Approximating Electronic Document Last Reading Position

Approximating Electronic Document Last Reading Position
US 20130283145Al
(19) United States
(12) Patent Application Publication (10) Pub. N0.: US 2013/0283145 A1
Argent
(43) Pub. Date:
Oct. 24, 2013
(54) APPROXIMATING ELECTRONIC
(52)
DOCUMENT LAST READING POSITION
US. Cl.
CPC .................................. .. G06F 17/241 (2013.01)
USPC
........................................................ ..
715/231
(71) Applicant: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS
MACHINES CORPORATION,
Armonk, NY (Us)
(72)
Inventor:
(21)
APPL NO. 13/859,943
Daniel J'Argent> Essex (GB)
(22) Filed?
_
Disclosed is a method for approximating the ?nal reading
?nal reading position is approximated by ?rst establishing a
reading speed of the reader of the e-book, Which reading
_
_
_
speed is used to approximate the ?nal reading position on the
Forelgn Apphcatlon Pnonty Data
Apr. 19, 2012
ABSTRACT
position in an electronic document such as an e-book. The
APF- 10: 2013
_
(30)
(57)
(GB) ................................. .. 12068813
Publication Classi?cation
most recently displayed page of the e-book, for instance by
measuring hoW long the page has been displayed for and
using the reading Speed and this time period to Obtain an
approximate ?nal reading position on the most recently dis
played page. A computer program product containing this
(51)
Int. Cl.
G06F 17/24
method and a system for executing this method are also
(2006.01)
disclosed.
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START
102
MEASURE
PAGE DISPLAY
TIME
:
DISPLAY
DETERMINE
USER
READING
SPEED
USER
STOPP ED
READING‘?
APPROXIMATE
FINAL READING
POSITION ON
CURRENT PAGE
STORE
APPROXIMATED
FINAL READING
POSITION IN E
DOCUMENT
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Patent Application Publication
Oct. 24, 2013 Sheet 1 0f 6
US 2013/0283145 A1
& is a sample text to demonstD
how repagination can cause the loss of
the last reading position of a person
reading this document. Such a loss of
position can be annoying as the person
will have to scroll through the document
to find the new position. This can even
cause the person to inadvertently read a
part of the electronic document that he
or she had not read before, which may
spoil the user experience even more.
For instance, when reading an e-book
the person reading the book would
want to avoid accidentally reading the
outcome of a cliff hanger, as this may
lead to the user deciding not to read the
Qnk any further.
1
,VIO
This is a sample text to
demonstrate
how
repagination can cause
the loss of the last
’ reading position of a
person reading this
document. Such a loss
of position can be
annoying as the person
FIG. 1
Patent Application Publication
Oct. 24, 2013 Sheet 2 0f 6
US 2013/0283145 A1
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APPROXIMATE
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STORE
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POSITION IN E
DOCUMENT
124
FIG. 2
Patent Application Publication
Oct. 24, 2013 Sheet 3 0f 6
US 2013/0283145 A1
____________________________ __,
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204
TO 122
Patent Application Publication
FROM 106
Oct. 24, 2013 Sheet 4 0f 6
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FIG. 4
302
US 2013/0283145 A1
Patent Application Publication
Oct. 24, 2013 Sheet 5 0f 6
US 2013/0283145 A1
START
402
V
RETRIEVE
APPROX.
FINAL
READING
POSITION
404
DISPLAY PAGE WITH
APPROX. FINAL READING
POSITION IN CENTER OF
DISPLAY SCREEN
406
END
408
FIG. 5
Patent Application Publication
Oct. 24, 2013 Sheet 6 0f 6
US 2013/0283145 A1
550
X500
FIG. 6
Oct. 24, 2013
US 2013/0283145 A1
APPROXIMATING ELECTRONIC
DOCUMENT LAST READING POSITION
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
[0001]
The present invention relates to a method for
approximating the last reading position in an electronic docu
ment such as an e-book.
[0002]
The present invention also relates to a method for
displaying such a document on a computer.
[0003]
The present invention further relates to a computer
program product comprising computer-readable program
code for implementing at least one of these methods.
[0004] The present invention yet further relates to a system
including this computer program product.
BACKGROUND
[0005]
The electronic reading of documents, that is, read
ing documents from a display screen of an electronic device
such as an e-book reader, tablet, smart phone, laptop or desk
top computer and so on, has become increasingly common
place over the last feW years. In particular, the portability of
some of these electronic devices has caused a surge in elec
tronic reading ‘on the move’, e.g. during commuter journeys
using public transport, holiday travel and so on.
[0006]
In fact, many people noW oWn several electronic
devices that are suitable for e-reading, eg a smart phone, a
dedicated e-reader, a laptop and so on, and such people may
Want to transfer an electronic document currently being read
betWeen suitably programmed electronic devices. For
instance, a person may Want to use a smart phone Whilst on the
move but an e-book reader or desktop computer Whilst at
home or Work to read the document.
[0007] HoWever, the portability of the electronic document
betWeen such devices is not Without problems. In particular,
in order to give the user the best possible reading experience,
electronic device 10 to alloW the most recent vieW of the
electronic document to be restored upon reopening the docu
ment. This of course Works Well When the document is
reopened on the ?rst electronic device 10, as exactly the same
page Will be displayed, Which therefore contains the last
reading position.
[0011] HoWever, if the electronic document is loaded onto
the second electronic device 20 Which has a different (here
smaller) screen size than the ?rst electronic device 10, as
indicated by the arroW in FIG. 1, the second electronic device
20 Will display only a portion of the last page as displayed on
the ?rst electronic device 10, Which portion may not contain
the actual last reading position, Which has the undesirable
consequence that the user Will have to scroll through the
document to manually ?nd this position therein.
