mikroC for 8051 User Manual

mikroC for 8051 User Manual
mikroC for 8051
May 2008
Reader’s note
DISCLAIMER:
mikroC for 8051 and this manual are owned by mikroElektronika and are protected by copyright law
and international copyright treaty. Therefore, you should treat this manual like any other copyrighted
material (e.g., a book). The manual and the compiler may not be copied, partially or as a whole without the written consent from the mikroEelktronika. The PDF-edition of the manual can be printed for
private or local use, but not for distribution. Modifying the manual or the compiler is strictly prohibited.
Reader’s Note
HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES:
The mikroC for 8051 compiler is not fault-tolerant and is not designed, manufactured or intended for
use or resale as on-line control equipment in hazardous environments requiring fail-safe performance,
such as in the operation of nuclear facilities, aircraft navigation or communication systems, air traffic
control, direct life support machines, or weapons systems, in which the failure of the Software could
lead directly to death, personal injury, or severe physical or environmental damage ("High Risk
Activities"). mikroElektronika and its suppliers specifically disclaim any express or implied warranty
of fitness for High Risk Activities.
LICENSE AGREEMENT:
By using the mikroC for 8051compiler, you agree to the terms of this agreement. Only one person
may use licensed version of mikroC for 8051 compiler at a time.
Copyright © mikroElektronika 2003 - 2008.
This manual covers mikroC version 1.0.0.0 and the related topics. Newer versions may contain
changes without prior notice.
COMPILER BUG REPORTS:
The compiler has been carefully tested and debugged. It is, however, not possible to
guarantee a 100 % error free product. If you would like to report a bug, please contact us at the
address offic[email protected] Please include next information in your bug report:
- Your operating system
- Version of mikroC for 8051
- Code sample
- Description of a bug
CONTACT US:
mikroElektronika
Voice: + 381 11 36 28 830
Fax:
+ 381 11 36 28 831
Web:
www.mikroe.com
E-mail: [email protected]
Windows is a Registered trademark of Microsoft Corp. All other trade and/or services marks are the
property of the respective owners.
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MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
Table of Contents
CHAPTER 1
Introduction to mikroC 8051
CHAPTER 2
mikroC for 8051 Environment
CHAPTER 3
mikroC for 8051 Specifics
CHAPTER 4
8051 Specifics
CHAPTER 5
mikroC for 8051 Language Reference
CHAPTER 6
mikroC for 8051 Libraries
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CHAPTER 1
Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2
Where to Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3
mikroElektronika Associates License Statement and Limited Warranty . . . . .4
IMPORTANT - READ CAREFULLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
LIMITED WARRANTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
GENERAL PROVISIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6
Technical Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7
How to Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
Who Gets the License Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
How to Get License Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
CHAPTER 2
IDE Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12
Main Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13
File Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14
Edit Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15
Replace Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Find Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
Go To Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Find In Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18
Regular expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
View Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20
Edit Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Toolbars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
File Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
Advanced Edit Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22
Project Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Find/Replace Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Debugger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Build Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24
Styles Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Tools Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26
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Table of Contents
Project Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
Run Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29
Tools Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30
Help Menu Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31
Keyboard Shortcuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32
IDE Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36
Customizing IDE Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Docking Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37
Auto Hide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Saving Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Once you have a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39
Advanced Code Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Advanced Editor Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41
Code Folding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Code Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43
Parameter Assistant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Code Templates (Auto Complete) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .44
Bookmarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Goto Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Auto Correct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45
Code Explorer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46
Routine List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
Project Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48
Project Settings Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49
Library Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50
Error Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Memory Usage Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
RAM Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
XData Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
Data Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53
iData Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
bData Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54
PData Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Special Function Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
General Purpose Registers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
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ROM Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
ROM Memory Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56
Procedures Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Procedures Size Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
ROM Memory Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57
Macro Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Procedures Locations Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .58
Integrated Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
USART Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .60
ASCII Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61
EEPROM Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62
7 Segment Display Decoder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .63
UDP Terminal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64
Graphic LCD Bitmap Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65
LCD Custom Character . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Code editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66
Output settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68
Regular Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Simple matches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Escape sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Character classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Metacharacters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70
Metacharacters - Line separators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Metacharacters - Predefined classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
Metacharacters - Word boundaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Metacharacters - Iterators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72
Metacharacters - Alternatives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Metacharacters - Subexpressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
Metacharacters - Backreferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74
mikroC for 8051 Command Line Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75
Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
New Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
New Project Wizard Steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76
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Customizing Projects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Edit Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Managing Project Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80
Add/Remove Files from Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81
Source Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Managing Source Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Creating new source file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82
Opening an existing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Printing an open file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Saving file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Saving file under a different name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
Closing file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Clean Project Folder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84
Assembly View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Output Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .85
Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Compiler Error Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86
Compiler Warning Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89
Software Simulator Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Watch Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .90
Stopwatch Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .92
RAM Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93
Software Simulator Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94
Creating New Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
Multiple Library Versions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95
CHAPTER 3
ANSI Standard Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Divergence from the ANSI C Standard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
C Language Exstensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98
Accessing Individual Bits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Accessing Individual Bits Of Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
Predefined Globals and Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99
sbit type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
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bit type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
Interrupts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Function Calls from Interrupt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Interrupt Priority Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101
Linker Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Directive absolute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Directive org . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102
Built-in Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Indirect Function Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103
Hi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Lo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104
Highest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Higher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105
Delay_ms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Delay_us . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .106
Delay_Cyc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Vdelay_ms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107
Clock_Mhz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Clock_Khz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108
Code Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Constant folding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Constant propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Copy propagation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Get_Fosc_kHz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .109
Value numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
"Dead code" ellimination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Stack allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Local vars optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
Better code generation and local optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110
CHAPTER 4
8051 Specifics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Types Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
Nested Calls Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .112
8051 Memory Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
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Program Memory (ROM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .113
Internal Data Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114
External Data Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
SFR Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115
Memory Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Small model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Compact model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116
Large model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
Memory Type Specifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117
idata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118
xdata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
bdata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119
pdata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120
CHAPTER 5
mikroC Language Reference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Lexical Elements Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122
Whitespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Whitespace in Strings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123
Line Splicing with Backslash (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
Comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
C comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124
C++ comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Nested comments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125
Tokens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Token Extraction Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126
Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Integer Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Long and Unsigned Suffixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127
Decimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Hexadecimal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128
Binary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Octal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
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Floating Point Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129
Character Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Escape Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130
Disambiguation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131
String Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Line Continuation with Backslash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132
Enumeration Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Pointer Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133
Constant Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134
Keywords . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135
Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Case Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Uniqueness and Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Identifier Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136
Punctuators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Brackets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Parentheses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137
Braces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Comma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Semicolon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138
Colon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Asterisk (Pointer Declaration) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Equal Sign . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139
Pound Sign (Preprocessor Directive) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140
Objects and Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Lvalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141
Rvalues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Scope and Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142
Name Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143
Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Static Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
Local Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144
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Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .145
Type Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Fundamental Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .146
Arithmetic Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Integral Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147
Floating-point Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148
Enumerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Enumeration Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .149
Anonymous Enum Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Enumeration Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .150
Void Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Void Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Generic Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Derived Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151
Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
Array Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
Array Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .152
Arrays in Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Multi-dimensional Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .153
Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
Pointer Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154
Null Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155
Function Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156
Pointer Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158
Arrays and Pointers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158
Assignment and Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159
Pointer Addition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160
Pointer Subtraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161
Structure Declaration and Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162
Incomplete Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
Untagged Structures and Typedefs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .163
Working with Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
Size of Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
Structures and Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164
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Structure Member Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165
Accessing Nested Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Structure Uniqueness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .166
Unions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Union Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Size of Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Union Member Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167
Bit Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Bit Fields Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168
Bit Fields Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169
Types Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Standard Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170
Arithmetic Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
In details: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171
Pointer Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Explicit Types Conversions (Typecasting) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172
Declarations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Declarations and Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173
Declarations and Declarators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174
Linkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Linkage Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
Internal Linkage Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .175
External Linkage Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
Storage Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
Auto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176
Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Static . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Extern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Type Qualifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Qualifier const . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .177
Qualifier volatile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
Typedef Specifier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178
asm Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .179
Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180
Automatic Initialization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .181
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Function Declaration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Function Prototypes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182
Function Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183
Functions reentrancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Function Calls and Argument Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Function Calls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .184
Argument Conversions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185
Ellipsis ('...') Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .186
Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Operators Precedence and Associativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187
Arithmetic Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Arithmetic Operators Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Binary Arithmetic Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189
Unary Arithmetic Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190
Relational Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Relational Operators Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191
Bitwise Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Bitwise Operators Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Logical Operations on Bit Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192
Bitwise Shift Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193
Bitwise vs. Logical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
Logical Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
Logical Operators Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .194
Logical Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Logical Expressions and Side Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195
Logical vs. Bitwise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Conditional Operator ? : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Conditional Operator Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .196
Assignment Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Simple Assignment Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Compound Assignment Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197
Assignment Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Sizeof Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .198
Sizeof Applied to Expression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Sizeof Applied to Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199
Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
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Comma Expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200
Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201
Labeled Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Expression Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .202
Selection Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
If Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Nested If statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .203
Switch Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204
Nested switch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Iteration Statements (Loops) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
While Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205
Do Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
For Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .206
Jump Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Break and Continue Statements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Break Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207
Continue Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
Goto Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208
Return Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
Compound Statements (Blocks) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209
Preprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
Preprocessor Directives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210
Line Continuation with Backslash (\) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Defining Macros and Macro Expansions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211
Macros with Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .213
Undefining Macros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
File Inclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214
Explicit Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Preprocessor Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Operator # . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215
Operator ## . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Note . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .216
Conditional Compilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
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Directives #if, #elif, #else, and #endif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .217
Directives #ifdef and #ifndef . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .218
CHAPTER 6
mikroC for 8051 Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Hardware 8051-specific Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Standard ANSI C Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Miscellaneous Libraries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .220
Library Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
CANSPI Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
External dependecies of CANSPI Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
CANSPISetOperationMode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .224
CANSPIGetOperationMode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225
CANSPIInitialize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .226
CANSPISetBaudRate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227
CANSPISetMask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .228
CANSPISetFilter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229
CANSPIRead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230
CANSPIWrite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .231
CANSPI Constants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
CANSPI_OP_MODE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .232
CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .233
CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .234
CANSPI_MASK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
CANSPI_FILTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239
EEPROM Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
Eeprom_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .240
Eeprom_Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
Eeprom_Write_Block . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242
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Graphic LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
External dependencies of Graphic LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244
Glcd_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .245
Glcd_Set_X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Glcd_Set_Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246
Glcd_Read_Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
Glcd_Set_Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .247
Glcd_Write_Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
Glcd_Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248
Glcd_Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Glcd_Dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .249
Glcd_V_Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
Glcd_H_Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .250
Glcd_Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Glcd_Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
Glcd_Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .252
Glcd_Set_Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Glcd_Write_Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .254
Glcd_Write_Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
Glcd_Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .255
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .258
Keypad Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
External dependencies of Keypad Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
- Keypad_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
- Keypad_Key_Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
- Keypad_Key_Click . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
Keypad_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259
Keypad_Key_Press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
Keypad_Key_Click . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .260
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .261
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263
LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
External dependencies of LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
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Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264
Lcd_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Lcd_Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .265
Lcd_Out_Cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
Lcd_Chr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266
Lcd_Chr_Cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
Lcd_Cmd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267
Available LCD Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .268
HW connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270
OneWire Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
External dependencies of OneWire Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .271
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
Ow_Reset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
Ow_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .272
Ow_Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .273
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276
External dependencies of Manchester Code Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
Manchester Code Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .277
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
Man_Receive_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .278
Man_Send_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
Man_Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279
Man_Synchro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
Man_Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .280
Connection Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .283
Port Expander Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
External dependencies of Port Expander Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284
Expander_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .285
Expander_Read_Byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
Expander_Write_Byte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286
Expander_Read_PortA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
Expander_Read_PortB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287
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Expander_Read_PortAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .288
Expander_Write_PortA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
Expander_Write_PortB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289
Expander_Write_PortAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .290
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .291
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .293
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .295
PS/2 Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
External dependencies of PS/2 Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
- Ps2_Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
- Ps2_Key_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
Ps2_Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296
Ps2_Key_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297
Special Function Keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .298
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .299
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .300
RS-485 Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
External dependencies of RS-485 Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
RS485master_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .302
RS485master_Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
RS485master_Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303
RS485slave_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
RS485slave_Receive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .304
RS485slave_Send . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .309
Message format and CRC calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .310
Software I²C Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
External dependecies of Soft_I2C Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
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Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .311
Soft_I2C_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Soft_I2C_Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Soft_I2C_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312
Soft_I2C_Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
Soft_I2C_Stop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .313
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .314
Software SPI Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
External dependencies of Software SPI Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
- Soft_Spi_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
- Soft_Spi_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
- Soft_Spi_Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317
Soft_Spi_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Soft_Spi_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .318
Soft_Spi_Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320
Software UART Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
External dependencies of Software UART Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .322
Soft_Uart_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
Soft_Uart_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323
Soft_Uart_Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324
Sound Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
External dependencies of Sound Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .325
Sound_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
Sound_Play . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
The example is a simpl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
demonstration o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .326
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .328
SPI Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
Spi_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329
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Spi_Init_Advanced . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .330
Spi_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
Spi_Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333
SPI Ethernet Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .334
External dependencies of SPI Ethernet Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .335
Spi_Ethernet_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336
Spi_Ethernet_Enable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .337
Spi_Ethernet_Disable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .339
Spi_Ethernet_doPacket . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .340
Spi_Ethernet_putByte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
Spi_Ethernet_putBytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .341
Spi_Ethernet_putConstBytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
Spi_Ethernet_putString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .342
Spi_Ethernet_putConstString . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
Spi_Ethernet_getByte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343
Spi_Ethernet_getBytes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344
Spi_Ethernet_UserTCP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .345
Spi_Ethernet_UserUDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .346
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .354
SPI Graphic LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
External dependencies of SPI Graphic LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355
Spi_Glcd_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356
Spi_Glcd_Set_Side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .357
Spi_Glcd_Set_X . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
Spi_Glcd_Read_Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .358
Spi_Glcd_Write_Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
Spi_Glcd_Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .359
Spi_Glcd_Dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
Spi_Glcd_Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .360
Spi_Glcd_V_Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361
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Spi_Glcd_H_Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .361
Spi_Glcd_Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .362
Spi_Glcd_Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363
Spi_Glcd_Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .363
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .364
Spi_Glcd_Write_Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .365
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .366
Spi_Glcd_Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .367
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .367
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .369
SPI LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370
External dependencies of SPI LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .370
Spi_Lcd_Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
Spi_Lcd_Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .371
Spi_Lcd_Out_Cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372
Spi_Lcd_Chr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .372
Spi_Lcd_Chr_Cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373
Spi_Lcd_Cmd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .373
Available LCD Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .374
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .375
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .376
SPI LCD8 (8-bit interface) Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .377
Spi_Lcd8_Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378
Spi_Lcd8_Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .378
Spi_Lcd8_Out_Cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
Spi_Lcd8_Chr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .379
Spi_Lcd8_Chr_Cp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .380
Available LCD Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .381
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .382
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .383
SPI T6963C Graphic LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .384
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .385
Spi_T6963C_Config . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .386
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Spi_T6963C_WriteData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
Spi_T6963C_WriteCommand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .387
Spi_T6963C_SetPtr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388
Spi_T6963C_WaitReady . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388
Spi_T6963C_Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .388
Spi_T6963C_Dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389
Spi_T6963C_Write_Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .390
Spi_T6963C_Write_Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .391
Spi_T6963C_Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
Spi_T6963C_Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .392
Spi_T6963C_Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
Spi_T6963C_Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .393
Spi_T6963C_Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
Spi_T6963C_Sprite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .394
Spi_T6963C_Set_Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
Spi_T6963C_ClearBit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .395
Spi_T6963C_SetBit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396
Spi_T6963C_NegBit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .396
Spi_T6963C_DisplayGrPanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
Spi_T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .397
Spi_T6963C_SetGrPanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
Spi_T6963C_SetTxtPanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .398
Spi_T6963C_PanelFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Spi_T6963C_GrFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .399
Spi_T6963C_TxtFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .400
Spi_T6963C_Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
Spi_T6963C_Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401
Spi_T6963C_Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Blink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .402
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .407
T6963C Graphic LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .408
External dependencies of T6963C Graphic LCD Library . . . . . . . . . . .409
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .410
T6963C_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .411
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T6963C_WriteData . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412
T6963C_WriteCommand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .412
T6963C_SetPtr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413
T6963C_WaitReady . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413
T6963C_Fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413
T6963C_Dot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
T6963C_Write_Char . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .414
T6963C_Write_Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
T6963C_Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416
T6963C_Rectangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .416
T6963C_Box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417
T6963C_Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .417
T6963C_Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
T6963C_Sprite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .418
T6963C_Set_Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
T6963C_ClearBit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .419
T6963C_SetBit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .420
T6963C_NegBit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .420
T6963C_DisplayGrPanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .421
T6963C_SetGrPanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
T6963C_SetTxtPanel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .422
T6963C_PanelFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
T6963C_GrFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .423
T6963C_TxtFill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
T6963C_Cursor_Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .424
T6963C_Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
T6963C_Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .425
T6963C_Cursor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
T6963C_Cursor_Blink . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .426
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .431
UART Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
Uart_Init . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .432
Uart_Data_Ready . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
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Uart_Read . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .433
Uart_Write . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
This example demonstrates s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .434
HW Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .435
ANSI C Ctype Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
Library Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
isalnum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
isalpha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .436
iscntrl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
isdigit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
isgraph . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
islower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
ispunct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
isspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437
isupper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
isxdigit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
toupper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
tolower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .438
ANSI C Math Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439
Library Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .439
acos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
asin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
atan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
atan2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
ceil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .440
cos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
cosh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
eval_poly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
exp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
fabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
floor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .441
frexp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
ldexp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
log10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
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modf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
pow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .442
sin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
sinh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
sqrt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
tan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
tanh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .443
ANSI C Stdlib Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444
Library Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444
abs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .444
atof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
atoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
atol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
div . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .445
ldiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446
uldiv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446
labs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446
max . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446
min . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .446
rand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
srand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
xtoi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
Div Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .447
ANSI C String Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448
Library Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448
memchr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .448
memcmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
memcpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
memmove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
memset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
strcat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .449
strchr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
strcmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
strcpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
strlen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
strncat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .450
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strncpy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
strspn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
Strncmp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
Strstr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .451
Strcspn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452
Strpbrk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452
Strrchr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .452
Button Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
External dependecies of Button Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .453
Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .454
Conversions Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
ByteToStr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .455
ShortToStr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
WordToStr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .456
IntToStr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
LongToStr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .457
LongWordToStr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458
FloatToStr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .458
Dec2Bcd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459
Bcd2Dec16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .459
Dec2Bcd16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .460
Sprint Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
sprintf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461
sprintl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
sprinti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .465
Time Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
Time_dateToEpoch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .467
Time_epochToDate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .468
Library Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469
Trigonometry Library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
Library Routines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
xxvi MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
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Table of Contents
sinE3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470
cosE3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .471
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xxviii MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
CHAPTER
1
Introduction to
mikroC 8051
The mikroC 8051 is a powerful, feature-rich development tool 8051 microcontrollers. It is designed to provide the programmer with the easiest possible solution
to developing applications for embedded systems, without compromising performance or control.
1
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
mikroC for 8051
1.1. mikroC IDE
Features
mikroC for 8051 allows you to quickly develop and deploy complex applications:
- Write your C source code using the built-in Code Editor (Code and
Parameter Assistants, Code Folding, Syntax Highlighting, Auto
Correct, Code Templates, and more.)
- Use included mikroC libraries to dramatically speed up the
development: data acquisition, memory, displays, conversions,
communication etc.
- Monitor your program structure, variables, and functions in the
Code Explorer.
- Generate commented, human-readable assembly, and standard
HEX compatible with all programmers.
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Introduction
mikroC for 8051
- Inspect program flow and debug executable logic with the integrated Software
Simulator.
- Get detailed reports and graphs: RAM and ROM map, code statistics, assembly
listing, calling tree, and more.
- mikroC 8051 provides plenty of examples to expand, develop, and use as
building bricks in your projects. Copy them entirely if you deem fit – that’s why
we included them with the compiler.
Where to Start
- In case that you’re a beginner in programming 8051 microcon
trollers, read carefully the 8051 Specifics chapter. It might give you
some useful pointers on 8051 constraints, code portability, and good
programming practices.
- If you are experienced in C programming, you will probably want to
consult mikroC Specifics first. For language issues, you can always
refer to the comprehensive Language Reference. A complete list of
included libraries is available at mikroC Libraries.
- If you are not very experienced in C programming, don’t panic!
mikroC 8051 provides plenty of examples making it easy for you to
go quickly. We suggest that you first consult Projects and Source
Files, and then start browsing the examples that you're the most
interested in.
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
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CHAPTER 1
Introduction
mikroC for 8051
MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES LICENSE STATEMENT AND
LIMITED WARRANTY
IMPORTANT - READ CAREFULLY
This license statement and limited warranty constitute a legal agreement (“License
Agreement”) between you (either as an individual or a single entity) and
mikroElektronika (“mikroElektronika Associates”) for software product
(“Software”) identified above, including any software, media, and accompanying
on-line or printed documentation.
BY INSTALLING, COPYING, OR OTHERWISE USING SOFTWARE, YOU
AGREE TO BE BOUND BY ALL TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THE
LICENSE AGREEMENT.
Upon your acceptance of the terms and conditions of the License Agreement,
mikroElektronika Associates grants you the right to use Software in a way provided
below.
This Software is owned by mikroElektronika Associates and is protected by copyright law and international copyright treaty. Therefore, you must treat this Software
like any other copyright material (e.g., a book).
You may transfer Software and documentation on a permanent basis provided. You
retain no copies and the recipient agrees to the terms of the License Agreement.
Except as provided in the License Agreement, you may not transfer, rent, lease, lend,
copy, modify, translate, sublicense, time-share or electronically transmit or receive
Software, media or documentation. You acknowledge that Software in the source
code form remains a confidential trade secret of mikroElektronika Associates and
therefore you agree not to modify Software or attempt to reverse engineer, decompile, or disassemble it, except and only to the extent that such activity is expressly
permitted by applicable law notwithstanding this limitation.
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Introduction
mikroC for 8051
If you have purchased an upgrade version of Software, it constitutes a single product with the mikroElektronika Associates software that you upgraded. You may use
the upgrade version of Software only in accordance with the License Agreement.
LIMITED WARRANTY
Respectfully excepting the Redistributables, which are provided “as is”, without
warranty of any kind, mikroElektronika Associates warrants that Software, once
updated and properly used, will perform substantially in accordance with the accompanying documentation, and Software media will be free from defects in materials
and workmanship, for a period of ninety (90) days from the date of receipt. Any
implied warranties on Software are limited to ninety (90) days.
mikroElektronika Associates’ and its suppliers’ entire liability and your exclusive
remedy shall be, at mikroElektronika Associates’ option, either (a) return of the
price paid, or (b) repair or replacement of Software that does not meet
mikroElektronika Associates’ Limited Warranty and which is returned to
mikroElektronika Associates with a copy of your receipt. DO NOT RETURN ANY
PRODUCT UNTIL YOU HAVE CALLED MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES FIRST AND OBTAINED A RETURN AUTHORIZATION NUMBER. This
Limited Warranty is void if failure of Software has resulted from an accident, abuse,
or misapplication. Any replacement of Software will be warranted for the rest of the
original warranty period or thirty (30) days, whichever is longer.
TO THE MAXIMUM EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW,
MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES AND ITS SUPPLIERS DISCLAIM ALL
OTHER WARRANTIES AND CONDITIONS, EITHER EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDED, BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, TITLE,
AND NON-INFRINGEMENT, WITH REGARD TO SOFTWARE, AND THE
PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SUPPORT SERVICES.
IN NO EVENT SHALL MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES OR ITS SUPPLIERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION, DAMAGES FOR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS AND BUSINESS
INFORMATION, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, OR ANY OTHER PECUNIARY
LOSS) ARISING
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
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CHAPTER 1
Introduction
mikroC for 8051
OUT OF THE USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE SOFTWARE PRODUCT OR
THE PROVISION OF OR FAILURE TO PROVIDE SUPPORT SERVICES,
EVEN IF MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES HAS BEEN ADVISED OF
THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES. IN ANY CASE, MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES’ ENTIRE LIABILITY UNDER ANY PROVISION OF
THIS LICENSE AGREEMENT SHALL BE LIMITED TO THE AMOUNT ACTUALLY PAID BY YOU FOR SOFTWARE PRODUCT PROVIDED, HOWEVER, IF
YOU HAVE ENTERED INTO A MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES SUPPORT SERVICES AGREEMENT, MIKROELEKTRONIKA ASSOCIATES’
ENTIRE LIABILITY REGARDING SUPPORT SERVICES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY THE TERMS OF THAT AGREEMENT.
HIGH RISK ACTIVITIES
Software is not fault-tolerant and is not designed, manufactured or intended for use
or resale as on-line control equipment in hazardous environments requiring fail-safe
performance, such as in the operation of nuclear facilities, aircraft navigation or
communication systems, air traffic control, direct life support machines, or weapons
systems, in which the failure of Software could lead directly to death, personal
injury, or severe physical or environmental damage (“High Risk Activities”).
mikroElektronika Associates and its suppliers specifically disclaim any expressed or
implied warranty of fitness for High Risk Activities.
GENERAL PROVISIONS
This statement may only be modified in writing signed by you and an authorised
officer of mikroElektronika Associates. If any provision of this statement is found
void or unenforceable, the remainder will remain valid and enforceable according to
its terms. If any remedy provided is determined to have failed for its essential purpose, all limitations of liability and exclusions of damages set forth in the Limited
Warranty shall remain in effect.
This statement gives you specific legal rights; you may have others, which vary,
from country to country. mikroElektronika Associates reserves all rights not specifically granted in this statement
6
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Introduction
mikroC for 8051
mikroElektronika
Visegradska 1A,
11000 Belgrade,
Europe.
Phone: + 381 11 36 28 830
Fax: +381 11 36 28 831
Web: www.mikroe.com
E-mail: [email protected]
TECHNICAL SUPPORT
In case you encounter any problem, you are welcome to our support forums at
www.mikroe.com/forum/. Here, you may also find helpful information, hardware
tips, and practical code snippets. Your comments and suggestions on future development of the mikroC for 8051 are always appreciated — feel free to drop a note or
two on our Wishlist.
In our Knowledge Base www.mikroe.com/en/kb/ you can find the answers to
Frequently Asked Questions and solutions to known problems. If you can not find
the solution to your problem in Knowledge Base then report it to Support Desk
www.mikroe.com/en/support/. In this way, we can record and track down bugs more
efficiently, which is in our mutual interest. We respond to every bug report and question in a suitable manner, ever improving our technical support.
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
7
CHAPTER 1
Introduction
mikroC for 8051
HOW TO REGISTER
The latest version of the mikroC for 8051 is always available for downloading from
our website. It is a fully functional software libraries, examples, and comprehensive
help included.
The only limitation of the free version is that it cannot generate hex output over 2
KB. Although it might sound restrictive, this margin allows you to develop practical, working applications with no thinking of demo limit. If you intend to develop
really complex projects in the mikroC for 8051, then you should consider the possibility of purchasing the license key.
Who Gets the License Key
Buyers of the mikroC for 8051 are entitled to the license key. After you have completed the payment procedure, you have an option of registering your mikroC. In
this way you can generate hex output without any limitations.
How to Get License Key
After you have completed the payment procedure, start the program. Select Help ›
How to Register from the drop-down menu or click the How To Register Icon
Fill out the registration form (figure below), select your distributor, and click the
Send button.
8
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CHAPTER 1
mikroC for 8051
Introduction
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
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CHAPTER 1
Introduction
mikroC for 8051
This will start your e-mail client with message ready for sending. Review the information you have entered, and add the comment if you deem it necessary. Please, do
not modify the subject line.
Upon receiving and verifying your request, we will send the license key to the email address you specified in the form.
After Receving the License Key
The license key comes as a small autoextracting file – just start it anywhere on your
computer in order to activate your copy of compiler and remove the demo limit. You
do not need to restart your computer or install any additional components. Also,
there is no need to run the mikroC for 8051 at the time of activation.
Notes:
- The license key is valid until you format your hard disk. In case you need to
format the hard disk, you should request a new activation key.
- Please keep the activation program in a safe place. Every time you upgrade the
compiler you should start this program again in order to reactivate the license.
10
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
CHAPTER
2
mikroC for 8051
Environment
The mikroC for 8051 is an user-friendly and intuitive environment:
11
CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
IDE OVERVIEW
- The Code Editor features adjustable Syntax Highlighting, Code Folding, Code
Assistant, Parameters Assistant, Auto Correct for common typos and Code
Templates (Auto Complete).
- The Code Explorer (with Keyboard shortcut browser and Quick Help browser) is
at your disposal for easier project management.
- The Project Manager alows multiple project management
- General project settings can be made in the Project Settings
window
- Library manager enables simple handling libraries being used in a project
- The Error Window displays all errors detected during compiling and linking.
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Environment
mikroC for 8051
-The source-level Software Simulator lets you debug executable logic
step-by-step by watching the program flow.
- The New Project Wizard is a fast, reliable, and easy way to create a project.
- Help files are syntax and context sensitive.
- Like in any modern Windows application, you may customize the layout of
mikroC for 8051 to suit your needs best.
- Spell checker underlines identifiers which are unknown to the project. In this
way it helps the programmer to spot potential problems early, much before the
project is compiled.
- Spell checker can be disabled by choosing the option in the Preferences dialog
(F12).
MAIN MENU OPTIONS
Available Main Menu options are:
- File
- Edit
- View
- Project
- Run
- Tools
- Help
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
13
CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
FILE MENU OPTIONS
The File menu is the main entry point for manipulation with the source files.
File
Description
Open a new editor window.
Open source file for editing or image file for
ewing.
Reopen recently used file.
Save changes for active editor.
Save the active source file with the different name
or change the file type.
Close active source file.
Print Preview.
Exit IDE.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, File Toolbar,
Managing Source Files
14
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Environment
mikroC for 8051
EDIT MENU OPTIONS
Edit
Description
Undo last change.
Redo last change.
Cut selected text to clipboard.
Copy selected text to clipboard.
Paste text from clipboard.
Delete selected text.
Select all text in active editor.
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
Find text in active editor.
Find next occurence of text in active
editor.
Find previous occurence of text in active editor.
Replace text in active editor.
Find text in current file, in all opened files, or in
files from desired folder.
Goto to the desired line in active editor.
Advanced Code Editor options
Advanced »
Description
Comment selected code or put single line comment if there is no selection.
Uncomment selected code or remove single line
comment if there is no
selection.
Indent selected code.
Outdent selected code.
Changes selected text case to lowercase.
Changes selected text case to uppercase.
Changes selected text case to titlercase.
16
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Environment
mikroC for 8051
Find Text
Dialog box for searching the document for the specified text. The search is performed in the direction specified. If the string is not found a message is displayed.
Replace Text
Dialog box for searching for a text string in file and replacing it with another text
string.
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
Find In Files
Dialog box for searching for a text string in current file, all opened files, or in files
on a disk.
The string to search for is specified in the Text to find field. If Search in directories
option is selected, The files to search are specified in the Files mask and Path fields.
Go To Line
Dialog box that allows the user to specify the line number at which the cursor should
be positioned.
18
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Environment
mikroC for 8051
Regular expressions
By checking this box, you will be able to advance your search, through Regular
expressions.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Edit Toolbar, Advanced Edit Toolbar
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
VIEW MENU OPTIONS
View
Description
Show/Hide toolbars.
Show/Hide debug windows.
Show/Hide Routine List in active editor.
Show/Hide Project Settings window.
Show/Hide Code Explorer window.
Show/Hide Project Manager window.
Show/Hide Library Manager window.
Show/Hide Bookmarks window.
Show/Hide Error Messages window.
Show/Hide Macro Editor window.
Show Window List window.
20
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Environment
mikroC for 8051
TOOLBARS
File Toolbar
File Toolbar is a standard toolbar with following options:
Icon
Description
Opens a new editor window.
Open source file for editing or image file for viewing.
Save changes for active window.
Save changes in all opened windows.
Close current editor.
Close all editors.
Print Preview.
Edit Toolbar
Edit Toolbar is a standard toolbar with following options:
Icon
Description
Undo last change.
Redo last change.
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
Cut selected text to clipboard.
Copy selected text to clipboard.
Paste text from clipboard.
Advanced Edit Toolbar
Advanced Edit Toolbar comes with following options:
Icon
Description
Comment selected code or put single line comment if there is no selection
Uncomment selected code or remove single line comment if there is no
selection.
Select text from starting delimiter to ending delimiter.
Go to ending delimiter.
Go to line.
Indent selected code lines.
Outdent selected code lines.
Generate HTML code suitable for publishing current source code on
the web.
22
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Environment
mikroC for 8051
Find/Replace Toolbar
Find/Replace Toolbar is a standard toolbar with following options:
Icon
Description
Find text in current editor.
Find next occurence.
Find previous occurence.
Replace text.
Find text in files
Project Toolbar
Project Toolbar comes with following options:
Icon
Description
Open new project wizard. wizard.
Open Project
Save Project
Add existing project to project group.
Remove existing project from project group.
MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
Add File To Project
Remove File From Project
Close current project.
Build Toolbar
Build Toolbar comes with following options:
Icon
Description
Build current project.
Build all opened projects.
Build and program active project.
Start programmer and load current HEX file.
Open assembly code in editor.
View statistics for current project.
Debugger
Debugger Toolbar comes with following options:
24
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
Icon
Description
Start Software Simulator.
Run/Pause debugger.
Stop debugger.
Step into.
Step over.
Step out.
Run to cursor.
Toggle breakpoint.
Toggle breakpoints.
Clear breakpoints.
View watch window
View stopwatch window
Styles Toolbar
Styles toolbar allows you to easily customize your workspace.
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
Tools Toolbar
Tools Toolbar comes with following default options:
Icon
Description
Run USART Terminal
EEPROM
ASCII Chart
Seven segment decoder tool
The Tools toolbar can easily be customized by adding new tools in Options(F12)
window.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Integrated Tools, Debugger Windows
26
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Environment
mikroC for 8051
PROJECT MENU OPTIONS
Project
Description
Build active project.
Build all projects.
Build and program active project.
View Assembly.
Edit search paths.
Clean Project Folder
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
Add file to project.
Remove file from project.
Open New Project Wizard
Open existing project.
Save current project.
Open project group.
Close project group.
Save active project file with the different
name.
Open recently used project.
Close active project.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Project Toolbar, Creating New Project, Project
Manager, Project Settings
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Environment
mikroC for 8051
RUN MENU OPTIONS
Run
Description
Start Software Simulator.
Stop debugger.
Pause Debugger.
Step Into.
Step Over.
Step Out.
Jump to interrupt in current project.
Toggle Breakpoint.
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CHAPTER 2
Environment
mikroC for 8051
Breakpoints.
Clear Breakpoints.
Show/Hide Watch Window
Show/Hide Stopwatch Window
Toggle between C source and
disassembly.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Debug Toolbar
TOOLS MENU OPTIONS
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Tools
Description
Run mikroElektronika Programmer
Run USART Terminal
Run EEPROM Editor
Run ASCII Chart
Run 7 Segment Display Decoder
Generate HTML code suitable for publishing
source code on the web.
Generate your own custom LCD
characters
Generate bitmap pictures for GLCD
UDP communication terminal.
Open Options window
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts, Tools Toolbar
HELP MENU OPTIONS
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Help
Description
Open Help File.
Quick Help.
Check if new compiler version is available.
Open mikroElektronika Support Forums in
a default browser.
Open mikroElektronika Web Page in a
default browser.
Information on how to register
Open About window.
Related topics: Keyboard shortcuts
KEYBOARD SHORTCUTS
Below is a complete list of keyboard shortcuts available in mikroC for 8051 IDE.
You can also view keyboard shortcuts in the Code Explorer window, tab Keyboard.
IDE Shortcuts
32
F1
Help
Ctrl+N
New Unit
Ctrl+O
Open
Ctrl+Shift+O
Open Project
Ctrl+Shift+N
Open New Project
Ctrl+K
Close Project
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Ctrl+F9
Compile
Shift+F9
Compile All
Ctrl+F11
Compile and Program
Shift+F4
View breakpoints
Ctrl+Shift+F5
Clear breakpoints
F11
Start 8051Flash Programmer
F12
Preferences
Basic Editor Shortcuts
F3
Find, Find Next
Shift+F3
Find Previous
Alt+F3
Grep Search, Find in Files
Ctrl+A
Select All
Ctrl+C
Copy
Ctrl+F
Find
Ctrl+R
Replace
Ctrl+P
Print
Ctrl+S
Save unit
Ctrl+Shift+S
Save All
Ctrl+V
Paste
Ctrl+X
Cut
Ctrl+Y
Delete entire line
Ctrl+Z
Undo
Ctrl+Shift+Z
Redo
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Advanced Editor Shortcuts
34
Ctrl+Space
Code Assistant
Ctrl+Shift+Space
Parameters Assistant
Ctrl+D
Find declaration
Ctrl+E
Incremental Search
Ctrl+L
Routine List
Ctrl+G
Goto line
Ctrl+J
Insert Code Template
Ctrl+Shift+.
Comment Code
Ctrl+Shift+,
Uncomment Code
Ctrl+number
Goto bookmark
Ctrl+Shift+number
Set bookmark
Ctrl+Shift+I
Indent selection
Ctrl+Shift+U
Unindent selection
TAB
Indent selection
Shift+TAB
Unindent selection
Alt+Select
Select columns
Ctrl+Alt+Select
Select columns
Ctrl+Alt+L
Convert selection to lowercase
Ctrl+Alt+U
Convert selection to uppercase
Ctrl+Alt+T
Convert to Titlecase
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Software Simulator Shortcuts
F2
Jump To Interrupt
F4
Run to Cursor
F5
Toggle Breakpoint
F6
Run/Pause Debugger
F7
Step into
F8
Step over
F9
Debug
Ctrl+F2
Reset
Ctrl+F5
Add to Watch List
Ctrl+F8
Step out
Alt+D
Dissasembly view
Shift+F5
Open Watch Window
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IDE OVERVIEW
The mikroC for 8051 is an user-friendly and intuitive environment:
- The Code Editor features adjustable Syntax Highlighting, Code Folding, Code
Assistant, Parameters Assistant, Auto Correct for common typos and Code
Templates (Auto Complete).
- The Code Explorer (with Keyboard shortcut browser and Quick
Help browser) is at your disposal for easier project management.
- The Project Manager alows multiple project management
- General project settings can be made in the Project Settings window
- Library manager enables simple handling libraries being used in a project
- The Error Window displays all errors detected during compiling and linking.
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- The source-level Software Simulator lets you debug executable
logic step-by-step by watching the program flow.
- The New Project Wizard is a fast, reliable, and easy way to create
a project.
- Help files are syntax and context sensitive.
- Like in any modern Windows application, you may customize the layout of
mikroC for 8051 to suit your needs best.
- Spell checker underlines identifiers which are unknown to the project. In this
way it helps the programmer to spot potential problems early, much before the
project is compiled.
Spell checker can be disabled by choosing the option in the Preferences dialog
(F12).
CUSTOMIZING IDE LAYOUT
Docking Windows
You can increase the viewing and editing space for code, depending on how you
arrange the windows in the IDE.
Step 1: 2.1. Click the window you want to dock, to give it focus.
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Step 2: 2.2.
Drag the tool
window from
its current
location. A
guide diamond
appears. The
four arrows of
the diamond
point towards
the four edges
of the IDE.
Step 3: 2.3. Move the pointer
over the corresponding portion
of the guide diamond. An outline of the window appears in
the designated area.
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Step 4: To dock the window in the position indicated, release the mouse button.
Tip: To move a dockable window without snapping it into place, press CTRL
while dragging it.
Saving Layout
Once you have a window layout that you like, you can save the layout by typing
the name for the layout and pressing the Save Layout Icon
.
To set the layout select the desired layout from the layout drop-down list and click
the Set Layout Icon
.To remove the layout from the drop-down list, select
the desired layout from the list and click the Delete Layout Icon
.
Auto Hide
Auto Hide enables you to see more of your code at one time by minimizing tool
windows along the edges of the IDE when not in use.
- Click the window you want to keep visible to give it focus.
- Click the Pushpin Icon
on the title bar of the window.
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When an auto-hidden window loses focus, it automatically slides back to its tab on
the edge of the IDE. While a window is auto-hidden, its name and icon are visible
on a tab at the edge of the IDE. To display an auto-hidden window, move your pointer over the tab. The window slides back into view and is ready for use.
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ADVANCED CODE EDITOR
The Code Editor is advanced text editor fashioned to satisfy needs of
professionals. General code editing is the same as working with any standard texteditor, including familiar Copy, Paste and Undo actions, common for Windows
environment.
Advanced Editor Features
- Adjustable Syntax Highlighting
- Code Assistant
- Code Folding
- Parameter Assistant
- Code Templates (Auto Complete)
- Auto Correct for common typos
- Bookmarks and Goto Line
You can configure the Syntax Highlighting, Code Templates and Auto Correct from
the Editor Settings dialog. To access the Settings, click Tools › Options from the
drop-down menu, click the Show Options Icon
or press F12 key.
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Code Assistant
If you type the first few letters of a word and then press Ctrl+Space, all valid identifiers matching the letters you have typed will be prompted in a floating panel (see
the image below). Now you can keep typing to narrow the choice, or you can select
one from the list using the keyboard arrows and Enter.
Code Folding
Code folding is IDE feature which allows users to selectively hide and display sections of a source file. In this way it is easier to manage large regions of code within
one window, while still viewing only those subsections of the code that are relevant
during a particular editing session.
While typing, the code folding symbols ( - and + ) appear automatically. Use the
folding symbols to hide/unhide the code subsections.
If you place a mouse cursor over the tooltip box, the collapsed text will be shown
in a tooltip style box.
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Parameter Assistant
The Parameter Assistant will be automatically invoked when you open parenthesis
“(” or press Shift+Ctrl+Space. If the name of a valid function precedes the parenthesis, then the expected parameters will be displayed in a floating panel. As you type
the actual parameter, the next expected parameter will become bold.
Code Templates (Auto Complete)
You can insert the Code Template by typing the name of the template (for instance,
whiles), then press Ctrl+J and the Code Editor will automatically generate a code.
You can add your own templates to the list. Select Tools › Options from the dropdown menu, or click the Show Options Icon
and then select the Auto Complete
Tab. Here you can enter the appropriate keyword, description and code of your template.
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Autocomplete macros can retreive system and project information:
- %DATE% - current system date
- %TIME% - current system time
- %DEVICE% - device(MCU) name as specified in project settings
- %DEVICE_CLOCK% - clock as specified in project settings
- %COMPILER% - current compiler version
These macros can be used in template code, see template ptemplate provided with
mikroC for 8051 installation.
Auto Correct
The Auto Correct feature corrects common typing mistakes. To access the list of recognized typos, select Tools › Options from the drop-down menu, or click the Show
Options Icon
and then select the Auto Correct Tab. You can also add your own
preferences to the list.
Also, the Code Editor has a feature to comment or uncomment the selected code by
simple click of a mouse, using the Comment Icon
and Uncomment Icon
from the Code Toolbar.
Bookmarks
Bookmarks make navigation through a large code easier. To set a bookmark, use
Ctrl+Shift+number. To jump to a bookmark, use Ctrl+number.
Goto Line
The Goto Line option makes navigation through a large code easier. Use the shortcut Ctrl+G to activate this option.
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CODE EXPLORER
The Code Explorer gives clear view of each item declared inside the source code.
You can jump to a declaration of any item by right clicking it. Also, besides the list
of defined and declared objects, code explorer displays message about first error and
it's location in code.
Following options are available in the Code Explorer:
Icon
Description
Expand/Collapse all nodes in tree.
Locate declaration in code.
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ROUTINE LIST
Routine list diplays list of routines, and enables filtering routines by name. Routine
list window can be accessed by pressing Ctrl+L.
You can jump to a desired routine by double clicking on it.
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PROJECT MANAGER
Project Manager is IDE feature which allows users to manage multiple projects.
Several projects which together make project group may be open at the same time.
Only one of them may be active at the moment.
Setting project in active mode is performed by double click on the desired project in
the Project Manager.
Following options are available in the Project Manager:
Icon
Description
Save project Group.
Open project group.
Close the active project.
Close project group.
Add project to the project group.
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Remove project from the project group.
Add file to the active project.
Remove selected file from the project.
Build the active project.
Run mikroElektronika's Flash programmer.
For details about adding and removing files from project see Add/Remove Files
from Project.
Related topics: Project Settings, Project Menu Options, File Menu Options, Project
Toolbar, Build Toolbar, Add/Remove Files from Project
PROJECT SETTINGS WINDOW
Following options are available in the Project Settings Window:
- Device - select the appropriate device from the device drop-down list.
- Oscillator - enter the oscillator frequency value.
- Memory Model - Select the desired memory model.
Related topics: Memory Model, Project
Manager
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LIBRARY MANAGER
Library Manager enables simple handling libraries being used in a project. Library
Manager window lists all libraries (extencion .mcl) which are instantly stored in the
compiler Uses folder. The desirable library is added to the project by selecting check
box next to the library name.
In order to have all library functions accessible, simply press the button Check All
and all libraries will be selected. In case none library is needed in a project,
press the button Clear All
and all libraries will be cleared from the project.
Only the selected libraries will be linked.
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Icon
Description
Refresh Library by scanning files in "Uses" folder.Useful when new
libraries are added by copying files to "Uses" folder.
Rebuild all available libraries. Useful when library sources are available and need refreshing.
Include all available libraries in current project.
No libraries from the list will be included in current project.
Restore library to the state just before last project saving.
Related topics: mikroC for 8051 Libraries, Creating New Library
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ERROR WINDOW
In case that errors were encountered during compiling, the compiler will report them
and won’t generate a hex file. The Error Window will be prompted at the bottom of
the main window by default.
The Error Window is located under message tab, and displays location and type of
errors the compiler has encountered. The compiler also reports warnings, but these
do not affect the output; only errors can interefere with the generation of hex.
Double click the message line in the Error Window to highlight the line where the
error was encountered.
Related topics: Error Messages
STATISTICS
After successful compilation, you can review statistics of your code. Click the
Statistics Icon
.
Memory Usage Windows
Provides overview of RAM and ROM usage in the form of histogram.
RAM Memory
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Data Memory
Displays Data memory usage in form of histogram.
XData Memory
Displays XData memory usage in form of histogram.
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iData Memory
Displays iData memory usage in form of histogram.
bData Memory
Displays bData memory usage in form of histogram.
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PData Memory
Displays PData memory usage in form of histogram.
Special Function Registers
Summarizes all Special Function Registers and their addresses.
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General Purpose Registers
Summarizes all General Purpose Registers and their addresses. Also displays
symbolic names of variables and their addresses.
ROM Memory
ROM Memory Usage
Displays ROM memory usage in form of histogram.
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ROM Memory Allocation
Displays ROM memory allocation.
Procedures Windows
Provides overview procedures locations and sizes.
Procedures Size Window
Displays size of each procedure.
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Procedures Locations Window
Displays how functions are distributed in microcontroller’s memory.
Macro Editor
A macro is a series of keystrokes that have been 'recorded' in the order performed.
A macro allows you to 'record' a series of keystrokes and then 'playback', or repeat,
the recorded keystrokes.
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The Macro offers the following commands:
Icon
Description
Starts 'recording' keystrokes for later playback.
Stops capturing keystrokesthat was started when the Start Recordig
command was selected.
Allows a macro that has been recorded to be replayed.
New macro.
Delete macro.
Related topics: Advanced Code Editor, Code Templates
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INTEGRATED TOOLS
USART Terminal
The mikroC for 8051 includes the USART communication terminal for RS232 communication. You can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › USART Terminal
or by clicking the USART Terminal Icon
from Tools toolbar.
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ASCII Chart
The ASCII Chart is a handy tool, particularly useful when working with LCD display. You can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › ASCII chart or by clicking the View ASCII Chart Icon
from Tools toolbar.
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EEPROM Editor
The EEPROM Editor is used for manipulating MCU's EEPROM memory. You can
launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › EEPROM Editor. When Use this EEPROM definition is checked compiler will generate Intel hex file project_name.ihex
that contains data from EEPROM editor.
When you run mikroElektronika programmer software from mikroC for 8051 IDE
- project_name.hex file will be loaded automatically while ihex file must be loaded
manually.
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7 Segment Display Decoder
The 7 Segment Display Decoder is a convenient visual panel which returns decimal/hex value for any viable combination you would like to display on 7seg. Click
on the parts of 7 segment image to get the requested value in the edit boxes. You can
launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › 7 Segment Decoderor by clicking the
Seven Segment Icon
from Tools toolbar.
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UDP Terminal
The mikroC for 8051 includes the UDP Terminal. You can launch it from the dropdown menu Tools › UDP Terminal.
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Graphic LCD Bitmap Editor
The mikroC for 8051 includes the Graphic LCD Bitmap Editor. Output is the
mikroC for 8051 compatible code. You can launch it from the drop-down menu
Tools › GLCD Bitmap Editor.
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LCD Custom Character
mikroC for 8051 includes the LCD Custom Character. Output is mikroC for 8051
compatible code. You can launch it from the drop-down menu Tools › LCD Custom
Character.
OPTIONS
Options menu consists of three tabs: Code Editor, Tools and Output settings
Code editor
The Code Editor is advanced text editor fashioned to satisfy needs of professi
onals.
Tools
The mikroC for 8051 includes the Tools tab, which enables the use of shortcuts to
external programs, like Calculator or Notepad.
You can set up to 10 different shortcuts, by editing Tool0 - Tool9.
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Output settings
By modifying Output Settings, user can configure the content of the output files.
You can enable or disable, for example, generation of ASM and List file.
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REGULAR EXPRESSIONS
Introduction
Regular Expressions are a widely-used method of specifying patterns of text to
search for. Special metacharacters allow you to specify, for instance, that a particular string you are looking for, occurs at the beginning, or end of a line, or contains
n recurrences of a certain character.
Simple matches
Any single character matches itself, unless it is a metacharacter with a special meaning described below. A series of characters matches that series of characters in the
target string, so the pattern "short" would match "short" in the target string. You
can cause characters that normally function as metacharacters or escape sequences
to be interpreted by preceding them with a backslash "\".
For instance, metacharacter "^" matches beginning of string, but "\^" matches
character "^", and "\\" matches "\", etc.
Examples :
unsigned matches string 'unsigned'
\^unsigned matches string '^unsigned'
Escape sequences
Characters may be specified using a escape sequences: "\n" matches a newline,
"\t" a tab, etc. More generally, \xnn, where nn is a string of hexadecimal digits,
matches the character whose ASCII value is nn.
If you need wide(Unicode)character code, you can use '\x{nnnn}', where 'nnnn'
- one or more hexadecimal digits.
\xnn - char with hex code nn
\x{nnnn)- char with hex code nnnn
(one byte for plain text and two bytes for
Unicode)
\t - tab (HT/TAB), same as \x09
\n - newline (NL), same as \x0a
\r - car.return (CR), same as \x0d
\f - form feed (FF), same as \x0c
\a - alarm (bell) (BEL), same as \x07
\e - escape (ESC) , same as \x1b
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Examples:
unsigned\x20int matches 'unsigned int' (note space
\tunsigned matches 'unsigned' (predecessed by tab)
in the middle)
Character classes
You can specify a character class, by enclosing a list of characters in [], which will
match any of the characters from the list. If the first character after the "[" is "^",
the class matches any character not in the list.
Examples:
count[aeiou]r finds strings 'countar', 'counter', etc. but not 'countbr',
'countcr', etc.
count[^aeiou]r finds strings 'countbr', 'countcr', etc. but not
'countar', 'counter', etc.
Within a list, the "-" character is used to specify a range, so that a-z represents all
characters between "a" and "z", inclusive.
If you want "-" itself to be a member of a class, put it at the start or end of the list,
or escape it with a backslash.
If you want ']', you may place it at the start of list or escape it with a backslash.
Examples:
[-az] matches 'a', 'z' and '-'
[az-] matches 'a', 'z' and '-'
[a\-z] matches 'a', 'z' and '-'
[a-z] matches all twenty six small characters from 'a'
[\n-\x0D] matches any of #10,#11,#12,#13.
[\d-t] matches any digit, '-' or 't'.
[]-a] matches any char from ']'..'a'.
to 'z'
Metacharacters
Metacharacters are special characters which are the essence of regular
expressions.There are different types of metacharacters, described below.
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Metacharacters - Line separators
^ - start of line
$ - end of line
\A - start of text
\Z - end of text
. - any character
in line
Examples:
^PORTA - matches string ' PORTA ' only if it's at the beginning of line
PORTA$ - matches string ' PORTA ' only if it's at the end of line
^PORTA$ - matches string ' PORTA ' only if it's the only string in line
PORT.r - matches strings like 'PORTA', 'PORTB', 'PORT1' and so on
The "^" metacharacter by default is only guaranteed to match beginning of the input
string/text, and the "$" metacharacter only at the end. Embedded line separators will
not be matched by "^" or "$".
You may, however, wish to treat a string as a multi-line buffer, such that the "^" will
match after any line separator within the string, and "$" will match before any line
separator.
Regular expressons works with line separators as recommended at
www.unicode.org ( http://www.unicode.org/unicode/reports/tr18/ ):
Metacharacters - Predefined classes
\w
\W
\d
\D
\s
\S
- an alphanumeric character (including "_")
- a nonalphanumeric
- a numeric character
- a non-numeric
- any space (same as [\t\n\r\f])
- a non space
You may use \w, \d and \s within custom character classes.
Example:
routi\de - matches strings like 'routi1e', 'routi6e'
'routine', 'routime' and so on.
and so on, but not
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Metacharacters - Word boundaries
A word boundary ("\b") is a spot between two characters that has a "\w" on one
side of it and a "\W" on the other side of it (in either order), counting the imaginary
characters off the beginning and end of the string as matching a "\W".
\b
\B
- match a word boundary)
- match a non-(word boundary)
Metacharacters - Iterators
Any item of a regular expression may be followed by another type of metacharacters - iterators. Using this metacharacters,you can specify number of occurences of
previous character, metacharacter or subexpression.
* - zero or more ("greedy"), similar to {0,}
+ - one or more ("greedy"), similar to {1,}
? - zero or one ("greedy"), similar to {0,1}
{n} - exactly n times ("greedy")
{n,} - at least n times ("greedy")
{n,m} - at least n but not more than m times ("greedy")
*? - zero or more ("non-greedy"), similar to {0,}?
+? - one or more ("non-greedy"), similar to {1,}?
?? - zero or one ("non-greedy"), similar to {0,1}?
{n}? - exactly n times ("non-greedy")
{n,}? - at least n times ("non-greedy")
{n,m}? - at least n but not more than m times ("non-greedy")
So, digits in curly brackets of the form, {n,m}, specify the minimum number of
times to match the item n and the maximum m. The form {n} is equivalent to {n,n}
and matches exactly n times. The form {n,} matches n or more times. There is no
limit to the size of n or m, but large numbers will chew up more memory and slow
down execution.
