation relation for interface events, click on the Interface option.
The M  Sigma option is used to plot the median attenuation curve, and the curves that represent the median plus
and the median minus sigma. When this option is selected, only one of the attenuation relations will be used, i.e. the
top attenuation relation selected will be the one used.
The Plot Spectra vs. Frequency (Hz) option is used to change the X-axis to the frequency scale. When this option
is selected, an x appears in the check box. To deselect this option, click on the check box, this will switch to the
period scale in the X-axis.
A value for the shear wave velocity (Vs) to a depth of 30 meters can be entered in the Shear Wave Velocity to 30 m
label, in m/sec.
When using the Vertical component option, the attenuation relations and/or coefficients for the vertical component
of PGA, PGV and PSA will be used.
The Site Class options are used with the Atkinson & Boore (2003) and Zhao et al. (2006) attenuation relations. By
default, the attenuation relation for Site Class A is selected. A different site class can be chosen by clicking on the
respective option. The site classes represent the NEHRP classes (see Table 2 of Zhao et al. (2006) for equivalent
site class definitions). Further, for the Atkinson & Boore (2003) relation, classes A and B represent rock. In
addition, the user can select a region for the Atkinson & Boore relation by selecting the Cascade, Japan, or Other
option; and, the Regional SD option for region specific error terms.
For the Toro et al. (1997) attenuation relations, the equations used are those for Moment Magnitude.
For Bozorgnia & Campbell (2003), when considering the effect of the hanging wall, it is necessary to enter r jb, or the
closest distance to the surface projection of fault rupture (Campbell, K.W. and Bozorgnia, Y., 2003a; Boore et al.,
1997). Alternatively, the fault dip angle,, can be used instead. To enter rjb, click on the Rjb command button to
display the Rjb and Rx Distance form. On this form, enter the rjb distance for each value of rseis. If you need more
information about this distance, please refer to Cambpell, K.W. and Bozorgnia, Y. (2003a) and Abrahamson, N.A.
and Shedlock, K.M. (1997). The dip angle value can be entered in the dip (deg) text box. By default, the peak
ground acceleration is estimated using the attenuation relation for uncorrected PGA. To use the corrected PGA
attenuation relation, click on the Corrected option of the Bozorgnia (PGA) options. Please note that the value of
PGA used in the computation of the standard deviation, lnY, is determined based on the choice of the Bozorgnia
(PGA) options.
The Rjb and Rx distances are also required when using the Campbell & Bozorgnia (2003); Abrahamson & Silva
(2008) – NGA; Akkar & Bommer (2008); Boore, D. & Atkinson, G. (2008) – NGA; Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008)
– NGA; Chiou, B. & Youngs, R. (2008) – NGA; and, Campbell, Bozorgnia & Hachem (2010) relations. To enter
Rjb and Rx, click on the Rjb command button to display the Rjb and Rx Distance form. Note that the program will
plot the PHA vs. Distance, where for the NGA equations the distance is Rrup and for the Campbell & Bozorgnia
(2003) it is Rseis. Accordingly, when Rjb and/or Rx are needed, these should be computed and entered in the
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 106
respective columns of the Rjb and Rx Distance form. Similarly, for the Boore & Atkinson NGA and the Akkar &
Bommer relations, the program will also plot the PHA vs. Distance wherein distance is assumed to be Rrup, but the
program will use Rjb entered in the respective column of the Rjb and Rx Distance form for the computations.
The single value of Rjb or Rx distance used for computation of response spectra can be entered in the rjb (km) or Rx
text box, respectively. For the Boore & Atkinson NGA, the value of distance entered in the rjb (km) text box is used
instead of the value entered in the Distance text box. The following figure included in the PEER NGA Excel
spreadsheet will help you understand the distance definition in a more clear way.
For a definition of the parameters in the NGA Parameters section of the form, please refer to references for the
NGA attenuation relations. The user can manually enter a value for each parameter, or enter the “DEF” string to use
the default values. For the Z1 and Z2.5 parameters, the default values are based on relationships provided in
Abrahamson & Silva (2008) , Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008) and Chiou & Youngs (2008), based on the VS,30. For
the Ztor and Width values, the program will use the relations presented in Kaklamos et al. (2010).
In the Sabetta & Pugliese (2009) relation, the data for the Joyner-Boore distance are used. Further, when computing
response spectra, the program will use the distance entered in the rjb text box.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 107
The ground motion parameters recommended by Stewart, Liu & Choi (2003) are taken as the product of their
amplification factors and the median attenuation values for rock obtained from the Abrahamson & Silva (1997)
relation. For this relation, a classification category can be selected from the Stewart combo list in the Other Site
Conditions & Options section of the form. In addition, the effect of the hanging wall can be accounted for by
selecting the Stewart option of the Hanging Wall options.
When an attenuation relation can be applied to more than one site condition (e.g. rock and deep soil), SHAKE2000
will by default use the attenuation relation for rock when plotting the ground motion parameters. To plot these
parameters for other site conditions, select the appropriate option for each attenuation relation from the Other Site
Conditions & Options. Some specific information about these options is:


In the Campbell (1997) attenuation relation, the coefficients for local site conditions are defined by
selecting one of five options: Alluvium/firm soil, soft rock, hard rock, generic soil, or generic rock. By
default, the option for hard rock is selected. For the generic options, default values of depth to basement
rock of 1 and 5 km for rock and soil respectively, are used in the attenuation relation.
For the Abrahamson & Silva (1997, 2008 NGA), Bozorgnia & Campbell (2003), Chiou & Youngs (2008
NGA) or Stewart et al. (2003) attenuation relations, select the corresponding option of the Hanging Wall
options to use the factor to distinguish between ground motions on the hanging wall and footwall of
dipping faults.
When using the ground-motion prediction equations for significant-duration by Abrahamson & Silva (i.e. A&S
1996), Bommer, Stafford & Alarcon (BSA 2009) or Kempton & Stewart (i.e. K&S 2006), the magnitude value is
entered in the Magnitude text box. For Kempton & Stewart and Bommer, Stafford & Alarcon, the value for Vs-30 is
entered in the Shear Wave Velocity to 30 m text box; and, the value of Ztor entered in the Ztor text box for the
BSA. The Mediand±Sigma options also apply to these equations. By default, for Abrahamson and Silva, the
equation for rock is used. If you wish to use the equation for soil, click on the Abrahamson & Silva (1996) –
Duration Soil option to select it. The base model by Kempton and Stewart can be corrected for near-fault
conditions by selecting the Kempton &Stewart (2006) – Near-Fault option. The result plotted will be the Da5-95
value, i.e. the time interval between 5-95% of the Arias Intensity as a function of the acceleration record.
For those attenuation relations that yield pseudo velocity (PRV), the Pseudo Absolute Acceleration (PAA) is
obtained using the following equation:
PAA 
2  PRV 
981T
In addition, for those attenuation relations that yield pseudo absolute acceleration, the Pseudo Relative Velocity is
obtained using the following equation:
PRV 
981T PAA 
2
In which T is period in seconds.
The attenuation data can be saved to a text file by selecting the Save Attenuation Data option. This text file can
then be open with other applications, e.g. Excel, for further use. The path and name of the text file can be changed
by clicking on the command button with the folder icon next to the text box. When plotting acceleration response
spectra, a CSV (comma separated values) file will also be created in the same path using the same name but with the
extension “.csv”. This file can be opened with Excel for further processing. The CSV file will only save the data
for one response spectrum.
When obtaining response spectra, the GM option will compute the geometric mean spectrum for the set of relations
selected for the common range of periods.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 108
The WA option is used to obtain a “weighted” spectrum, i.e., different weights summing up to 1.0 can be assigned
to the relations selected to compute a weighted spectrum. To enter the weights, first select between 2 and 10
relations and then click on the Weight command button to display the Model Weight form.
In this form, enter the weights for each relation in their respective text boxes. The weights should add up to 1.0 and
each weight should be greater than 0.0. Also, when obtaining target response spectrum, the geometric mean or the
weighted spectrum will be used as the target.
To enter the data for a target response spectrum that can be plotted with the other spectra, click on the Target button
to display the Target Response Spectrum form. In this form, you can enter values of period and spectra for a
target response spectrum. To plot the target spectrum, also select the Plot Target SPC option.
Peak Ground Acceleration value for Simplified CSR: The value for peak ground acceleration can be estimated
using the attenuation relations included with SHAKE2000. To do this, select an attenuation relation, enter the
values for magnitude and depth, then select the other options for the attenuation relation. Click on the Plot
command button to display the acceleration attenuation curve. Once the curve is plotted, click on the symbol for the
distance of interest (or the closest distance value) to display the values in the X Y cells of the graphics window.
Then click on the Close command button to return to this form and then click on Ok to return to the Simplified
CSR form.
Conditional Mean Spectrum: This option is provided to compute the conditional mean spectrum as defined by
Baker (2009) and further explained in Baker & Cornell (2005a, 2005b, 2006a, 2006b, 2008) and Baker & Jayaram
(2008). An example of the applicability of this spectrum in the selection of ground motions for analysis is provided
by PEER Ground Motion Selection and Modification Working Group (2009). This option only works with a few
selected ground motion relations.
To plot a conditional mean spectrum, click on the Epsilon check box, then enter a value for epsilon in the text box.
Based on the ground motion relation selected, a list of periods will be displayed when clicking on the down-arrow
for the Period list. Click on the down-arrow to display the list and then click on the period that you would like to
use for computation of the conditional mean spectrum. To plot the results, click on the Plot command button. Both
the ground motion spectrum and the conditional mean spectrum will be displayed. When obtaining target response
spectrum, only the conditional mean spectrum will be plotted.
The Kanno (2006), Interface and Intraslab options provide correlation values based on Japanese earthquake
ground motion data (Jayaram et al., 2011). These options can be used instead of the values computed with the Baker
and Jayaram relationship. The Kanno (2006) applies to the Kanno et al. (2006) attenuation relation; and, the
Interface and Intraslab options apply to the Atkinson & Boore (2003) – Suduction, Gregor et al. (2002) – Cascadia
Subduction, Youngs, Chiou, Silva & Humphrey (1997) and Zhao et al. (2006) – Japan relationships.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 109
Ground Motion Parameters
This form presents various parameters used to characterize a ground motion, which can then be used to select a
representative time history for site specific response analyses. These parameters include peak ground acceleration,
Arias Intensity, Root-Mean-Square of the acceleration time history (RMSA), bracketed duration, Trifunac & Brady
duration, and predominant period (Hu et al., 1996; Kavazanjian et al., 1997; Kramer, 1996). In addition, you can
plot a graph of the Normalized Arias Intensity, or Husid Plot, together with the ground motion; and the computed
and smoothed Fourier Amplitude Spectra.
The upper most version of the form is displayed when calling this form from the Plot Object Motion form; and, the
lower version of the form displayed when the form is called from the Conversion of Ground Motion File form.
The Peak Acceleration Value is the maximum, absolute acceleration value of the time history.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 110
The energy content of the acceleration time history provides another means of characterizing strong ground motions.
A measure of the total energy content of a ground motion is given by the Arias Intensity, which is defined by the
following relation:
IA 

tf
at  dt
2g 
2
0
Where tf is the duration of ground shaking, a(t) the ground acceleration, and g is the acceleration of gravity. A plot
of the increase of the energy content as a ratio of the total energy versus time is known as a Normalized Husid Plot.
The root-mean-square of the acceleration time history, or RMSA, is also used as a measure of the energy content.
The RMSA is defined by the following relation:
1
RMSA 
tf
tf
 at  dt
2
0
In SHAKE2000, the time interval between 5 and 95 percent of the total Arias Intensity is used to compute the
RMSA.
The Bracketed Duration of strong motion is the time interval between the first and last acceleration peaks greater
than a specified acceleration value, or threshold acceleration. The value shown in the above form is for a threshold
acceleration of ±0.05 g. Based on the Normalized Husid Plot, the Trifunac & Brady Duration is the time interval
between 5 and 95 percent of the total Arias Intensity.
Other parameters commonly used to evaluate the frequency content of a ground motion are the predominant spectral
period, Tp, or commonly defined as the “… period of the maximum spectral acceleration.” (Rathje et al., 2004); the
smoothed spectral predominant period, T o, which “….attempts to define the peak in the response spectrum by
smoothing the spectral accelerations over the range where S a is greater than 1.2 * PGA” (Rathje et al., 2004); and,
the average spectral period, T avg, defined as an average period (over a specified frequency range) weighted by the
spectral accelerations (Rathje et al., 2004). To compute these periods, the response spectrum for 5% damping is first
computed using equally spaced periods on a log axis to obtain T o, and then the spectrum is computed a second time
using equally spaced periods on an arithmetic axis to obtain T avg.
Another indicator of frequency content of accelerograms is the Mean Period, Tm, defined as (Rathje et al., 1998;
Stewart et al., 2001):
Tm 
1

 fi
 Ci2
C
i
2
i



i
Where: Ci =
fi =
Fourier amplitudes of the entire accelerogram
Discrete Fourier transform frequencies between 0.25 and 20 Hz.
The value for Tm is shown on the text box next to the Mean Period, Tm label.
On the bottom section of the form there are two plotting options. The Husid Plot option will display a graph of the
Normalized Husid Plot. If you select the Plot Ground Motion option, then the acceleration time history will be
plotted on the same graph with the Husid Plot. In the plot, the section of the Husid Plot for the Trifunac & Brady
duration is shown as a red curve.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 111
The Fourier Spectrum option will plot the Fourier amplitude spectrum. By default, the Fourier response spectrum
is plotted using frequency values in the X-axis. Alternatively, to plot the Fourier amplitudes vs. period click on the
Amplitude vs. Period check box to select it.
After selecting one of the plotting options, click on the Plot command button to display the graphs. When plotting
the response and the Fourier spectra, Tp, To, Tavg and Tm will be shown on the graphs.
You can print the results by using the Print command button.
To plot a target response spectrum, click on the spectrum icon to display the file dialog form, and then select a target
spectrum file (i.e., *.TGT file). After reading the contents of the file, click on the Target check box to display the
spectra.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 112
IBC Response Spectra
This form is used to select the options and/or enter the data necessary to plot a MCE or a design response spectrum
in accordance with the IBC (International Code Council, 2003; ASCE, 2006).
The procedure followed to obtain the spectrum starts by first selecting spectral accelerations at short period, S s, and
at 1-second period, S1, from the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Maps provided in the
IBC code. The MCE maps were based on the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) probabilistic hazard maps
(Leyendecker et al., 2000; Frankel et al., 1996; Frankel et al., 2002; USGS, 2008, 2010); however, for some selected
areas, the USGS maps were modified to incorporate deterministic ground motions and to apply engineering
judgment. In SHAKE2000, either the Ss or S1 values can be entered manually or they can be automatically obtained
from the files of gridded points used to create the USGS hazard maps. However, as previously noted, the maps
included in the IBC are not “exactly the same” as the USGS maps for selected areas. Accordingly, the second
option in SHAKE2000 should only be used for those regions for which the USGS maps were not modified.
Leyendecker et al. (2000) briefly explain where the probabilistic USGS maps are and/or are not applicable.
We recommend that you review the article by Leyendecker et al. (2000) for more information about the creation of
the Maximum Considered Earthquake Ground Motion Maps. Also, before using the automatic option, check that
your site is located in a region where the USGS maps are applicable; or, use this option to obtain “approximate”
values of Ss and S1 that are to be compared to the values on the IBC maps.
In accordance with the IBC, the maps used in SHAKE2000 are for 0.2 and 1.0 second spectral response acceleration
with 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years for the Conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico.
For the other maps included in the IBC (i.e. Culebra, Vieques, St. Thomas, St. John, St. Croix, Guam and Tutuilla),
the user needs to enter the values for Ss and S1 manually. Please note that the program uses two sets of maps for the
Conterminous United States region, i.e. the data maps generated in 2003 and 2008 updates of the National Seismic
Hazard Maps (Frankel et al., 2002; U.S. Geological Survey, 2003a, 2003b, 2008, 2010). For Alaska, the program
uses the maps developed in either 1999 or 2007; for Hawaii the maps developed in 1999; and, for Puerto Rico the
2003 maps. The 2008 and 2010 updates of the maps were recently released by the USGS (2008, 2010). Although
these latest updates have not been adopted for use in the IBC code, these maps are included with the program for
comparison purposes only; i.e., at this moment they should not be used for any other purpose other than to compare
the values. To use a specific year, click on the year‟s option to select it. The issue year for the maps used is shown
on the Spectral acceleration in g’s label.
For the 2010 and WUS options, a VS,30 value can be selected from the down-list. However, it is recommended to
visit the USGS web site for the most recent information and values regarding the hazard maps.
If you want to use the maps to obtain the spectral accelerations Ss and S1, first click on the Enter the site’s location
to obtain spectral accelerations from USGS maps option to select it, and then enter the latitude and longitude of
your site in degrees, minutes and seconds. There is no need to enter a negative sign for the longitude value as
required by the online NEHRP website. Next, select one of the Region options and the site class by selecting one of
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 113
the Soil Profile Type options. The spectral values for the four grid points that surround your site are retrieved from
the files, and if necessary, the values interpolated between the four grid points. The Ss and S1 values are displayed in
their corresponding text boxes on the upper right corner of the form.
To enter the values of Ss and S1 manually, first click on the Enter values of spectral acceleration manually option
to select it. Then, enter the value for Ss on the text box next to the Sa for Short period, Ss label; and, the value for
S1 on the text box next to the Sa for 1-second period, S1 label. In this option, you also need to select one of the Soil
Profile Type options. The long-period transition period, T L, needs to be entered in the Long-Period Transition, TL
text box.
By default the program will compute the design spectrum. If you need to use the MCE spectrum, click on the MCE
Spectrum option to select it. When the spectrum is plotted, either the Design or MCE word will be shown on the
plot label to indicate which spectrum is being used. When this form is called from the RRS form, the default
spectrum will be the MCE.
The 80% options are used when conducting a Ratio of Response Spectra analysis. Select this option if you would
like to plot the 80% design spectrum for the soil type selected.
If you would like to manually enter the values for period and spectral acceleration, select the User option. The User
command button will be enabled when this option is selected. This option will display the User Defined Response
Spectrum form. In this form, you can enter values of period and spectra for a user defined response spectrum that
will be used to compute the modified spectrum using the results of the RRS analysis. In this way, you can enter a
user-defined spectrum and select the IBC 80%-design spectrum to be plotted on the same graph with the modified
spectrum.
After you have entered the above input information, click on the Ok button to compute the spectrum and to return to
the previous form. If you click on the Cancel button, you will return to the previous form without modifying the
input information if any had been selected previously.
If any of the options is disabled or results for any of the parameters are not shown on the respective text box, this is
due to the maps for this option or for these parameters not being available from the USGS.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 114
Import Acceleration Data
This form is used to import acceleration files for use in the Newmark Method for displacement analysis included
with SHAKE2000. The applications supported by SHAKE2000 are ProShake and Quake/W.
In short, first, you will select an output file created by another application, e.g. ProShake; then, read that output file
to determine if there are any acceleration time histories and how many there are (SHAKE2000 will only read the
first 6 acceleration time histories found in the file); and finally, create a series of output files, i.e. one per
acceleration time history, in the format used by SHAKE2000 to perform the displacement analysis with the
Newmark Method.
Before using any of the files created with this form, we highly recommend that you compare the contents of each
file with the data in the original output file to determine if the data were read correctly. You can use a text
processor to open the files.
For ProShake, SHAKE2000 supports two types of output files: 1) files with the extension *.RAW; and, 2) files
with the extension *.LYR. For Quake/W, SHAKE2000 uses the History Node file, i.e. files whose extension starts
with the letter “O”.
To select an output file, first select one of the software applications, and then click on the File command button to
display the Open Output File dialog form. By default, for ProShake a listing of the files with the extension
*.LYR will be automatically displayed. To select files with the extension of *.RAW, click on the down-arrow for
the list box next to the Files of type label and then select the ProShake *.RAW option. For Quake/W, a listing of
files whose extension starts with the letter “O” will be displayed. Double-click on the file to select it and return to
SHAKE2000. The file name and its path will be shown on the text box next to the ProShake or Quake/W File
label. The next step is to read the contents of the output file to extract the information necessary to create the
acceleration time history file. In ProShake, SHAKE2000 will only read the first 6 acceleration time histories in the
file.
Click on the Read command button to start reading the output file. After a few seconds, some information for the
acceleration time histories will be displayed in the text boxes on the form. The number shown on the History No.
column indicates the position of this time history in the output file. In ProShake, the number of the soil layer for
which the acceleration time history was computed is shown on the Layer No. column. For Quake/W, the number
of the node will be shown in the Node No. column. As noted in the Newmark Method - Accelerogram File
section of this document, a weighted-average file created from a series of files can be used in the Newmark Method
included with SHAKE2000. To create this average file, you need to know the weight of the soil column above the
layer. However, this value is not read from the ProShake or Quake/W output file, thus, a number is not shown on
the Column Weight column for the time history. If you know this value, you can enter it in the specific text box
for each time history, otherwise, a value of 0.00 (zero) will be saved in the new time history file. The number of
values for each time history is shown in the No. Values column, and the time step for the acceleration time history
in the Time Step column. A description for each history found in the output file is shown on the History
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 115
Information column. For ProShake, if a file of type *.RAW is read, this description is usually a number that
identifies the ground motion used (e.g. 1, 2, etc.). For files of type *.LYR, this description will be the path to the
ground motion file used in the analysis (e.g. C:\PROSHAKE\YERBA.EQ), and other information such as number
of values, period, etc.. For Quake/W, the information on this text box will be the information shown in the second
line of the history node file. You can modify the description for the history by entering up to 128 characters in this
text box.
To create the acceleration time history files compatible with SHAKE2000, click on the Export command button.
An individual file will be created for each time history displayed in this form. For ProShake, each file will have a
name such as PrSk#L##.AHL, wherein the number before the L is the number on the History No. column, and the
number after the L is the number shown on the Layer No. column. The files will be written to the directory shown
on the Export Directory box. For Quake/W, each acceleration file will have a name that starts with the string
QkeW followed by the number in the Node No. column, and will have an extension of AHL. For example,
QkeW79.AHL is the acceleration time history for node 79, extracted from a Quake/W history node file.
The output files created have the following format:
0
2048
0.0200
3
8
9
ProShake Output File: C:\ProShake\Output\Shake.lyr
Acceleration Time History],17, 0, 1,C:\Download\EduShake\TREAS.EQ, 2048, .0200
-.000408 -.002954 -.002443 -.000820 -.000282 .000451 .000215 -.000442
The values shown on the first line are: the weight of the soil column above the layer (e.g. 0); the number of values
in the acceleration time history (e.g. 2048); the time step for the acceleration time history (e.g. 0.02 seconds); the
number of header lines in this file (e.g. 3 header lines); the number of data columns used to write the acceleration
values (e.g. 8 columns are used, see line four); and, the number of digits that form each data column (e.g. 9 digits
per column, see line four).
The second line describes the type of output file used to create this file and its path (e.g. a ProShake output file
named Shake.lyr located in the C:\ProShake\Output directory). The third line shows the header line found in the
original ProShake output file for this specific acceleration time history. The fourth and subsequent lines are the
values of acceleration for the time history saved in the file. This file can now be used in SHAKE2000 to perform
the Newmark Displacement Analysis as explained in the Newmark Displacement Analysis section of this
document.
If the acceleration values in the source file are in units other than g‟s then you need to select a factor to convert the
values to units compatible with SHAKE2000, i.e. fractions of acceleration of gravity (g‟s), if necessary. Some files
provide motion data in different units, for example cm/sec 2, ft/sec2, etc.. To convert the units, select a factor that
represents the units of the acceleration data in the source file from the list of options shown on the Acceleration
Units list box. Remember that these are the units of the source or original data. Click on the down arrow of the list
and select an option. After selecting a unit, a multiplication factor value will be displayed on the Multiplier box.
This is the multiplication factor that will be used to convert the values. For example, to convert values of
acceleration from cm/sec2 to g‟s, you need to divide each value by 980.665 cm/sec2; which is equivalent to multiply
each value by 1/980.665 = 1.0191716E-03. If the accelerations in the source file are in units that are not shown in
the list, select the Other option, and then enter the correct multiplication factor in the Multiplier text box.
The Directory command button can be used to to select the directory where the acceleration files generated will be
stored. This button will display the Choose Output Directory form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 116
Import Data from CPT File
Cone Penetration Test data are typically recorded and stored as text files for further processing. However, the
format of the data and the units may not be standard, i.e. it may be different from one CPT recorder to another.
Thus, in order to provide the user with as much flexibility as possible when working with CPT data files, this form
is used to define how the file is to be read. In short, the user needs to define how the data are organized in the file
by entering the number of header lines, the maximum number of data columns on the file, and the position (i.e.
column number) in the file for at least the depth, cone tip resistance (q c), and sleeve friction (fs). In addition, data
for the pore pressure behind the tip (U2), pore pressure at upper end of the sleeve (U3), unit weight, and fines
content can also be read. This description, herein called a configuration, can be saved for future use, and other
configurations created and saved to be used with different types of CPT data files.
We will use the section of CPT file shown below to better explain the use of this form.
CPT-15111-2551 12:24 p.m. XXXXXXXX Inc.
CPT-B1
111
547889-36
0.05
6.22 0.0854
0.16
1.21
0.10
4.54 0.7546
0.11
0.89
0.15 169.22 0.8964
0.12
1.20
0.20 275.64 1.4185
0.24
1.19
0.25 228.11 1.8954
0.15
1.13
0.30 189.85 2.1345
-0.04
0.99
0.35 139.64 1.5945
0.01
0.99
English
The CPT contractor noted that the order and units of the data shown above are as follows:
Depth
(meters)
qc
(tsf)
fs
(tsf)
U2
(psi)
Inclination
(°)
First, use the Data command button to display the Open CPT Data File dialog form, change to a different folder
and/or subdirectory if necessary, and click on the file that stores the CPT data to select it. This file needs to be a text
or ASCII file. Then click on the Open command button of the dialog form to open it. After a few seconds, the first
few lines of the file (up to 99 lines) will be displayed on the bottom list box of the form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 117
The first four characters displayed in red are the numbers of each row of data in the file followed by a “|”. These
characters are not part of the source file and are only shown to number the rows. After the row numbers, the
alphanumeric characters that constitute the information saved in the file for each row are shown. Note that the
characters are displayed as blue on a white background, and that every tenth character is displayed in red. However,
if the tenth character is a “blank space” then the character is not shown. If the data are shown in columns aligned
vertically, then probably the only separators used between columns are tabs. On the other hand, if the data do not
appear to be vertically aligned then the columns may be separated by blank spaces.
To create a configuration, first enter a description for it in the text box next to the Configuration label. Note that a
number is automatically assigned to this configuration. You can scroll between the different configurations by
using the up-down arrows next to the text box. For the example above, enter Standard CPT File.
The next step is to enter the number of header lines in the file. These are usually lines at the very top of the file
used to provide some general information of interest to the user and are read before the CPT data. This number is
entered in the text box next to the No. header lines label. For our example, the first two lines are only given for
information. Thus, enter a 2 in the text box. The next number needed to define this file is the maximum number of
data columns in the file. Note that in the file there may be more columns than data needed for the CPT analysis.
SHAKE2000 needs, as a minimum, information on depth, q c and fs. However, some files also provide columns for
U2, U3, inclination, temperature, etc.; or, the user can add a column of values for unit weight and/or fines content
that can also be read as noted below. Accordingly, there can be 5, 6, or more columns in the file. For the above
example file, enter a 5 in the text box next to the Maximum No. of Columns label.
The order and units of the data columns is defined next. Enter here the numeric order of the column for each of the
data that will be read from the file. For our example above, the first column of data corresponds to depth, the
second to the cone tip resistance, qc, etc. In the text box below the Column label and next to the Depth label, enter
a 1.
Next, you need to select the units for the data in the file. Although you can select different units, SHAKE2000
works with a consistent set of units. Accordingly, SHAKE2000 transforms the units for depth to feet when working
with English units or to meters when working with SI units. Similarly, the units for q c will be converted to MPa and
the units for fs, and U2 and U3 to kPa for either the English or SI systems. The units of unit weight are converted to
lb/ft3 in the English system, or to kN/m3 in the SI system; and the fines content to percentage (%) for both systems.
Use the up-down arrows next to the text box below the Units label to select the units for each data column. For our
example, the depth data are given in meters. Thus, click on the up-down arrows until meters is shown in the text
box. If the data in the file are in units that are not shown on the list, select the Other option, and then enter a
multiplication factor in the text box below the Conversion Factor label. This factor, when multiplied by the
original data, should convert the value to the appropriate units used by SHAKE2000. For example, if the depth data
were given in inches, you will need to enter 0.08333 or 1/12 to convert them to feet. Accordingly, for q c you will
need to enter a multiplier to convert the tip values to MPa; and, for fs,U2,and U3 you will need to enter multipliers to
convert them to kPa. For unit weight, you would need to enter a multiplier to convert the data to pcf (i.e. lb/ft3)
when using the English system; or, to kN/m3 when using SI units.
In the Net area ratio, a text box, you should enter the value used to correct the measured cone tip resistance, qc, for
unequal area effect. The result of this correction is the corrected total cone resistance, q t, which is subsequently
used for normalization of the CPT measured data. Please note that if there are no data for the pore pressure acting
behind the cone, U2, then it is not necessary to enter a value for a. Also, if there are no values of U2 then
SHAKE2000 will assume that qt  qc.
Similarly, if values of pore pressure at the upper end of the sleeve, U 3, are used in the analysis, then you need to
enter values of cross sectional area at the bottom of the sleeve, Asb, cross sectional area at the top of the sleeve, Ast,
and friction sleeve surface area, As. These values will be used to correct the sleeve friction, fs, for pore pressure
differences between the upper and lower ends of the sleeve (Lunne et al., 1997), which yields the corrected sleeve
friction, ft. If there are no values of U3 then SHAKE2000 will assume that ft  fs. The area values should be in
squared millimeters (i.e. mm2). A value for the cone diameter will be shown in the text box next to the Cone
diameter (mm) label. This value will be used in the event the user wishes to correct the cone penetration
resistance for thin soil layers when depth averaging the data.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 118
By default, SHAKE2000 estimates the unit weight of the CPT column based on soil classification using cone tip
resistance (qc) and friction ratio (Rf), as recommended by Robertson and Campanella (1989), or from the CSR
analysis or SHAKE column when applicable. However, the data can also be read from the CPT data file by
defining the column number.
Usually, CPT borings are conducted along a vertical line. However, sometimes the CPT is angled to conduct the
test on areas that may not be easily accessible otherwise. For angled CPTs, you may want to enter the angle from
the vertical, in degrees, used when conducting the test. This angle will be used to convert the values of depth to a
vertical distance from the ground surface. This converted value will then be used to compute the vertical total and
effective stresses used to process the data. No other parameter is converted using the value of angle entered. To
enter the angle value, place the cursor in the text box next to the Angle from vertical (deg) label.
For the processing of the CPT data, the program assumes hydrostatic pore pressures, i.e. unit weight of water times
depth below water table. If a different regime exists, the user can enter a table of pore pressure vs. depth data pairs
using the Pore Water Pressure form displayed when clicking on the Pore command button. If more than one
pressure-depth data pair is provided, the Hydrostatic Pore Pressures option will be enabled. To use the new pore
pressure regime, click on the check box to deselect this option. In this case, a linear interpolation will be used to
estimate the pore pressures for the different CPT points. Please note that for computation of the CSR values, the
hydrostatic pore pressures will be used.
To read the data from the file, click on the Read command button. After a few seconds, the data will be displayed
on the data text boxes on the right side of the form. The data read from the file can also be edited manually. To do
this, first click on the View/Edit CPT file data option to select it. Then, place the cursor on any of the data-text
boxes and enter the new value.
For normalization of the CPT data, the total stress above the very first point will be determined from either: 1) the
soil column entered in the Simplified CSR form; 2) the soil column from Option 2 of SHAKE; or 3) assumed to be
equal to the depth to the first point minus half of the sampling interval times an assumed unit weight of 120 pcf or
18.8 kN/m3.
After you have created the configuration used to read the CPT file, click on the Append command button to add it
to the configuration file. The different configurations created are saved in this file and read every time this form is
loaded. If you have made some changes to an existing configuration and would like to use the new changes instead
of the current ones, click on the Replace button. The new configuration will overwrite the current configuration
data. The Delete command button can be used to erase a configuration from the configuration file.
Once you have created the configuration and selected a data file, you can return to the Cyclic Resistance Ratio
using CPT form by clicking on the Ok command button. Alternatively, when the Process command button is
selected, the Average CPT Data form is displayed. This form will display graphs of q c, fs, U2, Rf, and Soil Type
vs. depth; and, it can be used to create layers along the soil column and further subdivide these layers by doing
depth averaging. If you don‟t subdivide the soil column in layers, then every single point in the CPT data file will
be used in the CRR analysis.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 119
Input File Order
Enter value for new position in input file: Enter the value for the new position of an option in the input file. For
example, if you set Option 6 - Compute Accelerations for Layers 1 to 15 in position 5 and Option 5 - Obtain
strain compatible soil properties in position 6, you will need to reorganize your input file so that SHAKE2000
executes Option 5 before Option 6. To do this, click on Option 5 on input file option's list of the Earthquake
Response Analysis form, and then click the Order button. Then, enter 5 on the data cell and click on the Ok
button. Control will be returned to the Earthquake Response Analysis form, and the options will be reorganized
automatically. To cancel this action without modifying the order, click on the Cancel button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 120
Kalpha Correction Factor
This form is used to enter the correction factor for static “driving” shear stresses, or K, using the curves
recommended by Harder & Boulanger (Youd and Idriss, 1997), or the relationship proposed by Idriss & Boulanger
(Idriss and Boulanger, 2003a,b; Boulanger, R.W., 2003).
When using the Harder & Boulanger graph, the curves are for specific ranges of N1, 60 values. For the user's
convenience and for other values of N1, 60, the following approximations are performed by SHAKE2000: 1) for
values of N1, 60 less than 4, the lower bound curve for N1, 60 of 4-6 is used; 2) for values of N1, 60 greater than 6 but
less than 8, SHAKE2000 uses the upper bound curve for N 1, 60 of 4-6 and the lower bound curve for N1, 60 of 8-12; 3)
for values of N1, 60 greater than 12 but less than 14 the upper bound curve for N 1, 60 of 8-12 and the lower bound
curve for N1, 60 of 14-22 are used; and, 4) the upper bound curve for N 1,60 of 14-22 is used for N1,60 values greater
than 22. If you disagree with this approach, you can enter the values for K  manually. Futher, for the Harder &
Boulanger graph, acceptable values for  are 0 <=  <= 0.30. If you enter any other value for , SHAKE2000 will
not use the curves to obtain K. The chart used is based on data for conditions where initial effective overburden
stress is less than 3 tsf (or 287 kN/m2). When the effective stress is greater than 3 tsf (or 287 kN/m2), SHAKE2000
will not use the curves to obtain K. If you don't wish to use the chart, values for K  can be manually entered
without having to enter values for .
For the Idriss & Boulanger relationship, the values of  and R are constrained to   0.35 and -0.6  R  0.1,
respectively (Boulanger, R.W., 2003).
To estimate K, place the cursor on the Alpha column. Enter a value for , or “… the ratio of static driving shear
stress on a horizontal plane to the initial effective overburden stress” (Youd and Idriss, 1997). Press the Tab key to
move the cursor. For the Harder & Boulanger option, a series of values will be automatically displayed in the
Lower and Upper columns. These values correspond to the K values for the lower curve and the upper curve that
bound the range of K values for the corresponding N 1, 60 value. The value for K is displayed in the Kalpha
column. This value is obtained by interpolating between the upper and lower values. For the Idriss & Boulanger
(2003) option, the N1,60,cs values used are displayed in the N1,60 column, the value of the State Parameter Index, R,
will be shown in the Er column, and the computed value of K will be displayed in the Kalpha column. R is
computed assuming a value of 10 for Q and a value of 0.45 for K o.
To estimate the K value for other points, repeat the above procedure. Once you have entered all of the data, click
on the Ok button to return to the Cyclic Resistance Ratio form.
Please note that Youd and Idriss (1997) and Youd et al. (2001) recommend that K  should not be used in routine
engineering practice.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 121
Legend Text
This form is displayed by clicking on the Legends command button on the graphics window. When the form is
displayed, the legends for the first five curves are shown in the text boxes. To edit the legend, place the cursor on
the text box and enter the new legend. Each legend has a maximum length of 80 characters.
To display the legends for the following set of five curves, click on the Next button. Click on the Ok button to
return to the graphics window. If you don't want to modify the legends, click on the Cancel button.
The Reset command button is used to restore the original legends for the curves.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 122
Liquefaction-Induced Ground Deformation
Use this form to estimate the liquefaction induced ground deformation with any of the Multiple Linear Regression
models shown. The models included are those developed by Bartlett and Youd (1992, 1995; Youd, 2002; Youd et
al., 2002); Bardet, Mace and Tobita (1999; Bardet et al., 2002); Zhang, Robertson and Brachman (Zhang et al.,
2004); and, Zhang and Zhao (2005; Zhang, 2005).
The coefficients used in the different models are saved in the SHAKEY2K.CSR file in the SHAKE2000 directory.
For proper use of these models, the user should refer to the information provided in the above references. These
authors provide guidance on the use of the models, and more important, the range of acceptable input data.
For the Bartlett & Youd models, the default option in SHAKE2000 is to follow the procedure recommended by the
authors, as shown in Figure 9 of Youd et al. (2002). If the Flow Chart option is not selected, then the procedure is
not followed, however, the models are still enabled but the results may not be reliable. When the procedure in the
flow chart is followed, the user has the option of specifying if the site is located in the western USA or Japan, and
the soils are not soft. This is set by selecting the WUS/Japan – No Soft option. If this option is not selected, then
the equivalent source distance, Req, will be obtained from Figure 10 of Youd et al. (2002) and used in the models.
To this end, the user needs to enter a value for peak horizontal ground acceleration in g‟s, in the text box next to the
PGA (g) label.
The Zhang, Robertson and Brachman method is only enabled when this form is called from the Cyclic Resistance
Ratio using CPT or Cyclic Resistance Ratio using SPT forms. A liquefaction analysis using CPT data and the
Robertson and Wride method; or, a liquefaction analysis using SPT data and following the recommendations of the
1996 NCEER and 1998 NCEER/NSF Workshops (Youd et al., 2001), should be conducted prior to calculating the
liquefaction-induced lateral displacement.
For the Zhang & Zhao method, a type of seismic event and faulting mechanism can be selected from the list of
options listed on the Model/Event list. In this list, options starting with a “J” apply to the models developed using
Japanese spectral attenuation models; and, options starting with “SY” apply to the models developed using the
Sadigh et al. (1997) and Youngs et al. (1997) attenuation models.
When this form is loaded, the cursor is located on the text box next to the Project information label. In this box,
you can enter a description for this analysis, up to 80 characters. This information is included in the print out of the
results. Next, click the Tab key to move the cursor to the text box next to the Earthquake moment magnitude
(Mw) label. Enter the earthquake magnitude used in the analysis. Then, follow the same procedure to enter the
other data needed for the MLR model you are using for the analysis. The ground deformation calculated will be
shown on the text box below the Ground Deformation label.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 123
A different MLR model can be selected by clicking on the option button for the model. The ground deformation
value will be re-calculated and shown on the text box. Please note that some of the MLR models require more input
data than others. For example, for the FF6 model you need to enter values for F 15 and D5015, which are not required
for the FF4 model. Accordingly, the ground deformation will only be calculated and shown on the text box, if all of
the input data required for the model have been entered.
You can print the results by using the Print command button. This button will display the Print Menu form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 124
Main Menu
This is the main form of SHAKE2000, and the form that is first displayed when the program is launched. This form
is organized into three sections. The Editing and Processing section includes options that can be used to create and
edit input files for SHAKE, and to process the results so that the data are presented graphically. In the Plot Options
section a series of options used to graphically present the input data and the results are provided. Additional
analyses of common use in Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering are included in the third section, Other Analyses.
Editing and Processing Options:
SI units: By default, SHAKE2000 will use English units for most of the data used in the program. If you wish to
use SI units, select this option by clicking on the check box. Please note that the original source code for SHAKE
has not been revised to determine if SI units are compatible with SHAKE. Accordingly, when working with SI
units, the input data for SHAKE are transformed to English units before executing SHAKE. This transformation
only takes place for the data saved in the input file, and does not affect the data shown on the different SHAKE2000
forms. Similarly, the output data provided by SHAKE are in English units. When working with SI units, these data
are converted to SI units during processing of the data. More information on the different data used in a SHAKE
analysis is provided in the SHAKE and Earthquake Response Analysis sections of this manual.
A few of the features included in SHAKE2000 are available only on SI units, for example, the attenuation relations
and liquefaction-induced ground deformation. This is the case when the feature has been originally developed using
the SI units, and to support the worldwide move towards a common system based on the SI units. Similarly, the
basic parameters for the Cone Penetration Test are presented in SI units (MPa and kPa), but the data for the depth
and unit weights will depend on the system of units selected by the user (i.e. ft and lb/ft 3 for English units; and,
meters and kN/m3 for SI units). For most data used in SHAKE2000, the units for each value are shown on each
form. Files created with previous versions of SHAKE2000 will be converted automatically to SI units when the SI
units option is selected.
Create New EDT file: This is the default option when SHAKE2000 is launched. Use this option to create a new
EDT file that will contain default values for the different options of SHAKE. By clicking on the Ok button, the
Earthquake Response Analysis form is displayed. An EDT file is an ASCII file that contains data for the different
options used by SHAKE2000. The data are in the format required so that the *.EDT file may be used as an input
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 125
file for SHAKE2000. However, SHAKE2000 uses this file as a database to create an input file. The *.EDT file can
contain several sets sets for each option (e.g. 6 different sets of Option 2), up to 32,000 for all of the options
combined. By choosing the Edit Existing EDT file option you can select which options to use, and in which order
those options will be organized in the input file for SHAKE2000.
Edit Existing EDT file: Use this option to load and edit an existing *.EDT file. Click on the option, and then on the
Get File command button to select the *.EDT file. Then, click on the Ok button to display the Earthquake
Response Analysis form. A backup copy of the EDT file will be automatically created in the Backup\SHAKE
folder. This backup copy can be used to restore your original file, and it can also be used to restore some of the
other working files as explained in the following sections.
Process first output file: Select this option to process the first output file created by SHAKE. After selecting the
option, click on the Get File button to select the output file, and then click on the Ok button to process the file.
SHAKE2000 will read the file and extract the information that is most useful to the user, and store it in a series of
ASCII files that are used by the Plot Data options described below. This option will create the *.GRF, *.SPC,
*.AMP and *.FOU files. These files can also be used by other software (e.g. Excel, etc.) to create similar graphs.
The Analysis command button is enabled after the files are processed. This button will display a summary list of
the different options that form each analysis group. The results contained in the first and second output files
generated from the execution of SHAKE are grouped in sets, or analysis, depending on the order of the different
options.
Display Results: After the first output file is processed, you can use this option to display the results stored in the
*.GRF file in a spreadsheet-like form. To do this, click on the option, and then on the Get File command button to
select the *.GRF file. Click on the Ok button to display the Summary of Results of First Output File form.
Print Results: This option is used to create a table of the main results obtained from the first output file, which can
be printed. To do this, click on the option, and then on the Get File command button to select the *.GRF file. Click
on the Ok button to display the Print Results of First SHAKE Output File form.
Process second output file: Select this option to process the second output file created by SHAKE. After selecting
the option, click on the Get File button to select the output file, and then click on the Ok button to process the file.
SHAKE2000 will read the file and extract the acceleration and stress/strain values, and create the *.ACC and *.STR
files used in the Plot Data options described below.
Other files that save the individual time histories for each layer are also created. These files are identified with the
extension *.AHL (or acceleration history at layer) for those created from the Outcrop or Within acceleration time
histories requested in Option 6; *.ACC for the Incident acceleration time history requested in Option 6; and, with
the extension *.HEA (or horizontal equivalent acceleration) for those created from the shear stress time histories
requested in Option 7. For more detailed information about these files, please refer to the Earthquake Response
Analysis section of this user‟s manual.
Output file name: The name of the output files created with the Process first output file and Process second
output file can be entered in this text box. By default, SHAKE2000 uses Output as the name. For example, the
Process Second Output File option would create the following files: OUTPUT.ACC and OUTPUT.STR. To
change the name, place the mouse cursor in the box and delete the current contents, then type the new name. You
can also highlight the contents by pressing the left mouse button and dragging it, and then pressing the Delete key.
A maximum of 32 characters is allowed as input for this text box.
Output Directory: Use the Directory command button to choose a directory where the output files created by the
Process first output file and Process second output file options will be automatically stored. This directory will
also be used by other analyses (e.g. CRR, displacement, etc.) as the default directory for saving data files. After
clicking on the Directory button, the Choose Output Directory form will be displayed. Use the mouse to select
the drive and directory, and then click on the Ok button. The output directory will be displayed on the text box
next to the Output Directory label.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 126
Plot Options:
To execute an option (except Object Motion), click on the option to select it. Then click on the Get File button to
display the open file dialog box. If necessary change to the directory where the file is saved. Click on the file name,
and then on the Ok button. You will return to the Main Menu form. The file name is displayed on the text box next
to the option. Click on the Ok button to plot the data saved in the file.
Acceleration, CSR, Shear Stress: The following plots are created by choosing this option: Strain-Compatible
damping vs. Depth, Strain-Compatible Shear Modulus vs. Depth, Maximum Shear Strain vs. Depth, Maximum
Shear Stress vs. Depth, Peak Acceleration vs. Depth, and Cyclic Stress Ratio vs. Depth. The data for this option are
saved in the *.GRF file created by the Process first output file option. The maximum acceleration values are
obtained from the Option 6 output section, and the other results from the Option 5 output section of the first SHAKE
output file.
Acceleration time history: This option is used to plot the acceleration time history at the top of the layers specified
using Option 6 of SHAKE. The data are stored in the *.ACC file created using the Process second output file
option.
Stress/Strain time history: Use this option to plot the stress or strain time history at the top of the layers specified
using Option 7 of SHAKE. The data are stored in the *.STR file created using the Process second output file
option.
Response Spectrum: Select this option to display plots of response spectrum for different damping ratios computed
from Option 9 of SHAKE. The different response spectra plotted are: Relative Displacement (Sd), Relative Velocity
(Sv), Pseudo-Relative Velocity (PSV), Absolute Acceleration (Sa), and Pseudo-Absolute Acceleration (PSA) versus
Period. The data for this option are saved in the *.SPC file created by the Process first output file option.
Amplification Spectrum: Select this option to plot the amplification spectrum computed from Option 10 of
SHAKE. The data for this option are saved in the *.AMP file created by choosing the Process first output file
option.
Fourier Amplitude Spectrum: Use this option to plot the Fourier amplitude spectrum computed from Option 11 of
SHAKE. The data for this option are saved in the *.FOU file created by choosing the Process first output file
option.
Material properties: This option is used to plot the dynamic properties, i.e., shear modulus reduction and damping
ratio curves for the different materials. The data are obtained from either an *.EDT (SHAKE2000 main file) or an
input file. After selecting this option, click on the Ok button to display the Plot Dynamic Material Properties
form.
Object Motion - Scaling: This option is used to plot the acceleration time history for an earthquake record and to
access the scaling feature of the program. For example, you can use this option to plot the object motion that is used
as input for the SHAKE2 analysis. The Plot Object Motion form will be displayed to allow you to select the object
motion to be plotted. To use the scaling feature, click on the Scale command button on the Plot Object Motion
form.
Other Analyses and Utilities:
To execute one of these options, first click on the option to select it and then on the Ok command button.
Ground Motion Attenuation Relations: This option is used to plot attenuation relations for peak ground
acceleration and peak horizontal velocity with distance, and pseudo absolute acceleration and pseudo relative
velocity response spectra. Several equations are used, as described in the Ground Motion Attenuation Relations
section of this manual.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 127
Ground Motion File Utilities: Conversion & Database: With this option the user can convert ground motion files
to different units and/or formatting. Also, the information on the database of ground motion files can be edited and
data about new files added.
Liquefaction-Induced Ground Deformation: Use this option to estimate the liquefaction induced ground
deformation with any of the available models.
Probabilistic Seismic Risk Analysis - SEISRISK III: This option of SHAKE2000 is used to create input files for
and to process the output file created with SEISRISK III.
Response Spectra for Ground Motion: This option is used to compute the response spectra for a ground motion.
Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis: This option is used to calculate the Cyclic Stress Ratio using the equation
formulated by Seed and Idriss in 1971. Further, you can also calculate the Cyclic Resistance Ratio using SPT, BPT,
CPT or Vs data to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of the soil column. Refer to the Simplified Cyclic Stress
Ratio Analysis section of this User's Manual for more detailed information.
Simplified Seismic Displacement Analyses: After selecting this option, click on the Ok button to display the
Displacement form to select a method. The following simplified methods are included:

Bray & Travasarou Simplified Seismic Displacement: This option is used to estimate permanent
displacements due to earthquake-induced deviatoric deformations as proposed by Bray & Travasarou.

Makdisi & Seed Displacement Analysis: This option uses the Simplified Makdisi & Seed Method to
compute the displacement induced by ground motion on an earth embankment.

Newmark Displacement Analysis: This function of SHAKE2000 allows you to determine permanent
slope displacements due to earthquake shaking, using the Newmark Method.

Rathje & Saygili Seismic Sliding Displacements: This function of SHAKE2000 allows you to determine
deterministic and pseudoprobabilistic sliding displacements due to earthquake shaking using the procedure
developed by Rathje & Saygili.
U.S. Geological Survey Seismic Hazard: This form is used to retrieve the Peak Ground Acceleration from the files
of gridded points used to make the 1996 USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (Frankel et al., 1996), for the updates
(Frankel et al., 2002; U.S. Geological Survey, 2003a and 2003b, 2008, 2010); and also, to plot the results of the
seismic hazard deaggregation for a site in the conterminous states of the United States.
A copyright message, the version number, and the name of the registered user for this copy of SHAKE2000 can be
displayed using the About command button.
Execution of SHAKE2000 is terminated by clicking on the Exit command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 128
Makdisi & Seed - Displacement Analysis
There are three methods that can be used to compute/enter the first natural period of the embankment. Based on
this, SHAKE2000 uses a different approach to compute the displacement based on the charts presented by Makdisi
and Seed (1977, 1978, and 1979). The procedure to compute the displacement using this form will be explained for
each of these methods. For more complete information on the Makdisi & Seed approach and the data needed for the
calculations, please review the appropriate references.
Makdisi & Seed: This method is based on iterations of the shear strain to obtain strain compatible material
properties, used then to compute the maximum crest acceleration and the natural period of the embankment. With
these values, and other information entered by the user, the range of permanent displacements is obtained from the
charts in Makdisi and Seed (1977).
To select this method, click on the Makdisi & Seed option of the First natural period options. Then, press the Tab
key to move the cursor to the text box next to the Earthquake magnitude: label. Enter the earthquake magnitude
used in the analysis. The acceptable range of magnitudes is 6.5 to 8.25. Now, move the cursor to the text box next
to the Peak acceleration (g): label, and enter the value of the maximum acceleration in g's (e.g. 0.20) for the
earthquake used in the analysis. Next, you will need to enter some basic information about the embankment. Press
the Tab key to move the cursor to the text box next to the Height label. Enter the height of the embankment in feet
or meters. Move the cursor to the text box next to the Unit weight label and enter the unit weight for the
embankment material in lb/ft3 or kN/m3. Now, enter either the maximum shear modulus in kips per square feet (ksf)
or kN/m2 in the text box next to the Gmax label, or the maximum shear wave velocity in feet per second (fps) or
m/sec in the text box next to the Vs label. If you enter Gmax, then Vs will be computed as Vs = (Gmax/mass
density)1/2. Accordingly, if you enter Vs, then Gmax is computed as Gmax = (mass density * Vs2). Press the Tab key to
move the cursor to the text box next to the Yield Acc. (g): label. In this method, the first natural period and the
maximum embankment crest acceleration are computed, thus, the text boxes next to the Period (sec): and Crest
Acc. (g): labels are disabled. Enter the value of yield acceleration, or Ky, of the potential failure surface in g's.
Place the cursor on the text box next to the Depth ratio: label and enter the depth ratio, or y/H ratio, for the failure
surface. Now you need to select curves that represent the variation of shear modulus and damping as a function of
shear strain for the embankment material. These curves are selected from the curves stored in the shakey2k.mat
file, created as explained in the Dynamic Material Properties - Database section of this User‟s Manual. To
retrieve the G/Gmax curve, click on the Get command button next to the box for the G/Gmax Curve: label. This
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 129
will display the G/Gmax Curves - Database form. Select a curve, and then click on the Choose command button
to return to the Makdisi & Seed form. Next, click on the Get command button for the Damping ratio curve: label
to display the Damping Ratio Curves - Database form. Select a curve, and then click on the Choose command
button to return to the Makdisi & Seed form. The description for the curves will be shown on their respective
boxes.
After you have entered the basic information needed, you can begin the iteration procedure for the computation of
displacements. The procedure is divided in steps. Step 1 consists of entering an assumed value for the average
shear strain level in the embankment. Move the cursor to the text box next to the Assume average shear strain
(%): label. Enter an estimate of the average shear strain as percentage. Press the Tab key to move the focus to the
Input command button. Some information is computed and displayed on the text boxes for G/Gmax, G, Damping,
Vs, and for the three modal periods T1, T2 and T3.
To obtain the spectral accelerations corresponding to the computed damping ratio shown on the text box next to the
Damping (%): label, click on the Sa command button to display the Response Spectra for Ground Motion form.
This form is used to compute the response spectra for a ground motion. The routine used by SHAKE2000 is based
on the SPECTR computer program (Donovan, 1972). Please refer to the Response Spectra for Ground Motion of
this manual for more information on how to use this form. For the analysis of the response spectrum, you can enter
up to 6 damping values. Thus, it is recommended that you enter a range of damping values that may include the
above computed value, and other values less than and greater than this value. For example, say that a damping value
of 12% was computed after you entered the assumed value of shear strain. Then, you would enter values of 0.05,
0.1, 0.12, 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25. When retrieving the values of spectral acceleration, and if there is not a spectrum for
the specific value of damping, SHAKE2000 will interpolate between two available spectra. Hence, if for example,
the value of damping were 17%, SHAKE2000 will interpolate between the spectra for 15% and 20% damping.
After the spectra are calculated, and before returning to the Makdisi & Seed form, SHAKE2000 will normalize the
spectral accelerations, i.e. each spectra value will be divided by the spectral acceleration for a period of 0.01
seconds, thus the spectra values used in the calculation of the displacement are independent of peak acceleration.
Upon returning to the Makdisi & Seed form, the values for spectral accelerations will be shown on the boxes next to
the Sa labels.
After the spectral acceleration values are obtained, the value for the maximum crest acceleration, or U max, is
computed and shown on the box next to the Maximum crest acceleration (Umax, g): label. Also, the average
equivalent shear strain value is computed and shown on the box next to the Average equivalent shear strain (%):
label. Other values computed are for the K max/Umax ratio, Kmax, and Ky/Kmax ratio. If this latest computed value of
shear strain is not approximately the same as the assumed average value entered above, then repeat the above
procedure beginning with Step 1, and using the computed average strain value. If the value is the same, or close,
then the process is concluded and the range of permanent displacement is obtained from Figure 14 of Makdisi and
Seed (1977) and shown on the bottom of the screen in the boxes next to the Permanent displacement range: label.
Gazetas & Dakoulas: This method uses the equation proposed by Dakoulas and Gazetas (1985) to calculate the
fundamental period of the embankment. The user needs to enter values for earthquake magnitude, embankment
height, unit weight of the embankment, maximum shear modulus or maximum shear wave velocity, embankment
crest acceleration, yield acceleration, and depth ratio. Refer to the explanation for the Makdisi & Seed option
described above for more information on how to enter these data. After these data are entered, values for K max/Umax
ratio, Kmax, and Ky/Kmax ratio are computed and shown on their respective boxes. Then, SHAKE2000 uses Figure 16
of Makdisi and Seed (1977) to obtain the average normalized displacement, and display it on the box next to the
U/KgTo label. With this normalized displacement, the average displacement is computed and shown on the box
next to the Average permanent displacement: label.
Manual: In this method the user needs to enter values for earthquake magnitude, first fundamental period,
embankment crest acceleration, yield acceleration, and depth ratio. Refer to the explanation for the Makdisi &
Seed option described above for more information on how to enter these data. After these data are entered, values
for Kmax/Umax ratio, Kmax, and Ky/Kmax ratio are computed and shown on their respective boxes. Then, SHAKE2000
uses Figure 16 of Makdisi and Seed (1977) to obtain the average normalized displacement, and display it on the box
next to the U/KgTo label. With this normalized displacement, the average displacement is computed and shown on
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 130
the box next to the Average permanent displacement: label.
The curves provided by Makdisi and Seed (1977) are for earthquake magnitudes of 6.5, 7.5 and 8.25. For other
magnitudes, SHAKE2000 will interpolate between the curves to obtain the displacements.
To save the data click on the Save command button to display the save file dialog box. Enter a name for the text file
where this information will be saved for future retrieval, using the Open command button. The Append command
button can be used to add the current results at the end of the output file.
You can print the results by using the Print command button. This button will display the Print Displacement
Results form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 131
Mean/Scaling Response Spectrum
This form can be used to obtain the mean spectral acceleration response spectrum for a series of ground motion
records. The mean value can then be compared to a target spectrum in order to visually evaluate how well the shape
of the average spectrum compares to the shape of the target spectrum. A more detailed explanation about selecting
ground motion records for analysis based on how well they match a target spectrum is given by Bommer and
Acevedo (2004), Hancock et al. (2005), Kottke and Rathje (2007), and PEER Ground Motion Selection and
Modification Working Group (2009). To use the form, the user needs to select a number of ground motion files, a
target spectrum; and, optionally, enter a range of periods of interest.
There are three different command buttons that can be used to select ground motion files. First, you can select an
object motion listed in the earthquake records database by clicking on the Quakes button to display the Earthquake
Records Database form. This form shows a listing of the records saved in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file. Once the list
is displayed, you can choose a record by highlighting it and clicking on the Ok button, or by double clicking on it.
The data for the record will be shown on their respective fields upon returning to this form.
To select files that are not included in the database of earthquake records, click on the Other command button to
display the Acceleration Time History File dialog form. Switch to the appropriate folder, select the ground motion
file and click on the Open command button. The file name and path will be displayed on the list shown below the
File of Acceleration Time History label. In order to read and use the data saved in the file you need to enter:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
The total number of acceleration values that form the object motion file in the No. Values text box;
The time interval between each acceleration value in the Time Step text box;
If the motion will be scaled to a different peak acceleration value, then enter the scaling value used to
modify the acceleration in the Scaling Factor text box;
The number of lines at the beginning of the file that are used to describe the object motion in the No.
Header text box; and,
The number of acceleration values on each line in the Values per Line text box; and, the number of digits
that form an acceleration value in the No. Digits text box.
The Other command button can also be used to select multiple files at a time. Also, use the Other command button
to select files downloaded from the PEER NGA Ground Motion Database, i.e. *.AT2 files. Please note that these
files are not in a format compatible with SHAKE, but can still be used with this feature of the program. If you wan
to convert some of these files to a format compatible with SHAKE after the scaling procedure, use the Export
command button.
More detailed information about these values is provided in the Plot Object Motion or Response Spectra for
Ground Motion sections of this manual.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 132
The third option used to select ground motion files is with the Convert command button. This button is used to
display the Conversion of Ground Motion File form that can be used to convert ground motion files from different
units and/or formatting to a file that can be used with SHAKE2000. Further information on this feature is provided
in the Conversion of Ground Motion File section of this manual. Upon returning to this form, the information
used to read the file is displayed in their respective columns.
The View command button can be used to view the contents of a ground motion file. This will help you to collect
the information needed to define the formatting of the file if necessary. To do this, first select a file by clicking on
its name/path, then click on View. When you click on the file‟s name/path the check box will be selected or deselected. Note that when the check box is not selected, the file will not be used for computation of the average
spectrum. The first 60 lines of the file will be displayed on a form, with the first characters displayed in red
representing the numbers of each row of data in the file followed by a “|”. These characters are not part of the
source file and are only shown to number the rows. After the row numbers, the alphanumeric characters that
constitute the information saved in the file for each row are shown. Note that the characters are displayed as blue on
a white background, and that every tenth character is displayed in red. However, if the tenth character is a “blank
space” then the character is not shown. This is done to guide the user when defining the order of the data in the file.
As noted before, the average spectrum will be compared to a target spectrum. There are six options used to select
the target spectrum: Attenuate, EuroCode, IBC, NEHRP, and User’s. Select one of these options and then click
the Target command button to display the respective form. Further information for the first four options is provided
in the respective sections of this manual. The Other option will display the Response Spectra for Ground Motion
form. This form can be used to compute the response spectrum using the data saved in a ground motion file. If you
would like to manually enter the values for period and spectral acceleration, select the User’s option. This option
will display the User Defined Response Spectrum form. In this form, you can enter values of period and spectra
for a user defined response spectrum.
A period range of interest can be shown on the graph of results. Enter a lower and upper value in the Tmin and Tmax
text boxes, respectively. A dashed line will be shown across the graph at each period value.
If you want to scale the spectra to a specific spectral value at a target period, enter the period in the T match text
box and click on the check box to select this option. The program will compute the scaling factor necessary to scale
each spectrum to that spectral value and display it in the Scaling Factor column.
If you want to use both horizontal components, select the Geometric Mean option. The program will compute the
geometric mean spectrum and use this spectrum in the selection process. Before using this option, you need to
define the corresponding pair for each motion. Enter the number of the file that is the pair for each file in the Pair
column. For *.AT2 file, the program will automatically try to identify each corresponding pair. For example, in the
screen shot in the previous page, the first file is file number one. For this file the corresponding pair is file number
two. In the Pair text box for the firs file a 2 is shown indicating that file number 2 is the corresponding pair.
Once you have selected a suite of ground motion files and a target spectrum, click on the Scale command button to
compute the average response spectrum. In SHAKE2000, the analysis consists of obtaining the 5% damping
pseudo-acceleration response spectrum for each ground motions selected and then obtaining an average value of
spectral acceleration for each period.
To aid in comparing the spectra, the fit is evaluated through the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) as recommended
by Kottke and Rathje (2007):
1
RMSE 
np
 ln Sa
RMSE
np
root-mean-square-error.
number of periods in range of interest.
np
i 1
 ln Sat arg et ,i 
2
scaled , avg , i
Where,
=
=
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 133
Sascaled,avg,i =
Satarget,i
=
average scaled pseudo-spectral acceleration for records considered at period Ti, for
periods within the period range of interest.
target pseudo-spectral acceleration at the same period Ti for periods within the period
range of interest.
The RMSE for the computed average spectrum is shown next to the RMSE label. Further, the fit is computed only
for the range of periods of interest. For calculation of the response spectrum, 300 periods equally spaced in a log
space, between 0.01 seconds and 10 seconds are used.
To plot the results click on the Plot command button.
To delete a ground motion file from the list of motions, click on the name/path for the file to highlight it and then on
the Remove command button.
The input and output data can be saved to a text file using the Save command button. The data can be retrieved
from the file using the Open command button. This file is an ASCII text file, thus, it can be open with other
software applications for other purposes by the user.
An alternative way of finding the scaling coefficients is by using a computer program developed by Kottke and
Rathje (Kottke and Rathje, 2007). This program, sigmaSpectra, selects and scales motions from a suite of a user
provided library of motions so that their average fits a target response spectrum. After the user has executed
sigmaSpectra, the results can be imported into SHAKE2000 and used to compute the mean and median spectra as
explained previously. The installation file for sigmaSpectra is saved in the sigmaSpectra folder when SHAKE2000
is installed. Please run this installation file to install sigmaSpectra.
The following is a quick tutorial on the use of sigmaSpectra and on how to use the results with SHAKE2000. The
main form for sigmaSpectra is shown below.
First, you need to create a library of ground motion files that will be used by sigmaSpectra to create different suites
of ground motion files whose average closely match a target spectrum. This library is formed by ground motion
records downloaded from the PEER web site at http://peer.berkeley.edu/nga/.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 134
These files should have the extension *.AT2, which is typically the extension automatically given to the files
downloaded from the PEER website. Further, these files should have the same names as those entered in the Motion
Identification column of the Mean Response Spectrum form. For example, in the above form, the library of
ground motion files is saved in the c:\Program Files\SHAKE2000\SigmaSpectra\Example folder. Within this folder,
there may be other folders were files for specific seismic events are stored; e.g., the files for ground motion histories
recorded for the 11/24/87 Superstition Hills event, B-SUP045.AT2 and B-SUP135.AT2, are located in the
Superstition Hills subfolder.
After the library is created, use the Select Path command button to select the path where the library of ground
motion files is stored. As shown on the previous form, for this example the path selected would be c:\Program
Files\SHAKE2000\SigmaSpectra\Example. Then use the Number of motions in suite and Seed combination size
options to select the number of motions per suite and the size of the seed combination for the analysis, respectively.
Refer to Kottke and Rathje (2007) for more detailed information on these options.
Data for the target response spectrum; i.e. period, spectral acceleration and standard deviation, are entered in their
respective columns located on the Target Response Spectrum section of the previous form. The data can be
entered manually, i.e. place the cursor on the text box and type in the numbers, or you can copy the data from
another application, e.g. Excel, and paste them in the respective data colum using the Paste command of the Edit
menu item. sigmaSpectra uses the periods entered for the target spectrum to compute the response spectrum for the
ground motions used in the matching process. If you would like to increase the number of periods, you can use the
Interpolate period option. Click on the check box for this option to select it, and then use the options in the Period
Interpolation section of the form to define the settings and values for the interpolation.
After you have selected the ground motion library and set other options and values, click on the Compute command
button to do the matching. Once the program has completed the calculations, the results for the first suite of ground
motions will be automatically displayed as shown below.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 135
This form shows the response spectra for each ground motion on the suite; the target, median and median  standard
deviation response spectra; and the ground motion files that form the suite. It also lists the different suites created
on the upper left corner of the form. To view the results for other suite, click on the row for that suite to select.
To use these results with SHAKE2000, you need to export the data using the Export Suites command button. First,
select the suites that you want to export by clicking on the check box for each suite on the Export column. Then
click on the Export Suites command button to display the following file dialog form.
On this form, click on the Open command button to select the folder where the results file will be saved; then, click
on the SHAKE2000 suite file option to select it. To create the results file, click on Ok. This file will be
automatically given the SuiteLog.txt file name and extension.
In the Mean Response Spectrum form of SHAKE2000, click on the open folder icon next to the text box for
Motion Selector Suite and use the file dialog form to select the SuiteLog.txt file created with sigmaSpectra, and
then click on Open. The results for the first suite will be shown on the text box. To select a different suite, open the
list by clicking on the down arrow, and then select the suite. The scaling coefficients for each motion in the suite
will be updated and those for the motions not included in the suite will be changed to 1.0. Then, click on the Scale
command button to conduct the matching analysis; and, use the Plot command button to display the results as
explained before.
After you have obtained a suite of motions that fit the target spectrum, the information about the ground motions can
be exported to an EDT file in the form of Option 3 used by SHAKE. To do this, first click on the Export command
button to display the Export as Option 3 to EDT File dialog form. Select the EDT file you would like to add the
information to, and then click on Save. If you wish to add this information for use with the random creation of data
feature, first create the random EDT file before exporting the data.
PEER ACC Files: A number of ACC files downloaded from the PEER Ground Motion Database website
(http://peer.berkeley.edu/peer_ground_motion_database) can also be used to save their information as Option 3 in an
EDT file after the “matching” has been performed by PEER. To this end, follow the above procedure to select a
group of ACC files and then use the “open folder” icon to open the Excel CSV file created with the “Save Search
Spectra” command button of the PEER website. The scaling factors will be retrieved from the CSV file and shown
on the respective columns for the corresponding ACC file. After this, follow the above procedure with the Target
and Scale command buttons to create a target spectrum and to scale the motions, respectively; and, then use the
Export command button to create the EDT file.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 136
NEHRP Response Spectra
This form is used to select the options and/or enter the data necessary to plot a response spectrum in accordance with
NEHRP (Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004a & 2004b).
The procedure followed to obtain the spectrum starts by first entering spectral accelerations at short period, Ss, and
at 1-second period, S1, from the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) Ground Motion Maps included with the
NEHRP Provisions. These values are entered in the Ss and S1 text boxes respectively. By default, a Long-period
transition period, TL, of 4 seconds is shown on the T L text box. If you would like to use a different value, enter the
appropriate value in this text box. The program will only accept values of 4, 6, 8, 12 or 16 seconds for T L as these
are the only values used in the NEHRP maps.
Next, select the site class by choosing one of the Site Class options. The Fa and Fv values will be computed and
displayed in their corresponding text boxes on the upper right corner of the form.
By default, the program will compute the design spectrum. If you need to use the MCE spectrum, click on the MCE
Spectrum option to select it. When the spectrum is plotted, either Design or MCE will be shown on the plot label
to indicate which spectrum is being used. When this form is called from the RRS form, the default spectrum will be
MCE.
The 80% options are used when conducting a Ratio of Response Spectra analysis. Select this option if you would
like to plot the 80% design spectrum for the soil type selected.
If you would like to manually enter the values for period and spectral acceleration, select the User option. The User
command button will be enabled when this option is selected. This option will display the User Defined Response
Spectrum form. In this form, you can enter values of period and spectra for a user defined response spectrum that
will be used to compute the modified spectrum using the results of the RRS analysis. In this way, you can enter a
user-defined spectrum and select the NEHRP 80%-design spectrum to be plotted on the same graph with the
modified spectrum.
After you have entered the above input information, click on the Ok button to compute the spectrum and to return to
the Response Spectrum Plot Menu form. If you click on the Cancel button, you will return to the plot menu form
without modifying the input information if any had been selected previously.
The Reset button is used to set the values of the form to their default values.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 137
Newmark Method - Displacement Analysis
This feature of SHAKE2000 allows you to determine permanent slope displacements due to earthquake shaking,
using the Newmark Method. For more complete information on the methodology and data used in this feature,
please refer to the papers by Houston et al. (1987), Matasovic et al. (1998) and Newmark (1965).
In SHAKE2000 two different approaches are used to create an algorithm for the Newmark Method as
recommended by Houston et al. (1987) and by Franklin and Chang (1977). The approach by Houston et al. allows
the use of the upslope component of the yield acceleration in order to account for upslope movement. However,
when only the downslope component of the yield acceleration is used, both approaches yield similar results. To
select a method, click on the radio button for the method‟s option.
When this form is first displayed, the cursor is on the Project text box. Enter the description (up to 80 characters)
for the analysis you will be doing. Press the Tab key, or use the mouse pointer to move the cursor to one of the
Yield Acceleration options. The first option, Constant Acceleration, allows you to use a constant value for the
yield acceleration. When this option is selected, the text box next to the label is enabled, and the cursor is placed
on it. Enter the value for the yield acceleration.
The second option, Changes with time, allows you to enter values of yield acceleration that vary as a function of
time. After you select this option, the Edit command button next to the text box will be enabled. Click this button
to display the Yield Acceleration Function form. Enter the data for time, yield acceleration and a brief description
for the function in the Description text box. Then click on the Ok command button. Upon returning to the
displacement screen, the description will be displayed on the text box.
The next option, Changes with displacement, allows you to enter values of yield acceleration that vary as a
function of displacement. Matasovic et al. (1998) provide an example of this application. These data are entered
as described previously for the Changes with time option.
To select an acceleration time history to use in the displacement analysis, click on the File command button on the
Acceleration Time History line to display the Newmark Displacement Ground Motion File form. Use this
form to select a time history file; or, to create a weighted-file from up to 5 files that may represent different
columns on the soil profile. If you would like to scale this acceleration time history to a different value of
maximum peak acceleration, place the cursor on the Maximum Acceleration Value text box and enter the value
for the new peak acceleration in g's. If you enter 0 (zero), a scaling factor of 1 (one) will be used and the record
will not be changed.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 138
An option to account for the upslope movement is included in SHAKE2000. Normally, the error in not including
the upslope movements is not significant (Jibson, 1993; Newmark, 1965). To include the upslope movement, click
on the check box for the Include upslope movement option. If you select this option, you need to enter a value
for the static factor of safety. Based on the method proposed by Houston et al. (1987), the static factor of safety is
used to compute the upslope component of the yield acceleration based on the following equation:
 FS
 1
a y ,upslope  a y ,downslope static 
 FS static  1
Where ay,downslope is the downslope value of yield acceleration. To enter the static factor of safety, place the cursor
on the text box next to the Static Factor of Safety label and enter the value.
When working with English units, a default value of 386.4 in/sec2 is used for the acceleration due to gravity. A
value of 981 cm/sec2 is used when working with SI units. However, you can change this value to obtain the results
using a different system of units. Select a different acceleration value by clicking on the down arrow key of the list
box next to the Acceleration due to Gravity label and choose a new value.
After you have entered all the information, the displacements are computed automatically. The results will be
displayed in the Maximum, Minimum and Average displacement text boxes. A value of displacement is
computed by using the acceleration data as they are saved in the input file. If the acceleration time history is
significantly unsymmetrical, then Houston et al. (1987) recommend that the history be reversed. A second value of
displacement is calculated by first reversing the acceleration time history, i.e. the sign of each value is changed,
and then by conducting the analysis a second time. The displacement values are compared to determine the
maximum and minimum, and an average value is computed.
The data can be saved to a text file by clicking on the Save command button. This will display the save file dialog
box. Enter a name for the text file where all this information will be saved for future retrieval using the Open
command button. The acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories are also saved in this data file. The
Append command button can be used to add the current results at the end of the output file.
You can print the results by using the Print command button. This button will display the Print Displacement
Results form.
To plot the results, click on the Plot command button. You can select to plot the three graphs at the same time or
each graph separately. When using the Franklin & Chang option, plots of the relative values for acceleration,
velocity and displacement are also available. The Reversal option allows you to plot the results obtained using the
reversed acceleration time history.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 139
Newmark Method - Select Accelerogram File
There are four options for selecting an accelerogram for the Newmark's method:

The first one is to use a file that was obtained from processing of the second output file from SHAKE2000. The
file is given a name such as L##A#D#-##[email protected]@@@@@@@-$$$$$$$$.AHL or L##A#D#-##@@@@@@@@-$$$$$$$$.HEA, where L means layer and is followed by two numbers which are the layer
number; A stands for analysis, and the number following it is the analysis number; and, D is for soil deposit and
the number is the number of the soil deposit as defined in option 2. The last 2 numbers after the “-“ show the
position of this time history in the output file. The @@@@@@@@ string identifies the soil profile in more
detailed and it is obtained from the first 8 characters of the string entered in the Identification for Soil Profile
text box in Option 2. Similarly, the $$$$$$$$ string is the string of characters entered in the Earthquake
Identification text box in Option 3. Files obtained from earlier versions of SHAKE2000 may not have these
two strings.
For example, the very first time history in the second output file will have the “-01” numbers after the deposit
number. More information on the analysis number is given in the introduction section of this manual, and the
files are saved in the output directory selected in the Main Menu form of SHAKE2000. Files identified with the
extension *.AHL (or acceleration history at layer) are those created for the acceleration time histories requested
in Option 6; and, those with the extension *.HEA (or horizontal equivalent acceleration) are those created from
the shear stress time histories requested in Option 7. The *.AHL files stores the same data saved in the *.ACC
file. The difference is that each AHL file only saves one acceleration time history, i.e. the acceleration time
history at the top of the layer. As explained in Bray et al. (1995) for the seismic analysis of landfills, the HEA,
or horizontal equivalent acceleration, at a specific depth and time can be obtained as the ratio of the shear stress
to the total vertical overburden stress. Accordingly, these files are created using the shear stress histories from
option 7 and the overburden stress computed using the thicknesses and unit weights from option 2 for the
corresponding SHAKE column and analysis.
To select a file, click on the check box next to the first (Click Choose to select a file) label. Then on the
Choose command button to open the Open Acceleration Time History dialog box. Select a file and then click
on Ok to return to the form. Some information will be displayed on the boxes next to the file name. Click on
Ok to return to the Newmark Displacement Analysis form.

The second option is to create an average file from a series of files. These files were created when the second
output file from SHAKE2000 was processed, and named as described above. The weight of the column above
the layer where the ground motion was calculated is obtained using the data from Option 2, and saved in the
acceleration time history file. The method used to compute an average accelerogram in SHAKE2000 is as
recommended by Abramson et al. (1996). In this method, a weighted average approach is used to compute an
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 140
average file from a series of n files based on the equation:
i n
Acc avg 
 m a (t )
i 1
i
i n
m
i 1
Where,
i
mi
ai(t)
i
= mass of unit column directly above point i
= acceleration response at point i
To create the average accelerogram, first select up to fifty motion files. To do this, click on the check box next
to the first (click Choose to select a file) label (an x is shown on the box when a file is selected), then on the
Choose command button to display the Open Acceleration Time History dialog box. Select a file then click
on Ok to return to the form. Some information will be displayed on the boxes next to the file name. Use the
scroll bar to display check boxes for additional files. After selecting the files, you need to choose a name for
the average file. By default SHAKE2000 will give this file the name output.nmk, and will save it in the
directory selected for the output files in the Main Form. The name and path will be shown on the text box next
to the Weighted average accelerogram file label. If you would like to use a different name and/or path, click
on the Save command button to display the Save Accelerogram File form. Then, select a file or enter a new
name in the File name: text box. This file is given the extension *.NMK by default. Click on Ok to return to
the file selection form.
After you have selected the files and have chosen a name, click on the Motion command button to create the
file. Only the files for which an x is shown on the check box will be used in the calculation of the average file.
Finally, click on the Ok command button to return to the Newmark Displacement Analysis form.