[0012]
Us. Pat. No. 7,870,272 B2 discloses a content man
agement system, Which stores location information indicat
ing a location Within a content item Where a user exited from
or last-accessed the content item. This location information is
synchronized or otherWise shared betWeen or among a plu
rality of devices associated With the user. With this informa
tion stored on or accessible to these multiple devices, the
system enables the user to start from that location When
subsequently accessing the content item on any of these
devices.
[0013] For static content such as an e-book, the last page is
stored as the location information. Consequently, this solu
tion also fails to solve the aforementioned problem caused by
the change in a layout of the electronic document betWeen
devices. Moreover, this prior art document relies on storing
the location information on a server or on the separate
devices, Which requires communication betWeen the devices.
This furthermore limits this prior art solution to devices that
are capable of communicating With each other.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
it is desirable that the electronic device to Which the electronic
document is transferred displays the text in the document
[0014] The present invention seeks to provide a method that
alloWs for the storage of a more accurate last reading position
Where the user previously stopped reading, i.e. displays the
in an electronic document.
last reading position, such that the user does not have to scroll
[0015]
through the electronic document to ?nd this position, Which
method that alloWs for a more accurate restoration of an
electronic document on a computer.
can be annoying.
[0008]
Several solutions exist that try to meet this require
[0016]
The present invention further seeks to provide a
The present invention further seeks to provide a
ment. For instance, the Google ReaderTM tags the (top of the)
computer program product comprising computer program
last vieWed page of an electronic document. Amazon
KindleTM uses a solution called WhispersyncTM, Which auto
code, When executed on a computer, causing the computer to
implement at least one of the above methods of the present
invention.
[0017] The present invention yet further seeks to provide a
matically synchronizes bookmarks and a reading location
among devices registered to the same Amazon.com account.
When opening a KindleTM book or archived personal docu
ment on another device, the user is given the choice to go to
the furthest page read if the user is further ahead on the other
device.
[0009] HoWever, When porting an electronic document
betWeen electronic devices having different screen sizes, the
vieW of the electronic document may have to be adjusted or
altered to ?t the screen of the destination device, eg by
repagination, font size changes and the like.
[0010] This is schematically depicted in FIG. 1. A person
(user) reading an electronic document on a ?rst electronic
device 10 may have ?nished reading at the Words ‘cliff
hanger’ highlighted in bold on the screen of the ?rst electronic
device 10, such that this Word has become the last reading
position in this document. The electronic document may be
tagged With the end point of the page displayed by the ?rst
system including the above computer program product of the
present invention.
[0018] In accordance With an aspect of the present inven
tion, there is provided a method of approximating a ?nal
reading position in an electronic document, comprising deter
mining a reading speed of a user reading the electronic docu
ment; approximating said ?nal reading position on the most
recently accessed page of the electronic document using the
determined reading speed; and digitally storing the approxi
mated ?nal reading position for retrieval by a computer
adapted to display the electronic document.
[0019] By determining the reading speed, eg a number of
text units per time unit, e.g. Words, lines, paragraphs or pages,
per time unit, the ?nal reading position on the last page
accessed by the user can be accurately approximated, for
instance by multiplying the display time of the most recently
Oct. 24, 2013
US 2013/0283145 A1
accessed page by said reading speed or by approximating said
?nal reading position from an initial reading position of the
electronic document based on the determined reading speed
reading time and said page from determining said text unit
processing speed of if the further amount of time exceeds a
de?ned threshold.
and the elapsed display time. The approximated ?nal reading
[0027]
position may for instance be stored in the electronic docu
types of content, the step of determining the reading speed
may comprise determining the reading speed of each of said
ment or in a separate user ?le.
[0020] In an embodiment, said digitally storing step com
prises storing the approximated ?nal reading position on an
electronic repository that can be accessed by said computer
over a netWork. Such an electronic repository may for
In case the electronic document contains different
types of content for said user. This for instance may be used to
more accurately approximate the ?nal reading position on the
most recently accessed page of the electronic document by
determining the type of content on the most recently accessed
instance be an Internet-accessible server and/or a server
page and approximating the ?nal reading position using the
accessible over a mobile phone network, eg a UMTS, 2G,
3G, 4G or 5G network, in Which case the approximated ?nal
reading position may for instance be stored in a user ?le on the
server. The electronic repository may for instance comprise a
server on Which the application for displaying the electronic
reading speed of the user for that content.
[0028] In a further embodiment, in case the most recently
accessed page of the electronic document comprises at least
tWo of said types of content, the step of approximating the
document can be accessed.
[0021] In an embodiment, the approximating step is trig
gered by a signal indicating that the user has interrupted
reading the electronic document. This ensures that the
approximating step is only executed When necessary, thus
improving the ef?ciency of the method. On battery-poWered
devices, such an improved ef?ciency translates to a prolonged
battery lifetime. Such a signal may for instance be generated
When the user engages a control such as the poWer button or
reading position may comprise determining a Weighted read
ing speed based on the respective reading speeds for said at
least tWo types of content. This may further improve the
accuracy of the approximation of the ?nal reading position.
[0029] In yet another embodiment, the method further
comprises periodically repeating the step of determining a
reading speed to capture changes in said reading speed. This
has the advantage that the actual reading speed is closely
monitored, as the reading speed of the user may vary during a
single reading session, eg through fatigue or a loss of con
a ‘close document menu option’ of the electronic device.
centration or interest in the content of the electronic docu
[0022]
ment. This may therefore further improve the accuracy of the
Alternatively or additionally, said signal is gener
ated by a sensor of an electronic device on Which the docu
approximation of the ?nal reading position.
ment is displayed, such as a motion sensor, Which has the
[0030]
advantage that the ?nal reading position is approximated even
Without the user actively terminating the application display
ing the electronic document.