If a curly bracket occurs in any other context, it is treated as a regular character.
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Examples:
count.*r ß- matches strings like 'counter', 'countelkjdflkj9r' and
'countr'
count.+r - matches strings like 'counter', 'countelkjdflkj9r' but not
'countr'
count.?r - matches strings like 'foobar', 'foobbr' and 'foobr' but
not 'foobalkj9r'
counte{2}r - matches string 'counteer'
counte{2,}r - matches strings like 'counteer', 'counteeer',
'counteeer' etc.
counte{2,3}r - matches strings like 'counteer', or 'counteeer' but
not 'counteeeer'
A little explanation about "greediness". "Greedy" takes as many as possible, "nongreedy" takes as few as possible.
For example, 'b+' and 'b*' applied to string 'abbbbc' return 'bbbb', 'b+?'
returns 'b', 'b*?' returns empty string, 'b{2,3}?' returns 'bb', 'b{2,3}'
returns 'bbb'.
Metacharacters - Alternatives
You can specify a series of alternatives for a pattern using "|" to separate them, so
that fee|fie|foe will match any of "fee", "fie", or "foe" in the target string (as
would f(e|i|o)e)). The first alternative includes everything from the last pattern
delimiter ("(", "[", or the beginning of the pattern) up to the first "|", and the
last alternative contains everything from the last "|" to the next pattern delimiter.
For this reason, it's common practice to include alternatives in parentheses, to minimize confusion about where they start and end.
Alternatives are tried from left to right, so the first alternative found for which the
entire expression matches, is the one that is chosen. This means that alternatives are
not necessarily greedy. For example: when matching rou|rout against
"routine", only the "rou" part will match, as that is the first alternative tried, and
it successfully matches the target string (this might not seem important, but it is
important when you are capturing matched text using parentheses.) Also remember
that "|" is interpreted as a literal within square brackets, so if you write
[fee|fie|foe] You're really only matching [feio|].
Examples:
rou(tine|te)
- matches strings 'routine' or 'route'.
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Metacharacters - Subexpressions
The bracketing construct ( ... ) may also be used for define regular subexpressions. Subexpressions are numbered based on the left to right order of their opening
parenthesis. First subexpression has number '1'
Examples:
(int){8,10} matches strings which contain 8, 9 or 10 instances of the
'int'
routi([0-9]|a+)e matches 'routi0e', 'routi1e' , 'routine',
'routinne', 'routinnne' etc.
Metacharacters - Backreferences
Metacharacters \1 through \9 are interpreted as backreferences. \ matches previously matched subexpression #.
Examples:
(.)\1+ matches 'aaaa' and 'cc'.
(.+)\1+ matches 'abab' and '123123'
(['"]?)(\d+)\1 matches "13" (in double
quotes) or 77 (without quotes) etc
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MIKROC FOR 8051 COMMAND LINE OPTIONS
Usage: mikroC8051 [-'opts' [-'opts']] ['infile' [-'opts']]
[-'opts']]
Infile can be of *.c and *.mcl type.
The following parameters and some more (see manual) are valid:
- P : MCU for which compilation will be done.
- FO : Set oscillator.
- SP : Add directory to the search path list.
- IP : Add directory to the #include search list.
- N : Output files generated to file path specified by filename.
- B : Save compiled binary files (*.mcl) to 'directory'.
- O : Miscellaneous output options.
- DBG : Generate debug info.
- E : Set memory model opts ( S | C | L (small, compact, large)).
- L : Check and rebuild new libraries.
- C : Turn on case sensitivity.
Example:
mikroc8051.exe -MSF -DBG -pAT89S8253 -ES -O11111114 -fo10 N"C:\Lcd\Lcd.mcproj"
-SP"C:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC
8051\defs\"
-SP"C:\ProgramFiles\Mikroelektronika\mikroC
8051\uses\"
-SP"C:\Lcd\" "Lcd.c" "System.mcl" "Math.mcl"
"Math_Double.mcl" "Delays.mcl" "__Lib_Lcd.mcl"
"__Lib_LcdConsts.mcl"
Parameters used in the example:
-MSF : Short Message Format; used for internal purposes by IDE.
-DBG : Generate debug info.
-pAT89S8253 : MCU AT89S8253 selected.
-ES : Set small memory model.
-O11111114 : Miscellaneous output options.
-fo10 : Set oscillator frequency [in MHz].
-N"C:\Lcd\Lcd.mcproj" -SP"C:\ProgramFiles\Mikroelektronika\mikroC
8051\defs\" : Output files generated to file path specified by filename.
-SP"C:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC 8051\defs\" : Add
directory to the search path list.
-SP"C:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC 8051\uses\" : Add
directory to the search path list.
-SP"C:\Lcd\" "Lcd.c" "System.mcl" "Math.mcl" "Math_Double.mcl"
"Delays.mcl" "__Lib_Lcd.mcl" "__Lib_LcdConsts.mcl" : Add
directory to the search path list.
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PROJECTS
The mikroC 8051 organizes applications into projects, consisting of a single project
file (extension .mcproj) and one or more source files (extension .c). MikroC for
8051 IDE allows you to manage multiple projects (see Project Manager). Source
files can be compiled only if they are part of a project.
The project file contains the following information:
- project name and optional description,
- target device,
- memory model,
- device flags (config word),
- device clock,
- list of the project source files with paths,
- header files (*.h),
- binary files (*.mcl),
- image files,
- other files.
Note that the project does not include files in the same way as preprocessor does,
see Add/Remove Files from Project.
NEW PROJECT
The easiest way to create a project is by means of the New Project Wizard, dropdown menu Project › New Project or by clicking the New Project Icon
from
Project Toolbar.
New Project Wizard Steps
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Step One- Provides basic information on settings in the following steps.
Step Two - Select the device from the device drop-down list.
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Step Three - enter the oscillator frequency value.
Step Four - Select the desired memory model.
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Step Five - Specify the location where your project will be saved.
Step Six - Add project file to the project if they are avaiable at this point. You can
always add project files later using Project Manager
Related topics: Project Manager, Project Settings, Memory Model
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CUSTOMIZING PROJECTS
Edit Project
You can change basic project settings in the Project Settings window. You can
change chip, oscillator frequency, and memory model. Any change in the Project
Setting Window affects currently active project only, so in case more than one project is open, you have to ensure that exactly the desired project is set as active one in
the Project Manager.
Managing Project Group
mikroC for 8051 IDE provides covenient option which enables several projects to
be open simultaneously. If you have several projects being connected in some way,
you can create a project group.
The project group may be saved by clicking the Save Project Group Icon
from
the Project Manager window. The project group may be reopend by clicking the
Open Project Group Icon
. All relevant data about the project group is stored
in the project group file (extension .mpg)
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ADD/REMOVE FILES FROM PROJECT
The project can contain the following file types:
- .c source files
- .h header files
- .mcl binary files
- .pld project level defines files (future upgrade)
- image files
- .hex, .asm and .lst files, see output files. These files can not be added or
- removed from project.
- other files
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The list of relevant source files is stored in the project file (extension .mcproj).
To add source file to the project, click the Add File to Project Icon
Each added
source file must be self-contained, i.e. it must have all necessary definitions after
preprocessing.
To remove file(s) from the project, click the Remove File from Project Icon
.
Note: For inclusion of the header files (extension .h), use the preprocessor directive
See File Inclusion for more information.
#include.
Related topics: Project Manager, Project Settings, Memory Model
Source Files
Source files containing C code should have the extension .c. The list of source files
relevant to the application is stored in project file with extension .mcproj, along
with other project information. You can compile source files only if they are part of
the project.
Use the preprocessor directive #include to include header files with the extension
.h. Do not rely on the preprocessor to include source files other than headers — see
Add/Remove Files from Project for more information.
MANAGING SOURCE FILES
Creating new source file
To create a new source file, do the following:
1. Select File › New Unit from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+N, or click
the New File Icon
from the File Toolbar.
2. A new tab will be opened. This is a new source file. Select File › Save from
the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+S, or click the Save File Icon
from
the File Toolbar and name it as you want.
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If you use the New Project Wizard, an empty source file, named after the project
with extension .c, will be created automatically. The mikroC 8051 does not require
you to have a source file named the same as the project, it’s just a matter of convenience.
Opening an existing file
1. Select File › Open from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+O, or click the
Open File Icon
from the File Toolbar. In Open Dialog browse to the
location of the file that you want to open, select it and click the Open button.
2. The selected file is displayed in its own tab. If the selected file is already open,
its current Editor tab will become active.
Printing an open file
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to print is the
active window.
2. Select File › Print from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+P.
3. In the Print Preview Window, set a desired layout of the document and click
the OK button. The file will be printed on the selected printer.
Saving file
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to save is the
active window.
2. Select File › Save from the drop-down menu, or press Ctrl+S, or click the
Save File Icon
from the File Toolbar.
Saving file under a different name
1. Make sure that the window containing the file that you want to save is the
active window.
2. Select File › Save As from the drop-down menu. The New File Name dialog
will be displayed.
3. In the dialog, browse to the folder where you want to save the file.
4. In the File Name field, modify the name of the file you want to save.
5. Click the Save button.
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Closing file
1. Make sure that the tab containing the file that you want to close is the active
tab.
2. Select File › Close from the drop-down menu, or right click the tab of the file
that you want to close and select Close option from the context menu.
3. If the file has been changed since it was last saved, you will be prompted to
save your changes.
Related topics:File Menu, File Toolbar, Project Manager, Project Settings,
CLEAN PROJECT FOLDER
This menu gives you option to choose which files from your current project you
want to delete.
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COMPILATION
When you have created the project and written the source code, it's time to compile
it. Select Project › Build from the drop-down menu, or click the Build Icon
from the Project Toolbar. If more more than one project is open you can compile all
open projects by selecting Project › Build All from the drop-down menu, or click
the Build All Icon
from the Project Toolbar.
Progress bar will appear to inform you about the status of compiling. If there are
some errors, you will be notified in the Error Window. If no errors are encountered,
the mikroC for 8051 will generate output files.
OUTPUT FILES
Upon successful compilation, the mikroC for 8051 will generate output files in the
project folder (folder which contains the project file .mcproj). Output files are summarized in the table below:
Format
Description
Intel HEX
Intel style hex records. Use this file to program 8051 MCU.
mikro Compiled Library. Binary distribution of application that can be included in
other projects.
Overview of 8051 memory allotment:
instruction addresses, registers, routines
and labels.
Human readable assembly with symbolic
names, extracted from the List File.
Binary
List File
Assembler File
File Type
.hex
.mcl
.lst
.asm
ASSEMBLY VIEW
After compiling the program in the mikroC for 8051, you can click the View
Assembly icon
or select Project › View Assembly from the drop-down
menu to review the generated assembly code (.asm file) in a new tab window.
Assembly is human-readable with symbolic names.
Related topics:Project Menu, Project Toolbar, Error Window, Project Manager,
Project Settings
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ERROR MESSAGES
COMPILER ERROR MESSAGES
- Syntax Error: expected [%s], but [%s] found.
- Array element cannot be a function.
- Function cannot return array.
- Inconsistent storage class.
- Inconsistent type.
- [%s] tag redefined [%s].
- Illegal typecast [%s] [%s].
- [%s] is not a valid identifier.
- Invalid statement.
- Constant expression required.
- Internal error [%s].
- Too many actual parameters.
- Not enough parameters.
- Invalid expresion.
- Identifier expected, but [%s] found.
- Operator [%s] not applicable to this operands [%s].
- Assigning to non-lvalue [%s].
- Cannot cast [%s] to [%s].
- Cannot assign [%s] to [%s].
- lvalue required.
- Pointer required.
- Argument is out of range.
- Undeclared identifier '%s' in expression.
- Too many initializers.
- Cannot establish this baud rate at [%s] MHz clock.
- Stack overflow.
- Invalid operator [%s].
- Expected variable but constant [%s] found.
- Expected constant but [%s] found.
- [%s] cannot be used outside a loop.
- Unknown type [%s].
- Variable [%s] is redeclared.
- Demo Limit.
- [%s] has already been declared [%s].
- Type mismatch: expected [%s], but [%s] found.
- File [%s] not found.
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- There is not enough RAM space for all variables.
- There is not enough ROM space.
- Invalid type in array.
- Path to your project.c :1: error: Not a header name "%s"
- #include [%s]
- [%s] error in preprocessor.
- Division by zero.
- Incompatible types: [%s] [%s].
- Assembler instruction [%s] was not found..
- Project name must be specified.
- Unknown commmand line Option: [%s].
- File exstension missing: [%s].
- Bad FO argument: [%s].
- Preprocessor exited with error code [%s].
- Bad absolute address [%s].
- Recursion or cross-calling of [%s].
- No files specifed.
- Device parameter missing (for example -PAT82...).
- Invalid parameter string.
- Specifier needed.
- [%s] not found [%s].
- Index out of bounds.
- Array dimension must be greater then 0.
- Const expression expected.
- Integer const expected.
- Recusion in definition.
- Array corupted.
- Arguments cannot be of void type.
- Arguments cannot have explicit memory specificator.
- Bad storage class.
- Pointer to function required.
- Function required.
- Pointer required.
- Illegal pointer conversion to double.
- Integer type needed.
- Members can not have memory specifier.
- Members can not be of bit or sbit type.
- Too many initializers.
- Too many initializers of subaggregate.
- Already used [%s].
- Illegal expression with void.
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- Address must be greater than 0.
- [%s] Identifier redefined.
- User abort.
- Expression must be greater then 0.
- Invalid declarator expected '(' or identifier.
- Typdef name redefined: [%s].
- Declarator error.
- Specifer/qualifier list expected.
- [%s] already used.
- ILevel can be used only with interrupt service routines.
- ';' expected but [%s] found.
- Expected'[{'.
- [%s] Identifier redefined.
- '(' expected but [%s] found.
- ')' expected but [%s] found.
- 'case' out of switch.
- ':' expected but [%s] found.
- 'default' label out of switch.
- Switch expression must evaluate to integral type.
- While expected but [%s] found.
- Void func cannot return values.
- 'continue' outside of loop.
- Unreachable code.
- Label redefined.
- Void type in expression.
- Too many chars.
- Unresolved type.
- Arrays of objects containing zero-size arrays are illegal.
- Invalid enumerator.
- ILevel can be used only with interrupt service routines.
- ILevel value must be integral constant.
- ILevel out of range [0..4].
- '}' expected but [%s] found.
- '(' expected but [%s] found.
- 'break' outside of loop or switch.
- Empty char.
- Nonexistent field [%s].
- Illegal char representation: [%s].
- Initializer syntax error: multidimension array missing subscript.
- Too many initializers of subaggregate.
- At least one Search Path must be specified.
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- Not enough RAM for call satck.
- Parameter [%s] must not be of bit or sbit type.
- Function must not have return value of bit or sbit type.
- Redefinition of [%s] already defined in [%s].
- Main function is not defined.
- System routine not found for initialization of: [%s].
- Bad agregate definition [%s].
- Unresolved extern [%s].
- Bad function absolute address [%s].
- Not enough RAM [%s].
- Compilation Started.
- Compiled Successfully.
- Finished (with errors): 01 Mar 2008, 14:22:26
- Project Linked Successfully.
- All files Preprocessed in [%s] ms.
- All files Compiled in [%s] ms.
- Linked in [%s] ms.
- Project [%s] completed: [%s] ms.
COMPILER WARNING MESSAGES
- Illegal file type: [%s].
- Bad or missing fosc parameter. Default value 8MHz used.
- Specified search path do not exisit: [%s].
- Specified include path do not exisit: [%s].
- Result is not defined in function: [%s].
- Initialization of extern object [%s].
- Suspicious pointer conversion.
- Implicit conversion of pointer to int.
- Unknown pragma line ignored: [%s].
- Implicit conversion of int to ptr.
- Generated baud rate is [%s] bps (error = [%s] percent).
- Unknown memory model [%s] small memory model used instead.
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SOFTWARE SIMULATOR OVERVIEW
The Source-level Software Simulator is an integral component of the mikroC for
8051 environment. It is designed to simulate operations of the 8051 MCUs and
assist the users in debugging C code written for these devices.
After you have successfully compiled your project, you can run the Software
Simulator by selecting Run › Start Debugger from the drop-down menu, or by
clicking the Start Debugger Icon
from the Debugger Toolbar. Starting the
Software Simulator makes more options available: Step Into, Step Over, Step Out,
Run to Cursor, etc. Line that is to be executed is color highlighted (blue by default).
Note: The Software Simulator simulates the program flow and execution of instruction lines, but it cannot fully emulate 8051 device behavior, i.e. it doesn’t update
timers, interrupt flags, etc.
Watch Window
The Software Simulator Watch Window is the main Software Simulator window
which allows you to monitor program items while simulating your program. To
show the Watch Window, select View › Debug Windows › Watch from the dropdown menu.
The Watch Window displays variables and registers of the MCU, along with their
addresses and values.
There are two ways of adding variable/register to the watch list:
- by its real name (variable's name in "C" code). Just select desired variable/reg
ister from Select variable from list drop-down menu and click the Add Button
- by its name ID (assembly variable name). Simply type name ID of the
variable/register you want to display into Search the variable by assemby
name box and click the Add Button
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Variables can also be removed from the Watch window, just select the variable that
you want to remove and then click the Remove Button .
- Add All Button
- Remove All Button
adds all variables.
removes all variables.
You can also expand/collapse complex variables, i.e. struct type variables,
strings...
Values are updated as you go through the simulation. Recently changed items are
colored red.
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Double clicking a variable or clicking the Properties Button
mikroC for 8051
opens
the Edit Value window in which you can assign a new value to the selected
variable/register. Also, you can choose the format of variable/register representation
between decimal, hexadecimal, binary, float or character. All representations except
float are unsigned by default. For signed representation click the check box next to
the Signed label.
An item's value can be also changed by double clicking item's value field and typing the new value directly.
Stopwatch Window
The Software Simulator Stopwatch Window is available from the drop-down menu,
View › Debug Windows › Stopwatch.
The Stopwatch Window displays a current count of cycles/time since the last
Software Simulator action. Stopwatch measures the execution time (number of
cycles) from the moment Software Simulator has started and can be reset at any
time. Delta represents the number of cycles between the lines where Software
Simulator action has started and ended.
Note: The user can change the clock in the Stopwatch Window, which will recalculate values for the latest specified frequency. Changing the clock in the Stopwatch
Window does not affect actual project settings – it only provides a simulation.
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RAM Window
The Software Simulator RAM Window is available from the drop-down menu,
View › Debug Windows › RAM.
The RAM Window displays a map of MCU’s RAM, with recently changed items
colored red. You can change value of any field by double-clicking it.
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SOFTWARE SIMULATOR OPTIONS
Name
Description
Start Debugger
Start Software Simulator.
Run/Pause
Debugger
Run or pause Software Simulator.
Stop Debugger
Stop Software Simulator.
Toggle
Breakpoints
Toggle breakpoint at the current cursor position. To view all
breakpoints, select Run > View Breakpoints from the
drop–down menu. Double clicking an item in the
Breakpoints Window List locates the breakpoint.
Run to cursor
Step Into
Execute all instructions between the current instruction and
cursor position.
Execute the current C (single or multi–cycle) instruction,
then halt. If the instruction is a routine call, enter the routine
and halt at the first instruction following the call.
Step Over
Execute the current C (single or multi–cycle) instruction,
then halt.
Step Out
Execute all remaining instructions in the current routine,
return and then halt.
Related topics: Run Menu, Debug Toolbar
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CREATING NEW LIBRARY
mikroC for 8051 allows you to create your own libraries. In order to create a library
in mikroC for 8051 follow the steps bellow:
1. Create a new C source file, see Managing Source Files
2. Save the file in the compiler's Uses folder:
DriveName:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC
8051\Uses\__Lib_Example.c
3. Write a code for your library and save it.
4. Add __Lib_Example.c file in some project, see Project Manager. Recompile
the project.
5. Compiled file __Lib_Example.mcl should appear in ...\mikroC 8051\Uses\
folder.
6. Open the definition file for the MCU that you want to use. This file is placed
in the compiler's Defs folder:
DriveName:\Program Files\Mikroelektronika\mikroC 8051\Defs\
and it is named MCU_NAME.mlk, for example AT89S8253.mlk
7. Add the Library_Alias and Library_Name at the end of the definition file,
for example #pragma SetLib([Example_Library, __Lib_Example])
8. Add Library to mlk file for each MCU that you want to use with your library.
9. Click Refresh button in Library Manager
Multiple Library Versions
Library Alias represents unique name that is linked to corresponding Library .mcl
file. For example UART library for AT89S8253 is different from UART library for
AT89S4051 MCU. Therefore, two different UART Library versions were made, see
mlk files for these two MCUs. Note that these two libraries have the same Library
Alias (UART) in both mlk files. This approach enables you to have identical representation of UART library for both MCUs in Library Manager.
Related topics: Library Manager, Project Manager, Managing Source Files
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Specifics
The following topics cover the specifics of mikroC compiler:
- ANSI Standard Issues
- Predefined Globals and Constants
- Accessing Individual Bits
- Interrupts
- 8051 Pointers
- Linker Directives
- Built-in Routines
- Code Optimization
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ANSI STANDARD ISSUES
Divergence from the ANSI C Standard
Tentative declaration are not supported.
Function recursion is not supported because of no easily-usable stack and limited
memory 8051 Specific
C Language Exstensions
mikroC for 8051 has additional set of keywords that do not belong to the ANSI standard C language keywords:
-
code
data
idata
bdata
xdata
pdata
small
compact
large
at
sbit
bit
sfr
ilevel
Related topics: Keywords, 8051 Specific
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PREDEFINED GLOBALS AND CONSTANTS
To facilitate programming of 8051 compliant MCUs, the mikroC for 8051 implements a number of predefined globals and constants.
All 8051 SFR registers are implicitly declared as global variables of volatile
unsigned int. These identifiers have an external linkage, and are visible in the entire
project. When creating a project, the mikroC for 8051 will include an appropriate
(*.c) file from defs folder, containing declarations of available
SFR registers and constants.
P0 = 1.
For a complete set of predefined globals and constants, look for “Defs” in the
mikroC for 8051 installation folder, or probe the Code Assistant for specific letters
(Ctrl+Space in the Code Editor).
ACCESSING INDIVIDUAL BITS
The mikroC for 8051 allows you to access individual bits of 8-bit variables. It also
supports sbit and bit data types
Accessing Individual Bits Of Variables
Simply use the direct member selector (.) with a variable, followed by one of identifiers F0, F1, … , F15 with F15 being the most significant bit.
There is no need of any special declarations. This kind of selective access is an
intrinsic feature of mikroC for 8051 and can be used anywhere in the code.
Identifiers F0–F15 are not case sensitive and have a specific namespace. You may
override them with your own members F0–F15 within any given structure.
If you are familiar with a particular MCU, you can also access bits by name:
// Clear TRISB3
TRISBbits.TRISB3 = 0;
See Predefined Globals and Constants for more information on register/bit names.
Note: If aiming at portability, avoid this style of accessing individual bits, use the
bit fields instead.
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sbit type
The mikroC Compiler have sbit data type which provides access to bit-addressable
SFRs. For example:
sbit LEDA at P0.B0;
sbit name at sfr-name.<Bbit-position>;
The previously declared SFR (sfr-name) is the base address for the sbit. It must be
evenly divisible by 8. The bit-position (which must be a number from 0-7) follows
the dot symbol ('.') and specifies the bit position to access. For example:
sbit OV = PSW.B2;
sbit CY = PSW.B7;
bit type
The mikroC Compiler provides a bit data type that may be used for variable declarations. It can not be used for argument lists, and function-return values.
bit bf;
// bit variable
All bit variables are stored in a bit addressable portion 0x20-0x2F segment located
in the internal memory area of the 8051. Because this area is only 16 bytes long, a
maximum of 128 bit variables may be declared within any one scope.
There are no pointers to bit variables:
bit *ptr;
// invalid
An array of type bit is not valid:
bit arr [5];
// invalid
Bit variables can not be initialized nor they can be members of structures and
unions.
Related topics: Bit fields, Predefined globals and constants
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INTERRUPTS
8051 derivates acknowledges an interrupt request by executing a hardware generated LCALL to the appropriate servicing routine ISRs. ISRs are organized in IVT. ISR
is defined as a standard function but with the org directive afterwards which connects the function with specific interrupt vector. For example org 0x000B is IVT
address of Timer 0 Overflow interrupt source of the AT89S8253.
For more information on interrupts and IVT refer to the specific data sheet.
Function Calls from Interrupt
Calling functions from within the interrupt routine is allowed. The compiler takes
care about the registers being used, both in "interrupt" and in "main" thread, and performs "smart" context-switching between them two, saving only the registers that
have been used in both threads. It is not recommended to use function call from
interrupt. In case of doing that take care of stack depth.
Interrupt Priority Level
8051 MCUs has possibilty to assign different priority level trough setting appropriate values to coresponding SFRs. You should also assign ISR same priority level by
ilevel keyword followed by interrupt priority number.
Available interrupt priority levels are: 0 (default), 1, 2 and 3.
void Timer0ISR(void) org 0x000B ilevel 2 {
//set Timer0ISR to be ISR for Timer 0 Overflow priority level 2.
}
Related topics: ANSI standard issues
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LINKER DIRECTIVES
The mikroC uses an internal algorithm to distribute objects within memory. If you
need to have a variable or routine at specific predefined address, use the linker directives absolute and org.
Directive absolute
Directive absolute specifies the starting address in RAM for a variable. If the variable is multi-byte, higher bytes will be stored at the consecutive locations.
Directive absolute is appended to declaration of a variable:
short x absolute 0x22;
// Variable x will occupy 1 byte at address 0x22
int y absolute 0x23;
// Variable y will occupy 2 bytes at addresses 0x23 and 0x24
Be careful when using the absolute directive, as you may overlap two variables by
accident. For example:
char i absolute 0x33;
// Variable i will occupy 1 byte at address 0x33
long jjjj absolute 0x30;
// Variable will occupy 4 bytes at 0x30, 0x31, 0x32, 0x33; thus,
// changing i changes jjjj highest byte at the same time, and
vice versa
Directive org
Directive org specifies a starting address of a routine in ROM.
Directive org is appended to the function definition. Directives applied to non-defining declarations will be ignored, with an appropriate warning issued by the linker.
Here is a simple example:
void func(int par) org 0x200 {
// Function will start at address 0x200
nop;
}
Note: See also funcall pragma.
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INDIRECT FUNCTION CALLS
If the linker encounters an indirect function call (by a pointer to function), it assumes
that any of the functions addresses of which were taken anywhere in the program,
can be called at that point. Use the #pragma funcall directive to instruct the linker
which functions can be called indirectly from the current function:
#pragma funcall <func_name> <called_func>[, <called_func>,...]
A corresponding pragma must be placed in the source module where the function
func_name is implemented. This module must also include declarations of all functions listed in the called_func list.
These functions will be linked if the function func_name is called in the code no
matter whether any of them was called or not.
Note: The #pragma funcall directive can help the linker to optimize function frame
allocation in the compiled stack.
BUILT-IN ROUTINES
The mikroC for 8051 compiler provides a set of useful built-in utility functions.
The Lo, Hi, Higher, Highest routines are implemented as macros. If you want
to use these functions you must include built_in.h header file (located in the inlclude folder of the compiler) into your project.
The Delay_us and Delay_ms routines are implemented as “inline”; i.e. code is generated in the place of a call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call limit.
The Vdelay_ms, Delay_Cyc and Get_Fosc_kHz are actual C routines. Their sources
can be found in Delays.c file located in the uses folder of the compiler.
- Lo
- Hi
- Higher
- Highest
- Delay_us
- Delay_ms
- Vdealy_ms
- Delay_Cyc
- Clock_Khz
- Clock_Mhz
- Get_Fosc_khz
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Lo
Prototype
unsigned short Lo(long number);
Returns
Lowest 8 bits (byte)of number, bits 7..0.
Description
Function returns the lowest byte of number. Function does
not interpret bit patterns of number – it merely returns 8 bits
as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of
the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
Requires
Arguments must be variable of scalar type (i.e. Arithmetic
Types and Pointers).
Example
d = 0x1AC30F4;
tmp = Lo(d); // Equals 0xF4
Hi
Prototype
unsigned short Hi(long number);
Returns
Returns next to the lowest byte of number, bits 8..15.
Description
Function returns the lowest byte of number. Function does
not interpret bit patterns of number – it merely returns 8 bits
as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of
the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
Requires
Arguments must be variable of scalar type (i.e. Arithmetic
Types and Pointers).
Example
d = 0x1AC30F4;
tmp = Hi(d); // Equals 0x30
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Higher
Prototype
unsigned short Higher(long number);
Returns
Returns next to the highest byte of number, bits 16..23.
Description
Function returns next to the highest byte of number. Function
does not interpret bit patterns of number – it merely returns 8
bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of
the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
Requires
Arguments must be variable of scalar type (i.e. Arithmetic
Types and Pointers).
Example
d = 0x1AC30F4;
tmp = Higher(d);
// Equals 0xAC
Highest
Prototype
unsigned short Highest(long number);
Returns
Returns the highest byte of number, bits 24..31.
Description
Function returns next to the highest byte of number. Function
does not interpret bit patterns of number – it merely returns 8
bits as found in register.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of
the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
Requires
Arguments must be variable of scalar type (i.e. Arithmetic
Types and Pointers).
Example
d = 0x1AC30F4;
tmp = Highest(d);
// Equals 0x01
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Delay_us
Prototype
void Delay_us(const unsigned long time_in_us);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_us
microseconds (a constant). Range of applicable constants
depends on the oscillator frequency.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of
the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
Requires
Nothing
Example
Delay_us(1000);
/* One millisecond pause */
Delay_ms
Prototype
void Delay_ms(const unsigned long time_in_us);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_ms
microseconds (a constant). Range of applicable constants
depends on the oscillator frequency.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of
the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
Requires
Nothing
Example
Delay_ms(1000);
/* One millisecond pause */
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Vdelay_ms
Prototype
void Vdelay_ms(unsigned time_in_ms);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Creates a software delay in duration of time_in_ms milliseconds (a variable). Generated delay is not as precise as the
delay created by Delay_ms.
Note that Vdelay_ms is library function rather than a built-in
routine; it is presented in this topic for the sake of convenience.
Requires
Nothing
Example
pause = 1000;
// ...
Vdelay_ms(pause);
// ~ one second pause
Delay_Cyc
Prototype
void Delay_Cyc(char Cycles_div_by_10);
Returns
Nothing.
Description
Creates a delay based on MCU clock. Delay lasts for 10
times the input parameter in MCU cycles.
Note that Delay_Cyc is library function rather than a built-in
routine; it is presented in this topic for the sake of convenience. There are limitations for Cycles_div_by_10 value.
Value Cycles_div_by_10 must be between 2 and 257.
Requires
Nothing
Example
Delay_Cyc(10);
/* Hundred MCU cycles pause */
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Clock_Khz
Prototype
unsigned Clock_Khz(void);
Returns
Device clock in KHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
Description
Function returns device clock in KHz, rounded to the nearest
integer.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of
the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
Requires
Nothing
Example
Delay_Cyc(10);
/* Hundred MCU cycles pause */
Clock_Mhz
Prototype
unsigned short Clock_Mhz(void);
Returns
Device clock in MHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
Description
Function returns device clock in MHz, rounded to the nearest
integer.
This is an “inline” routine; code is generated in the place of
the call, so the call doesn’t count against the nested call
limit.
Requires
Nothing
Example
clk = Clock_Mhz();
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Get_Fosc_kHz
Prototype
unsigned long Get_Fosc_kHz(void);
Returns
Device clock in KHz, rounded to the nearest integer.
Description
Function returns device clock in KHz, rounded to the nearest
integer.
Note that Get_Fosc_kHz is library function rather than a
built-in routine; it is presented in this topic for the sake of
convenience.
Requires
Nothing
Example
clk = Clock_Khz();
CODE OPTIMIZATION
Optimizer has been added to extend the compiler usability, cut down the amount of
code generated and speed-up its execution. The main features are:
Constant folding
All expressions that can be evaluated in the compile time (i.e. are constant) are being
replaced by their results. (3 + 5 -> 8);
Constant propagation
When a constant value is being assigned to a certain variable, the compiler recognizes this and replaces the use of the variable by constant in the code that follows,
as long as the value of a variable remains unchanged.
Copy propagation
The compiler recognizes that two variables have the same value and eliminates one
of them further in the code.
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Value numbering
The compiler "recognizes" if two expressions yield the same result and can therefore eliminate the entire computation for one of them.
"Dead code" ellimination
The code snippets that are not being used elsewhere in the programme do not affect
the final result of the application. They are automatically removed.
Stack allocation
Temporary registers ("Stacks") are being used more rationally, allowing VERY complex expressions to be evaluated with a minimum stack consumption.
Local vars optimization
No local variables are being used if their result does not affect some of the global or
volatile variables.
Better code generation and local optimization
Code generation is more consistent and more attention is payed to implement specific solutions for the code "building bricks" that further reduce output code size.
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- 8051 Memory Organization
- 8051 Memory Models
- 8051 Memory Type Specifiers
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8051 SPECIFICS
Types Efficiency
First of all, you should know that 8051 ALU, which performs arithmetic operations,
is optimized for working with bytes. Although mikroC is capable of handling very
complex data types, 8051 may choke on them, especially if you are working on
some of the older models. This can dramatically increase the time needed for performing even simple operations. Universal advice is to use the smallest possible
type in every situation. It applies to all programming in general, and doubly so with
microcontrollers. Types efficiency is determined by the part of RAM memory that
is used to store a variable/constant. See the example.
Nested Calls Limitations
There are no Nested Calls Limitations, except by RAM size. A Nested call represents a function call to another function within the function body. With each function call, the stack increases for the size of the returned address. Number of nested
calls is equel to the capacity of RAM which is left out after allocation of all variables.
Note: There are many different types of derivates, so it is necessary to be familiar
with characteristics and special features of the microcontroller in you are using.
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8051 MEMORY ORGANIZATION
The 8051 microcontroller's memory is divided into Program Memory and Data
Memory. Program Memory (ROM) is used for permanent saving program being
executed, while Data Memory (RAM) is used for temporarily storing and keeping
intermediate results and variables.
Program Memory (ROM)
Program Memory (ROM) is used for permanent saving program (CODE) being executed. The memory is read only. Depending on the settings made in compiler, program memory may also used to store a constant variables. The 8051 executes programs stored in program memory only. code memory type specifier is used to refer
to program memory.
8051 memory organization alows external program memory to be added.
How does the microcontroller handle external memory depends on the pin EA logical state.
Address FFFF hex
EA pin=1
EA pin=0
Additional ROM
Memory
(64K max.)
Address FFFF hex
External ROM
Memory
Address 4000 hex
(64K max.)
Address 3FFF hex
Embedded ROM
Memory
(4K)
Address 0000 hex
Microcontroller
8051
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Internal Data Memory
Up to 256 bytes of internal data memory are available depending on the 8051 derivative. Locations available to the user occupy addressing space from 0 to 7Fh, i.e.
first 128 registers and this part of RAM is divided in several blocks. The first 128
bytes of internal data memory are both directly and indirectly addressable. The
upper 128 bytes of data memory (from 0x80 to 0xFF) can be addressed only indirectly.
Since internal data memory is used for CALL stack also and there is only 256 bytes
splited over few different memory areas fine utilizing of this memory is crucial for
fast and compact code. See types efficiency also.
Memory block in the range of 20h to 2Fh is bit-addressable, which means that each
bit being there has its own address from 0 to 7Fh. Since there are 16 such registers,
this block contains in total of 128 bits with separate addresses ( Bit 0 of byte 20h
has the bit address 0, and bit 7 of byte 2Fh has the bit address 7Fh).
Three memory type specifiers can be used to refer to the internal data memory: data,
idata, and bdata.
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External Data Memory
Access to external memory is slower than access to internal data memory. There
may be up to 64K Bytes of external data memory. Several 8051 devices provide onchip XRAM space that is accessed with the same instructions as the traditional
external data space. This XRAM space is typically enabled via proper setting of SFR
register and overlaps the external memory space. Setting of that register must be
manualy done in code, before any access to external memory or XRAM space is
made.
The mikroC for 8051 has two memory type specifiers that refers to external memory space: xdata and pdata.
SFR Memory
The 8051 provides 128 bytes of memory for Special Function Registers (SFRs).
SFRs are bit, byte, or word-sized registers that are used to control timers, counters,
serial I/O, port I/O, and peripherals.
Refer to Special Function Registers for more information. See sbit also.
Related topics: Accessing individual bits, SFRs, Memory type specifiers, Memory
models
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MEMORY MODELS
The memory model determines the default memory type to use for function arguments, automatic variables, and declarations that include no explicit memory type.
The mikroC for 8051 provides three memory models:
- Small
- Compact
- Large
You may also specify the memory model on a function-by-function basis by adding
the memory model to the function declaration.
Small memory model generates the fastest, most efficient code. This is default memory model. You may override the default memory type imposed by the memory
model by explicitly declaring a variable with a memory type specifier.
Small model
In this model, all variables, by default, reside in the internal data memory of the
8051 system—as if they were declared explicitly using the data memory type specifier.
In this memory model, variable access is very efficient. However, all objects (that
are not explicitly located in another memory area) and the call stack must fit into the
internal RAM.
Call Stack size is critical because the stack space used depends on the nesting depth
of the various functions.
Compact model
Using the compact model, by default, all variables are allocated in a single page 256
bytes of external data memory of the 8051 system—as if they were explicitly
declared using the pdata memory type specifier. This memory model can accommodate a maximum of 256 bytes of variables. The limitation is due to the addressing scheme used which is indirect through registers R0 and R1 (@R0, @R1). This
memory model is not as efficient as the small model and variable access is not as
fast. However, the compact model is faster than the large model. mikroC for 8051
uses the @R0 and @R1 operands to acess external memory with instructions that
use 8 bit wide pointers and provide only the low-order byte of the address. The highorder address byte (or page) is provided by Port 2 on most 8051 derivates (see data
sheet for details).
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Large model
In the large model all variables reside in external data memory (which may be up to
64K Bytes). This is the same as if they were explicitly declared using the xdata
memory type specifier. The DPTR is used to address external memory. Instruction
set is not optimized for this memory model(access to external memory) so it neeeds
more code than the small or compact model to manipulate with the variables.
char xadd(char a1,char a2 ) large{ //allocate parameters and
local variables in xdata space
return a1 + a2;
}
Related topics: Memory type specifiers, 8051 Memory Organization, Accessing
individual bits, SFRs, Project Settings
MEMORY TYPE SPECIFIERS
The mikroC for 8051 supports usage of all memory areas. Each variable may be
explicitly assigned to a specific memory space by including a memory type specifier in the declaration, or implicitly assigned (based on a memory model).
The following memory type specifiers can be used:
- code
- data
- idata
- bdata
- xdata
- pdata
Memory type specifiers can be included in svariable declaration.
For example:
char data
data_buffer;
// puts data_buffer in data ram
const char code txt[] = "ENTER PARAMETER:";
// puts text in program memory
unsigned long xdata array[100];
// puts array in external memory
float idata
ibuffer;
// puts ibuffer in idata ramm
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If no memory type is specified for a variable, the compiler locates the variable in the
memory space determined by the memory model: Small, Compact, or Large.
code
Description
Program memory (64 KBytes); accessed by opcode MOVC
@A+DPTR.
The code memory type may be used for constants and functions. This memory is accessed using 16-bit addresses and
may be on-chip or external.
Example
// puts txt in program memory
const char code txt[] = "ENTER PARAMETER:";
data
Description
Directly addressable internal data memory; fastest access to
variables (128 bytes).
This memory is directly accessed using 8-bit addresses and
is the on-chip RAM of the 8051. It has the shortest (fastest)
access time but the amount of data is limited in size (to 128
bytes or less).
Example
// puts x in data ram
unsigned char data x;
idata
Description
Indirectly addressable internal data memory; accessed across
the full internal address space (256 bytes).
This memory is indirectly accessed using 8-bit addresses and
is the on-chip RAM of the 8051. The amount of idata is limited in size (to 128 bytes or less) it is upper 128 addresses of
RAM
Example
// puts x in data ram
unsigned char data x;
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bdata
Description
Bit-addressable internal data memory; supports mixed bit
and byte access (16 bytes).
This memory is directly accessed using 8-bit addresses and
is the on-chip bit-addressable RAM of the 8051. Variables
declared with the bdata type are bit-addressable and may be
read and written using bit instructions.
For more information about the bdata type refer to the
Accessing Individual Bits.
Example
// puts x in data ram
unsigned char data x;
xdata
Description
External data memory (64 KBytes); accessed by opcode
MOVX @DPTR.
This memory is indirectly accessed using 16-bit addresses
and is the external data RAM of the 8051. The amount of
xdata is limited in size (to 64K or less).
Example
// puts x in data ram
unsigned char data x;
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pdata
Description
Paged (256 bytes) external data memory; accessed by
opcode MOVX @Rn.
This memory is indirectly accessed using 8-bit addresses and
is one 256-byte page of external data RAM of the 8051. The
amount of pdata is limited in size (to 256 bytes).
Example
// puts x in data ram
unsigned char data x;
Related topics: 8051 Memory Organization, Memory models, Accessing individual
bits, SFRs, Constants, Functions
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Language Reference
- Lexical Elements
- Concepts
- Types
- Declarations
- Functions
- Operators
- Expressions
- Statements
- Preprocessor
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MIKROC LANGUAGE REFERENCE
LEXICAL ELEMENTS OVERVIEW
The following topics provide a formal definition of the mikroC for 8051 lexical elements. They describe different categories of word-like units (tokens) recognized by
the mikroC for 8051.
In the tokenizing phase of compilation, the source code file is parsed (that is, broken down) into tokens and whitespace. The tokens in the mikroC for 8051 are
derived from a series of operations performed on your programs by the compiler and
its built-in preprocessor.
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WHITESPACE
Whitespace is a collective name given to spaces (blanks), horizontal and vertical
tabs, newline characters and comments. Whitespace can serve to indicate where
tokens start and end, but beyond this function, any surplus whitespace is discarded.
For example, two sequences
int i; float f;
and
int
i;
float f;
are lexically equivalent and parse identically to give six tokens:
int
i
;
float
f
;
Whitespace in Strings
The ASCII characters representing whitespace can occur within string literals. In
that case they are protected from the normal parsing process (they remain as a part
of the string). For example,
char name[] = "mikro foo";
parses into seven tokens, including a single string literal token:
char
name
[
]
=
"mikro foo"
;
/* just one token here! */
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Line Splicing with Backslash (\)
A special case occurs if a line ends with a backslash (\). Both backslash and new line
character are discarded, allowing two physical lines of a text to be treated as one
unit. So, the following code
"mikroC \
Compiler"
parses into "mikroC Compiler". Refer to String Constants for more information.
COMMENTS
Comments are pieces of a text used to annotate a program and technically are another form of whitespace. Comments are for the programmer’s use only; they are
stripped from the source text before parsing. There are two ways to delineate comments: the C method and the C++ method. Both are supported by mikroC for 8051.
You should also follow the guidelines on the use of whitespace and delimiters in
comments, discussed later in this topic to avoid other portability problems.
C comments
C comment is any sequence of characters placed after the symbol pair /*. The comment terminates at the first occurance of the pair */ following the initial /*. The
entire sequence, including four comment-delimiter symbols, is replaced by one
space after macro expansion.
In the mikroC for 8051,
int /* type */ i /* identifier */;
parses as:
int i;
Note that the mikroC for 8051 does not support a nonportable token pasting strategy using /**/. For more information on token pasting, refer to the Preprocessor
Operators.
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C++ comments
The mikroC for 8051 allows single-line comments using two adjacent slashes (//).
The comment can start in any position and extends until the next new line.
The following code
int i; // this is a comment
int j;
parses as:
int i;
int j;
Nested comments
ANSI C doesn’t allow nested comments. The attempt to nest a comment like this
/*
int /* declaration */ i; */
fails, because the scope of the first /* ends at the first */. This gives us
i ; */
which would generate a syntax error.
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TOKENS
Token is the smallest element of a C program that compiler can recognize. The parser separates tokens from the input stream by creating the longest token possible
using the input characters in a left–to–right scan.
The mikroC for 8051 recognizes the following kinds of tokens:
- keywords
- identifiers
- constants
- operators
punctuators (also known as separators)
Tokens can be concatenated (pasted) by means of the preprocessor operator ##. See
the Preprocessor Operators for details.
Token Extraction Example
Here is an example of token extraction. Take a look at the following example code
sequence:
inter =
a+++b;
First, note that inter would be parsed as a single identifier, rather than as the keyword int followed by the identifier er.
The programmer who has written the code might have intended to write inter = a
but it wouldn’t work that way. The compiler would parse it into the seven
following tokens:
+ (++b),
inter
=
a
++
+
b
;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
variable identifier
assignment operator
variable identifier
postincrement operator
addition operator
variable identifier
statement terminator
Note that +++ parses as ++ (the longest token possible) followed by +.
According to the operator precedence rules, our code sequence is actually:
inter (a++)+b;
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CONSTANTS
Constants or literals are tokens representing fixed numeric or character values.
The mikroC for 8051 supports:
- integer constants
- floating point constants
- character constants
- string constants (strings literals)
- enumeration constants
The data type of a constant is deduced by the compiler using such clues as a numeric value and format used in the source code.
INTEGER CONSTANTS
Integer constants can be decimal (base 10), hexadecimal (base 16), binary (base 2),
or octal (base 8). In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an integer constant is derived from its value.
Long and Unsigned Suffixes
The suffix L (or l) attached to any constant forces that constant to be represented as
a long. Similarly, the suffix U (or u) forces a constant to be unsigned. Both L and U
suffixes can be used with the same constant in any order or case: ul, Lu, UL, etc.
In the absence of any suffix (U, u, L, or l), a constant is assigned the “smallest” of
the following types that can accommodate its value: short, unsigned short,
int, unsigned int, long int, unsigned long int.
Otherwise:
- If a constant has the U suffix, its data type will be the first of the following that
can accommodate its value: unsigned short, unsigned int, unsigned
long int.
- If a constant has the L suffix, its data type will be the first of the following that
can accommodate its value: long int, unsigned long int.
- If a constant has both L and U suffixes, (LU or UL), its data type will be
unsigned long int.
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Decimal
Decimal constants from -2147483648 to 4294967295 are allowed. Constants
exceeding these bounds will produce an “Out of range” error. Decimal constants
must not use an initial zero. An integer constant that has an initial zero is interpreted as an octal constant. Thus,
int i = 10;
int i = 010;
int i = 0;
/* decimal 10 */
/* decimal 8 */
/* decimal 0 = octal 0 */
In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of a decimal constant is
derived from its value, as shown below:
Value Assigned to Constant
Assumed Type
< -2147483648
Error: Out of range!
-2147483648 – -32769
long
-32768 – -129
int
-128 – 127
short
128 – 255
unsigned short
256 – 32767
int
32768 – 65535
unsigned int
65536 – 2147483647
long
2147483648 – 4294967295
unsigned long
> 4294967295
Error: Out of range!
Hexadecimal
All constants starting with 0x (or 0X) are taken to be hexadecimal. In the absence of
any overriding suffixes, the data type of an hexadecimal constant is derived from its
value, according to the rules presented above. For example, 0xC367 will be treated
as unsigned int.
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Binary
All constants starting with 0b (or 0B) are taken to be binary. In the absence of any
overriding suffixes, the data type of an binary constant is derived from its value,
according to the rules presented above. For example, 0b11101 will be treated as
short.
Octal
All constants with an initial zero are taken to be octal. If an octal constant contains
the illegal digits 8 or 9, an error is reported. In the absence of any overriding suffixes, the data type of an octal constant is derived from its value, according to the rules
presented above. For example, 0777 will be treated as int.
FLOATING POINT CONSTANTS
A floating-point constant consists of:
- Decimal integer
- Decimal point
- Decimal fraction
- e or E and a signed integer exponent (optional)
- Type suffix: f or F or l or L (optional)
Either decimal integer or decimal fraction (but not both) can be omitted. Either decimal point or letter e (or E) with a signed integer exponent (but not both) can be
omitted. These rules allow conventional and scientific (exponent) notations.
Negative floating constants are taken as positive constants with an unary operator
minus (-) prefixed.
The mikroC for 8051 limits floating-point constants to the range ±1.17549435082 *
10-38 .. ±6.80564774407 * 1038.
Here are some examples:
0.
-1.23
23.45e6
2e-5
3E+10
.09E34
//
//
//
//
//
//
=
=
=
=
=
=
0.0
-1.23
23.45 * 10^6
2.0 * 10^-5
3.0 * 10^10
0.09 * 10^34
The mikroC for 8051 floating-point constants are of the type double. Note that the
mikroC for 8051’s implementation of ANSI Standard considers float and double
(together with the long double variant) to be the same type.
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CHARACTER CONSTANTS
A character constant is one or more characters enclosed in single quotes, such as
'A', '+', or '\n'. In the mikroC for 8051, single-character constants are of the
unsigned int type. Multi-character constants are referred to as string constants or
string literals. For more information refer to String Constants.
Escape Sequences
A backslash character (\) is used to introduce an escape sequence, which allows a
visual representation of certain nongraphic characters. One of the most common
escape constants is the newline character (\n).
A backslash is used with octal or hexadecimal numbers to represent an ASCII symbol or control code corresponding to that value; for example, '\x3F' for the question mark. Any value within legal range for data type char (0 to 0xFF for the mikroC
for 8051) can be used. Larger numbers will generate the compiler error “Out of
range”.
For example, the octal number \777 is larger than the maximum value allowed
and will generate an error. The first nonoctal or nonhexadecimal character
encountered in an octal or hexadecimal escape sequence marks the end of the
sequence.
(\377)
Note: You must use the sequence \\ to represent an ASCII backslash, as used in
operating system paths.
The following table shows the available escape sequences:
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Sequence
Value
Char
What it does
\a
0x07
BEL
Audible bell
\b
0x08
BS
Backspace
\f
0x0C
FF
Formfeed
\n
0x0A
LF
Newline (Linefeed)
\r
0x0D
CR
Carriage Return
\t
0x09
HT
Tab (horizontal)
\v
0x0B
VT
Vertical Tab
\\
0x5C
\
Backslash
\'
0x27
‘
Single quote (Apostrophe)
\"
0x22
“
Double quote
\?
0x3F
?
Question mark
\O
any
O = string of up to 3 octal digits
\xH
any
H = string of hex digits
\XH
any
H = string of hex digits
Disambiguation
Some ambiguous situations might arise when using escape sequences.
Here is an example:
Lcd_Out_Cp("\x091.0 Intro");
This is intended to be interpreted as \x09 and "1.0 Intro". However, the mikroC
for 8051 compiles it as the hexadecimal number \x091 and literal string ".0
Intro". To avoid such problems, we could rewrite the code in the following way:
Lcd_Out_Cp("\x09" "1.0 Intro");
For more information on the previous line, refer to String Constants.
Ambiguities might also arise if an octal escape sequence is followed by a nonoctal
digit. For example, the following constant:
"\118"
would be interpreted as a two-character constant made up of the characters \11 and
8, because 8 is not a legal octal digit.
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STRING CONSTANTS
String constants, also known as string literals, are a special type of constants which
store fixed sequences of characters. A string literal is a sequence of any number of
characters surrounded by double quotes:
"This is a string."
The null string, or empty string, is written like "". A literal string is stored internally as a given sequence of characters plus a final null character. A null string is stored
as a single null character.
The characters inside the double quotes can include escape sequences. This code, for
example:
"\t\"Name\"\\\tAddress\n\n"
prints like this:
"Name"\
Address
The "Name" is preceded by two tabs; The Address is preceded by one tab. The line
is followed by two new lines. The \" provides interior double quotes. The escape
character sequence \\ is translated into \ by the compiler.
Adjacent string literals separated only by whitespace are concatenated during the
parsing phase. For example:
"This is " "just"
" an example."
is equivalent to
"This is just an example."
Line Continuation with Backslash
You can also use the backslash (\) as a continuation character to extend a string
constant across line boundaries:
"This is really \
a one-line string."
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ENUMERATION CONSTANTS
Enumeration constants are identifiers defined in enum type declarations. The identifiers are usually chosen as mnemonics to contribute to legibility. Enumeration constants are of int type. They can be used in any expression where integer constants
are valid.
For example:
enum weekdays { SUN = 0, MON, TUE, WED, THU, FRI, SAT };
The identifiers (enumerators) used must be unique within the scope of the enum declaration. Negative initializers are allowed. See Enumerations for details about enum
declarations.
POINTER CONSTANTS
A pointer or pointed-at object can be declared with the const modifier. Anything
declared as const cannot change its value. It is also illegal to create a pointer that
might violate a non-assignability of the constant object.
Consider the following examples:
int i;
int * pi;
(uninitialized)
int * const cp = &i;
int
const int ci = 7;
const int * pci;
int
const int * const cpc = &ci;
to a
// i is an int
// pi is a pointer to int
// cp is a constant pointer to
// ci is a constant int
// pci is a pointer to constant
// cpc is a constant pointer
//
constant int
The following assignments are legal:
i = ci;
*cp = ci;
const-pointer
++pci;
pci = cpc;
const to a
// Assign const-int to int
// Assign const-int to
//
object-pointed-at-by-a// Increment a pointer-to-const
// Assign a const-pointer-to-a//
pointer-to-const
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The following assignments are illegal:
ci = 0;
ci--;
*pci = 3;
cp = &ci;
cpc++;
pi = pci;
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
//
NO--cannot assign to a const-int
NO--cannot change a const-int
NO--cannot assign to an object
pointed at by pointer-to-const.
NO--cannot assign to a const-pointer,
even if value would be unchanged.
NO--cannot change const-pointer
NO--if this assignment were allowed,
you would be able to assign to *pci
(a const value) by assigning to *pi.
Similar rules are applayed to the volatile modifier. Note that both const and
volatile can appear as modifiers to the same identifier.
CONSTANT EXPRESSIONS
A constant expressions can be evaluated during translation rather that runtime and
accordingly may be used in any place that a constant may be.
Constant expressions can consist only of the following:
- literals,
- enumeration constants,
- simple constants (no constant arrays or structures),
- sizeof operators.
Constant expressions cannot contain any of the following operators, unless the operators are contained within the operand of a sizeof operator: assignment, comma,
decrement, function call, increment.
Each constant expression can evaluate to a constant that is in the range of representable values for its type.
