W311/321/341 Linux User`s Manual v5

W311/321/341 Linux User`s Manual v5
W311/321/341 Linux
User’s Manual
Fifth Edition, January 2009
www.moxa.com/product
© 2009 Moxa Inc. All rights reserved.
Reproduction without permission is prohibited.
W311/321/341 Linux
User’s Manual
The software described in this manual is furnished under a license agreement and may be used only in
accordance with the terms of that agreement.
Copyright Notice
Copyright © 2009 Moxa Inc.
All rights reserved.
Reproduction without permission is prohibited.
Trademarks
MOXA is a registered trademark of Moxa Inc.
All other trademarks or registered marks in this manual belong to their respective manufacturers.
Disclaimer
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on the
part of Moxa.
Moxa provides this document “as is,” without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including, but
not limited to, its particular purpose. Moxa reserves the right to make improvements and/or changes to this
manual, or to the products and/or the programs described in this manual, at any time.
Information provided in this manual is intended to be accurate and reliable. However, Moxa assumes no
responsibility for its use, or for any infringements on the rights of third parties that may result from its use.
This product might include unintentional technical or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the
information herein to correct such errors, and these changes are incorporated into new editions of the
publication.
Technical Support Contact Information
www.moxa.com/support
Moxa Americas:
Toll-free: 1-888-669-2872
Tel: +1-714-528-6777
Fax: +1-714-528-6778
Moxa China (Shanghai office):
Toll-free: 800-820-5036
Tel: +86-21-5258-9955
Fax: +86-10-6872-3958
Moxa Europe:
Tel: +49-89-3 70 03 99-0
Fax: +49-89-3 70 03 99-99
Moxa Asia-Pacific:
Tel: +886-2-8919-1230
Fax: +886-2-8919-1231
Table of Contents
Chapter 1
Introduction ..................................................................................................1-1
Overview.................................................................................................................................. 1-2
Software Architecture .............................................................................................................. 1-2
Journaling Flash File System (JFFS2) .......................................................................... 1-3
Software Package ......................................................................................................... 1-4
Chapter 2
Getting Started .............................................................................................2-1
Powering on the W311/321/341............................................................................................... 2-2
Connecting the W311/321/341 to a PC.................................................................................... 2-2
Serial Console............................................................................................................... 2-2
Telnet Console.............................................................................................................. 2-3
SSH Console................................................................................................................. 2-4
Configuring the Ethernet Interface .......................................................................................... 2-5
Modifying Network Settings with the Serial Console .................................................. 2-5
Modifying Network Settings over the Network............................................................ 2-6
Configuring the WLAN ........................................................................................................... 2-7
IEEE802.11a/b/g........................................................................................................... 2-7
Using WPA_SUPPLICANT to Support WPA and WPA2.......................................................2-11
SD Slot and USB for Storage Expansion................................................................................2-11
Test Program—Developing Hello.c ....................................................................................... 2-13
Installing the Tool Chain (Linux) ............................................................................... 2-13
Checking the Flash Memory Space ............................................................................ 2-14
Compiling Hello.c ...................................................................................................... 2-14
Uploading and Running the “Hello” Program ............................................................ 2-15
Developing Your First Application ........................................................................................ 2-15
Testing Environment .................................................................................................. 2-15
Compiling tcps2.c....................................................................................................... 2-16
Uploading and Running the “tcps2-release” Program ................................................ 2-17
Testing Procedure Summary....................................................................................... 2-19
Chapter 3
Managing Embedded Linux ........................................................................3-1
System Version Information..................................................................................................... 3-2
System Image Backup.............................................................................................................. 3-2
Upgrading the Firmware............................................................................................... 3-2
Loading Factory Defaults ............................................................................................. 3-5
Backing Up the User Directory .................................................................................... 3-5
Deploying the User Directory to Additional W311/321/341 Units .............................. 3-6
Enabling and Disabling Daemons............................................................................................ 3-6
Setting the Run-Level .............................................................................................................. 3-8
Adjusting the System Time ...................................................................................................... 3-9
Setting the Time Manually ........................................................................................... 3-9
NTP Client.................................................................................................................. 3-10
Updating the Time Automatically .............................................................................. 3-10
Cron—Daemon to Execute Scheduled Commands ................................................................3-11
Chapter 4
Managing Communications ........................................................................4-1
Telnet / FTP ............................................................................................................................. 4-2
DNS ......................................................................................................................................... 4-2
Web Service—Apache ............................................................................................................. 4-3
Installing PHP for Apache Web Server .................................................................................... 4-4
IPTABLES ............................................................................................................................... 4-7
NAT.........................................................................................................................................4-11
NAT Example............................................................................................................. 4-11
Enabling NAT at Bootup ............................................................................................ 4-12
Dial-up Service—PPP............................................................................................................ 4-12
PPPoE .................................................................................................................................... 4-16
NFS (Network File System)................................................................................................... 4-18
Setting up the W311/321/341 as an NFS Client ......................................................... 4-18
Mail........................................................................................................................................ 4-19
SNMP .................................................................................................................................... 4-19
OpenVPN............................................................................................................................... 4-27
Chapter 5
Tool Chains for Application Development.................................................5-1
Linux Tool Chain ..................................................................................................................... 5-2
Steps for Installing the Linux Tool Chain..................................................................... 5-2
Compilation for Applications ....................................................................................... 5-2
On-Line Debugging with GDB..................................................................................... 5-3
Chapter 6
Programmer’s Guide....................................................................................6-1
Flash Memory Map.................................................................................................................. 6-2
Device API............................................................................................................................... 6-2
RTC (Real Time Clock) ........................................................................................................... 6-2
Buzzer ...................................................................................................................................... 6-3
WDT (Watch Dog Timer) ........................................................................................................ 6-3
UART....................................................................................................................................... 6-7
DO ........................................................................................................................................... 6-8
Chapter 7
Software Lock..................................................................................................9
Appendix A System Commands..................................................................................... A-1
busybox (V0.60.4): Linux normal command utility collection............................................... A-1
File manager ................................................................................................................ A-1
Editor ........................................................................................................................... A-1
Network ....................................................................................................................... A-1
Process......................................................................................................................... A-2
Other ............................................................................................................................ A-2
Moxa Special Utilities ................................................................................................. A-2
1
Chapter 1
Introduction
The Moxa W311/321/341 are RISC-based ready-to-run wireless embedded computers with
802.11a/b/g WLAN, one 10/100 Mbps Ethernet port, an internal SD socket, 1/2/4 RS-232/422/485
serial ports, two USB 2.0 hosts, one relay output channel, and pre-installed Linux operating system.
The W311/321/341 offer high performance communication and unlimited storage in a super
compact, palm-size ARM9 box. The W300 Series is the right solution for embedded applications
that are used in hard-to-wire environments and that require a large amount of memory, but that
must be housed in a small space without sacrificing performance.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰ Overview
‰ Software Architecture
¾ Journaling Flash File System (JFFS2)
¾ Software Package
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Introduction
Overview
The W311/321/341 wireless embedded computers support 802.11a/b/g wireless LANs with data
encryption functions, including the common WEP and powerful WPA and WPA2, to establish a
secure transmission tunnel over a WLAN.