Import an acceleration file created by another application (e.g. ProShake, Quake/W). In short, first, you will
select an output file created by another application, e.g. ProShake; then, read that output file to determine if
there are any acceleration time histories and how many there are (however, SHAKE2000 will only read the
first 6 acceleration time histories found in the file); and finally, create a series of output files, i.e. one per
acceleration time history, in the format used by SHAKE2000 to perform the displacement analysis with the
Newmark Method. To access this feature, click on the Import command button to display the Import
Acceleration Data form.
Using other acceleration history file: If you want to use the data saved in a file different from the ones
described above, use the Other command button to display the Acceleration Time History dialog box to
select the file that you want to use. The name of the file will be displayed next to the option button on the
bottom section of the form. Now you need to enter the following information on the data cells below the file
name. First, you need to select the file by clicking on the button next to the Other Acceleration Time
History label. This will enable (i.e. the mouse cursor changes to the I-beam appearance when placed on the
cells) the data cells to enter the data. We'll use the following example to explain the information necessary to
plot the object motion.
Example:
SHAKE2000 Sample Object Motion
Time Period = 0.01
Number of Points = 2048
0.024455 0.000868 -0.019352 -0.012488
0.003331
-0.050340 -0.025930
0.000123
0.020366 -0.000176
0.030202
-0.008401
0.021586
-0.013457
-0.022183
-0.014927
1
2
No. Values: This is the total number of acceleration values that form the object motion file. For the above
example, there are 2048 points in the file, thus, you will enter 2048 in this cell.
Time step: Enter the time interval between each acceleration value. For this example, it is 0.01 seconds.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 141
No. Header (or Number of header lines): Enter the number of lines at the beginning of the file that are used to
describe the object motion. In the above example, the first two lines are the header lines. Thus, you will enter a
2 in this data cell.
Values/Line (or Number of values per line): Enter the number of acceleration values on each line. For the
above example, there are 8 values on each line. The last number (e.g. 1) only identifies the row number. Thus,
you would enter an 8 in this cell for this specific example.
No. Digits (or Number of digits per value): Enter the number of digits that form an acceleration value. In the
above example, each value is defined by 9 digits, including the spaces. Therefore, you would enter a 9 for this
specific example.
Units: For the Newmark Displacement Analysis the values of acceleration are in g‟s. If the values saved in the
file are in other units (e.g. ft/sec2, cm/sec2, or mm/sec2), then select the appropriate units by clicking on the up
or down arrows to scroll through the different options. This way, the data will be converted from these units to
g‟s. For example, if the data in the file were in ft/sec2, then you scroll down until ft/sec/sec is shown on the
Units box. The values will be divided by 32.2 to transform them to g‟s.
Free format: With this option the data from the file are read "free format", i.e. no consideration is given to the
number of digits in each column, or to the number of columns in a row. When you select this option (an x is
shown on the check box), you only need to provide the No. Values, Time Step and No. Header values, and
then select the units for the acceleration values by clicking on the up or down arrow keys next to the Units text
box. To be "free format" the data in the file have to be separated by at least one blank space, a comma, a tab, or
be in different lines.
An alternative way of choosing files for the Newmark displacement analysis is to extract the information about the
AHL and HEA files created during processing of the SHAKE output files from the ANZ file created. The ANZ file
is a file that stores summary information about the options and results of the SHAKE analysis. To this end, first
click on the open folder icon next to the text box for the SHAKE2000 ANZ File text box. When the open file
dialog form is displayed, browse to the directory where the ANZ file is saved, then select and open the file. Upon
returning to the Newmark File form, the information about the different soil deposits and ground motions used in the
SHAKE analysis will be displayed in the deposit and motion list boxes. Based on the naming configuration
described at the beginning of this section (e.g., L##A#D#-##[email protected]@@@@@@@-$$$$$$$$) enter a start and end
layer number to define the L## part of the file name in the for layers to text boxes; choose a deposit identification
from the deposit list box to define the @@@@@@@@ part of the file name; and, select a motion from the motion
list box to define the $$$$$$$$ part of the file name.
After you have entered and selected the information needed, click on the motion icon located next to the open folder
icon to search for the files that meet these requirement. For example, based on the information provided on the
screen shot at the beginning of this section, the program will search for the L2A#D#-Column 1-CHY-28-N.hea,
L3A#D#-Column 1-CHY-28-N.hea, L4A#D#-Column 1-CHY-28-N.hea, and L5A#D#-Column 1-CHY-28-N.hea
files, regardless of the analysis (i.e. A#) and deposit (i.e., D#) numbers. If the file exists, the file name and
information will be displayed on the form.
The View command button can be used to view the contents of a ground motion file. This will help you to collect
the information needed to define the formatting of the file if necessary. To do this, first select a file using the Other
button to select other files. The first 60 lines of the file will be displayed on a form, with the first three characters
displayed in red representing the numbers of each row of data in the file followed by a “|”. These characters are not
part of the source file and are only shown to number the rows. After the row numbers, the alphanumeric characters
that constitute the information saved in the file for each row are shown. Note that the characters are displayed as
blue on a white background, and that every tenth character is displayed in red. However, if the tenth character is a
“blank space” then the character is not shown. This is done to guide the user when defining the order of the data in
the file.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 142
Newmark Method - Yield Acceleration Function
This form is used to enter data to define a yield accleration (K y) function, i.e. a description of a change in Ky with
time or displacement (Houston et al., 1987; Matasovic et al., 1998). You need to enter a value for either time in
seconds, or for displacement in the longitude units similar to the longitude units in the value of gravity in the
Newmark Displacement Analysis form; and, a value for yield acceleration in g's.
To enter the data, first place the cursor on the text box for the Time/Displacement column and type in the value.
Next, press the Tab key once to move the cursor to the text box for the Yield Acc. column and type in the value for
K y.
It is recommended that the first value entered should be that for a time/displacement of zero. Additionally, the last
value for time should be greater than or equal to the length of the acceleration time history used; or, that the last
value of displacement should be greater than the greatest value expected. The values of yield acceleration between
two points of the function are obtained by linear interpolation. For a constant value of yield acceleration, the two
values for the function between two time/displacement points should be equal.
A description of the function will be shown on the text box below the Description label. This description can be
modified/entered manually by placing the cursor in the text box and typing in the desired information.
After you have entered the information for each time/displacement - Ky pair, click on the Ok command button to
return to the Newmark Displacement Analysis form.
Each time you place the cursor on either the Time/Displacement or Yield Acc. columns the Add and Remove
command buttons are enabled. If you want to add data for a new pair, place the cursor on the row where the new
values will be located, and click on the Add button. A new pair will be created, and the values for the new pair will
be the same as those for the pair immediately below. Now, you need to modify the information for the
time/displacement and yield acceleration. The Remove button is used to delete a pair from the table. Place the
cursor on either the Time/Displacement or Yield Acc. column and then click on the Remove button. The data for
the pair will be removed from the table, and the information for the other pairs updated accordingly. The Reset
command button will delete all the information on the table.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 143
Number of Points on a Graph
This form is used to change the number of data points plotted on the graph.
When the form is displayed, the current number of points appears in the text box. If you enter a different number,
N, then the first “N” points of the graph will be plotted. For example, assume that 2048 points define an
acceleration time history at a time step of 0.02 seconds, i.e. a history with a length of 40.94 seconds. If you enter a
different number, say 512, then only the first 512 points of the time history will be displayed, i.e. from 0 seconds to
10.22 seconds. The section of the history between 10.24 to 40.94 seconds will not be displayed.
To change the number of points, place the cursor on the text box and type in the new number. To reset the number
of points to the maximum value, click on the Reset button. Click on the Ok button to return to the graphics
window, and plot the curve using the new number of points.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 144
Option 1 Editor: Dynamic Material Properties
Dynamic Material Properties - Set Identification: A description of this Option 1 data set can be entered in this
text box. As with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option
number, in this case 1 (i.e., Option 1). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as option
1 for subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option. SHAKE2000 will
automatically input a 1 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
No. Materials: Number of materials included (maximum is 100 in SHAKE2000). This value cannot be edited by
the user. It is automatically set by SHAKE2000.
No. of Strain: Number of strain values to be read (maximum is 20). This value cannot be edited by the user. It is
automatically set by SHAKE2000.
Material Name: This is a 12 character label that can be used to identify the material, and that together with the
information entered in the Identification for this set of Modulus Reduction Values (or Identification for this set
of Damping Values) text box, will form the identification label for the material in the SHAKE option 1 data. The
information entered in this text box will be included in the table of results to help you identify each soil layer with a
material name. For example, if you entered Sand in this text box, and Lower bound (Seed and Idriss 1970) on the
Identification for this set of Modulus Reduction Values (or Identification for this set of Damping Values) text
box, the label for this material in Option 1 will be formed by adding the two labels, i.e. Sand Lower bound (Seed
and Idriss 1970).
Identification for this set of Modulus Reduction Values & Identification for this set of Damping Values: Enter
up to 54 characters to identify the dynamic properties for this set. SHAKE2000 uses this description in the graph
title.
Strain Values (in percent): Beginning with the lowest value. Eight entries per line (maximum is 20). To delete a
value, place the cursor on the data cell and press the Delete key. Use the Tab key to move the cursor to the
following cell. The data on the following cells, if any, will automatically scroll to occupy the cell where data was
deleted. The modulus/damping value corresponding to this strain value will also be deleted, and the other values
reorganized. When entering data on the first blank cell for this option, default values for modulus/damping will be
automatically placed on the corresponding cell. When deleting and adding values, the number of strain values is
automatically changed and shown on the No. of Strain cell.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 145
Values of Modulus Reduction (G/Gmax) & Values of Damping (%): Values of modulus reduction (G/Gmax) each
corresponding to the shear strain provided in the previous lines; these values should be in decimal not in percent.
To delete a value, place the cursor on the data cell and press the Delete key. Use the Tab key to move the cursor to
the following cell. The data on the following cells, if any, will automatically scroll to occupy the cell where data
was deleted. The strain value corresponding to this modulus/damping value will also be deleted, and the other strain
values reorganized. When entering data on the first blank cell for this option, a default value for strain will be
automatically placed on the corresponding cell. When deleting and adding values, the number of strain values is
automatically changed and shown on the No. of Strain cell.
The second set for the same material will consist of identical information except that values of damping (in percent)
are provided as illustrated in Table 1 of Idriss and Sun (1992).
After the last set is completed, the following information is to be provided:
number, N, of materials to be used in this analysis.
first material number which will be used
second material number to be used
etc., until all N materials are identified.
Values of G/Gmax and D versus strain for these N materials will then be saved in output file No. 1 so that only the
material properties used in this analysis are saved in this file. This feature was added for the convenience of the
user who can include up to 13 (this has been increased in SHAKE2000 to 100) sets of materials properties in the
input file but for any one analysis use fewer than 13. This feature also provides a check that the intended material
properties were utilized in the analysis. SHAKE2000 will automatically save all of the materials used in the
analysis in the first output file.
Database of dynamic material properties: The MAT command button can be used to display a list of the different
dynamic material properties curves included in the database file. This option is further explained in the Database of
Dynamic Material Properties section of this manual. You can select up to 13 materials to be included in the
current set of Option 1. Remember to select both sets of damping and moduli curves for each material.
When editing an existing set of data, or creating a new material curve, the Dbase command button will display the
G/Gmax Curves Database or Damping Ratio Curves Database forms, depending if you are editing moduli or
damping data respectively. These forms are used to add the current material in the Option 1 form to the database of
material properties, to delete a material from the database, or to update the database using a file of properties
downloaded from the SHAKE2000 web site. Refer to the G/Gmax Curves Database or Damping Ratio Curves
Database sections of this manual for further information.
A number of relationships developed to estimate the normalized shear modulus and damping ratio of soils are
included with SHAKE2000. More information for these relationships is provided in Ishibashi and Zhang (1993),
Zhang et al. (2005, 2008), Andrus et al. (2003) and Darendeli (2001). After selecting one of these options, click on
the Model command button to display the Dynamic Material Properties Model form used to enter the data for the
relationship selected. Upon returning to this form, the computed values for G/G max and Damping and their
respective strains will be displayed in the corresponding text boxes. The new values will replace the current values
in the form.
Use the New command button to enter data for a new material. This new material will be added to the current
option 1. When you click on the New command button, the form is cleared of the current data. You can enter the
values for G/Gmax or Damping vs. Strain manually, or you can click on the MAT command button to display the
G/Gmax Curves Database or Damping Ratio Curves Database forms, depending if you are editing moduli or
damping data respectively. If you select a curve, the current data for the material will be shown on the form if you
accept the changes. After you have entered the data, click on the Save command button to add this new material to
the current Option 1. If you don‟t want to include this new material, click on the Cancel command button to cancel
the operation and return to the material properties form.
To delete a material from the current Option 1, click on the Delete command button. The Delete button will delete
the material dynamic properties curves for the current material. This action cannot be undone, thus, once you delete
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 146
a material you cannot recover it. To switch between the Modulus Reduction and the Damping Ratio curves, click on
the Damping button. This button will change to Moduli when the Damping Ratio curves are being displayed.
The Replace command button can be used to “replace” the current material properties with one selected from the
database of material properties.
When there is more than one material in the Option 1, you can display the properties for other materials by clicking
on the Next command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 147
Option 2 Editor: Soil Profile
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Soil Profile - Set Identification: A description of this Option 2 data set can be entered in this text box. As with the
other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option number, in this case 2
(i.e., Option 2). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as option 2 for subsequent
operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option. SHAKE2000 will automatically
input a 2 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
Soil Deposit No.: Enter the number that identifies the soil deposit described by the Option 2 data set.
Identification for Soil Profile: Enter up to 36 characters to identify the soil profile. SHAKE2000 uses this
description as the project name. The first 8 characters of the string will also be used to create a name-string to
identify the different analyses and when creating the name for the *.AHL and *.HEA files.
Soil Type: Soil type (corresponding to numbers assigned to each material in Option 1). [Note that if this material
type is given as 0 (zero) for all sublayers, then the calculations are conducted for only one iteration using the
properties (modulus, or shear wave velocity, and damping) specified in this input].
Thickness: Thickness of sublayer, in feet or meters. With the wave propagation method, the responses can be
computed in a homogeneous layer of any thickness. A soil deposit will, however, have varying properties not only
due to the variation in the soil itself but also due to the differences in the strain-level induced during shaking. Since
the soil deposit must be represented by a set of homogeneous layers, each with a constant value of modulus and
damping, the thickness of each layer must be limited based on the variation in the soil properties. For a fairly
uniform deposit, a sublayer thickness increasing from about 5' (or 1.5 meters) at the surface to 50-200' (or  15.25
– 61 meters) below 100' (or  30.5 meters) depth should give sufficient accuracy. Accuracy may be checked by
making a trial run and comparing results with a subsequent run where more layers and/or sublayers are used.
Shear Moduli: Maximum shear modulus for the sublayer, in ksf or kN/m2 (leave blank if maximum shear wave
velocity for the sublayer is given). Either a value for the Shear Moduli or the Shear Wave should be entered for
each layer. SHAKE2000 will automatically leave the Shear Wave cell blank if a value for Shear Moduli is
entered. Accordingly, the cell for Shear Moduli will be left blank if a value for Shear Wave is given.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 148
Damping: Initial estimate of damping (decimal).
Unit Weight: Total unit weight, in kcf or kN/m3. When using a geomembrane as a layer in the SHAKE column, it is
recommended to use a value of 0.001 kcf or 0.16 kN/m3 for the unit weight of the geomembrane (Yegian et al.,
1998).
Shear Wave: Maximum shear wave velocity for the sublayer, in ft/sec or m/sec (leave blank if maximum shear
modulus for the sublayer is given). Either a value for the Shear Moduli or the Shear Wave should be entered for
each layer. SHAKE2000 will automatically leave the Shear Wave cell blank if a value for Shear Moduli is
entered. Accordingly, the cell for Shear Moduli will be left blank if a value for Shear Wave is given.
The maximum shear modulus for the layers can be computed using the equations defined through the
Shear Moduli Equations form. However, it is recommended that you enter the soil type, thickness, damping, unit
weight, and if necessary, the shear wave velocity data for each layer before using the equations. Click on the
GmaxEq command button to display the equations form, and then on the Gmax button to compute the maximum
shear modulus. The coefficients for the equations are deleted from memory upon returning to the EDT File's
Options List form; thus, saving the coefficients for the G max equations using the Save command button in the Shear
Moduli Equations form is recommended.
Use the Plot command button to display graphs of soil profile, G max vs. depth, Unit Weight vs. depth, and shear
wave velocity vs. depth for the SHAKE column.
When you select the New Option 6 checkbox, corresponding sets of Option 6 will be automatically created for this
set of Option 2 when returning to the Earthquake Response Analysis form. You will still need to edit the option 6
created to select for which layers you would like to obtain acceleration time histories, etc.
The Layer command button is used to subdivide each soil stratum of the SHAKE column into a number of
sublayers that meet the criteria that the maximum layer thickness be less than approximately the thickness of the
stratum divided by four times a maximum frequency of 25 Hz. This arbitrary limit is set to help with the creation of
a soil column for further analysis with the nonlinear program D-MOD2000. For example, if the thickness of a
stratum is 125 feet, with a shear wave velocity of 750 feet/second, the stratum will be subdivided into 16 layers with
a thickness of 7.35 feet and one more layer with a thickness of 7.40 feet.
Jonathan Bray (2008, personal communication) points out that “…….layering in a SHAKE column is required to
capture variations in VS with depth (non-homogeneous) and to capture the fact that for a thick layer with constant
VS that the shear strain will vary within its thickness (strain dependence). The layer thickness has an effect only
with respect to strain-dependent properties, because dividing a thick layer into two or more thinner sublayers gives
each sublayer a different effective shear strain and hence different shear modulus and damping values if these
properties are strain-dependent. In SHAKE, the maximum shear strain vs. depth profile should be evaluated and if
it varies significantly with depth it is then recommended to use thinner layers to capture this highly non-uniform
variation in strain vs. depth. Where it is fairly uniform over a depth and the VS is constant over that depth, thicker
layers may be used without a compromise in the results. It is also important to point out that earthquake waves are
tens of feet to hundreds of feet long, so the use of very thin layers with significant jumps in V S is not recommended as
this will trap energy and lead to non conservative estimates of surface motions”.
To print a copy of the soil profile data, use the Print command button to display the Print Soil Profile Data form.
Each time you place the cursor on a soil layer row the Add and Remove command buttons are enabled. If you want
to add data for a layer, place the cursor on the layer where the new layer will be located, and click on the Add
button. A new layer will be created, and the data for the new layer will be the same as those for the layer
immediately below. Now, you need to modify the values for the new layer. The Remove button is used to delete a
layer from the soil column. Place the cursor on any column for the soil layer and click on the Remove button. The
data for the layer will be removed from the soil column, and the values for the other layers updated accordingly. If
you want to create more than one layer at a time, place the cursor on the soil layer that you want to copy and then
click on the Repeat command button. This will display the Option 2 Soil Column Layers form. Use this new
form to enter the number of times the layer will be repeated and the data that will be used for the new layers.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 149
Option 2 Soil Column Layers
This form is used to create more than one layer for a soil column. The number of layers shown in the No. Layers
text box will be added beginning one layer after the number of the layer shown in the Start Layer text box. For
example, in the above form 5 layers will be created after layer 2, i.e. new layers 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 and the values
shown for soil type, thickness, shear moduli or shear wave, damping and unit weight will be used for each layer. If
there are any existing layers 3 through 7, the information on those layers will be scrolled up and will form layers 8,
through 12. After entering the information for the new layers, click on the Ok command button to return to the
Option 2 form and create the new layers. Click on Cancel to return to the Option 2 form without creating the new
layers.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 150
Option 3 Editor: Input (Object) Motion
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Input (Object) Motion - Set Identification: A description of this Option 3 data set can be entered in this text box.
As with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option number,
in this case 3 (i.e., Option 3). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as option 3 for
subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option. SHAKE2000 will
automatically input a 3 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
Acceleration Values: Number, NV, of acceleration values to be read for input motion. The acceleration values
between NV and MA (see No. Fourier Values below) are set equal to 0 in the program. Cyclic repetition of the
motion is implied in the Fourier transform and a quiet zone of 0.'s or low values are necessary to avoid interference
between the cycles. For most problems a quiet zone of 2-4 seconds is adequate with longer time required for
profiles deeper than about 250 ft and/or damping values less than about 5 percent. If the NV parameter is relatively
close to (but less than) a particular power of 2, skip the next immediate power of 2 and use the following value. For
instance, if NV = 4000, it would be better to use MA = 8192, instead of 4096, to insure that a proper "quiet zone"
between successive trains of accelerograms develops. To insure that no interference between each record is
occurring, you can check the acceleration ratio for the quiet zone listed in the Option 6 section of the output file.
This ratio should be close to zero (Vinson and Dickenson, 1993). If not, use a large power of 2. Make sure MA >
NV + 200.
No. Fourier Values: Number, MA, of values for use in Fourier Transform; MA should be a power of 2 (typically,
this number is 1024, 2048 or 4096). Note that MA should always be greater than NV. The following may be used as
a guide: for NV <= 800, MA can be 1024, for NV <= 1800, MA can be 2048 and for NV <= 3800, MA can be 4096.
Time Interval: Time interval between acceleration values, in seconds.
Name of Object Motion File: Name of file for input (object) motion. Regardless of the system of units used in
the analysis, the acceleration values in the ground motion input file should be in g’s.
Format of Object Motion File: Format for reading acceleration values. Examples: (8F9.6, 1F10.6). The format
string tells SHAKE how to read the ground motion values from the file. This string is based on the syntax used in
the Format statement of the FORTRAN computer language. In this statement, edit descriptors specify how the
values are read. The edit descriptors supported by SHAKE2000 are:
Fw.d
Ew.d [Ee]
Gw.d
Dw.d
Iw
Real values
Real values with exponents
Real values, extended range
Double-precision real values
Integer values
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 151
In these descriptors, the field is w characters wide, with a fractional part d decimal digits wide, and an optional
exponent width of e. You can also indicate that a given data format is repeated a number of times. For example,
8F9.6 repeats a nine-character real value with six decimal digits descriptor 8 times. The first character on the format
field should be a “(” and the last character a “)”, e.g. (8F9.6). Examples of data saved in the ground motion files
included with SHAKE2000 and the format used to define them follow:
Format: (4E15.7):
-.1059027E-04
-.1461820E-04
-.1690261E-04
-.1506594E-04
Format: (8F9.6):
0.00000 -0.00434
0.00860
0.00540 -0.00565 -0.00944 -0.00369 -0.00669
1
-0.000001-0.000001-0.000001-0.000001 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000001
For more information on format types, please refer to a FORTRAN Programming Language book.
Earthquake Identification: Enter a string of up to 8 characters to describe the ground motion record or earthquake
used in the analysis. This string will be used in conjunction with the string from Option 2 to describe the analysis
and to use in the creation of the names for the *.AHL and *.HEA files created when processing the output files.
Multiplication Factor: Multiplication factor for adjusting acceleration values; use only if Maximum Acceleration
value is left blank.
Maximum Acceleration: Maximum acceleration to be used, in g's; each acceleration value will be scaled
proportionally to the ratio of the specified maximum acceleration to the maximum acceleration of the time history.
Leave Multiplication Factor value blank if a multiplication factor is entered. Either the Multiplication Factor or the
Maximum Acceleration value should be entered. SHAKE2000 will automatically leave the other data cell blank.
Maximum Frequency: Maximum frequency (i.e., frequency cut-off) to be used in the analysis. Frequencies above
10-15 cps carry a relatively small amount of the energy in the earthquake motions, and the amplitude of these
frequencies can often be set equal to 0 without causing any significant change in the responses within a soil system.
In the computation of responses in deep soil systems from a motion given near the surface of the deposit, errors in
the higher frequencies will be amplified and may cause erroneous results. To avoid this source of error, the
amplitudes of all frequencies above 10-20 cps may be set equal to 0, since these frequencies generally are of little
interest and do not affect the response. Several runs should be performed with different amounts of the higher
frequencies removed to investigate the effect on the response and to ensure a stable solution. Removal of the higher
frequencies in a motion has a smoothening effect on the acceleration time history as shown in Figure 10 for a
segment of the Pasadena motion. In this case the maximum acceleration for the modified and original motions were
approximately equal, but the maximum accelerations may decrease or increase with the removal of the higher
frequencies depending on the shape of the acceleration curve near the maximum value. The maximum frequency is
chosen consistently with the time step, DT. The maximum frequency that can be analyzed is:
FMAX 
1
2 DT 
For example, if DT is 0.02 sec (which is commonly what many records have been digitized to), the maximum
frequency, FMAX, would be 25 cps. It is usually ok not to include all of the high frequency motions (above say 20
cps or so) because they carry a relatively small portion of the total earthquake energy. In addition, the elimination
of higher frequencies accounts for a shorter execution time. The manual illustrates this idea on p. 18 (of original
SHAKE manual). FMAX = 20 cps is good for a 0.02 sec time step (Vinson and Dickenson, 1993).
No. Header Lines: No. Header Lines: Number of header lines in file containing object motion.
Acceleration Values/Line: Number of acceleration values per line in file containing object motion. Note: Please
note that SHAKE91 permits the user to specify the format for the input time history. However, unless the time
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 152
history points are arranged to have an even number of points per line, the input to the program will not be correct.
For correct reading of the time history points, an even number of points should be given per line (i.e. 2, 4, 8, etc.).
(Error report about SHAKE91, posted by Dr. Farhang Ostadan at the NISEE web site:
http://www.eerc.berkeley.edu).
Earthquake Records: You can select an object motion listed in the earthquake records database by clicking on the
Quakes button to display a listing of the records saved in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file. Once the list is displayed, you
can choose a record by highlighting it and clicking on the Ok button, or by double clicking on it. The data for the
record will be shown on their respective fields in the form. Please note that SHAKE2000 only accepts up to 72
characters in the Name and Path of Object Motion File field. Thus, check that the file name and the path to the
file are displayed in their entirety. In the event the path and file name take more than 72 characters, SHAKE2000
will cut off beyond the 72nd character; and more than likely, the name of the file or its extension will be deleted.
If you want to use the data saved in a file that is not included in SHAKEY2K.EQ, use the Other command button to
display the Object Motion File dialog box to select the file. After you choose a file, the name of the file will be
displayed on the text box below the Name and Path of Object Motion File label. Please note that you need to
manually enter or change the other information (i.e. Acceleration Values, No. Fourier Values, etc.) for this file.
The View command button can be used to view the contents of a ground motion file. This will help you to collect
the information needed to define the formatting of the file if necessary. To do this, first select a file using the Other
button to select other files. The first 60 lines of the file will be displayed on a form, with the first characters
displayed in red representing the numbers of each row of data in the file followed by a “|”. These characters are not
part of the source file and are only shown to number the rows. After the row numbers, the alphanumeric characters
that constitute the information saved in the file for each row are shown. Note that the characters are displayed as
blue on a white background, and that every tenth character is displayed in red. However, if the tenth character is a
“blank space” then the character is not shown. This is done to guide the user when defining the order of the data in
the file.
The Convert command button is used to display the Conversion of Ground Motion File form that can be used to
convert ground motion files to different units and/or formatting. Further information on this feature is provided in
the Conversion of Ground Motion File section of this manual. Upon returning to the Option 3 form, the
information for this set of Option 3 will be updated based on the data for the converted ground motion.
A copy of the ground motion file is saved in the EDT file. If you wish to restore the file, click on the Restore
command button. A copy of the file with the same name will be then created in the same folder where the input file
is saved.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 153
Option 4 Editor: Assignment of Object Motion
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Assignment of Object Motion to Sublayer - Set Identification: A description of this Option 4 data set can be
entered in this text box. As with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and
then the option number, in this case 4 (i.e., Option 4). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this
data set as option 4 for subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option.
SHAKE2000 will automatically input a 4 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
No. of Sublayer: Number of sublayer at the top of which the object motion is assigned.
Outcrop/Within: Use 0 (zero) if the object motion is to be assigned as outcrop motion (see section 2.2 of SHAKE
manual for more information), otherwise use 1 (one) if the object motion is applied within the soil profile at the top
of the assigned sublayer. Type of sublayer refers more to where the rock motion was recorded. Outcropping:
motion was recorded on a rock outcrop. For motions recorded on rock WITHIN the soil profile or felt to represent
the motion in the rock within the soil deposit, a “1” should be used and the record will not be modified (Vinson and
Dickenson, 1993). Steidl et al. (1996) present some helpful information related to the use of a nearby bedrock site as
the reference motion.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 154
Option 5 Editor: Number of Iterations and Strain Ratio
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Iteration and Strain Ratio - Set Identification: A description of this Option 5 data set can be entered in this text
box. As with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option
number, in this case 5 (i.e., Option 5). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as option
5 for subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option. SHAKE2000 will
automatically input a 5 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
Save Strain Data: Parameter used to specify whether the strain-compatible soil properties are saved after the
initial iteration; set = 1 if these properties are to be saved; otherwise leave columns 1-5 blank.
Number of Iterations: Number of iterations. The iterations stop when the specified maximum number of iterations
(ITMAX) is reached or when the difference between the modulus and damping used and the strain-compatible
modulus and damping values is less than the acceptable difference (ERR). Usually 3-5 iterations are sufficient to
obtain an error of less than 5-10%. The values given as "new values" in the final iteration are used in all
computations following Option 4, and the actual error is less than the error values given in the final iteration.
Strain Ratio: Ratio of equivalent uniform strain divided by maximum strain (in decimal); typically, this ratio ranges
from 0.4 to 0.75 depending on the input motion and which magnitude earthquake it is intended to represent. The
following equation may be used to estimate this ratio:
ratio 
M 1
10
in which M is the magnitude of the earthquake. Thus for M = 5, the ratio would be 0.4, for M = 7.5, the ratio would
be 0.65 ... etc.. The effective strain is used to compute new soil properties. The ratio between the effective and the
maximum strain has been empirically found to be between 0.5 and 0.7. The responses, however, are not highly
sensitive to this value and an estimate between 0.55 to 0.65 is usually adequate, with the higher value appropriate
for giving more uniform strain histories.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 155
Option 6 Editor: Acceleration at top of Sublayers
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Acceleration at Top of Sublayers - Set Identification: A description of this Option 6 data set can be entered in this
text box. As with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option
number, in this case 6 (i.e., Option 6). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as option
6 for subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option. SHAKE2000 will
automatically input a 6 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
Sublayer for which acceleration time histories are computed: Array to indicate the numbers of the sublayers at
the top of which the acceleration is to be calculated. To delete a layer on this option, place the cursor on the layer's
cell, use the Delete key to delete the value, and then press the Tab key to move the cursor to the following cell. The
data on the following cells, if any, will automatically scroll to occupy the cell where data was deleted. Please note
that if you delete a layer, then the layers may not display correctly when plotting the profile on a graph.
When entering data on the first blank cell for this option, default values of 1 for type of sublayer and 0 for mode of
output will be automatically placed on the corresponding cells.
Type of each sublayer: 0 (zero) for outcropping, 1 (one) for within soil profile, or 2 (two) for incident wave:
The value on the first blank cell cannot be deleted on this option, only modified. A code of 2 (two) for incident is
also acceptable for layers 2 through the halfspace. With this code, the incident wave will be computed for the layer.
Refer to Section 2 of this manual for more detailed information about the incident and reflected waves. An example
and recommendations for the application of the incident wave is provided by Mejia and Dawson (2006).
Mode of Output for computed accelerations: 0 if only max. accelerations or 1 for max. acceleration and time
history: Array to specify the mode of output for the computed accelerations: 0 (zero, see section 2.2 for
explanation) if only maximum accelerations is desired or 1 (one) if both the maximum acceleration and the time
history of acceleration are to be calculated and saved. This value cannot be deleted, only set to either 1 or 0.
Further, data on the first blank cell cannot be entered on this option, only modified. When using the incident wave
option above, the first line of the time history file will be a header line; the second line will have the number of
values and the time step separated by a coma; and, the acceleration values will be saved as one value per row
beginning in line 3.
If you want to enter the data for more than one sublayer at a time, place the cursor on the sublayer that you want to
copy and then click on the Repeat command button. This will display the Option 6 Sublayers form. Use this new
form to enter the number of times the sublayer will be repeated and the data that will be used for the new layers.
The HEA – Option 7 option allows you to create sets of Option 7 for the same layers for which acceleration time
histories will be created; i.e., those layers for which a value of 1 has been entered in the bottom row of the form.
The sets of Option 7 will be created upon returning to the SHAKE analysis form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 156
Option 6 Sublayers
This form is used to create new sublayers in Option 6 by repeating the layer selected a number of times. The
number of layers shown in the No. Layers text box will be created starting one number higher than the number
shown in the Start Layer text box. The new layers will have the values for outcrop/within and output mode entered
in the respective text boxes. After entering the data, click on the Ok command button to return to the Option 6 form
and create the new sublayers.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 157
Option 7 Editor: Shear Strain and/or Stress Time History
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Shear Strain or Stress History - Set Identification: A description of this Option 7 data set can be entered in this
text box. As with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option
number, in this case 7 (i.e., Option 7). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as option
7 for subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option. SHAKE2000 will
automatically input a 7 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
Sublayer No.: Number of sublayer.
Strain/Stress: Set equal to 0 (zero) for strain or 1 (one) for stress. You cannot enter any other value.
Save History: Set equal to 1 (one) to save time history of strain or stress. The value for this cell is either 0 (zero) or
1 (one). You cannot enter any other value.
No. Values: Number of values to be saved; typically this should be equal to the number NV (see Option 3).
Identification: Enter up to 30 characters to identify the shear stress/strain time history. SHAKE2000 may use this
description in the graph title.
Note that the time histories for shear stresses or strains are calculated at the top of the specified sublayer. Thus, if
the time history is needed at a specific depth within the soil profile, that depth should be made the top of a sublayer.
The time history of stresses or strains is saved in the second Output file.
This option should be specified after Option 6.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 158
Option 9 Editor: Response Spectrum
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Response Spectrum - Set Identification: A description of this Option 9 data set can be entered in this text box. As
with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option number, in
this case 9 (i.e., Option 9). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as option 9 for
subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option. SHAKE2000 will
automatically input a 9 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
Sublayer No.: Sublayer number. Use 0 (zero) if the response spectra are to be computed for the object motion.
Outcrop/Within: Type of sublayer. Set equal to 0 (zero) for outcropping or equal to 1 (one) for within. The
response spectra are computed for the motion at the top of the sublayer. May be left blank if Sublayer No. is 0
(zero).
No. Damping: Number of damping ratios to be used. Maximum 6 values. The value in this cell cannot be edited. It
will automatically change every time the Damping Ratios values are increased or decreased.
Null: This value cannot be edited. It will always be set at 0 by SHAKE2000.
Gravity: Acceleration of gravity, 32.2 ft/sec2 for English units or 9.81 m/sec2 for SI units.
Damping Ratios: Array for damping ratios (in decimal). To add a new ratio, place the cursor on the first blank cell
and enter the value in decimal. The number of damping ratios will be increased automatically. To delete a ratio,
place the cursor on the corresponding cell, and use the Delete key. Then press the Tab key to move the cursor to a
different cell. The number of damping ratios will be decreased, and the ratios will move to occupy the empty cells.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 159
Option 10 Editor: Amplification Spectrum
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Amplification Spectrum - Set Identification: A description of this Option 10 data set can be entered in this text
box. As with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option
number, in this case 10 (i.e., Option 10). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as
option 10 for subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option.
SHAKE2000 will automatically input a 10 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
First Layer: Number of first sublayer.
Outcrop/Within: Set equal to 0 (zero) for outcropping or equal to 1 (one) for within. You cannot enter any other
value.
Second Layer: Number of second layer.
Outcrop/Within: Set equal to 0 (zero) for outcropping or equal to 1 (one) for within. You cannot enter any other
value.
Frequency Step: Frequency step (in cycles per second); the amplification spectrum is calculated for 200
frequencies using this frequency step and starting with 0.
Amplification Spectrum Identification: Enter up to 48 characters to identify the amplification spectrum.
SHAKE2000 uses this description in the graph title.
[The amplification spectrum is the ratio of the amplitude of motion at the top of the second sublayer divided by that
at the top of the first sublayer].
If the amplification spectrum is desired for two other sublayers, Option 10 can be repeated as many times as needed.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 160
Option 11 Editor: Fourier Spectrum
Some of the following information is taken literally from the SHAKE91 and SHAKE User's Manuals (Idriss and
Sun, 1992; Schnabel et al., 1972), and other class and technical seminar notes. This information is italicized.
Further information on this option can be found in Section 4.2 of the Introduction.
Fourier Spectrum - Set Identification: A description of this Option 11 data set can be entered in this text box. As
with the other options, the first word should always be Option followed by a space and then the option number, in
this case 11 (i.e., Option 11). This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as option 11 for
subsequent operations, such as creating an input file. This is also Line No. 1 for this option. SHAKE2000 will
automatically input an 11 as Line No. 2 in the *.EDT and input files.
Sublayer No.: Number of the sublayer.
Outcrop/Within: Set equal to 0 (zero) for outcropping or equal to 1 (one) for within. You cannot enter any other
value.
Save to File: The value for this cell is 2 (two). You cannot enter any other value.
No. Times to Smooth: Number of times the spectrum is to be smoothed.
No. Values to Save: Number of values to be saved.
The following expression (Schnabel et al., 1972) is used to smooth the Fourier spectrum:
Ai 
Ai 1  2 Ai  Ai 1
4
in which Ai is the amplitude of the spectrum for the ith frequency.
A second line is always needed when using Option 11. Thus, the user should either provide a second line for
another sublayer or repeat the information provided in the first line in a second line.
It may be noted that calculation of Fourier amplitudes for a specific accelerogram is best accomplished in an
auxiliary program.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 161
Options for Table of Results
This form is used to change the title and subtitles of the analysis, and their font attributes. You can also add a footer
and a header to the printout. By default, when the form is displayed, the cursor is set to the Title cell. You can use
the Tab key or the mouse to place the cursor on the other cells.
To change the properties of a cell, place the cursor on the cell, and then click on the different options on the bottom
section of the form. For example, to display the title in bold face, and aligned with the left margin, place the cursor
on the Title cell and click on the Bold check box, then on the Left option button. The text on the cell will be
displayed in bold face.
When the cursor is moved between cells, the current options for each cell are shown with an x on the check box for
the font attributes, and by a dot on the option button for the alignment options.
The Page Header and Page Footer options use the same font attributes, and will display the last options set.
However, they do not use the same alignment option.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 162
Option List
This form is used to select SHAKE options that are not already included in the *.EDT file, or to create new sets of
an option. Default values will be given to the option. To select an option, click on the option to highlight it and then
click on the Choose button to return to the Earthquake Response Analysis form. The new option will be shown
on the option list. You can also double click on the option to select it.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 163
Plot Dynamic Material Properties
Select a number of curves by clicking on the check box next to each material description. An x is shown on the box
when a curve is selected. Then click on the Plot button to display the curves.
To switch from the list of Modulus Reduction curves to the list of Damping Ratio curves, click on the Damping
button. This button will change to Moduli when the Damping Ratio curves are being displayed.
To switch from the list of Damping Ratio curves to the list of Modulus Reduction curves, click on the Moduli
button. This button will change to Damping when the Modulus Reduction curves are being displayed.
The Next command button is used to display the list of material properties for the next set of Option 1 data.
Use the scroll bar to display more material properties curves.
To deselect all of the material property curves that have been selected for plotting, click on the Reset command
button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 164
Plot Object Motion
Using object motion files included as Option 3 sets in an *.EDT file: You can plot the object motions included as
Option 3 in an *.EDT file. To do this, click on the EDT command button to open the Open EDT File with Object
Motion Files dialog box to select the file. The file name and path are displayed on the text box next to the EDT
File label, and the name of the object motion files (from the Option 3 sets) displayed next to the option buttons on
the upper part of the form. Additional information on the object motion is shown next to each file. To plot a file,
click on the option button for the file, and then click on the Plot command button. After a few seconds, the object
motion will be plotted on the screen.
Using an object motion file not included in an *.EDT file: If you want to use the data saved in a file that is not
included as an Option 3 in an *.EDT file, use the Other command button to display the Open Object Motion File
dialog box to select the file that you want to plot. The name of the file will be displayed next to the option button on
the bottom section of the form. Now you need to enter the following information on the data cells below the file
name. First, you need to select the file by clicking on the option button. This will enable the data cells to enter the
data. We'll use the following example to explain the information necessary to plot the object motion.
Example:
STATION: 2702 AMU ANCHORAGE, GOULE HALL
.
61.189N 149.801W
SL GLACIAL TILL GRND LEV 2 STORY BLDG .
AR-240 CHANNEL 1 N315E SCALE=1.925(*) PER=.0520 DAMP=.59 .
EVENT: 1975 JAN 01 03:55 61.920N 149.720W 58KM M=6.0 V .
EPIC DIST = 81KM
AZIMUTH AT STN = 183
FILTERS: HI-PASS 0.15HZ ORD 3 LO 50-100HZ TAPER BASELINE.
YEAR=
0 JULIAN DAY= 0 HOUR= 0 MINUTE= 0 SECOND= 0 COMPONENT=
SAMPLES/SEC=200 FILTER TYPE=BUTTERWORTH CORNER= 0.15 ORDER=3 DATA TYPE=AC
NO OF POINTS= 3720, UNITS=CM/SEC**2, CM/SEC, AND CM
0.049344 -0.011564 0.044214 0.036526 0.027073 0.039972 0.039483 0.030785
0.035475 0.026584 0.014714 0.013246 0.000550 0.000876 -0.007465 -0.015113
-0.009943 -0.012849 -0.011799 -0.012492 -0.013971 -0.011197 -0.011350 -0.016224
………….
………….
-0.002152 -0.000184 -0.001245 -0.003100 -0.001377 -0.001204 -0.003773 -0.003376
-0.002223 -0.002468 -0.002356 -0.001785 -0.000602 -0.000215 -0.000439 -0.000572
This example shows the top 12 and bottom 2 lines of an acceleration time history file. Using this information, you
will need to enter the following data to describe the time history:
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 165
No. Values: This is the total number of acceleration values that form the object motion file. For the above
example, there are 3720 points in the file, thus, you will enter 3720 in this cell.
Time step: Enter the time interval between each acceleration value. For this example, it is SAMPLES/SEC or
1/200 = 0.005 seconds.
No. Header (or Number of header lines): Enter the number of lines at the beginning of the file that are used to
describe the object motion. In the above example, the first nine lines are the header lines. Thus, you will enter
a 9 in this data cell.
Values/Line (or Number of acceleration values per line): Enter the number of acceleration values on each
line. For the above example, there are 8 values on each line. Thus, you would enter an 8 in this cell for this
specific example.
No. Digits (or Number of digits per acceleration value): Enter the number of digits that form an acceleration
value. In the above example, each value is defined by 10 digits, including the spaces. Therefore, you would
enter a 10 for this specific example.
Units: This list provides you with a series of units that are used to plot the correct units on the graph, or to select
the acceleration units of your file when computing the ground motion parameters using the GMP command
button. This list is only enabled when a file is selected using the Other button. For ground motion files
selected with either the EDT or Quakes command buttons, the program assumes that the acceleration values in
the file are in units of g‟s. In the above example the original units of the file were in cm/sec 2, however the
values shown are in g‟s, the original header lines were kept to maintain consistency with the source file.
Free Format: Select this option if the values in the file are separated by at least one blank space, and if each
row of acceleration values is formed only by acceleration data (i.e. some old ground motion files used to have
an integer number either at the beginning or at the end of the row that identified the row number, this number is
not an acceleration value and thus should not be read. If you select the free format option, then this value will
be read.). If this check box is selected (an x is shown), then you don‟t need to enter values for Values/Line and
No. Digits. If the values in the file are not separated by blank spaces, i.e. they appear as a continuos row of
numbers, then the numbers entered in the Values/Line and No. Digits columns are used as a means of
separating the numbers in columns.
After you have entered the information above, or selected a file with either the EDT or Quakes command button,
click on the Plot button to display the time history. The All three option of the Plot Time History for options
allows you to plot the acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories in one graph.
The View command button can be used to view the contents of a ground motion file. This will help you to collect
the information needed to define the formatting of the file if necessary. To do this, first select a file from the list of
ground motions in the EDT file, use the Quakes command button to select a file from the database of ground motion
files, or use the Other button to select other files. The first 60 lines of the file will be displayed on a form, with the
first characters displayed in red representing the numbers of each row of data in the file followed by a “|”. These
characters are not part of the source file and are only shown to number the rows. After the row numbers, the
alphanumeric characters that constitute the information saved in the file for each row are shown. Note that the
characters are displayed as blue on a white background, and that every tenth character is displayed in red. However,
if the tenth character is a “blank space” then the character is not shown. This is done to guide the user when
defining the order of the data in the file.
Earthquake Records: You can plot the object motions listed in the ground motion files database by clicking on the
Quakes button to display a listing of the files saved in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file. Once the list is displayed, you can
choose a record by highlighting it and clicking on the Ok button, or by double clicking on it. The data for the
ground motion will be shown on the Other section of the form. To plot the object motion click on the Plot button.
Analysis of Ground Motions: A series of options are included that may help the user with the visual analysis of the
ground motions. This is helpful to evaluate the reliability of the ground motion record for use in geotechnical
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 166
analyses. For example, for some ground motion files the displacement time history obtained from double
integration of the acceleration time history may be unreasonable (e.g. it may increase or decrease without bounds).
One possible explanation for this incompatibility is that in practice, when a ground motion history is processed, the
velocity and displacement time histories are obtained by applying additional corrections (Trifunac and Lee, 1973).
However, the acceleration time history may not reflect these corrections. Accordingly, the three histories are not
fully compatible with one another, although each may represent the best estimate of the quantity at the site. A
similar problem has been evaluated by Crespellani et al. (2003) who studied the effect of the techniques used for
processing strong ground motion records on the results obtained from Newmark displacement analyses.
A simplified baseline correction of the acceleration time history is done by applying a parabolic baseline correction
to the acceleration time history with minimization of the mean square of the resulting velocity (Brady, A.G., 1966,
as referenced in Nigam & Jennings, 1968); or, by applying a frequency wave correction (Itasca Consulting Group,
2005). The “corrected” time histories for acceleration, velocity or displacement will be displayed when the
respective time history and the Baseline corrected options are selected.
For integration of the acceleration time history, SHAKE2000 will use a default value of 0.0 for both the initial
velocity and displacement. If the user wishes to use a different value, the initial value for velocity should be entered
in the text box next to the V label; and, the initial value for displacement entered in the text box next to the D label.
The units for these initial values should be as shown by the respective unit labels.
When the acceleration time history values are given as ratios of gravity (i.e. g‟s), the user has the option to plot
and/or save the input acceleration, derived velocity and displacement, and corrected time histories in a different set
of units, e.g. cm/sec2, gals, etc.. To do this, select a set of units from the Units for Time Histories list of options.
Some options show two sets of units, e.g. g’s & ft or gals & cm; and, a few others only the units for acceleration,
e.g. ft/sec2. For options that show two sets of units, the acceleration values will be provided based on the first set
and the velocity and displacement values will be based on the second set (e.g. acceleration in g‟s and velocity and
displacement in ft/sec and ft, respectively). Please note that these options will not be used when the input
acceleration values are in units other than g‟s.
Today, the user can obtain ground motion records from a variety of sources. Many of these sources provide the
acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories in the same file. Usually these are the “processed” histories.
Accordingly, if the user wishes to obtain the best estimate of either the velocity or the displacement time history,
he/she should use that provided with the original source file for the ground motion. For the ground motions
provided with SHAKE2000, the web addresses of the sources from which most of the files were obtained are
included in the Database of Earthquake Records section of this manual. The processed velocity and displacement
time histories may also be obtained from these same sources. As a simplifying alternative, an option is included in
SHAKE2000 that saves the computed velocity and displacement time histories from the original ground motion
record, and the baseline corrected acceleration, velocity and displacement time histories for further use. To create
the file, first select the All three and Baseline corrected options. Next, click on the Save to file check box. A
default file name and path are shown on the text box at the bottom of the form next to the AVD File label. To select
a different file, click on the open-folder icon. Then, click on the Plot command button to display the graph of the
time histories. Please note that is up to the user to decide on the suitability of these computed time histories for
further use in other analyses.
The Scale command button is used to display the Mean Response Spectrum form. This form can be used to obtain
the mean spectral acceleration response spectrum for a series of ground motion records. The mean value can then be
compared to a target spectrum in order to visually evaluate how well the suite of ground motions selected match the
target spectrum.
Ground Motion Parameters: Various parameters used to characterize a ground motion can be obtained by using
the GMP command button. These parameters include peak ground acceleration, Arias Intensity, Root-Mean-Square
of the acceleration time history (RMSA), bracketed duration, Trifunac & Brady duration, predominant period,
average period and mean period. More information on these parameters is provided in the Ground Motion
Parameters section of this manual.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 167
The mean period is commonly obtained using the Fourier amplitude spectrum. The method used in SHAKE2000 to
compute the FFT is that summarized in Press et al. (1986). The FFT option only works for acceleration time
histories, i.e. if necessary the data will be converted to g‟s before obtaining the FFT.
To obtain the parameters, first select one of the motions in the EDT file, use the Quakes command button to select a
file from the database of ground motion files, or use the Other button to select other files and then click on the
GMP button. After a few seconds the Ground Motion Parameters form is displayed to show the parameters. If
the units for the motion file selected with the Other command button are either cm/sec2, ft/sec2 or m/sec2 then the
acceleration values will be converted to g‟s using the appropriate conversion factor before computing the Fourier
spectrum. The Fourier spectrum can also be computed for velocity or displacement time histories, however, when
the Ground Motion Parameters form is displayed, only the Fourier Spectrum options will be enabled. Other
parameters will only be calculated and displayed for acceleration time histories.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 168
Plot SPT, CPT or Vs Data
This form will display a series of graphs that summarize the SPT, CPT or V s input data and the results of the
liquefaction analysis. You can also display a graph of the soil column with soil type information.
Plot profile: This option allows you to display the soil column created with the Soil Profile Information form,
which is displayed when you click on the Profile command button. In the Soil Profile Information form, you can
enter data for the bottom elevation of the soil layer, and a description of the soil type. This option is enabled after
you have entered the data for the soil layers. When the graphs are first displayed, the left most graph will show the
soil layers as they were entered in either the Option 2 set of SHAKE91, or the Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio
Analysis form. In addition, the depth to the water table used for the CRR analysis will be shown as a triangle on the
right side of the graph. When you select this option (i.e. an x is shown on the check box), the soil layers will be
replaced by the soil column.
X Y coordinates: When you left-click on a symbol on any of the graphs, except the soil layers graph, the X and Y
coordinates for that point will be displayed on the text boxes above the graphics window. Also, note that when you
click on a graph, that graph will become the default graph when using the Property command button.
Settlement: This option allows you to plot the total settlement curve when using SPT, CPT or Vs data to conduct a
liquefaction analysis. To plot the settlement curve, you need to first calculate settlement by using the settlement
form, and then you can plot the curve using the Report command button of the SPT, CPT or Vs forms. Also, when
using the probabilistic analysis, you have the option of either printing the probabilistic curve or the settlement curve.
Graph Properties: The properties of a graph (e.g. symbol color, axis values, etc.) can be modified using the
property pages of the graphics server. To display the property pages for a graph, first left-click on any symbol of the
graph to display its coordinates, and then click on the Property command button. To obtain more information about
the different properties of the graph, click on the Help command button of the property pages.
Printing: To print the graphs, click on the Print command button to display the Graphics Print Menu form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 169
Pore Water Pressure
This form is used to enter the existing pore water pressure (pwp) values that can be used in the interpretation of CPT
data. You need to enter a value for the depth (in feet or meters) and a value for pore pressure (in lb/ft 2 or kN/m2).
To enter the data, first place the cursor on the text box for the Depth column and type in the value. Next, press the
Tab key once to move the cursor to the text box for the PWP column and type in the value for the pore water
pressure.
A description of the pwp regime can be entered in the text box below the Pore Water Pressure label. After you
have entered the information for each depth-pwp pair, click on the Ok command button to return to the Import data
from CPT file form.
Each time you place the cursor on either the Depth or PWP columns the Add and Delete command buttons are
enabled. If you want to add data for a new depth-pwp pair, place the cursor on the depth where the new values will
be located, and click on the Add button. A new depth-pwp pair will be created, and the values for the new pair will
be the same as those for the pair immediately below. Now, you need to modify the information for the depth and
pwp. The Delete button is used to delete a pair from the table. Place the cursor on the Depth or PWP column and
then click on the Delete button. The data for the pair will be removed from the table, and the information for the
other pairs updated accordingly. The Reset command button will delete all the information on the table. The Save
command button is used to save the data in a text file for future use. These data can be retrieved using the Open
command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 170
Print Menu
The Zoom list can be used to select a magnification factor for the print viewing window. To open the zoom
selection list, click on the arrow, and then click on one of the magnification factors.
SHAKE2000 uses the standard printer dialog form from Windows to select a printer and/or to change the properties
of the printer and paper used to print the graph (e.g. paper size, orientation, etc.). This form can be displayed by
clicking on the Printer command button.
To print the results for other analyses, use the Next command button to scroll through the different analyses
available. This command button is disabled when printing the table of results from the cyclic ratio analyses. The
Options button will display a form that can be used to change the title and subtitle for the analysis, and the font
attributes such as bold face, italic, etc.; and to optionally add a header and/or footer to the page.
To print the table, click on the Print button. A message window is displayed indicating the default printer, and a
Cancel button that can be used to stop printing.
When printing either the *.EDT or input file, the Print Page option is selected by default. When this option is
selected, only the displayed page will be printed. If you would like to print the entire document, select the Print
Document option. By default, the file will be printed using tables and descriptions for the different data. To print
the document in SHAKE format, click on the SHAKE Format check box. Use the Page button to display the next
page of data.
Print report form: Select this option to print a form on the same sheet of paper as the table of results. To create the
form, click on the Report command button to display the Company & Project Information form, and then on the
Form command button to display the Report Form Development form.
Physical page: This option determines whether the logical page used by the printer control should correspond to the
entire physical page or only to its printable area. Most printers have a “logical” paper size that corresponds to the
printer's printable area, and a “physical” paper size that corresponds to the actual page size. The physical paper size
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 171
is always a little larger than the logical paper size. If this option is selected (an x is shown on the check box), the
program will print to the physical page. This option only works when the Print report form option is selected.
New margins for the paper sheet can be entered in the Set margins text boxes, or by clicking on the respective
arrow buttons. Please note that the table of results has a specific size and changing the default margin settings may
prevent the table from being printed in its entirety.
To return to the previous form, click on the Close button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 172
Probabilistic and Deterministic Liquefaction Analysis using SPT Data
The procedure followed to conduct a liquefaction analysis using the recently published probabilistic approach is
similar to that described in the Cyclic Resistance Ratio using SPT form of this manual. In this section, we will
only cover those options that are different from the traditional analysis using SPT.
The methodology followed in this analysis is explained in Cetin et al. (1999), Seed et al. (2001), and Cetin et al.
(2004, 2006). Between these references there are some differences in the graphs and equations presented. However,
the software follows the more updated version described in Cetin et al. (2004, 2006).
Values of magnitude scaling factor (MSF) are obtained from Figure 10(a) of Cetin et al. (2004), and automatically
defined by setting the Cetin et al. option of the MSF options as default. As with the Cn, K, and K options, there is
only one setting available for the corresponding parameter. This is to conform to the methodology used to develop
the probabilistic liquefaction curves.
The list of energy ratios for SPT has been updated to reflect the information provided by Cetin et al. (2004).
However, you could also enter a different value by choosing the Other energy ratio option from the list, and then
entering the value in the text box.
There are two other correction factors that apply to the SPT. These are shown on the lower right corner of the form.
The Rod Length lists correction factors for different lengths of the drill rods and shows the Cetin et al. Graph as
the only option available. Figure 7 of Cetin et al. (2004) corresponds to the graph used in this option. The Sampler
list shows correction factors for the case when the sampler is used without liners, as recommended by Seed et al.
(1985) and Seed et al. (2004). Every time you select a different energy correction factor, sampler, or rod length
option, the correction factors will be automatically updated and displayed in the respective data columns.
To correct for fines content, FC, the SPT determined for silty sands are corrected to equivalent clean sand
penetration resistance, using the equation developed by Cetin et al. (2004).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 173
The depth to the water table cannot be changed in this form. In order to use a common depth to the water table
when conducting different analyses simultaneously (i.e. SPT, CPT, Vs and CSR), the depth to water table can only
be changed either on the Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis form or the Calculated Results Plot Menu form.
After you have entered the basic information, the “deterministic” value of cyclic stress ratio (CSR) to trigger
liquefaction will be displayed on the CRR column. This value is obtained from Figure 14(a) of Cetin et al. (2004)
and corresponds to approximately 20% probability of liquefaction. The probability of liquefaction value will be
shown on the PL column.
The cyclic resistance ratio can be entered manually. To do this, place the cursor on the CRR column, and enter the
value. Alternatively, you can delete the computed value. Please note that although the values of CSR and FSL will
be plotted, settlement and probability of liquefaction for the respective layers will not be computed. This option
allows you to modify the CSR value, or delete it, in the event there are layers in the soil profile that do not liquefy,
or for which the procedure described herein does not apply.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 174
Random Generation of EDT Options
This form is used to randomly generate sets of options 1, 2 and 3 based on lower and upper bound, mean and
standard deviation values for modulus reduction and damping curves; thickness, G max and/or shear wave velocity;
and peak acceleration. Please note that the approach used in SHAKE2000 should not be considered a formal,
scientifically based approach (e.g. Monte Carlo Simulation) to account for the effects of uncertainty on the site
response analysis. It should be considered more like a “crude sensitivity analysis” to evaluate the effect of the
variability of the input data on the results of a site response analysis.
This form is called from the Earthquake Response Analysis form using the Random command button after
selecting the Random generation of EDT data option.
There are three approaches to generating the data:
1.
The simplified random generation process used in SHAKE2000 consists of dividing the range of data (e.g.
the range between the lower bound and mean values) in intervals, and then randomly selecting a sample
from each interval. For this method, the number of samples is not necessarily the same for each parameter;
i.e., the number of intervals for thickness could be different from the number of intervals for peak
acceleration.
For example, assume that a soil profile was developed based on a series of soil borings. In addition, the
variability of some of the material properties has also been determined from experience, laboratory results,
etc.. For the first stratum, the thickness was found to range between 10 feet to 17 feet, with a mean value
of 14.0 feet. In SHAKE2000 this range is first divided into a lower bound range, i.e. between 10 feet to
14.0 feet; and, on an upper range, i.e. between 14.0 feet to 17.0 feet. The next step is to subdivide both the
lower and upper ranges into intervals, e.g. the lower bound range could be subdivided into 2 intervals, i.e.
from 10 feet to 12.0 and from 12.0 feet to 14.0 feet. Similarly, the upper bound range could be subdivided
into 3 intervals, i.e. 14.0‟ to 15.0‟, 15.0‟ to 16.0‟ and 16.0‟ to 17.0‟. Once the number of intervals has been
defined, SHAKE2000 will randomly pick a value from each interval, e.g. 10.95, 13.27, 14.21, 15.74 and
16.42. Each stratum can also be divided in layers, e.g. for the first stratum when using the thickness of
10.95 feet, if the user selects to subdivide the stratum into 2 layers, then each layer will have a thickness of
10.95/2 or approximately 5.47 feet. This process will be repeated for each stratum of the soil profile and a
total of lower interval + upper interval soil profiles will be created.
To prevent the creation of soil profiles that use only the lowest value of the randomly generated values for
each stratum, or profiles formed by the highest values, the random thicknesses for each layer are randomly
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 175
ordered. For example, if we consider that there were two other soil strata on the above soil profile, the
randomly generated thicknesses for each could look like:
Stratum
1
2
3
10.95
30.51
12.05
13.27
35.24
14.23
Thickness
14.21 15.74
38.13 40.64
16.87 17.11
16.42
44.56
18.55
A soil profile could be created by using the first randomly generated thickness for each stratum, e.g. 10.95,
30.51 and 12.05. The approach used in SHAKE2000 is to randomly select a value from the group of
random values. For example, a randomly ordered soil profile would be formed by 14.21, 30.51 and 17.11.
The values selected will not be used again, i.e. additional profiles will be formed by randomly selecting
from the remaining random values. This procedure is also used when selecting values from the random
group of Gmax, Vs, G/Gmax and damping curves, and peak acceleration if these were generated.
In this method, the number of SHAKE columns generated will depend on the number of intervals and
number of Option 3 sets used. For example, assume that there are 2 sets of option 3 used for the analysis,
and for each option and set the following number of intervals were used in the random generation of data:
Option
1
2
3 (set 1)
3 (set 2)
No. Intervals
Lower Bound
Upper Bound
2
2
5
5
3
3
3
3
Subtotal
Total:
4
10
6
6
4 x 10 x (6 + 6) = 480
For the above case, 480 different SHAKE columns would be generated, i.e. this is similar to creating 480
different input files for SHAKE.
2.
The Stratified/Random Field option is used to create SHAKE columns by choosing a value from each
interval, for every parameter selected (e.g. Thickness, peak acceleration, etc.). The number of samples will
be the same for all of the parameters with this method. The values for every parameter are randomly
ordered first. Then, a SHAKE column is created by choosing the first randomized value for every
parameter selected, then the second randomized value, and so on until a number of SHAKE columns equal
to the lower+upper intervals have been created. For example, if both the lower and upper intervals for
thickness, peak acceleration, and dynamic soil properties are set to 200 each; and, there are three different
sets of Option 3; the program will generate 400 sets of Options 1 and 2, and 400 sets for each Option 3 for
a combined total of 1200 different sets of Option 3. When creating the input data for SHAKE, these sets
will be randomly ordered to prevent selection of the first value (i.e. the value for the lowest segment of the
first interval) for each Option. However, because there are 3 sets of Option 3, each of the sets generated for
Options 1 and 2 will be used 3 different times, hence a total of 1200 different SHAKE columns are
generated. In other words, this is similar to creating 1200 different input files for SHAKE, and executing
the program 1200 times. The number of intervals for thickness, shear modulus, shear wave, peak
acceleration and dynamic material properties should be the same when using the Stratified/Random Field
option.
3.
When using the Use Random Field option in conjunction with the Stratified/Random Field option, the
random numbers will be normally distributed between 0 and 1, then normalized, and used with the random
field distribution selected from the Random Field list for each parameter. A more detailed description of
this procedure is provided by Jones et al. (2002) and Fenton (1997). For each parameter two random
numbers, r1 and r2, are generated, then a normalized number, N, is obtained as suggested by Box and
Muller (1958):
N