Constant expression can be used anywhere a constant is legal.
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KEYWORDS
Keywords are words reserved for special purposes and must not be used as normal
identifier names.
Beside standard C keywords, all relevant SFR are defined as global variables and
represent reserved words that cannot be redefined (for example: TMR0, PCL, etc).
Probe the Code Assistant for specific letters (Ctrl+Space in Editor) or refer to
Predefined Globals and Constants.
Here is an alphabetical listing of keywords in C:
-
asm
auto
break
case
char
const
continue
default
do
double
else
enum
extern
float
for
goto
if
int
long
register
return
short
signed
sizeof
static
struct
switch
typedef
union
unsigned
void
volatile
while
Also, the mikroC for 8051 includes a number of predefined identifiers used in
libraries. You could replace them by your own definitions, if you want to develop
your own libraries. For more information, see mikroC for 8051 Libraries.
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IDENTIFIERS
Identifiers are arbitrary names of any length given to functions, variables, symbolic
constants, user-defined data types, and labels. All these program elements will be
referred to as objects throughout the help (don't get confused with the meaning of
object in object-oriented programming).
Identifiers can contain the letters a to z and A to Z, underscore character “_”, and
digits 0 to 9. The only restriction is that the first character must be a letter or an
underscore.
Case Sensitivity
The mikroC for 8051 identifiers are not case sensitive by default, so that Sum, sum,
and suM represent an equivalent identifier. Case sensitivity can be activated or suspended in Output Settings window. Even if case sensitivity is turned off Keywords
remain case sensitive and they must be written in lower case.
Uniqueness and Scope
Although identifier names are arbitrary (according to the stated rules), if the same
name is used for more than one identifier within the same scope and sharing the
same name space then error arises. Duplicate names are legal for different name
spaces regardless of scope rules. For more information on scope, refer to Scope and
Visibility.
Identifier Examples
Here are some valid identifiers:
temperature_V1
Pressure
no_hit
dat2string
SUM3
_vtext…
and here are some invalid identifiers:
7temp
%higher
int
j23.07.04
// NO -- cannot begin with a numeral
// NO -- cannot contain special characters
// NO -- cannot match reserved word
// NO -- cannot contain special characters (dot)
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PUNCTUATORS
The mikroC for 8051 punctuators (also known as separators) are:
- [ ] – Brackets
- ( ) – Parentheses
- { } – Braces
- , – Comma
- ; – Semicolon
- : – Colon
- * – Asterisk
- = – Equal sign
- # – Pound sign
Most of these punctuators also function as operators.
Brackets
Brackets [ ] indicate single and multidimensional array subscripts:
char ch, str[] = "mikro";
int mat[3][4];
ch = str[3];
/* 3 x 4 matrix */
/* 4th element */Parentheses
Parentheses
( ) are used to group expressions, isolate conditional expressions, and indicate function calls and function parameters:
d = c * (a + b);
if (d == z) ++x;
func();
void func2(int n);
/* override normal precedence */
/* essential with conditional statement */
/* function call, no args */
/* function declaration with parameters */
Parentheses are recommended in macro definitions to avoid potential precedence
problems during an expansion:
#define CUBE(x) ((x) * (x) * (x))
For more information, refer to Operators Precedence And Associativity and
Expressions.
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Braces
Braces { } indicate the start and end of a compound statement:
if (d == z) {
++x;
func();
}
Closing brace serves as a terminator for the compound statement, so a semicolon is
not required after }, except in structure declarations. Sometimes, the semicolon can
be illegal, as in
if (statement)
{ ... };
else
{ ... };
/* illegal semicolon! */
For more information, refer to the Compound Statements.
Comma
Comma (,) separates the elements of a function argument list:
void func(int n, float f, char ch);
Comma is also used as an operator in comma expressions. Mixing two uses of
comma is legal, but you must use parentheses to distinguish them. Note that (exp1,
exp2) evalutates both but is equal to the second:
func(i, j);
/* call func with two args */
func((exp1, exp2), (exp3, exp4, exp5)); /* also calls func with two
args! */
Semicolon
Semicolon (;) is a statement terminator. Any legal C expression (including the empty
expression) followed by a semicolon is interpreted as a statement, known as an
expression statement. The expression is evaluated and its value is discarded. If the
expression statement has no side effects, the mikroC for 8051 might ignore it.
a + b;
++a;
;
/* Evaluate a + b, but discard value */
/* Side effect on a, but discard value of ++a */
/* Empty expression, or a null statement */
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Semicolons are sometimes used to create an empty statement:
for (i = 0; i < n; i++) ;
For more information, see the Statements.
Colon
Use colon (:) to indicate the labeled statement:
start: x = 0;
...
goto start;
Labels are discussed in the Labeled Statements.
Asterisk (Pointer Declaration)
Asterisk (*) in a variable declaration denotes the creation of a pointer to a type:
char *char_ptr;
/* a pointer to char is declared */
Pointers with multiple levels of indirection can be declared by indicating a pertinent
number of asterisks:
int **int_ptr;
double ***double_ptr;
/* a pointer to an array of integers */
/* a pointer to a matrix of doubles */
You can also use asterisk as an operator to either dereference a pointer or as multiplication operator:
i = *int_ptr;
a = b * 3.14;
For more information, see the Pointers.
Equal Sign
Equal sign (=) separates variable declarations from initialization lists:
int test[5] = { 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 };
int x = 5;
Equal sign is also used as an assignment operator in expressions:
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int a, b, c;
a = b + c;
For more information, see Assignment Operators.
Pound Sign (Preprocessor Directive)
Pound sign (#) indicates a preprocessor directive when it occurs as the first nonwhitespace character on a line. It signifies a compiler action, not necessarily associated with a code generation. See the Preprocessor Directives for more information.
and ## are also used as operators to perform token replacement and merging during the preprocessor scanning phase. See the Preprocessor Operators.
#
CONCEPTS
This section covers some basic concepts of language, essential for understanding of
how C programs work. First, we need to establish the following terms that will be
used throughout the help:
- Objects and lvalues
- Scope and Visibility
- Name Spaces
- Duration
OBJECTS
An object is a specific region of memory that can hold a fixed or variable value (or
set of values). This use of a term object is different from the same term, used in
object-oriented languages, which is more general. Our definiton of the word would
encompass functions, variables, symbolic constants, user-defined data types, and
labels.
Each value has an associated name and type (also known as a data type). The name
is used to access the object and can be a simple identifier or complex expression that
uniquely refers the object.
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Objects and Declarations
Declarations establish a necessary mapping between identifiers and objects. Each
declaration associates an identifier with a data type.
Associating identifiers with objects requires each identifier to have at least two
attributes: storage class and type (sometimes referred to as data type). The mikroC
for 8051 compiler deduces these attributes from implicit or explicit declarations in
the source code. Usually, only the type is explicitly specified and the storage class
specifier assumes the automatic value auto.
Generally speaking, an identifier cannot be legally used in a program before its declaration point in the source code. Legal exceptions to this rule (known as forward
references) are labels, calls to undeclared functions, and struct or union tags.
The range of objects that can be declared includes:
- Variables
- Functions
- Types
- Arrays of other types
- Structure, union, and enumeration tags
- Structure members
- Union members
- Enumeration constants
- Statement labels
- Preprocessor macros
The recursive nature of the declarator syntax allows complex declarators. You’ll
probably want to use typedefs to improve legibility if constructing complex objects.
Lvalues
Lvalue is an object locator: an expression that designates an object. An example of
lvalue expression is *P, where P is any expression evaluating to a non-null pointer.
A modifiable lvalue is an identifier or expression that relates to an object that can be
accessed and legally changed in memory. A const pointer to a constant, for example,
is not a modifiable lvalue. A pointer to a constant can be changed (but its dereferenced value cannot).
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Historically, l stood for “left”, meaning that lvalue could legally stand on the left
(the receiving end) of an assignment statement. Now only modifiable lvalues can
legally stand to the left of an assignment operator. For example, if a and b are nonconstant integer identifiers with properly allocated memory storage, they are both
modifiable lvalues, and assignments such as a = 1 and b = a + b are legal.
Rvalues
The expression a + b is not lvalue: a + b = a is illegal because the expression on
the left is not related to an object. Such expressions are sometimes called rvalues
(short for right values).
SCOPE AND VISIBILITY
Scope
The scope of an identifier is a part of the program in which the identifier can be used
to access its object. There are different categories of scope: block (or local), function, function prototype, and file. These categories depend on how and where identifiers are declared.
- Block: The scope of an identifier with block (or local) scope starts at the decl
aration point and ends at the end of the block containing the declaration (such
block is known as the enclosing block). Parameter declarations with a function
definition also have block scope, limited to the scope of the function body.
- File: File scope identifiers, also known as globals, are declared outside of all
blocks; their scope is from the point of declaration to the end of the source file.
- Function: The only identifiers having function scope are statement labels.
Label names can be used with goto statements anywhere in the function in
which the label is declared. Labels are declared implicitly by writing
label_name: followed by a statement. Label names must be unique within a
function.
- Function prototype: Identifiers declared within the list of parameter declara
tions in a function prototype (not as a part of a function definition) have a
function prototype scope. This scope ends at the end of the function prototype.
Visibility
The visibility of an identifier is a region of the program source code from which an
identifier’s associated object can be legally accessed.
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Scope and visibility usually coincide, though there are circumstances under which
an object becomes temporarily hidden by the appearance of a duplicate identifier:
the object still exists but the original identifier cannot be used to access it until the
scope of the duplicate identifier ends.
Technically, visibility cannot exceed a scope, but a scope can exceed visibility. See
the following example:
void f (int i) {
int j;
j = 3;
{
double j;
j = 0.1;
// auto by default
// int i and j are in scope and visible
// nested block
// j is local name in the nested block
// i and double j are visible;
// int j = 3 in scope but hidden
}
j += 1;
// double j out of scope
// int j visible and = 4
}
// i and j are both out of scope
NAME SPACES
Name space is a scope within which an identifier must be unique. The mikroC for
8051 uses four distinct categories of identifiers:
1.goto label names - must be unique within the function in which they are
declared.
2.Structure, union, and enumeration tags - must be unique within the block in
which they are defined. Tags declared outside of any function must be unique.
3.Structure and union member names - must be unique within the structure or
union in which they are defined. There is no restriction on the type or offset of
members with the same member name in different structures.
4.Variables, typedefs, functions, and enumeration members - must be unique
within the scope in which they are defined. Externally declared identifiers
must be unique among externally declared variables.
Duplicate names are legal for different name spaces regardless of the scope rules.
For example:
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int blue = 73;
{ // open a block
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
/* enumerator blue = 3 now hides outer declaration of int blue */
struct colors { int i, j; };
double red = 2;
// ILLEGAL: colors duplicate tag
// ILLEGAL: redefinition of red
}
blue = 37;
// back in int blue scope
DURATION
Duration, closely related to a storage class, defines a period during which the
declared identifiers have real, physical objects allocated in memory. We also distinguish between compile-time and run-time objects. Variables, for instance, unlike
typedefs and types, have real memory allocated during run time. There are two kinds
of duration: static and local.
Static Duration
Memory is allocated to objects with static duration as soon as execution is underway; this storage allocation lasts until the program terminates. Static duration
objects usually reside in fixed data segments allocated according to the memory
model in force. All globals have static duration. All functions, wherever defined, are
objects with static duration. Other variables can be given static duration by using the
explicit static or extern storage class specifiers.
In the mikroC for 8051, static duration objects are not initialized to zero (or null) in
the absence of any explicit initializer.
Don’t mix static duration with file or global scope. An object can have static duration and local scope – see the example below.
Local Duration
Local duration objects are also known as automatic objects. They are created on the
stack (or in a register) when an enclosing block or a function is entered. They are
deallocated when the program exits that block or function. Local duration objects
must be explicitly initialized; otherwise, their contents are unpredictable
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The storage class specifier auto can be used when declaring local duration variables,
but it is usually redundant, because auto is default for variables declared within a
block.
An object with local duration also has local scope because it does not exist outside
of its enclosing block. On the other hand, a local scope object can have static duration. For example:
void f() {
/* local duration variable; init a upon every call to f */
int a = 1;
/* static duration variable; init b only upon first call to f */
static int b = 1;
/* checkpoint! */
a++;
b++;
}
void main() {
/* At checkpoint,
f(); // a=1, b=1,
f(); // a=1, b=2,
f(); // a=1, b=3,
// etc.
}
we will have: */
after first call,
after second call,
after third call,
TYPES
The mikroC for 8051 is a strictly typed language, which means that every object,
function, and expression must have a strictly defined type, known in the time of
compilation. Note that the mikroC for 8051 works exclusively with numeric types.
The type serves:
- to determine the correct memory allocation required initially.
- to interpret the bit patterns found in the object during subsequent access.
- in many type-checking situations, to ensure that illegal assignments are
trapped.
The mikroC for 8051 supports many standard (predefined) and user-defined data
types, including signed and unsigned integers in various sizes, floating-point numbers with various precisions, arrays, structures, and unions. In addition, pointers to
most of these objects can be established and manipulated in memory.
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The type determines how much memory is allocated to an object and how the program will interpret the bit patterns found in the object’s storage allocation. A given
data type can be viewed as a set of values (often implementation-dependent) that
identifiers of that type can assume, together with a set of operations allowed with
these values. The compile-time operator sizeof allows you to determine the size in
bytes of any standard or user-defined type.
The mikroC for 8051 standard libraries and your own program and header files must
provide unambiguous identifiers (or expressions derived from them) and types so
that the mikroC for 8051 can consistently access, interpret, and (possibly) change
the bit patterns in memory corresponding to each active object in your program.
Type Categories
A common way to categorize types is to divide them into:
- fundamental
- derived
The fudamental types represent types that cannot be split up into smaller parts. They
are sometimes referred to as unstructured types. The fundamental types are void,
char, int, float, and double, together with short, long, signed, and
unsigned variants of some of them. For more information on fundamental types,
refer to the topic Fundamental Types.
The derived types are also known as structured types and they include pointers to
other types, arrays of other types, function types, structures, and unions. For more
information on derived types, refer to the topic Derived Types.
FUNDAMENTAL TYPES
The fudamental types represent types that cannot be divided into more basic elements, and are the model for representing elementary data on machine level. The
fudamental types are sometimes referred to as unstructured types, and are used as
elements in creating more complex derived or user-defined types.
The fundamental types include:
- Arithmetic Types
- Enumerations
- Void Type
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ARITHMETIC TYPES
The arithmetic type specifiers are built up from the following keywords: void,
char, int, float and double, together with the prefixes short, long, signed
and unsigned. From these keywords you can build both integral and floating-point
types.
Integral Types
The types char and int, together with their variants, are considered to be integral
data types. Variants are created by using one of the prefix modifiers short, long,
signed and unsigned.
In the table below is an overview of the integral types – keywords in parentheses can
be (and often are) omitted.
The modifiers signed and unsigned can be applied to both char and int. In the
absence of the unsigned prefix, signed is automatically assumed for integral types.
The only exception is char, which is unsigned by default. The keywords signed and
unsigned, when used on their own, mean signed int and unsigned int, respectively.
The modifiers short and long can only be applied to int. The keywords short and
long, used on their own, mean short int and long int, respectively.
Type
Size in bytes
Range
(unsigned) char
1
0 .. 255
signed char
1
- 128 .. 127
(signed) short (int)
1
- 128 .. 127
unsigned short (int)
1
0 .. 255
(signed) int
2
-32768 .. 32767
unsigned (int)
2
0 .. 65535
(signed) long (int)
4
-2147483648 .. 2147483647
unsigned long (int)
4
0 .. 4294967295
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Floating-point Types
The types float and double, together with the long double variant, are considered to
be floating-point types. The mikroC for 8051’s implementation of an ANSI Standard
considers all three to be the same type.
Floating point in the mikroC for 8051 is implemented using the Microchip AN575
32-bit format (IEEE 754 compliant).
An overview of the floating-point types is shown in the table below:
Type
float
double
long double
Size
in
bytes
Range
4
-1.5 * 1045 .. +3.4 * 1038
4
-1.5 * 1045 .. +3.4 * 1038
4
-1.5 * 1045 .. +3.4 * 1038
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ENUMERATIONS
An enumeration data type is used for representing an abstract, discreet set of values
with appropriate symbolic names.
Enumeration Declaration
Enumeration is declared like this:
enum tag {enumeration-list};
Here, tag is an optional name of the enumeration; enumeration-list is a commadelimited list of discreet values, enumerators (or enumeration constants). Each enumerator is assigned a fixed integral value. In the absence of explicit initializers, the
first enumerator is set to zero, and the value of each succeeding enumerator is set to
a value of its predecessor increased by one.
Variables of the enum type are declared the same as variables of any other type. For
example, the following declaration:
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
establishes a unique integral type, enum colors, variable c of this type, and set of
enumerators with constant integer values (black = 0, red = 1, ...). In the mikroC for
8051, a variable of an enumerated type can be assigned any value of the type int –
no type checking beyond that is enforced. That is:
c = red;
c = 1;
// OK
// Also OK, means the same
With explicit integral initializers, you can set one or more enumerators to specific
values. The initializer can be any expression yielding a positive or negative integer
value (after possible integer promotions). Any subsequent names without initializers will be increased by one. These values are usually unique, but duplicates are
legal
The order of constants can be explicitly re-arranged. For example:
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enum colors { black,
red,
green,
blue=6,
violet,
white=4 };
mikroC for 8051
//
//
//
//
//
//
value
value
value
value
value
value
0
1
2
6
7
4
Initializer expression can include previously declared enumerators. For example, in
the following declaration:
enum memory_sizes { bit = 1, nibble = 4 * bit, byte = 2 * nibble,
kilobyte = 1024 * byte };
nibble would acquire the value 4, byte the value 8, and kilobyte the value 8192.
Anonymous Enum Type
In our previous declaration, the identifier colors is an optional enumeration tag that
can be used in subsequent declarations of enumeration variables of the enum colors
type:
enum colors bg, border;
/* declare variables bg and border */
Like with struct and union declarations, you can omit the tag if no further variables
of this enum type are required:
/* Anonymous enum type: */
enum { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } color;
Enumeration Scope
Enumeration tags share the same name space as structure and union tags.
Enumerators share the same name space as ordinary variable identifiers:
int blue = 73;
{ // open a block
enum colors { black, red, green, blue, violet, white } c;
/* enumerator blue = 3 now hides outer declaration of int blue */
struct colors { int i, j; };
double red = 2;
// ILLEGAL: colors duplicate tag
// ILLEGAL: redefinition of red
}
blue = 37;
// back in int blue scope
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VOID TYPE
void is a special type indicating the absence of any value. There are no objects of
void; instead, void is used for deriving more complex types.
Void Functions
Use the void keyword as a function return type if the function does not return a
value.
void print_temp(char temp) {
Lcd_Out_Cp("Temperature:");
Lcd_Out_Cp(temp);
Lcd_Chr_Cp(223); // degree character
Lcd_Chr_Cp('C');
}
Use void as a function heading if the function does not take any parameters.
Alternatively, you can just write empty parentheses:
main(void) { // same as main()
...
}
Generic Pointers
Pointers can be declared as void, which means that they can point to any type. These
pointers are sometimes called generic.
DERIVED TYPES
The derived types are also known as structured types. They are used as elements in
creating more complex user-defined types.
The derived types include:
- arrays
- pointers
- structures
- unions
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ARRAYS
Array is the simplest and most commonly used structured type. A variable of array
type is actually an array of objects of the same type. These objects represent elements of an array and are identified by their position in array. An array consists of a
contiguous region of storage exactly large enough to hold all of its elements.
Array Declaration
Array declaration is similar to variable declaration, with the brackets added after
identifer:
type array_name[constant-expression]
This declares an array named as array_name and composed of elements of type. The
type can be any scalar type (except void), user-defined type, pointer, enumeration,
or another array. Result of constant-expression within the brackets determines a
number of elements in array. If an expression is given in an array declarator, it must
evaluate to a positive constant integer. The value is a number of elements in an array.
Each of the elements of an array is indexed from 0 to the number of elements minus
one. If a number of elements is n, elements of array can be approached as variables
array_name[0] .. array_name[n-1] of type.
Here are a few examples of array declaration:
#define MAX = 50
int
vector_one[10];
/* declares an array of 10 integers */
float vector_two[MAX];
/* declares an array of 50 floats
*/
float vector_three[MAX - 20]; /* declares an array
Array Initialization
An array can be initialized in declaration by assigning it a comma-delimited
sequence of values within braces. When initializing an array in declaration, you can
omit the number of elements – it will be automatically determined according to the
number of elements assigned. For example:
/* Declare an array which holds number of days in each month: */
int days[12] = {31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31};
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/* This declaration is identical to the previous one */
int days[] = {31,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31};
If you specify both the length and starting values, the number of starting values must
not exceed the specified length. The opposite is possible, in this case the trailing
“excess” elements will be assigned to some encountered runtime values from memory.
In case of array of char, you can use a shorter string literal notation. For example:
/* The two declarations are identical: */
const char msg1[] = {'T', 'e', 's', 't', '\0'};
const char msg2[] = "Test";
For more information on string literals, refer to String Constants.
Arrays in Expressions
When the name of an array comes up in expression evaluation (except with operators & and sizeof ), it is implicitly converted to the pointer pointing to array’s first
element. See Arrays and Pointers for more information.
Multi-dimensional Arrays
An array is one-dimensional if it is of scalar type. One-dimensional arrays are sometimes referred to as vectors.
Multidimensional arrays are constructed by declaring arrays of array type. These
arrays are stored in memory in such way that the right most subscript changes
fastest, i.e. arrays are stored “in rows”. Here is a sample of 2-dimensional array:
float m[50][20];
/* 2-dimensional array of size 50x20 */
A variable m is an array of 50 elements, which in turn are arrays of 20 floats each.
Thus, we have a matrix of 50x20 elements: the first element is m[0][0], the last one
is m[49][19]. The first element of the 5th row would be m[4][0].
If you don't initialize the array in the declaration, you can omit the first dimension
of multi-dimensional array. In that case, array is located elsewhere, e.g. in another
file. This is a commonly used technique when passing arrays as function parameters:
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int a[3][2][4];
mikroC for 8051
/* 3-dimensional array of size 3x2x4 */
void func(int n[][2][4]) { /* we can omit first dimension */
...
n[2][1][3]++; /* increment the last element*/
}//~
void main() {
...
func(a);
}//~!
You can initialize a multi-dimensional array with an appropriate set of values within braces. For example:
int a[3][2] = {{1,2}, {2,6}, {3,7}};
POINTERS
Pointers are special objects for holding (or “pointing to”) memory addresses. In the
mikroC for 8051, address of an object in memory can be obtained by means of an
unary operator &. To reach the pointed object, we use an indirection operator (*) on
a pointer.
A pointer of type “pointer to object of type” holds the address of (that is, points to)
an object of type. Since pointers are objects, you can have a pointer pointing to a
pointer (and so on). Other objects commonly pointed to include arrays, structures,
and unions.
A pointer to a function is best thought of as an address, usually in a code segment,
where that function’s executable code is stored; that is, the address to which control
is transferred when that function is called.
Although pointers contain numbers with most of the characteristics of unsigned integers, they have their own rules and restrictions for declarations, assignments, conversions, and arithmetic. The examples in the next few sections illustrate these rules
and restrictions.
Pointer Declarations
Pointers are declared the same as any other variable, but with * ahead of identifier.
A type at the beginning of declaration specifies the type of a pointed object. A pointer must be declared as pointing to some particular type, even if that type is void,
which really means a pointer to anything. Pointers to void are often called generic
pointers, and are treated as pointers to char in the mikroC for 8051.
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If type is any predefined or user-defined type, including void, the declaration
type *p;
/* Uninitialized pointer */
declares p to be of type “pointer to type”. All scoping, duration, and visibility rules
are applied to the p object just declared. You can view the declaration in this way: if
*p is an object of type, then p has to be a pointer to such object (object of type).
Note: You must initialize pointers before using them! Our previously declared pointer *p is not initialized (i.e. assigned a value), so it cannot be used yet.
Note: In case of multiple pointer declarations, each identifier requires an indirect
operator. For example:
int *pa, *pb, *pc;
/* is same as: */
int *pa;
int *pb;
int *pc;
Once declared, though, a pointer can usually be reassigned so that it points to an
object of another type. The mikroC for 8051 lets you reassign pointers without typecasting, but the compiler will warn you unless the pointer was originally declared to
be pointing to void. You can assign the void* pointer to the non-void* pointer –
refer to void for details.
Null Pointers
A null pointer value is an address that is guaranteed to be different from any valid
pointer in use in a program. Assigning the integer constant 0 to a pointer assigns a
null pointer value to it.
For example:
int *pn = 0;
/* Here's one null pointer */
/* We can test the pointer like this: */
if ( pn == 0 ) { ... }
The pointer type “pointer to void” must not be confused with the null pointer. The
declaration
void *vp;
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declares that vp is a generic pointer capable of being assigned to by any “pointer to
type” value, including null, without complaint.
Assignments without proper casting between a “pointer to type1” and a “pointer to
type2”, where type1 and type2 are different types, can invoke a compiler warning
or error. If type1 is a function and type2 isn’t (or vice versa), pointer assignments
are illegal. If type1 is a pointer to void, no cast is needed. If type2 is a pointer to
void, no cast is needed.
FUNCTION POINTERS
Function Pointers are pointers, i.e. variables, which point to the address of a function.
// Define a function pointer
int (*pt2Function) (float, char, char);
Note: Thus functions and function pointers with different calling convention (argument order, arguments type or return type is different) are incompatible with each
other.
Assign an address to a Function Pointer
It's quite easy to assign the address of a function to a function pointer. Simply take
the name of a suitable and known function. Using the address operator & infront of
the function's name is optional.
//Assign an address to the function pointer
int DoIt (float a, char b, char c){ return a+b+c; }
pt2Function = &DoIt; // assignment
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Example:
int addC(char x,char y){
return x+y;
}
int subC(char x,char y){
return x-y;
}
int mulC(char x,char y){
return x*y;
}
int divC(char x,char y){
return x/y;
}
int modC(char x,char y){
return x%y;
}
//array of pointer to functions that receive two chars and returns
int
int (*arrpf[])(char,char) = { addC ,subC,mulC,divC,modC};
int res;
char i;
void main() {
for (i=0;i<5;i++){
res = arrpf[i](10,20);
}
}//~!
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POINTER ARITHMETIC
Pointer arithmetic in the mikroC for 8051 is limited to:
- assigning one pointer to another,
- comparing two pointers,
- comparing pointer to zero,
- adding/subtracting pointer and an integer value,
- subtracting two pointers.
The internal arithmetic performed on pointers depends on the memory model in
force and the presence of any overriding pointer modifiers. When performing arithmetic with pointers, it is assumed that the pointer points to an array of objects.
Arrays and Pointers
Arrays and pointers are not completely independent types in the mikroC for 8051.
When the name of an array comes up in expression evaluation (except with operators & and sizeof ), it is implicitly converted to the pointer pointing to array’s first
element. Due to this fact, arrays are not modifiable lvalues.
Brackets [ ] indicate array subscripts. The expression
id[exp]
is defined as
*((id) + (exp))
where either:
- id is a pointer and exp is an integer, or
- id is an integer and exp is a pointer.
The following statements are true:
&a[i]
a[i]
=
=
a + i
*(a + i)
According to these guidelines, it can be written:
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pa = &a[4];
x = *(pa + 3);
// pa points to a[4]
// x = a[7]
/* .. but: */
y = *pa + 3;
// y = a[4] + 3
Also the care should be taken when using operator precedence:
*pa++;
(*pa)++;
// Equal to *(pa++), increments the pointer
// Increments the pointed object!
The following examples are also valid, but better avoid this syntax as it can make
the code really illegible:
(a + 1)[i] = 3;
// same as: *((a + 1) + i) = 3, i.e. a[i + 1] = 3
(i + 2)[a] = 0;
// same as: *((i + 2) + a) = 0, i.e. a[i + 2] = 0
Assignment and Comparison
The simple assignment operator (=) can be used to assign value of one pointer to
another if they are of the same type. If they are of different types, you must use a
typecast operator. Explicit type conversion is not necessary if one of the pointers is
generic (of the void type).
Assigning the integer constant 0 to a pointer assigns a null pointer value to it.
Two pointers pointing to the same array may be compared by using relational operators ==, !=, <, <=, >, and >=. Results of these operations are the same as if
they were used on subscript values of array elements in question:
int *pa = &a[4], *pb = &a[2];
if (pa == pb) {... /* won't be executed as 4 is not equal to 2 */ }
if (pa > pb) {... /* will be executed as 4 is greater than 2 */ }
You can also compare pointers to zero value – testing in that way if the pointer actually points to anything. All pointers can be successfully tested for equality or
inequality to null:
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if (pa == 0) { ... }
if (pb != 0) { ... }
Note: Comparing pointers pointing to different objects/arrays can be performed at
programmer’s own responsibility — a precise overview of data’s physical storage is
required.
Pointer Addition
You can use operators +, ++, and += to add an integral value to a pointer. The result
of addition is defined only if the pointer points to an element of an array and if the
result is a pointer pointing to the same array (or one element beyond it).
If a pointer is declared to point to type, adding an integral value n to the pointer
increments the pointer value by n * sizeof(type) as long as the pointer remains
within the legal range (first element to one beyond the last element). If type has a
size of 10 bytes, then adding 5 to a pointer to type advances the pointer 50 bytes in
memory. In case of the void type, the size of a step is one byte.
For example:
int a[10];
/* array a containing 10 elements of type int */
int *pa = &a[0]; /* pa is pointer to int, pointing to a[0] */
*(pa + 3) = 6;
/* pa+3 is a pointer pointing to a[3], so a[3] now
equals 6 */
pa++;
/* pa now points to the next element of array a:
a[1] */
There is no such element as “one past the last element”, of course, but the pointer is
allowed to assume such value. C “guarantees” that the result of addition is defined
even when pointing to one element past array. If P points to the last array element,
P + 1 is legal, but P + 2 is undefined.
This allows you to write loops which access the array elements in a sequence by
means of incrementing pointer — in the last iteration you will have the pointer
pointing to one element past the array, which is legal. However, applying an indirection operator (*) to a “pointer to one past the last element” leads to undefined
behavior.
For example:
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void f (some_type a[], int n) {
/* function f handles elements of array a; */
/* array a has n elements of type some_type */
int i;
some_type *p=&a[0];
for ( i = 0; i < n; i++ ) {
/* .. here we do something with *p .. */
p++; /* .. and with the last iteration p exceeds
the last element of array a */
}
/* at this point, *p is undefined! */
}
Pointer Subtraction
Similar to addition, you can use operators -, -- , and -= to subtract an integral
value from a pointer.
Also, you may subtract two pointers. The difference will be equal to the distance
between two pointed addresses, in bytes.
For example:
int
int
int
i =
pi2
a[10];
*pi1 = &a[0];
*pi2 = &a[4];
pi2 - pi1;
-= (i >> 1);
/* i equals 8 */
/* pi2 = pi2 - 4: pi2 now points to [0] */
STRUCTURES
A structure is a derived type usually representing a user-defined collection of named
members (or components). These members can be of any type, either fundamental
or derived (with some restrictions to be discussed later), in any sequence. In addition, a structure member can be a bit field.
Unlike arrays, structures are considered to be single objects. The mikroC for 8051
structure type lets you handle complex data structures almost as easily as single variables.
Note: the mikroC for 8051 does not support anonymous structures (ANSI divergence).
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Structure Declaration and Initialization
Structures are declared using the keyword struct:
struct tag {member-declarator-list};
Here, tag is the name of a structure; member-declarator-list is a list of structure
members, actually a list of variable declarations. Variables of structured type are
declared the same as variables of any other type.
The member type cannot be the same as the struct type being currently declared.
However, a member can be a pointer to the structure being declared, as in the following example:
struct mystruct {mystruct s;};
/* illegal! */
struct mystruct {mystruct *ps;}; /* OK */
Also, a structure can contain previously defined structure types when declaring an
instance of declared structure. Here is an example:
/* Structure defining a dot: */
struct Dot {float x, y;};
/* Structure defining a circle: */
struct Circle {
float r;
struct Dot center;
} o1, o2;
/* declare variables o1 and o2 of Circle */
Note that the structure tag can be omitted, but then additional objects of this type
cannot be declared elsewhere. For more information, see the Untagged Structures
below.
Structure is initialized by assigning it a comma-delimited sequence of values within braces, similar to array. For example:
/* Referring to declarations from the example above: */
/* Declare and initialize dots p and q: */
struct Dot p = {1., 1.}, q = {3.7, -0.5};
/* Declare and initialize circle o1: */
struct Circle o1 = {1., {0., 0.}}; // radius is 1, center is at (0,
0)
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Incomplete Declarations
Incomplete declarations are also known as forward declarations. A pointer to a structure type A can legally appear in the declaration of another structure B before A has
been declared:
struct A; // incomplete
struct B {struct A *pa;};
struct A {struct B *pb;};
The first appearance of A is called incomplete because there is no definition for it at
that point. An incomplete declaration is allowed here, because the definition of B
doesn’t need the size of A.
Untagged Structures and Typedefs
If the structure tag is omitted, an untagged structure is created. The untagged structures can be used to declare the identifiers in the comma-delimited memberdeclarator-list to be of the given structure type (or derived from it), but additional objects of this type cannot be declared elsewhere.
It is possible to create a typedef while declaring a structure, with or without tag:
/* With tag: */
typedef struct mystruct { ... } Mystruct;
Mystruct s, *ps, arrs[10]; /* same as struct mystruct s, etc. */
/* Without tag: */
typedef struct { ... } Mystruct;
Mystruct s, *ps, arrs[10];
Usually, there is no need to use both tag and typedef: either can be used in structure type declarations.
Untagged structure and union members are ignored during initialization.
Note: See also Working with structures.
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WORKING WITH STRUCTURES
Structures represent user-defined types. A set of rules regarding the application of
structures is strictly defined.
Assignment
Variables of the same structured type may be assigned one to another by means of
simple assignment operator (=). This will copy the entire contents of the variable to
destination, regardless of the inner complexity of a given structure.
Note that two variables are of the same structured type only if they are both defined
by the same instruction or using the same type identifier. For example:
/* a and b are of the same type: */
struct {int m1, m2;} a, b;
/* But c and d are _not_ of the same type although
their structure descriptions are identical: */
struct {int m1, m2;} c;
struct {int m1, m2;} d;
Size of Structure
The size of the structure in memory can be retrieved by means of the operator sizeof. It is not necessary that the size of the structure is equal to the sum of its members’ sizes. It is often greater due to certain limitations of memory storage.
Structures and Functions
A function can return a structure type or a pointer to a structure type:
mystruct func1(void);
mystruct *func2(void);
/* func1() returns a structure */
/* func2() returns pointer to structure */
A structure can be passed as an argument to a function in the following ways:
void func1(mystruct s;);
void func2(mystruct *sptr;);
/* directly */
/* via a pointer */
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STRUCTURE MEMBER ACCESS
Structure and union members are accessed using the following two selection operators:
- . (period)
- -> (right arrow)
The operator . is called the direct member selector and it is used to directly access
one of the structure’s members. Suppose that the object s is of the struct type S and
m is a member identifier of the type M declared in s, then the expression
s.m
// direct access to member m
is of the type M, and represents the member object m in S.
The operator -> is called the indirect (or pointer) member selector. Suppose that the
object s is of the struct type S and ps is a pointer to s. Then if m is a member identifier of the type M declared in s, the expression
ps->m
// indirect access to member m;
// identical to (*ps).m
is of the type M, and represents the member object m in s. The expression ps->m is a
convenient shorthand for (*ps).m.
For example:
struct mystruct {
int i;
char str[21];
double d;
} s, *sptr = &s;
...
s.i = 3;
sptr -> d = 1.23;
// assign to the i member of mystruct s
// assign to the d member of mystruct s
The expression s.m is lvalue, providing that s is lvalue and m is not an array type.
The expression sptr->m is an lvalue unless m is an array type.
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Accessing Nested Structures
If the structure B contains a field whose type is the structure A, the members of A
can be accessed by two applications of the member selectors:
struct A {
int j; double x;
};
struct B {
int i; struct A aa; double d;
} s, *sptr;
...
s.i = 3;
s.aa.j = 2;
sptr->d = 1.23;
sptr->aa.x = 3.14;
// assign 3 to the i member of B
// assign 2 to the j member of A
// assign 1.23 to the d member of B
// assign 3.14 to x member of A
Structure Uniqueness
Each structure declaration introduces a unique structure type, so that in
struct A {
int i,j; double d;
} aa, aaa;
struct B {
int i,j; double d;
} bb;
the objects aa and aaa are both of the type struct A, but the objects aa and bb are of
different structure types. Structures can be assigned only if the source and destination have the same type:
aa = aaa;
aa = bb;
/* but
aa.i =
aa.j =
aa.d =
/* OK: same type, member by member assignment */
/* ILLEGAL: different types */
you can assign member by member: */
bb.i;
bb.j;
bb.d;
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UNIONS
Union types are derived types sharing many of syntactic and functional features of
structure types. The key difference is that a union members share the same memory
space.
Note: The mikroC for 8051 does not support anonymous unions (ANSI divergence).
Union Declaration
Unions have the same declaration as structures, with the keyword union used instead
of struct:
union tag { member-declarator-list };
Unlike structures’ members, the value of only one of union’s members can be stored
at any time. Here is a simple example:
union myunion {
int i;
double d;
char ch;
} mu, *pm;
// union tag is 'myunion'
The identifier mu, of the type myunion, can be used to hold a 2-byte int, 4-byte
double or single-byte char, but only one of them at a certain moment. The identifier pm is a pointer to union myunion.
Size of Union
The size of a union is the size of its largest member. In our previous example, both
sizeof(union myunion) and sizeof(mu) return 4, but 2 bytes are unused (padded)
when mu holds the int object, and 3 bytes are unused when mu holds char.
Union Member Access
Union members can be accessed with the structure member selectors (. and ->), be
careful when doing this:
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/* Referring to declarations from the example above: */
pm = &mu;
mu.d = 4.016;
tmp = mu.d; // OK: mu.d = 4.016
tmp = mu.i; // peculiar result
pm->i = 3;
tmp = mu.i;
// OK: mu.i = 3
The third line is legal, since mu.i is an integral type. However, the bit pattern in
mu.i corresponds to parts of the previously assigned double. As such, it probably
won’t provide an useful integer interpretation.
When properly converted, a pointer to a union points to each of its members, and
vice versa.
BIT FIELDS
Bit fields are specified numbers of bits that may or may not have an associated identifier. Bit fields offer a way of subdividing structures into named parts of userdefined sizes.
Structures and unions can contain bit fields that can be up to 16 bits.
You cannot take the address of a bit field.
Note: If you need to handle specific bits of 8-bit variables (char and unsigned short)
or registers, you don’t need to declare bit fields. Much more elegant solution is to
use the mikroC for 8051’s intrinsic ability for individual bit access — see Accessing
Individual Bits for more information.
Bit Fields Declaration
Bit fields can be declared only in structures and unions. Declare a structure normally and assign individual fields like this (fields need to be unsigned):
struct tag {
unsigned bitfield-declarator-list;
}
Here, tag is an optional name of the structure; bitfield-declarator-list is a list
of bit fields. Each component identifer requires a colon and its width in bits to be
explicitly specified. Total width of all components cannot exceed two bytes (16
bits).
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As an object, bit fields structure takes two bytes. Individual fields are packed within two bytes from right to left. In bitfield-declarator-list, you can omit identifier(s) to create an artificial “padding”, thus skipping irrelevant bits.
For example, if there is a need to manipulate only bits 2–4 of a register as one block,
create a structure like this:
struct {
unsigned : 2,
mybits : 3;
// Skip bits 0 and 1, no identifier here
// Relevant bits 2, 3 and 4
// Bits 5, 6 and 7 are implicitly left out
} myreg;
Here is an example:
typedef struct
lo_nibble :
hi_nibble :
high_byte :
{
4;
4;
8;} myunsigned;
which declares the structured type myunsigned containing three components:
lo_nibble (bits 3..0), hi_nibble (bits 7..4) and high_byte (bits 15..8).
Bit Fields Access
Bit fields can be accessed in the same way as the structure members. Use direct and
indirect member selector (. and ->). For example, we could work with our previously declared myunsigned like this:
// This example writes low byte of bit field of myunsigned type to
PORT0:
myunsigned Value_For_PORT0;
void main() {
...
Value_For_PORT0.lo_nibble = 7;
Value_For_PORT0.hi_nibble = 0x0C;
P0 = *(char *) (void *)&Value_For_PORT0;
// typecasting :
// 1. address of structure to pointer to void
// 2. pointer to void to pointer to char
// 3. dereferencing to obtain the value
}
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TYPES CONVERSIONS
The mikroC for 8051 is a strictly typed language, with each operator, statement and
function demanding appropriately typed operands/arguments. However, we often
have to use objects of “mismatching” types in expressions. In that case, type conversion is needed.
Conversion of object of one type means that object's type is changed into another
type. The mikroC for 8051 defines a set of standard conversions for built-in types,
provided by compiler when necessary. For more information, refer to the Standard
Conversions.
Conversion is required in the following situations:
- if a statement requires an expression of particular type (according to language
definition), and we use an expression of different type,
- if an operator requires an operand of particular type, and we use an operand of
different type,
- if a function requires a formal parameter of particular type, and we pass it an
object of different type,
- if an expression following the keyword return does not match the declared
function return type,
- if intializing an object (in declaration) with an object of different type.
In these situations, compiler will provide an automatic implicit conversion of types,
without any programmer's interference. Also, the programmer can demand conversion explicitly by means of the typecast operator. For more information, refer to the
Explicit Typecasting.
STANDARD CONVERSIONS
Standard conversions are built in the mikroC for 8051. These conversions are performed automatically, whenever required in the program. They can also be explicitly required by means of the typecast operator (refer to the Explicit Typecasting).
The basic rule of automatic (implicit) conversion is that the operand of simpler type
is converted (promoted) to the type of more complex operand. Then, the type of the
result is that of more complex operand.
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Arithmetic Conversions
When using arithmetic expression, such as a + b, where a and b are of different
arithmetic types, the mikroC for 8051 performs implicit type conversions before the
expression is evaluated. These standard conversions include promotions of “lower”
types to “higher” types in the interests of accuracy and consistency.
Assigning a signed character object (such as a variable) to an integral object results
in automatic sign extension. Objects of type signed char always use sign extension;
objects of type unsigned char always has its high byte set to zero when converted to
int.
Converting a longer integral type to a shorter type truncates the higher order bits and
leaves low-order bits unchanged. Converting a shorter integral type to a longer type
either sign-extends or zero-fills the extra bits of the new value, depending on
whether the shorter type is signed or unsigned, respectively.
Note: Conversion of floating point data into integral value (in assignments or via
explicit typecast) produces correct results only if the float value does not exceed the
scope of destination integral type.
In details:
Here are the steps the mikroC for 8051 uses to convert the operands in an arithmetic
expression:
First, any small integral types are converted according to the following rules:
1. char converts to int
2. signed char converts to int, with the same value
3. short converts to int, with the same value, sign-extended
4. unsigned short converts to unsigned int, with the same value, zero-filled
5. enum converts to int, with the same value
After this, any two values associated with an operator are either int (including the
long and unsigned modifiers) or float (equivalent with double and long double
in the mikroC for 8051).
1. If either operand is float, the other operand is converted to float.
2. Otherwise, if either operand is unsigned long, the other operand is converted
to unsigned long.
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3. Otherwise, if either operand is long, then the other operand is converted to
long.
4. Otherwise, if either operand is unsigned, then the other operand is converted
to unsigned.
5. Otherwise, both operands are int.
The result of the expression is the same type as that of the two operands.
Here are several examples of implicit conversion:
2 + 3.1
5 / 4 * 3.
3. * 5 / 4
/* ? 2. + 3.1 ? 5.1 */
/* ? (5/4)*3. ? 1*3. ? 1.*3. ? 3. */
/* ? (3.*5)/4 ? (3.*5.)/4 ? 15./4 ? 15./4. ? 3.75 */
Pointer Conversions
Pointer types can be converted to other pointer types using the typecasting mechanism:
char *str;
int *ip;
str = (char *)ip;
More generally, the cast type* will convert a pointer to type “pointer to type”.
EXPLICIT TYPES CONVERSIONS (TYPECASTING)
In most situations, compiler will provide an automatic implicit conversion of types
where needed, without any user's interference. Also, the user can explicitly convert
an operand to another type using the prefix unary typecast operator:
(type) object
This will convert object to a specified type. Parentheses are mandatory.
For example:
/* Let's have two variables of char type: */
char a, b;
/* Following line will coerce a to unsigned int: */
(unsigned int) a;
/* Following line will coerce a to double,
then coerce b to double automatically,
resulting in double type value: */
(double) a + b;
// equivalent to ((double) a) + b;
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DECLARATIONS
A declaration introduces one or several names to a program – it informs the compiler what the name represents, what its type is, what operations are allowed with it,
etc. This section reviews concepts related to declarations: declarations, definitions,
declaration specifiers, and initialization.
The range of objects that can be declared includes:
- Variables
- Constants
- Functions
- Types
- Structure, union, and enumeration tags
- Structure members
- Union members
- Arrays of other types
- Statement labels
-Preprocessor macros
Declarations and Definitions
Defining declarations, also known as definitions, beside introducing the name of an
object, also establish the creation (where and when) of an object; that is, the allocation of physical memory and its possible initialization. Referencing declarations, or
just declarations, simply make their identifiers and types known to the compiler.
Here is an overview. Declaration is also a definition, except if:
- it declares a function without specifying its body
- it has the extern specifier, and has no initializator or body (in case of func.)
- it is the typedef declaration
There can be many referencing declarations for the same identifier, especially in a
multifile program, but only one defining declaration for that identifier is allowed.
For example:
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/* Here is a nondefining declaration of function max; */
/* it merely informs compiler that max is a function */
int max();
/* Here is a definition of function max: */
int max(int x, int y) {
return (x >= y) ? x : y;
}
/* Definition of variable i: */
int i;
/* Following line is an error, i is already defined! */
int i;
Declarations and Declarators
The declaration contains specifier(s) followed by one or more identifiers (declarators). The declaration begins with optional storage class specifiers, type specifiers,
and other modifiers. The identifiers are separated by commas and the list is terminated by a semicolon.
Declarations of variable identifiers have the following pattern:
storage-class [type-qualifier] type var1 [=init1], var2 [=init2], ...
;
where var1, var2,... are any sequence of distinct identifiers with optional initializers. Each of the variables is declared to be of type; if omitted, type defaults to
int. The specifier storage-class can take the values extern, static, register, or the default auto. Optional type-qualifier can take values const or
volatile. For more details, refer to Storage Classes and Type Qualifiers.
For example:
/* Create 3 integer variables called x, y, and z
and initialize x and y to the values 1 and 2, respectively: */
int x = 1, y = 2, z;
// z remains uninitialized
/* Create a floating-point variable q with static modifier,
and initialize it to 0.25: */
static float q = .25;
These are all defining declarations; storage is allocated and any optional initializers
are applied.
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LINKAGE
An executable program is usually created by compiling several independent translation units, then linking the resulting object files with preexisting libraries. A term
translation unit refers to a source code file together with any included files, but without the source lines omitted by conditional preprocessor directives. A problem arises when the same identifier is declared in different scopes (for example, in different
files), or declared more than once in the same scope.
The linkage is a process that allows each instance of an identifier to be associated
correctly with one particular object or function. All identifiers have one of two linkage attributes, closely related to their scope: external linkage or internal linkage.
These attributes are determined by the placement and format of your declarations,
together with an explicit (or implicit by default) use of the storage class specifier
static or extern.
Each instance of a particular identifier with external linkage represents the same
object or function throughout the entire set of files and libraries making up the program. Each instance of a particular identifier with internal linkage represents the
same object or function within one file only.
Linkage Rules
Local names have internal linkage; the same identifier can be used in different files
to signify different objects. Global names have external linkage; identifier signifies
the same object throughout all program files.
If the same identifier appears with both internal and external linkage within the same
file, the identifier will have internal linkage.
Internal Linkage Rules
1. names having file scope, explicitly declared as static, have internal linkage
2. names having file scope, explicitly declared as const and not explicitly
declared as extern, have internal linkage
3. typedef names have internal linkage
4. enumeration constants have internal linkage
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External Linkage Rules
1. names having file scope, that do not comply to any of previously stated
internal linkage rules, have external linkage
The storage class specifiers auto and register cannot appear in an external declaration. No more than one external definition can be given for each identifier in a
translation unit declared with internal linkage. An external definition is an external
declaration that defines an object or a function and also allocates a storage. If an
identifier declared with external linkage is used in an expression (other than as part
of the operand of sizeof), then exactly one external definition of that identifier
must be somewhere in the entire program.
STORAGE CLASSES
Associating identifiers with objects requires each identifier to have at least two
attributes: storage class and type (sometimes referred to as data type). The mikroC
for 8051 compiler deduces these attributes from implicit or explicit declarations in
the source code.
A storage class dictates the location (data segment, register, heap, or stack) of object
and its duration or lifetime (the entire running time of the program, or during execution of some blocks of code). A storage class can be established by the syntax of
a declaration, by its placement in the source code, or by both of these factors:
storage-class type identifier
The storage class specifiers in the mikroC for 8051 are:
- auto
- register
- static
- extern
Auto
The auto modifer is used to define that a local variable has a local duration. This is
the default for local variables and is rarely used. auto can not be used with globals.
See also Functions.
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Register
At the moment the modifier register technically has no special meaning. The
mikroC for 8051 compiler simply ignores requests for register allocation.
Static
A global name declared with the static specifier has internal linkage, meaning that
it is local for a given file. See Linkage for more information.
A local name declared with the static specifier has static duration. Use static
with a local variable to preserve the last value between successive calls to that function. See Duration for more information.
Extern
A name declared with the extern specifier has external linkage, unless it has been
previously declared as having internal linkage. A declaration is not a definition if it
has the extern specifier and is not initialized. The keyword extern is optional for
a function prototype.
Use the extern modifier to indicate that the actual storage and initial value of the
variable, or body of the function, is defined in a separate source code module.
Functions declared with extern are visible throughout all source files in the program, unless the function is redefined as static.
See Linkage for more information.
TYPE QUALIFIERS
The type qualifiers const and volatile are optional in declarations and do not actually affect the type of declared object.
Qualifier const
The qualifier const implies that a declared object will not change its value during
runtime. In declarations with the const qualifier all objects need to be initialized.
The mikroC for 8051 treats objects declared with the const qualifier the same as literals or preprocessor constants. If the user tries to change an object declared with
the const qualifier compiler will report an error.
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For example:
const double PI = 3.14159;
Qualifier volatile
The qualifier volatile implies that a variable may change its value during runtime
independently from the program. Use the volatile modifier to indicate that a variable
can be changed by a background routine, an interrupt routine, or I/O port. Declaring
an object to be volatile warns the compiler not to make assumptions concerning the
value of an object while evaluating expressions in which it occurs because the value
could be changed at any moment.
TYPEDEF SPECIFIER
The specifier typedef introduces a synonym for a specified type. The typedef declarations are used to construct shorter or more convenient names for types already
defined by the language or declared by the user.
The specifier typedef stands first in the declaration:
typedef <type_definition> synonym;
The typedef keyword assigns synonym to <type_definition>. The synonym needs
to be a valid identifier.
A declaration starting with the typedef specifier does not introduce an object or a
function of a given type, but rather a new name for a given type. In other words, the
typedef declaration is identical to a “normal” declaration, but instead of objects, it
declares types. It is a common practice to name custom type identifiers with starting capital letter — this is not required by the mikroC for 8051.
For example:
/* Let's declare a synonym for "unsigned long int" */
typedef unsigned long int Distance;
/* Now, synonym "Distance" can be used as type identifier: */
Distance i; // declare variable i of unsigned long int
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In the typedef declaration, as in any other declaration, several types can be declared
at once. For example:
typedef int
*Pti, Array[10];
Here, Pti is a synonym for type “pointer to int”, and Array is a synonym for type
“array of 10 int elements”.
ASM DECLARATION
The mikroC for 8051 allows embedding assembly in the source code by means of
the asm declaration. The declarations _asm and __asm are also allowed in the
mikroC for 8051 and have the same meaning. Note that numerals cannnot be used
as absolute addresses for SFR or GPR variables in assembly instructions. Symbolic
names may be used instead (listing will display these names as well as addresses).
Assembly instructions can be grouped by the asm keyword (or _asm, or __asm):
asm {
block of assembly instructions
}
There are two ways to embeding single assembly instruction to C code:
asm assembly instruction ;
and
asm assembly instruction
Note: semicolon and LF are terminating asm scope for single assembly instructions.
This is the reason why the following syntax is not asm block:
asm
{
block of assembly instructions
}
This code will be interpreted as single empty asm line followed by C compound
statement.
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The mikroC for 8051 comments (both single-line and multi-line) are allowed in
embedded assembly code.
Accessing individual bytes is different as well. For example, a global variable
"g_var" of type long (i.e. 4 bytes) can be accessed like this:
MOV
MOV
MOV
MOV
...
_g_var+0,
_g_var+1,
_g_var+2,
_g_var+3,
etc.
#1
#2
#3
#4
;puts
;puts
;puts
;puts
1
2
3
4
in
in
in
in
low byte of g_var
high byte of g_var
higher byte of g_var
highest byte of g_var
If you want to know details about asm syntax supported by mikroC for 8051 it is
recomended to study asm and lst files generated by compiler. It is also recomended to check "Include source lines in output files" checkbox in Output settings
INITIALIZATION
The initial value of a declared object can be set at the time of declaration (initialization). A part of the declaration which specifies the initialization is called initializer.
Initializers for globals and static objects must be constants or constant expressions. The initializer for an automatic object can be any legal expression that evaluates to an assignment-compatible value for the type of the variable involved.
Scalar types are initialized with a single expression, which can optionally be
enclosed in braces. The initial value of an object is that of the expression; the same
constraints for type and conversions as for simple assignments are applied to initializations too.
For example:
int i = 1;
char *s = "hello";
struct complex c = {0.1, -0.2};
// where 'complex' is a structure (float, float)
For structures or unions with automatic storage duration, the initializer must be one
of the following:
- An initializer list.
- A single expression with compatible union or structure type. In this case, the
initial value of the object is that of the expression.
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For example:
struct dot {int x; int y; } m = {30, 40};
For more information, refer to Structures and Unions.