W300 Series Embedded Computers use a Moxa ART 192 Mhz RISC CPU. Unlike the X86 CPU,
which uses a CISC design, the RISC architecture and modern semiconductor technology provide
these embedded computers with a powerful computing engine and communication functions, but
without generating a lot of heat. A 16 MB NOR Flash ROM and on-board SDRAM (64 MB for
W341 and 32 MB for W311/321) give you enough memory to install your application software
directly on the embedded computer. In addition, dual LAN ports are built right into the RISC CPU.
This network capability, in combination with the ability to control serial devices, makes the W300
Series ideal as communication platforms for data acquisition and industrial control applications.
The pre-installed Linux operating system (OS) provides an open software operating system for
your software program development. Software written for desktop PCs can be easily ported to the
computer with a GNU cross compiler, without needing to modify the source code. The OS, device
drivers (e.g., serial and buzzer control), and your own applications, can all be stored in the NOR
Flash memory.
Software Architecture
The Linux operating system that is pre-installed in the W311/321/341 follows the standard Linux
architecture, making it easy to accept programs that follow the POSIX standard. Program porting
is done with the GNU Tool Chain provided by Moxa. In addition to Standard POSIX APIs, device
drivers for the USB storage, buzzer and Network controls, and UART are also included in the
Linux OS.
AP
API
OS Kernel
Protocol
Stack
Device
Driver
Microkernel
Hardware
User Application
Daemon (Apache, Telnet, FTPD, SNMP)
Application Interface (POSIX, Socket, Secure Socket)
TCP, IP, UDP, CMP, ARP, HTTP, SNMP, SMTP
PCMCIA, CF, WLAN, USB, UART, RTC, LCM, Keypad
File
System
Memory control, Schedule, Process
RS-232/422/485, Ethernet, PCMCIA, CompactFlash, USB
1-2
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Introduction
The W311/321/341’s built-in Flash ROM is partitioned into Boot Loader, Linux Kernel, Root
File System, and User directory partitions.
In order to prevent user applications from crashing the Root File System, the W311/321/341 use a
specially designed Root File System with Protected Configuration for emergency use. This
Root File System comes with serial and Ethernet communication capability for users to load the
Factory Default Image file. The user directory saves the user’s settings and application.
To improve system reliability, the W311/321/341 have a built-in mechanism that prevents the
system from crashing. When the Linux kernel boots up, the kernel will mount the root file system
for read only, and then enable services and daemons. At the same time, the kernel will start
searching for system configuration parameters via rc or inittab.
Normally, the kernel uses the Root File System to boot up the system. The Root File System is
protected, and cannot be changed by the user. This type of setup creates a “safe” zone.
For more information about the memory map and programming, refer to Chapter 6, Programmer’s
Guide.
Journaling Flash File System (JFFS2)
The Root File System and User directory in the flash memory is formatted with the Journaling
Flash File System (JFFS2). The formatting process places a compressed file system in the flash
memory. This operation is transparent to the user.
The Journaling Flash File System (JFFS2), which was developed by Axis Communications in
Sweden, puts a file system directly on the flash, instead of emulating a block device. It is designed
for use on flash-ROM chips and recognizes the special write requirements of a flash-ROM chip.
JFFS2 implements wear-leveling to extend the life of the flash disk, and stores the flash directory
structure in the RAM. A log-structured file system is maintained at all times. The system is always
consistent, even if it encounters crashes or improper power-downs, and does not require fsck (file
system check) on boot-up.
JFFS2 is the newest version of JFFS. It provides improved wear-leveling and garbage-collection
performance, improved RAM footprint and response to system-memory pressure, improved
concurrency and support for suspending flash erases, marking of bad sectors with continued use of
the remaining good sectors (enhancing the write-life of the devices), native data compression
inside the file system design, and support for hard links.
The key features of JFFS2 are:
y
y
y
y
y
y
Targets the Flash ROM Directly
Robustness
Consistency across power failures
No integrity scan (fsck) is required at boot time after normal or abnormal shutdown
Explicit wear leveling
Transparent compression
Although JFFS2 is a journaling file system, this does not preclude the loss of data. The file system
will remain in a consistent state across power failures and will always be mountable. However, if
the board is powered down during a write then the incomplete write will be rolled back on the next
boot, but writes that have already been completed will not be affected.
Additional information about JFFS2 is available at:
http://sources.redhat.com/jffs2/jffs2.pdf
http://developer.axis.com/software/jffs/
http://www.linux-mtd.infradead.org/
1-3
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Introduction
Software Package
Moxa Boot Loader (v1.2)
Linux 2.6.9
ARP, PPP, CHAP, PAP, IPv4, ICMP, TCP, UDP, DHCP, FTP, SNMP
V1/V3, HTTP, NTP, NFS, SMTP, SSH 1.0/2.0, SSL, Telnet, PPPoE,
OpenVPN
JFFS2, NFS, Ext2, Ext3, VFAT/FAT
File System
OS shell command Bash
Busybox
Linux normal command utility collection
Boot Loader
Kernel
Protocol Stack
Utilities
tinylogin
telnet
ftp
smtpclient
scp
Daemons
pppd
snmpd
telnetd
inetd
ftpd
apache
sshd
openvpn
openssl
Linux Tool Chain
Gcc (V3.3.2)
GDB (V5.3)
Glibc (V2.2.5)
login and user manager utility
telnet client program
FTP client program
email utility
Secure file transfer Client Program
dial in/out over serial port daemon
snmpd agent daemon
telnet server daemon
TCP server manager program
ftp server daemon
web server daemon
secure shell server
virtual private network
open SSL
C/C++ PC Cross Compiler
Source Level Debug Server
POSIX standard C library
1-4
2
Chapter 2
Getting Started
In this chapter, we explain how to connect the W311/321/341, how to turn on the power, how to
get started programming, and how to use the W311/321/341’s other functions.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰ Powering on the W311/321/341
‰ Connecting the W311/321/341 to a PC
¾ Serial Console
¾ Telnet Console
¾ SSH Console
‰ Configuring the Ethernet Interface
¾ Modifying Network Settings with the Serial Console
¾ Modifying Network Settings over the Network
‰ Configuring the WLAN
¾ IEEE802.11a/b/g
‰ Using WPA_SUPPLICANT to Support WPA and WPA2
‰ SD Slot and USB for Storage Expansion
‰ Test Program—Developing Hello.c
¾ Installing the Tool Chain (Linux)
¾ Checking the Flash Memory Space
¾ Compiling Hello.c
¾ Uploading and Running the “Hello” Program
‰ Developing Your First Application
¾ Testing Environment
¾ Compiling tcps2.c
¾ Uploading and Running the “tcps2-release” Program
¾ Testing Procedure Summary
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Powering on the W311/321/341
Connect the SG wire to the shielded contact located in the upper left corner of the W311/321/341,
and then power on the computer by connecting it to the power adaptor. It takes about 30 to 60
seconds for the system to boot up. Once the system is ready, the Ready LED will light up.