 2 ln r1 

sin2 r2 
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 176
A new value for each parameter, P, is then computed based on the mean, , and standard deviation, ,
values according to the random field distribution selected:
P    N
Normal random field distribution, i.e. Normal option
ln     N 
P  exp
P  10 log   N 
Natural logarithm random field distribution, i.e. Ln Normal option
Common logarithm random field distribution, i.e. Log Normal option
The new value, P, should be within the limits entered as Lower Bound and Upper Bound values. If P is
outside the limits, a new value of N will be computed.
For peak acceleration, if the standard deviation value is obtained from an attenuation relation that is based
on the common logarithm (i.e. base 10), then the Log Normal option of the Random Field list should be
used.
For the generation of the random field of samples, the number of samples generated is entered in the No.
Samples text box. Further, it is assumed that the parameters are independent of each other, except for the
shear modulus reduction vs. strain and damping ratio vs. strain curves (Darendeli, 2001). For these curves
the same random number is used for both.
Figure 1: Stratified Sampling
0.30
0
0.07 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.19 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.29 0.31
0.29
0
0.27
20
0.26
10
0.25
40
0.23
20
0.22
60
0.2
30
0.21
80
0.18
40
0.17
100
0.16
50
0.14
120
0.13
60
0.12
140
0.10
70
0.09
160
0.08
80
0.07
The difference on the data generated can be better explained by referring to the histograms below. Both
histograms were created using data generated by assuming a lower bound value of 0.075, a mean value of
0.15, and an upper bound value of 0.3. For the Stratified Sampling with Random Field histogram (Figure
2), a standard deviation value of 0.22 and an Ln Normal option were used for the Random Field option.
Figure 2: Stratified Sampling with Random Field
For the Stratified Sampling histogram (Figure 1), 5,000 samples were uniformly taken from the 0.075-0.15
interval and 5,000 samples taken from the 0.15-0.3 interval. In other words, the 0.075-0.15 interval was
divided into 5000 intervals with a spacing of (0.15-0.075)/5000 = 0.000015 units each, and a sample
randomly taken from each interval. Similarly, the 0.15-0.3 interval was subdivided into 5000 intervals of
(0.3-0.15)/5000 = 0.00003 units spacing and a sample randomly taken from each interval. The Stratified
Sampling with Random Field histogram (Figure 2) was created by randomly generating 10,000 values
using an Ln Normal random field distribution with a mean of 0.15 and a standard deviation of 0.22.
For the shear modulus reduction and damping ratio curves, only one value of standard deviation is required;
i.e., even if there are 15 values of G/G max vs. strain in the curve, enter a value of standard deviation for only
one of the G/Gmax-strain pairs. The random number for this pair will be used to proportionally compute the
random G/Gmax value for the other strain values. This way, the shape of the curve will be preserved (Silva,
1992).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 177
To use this form, first select one of the Random Sampling of options. The configuration of the form will change
depending on the option selected. Next, enter the number of intervals for each range in the No. Lower Intervals
and No. Upper Intervals text boxes. Move the cursor to the first text box of the Lower Bound column and enter
the lower bound value. Press the Tab key or place the cursor on the text box of the Upper Bound column and enter
the value. If working with the data for Option 2, i.e. soil profile, you also need to enter a value for Number of
Layers. It is not necessary to enter values for each of the parameters, e.g. only the variation of thickness could be
used when generating the data. The value for standard deviation when using the Random Field options should be
entered in the Standard Deviation text box.
For Option 1, i.e. G/Gmax vs. strain and damping vs. strain curves, lower and upper bound values should be entered
for each point of the curve. The strain values are shown for reference. When not using the Random Field option,
the same shape for the G/Gmax vs. strain and damping vs. strain curves will be preserved by using the same random
number when selecting from each strain-G/Gmax or strain-damping pair. The Same command button is used to use
the mean values as upper and lower bounds. This way, if you are not normalizing a curve, you can click on this
button to copy the mean values instead of entering them manually.
After the limiting data have been entered, it is necessary to select which parameters will be used for the random
generation of the options. From the list of Obtain Random Sampling for options, select those parameters used in
the random generation of the options by clicking on their check boxes.
To generate the data, click on the Random command button. After a couple of seconds, the data are created and
saved in text files for use when returning to the Earthquake Response Analysis form to create the input data for
SHAKE. These files are named mcopt1.mcs, mcopt2.mcs and mcopt3.mcs for Options 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The
files are saved in the directory of output files selected in the Earthquake Response Analysis form. The random
results are also stored in other text files in the same output directory. These files, ????-RandomOption1.txt, ????Opt1Rndm.txt, ????-Opt2Rndm.txt, and ????-Opt3Rndm.txt are text files that can be opened with other software
applications for further processing. The ???? is the same name displayed in the Name of Plot Files text box of the
Earthquake Response Analysis form.
The total depth variation of the soil column can be constrained to fit within the half-space depth variation. To enter
the minimum depth of the soil column to the half-space layer, place the cursor on the text box below the Min. Depth
to Half-Space label. The maximum depth to the half-space layer can be entered in the text box below the Max.
Depth to Half-Space label. To enable this feature, click on the check box for the Half-Space Depth option to
select it. When this option is selected, the program will check that the depth of each column generated is within the
limits set for the depth to the half-space layer. The No. Iterations list is used to change the number of iterations that
are used to obtain the soil columns that satisfy the limits set for the depth to the half-space layer. If the soil columns
cannot be generated using the interval settings, then a second iteration is conducted to determine if the columns can
be generated ignoring the interval settings. If necessary, a third iteration is conducted to determine if the columns
can be generated by adjusting the thickness of a randomly selected stratum. A message is displayed indicating
which method was used.
The mean and median data for peak acceleration, strain, etc. are automatically saved in a file with the same name as
the *.GRF file, but with the “-RNDM” characters attached to it, and saved in the same directory where all of the data
files where saved. This is also done for the response spectrum data.
Use the Ok command button to return to the Earthquake Response Analysis form and to create the input file. The
Cancel command button is used to return to the analysis form without creating the input file.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 178
Rathje & Saygili Seismic Sliding Displacement
This form is used to input the data necessary to conduct a deterministic or pseudoprobabilistic seismic sliding
displacement using the simplified methods developed by Rathje & Saygili (2011).
The parameters for the model are entered in the respective text boxes. For more detailed information on the method
and the parameters used, please refer to Alarcon et al. (2006), Rathje and Saygili (2011), Rathje et al. (2004), Saygili
and Rathje (2008), and Travasarou and Bray (2003).
Values for PGV can be entered manually in the PGV text box, or can be estimated using the spectral acceleration at
a period of 0.5 seconds using the relationship proposed by Alarcon et al. (2006). To use this relationship, click on
the Enter SA (g’s) for 0.5 seconds check box to select it and then enter the value for S A,0.5 sec in the text box.
Similarly, values for Tm and IA can be manually entered in their respective text boxes, or estimated using the
empirical relationships developed by Rathje et al. (2004) and Travasarou and Bray (2003), respectively. To do this,
first, click on the Use empirical relationships check box to select it and then enter the closest distance to the
rupture plane in the R (km) text box, the forward directivity coefficient in the FD text box and select a Site Class
and Fault option.
To print a copy of the graph, a summary of the input data and results or to copy the results to the Windows
Clipboard for use by other applications, click on the Print command button to display the Print Menu form.
The properties of a graph (e.g. symbol color, axis values, etc.) can be modified using the property pages of the
graphics server. To display the property pages click on the Property command button.
The Save command button is used to save the data in a text file for future use. These data can be retrieved using the
Open command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 179
Ratio of Fourier/Response Spectra
This form is used to input the data necessary to conduct a ratio of response spectra, RRS (Dobry et al., 2000;
Martirosyan et al., 2002), or Fourier spectra, RFS, analysis of the ground surface motions to the input outcropping
rock motions. The results of the RRS analysis can be used to obtain a soil response spectrum by multiplying either
the mean or the median curve of the resultant RRS curves by a rock response spectrum. A likely application of this
method would be to obtain a response spectrum for Site Class F soils as explained in the NEHRP Commentary
(Building Seismic Safety Council, 2004b).
If the information for the acceleration time histories at the surface and the information about the outcropping
motions were collected during processing of the SHAKE output files, the data will be automatically displayed on the
form upon loading.
If the file information was not collected during processing of the SHAKE output files, first select the file for the
outcropping ground motion. Click on the Outcrop command button to display the Outcropping Rock Motion
dialog form. Switch to the appropriate folder, select the outcrop ground motion file and click on the Open
command button. The file name and path will be displayed on the list shown next to the Outcropping Rock
Motion File label. In order to read and use the data saved in the file you need to enter:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
the total number of acceleration values that form the object motion file in the No. Values text box;
the time interval between each acceleration value in the Time step text box;
if the motion will be scaled to a different peak acceleration value, then enter the maximum value of
acceleration to be used, in g‟s, in the Scale Acc. text box;
the number of lines at the beginning of the file that are used to describe the object motion in the No.
Header text box; and,
the number of acceleration values on each line in the Values/Line text box; and, the number of digits that
form an acceleration value in the No. Digits text box.
If you select the Free Format option, then the data from the file are read “free format”, i.e. no consideration is given
to the number of digits in each column, or to the number of columns in a row. When you select this option (an x is
shown on the check box), you only need to provide the No. Values, Scale Acc., Time Step and No. Header values.
To be “free format” the data in the file have to be separated by at least one blank space, a comma, a tab, or be in
different lines. More detailed information about these values is provided in the Plot Object Motion or Response
Spectra for Ground Motion sections of this manual.
Additional outcrop motions can be selected by clicking on the Outcrop command button. Each new motion will be
added to the list of outcrop motions. To switch between motions, click on the down-arrow to display the list, scroll
down if necessary and click on the motion that you would like to be the current motion. You can now add or delete
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 180
surface motion files related to this outcropping motion, delete the outcrop motion and its respective surface motions,
etc.
You can also select an outcrop motion saved in the ground motion database by clicking on the Quakes button to
display a listing of the files saved in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file. Once the list is displayed, you can choose a record
by highlighting it and clicking on the Ok button, or by double clicking on it. The data for the ground motion will be
added to the outcropping motion list and shown on the appropriate text boxes.
After selecting the outcrop motion file, you need to select the different surface motion files that will be used with the
outcrop motion to obtain the RF/RS. You can select an unlimited number of surface motion files. In this way you
may be able, for example, to account for the variability in soil properties, etc. Processing of the second output file
generated by a SHAKE analysis creates the files for the ground motions at the surface layer that can be used in the
RRS analysis. These files are identified with the extension *.AHL (or acceleration history at layer) and are created
from the acceleration time histories requested in Option 6. The files are given a name such as L##A#D#-##.AHL,
where L means layer and is followed by one or two numbers which are the layer number, and for the RF/RS analysis
this number will be usually 1 for the surface layer; A stands for analysis, and the number following it is the analysis
number; and, D is for soil deposit and the number is the number of the soil deposit as defined in option 2. The
numbers after the “-“ show the position of this time history in the second output file. For example, the very first
time history in the second output file will have “-1” after the deposit number. To select the surface ground motion
files, click on the AHL command button to display the Acceleration Time History File dialog form. Switch to the
appropriate folder, select the file and then click on Open. The file name and path will be displayed in the first
available row below the File of Acceleration Time History at Surface label. Other information necessary to read
the file will be shown on the text boxes.
For calculation of the response spectrum, select the spacing between the period values by clicking on the downarrow for the Period spacing list. A spacing of 0.01 seconds creates a spectrum with 1000 points starting with 0.01
seconds and ending at 10 seconds, while a spacing of 0.001 seconds will create a spectrum with 10,000 points
starting at 0.001 seconds. Please note that using a smaller value for spacing will lengthen the time needed for
computation and for plotting of the spectrum. The NEHRP option of the list is used when working with the
NEHRP spectra. For this option, the periods will start at 0.01 seconds, use a spacing of 0.01 seconds, and end at a
period of 20 seconds. This will allow computation of the spectra for periods greater than the Long-period transition
period, or TL.
Once you have selected the outcrop and surface motion files, select either the Fourier Spectrum or Response
Spectrum option and then click on the RFRS command button to perform the RRS or RFS analysis. In
SHAKE2000, the RRS analysis consists of obtaining the 5% damping pseudo-acceleration response spectrum for the
surface and outcrop motions, and then dividing the surface spectrum by the outcrop spectrum for each period value.
Similarly, for the RFS analysis, the Fourier spectrum is computed for the surface and outcrop motions and the ratio
obtained by dividing the surface spectrum by the outcrop spectrum. This process is repeated for every surfaceoutcrop motion pair.
To plot the results of the RF/RS analysis, click on the R F/R S Results option to select it, and then on the Plot
command button.
As noted before, the RRS analysis can be used to obtain a soil response spectrum for a specific site. In this case, the
mean or median RRS curve will be multiplied by a rock response spectrum to obtain the soil spectrum. There are
five options used to select the rock spectrum: EuroCode, IBC, NEHRP, Other and User’s. Select one of these
options and then click the Modify command button to display the respective form. Further information for the first
three options is provided in the respective sections of this manual. The Other option will display the Response
Spectra for Ground Motion form. This form can be used to compute the response spectrum using the data saved
in a ground motion file if one is available for the rock motion for your site. If you would like to manually enter the
values for period and spectral acceleration, select the User’s option. This option will display the User Defined
Response Spectrum form. In this form, you can enter values of period and spectra for a user defined response
spectrum that will be used to compute the modified spectrum using the results of the RRS analysis. A similar option
is provided when using the IBC and NEHRP options. In this way, you can enter a user-defined spectrum and select
the IBC or NEHRP 80%-design spectrum to be plotted on the same graph with the modified spectrum.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 181
After the rock spectrum is computed, the Modified Spectrum options will be enabled when returning to this form.
Select the Modified Spectrum option to plot the soil response spectrum.
To delete a surface motion from the list of motions, click on the surface motion to highlight it and then on the
Remove command button. A similar procedure is followed to delete an outcrop motion. However, if you delete an
outcrop motion, the surface motions related to this motion will also be deleted.
The input and output data can be saved to a text file using the Save command button. In the RRS file, the input RRS
curves, Mean and Median RRS curves, source and modified spectra, and spectrum for each ground motion file will
be stored for future use. The data can be retrieved from the file using the Open command button. This file is an
ASCII text file, thus, it can be open with other software applications for other purposes by the user.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 182
Report Form Development
This form is used to create a form that can be printed together with your graphs. The process of creating a form
consists of entering the coordinates of the end points and the thickness for each line on the form. You can then use
the Company & Project Information form to enter textual information that is printed as part of the form.
The origin of coordinates (i.e. x = 0 & y = 0) is the top left corner of the paper sheet; and, the dimensions are those
set for the paper (e.g. for the standard letter size of 8.5” by 11”, the dimensions are in inches). Also, remember that
the Physical page option of the Graphics Print Menu form may affect the way your form fits on the paper. This
option determines whether the logical page used by the printer control should correspond to the entire physical page
or only to its printable area. Most printers have a “logical” paper size that corresponds to the printer's printable area,
and a “physical” paper size that corresponds to the actual page size. The physical paper size is always a little larger
than the logical paper size. If this option is selected (an x is shown on the check box), the program will print to the
physical page.
To better understand how to create a form, open the standard form included with SHAKE2000 and then modify it as
explained in the following. The example described in the following paragraph is for a letter size paper (8.5” x 11”)
and portrait orientation. To change paper type or orientation, click on the Printer command button to display the
printer dialog window. For our example, first click on the Open command button to display the file dialog form. If
necessary, change to the directory where SHAKE2000 is installed, and select the shakey2k.frm file in the Sample
folder. Now, click on Open. You will return to this screen, and the form will be displayed on the graphics window,
and the information about each line shown on the text boxes. For each line, the coordinates of its end points and
thickness are shown on the text boxes.
To complete this form, enter the following lines: First, place the cursor on the X left text box for line No. 4 and type
in 6. Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the text box on the Y left column. Enter 9.7. These are the
coordinates for the left end point of the line. Now, press the Tab key to move the cursor to the text box on the X
right column and enter 8. Place the cursor on the text box for the Y right column, and enter 9.7. By default, a line
thickness of 25 pixels is shown when entering data for a new line. We will reduce the thickness to 15 by clicking on
the down arrow key next to the text box on the Thickness column until 15 is shown in it. A new line has been
added to the form on the bottom right corner. To magnify the form, double-click on the graphics window with the
left-button of the mouse. Double clicking with the right button reduces the size of the drawing.
Repeat the above procedure for the following lines:
X left
6
6
6
Y left
9.9
10.1
10.3
X right
8
8
8
Y right
9.9
10.1
10.3
Thickness
15
15
15
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 183
If you select the Box option (an x is shown on the check box) then the coordinates entered will be taken as the
upper-left and bottom-right corners, respectively, of a rectangle.
To save the information for the form, click on the Save command button to display the file dialog form, and then
click on Save to save the data. You can enter a different file name to save each form you create to a new file.
When you create your own forms, you can enter a description for the form on the text box next to the Description
label. This description can be up to 80 characters long, and will not be shown on the form.
Each time you place the cursor on either the X left, Y left, X right, or Y right columns the Add and Delete
command buttons are enabled. If you want to add data for a new line, place the cursor on the line where the new
line will be located, and click on the Add button. A new line will be created, and the coordinates and thickness for
the new line will be the same as those for the line immediately below. Now, you need to modify the information for
the coordinates and thickness for the new line. The Delete button is used to delete a line from the form. Place the
cursor on either the X left, Y left, X right or Y right columns and then click on the Delete button. The data for the
line will be removed from the form, and the information for the other lines updated accordingly. The Reset
command button will delete the information for all of the lines.
After you have created the form, click on the Ok command button to return to the Company & Project
Information form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 184
Response Spectra for Ground Motion
This form is used to compute the response spectra for a ground motion. The routine used by SHAKE2000 is based
on the SPECTR computer program (Donovan, 1972).
To compute the response spectra, first select a ground motion file. There are two ways you can select a ground
motion file. First, you can use the information stored in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file; or second, by using the Other
command button to select a file and then entering the information necessary to read the data.
1.
Ground Motion Files defined in SHAKEY2K.EQ: Included with SHAKE2000 is a series of ground motion
files that can be used for seismic analysis with SHAKE. Basic information for each record is saved in the
SHAKEY2K.EQ data base file located in the same directory where SHAKE2000 is installed. This file is an
ASCII text file that can be modified to include new information about new records. However, the formatting in
the file should not be modified. Use the Directory command button to choose the path to directory where the
earthquake motion files are stored. After clicking on this button, the Path to Earthquake Files form will be
displayed. Use the mouse to select the drive and directory, and then click on the Ok button. The directory will
be displayed on the text box next to the Path to Earthquake Files check box. To select an earthquake record,
click on it to highlight it. The information stored in shakey2k.eq for this file will be displayed on the
corresponding cells. If you wish to scale the ground motion to a different value of peak acceleration, enter the
new peak value in the Scale Acc. text box. Each acceleration value will be scaled proportionally to the ratio of
the specified scale acceleration to the maximum acceleration of the time history.
2.
Using an object motion file not included in the SHAKEY2K.EQ file: If you want to use the data saved in a
file that is not included in SHAKEY2K.EQ, use the Other command button to display the Open Object
Motion File dialog box to select the file that you want to plot. The name of the file will be displayed next to
the option button on the bottom section of the form. Now you need to enter the following information on the
data cells below the file name. First, you need to select the file by clicking on the check box next to the Other
Ground Motion File cell (an x is shown on the check box). This will enable (i.e. the mouse cursor changes to
the I-beam appearance when placed on the cells) the data cells to enter the data. We'll use the following
example to explain the information necessary to plot the object motion.
Example:
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 185
SHAKE2000 Sample Object Motion
Time Period = 0.01
Number of Points = 2000
.024455 .000868 -.019352 -.012488 .003331 .030202 .021586 -.022183
-.050340 -.025930 .000123 .020366 -.000176 -.008401 -.013457 -.014927
1
2
No. Values: This is the total number of acceleration values that form the object motion file. For the above
example, there are 2000 points in the file, thus, you will enter 2000 in this cell.
Time step: Enter the time interval between each acceleration value. For this example, it is 0.01 seconds.
Scale Acc.: Maximum acceleration to be used, in g's; each acceleration value will be scaled proportionally to
the ratio of the specified scale acceleration to the maximum acceleration of the time history.
No. Header (or Number of header lines): Enter the number of lines at the beginning of the file that are used to
describe the object motion. In the above example, the first two lines are the header lines. Thus, you will enter a
2 in this data cell.
Values/Line (or Number of values per line): Enter the number of acceleration values on each line. For the
above example, there are 8 values on each line. The last number (e.g. 1) only identifies the row number. Thus,
you would enter an 8 in this cell for this specific example.
No. Digits (or Number of digits per value): Enter the number of digits that form an acceleration value. In the
above example, each value is defined by 9 digits, including the spaces. Therefore, you would enter a 9 for this
specific example.
Units: For the computation of response spectra, the values of acceleration are in g's. If the values saved in the
file are in other units (e.g. ft/sec2, cm/sec2, or mm/sec2), then select the appropriate units by clicking on the up
or down arrows to scroll through the different options. This way, the data will be converted from these units to
g's. For example, if the data in the file are in ft/sec2, then you scroll down until ft/sec/sec is shown on the Units
box. Then, the values will be divided by 32.2 to transform them to g's.
Free format: The data from the file are read “free format”, i.e. no consideration is given to the number of digits
in each column, or to the number of columns in a row. When you select this option (an x is shown on the check
box), you only need to provide the No. Values, Scale Acc., Time Step and No. Header values, and then select
the units of acceleration by clicking on the up or down arrow keys next to the Units text box. To be “free
format” the data in the file have to be separated by at least one blank space, a comma, a tab, or be in different
lines.
Period spacing: This list is used to select the spacing between the period values used to compute the response
spectrum. Click on the down arrow list to select a different value. A spacing of 0.01 seconds creates a spectrum
with 1000 points starting with 0.01 seconds, while a spacing of 0.001 seconds will create a spectrum with 10,000
points starting at 0.001 seconds. Please note that using a smaller value for spacing will lengthen the time needed for
computation and for plotting of the spectrum.
Once you have selected a ground motion file, you need to enter the values of damping ratio used for the computation
of the response spectra. To add a new ratio, place the cursor on the first blank cell next to the Damping Ratios (in
decimal) label and enter the value in decimal (e.g., 5% damping is entered as 0.05). The number of damping ratios
will be increased automatically. To delete a ratio, place the cursor on the corresponding cell, and use the Delete key.
Then press the Tab key to move the cursor to a different cell. The number of damping ratios will be decreased, and
the ratios will move to occupy the empty cells.
After you have entered at least one value of damping ratio, the Spectra command button will be enabled. Click on
this button to compute the response spectra for the ground motion. The results will be automatically saved in the file
shown on the text box next to the File for Response Spectra Data label. To select a different file to save the data
in, click on the Save command button and select, or enter the name for, a new file.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 186
The results can be plotted by clicking on the Plot command button. By default, the Relative Displacement spectrum
is plotted. If you want to plot other spectra (e.g. relative velocity, absolute acceleration, etc.), click on the Graph
command button to display the Response Spectrum Plot Menu. In this form, you will be able to select other
computed spectra, and other spectra from codes and attenuation relations.
The View command button can be used to view the contents of a ground motion file. This will help you to collect
the information needed to define the formatting of the file if necessary. To do this, first select a file using the Other
button to select other files. The first 60 lines of the file will be displayed on a form, with the first characters
displayed in red representing the numbers of each row of data in the file followed by a “|”. These characters are not
part of the source file and are only shown to number the rows. After the row numbers, the alphanumeric characters
that constitute the information saved in the file for each row are shown. Note that the characters are displayed as
blue on a white background, and that every tenth character is displayed in red. However, if the tenth character is a
“blank space” then the character is not shown. This is done to guide the user when defining the order of the data in
the file.
The ground motion can be plotted by clicking on the Motion command button.
The Import command button is only enabled when this form is called from the Makdisi & Seed (1977) Simplified
Displacement Analysis form. This button is used to import a series of user specified response spectra, saved in a
text file, for use in the Makdisi-Seed displacement analysis. The data in the file should be saved using the following
format:
STATION: 2701 ADN* ADAK, NAVAL BASE
C:\SHAKE2000\QUAKES\124c08AD_N0a.eq
151 6 .025
.05
.1
.15
.2
.25
.01
.25828
.25819
.25804
.25781
.02
.2583
.25828
.25826
.25819
.03
.2599
.25988
.25984
.2597
.04
.26219
.26217
.2621
.26188
First line:
Second Line:
Third line:
Fourth to end of file:
.25767
.25809
.25951
.26153
.25758
.25798
.25926
.26106
Identification for the spectra, up to 80 characters
Earthquake record used to generate the spectra or any other information, up to 80
characters
Number of periods (for above example, 151)
Number of damping values (for above example, 6)
Damping values in decimal (for above example, .025 .05 .1 .15 .2 .25)
Period, in seconds, followed by spectral acceleration values, in g‟s, for each damping
value
When this form is called from the Ratio of Response Spectra form, the damping ratio text boxes and the list of
period values will be disabled, i.e. the user will not be able to modify these values. The Ok command button will be
enabled after the spectrum has been computed for the respective motion using the Spectra command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 187
Response Spectrum Plot Menu
This form is used to select the response spectra to be plotted. The values for these plots are stored in the *.SPC file.
To display the spectrum for a damping value, place the cursor on the damping check box and then click the left
button on the mouse. An x will appear in the check box to indicate your selection. To choose a Type of Response
Spectrum, click on the appropriate check box, then, click on the Ok button to display the graph. To cancel a
selection, click on the box again to remove the x.
There are three possible combinations for displaying the response spectrum:



Select one damping value and one type of response spectrum.
Select one damping value and two types of response. The two types of response spectrum are either
Relative Velocity & Pseudo-Relative Velocity, or Absolute Acceleration & Pseudo-Absolute
Acceleration.
Select as many damping values as desired, up to the total shown, and only one type of spectrum.
If enabled, you can also select the average response spectrum options (with the Mean command button). However,
these options work only with one type of response spectrum and one value of damping.
Other options and/or features available are:








Period: Select this option to use the period (sec) scale in the X-axis.
Frequency: Select this option to use the frequency (Hz) scale in the X-axis.
Normalized: Use this option to plot the normalized response spectrum. This option only works when
plotting Sa or PSA spectra.
Relative Displacement (Sd): Plot the Relative Displacement spectrum.
Relative Velocity (Sv): Plot the Relative Velocity spectrum.
Pseudo-Relative Velocity (PSV): Plot the Pseudo-Relative Velocity spectrum.
Absolute Acceleration (Sa): Plot the Absolute Acceleration spectrum.
Pseudo-Absolute Acceleration (PSA): Plot the Pseudo-Absolute Acceleration spectrum.
To plot average spectra: For a specific layer, you can obtain average response spectra from the results of several
different analyses using the same soil profile (i.e. a profile with the same number of layers and thickness). For
example, using the data provided in the sample files that came with SHAKE2000, say that you want to obtain
average response spectra for layer 1 using profile number 1 that is formed by 29 layers. The input file will look like
this for the first analysis:
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 188
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Option 1
Option 2: Profile No. 1
Option 3: SAMPLE.EQ
Option 4: Object motion on layer 29
Option 5: 10 iterations, 0.65 strain ratio
Option 6
Option 7
Option 9: Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 10
Option 11
To obtain average results, you need to conduct a second analysis. Say that the second time you would like to use a
different object motion that is saved as SAMPLE2.EQ. Then your input file, after including the options for the
second analysis will look like:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Option 1
Option 2: Profile No. 1
Option 3: SAMPLE.EQ
Option 4: Object motion on layer 29
Option 5: 10 iterations, 0.65 strain ratio
Option 6
Option 7
Option 9: Layer 1 - Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 10:
Option 11:
Option 2: Profile No.1
Option 3: SAMPLE2.EQ
Option 4: Object motion on layer 29
Option 5: 10 iterations, 0.65 strain ratio
Option 6
Option 7
Option 9: Layer 1 - Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 10:
Option 11:
After executing SHAKE and processing the first output file, the *.SPC file will contain the response spectra data for
layer 1 obtained from the two analyses. To plot the average response spectrum for layer 1, first you need to select
both a type of response spectrum and a damping ratio. Once you do this, the Ok, Mean and Site command buttons
will be enabled. Click on the Mean button to display the Average Response Spectrum form.
To plot the response spectrum of different layers in a soil profile: For a specific soil profile, you can plot the
response spectrum of different layers at the same time. For example, using the data provided in the sample files that
came with SHAKE2000, say that you want to plot the response spectrum for 5% damping for layers 1, 5, 10, 17, 23
and 29 of profile number 1, to determine the influence of soil conditions on the ground motion. The input file will
look like this for the first analysis:
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Option 1
Option 2: Profile No. 1
Option 3: SAMPLE.EQ
Option 4: Object motion on layer 29
Option 5: 10 iterations, 0.65 strain ratio
Option 6
Option 7
Option 9: Layer 1 - Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 9: Layer 5 - Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 9: Layer 10 - Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 9: Layer 17 - Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 9: Layer 23 - Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 9: Layer 29 - Spectra for 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% damping.
Option 10
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 189
15
Option 11
After executing SHAKE and processing the first output file, the *.SPC file will contain the response spectra data for
the different layers. To plot the response spectrum for 5% damping for layers 1, 5, 10, 17, 23 and 29, first select a
type of response spectrum and the 5% damping ratio option. Once you do this, the Ok, Mean and Site command
buttons will be enabled. Click on the Site button to display the Response Spectra - Site Effects Menu form.
AASHTO: This option allows you to plot the AASHTO response spectra. This option can only be used with the
Acceleration response spectra and 5% damping. You can use this option together with the Mean, Site, Attenuate
or NEHRP options. After clicking on the AASHTO button, the AASHTO's Seismic Response Coefficients form
will be displayed.
Attenuate: This option allows you to plot pseudo absolute acceleration or pseudo relative velocity spectra,
predicted using published attenuation relations. This option can only be used with either the Acceleration or
Velocity response spectra, and 5% damping. You can use this option together with the Mean, Site or NEHRP
options. After clicking on the Attenuate button, the Ground Motion Attenuation Relations form will be
displayed.
EuroCode: This button is used to select the options and/or enter the data necessary to plot a design response
spectrum in accordance with Part 1 of the Eurocode 8 (European Committee for Standardization, 2000).
IBC: Use this command button to plot a design response spectrum using the procedure set forth in the International
Building Code (International Code Council, 2003). This button will display the IBC Design Response Spectrum
form that can be used to select the appropriate spectrum.
NEHRP Provisions - Site-Specific Response Spectra: This option allows you to plot up to two site-specific
response spectra, constructed using the procedures outlined in the NEHRP Provisions (Building Seismic Safety
Council, 2004a & 2004b). This option can only be used with either the Absolute Acceleration or Pseudo-Absolute
Acceleration response spectra, and 5% damping. You can use this option together with the Mean or Site options,
but first you need to select the NEHRP spectra.
Target: Click on this button to display the Target Response Spectrum form. In this form, you can enter values of
period and spectra for a target response spectrum that will be plotted together with the other spectra.
UBC: Design spectra using the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) method, can be determined by clicking on the
UBC button. This button will display the UBC Design Spectra form.
Check to plot: Once you have selected a response spectra option (AASHTO, Attenuate, IBC, NEHRP, Target, or
UBC), the corresponding option will be enabled (i.e., will not be grayed out). The purpose of this option is to allow
the user to switch on and off the plotting of the response spectra. For example, if you have selected the NEHRP
spectra and entered the coefficients, an x will appear in the check box next to the NEHRP label. This means that
every time that you click on the Plot command button, these spectra will be plotted together with any other spectra
selected. If you click on the check box, the x will be removed, and when you click on the Plot button, the NEHRP
spectra will not be plotted. To plot them again, just click on the check box again. You don't need to re-enter the
coefficients.
The response spectra data can be saved to a text file by selecting the Save Spectrum Data option. This text file can
then be open with other applications, e.g. Excel, for further use. The path and name of the text file can be changed
by clicking on the command button with the folder icon next to the text box.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 190
Response Spectra - Site Effects Menu
This form will display a list of layers that have response spectrum for the selected damping ratio. To plot a
spectrum, click on the check box to select it. Then click on Ok to return to the spectrum plot menu form.
When the Analysis command button is enabled, it can be used to display a summary list of the different options that
form each analysis group. The results contained in the first and second output files generated from the execution of
SHAKE are grouped in sets, or analyses, depending on the order of the different options.
The All command button will select all of the spectra available for plotting.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 191
Rjb & Rx Distance
This form is used to enter Rjb, or the closest distance to the surface projection of fault rupture used by the Akkar &
Bommer (2007) – Europe/Middle East; Campbell & Bozorgnia (2003); Campbell & Bozorgnia (2008) – NGA;
Boore, D. & Atkinson, G. (2008) – NGA; Chiou, B. & Youngs, R. (2008) – NGA; and, the Rx distance used by the
NGA attenuation relations. Note that the program will plot the PHA vs. Distance, where for the NGA equations the
distance is Rrup and for Campbell & Bozorgnia (2003) it is Rseis. Accordingly, for the NGA relations Rjb and Rx
should be computed and entered in the Rjb and Rx columns of the Rjb and Rx Distance form.
Similarly, for the Boore & Atkinson NGA relation, the program will also plot the PHA vs. Distance wherein
distance is assumed to be Rrup, but the program will use Rjb entered in the respective column of the Rjb and Rx
Distance form for the computations. For further information on these distances, please refer to the respective
reference for each relation.
To enter the data, place the cursor on the text box for Rjb column and type in the values in kilometers. Please note
that the default values shown on the Rjb and Rx columns are not representative of any particular field situation. Also
enter values for Distance based on the attenuation relation being used. For example, for the Campbell & Bozorgnia
NGA the values on the Distance column will correspond to the values for R rup. When computing the attenuation
values, the program will linearly interpolate between the values entered to obtain the corresponding R jb and Rx when
specific values for a distance are not entered. The program will only accept values greater than 1 for distance.
After you have entered the information for each Rjb and Rx, click on the Ok command button to return to the
Ground Motion Attenuation Relations form.
Each time you place the cursor on the Distance, Rjb or Rx columns the Add and Delete command buttons are
enabled. If you want to add data for a new Distance, place the cursor on the distance where the new values will be
located, and click on the Add button. New values will be created, and the values will be the same as those for the
Distance immediately below. The Delete button is used to delete the data for a Distance from the table. Place the
cursor on the Distance, Rjb or Rx value column and then click on the Delete button. The data for the Distance will be
removed from the table, and the information for the other Distances updated accordingly. The Reset command
button will delete all the information on the table and display the default values. The Save command button is used
to save the data in a text file for future use. These data can be retrieved using the Open command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 192
The Rjb – Rx command button can be used to compute values of Rjb and Rx for the distances shown on the
Distance column (or Rrup on the figure). The computation of the distance is based on the geometries shown on the
following figures (a), (b) and (c) included in the PEER NGA Excel spreadsheet.
For the computation of the Rjb and RRup distances, the program will first assume default values of either Rjb or Rx and
then use the equations presented by Kaklamanos et al. (2010) to compute R Rup. For these equations, the value of the
source-to-site azimuth can be entered in the Azimuth (◦) text box.
The information and data used for the computation, i.e., dip, style of faulting, ZTOR, and width; are entered in the
Ground Motion Attenuation Relations form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 193
SEISRISK III Attenuation Function
This form is used to enter the attenuation data as a function of magnitude and distance for SEISRISK III. It is
recommended that you review the SEISRISK III User‟s Manual (Bender & Perkins, 1987) for more information on
this program.
For convenience, the data in this form have been labeled according to the variable names used by SEISRISK III. To
enter the values, place the cursor on the respective text box for the parameter and type in the data. To delete a value,
place the cursor on the corresponding cell, and use the Delete key. Then press the Tab key to move the cursor to a
different cell. Further information for each parameter required in the analysis is given below (this information has
been literally taken from the SEISRISK III User's Manual, pp. 24-25):
The attenuation values can also be estimated using the ground motion attenuation relations included with
SHAKE2000. To do this, first enter the values for magnitude and distance in this form and then click on the GM
command button to display the Ground Motion Attenuation Relations form. Select an attenuation relation and
other options for the attenuation relation, and then click on the Plot command button of the form to display the
attenuation curves. Click on the Close command button to return to the attenuation relations form, and then on Ok
to return to this form. The attenuation values will be displayed in the text boxes.
SEISRISK III – Identification for Input Data Set: A description of this data set can be entered in this text box.
This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as input data option for subsequent operations,
such as creating an input file. This information is not used by SEISRISK III.
Line 9:
jent, mdis
jent = number of magnitudes for which acceleration is tabulated as a function of distance (maximum 8).
mdis = number of distances in attenuation table (maximum 20)
Line 10:
nam, tm (jent values of tm)
nam = identifier up to 10 characters – for example „schn-seed‟
identifies attenuation curve used (when using the GM command button, an identifier is created
automatically)
tm = magnitude for which table of distance versus acceleration (or other ground motion parameter)
values follows
**** magnitudes must be in descending order ****
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 194
Line 11:
rtab(i), (atab(i, j), j=1,jent) (mdis lines, i=1,mdis)
rtab(i) = ith tabular distance in kilometers from earthquake source
atab(i,j) = mean peak acceleration (or other ground motion parameter) at i th distance for jth magnitude.
After entering the data, click on the Ok command button to return to the SEISRISK III pre & postprocessor form.
To return to the pre & postprocessor form without accepting the changes made to the data in this form, click on the
Cancel command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 195
SEISRISK III Fault Data
This form is used to enter the fault data for use in SEISRISK III. It is recommended that you review the SEISRISK
III User‟s Manual (Bender & Perkins, 1987) for more information on this program.
For convenience, the data in this form have been labeled according to the variable names used by SEISRISK III. To
enter the values, place the cursor on the respective text box for the parameter and type in the data. To delete a value,
place the cursor on the corresponding cell, and use the Delete key. Then press the Tab key to move the cursor to a
different cell. Further information for each parameter required in the analysis is given below (this information has
been literally taken from the SEISRISK III User's Manual, pp. 24-25):
There are a few "rules" that should be followed when entering the values for longitude and latitude:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Longitudes in the Western Hemisphere should be entered as positive values.
Longitudes in the Eastern Hemisphere should be entered as negative values.
Latitudes north of the Equator should be positive.
Latitudes south of the Equator should be negative.
Values should be entered left to right, i.e. greater values are on the left side.
SHAKE2000 will assume that any positive value for longitude is West, and any negative value is East. Similarly,
positive latitudes are North and negative latitudes are South.
SEISRISK III – Identification for Input Data Set: A description of this data set can be entered in this text box.
This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as input data option for subsequent operations,
such as creating an input file. This information is not used by SEISRISK III.
Line 1f:
num, yrnoc, iprint, totl, dumid, als, bls, sigls
num = 99 for first fault
num = 0 for all fault sets after 1st
= 99 at the end of computation
yrnoc = number of years over which the earthquake occurrences take place
irpint = -1 no statistics for this (intermediate) set of occurrences
= 1 statistical calculations and printout
= 2 same as 1 plus summary file for plot, etc.
= 3 omit printout; do summary file for plot
totl = distance between faults if this set of faults is a set of “dummy” faults used to approximate a
uniform field of faults.
totl = 0 if individual fault or a number of well defined faults are used.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 196
totl determines whether ground motions for a site are to be smoothed in distance or smoothed in
magnitude
(smoothed in magnitude if totl = 0)
(smoothed in distance if totl is nonzero).
dumid = four character identifier for fault
als, bls, sigls rupture length parameters
if als, bls non zero:
length = 10**(als + bls * m + fr * sigl)
where m = magnitude; sigl = standard deviation (in log length)
fr = (normally) 5 values in range (-2, +2) if sigl non zero
fr = 0 (1 value) – mean rupture length only if sigl = 0
if als, bls, sigls = 0 (or blank) previous values are used
if no previous values input, default values are used:
als = -1.085
bls = 0.389
sigls = 0.52
Line 2f:
jseg, ifr, itot
jseg
ifr
itot
= number of fault segment end points to be connected into single fault (jseg-1 segments)
= set number (ifr = 1,2 …. itot in sequence)
= 10 max; total quad pairs for itot sources maximum 50
Line 3f:
(xl(i, i(fr), yl(i,i(fr), i =1, jseg)
xl
= long
yl = lat (degrees)
jseg = 24 max
itot = 26 max
(ifr = fault number)
Line 4f:
noc(l) l = 1, lev
(lev = 12 maximum)
number of events expected in yrnoc years in each magnitude interval for earthquake occurrences
Line 5f:
fm(l)
l = 1, lev
fm(l) = center of magnitude interval for which noc(l) occur
Repeat 2f, 3f for itot faults
Repeat 1f thru 5f for remaining faults
End with num = 99 (omit other inputs on line)
After entering the data, click on the Ok command button to return to the SEISRISK III pre & postprocessor form.
To return to the pre & postprocessor form without accepting the changes made to the data in this form, click on the
Cancel command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 197
SEISRISK III Option List
This form is used to select SEISRISK III options that are not already included in the *.SRK file, or to create new
sets of an option. Default values will be given to the option. To select an option, click on the option to highlight it
and then click on the Choose button to return to the SEISRISK III Pre & Postprocessor form. The new option
will be shown on the option list. You can also double click on the option to select it.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 198
SEISRISK III Output Files
When selecting different output files for SEISRISK III, the files available will be displayed in the top list box. The
directory where these files are saved is shown in the text box next to the Directory label. To select a file, highlight it,
and then click on the Add command button. This will display the file in the bottom list box. Alternatively, double
click on the file to add it to the bottom list box. Once you have selected all the files that should be included in the
analysis, click on the Return command button to return to the SEISRISK III Pre & Postprocessor form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 199
SEISRISK III Pre & Postprocessor
This option of SHAKE2000 is used to create an input file for, and to process the output file created with SEISRISK
III (Bender and Perkins, 1987). More information about SEISRISK III can also be found at:
http://eqhazmaps.usgs.gov/html/swmain.html
An executable version of SEISRISK III is included with SHAKE2000.
1. SRK File:
An *.SRK file is an ASCII file that contains data for the different options used by SEISRISK III. The data are in a
format that is not compatible with SEISRISK III; accordingly, the *.SRK file may not be used as an input file for
SEISRISK III. However, SHAKE2000 uses this file as a database to create an input file. In other words, the *.SRK
file can contain sets for each option used by SEISRISK III (e.g. different sets of the attenuation function). Thus,
when the file is saved, the options will be saved in numeric order, and all the sets for each option will be grouped
together. As similarly done for SHAKE, SHAKE2000 separates the data used in SEISRISK into “options”. These
options are defined by the type of data in the input file: 1) Option 1 is formed by the information about the
probabilities and the area of study, i.e. between the title line and before the attenuation data; 2) Option 2 is formed
the attenuation data; 3) Option 3 is formed by the seismic source zone data; and, 4) Option 4 is formed by the fault
data.
Options available in SRK file: Use the Open command button to load and edit an existing *.SRK file. After the
data in the file are read, the list box will show the options that are included in the *.SRK file, and the first option will
be selected. Further, if the *.SRK file also includes information about the options included in the input file, these
options will be shown on the bottom list box, i.e. the Input list box. The SRK list box is used to select the options
that the user can edit and options to be included in the input file. The vertical scroll bars on the right side of the list
box can be used to scroll between the options. To edit an option, click on it to highlight it and then click on the Edit
button. You can also double click on the option to edit it. If you want to remove an option from the *.SRK file,
highlight it and then click on the Delete button. The option cannot be un-erased. To create a specific option that is
not included in the *.SRK file, or to create a new set of an existent option, click on the New button. The button will
display the SEISRISK III Option List form to select new options.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 200
To save the *.SRK and Input files, click on the Save button. The files can be saved automatically after you edit an
option, or before you execute SEISRISK, by selecting the Automatically save SRK & Input Files check box.
To print the SRK file, first click on the Print SRK File option to select it, and then click on the Print command
button. This will display the Print Menu form.
When the Automatically save SRK & Input Files option is selected (an x is shown on the check box) the SRK and
Input files will be automatically saved every time you return from editing an option (using the Edit command
button), or before SEISRISK III is executed (with the SEISRISK command button).
The Check input data before running SEISRISK option is selected by default. When this option is selected, the
data in the different options that form the input data will be checked to determine if there are any errors that may
cause problems during the execution of SEISRISK. If you are sure that your data are correct and do not wish to
check the data before execution of SEISRISK starts, click on the check box to de-select this option.
2. Input File:
The top list box will show the options that are included in the *.SRK file. This list is used to select the options that
will be included in the SEISRISK III input file. To include one of these options in the input file, first select the
option by clicking on it to highlight it, and then click on the Add button. The Order, Remove and Clear buttons
are not enabled, i.e. they are grayed out. These buttons are enabled when an option from the input file's option list is
selected.
Input File's Option List: This list box will show the options that will be included in the SEISRISK III input file. If
no options have been selected before this form is displayed, then this list box will be empty. Once you have selected
the options, you can reorganize them with the Order button, remove any with the Remove button, delete all the
options from this list box with the Clear button, and create the input file with the Save button.
To create an input file for SEISRISK III, select the options you want to include from the top list (i.e. SRK File's
Option List) in the order they will be executed by SEISRISK III. The options selected will be shown on the bottom
list box (Input File's Option List) with the order number next to them. Then, use the Save command button to
store these options in the input file. A file dialog form will be displayed requesting you to enter the name for the
file. Alternatively, you can select to overwrite an existing file by selecting it.
To print the input file, first click on the Print Input File option to select it, and then click on the Print command
button. This will display the Print Menu form.
3. Execute SEISRISK III:
After you have created an input file, you will perform the seismic hazard analysis using SEISRISK III.
Before you execute SEISRISK III, you need to enter the name of the output file and select a directory path where the
file will be saved. Place the cursor on the text box next to the Output File Name label and type in the name for the
output file, followed by a period and the extension (e.g. OUT). SHAKE2000 will not add an extension to the end of
the file if it is not entered. Also, you will need to type the same name when requested by SEISRISK III. You can
enter up to 32 characters. Blank spaces are not allowed. The file will be saved to the folder shown on the text box
next to the Directory of Output Files label. To change the location of the output directory, there is a command
button located next to the text box (i.e. the button with the open folder icon). Click on this button to display the
Choose Output Directory form, select a different folder by double clicking on it, and then click on the Ok button
to return to this form.
Now, to execute SEISRISK III click on the SEISRISK command button. This will open a DOS window. At the
prompt, type SEISRISK. You will be requested to provide the name of the input, output and auxiliary files. After
execution of SEISRISK III terminates, type exit to close the DOS window and return to SHAKE2000.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 201
4. Data Processing and Plotting:
After you have executed SEISRISK III, you need to process the output file created. SHAKE2000 will read the
output file and extract the information that is most useful to the user. To process the output file, click on the
Process command button. After a few seconds, information will be displayed on the lists next to the Plot Seismic
Hazard Curves and Plot Extreme Probability options. If there were any errors during the execution of SEISRISK
III, then an error message will likely be displayed during the processing of the output file. In this case, it is
recommended to use the Display Results of Output File option to display the output file and proceed to the option
that may have caused the error, usually the last option saved in the output file. Then, review the information
provided in the output file and review the input data for this option to determine the reason for the error.
Process a Series of Output Files: If you have different seismic sources or faults, you can perform an individual
analysis and create an output file for each source. You can also perform successive runs, accumulating the results
for each source or fault, and then save the final results in the last output file created. This option will allow you to
combine both output files, the individuals and the total, so that you can view the influence of each source on the total
result. For example, using the sample problem in the SEISRISK III user‟s manual which includes three source
zones, ZN01, ZN02 and ZN03; and, two faults, FT01 and FT02. For your first analysis, you create an input file for
each source and fault using a code of zero, “0”, for new run for the isw variable. Execute SEISRISK III using each
file and name each output file using the same name as the input file, but with an extension of “.out” (i.e.,
ZN01.OUT, ZN02.OUT, ZN03.OUT, FT01.OUT and FT02.OUT). For the first run, i.e. ZN01, use the total.03
name when asked about the 03 file. This file is used in the second series of runs. For the second part of the
analysis, first, change the value of the isw variable to one, “1”, for restart or continue from previous run for the
ZN02, ZN03, FT01 and FT02 files. The value of the isw variable in the ZN01 file remains the same as zero because
there are no previous runs conducted before. Next, do a separate analysis using each input file, but this time give a
different name to each output file (e.g., ZN01TOT.OUT, ZN02TOT.OUT, ZN03TOT.OUT and FT01TOT.OUT);
and, for the output file for FT02 use TOTAL.OUT. When restarting or continuing from a previous analysis, you
need to use the same auxiliary file “03” for each run; i.e., when executing SEISRISK using these latest input files
and you are requested to “Enter auxiliary file name 03”, enter the name total.03 each time. To process the files,
first click on the Process a Series of Output Files check box to select it. This will enable the Series command
button. If necessary, use the folder icon to display the Choose Output Directory form. Select the directory where
the above output files are stored, and click on Ok to return to the SEISRISK III options form. Click the Series
command button to display the SEISRISK III - Output Files form. A listing of the available output files will be
displayed in the top list box. Select the output files in the same order that the sources are defined in the input file for
the total analysis, i.e., select first zn01.out, zn02.out, zn03.out, ft01.out, and ft02.out. Then select the total.out
file. Click on the Return command button. After a few seconds, information will be displayed on the lists next to
the Plot Seismic Hazard Curves and Plot Extreme Probability options.
Plot Site's Location: Use this option to plot the grid used in the SEISRISK III analysis. Information that will be
displayed includes the points on the grid for which the analysis is being conducted, points on a line, and points that
represent the boundaries of the seismic sources and faults.
Plot Seismic Hazard Curves after Source:
at Site: This option allows you to plot the yearly exceedance rate
curve at a point on the grid. To select a source, click on the down arrow to display the list of available sources or
faults, and click on the one you want to use. Next, click on the down arrow key of the list box next to the Site label
to display the list of points. Click on a point to select it, then on Ok to display the curve. When processing a series
of output files, the results from the file that contains the total or accumulated results will be identified with the Total
label on the list of available sources. Selecting the Total option will also display the individual results for each fault
or zone.
Plot Extreme Probability after Source: for years: This option will create a two dimensional (2D) contour
plot, or three dimensional (3D) surface plot of the results on the grid of points analyzed. To select a source, click on
the down arrow to display the list of available sources or faults, and click on the one you want to use. Click on the
down arrow key of the list box next to the year label to display the list of years, and click on a year to select it.
Next, click on Ok to display the curve. When processing a series of output files, the results from the file that
contains the total or accumulated results will be identified with the Total label on the list of available sources. To
plot the data as a 3D surface plot, click on the Surface (3D) check box to select this option.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 202
Plot Mean: Click on this option to plot the mean curves or zero attenuation variability. If this option is not selected,
then the results calculated considering the attenuation variability will be plotted.
Plot boundary: This option is used with the 3D surface plot. When this option is on (an x is shown in the check
box), boundary lines that define the grid are shown on the graph.
Plot grid: This option is used with the 3D surface or scatter plots. When this option is on (an x is shown in the
check box), the background grid lines are shown on the walls of graph.
Plot sources: This option is used with the Plot Site's Location option. When this option is on (an x is shown in the
check box), the seismic sources are displayed on the graph.
Create XYZ File: This option is used with the 2D contour or 3D surface and scatter plots. When this option is on
(an x is shown in the check box), a text file is created that saves the different values used in creating the plots. This
text file is formed by three columns. The first column corresponds to the longitude values, the second column to the
latitude values, and the third column is the yearly exceedance rate value. This file can be used with other
commercial software (e.g. Surfer, etc.) to create other graphs. By default this file will be given the PSHA.TXT
name and will be saved to the folder shown on the text box next to the Directory of Output Files label. The file
will be created by clicking on the Plot command button used to display the plot.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 203
SEISRISK III Probability & Study Area
This form is used to enter the probability and study area data used by SEISRISK III. It is recommended that you
review the SEISRISK III User‟s Manual (Bender & Perkins, 1987) for more information on this program.
For convenience, the data in this form have been labeled according to the variable names used by SEISRISK III. To
enter the values, place the cursor on the respective text box for the parameter and type in the data. To delete a value,
place the cursor on the corresponding cell, and use the Delete key. Then press the Tab key to move the cursor to a
different cell. Further information for each parameter required in the analysis is given below (this information has
been literally taken from the SEISRISK III User's Manual, pp. 24-25):
There are a few "rules" that should be followed when entering the values for longitude and latitude:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Longitudes in the Western Hemisphere should be entered as positive values.
Longitudes in the Eastern Hemisphere should be entered as negative values.
Latitudes north of the Equator should be positive.
Latitudes south of the Equator should be negative.
Values should be entered left to right, i.e. greater values are on the left side.
SHAKE2000 will assume that any positive value for longitude is West, and any negative value is East. Similarly,
positive latitudes are North and negative latitudes are South.
SEISRISK III – Identification for Input Data Set: A description of this data set can be entered in this text box.
This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as input data option for subsequent operations,
such as creating an input file. This information is not used by SEISRISK III.
Line 1:
title
Enter a description for the analysis, up to 80 characters long.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 204
Line 2:
isw, sigmax
isw
= 0 new run (usual case)
isw
= 1 restart or continue from previous run
sigmax = maximum standard deviation (km) for earthquake location variability in seismic source zones for
this run.
Line 3:
prob, ntims, jtim(1), jtim(2) …….. jtim(ntims)
acceleration is sought for which there is probability prob of not being exceeded in jtim(1), jtim(2), …..
jtim(ntim) years.
prob
= extreme probability in decimal
ntims = number of times for which calculation is done
jtim(1) = durations (years) for which extreme motions are to be calculated at the prob probability level,
1≤ i ≤ ntims
Line 4:
scale, dsw, sd, inos
scale = scaling factor for ground motion boxes
scale = 1 for for motions 0.02 to 1.0 – scale accordingly
dsw = 1 if inputs are degrees and minutes
= 0 if inputs are decimal degrees
sd
= standard deviation in log acceleration for acceleration variability around mean value
inos = 1: divide magnitude interval in half and do calculations at twice as many magnitudes (assumes
Gutenberg-Richter b-value is same for all intervals).
inos = any number other than 1: do calculations for original magnitude intervals.
Line 5:
x1, y1, x2 , y2
(long, lat) in decimal degrees
transform great circle thru (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (0, 0) to equator for new coordinate system.
Line 6:
fl1, ph1, fl2, ph2, phinc
(fl1, ph1) upper left
(fl2, ph2) lower right
(long, lat)
corners of seismic felt region for risk computation
rectangular region with sides parallel to arc of great circle thru (x1, y1), (x2, y2) (0, 0) – defined in Line 5.
other two sides perpendicular and thru given end points
+ (fl1,ph1)
1
.
(x1,y1) 1
.
.
1
.
.
.
(fl2,ph2)+
.
1
.
1
.
.
1
(x2,y2)
area within dots represents felt region
„1‟s represents line joining (x1, y1) (x2, y2)
phinc (long, lat) increment in degrees (in new coordinate system) for which risk is to be computed)
Line 7:
irow1, irow2, icol1, icol2
starting and ending rows and columns for this run
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 205
accelerations computed for sites in these rows and columns – may be subset of seismic felt region defined
in input 6. Also irow1 = irow2 = icol1 = icol2 = 0 permitted if only individual sites on lines (input 8) are
selected
Line 8:
indv
number of line segments containing individual sites at which acceleration is to be computed; zero if only
fixed grid is used.
If indv > 0 read next inputs, otherwise skip to input 9.
nvs
number of sites per line segment
xe1, ye1, xe2, ye2
indv lines, one pair per line
end points (long, lat) of line segment: sites will be evenly spaced on line in new coordinate system
NOTE: NO SMOOTHING OF ACCELERATIONS AT SITES ON LINE FOR ACCELERATIONS
FROM EARTHQUAKES WITHIN AREAL SOURCE ZONES. CALCULATIONS FOR UNIFORM
SEISMICITY ONLY AT THESE SITES.
Lines 9, 10 & 11:
(see SEISRISK III Attenuation Function section of this manual).
After entering the data, click on the Ok command button to return to the SEISRISK III pre & postprocessor form.
To return to the pre & postprocessor form without accepting the changes made to the data in this form, click on the
Cancel command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 206
SEISRISK III PSHA Contours
The PSHA (Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment) Contours form is used to display the two-dimensional
(2D) contour plot of the annual exceedance probability computed with SEISRISK III.
Contour Interval: To change the contour interval used in the plot, click on the down arrow to display the list of
intervals available. Click on the interval that you want to use to highlight it, then on the Apply command button to
redraw the graph using the new interval.
Grid: Select this option to display a grid on the plot. Grid lines will be drawn at each major tick mark. Click on the
Apply command button to redraw the graph. An x is shown in the check box when this option is selected.
X tick spacing: To change the spacing of the major ticks on the longitude axis, click on the down arrow to display
the list of available spacing values, and then select one. Click on the Apply command button to redraw the graph
using the new tick spacing.
Y tick spacing: To change the spacing of the major ticks on the latitude axis, click on the down arrow to display the
list of available spacing values, and then select one. Click on the Apply command button to redraw the graph using
the new tick spacing.
Mark Site: Select this option to display a site location on the graph. An x is shown in the check box when this
option is selected. Next, enter a label to identify the site by placing the cursor on the text box below the Mark Site
label, and then enter up to 30 characters. Press the Tab key, or use the mouse, to place the cursor on the text box
next to the Long label and enter the longitude value for the site in decimal form. Move the cursor to the text box
next to the Lat label and enter the latitude value for the site in decimal form. Click on the Apply command button
to redraw the graph and display the site location.
Use the Copy command button to copy the contour plot to the clipboard. You can use then the Paste or Paste
Special commands on other Windows applications (i.e. Microsoft Word), to insert the graph into other documents.
The Print command button will display a printer dialog form that you can use to send a copy of the graph to the
printer.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 207
SEISRISK III Seismic Source Zone Data
This form is used to enter the seismic source zone data for use in SEISRISK III. It is recommended that you review
the SEISRISK III User‟s Manual (Bender & Perkins, 1987) for more information on this program.
For convenience, the data in this form have been labeled according to the variable names used by SEISRISK III. To
enter the values, place the cursor on the respective text box for the parameter and type in the data. To delete a value,
place the cursor on the corresponding cell, and use the Delete key. Then press the Tab key to move the cursor to a
different cell. Further information for each parameter required in the analysis is given below (this information has
been literally taken from the SEISRISK III User's Manual, pp. 24-25):
There are a few "rules" that should be followed when entering the values for longitude and latitude:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Longitudes in the Western Hemisphere should be entered as positive values.
Longitudes in the Eastern Hemisphere should be entered as negative values.
Latitudes north of the Equator should be positive.
Latitudes south of the Equator should be negative.
Values should be entered left to right, i.e. greater values are on the left side.
SHAKE2000 will assume that any positive value for longitude is West, and any negative value is East. Similarly,
positive latitudes are North and negative latitudes are South.
SEISRISK III – Identification for Input Data Set: A description of this data set can be entered in this text box.
This is the code that SHAKE2000 will use to identify this data set as input data option for subsequent operations,
such as creating an input file. This information is not used by SEISRISK III.
Line 1s:
num, yrnoc, iprint, totl, dumid, als, bls, sigls
num = 0 for seismic source areas if no averaging for earthquake location uncertainty is to be done at end
of ground motion computations for this source zone
num = 98 for seismic source zones if averaging for earthquake location uncertainty is to be done at end of
computations for this source zone.
yrnoc = number of years over which the earthquake occurrences take place
irpint = -1 no statistics for this (intermediate) set of occurrences
= 1 statistical calculations and printout
= 2 same as 1 plus summary file for plot, etc.
= 3 omit printout; do summary file for plot
totl
ignored here but used for faults
dumid = four character identifier for source zone
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 208
als
= earthquake location uncertainty standard deviation in km; current value of als is ignored when
num=0
bls
ignored here but used for faults
sigls
ignored here but used for faults
Line 2s:
jseg, ifr, itot
jseg
ifr
itot
= number of pairs of quadrilateral corner points in this source set (jseg-1 quads).
seismicity to be apportioned by fractional area among itot sources
= set number (ifr = 1,2 …. itot in sequence)
= 10 max; total quad pairs for itot sources maximum 50
Line 3s:
jseg quadrilateral endpoint lines (two points per line): quad corner points (left long, left lat), (right long, right lat), in
decimal degrees (if dsw = 0) or degrees, minutes (if dsw = 1)
x1,y1 _________ x2,y2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
x3,y3 _________ x4,y4
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1________1
x5,y5
x6,y6
jseg = 3 in this example: quad endpoint pairs are:
(x1,y1) --- (x2,y2)
(x3,y3) --- (x4,y4)
(x5,y5) --- (x6,y6)
subregions of a set are defined as shown
subregions of one set are separate from those of other sets
repeat 2s, 3s, for itot sources
Line 4s:
noc(l) l = 1, lev
(lev = 12 maximum)
number of events expected in yrnoc years in each magnitude interval for earthquake occurrences
Line 5s:
fm(l)
l = 1, lev
fm(l) = center of magnitude interval for which noc(l) occur
Repeat 1s thru 5s for remaining sources.
After entering the data, click on the Ok command button to return to the SEISRISK III pre & postprocessor form.
To return to the pre & postprocessor form without accepting the changes made to the data in this form, click on the
Cancel command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 209
Settlement Analysis
This form is used to enter the data necessary to estimate the settlement in the soil column due to earthquake shaking.
Before using this form, you should perform a liquefaction analysis for the same soil column with either the Cyclic
Resistance Ratio using SPT, CPT, or Vs form. The input data used in the liquefaction analysis (i.e. N 1, 60,cs, CSR)
and the results (e.g. factor of safety against liquefaction) are used together with the equivalent uniform shear strain
to do the settlement analysis.
The equivalent uniform shear strain is taken as 65% of the peak cyclic shear strain computed with SHAKE. When
using the simplified equation by Seed & Idriss to compute the CSR, the shear strain developed by the ground motion
is estimated using the procedure recommended by Tokimatsu and Seed (1987). In this case, G max is approximated
with Equation No. 6 described in the Shear Moduli Equations section of this manual, assuming a value of 0.5 for
K o.
Four options are given to estimate the settlement for saturated sands: Ishihara & Yoshimine (1992) (Kramer,
1996); Tokimatsu & Seed (1987) (Tokimatsu and Seed, 1987); Wu, J. (2003) (Seed et al., 2003); and, Zhang,
Robertson & Brachman (2002) (Zhang et al., 2002). If the CSR analysis for the evaluation of liquefaction
potential using SPT is conducted using the Cetin & Seed (2000) option for the calculation of the stress reduction
factor, rd, then the only option enabled to calculate settlement of saturated sands will be Wu, J. (2003). When you
select a different option, the settlement will be recalculated and the results shown in their respective text boxes. For
dry sands, the method by Tokimatsu and Seed (1987) is used in SHAKE2000. The Zhang, Robertson &
Brachman (2002) option is only enabled when performing settlement analysis using CPT data and the Robertson &
Wride method of CRR analysis.
Settlement analysis can be performed using Standard Penetration Test (SPT), Cone Penetration Test (CPT) or Shear
Wave Velocity (Vs) data. To use SPT, CPT or Vs data, click on the respective Input data from CRR analysis
using option.
For the analysis, the soil column is divided in layers. Each layer is then represented by its depth, N value, and
thickness. If the depth to the N value is less than the depth to the water table, the layer is assumed to be dry and the
corresponding chart for dry sands (Figure 13 of Tokimatsu and Seed, 1987) is used to obtain the volumetric strain.
The N value is shown in red for unsaturated soil layers. If the soil layer depth is greater than the depth to the water
table, the chart for saturated sands (Figure 9 of Tokimatsu and Seed, 1987) is used, and the N value is shown in blue.
Further, for the Tokimatsu & Seed approach, if the factor of safety against liquefaction is greater than 1 but less than
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 210
or equal to 1.22, the post-earthquake volumetric strains are estimated based on the normalized stress ratio (Figure 8
of Tokimatsu and Seed, 1987). In this case, the user needs to enter the type of soil as either loose or dense sand. By
default, SHAKE2000 assumes that for N1, 60,cs values greater than 15, the soil is dense, and loose otherwise. For
unsaturated layers, values of equivalent cyclic shear strain are shown on the Ecyc column. For saturated layers,
values of cyclic shear stress ratio are shown on the CSR column, and the Ecyc column is left blank.
By default, SHAKE2000 will estimate the thickness of the layers based on the position of the test values. A layer
interface will be set at the midpoint between two test values. Another layer interface will also be set at the depth of
the ground water table. The thickness for these layers will be different than the ones set for in the simplified cyclic
stress ratio analysis form, or as read from Option 2 from the first SHAKE output file.
For unsaturated layers, the volumetric strains for earthquake magnitudes other than 7.5 are obtained by multiplying
the strain by the correction factors recommended by Tokimatsu and Seed (Table 1 of Tokimatsu and Seed, 1987).
This factor is automatically estimated by SHAKE2000 when the data for the liquefaction analysis are entered.
Further, the volumetric strains are doubled to account for multidirectional shaking.
For saturated layers, the cyclic stress ratio for an earthquake magnitude of 7.5 is obtained by multiplying the CSR
from the SHAKE, or simplified Seed & Idriss analysis, times the inverse of the magnitude scaling factor used in the
liquefaction analysis. Then, the volumetric strain is obtained from the chart (Figure 13 of Tokimatsu and Seed
(1987) or Figure 9.54 of Kramer (1996) for the Ishihara & Yoshimine approach), and shown on the Evol column.
Finally, the settlement for each layer is obtained as the product of the volumetric strain and the thickness of the
layer. The total settlement for the column is shown on the Total Settlement cell.
The results can be saved on an ASCII file using the Save command button. The file uses the *.STL extension by
default. To plot the total settlement curve, click on the Plot command button. This button is enabled after thickness
data for all of the layers are entered, and only when you are performing the settlement analysis using the Simplified
Seed & Idriss approach for CRR. Use the Print button to send a copy of the table of results to the printer.
Notes:







For some layers, the settlement is not calculated, and some other information is shown on the Settlement
column. This information is either NFSL (meaning that a factor of safety against liquefaction could not be
computed during the liquefaction analysis); or FSL > 1.22 (meaning that the factor of safety computed
during liquefaction is greater than 1.22 and the post-earthquake volume changes are small).
The procedure used by SHAKE2000 applies to either saturated or unsaturated sand deposits. For any other
kind of soil types, the settlement of the corresponding layers should not be computed with this procedure.
Accordingly, the CRR value in the CRR form should be deleted to indicate that the point should not be
considered in the computation of settlement.
You can also perform a settlement analysis for a soil column of unsaturated soil; however, you still need to
use the Cyclic Resistance Ratio forms to enter the SPT, CPT or Vs data for the column, and make sure
that the depth to the water table is greater than the depth to the bottom layer of the soil column.
The depth to the water table is used as the boundary between saturated and unsaturated soils. Thus, it is
recommended that this depth also correspond to the boundary between two soil layers.
For the settlement analysis using the Tokimatsu & Seed method, the program uses the equivalent clean
sand penetration resistance value, N1, 60cs, for saturated and dry sands.
In the Ishihara & Yoshimine approach, the program uses an equivalent N 1,J value that corresponds to an N1
value obtained with standard Japanese SPT procedures. This N1,J value is obtained as the product of the
N1,60cs times 0.833. This conversion is recommended due to “…Japanese SPT procedures typically
transmit 20% more energy to the SPT sampler, hence N1  0.833(N1) 60” (Kramer, 1996). However, when
using CPT data, the program uses the corrected cone tip resistance value.
When the depth to the middle of the bottom layer is less than the depth to the groundwater, the Ishihara &
Yoshimine (1992) option is disabled.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 211
Shear Moduli Equations
This section presents a number of equations that can be used to estimate the maximum-dynamic shear modulus for a
soil type, or a layer of the soil profile. The reference for each equation is given, and the user is solely responsible
for verifying that the equations are appropriate for his/her particular problem, and that the coefficients required for
each equation are entered in the appropriate units. For each equation, the dimensions of the G max result will be
transformed to ksf or kN/m2 for use in SHAKE2000.
To compute the shear modulus, select the equation number from the list in the following pages, and enter it in the
Eq. No. text box next to the soil type or layer number. When computing the modulus, if an equation number was
used for a specific soil layer, this has precedence over an equation number used for the layer's soil type. For
example, soil layer 1 (usually the surface layer) has a soil type 3. When setting the equation number, layer 1 is
assigned an equation number of 1, and soil type 3 is assigned an equation number of 2. SHAKE2000 will use
equation number 1 to compute the modulus for layer 1. You don't need to specify an equation number for each soil
type and/or every soil layer. SHAKE2000 will not modify the shear moduli values you entered in the Option 2 edit
form if an equation is not specified.
The coefficients for the equations used can be saved in an ASCII file by using the Save command button. The save
file dialog box will be displayed, requesting that you enter the name of the file and the directory path where the file
is to be stored. It is recommended that you use the *.GMX extension. The Open command button is used to open
an existing file that stores the coefficients for the equations. Files of type *.GMX are automatically shown on the
File Name section. To open a file, highlight the file's name and then click on the Ok button, or double click on the
file's name.
The Layers command button is used to switch between soil type and profile layers. By default, every time this form
is displayed, it is set to enter data for the soil types. This button changes to Soil when the form is set to accept data
for the profile layers instead.
As required by SHAKE2000, the unit weights entered in Option 2 are total unit weights. Thus, to obtain the
effective vertical stress we need total unit weights and the depth to the water table. To specify the depth to the water
table from the surface of the ground, click on the check box next to the Enter depth to water Table label. Use the
Tab key or the mouse to place the cursor on the text box next to this label, and enter the depth. If you click on the
check box but do not enter a value, then a value of 0.0 feet or meters will be used for the depth, i.e. the water table is
at the surface. If the water table check box is not selected, then SHAKE2000 assumes that a water table is not being
used in the calculation of effective stresses, i.e. the soil column is unsaturated.
Once you have entered the coefficients for the equations, click on the Return command button to return to the
Option 2 Edit form. To compute the shear moduli, click on the Gmax command button. The computed shear
moduli will be displayed on the Shear Moduli column. Before computing the shear moduli, you need to enter all of
the data used to define the soil profile, i.e., the soil type, thickness, unit weights, and shear wave velocity, if needed.
SHAKE2000 will compute the effective vertical stress to the mid point of the soil layer, using the thickness, unit
weights of the layers above each layer, and the depth to water table entered in the bottom frame of this form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 212
To display the rows for the following soil types, or layers, use the scroll bar. The bar is disabled when entering data
in any of the text boxes, but it is enabled when the cursor is moved out of the box.
For example, to compute the maximum shear moduli for those layers having a soil type 2, use equation number 1;
and for the half space layer, say layer no. 30, use equation number 2. Click on the GmaxEq button to open the
Shear Moduli Equations form. Place the cursor on the Eq. No. column for soil no. 2. Type in a 1, and then use
the Tab key to move to the K2max column. Equation 1 uses as variables K2max, the effective vertical stress, and Ko.
Thus, you need to enter the values for K2max and Ko. SHAKE2000 will calculate the vertical stress based on the unit
weights and layer thickness entered in the form for Option 2. Enter the value for K2max, and then use the Tab key
again to move to the Ko column. Type in the value for Ko. Click on the Layers button to switch to the layer's form.
Click on the Next command button until layer 30 is shown on the Layers column. Place the cursor on the Eq. No.
column and type a 2. Click on the check box next to the Enter depth to water Table label, and then move the
cursor to the text box next to it. Enter a value for the depth to the water table. To compute the maximum shear
moduli, click on the Return button to return control to the Option 2 form. Click on the Gmax button. You will be
asked if you wish to continue with the calculation of the maximum shear moduli. Click on Yes. The maximum
shear moduli for those layers having a soil type no. 2 and for the half space layer will be computed and shown on the
Shear Moduli column.
Please note that Equation 2 does not need any additional variables. It uses the shear wave velocity and unit weight
that you should enter on the form for Option 2.
The equations available in SHAKE2000 to estimate G max are:
Equation No. 1:
where:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 2:
Gmax
=
1000 K 2 max  m 
Gmax
K2max
m
=
=
=
maximum shear modulus
maximum soil modulus coefficient
effective mean principle stress
m
=
 1 2K o  '

 v
 3 
Ko
=
at-rest earth pressure coefficient
'v
=
effective vertical stress
K2max, Ko, 'v
Seed, H.B.; Wong, R.T.; Idriss, I.M. and Tokimatsu, K. (1986).
Gmax
where:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 3:
where:
Variables:
Reference:
1/ 2
=
 
2
  Vs 
g
Gmax
=
maximum shear modulus

=
soil unit weight
g
=
acceleration of gravity
Vs
=
shear wave velocity
, Vs (data for these variables are entered in the Option 2 form).
Seed, H.B.; Wong, R.T.; Idriss, I.M. and Tokimatsu, K. (1986).
Gmax
=
65 N
Gmax
=
maximum shear modulus
N
=
N-value measured in SPT test
N
Seed, H.B.; Idriss, I.M. and Arango, I. (1983).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 213
Equation No. 4:
Gmax
where:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 5:
where:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 6:
where:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 7:
where:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 8:
where:
=
2000 S u
Gmax
=
maximum shear modulus
Su
=
undrained shear strength
Su (in lb/ft2 for English units; or, in kN/m2 for SI units).
Seed, H.B. and Idriss, I.M. (1970); Egan, J.A. and Ebeling, R.M. (1985).
Gmax
=
Gmax
N60
=
=

1000 35 N 60 
0.34
  
' 0.4
v
maximum shear modulus
N-value measured in SPT test delivering 60% of the
theoretical free fall energy of the drill rod
effective vertical stress
'v
=
N60, 'v
Seed, H.B.; Wong, R.T.; Idriss, I.M. and Tokimatsu, K. (1986).
Gmax
=
Gmax
N1,60
=
=
m
=
m
=

1000 20 N1,60 
1/ 3
  
1/ 2
m
maximum shear modulus
N-value measured in SPT test delivering 60% of the
theoretical free fall energy of the drill rod, and corrected for
an effective overburden pressure of 1 ton/square foot
effective mean principle stress
 1 2K o  '

 v
 3 
Ko
=
at-rest earth pressure coefficient
'v
=
effective vertical stress
N1, 60, Ko, 'v
Seed, H.B.; Wong, R.T.; Idriss, I.M. and Tokimatsu, K. (1986).
Gmax
=
 2630 
2
1/ 2

 2.17  e   m 
 1 e 
Gmax
e
m
=
=
=
maximum shear modulus for round-grained sands
void ratio
average effective confining pressure
m
=
 1 2K o  '

 v
 3 
Ko
=
at-rest earth pressure coefficient
'v
=
effective vertical stress
e, Ko, 'v
Das, B.M. (1993).
Gmax
=
1230 
2
1/ 2

 2.97  e   m 
 1 e 
Gmax
e
m
=
=
=
maximum shear modulus, for angular-grained sands
void ratio
average effective confining pressure
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 214
m
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 9:
where:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 10:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 11:
Variables:
Reference:
Equation No. 12:
Gmax
=
Gmax
e
OCR
k
=
=
=
=
m
=
m
=
1230 
2
k
1/ 2

 2.97  e  OCR  m 
 1 e 
maximum shear modulus for clays of moderate sensitivity
void ratio
overconsolidation ratio
a parameter related to the plasticity index (PI)
PI (%)
k
0
0
20
0.18
40
0.30
60
0.41
80
0.48
100
0.5
average effective confining pressure
 1 2K o  '

 v
 3 
Ko
=
at-rest earth pressure coefficient
'v
=
effective vertical stress
e, OCR, k, Ko, 'v
Das, B.M. (1993).
=
1634 qc 
0.25
 
' 0.375
v
Gmax
=
maximum shear modulus for quartz sand.
qc
=
CPT tip resistance
'v
=
effective vertical stress
qc, 'v (qc should be provided in MPa for either English or SI units).
Kramer, S.L. (1996).
Gmax
where:
 1 2K o  '

 v
 3 
Ko
=
at-rest earth pressure coefficient
'v
=
effective vertical stress
e, Ko, 'v
Das, B.M. (1993).
Gmax
where:
=
=
406 qc 
0.695
e 1.13
Gmax
=
maximum shear modulus for clay
qc
=
CPT tip resistance
e
=
void ratio
qc, e (qc should be provided in MPa for both English or SI units).
Kramer, S.L. (1996).
Gmax
=
 Ge  e 0.5%

 v



SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 215
where:
 Ge  e 0.5%

=



Equivalent Shear Moduli for Geomembrane:
HDPE/clay (dry)
HDPE/clay (wet)
Textured HDPE/clay (dry)
HDPE/geogrid
HDPE/Gundseal
HDPE/geotextile
HDPE/Ottawa sand
PVC/Gundseal
PVC/geotextile
v
=
(Above values from Table 1 of Yegian et al., 1998). Enter the
value for the Equivalent Shear Moduli in the Geqv column of
the Shear Moduli Equations form. The Normalized
Equivalent Shear Modulus and Equivalent Damping Ratio
Curves for Geomembranes are included in the shakey2k.mat
file.
Overburden pressure at the elevation of the liner
 Ge  e 0.5%