Also, you can initialize arrays of character type with a literal string, optionally
enclosed in braces. Each character in the string, including the null terminator, initializes successive elements in the array. For more information, refer to Arrays.
Automatic Initialization
The mikroC for 8051 does not provide automatic initialization for objects.
Uninitialized globals and objects with static duration will take random values from
memory.
FUNCTIONS
Functions are central to C programming. Functions are usually defined as subprograms which return a value based on a number of input parameters. Return value of
the function can be used in expressions – technically, function call is considered to
be an expression like any other.
C allows a function to create results other than its return value, referred to as side
effects. Often, the function return value is not used at all, depending on the side
effects. These functions are equivalent to procedures of other programming languages, such as Pascal. C does not distinguish between procedure and function –
functions play both roles.
Each program must have a single external function named main marking the entry
point of the program. Functions are usually declared as prototypes in standard or
user-supplied header files, or within program files. Functions have external linkage
by default and are normally accessible from any file in the program. This can be
restricted by using the static storage class specifier in function declaration (see
Storage Classes and Linkage).
Note: Check the 8051 Specifics for more information on functions’ limitations on
the 8051 compliant micros.
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Function Declaration
Functions are declared in user's source files or made available by linking precompiled libraries. The declaration syntax of the function is:
type function_name(parameter-declarator-list);
The function_name must be a valid identifier. This name is used to call the function; see Function Calls for more information.
represents the type of function result, and can be of any standard or userdefined type. For functions that do not return value the void type should be used.
The type can be omitted in global function declarations, and function will assume
the int type by default.
type
Function type can also be a pointer. For example, float* means that a function
result is a pointer to float. The generic pointer void* is also allowed.
The function cannot return an array or another function.
Within parentheses, parameter-declarator-list is a list of formal arguments that
function takes. These declarators specify the type of each function parameter. The
compiler uses this information to check validity of function calls. If the list is empty,
a function does not take any arguments. Also, if the list is void, a function also does
not take any arguments; note that this is the only case when void can be used as an
argument’s type.
Unlike variable declaration, each argument in the list needs its own type specifier
and possible qualifier const or volatile.
Function Prototypes
A function can be defined only once in the program, but can be declared several
times, assuming that the declarations are compatible. When declaring a function, the
formal argument's identifier does not have to be specified, but its type does.
This kind of declaration, commonly known as the function prototype, allows better
control over argument number, type checking and type conversions. The name of a
parameter in function prototype has its scope limited to the prototype. This allows
one parameter identifier to have different name in different declarations of the same
function:
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/* Here are two prototypes of the same function: */
int test(const char*)
int test(const char*p)
/* declares function test */
/* declares the same function test */
Function prototypes are very useful in documenting code. For example, the function
Cf_Init takes two parameters: Control Port and Data Port. The question is, which
is which? The function prototype:
void Cf_Init(char *ctrlport, char *dataport);
makes it clear. If a header file contains function prototypes, the user can read that
file to get the information needed for writing programs that call these functions. If a
prototype parameter includes an identifier, then the indentifier is only used for error
checking.
Function Definition
Function definition consists of its declaration and function body. The function body
is technically a block – a sequence of local definitions and statements enclosed within braces {}. All variables declared within function body are local to the function,
i.e. they have function scope.
The function itself can be defined only within the file scope, which means that function declarations cannot be nested.
To return the function result, use the return statement. The statement return in functions of the void type cannot have a parameter – in fact, the return statement can
be omitted altogether if it is the last statement in the function body.
Here is a sample function definition:
/* function max returns greater one of its 2 arguments: */
int max(int x, int y) {
return (x>=y) ? x : y;
}
Here is a sample function which depends on side effects rather than return value:
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/* function converts Descartes coordinates (x,y) to polar (r,fi): */
#include <math.h>
void polar(double x, double y, double *r, double *fi) {
*r = sqrt(x * x + y * y);
*fi = (x == 0 && y == 0) ? 0 : atan2(y, x);
return; /* this line can be omitted */
}
Functions reentrancy
Functions reentrancy is allowed. Remember that the 8051 has stack and memory
limitations which can varies greatly between MCUs.
FUNCTION CALLS AND ARGUMENT CONVERSIONS
Function Calls
A function is called with actual arguments placed in the same sequence as their
matching formal parameters. Use the function-call operator ():
function_name(expression_1, ... , expression_n)
Each expression in the function call is an actual argument. Number and types of
actual arguments should match those of formal function parameters. If types do not
match, implicit type conversions rules will be applied. Actual arguments can be of
any complexity, but order of their evaluation is not specified.
Upon function call, all formal parameters are created as local objects initialized by
the values of actual arguments. Upon return from a function, a temporary object is
created in the place of the call, and it is initialized by the expression of the return
statement. This means that the function call as an operand in complex expression is
treated as a function result.
If the function has no result (type void) or the result is not needed, then the function
call can be written as a self-contained expression.
In C, scalar arguments are always passed to the function by value. The function can
modify the values of its formal parameters, but this has no effect on the actual arguments in the calling routine. A scalar object can be passed by the address if a formal
parameter is declared as a pointer. The pointed object can be accessed by using the
indirection operator * .
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// For example, Soft_Uart_Read takes the pointer to error variable,
// so it can change the value of an actual argument:
Soft_Uart_Read(&error);
// The following code would be wrong; you would pass the value
// of error variable to the function:
Soft_Uart_Read(error);
Argument Conversions
If a function prototype has not been previously declared, the mikroC for 8051 converts integral arguments to a function call according to the integral widening (expansion) rules described in Standard Conversions. If a function prototype is in scope,
the mikroC for 8051 converts the passed argument to the type of the declared parameter according to the same conversion rules as in assignment statements.
If a prototype is present, the number of arguments must match. The types need to be
compatible only to the extent that an assignment can legally convert them. The user
can always use an explicit cast to convert an argument to a type that is acceptable to
a function prototype.
Note: If the function prototype does not match the actual function definition, the
mikroC for 8051 will detect this if and only if that definition is in the same compilation unit as the prototype. If you create a library of routines with the corresponding header file of prototypes, consider including that header file when you compile
the library, so that any discrepancies between the prototypes and actual definitions
will be detected.
The compiler is also able to force arguments to change their type to a proper one.
Consider the following code:
int limit = 32;
char ch = 'A';
long res;
// prototype
extern long func(long par1, long par2);
main() {
...
res = func(limit, ch);
// function call
}
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Since the program has the function prototype for func, it converts limit and ch to
long, using the standard rules of assignment, before it places them on the stack for
the call to func.
Without the function prototype, limit and ch would be placed on the stack as an
integer and a character, respectively; in that case, the stack passed to func will not
match size or content that func expects, which can cause problems.
ELLIPSIS ('...') OPERATOR
The ellipsis ('...') consists of three successive periods with no whitespace intervening. An ellipsis can be used in the formal argument lists of function prototypes to
indicate a variable number of arguments, or arguments with varying types. For
example:
void func (int n, char ch, ...);
This declaration indicates that func will be defined in such a way that calls must
have at least two arguments, int and char, but can also have any number of additional arguments.
Example:
#include <stdarg.h>
int addvararg(char a1,...){
va_list ap;
char temp;
va_start(ap,a1);
while( temp = va_arg(ap,char))
a1 += temp;
return a1;
}
int res;
void main() {
res = addvararg(1,2,3,4,5,0);
res = addvararg(1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,0);
}//~!
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OPERATORS
Operators are tokens that trigger some computation when applied to variables and
other objects in an expression.
- Arithmetic Operators
- Assignment Operators
- Bitwise Operators
- Logical Operators
- Reference/Indirect Operators
- Relational Operators
- Structure Member Selectors
- Comma Operator ,
- Conditional Operator ? :
- Array subscript operator []
- Function call operator ()
- sizeof Operator
- Preprocessor Operators # and ##
OPERATORS PRECEDENCE AND ASSOCIATIVITY
There are 15 precedence categories, some of them contain only one operator.
Operators in the same category have equal precedence.
If duplicates of operators appear in the table, the first occurrence is unary and the
second binary. Each category has an associativity rule: left-to-right (->), or rightto-left (<-). In the absence of parentheses, these rules resolve a grouping of expressions with operators of equal precedence.
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Precedence
Operands
Operators
15
2
14
1
13
2
12
2
+
11
2
<<
10
2
9
2
8
2
&
->
7
2
^
->
6
2
|
->
5
2
&&
->
4
2
||
->
3
2
?:
<-
2
2
%=
+=
-=
|= <<=
>>=
<-
1
2
()
.
!
Associativity
[]
->
->
~ ++
-- +
(type)
sizeof
*
/
<
=
&=
*= /=
^=
&
%
->
->
>>
->
>=
!=
,
<-
-
<= >
==
*
->
->
->
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ARITHMETIC OPERATORS
Arithmetic operators are used to perform mathematical computations. They have
numerical operands and return numerical results. The type char technically represents small integers, so the char variables can be used as operands in arithmetic
operations.
All arithmetic operators associate from left to right
Arithmetic Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
Binary Operators
+
addition
12
-
subtraction
12
*
multiplication
13
/
13
%
division
modulus operator returns the remainder of integer division (cannot be used with floating
points)
Unary Operators
+
unary plus does not affect the operand
14
-
unary minus changes the sign of the operand
increment adds one to the value of the operand.
Postincrement adds one to the value of the
operand after it evaluates; while preincrement
adds one before it evaluates
decrement subtracts one from the value of the
operand. Postdecrement subtracts one from the
value of the operand after it evaluates; while
predecrement subtracts one before it evaluates
14
++
--
13
14
14
Note: Operator * is context sensitive and can also represent the pointer reference
operator.
Binary Arithmetic Operators
Division of two integers returns an integer, while remainder is simply truncated:
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/* for example: */
7 / 4;
/* equals 1 */
7 * 3 / 4;
/* equals 5 */
/* but: */
7. * 3. / 4.;
/* equals 5.25 because we are working with floats */
Remainder operand % works only with integers; the sign of result is equal to the
sign of the first operand:
/* for example: */
9 % 3;
/* equals 0 */
7 % 3;
/* equals 1 */
-7 % 3;
/* equals -1 */
Arithmetic operators can be used for manipulating characters:
'A' + 32;
'G' - 'A' + 'a';
/* equals 'a' (ASCII only) */
/* equals 'g' (both ASCII and EBCDIC) */
Unary Arithmetic Operators
Unary operators ++ and -- are the only operators in C which can be either prefix
(e.g. ++k, --k) or postfix (e.g. k++, k--).
When used as prefix, operators ++ and -- (preincrement and predecrement) add or
subtract one from the value of the operand before the evaluation. When used as suffix, operators ++ and -- (postincrement and postdecrement) add or subtract one from
the value of the operand after the evaluation.
For example:
int j = 5;
j = ++k;
*/
/* k = k + 1, j = k, which gives us j = 6, k = 6
but:
int j = 5;
j = k++;
*/
/* j = k, k = k + 1, which gives us j = 5, k = 6
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RELATIONAL OPERATORS
Use relational operators to test equality or inequality of expressions. If an expression evaluates to be true, it returns 1; otherwise it returns 0.
All relational operators associate from left to right.
Operator
Operation
Precedence
==
equal
9
!=
not equal
9
>
greater than
10
<
less than
10
>=
greater than or equal
10
<=
less than or equal
10
Relational Operators Overview
Precedence of arithmetic and relational operators is designated in such a way to
allow complex expressions without parentheses to have expected meaning:
a + 5 >= c - 1.0 / e
/* -> (a + 5) >= (c - (1.0 / e)) */
Do not forget that relational operators return either 0 or 1. Consider the following
examples:
/* ok: */
5 > 7
10 <= 20
/* returns 0 */
/* returns 1 */
/* this can be tricky: */
8 == 13 > 5
/* returns 0, as: 8 == (13 > 5) -> 8 == 1
-> 0 */
14 > 5 < 3
/* returns 1, as: (14 > 5) < 3 -> 1 < 3
-> 1 */
a < b < 5
/* returns 1, as: (a < b) < 5 -> (0 or 1)
< 5 -> 1*/
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BITWISE OPERATORS
Use the bitwise operators to modify individual bits of numerical operands.
Bitwise operators associate from left to right. The only exception is the bitwise complement operator ~ which associates from right to left.
Bitwise Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
bitwise AND; compares pairs of bits and returns
8
1 if both bits are 1, otherwise returns 0
bitwise (inclusive) OR; compares pairs of bits
and returns 1 if either or both bits are 1, other6
wise returns 0
bitwise exclusive OR (XOR); compares pairs of
bits and returns 1 if the bits are complementary, 7
otherwise returns 0
&
|
^
~
bitwise complement (unary); inverts each bit
14
<<
bitwise shift left; moves the bits to the left, discards the far left bit and assigns 0 to the far
right bit.
11
>>
bitwise shift right; moves the bits to the right,
discards the far right bit and if unsigned assigns
0 to the far left bit, otherwise sign extends
11
Logical Operations on Bit Level
&
0
1
|
0
1
^
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
1
1
0
1
1
1
0
~
0
1
1
0
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Bitwise operators &, | and ^ perform logical operations on the appropriate pairs of
bits of their operands. Operator ~ complements each bit of its operand. For example:
0x1234 & 0x5678
/* equals 0x1230 */
/* because ..
0x1234 : 0001 0010 0011 0100
0x5678 : 0101 0110 0111 1000
---------------------------&
: 0001 0010 0011 0000
.. that is, 0x1230 */
/* Similarly: */
0x1234 | 0x5678;
0x1234 ^ 0x5678;
~ 0x1234;
/* equals 0x567C */
/* equals 0x444C */
/* equals 0xEDCB */
Note: Operator & can also be a pointer reference operator. Refer to Pointers for more
information.
Bitwise Shift Operators
Binary operators << and >> move the bits of the left operand by a number of positions specified by the right operand, to the left or right, respectively. Right operand
has to be positive.
With shift left (<<), far left bits are discarded and “new” bits on the right are
assigned zeroes. Thus, shifting unsigned operand to the left by n positions is equivalent to multiplying it by 2n if all discarded bits are zero. This is also true for signed
operands if all discarded bits are equal to a sign bit.
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000001 <<
0x3801 <<
mikroC for 8051
5;
4;
/* equals 000040 */
/* equals 0x8010, overflow! */
With shift right (>>), far right bits are discarded and the “freed” bits on the left are
assigned zeroes (in case of unsigned operand) or the value of a sign bit (in case of
signed operand). Shifting operand to the right by n positions is equivalent to dividing it by 2n.
0xFF56 >>
0xFF56u >>
4;
4;
/* equals 0xFFF5 */
/* equals 0x0FF5 */
Bitwise vs. Logical
Do not forget of the principle difference between how bitwise and logical operators
work. For example:
0222222 & 0555555;
0222222 && 0555555;
~ 0x1234;
! 0x1234;
/* equals 000000 */
/* equals 1 */
/* equals 0xEDCB */
/* equals 0 */
LOGICAL OPERATORS
Operands of logical operations are considered true or false, that is non-zero or zero.
Logical operators always return 1 or 0. Operands in a logical expression must be of
scalar type.
Logical operators && and || associate from left to right. Logical negation operator !
associates from right to left.
Logical Operators Overview
Operator
Operation
Precedence
&&
logical AND
5
||
logical OR
4
!
logical negation
14
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Logical Operations
&&
0
x
||
0
x
0
0
0
0
0
1
x
0
1
x
1
1
!
0
x
1
0
Precedence of logical, relational, and arithmetic operators was designated in such a
way to allow complex expressions without parentheses to have an expected meaning:
c >= '0' && c <= '9';
a + 1 == b || ! f(x);
*/
/* reads as: (c >= '0') && (c <= '9') */
/* reads as: ((a + 1) == b) || (! (f(x)))
Logical AND && returns 1 only if both expressions evaluate to be nonzero, otherwise
returns 0. If the first expression evaluates to false, the second expression will not be
evaluated. For example:
a > b && c < d;
/* reads as (a > b) && (c < d) */
/* if (a > b) is false (0), (c < d) will not be evaluated */
Logical OR || returns 1 if either of expression evaluates to be nonzero, otherwise
returns 0. If the first expression evaluates to true, the second expression is not evaluated. For example:
a && b || c && d; /* reads as: (a && b) || (c && d) */
/* if (a && b) is true (1), (c && d) will not be evaluated */
Logical Expressions and Side Effects
General rule regarding complex logical expressions is that the evaluation of consecutive logical operands stops at the very moment the final result is known. For example, if we have an expression a && b && c where a is false (0), then operands b and
c will not be evaluated. This is very important if b and c are expressions, as their
possible side effects will not take place!
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Logical vs. Bitwise
Be aware of the principle difference between how bitwise and logical operators
work. For example:
0222222 & 0555555
0222222 && 0555555
~ 0x1234
! 0x1234
/* equals 000000 */
/* equals 1 */
/* equals 0xEDCB */
/* equals 0 */
CONDITIONAL OPERATOR ? :
The conditional operator ? : is the only ternary operator in C. Syntax of the conditional operator is:
expression1 ? expression2 : expression3
The expression1 is evaluated first. If its value is true, then expression2 evaluates
and expression3 is ignored. If expression1 evaluates to false, then expression3
evaluates and expression2 is ignored. The result will be a value of either expression2 or expression3 depending upon which of them evaluates.
Note: The fact that only one of these two expressions evaluates is very important if
they are expected to produce side effects!
Conditional operator associates from right to left.
Here are a couple of practical examples:
/* Find max(a, b): */
max = ( a > b ) ? a : b;
/* Convert small letter to capital: */
/* (no parentheses are actually necessary) */
c = ( c >= 'a' && c <= 'z' ) ? ( c - 32 ) : c;
Conditional Operator Rules
must be a scalar expression; expression2 and expression3 must
obey one of the following rules:
expression1
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1. Both expressions have to be of arithmetic type. expression2 and
expression3 are subject to usual arithmetic conversions, which determines
the resulting type.
2. Both expressions have to be of compatible struct or union types. The
resulting type is a structure or union type of expression2 and expression3.
3. Both expressions have to be of void type. The resulting type is void.
4. Both expressions have to be of type pointer to qualified or unqualified
versionsof compatible types. The resulting type is a pointer to a type qualified
with all type qualifiers of the types pointed to by both expressions.
5. One expression is a pointer, and the other is a null pointer constant. The
resulting type is a pointer to a type qualified with all type qualifiers of the
types pointed to by both expressions.
6. One expression is a pointer to an object or incomplete type, and the other is a
pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void. The resulting type is that
of the non-pointer-to-void expression.
ASSIGNMENT OPERATORS
Unlike many other programming languages, C treats value assignment as operation
(represented by an operator) rather than instruction.
Simple Assignment Operator
For a common value assignment, a simple assignment operator (=) is used:
expression1 = expression2
The expression1 is an object (memory location) to which the value of expression2 is assigned. Operand expression1 has to be lvalue and expression2 can be
any expression. The assignment expression itself is not lvalue.
If expression1 and expression2 are of different types, the result of the expression2 will be converted to the type of expression1, if necessary. Refer to Type
Conversions for more information.
Compound Assignment Operators
C allows more comlex assignments by means of compound assignment operators.
The syntax of compound assignment operators is:
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expression1 op= expression2
where op can be one of binary operators +, -, *, /, %, &, |, ^, <<, or >>.
Thus, we have 10 different compound assignment operators: +=, -=, *=, /=, %=,
associate from right to left. Spaces sepagenerate error.
&=, |=, ^=, <<= and >>=. All of them
rating compound operators (e.g. + =) will
Compound assignment has the same effect as
expression1 = expression1 op expression2
except the lvalue expression1 is evaluated only once. For example, expression1
+= expression2 is the same as expression1 = expression1 + expression2.
Assignment Rules
For both simple and compound assignment, the operands expression1 and expression2 must obey one of the following rules:
1. expression1 is of qualified or unqualified arithmetic type and expression2
is of arithmetic type.
2. expression1 has a qualified or unqualified version of structure or union type
compatible with the type of expression2.
3. expression1 and expression2 are pointers to qualified or unqualified
versions of compatible types and the type pointed to by left has all qualifiers
of the type pointed to by right.
4. Either expression1 or expression2 is a pointer to an object or incomplete
type and the other is a pointer to a qualified or unqualified version of void.
The type pointed to by left has all qualifiers of the type pointed to by right.
5. expression1 is a pointer and expression2 is a null pointer constant.
SIZEOF OPERATOR
The prefix unary operator sizeof returns an integer constant that represents the size
of memory space (in bytes) used by its operand (determined by its type, with some
exceptions).
The operator sizeof can take either a type identifier or an unary expression as an
operand. You cannot use sizeof with expressions of function type, incomplete
types, parenthesized names of such types, or with lvalue that designates a bit field
object.
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Sizeof Applied to Expression
If applied to expression, the size of an operand is determined without evaluating the
expression (and therefore without side effects). The result of the operation will be
the size of the type of the expression’s result.
Sizeof Applied to Type
If applied to a type identifier, sizeof returns the size of the specified type. The unit
for type size is sizeof(char) which is equivalent to one byte. The operation sizeof(char) gives the result 1, whether char is signed or unsigned.
Thus:
sizeof(char)
sizeof(int)
sizeof(unsigned long)
sizeof(float)
/* returns 1 */
/* returns 2 */
/* returns 4 */
/* returns 4 */
When the operand is a non-parameter of array type, the result is the total number of
bytes in the array (in other words, an array name is not converted to a pointer type):
int i, j, a[10];
...
j = sizeof(a[1]);
i = sizeof(a);
/* j = sizeof(int) = 2 */
/* i = 10*sizeof(int) = 20 */
/* To get the number of elements in an array: */
int num_elem = i/j;
If the operand is a parameter declared as array type or function type, sizeof gives the
size of the pointer. When applied to structures and unions, sizeof gives the total
number of bytes, including any padding. The operator sizeof cannot be applied to
a function.
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EXPRESSIONS
Expression is a sequence of operators, operands, and punctuators that specifies a
computation. Formally, expressions are defined recursively: subexpressions can be
nested without formal limit. However, the compiler will report an out-of-memory
error if it can’t compile an expression that is too complex.
In ANSI C, the primary expressions are: constant (also referred to as literal), identifier, and (expression), defined recursively.
Expressions are evaluated according to a certain conversion, grouping, associativity and precedence rules, which depends on the operators used, presence of parentheses and data types of the operands. The precedence and associativity of the operators are summarized in Operator Precedence and Associativity. The way operands
and subexpressions are grouped does not necessarily specify the actual order in
which they are evaluated by the mikroC for 8051.
Expressions can produce lvalue, rvalue, or no value. Expressions might cause side
effects whether they produce a value or not.
COMMA EXPRESSIONS
One of the specifics of C is that it allows using of comma as a sequence operator to
form so-called comma expressions or sequences. Comma expression is a commadelimited list of expressions – it is formally treated as a single expression so it can
be used in places where an expression is expected. The following sequence:
expression_1, expression_2;
results in the left-to-right evaluation of each expression, with the value and type of
expression_2 giving the result of the whole expression. Result of expression_1 is
discarded.
Binary operator comma (,) has the lowest precedence and associates from left to
right, so that a, b, c is the same as (a, b), c. This allows writing sequences with
any number of expressions:
expression_1, expression_2, ... expression_n;
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which results in the left-to-right evaluation of each expression, with the value and
type of expression_n giving the result of the whole expression. Results of other
expressions are discarded, but their (possible) side-effect do occur.
For example:
result = ( a = 5, b /= 2, c++ );
/* returns preincremented value of variable c,
but also intializes a, divides b by 2 and increments c */
result = ( x = 10, y = x + 3, x--, z -= x * 3 - --y );
/* returns computed value of variable z,
and also computes x and y */
Note
Do not confuse comma operator (sequence operator) with comma punctuator which
separates elements in a function argument list and initializator lists. To avoid ambiguity with commas in function argument and initializer lists, use parentheses. For
example,
func(i, (j = 1, j + 4), k);
calls the function func with three arguments (i, 5, k), not four.
STATEMENTS
Statements specify a flow of control as the program executes. In the absence of specific jump and selection statements, statements are executed sequentially in the
order of appearance in the source code.
Statements can be roughly divided into:
- Labeled Statements
- Expression Statements
- Selection Statements
- Iteration Statements (Loops)
- Jump Statements
- Compound Statements (Blocks)
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LABELED STATEMENTS
Each statement in a program can be labeled. A label is an identifier added before the
statement like this:
label_identifier: statement;
There is no special declaration of a label – it just “tags” the statement.
Label_identifier has a function scope and the same label cannot be redefined
within the same function.
Labels have their own namespace: label identifier can match any other identifier in
the program.
A statement can be labeled for two reasons:
1. The label identifier serves as a target for the unconditional goto statement,
2. The label identifier serves as a target for the switch statement. For this pu
rpose, only case and default labeled statements are used:
case constant-expression : statement
default : statement
EXPRESSION STATEMENTS
Any expression followed by a semicolon forms an expression statement:
expression;
The mikroC for 8051 executes an expression statement by evaluating the expression. All side effects from this evaluation are completed before the next statement
starts executing. Most of expression statements are assignment statements or function calls.
A null statement is a special case, consisting of a single semicolon (;). The null
statement does nothing, and therefore is useful in situations where the mikroC for
8051 syntax expects a statement but the program does not need one. For example, a
null statement is commonly used in “empty” loops:
for (; *q++ = *p++ ;);
/* body of this loop is a null statement */
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SELECTION STATEMENTS
Selection or flow-control statements select one of alternative courses of action by
testing certain values. There are two types of selection statements:
- if
- switch
IF STATEMENT
The if statement is used to implement a conditional statement. The syntax of the if
statement is:
if (expression) statement1 [else statement2]
If expression evaluates to true, statement1 executes. If expression is false,
statement2 executes. The expression must evaluate to an integral value; otherwise, the condition is ill-formed. Parentheses around the expression are mandatory.
The else keyword is optional, but no statements can come between if and else.
Nested If statements
Nested if statements require additional attention. A general rule is that the nested
conditionals are parsed starting from the innermost conditional, with each else
bound to the nearest available if on its left:
if (expression1) statement1
else if (expression2)
if (expression3) statement2
else statement3
/* this belongs to: if (expression3) */
else statement4
/* this belongs to: if (expression2) */
Note
and #else preprocessor statements (directives) look similar to if and else
statements, but have very different effects. They control which source file lines are
compiled and which are ignored.
#if
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SWITCH STATEMENT
The switch statement is used to pass control to a specific program branch, based on
a certain condition. The syntax of the switch statement is:
switch (expression) {
case constant-expression_1 : statement_1;
.
.
.
case constant-expression_n : statement_n;
[default : statement;]
}
First, the expression (condition) is evaluated. The switch statement then compares
it to all available constant-expressions following the keyword case. If a match is
found, switch passes control to that matching case causing the statement following the match evaluates. Note that constant-expressions must evaluate to integer.
It is not possible to have two same constant expressions evaluating to the same
value.
Parentheses around expression are mandatory.
Upon finding a match, program flow continues normally: the following instructions
will be executed in natural order regardless of the possible case label. If no case
satisfies the condition, the default case evaluates (if the label default is specified).
For example, if a variable i has value between 1 and 3, the following switch would
always return it as 4:
switch
case
case
case
}
(i) {
1: i++;
2: i++;
3: i++;
To avoid evaluating any other cases and relinquish control from switch, each case
should be terminated with break.
Here is a simple example with switch. Suppose we have a variable phase with only
3 different states (0, 1, or 2) and a corresponding function (event) for each of these
states. This is how we could switch the code to the appopriate routine:
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switch (phase) {
case 0: Lo(); break;
case 1: Mid(); break;
case 2: Hi(); break;
default: Message("Invalid state!");
}
Nested switch
Conditional switch statements can be nested – labels case and default are then
assigned to the innermost enclosing switch statement.
ITERATION STATEMENTS (LOOPS)
Iteration statements allows to loop a set of statements. There are three forms of iteration statements in the mikroC for 8051:
- while
- do
- for
WHILE STATEMENT
The while keyword is used to conditionally iterate a statement. The syntax of the
while statement is:
while (expression) statement
The statement executes repeatedly until the value of expression is false. The test
takes place before statement is executed. Thus, if expression evaluates to false on
the first pass, the loop does not execute. Note that parentheses around expression
are mandatory.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the while
statement:
int s = 0, i = 0;
while (i < n) {
s += a[i] * b[i];
i++;
}
Note that body of the loop can be a null statement. For example:
while (*q++ = *p++);
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DO STATEMENT
The do statement executes until the condition becomes false. The syntax of the do
statement is:
do statement while (expression);
The statement is executed repeatedly as long as the value of expression remains
non-zero. The expression is evaluated after each iteration, so the loop will execute
statement at least once.
Parentheses around expression are mandatory.
Note that do is the only control structure in C which explicitly ends with semicolon (;). Other control structures end with statement, which means that they
implicitly include a semicolon or closing brace.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the do statement:
s = 0; i = 0;
do {
s += a[i] * b[i];
i++;
} while ( i < n );
FOR STATEMENT
The for statement implements an iterative loop. The syntax of the for statement is:
for ([init-expression]; [condition-expression]; [increment-expression]) statement
Before the first iteration of the loop, init-expression sets the starting variables
for the loop. You cannot pass declarations in init-expression.
condition-expression is checked before the first entry into the block; statement is executed repeatedly until the value of condition-expression is false.
After each iteration of the loop, increment-expression increments a loop counter. Consequently, i++ is functionally the same as ++i.
All expressions are optional. If condition-expression is left out, it is assumed to
be always true. Thus, “empty” for statement is commonly used to create an endless loop in C:
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for ( ; ; ) statement
The only way to break out of this loop is by means of the break statement.
Here is an example of calculating scalar product of two vectors, using the for statement:
for ( s = 0, i = 0; i < n; i++ ) s += a[i] * b[i];
There is another way to do this:
for ( s = 0, i = 0; i < n; s += a[i] * b[i], i++ );
ugly */
/* valid, but
but it is considered a bad programming style. Although legal, calculating the sum
should not be a part of the incrementing expression, because it is not in the service
of loop routine. Note that null statement (;) is used for the loop body.
JUMP STATEMENTS
The jump statement, when executed, transfers control unconditionally. There are
four such statements in the mikroC for 8051:
- break
- continue
- goto
- return
BREAK AND CONTINUE STATEMENTS
Break Statement
Sometimes it is necessary to stop the loop within its body. Use the break statement
within loops to pass control to the first statement following the innermost switch,
for, while, or do block.
Break is commonly used in the switch statements to stop its execution upon the first
positive match. For example:
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switch (state) {
case 0: Lo(); break;
case 1: Mid(); break;
case 2: Hi(); break;
default: Message("Invalid state!");
}
Continue Statement
The continue statement within loops is used to “skip the cycle”. It passes control
to the end of the innermost enclosing end brace belonging to a looping construct. At
that point the loop continuation condition is re-evaluated. This means that continue demands the next iteration if the loop continuation condition is true.
Specifically, the continue statement within the loop will jump to the marked position as it is shown below:
while (..) {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps here
}
do {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps here
while (..);
for (..;..;..) {
...
if (val>0) continue;
...
// continue jumps here
}
GOTO STATEMENT
The goto statement is used for unconditional jump to a local label — for more information on labels, refer to Labeled Statements. The syntax of the goto statement is:
goto label_identifier ;
This will transfer control to the location of a local label specified by label_identifier. The label_identifier has to be a name of the label within the same function
in which the goto statement is. The goto line can come before or after the label.
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goto is used to break out from any level of nested control structures but it cannot be
used to jump into block while skipping that block’s initializations – for example,
jumping into loop’s body, etc.
The use of goto statement is generally discouraged as practically every algorithm
can be realized without it, resulting in legible structured programs. One possible
application of the goto statement is breaking out from deeply nested control structures:
for (...) {
for (...) {
...
if (disaster) goto Error;
...
}
}
.
.
.
Error: /* error handling code */
RETURN STATEMENT
The return statement is used to exit from the current function back to the calling routine, optionally returning a value. The syntax is:
return [expression];
This will evaluate expression and return the result. Returned value will be automatically converted to the expected function type, if needed. The expression is
optional; if omitted, the function will return a random value from memory.
Note: The statement return in functions of the void type cannot have expression
– in fact, the return statement can be omitted altogether if it is the last statement in
the function body.
COMPOUND STATEMENTS (BLOCKS)
The compound statement, or block, is a list (possibly empty) of statements enclosed
in matching braces { }. Syntactically, the block can be considered to be a single
statement, but it also plays a role in the scoping of identifiers. An identifier declared
within the block has a scope starting at the point of declaration and ending at the
closing brace. Blocks can be nested to any depth up to the limits of memory.
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For example, the for loop expects one statement in its body, so we can pass it a compound statement:
for (i = 0; i < n; i++ ) {
int temp = a[i];
a[i] = b[i];
b[i] = temp;
}
Note that, unlike other statements, compound statements do not end with semicolon
(;), i.e. there is never a semicolon following the closing brace.
PREPROCESSOR
Preprocessor is an integrated text processor which prepares the source code for compiling. Preprocessor allows:
- inserting text from a specifed file to a certain point in the code (see File
Inclusion),
- replacing specific lexical symbols with other symbols (see Macros),
- conditional compiling which conditionally includes or omits parts of the code
(see Conditional Compilation).
Note that preprocessor analyzes text at token level, not at individual character level.
Preprocessor is controled by means of preprocessor directives and preprocessor
operators.
PREPROCESSOR DIRECTIVES
Any line in the source code with a leading # is taken as a preprocessing directive (or
control line), unless # is within a string literal, in a character constant, or embedded
in a comment. The initial # can be preceded or followed by a whitespace (excluding
new lines).
A null directive consists of a line containing the single character #. This line is
always ignored.
Preprocessor directives are usually placed at the beginning of the source code, but
they can legally appear at any point in a program. The mikroC for 8051 preprocessor detects preprocessor directives and parses the tokens embedded in them. A directive is in effect from its declaration to the end of the program file.
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Here is one commonly used directive:
#include <math.h>
For more information on including files with the #include directive, refer to File
Inclusion.
The mikroC for 8051 supports standard preprocessor directives:
# (null directive)
#define
#elif
#else
#endif
#error
#if
#ifdef
#ifndef
#include
#line
#undef
Note: For the time being only funcall pragma is supported.
Line Continuation with Backslash (\)
To break directive into multiple lines end the line with a backslash (\):
#define MACRO
This directive continues to \
the following line.
MACROS
Macros provide a mechanism for a token replacement, prior to compilation, with or
without a set of formal, function-like parameters.
Defining Macros and Macro Expansions
The #define directive defines a macro:
#define macro_identifier <token_sequence>
Each occurrence of macro_identifier in the source code following this control
line will be replaced in the original position with the possibly empty
token_sequence (there are some exceptions, which are discussed later). Such
replacements are known as macro expansions.token_sequence is sometimes called
the body of a macro. An empty token sequence results in the removal of each affected macro identifier from the source code.
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No semicolon (;) is needed to terminate a preprocessor directive. Any character
found in the token sequence, including semicolons, will appear in a macro expansion.token_sequence terminates at the first non-backslashed new line encountered.
Any sequence of whitespace, including comments in the token sequence, is replaced
with a single-space character.
After each individual macro expansion, a further scan is made of the newly expanded text. This allows the possibility of using nested macros: the expanded text can
contain macro identifiers that are subject to replacement. However, if the macro
expands into something that looks like a preprocessing directive, such directive will
not be recognized by the preprocessor. Any occurrences of the macro identifier
found within literal strings, character constants, or comments in the source code will
not be expanded.
A macro won’t be expanded during its own expansion (so #define MACRO MACRO
won’t expand indefinitely).
Here is an example:
/* Here are some simple macros: */
#define ERR_MSG "Out of range!"
#define EVERLOOP for( ; ; )
/* which we could use like this: */
main() {
EVERLOOP {
...
if (error) { Lcd_Out_Cp(ERR_MSG); break; }
...
}
}
Attempting to redefine an already defined macro identifier will result in a warning
unless a new definition is exactly the same token-by-token definition as the existing
one. The preferred strategy when definitions might exist in other header files is as
follows:
#ifndef BLOCK_SIZE
#define BLOCK_SIZE 512
#endif
The middle line is bypassed if BLOCK_SIZE is currently defined; if BLOCK_SIZE is not
currently defined, the middle line is invoked to define it.
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Macros with Parameters
The following syntax is used to define a macro with parameters:
#define macro_identifier(<arg_list>) <token_sequence>
Note that there can be no whitespace between macro_identifier and “(”. The
optional arg_list is a sequence of identifiers separated by commas, like the argument list of a C function. Each comma-delimited identifier has the role of a formal
argument or placeholder.
Such macros are called by writing
macro_identifier(<actual_arg_list>)
in the subsequent source code. The syntax is identical to that of a function call;
indeed, many standard library C “functions” are implemented as macros. However,
there are some important semantic differences.
The optional actual_arg_list must contain the same number of comma-delimited
token sequences, known as actual arguments, as found in the formal arg_list of the
#define line – there must be an actual argument for each formal argument. An error
will be reported if the number of arguments in two lists is not the same.
A macro call results in two sets of replacements. First, the macro identifier and the
parenthesis-enclosed arguments are replaced by the token sequence. Next, any formal arguments occurring in the token sequence are replaced by the corresponding
real arguments appearing in actual_arg_list. Like with simple macro definitions,
rescanning occurs to detect any embedded macro identifiers eligible for expansion.
Here is a simple example:
/* A simple macro which returns greater of its 2 arguments: */
#define _MAX(A, B) ((A) > (B)) ? (A) : (B)
/* Let's call it: */
x = _MAX(a + b, c + d);
/* Preprocessor will transform the previous line into:
x = ((a + b) > (c + d)) ? (a + b) : (c + d) */
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It is highly recommended to put parentheses around each argument in the macro
body in order to avoid possible problems with operator precedence.
Undefining Macros
The #undef directive is used to undefine a macro.
#undef macro_identifier
The directive #undef detaches any previous token sequence from macro_identifier; the macro definition has been forgotten, and macro_identifier is undefined.
No macro expansion occurs within the #undef lines.
The state of being defined or undefined is an important property of an identifier,
regardless of the actual definition. The #ifdef and #ifndef conditional directives,
used to test whether any identifier is currently defined or not, offer a flexible mechanism for controlling many aspects of a compilation.
After a macro identifier has been undefined, it can be redefined with #define, using
the same or different token sequence.
FILE INCLUSION
The preprocessor directive #include pulls in header files (extension .h) into the
source code. Do not rely on preprocessor to include source files (extension .c) —
see Add/Remove Files from Project for more information.
The syntax of the #include directive has two formats:
#include <header_name>
#include "header_name"
The preprocessor removes the #include line and replaces it with the entire text of
a header file at that point in the source code. The placement of #include can therefore influence the scope and duration of any identifiers in the included file.
The difference between these two formats lies in searching algorithm employed in
trying to locate the include file.
If the #include directive is used with the <header_name> version, the search is
made successively in each of the following locations, in this particular order:
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1. the mikroC for 8051 installation folder › “include” folder
2. user's custom search paths
The "header_name" version specifies a user-supplied include file; the mikroC for
8051 will look for the header file in the following locations, in this particular order:
1. the project folder (folder which contains the project file .ppc)
2. the mikroC for 8051 installation folder › “include” folder
3. user's custom search paths
Explicit Path
By placing an explicit path in header_name, only that directory will be searched. For
example:
#include "C:\my_files\test.h"
Note
There is also a third version of the #include directive, rarely used, which assumes
that neither < nor " appear as the first non-whitespace character following
#include:
#include macro_identifier
It assumes that macro definition that will expand macro identifier into a valid delimited header name with either <header_name> or "header_name" formats exists.
PREPROCESSOR OPERATORS
The # (pound sign) is a preprocessor directive when it occurs as the first non-whitespace character on a line. Also, # and ## perform operator replacement and merging
during the preprocessor scanning phase.
Operator #
In C preprocessor, a character sequence enclosed by quotes is considered a token
and its content is not analyzed. This means that macro names within quotes are not
expanded.
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If you need an actual argument (the exact sequence of characters within quotes) as
a result of preprocessing, use the # operator in macro body. It can be placed in front
of a formal macro argument in definition in order to convert the actual argument to
a string after replacement.
For example, let’s have macro LCD_PRINT for printing variable name and value on
LCD:
#define LCD_PRINT(val) Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp(#val ": "); \
Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp(IntToStr(val));
Now, the following code,
LCD_PRINT(temp)
will be preprocessed to this:
Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp("temp" ": "); Lcd_Custom_Out_Cp(IntToStr(temp));
Operator ##
Operator ## is used for token pasting. Two tokens can be pasted(merged) together
by placing ## in between them (plus optional whitespace on either side). The preprocessor removes whitespace and ##, combining the separate tokens into one new
token. This is commonly used for constructing identifiers.
For example, see the definition of macro SPLICE for pasting two tokens into one
identifier:
#define SPLICE(x,y) x ## _ ## y
Now, the call SPLICE(cnt, 2) will expand to the identifier cnt_2.
Note
The mikroC for 8051 does not support the older nonportable method of token pasting using (l/**/r).
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CONDITIONAL COMPILATION
Conditional compilation directives are typically used to make source programs easy
to change and easy to compile in different execution environments. The mikroC for
8051 supports conditional compilation by replacing the appropriate source-code
lines with a blank line.
All conditional compilation directives must be completed in the source or include
file in which they have begun.
Directives #if, #elif, #else, and #endif
The conditional directives #if, #elif, #else, and #endif work very similar to
the common C conditional statements. If the expression you write after #if has a
nonzero value, the line group immediately following the #if directive is retained in
the translation unit.
The syntax is:
#if constant_expression_1
<section_1>
[#elif constant_expression_2
<section_2>]
...
[#elif constant_expression_n
<section_n>]
[#else
<final_section>]
#endif
Each #if directive in a source file must be matched by a closing #endif directive.
Any number of #elif directives can appear between #if and #endif directives, but
at most one #else directive is allowed. The #else directive, if present, must be the
last directive before #endif.
can be any program text that has meaning to compiler or preprocessor.
The preprocessor selects a single section by evaluating constant_expression following each #if or #elif directive until it finds a true (nonzero) constant expression. The constant expressions are subject to macro expansion.
sections
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If all occurrences of constant-expression are false, or if no #elif directives appear,
the preprocessor selects the text block after the #else clause. If the #else clause is
omitted and all instances of constant_expression in the #if block are false, no
section is selected for further processing.
Any processed section can contain further conditional clauses, nested to any depth.
Each nested #else, #elif, or #endif directive belongs to the closest preceding the
#if directive.
The net result of the preceding scenario is that only one code section (possibly
empty) will be compiled.
Directives #ifdef and #ifndef
The #ifdef and #ifndef directives can be used anywhere #if can be used and they
can test whether an identifier is currently defined or not. The line
#ifdef identifier
has exactly the same effect as #if 1 if identifier is currently defined, and the
same effect as #if 0 if identifier is currently undefined. The other directive,
#ifndef, tests true for the “not-defined” condition, producing the opposite results.
The syntax thereafter follows that of #if, #elif, #else, and #endif.
An identifier defined as NULL is considered to be defined.
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Libraries
mikroC for 8051 provides a set of libraries which simplify the initialization and
use of 8051 compliant MCUs and their modules
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MIKROC FOR 8051 LIBRARIES
mikroC for 8051 provides a set of libraries which simplify the initialization and use
of 8051 compliant MCUs and their modules:
Use Library manager to include mikroC for 8051 Libraries in you project.
Hardware 8051-specific Libraries
- CANSPI Library
- EEPROM Library
- Graphic LCD Library
- Keypad Library
- LCD Library
- Manchester Code Library
- OneWire Library
- Port Expander Library
- PS/2 Library
- RS-485 Library
- Software I2C Library
- Software SPI Library
- Software UART Library
- Sound Library
- SPI Library
- SPI Ethernet Library
- SPI Graphic LCD Library
- SPI LCD Library
- SPI LCD8 Library
- SPI T6963C Graphic LCD Library
- T6963C Graphic LCD Library
Standard ANSI C Libraries
- ANSI C Ctype Library
- ANSI C Math Library
- ANSI C Stdlib Library
- ANSI C String Library
Miscellaneous Libraries
- Button Library
- Conversions Library
- Sprint Library
- Time Library
- Trigonometry Library
See also Built-in Routines.
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LIBRARY DEPENDENCIES
Certain libraries use (depend on) function and/or variables, constants defined in
other libraries.
Image below shows clear representation about these dependencies.
For example, SPI_Glcd uses Glcd_Fonts and Port_Expander library which uses SPI
library.
This means that if you check SPI_Glcd library in Library manager, all libraries on
which it depends will be checked too.
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Related topics:
Library manager,
8051 Libraries
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CANSPI LIBRARY
The SPI module is available with a number of the 8051 compliant MCUs. The
mikroC for 8051 provides a library (driver) for working with mikroElektronika's
CANSPI Add-on boards (with MCP2515 or MCP2510) via SPI interface.
The CAN is a very robust protocol that has error detection and signalization,
self–checking and fault confinement. Faulty CAN data and remote frames are retransmitted automatically, similar to the Ethernet.
Data transfer rates depend on distance. For example, 1 Mbit/s can be achieved at
network lengths below 40m while 250 Kbit/s can be achieved at network lengths
below 250m. The greater distance the lower maximum bitrate that can be achieved.
The lowest bitrate defined by the standard is 200Kbit/s. Cables used are shielded
twisted pairs.
CAN supports two message formats:
- Standard format, with 11 identifier bits and
- Extended format, with 29 identifier bits
Note:
- Consult the CAN standard about CAN bus termination resistance.
- An effective CANSPI communication speed depends on SPI and certainly is
slower than “real” CAN.
- CANSPI module refers to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Add-on board
connected to SPI module of MCU.
External dependecies of CANSPI Library
The following variables must be
defined in all projects using
CANSPI Library:
Description:
Example:
extern sbit CanSpi_CS;
Chip Select line.
sbit CanSpi_CS
at P1.B0;
extern sbit CanSpi_Rst;
Reset line.
sbit CanSpi_Rst
at P1.B2;
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Library Routines
- CANSPISetOperationMode
- CANSPIGetOperationMode
- CANSPIInitialize
- CANSPISetBaudRate
- CANSPISetMask
- CANSPISetFilter
- CANSPIread
- CANSPIWrite
The following routines are for an internal use by the library only:
- RegsToCANSPIID
- CANSPIIDToRegs
Be sure to check CANSPI constants necessary for using some of the functions.
CANSPISetOperationMode
Prototype
Returns
void CANSPISetOperationMode(char mode, char WAIT);
Nothing.
Description Sets the CANSPI module to requested mode.
Parameters :
- mode: CANSPI module operation mode. Valid values: CAN
SPI_OP_MODE constants (see CANSPI constants).
- WAIT: CANSPI mode switching verification request. If WAIT
== 0, the call is non-blocking. The function does not verify if
the CANSPI module is switched to requested mode or not.
Caller must use CANSPIGetOperationMode to verify correct
operation mode before performing mode specific operation. If
WAIT != 0, the call is blocking – the function won’t “return”
until the requested mode is set.
Requires
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI
module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI
Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at the
bottom of this page.
Example
// set the CANSPI module into configuration mode (wait
inside CANSPISetOperationMode until this mode is set)
CANSPISetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG, 0xFF);
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CANSPIGetOperationMode
Prototype
Returns
char CANSPIGetOperationMode(void);
Current operation mode.
Description The function returns current operation mode of the CANSPI module. Check CANSPI_OP_MODE constants (see CANSPI constants) or
device datasheet for operation mode codes.
Requires
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI
module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at
the bottom of this page.
Example
// check whether the CANSPI module is in Normal mode
and if it is do something.
if (CANSPIGetOperationMode() == CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL) {
...
}
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CANSPIInitialize
Prototype
Returns
void CANSPIInitialize( char SJW, char BRP, char
PHSEG1, char PHSEG2, char PROPSEG, char
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Nothing.
Description Initializes the CANSPI module.
Stand-Alone CAN controller in the CANSPI module is set to:
- Disable CAN capture
- Continue CAN operation in Idle mode
- Do not abort pending transmissions
- Fcan clock : 4*Tcy (Fosc)
- Baud rate is set according to given parameters
- CAN mode : Normal
- Filter and mask registers IDs are set to zero
- Filter and mask message frame type is set according
to CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value
SAM, SEG2PHTS, WAKFIL and DBEN
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS value.
bits are set according to
Parameters:
-
SJW as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
BRP as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG1 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG2 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PROPSEG as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants
(see
CANSPI constants)
Requires
CanSpi_CS and CanSpi_Rst
variables must be defined before
using this function.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI
module.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at
the bottom of this page.
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Example
// initialize the CANSPI module with the appropriate
baud rate and message acceptance flags along with the
sampling rules
char Can_Init_Flags;
...
Can_Init_Flags = CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// form value to be used
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
// with CANSPIInitialize
CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG;
...
Spi_Init();
// initialize SPI module
CANSPIInitialize(1,3,3,3,1,Can_Init_Flags);
// initialize external CANSPI module
CANSPISetBaudRate
Prototype
Returns
void CANSPISetBaudRate( char SJW, char BRP, char
PHSEG1, char PHSEG2, char PROPSEG, char
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Nothing.
Description Sets the CANSPI module baud rate. Due to complexity of the
CAN protocol, you can not simply force a bps value. Instead, use
this function when the CANSPI module is in Config mode.
SAM, SEG2PHTS and WAKFIL bits are set according
FIG_FLAGS value. Refer to datasheet for details.
to CAN_CON-
Parameters:
-
SJW as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
BRP as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG1 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PHSEG2 as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
PROPSEG as defined in CAN controller's datasheet
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS is formed from predefined constants
(see
CANSPI constants)
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Requires
The CANSPI module must be in Config mode, otherwise the
function will be ignored. See CANSPISetOperationMode.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI
module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at
the bottom of this page.
Example
// set required baud rate and sampling rules
char can_config_flags;
...
CANSPISetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI module mast be in
config mode for baud rate settings)
can_config_flags = CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
CANSPISetBaudRate(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, can_config_flags);
CANSPISetMask
Prototype
Returns
void CANSPISetMask(char CAN_MASK, long val, char
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Nothing.
Description Configures mask for advanced filtering of messages. The parameter value is bit-adjusted to the appropriate mask registers.
Parameters:
- CAN_MASK:
CANSPI module mask number. Valid values:
CANSPI_MASK constants (see CANSPI constants)
- val: mask register value
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid
values:
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CON
FIG_STD_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CON
FIG_XTD_MSG.
(see CANSPI constants)
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Requires
The CANSPI module must be in Config mode, otherwise the
function will be ignored. See CANSPISetOperationMode.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI
module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at
the bottom of this page.
Example
// set the appropriate filter mask and message type
value
CANSPISetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI module must be in
config mode for mask settings)
// Set all B1 mask bits to 1 (all filtered bits are
relevant):
// Note that -1 is just a cheaper way to write
0xFFFFFFFF.
// Complement will do the trick and fill it up with
ones.
CANSPISetMask(CANSPI_MASK_B1, -1,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG)
CANSPISetFilter
Prototype
Returns
void CANSPISetFilter(char CAN_FILTER, long val, char
CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS);
Nothing.
Description Configures message filter. The parameter value is bit-adjusted to
the appropriate filter registers.
Parameters:
- CAN_FILTER: CANSPI module filter number. Valid values:
CANSPI_FILTER constants (see CANSPI constants)
- val: filter register value
- CAN_CONFIG_FLAGS: selects type of message to filter. Valid
values:
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG,
CANSPI_CONFIG_MATCH_MSG_TYPE & CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG.
(see CANSPI constants)
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Requires
The CANSPI module must be in Config mode, otherwise the
function will be ignored. See CANSPISetOperationMode.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI
module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at
the bottom of this page.
Example
// set the appropriate filter value and message type
CANSPISetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// set CONFIGURATION mode (CANSPI module must be in
config mode for filter settings)
/* Set id of filter B1_F1 to 3: */
CANSPISetFilter(CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F1, 3, CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
CANSPIRead
Prototype
Returns
char CANSPIRead(long *id, char *rd_data, char
*data_len, char *CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS);
- 0 if nothing is received
- 0xFF if one of the Receive Buffers is full (message received)
Description If at least one full Receive Buffer is found, it will be processed in
the following way:
- Message ID is retrieved and stored to location provided by the
id parameter
- Message data is retrieved and stored to a buffer provided by the
rd_data parameter
- Message length is retrieved and stored to location provided by
the data_len parameter
- Message flags are retrieved and stored to location provided by
the CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS parameter
Parameters:
- id: message identifier storage address
- rd_data: data buffer (an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in length)
- data_len: data length storage address.
- CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags storage address
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Requires
The CANSPI module must be in a mode in which receiving is
possible. See CANSPISetOperationMode.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI
module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at
the bottom of this page.
Example
// check the CANSPI module for received messages. If
any was received do something.
char msg_rcvd, rx_flags, data_len;
char data[8];
long msg_id;
...
CANSPISetOperationMode(CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CANSPI module must be in mode in
which receive is possible)
...
rx_flags = 0;
// clear message flags
if (msg_rcvd = CANSPIRead(msg_id, data, data_len,
rx_flags)) {
...
}
CANSPIWrite
Prototype
Returns
char CANSPIWrite(long id, char *wr_data, char
data_len, char CAN_TX_MSG_FLAGS);
- 0 if all Transmit Buffers are busy
- 0xFF if at least one Transmit Buffer
is available
Description If at least one empty Transmit Buffer is found, the function sends
message in the queue for transmission.
Parameters:
- id:CAN
message identifier. Valid values: 11 or 29 bit values,
depending on message type (standard or extended)
- wr_data: data to be sent (an array of bytes up to 8 bytes in
length)
- data_len: data length. Valid values: 1 to 8
- CAN_RX_MSG_FLAGS: message flags
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Requires
The CANSPI module must be in mode in which transmission is
possible. See CANSPISetOperationMode.
The CANSPI routines are supported only by MCUs with the SPI
module.
MCU has to be properly connected to mikroElektronika's CANSPI Extra Board or similar hardware. See connection example at
the bottom of this page.
Example
// send message extended CAN message with the appropriate ID and data
char tx_flags;
char data[8];
long msg_id;
...
CANSPISetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// set NORMAL mode (CANSPI must be in mode in which
transmission is possible)
tx_flags = CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 & CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME;
// set message flags
CANSPIWrite(msg_id, data, 2, tx_flags);
CANSPI Constants
There is a number of constants predefined in the CANSPI library. You need to be
familiar with them in order to be able to use the library effectively. Check the
example at the end of the chapter.