NOTE
After connecting the W311/321/341 to the power supply, it will take about 30 to 60 seconds for the
operating system to boot up. The green Ready LED will not turn on until the operating system is
ready.
ATTENTION
This product is intended to be supplied by a Listed Power Unit with output marked “LPS” and
rated for 12-48 VDC, 600 mA (minimum requirements).
Connecting the W311/321/341 to a PC
There are two ways to connect the W311/321/341 to a PC: through the serial console and by Telnet
over the network.
Serial Console
The serial console gives users a convenient way of connecting to the W311/321/341. This method
is particularly useful when using the computer for the first time. The serial console is useful for
connecting the W311/321/341 when you do not know either of the two IP addresses.
Use the serial console port settings shown below.
Baudrate
Parity
Data bits
Stop bits:
Flow Control
Terminal
115200 bps
None
8
1
None
VT100
The following window will open when a connection has been established.
2-2
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
To log in, type the Login name and password as requested. The default values are both root:
Login:
root
Password: root
Telnet Console
If you know at least one of the two IP addresses and netmasks, then you can use Telnet to connect
to the W311/321/341’s console utility. The default IP address and Netmask for each of the two
ports are given below:
LAN 1
WIRLESS LAN
Default IP Address
192.168.3.127
192.168.4.127
Netmask
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
Use a cross-over Ethernet cable to connect directly from your PC to the W311/321/341. You
should first modify your PC’s IP address and netmask so that your PC is on the same subnet as one
of W311/321/341’s two LAN ports. For example, if you connect to LAN 1, you can set your PC’s
IP address to 192.168.3.126 and netmask to 255.255.255.0. If you connect to the WIRLESS LAN,
you can set your PC’s IP address to 192.168.4.126 and netmask to 255.255.255.0 using a wirless
AP router.
Use a straight-through Ethernet cable to connect to a hub or switch that is connected to your local
LAN. The default IP addresses and netmasks are shown above. To log in, type the Login name and
password as requested. The default values are both root:
Login:
root
Password: root
2-3
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
You can proceed with configuring the network settings of the target computer when you reach the
bash command shell. Configuration instructions are given in the next section.
ATTENTION
Serial Console Reminder
Remember to choose VT100 as the terminal type. Use the cable CBL-4PINDB9F-100, which
comes with the W311/321/341, to connect to the serial console port.
Telnet Reminder
When connecting to the W311/321/341 over a LAN, you must configure your PC’s Ethernet IP
address to be on the same subnet as the W341 that you wish to contact. If you do not get
connected on the first try, re-check the serial and IP settings, and then unplug and re-plug the
power cord.
SSH Console
The W311/321/341 support an SSH Console to provide users with better security options.
Windows Users
Click on the link http://www.chiark.greenend.org.uk/~sgtatham/putty/download.html to download
PuTTY (free software) to set up an SSH console for the W311/321/341 in a Windows environment.
The following figure shows a simple example of the configuration that is required.
2-4
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Linux Users
From a Linux machine, use the “ssh” command to access the W311/321/341’s console utility via
SSH.
#ssh 192.168.3.127
Select yes to complete the connection.
[[email protected]_notebook root]# ssh 192.168.3.127
The authenticity of host ‘192.168.3.127 (192.168.3.127)’ can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint is 8b:ee:ff:84:41:25:fc:cd:2a:f2:92:8f:cb:1f:6b:2f.
Are you sure you want to continue connection (yes/no)? yes_
NOTE
SSH provides better security compared to Telnet for accessing the W311/321/341’s console utility
over the network.
Configuring the Ethernet Interface
The network settings of the W311/321/341 can be modified with the serial console port, or online
over the network.
Modifying Network Settings with the Serial Console
In this section, we use the serial console to configure the network settings of the target computer.
1.
Follow the instructions given in a previous section to access the Console Utility of the target
computer via the serial console port, and then type #cd /etc/network to change directories.
2-5
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
2.
Getting Started
Type #vi interfaces to edit the network configuration file with vi editor. You can configure
the Ethernet ports of the W341 for static or dynamic (DHCP) IP addresses.
Static IP addresses
As shown in the table below, 4 network addresses must be modified: address, network,
netmask, and broadcast. The default IP address for LAN1 is 192.168.3.127, with default
netmask of 255.255.255.0.
Dynamic IP addresses
By default, the W311/321/341 are configured for “static” IP addresses. To configure one or
both LAN ports to request an IP address dynamically, replace static with dhcp and then delete
the address, network, netmask, and broadcast lines.
Default Setting for LAN1
iface eth0 inet static
address 192.168.3.127
network: 192.168.3.0
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.3.255
3.
Dynamic Setting using DHCP
iface eth0 inet dhcp
After the boot settings of the LAN interface have been modified, issue the following
command to activate the LAN settings immediately:
#/etc/init.d/networking restart
NOTE
After changing the IP settings, use the networking restart command to activate the new IP address.
Modifying Network Settings over the Network
IP settings can be activated over the network, but the new settings will not be saved to the flash
ROM without modifying the file /etc/network/interfaces.
For example, type the command #ifconfig
to 192.168.1.1.
2-6
eth0 192.168.1.1
to change the IP address of LAN1
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Configuring the WLAN
IEEE802.11a/b/g
Use one of the following options to configure the WLAN for IEEE802.11a/b/g:
1.
Using the config file to set up your wireless system
The config file is /etc/wireless.conf. The config file is read by the OS when the
W311/321/341 unit boots up. You may also use the load_wlan command to force your
wireless to run the config file and set up your wireless LAN card after the W311/321/341 unit
is already up and running. The /etc/wireless.conf file format is shown below:
/etc/wireless.conf Format:
DEVICE=eth1
MODE=managed ESSID=any
KEY=any
/etc/wireless.conf Item list:
DEVICE Æ indicates your wireless interface
MODE Æ indicates your wireless mode, such as ad-hoc, managed, master
ESSID Æ indicates your wireless ESSID NAME
KEY Æ indicates your wireless WEP key
CHANNEL Æ indicates your wireless channel setting
MACMODE Æ indicates your wireless macmode setting, such as 1 (mixed mode), 2
(pure_g_mode), 3 (pure_b_mode), 4 (pure_a_mode)
REGION Æ indicates your wireless country region setting
WIRELESS_SUPPLICANT Æ If set to Y, load_wlan will call /etc/init.d/wpa.sh and open
wireless WPA and WPA2
MOXA_REPEAT Æ If set to Y, load_wlan will call ipriv eth1 set_moxa_repeat to establish
ad-hoc mode using repeat function
If you want to use WPA and WPA2, please refer to the subsection “Using
WPA_SUPPLICANT to Support WPA and WPA2” on page 2-11.
2-7
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
2.
Getting Started
Use the command #vi /etc/networking/interfaces to open the
“interfaces”configuration file with vi editor, and then edit the 802.11g network settings
Static IP addresses:
As shown in the table below, 4 network addresses need to be modified: address, network,
netmask, and broadcast. The default WIRLESS LAN IP address is 192.168.4.127.