[0023] The method may further comprise interrupting the
determining of said reading speed in response to said signal
and resuming the determining of said reading speed in
invention, there is provided a method of displaying an elec
response to a further signal indicating that the user has
resumed reading the electronic document. This is particularly
advantageous if the signal is sensor-generated as it ensures
that the statistics from Which the reading speed is derived are
only collected by the method When the user is actively reading
the electronic document, thus improving the accuracy and
ef?ciency of the method.
[0024] In an embodiment, the step of determining a reading
speed of a reader of the electronic document comprises deter
mining a text unit processing rate, Wherein determining a text
In accordance With another aspect of the present
tronic document having an approximated ?nal reading posi
tion associated thereWith in accordance With an embodiment
of the above method of the present invention, comprising
displaying the page of the electronic document comprising
the approximated ?nal reading position such that the approxi
mated ?nal reading position is positioned in a de?ned region
of a display screen of said computer. This has the advantage
that the chance of the actual ?nal reading position being
displayed on the display screen is maximiZed.
[0031] In accordance With yet another aspect of the present
invention, there is provided a computer program product
comprising a computer-readable storage medium having
computer-readable program code, When executed on a com
puter, causing the computer to implement the steps of an
embodiment of any of the methods of the present invention.
unit processing rate comprises the steps of determining a ?rst
[0032]
reading time it takes the user to read a number of text units and
present invention, there is provided a system comprising a
processor and the computer program product of the present
invention, Wherein the processor is adapted to execute said
determining the text unit processing rate by dividing said
number of text units by said amount of time, Wherein a text
unit is selected from the group comprising a Word, a line, a
paragraph and a page.
[0025] The text unit processing rate of the user is a suitable
metric to accurately approximate the ?nal reading position of
the user. For instance, When the approximating step com
prises multiplying the display time of the most recently
accessed page by a page reading speed, the siZe of the fraction
of the page read by the user is accurately approximated, such
that a pointer may be inserted into the electronic document
that points toWards the end point of this fraction.
[0026] Advantageously, the step of determining the amount
of time it takes the user to read a number of text units com
prises determining a second reading time it takes to read a
particular number of text units and discarding said second
In accordance With a further embodiment of the
program code. This system can enable the more accurate
approximation of the ?nal reading position of an electronic
document read on the system as explained in more detail for
the various embodiments of the corresponding method, or in
case of the system being the destination system to Which the
electronic document is transferred, provides a system that is
more likely to display an initial reading page of the electronic
document that contains the ?nal reading position in the elec
tronic document on the previous electronic device.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
[0033] Preferred embodiments of the present invention Will
noW be described, by Way of example only, With reference to
the folloWing draWings, in Which:
Oct. 24, 2013
US 2013/0283145 A1
[0034]
FIG. 1 schematically depicts a problem addressed
by at least some embodiments of the present invention;
[0035] FIG. 2 schematically depicts a ?oW chart of a
method according to an embodiment of the present invention;
[0036] FIG. 3 schematically depicts a ?oW chart of an
aspect of a method according to another embodiment of the
speed may be expressed as the time it takes to read a unit
portion of text; for instance, the number of seconds it takes a
user to read a line, paragraph or page. Any suitable time unit
present invention;
may be used to express time in the reading speed.
[0045] In the context of the present application, an elec
tronic repository is a digital storage medium that can be
accessed by a computer for retrieving the digitally stored
[0037] FIG. 4 schematically depicts a ?oW chart of an
aspect of a method according to yet another embodiment of
content. The electronic repository may be a memory, a hard
disk, a collection of hard disks, a storage area netWork and so
the present invention;
on, Which may be accessible via a netWork such as a Wired or
[0038] FIG. 5 schematically depicts a ?oW chart of an
aspect of another method according to yet another embodi
ment of the present invention; and
Wireless local area netWork, the Internet, a mobile communi
cation netWork such as UMTS, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G and so on. The
electronic repository may comprise an account of the user for
[0039]
managing, e.g. synchronizing, the various computers used for
accessing the electronic document, in Which case the approxi
mated ?nal reading position of the electronic document may
FIG. 6 schematically depicts a system according to
an embodiment of the present invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE
EMBODIMENTS
[0040]
It should be understood that the Figures are merely
schematic and are not draWn to scale. It should also be under
stood that the same reference numerals are used throughout
the Figures to indicate the same or similar parts.
[0041]
In the context of the present application, Where
embodiments of the present invention constitute a method, it
should be understood that such a method is a process for
execution by a computer, i.e. is a computer-implementable
method. The various steps of the method therefore re?ect
various parts of a computer program, e.g. various parts of one
be stored in the user account.
[0046] FIG. 2 depicts an example embodiment of a method
of approximating a ?nal reading position in an electronic
document. The method starts in step 102, Which typically
comprises a user opening an electronic document on a com
puter. The computer may be con?gured to retrieve the last
reading position of the electronic document from an elec
tronic repository that contains relevant user information
including the last reading position, or alternatively from the
electronic document itself, and use this last reading position
to determine Which part of the electronic document is to be
displayed to the user as the initial page of the reading session.
or more algorithms.
[0047]
[0042] The various embodiments of the method of the
present invention may be stored on a computer program prod
uct comprising a computer-readable storage medium. The
computer-readable storage medium may be any medium that
can be accessed by a computer for the retrieval of digital data
from said medium. Non-limiting examples of a computer
readable storage medium include a CD, DVD, ?ash memory
ceeds to step 104 in Which the duration of the time the initial
page is displayed is timed. This may be implemented in any
suitable manner, eg by using the system clock of the com
Once the initial page is displayed, the method pro
puter to obtain the timing information.
[0048] The timing of the page can be interrupted by tWo
events. The ?rst of those events is shoWn in step 106, Which is
When the user instructs the computer to jump to the next page.
card, a USB memory stick, a random access memory, a read
This may be achieved by any suitable command. For instance,
only memory, a computer hard disk, a storage area netWork, a
the user may press an appropriate button on the computer,
may touch the screen in a prede?ned manner to invoke this
netWork server, an Internet server and so on.