CANSPI_OP_MODE
The CANSPI_OP_MODE constants define CANSPI operation mode. Function
CANSPISetOperationMode expects one of these as it's argument:
const char
CANSPI_MODE_BITS
CANSPI_MODE_NORMAL
CANSPI_MODE_SLEEP
CANSPI_MODE_LOOP
CANSPI_MODE_LISTEN
CANSPI_MODE_CONFIG
=
=
=
=
=
=
0xE0,
0x00,
0x20,
0x40,
0x60,
0x80;
// Use this to access opmode
bits
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CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS
The CANSPI_CONFIG_FLAGS constants define flags related to the CANSPI
module configuration. The functions CANSPIInitialize, CANSPISetBaudRate,
CANSPISetMask and CANSPISetFilter expect one of these (or a bitwise combination) as their argument:
const char
CANSPI_CONFIG_DEFAULT
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_BIT
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_OFF
= 0xFF,
// 11111111
= 0x01,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFE,
// XXXXXXX1
// XXXXXXX0
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_BIT = 0x02,
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_ON = 0xFF,
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF = 0xFD,
// XXXXXX1X
// XXXXXX0X
CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_BIT
CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_ONCE
CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE
= 0x04,
= 0xFF,
= 0xFB,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
CANSPI_CONFIG_MSG_TYPE_BIT
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
CANSPI_CONFIG_XTD_MSG
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXX1XXX
// XXXX0XXX
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_BIT
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_OFF
= 0x10,
= 0xFF,
= 0xEF,
// XXX1XXXX
// XXX0XXXX
CANSPI_CONFIG_MSG_BITS
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_MSG
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_STD_MSG
CANSPI_CONFIG_ALL_VALID_MSG
= 0x60,
= 0xFF,
= 0xDF,
= 0xBF,
= 0x9F;
// X11XXXXX
// X10XXXXX
// X01XXXXX
// X00XXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to form config byte out of these values. For example:
init = CANSPI_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
CANSPI_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_STD_MSG
&
CANSPI_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CANSPI_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CANSPI_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
...
CANSPIInitialize(1, 1, 3, 3, 1, init);
// initialize CANSPI
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CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS
CANSPI_TX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to transmission of a CAN message:
const char
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_BITS
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_1
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_2
CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_3
CANSPI_TX_FRAME_BIT
CANSPI_TX_STD_FRAME
CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME
=
=
=
=
=
0x03,
0xFC,
0xFD,
0xFE,
0xFF,
//
//
//
//
XXXXXX00
XXXXXX01
XXXXXX10
XXXXXX11
= 0x08,
= 0xFF,
= 0xF7,
// XXXXX1XX
// XXXXX0XX
CANSPI_TX_RTR_BIT
= 0x40,
CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME = 0xFF,
CANSPI_TX_RTR_FRAME
= 0xBF;
// X1XXXXXX
// X0XXXXXX
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
/* form value to be used as sending message flag : */
send_config = CANSPI_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
CANSPI_TX_XTD_FRAME &
CANSPI_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
...
CANSPIWrite(id, data, 1, send_config);
CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS
CANSPI_RX_MSG_FLAGS are flags related to reception of CAN message. If a
particular bit is set then corresponding meaning is TRUE or else it will be FALSE.
const char
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_BITS = 0x07,
bits
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_1
= 0x00,
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_2
= 0x01,
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_3
= 0x02,
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_4
= 0x03,
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_5
= 0x04,
CANSPI_RX_FILTER_6
= 0x05,
// Use this to access filter
CANSPI_RX_OVERFLOW
= 0x08, // Set if Overflowed else cleared
CANSPI_RX_INVALID_MSG = 0x10, // Set if invalid else cleared
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CANSPI_RX_XTD_FRAME
= 0x20,
cleared
CANSPI_RX_RTR_FRAME
= 0x40,
cleared
CANSPI_RX_DBL_BUFFERED = 0x80;
hardware double-buffered
// Set if XTD message else
// Set if RTR message else
// Set if this message was
You may use bitwise AND (&) to adjust the appropriate flags. For example:
if (MsgFlag & CANSPI_RX_OVERFLOW != 0) {
...
// Receiver overflow has occurred.
// We have lost our previous message.
}
CANSPI_MASK
The CANSPI_MASK constants define mask codes. Function CANSPISetMask
expects one of these as it's argument:
const char
CANSPI_MASK_B1 = 0,
CANSPI_MASK_B2 = 1;
CANSPI_FILTER
The CANSPI_FILTER constants define filter codes. Functions CANSPISetFilter
expects one of these as it's argument:
const char
CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F1
CANSPI_FILTER_B1_F2
CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F1
CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F2
CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F3
CANSPI_FILTER_B2_F4
=
=
=
=
=
=
0,
1,
2,
3,
4,
5;
Library Example
This is a simple demonstration of CANSPI Library routines usage. First node initiates the communication with the second node by sending some data to its address.
The second node responds by sending back the data incremented by 1. First node
then does the same and sends incremented data back to second node, etc.
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Code for the first CANSPI node:
unsigned char Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags;
// CAN flags
unsigned char Rx_Data_Len;
// Received data length in bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// CAN rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// Reception flag
long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// CAN rx and tx ID
// CANSPI module connections
sbit CanSpi_CS at P1.B0;
sbit CanSpi_Rst at P1.B2;
// End CANSPI module connections
void main() {
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
//
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
// Clear flags
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
Can_Send_Flags = CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
//
Form value to be used
CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
//
with CANSPIWrite
CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
Can_Init_Flags = CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
//
Form value to be used
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON &
//
with CANSPIInit
CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG;
Spi_Init();
// Initialize SPI module
CANSPIInitialize(1,3,3,3,1,Can_Init_Flags);
// Initialize external CANSPI module
CANSPISetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// Set CONFIGURATION mode
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CANSPISetMask(CAN_MASK_B1,-1,CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// Set all mask1 bits to ones
CANSPISetMask(CAN_MASK_B2,-1,CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// Set all mask2 bits to ones
CANSPISetFilter(CAN_FILTER_B2_F4,3,CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// Set id of filter B2_F4 to 3
CANSPISetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// Set NORMAL mode
RxTx_Data[0] = 9;
// Set initial data to be sent
Tx_ID = 12111;
// Set transmit ID
CANSPIWrite(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
// Send initial message
while(1) {
// Endless loop
Msg_Rcvd = CANSPIRead(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len,
&Can_Rcv_Flags);
// Receive message
if ((Rx_ID == 3u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
// If message received check id
P0 = RxTx_Data[0];
// ID correct, output data at PORT0
RxTx_Data[0]++ ;
// Increment received data
Delay_ms(10);
CANSPIWrite(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
// Send incremented data back
}
}
}//~!
Code for the second CANSPI node:
unsigned char Can_Init_Flags, Can_Send_Flags, Can_Rcv_Flags;
//CAN flags
unsigned char Rx_Data_Len;
// Received data length in bytes
char RxTx_Data[8];
// CAN rx/tx data buffer
char Msg_Rcvd;
// Reception flag
long Tx_ID, Rx_ID;
// CAN rx and tx ID
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// CANSPI module connections
sbit CanSpi_CS at P1.B0;
sbit CanSpi_Rst at P1.B2;
// End CANSPI module connections
void main() {
Can_Init_Flags = 0;
//
Can_Send_Flags = 0;
// Clear flags
Can_Rcv_Flags = 0;
//
Can_Send_Flags = CAN_TX_PRIORITY_0 &
// Form value to be used
CAN_TX_XTD_FRAME &
//
with CANSPIWrite
CAN_TX_NO_RTR_FRAME;
Can_Init_Flags = CAN_CONFIG_SAMPLE_THRICE &
// Form value to be used
CAN_CONFIG_PHSEG2_PRG_ON & // with CANSPIInit
CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_DBL_BUFFER_ON &
CAN_CONFIG_VALID_XTD_MSG &
CAN_CONFIG_LINE_FILTER_OFF;
Spi_Init();
// Initialize SPI module
CANSPIInitialize(1,3,3,3,1,Can_Init_Flags);
// Initialize CAN-SPI module
CANSPISetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_CONFIG,0xFF);
// Set CONFIGURATION mode
CANSPISetMask(CAN_MASK_B1,-1,CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// Set all mask1 bits to ones
CANSPISetMask(CAN_MASK_B2,-1,CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// Set all mask2 bits to ones
CANSPISetFilter(CAN_FILTER_B2_F3,12111,CAN_CONFIG_XTD_MSG);
// Set id of filter B2_F3 to 12111
CANSPISetOperationMode(CAN_MODE_NORMAL,0xFF);
// Set NORMAL mode
Tx_ID = 3;
// Set tx ID
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while (1) {
// Endless loop
Msg_Rcvd = CANSPIRead(&Rx_ID , RxTx_Data , &Rx_Data_Len,
&Can_Rcv_Flags);
// Receive message
if ((Rx_ID == 12111u) && Msg_Rcvd) {
// If message received check id
P0 = RxTx_Data[0];
// ID correct, output data at PORT0
RxTx_Data[0]++ ;
// Increment received data
CANSPIWrite(Tx_ID, RxTx_Data, 1, Can_Send_Flags);
// Send incremented data back
}
}
}//~!
HW Connection
100K
1
2
3
4
6
7
Vdd
RX
RST
CLKO
CS
TX0
SO
TX1
SI
TX2
SCK
OSC2
8
9
P1.0
17
16
RX1B
VCC
P1.2
15
14
13
P1.5
12
P1.6
11
P1.7
INT
OSC1 RX0B
Vss
18
10
8 MHz
MCP2510
10R
AT89S8253
5
TX
OSCILLATOR
1
2
3
TX-CAN RS
GND CANH
8
7
6
VCC CANL
4
RXD
Vref
XTAL1
GND
5
MCP2551
Shielded
twisted pair
6.1. Example of interfacing CAN transceiver MCP2510 with MCU via SPI
interface
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EEPROM LIBRARY
EEPROM data memory is available with a number of 8051 family. The mikroC
for 8051 includes a library for comfortable work with MCU's internal EEPROM.
Note: EEPROM Library functions implementation is MCU dependent, consult the
appropriate MCU datasheet for details about available EEPROM size and constrains.
Library Routines
- Eeprom_Read
- Eeprom_Write
- Eeprom_Write_Block
Eeprom_Read
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Eeprom_Read(unsigned int address);
Byte from the specified address.
Description Reads data from specified address.
Parameters :
- address: address of the EEPROM memory location to be read.
Requires
Nothing
Example
unsigned int eeAddr = 2;
unsigned short temp;
...
temp = Eeprom_Read(eeAddr);
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Eeprom_Write
Prototype
unsigned short Eeprom_Write(unsigned int address,
unsigned short wrdata);
- 0 writing was successful
- 1 if error occured
Description Writes wrdata to specified address.
Returns
Parameters :
- address: address of the EEPROM memory location to be written.
- wrdata: data to be written.
Requires
Example
Note: Specified memory location will be erased before writing
starts.
Nothing
unsigned short eeWrite = 0x55;
unsigned int wrAddr = 0x732;
...
Eeprom_Write(wrAddr, eeWrite);
Eeprom_Write_Block
Prototype
unsigned short Eeprom_Write_Block(unsigned int
address, unsigned short *ptrdata);
- 0 writing was successful
- 1 if error occured
Description Writes one EEPROM row (32 bytes block) of data.
Returns
Parameters :
- address: starting address of the EEPROM memory block to be
written.
- ptrdata: data block to be written.
Requires
Note: Specified memory block will be erased before writing starts.
EEPROM module must support block write operations.
It is the user's responsibility to maintain proper address alignment.
In this case, address has to be a multiply of 32, which is the size
(in bytes) of one row of MCU's EEPROM memory.
Example
unsigned int wrAddr = 0x0100;
unsigned short iArr[32] = {'m', 'i', 'k', 'r', 'o',
'E', 'l', 'e', 'k', 't', 'r', 'o', 'n', 'i', 'k', 'a',
0};
...
Eeprom_Write_Block(wrAddr, iArr);
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Library Example
This example demonstrates using the EEPROM Library with AT89S8253 MCU.
First, some data is written to EEPROM in byte and block mode; then the data is read
from the same locations and displayed on P0, P1 and P2.
char dat[32], ii;
// Data buffer, loop variable
void main(){
for(ii = 31; dat[ii] = ii; ii--)
;
// Fill data buffer
Eeprom_Write(2,0xAA);
// Write some data at address 2
Eeprom_Write(0x732,0x55);
// Write some data at address 0x732
Eeprom_Write_Block(0x100,dat);
// Write 32 bytes block at
address 0x100
Delay_ms(1000);
P0 = 0xFF;
//
to indicate reading start
P1 = 0xFF;
Delay_ms(1000);
P0 = 0x00;
P1 = 0x00;
Delay_ms(1000);
// Blink P0 and P1 diodes
P0 = Eeprom_Read(2);
// Read data from address 2 and display it on PORT0
P1 = Eeprom_Read(0x732);
// Read data from address 0x732 and display it on PORT1
Delay_ms(1000);
for(ii = 0; ii < 32; ii++) {
// Read 32 bytes block from address 0x100
P2 = Eeprom_Read(0x100+ii);
// and display data on PORT2
Delay_ms(500);
}
}
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GRAPHIC LCD LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for operating Graphic LCD 128x64 (with
commonly used Samsung KS108/KS107 controller).
For creating a custom set of GLCD images use GLCD Bitmap Editor Tool.
External dependencies of Graphic LCD Library
The following variables
must be defined in all
projects using Graphic
LCD Library:
Description:
Example :
extern volatile sfr
char GLCD_DataPort;
LCD Data Port.
sfr char GLCD_DataPort
at P0;
extern sbit GLCD_CS1:
Chip Select 1 line.
sbit GLCD_CS1 at P2.B0;
extern sbit GLCD_CS2:
Chip Select 2 line.
sbit GLCD_CS1 at P2.B1;
extern sbit GLCD_RS:
Register select line.
sbit GLCD_RS at P2.B2;
extern sbit GLCD_RW:
Read/Write line.
sbit GLCD_RW at P2.B3;
extern sbit GLCD_RST:
Reset line.
sbit GLCD_RST at P2.B5;
extern sbit GLCD_EN:
Enable line.
sbit GLCD_EN at P2.B4;
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Library Routines
Basic routines:
- Glcd_Init
- Glcd_Set_Side
- Glcd_Set_X
- Glcd_Set_Page
- Glcd_Read_Data
- Glcd_Write_Data
Advanced routines:
- Glcd_Fill
- Glcd_Dot
- Glcd_Line
- Glcd_V_Line
- Glcd_H_Line
- Glcd_Rectangle
- Glcd_Box
- Glcd_Circle
- Glcd_Set_Font
- Glcd_Write_Char
- Glcd_Write_Text
- Glcd_Image
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Glcd_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Init();
Nothing.
Description Initializes the GLCD module. Each of the control lines is both port
and pin configurable, while data lines must be on a single port
(pins <0:7>).
Requires
Global variables :
-
GLCD_CS1 : chip select 1 signal pin
GLCD_CS2 : chip select 2 signal pin
GLCD_RS : register select signal pin
GLCD_RW : read/write signal pin
GLCD_EN : enable signal pin
GLCD_RST : reset signal pin
GLCD_DataPort : data port
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// glcd pinout settings
sfr char GLCD_DataPort at P0;
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
GLCD_CS1
GLCD_CS2
GLCD_RS
GLCD_RW
GLCD_RST
GLCD_EN
at
at
at
at
at
at
P2.B0;
P2.B1;
P2.B2;
P2.B3;
P2.B5;
P2.B4;
...
Glcd_Init();
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Glcd_Set_Side
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Set_Side(unsigned short x_pos);
Nothing.
Description Selects GLCD side. Refer to the GLCD datasheet for detailed
explaination.
Parameters :
- x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..127
The parameter x_pos specifies the GLCD side: values from 0 to
63 specify the left side, values from 64 to 127 specify the right
side.
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic
at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
The following two lines are equivalent, and both of them select
the left side of GLCD:
Glcd_Select_Side(0);
Glcd_Select_Side(10);
Glcd_Set_X
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Set_X(unsigned short x_pos);
Nothing.
Description Sets x-axis position to x_pos dots from the left border of GLCD
within the selected side.
Parameters :
- x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..63
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic
at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
Glcd_Set_X(25);
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Glcd_Set_Page
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Set_Page(unsigned short page);
Nothing.
Description Selects page of the GLCD.
Parameters :
- page: page number. Valid values: 0..7
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic
at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
Glcd_Set_Page(5);
Glcd_Read_Data
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Glcd_Read_Data();
One byte from GLCD memory.
Description Reads data from from the current location of GLCD memory and
moves to the next location.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
GLCD side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See
functions Glcd_Set_Side, Glcd_Set_X, and Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
unsigned short data;
...
data = Glcd_Read_Data();
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Glcd_Write_Data
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Write_Data(unsigned short ddata);
Nothing.
Description Writes one byte to the current location in GLCD memory and
moves to the next location.
Parameters :
- ddata:
Requires
data to be written
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
GLCD side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See
functions Glcd_Set_Side, Glcd_Set_X, and Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
unsigned short data;
...
Glcd_Write_Data(data);
Glcd_Fill
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Fill(unsigned short pattern);
Nothing.
Description Fills GLCD memory with the byte pattern.
Parameters :
- pattern: byte to fill GLCD memory with
To clear the GLCD screen, use Glcd_Fill(0).
To fill the screen completely, use Glcd_Fill(0xFF).
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Clear screen
Glcd_Fill(0);
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Glcd_Dot
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Dot(unsigned short x_pos, unsigned short
y_pos, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a dot on GLCD at coordinates (x_pos, y_pos).
Parameters :
- x_pos: x position. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y position. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines a dot state: 0 clears dot, 1 puts a
dot, and 2 inverts dot state.
Note: For x and y axis layout explanation see schematic at the
bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Invert the dot in the upper left corner
Glcd_Dot(0, 0, 2);
Glcd_Line
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Line(int x_start, int y_start, int x_end,
int y_end, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a line on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black,
and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a line between dots (0,0) and (20,30)
Glcd_Line(0, 0, 20, 30, 1);
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Glcd_V_Line
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_V_Line(unsigned short y_start, unsigned
short y_end, unsigned short x_pos, unsigned short
color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a vertical line on GLCD.
Parameters :
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- x_pos: x coordinate of vertical line. Valid values: 0..127
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Requires
Example
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black,
and 2 inverts each dot.
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
// Draw a vertical line between dots (10,5) and
(10,25)
Glcd_V_Line(5, 25, 10, 1);
Glcd_H_Line
Prototype
void Glcd_H_Line(unsigned short x_start, unsigned
short x_end, unsigned short y_pos, unsigned short
color);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a horizontal line on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y coordinate of horizontal line. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Requires
Example
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black,
and 2 inverts each dot.
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
// Draw a horizontal line between dots (10,20) and
(50,20)
Glcd_H_Line(10, 50, 20, 1);
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Glcd_Rectangle
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Rectangle(unsigned short x_upper_left,
unsigned short y_upper_left, unsigned short x_bottom_right, unsigned short y_bottom_right, unsigned
short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a rectangle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border: 0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw a rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40)
Glcd_Rectangle(5, 5, 40, 40, 1);
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Glcd_Box
Prototype
void Glcd_Box(unsigned short
x_upper_left, unsigned short
y_upper_left, unsigned short
x_bottom_right, unsigned short
y_bottom_right, unsigned short color);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a box on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid
values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid
values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right box corner.
Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right box corner.
Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Requires
Example
The parameter color determines the color of the box fill: 0 white,
1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
// Draw a box between dots (5,15) and (20,40)
Glcd_Box(5, 15, 20, 40, 1);
Glcd_Circle
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Circle(int x_center, int y_center, int
radius, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a circle on GLCD.
Parameters :
-
Requires
Example
x_center: x coordinate of the circle center.
y_center: y coordinate of the circle center.
radius: radius size
color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Valid values: 0..127
Valid values: 0..63
The parameter color determines the color of the circle line: 0
white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
// Draw a circle with center in (50,50) and radius=10
Glcd_Circle(50, 50, 10, 1);
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Glcd_Set_Font
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Set_Font(const char *activeFont, unsigned
short aFontWidth, unsigned short aFontHeight,
unsigned int aFontOffs);
Nothing.
Description Sets font that will be used with Glcd_Write_Char and
Glcd_Write_Text routines.
Parameters :
- activeFont: font to be set. Needs to be formatted as an array of
char
- aFontWidth: width of the font characters in dots.
- aFontHeight: height of the font characters in dots.
- aFontOffs: number that represents difference between the
mikroC for 8051 character set and regular ASCII set (eg. if 'A' is
65 in ASCII character, and 'A' is 45 in the mikroC for 8051
character set, aFontOffs is 20). Demo fonts supplied with the
library have an offset of 32, which means that they start with
space.
The user can use fonts given in the file “__Lib_GLCDFonts.c”
file located in the Uses folder or create his own fonts.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Use the custom 5x7 font "myfont" which starts with
space (32):
Glcd_Set_Font(myfont, 5, 7, 32);
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Glcd_Write_Char
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Write_Char(unsigned short chr, unsigned
short x_pos, unsigned short page_num, unsigned short
color);
Nothing.
Description Prints character on the GLCD.
Parameters :
- chr: character to be written
- x_pos: character starting position on x-axis. Valid values:
0..(127-FontWidth)
- page_num: the number of the page on which character will be
written. Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the character: 0
white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Note: For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the
bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine. Use
Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no font is specified, then default 5x8 font supplied with the library will be used.
Example
// Write character 'C' on the position 10 inside the
page 2:
Glcd_Write_Char('C', 10, 2, 1);
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Glcd_Write_Text
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Write_Text(char *text, unsigned short x_pos,
unsigned short page_num, unsigned short color);
Nothing.
Description Prints text on GLCD.
Parameters :
- text: text to be written
- x_pos: text starting position on x-axis.
- page_num: the number of the page on which text will be
written. Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the text: 0 white, 1
black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Note: For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the
bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine. Use
Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no font is specified, then default 5x8 font supplied with the library will be used.
Example
// Write text "Hello world!" on the position 10
inside the page 2:
Glcd_Write_Text("Hello world!", 10, 2, 1);
Glcd_Image
Prototype
Returns
void Glcd_Image(code const unsigned short *image);
Nothing.
Description Displays bitmap on GLCD.
Parameters :
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array must be located in
code memory.
Use the mikroC for 8051 integrated GLCD Bitmap Editor to convert image to a constant array suitable for displaying on GLCD
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized, see Glcd_Init routine.
Example
// Draw image my_image on GLCD
Glcd_Image(my_image);
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Library Example
The following example demonstrates routines of the GLCD library: initialization,
clear(pattern fill), image displaying, drawing lines, circles, boxes and rectangles,
text displaying and handling.
//Declarations----------------------------------------------------------------const code char advanced8051_bmp[1024];
//--------------------------------------------------------------enddeclarations
// Glcd module connections
sfr char GLCD_DataPort at P0;
sbit GLCD_CS1 at P2.B0;
sbit GLCD_CS2 at P2.B1;
sbit GLCD_RS at P2.B2;
sbit GLCD_RW at P2.B3;
sbit GLCD_RST at P2.B5;
sbit GLCD_EN at P2.B4;
// End Glcd module connections
// GLCD data port
// GLCD chip select 1 signal
// GLCD chip select 2 signal
// GLCD register select signal
// GLCD read/write signal
// GLCD reset signal
// GLCD enable signal
void delay2S(){
delay_ms(2000);
}
// 2 seconds delay function
void main() {
unsigned short ii;
char *someText;
Glcd_Init();
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
while(1) {
Glcd_Image(advanced8051_bmp);
delay2S(); delay2S();
// Initialize GLCD
// Clear GLCD
// Draw image
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Glcd_Box(62,40,124,56,1);
Glcd_Rectangle(5,5,84,35,1);
Glcd_Line(0, 63, 127, 0,1);
// Draw box
// Draw rectangle
// Draw line
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delay2S();
for(ii = 5; ii < 60; ii+=5 ){
// Draw horizontal and vertical lines
Delay_ms(250);
Glcd_V_Line(2, 54, ii, 1);
Glcd_H_Line(2, 120, ii, 1);
}
delay2S();
Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Glcd_Set_Font(Character8x8, 8, 8, 32);
// Choose font, see __Lib_GLCDFonts.c in Uses folder
Glcd_Write_Text("mikroE", 5, 7, 2);
// Write string
for (ii = 1; ii <= 10; ii++)
Glcd_Circle(63,32, 3*ii, 1);
delay2S();
// Draw circles
Glcd_Box(12,20, 70,57, 2);
delay2S();
// Draw box
Glcd_Set_Font(FontSystem5x8, 5, 8, 32); // Change font
someText = "BIG:ONE";
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5,3, 2);
// Write string
delay2S();
someText = "SMALL:NOT:SMALLER";
Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 20,5, 1);
delay2S();
// Write string
}
}//~!
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HW Connection
Right side
Left side
0
x=0
0
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
127
x axis
x=63
CS1
CS2
GND
VCC
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
Vee
LED+
LED-
1
x=63 x=0
20
page0
page1
page2
page3
page4
page5
page6
page7
y axis
SW
VCC
10R
GLCD BCK
ON
Vee
Contrast
Adjustment
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
VCC
VCC
VCC
VCC
P0.0
Vo
P0.1
P0.2
P2.2
P2.3
P2.4
P0.0
P0.1
P0.2
P0.3
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
P2.5
CS1
CS2
GND
VCC
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
Vee
LED+
LED-
1
AT89S8253
P2.0
P2.1
5K
20
mikroElektronika
Easy8051B
Development system
OSCILLATOR
P0.3
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
P2.5
P2.4
P2.3
P2.2
XTAL1
GND
P2.1
P2.0
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
E
R/W
RS
CS2
CS1
6.2. GLCD HW connection
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KEYPAD LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for working with 4x4 keypad. The library
routines can also be used with 4x1, 4x2, or 4x3 keypad. For connections explanation see schematic at the bottom of this page.
Note: Since sampling lines for 8051 MCUs are activated by logical zero Keypad
Library can not be used with hardwares that have protective diodes connected with
anode to MCU side, such as mikroElektronika's Keypad extra board HW.Rev v1.20
External dependencies of Keypad Library
Library Routines
The following variable
must be defined in all
projects using Keypad
Library:
extern sfr char
keypadPort;
Description:
Example :
Keypad Port.
sfr char keypadPort
at P0;
- Keypad_Init
- Keypad_Key_Press
- Keypad_Key_Click
Keypad_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Keypad_Init(void);
Nothing.
Description Initializes port for working with keypad.
variable must be defined before using this function.
Requires
keypadPort
Example
// Initialize P0 for communication with keypad
sfr char keypadPort at P0;
...
Keypad_Init();
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Keypad_Key_Press
Prototype
char Keypad_Key_Press(void);
Returns
The code of a pressed key (1..16).
If no key is pressed, returns 0.
Description Reads the key from keypad when key gets pressed.
Requires
Port needs to be initialized for working with the Keypad library,
see Keypad_Init.
Example
char kp;
...
kp = Keypad_Key_Press();
Keypad_Key_Click
Prototype
char Keypad_Key_Click(void);
Returns
The code of a clicked key (1..16).
If no key is clicked, returns 0.
Description Call to Keypad_Key_Click is a blocking call: the function waits
until some key is pressed and released. When released, the function returns 1 to 16, depending on the key. If more than one key
is pressed simultaneously the function will wait until all pressed
keys are released. After that the function will return the code of
the first pressed key.
Requires
Port needs to be initialized for working with the Keypad library,
see Keypad_Init.
Example
char kp;
...
kp = Keypad_Key_Click();
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Library Example
This is a simple example of using the Keypad Library. It supports keypads with 1..4
rows and 1..4 columns. The code being returned by Keypad_Key_Click() function
is in range from 1..16. In this example, the code returned is transformed into ASCII
codes [0..9,A..F] and displayed on LCD. In addition, a small single-byte counter displays in the second LCD row number of key presses.
unsigned short kp, cnt, oldstate = 0;
char txt[5];
// Keypad module connections
sfr char keypadPort at P0;
// End Keypad module connections
// lcd pinout definition
sbit LCD_RS at P2.B0;
sbit LCD_EN at P2.B1;
sbit LCD_D7 at P2.B5;
sbit LCD_D6 at P2.B4;
sbit LCD_D5 at P2.B3;
sbit LCD_D4 at P2.B2;
// end lcd definitions
void main() {
cnt = 0;
Keypad_Init();
Lcd_Init();
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
Lcd_Out(1, 1, "Key :");
Lcd_Out(2, 1, "Times:");
do {
kp = 0;
// Reset counter
// Initialize Keypad
// Initialize LCD
// Clear display
// Cursor off
// Write message text on LCD
// Reset key code variable
// Wait for key to be pressed and released
do
kp = Keypad_Key_Click();
// Store key code in kp variable
while (!kp);
// Prepare value for output, transform key to it's ASCII value
switch (kp) {
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//case 10: kp = 42; break;
// Uncomment this block for
//case 11: kp = 48; break;
//case 12: kp = 35; break;
//default: kp += 48;
// '*'
keypad4x3
// '0'
// '#'
case 1: kp = 49;
// Uncomment this
case 2: kp = 50;
case 3: kp = 51;
case 4: kp = 65;
case 5: kp = 52;
case 6: kp = 53;
case 7: kp = 54;
case 8: kp = 66;
case 9: kp = 55;
case 10: kp = 56;
case 11: kp = 57;
case 12: kp = 67;
case 13: kp = 42;
case 14: kp = 48;
case 15: kp = 35;
case 16: kp = 68;
1
keypad4x4
2
3
A
4
5
6
B
7
8
9
C
*
0
#
D
break; //
block for
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
break; //
}
if (kp != oldstate) {
cnt = 1;
oldstate = kp;
}
else {
cnt++;
}
// Pressed key differs from previous
Lcd_Chr(1, 10, kp);
// Print key ASCII value on LCD
if (cnt == 255) {
cnt = 0;
Lcd_Out(2, 10, "
}
// If counter varialble overflow
WordToStr(cnt, txt);
Lcd_Out(2, 10, txt);
// Pressed key is same as previous
");
// Transform counter value to string
// Display counter value on LCD
} while (1);
} //~!
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Libraries
mikroC for 8051
HW Connection
VCC
VCC
P0.0
2
3
A
4
5
6
B
P0.1
P0.2
AT89S8253
1
7
8
9
10K
VCC
C
RST
Reset
*
0
#
D
KEYPAD
4X4
P0.3
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
P2.5
P2.4
OSCILLATOR
P2.3
P2.2
P2.1
XTAL1
GND
P2.0
VCC
10K
Key :
Times:
P2.3
P2.4
P2.5
P2.2
GND
GND
P2.1
GND
GND
P2.0
Vee
GND
VCC
VCC
8
3
LCD 2X16
6.3. 4x4 Keypad connection scheme
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mikroC for 8051
LCD LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for communication with LCDs (with
HD44780 compliant controllers) through the 4-bit interface. An example of LCD
connections is given on the schematic at the bottom of this page.
For creating a set of custom LCD characters use LCD Custom Character Tool.
External dependencies of LCD Library
The following variables
must be defined in all
projects using LCD
Library:
Description:
Example :
extern sbit LCD_RS:
Register Select line. sbit LCD_RS at P2.B0;
extern sbit LCD_EN:
Enable line.
sbit LCD_EN at P2.B1;
extern sbit LCD_D7;
Data 7 line.
sbit LCD_D7 at P2.B5;
extern sbit LCD_D6;
Data 6 line.
sbit LCD_D6 at P2.B4;
extern sbit LCD_D5;
Data 5 line.
sbit LCD_D5 at P2.B3;
extern sbit LCD_D4;
Data 4 line.
sbit LCD_D4 at P2.B2;
Library Routines
- Lcd_Init
- Lcd_Out
- Lcd_Out_Cp
- Lcd_Chr
- Lcd_Chr_Cp
- Lcd_Cmd
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Lcd_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Lcd_Init()
Nothing.
Description Initializes LCD module.
Requires
Global variables:
- LCD_D7: data bit 7
- LCD_D6: data bit 6
- LCD_D5: data bit 5
- LCD_D4: data bit 4
- RS: register select (data/instruction) signal pin
- EN: enable signal pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// lcd pinout settings
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
LCD_RS
LCD_EN
LCD_D7
LCD_D6
LCD_D5
LCD_D4
at
at
at
at
at
at
P2.B0;
P2.B1;
P2.B5;
P2.B4;
P2.B3;
P2.B2;
...
Lcd_Init();
Lcd_Out
Prototype
void Lcd_Out(char row, char column, char *text);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Prints text on LCD starting from specified position. Both string
variables and literals can be passed as a text.
Parameters :
- row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Requires
Example
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
// Write text "Hello!" on LCD starting from row 1,
column 3:
Lcd_Out(1, 3, "Hello!");
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Lcd_Out_Cp
Prototype
Returns
void Lcd_Out_Cp(char *text);
Nothing.
Description Prints text on LCD at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be passed as a text.
Parameters :
- text: text to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
Example
// Write text "Here!" at current cursor position:
Lcd_Out_Cp("Here!");
Lcd_Chr
Prototype
Returns
void Lcd_Chr(char row, char column, char out_char);
Nothing.
Description Prints character on LCD at specified position. Both variables and
literals can be passed as a character.
Parameters :
- row: writing position row number
- column: writing position column number
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
Example
// Write character "i" at row 2, column 3:
Lcd_Chr(2, 3, 'i');
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Lcd_Chr_Cp
Prototype
Returns
void Lcd_Chr_Cp(char out_char);
Nothing.
Description Prints character on LCD at current cursor position. Both variables
and literals can be passed as a character.
Parameters :
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
Example
// Write character "e" at current cursor position:
Lcd_Chr_Cp('e');
Lcd_Cmd
Prototype
Returns
void Lcd_Cmd(char out_char);
Nothing.
Description Sends command to LCD.
Parameters :
- out_char: command to be sent
Note: Predefined constants can be passed to the function, see
Available LCD Commands.
Requires
The LCD module needs to be initialized. See Lcd_Init routine.
Example
// Clear LCD display:
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
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Available LCD Commands
LCD Command
Purpose
LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to the 1st row
LCD_SECOND_ROW
Move cursor to the 2nd row
LCD_THIRD_ROW
Move cursor to the 3rd row
LCD_FOURTH_ROW
Move cursor to the 4th row
LCD_CLEAR
Clear display
LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display to its original position. Display data RAM is
unaffected.
LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
Underline cursor on
LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
Blink cursor on
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
Move cursor left without changing display data
RAM
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT
Move cursor right without changing display data
RAM
LCD_TURN_ON
Turn LCD display on
LCD_TURN_OFF
Turn LCD display off
LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
Shift display left without changing display data
RAM
LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Shift display right without changing display data
RAM
Library Example
The following code demonstrates usage of the LCD Library routines:
// LCD module connections
sbit LCD_RS at P2.B0;
sbit LCD_EN at P2.B1;
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sbit LCD_D7 at P2.B5;
sbit LCD_D6 at P2.B4;
sbit LCD_D5 at P2.B3;
sbit LCD_D4 at P2.B2;
// End LCD module connections
char
char
char
char
txt1[]
txt2[]
txt3[]
txt4[]
=
=
=
=
"mikroElektronika";
"Easy8051B";
"lcd4bit";
"example";
char i;
void Move_Delay() {
Delay_ms(500);
}
// Loop variable
// Function used for text moving
// You can change the moving speed here
void main(){
Lcd_Init();
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
// Initialize LCD
// Clear display
// Cursor off
LCD_Out(1,6,txt3);
LCD_Out(2,6,txt4);
Delay_ms(2000);
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
// Write text in first row
// Write text in second row
LCD_Out(1,1,txt1);
LCD_Out(2,4,txt2);
Delay_ms(500);
// Moving text
for(i=0; i<4; i++) {
// Clear display
// Write text in first row
// Write text in second row
// Move text to the right 4
times
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT);
Move_Delay();
}
while(1) {
for(i=0; i<7; i++) {
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_SHIFT_LEFT);
Move_Delay();
}
// Endless loop
// Move text to the left 7 times
for(i=0; i<7; i++) {
// Move text to the right 7 times
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT);
Move_Delay();
}
}
}
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HW connection
VCC
AT89S8253
OSCILLATOR
P2.5
P2.4
P2.3
P2.2
P2.1
XTAL1
GND
P2.0
VCC
10K
P2.4
P2.5
P2.3
P2.2
GND
GND
GND
P2.1
GND
P2.0
Vee
GND
VCC
VCC
LCD4 Test
mikroElektronika
LCD 2X16
6.4. LCD HW connection
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Libraries
mikroC for 8051
ONEWIRE LIBRARY
The OneWire library provides routines for communication via the Dallas OneWire
protocol, e.g. with DS18x20 digital thermometer. OneWire is a Master/Slave protocol, and all communication cabling required is a single wire. OneWire enabled
devices should have open collector drivers (with single pull-up resistor) on the
shared data line.
Slave devices on the OneWire bus can even get their power supply from data line.
For detailed schematic see device datasheet.
Some basic characteristics of this protocol are:
- single master system,
- low cost,
- low transfer rates (up to 16 kbps),
- fairly long distances (up to 300 meters),
- small data transfer packages.
Each OneWire device has also a unique 64-bit registration number (8-bit device
type, 48-bit serial number and 8-bit CRC), so multiple slaves can co-exist on the
same bus.
Note: Oscillator frequency Fosc needs to be at least 8MHz in order to use the routines with Dallas digital thermometers.
External dependencies of OneWire Library
This variable must be
defined in any project
that is using OneWire
Library:
extern sbit OW_Bit;
Description:
Example :
OneWire line.
sbit OW_Bit at P2.B7;
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Library Routines
- Ow_Reset
- Ow_Read
- Ow_Write
Ow_Reset
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Ow_Reset();
- 0 if the device is present
- 1 if the device is not present
Description Issues OneWire reset signal for DS18x20.
Parameters :
- None.
Requires
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
Global variable OW_Bit must be defined before using this
function.
Example
// Issue Reset signal on One-Wire Bus
Ow_Reset();
Ow_Read
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Ow_Read();
Data read from an external device over the OneWire bus.
Description Reads one byte of data via the OneWire bus.
Requires
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
Global variable OW_Bit must be defined before using this
function.
Example
// Read a byte from the One-Wire Bus
unsigned short read_data;
...
read_data = Ow_Read();
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Ow_Write
Prototype
Returns
void Ow_Write(char par);
Nothing.
Description Writes one byte of data via the OneWire bus.
Parameters :
- par: data to be written
Requires
Devices compliant with the Dallas OneWire protocol.
Global variable OW_Bit must be defined before using this function.
Example
// Send a byte to the One-Wire Bus
Ow_Write(0xCC);
Library Example
This example reads the temperature using DS18x20 connected to pin P1.2. After
reset, MCU obtains temperature from the sensor and prints it on the LCD. Make
sure to pull-up P1.2 line and to turn off the P1 leds.
// lcd pinout definition
sbit LCD_RS at P2.B0;
sbit LCD_EN at P2.B1;
sbit LCD_D7 at P2.B5;
sbit LCD_D6 at P2.B4;
sbit LCD_D5 at P2.B3;
sbit LCD_D4 at P2.B2;
// end lcd definition
// OneWire pinout
sbit OW_Bit at P1.B2;
// end OneWire definition
// Set TEMP_RESOLUTION to the corresponding resolution of used
DS18x20 sensor:
// 18S20: 9 (default setting; can be 9,10,11,or 12)
// 18B20: 12
const unsigned short TEMP_RESOLUTION = 9;
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char *text = "000.0000";
unsigned temp;
void Display_Temperature(unsigned int temp2write) {
const unsigned short RES_SHIFT = TEMP_RESOLUTION - 8;
char temp_whole;
unsigned int temp_fraction;
// check if temperature is negative
if (temp2write & 0x8000) {
text[0] = '-';
temp2write = ~temp2write + 1;
}
// extract temp_whole
temp_whole = temp2write >> RES_SHIFT ;
// convert temp_whole to characters
if (temp_whole/100)
text[0] = temp_whole/100 + 48;
text[1] = (temp_whole/10)%10 + 48;
text[2] = temp_whole%10
+ 48;
// Extract tens digit
// Extract ones digit
// extract temp_fraction and convert it to unsigned int
temp_fraction = temp2write << (4-RES_SHIFT);
temp_fraction &= 0x000F;
temp_fraction *= 625;
// convert temp_fraction to characters
text[4] = temp_fraction/1000
+ 48; // Extract thousands digit
text[5] = (temp_fraction/100)%10 + 48; // Extract hundreds digit
text[6] = (temp_fraction/10)%10 + 48; // Extract tens digit
text[7] = temp_fraction%10
+ 48; // Extract ones digit
// print temperature on LCD
Lcd_Out(2, 5, text);
}//~
void main() {
Lcd_Init();
// Initialize LCD
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
// Clear LCD
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
// Turn cursor off
Lcd_Out(1, 1, " Temperature:
");
// Print degree character, 'C' for Centigrades
Lcd_Chr(2,13,223);
Lcd_Chr(2,14,'C');
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//--- main loop
do {
//--- perform temperature reading
Ow_Reset();
Ow_Write(0xCC);
Ow_Write(0x44);
Delay_us(120);
Ow_Reset();
Ow_Write(0xCC);
Ow_Write(0xBE);
// Onewire reset signal
// Issue command SKIP_ROM
// Issue command CONVERT_T
// Issue command SKIP_ROM
// Issue command READ_SCRATCHPAD
temp = Ow_Read();
temp = (Ow_Read() << 8) + temp;
//--- Format and display result on Lcd
Display_Temperature(temp);
Delay_ms(500);
} while (1);
}//~!
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HW Connection
125 C
-50 C
DS1820
VCC
VCC
VCC
4K7
GND
VCC
VCC
P1.2
DQ
AT89S8253
10K
VCC
RST
Reset
OSCILLATOR
P2.5
P2.4
P2.3
P2.2
P2.1
XTAL1
GND
P2.0
VCC
P2.2
P2.5
P2.4
P2.3
Vee
P2.1
VCC
P2.0
VCC
GND
10K
Temperature:
025.5 C
LCD 2X16
6.5. Example of DS1820 connection
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MANCHESTER CODE LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for handling Manchester coded signals. The
Manchester code is a code in which data and clock signals are combined to form a
single self-synchronizing data stream; each encoded bit contains a transition at the
midpoint of a bit period, the direction of transition determines whether the bit is 0
or 1; the second half is the true bit value and the first half is the complement of the
true bit value (as shown in the figure below).
Notes: The Manchester receive routines are blocking calls (Man_Receive_Init and
Man_Synchro). This means that MCU will wait until the task has been performed
(e.g. byte is received, synchronization achieved, etc).
External dependencies of Manchester Code Library
The following variables
must be defined in all
projects using
Manchester Code
Library:
Description:
Example :
extern sbit MANRXPIN;
Keypad Port.
sfr char keypadPort at P0;
extern sbit MANTXPIN;
Transmit line.
sbit MANTXPIN at P1.B1;
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Library Routines
- Man_Receive_Init
- Man_Receive
- Man_Send_Init
- Man_Send
- Man_Synchro
The following routines are for the internal use by compiler only:
- Manchester_0
- Manchester_1
- Manchester_Out
Man_Receive_Init
Prototype
Returns
unsigned int Man_Receive_Init();
- 0 - if initialization and synchronization were successful.
- 1 - upon unsuccessful synchronization.
Description The function configures Receiver pin and performs synchronization procedure in order to retrieve baud rate out of the incoming
signal.
Note: In case of multiple persistent errors on reception, the user
should call this routine once again or Man_Synchro routine to
enable synchronization.
variable must be defined before using this function.
Requires
MANRXPIN
Example
// Initialize Receiver
sbit MANRXPIN at P0.B0;
...
Man_Receive_Init();
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Man_Receive
Prototype
Returns
unsigned char Man_Receive(unsigned char *error);
A byte read from the incoming signal.
Description The function extracts one byte from incoming signal.
Parameters :
- error: error flag. If signal format does not match the expected,
the error flag will be set to non-zero.
Requires
To use this function, the user must prepare the MCU for receiving. See Man_Receive_Init.
Example
unsigned char data = 0, error = 0;
...
data = Man_Receive(&error);
if (error)
{ /* error handling */ }
Man_Send_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Man_Send_Init();
Nothing.
Description The function configures Transmitter pin.
variable must be defined before using this function.
Requires
MANTXPIN
Example
// Initialize Transmitter:
sbit MANTXPIN at P1.B1;
...
Man_Send_Init();
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Man_Send
Prototype
Returns
void Man_Send(unsigned char tr_data);
Nothing.
Description Sends one byte.
Parameters :
- tr_data: data to be sent
Note: Baud rate used is 500 bps.
Requires
To use this function, the user must prepare the MCU
for sending. See Man_Send_Init.
Example
unsigned char msg;
...
Man_Send(msg);
Man_Synchro
Prototype
Returns
unsigned int Man_Synchro();
- 0 - if synchronization was not successful.
- Half of the manchester bit length, given in multiples of 10us upon successful synchronization.
Description Measures half of the manchester bit length with 10us resolution.
Requires
To use this function, you must first prepare the MCU for receiving. See Man_Receive_Init.
Example
unsigned int man__half_bit_len;
...
man__half_bit_len = Man_Synchro();
Library Example
The following code is code for the Manchester receiver, it shows how to use the
Manchester Library for receiving data:
// LCD module connections
sbit LCD_RS at P2.B0;
sbit LCD_EN at P2.B1;
sbit LCD_D7 at P2.B5;
sbit LCD_D6 at P2.B4;
sbit LCD_D5 at P2.B3;
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sbit LCD_D4 at P2.B2;
// End LCD module connections
// Manchester module connections
sbit MANRXPIN at P0.B0;
sbit MANTXPIN at P1.B1;
// End Manchester module connections
char error, ErrorCount, temp;
void main() {
ErrorCount = 0;
Lcd_Init();
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
// Initialize LCD
// Clear LCD display
Man_Receive_Init();
// Initialize Receiver
while (1) {
// Endless loop
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_FIRST_ROW);
// Move cursor to the 1st row
while (1) {
// Wait for the "start" byte
temp = Man_Receive(&error); // Attempt byte receive
if (temp == 0x0B)
// "Start" byte, see
Transmitter example
break;
// We got the starting sequence
if (error)
// Exit so we do not loop forever
break;
}
do
{
temp = Man_Receive(&error); // Attempt byte receive
if (error) {
// If error occured
Lcd_Chr_CP('?');
// Write question mark on LCD
ErrorCount++;
// Update error counter
if (ErrorCount > 20) { // In case of multiple errors
temp = Man_Synchro(); // Try to synchronize again
//Man_Receive_Init(); // Alternative, try to
Initialize Receiver again
ErrorCount = 0;
}
}
else {
// No error occured
if (temp != 0x0E)
// If "End" byte was received(see Transmitter example)
Lcd_Chr_CP(temp);
}
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Delay_ms(25);
}
while (temp != 0x0E) ;
// If "End" byte was received exit do loop
}
}
The following code is code for the Manchester transmitter, it shows how to use the
Manchester Library for transmitting data:
// Manchester module connections
sbit MANRXPIN at P0.B0;
sbit MANTXPIN at P1.B1;
// End Manchester module connections
char index, character;
char s1[] = "mikroElektronika";
void main() {
Man_Send_Init();
// Initialize transmitter
while (1) {
Man_Send(0x0B);
Delay_ms(100);
// Endless loop
// Send "start" byte
// Wait for a while
character = s1[0];
index = 0;
while (character) {
Man_Send(character);
Delay_ms(90);
index++;
character = s1[index];
}
Man_Send(0x0E);
Delay_ms(1000);
// Take first char from string
// Initialize index variable
// String ends with zero
// Send character
// Wait for a while
// Increment index variable
// Take next char from string
// Send "end" byte
}
}
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Connection Example
VCC
VCC
P0.0
AT89S8253
Receiver RF
module
Antenna
VCC
OSCILLATOR
XTAL1
GND
VCC
A
RR4
In
GND
VCC
Transmitter RF
module
AT89S8253
Antenna
VCC
VCC
A
RT4
VCC
P1.1
Out
OSCILLATOR
GND
XTAL1
GND
6.6. Simple Receiver connection
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PORT EXPANDER LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for communication with the Microchip’s
Port Expander MCP23S17 via SPI interface. Connections of the 8051 compliant
MCU and MCP23S17 is given on the schematic at the bottom of this page.
Note: Library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize SPI
module before using the Port Expander Library.
Note: Library does not use Port Expander interrupts.
External dependencies of Port Expander Library
The following variables must be defined
in all projects using
Port Expander
Library:
Description:
Example :
extern sbit
SPExpanderCS;
Chip Select line. sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
extern sbit
SPExpanderRST;
Reset line.
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
Library Routines
- Expander_Init
- Expander_Read_Byte
- Expander_Write_Byte
- Expander_Read_PortA
- Expander_Read_PortB
- Expander_Read_PortAB
- Expander_Write_PortA
- Expander_Write_PortB
- Expander_Write_PortAB
- Expander_Set_DirectionPortA
- Expander_Set_DirectionPortB
- Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB
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- Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA
- Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB
- Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB
Expander_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Init(char ModuleAddress);
Nothing.
Description Initializes Port Expander using SPI communication.
Port Expander module settings :
- hardware addressing enabled
- automatic address pointer incrementing disabled (byte mode)
- BANK_0 register adressing
- slew rate enabled
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
Requires
SPExpanderCS and SPExpanderRST variables must be defined
before using this function.
SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// port expander pinout definition
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
...
Spi_Init();
// initialize SPI module
Expander_Init(0); // initialize port expander
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Expander_Read_Byte
Prototype
Returns
char Expander_Read_Byte(char ModuleAddress, char
RegAddress);
Byte read.
Description The function reads byte from Port Expander.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- RegAddress: Port Expander's internal register address
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander's register
char read_data;
...
read_data = Expander_Read_Byte(0,1);
Expander_Write_Byte
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Write_Byte(char ModuleAddress,char
RegAddress, char Data);
Nothing
Description Routine writes a byte to Port Expander.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress:
Port Expander hardware address, see
schematic at the bottom of this page
- RegAddress: Port Expander's internal register address
- Data: data to be written
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init
Example
// Write a byte to the Port Expander's register
Expander_Write_Byte(0,1,$FF);
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Expander_Read_PortA
Prototype
Returns
char Expander_Read_PortA(char ModuleAddress);
Byte read.
Description The function reads byte from Port Expander's PortA.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortA should be configured as input. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander's PORTA
char read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0xFF);
// set expander's porta to be input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortA(0);
Expander_Read_PortB
Prototype
Returns
char Expander_Read_PortB(char ModuleAddress);
Byte read.
Description The function reads byte from Port Expander's PortB.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortB should be configured as input. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander's PORTB
char read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
expander's portb to be input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortB(0);
// set
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Expander_Read_PortAB
Prototype
Returns
unsigned int Expander_Read_PortAB(char ModuleAddress);
Word read.
Description The function reads word from Port Expander's ports. PortA readings are in the higher byte of the result. PortB readings are in the
lower byte of the result.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortA and PortB should be configured as inputs.
See Expander_Set_DirectionPortA,
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Read a byte from Port Expander's PORTA and PORTB
unsigned int read_data;
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0xFFFF);
// set expander's porta and portb to be input
...
read_data = Expander_Read_PortAB(0);
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Expander_Write_PortA
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Write_PortA(char ModuleAddress, char
Data);
Nothing
Description The function writes byte to Port Expander's PortA.
Parameters :
Requires
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortA should be configured as output. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Write a byte to Port Expander's PORTA
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0x00);
// set expander's porta to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortA(0, 0xAA);
Expander_Write_PortB
Prototype
void Expander_Write_PortB(char ModuleAddress, char
Data);
Returns
Nothing.
Description The function writes byte to Port Expander's PortB.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress:
Requires
Port Expander hardware address, see
schematic at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortB should be configured as output. See
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Write a byte to Port Expander's PORTB
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0x00);
// set expander's portb to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortB(0, 0x55);
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Expander_Write_PortAB
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Write_PortAB(char ModuleAddress,
unsigned int Data);
Nothing.
Description The function writes word to Port Expander's ports.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written. Data to be written to PortA are passed
in Data's higher byte. Data to be written to PortB are passed in
Data's lower byte
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Port Expander's PortA and PortB should be configured as outputs.
See Expander_Set_DirectionPortA,
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB and
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB routines.
Example
// Write a byte to Port Expander's PORTA and PORTB
...
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0x0000);
// set expander's porta and portb to be output
...
Expander_Write_PortAB(0, 0xAA55);
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Expander_Set_DirectionPortA
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(char ModuleAddress,
char Data);
Nothing.
Description The function sets Port Expander's PortA direction.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written to the PortA direction register. Each bit
corresponds to the appropriate pin of the PortA register. Set bit
designates corresponding pin as input. Cleared bit designates
corresponding pin as output.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTA to be output
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0,0x00);
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(char ModuleAddress,
char Data);
Nothing.
Description The function sets Port Expander's PortB direction.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- Data: data to be written to the PortB direction register. Each bit
corresponds to the appropriate pin of the PortB register. Set bit
designates corresponding pin as input. Cleared bit designates
corresponding pin as output.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTB to be input
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
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Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(char ModuleAddress,
unsigned int Direction);
Nothing
Description The function sets Port Expander's PortA and PortB direction.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic at the bottom of this page
- Direction: data to be written to direction registers. Data to be
written to the PortA direction register are passed in Direction's
higher byte. Data to be written to the PortB direction register
are passed in Direction's lower byte. Each bit corresponds to the
appropriate pin of the PortA/PortB register. Set bit designates
corresponding pin as input. Cleared bit designates
corresponding pin as output.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTA to be output and PORTB
to be input
Expander_Set_DirectionPortAB(0,0x00FF);
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA(char ModuleAddress,
char Data);
Nothing.
Description The function sets Port Expander's PortA pull up/down resistors.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- Data: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configuration.
Each bit corresponds to the appropriate pin of the PortA register.
Set bit enables pull-up for corresponding pin.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTA pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortA(0, 0xFF);
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Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(char ModuleAddress,
char Data);
Nothing.
Description The function sets Port Expander's PortB pull up/down resistors.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- Data: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configuration.
Each bit corresponds to the appropriate pin of the PortB register.
Set bit enables pull-up for corresponding pin.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTB pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(0, 0xFF);
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB
Prototype
Returns
void Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB(char ModuleAddress,
unsigned int PullUps);
Nothing.