Dynamic IP addresses:
By default, the W311/321/341 are configured for “static” IP addresses. To configure one or
both LAN ports to request an IP address dynamically, replace static with dhcp and then delete
the address, network, netmask, and broadcast lines.
Default Setting for WIRLESS LAN
iface eth1 inet static
address 192.168.4.127
network: 192.168.4.0
netmask 255.255.255.0
broadcast 192.168.4.255
Dynamic Setting using DHCP
iface eth1 inet dhcp
After the boot settings of the LAN interface have been modified, issue the following
command to activate the LAN settings immediately:
#/etc/init.d/networking restart
3.
Using iwconfig / iwpriv Utility to set up the wireless configuration
Using iwpriv eth1 essid ESSIDNAME
iwconfig eth1 essid ESSIDNAME Æ set up wireless essid
iwconfig eth1 key KEYVALUE open Æ set up wireless wep key
iwconfig eth1 mode infra Æ set up wireless mode
CountryRegion—Sets the channels for your particular country / region
Using iwpriv eth1 set_Region REGION
REGION
1 (USA) (default)
2 (Taiwan/Europe)
3 (France)
4 (Japan)
5 (Israel)
6 (Mexico)
Explanation
Use 802.11g channels 1 to 11
Use 802.11g channels 1 to 13
Use 802.11g channels 10 to 13
Use 802.11g channels 1 to 14
Use 802.11g channels 3 to 9
Use 802.11g channels 10 , 11
WirelessMode—Sets the wireless mode
Using iwpriv eth1 set_mac_mode Setting
Note: infrastruct just support mixed/a mode; Ad-hoc support b/g/a mode
Setting
1 (default)
2
3
4
Explanation
11a/mixed(b.g)
11g only
11b only
11a only
2-8
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
SSID—Sets the softAP SSID
Using iwconfig eth1 essid Setting
Setting
Any 32-byte string
NetworkType—Sets the wireless operation mode
Using iwconfig eth1 mode Setting
Setting
managed
ad-hoc
Explanation
Infrastructure mode (uses access points to transmit data)
Adhoc mode (transmits data from host to host)
Channel—Sets the channel
Using iwconfig eth1 channel Setting
Note: Infrastruct couldn’t set channel
Freq—Sets the channel frequence
Using iwconfig eth1 freq Setting(G,M,K)
Note: Infrastruct couldn’t set freq
802.11b,g Channel and Frequency Table
Channel
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
Freqence
2412 (K)
2417 (K)
2422 (K)
2427 (K)
2432 (K)
2437 (K)
2442 (K)
2447 (K)
2452 (K)
2457 (K)
2462 (K)
2467 (K)
2472 (K)
2484 (K)
802.11a Channel and Frequency Table
Channel
36
40
44
48
52
56
Freqence
5180 (K)
5200 (K)
5220 (K)
5240 (K)
5260 (K)
5280 (K)
2-9
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
60
64
100
104
108
112
116
120
124
128
132
136
140
184
188
192
196
8
12
16
34
38
42
46
149
153
157
161
165
Getting Started
5300 (K)
5320 (K)
5500 (K)
5520 (K)
5540 (K)
5560 (K)
5580 (K)
5600 (K)
5620 (K)
5640 (K)
5660 (K)
5680 (K)
5700 (K)
4920 (K)
4940 (K)
4960 (K)
4980 (K)
5040 (K)
5060 (K)
5080 (K)
5170 (K)
5190 (K)
5210 (K)
5230 (K)
5745 (K)
5765 (K)
5785 (K)
5805 (K)
5825 (K)
AuthMode—Sets the authentication mode
Using iwpriv eth1 set_auth Setting
Setting
0
1
2
Explanation
OPEN
SHARED
AUTO (default)
KeyStr—Sets Key Support string key and hex key
Encryp Type—Just Support NONE, WEP64 and WEP128 depend on your key length
Using iwpriv eth1 key s:KEYVALUE (open) Æ support string key
Using iwpriv eth1 key KEYVALUE (open) Æ support hex key
2-10
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
RTSThreshold—Sets the RTS threshold
Using iwpriv eth1 rts Setting
Setting
1 to 2347
FragThreshold—Sets the fragment threshold
Using iwpriv eth1 frag Setting
Setting
256 to 2346
Moxa Repeat—Sets the Repeat function through adhoc method
Using iwpriv eth1 set_moxa_repeat
Using WPA_SUPPLICANT to Support WPA and WPA2
This embedded computer supports the WPA and WPA2 functions using the /bin/wpa_supplicant
program. We wrote a shell script to help you use this function:
Step 1:
Edit the ssid and psk variables in the file etc/wpa_supplicant.conf.
network={
ssid=”12345678901”
key_mgmt=WPA-PSK
proto=WPA RSN
pairwise=TKIP CCMP
group=TKIP CCMP
psk=”0987654321234”
}
Step 2:
Type /etc/init.d/wpa.sh
eth1 start
/etc/init.d/wpa.sh eth1 stop
to enable this function. To stop the function, type
SD Slot and USB for Storage Expansion
The W311/321/341 provide an SD slot for storage expansion. Moxa provides an SD flash disk for
plug & play expansion that allows users to plug in a Secure Digital (SD) memory card compliant
with the SD standard V1.0 for up to 1 GB of additional memory space. The following steps show
you how to install SD card into the W311/321/341.
W311/321
The SD slot is located on the right side of the W311/321 enclosure. To install an SD card, you
must first remove the SD slot’s protective cover to access the slot, and then plug the SD card
directly into the slot.
2-11
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
The SD card will be mounted at /mnt/sd. Detailed installation instructions are shown below:
Step 1: Use a screwdriver to remove the
screws holding the SD slot’s outer cover.
Step 2: After removing the cover, insert the
SD memory card as shown.
W341
The SD slot is located on the front panel of the W341. To install an SD card, you must first remove
the SD slot’s protective cover to access the slot, and then plug the SD card directly into the slot.
The SD card will be mounted at /mnt/sd. Detailed installation instructions are shown below:
Step 1: Use a screwdriver to remove the
screws holding the SD slot’s outer cover,
and then remove the cover.
Step 2: Insert the SD memory card as shown.
NOTE: To remove the SD card from the slot, press the SD card in slightly with your finger, and
then remove your finger to cause the card to spring out partially. You may now grasp the top of the
card with two fingers and pull it out.
Before removing the SD card, remember to type /sync to ensure that your data has been written.
In addition to the SD socket, two USB 2.0 ports are located on the W341’s upper panel. The USB
host is also designed for storage expansion. To use a USB flash disk to expand the storage space,
plug the USB flash disk into the USB port. The flash disk will be detected automatically, and its
file partition will be mounted into the OS. The USB storage will be mounted in one of four
directories: /mnt/usbstorage1, /mnt/usbstorage2, /mnt/usbstorage3, or /mnt/usbstorage4.