[0043]
In the context of the present application, an elec
tronic document can be any computer-readable ?le that com
prises text, Which may be embedded in an image, eg a
cartoon, and that When opened in a computer program or
application on a computer is displayed to a user such that the
text can be read by the user. In particular, the electronic
document preferably is an e-book, although the electronic
document may also be a neWspaper, a Work of reference such
as an encyclopedia, a user manual, a body of text generated by
command, may brie?y shake or tilt the computer such that a
motion sensor of the computer can detect the movement and
interpret it as a page turning command and so on.
[0049] Upon detecting the page jump instruction, the
method proceeds to a sub-routine 110 in Which the reading
speed of the user is determined. The sub-routine 110 may
comprise an optional step 112 in Which it is checked if the
user reading speed has already been determined, or if there is
suf?cient con?dence in the accuracy of the determined read
a user in a Word processing application, a Web page and so on.
ing speed, eg because a su?icient number of data points, (for
The electronic document may be in any suitable ?le format. In
the context of the present application, a computer is an elec
tronic device comprising a processor capable of running an
application for displaying an electronic document. More spe
instance a suf?cient number of pages) has been included in
the determination of the reading speed. If this is the case then
the method reverts back to step 104 Where the display time of
the next displayed page is measured.
[0050] In an embodiment, the user reading speed may be
ci?cally, computer may be an electronic book (e-book)
reader, a smart phone, a tablet, a personal digital assistant, a
laptop computer, a desktop computer, a (Web) server and so
on.
[0044] In the context of the present application, a user read
ing speed is the time it takes a user to read a unit of text. Any
suitable granularity may be used for de?ning What constitutes
a unit of text. For instance, the reading speed may be
expressed in terms of number of pages per minute, number of
periodically updated by the sub-routine 110. For instance, it
may be assumed that if the user reading speed has been based
on a de?ned minimum number of text units (Words, lines,
paragraphs, pages and so on), there is a su?icient con?dence
in the accuracy of the determined user reading speed such that
for subsequently displayed pages it is not necessary to update
the user reading speed, as explained above. HoWever, the user
reading speed may change over time, for instance because of
paragraphs per minute, number of lines per minute, number
loss of concentration, interest or because of fatigue, such
of Words per minute and so on. Alternatively, the reading
con?dence may reduce over time. In such a case, it may be
Oct. 24, 2013
US 2013/0283145 A1
further checked in step 112 (or in a separate optional step not
shown in FIG. 2) hoW long ago the user reading speed Was
determined, and in case this amount of time exceeds a de?ned
threshold, it may be decided to recalculate the user reading
speed to capture such changes in reading speed.
[0051] The sub-routine 110 may further comprise an
optional step 114 in Which it is checked if the measured
display time of the displayed page falls Within an acceptable
range. For instance, if the display time exceeds a de?ned
upper threshold, this may indicate that the reader may have
stopped reading the page for at least a part of the time the page
Was displayed. Similarly, if the display time falls beloW a
de?ned loWer threshold, this may be an indication that the
user has skipped at least part of the page. As including such
statistics in the reading speed evaluation may compromise the
accuracy of the evaluation, it may therefore be decided that in
ment of step 104 runs in parallel With sub-routine 110 to
ensure that the measurement of the page display time is as
accurate as possible.
[0058] The above process How is repeated until there is an
indication that the user has stopped reading, as shoWn in step
108. Such an indication may for instance be a signal gener
ated in response to the user giving an explicit command to the
computer on Which the electronic document is displayed, eg
by the user may press an appropriate button on the computer,
may touch the screen in a prede?ned manner to invoke this
command, or the computer may comprise a sensor that
detects that the user has stopped reading.
[0059] For instance, the computer may comprise a motion
sensor and/or an orientation sensor that detects that the user
has placed the computer in a substantially horiZontal orien
tation, thus indicating that the computer has been put doWn.
such a case the page statistics are not included in the deter
[0060] Alternatively, the computer may comprise a light
mination of the reading speed of the user, in Which case the
method may return to step 104 Where the display time of the
next displayed page is measured.
sensor that detects that the user has covered the display screen
[0052]
The aforementioned thresholds applied in optional
step 114 may be static thresholds, i.e., thresholds that are not
updated, or dynamic thresholds, i.e. thresholds that are
updated based on changes in the determined reading speed.
[0053] In an embodiment, each threshold may be set as a
percentage or fraction of the time it Would take a user to read
that page based on the up-to -date value of the determined user
reading speed. For instance, for a page containing 300 Words
and a user reading at a speed of 5 Words per second, the typical
time it Would take the user to read the page Would be 300/
5:60 seconds. The range of acceptable display times may for
instance be de?ned from 50-200% of this typical time, i.e.
30-120 seconds. If the page display time falls outside this
range, the page statistics, e.g. Word count and page display
of the computer, thus again suggesting that the user has
stopped reading. Other embodiments of suitable sensors Will
be apparent to the skilled person.
[0061] Upon the detection of the signal indicating that the
user has stopped reading the electronic document, the method
Will proceed to step 120 in Which the ?nal reading position of
the user is approximated. In a preferred embodiment, this is
achieved by extrapolating the ?nal reading position from the
display time of the most recently displayed page and the
determined user reading speed. For example, for a most
recently displayed page having been displayed for 30 seconds
for a user having an average reading speed of 40 seconds per
page (or 1.5 pages per minute), the ?nal reading position Will
lie at 30/40:% doWn the page.
[0062]
At this point it should be appreciated that the appro
priate formula for approximating the ?nal reading position
time, are not considered in the determination of the user
Will depend of the format in Which the reading speed of the
reading speed. It should be appreciated that the values in the
above example are entirely non-limiting and that any suitable
user is expressed.