Description The function sets Port Expander's PortA and PortB pull up/down
resistors.
Parameters :
- ModuleAddress: Port Expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- PullUps: data for choosing pull up/down resistors configurati
on. PortA pull up/down resistors configuration is passed in
PullUps's higher byte. PortB pull up/down resistors configura
tion is passed in PullUps's lower byte. Each bit corresponds to
the appropriate pin of the PortA/PortB register. Set bit enables
pull-up for corresponding pin.
Requires
Port Expander must be initialized. See Expander_Init.
Example
// Set Port Expander's PORTA and PORTB pull-up resistors
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortAB(0, 0xFFFF);
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Library Example
The example demonstrates how to communicate with Port Expander MCP23S17.
Note that Port Expander pins A2 A1 A0 are connected to GND so Port Expander
Hardware Address is 0.
unsigned char i=0;
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
// End Port Expander module connections
void main(){
Spi_Init();
Expander_Init(0);
// Initialize SPI module
// Initialize Port Expander
Expander_Set_DirectionPortA(0, 0x00);
// Set Expander's PORTA to be output
Expander_Set_DirectionPortB(0,0xFF);
// Set Expander's PORTB to be input
Expander_Set_PullUpsPortB(0,0xFF);
// Set pull-ups to all of the Expander's PORTB pins
while(1) {
// Endless loop
Expander_Write_PortA(0, i++); // Write i to expander's PORTA
P0 = Expander_Read_PortB(0);
// Read expander's PORTB and write it to PORT0
Delay_ms(100);
}
}
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HW Connection
MCP23S17
1
2
3
4
GPB0
GPA7
GPB1
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
5
6
VCC
8
9
10
P1.0 11
P1.7 12
P1.5 13
P1.6 14
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
27
26
P1.0
25
P1.1
24
23
22
VDD
INTA
VSS
INTB
P1.5
21
P1.6
20
P1.7
19
CS
RESET
SCK
A2
SI
A1
SO
A0
VCC
18 P1.0
17
16
15
AT89S8253
7
28
OSCILLATOR
XTAL1
GND
1
3
5
1
3
5
7
2
4
6
8
7
2
4
6
8
9
10
9
10
VCC
PORTB
VCC
PORTA
6.7. Port Expander HW connection
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PS/2 LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for communication with the common PS/2
keyboard.
Note: The library does not utilize interrupts for data retrieval, and requires the oscillator clock to be at least 6MHz.
Note: The pins to which a PS/2 keyboard is attached should be connected to the pullup resistors.
Note: Although PS/2 is a two-way communication bus, this library does not provide
MCU-to-keyboard communication; e.g. pressing the Caps Lock key will not turn on
the Caps Lock LED.
External dependencies of PS/2 Library
The following variables
must be defined in all projects using PS/2 Library:
Description:
Example :
extern sbit PS2_DATA;
PS/2 Data line.
sbit PS2_DATA at P0.B0;
extern sbit PS2_CLOCK;
PS/2 Clock line.
sbit PS2_CLOCK at P0.B1;
Library Routines
- Ps2_Config
- Ps2_Key_Read
Ps2_Config
Prototype
Returns
void Ps2_Config();
Nothing.
Description Initializes the MCU for work with the PS/2 keyboard.
Requires
Global variables :
- PS2_DATA: Data signal pin
- PS2_CLOCK: Clock signal pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// PS2 pinout definition
sbit PS2_DATA at P0.B0;
sbit PS2_CLOCK at P0.B1;
...
Ps2_Config();
// Init PS/2 Keyboard
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Ps2_Key_Read
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Ps2_Key_Read(unsigned short *value,
unsigned short *special, unsigned short *pressed);
- 1 if reading of a key from the keyboard was successful
- 0 if no key was pressed
Description The function retrieves information on key pressed.
Parameters :
- value: holds the value of the key pressed. For characters,
numerals, punctuation marks, and space value will store the
appropriate ASCII code. Routine “recognizes” the function of
Shift and Caps Lock, and behaves appropriately. For special
function keys see Special Function Keys Table.
- special: is a flag for special function keys (F1, Enter, Esc, etc).
If key pressed is one of these, special will be set to 1,
otherwise 0.
- pressed: is set to 1 if the key is pressed, and 0 if it is released.
Requires
PS/2 keyboard needs to be initialized. See Ps2_Config routine.
Example
unsigned short value, special, pressed;
...
// Press Enter to continue:
do {
if (Ps2_Key_Read(&value, &special, &pressed)) {
if ((value == 13) && (special == 1)) break;
}
} while (1);
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Special Function Keys
Key
Value returned
Print Screen
23
F1
1
Pause
24
F2
2
Caps Lock
25
F3
3
End
26
F4
4
Home
27
F5
5
Scroll Lock
28
F6
6
Num Lock
29
F7
7
Left Arrow
30
F8
8
Right Arrow
31
F9
9
Up Arrow
32
F10
10
Down Arrow
33
F11
11
Escape
34
F12
12
Tab
35
Enter
13
Page Up
14
Page Down
15
Backspace
16
Insert
17
Delete
18
Windows
19
Ctrl
20
Shift
21
Alt
22
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Library Example
This simple example reads values of the pressed keys on the PS/2 keyboard and
sends them via UART.
char keydata = 0, special = 0, down = 0;
// PS2 module connections
sbit PS2_DATA at P0.B0;
sbit PS2_CLOCK at P0.B1;
// End PS2 module connections
void main() {
Uart_Init(4800);
Ps2_Config();
Delay_ms(100);
// Initialize UART module at 4800 bps
// Initialize PS/2 Keyboard
// Wait for keyboard to finish
do {
// Endless loop
if (Ps2_Key_Read(&keydata, &special, &down)) {
// If data was read from PS/2
if (down && (keydata == 16)) {
// Backspace read
Uart_Write(0x08);
// Send Backspace to usart terminal
}
else if (down && (keydata == 13)) {
// Enter read
Uart_Write('\r');// Send carriage return to usart terminal
//Uart_Write('\n');
// Uncomment this line if usart terminal also expects line feed
//
for new line transition
}
else if (down && !special && keydata) {
// Common key read
Uart_Write(keydata);
// Send key to usart terminal
}
}
Delay_ms(10);
// Debounce period
} while (1);
}
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HW Connection
VCC
VCC
P0.0
VCC
P0.1
1K
1K
AT89S8253
+5V
DATA
NC
GND
VCC
CLK
NC
PS2
CONNECTOR
NC
CLK
+5V
NC
DATA
OSCILLATOR
XTAL1
GND
Example of PS2 keyboard connection
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mikroC for 8051
RS-485 LIBRARY
RS-485 is a multipoint communication which allows multiple devices to be connected to a single bus. The mikroC for 8051 provides a set of library routines for comfortable work with RS485 system using Master/Slave architecture. Master and Slave
devices interchange packets of information. Each of these packets contains synchronization bytes, CRC byte, address byte and the data. Each Slave has unique address
and receives only packets addressed to it. The Slave can never initiate communication.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure that only one device transmits via 485 bus at
a time.
The RS-485 routines require the UART module. Pins of UART need to be attached
to RS-485 interface transceiver, such as LTC485 or similar (see schematic at the bottom of this page).
Library constants:
- START byte value = 150
- STOP byte value = 169
- Address 50 is the broadcast address for all Slaves (packets containing address
50 will be received by all Slaves except the Slaves with addresses
150 and 169).
External dependencies of RS-485 Library
The following variable must be defined
in all projects using
RS-485 Library:
extern sbit
rs485_transceive;
Description:
Example :
Control RS-485
Transmit/Receive sbit rs485_transceive at P3.B2;
operation mode
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Library Routines
- RS485master_Init
- RS485master_Receive
- RS485master_Send
- RS485slave_Init
- RS485slave_Receive
- RS485slave_Send
RS485master_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Rs485master_Init();
Nothing.
Description Initializes MCU as a Master for RS-485 communication.
Requires
variable must be defined before using this
function. This pin is connected to RE/DE input of RS-485 transceiver(see schematic at the bottom of this page). RE/DE signal
controls RS-485 transceiver operation mode. Valid values: 1 (for
transmitting) and 0 (for receiving)
rs485_transceive
UART HW module needs to be initialized. See Uart_Init.
Example
// rs485 module pinout
sbit rs485_transceive at P3.B2;
// transmit/receive control set to port3.bit2
...
Uart_Init(9600);
// initialize
usart module
Rs485master_Init();
// intialize
mcu as a Master for RS-485 communication
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RS485master_Receive
Prototype
Returns
void Rs485master_Receive(char *data_buffer);
Nothing.
Description Receives messages from Slaves. Messages are multi-byte, so this
routine must be called for each byte received.
Parameters :
- data_buffer: 7 byte buffer for storing received data, in the fol
lowing manner:
- data[0..2]: message content
- data[3]: number of message bytes received, 1–3
- data[4]: is set to 255 when message is received
- data[5]: is set to 255 if error has occurred
- data[6]: address of the Slave which sent the message
Requires
Example
The function automatically adjusts data[4] and data[5] upon every
received message. These flags need to be cleared by software.
MCU must be initialized as a Master for RS-485 communication.
See RS485master_Init.
char msg[8];
...
RS485master_Receive(msg);
RS485master_Send
Prototype
void Rs485master_Send(char *data_buffer, char
datalen, char slave_address);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Sends message to Slave(s). Message format can be found at the
bottom of this page.
Parameters :
Requires
- data_buffer: data to be sent
- datalen: number of bytes for transmition. Valid values: 0...3.
- slave_address: Slave(s) address
MCU must be initialized as a Master for RS-485 communication.
See RS485master_Init.
It is the user’s responsibility to ensure (by protocol) that only one
device sends data via 485 bus at a time.
Example
char msg[8];
...
// send 3 bytes of data to slave with address 0x12
RS485master_Send(msg, 3, 0x12);
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RS485slave_Init
Prototype void Rs485slave_Init(char slave_address);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Initializes MCU as a Slave for RS-485 communication.
Parameters :
Requires
- slave_address: Slave address
rs485_transceive variable must be defined before using this
function. This pin is connected to RE/DE input of RS-485 transceiver(see schematic at the bottom of this page). RE/DE signal
controls RS-485 transceiver operation mode. Valid values: 1 (for
transmitting) and 0 (for receiving)
UART HW module needs to be initialized. See Uart_Init.
Example
// rs485 module pinout
sbit rs485_transceive at P3.B2;
// transmit/receive control set to port3.bit2
...
Uart_Init(9600);
// initialize usart module
Rs485slave_Init(160);
// intialize mcu as a Slave
for RS-485 communication with address 160
RS485slave_Receive
Prototype void RS485slave_Receive(char *data_buffer);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Receives messages from Master. If Slave address and Message
address field don't match then the message will be discarded.
Messages are multi-byte, so this routine must be called for each
byte received.
Parameters :
- data_buffer: 6 byte buffer for storing received data, in the fol
lowing manner:
- data[0..2]: message content
- data[3]: number of message bytes received, 1–3
- data[4]: is set to 255 when message is received
- data[5]: is set to 255 if error has occurred
The function automatically adjusts data[4] and data[5] upon
every received message. These flags need to be cleared by software.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Slave for RS-485 communication.
See RS485slave_Init.
Example
char msg[8];
...
RS485slave_Read(msg);
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RS485slave_Send
Prototype
Returns
void Rs485slave_Send(char *data_buffer, char
datalen);
Nothing.
Description Sends message to Master. Message format can be found at the
bottom of this page.
Parameters :
- data_buffer: data to be sent
- datalen: number of bytes for transmition. Valid values: 0...3.
Requires
MCU must be initialized as a Slave for RS-485 communication.
See RS485slave_Init. It is the user’s responsibility to ensure (by
protocol) that only one device sends data via 485 bus at a time.
Example
char msg[8];
...
// send 2 bytes of data to the master
RS485slave_Send(msg, 2);
Library Example
This is a simple demonstration of RS485 Library routines usage.
Master sends message to Slave with address 160 and waits for a response. The Slave
accepts data, increments it and sends it back to the Master. Master then does the
same and sends incremented data back to Slave, etc.
Master displays received data on P0, while error on receive (0xAA) and number of
consecutive unsuccessful retries are displayed on P1. Slave displays received data
on P0, while error on receive (0xAA) is displayed on P1. Hardware configurations
in this example are made for the Easy8051B board and AT89S8253.
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RS485 Master code:
char dat[10];
char i,j;
long count = 0;
// Buffer for receving/sending messages
// RS485 module connections
sbit rs485_transceive at P3.B2; // Transmit/Receive control set
to P3.2
// End RS485 module connections
//-------------- Interrupt routine
void UartRxHandler() org 0x23 {
EA = 0;
// Clear global interrupt enable flag
if(RI) {
// Test UART receive interrupt flag
Rs485master_Receive(dat); // UART receive interrupt detected,
// receive data using RS485
communication
RI = 0;
// Clear UART interrupt flag
}
EA = 1;
// Set global interrupt enable flag
}//~!~
void main(){
P0 = 0;
P1 = 0;
Uart_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(100);
// Clear ports
// Initialize UART module at 9600 bps
Rs485master_Init();
// Intialize MCU as RS485 master
dat[0] = 0x55;
// Fill buffer
dat[1] = 0x00;
dat[2] = 0x00;
dat[4] = 0;
// Ensure that message received flag is 0
dat[5] = 0;
// Ensure that error flag is 0
dat[6] = 0;
Rs485master_Send(dat,1,160);
// Send message to slave with
address 160
//
message data is stored in dat
//
message is 1 byte long
ES = 1;
RI = 0;
EA = 1;
while (1){
// Enable UART interrupt
// Clear UART RX interrupt flag
// Enable interrupts
// Endless loop
// Upon completed valid message receiving
//
data[4] is set to 255
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count++;
// Increment loop pass counter
if (dat[5]) {
P1 = 0xAA;
}
// If error detected, signal it by
//
setting PORT1 to 0xAA
if (dat[4]) {
count = 0;
dat[4] = 0;
j = dat[3];
//
//
//
//
If message received successfully
Reset loop pass counter
Clear message received flag
Read number of message received
bytes
for (i = 1; i <= j; i++){
P0 = dat[i-1];
// Show received data on PORT0
}
dat[0] = dat[0] + 1;
// Increment first received byte
dat[0]
Delay_ms(10);
Rs485master_Send(dat,1,160); // And send it back to Slave
}
if (count > 10000) {
// If loop is passed 100000
times with
//
no message received
P1++;
// Signal receive message failure
on PORT1
count = 0;
// Reset loop pass counter
Rs485master_Send(dat,1,160); // Retry send message
if (P1 > 10) {
// If sending failed 10 times
P1 = 0;
// Clear PORT1
Rs485master_Send(dat,1,50);
// Send message on broadcast
address
}
}
}
}
RS485 Slave code:
char dat[9];
char i,j;
// Buffer for receving/sending messages
// RS485 module connections
sbit rs485_transceive at P3.B2;
// Transmit/Receive control set to P3.2
// End RS485 module connections
//-------------- Interrupt routine
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void UartRxHandler() org 0x23 {
EA = 0;
// Clear global interrupt enable
flag
if(RI) {
// Test UART receive interrupt flag
Rs485slave_Receive(dat);
// UART receive interrupt detected,
//
receive data using RS485
communication
RI = 0;
// Clear UART interrupt flag
}
EA = 1;
// Set global interrupt enable flag
}//~!~
void main(){
P0 = 0;
P1 = 0;
Uart_Init(9600);
Delay_ms(100);
Rs485slave_Init(160);
dat[4] = 0;
dat[5] = 0;
ES = 1;
RI = 0;
EA = 1;
while (1){
if (dat[5]) {
P1 = 0xAA;
}
// Clear ports
// Initialize UART module at 9600 bps
// Intialize MCU as slave, address 160
// ensure that message received flag is 0
// ensure that error flag is 0
// Enable UART interrupt
// Clear UART RX interrupt flag
// Enable interrupts
// Endless loop
// Upon completed valid message receiving
//
data[4] is set to 255
// If error detected, signal it by
//
setting PORT1 to 0xAA
if (dat[4]) {
// If message received successfully
dat[4] = 0;
// Clear message received flag
j = dat[3];
// Read number of message received bytes
for (i = 1; i <= j; i++){
P0 = dat[i-1];
// Show received data on PORT0
}
dat[0] = dat[0] + 1;
// Increment received dat[0]
Delay_ms(10);
Rs485slave_Send(dat,1);
// And send back to Master
}
}
}
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HW Connection
Shielded pair
no longer than 300m
56R
56R
VCC
4K7
VCC
1
2
3
Vcc
RE
B
DE
A
DI
GND
8
7
6
5
4K7
LTC485
P3.0
P3.1
P3.2
VCC
56R
4K7
1
2
3
4
R0
Vcc
RE
B
DE
A
DI
GND
8
56R
AT89S8253
4
R0
OSCILLATOR
7
XTAL1
GND
6
5
4K7
LTC485
4.7uF +
+
V+
C1C2+
+
C2-
4.7uF
VT2out
R2in
+
MAX232
C1+
4.7uF
Vcc
GND
T1 OUT
R1IN
PC
R1out
T1in
T2in
R2out
RTS
GND
4.7uF
TX
RX
6.9. Example of interfacing PC to 8051 MCU via RS485 bus with LTC485 as
RS-485 transceiver
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Message format and CRC calculations
Q: How is CRC checksum calculated on RS485 master side?
START_BYTE = 0x96; // 10010110
STOP_BYTE = 0xA9; // 10101001
PACKAGE:
-------START_BYTE 0x96
ADDRESS
DATALEN
[DATA1]
[DATA2]
[DATA3]
CRC
STOP_BYTE 0xA9
// if exists
// if exists
// if exists
DATALEN bits
-----------bit7 = 1 MASTER SENDS
0 SLAVE SENDS
bit6 = 1 ADDRESS WAS XORed
STOP_BYTE
0 ADDRESS UNCHANGED
bit5 = 0 FIXED
bit4 = 1 DATA3 (if exists)
START_BYTE or STOP_BYTE
0 DATA3 (if exists)
bit3 = 1 DATA2 (if exists)
START_BYTE or STOP_BYTE
0 DATA2 (if exists)
bit2 = 1 DATA1 (if exists)
START_BYTE or STOP_BYTE
0 DATA1 (if exists)
bit1bit0 = 0 to 3 NUMBER OF
with 1, IT WAS EQUAL TO START_BYTE or
WAS XORed with 1, IT WAS EQUAL TO
UNCHANGED
WAS XORed with 1, IT WAS EQUAL TO
UNCHANGED
WAS XORed with 1, IT WAS EQUAL TO
UNCHANGED
DATA BYTES SEND
CRC generation :
---------------crc_send = datalen ^ address;
crc_send ^= data[0];
// if exists
crc_send ^= data[1];
// if exists
crc_send ^= data[2];
// if exists
crc_send = ~crc_send;
if ((crc_send == START_BYTE) || (crc_send == STOP_BYTE))
crc_send++;
NOTE: DATALEN<4..0> can not take the START_BYTE<4..0> or
STOP_BYTE<4..0> values.
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SOFTWARE I²C LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides routines for implementing Software I²C communication. These routines are hardware independent and can be used with any MCU. The
Software I²C library enables you to use MCU as Master in I²C communication.
Multi-master mode is not supported.
Note: This library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need to be disabled when using Software I²C.
Note: All I²C Library functions are blocking-call functions (they are waiting for I²C
clock line to become logical one).
Note: The pins used for I²C communication should be connected to the pull-up resistors. Turning off the LEDs connected to these pins may also be required.
External dependecies of Soft_I2C Library
The following variables must be defined
in all projects using
Soft_I2C Library:
Description:
Example :
extern sbit
Soft_I2C_Scl;
Soft I²C Clock line. sbit Soft_I2C_Scl at P1.B3;
extern sbit
Soft_I2C_Sda;
Soft I²C Data line.
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda at P1.B4;
Library Routines
- Soft_I2C_Init
- Soft_I2C_Start
- Soft_I2C_Read
- Soft_I2C_Write
- Soft_I2C_Stop
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Soft_I2C_Init
Prototype
void Soft_I2C_Init();
Returns
Nothing.
Description Configures the software I²C module.
Requires
Soft_I2C_Scl and Soft_I2C_Sda variables must be defined
before using this function.
Example
// soft_i2c pinout definition
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl at P1.B3;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda at P1.B4;
...
Soft_I2C_Init();
Soft_I2C_Start
Prototype
Returns
void Soft_I2C_Start(void);
Nothing.
Description Determines if the I²C bus is free and issues START signal.
Requires
Software I²C must be configured before using this function. See
Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Example
// Issue START signal
Soft_I2C_Start();
Soft_I2C_Read
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Soft_I2C_Read(unsigned int ack);
One byte from the Slave.
Description Reads one byte from the slave.
Parameters :
Requires
- ack: acknowledge signal parameter. If the ack==0 not
acknowledge signal will be sent after reading, otherwise the
acknowledge signal will be sent.
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See
Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See Soft_I2C_Start routine.
Example
unsigned short take;
...
// Read data and send the not_acknowledge signal
take = Soft_I2C_Read(0);
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Soft_I2C_Write
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Soft_I2C_Write(unsigned short Data);
- 0 if there were no errors.
- 1 if write collision was detected on the I²C bus. .
Description Sends data byte via the I²C bus.
Parameters :
- Data: data to be sent
Requires
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See
Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Also, START signal needs to be issued in order to use this function. See Soft_I2C_Start routine.
Example
unsigned short data, error;
...
error = Soft_I2C_Write(data);
error = Soft_I2C_Write(0xA3);
Soft_I2C_Stop
Prototype
Returns
void Soft_I2C_Stop(void);
Nothing. .
Description Issues STOP signal.
Requires
Soft I²C must be configured before using this function. See
Soft_I2C_Init routine.
Example
// Issue STOP signal
Soft_I2C_Stop();
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Library Example
The example demonstrates Software I²C Library routines usage. The 8051 MCU is
connected (SCL, SDA pins) to PCF8583 RTC (real-time clock). Program reads date
and time are read from the RTC and prints it on LCD.
char seconds, minutes, hours, day, month, year;
// Global date/time variables
// Software I2C connections
sbit Soft_I2C_Scl at P1.B3;
sbit Soft_I2C_Sda at P1.B4;
// End Software I2C connections
// LCD module connections
sbit LCD_RS at P2.B0;
sbit LCD_EN at P2.B1;
sbit LCD_D7 at P2.B5;
sbit LCD_D6 at P2.B4;
sbit LCD_D5 at P2.B3;
sbit LCD_D4 at P2.B2;
// End LCD module connections
//--------------------- Reads time and date information from RTC
(PCF8583)
void Read_Time() {
Soft_I2C_Start();
// Issue start signal
Soft_I2C_Write(0xA0);
// Address PCF8583, see PCF8583
datasheet
Soft_I2C_Write(2);
// Start from address 2
Soft_I2C_Start();
// Issue repeated start signal
Soft_I2C_Write(0xA1);
// Address PCF8583 for reading
R/W=1
seconds = Soft_I2C_Read(1);
// Read seconds byte
minutes = Soft_I2C_Read(1);
// Read minutes byte
hours = Soft_I2C_Read(1);
// Read hours byte
day = Soft_I2C_Read(1);
// Read year/day byte
month = Soft_I2C_Read(0);
// Read weekday/month byte
Soft_I2C_Stop();
// Issue stop signal
}//~
//-------------------- Formats date and time
void Transform_Time() {
seconds = ((seconds & 0xF0) >> 4)*10 + (seconds & 0x0F);
// Transform seconds
minutes = ((minutes & 0xF0) >> 4)*10 + (minutes & 0x0F);
// Transform months
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hours
= ((hours & 0xF0) >> 4)*10 + (hours & 0x0F);
// Transform hours
year
=
(day & 0xC0) >> 6;
// Transform year
day
= ((day & 0x30) >> 4)*10
+ (day & 0x0F);
// Transform day
month
= ((month & 0x10) >> 4)*10 + (month & 0x0F);
// Transform month
}//~
//-------------------- Output values to LCD
void Display_Time() {
Lcd_Chr(1, 6, (day / 10)
+ 48);
Lcd_Chr(1, 7, (day % 10)
+ 48);
Lcd_Chr(1, 9, (month / 10) + 48);
Lcd_Chr(1,10, (month % 10) + 48);
Lcd_Chr(1,15, year
+ 56);
Lcd_Chr(2, 6,
Lcd_Chr(2, 7,
Lcd_Chr(2, 9,
Lcd_Chr(2,10,
Lcd_Chr(2,12,
Lcd_Chr(2,13,
(hours /
(hours %
(minutes
(minutes
(seconds
(seconds
10)
10)
/ 10)
% 10)
/ 10)
% 10)
+
+
+
+
+
+
// Print tens digit of day
variable
// Print oness digit of
day variable
// Print year vaiable + 8
(start from year 2008)
48);
48);
48);
48);
48);
48);
}
//------------------ Performs project-wide init
void Init_Main() {
Soft_I2C_Init();
// Initialize Soft I2C communication
Lcd_Init();
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
// Initialize LCD
// Clear LCD display
// Turn cursor off
LCD_Out(1,1,"Date:");
// Prepare and output static text on
LCD
LCD_Chr(1,8,':');
LCD_Chr(1,11,':');
LCD_Out(2,1,"Time:");
LCD_Chr(2,8,':');
LCD_Chr(2,11,':');
LCD_Out(1,12,"200");
}//~
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//----------------- Main procedure
void main() {
Init_Main();
// Perform initialization
while (1) {
Read_Time();
Transform_Time();
Display_Time();
Delay_ms(1000);
}
// Endless loop
// Read time from RTC(PCF8583)
// Format date and time
// Prepare and display on LCD
// Wait 1 second
}
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SOFTWARE SPI LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides routines for implementing Software SPI communication. These routines are hardware independent and can be used with any MCU.
The Software SPI Library provides easy communication with other devices via SPI:
A/D converters, D/A converters, MAX7219, LTC1290, etc.
Library configuration:
- SPI to Master mode
- Clock value = 20 kHz.
- Data sampled at the middle of interval.
- Clock idle state low.
- Data sampled at the middle of interval.
- Data transmitted at low to high edge.
Note: The Software SPI library implements time-based activities, so interrupts need
to be disabled when using it.
External dependencies of Software SPI Library
The following variables must be defined
in all projects using
Software SPI Library:
Description:
Example :
extern sbit
SoftSpi_SDI;
Data In line.
sbit SoftSpi_SDI at P0.B4;
extern sbit
SoftSpi_SDO;
Data Out line.
sbit SoftSpi_SDO at P0.B5;
extern sbit
SoftSpi_CLK;
Clock line.
sbit SoftSpi_CLK at P0.B3;
Library Routines
- Soft_Spi_Init
- Soft_Spi_Read
- Soft_Spi_Write
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Soft_Spi_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Soft_SPI_Init();
Nothing. .
Description Configures and initializes the software SPI module.
and SoftSpi_SDO variables must
be defined before using this function.
Requires
SoftSpi_CLK, SoftSpi_SDI
Example
// soft_spi pinout definition
sbit SoftSpi_SDI
at P0.B4;
sbit SoftSpi_SDO
at P0.B5;
sbit SoftSpi_CLK
at P0.B3;
...
Soft_SPI_Init(); // Init Soft_SPI
Soft_Spi_Read
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Soft_Spi_Read(char sdata);
Byte received via the SPI bus.
Description This routine performs 3 operations simultaneously. It provides
clock for the Software SPI bus, reads a byte and sends a byte.
Parameters :
- sdata: data to be sent.
Requires
Soft SPI must be initialized before using this function. See
Soft_Spi_Init routine.
Example
unsigned short data_read;
char data_send;
...
// Read a byte and assign it to data_read variable
// (data_send byte will be sent via SPI during the
Read operation)
data_read = Soft_Spi_Read(data_send);
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Soft_Spi_Write
Prototype
Returns
void Soft_Spi_Write(char sdata);
Nothing.
Description This routine sends one byte via the Software SPI bus.
Parameters :
- sdata: data to be sent.
Requires
Soft SPI must be initialized before using this function. See
Soft_Spi_Init routine.
Example
// Write a byte to the Soft SPI bus
Soft_Spi_Write(0xAA);
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Library Example
This code demonstrates using library routines for Soft_SPI communication. Also,
this example demonstrates working with Microchip's MCP4921 12-bit D/A converter.
// DAC module connections
sbit Chip_Select at P3.B4;
sbit SoftSpi_CLK at P1.B7;
sbit SoftSpi_SDI at P1.B6;
sbit SoftSpi_SDO at P1.B5;
// End DAC module connections
unsigned int value;
void InitMain() {
P0 = 255;
Soft_SPI_Init();
}//~
// Set PORT0 as input
// Initialize Soft_SPI
// DAC increments (0..4095) --> output voltage (0..Vref)
void DAC_Output(unsigned int valueDAC) {
char temp;
Chip_Select = 0;
// Select DAC chip
// Send High Byte
temp = (valueDAC >> 8) & 0x0F;
// Store valueDAC[11..8] to temp[3..0]
temp |= 0x30;
// Define DAC setting, see MCP4921 datasheet
Soft_SPI_Write(temp);
// Send high byte via Soft SPI
// Send Low Byte
temp = valueDAC;
Soft_SPI_Write(temp);
Chip_Select = 1;
}//~
// Store valueDAC[7..0] to temp[7..0]
// Send low byte via Soft SPI
// Deselect DAC chip
void main() {
InitMain();
// Perform main initialization
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value = 2048;
while (1) {
// When program starts, DAC gives
// the output in the mid-range
// Endless loop
if ((!P0_0) && (value < 4095)) {
// If P0.0 is connected to GND
value++;
//
increment value
}
else {
if ((!P0_1) && (value > 0)) { // If P0.1 is connected to GND
value--;
//
decrement value
}
}
DAC_Output(value);
Delay_ms(10);
// Perform output
// Slow down key repeat pace
}
}
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SOFTWARE UART LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides routines for implementing Software UART communication. These routines are hardware independent and can be used with any MCU.
The Software UART Library provides easy communication with other devices via
the RS232 protocol.
Note: The Software UART library implements time-based activities, so interrupts
need to be disabled when using it.
External dependencies of Software UART Library
The following variables must be defined
in all projects using
Software UART
Library:
Description:
Example :
extern sbit
Soft_Uart_RX ;
Receive line.
sbit Soft_Uart_RX at P3.B0;
extern sbit
Soft_Uart_TX ;
Transmit line.
sbit Soft_Uart_TX at P3.B1;
Library Routines
- Soft_Uart_Init
- Soft_Uart_Read
- Soft_Uart_Write
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Soft_Uart_Init
Prototype
unsigned Soft_Uart_Init(unsigned long baud_rate, char
inverted);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Configures and initializes the software UART module.
Parameters :
Requires
- baud_rate: baud rate to be set. Maximum baud rate depends on
the MCU’s clock and working conditions.
- inverted: inverted output flag. When set to a non-zero value,
inverted logic on output is used.
Global variables:
- Soft_Uart_RX receiver pin
- Soft_Uart_TX transmiter pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// Initialize Software UART communication on pins Rx,
Tx, at 9600 bps
Soft_Uart_Init(9600, 0);
Soft_Uart_Read
Prototype
char Soft_Uart_Read(char * error);
Returns
Byte received via UART.
Description The function receives a byte via software UART. This is a blocking function call (waits for start bit).
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- error: Error flag. Error code is returned through this variable.
Upon successful transfer this flag will be set to zero. An non
zero value indicates communication error.
Software UART must be initialized before using this function.
See the Soft_Uart_Init routine.
char data;
int error;
...
// wait until data is received
do
data = Soft_Uart_Read(&error);
while (error);
// Now we can work with data:
if (data) {...}
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Soft_Uart_Write
Prototype
Returns
void Soft_Uart_Write(char udata);
Nothing.
Description This routine sends one byte via the Software UART bus.
Parameters :
- udata: data to be sent.
Requires
Software UART must be initialized before using this function.
See the Soft_Uart_Init routine.
Be aware that during transmission, software UART is incapable
of receiving data – data transfer protocol must be set in such a
way to prevent loss of information.
Example
char some_byte = 0x0A;
...
// Write a byte via Soft Uart
Soft_Uart_Write(some_byte);
Library Example
This example demonstrates simple data exchange via software UART. If MCU is
connected to the PC, you can test the example from the mikroC for 8051 USART
Terminal Tool.
// Soft UART connections
sbit Soft_Uart_RX at P3.B0;
sbit Soft_Uart_TX at P3.B1;
// End Soft UART connections
char i, error, byte_read;
// Auxiliary variables
void main(){
Soft_Uart_Init(4800, 0); // Initialize Soft UART at 4800 bps
for (i = 'z'; i >= 'A'; i--) { // Send bytes from 'z' downto 'A'
Soft_Uart_Write(i);
Delay_ms(100);
}
while(1) {
// Endless loop
byte_read = Soft_Uart_Read(&error);
// Read byte, then test error flag
if (error)
// If error was detected
P0 = 0xAA;
//
signal it on PORT0
else
Soft_Uart_Write(byte_read);
// If error was not detected, return byte read
}
}
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SOUND LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a Sound Library to supply users with routines necessary for sound signalization in their applications. Sound generation needs additional hardware, such as piezo-speaker (example of piezo-speaker interface is given on
the schematic at the bottom of this page).
External dependencies of Sound Library
The following variables
must be defined in all
projects using Sound
Library:
extern sbit
Sound_Play_Pin;
Description:
Example :
Sound output pin. sbit Sound_Play_Pin at P0.B3;
Library Routines
- Sound_Init
- Sound_Play
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Sound_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Sound_Init();
Nothing.
Description Configures the appropriate MCU pin for sound generation.
Requires
Sound_Play_Pin
variable must be defined before using this
function.
Example
// Initialize the pin P0.3 for playing sound
sbit Sound_Play_Pin at P0.B3;
...
Sound_Init();
Sound_Play
Prototype
Returns
void Sound_Play(unsigned freq_in_hz, unsigned
duration_ms);
Nothing.
Description Generates the square wave signal on the appropriate pin.
Parameters :
- freq_in_hz: signal frequency in Hertz (Hz)
- duration_ms: signal duration in miliseconds (ms)
Requires
In order to hear the sound, you need a piezo speaker (or other
hardware) on designated port. Also, you must call Sound_Init to
prepare hardware for output before using this function.
Example
// Play sound of 1KHz in duration of 100ms
Sound_Play(1000, 100);
Library Example
The example is a simple demonstration of how to use the Sound Library for playing tones on a piezo speaker.
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// Sound connections
sbit Sound_Play_Pin at P0.B3;
// End Sound connections
void Tone1() {
Sound_Play(500, 200);
}//~
// Frequency = 500Hz, Duration = 200ms
void Tone2() {
Sound_Play(555, 200);
}//~
// Frequency = 555Hz, Duration = 200ms
void Tone3() {
Sound_Play(625, 200);
}//~
// Frequency = 625Hz, Duration = 200ms
void Melody() {
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone1(); Tone2();
Tone3(); Tone3();
}//~
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone2();
void ToneA() {
Sound_Play(1250, 20);
}
void ToneC() {
Sound_Play(1450, 20);
}
void ToneE() {
Sound_Play(1650, 80);
}
// Plays the melody "Yellow house"
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone3();
Tone2(); Tone1();
// Tones used in Melody2 function
void Melody2() {
// Plays Melody2
unsigned short i;
for (i = 9; i > 0; i--) {
ToneA();
ToneC();
ToneE();
}
}//~
void main() {
P1 = 255;
Sound_Init();
// Configure PORT1 as input
// Initialize sound pin
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Sound_Play(2000, 1000);
// Play starting sound, 2kHz, 1 second
while (1) {
// endless loop
if (!(P1_7))
Tone1();
while (!(P1_7)) ;
// If P1.7 is pressed play Tone1
//
// Wait for button to be released
if (!(P1_6))
Tone2();
while (!(P1_6)) ;
// If P1.6 is pressed play Tone2
//
// Wait for button to be released
if (!(P1_5))
Tone3();
while (!(P1_5)) ;
// If P1.5 is pressed play Tone3
//
// Wait for button to be released
if (!(P1_4))
Melody2();
while (!(P1_4)) ;
// If P1.4 is pressed play Melody2
//
// Wait for button to be released
if (!(P1_3))
Melody();
while (!(P1_3)) ;
// If P1.3 is pressed play Melody
//
// Wait for button to be released
}
}
HW Connection
300R
PIEZO
SPEAKER
VCC
P1.B3
P1.3
P1.5
P1.6
P1.B5
P1.7
P1.B6
P1.B7
AT89S8253
P1.4
P1.B4
6.10. Example of
Sound Library connection
VCC
P0.3
OSCILLATOR
VCC
XTAL1
GND
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SPI LIBRARY
mikroC for 8051 provides a library for comfortable with SPI work in Master mode.
The 8051 MCU can easily communicate with other devices via SPI: A/D converters, D/A converters, MAX7219, LTC1290, etc.
Library Routines
- Spi_Init
- Spi_Init_Advanced
- Spi_Read
- Spi_Write
Spi_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Init(void);
Nothing.
Description This routine configures and enables SPI module with the following settings:
- master mode
- clock idle low
- 8 bit data transfer
- most significant bit sent first
- serial output data changes on idle to active transition of
clock state
- serial clock = fosc/128 (fosc/64 in x2 mode)
Requires
MCU must have SPI module.
Example
// Initialize the SPI module with default settings
Spi_Init();
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Spi_Init_Advanced
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Init_Advanced(unsigned short adv_setting)
Nothing.
Description This routine configures and enables the SPI module with the user
defined settings.
Parameters :
- adv_setting: SPI module configuration flags. Predefined
library constants (see the table below) can be ORed to form
appropriate configuration value.
Bit Mask
Description
Predefined library const
Master/slave [4] and clock rate select [1:0] bits
Sck = Fosc/4 (Fosc/2 in x2 mode),
Master mode
4,1,
Sck = Fosc/16 (f/8 in x2 mode),
0x11
0
Master mode
Sck = Fosc/64 (f/32 in x2 mode),
0x12
Master mode
Sck = Fosc/128 (f/64 in x2 mode),
0x13
Master mode
0x10
MASTER_OSC_DIV4
MASTER_OSC_DIV16
MASTER_OSC_DIV64
MASTER_OSC_DIV128
SPI clock phase
2
0x00
0x04
Data changes on idle to active
transition of the clock
Data changes on active to idle
transition of the clock
IDLE_2_ACTIVE
ACTIVE_2_IDLE
SPI clock polarity
3
0x00
Clock idle level is low
CLK_IDLE_LOW
0x08
Clock idle level is high
CLK_IDLE_HIGH
Data order
5
0x00
Most significant bit sent first
DATA_ORDER_MSB
0x20
Least significant bit sent first
DATA_ORDER_LSB
Requires
MCU must have SPI module.
Example
// Set SPI to the Master Mode, clock = Fosc/4 , clock
IDLE state low and data transmitted at low to high
clock edge:
Spi_Init_Advanced(MASTER_OSC_DIV4 | DATA_ORDER_MSB |
CLK_IDLE_LOW | IDLE_2_ACTIVE);
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Spi_Read
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Spi_Read(unsigned short buffer);
Received data.
Description Reads one byte from the SPI bus.
Parameters :
- buffer: dummy data for clock generation (see device Datasheet
for SPI modules implementation details)
Requires
SPI module must be initialized before using this function. See
Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// read a byte from the SPI bus
unsigned short take, dummy1;
...
take = Spi_Read(dummy1);
Spi_Write
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Write(unsigned short wrdata);
Nothing.
Description Writes byte via the SPI bus.
Parameters :
- wrdata: data to be sent
Requires
SPI module must be initialized before using this function. See
Spi_Init and Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// write a byte to the SPI bus
unsigned short buffer;
...
Spi_Write(buffer);
Library Example
The code demonstrates how to use SPI library functions for communication between
SPI module of the MCU and MAX7219 chip. MAX7219 controls eight 7 segment
displays.
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// Serial 7-seg Display connections
sbit CHIP_SEL at P1.B0;
// Chip Select pin definition
// End Serial 7-seg Display connections
void Select_max() {
CHIP_SEL = 0;
Delay_us(1);
}
// Function for selecting MAX7219
void Deselect_max() {
Delay_us(1);
CHIP_SEL = 1;
}
// Function for deselecting MAX7219
void Max7219_init() {
Select_max();
Spi_Write(0x09);
Spi_Write(0xFF);
Deselect_max();
// Initializing MAX7219
Select_max();
Spi_Write(0x0A);
Spi_Write(0x0F);
Deselect_max();
Select_max();
Spi_Write(0x0B);
Spi_Write(0x07);
Deselect_max();
Select_max();
Spi_Write(0x0C);
Spi_Write(0x01);
Deselect_max();
Select_max();
Spi_Write(0x00);
Spi_Write(0xFF);
Deselect_max();
// BCD mode for digit decoding
// Segment luminosity intensity
// Display refresh
// Turn on the display
// No test
}
char digit_position, digit_value;
void main() {
Spi_Init();
// Initialize SPI module, standard configuration
// Instead of SPI_init, you can use
SPI_init_Advanced as shown below
//
Spi_Init_Advanced(MASTER_OSC_DIV4 |
DATA_ORDER_MSB | CLK_IDLE_LOW | IDLE_2_ACTIVE);
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Max7219_init();
// Initialize
max7219
while(1) {
// Endless loop
for (digit_value=0; digit_value<=9; digit_value++) {
for (digit_position=8; digit_position>=1; digit_position--) {
Select_max();
// Select max7219
Spi_Write(digit_position);
// Send digit position
Spi_Write(digit_value);
// Send digit value
Deselect_max();
// Deselect max7219
Delay_ms(300);
}
}
}
}
HW Connection
VCC
DIS7
DIS6
DIS5
DIS4
1
2
3
24
DIN
DOUT
DIG0
SEGD
5
SEGDP
GND
SEGE
DIG6
SEGC
6
DIG2
V+
7
8
DIS3
DIS2
DIS1
DIS0
DIG3
ISET
DIG7
SEGG
9
GND
SEGB
DIG5
SEGF
DIG1
SEGA
10
11
12
LOAD
CLK
VCC
P1.1
P0.0
P1.2
21
P1.3
P0.1
P0.2
P1.4
20
P1.5
19
18
R1
17
10K
VCC
P1.6
P1.7
16
RST
P3.0
15
P3.1
14
P3.2
P3.3
13
P3.4
P3.5
MAX7219
P3.6
OSCILLATOR
P3.7
AT89S8253
DIG4
4
P1.0
23
22
VCC
P0.3
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
EA
ALE
PSEN
P2.7
P2.6
P2.5
P2.4
P2.3
XTAL2
P2.2
XTAL1
GND
P2.0
P2.1
6.11. SPI HW connection
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SPI ETHERNET LIBRARY
The ENC28J60 is a stand-alone Ethernet controller with an industry standard Serial
Peripheral Interface (SPI™). It is designed to serve as an Ethernet network interface
for any controller equipped with SPI.
The ENC28J60 meets all of the IEEE 802.3 specifications. It incorporates a number
of packet filtering schemes to limit incoming packets. It also provides an internal
DMA module for fast data throughput and hardware assisted IP checksum calculations. Communication with the host controller is implemented via two interrupt pins
and the SPI, with data rates of up to 10 Mb/s. Two dedicated pins are used for LED
link and network activity indication.
This library is designed to simplify handling of the underlying hardware
(ENC28J60). It works with any 8051 MCU with integrated SPI and more than 4 Kb
ROM memory.
SPI Ethernet library supports:
- IPv4 protocol.
- ARP requests.
- ICMP echo requests.
- UDP requests.
- TCP requests (no stack, no packet reconstruction).
- packet fragmentation is NOT supported.
Note: For advanced users there are header files ("eth_enc28j60LibDef.h" and
"eth_enc28j60LibPrivate.h") in Uses folder of the compiler with description of
all routines and global variables, relevant to the user, implemented in the SPI
Ethernet Library.
Note: The appropriate hardware SPI module must be initialized before using any of
the SPI Ethernet library routines. Refer to Spi Library.
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External dependencies of SPI Ethernet Library
The following variables must be defined
in all projects using
SPI Ethernet Library:
Description:
Example :
extern sfr sbit
Spi_Ethernet_CS;
ENC28J60 chip
select pin.
extern sfr sbit
Spi_Ethernet_RST;
ENC28J60 reset sfr sbit Spi_Ethernet_RST at
pin.
P1.B0;
The following routines must be
defined in all project using SPI
Ethernet Library:
sfr sbit Spi_Ethernet_CS at
P1.B1;
Description:
unsigned int
Spi_Ethernet_UserTCP
(unsigned char *remoteHost,
unsigned int remotePort,
Example :
TCP request
handler.
Refer to the
library example at
the bottom of this
page for code
implementation.
UDP request
handler.
Refer to the
library example at
the bottom of this
page for code
implementation.
unsigned int localPort,
unsigned int reqLength) ;
unsigned int
Spi_Ethernet_UserUDP
(unsigned char *remoteHost,
unsigned int remotePort,
unsigned int destPort,
unsigned int reqLength) ;
Library Routines
- Spi_Ethernet_Init
- Spi_Ethernet_Enable
- Spi_Ethernet_Disable
- Spi_Ethernet_doPacket
- Spi_Ethernet_putByte
- Spi_Ethernet_putBytes
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- Spi_Ethernet_putString
- Spi_Ethernet_putConstString
- Spi_Ethernet_putConstBytes
- Spi_Ethernet_getByte
- Spi_Ethernet_getBytes
- Spi_Ethernet_UserTCP
- Spi_Ethernet_UserUDP
Spi_Ethernet_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Ethernet_Init(unsigned char *mac, unsigned
char *ip, unsigned char fullDuplex);
Nothing.
Description This is MAC module routine. It initializes ENC28J60 controller.
This function is internaly splited into 2 parts to help linker when
coming short of memory.
ENC28J60 controller settings (parameters not mentioned here are
set to default):
- receive buffer start address : 0x0000.
- receive buffer end address : 0x19AD.
- transmit buffer start address: 0x19AE.
- transmit buffer end address : 0x1FFF.
- RAM buffer read/write pointers in auto-increment mode.
- receive filters set to default: CRC + MAC Unicast + MAC Broadcast in OR mode.
- flow control with TX and RX pause frames in full duplex mode.
- frames are padded to 60 bytes + CRC.
- maximum packet size is set to 1518.
- Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap: 0x15 in full duplex mode; 0x12
in half duplex mode.
- Non-Back-to-Back Inter-Packet Gap: 0x0012 in full duplex
mode; 0x0C12 in half duplex mode.
- Collision window is set to 63 in half duplex mode to accomo
date some ENC28J60 revisions silicon bugs.
- CLKOUT output is disabled to reduce EMI generation.
- half duplex loopback disabled.
- LED configuration: default (LEDA-link status, LEDB-link
activity).
Parameters:
- mac: RAM buffer containing valid MAC address.
- ip: RAM buffer containing valid IP address.
- fullDuplex: ethernet duplex mode switch. Valid values: 0 (half
duplex mode) and 1 (full duplex mode).
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Requires
The appropriate hardware SPI module must be previously initialized.
Example
#define Spi_Ethernet_HALFDUPLEX
#define Spi_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX
0
1
unsigned char myMacAddr[6] = {0x00, 0x14, 0xA5, 0x76,
0x19, 0x3f} ; // my MAC address
unsigned char myIpAddr
= {192, 168,
1, 60 } ;
// my IP addr
Spi_Init();
Spi_Ethernet_Init(&PORTC, 0, &PORTC, 1, myMacAddr,
myIpAddr, Spi_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX);
Spi_Ethernet_Enable
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Ethernet_Enable(unsigned char enFlt) ;
Nothing.
Description This is MAC module routine. This routine enables appropriate
network traffic on the ENC28J60 module by the means of it's
receive filters (unicast, multicast, broadcast, crc). Specific type of
network traffic will be enabled if a corresponding bit of this routine's input parameter is set. Therefore, more than one type of network traffic can be enabled at the same time. For this purpose,
predefined library constants (see the table below) can be ORed to
form appropriate input value.
Parameters:
- enFlt: network traffic/receive filter flags. Each bit corresponds
to the appropriate network traffic/receive filter:
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Description
Bit
Mask
Description
Predefined library const
0
0x01
MAC Broadcast traffic/receive filter flag. When set, MAC broadcast
traffic will be enabled.
Spi_Ethernet_BROADCAST
1
0x02
MAC Multicast traffic/receive filter
flag. When set, MAC multicast
traffic will be enabled.
Spi_Ethernet_MULTICAST
2
0x04
not used
none
3
0x08
not used
none
4
0x10
not used
none
5
0x20
CRC check flag. When set, packets
with invalid CRC field will be discarded.
Spi_Ethernet_CRC
6
0x40
not used
none
7
0x80
MAC Unicast traffic/receive filter
flag. When set, MAC unicast traffic
will be enabled.
Spi_Ethernet_UNICAST
Note: Advance filtering available in the ENC28J60 module such as
Pattern Match, Magic Packet and Hash Table can not be
enabled by this routine. Additionaly, all filters, except CRC,
enabled with this routine will work in OR mode, which means
that packet will be received if any of the enabled filters accepts it.
Note: This routine will change receive filter configuration on-thefly. It will not, in any way, mess with enabling/disabling
receive/transmit logic or any other part of the ENC28J60 module.
The ENC28J60 module should be properly cofigured by the means
of Spi_Ethernet_Init routine.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Spi_Ethernet_Enable(Spi_Ethernet_CRC |
Spi_Ethernet_UNICAST); // enable CRC checking and
Unicast traffic
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Spi_Ethernet_Disable
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Ethernet_Disable(unsigned char disFlt) ;
Nothing.
Description This is MAC module routine. This routine disables appropriate
network traffic on the ENC28J60 module by the means of it's
receive filters (unicast, multicast, broadcast, crc). Specific type of
network traffic will be disabled if a corresponding bit of this routine's input parameter is set. Therefore, more than one type of network traffic can be disabled at the same time. For this purpose,
predefined library constants (see the table below) can be ORed to
form appropriate input value.
Parameters:
- disFlt: network traffic/receive filter flags. Each bit corresponds
to the appropriate network traffic/receive filter:
Bit
Mask
Description
Predefined library const
0
0x01
MAC Broadcast traffic/receive filter flag. When set, MAC broadcast
traffic will be disabled.
Spi_Ethernet_BROADCAST
1
0x02
MAC Multicast traffic/receive filter
flag. When set, MAC multicast
traffic will be disabled.
Spi_Ethernet_MULTICAST
2
0x04
not used
none
3
0x08
not used
none
4
0x10
not used
none
5
0x20
CRC check flag. When set, CRC
check will be disabled and packets
with invalid CRC field will be
accepted.
Spi_Ethernet_CRC
6
0x40
not used
none
7
0x80
MAC Unicast traffic/receive filter
flag. When set, MAC unicast traffic
will be disabled.
Spi_Ethernet_UNICAST
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Description Note: Advance filtering available in the ENC28J60 module such as
Pattern Match, Magic Packet and Hash Table can not be
disabled by this routine.
Note: This routine will change receive filter configuration on-thefly. It will not, in any way, mess with enabling/disabling
receive/transmit logic or any other part of the ENC28J60 module.
The ENC28J60 module should be properly cofigured by the means
of Spi_Ethernet_Init routine.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
Spi_Ethernet_Disable(Spi_Ethernet_CRC |
Spi_Ethernet_UNICAST); // disable CRC checking and
Unicast traffic
Spi_Ethernet_doPacket
Prototype
Returns
unsigned char Spi_Ethernet_doPacket();
- upon successful packet processing (zero packets received or
received packet processed successfully).
1 - upon reception error or receive buffer corruption.
ENC28J60 controller needs to be restarted.
2 - received packet was not sent to us (not our IP, nor IP broad
cast address).
3 - received IP packet was not IPv4.
4 - received packet was of type unknown to the library.
- 0
-
Description This is MAC module routine. It processes next received packet if
such exists. Packets are processed in the following manner:
- ARP & ICMP requests are replied automatically.
- upon TCP request the Spi_Ethernet_UserTCP function is called
for further processing.
- upon UDP request the Spi_Ethernet_UserUDP function is called
for further processing.
Note: Spi_Ethernet_doPacket must be called as often as possible in user's code.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
while(1) {
...
Spi_Ethernet_doPacket(); // process received packets
...
}
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Spi_Ethernet_putByte
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Ethernet_putByte(unsigned char v);
Nothing.
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores one byte to address pointed by the current ENC28J60 write pointer (EWRPT).
Parameters:
- v: value to store
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
char data;
...
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(data); // put an byte into
ENC28J60 buffer
Spi_Ethernet_putBytes
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Ethernet_putBytes(unsigned char *ptr,
unsigned char n);
Nothing.
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores requested number of bytes
into ENC28J60 RAM starting from current ENC28J60 write
pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters:
- ptr: RAM buffer containing bytes to be written into ENC28J60
RAM.
- n: number of bytes to be written.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
char *buffer = "mikroElektronika";
...
Spi_Ethernet_putBytes(buffer, 16); // put an RAM
array into ENC28J60 buffer
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Spi_Ethernet_putConstBytes
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Ethernet_putConstBytes(const unsigned char
*ptr, unsigned char n);
Nothing.
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores requested number of const
bytes into ENC28J60 RAM starting from current ENC28J60 write
pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters:
- ptr: const buffer containing bytes to be written into ENC28J60
RAM.
- n: number of bytes to be written.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
const char *buffer = "mikroElektronika";
...
Spi_Ethernet_putConstBytes(buffer, 16); // put a
const array into ENC28J60 buffer
Spi_Ethernet_putString
Prototype
Returns
unsigned int Spi_Ethernet_putString(unsigned char
*ptr);
Number of bytes written into ENC28J60 RAM.
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores whole string (excluding
null termination) into ENC28J60 RAM starting from current
ENC28J60 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters:
- ptr: string to be written into ENC28J60 RAM.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
char *buffer = "mikroElektronika";
...
Spi_Ethernet_putString(buffer); // put a RAM string
into ENC28J60 buffer
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Spi_Ethernet_putConstString
Prototype
Returns
unsigned int Spi_Ethernet_putConstString(const
unsigned char *ptr);
Number of bytes written into ENC28J60 RAM.
Description This is MAC module routine. It stores whole const string (excluding null termination) into ENC28J60 RAM starting from current
ENC28J60 write pointer (EWRPT) location.
Parameters:
- ptr: const string to be written into ENC28J60 RAM.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
const char *buffer = "mikroElektronika";
...