2-12
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Test Program—Developing Hello.c
In this section, we use the standard “Hello” programming example to illustrate how to develop a
program for the W311/321/341. In general, program development involves the following seven
steps.
Step 1:
Connect the W311/321/341 to a Linux PC.
Step 2:
Install Tool Chain (GNU Cross Compiler & glibc).
Step 3:
Set the cross compiler and glibc environment
variables.
Step 4:
Code and compile the program.
Step 5:
Download the program to the W311/321/341 using
FTP or NFS.
Step 6:
Debug the program
Æ If bugs are found, return to Step 4.
Æ If no bugs are found, continue with Step 7.
Step 7:
Back up the user directory (distribute the program to
additional W311/321/341 units if needed).
x86
Cross
Compiler
Installing the Tool Chain (Linux)
The Linux Operating System must be pre-installed in the PC before installing the W311/321/341
GNU Tool Chain. Fedora core or compatible versions are recommended. The Tool Chain requires
approximately 100 MB of hard disk space on your PC. The W311/321/341 Tool Chain software is
located on the W311/321/341 CD. To install the Tool Chain, insert the CD into your PC and then
issue the following commands:
#mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
#sh /mnt/cdrom/tool-chain/linux/install.sh
The Tool Chain will be installed automatically on your Linux PC within a few minutes. Before
compiling the program, be sure to set the following path first, since the Tool Chain files, including
the compiler, link, library, and include files are located in this directory.
PATH=/usr/local/arm-linux/bin:$PATH
Setting the path allows you to run the compiler from any directory.
NOTE
Refer to Appendix B for an introduction to the Windows Tool Chain. In this chapter, we use the
Linux tool chain to illustrate the cross compiling process.
2-13
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Checking the Flash Memory Space
If the flash memory is full, you will not be able to save data to the Flash ROM. Use the following
command to calculate the amount of “Available” flash memory:
/>df –h
If there isn’t enough “Available” space for your application, you will need to delete some existing
files. To do this, connect your PC to the W311/321/341 with the console cable, and then use the
console utility to delete the files from the W311/321/341’s flash memory. To check the amount of
free space available, look at the directories in the read/write directory /dev/mtdblock3. Note that
the directories /home and /etc are both mounted on the directory /dev/mtdblock3.
NOTE
If the flash memory is full, you will need to free up some memory space before saving files to the
Flash ROM.
Compiling Hello.c
The package CD contains several example programs. Here we use Hello.c as an example to show
you how to compile and run your applications. Type the following commands from your PC to
copy the files used for this example from the CD to your computer’s hard drive:
# cd /tmp/
# mkdir example
# cp –r /mnt/cdrom/example/* /tmp/example
To compile the program, go to the Hello subdirectory and issue the following commands:
#cd example/hello #make
You should receive the following response:
[[email protected] hello]# make
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc –o hello-release hello.c
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-strip –s hello-release
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc –ggdb -o hello-debug hello.c
[[email protected] hello]# _
Next, execute make to generate hello-release and hello-debug, which are described below:
hello-release—an ARM platform execution file (created specifically to run on the W311/321/341)
hello-debug—an ARM platform GDB debug server execution file (see Chapter 5 for details about
the GDB debug tool).
2-14
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
NOTE
Getting Started
Since Moxa’s tool chain places a specially designed Makefile in the directory
/tmp/example/hello, be sure to type the #make command from within that directory. This special
Makefile uses the mxscale-gcc compiler to compile the hello.c source code for the Xscale
environment. If you type the #make command from within any other directory, Linux will use the
x86 compiler (for example, cc or gcc).
Refer to Chapter 5 to see a Makefile example.
Uploading and Running the “Hello” Program
Use the following commands to upload hello-release to the W311/321/341 by FTP.
1.
From the PC, type:
#ftp 192.168.3.127
2.
Use the bin command to set the transfer mode to Binary mode, and then use the put command
to initiate the file transfer:
ftp> bin
ftp> cd /home
ftp> put hello-release
3.
From the W311/321/341, type:
# chmod +x hello-release
# ./hello-release
The word Hello will be printed on the screen.
[email protected]:~# ./hello-release
Hello
Developing Your First Application
We use the tcps2 example to illustrate how to build an application. The procedure outlined in the
following subsections will show you how to build a TCP server program plus serial port
communication that runs on the W311/321/341.
Testing Environment
The tcps2 example demonstrates a simple application program that delivers transparent,
bi-directional data transmission between the W311/321/341’s serial and Ethernet ports. As
illustrated in the following figure, the purpose of this application is to transfer data between PC 1
and the W311/321/341 through an RS-232 connection. At the remote site, data can be transferred
between the W311/321/341’s Ethernet port and PC 2 over an Ethernet connection.
2-15
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
PC 1
PC 2
RS-232
LAN
tcps2.c
Read serial data
Write data to PC1
Serial Rx
Buffer
LAN Rx
Buffer
Send data to PC2
Receive LAN data
Compiling tcps2.c
The source code for the tcps2 example is located on the CD-ROM at
CD-ROM://example/TCPServer2/tcps2.c. Use the following commands to copy the file to a
specific directory on your PC. We use the direrctory /home/w341/1st_application/. Note that you
need to copy 3 files—Makefile, tcps2.c, tcpsp.c—from the CD-ROM to the target directory.
#mount –t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
#cp /mnt/cdrom/example/TCPServer2/tcps2.c/home/w341/1st_application/tcps2.c
#cp /mnt/cdrom/example/TCPServer2/tcpsp.c/home/w341/1st_application/tcpsp.c
#cp /mnt/cdrom/example/TCPServer2/Makefile.c/home/w341/1st_application/Makefile
Type #make to compile the example code:
You will get the following response, indicating that the example program was compiled
successfully.
[email protected]:/home/w341/1st_application
[[email protected] 1st_application]# pwd
/home/w341/1st_application
[[email protected] 1st_application]# 11
total 20
-rw-r—r-- 1 root root 514 Nov 27 11:52 Makefile
-rw-r—r-- 1 root root 4554 Nov 27 11:52 tcps2.c
-rw-r—r-- 1 root root 6164 Nov 27 11:55 tcps2.c
[[email protected] 1st_application]# make_
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc -o tcps2-release tcps2.c
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-strip –s tcps2-release
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc -o tcpsp-release tcpsp.c
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-strip –s tcpsp-release
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc –ggdb -o tcps2-debug tcps2.c
/usr/local/arm-linux/bin/arm-linux-gcc –ggdb -o tcpsp-debug tcpsp.c
[[email protected] 1st_application]# 11
total 92
-rw-r—-r-- 1 root root
514 Nov 27 11:52 Makefile
-rwxr-xr—x 1 root root 25843 Nov 27 12:03 tcps2-debug
-rwxr—xr-x 1 root root 4996 Nov 27 12:03 tcps2-release
-rw-r—-r-- 1 root root 4554 Nov 27 11:52 tcps2.c
-rwxr—xr-x 1 root root 26823 Nov 27 12:03 tcpsp-debug
-rwxr—xr-x 1 root root 5396 Nov 27 12:03 tcpsp-release
-rw-r—-r-- 1 root root 6164 Nov 27 11:55 tcpsp.c
[[email protected] 1st_application]#
2-16
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
Two executable files, tcps2-release and tcps2-debug, are created.
tcps2-release—an ARM platform execution file (created specifically to run on the
W311/321/341).
tcps2-debug—an ARM platform GDB debug server execution file (see Chapter 5 for details about
the GDB debug tool).