[0063] For instance, in case of a user reading speed R being
expressed as text units/time unit (e. g. Words/ sec, Words/min,
threshold or range end point of the range may be chosen.
[0054] In the absence of at least one of optional steps 112,
114 or upon determination in these steps that the user reading
speed should be determined, the method proceeds to step 116
page/ sec, page/min and so on), the appropriate formula may
be AIDXR in Which A is the approximate ?nal reading posi
tion expressed in text units and D is the display time of the
in Which the user reading speed is determined. This may be
done in any suitable Way.
[0055] In an embodiment, the page statistics such as display
time and optionally text properties such as the number of
most recently displayed page. For example, for a most
Words, lines and/or paragraphs and so on may be stored in a
[0064] Alternatively, if the reading speed R' of a user is
expressed in time per text unit, the appropriate formula may
be AID/R‘. For example, for a most recently displayed page
containing 300 Words having been displayed for 30 seconds
memory of the computer implementing the method of the
present invention, and may be accumulated in step 116 to
obtain an average page reading speed for the user, eg by
dividing the total number text units, such as Words, lines,
paragraphs or pages and so on read by the sum of the page
display times to obtain this average. As it Will be immediately
apparent to the skilled person hoW this may be implemented
on a computer, this Will not be explained in further detail for
recently displayed page containing 300 Words having been
displayed for 30 seconds and a user reading speed of 3 Words
per second, the approximate ?nal reading position Will be
3*30?he 90”’ Word on the page
and a user reading speed of 1/3 of a second per Word, the
approximate ?nal reading position Will be 30 divided by
1/3?he 90”’ Word on the page.
[0065] Many possible variations Will be immediately
the sake of brevity only.
[0056] Alternatively, the reading speed may be expressed
apparent to the skilled person. For instance, as it is unlikely
that a user Will stop reading mid-sentence, step 120 may
as the time it takes a user to read a unit portion of text, e. g. a
mated ?nal reading position and adjusting the approximated
de?ned number of Words, lines, paragraphs, pages and so on.
?nal reading position to the nearest full stop to improve the
accuracy of the approximation. As another example, the mea
sured display time of the mo st recently displayed page may be
reduced by a ?xed amount to factor in the likely delay
betWeen the user stopping reading and the user signaling the
[0057]
At this stage, it is noted that although the measuring
of the page display time in step 104 is shoWn to commence
upon completion of the sub-routine 110, this is shoWn for the
sake of clarity only. It is equally feasible and in at least some
embodiments preferable that the page display time measure
further comprise ?nding the nearest full stop to the approxi
computer accordingly.
Oct. 24, 2013
US 2013/0283145 A1
[0066] After the ?nal reading position has been determined
in step 120, the method proceeds to step 122 in Which the
approximated ?nal reading position is stored on an electronic
repository, eg in a user ?le or by tagging the electronic
document With the approximated ?nal reading position prior
to saving the electronic document such that it upon reopening
the document a page including this approximated ?nal read
ing position canbe displayed. The approximated ?nal reading
position may be stored in any suitable format and any suitable
?le, eg a user pro?le, a user ?le and so on. When stored in the
electronic document, this may be done in any suitable man
ner, eg by storing the approximated ?nal reading position in
metadata of the electronic document.
[0067] After the electronic document has been updated in
step 122, the method ends in step 124, eg by saving the
electronic document and closing the application used for
displaying the application and/or shutting doWn the com
puter.
[0068]
In an embodiment, the determined user reading
speed may also be saved at this (or any other suitable) stage of
the method shoWn in FIG. 1. For instance, the determined
speed may be stored in a user ?le on an electronic repository,
e.g. locally on the computer, Which may be accessed the next
time the application for displaying the electronic document is
launched at the start 102. This has the advantage that it is not
necessary to ?rst evaluate the time it takes the user to read a
number of pages before being able to get an accurate approxi
mation of the reading speed of the user.
[0069] Alternatively, the user reading speed may also be
stored in the electronic document, e. g. in step 122. This is
particularly advantageous if the speed is expressed in terms of
number of Words read per time unit, as this speed is (largely)
improving the accuracy of the reading speed derived from
these statistics and furthermore providing a more poWer
e?icient implementation.
[0072] On the other hand, if in step 202 it is concluded that
the reading session of the user has ended, eg by the user
closing doWn the application or sWitching off the computer,
the method Will proceed to step 120 and its subsequent steps
as explained in the detailed description of FIG. 2.
[0073] In a further embodiment of the present invention, the
method of approximating a ?nal reading position in an elec
tronic document may determine separate reading speeds for
different types of content. An aspect of this method is shoWn
in FIG. 4. In this embodiment, the sub -routine 110 is extended
With an additional step 302 in Which the one or more types of
content on the displayed page are determined, after Which the
sub-routine proceeds to step 116 to determine the reading
speed for those types of content. For instance, the method
may evaluate the information density (e. g. number of Words)
on a page and decide based on this density if the content is
likely to be of a particular type. For instance, dialogue in a
?ctional Work is generally less dense than description in the
same Work, Which can lead to different reading speeds for
these different types of content.
[0074] Alternatively, the reader may for instance detect
pages With and Without images, as pages With images Will
typically be read at a different speed than pages Without
images, or the reader may for instance detect pages With or
Without mathematical formulas as the presence of such a
formula may for instance be considered likely to contain
scienti?c evidence, Which again Will be read at a different
speed by a user than eg a page containing images, dialogue
independent of the screen siZe of the computer on Which the
or combinations of different types of content.
electronic document is displayed, Whereas changes in screen
siZe Will typically affect the length of a line or the amount of
?nal reading position in step 120 as previously explained, the
[0075] Consequently, When determining the approximate
content, eg text, on a page, such that a reading speed
expressed in those terms is not screen siZe-independent.