Spi_Ethernet_putConstString(buffer); // put a const
string into ENC28J60 buffer
Spi_Ethernet_getByte
Prototype
Returns
unsigned char Spi_Ethernet_getByte();
Byte read from ENC28J60 RAM.
Description This is MAC module routine. It fetches a byte from address
pointed to by current ENC28J60 read pointer (ERDPT).
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
char buffer;
...
buffer = Spi_Ethernet_getByte(); // read a byte from
ENC28J60 buffer
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Spi_Ethernet_getBytes
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Ethernet_getBytes(unsigned char *ptr,
unsigned int addr, unsigned char n);
Nothing.
Description This is MAC module routine. It fetches equested number of bytes
from ENC28J60 RAM starting from given address. If value of
0xFFFF is passed as the address parameter, the reading will start
from current ENC28J60 read pointer (ERDPT) location.
Parameters:
- ptr: buffer for storing bytes read from ENC28J60 RAM.
- addr: ENC28J60 RAM start address. Valid values: 0..8192.
- n: number of bytes to be read.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
char buffer[16];
...
Spi_Ethernet_getBytes(buffer, 0x100, 16); // read 16
bytes, starting from address 0x100
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Spi_Ethernet_UserTCP
Prototype
Returns
unsigned int Spi_Ethernet_UserTCP(unsigned char
*remoteHost, unsigned int remotePort, unsigned int
localPort, unsigned int reqLength);
- 0 - there should not be a reply to the request.
- Length of TCP/HTTP reply data field - otherwise.
Description This is TCP module routine. It is internally called by the library.
The user accesses to the TCP/HTTP request by using some of the
Spi_Ethernet_get routines. The user puts data in the transmit
buffer by using some of the Spi_Ethernet_put routines. The function must return the length in bytes of the TCP/HTTP reply, or 0
if there is nothing to transmit. If there is no need to reply to the
TCP/HTTP requests, just define this function with return(0) as a
single statement.
Parameters:
- remoteHost: client's IP address.
- remotePort: client's TCP port.
- localPort: port to which the request is sent.
- reqLength: TCP/HTTP request data field length.
Note: The function source code is provided with appropriate
example projects. The code should be adjusted by the user to
achieve desired reply.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
This function is internally called by the library and should not be
called by the user's code.
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Spi_Ethernet_UserUDP
Prototype
Returns
unsigned int Spi_Ethernet_UserUDP(unsigned char
*remoteHost, unsigned int remotePort, unsigned int
destPort, unsigned int reqLength);
- 0 - there should not be a reply to the request.
- Length of UDP reply data field - otherwise.
Description This is UDP module routine. It is internally called by the library.
The user accesses to the UDP request by using some of the
Spi_Ethernet_get routines. The user puts data in the transmit
buffer by using some of the Spi_Ethernet_put routines. The function must return the length in bytes of the UDP reply, or 0 if nothing to transmit. If you don't need to reply to the UDP requests,
just define this function with a return(0) as single statement.
Parameters:
- remoteHost: client's IP address.
- remotePort: client's port.
- destPort: port to which the request is sent.
- reqLength: UDP request data field length.
Note: The function source code is provided with appropriate
example projects. The code should be adjusted by the user to
achieve desired reply.
Requires
Ethernet module has to be initialized. See Spi_Ethernet_Init.
Example
This function is internally called by the library and should not be
called by the user's code.
Library Example
This code shows how to use the 8051 mini Ethernet library :
- the board will reply to ARP & ICMP echo requests
- the board will reply to UDP requests on any port :
returns the request in upper char with a header made of remote host IP &
port number
- the board will reply to HTTP requests on port 80, GET method with pathnames
/ will return the HTML main page
/s will return board status as text string
/t0 ... /t7 will toggle P3.b0 to P3.b7 bit and return HTML main page
all other requests return also HTML main page.
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// duplex config flags
#define Spi_Ethernet_HALFDUPLEX
#define Spi_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX
0x00
0x01
// half duplex
// full duplex
// mE ehternet NIC pinout
sfr sbit Spi_Ethernet_RST at P1.B0;
sfr sbit Spi_Ethernet_CS at P1.B1;
// end ethernet NIC definitions
/************************************************************
* ROM constant strings
*/
const code unsigned char httpHeader[] = "HTTP/1.1 200 OK\nContenttype: " ; // HTTP header
const code unsigned char httpMimeTypeHTML[] = "text/html\n\n" ;
// HTML MIME type
const code unsigned char httpMimeTypeScript[] = "text/plain\n\n" ;
// TEXT MIME type
idata unsigned char httpMethod[] = "GET /";
/*
* web page, splited into 2 parts :
* when coming short of ROM, fragmented data is handled more efficiently by linker
*
* this HTML page calls the boards to get its status, and builds
itself with javascript
*/
const code char
*indexPage =
// Change the
IP address of the page to be refreshed
"<meta http-equiv=\"refresh\"
content=\"3;url=http://192.168.1.60\">\
<HTML><HEAD></HEAD><BODY>\
<h1>8051 + ENC28J60 Mini Web Server</h1>\
<a href=/>Reload</a>\
<script src=/s></script>\
<table><tr><td><table border=1 style=\"font-size:20px ;font-family:
terminal ;\">\
<tr><th colspan=2>P0</th></tr>\
<script>\
var str,i;\
str=\"\";\
for(i=0;i<8;i++)\
{str+=\"<tr><td bgcolor=pink>BUTTON #\"+i+\"</td>\";\
if(P0&(1<<i)){str+=\"<td bgcolor=red>ON\";}\
else {str+=\"<td bgcolor=#cccccc>OFF\";}\
str+=\"</td></tr>\";}\
document.write(str) ;\
</script>\
" ;
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const char
*indexPage2 = "</table></td><td>\
<table border=1 style=\"font-size:20px ;font-family: terminal ;\">\
<tr><th colspan=3>P3</th></tr>\
<script>\
var str,i;\
str=\"\";\
for(i=0;i<8;i++)\
{str+=\"<tr><td bgcolor=yellow>LED #\"+i+\"</td>\";\
if(P3&(1<<i)){str+=\"<td bgcolor=red>ON\";}\
else {str+=\"<td bgcolor=#cccccc>OFF\";}\
str+=\"</td><td><a href=/t\"+i+\">Toggle</a></td></tr>\";}\
document.write(str) ;\
</script>\
</table></td></tr></table>\
This is HTTP request
#<script>document.write(REQ)</script></BODY></HTML>\
" ;
/***********************************
* RAM variables
*/
idata unsigned char
myMacAddr[6] = {0x00, 0x14, 0xA5, 0x76, 0x19,
0x3f} ;
// my MAC address
idata unsigned char
myIpAddr[4] = {192, 168, 1, 60} ;
// my IP address
idata unsigned char
getRequest[15] ;
// HTTP request buffer
idata unsigned char
dyna[29] ;
// buffer for dynamic response
idata unsigned long
httpCounter = 0 ;
// counter of HTTP requests
/*******************************************
* functions
*/
/*
* put the constant string pointed to by s to the ENC transmit
buffer.
*/
/*unsigned int
putConstString(const code char *s)
{
unsigned int ctr = 0 ;
while(*s)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(*s++) ;
ctr++ ;
}
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return(ctr) ;
}*/
/*
* it will be much faster to use library
Spi_Ethernet_putConstString routine
* instead of putConstString routine above. However, the code will
be a little
* bit bigger. User should choose between size and speed and pick
the implementation that
* suites him best. If you choose to go with the putConstString
definition above
* the #define line below should be commented out.
*
*/
#define putConstString Spi_Ethernet_putConstString
/*
* put the string pointed to by s to the ENC transmit buffer
*/
/*unsigned int
putString(char *s)
{
unsigned int ctr = 0 ;
while(*s)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(*s++) ;
ctr++ ;
}
return(ctr) ;
}*/
/*
* it will be much faster to use library Spi_Ethernet_putString
routine
* instead of putString routine above. However, the code will be a
little
* bit bigger. User should choose between size and speed and pick
the implementation that
* suites him best. If you choose to go with the putString definition above
* the #define line below should be commented out.
*
*/
#define putString Spi_Ethernet_putString
/*
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* this function is called by the library
* the user accesses to the HTTP request by successive calls to
Spi_Ethernet_getByte()
* the user puts data in the transmit buffer by successive calls
to Spi_Ethernet_putByte()
* the function must return the length in bytes of the HTTP reply,
or 0 if nothing to transmit
*
* if you don't need to reply to HTTP requests,
* just define this function with a return(0) as single statement
*
*/
unsigned int
Spi_Ethernet_UserTCP(unsigned char *remoteHost,
unsigned int remotePort, unsigned int localPort, unsigned int
reqLength)
{
idata unsigned int
len;
// my reply length
if(localPort != 80)
web request on port 80
{
return(0) ;
}
// I listen only to
// get 10 first bytes only of the request, the rest does
not matter here
for(len = 0 ; len < 10 ; len++)
{
getRequest[len] = Spi_Ethernet_getByte() ;
}
getRequest[len] = 0 ;
len = 0;
if(memcmp(getRequest, httpMethod, 5))
// only GET method
is supported here
{
return(0) ;
}
httpCounter++ ;
if(getRequest[5] == 's')
// one more request done
// if request path name starts with s,
store dynamic data in transmit buffer
{
// the text string replied by this request can be
interpreted as javascript statements
// by browsers
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len = putConstString(httpHeader) ;
// HTTP header
len += putConstString(httpMimeTypeScript) ;
// with text MIME type
// add P3 value (buttons) to reply
len += putConstString("var P3=") ;
WordToStr(P3, dyna) ;
len += putString(dyna) ;
len += putConstString(";") ;
// add P0 value (LEDs) to reply
len += putConstString("var P0=") ;
WordToStr(P0, dyna) ;
len += putString(dyna) ;
len += putConstString(";") ;
// add HTTP requests counter to reply
WordToStr(httpCounter, dyna) ;
len += putConstString("var REQ=") ;
len += putString(dyna) ;
len += putConstString(";") ;
}
else if(getRequest[5] == 't')
// if request path name starts with t,
toggle P3 (LED) bit number that comes after
{
unsigned char
bitMask = 0 ;
// for bit mask
if(isdigit(getRequest[6]))
// if 0 <= bit number <= 9, bits 8 & 9
does not exist but does not matter
{
bitMask = getRequest[6] - '0' ;
// convert ASCII to integer
bitMask = 1 << bitMask ;
// create bit mask
P3 ^= bitMask ;
// toggle P3 with xor operator
}
}
if(len == 0)
{
len =
// what do to by default
putConstString(httpHeader) ;
// HTTP header
len += putConstString(httpMimeTypeHTML) ;
// with HTML MIME typ
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len += putConstString(indexPage) ;
// HTML page first part
len += putConstString(indexPage2) ;
// HTML page second part
}
return(len) ;
// return to the library with the number of bytes to transmit
}
/*
* this function is called by the library
* the user accesses to the UDP request by successive calls to
Spi_Ethernet_getByte()
* the user puts data in the transmit buffer by successive calls
to Spi_Ethernet_putByte()
* the function must return the length in bytes of the UDP reply,
or 0 if nothing to transmit
*
* if you don't need to reply to UDP requests,
* just define this function with a return(0) as single statement
*
*/
unsigned int
Spi_Ethernet_UserUDP(unsigned char *remoteHost,
unsigned int remotePort, unsigned int destPort, unsigned int
reqLength)
{
idata unsigned int
len ;
// my reply length
idata unsigned char
* ptr ;
// pointer to the dynamic
buffer
// reply is made of the
readable format
ByteToStr(remoteHost[0],
dyna[3] = '.' ;
ByteToStr(remoteHost[1],
dyna[7] = '.' ;
ByteToStr(remoteHost[2],
dyna[11] = '.' ;
ByteToStr(remoteHost[3],
remote host IP address in human
dyna) ;
// first IP address byte
dyna + 4) ;
// second
dyna + 8) ;
// third
dyna + 12) ;
// fourth
dyna[15] = ':' ;
// add separator
// then remote host port number
WordToStr(remotePort, dyna + 16) ;
dyna[21] = '[' ;
WordToStr(destPort, dyna + 22) ;
dyna[27] = ']' ;
dyna[28] = 0 ;
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// the total length of the request is the length of the
dynamic string plus the text of the request
len = 28 + reqLength;
// puts the dynamic string into the transmit buffer
Spi_Ethernet_putBytes(dyna, 28) ;
// then puts the request string converted into upper char
into the transmit buffer
while(reqLength--)
{
Spi_Ethernet_putByte(toupper(Spi_Ethernet_getByte())) ;
}
return(len) ;
// back to the library with the length
of the UDP reply
}
/*
* main entry
*/
void
main()
{
/*
* starts ENC28J60 with :
* reset bit on P1_0
* CS bit on P1_1
* my MAC & IP address
* full duplex
*/
Spi_Init_Advanced(MASTER_OSC_DIV16 | CLK_IDLE_LOW |
IDLE_2_ACTIVE | DATA_ORDER_MSB);
Spi_Ethernet_Init(myMacAddr, myIpAddr, Spi_Ethernet_FULLDUPLEX) ; // full duplex, CRC + MAC Unicast + MAC Broadcast filtering
while(1)
// do forever
{
/*
* if necessary, test the return value to get error code
*/
Spi_Ethernet_doPacket() ;
// process incoming
Ethernet packets
/*
* add your stuff here if needed
* Spi_Ethernet_doPacket() must be called as often as
possible
* otherwise packets could be lost
*/
}
}
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2
3
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
GND
A7
A6
A5
A4
A3
A2
A0
A1
DIR
B7
B6
B5
B4
B3
B2
B1
B0
OE
VCC
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
VCC3.3
100nF
VCC3.3
10K
1
VCC
10
ETH-RST
1K2
RBIAS
TPIN+
TPIN-
GND-RX
RESET
CS
SCK
SI
SO
WOL
INT
CLKOUT
GND
VCAP
OSCILLATOR
14
13
12
11
8
9
SCK
MOSI
ETH-CS
5
6
7
WOL3.3
MISO3.3
4
INT3.3
3
2
1
10uF
100nF
VCC3.3
28
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
VCC
VCC3.3
100nF
VCC3.3
1K
VCC
51R
51R
51R
51R
25 MHz
22pF
22pF
10nF
10nF
FP2
FERRITE
BEAD
VCC3.3
1K
8
6
7
2
3
1
RD-
CT
RD+
TD-
CT
TD+
11
9
A1
RJ45
A2
12
10
K1
K2
Libraries
XTAL1
GND
P1.7
P1.6
P1.5
P1.4
P1.3
P1.1
P1.0
1K2
TXVCC
TPOUT-
TPOUT+
TX-GND
RX-VCC
PLL-VCC
PLL-GND
OSC-GND
OSC1
OSC2
OSC-VCC
LEDB
LEDA
VCC
100nF
VCC3.3
CHAPTER 6
mikroC for 8051
HW Connection
AT89S8253
ENC28J60/SP
74HCT245
6.12. SPI Ethernet
354 MIKROELEKTRONIKA - SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE SOLUTIONS FOR EMBEDDED WORLD
ETH-WOL
ETH-INT
MISO
CHAPTER 6
Libraries
mikroC for 8051
SPI GRAPHIC LCD LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for operating Graphic LCD 128x64 (with
commonly used Samsung KS108/KS107 controller) via SPI interface.
For creating a custom set of GLCD images use GLCD Bitmap Editor Tool.
Note: The library uses the SPI module for communication. User must initialize SPI
module before using the SPI Graphic LCD Library.
Note: This Library is designed to work with the mikroElektronika's Serial
LCD/GLCD Adapter Board pinout, see schematic at the bottom of this page for
details.
External dependencies of SPI Graphic LCD Library
The implementation of SPI Graphic LCD Library routines is based on Port
Expander Library routines.
External dependencies are the same as Port Expander Library external dependencies.
Library Routines
Basic routines:
- Spi_Glcd_Init
- Spi_Glcd_Set_Side
- Spi_Glcd_Set_Page
- Spi_Glcd_Set_X
- Spi_Glcd_Read_Data
- Spi_Glcd_Write_Data
Advanced routines:
- Spi_Glcd_Fill
- Spi_Glcd_Dot
- Spi_Glcd_Line
- Spi_Glcd_V_Line
- Spi_Glcd_H_Line
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- Spi_Glcd_Rectangle
- Spi_Glcd_Box
- Spi_Glcd_Circle
- Spi_Glcd_Set_Font
- Spi_Glcd_Write_Char
- Spi_Glcd_Write_Text
- Spi_Glcd_Image
Spi_Glcd_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_Init(char DeviceAddress);
Nothing.
Description Initializes the GLCD module via SPI interface.
Parameters :
- DeviceAddress: spi expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
Requires
SPExpanderCS and SPExpanderRST variables must be defined
before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// port expander pinout definition
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
...
Spi_Init_Advanced(MASTER_OSC_DIV4 | CLK_IDLE_LOW |
IDLE_2_ACTIVE | DATA_ORDER_MSB);
Spi_Glcd_Init(0);
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Spi_Glcd_Set_Side
Prototype
Returns
void SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(char x_pos);
Nothing.
Description Selects GLCD side. Refer to the GLCD datasheet for detail explanation.
Parameters :
- x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..127
The parameter x_pos specifies the GLCD side: values from 0 to
63 specify the left side, values from 64 to 127 specify the right
side.
Requires
Example
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic
at the bottom of this page.
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
The following two lines are equivalent, and both of them select
the left side of GLCD:
SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(0);
SPI_Glcd_Set_Side(10);
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_Set_Page(char page);
Nothing.
Description Selects page of GLCD.
Parameters :
- page: page number. Valid values: 0..7
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic
at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page(5);
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Spi_Glcd_Set_X
Prototype
Returns
void SPI_Glcd_Set_X(char x_pos);
Nothing.
Description Sets x-axis position to x_pos dots from the left border of GLCD
within the selected side.
Parameters :
- x_pos: position on x-axis. Valid values: 0..63
Note: For side, x axis and page layout explanation see schematic
at the bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
Spi_Glcd_Set_X(25);
Spi_Glcd_Read_Data
Prototype
char Spi_Glcd_Read_Data();
Returns
One byte from GLCD memory.
Description Reads data from the current location of GLCD memory and
moves to the next location.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
GLCD side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See the
functions Spi_Glcd_Set_Side, Spi_Glcd_Set_X, and
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
char data;
...
data = Spi_Glcd_Read_Data();
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Spi_Glcd_Write_Data
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_Write_Data(char Ddata);
Nothing.
Description Writes one byte to the current location in GLCD memory and
moves to the next location.
Parameters :
- Ddata: data to be written
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
GLCD side, x-axis position and page should be set first. See the
functions Spi_Glcd_Set_Side, Spi_Glcd_Set_X, and
Spi_Glcd_Set_Page.
Example
char data;
...
Spi_Glcd_Write_Data(data);
Spi_Glcd_Fill
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_Fill(char pattern);
Nothing.
Description Fills GLCD memory with byte pattern.
Parameters :
- pattern: byte to fill GLCD memory with
To clear the GLCD screen, use Spi_Glcd_Fill(0).
To fill the screen completely, use Spi_Glcd_Fill(0xFF).
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
// Clear screen
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0);
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Spi_Glcd_Dot
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_Dot(char x_pos, char y_pos, char color)
Nothing.
Description Draws a dot on GLCD at coordinates (x_pos, y_pos).
Parameters :
- x_pos: x position. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y position. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the dot state: 0 clears dot, 1 puts
a dot, and 2 inverts dot state.
Note: For x and y axis layout explanation see schematic at the
bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
// Invert the dot in the upper left corner
Spi_Glcd_Dot(0, 0, 2);
Spi_Glcd_Line
Prototype
Returns
void SPI_Glcd_Line(int x_start, int y_start, int
x_end, int y_end, char color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a line on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
// Draw a line between dots (0,0) and (20,30)
Spi_Glcd_Line(0, 0, 20, 30, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_V_Line
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_V_Line(char y_start, char y_end, char
x_pos, char color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a vertical line on GLCD.
Parameters :
- y_start: y coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..63
- y_end: y coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..63
- x_pos: x coordinate of vertical line. Valid values: 0..127
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black, and 2
inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
// Draw a vertical line between dots (10,5) and
(10,25)
Spi_Glcd_V_Line(5, 25, 10, 1);
Spi_Glcd_H_Line
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_H_Line(char x_start, char x_end, char
y_pos, char color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a horizontal line on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_start: x coordinate of the line start. Valid values: 0..127
- x_end: x coordinate of the line end. Valid values: 0..127
- y_pos: y coordinate of horizontal line. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the line color: 0 white, 1 black,
and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
// Draw a horizontal line between dots (10,20) and
(50,20)
Spi_Glcd_H_Line(10, 50, 20, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_Rectangle
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_Rectangle(char x_upper_left, char
y_upper_left, char x_bottom_right, char
y_bottom_right, char color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a rectangle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
Valid values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner.
Valid values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle
corner. Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle
corner. Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the rectangle border:
0 white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
// Draw a rectangle between dots (5,5) and (40,40)
Spi_Glcd_Rectangle(5, 5, 40, 40, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_Box
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_Box(char x_upper_left, char
y_upper_left, char x_bottom_right, char
y_bottom_right, char color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a box on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_upper_left: x coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid
values: 0..127
- y_upper_left: y coordinate of the upper left box corner. Valid
values: 0..63
- x_bottom_right: x coordinate of the lower right box corner.
Valid values: 0..127
- y_bottom_right: y coordinate of the lower right box corner.
Valid values: 0..63
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Requires
Example
The parameter color determines the color of the box fill: 0 white,
1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
// Draw a box between dots (5,15) and (20,40)
Spi_Glcd_Box(5, 15, 20, 40, 1);
Spi_Glcd_Circle
Prototype
void Spi_Glcd_Circle(int x_center, int y_center, int
radius, char color);
Returns
Nothing.
Description Draws a circle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x_center: x coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..127
- y_center: y coordinate of the circle center. Valid values: 0..63
- radius: radius size
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
Requires
Example
The parameter color determines the color of the circle line: 0
white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
// Draw a circle with center in (50,50) and radius=10
Spi_Glcd_Circle(50, 50, 10, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_Set_Font
Prototype
Returns
void SPI_Glcd_Set_Font(const char *activeFont, char
aFontWidth, char aFontHeight, unsigned int aFontOffs);
Nothing.
Description Sets font that will be used with Spi_Glcd_Write_Char and
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text routines.
Parameters :
- activeFont: font to be set. Needs to be formatted as an array
of char
- aFontWidth: width of the font characters in dots.
- aFontHeight: height of the font characters in dots.
- aFontOffs: number that represents difference between the
mikroC character set and regular ASCII set (eg. if 'A' is 65 in
ASCII character, and 'A' is 45 in the mikroC character set,
aFontOffs is 20). Demo fonts supplied with the library have an
offset of 32, which means that they start with space.
The user can use fonts given in the file “__Lib_GLCD_fonts.c”
file located in the Uses folder or create his own fonts.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
// Use the custom 5x7 font "myfont" which starts with
space (32):
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font(myfont, 5, 7, 32);
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Spi_Glcd_Write_Char
Prototype
Returns
void SPI_Glcd_Write_Char(char chr1, char x_pos, char
page_num, char color);
Nothing.
Description Prints character on GLCD.
Parameters :
- chr1: character to be written
- x_pos: character starting position on x-axis. Valid values:
0..(127-FontWidth)
- page_num: the number of the page on which character will be
written. Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the character: 0
white, 1 black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Note: For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the
bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Use the Spi_Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no
font is specified, then the default 5x8 font supplied with the
library will be used.
Example
// Write character 'C' on the position 10 inside the
page 2:
Spi_Glcd_Write_Char('C', 10, 2, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_Write_Text
Prototype
Returns
void SPI_Glcd_Write_Text(char text[], char x_pos, char
page_num, char color);
Nothing.
Description Prints text on GLCD.
Parameters :
- text: text to be written
- x_pos: text starting position on x-axis.
- page_num: the number of the page on which text will be written.
Valid values: 0..7
- color: color parameter. Valid values: 0..2
The parameter color determines the color of the text: 0 white, 1
black, and 2 inverts each dot.
Note: For x axis and page layout explanation see schematic at the
bottom of this page.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Use the Spi_Glcd_Set_Font to specify the font for display; if no
font is specified, then the default 5x8 font supplied with the
library will be used.
Example
// Write text "Hello world!" on the position 10
inside the page 2:
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text("Hello world!", 10, 2, 1);
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Spi_Glcd_Image
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Glcd_Image(const code char *image);
Nothing.
Description Displays bitmap on GLCD.
Parameters :
- image: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in
both code and RAM memory (due to the mikroC for 8051
pointer to const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Use the mikroC’s integrated GLCD Bitmap Editor (menu option
Tools › GLCD Bitmap Editor) to convert image to a constant
array suitable for displaying on GLCD.
Requires
GLCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Glcd_Init routines.
Example
// Draw image my_image on GLCD
Spi_Glcd_Image(my_image);
Library Example
The example demonstrates how to communicate to KS0108 GLCD via the SPI
module, using serial to parallel convertor MCP23S17.
const code char advanced8051_bmp[];
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
// End Port Expander module connections
void Delay2S(){
Delay_ms(2000);
}
// 2 seconds delay function
void main() {
unsigned short ii;
unsigned int jj;
char *someText;
// Initialize SPI module
Spi_Init_Advanced(MASTER_OSC_DIV4 | CLK_IDLE_LOW | IDLE_2_ACTIVE
| DATA_ORDER_MSB);
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Spi_Glcd_Init(0);
via SPI
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0x00);
while(1) {
Spi_Glcd_Image(advanced8051_bmp);
Delay2S(); Delay2S();
// Initialize GLCD
// Clear GLCD
// Draw image
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0x0);
Spi_Glcd_Box(62,40,124,56,1);
Spi_Glcd_Rectangle(5,5,84,35,1);
Spi_Glcd_Line(0, 63, 127, 0,1);
// Draw box
// Draw rectangle
// Draw line
Delay2S();
for(ii = 5; ii < 60; ii+=5 ) {
// Draw horizontal
and vertical line
delay_ms(250);
Spi_Glcd_V_Line(2, 54, ii, 1);
Spi_Glcd_H_Line(2, 120, ii, 1);
}
Delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Fill(0x00);
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font(Character8x8, 8, 8, 32); // Choose font, see
__Lib_GLCDFonts.c in Uses folder
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text("mikroE", 5, 7, 2);
// Write string
for (ii = 1; ii <= 10; ii++)
Spi_Glcd_Circle(63,32, 3*ii, 1);
Delay2S();
Spi_Glcd_Box(12,20, 70,57, 2);
Delay2S();
// Draw circles
// Draw box
Spi_Glcd_Set_Font(FontSystem5x8, 5, 8, 32); // Change font
someText = "BIG:LETTERS";
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 5, 3, 2);
// Write string
Delay2S();
someText = "SMALL:NOT:SMALLER";
Spi_Glcd_Write_Text(someText, 20,5, 1);
Delay2S();
}
// Write string
}
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HW Connection
P1.0
MCP23S17
1
D1
2
D2
3
D3
4
D4
5
6
D5
D6
7
D7
8
VCC
9
10
P1.1 11
P1.7 12
P1.5 13
P1.6 14
GPB0
GPA7
GPB1
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
VDD
INTA
VSS
INTB
28
27
26
RST
25
E
P1.5
24
RW
P1.6
23
RS
P1.7
22
CS2
21
CS1
20
19
RESET
CS
SCK
A2
SI
A1
SO
A0
18
P1.0
17
16
AT89S8253
D0
VCC
VCC
P1.1
OSCILLATOR
15
XTAL1
GND
x=0
0
8
VCC
16
24
32
Contrast
Adjustment
40
48
VCC
Vo
5K
56
x=63 x=0
CS1
CS2
GND
VCC
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
Vee
LED+
LED-
1
Vee
Right side
Left side
0
127
x axis
x=63
20
page0
page1
page2
page3
page4
page5
page6
page7
1
CS1
CS2
GND
VCC
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
RST
Vee
LED+
LED-
y axis
20
mikroElektronika
Easy8051B
Development system
6.13. SPI GLCD HW connection
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SPI LCD LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for communication with LCD (with
HD44780 compliant controllers) in 4-bit mode via SPI interface.
For creating a custom set of LCD characters use LCD Custom Character Tool.
Note: The library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize
the SPI module before using the SPI LCD Library.
Note: This Library is designed to work with the mikroElektronika's Serial LCD
Adapter Board pinout. See schematic at the bottom of this page for details.
External dependencies of SPI LCD Library
The implementation of SPI LCD Library routines is based on Port Expander Library
routines.
External dependencies are the same as Port Expander Library external dependencies.
Library Routines
- Spi_Lcd_Config
- Spi_Lcd_Out
- Spi_Lcd_Out_Cp
- Spi_Lcd_Chr
- Spi_Lcd_Chr_Cp
- Spi_Lcd_Cmd
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Spi_Lcd_Config
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd_Config(char DeviceAddress);
Nothing.
Description Initializes the LCD module via SPI interface.
Parameters :
- DeviceAddress: spi expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
Requires
SPExpanderCS and SPExpanderRST variables must be defined
before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// port expander pinout definition
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
...
Spi_Init();
// initialize spi
Spi_Lcd_Config(0);
// initialize lcd over spi interface
Spi_Lcd_Out
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd_Out(char row, char column, char *text);
Nothing.
Description Prints text on the LCD starting from specified position. Both
string variables and literals can be passed as a text.
Parameters :
- row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd_Config routines.
Example
// Write text "Hello!" on LCD starting from row 1,
column 3:
Spi_Lcd_Out(1, 3, "Hello!");
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Spi_Lcd_Out_Cp
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd_Out_CP(char *text);
Nothing.
Description Prints text on the LCD at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be passed as a text.
Parameters :
Requires
- text: text to be written
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd_Config routines.
Example
// Write text "Here!" at current cursor position:
Spi_Lcd_Out_CP("Here!");
Spi_Lcd_Chr
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd_Chr(char Row, char Column, char
Out_Char);
Nothing.
Description Prints character on LCD at specified position. Both variables and
literals can be passed as character.
Parameters :
- Row: writing position row number
- Column: writing position column number
- Out_Char: character to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd_Config routines.
Example
// Write character "i" at row 2, column 3:
Spi_Lcd_Chr(2, 3, 'i');
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Spi_Lcd_Chr_Cp
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd_Chr_CP(char Out_Char);
Nothing.
Description Prints character on LCD at current cursor position. Both variables
and literals can be passed as character.
Parameters :
- Out_Char: character to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd_Config routines.
Example
// Write character "i" at row 2, column 3:
Spi_Lcd_Chr(2, 3, 'i');
Spi_Lcd_Cmd
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd_Cmd(char out_char);
Nothing.
Description Sends command to LCD.
Parameters :
- out_char: command to be sent
Note: Predefined constants can be passed to the function, see
Available LCD Commands.
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd_Config routines.
Example
// Clear LCD display:
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
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Available LCD Commands
LCD Command
Purpose
LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to the 1st row
LCD_SECOND_ROW
Move cursor to the 2nd row
LCD_THIRD_ROW
Move cursor to the 3rd row
LCD_FOURTH_ROW
Move cursor to the 4th row
LCD_CLEAR
Clear display
LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display to its original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
Underline cursor on
LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
Blink cursor on
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGH
T
LCD_TURN_ON
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
LCD_TURN_OFF
Turn LCD display off
LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
Turn LCD display on
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Library Example
This example demonstrates how to communicate LCD via the SPI module, using
serial to parallel convertor MCP23S17.
char *text = "mikroElektronika";
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
// End Port Expander module connections
void main() {
Spi_Init();
Spi_Lcd_Config(0);
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
Spi_Lcd_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
Spi_Lcd_Out(1,6, "mikroE");
Spi_Lcd_Chr_CP('!');
Spi_Lcd_Out(2,1, text);
Spi_Lcd_Out(3,1,"mikroE");
Spi_Lcd_Out(4,15,"mikroE");
// Initialize SPI
// Initialize LCD over SPI interface
// Clear display
// Turn cursor off
// Print text to LCD, 1st row, 6th
column
// Append '!'
// Print text to LCD, 2nd row, 1st
column
// For LCD with more than two rows
// For LCD with more than two rows
}
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HW Connection
MCP23S17
1
2
3
E
4
D4
5
D5
6
D6
7
D7
8
VCC
9
10
P1.1 11
P1.7 12
P1.5 13
P1.6 14
GPA7
GPB1
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
28
INTA
VSS
INTB
26
25
P1.5
24
P1.6
23
P1.7
21
20
19
CS
RESET
SCK
A2
SI
A1
SO
A0
VCC
27
22
VDD
VCC
P1.1
18
P1.0
17
16
AT89S8253
RS
P1.0
GPB0
15
OSCILLATOR
XTAL1
GND
VCC
Contrast
Adjustment
5K
14
GND
VCC
VEE
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
1
6.14.SPI LCD HW connection
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mikroC for 8051
SPI LCD8 (8-BIT INTERFACE) LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for communication with LCD (with
HD44780 compliant controllers) in 8-bit mode via SPI interface.
For creating a custom set of LCD characters use LCD Custom Character Tool.
Note: Library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize the
SPI module before using the SPI LCD Library.
Note: This Library is designed to work with mikroElektronika's Serial LCD/GLCD
Adapter Board pinout, see schematic at the bottom of this page for details.
External dependencies of SPI LCD Library
The implementation of SPI LCD Library routines is based on Port Expander Library
routines.
External dependencies are the same as Port Expander Library external dependencies.
Library Routines
- Spi_Lcd8_Config
- Spi_Lcd8_Out
- Spi_Lcd8_Out_Cp
- Spi_Lcd8_Chr
- Spi_Lcd8_Chr_Cp
- Spi_Lcd8_Cmd
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Spi_Lcd8_Config
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd8_Config(char DeviceAddress);
Nothing.
Description Initializes the LCD module via SPI interface.
Parameters :
- DeviceAddress: spi expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
Requires
SPExpanderCS and SPExpanderRST variables must be defined
before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// port expander pinout definition
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
...
Spi_Init();
// initialize spi interface
Spi_Lcd8_Config(0);
// intialize lcd in 8bit mode via spi
Spi_Lcd8_Out
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd8_Out(unsigned short row, unsigned short
column, char *text);
Nothing.
Description Prints text on LCD starting from specified position. Both string
variables and literals can be passed as a text.
Parameters :
- row: starting position row number
- column: starting position column number
- text: text to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd8_Config routines.
Example
// Write text "Hello!" on LCD starting from row 1,
column 3:
Spi_Lcd8_Out(1, 3, "Hello!");
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Spi_Lcd8_Out_Cp
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd8_Out_CP(char *text);
Nothing.
Description Prints text on LCD at current cursor position. Both string variables and literals can be passed as a text.
Parameters :
Requires
- text: text to be written
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd8_Config routines.
Example
// Write text "Here!" at current cursor position:
Spi_Lcd8_Out_Cp("Here!");
Spi_Lcd8_Chr
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd8_Chr(unsigned short row, unsigned short
column, char out_char);
Nothing.
Description Prints character on LCD at specified position. Both variables and
literals can be passed as character.
Parameters :
- row: writing position row number
- column: writing position column number
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd8_Config routines.
Example
// Write character "i" at row 2, column 3:
Spi_Lcd8_Chr(2, 3, 'i');
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Spi_Lcd8_Chr_Cp
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd8_Chr_CP(char out_char);
Nothing.
Description Prints character on LCD at current cursor position. Both variables
and literals can be passed as character.
Parameters :
- out_char: character to be written
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd8_Config routines.
Example
Print “e” at current cursor position:
// Write character "e" at current cursor position:
Spi_Lcd8_Chr_Cp('e');
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(char out_char);
Nothing.
Description Sends command to LCD.
Parameters :
- out_char: command to be sent
Note: Predefined constants can be passed to the function, see
Available LCD Commands.
Requires
LCD needs to be initialized for SPI communication, see
Spi_Lcd8_Config routines.
Example
// Clear LCD display:
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
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Available LCD Commands
LCD Command
Purpose
LCD_FIRST_ROW
Move cursor to the 1st row
LCD_SECOND_ROW
Move cursor to the 2nd row
LCD_THIRD_ROW
Move cursor to the 3rd row
LCD_FOURTH_ROW
Move cursor to the 4th row
LCD_CLEAR
Clear display
LCD_RETURN_HOME
Return cursor to home position, returns a shifted display to its original position. Display data RAM is unaffected.
LCD_CURSOR_OFF
Turn off cursor
LCD_UNDERLINE_ON
Underline cursor on
LCD_BLINK_CURSOR_ON
Blink cursor on
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_LEFT
Move cursor left without changing display data RAM
LCD_MOVE_CURSOR_RIGHT
Move cursor right without changing display data RAM
LCD_TURN_ON
Turn LCD display on
LCD_TURN_OFF
Turn LCD display off
LCD_SHIFT_LEFT
Shift display left without changing display data RAM
LCD_SHIFT_RIGHT
Shift display right without changing display data RAM
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Library Example
This example demonstrates how to communicate LCD in 8-bit mode via the SPI
module, using serial to parallel convertor MCP23S17.
char *text = "mikroE";
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
// End Port Expander module connections
void main() {
Spi_Init();
// Initialize SPI interface
Spi_Lcd8_Config(0);
// Intialize LCD in 8bit mode via SPI
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(LCD_CLEAR);
// Clear display
Spi_Lcd8_Cmd(LCD_CURSOR_OFF);
// Turn cursor off
Spi_Lcd8_Out(1,6, text);
// Print text to LCD, 1st row, 6th column...
Spi_Lcd8_Chr_CP('!');
// Append '!'
Spi_Lcd8_Out(2,1, "mikroelektronika");
// Print text to LCD, 2nd row, 1st column...
Spi_Lcd8_Out(3,1, text);
// For LCD modules with more than two rows
Spi_Lcd8_Out(4,15, text);
// For LCD modules with more than two rows
}
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Libraries
mikroC for 8051
HW Connection
MCP23S17
1
D1
2
D2
3
D3
4
D4
5
D5
6
D6
7
D7
8
VCC
9
10
P1.1 11
P1.7 12
P1.5 13
P1.6 14
GPB0
GPA7
GPB1
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
28
P1.0
27
P1.1
VDD
INTA
VSS
INTB
25
RS
24
23
P1.5
E
P1.6
P1.7
21
20
19
CS
RESET
SCK
A2
SI
A1
SO
A0
VCC
26
22
GPA0
VCC
18 P1.0
17
16
15
AT89S8253
D0
OSCILLATOR
XTAL1
GND
VCC
Contrast
Adjustment
5K
14
GND
VCC
VEE
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
1
6.15. SPI LCD8 HW connection
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mikroC for 8051
SPI T6963C GRAPHIC LCD LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for working with GLCDs based on TOSHIBA T6963C controller via SPI interface. The Toshiba T6963C is a very popular
LCD controller for the use in small graphics modules. It is capable of controlling
displays with a resolution up to 240x128. Because of its low power and small outline it is most suitable for mobile applications such as PDAs, MP3 players or mobile
measurement equipment. Although this controller is small, it has a capability of displaying and merging text and graphics and it manages all interfacing signals to the
displays Row and Column drivers.
For creating a custom set of GLCD images use GLCD Bitmap Editor Tool.
Note: The library uses the SPI module for communication. The user must initialize
SPI module before using the Spi T6963C GLCD Library.
Note: This Library is designed to work with mikroElektronika's Serial GLCD
240x128 and 240x64 Adapter Boards pinout, see schematic at the bottom of this
page for details.
Note: Some mikroElektronika's adapter boards have pinout different from T6369C
datasheets. Appropriate relations between these labels are given in the table below:
Adapter Board
T6369C datasheet
RS
C/D
R/W
/RD
E
/WR
External dependencies of Spi T6963C Graphic LCD Library
The implementation of Spi T6963C Graphic LCD Library routines is based on Port
Expander Library routines.
External dependencies are the same as Port Expander Library external
dependencies.
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Library Routines
- Spi_T6963C_Config
- Spi_T6963C_WriteData
- Spi_T6963C_WriteCommand
- Spi_T6963C_SetPtr
- Spi_T6963C_WaitReady
- Spi_T6963C_Fill
- Spi_T6963C_Dot
- Spi_T6963C_Write_Char
- Spi_T6963C_Write_Text
- Spi_T6963C_Line
- Spi_T6963C_Rectangle
- Spi_T6963C_Box
- Spi_T6963C_Circle
- Spi_T6963C_Image
- Spi_T6963C_Sprite
- Spi_T6963C_Set_Cursor
Note: The following low level library routines are implemented as macros. These
macros can be found in the Spi_T6963C.h header file which is located in the SPI
T6963C example projects folders.
- Spi_T6963C_ClearBit
- Spi_T6963C_SetBit
- Spi_T6963C_NegBit
- Spi_T6963C_DisplayGrPanel
- Spi_T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel
- Spi_T6963C_SetGrPanel
- Spi_T6963C_SetTxtPanel
- Spi_T6963C_PanelFill
- Spi_T6963C_GrFill
- Spi_T6963C_TxtFill
- Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Height
- Spi_T6963C_Graphics
- Spi_T6963C_Text
- Spi_T6963C_Cursor
- Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Blink
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Spi_T6963C_Config
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Config(unsigned int width, unsigned
char height, unsigned char fntW, char DeviceAddress,
unsigned char wr, unsigned char rd, unsigned char cd,
unsigned char rst);
Nothing.
Description Initalizes the Graphic Lcd controller.
Parameters :
- width: width of the GLCD panel
- height: height of the GLCD panel
- fntW: font width
- DeviceAddress: SPI expander hardware address, see schematic
at the bottom of this page
- wr: write signal pin on GLCD control port
- rd: read signal pin on GLCD control port
- cd: command/data signal pin on GLCD control port
- rst: reset signal pin on GLCD control port
Display RAM organization:
The library cuts RAM into panels : a complete panel is one graphics panel followed by a text panel (see schematic below).
schematic:
GRAPHICS PANEL #0
PANEL 0
TEXT PANEL #0
GRAPHICS PANEL #1
PANEL 1
TEXT PANEL #2
Requires
SPExpanderCS and SPExpanderRST variables must be defined
before using this function.
The SPI module needs to be initialized. See the Spi_Init and
Spi_Init_Advanced routines.
Example
// port expander pinout definition
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
...
Spi_Init_Advanced(MASTER_OSC_DIV4 | CLK_IDLE_LOW |
IDLE_2_ACTIVE | DATA_ORDER_MSB);
Spi_T6963C_Config(240, 64, 8, 0, 0, 1, 3, 4) ;
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Spi_T6963C_WriteData
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_WriteData(unsigned char Ddata);
Nothing.
Description Writes data to T6963C controller via SPI interface.
Parameters :
- Ddata: data to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_WriteData(AddrL);
Spi_T6963C_WriteCommand
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_WriteCommand(unsigned char Ddata);
Nothing.
Description Writes command to T6963C controller via SPI interface.
Parameters :
- Ddata: command to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_WriteCommand(Spi_T6963C_CURSOR_POINTER_SET)
;
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Spi_T6963C_SetPtr
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_SetPtr(unsigned int p, unsigned char
c);
Nothing.
Description Sets the memory pointer p for command c.
Parameters :
- p: address where command should be written
- c: command to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_WriteCommand(Spi_T6963C_CURSOR_POINTER_SET)
;
Spi_T6963C_WaitReady
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_WaitReady(void);
Nothing.
Description Pools the status byte, and loops until Toshiba GLCD module is
ready.
Requires Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_WaitReady();
Spi_T6963C_Fill
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Fill(unsigned char v, unsigned int
start, unsigned int len);
Nothing.
Description Fills controller memory block with given byte.
Parameters :
- v: byte to be written
- start: starting address of the memory block
- len: length of the memory block in bytes
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Fill(0x33,0x00FF,0x000F);
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Spi_T6963C_Dot
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Dot(int x, int y, unsigned char
color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a dot in the current graphic panel of GLCD at coordinates
(x, y).
Parameters :
- x: dot position on x-axis
- y: dot position on y-axis
- color: color parameter. Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK and
Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Dot(x0, y0, pcolor);
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Spi_T6963C_Write_Char
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Write_Char(unsigned char c, unsigned
char x, unsigned char y, unsigned char mode);
Nothing.
Description Writes a char in the current text panel of GLCD at coordinates (x,
y).
Parameters :
- c: char to be written
- x: char position on x-axis
- y: char position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values:
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR,
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and \
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed
and the data is logically “OR-ed”. This is the most common way
of combining text and graphics for example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are com
bined via the logical “exclusive OR”. This can be useful to dis
play text in negative mode, i.e. white text on black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are
combined via the logical “AND function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just
a text. The Text Attribute values are stored in the graphic area of
display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Write_Char("A",22,23,AND);
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Spi_T6963C_Write_Text
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Write_Text(unsigned char *str,
unsigned char x, unsigned char y, unsigned char
mode);
Nothing.
Description Writes text in the current text panel of GLCD at coordinates (x,
y).
Parameters :
- str: text to be written
- x: text position on x-axis
- y: text position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values:
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR,
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and
Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed
and the data is logically “OR-ed”. This is the most common way
of combining text and graphics for example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are com
bined via the logical “exclusive OR”. This can be useful to dis
play text in negative mode, i.e. white text on black background.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on the display are
combined via the logical “AND function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just
a text. The Text Attribute values are stored in the graphic area of
display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Write_Text("GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !",
0, 0, T6963C_ROM_MODE_EXOR);
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Spi_T6963C_Line
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1,
unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1).
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the line start
- y0: y coordinate of the line end
- x1: x coordinate of the line start
- y1: y coordinate of the line end
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK
and Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Line(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
Spi_T6963C_Rectangle
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Rectangle(int x0, int y0, int x1, int
y1, unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a rectangle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK
and Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, T6963C_WHITE);
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Spi_T6963C_Box
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Box(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1,
unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a box on the GLCD
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left box corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left box corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right box corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right box corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK
and Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
Spi_T6963C_Circle
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Circle(int x, int y, long r, unsigned
char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a circle on the GLCD.
Parameters :
- x: x coordinate of the circle center
- y: y coordinate of the circle center
- r: radius size
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: Spi_T6963C_BLACK
and Spi_T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
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Spi_T6963C_Image
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Image(const code char *pic);
Nothing.
Description Displays bitmap on GLCD.
Parameters :
- pic: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both
code and RAM memory (due to the mikroC for 8051 pointer to
const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Use the mikroC’s integrated GLCD Bitmap Editor (menu option
Tools › GLCD Bitmap Editor) to convert image to a constant
array suitable for displaying on GLCD.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Image(my_image);
Spi_T6963C_Sprite
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Sprite(unsigned char px, unsigned char
py, const char *pic, unsigned char sx, unsigned
char sy);
Nothing.
Description Fills graphic rectangle area (px, py) to (px+sx, py+sy) with custom size picture.
Parameters :
- px: x coordinate of the upper left picture corner. Valid values:
multiples of the font width
- py: y coordinate of the upper left picture corner
- pic: picture to be displayed
- sx: picture width. Valid values: multiples of the font width
- sy: picture height
Note: If px and sx parameters are not multiples of the font width
they will be scaled to the nearest lower number that is a multiple
of the font width.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119);
// draw a sprite
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Spi_T6963C_Set_Cursor
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Set_Cursor(unsigned char x, unsigned
char y);
Nothing.
Description Sets cursor to row x and column y.
Parameters :
- x: cursor position row number
- y: cursor position column number
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Set_Cursor(cposx, cposy);
Spi_T6963C_ClearBit
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_ClearBit(char b);
Nothing.
Description Clears control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will clear bit x on control port if bit x
in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// clear bits 0 and 1 on control port
Spi_T6963C_ClearBit(0x03);
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Spi_T6963C_SetBit
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_SetBit(char b);
Nothing.
Description Sets control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will set bit x on control port if bit x in
bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// set bits 0 and 1 on control port
Spi_T6963C_SetBit(0x03);
Spi_T6963C_NegBit
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_NegBit(char b);
Nothing.
Description Negates control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will negate bit x on control port if bit x
in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// negate bits 0 and 1 on control port
Spi_T6963C_NegBit(0x03);
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Spi_T6963C_DisplayGrPanel
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_DisplayGrPanel(char n);
Nothing.
Description Display selected graphic panel.
Parameters :
- n:
graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// display graphic panel 1
Spi_T6963C_DisplayGrPanel(1);
Spi_T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel(char n);
Nothing.
Description Display selected text panel.
Parameters :
- n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// display text panel 1
Spi_T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel(1);
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Spi_T6963C_SetGrPanel
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_SetGrPanel(char n);
Nothing.
Description Compute start address for selected graphic panel and set appropriate internal pointers. All subsequent graphic operations will be
preformed at this graphic panel.
Parameters :
- n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// set graphic panel 1 as current graphic panel.
Spi_T6963C_SetGrPanel(1);
Spi_T6963C_SetTxtPanel
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_SetTxtPanel(char n);
Nothing.
Description Compute start address for selected text panel and set appropriate
internal pointers. All subsequent text operations will be preformed
at this text panel.
Parameters :
- n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// set text panel 1 as current text panel.
Spi_T6963C_SetTxtPanel(1);
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Spi_T6963C_PanelFill
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_PanelFill(unsigned char v);
Nothing.
Description Fill current panel in full (graphic+text) with appropriate value (0
to clear).
Parameters :
- v: value to fill panel with.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
clear current panel
Spi_T6963C_PanelFill(0);
Spi_T6963C_GrFill
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_GrFill(unsigned char v);
Nothing.
Description Fill current graphic panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
- v: value to fill graphic panel with.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// clear current graphic panel
Spi_T6963C_GrFill(0);
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Spi_T6963C_TxtFill
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_TxtFill(unsigned char v);
Nothing.
Description Fill current text panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
- v: this value increased by 32 will be used to fill text panel.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// clear current text panel
Spi_T6963C_TxtFill(0);
Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Height
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Height(unsigned char n);
Nothing.
Description Set cursor size.
Parameters :
- n: cursor height. Valid values: 0..7.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Height(7);
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Spi_T6963C_Graphics
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Graphics(char n);
Nothing.
Description Enable/disable graphic displaying.
Parameters :
- n: graphic enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable
graphic dispaying) and 1 (enable graphic displaying).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// enable graphic displaying
Spi_T6963C_Graphics(1);
Spi_T6963C_Text
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Text(char n);
Nothing.
Description Enable/disable text displaying.
Parameters :
- n: text enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable text
dispaying) and 1 (enable text displaying).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// enable text displaying
Spi_T6963C_Text(1);
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Spi_T6963C_Cursor
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Cursor(char n);
Nothing.
Description Set cursor on/off.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (set cursor off) and 1 (set
cursor on).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// enable text displaying
Spi_T6963C_Text(1);
Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Blink
Prototype
Returns
void Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Blink(char n);
Nothing.
Description Enable/disable cursor blinking.
Parameters :
- n: cursor blinking enable/disable parameter. Valid values: 0
(disable cursor blinking) and 1 (enable cursor blinking).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See
Spi_T6963C_Config routine.
Example
// enable cursor blinking
Spi_T6963C_Cursor_Blink(1);
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests advanced routines of the Spi T6963C GLCD
library. Hardware configurations in this example are made for the T6963C
240x128 display, Easy8051B board and AT89S8253.
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#include
"Spi_T6963C.h"
/*
* bitmap pictures stored in ROM
*/
extern const code char mc[] ;
extern const code char einstein[] ;
// Port Expander module connections
sbit SPExpanderRST at P1.B0;
sbit SPExpanderCS at P1.B1;
// End Port Expander module connections
void main() {
char idata txt1[] = " EINSTEIN WOULD HAVE LIKED mC";
char idata txt[] = " GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !";
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
char
int
char
int
P0 = 255;
panel ;
i ;
curs ;
cposx, cposy ;
// current panel
// general purpose register
// cursor visibility
// cursor x-y position
// Configure PORT0 as input
/*
* init display for 240 pixel width and 128 pixel height
* 8 bits character width
* data bus on MCP23S17 portB
* control bus on MCP23S17 portA
* bit 2 is !WR
* bit 1 is !RD
* bit 0 is !CD
* bit 4 is RST
*
* chip enable, reverse on, 8x8 font internaly set in library
*/
// Initialize SPI module
Spi_Init_Advanced(MASTER_OSC_DIV4 | CLK_IDLE_LOW | IDLE_2_ACTIVE
| DATA_ORDER_MSB);
// Initialize SPI Toshiba 240x128
Spi_T6963C_Config(240, 128, 8, 0, 2, 1, 0, 4) ;
Delay_ms(1000);
/*
* Enable both graphics and text display at the same time
*/
Spi_T6963C_graphics(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_text(1) ;
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panel = 0 ;
i = 0 ;
curs = 0 ;
cposx = cposy = 0 ;
/*
* Text messages
*/
Spi_T6963C_write_text(txt, 0, 0, Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR) ;
Spi_T6963C_write_text(txt1, 0, 15, Spi_T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR) ;
/*
* Cursor
*/
Spi_T6963C_cursor_height(8) ;
Spi_T6963C_set_cursor(0, 0) ;
Spi_T6963C_cursor(0) ;
// 8 pixel height
// move cursor to top left
// cursor off
/*
* Draw rectangles
*/
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(0, 0, 239, 127, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(40, 40, 199, 87, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_rectangle(60, 60, 179, 67, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* Draw a cross
*/
Spi_T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_line(0, 127, 239, 0, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* Draw solid boxes
*/
Spi_T6963C_box(0, 0, 239, 8, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
Spi_T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* Draw circles
*/
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
Spi_T6963C_circle(120,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
10, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
30, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
50, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
70, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
90, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
110, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
130, Spi_T6963C_WHITE) ;
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Spi_T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119) ;
Spi_T6963C_setGrPanel(1) ;
// Draw a sprite
// Select other graphic panel
Spi_T6963C_image(mc) ; // Fill the graphic screen with a picture
for(;;) {
// Endless loop
/*
* If P0_0 is pressed, toggle the display between graphic
panel 0 and graphic 1
*/
if(!P0_0) {
panel++ ;
panel &= 1 ;
Spi_T6963C_displayGrPanel(panel) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* If P0_1 is pressed, display only graphic panel
*/
else if(!P0_1) {
Spi_T6963C_graphics(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_text(0) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* If P0_2 is pressed, display only text panel
*/
else if(!P0_2) {
Spi_T6963C_graphics(0) ;
Spi_T6963C_text(1) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* If P0_3 is pressed, display text and graphic panels
*/
else if(!P0_3) {
Spi_T6963C_graphics(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_text(1) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
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/*
* If P0_4 is pressed, change cursor
*/
else if(!P0_4) {
curs++ ;
if(curs == 3) curs = 0 ;
switch(curs) {
case 0:
// no cursor
Spi_T6963C_cursor(0) ;
break ;
case 1:
// blinking cursor
Spi_T6963C_cursor(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink(1) ;
break ;
case 2:
// non blinking cursor
Spi_T6963C_cursor(1) ;
Spi_T6963C_cursor_blink(0) ;
break ;
}
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* Move cursor, even if not visible
*/
cposx++ ;
if(cposx == Spi_T6963C_txtCols) {
cposx = 0 ;
cposy++ ;
if(cposy == Spi_T6963C_grHeight /
Spi_T6963C_CHARACTER_HEIGHT) {
cposy = 0 ;
}
}
Spi_T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy) ;
Delay_ms(100) ;
}
}
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HW Connection
MCP23S17
D0
1
D1
2
D2
3
D3
4
D4
5
D6
VCC
D7
6
7
8
9
10
P1.B1 11
P1.B7 12
P1.B5 13
P1.B6
14
GPA7
GPA6
GPB2
GPA5
GPB3
GPA4
GPB4
GPA3
GPB5
GPA2
GPB6
GPA1
GPB7
GPA0
28
P1.0
27
FS
26
MD
25
RST
24
CE
23
E
P1.5
22
RW
P1.6
21
RS
P1.7
20
INTA
VDD
19
VSS
CS
INTB
RESET
A2
SCK
18
P1.B0
17
16
SI
A1
SO
A0
VCC
VCC
P1.1
15
AT89S8253
D5
GPB0
GPB1
OSCILLATOR
XTAL1
GND
Toshiba T6963C Graphic LCD (240x128)
mikroE
Easy8051B
Dev. SYSTEM
VSS
VDD
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
CE
RST
VEE
MD
FS
NC/A
A
K
VCC
22
1
50R
VCC
10K
Contrast
Adjustment
6.16. Spi T6963C GLCD HW connection
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T6963C GRAPHIC LCD LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a library for working with GLCDs based on TOSHIBA T6963C controller. The Toshiba T6963C is a very popular LCD controller for
the use in small graphics modules. It is capable of controlling displays with a resolution up to 240x128. Because of its low power and small outline it is most suitable
for mobile applications such as PDAs, MP3 players or mobile measurement equipment. Although small, this contoller has a capability of displaying and merging text
and graphics and it manages all the interfacing signals to the displays Row and
Column drivers.