NOTE
If you get an error message at this point, it could be because you neglected to put tcps2.c and
tcpsp.c in the same directory. The example Makefile we provide is set up to compile both tcps2
and tcpsp into the same project Makefile. Alternatively, you could modify the Makefile to suit
your particular requirements.
Uploading and Running the “tcps2-release” Program
Use the following commands to upload tcps2-release to the W311/321/341 through an FTP
connection.
1.
From the PC, type:
#ftp 192.168.3.127
2.
Next, use the bin command to set the transfer mode to Binary, and the put command to
initiate the file transfer:
ftp> bin
ftp> cd /home
ftp> put tcps2-release
[email protected]:/home/w341/1st_application
[[email protected] 1st_application]# ftp 192.168.3.127
Connected to 192.168.3.127 220
Moxa FTP server (Version wu-2.6.1(2) Mon Nov 24 12:17:04 CST 2003) ready.
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
530 Please login with USER and PASS.
KERBEROS_V4 rejected as an authentication type
Name (192.168.3.127:root): root
331 Password required for root.
Password:
230 User root logged in.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> bin
200 Type set to I.
ftp> put tcps2-release
local: tcps2-release remote: tcps2-release
277 Entering Passive Mode (192.168.3.127.82.253)
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for tcps2-release.
226 Transfer complete
4996 bytes sent in 0.00013 seconds (3.9e+04 Kbytes/s)
ftp> ls
227 Entering Passive Mode (192.168.3.127.106.196)
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for /bin/ls.
-rw------1 root
root
899 Jun 10 08:11 bash_history
-rw-r--r-1 root
root
4996 Jun 12 02:15 tcps2-release
226 Transfer complete
ftp>
2-17
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
3.
Getting Started
From the W311/321/341, type:
# chmod +x tcps2-release
# ./tcps2-release &
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# ls –al
drwxr—xr-x 2 root root
0 Jun 12
drwxr—xr-x 15 root root
0 Jan 1
-rw------- 1 root root
899 Jun 10
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root
4996 Jun 12
[email protected]:~# chmod +x tcps2-release
[email protected]:~# ls –al
drwxr—xr-x 2 root root
0 Jun 12
drwxr—xr-x 15 root root
0 Jan 1
-rw------- 1 root root
899 Jun 10
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root
4996 Jun 12
[email protected]:~#
4.
02:14
1970
08:11 .bash_history
02:15 tcps2-release
02:14
1970
08:11 .bash_history
02:15 tcps2-release
The program should start running in the background. Use the #ps
the tcps2 program is actually running in the background.
–ef
#ps // use this command to check if the program is running
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# ls –al
drwxr—xr-x 2 root root
0 Jun 12
drwxr—xr-x 15 root root
0 Jan 1
-rw------- 1 root root
899 Jun 10
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root
4996 Jun 12
[email protected]:~# chmod +x tcps2-release
[email protected]:~# ls –al
drwxr—xr-x 2 root root
0 Jun 12
drwxr—xr-x 15 root root
0 Jan 1
-rw------- 1 root root
899 Jun 10
-rwxr-xr-x 1 root root
4996 Jun 12
[email protected]:~# ./tcps2-release &
[1] 187
Start
[email protected]:~# ps
[1]+ Running
./tcps2-release &
[email protected]:~#
NOTE
02:14
1970
08:11 .bash_history
02:15 tcps2-release
02:14
1970
08:11 .bash_history
02:15 tcps2-release
Use the kill command for job number 1 to terminate this program: #kill
2-18
%1
command to check if
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
#ps -ef // use this command to check if the program is running
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[1]+ Running
./tcps2-release &
[email protected]:~# ps –ef
PID Uid
VmSize Stat Command
1 root
532 S
init [3]
2 root
SWN [ksoftirqd/0]
3 root
SW< [events/0]
4 root
SW< [khelper]
13 root
SW< [kblockd/0]
14 root
SW [khubd]
24 root
SW [pdflush]
25 root
SW [pdflush]
27 root
SW< [aio/0]
26 root
SW [kswapd0]
604 root
SW [mtdblockd]
609 root
SW [pccardd]
611 root
SW [pccardd]
625 root
SWN [jffs2_gcd_mtd3]
673 root
500 S
/bin/inetd
679 root
3004 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
682 bin
380 S
/bin/portmap
685 root
1176 S
/bin/sh –login
690 root
464 S
/bin/snmpd
694 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
695 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
696 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
697 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
698 nobody
3012 S
/usr/bin/httpd -k
701 root
352 S
/bin/reportip
714 root
1176 S
-bash
726 root
436 S
/bin/telnetd
727 root
1164 S
-bash
728 root
1264 S ./tcps2-release
729 root
1592 S ps –ef
[email protected]:~#
NOTE
Use the kill
-9
start -d /etc/apache
start
start
start
start
start
-d
-d
-d
-d
-d
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
command for PID 728 to terminate this program: #kill
-9 %728
Testing Procedure Summary
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Compile tcps2.c (#make).
Upload and run tcps2-release in the background (#./tcps2-release &).
Check that the process is running (#jobs or #ps -ef).
Use a serial cable to connect PC1 to the W311/321/341’s serial port 1.
Use an Ethernet cable to connect PC2 to the W311/321/341.
On PC1: If running Windows, use HyperTerminal (38400, n, 8, 1) to open COMn.
On PC2: Type #telnet 192.168.3.127 4001.
On PC1: Type some text on the keyboard and then press Enter.
On PC2: The text you typed on PC1 will appear on PC2’s screen.
2-19
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Getting Started
The testing environment is illustrated in the following figure. However, note that there are
limitations to the example program tcps2.c.
PC 1
PC 2
RS-232
LAN
tcps2.c
Read serial data
Write data to PC1
NOTE
Serial Rx
Buffer
Send data to PC2
LAN Rx
Buffer
Receive LAN data
The tcps2.c application is a simple example designed to give users a basic understanding of the
concepts involved in combining Ethernet communication and serial port communication.
However, the example program has some limitations that make it unsuitable for real-life
applications.
1. The serial port is in canonical mode and block mode, making it impossible to send data from
the Ethernet side to the serial side (i.e., from PC 2 to PC 1 in the above example).
2. The Ethernet side will not accept multiple connections.
2-20
3
Chapter 3
Managing Embedded Linux
This chapter includes information about version control, deployment, updates, and peripherals.