[0070] In an embodiment, the method may be con?gured to
distinguish betWeen a user interrupting a reading session and
terminating a reading session. This is shoWn in FIG. 3. An
interruption of a reading session may for instance be detected
by a sensor of the computer, eg by noticing that the user has
closed the cover of the computer or put doWn the computer, as
method Will evaluate the type of content on the mo st recently
previously explained. To this end, the method may comprise
an additional step 202 in Which it is determined Whether or not
30% description, a blended reading speed comprising of 0.7
times the reading speed for dialogue and 0.3 times the reading
the termination of the reading session is temporary in the
speed for description may be used as a ?rst approximation.
sense that the user is not expected to close doWn the applica
tion but is instead expected to resume the same reading ses
sion, Which for instance may be detected by the generation of
such a sensor signal.
[0071] If it is decided that the user has temporarily inter
rupted his reading session, the method may move to the halt
stage 204, Which for instance may invoke a sleep mode of the
computer. In the halt state 204, the method checks as shoWn in
step 206 if the reader has resumed reading, Which for instance
may be detected by the generation of a further signal of the
aforementioned sensors, Which may signal the removal of the
cover or opening of the computer or the computer being in
motion, thus indicating that the user has picked up the com
puter to resume the reading session. If such a further signal is
detected, the method resumes monitoring the display time of
the current page in step 104. This has the advantage that the
acquisition of the reading statistics is interrupted during such
a temporary interruption of a reading session, thus further
displayed page and select the appropriate reading speed for
that type of content When approximating the ?nal reading
position. In case the most recently displayed page contains
more than one type of content, the method may construct a
blended or Weighted reading speed using the reading speeds
of the types of content detected on the mo st recently displayed
page. For instance, for a page containing 70% dialogue and
[0076]
This algorithm may be re?ned by considering the
location of the content on the most recently displayed page.
For instance, if the top of the page contains content of a ?rst
type, eg dialogue, and the remainder of the page contains
content of a second type, eg description, the method may
?rst approximate the ?nal reading position using only the
reading speed for the ?rst content type, and only if the ?nal
reading position is approximated to lie Within the content of
the second type is the approximation repeated for using a
blended reading speed. This may be further re?ned if it can be
determined hoW long it Would have taken the user to read the
Whole of the ?rst content, Which amount of time may be
deducted from the total display time of the most recently
displayed page to yield a reduced total display time used to
approximate the ?nal reading position starting from the end
of the ?rst type of content on the most recently displayed
page. Further re?nements or alternatives Will be apparent to
the skilled person.
Oct. 24, 2013
US 2013/0283145 A1
[0077]
Upon reopening the electronic document on the
same or a different computer, the application for displaying
[0083]
An electronic document and the application for dis
the electronic document Will retrieve the approximated ?nal
playing the electronic document, Which may include one or
more of the embodiments of the method of the present inven
reading position from the electronic repository, eg by
tion, may be stored in the computer-readable storage medium
accessing the appropriate user ?le or from the electronic
document. An example embodiment of such a method is
520.
shoWn in FIG. 5. In step 402, the application for displaying
the electronic document is launched on a computer, Which
[0084] Alternatively, the electronic document and/or the
application for displaying the electronic document may be
may include retrieving the electronic document from an elec
stored on a netWork-accessible electronic repository outside
the system 500, in Which case the processor 510 instructs the
tronic repository, e. g. a computer-readable medium such as a
memory or hard disk.
netWork interface 550 to access the electronic repository over
the netWork and to retrieve the electronic document and/ or the
[0078] In step 404, the approximated ?nal reading position
application for displaying the electronic document, Which
is extracted from the location Where it is stored, eg from a
subsequently are stored in the computer-readable storage
user ?le on the electronic repository or from the electronic
medium 520.
document, Which is used in step 406 to display a portion (e. g.,
a page) of the electronic document including the approxi
mated ?nal reading position. The approximated ?nal reading
[0085]
The processor 510 executes the application for dis
playing the electronic document, eg by instructing the
graphics interface 530 to display the appropriate portion of
position is typically displayed in a de?ned region of the
display screen. Preferably, the de?ned region is the mid
the electronic document on the display screen 540.
center of the display screen as this maximiZes the amount of
graphics interface 530 to display the appropriate portion of
[0086]
In an embodiment, the processor 510 instructs the
text before and after the approximated ?nal reading position
the electronic document on a de?ned region of the display
that is in this initial vieW of the electronic document, thus
screen 540, such as a mid-center position on the display
minimiZing the chance that the actual ?nal reading position of
screen 540.
the user in the previous reading session falls outside the
initially displayed text of the electronic document in this neW
reading session. It should hoWever be understood that it is
equally feasible to place the approximated ?nal reading posi
tion at a different de?ned region of the display screen, e. g. the
top or the bottom of this screen.
[0079] After the electronic document has been opened and
displayed in this manner, the method terminates in step 408.
[0080] At this stage, it is noted that the use of the approxi
mated ?nal reading position to restore an electronic document
to a previous vieW may be combined With approaches that are
already knoWn, such as storing information of the most
recently accessed page in the electronic document. The latter
information is of course equally useful if the electronic docu
ment is restored on the same computer, such that no refor
matting such as repagination occurs that can lead to the loss of
the actual ?nal reading position in the initial display of the
reopened electronic document. Therefore, embodiments of
the method shoWn in FIG. 5 may be extended With a checking
step in Which it is checked if the electronic document needs
reformatting, Which is indicative of the document being
reopened on a computer With a different screen siZe, and only
use the approximated ?nal reading position if such reformat
ting indeed occurs.
[0081]
Embodiments of the method of the present invention
may be made available as a computer program product com
[0087]
The processor 510 determines the reading speed of
the user reading the electronic document. At the same time,
the processor 510 measures the display time of each page of
the electronic document on the display screen 540.