Variables:
v,
Reference:
Yegian, M.K.; Harb, J.N. and Kadakal, U. (1998).
Equation No. 13:
Gmax
where:
Variables:
Reference:
47
63
58
43
35
36
52
58
57
=
325 N 60 
0.68
Gmax
=
maximum shear modulus
N60
=
Measured N-value, corrected for hammer efficiency of 60%
N60
Imai, T. and Tonouchi, K. (1982).
In SHAKE2000, the input data for each equation is converted to the appropriate system of units, and the result for
Gmax is also converted if necessary. If you would like to use any of the above equations separately, please review the
corresponding references for more detailed information on the data and units required for each equation.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 216
Simplified Cyclic Stress Ratio Analysis
This form is used to evaluate the Cyclic Stress Ratio (CSR) induced by an earthquake, using the simplified equation
proposed by Seed and Idriss (1971):
CSR  0.65a max
Where: amax =
vo =
'o =
rd =
 vo
rd
 o'
peak horizontal acceleration at ground surface generated by the earthquake (in g's).
total vertical overburden stress.
effective vertical overburden stress.
stress reduction factor.
Four options to estimate the stress reduction factor are provided. The Seed & Idriss (1971) option uses the equation
provided in Youd and Idriss (1997):
rd 
1  0.4113z 0.5  0.04052 z  0.001753z 1.5
1  0.4177 z 0.5  0.05729 z  0.006205z 1.5  0.00121z 2
An improved graph of rd vs. depth has been recently proposed by Cetin and Seed (2000, 2004) and can be selected
by clicking on the Cetin & Seed (2000) option. This option uses the relation presented by Moss et al. (2006). The
third option for rd uses the equation provided by Cetin et al. (2004) for calculation of rd as a function of depth,
magnitude (Mw), peak ground surface acceleration (a max), and the average shear wave velocity over the top 40 feet
(or 12 meters) of a site (Vs,40‟). To use this equation, first click on the Cetin & Seed (2000) radio button and on the
check box for the Cetin & Seed (rd) – Vs top 40 feet (fps) (or 12 m (m/s)) to select them. Then, enter values for
Mw and Vs,40‟ in their respective text boxes. Please note that this equation for rd is only used when both the radio
button for the Cetin & Seed (2000) option and the check box for the Cetin & Seed (rd) – Vs top 40 feet (fps) (or
12 m (m/s)) are selected.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 217
A fourth option for rd, Idriss (1999), uses the equations provided by Idriss, I.M. (Idriss, I.M., 1999; Idriss &
Boulanger, 2004, 2006, 2008) based on moment magnitude. For this option, you need to enter a value for
magnitude in the text box next to the Magnitude label. When using this rd option, the earthquake magnitude entered
in the Magnitude text box will be used in the CRR analysis using SPT, CPT or Vs data. Further, the user will not be
able to change the magnitude value in the SPT, CPT or Vs forms.
For depths greater than 100 feet (30.5 meters), the value of rd will be set to 0.5 when using the Seed & Idriss
option. To conform to the method applied in the computation of CRR, the rd options are enabled/disabled based on
the data used (i.e. SPT, CPT or Vs).
The analysis is performed for a soil column formed by layers. Each layer is represented by its thickness (in feet or
meters), and the total unit weight of the soil (in lbs/ft3 or kN/m3). To perform the analysis, the user needs to enter
values for amax, depth to water table, and the thickness and unit weight for the different layers that form the soil
column. SHAKE2000 will compute the CSR at the midpoint of the soil layer and show it on the CSR column.
A default value of 62.4 lb/ft3 or 9.81 kN/m3 for the unit weight of water is used. If you would like to use a different
value, enter the new unit weight in the Unit Weight of Water text box.
First, enter information regarding the analysis you will be conducting. When first displaying the form, the cursor is
placed on the Project text box. Enter a description for the project, up to 60 characters, and press the Tab key to
move the cursor to the Profile text box. Type in a brief (up to 24 characters) description for the soil column. Press
the Tab key or move the cursor to the Project Number text box and enter up to 24 characters for the number of your
project, if any. Place the cursor on the Earthquake text box and type in a description of the earthquake record you
are using for the analysis, if any. Some of this information is automatically entered by SHAKE2000 if you are using
this form together with a SHAKE2000 analysis.
Place the cursor on the Peak Ground Acceleration (g’s) text box and enter a value for the peak horizontal
acceleration at ground surface generated by the earthquake (in g's; e.g. 0.25). This value can also be estimated using
the attenuation relations included with SHAKE2000. To do this, click on the PGA command button to display the
Ground Motion Attenuation Relations form. Select an attenuation relation, enter the values for magnitude, depth,
and select other options for the attenuation relation. Then click on the Plot command button of the form to display
the acceleration attenuation curve. Once the curve is plotted, click on the symbol for the distance of interest (or the
closest distance value) to display the values in the X Y cells of the graphics window. Then click on the Close
command button to return to the attenuation relations form, and then on Ok to return to this form. The value for the
peak ground acceleration will be displayed in the text box. Please note that this value of PGA may need to be
corrected to represent the value at your site. For example, most attenuation relations provide values of PGA for rock
outcrops. Thus, it would be necessary to modify this value to obtain the PGA for a soil site.
When conducting analyses using SPT data, a surcharge or approach fill can be added on top of the soil column by
entering its value in the Overburden Pressure text box. This overburden load will not be considered when
conducting analyses using CPT or VS data. The increase in overburden pressure will be accounted for in the
computation of CSR and CRR. However, as recommended in the ATC/MCEER (2003) the normalization of the
SPT data will be done considering only the effective stress profile that existed at the time the test was conducted. In
other words, the increase in overburden pressure created by the fill will not be considered when normalizing the SPT
data.
Next, press the Tab key to move the cursor to the Depth to groundwater text box, and enter the depth to the water
table (in feet or meters). SHAKE2000 uses this depth to compute the effective vertical stress at the midpoint of the
soil layer. In order to use a common depth to the water table when conducting different analyses simultaneously
(e.g. SPT and CPT), the depth to water table can only be changed either on this form or on the Calculated Results
Plot Menu form.
Move the cursor to the first blank cell of the Thickness column. As noted, the analysis is conducted for a soil
column divided in layers. Enter the thickness (in feet or meters) for the layer and press the Tab key to move the
cursor to the Unit Weight text box. Values of depth, stress radio, rd, and CSR for a point at the middle of the soil
layer will be computed and shown in their respective columns. The stress ratio value is the ratio of the total vertical
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 218
overburden stress to the effective vertical overburden stress. Enter the value for the total unit weight for the soil in
this layer. Although values of unit weight less than the unit weight of water are accepted by the program, the user
should be aware that this may result in negative CSR values below the groundwater elevation which may not be
realistic. The values for stress ratio and CSR will be recalculated and updated. After you have entered all the data
necessary, click on the Plot command button to display the CSR curve.
Each time you place the cursor on either the Thickness or Unit Weight column the Add and Delete command
buttons are enabled. If you want to add data for a layer, place the cursor on the layer where the new layer will be
located, and click on the Add button. A new layer will be created, and the thickness and unit weight for the new
layer will be the same as those for the layer immediately below. Values for depth, stress ratio, rd, and CSR will be
calculated and shown in their respective columns. Now, you need to modify the values for thickness and unit weight
for the new layer. The Delete button is used to delete a layer from the soil column. Place the cursor on either the
Thickness or Unit Weight column and then click on the Delete button. The data for the layer will be removed from
the soil column, and the values for the other layers updated accordingly.
Cyclic resistance ratio (CRR) values, or the capacity of the soil to resist liquefaction, can be computed using
standard penetration test (SPT), Becker penetration test (BPT), cone penetration test (CPT), or shear wave velocity
(Vs) data.
To use SPT or BPT data, first click on the SPT - BPT option. Then click on the CRR command button to display
the Cyclic Resistance Ratio using SPT form. Please refer to the Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Standard
Penetration Test (SPT) Data section of this manual for further information. Updated correlations for the
evaluation of liquefaction using SPT data have been recently presented by Cetin et al. (1999, 2004) and Seed et al.
(2001, 2003). This updated approach also includes a probabilistic evaluation of liquefaction. This alternative
approach can be used to evaluate liquefaction potential by first clicking on the Probabilistic check box to select it.
Further information on this approach is included in the Probabilistic and Deterministic Liquefaction Analysis
Using SPT section of this manual. Please note that when using this approach, the Cetin & Seed (2000) option for rd
is selected by default. This is to conform to the methodology presented in the references.
If a standard liquefaction analysis using SPT or BPT data has been conducted and if you select the probabilistic
option, then the option to plot the results from the SPT/BPT analysis will be deselected. You will then need to
conduct the SPT/BPT analysis again if you either plan to use the probabilistic approach or the more traditional
method. For this reason, it is important that you save the data for the SPT/BPT analysis using the Save feature on
the SPT form. Further, the Idriss (1999) option for calculation of rd is disabled when conducting a CRR analysis.
This is to conform to the methodology recommended in the references.
Selection of the Cone Penetration Test option will display the Cyclic Resistance Ratio using CPT form used to
estimate the cyclic resistance ratio, or the capacity of the soil to resist liquefaction, based on cone penetration test
data. Please refer to the Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Cone Penetration Test (CPT) Data section of this manual
for further information. When using CPT data you may or may not enter data for the simplified CSR, i.e. the data in
this form. If you don‟t enter data for the simplified CSR, then upon returning to this form from the CPT form a CSR
analysis will be conducted by using the layers created with depth averaging of the CPT data, or by creating a layer
between two CPT points. To compute the probability of liquefaction using CPT, click on the Probabilistic check
box to select this option.
To conduct a liquefaction analysis using Vs data, click on the Shear Wave Velocity option to select it, and then on
the CRR command button to display the Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Shear Wave Velocity form. Please refer
to the Cyclic Resistance Ratio using Shear Wave Velocity (Vs) Data section of this manual for further
information. To compute the probability of liquefaction using V s, click on the Probabilistic check box to select this
option.
The Plot Options are enabled and automatically selected after their respective analyses have been conducted. If you
don‟t want to plot the CRR curve together with the CSR curve, then deselect the corresponding option by clicking
on the check box.
The Settlement command button is enabled after you have performed the CRR analysis. This button will open the
Settlement Analysis form used to enter the data necessary to estimate the settlement in the soil column due to
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 219
earthquake shaking. The input data used in the liquefaction analysis (i.e. N 1, 60, CSR) and the results (e.g. factor of
safety against liquefaction) are used to do the settlement analysis. You can also perform a settlement analysis for a
soil column of dry soil; however you still need to use the Cyclic Resistance Ratio forms to enter the SPT, BPT,
CPT or Vs data for the column, and make sure that the depth to the water table is greater than the depth to the bottom
layer of the soil column.
The Print command button is used to print the results of the cyclic stress ratio analysis as a table. When you click
on the command button, the Print Menu form is displayed. For the different print options, see the Print Menu
section of the User's Manual.
The results for the cyclic stress ratio analysis can be saved on an ASCII file using the Save command button. The
file uses the *.CSR extension by default. The Open command button can be used to retrieve these data from the
file.
A plot of CSR vs. depth can be obtained by clicking on the Plot command button. If any of the Plot Options is
selected, then this curve will also be plotted. The curve of factor of safety vs. depth can be plotted by clicking on
the FSL command button of the main graphics window.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 220
Soil Profile Information
This form is used to enter information to create a soil column that will be displayed with the data input and the
results of the liquefaction analysis using SPT, BPT, CPT or V s data. The soil column is made up of layers, and for
each layer, you need to enter the depth to the bottom of the layer and a description for the soil type on the layer.
You can enter data for up to 50 different layers.
To enter the data, first place the cursor on the text box for the Depth to Layer Bottom column and type in the depth
to the bottom of the layer (e.g. 10.5). Next, press the Tab key once to move the cursor to the text box for the Soil
Type column and type in a short (up to 24 characters) description of the soil that forms the layer (e.g. Silty Sand
with Gravel). Move the cursor to the text box for the Soil Description column and enter a longer description for the
soil in the layer (e.g. Brown, loose to medium dense, wet, some organics, etc.). Depending on the space allowed for
printing on each layer, SHAKE2000 will display first the information entered in the Soil Type column, and then
display the information entered in the Soil Description column. If there is not enough space to display the
information (i.e. the space is even smaller than the font size used for the text), then no information will be shown.
After you have entered the information for each layer, click on the Save command button to save the information on
an ASCII text file. You can retrieve the information for future use with the Open command button. To return to the
previous form, click on the Ok command button.
Each time you place the cursor on the Depth, Soil Type or Soil Description column the Add and Delete command
buttons are enabled. If you want to add data for a layer, place the cursor on the layer where the new layer will be
located, and click on the Add button. A new layer will be created, and the depth, type and description for the new
layer will be the same as those for the layer immediately below. Now, you need to modify the information for the
depth, type and description for the new layer. The Delete button is used to delete a layer from the soil column.
Place the cursor on the Depth, Soil Type or Soil Description column and then click on the Delete button. The data
for the layer will be removed from the soil column, and the information for the other layers updated accordingly.
The Reset command button will delete the information for all of the soil layers.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 221
SPT from Becker Penetration Test (BPT) Data
This form is used to estimate equivalent SPT N60 values given Becker Penetration Test (BPT) blow counts using
either the correlation proposed by L. F. Harder (Youd et al., 1997, 2001) or by A. Sy and R.G. Campanella (Sy and
Campanella, 1994). These data can then be used to conduct a liquefaction analysis based on SPT values as
described in the Cyclic Resistance Ration using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Data section of this manual.
To use this form, first select a correlation between SPT and BPT by clicking on one of the BPT-SPT correlations
options. The Harder (1997) option uses the correlation originally developed by Harder and Seed (Harder and Seed,
1986) and later updated by Harder (Harder, L.F. as edited in Youd et al., 1997) with data from additional tests. This
correlation uses Becker blow count corrected to a reference combustion condition, N BC, obtained from the chart of
measured BPT blow count vs. Bounce Chamber Pressure (see Figure 2 of Sy and Campanella, 1994; or, Figure 4,
pp. 143 of Youd, et al., 1997). Accordingly, the BPT value used in this form for the Harder (1997) option is the
corrected BPT blow count obtained from the field measured BPT and Bounce Chamber Pressure chart.
The second option, Sy (1993), uses the correlation between BPT and SPT presented in Sy and Campanella (1994).
This correlation is based on BPT blow counts normalized to a 30% reference energy level, N b30, and total shaft
resistance, Rs. The normalized blow count is obtained from:
N b30  N b
Where,
ENTHRU
30
Nb
= measured BPT blow count
ENTHRU = measured maximum transferred energy expressed as percentage of the rated hammer
energy of 11.0 kJ.
After selecting a BPT-SPT correlation, place the cursor on the text box for the Depth column and enter the depth at
which the BPT was measured (in feet or meters). Press the Tab key once and enter the blow count value in the BPT
column. As noted before, the blow count value for the Harder (1997) option is the BPT blow count corrected to a
reference combustion condition; and, for the Sy (1993) option, the value used is the measured BPT blow count, Nb.
Press the Tab key to move the cursor to the next data column. If using the Harder (1997) option, the cursor will be
placed on the next depth text box and the equivalent corrected SPT blow count value shown in the N60 text box. For
the Sy (1993) option, the cursor will be placed on the ENTHRU text box. Enter the value for ENTHRU and press
the Tab key to place the cursor on the Rs text box. In this box enter the value for the total shaft resistance in kips or
kN, and press the Tab key to move the cursor to enter the data for the next BPT blow count.
After entering the data for the BPT blow counts, click on the Ok command button to return to the Cyclic Resistance
Ration using Standard Penetration Test (SPT) Data form.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 222
Stress/Strain Time History Plot Menu
A list of the different plots is displayed on this window. To select a plot, click on it, and then click on the Ok
button. Alternatively, you can double click on the plot. The Cancel button is used to return to the graph window
without choosing a plot.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 223
Summary of Results of First Output File
This form displays the main results obtained from processing the first output file generated by SHAKE. The results
are stored in the *.GRF file in the output directory.
The results are grouped in sets called Analysis, and given a number according to the sequential order they had in the
output file. Summary information on the different options that form each analysis group, is saved in an ASCII file
identified with the *.ANZ extension, and saved in the same directory as the other output files.
If more than one analysis was conducted, then the Next button will be enabled. Click on this button to display the
results of the following analyses.
The results can be sent to the printer by using the Print command button. The Print Menu form will be displayed.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 224
Target/User Defined Response Spectrum
This form is used to enter either the target response spectrum values for a user-defined spectrum that can be plotted
together with other spectra or spectra values used with the Ratio of Response Spectrum analysis. You need to enter
a value for the period in seconds, and a value for the spectra values in the appropriate dimensions.
To enter the data, first place the cursor on the text box for the Period column and type in the value. Next, press the
Tab key once to move the cursor to the text box for the PSV, Sa or Spectral Value column and type in the value for
the spectra.
An alternative way of entering the data is to use one of the standard spectra available in SHAKE2000. The form
used to define one of the standard spectra can be displayed by clicking on the Attenuate, EuroCode, IBC, or
NEHRP command button. For example, clicking on the Attenuate command button will display the Ground
Motion Attenuation Relations form. In this form, select one attenuation relation, enter the parameters or select the
options used by the attenuation relation, and then click on the Plot command button. You need to plot the spectra to
calculate the values. This also helps you determine if the spectrum is the one you want to use. After plotting the
spectra, click on the Ok command button to return to this form. The periods and spectra values will be shown on
the data cells of the form. A description of the spectrum will be shown on the text box below the Target Response
Spectrum label. This description can be modified/entered manually by placing the cursor in the text box and typing
in the desired information. After you have entered the information for each period-spectra pair, click on the Ok
command button to return to the previous form.
Each time you place the cursor on either the period or spectral value columns the Add and Delete command buttons
are enabled. If you want to add data for a new period-spectra pair, place the cursor on the period where the new
values will be located, and click on the Add button. A new period-spectra pair will be created, and the values for
the new pair will be the same as those for the pair immediately below. Now, you need to modify the information for
the period and spectral value. The Delete button is used to delete a pair from the table. Place the cursor on the
period or spectral value column and then click on the Delete button. The data for the pair will be removed from the
table, and the information for the other pairs updated accordingly. The Reset command button will delete all the
information on the table. The Save command button is used to save the data in a text file for future use. These data
can be retrieved using the Open command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 225
UBC 1997 Response Spectra
This form is used to select design spectra using the 1997 Uniform Building Code (UBC) method (ICBO, 1997).
To select a spectrum, first, select a zone from the UBC Zone options to determine the zone factor (Z). Next, select
the spectra you would like to plot by clicking on the check boxes next to the different Soil Profile Type options.
Note that the Ok button is enabled when at least one site type is checked. Then, click on the Ok button to return to
the Response Spectrum Plot Menu form.
When you select the UBC Zone 4 option, the spectra will be computed using the seismic source selected in the
Seismic Source options, and the distance entered in the Distance (km) text box.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 226
U.S. Geological Survey Seismic Hazard
This form is used to retrieve the Peak Ground Acceleration from the files of gridded points used to make the
1996/1999 USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps (Frankel et al., 1996), the updates of some of these maps (Frankel
et al., 2002; U.S. Geological Survey, 2003a and 2003b; 2008, 2010); and also, to plot the results of the seismic
hazard deaggregation for a site in the Conterminous United States.
For more information, to view or to download these maps, visit the USGS web site at:
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/
The files used in SHAKE2000 are for PGA with 2%, 5%, or 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for the
Conterminous United States, Alaska, Hawaii and Puerto Rico. The original files are approximately 80 Mb in size.
For SHAKE2000, the files have been reprocessed and reduced to a more manageable size, and are installed in the
USGSmaps subdirectory. Please note that the program uses two sets of maps. The 2008 and 2010 maps are
included with the program for comparison purposes only; i.e., at this moment they should not be used for any other
purpose other than to compare the 2003 maps to the most recent maps. The issue year for the map used is shown
next to the (g‟s) unit‟s label. For the 2010 and WUS options, a VS,30 value can be selected from the down-list.
However, it is recommended to visit the USGS web site for the most recent information and values regarding the
hazard maps.
To obtain the PGA, enter the latitude and longitude of your site in degrees, minutes and seconds, and then select one
of the Region options, and any of the Probability of Exceedance options. There is no need to enter a negative sign
for the longitude. The values of PGA, Ss and S1 for each of the four points that surround your site are retrieved from
the files, and if necessary, the values interpolated between the four grid points. The values are displayed in the
corresponding text boxes.
The USGS interactive deaggregation website is located at:
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/research/hazmaps/interactive/
On this web site the seismic hazard deaggregation for a site in the Conterminous United States can be conducted.
The results of this analysis are provided graphically, and also as an ASCII file. The data on this text file are used by
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 227
SHAKE2000 to obtain a plot of the deaggregated distance, magnitude and ground-motion uncertainty for the
specified parameters.
Once the file is displayed, use the Save As command of the File menu option in your browser to save the file to your
hard drive. The file should be saved as a text file, thus, the Text File (*.txt) option should be shown on the Save as
type box of the file dialog form.
On the USGS Seismic Hazard form of SHAKE2000, click on the command button next to the Hazard Matrix text
box to display the USGS Hazard Matrix file dialog form. Switch to the folder where the file is saved, click on the
file to select it, and then click on the Open command button to retrieve the data.
After opening the file, some information about the site and the return period is shown on the respective text boxes.
Data for several SA frequencies are included in this file. A list of the available SA frequencies in the file is shown
by clicking on the down-arrow of the SA Frequency combo list; or, PGA list when using the 2008 deaggregation
results. When using the 2008 deaggregation results, the list will show the list of ground motion prediction equations
listed in the hazard matrix file. The options on the Epsilon Interval list are used to create plots for the different
hazard columns at each distance-magnitude (R, M) bin location. Once you have selected a frequency and epsilon
interval, click on the Plot command button to display the seismic hazard deaggregation graph.
For example, when using the Highest Eps option, the plot of the results from the 2008 deaggregation of PGA for all
of the ground motion prediction equations is shown below.
PSH Deaggregation - Lacey (122.775° W , 47.021° N) - USGS 2008
Eps>2
1<Eps<2
0<Eps<1
6%
5%
4%
3%
2%
1%
0%
0 km
50 km
10
Highest Eps-IntevalContribution
9
8
100 km
X: Source to Site Distance (km )
7
Y: % Contribution to Hazard
Z: Magnitude (Mw)
6
150 km 5
PGA = .5537 g for 2475 years - Mean Hazard w/all GMPEs
Please note that different colors are used for the graph bars. These colors represent the interval of epsilon (from the
hazard matrix file) that contributes the most to that pair. For example, a section of the results from the hazard matrix
file for the above graph are shown below.
*** Deaggregation of Seismic Hazard at One Period of Spectral Accel. ***
*** Data from U.S.G.S. National Seismic Hazards Mapping Project, 2008 version ***
PSHA Deaggregation. %contributions. site: Lacey long: 122.775 W., lat: 47.021 N.
Vs30(m/s)= 760.0 (some WUS atten. models use Site Class not Vs30).
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 228
NSHMP 2007-08 See USGS OFR 2008-1128. dM=0.2 below
Return period: 2475 yrs. Exceedance PGA =0.5537
g. Weight * Computed_Rate_Ex 0.403E-03
#Pr[at least one eq with median motion>=PGA in 50 yrs]=0.00011
#This deaggregation corresponds to Mean Hazard w/all GMPEs
DIST(KM) MAG(MW) ALL_EPS EPSILON>2 1<EPS<2 0<EPS<1 -1<EPS<0 -2<EPS<-1 EPS<-2
7.3
5.05
0.631
0.437
0.194
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
53.2
5.05
0.162
0.162
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
……
……
…..
…..
101.0
8.80
0.397
0.194
0.203
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
62.4
9.00
4.569
0.733
2.918
0.918
0.000
0.000
0.000
80.2
9.00
7.338
1.788
5.550
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
101.0
9.00
1.663
0.628
1.036
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
145.1
9.00
0.200
0.200
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
62.4
9.20
1.791
0.245
1.003
0.543
0.000
0.000
0.000
80.2
9.20
3.040
0.597
2.354
0.089
0.000
0.000
0.000
101.0
9.20
0.738
0.228
0.510
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
145.1
9.20
0.106
0.086
0.020
0.000
0.000
0.000
0.000
Summary statistics for above PSHA PGA deaggregation, R=distance, e=epsilon:
Contribution from this GMPE(%): 100.0
Mean src-site R=
52.4 km; M= 7.23; eps0=
1.52. Mean calculated for all sources.
Modal src-site R=
80.2 km; M= 9.00; eps0=
1.20 from peak (R,M) bin
MODE R*= 80.2km; M*= 9.00; EPS.INTERVAL: 1 to 2 sigma % CONTRIB.= 5.550
Modal-source dmetric: distance to rupture surface (Rrup or Rcd)
Principal sources (faults, subduction, random seismicity having > 3% contribution)
Source Category:
% contr. R(km)
M
epsilon0 (mean values).
Cascadia M8.3-M8.7 Floating
7.44
77.8
8.53
1.54
Cascadia Megathrust
23.04
77.8
9.02
1.15
WUS Compr crustal gridded
10.87
8.3
6.12
1.11
50-km Deep Intraplate
43.46
59.5
6.61
1.99
Puget Lowlands gridded
14.13
7.8
6.31
0.94
Individual fault hazard details if its contribution to mean hazard > 2%:
Fault ID
% contr.
Rcd(km) M
epsilon0 Site-to-src azimuth(d)
#*********End of deaggregation corresponding to Mean Hazard w/all GMPEs *********#
For this example, the pair with the highest epsilon-interval contribution corresponds to an Mw 9.0 event at a distance
of 80.2 km (highlighted in yellow). For this particular pair, the maximum contribution of 5.55 is for the 1<Eps<2
level (highlighted in light blue). Accordingly, for this pair a light blue color will be used when creating the graph.
The View command button can be used to view the contents of a hazard matrix file. The first lines of the file will be
displayed on a form, with the first characters displayed in red representing the numbers of each row of data in the
file followed by a “|”. These characters are not part of the file and are only shown to number the rows.
The Ok button will return you to the Main Menu form.
If any of the options is disabled or results for any of the parameters are not shown on the respective text box, this is
due to the maps for this option or for these parameters not being available from the USGS.
To display a USGS Seismic Hazard map, click on the appropriate frequency, probability or region option and then
click on the Map command button.
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 229
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 230
References
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Abrahamson, N.A. (1998). Non-stationary spectral matching program RSPMATCH. PG&E Internal Report,
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Abrahamson, N.A. and Shedlock, K.M. (1997). Overview. Seismological Research Letters, Volume 68, Number 1,
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Abrahamson, N.A. and Silva, W. (1996). Empirical Ground Motion Models. Report to Brookhaven National
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SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 231
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Conversion Factors
Length
To convert from
Inches (in)
Feet (ft)
Meters (m)
Area
To convert from
Square meters (m2)
Square feet (ft2)
Square centimeters (cm2)
Square inches (in2)
Volume
To convert from
Cubic centimeters (cm3)
Cubic meters (m3)
Cubic inches (in3)
Cubic feet (ft3)
Force
To convert from
Pounds (lb)
Kips
Tons (short) (T)
To
Feet
Centimeters
Meters
Inches
Centimeters
Meters
inches
feet
centimeters
Multiply by
0.083333
2.54
0.0254
12.0
30.48
0.3048
39.370079
3.2808399
100
To
Square feet
Square centimeters
Square inches
Square meters
Square centimeters
Square inches
Square meters
Square feet
Square inches
Square meters
Square feet
Square centimeters
Multiply by
10.76387
10000
1550.0031
0.09290304
929.0304
144
0.0001
0.001076387
0.1550031
0.00064516
0.0069444
6.4516
To
Cubic meters
Cubic feet
Cubic inches
Cubic feet
Cubic centimeters
Cubic inches
Cubic meters
Cubic feet
Cubic centimeters
Cubic meters
Cubic centimeters
Cubic inches
Multiply by
1 x 106
3.5314667 x 10-5
0.061023744
35.314667
1000000
61023.74
1.6387064 x 10-5
5.787037 x 10-4
16.387064
0.028316847
28316.847
1728
To
grams
kilograms
Tons (short)
kips
Newtons
Pounds
Tons (short)
kilograms
kilograms
pounds
Multiply by
453.59243
0.45359243
5 x 10-4
1 x 10-3
4.44822
1000
0.5
453.59243
907.18474
2000
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 249
Force (continues)
To convert from
Tons (short) (T)
Kilograms (kg)
Kilonewtons (kN)
Stress and Pressure
To convert from
Pounds/square foot (lb/ft2)
Pounds/square inch (lb/in2)
Tons (short)/square foot (T/ft2)
Kips/square foot (ksf)
Kilograms/square centimeter (kg/cm2)
Atmospheres
To
Kips
grams
pounds
Tons (short)
kips
newtons
pounds
Tons (short)
kips
kilograms
Multiply by
2
1000
2.2046223
11.023113 x 10-4
2.2046223 x 10-3
9.80665
224.81
0.1124
0.22481
101.97
To
Pounds/square inch
Kips/square foot
Kilograms/square centimeter
Tons/square meter
atmospheres
Kilonewtons/square meter (kilopascals)
Pounds/square foot
Kips/square foot
Kilograms/square centimeter
Tons/square meter
atmospheres
Kilonewtons/square meter
atmospheres
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square foot
Kips/square foot
Kilonewtons/square meter
Pounds/square inch
Pounds/square foot
Tons (short)/square foot
Kilograms/square centimeter
Kilonewtons/square meter
Pounds/square inch
Pounds square foot
Feet of water (4oC)
Kips/square foot
Tons/square meter
atmospheres
Kilonewtons/square meter
bars
Kilograms/square centimeter
Grams/square centimeter
Kilograms/square meter
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch
Tons (short)/square foot
Kilonewtons/square meter
Multiply by
0.0069445
1 x 10-3
0.000488243
0.004882
4.72541 x 10-4
0.04788
144
0.144
0.070307
0.70307
0.068046
95.76
0.945082
9764.86
13.8888
2000
2.0
95.76
6.94445
1000
0.5
0.488244
47.88
14.223
2048.1614
32.8093
2.0481614
10
0.96784
98.067
1.0133
1.03323
1033.23
10332.3
2116.22
14.696
1.0581
101.325
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 250
Stress and Pressure (continues)
To convert from
Kilonewtons/square meter (kPa)
Unit Weight
To convert from
Grams/cubic centimeter (g/cm3)
Kilograms/cubic meter (kg/m3)
Pounds/cubic inch (lb/in3)
Pounds/cubic foot (lb/ft3)
Kilonewtons/cubic meter (kN/m3)
Velocity
To convert from
Centimeter/second (cm/sec)
Feet/second (fps)
Meters/second (m/sec)
Feet/minute
To
Pounds/square foot
Pounds/square inch
Tons (short)/square foot
Meters of water
Kips/square foot
Kilograms/square centimeter
Bars
MegaPascals
atmospheres
Multiply by
20.886
0.145
0.01044
0.1020
0.02089
0.01020
0.01
0.001
0.00987
To
Kilograms/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic foot
Kilonewtons/cubic meter
Grams/cubic centimeter
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic foot
Kilonewtons/cubic meter
Grams/cubic centimeter
Kilograms/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic foot
Kilonewtons/cubic meter
Grams/cubic centimeter
Kilograms/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic inch
Kilonewtons/cubic meter
Grams/cubic centimeter
Kilograms/cubic meter
Pounds/cubic inch
Pounds/cubic foot
Multiply by
1000.0
0.036127292
62.427961
9.8039
0.001
3.6127292 x 10-5
0.062427961
9.80584 x 10-3
27.679905
27679.905
1728
271.37
0.016018463
16.018463
5.78703704 x 10-4
0.157099
0.1020
101.98
0.003685
6.3654
To
Meters/second
Feet/second
Feet/minute
Meters/second
Feet/minute
Centimeters/second
Feet/second
Feet/minute
Centimeters/second
Centimeters/second
Meters/minute
Multiply by
0.01
0.032808399
1.9685039
0.30479999
60.0
30.48
3.2808399
196.850394
100.0
0.508001
0.3048
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 251
SHAKE2000 User‟s Manual – Page No. 252
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