The information in this chapter will be particularly useful when you need to run the same
application on several W311/321/341 units.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰ System Version Information
‰ System Image Backup
¾ Upgrading the Firmware
¾ Loading Factory Defaults
¾ Backing Up the User Directory
¾ Deploying the User Directory to Additional W311/321/341 Units
‰ Enabling and Disabling Daemons
‰ Setting the Run-Level
‰ Adjusting the System Time
¾ Setting the Time Manually
¾ NTP Client
¾ Updating the Time Automatically
‰ Cron—Daemon to Execute Scheduled Commands
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
System Version Information
To determine the hardware capability of your W311/321/341, and what kind of software functions
are supported, check the version numbers of your W311/321/341’s hardware, kernel, and user file
system. Contact Moxa to determine the hardware version. You will need the Production S/N
(Serial number), which is located on the W311/321/341’s bottom label.
To check the kernel version, type:
#kversion
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~#
kversion Version 1.0
[email protected]:~#
NOTE
The kernel version number is for the factory default configuration. You may download the latest
firmware version from Moxa’s website and then upgrade the W311/321/341’s hardware.
System Image Backup
Upgrading the Firmware
The W311/321/341’s bios, kernel, and root file system are combined into one firmware file, which
can be downloaded from Moxa’s website www.moxa.com). The name of the file has the form
w341-x.x.x.frm, with “x.x.x” indicating the firmware version. To upgrade the firmware, download
the firmware file to a PC, and then transfer the file to the W311/321/341 using a console port or
Telnet console connection.
ATTENTION
Upgrading the firmware will erase all data on the Flash ROM
If you are using the ramdisk to store code for your applications, beware that updating the
firmware will erase all of the data on the Flash ROM. You should back up your application files
and data before updating the firmware.
Since different Flash disks have different sizes, it is a good idea to check the size of your Flash
disk before upgrading the firmware, or before using the disk to store your application and data
files. Use the #df –h command to list the size of each memory block and how much free space is
available in each block.
3-2
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# df –h
Filesystem
Size
Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mtdblock2 8.0M
6.0M
2.0M
75% /
/dev/ram0
499.0k
16.0k
458.0k
3% /var
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /tmp
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /home
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /etc
tmpfs
30.4M
0
30.4M
0% /dev/shm
[email protected]:~# upramdisk
[email protected]:~# df –h
Filesystem
Size
Used Available Use% Mounted on
/dev/mtdblock2 8.0M
6.0M
2.0M
75% /
/dev/ram0
499.0k
16.0k
458.0k
3% /var
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /tmp
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /home
/dev/mtdblock3 6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8% /etc
tmpfs
30.4M
0
30.4M
0% /dev/shm
/dev/ram1
16.0M
1.0k
15.1M
0% /mnt/ramdisk
[email protected]:~# cd /mnt/ramdisk
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk#
The following instructions give the steps required to save the firmware file to the W311/321/341’s
RAM disk and how to upgrade the firmware.
1.
Type the following commands to enable the RAM disk:
#upramdisk
#cd /mnt/ramdisk
2.
Type the following commands to use the W311/321/341’s built-in FTP client to transfer the
firmware file (W341-x.x.x.frm) from the PC to the W311/321/341:
/mnt/ramdisk> ftp <destination PC’s IP> Login Name: xxxx
Login Password: xxxx
ftp> bin
ftp> get -x.x.x.frm
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# ftp 192.168.3.193
Connected to 192.168.3.193 (192.168.3.193).
220 TYPSoft FTP Server 1.10 ready…
Name (192.168.3.193:root): root
331 Password required for root.
Password:
230 User root logged in.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> cd newsw
250 CWD command successful. “/C:/ftproot/newsw/” is current directory.
ftp> bin
200 Type set to I.
ftp> ls
200 Port command successful.
150 Opening data connection for directory list.
drw-rw-rw1 ftp ftp
0 Nov 30 10:03 .
drw-rw-rw1 ftp ftp
0 Nov 30 10:03 .
-rw-rw-rw1 ftp ftp 13167772 Nov 29 10:24 w3xx-1.0.frm
226 Transfer complete.
ftp> get w3xx-1.0.frm
local: ia240-1.0.frm remote: w3xx-1.0.frm
200 Port command successful.
150 Opening data connection for w3xx-1.0.frm
226 Transfer complete.
13167772 bytes received in 2.17 secs (5925.8 kB/s)
ftp>
3-3
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
3.
Managing Embedded Linux
Next, for W321 and W341, use the upfirm command to upgrade the kernel and root file
system.
#upfirm w3xx-x.x.x.frm
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# upfirm w3xx-1.0.frm
Moxa w3xx upgrade firmware utility version 1.0.
To check source firmware file context.
The source firmware file conext is OK.
This step will destroy all your firmware.
Continue ? (Y/N) : Y
Now upgrade the file [kernel].
Format MTD device [/dev/mtd1] . . .
MTD device [/dev/mtd1] erase 128 Kibyte @ 1C0000 – 100% complete.
Wait to write file . . .
Compleleted 100%
Now upgrade the file [usrdisk].
Format MTD device [/dev/mtd2] . . .
MTD device [/dev/mtd2] erase 128 Kibyte @ 800000 – 100% complete.
Wait to write file . . .
Compleleted 100%
Upgrade the firmware is OK.
4.
For W311, use upgradehfm command to upgrade the kernel and root file system.
#upgradehfm w3xx-x.x.x.hfm
ATTENTION
The upfirm utility will reboot your target after the upgrade is OK.
3-4
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
Loading Factory Defaults
To load the the factory default settings, you must press the reset-to-default button for more than 5
seconds. All files in the /home & /etc directories will be destroyed. Note that while pressing the
reset-to-default button, the Ready LED will blink once every second for the first 5 seconds. The
Ready LED will turn off after 5 seconds, and the factory defaults will be loaded.
Backing Up the User Directory
1.
Create a backup file. First type the following command to enable the RAM disk:
#upramdisk
Next, use the file system backup utility provided by Moxa:
#backupuf /mnt/ramdisk/usrfs-backup
2.
Once the file system is backed up, use FTP to transfer the file usrfs-backup to your PC.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# upramdisk
[email protected]:~# cd /mnt/ramdisk
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# df –h
Filesystem
Size
Used
Available
Use%
/dev/mtdblock2
8.0M
6.0M
2.0M
75%
/dev/ram0
499.0k
17.0k
457.0k
4%
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8%
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8%
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
488.0k
5.5M
8%
tmpfs
30.4M
0
30.4M
0%
/dev/ram1
16.0M
1.0k
15.1M
0%
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# backupuf /mnt/ramdisk/usrfs-backup
Sync the file system…
Now backup the user root file system. Please wait. . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Backup user root file system OK.
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk#
3-5
Mounted on
/
/var
/tmp
/home
/etc
/dev/shm
/var/ramdisk
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
Deploying the User Directory to Additional W311/321/341 Units
For some applications, you may need to ghost one W311/321/341 user file system to other
W311/321/341 units. Back up the user file system to a PC (refer to the previous subsection,
Backing Up the User File System, for instructions), and then type the following commands to copy
the backup to additional W311/321/341 units.