[0088]
The processor 510 subsequently approximates the
?nal reading position of the user in response to a signal
indicating that the user has stopped reading. This signal may
be generated by a poWer button (not shoWn) on the system
500, a sensor (not shoWn) indicating that the system 500 is no
longer in use or any other suitable source for such a signal.
[0089]
The processor 510 subsequently instructs the stor
age of the approximated ?nal reading position, eg by updat
ing a metadata ?eld in the electronic document or by updating
the user ?le and storing the updated electronic document or
user ?le in the computer-readable storage medium 520 or by
instructing the netWork interface 550 to store the updated
electronic document or user ?le on the netWork-accessible
electronic repository.
[0090] Although the various elements of the system 500 are
shoWn as discrete elements, it Will be understood by the
skilled person that at least some of the elements may be
integrated into a single component. For instance, it is equally
feasible that the graphics driver 530 forms part of the proces
sor 510, and/or that at least part of the computer-readable
storage medium 520 resides on the processor 510.
[0091]
The computer-readable storage medium 520 com
prises computer program code for implementing one or more
prising a computer-readable storage medium, Wherein the
embodiments of the methods shoWn in FIG. 2-5 by execution
various steps of the method are stored on the computer-read
of this program code on the processor 510. In order to obtain
able storage medium in the form of computer-readable pro
the timing information required eg in step 104, the system
500 may further comprise a system clock (not shoWn), Which
gram code that When executed on a suitably adapted com
puter, Will cause the computer to execute the steps of such a
method.
[0082]
for instance may reside on the processor 510 or on another
part of the system. The system 500 may further comprise one
FIG. 6 depicts an example system 500 in accordance
or more sensors (not shoWn), such as a motion sensor, an
With an embodiment of the present invention. The system
500, eg a computer, comprises a processor 510, a computer
orientation sensor, a light sensor and so on, for detecting the
temporary interruption of a reading session of a user of the
readable storage medium 520 such as a hard disk and/or a
memory, a graphics driver 530, a display screen 540 and an
system 500 as previously explained.
optional netWork interface 550. The system 500 is adapted to
implement the embodiments of the methods of the present
invention in the folloWing manner.
[0092] In summary, disclosed is a (computer-implemented)
method for approximating the ?nal reading position in an
electronic document such as an e-book. The ?nal reading
position is approximated by ?rst establishing a reading speed
Oct. 24, 2013
US 2013/0283145 A1
of the reader of the e-book, which reading speed is used to
approximate the ?nal reading position on the most recently
displayed page of the e-book, for instance by measuring how
long the page has been displayed for and using the reading
speed and this time period to obtain an approximate ?nal
reading position on the most recently displayed page. A com
puter program product containing this method and a system
for executing this method are also disclosed.
[0093] It should be noted that the above-mentioned
embodiments illustrate rather than limit the invention, and
that those skilled in the art will be able to design many
alternative embodiments without departing from the scope of
puter readable signal medium may be any computer readable
medium that is not a computer readable storage medium and
that can communicate, propagate, or transport a program for
use by or in connection with an instruction execution system,
apparatus, or device.
[0097] Program code embodied on a computer readable
medium may be transmitted using any appropriate medium,
including but not limited to wireless, wireline, optical ?ber
cable, RF, etc., or any suitable combination of the foregoing.
[0098] Computer program code for carrying out operations
for aspects of the present invention may be written in any
combination of one or more programming languages, includ
the appended claims. In the claims, any reference signs placed
ing an object oriented programming language such as Java,
between parentheses shall not be construed as limiting the
claim. The word “comprising” does not exclude the presence
gramming languages, such as the “C” programming language
of elements or steps other than those listed in a claim. The
word “a” or “an” preceding an element does not exclude the
presence of a plurality of such elements. The invention can be
implemented by means of hardware comprising several dis
tinct elements. In the device claim enumerating several
means, several of these means can be embodied by one and
the same item of hardware. The mere fact that certain mea
Smalltalk, C++ or the like and conventional procedural pro
or similar programming languages. The program code may
execute entirely on the user’s computer, partly on the user’s
computer, as a stand-alone software package, partly on the
user’s computer and partly on a remote computer or entirely
on the remote computer or server. In the latter scenario, the
remote computer may be connected to the user’s computer
through any type of network, including a local area network
sures are recited in mutually different dependent claims does
(LAN) or a wide area network (WAN), or the connection may
not indicate that a combination of these measures cannot be
used to advantage.
[0094] As will be appreciated by one skilled in the art,
be made to an external computer (for example, through the
Internet using an Internet Service Provider).
[0099] Aspects of the present invention are described
aspects of the present invention may be embodied as a system,
below with reference to ?owchart illustrations and/or block
method or computer program product. Accordingly, aspects
of the present invention may take the form of an entirely
hardware embodiment, an entirely software embodiment (in
cluding ?rmware, resident software, micro-code, etc.) or an
embodiment combining software and hardware aspects that
diagrams of methods, apparatus (systems) and computer pro
gram products according to embodiments of the invention. It
will be understood that each block of the ?owchart illustra
tions and/or block diagrams, and combinations of blocks in
the ?owchart illustrations and/ or block diagrams, can be
may all generally be referred to herein as a “circuit,” “mod
implemented by computer program instructions. These com
ule” or “system.” Furthermore, aspects of the present inven
tion may take the form of a computer program product
puter program instructions may be provided to a processor of
a general purpose computer, special purpose computer, or
embodied in one or more computer readable medium(s) hav
may be a computer readable signal medium or a computer
other programmable data processing apparatus to produce a
machine, such that the instructions, which execute via the
processor of the computer or other programmable data pro
cessing apparatus, create means for implementing the func
tions/acts speci?ed in the ?owchart and/ or block diagram
readable storage medium. A computer readable storage
block or blocks.
ing computer readable program code embodied thereon.