For creating a custom set of GLCD images use GLCD Bitmap Editor Tool.
Note: ChipEnable(CE), FontSelect(FS) and Reverse(MD) have to be set to appropriate levels by the user outside of the T6963C_Init function. See the Library
Example code at the bottom of this page.
Note: Some mikroElektronika's adapter boards have pinout different from T6369C
datasheets. Appropriate relations between these labels are given in the table below:
Adapter Board
T6369C datasheet
RS
C/D
R/W
/RD
E
/WR
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External dependencies of T6963C Graphic LCD Library
The following variables
must be defined in all
projects using T6963C
Graphic LCD library:
Description :
Example :
extern unsigned char
sfr T6963C_dataPort;
T6963C Data Port.
unsigned char sfr
T6963C_dataPort at P0;
extern unsigned char
sfr T6963C_ctrlPort;
T6963C Control Port.
unsigned char sfr
T6963C_ctrlPort at P1;
extern sbit
T6963C_ctrlwr;
Write signal.
sbit
T6963C_ctrlwr at P1.B2;
extern sbit
T6963C_ctrlrd;
Read signal.
sbit
T6963C_ctrlrd at P1.B1;
extern sbit
T6963C_ctrlcd;
Command/Data signal. T6963C_ctrlcd at P1.B0;
extern sbit
T6963C_ctrlrst;
Reset signal.
sbit
sbit
T6963C_ctrlrst at
P1.B4;
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Library Routines
- T6963C_Init
- T6963C_WriteData
- T6963C_WriteCommand
- T6963C_SetPtr
- T6963C_WaitReady
- T6963C_Fill
- T6963C_Dot
- T6963C_Write_Char
- T6963C_Write_Text
- T6963C_Line
- T6963C_Rectangle
- T6963C_Box
- T6963C_Circle
- T6963C_Image
- T6963C_Sprite
- T6963C_Set_Cursor
Note: The following low level library routines are implemented as macros. These
macros can be found in the T6963C.h header file which is located in the T6963C
example projects folders.
- T6963C_ClearBit
- T6963C_SetBit
- T6963C_NegBit
- T6963C_DisplayGrPanel
- T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel
- T6963C_SetGrPanel
- T6963C_SetTxtPanel
- T6963C_PanelFill
- T6963C_GrFill
- T6963C_TxtFill
- T6963C_Cursor_Height
- T6963C_Graphics
- T6963C_Text
- T6963C_Cursor
- T6963C_Cursor_Blink
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T6963C_Init
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Init(unsigned int width, unsigned char
height, unsigned char fntW);
Nothing.
Description Initalizes the Graphic Lcd controller.
Parameters :
- width: width of the GLCD panel
- height: height of the GLCD panel
- fntW: font width
Display RAM organization:
The library cuts the RAM into panels : a complete panel is one
graphics panel followed by a text panel (see schematic below).
schematic:
GRAPHICS PANEL #0
PANEL 0
TEXT PANEL #0
GRAPHICS PANEL #1
PANEL 1
TEXT PANEL #2
Requires
Global variables :
- T6963C_dataPort : Data Port
- T6963C_ctrlPort : Control Port
- T6963C_ctrlwr : write signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlrd : read signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlcd : command/data signal pin
- T6963C_ctrlrst : reset signal pin
must be defined before using this function.
Example
// T6963CGLCD pinout definition
unsigned char sfr
T6963C_dataPort at P0;
// pointer to DATA BUS port
unsigned char sfr
T6963C_ctrlPort at P1;
// pointer to CONTROL port
sbit
T6963C_ctrlwr at P1.B2;
// WR write signal
sbit
T6963C_ctrlrd at P1.B1;
// RD read signal
sbit
T6963C_ctrlcd at P1.B0;
// CD command/data signal
sbit
T6963C_ctrlrst at P1.B4;
// RST reset signal
...
// init display for 240 pixel width, 128 pixel height
and 8 bits character width
T6963C_init(240, 128, 8) ;
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T6963C_WriteData
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_WriteData(unsigned char mydata);
Nothing.
Description Writes data to T6963C controller.
Parameters :
- mydata: data to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_WriteData(AddrL);
T6963C_WriteCommand
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_WriteCommand(unsigned char mydata);
Nothing.
Description Writes command to T6963C controller.
Parameters :
- mydata: command to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_WriteCommand(T6963C_CURSOR_POINTER_SET);
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T6963C_SetPtr
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_SetPtr(unsigned int p, unsigned char c);
Nothing.
Description Sets the memory pointer p for command c.
Parameters :
- p: address where command should be written
- c: command to be written
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_SetPtr(T6963C_grHomeAddr + start,
T6963C_ADDRESS_POINTER_SET);
T6963C_WaitReady
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_WaitReady(void);
Nothing.
Description Pools the status byte, and loops until Toshiba GLCD module is
ready.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_WaitReady();
T6963C_Fill
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Fill(unsigned char v, unsigned int start,
unsigned int len);
Nothing.
Description Fills controller memory block with given byte.
Parameters :
- v: byte to be written
- start: starting address of the memory block
- len: length of the memory block in bytes
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Fill(0x33,0x00FF,0x000F);
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T6963C_Dot
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Dot(int x, int y, unsigned char color);
Nothing.
Description Draws a dot in the current graphic panel of GLCD at coordinates
(x, y).
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- x: dot position on x-axis
- y: dot position on y-axis
- color: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and
T6963C_WHITE
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
T6963C_Dot(x0, y0, pcolor);
T6963C_Write_Char
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Write_Char(unsigned char c, unsigned char
x, unsigned char y, unsigned char mode);
Nothing.
Description Writes a char in the current text panel of GLCD at coordinates (x,
y).
Parameters :
- c: char to be written
- x: char position on x-axis
- y: char position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values:
T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed
and the data is logically “OR-ed”. This is the most common way
of combining text and graphics for example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are com
bined via the logical “exclusive OR”. This can be useful to dis
play text in the negative mode, i.e. white text on black back
ground.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are
combined via the logical “AND function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just
a text. The Text Attribute values are stored in the graphic area of
display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Requires Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example T6963C_Write_Char('A',22,23,AND);
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T6963C_Write_Text
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Write_Text(unsigned char *str, unsigned
char x, unsigned char y, unsigned char mode);
Nothing.
Description Writes text in the current text panel of GLCD at coordinates (x,
y).
Parameters :
- str: text to be written
- x: text position on x-axis
- y: text position on y-axis
- mode: mode parameter. Valid values:
T6963C_ROM_MODE_OR, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR,
T6963C_ROM_MODE_AND and T6963C_ROM_MODE_TEXT
Mode parameter explanation:
- OR Mode: In the OR-Mode, text and graphics can be displayed
and the data is logically “OR-ed”. This is the most common way
of combining text and graphics for example labels on buttons.
- XOR-Mode: In this mode, the text and graphics data are com
bined via the logical “exclusive OR”. This can be useful to dis
play text in the negative mode, i.e. white text on black back
ground.
- AND-Mode: The text and graphic data shown on display are
combined via the logical “AND function”.
- TEXT-Mode: This option is only available when displaying just
a text. The Text Attribute values are stored in the graphic area of
display memory.
For more details see the T6963C datasheet.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Write_Text(" GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !", 0,
0, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR);
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T6963C_Line
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Line(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1,
unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a line from (x0, y0) to (x1, y1).
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the line start
- y0: y coordinate of the line end
- x1: x coordinate of the line start
- y1: y coordinate of the line end
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and
T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Line(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_Rectangle
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Rectangle(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1,
unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a rectangle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left rectangle corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right rectangle corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and
T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, T6963C_WHITE);
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T6963C_Box
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Box(int x0, int y0, int x1, int y1,
unsigned char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a box on GLCD
Parameters :
- x0: x coordinate of the upper left box corner
- y0: y coordinate of the upper left box corner
- x1: x coordinate of the lower right box corner
- y1: y coordinate of the lower right box corner
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and
T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE);
T6963C_Circle
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Circle(int x, int y, long r, unsigned
char pcolor);
Nothing.
Description Draws a circle on GLCD.
Parameters :
- x: x coordinate of the circle center
- y: y coordinate of the circle center
- r: radius size
- pcolor: color parameter. Valid values: T6963C_BLACK and
T6963C_WHITE
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Circle(120, 64, 110, T6963C_WHITE);
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mikroC for 8051
T6963C_Image
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Image(const code char *pic);
Nothing.
Description Displays bitmap on GLCD.
Parameters :
- pic: image to be displayed. Bitmap array can be located in both
code and RAM memory (due to the mikroC for 8051 pointer to
const and pointer to RAM equivalency).
Use the mikroC’s integrated GLCD Bitmap Editor (menu option
Tools › GLCD Bitmap Editor) to convert image to a constant
array suitable for displaying on GLCD.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Image(mc);
T6963C_Sprite
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Sprite(unsigned char px, unsigned char py,
const code char *pic, unsigned char sx, unsigned
char sy);
Nothing.
Description Fills graphic rectangle area (px, py) to (px+sx, py+sy) with custom size picture.
Parameters :
- px: x coordinate of the upper left picture corner. Valid values:
multiples of the font width
- py: y coordinate of the upper left picture corner
- pic: picture to be displayed
- sx: picture width. Valid values: multiples of the font width
- sy: picture height
Note: If px and sx parameters are not multiples of the font width
they will be scaled to the nearest lower number that is a multiple
of the font width.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119); // draw a
sprite
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T6963C_Set_Cursor
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Set_Cursor(unsigned char x, unsigned char
y);
Nothing.
Description Sets cursor to row x and column y.
Parameters :
- x: cursor position row number
- y: cursor position column number
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Set_Cursor(cposx, cposy);
T6963C_ClearBit
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_ClearBit(char b);
Nothing.
Description Clears control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will clear bit x on control port if bit x
in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// clear bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_ClearBit(0x03);
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T6963C_SetBit
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_SetBit(char b);
Nothing.
Description Sets control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will set bit x on control port if bit x in
bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// set bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_SetBit(0x03);
T6963C_NegBit
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_NegBit(char b);
Nothing.
Description Negates control port bit(s).
Parameters :
- b: bit mask. The function will negate bit x on control port
if bit x in bit mask is set to 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// negate bits 0 and 1 on control port
T6963C_NegBit(0x03);
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mikroC for 8051
T6963C_DisplayGrPanel
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_DisplayGrPanel(char n);
Nothing.
Description Display selected graphic panel.
Parameters :
- n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// display graphic panel 1
T6963C_DisplayGrPanel(1);
T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel(char n);
Nothing.
Description Display selected text panel.
Parameters :
- n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// display text panel 1
T6963C_DisplayTxtPanel(1);
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mikroC for 8051
T6963C_SetGrPanel
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_SetGrPanel(char n);
Nothing.
Description Compute start address for selected graphic panel and set appropriate internal pointers. All subsequent graphic operations will be
preformed at this graphic panel.
Parameters :
- n: graphic panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// set graphic panel 1 as current graphic panel.
T6963C_SetGrPanel(1);
T6963C_SetTxtPanel
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_SetTxtPanel(char n);
Nothing.
Description Compute start address for selected text panel and set appropriate
internal pointers. All subsequent text operations will be preformed
at this text panel.
Parameters :
- n: text panel number. Valid values: 0 and 1.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// set text panel 1 as current text panel.
T6963C_SetTxtPanel(1);
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T6963C_PanelFill
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_PanelFill(unsigned char v);
Nothing.
Description Fill current panel in full (graphic+text) with appropriate value (0
to clear).
Parameters :
- v: value to fill panel with.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
clear current panel
T6963C_PanelFill(0);
T6963C_GrFill
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_GrFill(unsigned char v);
Nothing.
Description Fill current graphic panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
- v:
value to fill graphic panel with.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// clear current graphic panel
T6963C_GrFill(0);
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mikroC for 8051
T6963C_TxtFill
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_TxtFill(unsigned char v);
Nothing.
Description Fill current text panel with appropriate value (0 to clear).
Parameters :
- v: this value increased by 32 will be used to fill text panel.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// clear current text panel
T6963C_TxtFill(0);
T6963C_Cursor_Height
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Cursor_Height(unsigned char n);
Nothing.
Description Set cursor size.
Parameters :
- n: cursor height. Valid values: 0..7.
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
T6963C_Cursor_Height(7);
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T6963C_Graphics
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Graphics(char n);
Nothing.
Description Enable/disable graphic displaying.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable graphic dispaying)
and 1 (enable graphic displaying
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// enable graphic displaying
T6963C_Graphics(1);
T6963C_Text
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Text(char n);
Nothing.
Description Enable/disable text displaying.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable text dispaying) and
1 (enable text displaying).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// enable text displaying
T6963C_Text(1);
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mikroC for 8051
T6963C_Cursor
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Cursor(char n);
Nothing.
Description Set cursor on/off.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (set cursor off) and 1 (set
cursor on).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// set cursor on
T6963C_Cursor(1);
T6963C_Cursor_Blink
Prototype
Returns
void T6963C_Cursor_Blink(char n);
Nothing.
Description Enable/disable cursor blinking.
Parameters :
- n: on/off parameter. Valid values: 0 (disable cursor blinking)
and 1 (enable cursor blinking).
Requires
Toshiba GLCD module needs to be initialized. See the
T6963C_Init routine.
Example
// enable cursor blinking
T6963C_Cursor_Blink(1);
Library Example
The following drawing demo tests advanced routines of the T6963C GLCD library.
Hardware configurations in this example are made for the T6963C 240x128 display,
Easy8051B board and AT89S8253.
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#include
"T6963C.h"
// T6963C module connections
unsigned char sfr
T6963C_dataPort at P0;
// Pointer to DATA BUS port
unsigned char sfr
T6963C_ctrlPort at P1;
// Pointer to CONTROL port
sbit
sbit
sbit
sbit
// End
T6963C_ctrlwr at P1.B2;
T6963C_ctrlrd at P1.B1;
T6963C_ctrlcd at P1.B0;
T6963C_ctrlrst at P1.B4;
T6963C module connections
//
//
//
//
WR write signal
RD read signal
CD command/data signal
RST reset signal
/*
* bitmap pictures stored in ROM
*/
const code char mc[] ;
const code char einstein[] ;
void main() {
char idata txt1[] = " EINSTEIN WOULD HAVE LIKED mC";
char idata txt[] = " GLCD LIBRARY DEMO, WELCOME !";
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
unsigned
char
int
char
int
panel ;
i ;
curs ;
cposx, cposy ;
// Current panel
// General purpose register
// Cursor visibility
// Cursor x-y position
P1 = 0;
// Clear T6963C ports
P0 = 0;
/*
* init display for 240 pixel width and 128 pixel height
* 8 bits character width
* data bus on P0
* control bus on P1
* bit 2 is !WR
* bit 1 is !RD
* bit 0 is C!D
* bit 4 is RST
*/
// Initialize T6369C
T6963C_init(240, 128, 8) ;
/*
* Enable both graphics and text display at the same time
*/
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mikroC for 8051
T6963C_graphics(1) ;
T6963C_text(1) ;
panel = 0 ;
i = 0 ;
curs = 0 ;
cposx = cposy = 0 ;
/*
* Text messages
*/
T6963C_write_text(txt, 0, 0, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR) ;
T6963C_write_text(txt1, 0, 15, T6963C_ROM_MODE_XOR) ;
/*
* Cursor
*/
T6963C_cursor_height(8) ;
T6963C_set_cursor(0, 0) ;
T6963C_cursor(0) ;
// 8 pixel height
// Move cursor to top left
// Cursor off
/*
* Draw rectangles
*/
T6963C_rectangle(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_rectangle(20, 20, 219, 107, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_rectangle(40, 40, 199, 87, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_rectangle(60, 60, 179, 67, T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* Draw a cross
*/
T6963C_line(0, 0, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_line(0, 127, 239, 0, T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* Draw solid boxes
*/
T6963C_box(0, 0, 239, 8, T6963C_WHITE) ;
T6963C_box(0, 119, 239, 127, T6963C_WHITE) ;
/*
* Draw circles
*/
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
T6963C_circle(120,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
64,
10, T6963C_WHITE) ;
30, T6963C_WHITE) ;
50, T6963C_WHITE) ;
70, T6963C_WHITE) ;
90, T6963C_WHITE) ;
110, T6963C_WHITE) ;
130, T6963C_WHITE) ;
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T6963C_sprite(76, 4, einstein, 88, 119) ;
T6963C_setGrPanel(1) ;
// Draw a sprite
// Select other graphic panel
T6963C_sprite(0, 0, mc, 240, 128) ;
// Fill the graphic screen with a picture
T6963C_image(mc) ;
for(;;) {
// Endless loop
/*
* If P2_0 is pressed, toggle the display between graphic
panel 0 and graphic 1
*/
if(!P2_0) {
panel++ ;
panel &= 1 ;
T6963C_displayGrPanel(panel) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* If P2_1 is pressed, display only graphic panel
*/
else if(!P2_1) {
T6963C_graphics(1) ;
T6963C_text(0) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* If P2_2 is pressed, display only text panel
*/
else if(!P2_2) {
T6963C_graphics(0) ;
T6963C_text(1) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* If P2_3 is pressed, display text and graphic panels
*/
else if(!P2_3) {
T6963C_graphics(1) ;
T6963C_text(1) ;
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
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/*
* If P2_4 is pressed, change cursor
*/
else if(!P2_4) {
curs++ ;
if(curs == 3b) curs = 0 ;
switch(curs) {
case 0:
// no cursor
T6963C_cursor(0) ;
break ;
case 1:
// blinking cursor
T6963C_cursor(1) ;
T6963C_cursor_blink(1) ;
break ;
case 2:
// non blinking cursor
T6963C_cursor(1) ;
T6963C_cursor_blink(0) ;
break ;
}
Delay_ms(300) ;
}
/*
* Move cursor, even if not visible
*/
cposx++ ;
if(cposx == T6963C_txtCols) {
cposx = 0 ;
cposy++ ;
if(cposy == T6963C_grHeight / T6963C_CHARACTER_HEIGHT) {
cposy = 0 ;
}
}
T6963C_set_cursor(cposx, cposy) ;
Delay_ms(100) ;
}
}
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mikroC for 8051
HW Connection
C/D
RD
WR
CE
RST
MD
10K
FS
VCC
P0.0
P1.2
P1.3
P0.1
P0.2
P1.4
P0.3
AT89S8253
VCC
P1.0
P1.1
P1.5
P1.6
RST
Reset
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
D0
VCC
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
OSCILLATOR
XTAL1
GND
Toshiba T6963C Graphic LCD (240x128)
mikroE
EASY8051B
Dev. SYSTEM
VSS
VDD
Vo
RS
R/W
E
D0
D1
D2
D3
D4
D5
D6
D7
CE
RST
VEE
MD
FS
NC/A
A
K
22
1
P1.0
P1.1
P1.2
P0.0
P0.1
P0.2
P0.3
P0.4
P0.5
P0.6
P0.7
P1.3
P1.4
P1.5
P1.6
VCC
VCC
50R
10K
Contrast
Adjustment
6.17. T6963C GLCD HW connection
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mikroC for 8051
UART LIBRARY
The UART hardware module is available with a number of 8051 compliant MCUs.
The mikroC for 8051 UART Library provides comfortable work with the
Asynchronous (full duplex) mode.
Library Routines
- Uart_Init
- Uart_Data_Ready
- Uart_Read
- Uart_Write
Uart_Init
Prototype
Returns
void Uart_Init(unsigned long baud_rate);
Nothing.
Description Configures and initializes the UART module.
The internal UART module module is set to:
- 8-bit data, no parity
- 1 STOP bit
- disabled automatic address recognition
- timer1 as baudrate source (mod2 = autoreload 8bit timer)
Parameters :
- baud_rate: requested baud rate
Refer to the device data sheet for baud rates allowed for specific
Fosc.
Requires
MCU with the UART module and TIMER1 to be used as baudrate
source.
Example
// Initialize hardware UART and establish communication at 2400 bps
Uart_Init(2400);
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Uart_Data_Ready
Prototype
Returns
char Uart_Data_Ready();
- 1 if data is ready for reading
- 0 if there is no data in the receive register
Description The function tests if data in receive buffer is ready for reading.
Requires
MCU with the UART module.
The UART module must be initialized before using this routine.
See the Uart_Init routine.
Example
char receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (Uart_Data_Ready())
receive = Uart_Read();
Uart_Read
Prototype
Returns
char Uart_Read();
Received byte.
Description The function receives a byte via UART. Use the Uart_Data_Ready
function to test if data is ready first.
Requires
MCU with the UART module.
The UART module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart_Init routine.
Example
char receive;
...
// read data if ready
if (Uart_Data_Ready())
receive = Uart_Read();
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Uart_Write
Prototype
Returns
void Uart_Write(char TxData);
Nothing.
Description The function transmits a byte via the UART module.
Parameters :
- TxData: data to be sent
Requires
MCU with the UART module.
The UART module must be initialized before using this routine.
See Uart_Init routine.
Example
char data = 0x1E;
...
Uart_Write(data);
Library Example
This example demonstrates simple data exchange via UART. If MCU is connected
to the PC, you can test the example from the mikroC for 8051 USART Terminal.
char uart_rd;
void main() {
Uart_init(4800);
Delay_ms(100);
// Initialize UART module at 4800 bps
// Wait for UART module to stabilize
while(1) {
// Endless loop
if (Uart_Data_Ready()) {
// Check if UART module has received data
uart_rd = Uart_Read();
// Read data
Uart_Write(uart_rd);
// Send the same data back
}
}
}
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HW Connection
PC
6
RS-232
CON
9
1
SUB-D 9p
5
CONNECT
MCU TO PC
Receive
data (Rx)
SERIAL
CABLE
CONNECT
PC TO MCU
6
RS-232
CON
9
8
VCC
P3.0
10uF
10uF
C1+
VS+
C1C2+
C2VS-
MAX232
10uF
VCC
T2OUT
R2IN
VCC
GND
T1OUT
R1IN
R1OUT
T1IN
T2IN
R2OUT
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
P3.1
Tx
AT89S8253
Rx
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
VCC
4
9
5
1
SUB-D 9p
5
2
7
3
1
6
Send
Data (Tx)
OSCILLATOR
10uF
XTAL1
GND
6.18. UART HW connection
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ANSI C CTYPE LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a set of standard ANSI C library functions for testing and mapping characters.
Note: Not all of the standard functions have been included.
Note: The functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard, but certain functions have been modified in order to facilitate 8051 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using standard C functions.
Library Functions
- isalnum
- isalpha
- iscntrl
- isdigit
- isgraph
- islower
- ispunct
- isspace
- isupper
- isxdigit
- toupper
- tolower
isalnum
Prototype
unsigned short isalnum(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is alphanumeric (A-Z, a-z, 09), otherwise returns zero.
isalpha
Prototype
unsigned short isalpha(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is alphabetic (A-Z, a-z), otherwise returns zero.
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iscntrl
Prototype
unsigned short iscntrl(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a control or delete character(decimal 0-31 and 127), otherwise returns zero.
isdigit
Prototype
unsigned short isdigit(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a digit (0-9), otherwise
returns zero.
isgraph
Prototype
unsigned short isgraph(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a printable, excluding the
space (decimal 32), otherwise returns zero.
islower
Prototype
int islower(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a lowercase letter (a-z),
otherwise returns zero.
ispunct
Prototype
unsigned short ispunct(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a punctuation (decimal 3247, 58-63, 91-96, 123-126), otherwise returns zero.
isspace
Prototype
unsigned short isspace(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a white space (space, tab,
CR, HT, VT, NL, FF), otherwise returns zero.
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isupper
Prototype
unsigned short isupper(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is an uppercase letter (A-Z),
otherwise returns zero.
isxdigit
Prototype
unsigned short isxdigit(char character);
Description Function returns 1 if the character is a hex digit (0-9, A-F, a-f),
otherwise returns zero.
toupper
Prototype
unsigned short toupper(char character);
Description If the character is a lowercase letter (a-z), the function returns
an uppercase letter. Otherwise, the function returns an unchanged
input parameter.
tolower
Prototype
unsigned short tolower(char character);
Description If the character is an uppercase letter (A-Z), function returns a
lowercase letter. Otherwise, function returns an unchanged input
parameter.
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ANSI C MATH LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a set of standard ANSI C library functions for floating point math handling.
Note: Not all of the standard functions have been included.
Note: The functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard, but certain functions have been modified in order to facilitate 8051 programming. Be sure to skim through the description before using standard C functions.
Library Functions
- acos
- asin
- atan
- atan2
- ceil
- cos
- cosh
- eval_poly
- exp
- fabs
- floor
- frexp
- ldexp
- log
- log10
- modf
- pow
- sin
- sinh
- sqrt
- tan
- tanh
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acos
Prototype
double acos(double x);
Description Function returns the arc cosine of parameter x; that is, the value
whose cosine is x. The input parameter x must be between -1 and
1 (inclusive). The return value is in radians, between 0 and ð
(inclusive).
asin
Prototype
double asin(double x);
Description Function returns the arc sine of parameter x; that is, the value
whose sine is x. The input parameter x must be between -1 and 1
(inclusive). The return value is in radians, between -ð/2 and ð/2
(inclusive).
atan
Prototype
double atan(double f);
Description Function computes the arc tangent of parameter f; that is, the
value whose tangent is f. The return value is in radians, between
-ð/2 and ð/2 (inclusive).
atan2
Prototype
double atan2(double y, double x);
Description This is the two-argument arc tangent function. It is similar to
computing the arc tangent of y/x, except that the signs of both
arguments are used to determine the quadrant of the result and x
is permitted to be zero. The return value is in radians, between -ð
and ð (inclusive).
ceil
Prototype
double ceil(double x);
Description Function returns value of parameter x rounded up to the next
whole number.
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cos
Prototype
double cos(double f);
Description Function returns the cosine of f in radians. The return value is
from -1 to 1.
cosh
Prototype
double cosh(double x);
Description Function returns the hyperbolic cosine of x, defined mathematically as (ex+e-x)/2. If the value of x is too large (if overflow
occurs), the function fails.
eval_poly
Prototype
static double eval_poly(double x, const double code *
d, int n);
Description Function Calculates polynom for number x, with coefficients
stored in d[], for degree n.
exp
Prototype
double exp(double x);
Description Function returns the value of e — the base of natural logarithms
— raised to the power x (i.e. ex).
fabs
Prototype double fabs(double d);
Description Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of d.
floor
Prototype
double floor(double x);
Description Function returns the value of parameter x rounded down to the
nearest integer.
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frexp
Prototype
double frexp(double value, int *eptr);
Description Function splits a floating-point value into a normalized fraction
and an integral power of 2. The return value is the normalized
fraction and the integer exponent is stored in the object pointed to
by eptr.
ldexp
Prototype
double ldexp(double value, int newexp);
Description Function returns the result of multiplying the floating-point number num by 2 raised to the power n (i.e. returns x * 2n).
log
Prototype
double log(double x);
Description Function returns the natural logarithm of x (i.e. loge(x)).
log10
Prototype
double log10(double x);
Description Function returns the base-10 logarithm of x (i.e. log10(x)).
modf
Prototype
double modf(double val, double * iptr);
Description Returns argument val split to the fractional part (function return
val) and integer part (in number iptr).
pow
Prototype
double pow(double x, double y);
Description Function returns the value of x raised to the power y (i.e. xy). If x
is negative, the function will automatically cast y into unsigned
long.
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sin
Prototype
double sin(double f);
Description Function returns the sine of f in radians. The return value is from 1 to 1.
sinh
Prototype
double sinh(double x);
Description Function returns the hyperbolic sine of x, defined mathematically
as (ex-e-x)/2. If the value of x is too large (if overflow occurs),
the function fails.
sqrt
Prototype
double sqrt(double x);
Description Function returns the non negative square root of x.
tan
Prototype
double tan(double x);
Description Function returns the tangent of x in radians. The return value
spans the allowed range of floating point in the mikroC for 8051.
tanh
Prototype
double tanh(double x);
Description Function returns the hyperbolic tangent of x, defined mathematically as sinh(x)/cosh(x).
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ANSI C STDLIB LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a set of standard ANSI C library functions of general utility.
Note: Not all of the standard functions have been included.
Note: Functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard,
but certain functions have been modified in order to facilitate 8051 programming.
Be sure to skim through the description before using standard C functions.
Library Functions
- abs
- atof
- atoi
- atol
- div
- ldiv
- uldiv
- labs
- max
- min
- rand
- srand
- xtoi
abs
Prototype
int abs(int a);
Description Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of a.
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atof
Prototype
double atof(char *s)
Description Function converts the input string s into a double precision value
and returns the value. Input string s should conform to the floating
point literal format, with an optional whitespace at the beginning.
The string will be processed one character at a time, until the
function reaches a character which it doesn’t recognize (including
a null character).
atoi
Prototype
int atoi(char *s);
Description Function converts the input string s into an integer value and
returns the value. The input string s should consist exclusively of
decimal digits, with an optional whitespace and a sign at the
beginning. The string will be processed one character at a time,
until the function reaches a character which it doesn’t recognize
(including a null character).
atol
Prototype
long atol(char *s)
Description Function converts the input string s into a long integer value and
returns the value. The input string s should consist exclusively of
decimal digits, with an optional whitespace and a sign at the
beginning. The string will be processed one character at a time,
until the function reaches a character which it doesn’t recognize
(including a null character).
div
Prototype
div_t div(int number, int denom);
Description Function computes the result of division of the numerator number
by the denominator denom; the function returns a structure of type
div_t comprising quotient (quot) and remainder (rem), see Div
Structures.
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ldiv
Prototype
ldiv_t ldiv(long number, long denom);
Description Function is similar to the div function, except that the arguments
and result structure members all have type long.
Function computes the result of division of the numerator number
by the denominator denom; the function returns a structure of type
ldiv_t comprising quotient (quot) and remainder (rem), see Div
Structures.
uldiv
Prototype
uldiv_t uldiv(unsigned long number, unsigned long
denom);
Description Function is similar to the div function, except that the arguments
and result structure members all have type unsigned long.
Function computes the result of division of the numerator number
by the denominator denom; the function returns a structure of type
uldiv_t comprising quotient (quot) and remainder (rem), see Div
Structures.
labs
Prototype long labs(long x);
Description Function returns the absolute (i.e. positive) value of long integer
x.
max
Prototype int max(int a, int b);
Description Function returns greater of the two integers, a and b.
min
Prototype int min(int a, int b);
Description Function returns lower of the two integers, a and b.
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rand
Prototype int rand();
Description Function returns a sequence of pseudo-random numbers between
0 and 32767. The function will always produce the same sequence
of numbers unless srand is called to seed the start point.
srand
Prototype void srand(unsigned x);
Description Function uses x as a starting point for a new sequence of pseudorandom numbers to be returned by subsequent calls to rand. No
values are returned by this function.
xtoi
Prototype unsigned xtoi(register char *s);
Description Function converts the input string s consisting of hexadecimal
digits into an integer value. The input parameter s should consist
exclusively of hexadecimal digits, with an optional whitespace
and a sign at the beginning. The string will be processed one character at a time, until the function reaches a character which it
doesn’t recognize (including a null character).
Div Structures
typedef struct divstruct {
int quot;
int rem;
} div_t;
typedef struct ldivstruct {
long quot;
long rem;
} ldiv_t;
typedef struct uldivstruct {
unsigned long quot;
unsigned long rem;
} uldiv_t;
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ANSI C STRING LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides a set of standard ANSI C library functions useful for
manipulating strings and RAM memory.
Note: Not all of the standard functions have been included.
Note: Functions have been mostly implemented according to the ANSI C standard,
but certain functions have been modified in order to facilitate 8051 programming.
Be sure to skim through the description before using standard C functions.
Library Functions
- memchr
- memcmp
- memcpy
- memmove
- memset
- strcat
- strchr
- strcmp
- strcpy
- strlen
- strncat
- strncpy
- strspn
- strncmp
- strstr
- strcspn
- strpbrk
- strrchr
memchr
Prototype void *memchr(void *p, char n, unsigned int v);
Description Function locates the first occurrence of n in the initial v bytes of
memory area starting at the address p. The function returns the
pointer to this location or 0 if the n was not found.
For parameter p you can use either a numerical value (literal/variable/constant) indicating memory address or a dereferenced value
of an object, for example &mystring or &P0.
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memcmp
Prototype int memcmp(void *s1, void *s2, int n);
Description Function compares the first n characters of objects pointed to by
s1 and s2 and returns zero if the objects are equal, or returns a
difference between the first differing characters (in a left-to-right
evaluation). Accordingly, the result is greater than zero if the
object pointed to by s1 is greater than the object pointed to by s2
and vice versa.
memcpy
Prototype void *memcpy(void *d1, void *s1, int n);
Description Function copies n characters from the object pointed to by s2 into
the object pointed to by d1. If copying takes place between
objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined. The function
returns address of the object pointed to by d1.
memmove
Prototype
void *memmove(void *to, void *from, register int n);
Description Function copies n characters from the object pointed to by from
into the object pointed to by to. Unlike memcpy, the memory
areas to and from may overlap. The function returns address of
the object pointed to by to.
memset
Prototype
void *memmove(void *to, void *from, register int n);
Description Function copies the value of the character into each of the first n
characters of the object pointed by p1. The function returns
address of the object pointed to by p1.
strcat
Prototype
char *strcat(char *to, char *from);
Description Function appends a copy of the string from to the string to, overwriting the null character at the end of to. Then, a terminating
null character is added to the result. If copying takes place
between objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined. to string
must have enough space to store the result. The function returns
address of the object pointed to by to.
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strchr
Prototype
char *strchr(char *ptr, char chr);
Description Function locates the first occurrence of character chr in the string
ptr. The function returns a pointer to the first occurrence of character chr, or a null pointer if chr does not occur in ptr. The terminating null character is considered to be a part of the string.
strcmp
Prototype
int strcmp(char *s1, char *s2);
Description Function compares strings s1 and s2 and returns zero if the
strings are equal, or returns a difference between the first differing
characters (in a left-to-right evaluation). Accordingly, the result is
greater than zero if s1 is greater than s2 and vice versa.
strcpy
Prototype
char *strcpy(char *to, char *from);
Description Function copies the string from into the string to. If copying is
successful, the function returns to. If copying takes place between
objects that overlap, the behavior is undefined.
strlen
Prototype
int strlen(char *s);
Description Function returns the length of the string s (the terminating null
character does not count against string’s length).
strncat
Prototype
char *strncat(char *to, char *from, int size);
Description Function appends not more than size characters from the string
from to to. The initial character of from overwrites the null character at the end of to. The terminating null character is always
appended to the result. The function returns to.
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strncpy
Prototype
char *strncpy(char *to, char *from, int size);
Description Function copies not more than size characters from string from
to to. If copying takes place between objects that overlap, the
behavior is undefined. If from is shorter than size characters,
then to will be padded out with null characters to make up the
difference. The function returns the resulting string to.
strspn
Prototype
int strspn(char *str1, char *str2);
Description Function returns the length of the maximum initial segment of
str1 which consists entirely of characters from str2. The terminating null character at the end of the string is not compared.
Strncmp
Prototype
int strncmp(char *s1, char *s2, char len);
Description Function lexicographically compares not more than len characters
(characters that follow the null character are not compared) from
the string pointed by s1 to the string pointed by s2. The function
returns a value indicating the s1 and s2 relationship:
Value
< 0
= 0
> 0
Meaning
s1 "less than" s2
s1 "equal to" s2
s1 "greater than" s2
Strstr
Prototype
char *strstr(char *s1, char *s2);
Description Function locates the first occurrence of the string s2 in the string
s1 (excluding the terminating null character).
The function returns pointer to first occurrence of s2 in s1; if no
string was found, function returns 0. If s2 is a null string, the
function returns 0.
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Strcspn
Prototype
char *strcspn(char * s1, char *s2);
Description Function locates the first occurrence of the string s2 in the string
s1 (excluding the terminating null character).
The function returns pointer to first occurrence of s2 in s1; if no
string was found, function returns 0. If s2 is a null string, the
function returns 0.
Strpbrk
Prototype
char *strpbrk(char * s1, char *s2);
Description Function searches s1 for the first occurrence of any character
from the string s2. The terminating null character is not included
in the search. The function returns pointer to the matching character in s1. If s1 contains no characters from s2, the function
returns 0.
Strrchr
Prototype
char *strrchr(char * ptr, unsigned int chr);
Description Function searches the string ptr for the last occurrence of character chr. The null character terminating ptr is not included in the
search. The function returns pointer to the last chr found in ptr;
if no matching character was found, function returns 0.
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BUTTON LIBRARY
The Button library contains miscellaneous routines useful for a project development.
External dependecies of Button Library
The following variable must be defined
in all projects using
Button library:
Description:
extern sbit
Button_Pin;
Declares Button_Pin,
which will be used by sbit Button_Pin at P0_0;
Button Library.
Example :
Library Routines
- Button
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Button
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Button(unsigned short time, unsigned
short active_state)
- 255 if the pin
- 0 otherwise
was in the active state for given period.
Description The function eliminates the influence of contact flickering upon
pressing a button (debouncing). The Button pin is tested just after
the function call and then again after the debouncing period has
expired. If the pin was in the active state in both cases then the
function returns 255 (true).
Parameters :
- time: debouncing period in milliseconds
- active_state: determines what is considered as
Valid values: 0 (logical zero) and 1 (logical one)
Requires
Button_Pin
active state.
variable must be defined before using this function.
Button pin must be configured as input.
Example
P2 is inverted on every P0.B0 one-to-zero transition :
// Button connections
sbit Button_Pin at P0.B0;
// Declare Button_Pin. It will be used by Button
Library.
// End Button connections
bit oldstate;
// Old state flag
void main() {
P0 = 255;
P2 = 0xAA;
// Configure PORT0 as input
// Initial PORT2 value
do {
if (Button(1, 1)) // Detect logical one
oldstate = 1;
// Update flag
if (oldstate && Button(1, 0)) {
// Detect one-to-zero transition
P2 = ~P2;
// Invert PORT2
oldstate = 0;
// Update flag
}
} while(1);
// Endless loop
}//~!
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CONVERSIONS LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 Conversions Library provides routines for numerals to strings
and BCD/decimal conversions.
Library Routines
You can get text representation of numerical value by passing it to one of the following routines:
- ByteToStr
- ShortToStr
- WordToStr
- IntToStr
- LongToStr
- LongWordToStr
- FloatToStr
The following functions convert decimal values to BCD and vice versa:
- Dec2Bcd
- Bcd2Dec16
- Dec2Bcd16
ByteToStr
Prototype
Returns
void ByteToStr(unsigned short input, char *output);
Nothing.
Description Converts input byte to a string. The output string has fixed width
of 4 characters including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and remaining positions
on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters :
- input: byte to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 4 characters in length.
Example
unsigned short t = 24;
char txt[4];
...
ByteToStr(t, txt); // txt is " 24" (one blank here)
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ShortToStr
Prototype
Returns
void ShortToStr(short input, char *output);
Nothing.
Description Converts input signed short number to a string. The output string
has fixed width of 5 characters including null character at the end
(string termination). The output string is right justified and
remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters :
- input: signed short
- output: destination
number to be converted
string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 5 characters in length.
Example
short t = -24;
char txt[5];
...
ShortToStr(t, txt);
here)
// txt is " -24" (one blank
WordToStr
Prototype
Returns
void WordToStr(unsigned input, char *output);
Nothing.
Description Converts input word to a string. The output string has fixed width
of 6 characters including null character at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with blanks.
Parameters :
- input: word to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 5 characters in length.
Example
unsigned t = 437;
char txt[6];
...
WordToStr(t, txt);
here)
// txt is "
437" (two blanks
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IntToStr
Prototype
Returns
void IntToStr(int input, char *output);
Nothing.
Description Converts input signed integer number to a string. The output
string has fixed width of 7 characters including null character at
the end (string termination). The output string is right justified
and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with
blanks.
Parameters :
- input: signed integer number
- output: destination string
to be converted
Requires
Destination string should be at least 7 characters in length.
Example
int j = -4220;
char txt[7];
...
IntToStr(j, txt);
here)
// txt is " -4220" (one blank
LongToStr
Prototype
Returns
void LongToStr(long input, char *output);
Nothing.
Description Converts input signed long integer number to a string. The output
string has fixed width of 12 characters including null character at
the end (string termination). The output string is right justified
and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with
blanks.
Parameters :
- input: signed long integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Requires
Destination string should be at least 12 characters in length.
Example
long jj = -3700000;
char txt[12];
...
LongToStr(jj, txt);
// txt is "
-3700000" (three blanks here)
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LongWordToStr
Prototype
Returns
void LongWordToStr(unsigned long input, char *output);
Nothing.
Converts input unsigned long integer number to a string. The output string has fixed width of 11 characters including null character
at the end (string termination). The output string is right justified
and the remaining positions on the left (if any) are filled with
Description blanks.
Parameters :
Requires
Example
- input: unsigned long integer number to be converted
- output: destination string
Destination string should be at least 11 characters in length.
unsigned long jj = 3700000;
char txt[11];
...
LongToStr(jj, txt);
// txt is "
3700000" (three blanks here)
FloatToStr
Prototype
Returns
unsigned char FloatToStr(float fnum, unsigned char
*str);
- 3 if input number is NaN
- 2 if input number is -INF
- 1 if input number is +INF
- 0 if conversion was successful
Converts a floating point number to a string.
Parameters :
- fnum: floating point number to be converted
Description str: destination string
The output string is left justified and null terminated after the last
digit.
Requires
Example
Note: Given floating point number will be truncated to 7 most
significant digits before conversion.
Destination string should be at least 14 characters in length.
float ff1 = -374.2;
float ff2 = 123.456789;
float ff3 = 0.000001234;
char txt[15];
...
FloatToStr(ff1, txt); // txt is "-374.2"
FloatToStr(ff2, txt); // txt is "123.4567"
FloatToStr(ff3, txt); // txt is "1.234e-6"
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Dec2Bcd
Prototype
Returns
unsigned short Dec2Bcd(unsigned short decnum);
Converted BCD value.
Description Converts input unsigned short integer number to its appropriate
BCD representation.
Parameters :
- decnum: unsigned short integer number to be converted
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned short a, b;
...
a = 22;
b = Dec2Bcd(a);
// b equals 34
Bcd2Dec16
Prototype
Returns
unsigned Bcd2Dec16(unsigned bcdnum);
Converted decimal value.
Description Converts 16-bit BCD numeral to its decimal equivalent.
Parameters :
- bcdnum:
16-bit BCD numeral to be converted
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned a, b;
...
a = 0x1234;
b = Bcd2Dec16(a);
// a equals 4660
// b equals 1234
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Dec2Bcd16
Prototype
Returns
unsigned Dec2Bcd16(unsigned decnum);
Converted BCD value.
Description Converts unsigned 16-bit decimal value to its BCD equivalent.
Parameters :
- decnum
unsigned 16-bit decimal number to be converted
Requires
Nothing.
Example
unsigned a, b;
...
a = 2345;
b = Dec2Bcd16(a);
// b equals 9029
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SPRINT LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 provides the standard ANSI C Sprintf function for easy data
formatting.
Note: In addition to ANSI C standard, the Sprint Library also includes two limited
versions of the sprintf function (sprinti and sprintl). These functions take less ROM
and RAM and may be more convenient for use in some cases.
Functions
- sprintf
- sprintl
- sprinti
sprintf
Prototype
Returns
sprintf(char *wh, const char *f,...);
The function returns the number of characters actually written to
destination string.
Description sprintf is used to format data and print them into destination
string.
Parameters :
- wh: destination string
- f: format string
The f argument is a format string and may be composed of characters, escape sequences, and format specifications. Ordinary
characters and escape sequences are copied to the destination
string in the order in which they are interpreted. Format specifications always begin with a percent sign (%) and require additional
arguments to be included in the function call.
The format string is read from left to right. The first format specification encountered refers to the first argument after f and then
converts and outputs it using the format specification. The second
format specification accesses the second argument after f, and so
on. If there are more arguments than format specifications, then
these extra arguments are ignored. Results are unpredictable if
there are not enough arguments for the format specifications. The
format specifications have the following format:
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Description % [flags] [width] [.precision]
[{ l | L }]
conver-
sion_type
Each field in the format specification can be a single character or
a number which specifies a particular format option. The conversion_type field is where a single character specifies that the argument is interpreted as a character, string, number, or pointer, as
shown in the following table:
conversion_type
Argument
Type
Output Format
d
int
Signed decimal number
u
unsigned int
Unsigned decimal number
o
unsigned int
Unsigned octal number
x
unsigned int
X
unsigned int
f
double
e
double
E
double
g
double
c
int
Unsigned hexadecimal
number using
0123456789abcdef
Unsigned hexadecimal
number using
0123456789ABCEDF
Floating-point number
using the format
[-]dddd.dddd
Floating-point number
using the format
[-]d.dddde[-]dd
Floating-point number
using the format
[-]d.ddddE[-]dd
Floating-point number
using either e or f format,
whichever is more
compact for the specified
value and precision
int is converted to
unsigned char, and
the
resulting character is
written
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Description
s
char *
p
void *
%
<none>
String with a terminating
null character
Pointer value, the X format is used
A % is written. No argument is converted. The
complete conversion specification shall be %%.
The flags field is where a single character is used to justify the
output and to print +/- signs and blanks, decimal points, and octal
and hexadecimal prefixes, as shown in the following table.
flags
+
space (' ')
#
*
Meaning
Left justify the output in the specified field
width.
Prefix the output value with + or - sign if the output is a signed type.
Prefix the output value with a blank if it is a
signed positive value. Otherwise, no blank is prefixed
Prefixes a non-zero output value with 0, 0x, or
0X when used with o, x, and X field types,
respectively. When used with e, E, f, g, and G
field types, the # flag forces the output value to
include a decimal point. The # flag is ignored in
all other cases.
Ignore format specifier.
The width field is a non-negative number that specifies the minimum number of printed characters. If a number of characters in
the output value is less than width, then blanks are added on the
left or right (when the - flag is specified) to pad to the minimum
width. If width is prefixed with 0, then zeros are padded instead
of blanks. The width field never truncates a field. If a length of
the output value exceeds the specified width, all characters are
output.
The precision field is a non-negative number that specifies a
number of characters to print, number of significant digits or
number of decimal places. The precision field can cause truncation or rounding of the output value in the case of a floating-point
number as specified in the following table.
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Description
flags
Meaning of the precision field
d, u, o, x,
X
The precision field is where you specify a minimum number of digits that will be included in
the output value. Digits are not truncated if the
number of digits in the argument exceeds that
defined in the precision field. If a number of digits in the argument is less than the precision
field, the output value is padded on the left with
zeros.
f
The precision field is where you specify a number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
The last digit is rounded.
e,E
The precision field is where you specify a number of digits to the right of the decimal point.
The last digit is rounded.
g
The precision field is where you specify a maximum number of significant digits in the output
value.
c,C
The precision field has no effect on these field
types.
s
The precision field is where you specify a maximum number of characters in the output value.
Excess characters are not output.
The optional characters l or L may immediately precede conversion_type to respectively specify long versions of the integer
types d, i, u, o, x, and X.
You must ensure that the argument type matches that of the format specification. You can use type casts to ensure that the proper
type is passed to sprintf.
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sprintl
Prototype
Returns
sprintl(char
*wh, const char *f,...);
The function returns the number of characters actually written to
destination string.
Description The same as sprintf, except it doesn't support float-type numbers.
sprinti
Prototype
Returns
sprinti(char
*wh, const char *f,...);
The function returns the number of characters actually written to
destination string.
Description The same as sprintf, except it doesn't support long integers and
float-type numbers.
Library Example
This is a demonstration of the standard C library sprintf routine usage. Three different representations of the same floating poing number obtained by using the sprintf
routine are sent via UART.
double ww = -1.2587538e+1;
char buffer[15];
// Function for sending string to UART
void UartWriteText(char *txt) {
while(*txt)
Uart_Write(*txt++);
}
// Function for sending const string to UART
void UartWriteConstText(const char *txt) {
while(*txt)
Uart_Write(*txt++);
}
void main(){
Uart_Init(4800);
Delay_ms(10);
// Initialize UART module at 4800 bps
UartWriteConstText("Floating point number representation");
// Write message on UART
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sprintf(buffer, "%12e", ww);
it to buffer
UartWriteConstText("\r\ne format:");
UartWriteText(buffer);
sprintf(buffer, "%12f", ww);
UartWriteConstText("\r\nf format:");
UartWriteText(buffer);
sprintf(buffer, "%12g", ww);
UartWriteConstText("\r\ng format:");
UartWriteText(buffer);
// Format ww and store
// Write message on UART
// Write buffer on UART
// Format ww and store it
to buffer
// Write message on UART
// Write buffer on UART
// Format ww and store it
to buffer
// Write message on UART
// Write buffer on UART
}
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TIME LIBRARY
The Time Library contains functions and type definitions for time calculations in the
UNIX time format which counts the number of seconds since the "epoch". This is
very convenient for programs that work with time intervals: the difference between
two UNIX time values is a real-time difference measured in seconds.
What is the epoch?
Originally it was defined as the beginning of 1970 GMT. ( January 1, 1970 Julian
day ) GMT, Greenwich Mean Time, is a traditional term for the time zone in
England.
The TimeStruct type is a structure type suitable for time and date storage. Type declaration is contained in timelib.h which can be found in the mikroC for 8051 Time
Library Demo example folder.
Library Routines
- Time_dateToEpoch
- Time_epochToDate
Time_dateToEpoch
Prototype
Returns
long Time_dateToEpoch(TimeStruct *ts);
Number of seconds since January 1, 1970 0h00mn00s.
Description This function returns the unix time : number of seconds since
January 1, 1970 0h00mn00s.
Parameters :
- ts:
time and date value for calculating unix time.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
#include
"timelib.h"
...
TimeStruct
ts1;
long
epoch ;
...
/*
* what is the epoch of the date in ts ?
*/
epoch = Time_dateToEpoch(&ts1) ;
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Time_epochToDate
Prototype
Returns
void Time_epochToDate(long e, TimeStruct *ts);
Nothing.
Description Converts the unix time to time and date.
Parameters :
- e: unix time (seconds since unix epoch)
- ts: time and date structure for storing conversion output
Requires
Nothing.
Example
#include
"timelib.h"
...
TimeStruct
ts2;
long
epoch ;
...
/*
* what date is epoch 1234567890 ?
*/
epoch = 1234567890 ;
Time_epochToDate(epoch, &ts2) ;
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Library Example
This example demonstrates Time Library usage.
#include
"timelib.h"
TimeStruct ts1, ts2 ;
long epoch ;
long diff ;
void main() {
ts1.ss = 0 ;
ts1.mn = 7 ;
ts1.hh = 17 ;
ts1.md = 23 ;
ts1.mo = 5 ;
ts1.yy = 2006 ;
/*
* What is the epoch of the date in ts ?
*/
epoch = Time_dateToEpoch(&ts1) ;
/*
* What date is epoch 1234567890 ?
*/
epoch = 1234567890 ;
Time_epochToDate(epoch, &ts2) ;
/*
* How much seconds between this two dates ?
*/
diff = Time_dateDiff(&ts1, &ts2) ;
}
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mikroC for 8051
TRIGONOMETRY LIBRARY
The mikroC for 8051 implements fundamental trigonometry functions. These functions are implemented as look-up tables. Trigonometry functions are implemented
in integer format in order to save memory.
Library Routines
- sinE3
- cosE3
sinE3
Prototype
Returns
int sinE3(unsigned angle_deg);
The function returns the sine of input parameter.
Description The function calculates sine multiplied by 1000 and rounded to
the nearest integer:
result = round(sin(angle_deg)*1000)
Parameters :
- angle_deg:
input angle in degrees
Note: Return value range: -1000..1000.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
int res;
...
res = sinE3(45);
// result is 707
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cosE3
Prototype
Returns
int cosE3(unsigned angle_deg);
The function returns the cosine of input parameter.
Description The function calculates cosine multiplied by 1000 and rounded to
the nearest integer:
result = round(cos(angle_deg)*1000)
Parameters :
- angle_deg:
input angle in degrees
Note: Return value range: -1000..1000.
Requires
Nothing.
Example
int res;
...
res = cosE3(196);
// result is -193
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mikroC for 8051
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