[0095]
Any combination of one or more computer readable
medium(s) may be utiliZed. The computer readable medium
medium may be, for example, but not limited to, an elec
[0100]
tronic, magnetic, optical, electromagnetic, infrared, or semi
stored in a computer readable medium that can direct a com
conductor system, apparatus, or device, or any suitable com
puter, other programmable data processing apparatus, or
bination of the foregoing. More speci?c examples (a non
exhaustive list) of the computer readable storage medium
These computer program instructions may also be
other devices to function in a particular manner, such that the
would include the following: an electrical connection having
instructions stored in the computer readable medium produce
an article of manufacture including instructions which imple
one or more wires, a portable computer diskette, a hard disk,
a random access memory (RAM), a read-only memory
ment the function/ act speci?ed in the ?owchart and/ or block
diagram block or blocks.
(ROM), an erasable programmable read-only memory
(EPROM or Flash memory), an optical ?ber, a portable com
[0101] The computer program instructions may also be
loaded onto a computer, other programmable data processing
pact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM), an optical storage
apparatus, or other devices to cause a series of operational
device, a magnetic storage device, or any suitable combina
tion of the foregoing. In the context of this document, a
computer readable storage medium may be any tangible
steps to be performed on the computer, other programmable
apparatus or other devices to produce a computer imple
mented process such that the instructions which execute on
connection with an instruction execution system, apparatus,
the computer or other programmable apparatus provide pro
cesses for implementing the functions/acts speci?ed in the
or device.
?owchart and/or block diagram block or blocks.
[0096]
embodied therein, for example, in baseband or as part of a
carrier wave. Such a propagated signal may take any of a
[0102] The ?owchart and block diagrams in the Figures
illustrate the architecture, functionality, and operation of pos
sible implementations of systems, methods and computer
program products according to various embodiments of the
variety of forms, including, but not limited to, electro-mag
present invention. In this regard, each block in the ?owchart
netic, optical, or any suitable combination thereof. A com
or block diagrams may represent a module, segment, or por
medium that can contain, or store a program for use by or in
A computer readable signal medium may include a
propagated data signal with computer readable program code
Oct. 24, 2013
US 2013/0283145 A1
text unit is selected from the group comprising a Word, a
line, a paragraph and a page.
tion of code, Which comprises one or more executable
instructions for implementing the speci?ed logical function
(s). It should also be noted that, in some alternative imple
7. The method of claim 6, Wherein the step of determining
mentations, the functions noted in the block may occur out of
the ?rst reading time it takes the user to read a number of text
the order noted in the ?gures. For example, tWo blocks shoWn
in succession may, in fact, be executed substantially concur
units comprises:
rently, or the blocks may sometimes be executed in the reverse
order, depending upon the functionality involved. It Will also
be noted that each block of the block diagrams and/ or How
chart illustration, and combinations of blocks in the block
diagrams and/ or ?owchart illustration, can be implemented
by special purpose hardWare-based systems that perform the
speci?ed functions or acts, or combinations of special pur
pose hardWare and computer instructions.
1. A method of approximating a ?nal reading position in an
electronic document, comprising:
determining (116) a reading speed of a user reading the
electronic document;
approximating (120) said ?nal reading position on the most
recently accessed page of the electronic document using
the determined reading speed; and
digitally storing (122) the approximated ?nal reading posi
tion for retrieval by a computer adapted to display the
electronic document.
2. The method of claim 1, Wherein said digitally storing
step comprises storing the approximated ?nal reading posi
determining a second reading time it takes to read a par
ticular page; and
discarding (114) said second reading time and said page
from determining said page processing speed of if the
further amount of time exceeds a de?ned threshold.
8. The method of claim 1, Wherein the electronic document
contains different types of content, Wherein the step of deter
mining the reading speed comprises determining (116) the
reading speed of each of said types of content for said user.
9. The method of claim 8, Wherein the most recently
accessed page of the electronic document comprises at least
tWo of said types of content, and Wherein the step (120) of
approximating the ?nal reading position comprises determin
ing a Weighted reading speed based on the respective reading
speeds of said at least tWo types of content.
10. The method of claim 1, Wherein said approximating
step (120) comprises approximating the ?nal reading position
from the reading speed and the display time of the most
recently accessed page.
11. The method of claim 1, Wherein said approximating
tion on an electronic repository that can be accessed by said
step (120) comprises determining said ?nal reading position
computer over a netWork.
from an initial reading position of the electronic document.
3. The method of claim 1, Wherein the approximating step
(122) is triggered by a signal indicating that the user has
12. The method of claim 1, further comprising periodically
repeating the step (116) of determining a reading speed to
interrupted reading (202) the electronic document.
capture changes in said reading speed.
4. The method of claim 3, Wherein said signal is generated
13. A method of displaying an electronic document com
by a sensor of the electronic device on Which the electronic
prising an approximated ?nal reading position associated
document is displayed.
5. The method of claim 3, further comprising:
thereWith in accordance With the method of claim 1, compris
interrupting (204) the determining of said reading speed in
response to said signal; and
resuming the determining (116) of said reading speed in
response to a further signal indicating that the user has
resumed reading the electronic document.
6. The method of claim 1, Wherein the step of determining
a reading speed of a reader of the electronic document com
prises determining a text unit processing rate, Wherein deter
mining a text unit processing rate comprises the steps of:
determining a ?rst reading time it takes the user to read a
number of text units; and
determining the text unit processing rate by dividing said
number of pages by said amount of time, Wherein said
ing:
displaying (406) the page of the electronic document com
prising the approximated ?nal reading position such that
the approximated ?nal reading position is positioned in
a de?ned region of a display screen of said computer.
14. A computer program product comprising a computer
readable storage medium having computer-readable program
code, When executed on a computer, causing the computer to
implement the steps of the method of claim 1.
15. A system (500) comprising a processor (510) and the
computer program product of claim 14, Wherein the processor
is adapted to execute said program code.
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