#upramdisk
#cd /mnt/ramdisk
#upfirm usrfs-backup
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# ls –al
drwxr—xr-x 3 root root
1024 Jun 15 02:47
drwxr—xr-x 15 root root
0 Sep 29 2004
-rw------- 1 root root
12288 Jun 15 02:45 lost+found
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root
27263140 Jun 15 02:48 usrfs-backup
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# upfirm usrfs-backup
Moxa w3xx upgrade firmware utility version 1.0.
To check source firmware file context.
The source firmware file conext is OK.
This step will destroy all your firmware.
Continue ? (Y/N) : Y
Now upgrade the file [userdisk]:
Format MTD device [/dev/mtd3] . . .
MTD device [/dev/mtd3] erase 128 Kibyte @ 600000 – 100% complete.
Wait to write file . . .
Compleleted 100%
Upgrade the firmware is OK.
Enabling and Disabling Daemons
The following daemons are enabled when the W311/321/341 unit boots up for the first time.
snmpd ..........SNMP Agent daemon
telnetd ..........Telnet Server / Client daemon
inetd .............Internet Daemons
ftpd...............FTP Server / Client daemon
sshd ..............Secure Shell Server daemon
httpd.............Apache WWW Server daemon
3-6
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
Type the command “ps –ef” to list all processes currently running.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# cd /etc
[email protected]:/etc# ps –ef
PID Uid
VmSize Stat Command
1 root
532 S
init [3]
2 root
SWN [ksoftirqd/0]
3 root
SW< [events/0]
4 root
SW< [khelper]
13 root
SW< [kblockd/0]
14 root
SW [khubd]
24 root
SW [pdflush]
25 root
SW [pdflush]
27 root
SW< [aio/0]
26 root
SW [kswapd0]
604 root
SW [mtdblockd]
609 root
SW [pccardd]
611 root
SW [pccardd]
625 root
SWN [jffs2_gcd_mtd3]
673 root
500 S
/bin/inetd
679 root
3004 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
682 bin
380 S
/bin/portmap
685 root
1176 S /bin/sh –login
690 root
464 S
/bin/snmpd
694 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
695 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
696 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
697 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
698 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
701 root
352 S
/bin/reportip
714 root
1176 S -bash
726 root
436 S
/bin/telnetd
727 root
1180 S -bash
783 root
628 R
ps –ef
[email protected]:/ect#
start -d /etc/apache
start
start
start
start
start
-d
-d
-d
-d
-d
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
To run a private daemon, you can edit the file rc.local, as follows:
#cd /etc/rc.d
#vi rc.local
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# cd /etc/rc.d
[email protected]:~# /etc/rc.d# vi rc.local
Next, use vi to open your application program. We use the example program tcps2-release, and put
it to run in the background.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
# !/bin/sh
# Add you want to run daemon
/home/tcps2-release &~
3-7
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
The enabled daemons will be available after you reboot the system.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# ps –ef
PID Uid
VmSize Stat Command
1 root
532 S
init [3]
2 root
SWN [ksoftirqd/0]
3 root
SW< [events/0]
4 root
SW< [khelper]
13 root
SW< [kblockd/0]
14 root
SW [khubd]
24 root
SW [pdflush]
25 root
SW [pdflush]
27 root
SW< [aio/0]
26 root
SW [kswapd0]
604 root
SW [mtdblockd]
609 root
SW [pccardd]
611 root
SW [pccardd]
625 root
SWN [jffs2_gcd_mtd3]
673 root
500 S
/bin/inetd
679 root
3004 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
682 bin
380 S
/bin/portmap
685 root
1176 S /bin/sh –login
690 root
464 S
/bin/snmpd
694 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
695 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
696 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
697 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
698 nobody
3012 S /usr/bin/httpd -k
701 root
352 S
/bin/reportip
714 root
1176 S -bash
726 root
436 S
/bin/telnetd
727 root
1180 S -bash
783 root
628 R
ps –ef
[email protected]:~#
start -d /etc/apache
start
start
start
start
start
-d
-d
-d
-d
-d
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
/etc/apache
Setting the Run-Level
In this section, we outline the steps you should take to set the Linux run-level and execute requests.
Use the following command to enable or disable settings:
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/ect/rc.d/rc3.d# ls
S19nfs-common S25nfs-user-server S99showreadyled
S20snmpd
S55ssh
S24pcmcia S99rmnologin
[email protected]:/etc/rc.d/rc3.d#
#cd /etc/rc.d/init.d
Edit a shell script to execute /home/tcps2-release and save to tcps2 as an example.
#cd /etc/rc.d/rc3.d
#ln –s /etc/rc.d/init.d/tcps2 S60tcps2
SxxRUNFILE stands for
S: start the run file while linux boots up.
xx: a number between 00-99. Smaller numbers have a higher priority.
RUNFILE: the file name.
3-8
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/ect/rc.d/rc3.d# ls
S19nfs-common S25nfs-user-server S99showreadyled
S20snmpd
S55ssh
S24pcmcia S99rmnologin
[email protected]:/ect/rc.d/rc3.d# ln –s /home/tcps2-release S60tcps2
[email protected]:/ect/rc.d/rc3.d# ls
S19nfs-common S25nfs-user-server S99rmnologin
S20snmpd
S55ssh
S99showreadyled
S24pcmcia S60tcps2
[email protected]:/etc/rc.d/rc3.d#
KxxRUNFILE stands for
K: start the run file while linux shuts down or halts.
xx: a number between 00-99. Smaller numbers have a higher priority.
RUNFILE: the file name.
To remove the daemon, remove the run file from the /etc/rc.d/rc3.d directory by using the
following command:
#rm –f /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S60tcps2
Adjusting the System Time
Setting the Time Manually
The W311/321/341 have two time settings. One is the system time, and the other is the RTC (Real
Time Clock) time kept by the W311/321/341’s hardware. Use the #date command to query the
current system time or set a new system time. Use #hwclock to query the current RTC time or set a
new RTC time.
Use the following command to query the system time:
#date
Use the following command to query the RTC time:
#hwclock
Use the following command to set the system time:
#date MMDDhhmmYYYY
MM = Month
DD = Date
hhmm = hour and minute
YYYY = Year
Use the following command to set the RTC time:
#hwclock –w
Write current system time to RTC
3-9
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
The following figure illustrates how to update thesystem time and set the RTC time.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# date
Fri Jun 23 23:30:31 CST 2000
[email protected]:~# hwclock
Fri Jun 23 23:30:35 2000 -0.557748 seconds
[email protected]:~# date 120910002004
Thu Dec 9 10:00:00 CST 2004
[email protected]:~# hwclock –w
[email protected]:~# date ; hwclock
Thu Dec 9 10:01:07 CST 2004
Thu Dec 9 10:01:08 2004 -0.933547 seconds
[email protected]:~#
NTP Client
The W311/321/341 have a built-in NTP (Network Time Protocol) client that is used to initialize a
time request to a remote NTP server. Use #ntpdate <this client utility> to update the system time.
#ntpdate time.stdtime.gov.tw
#hwclock –w
Visit http://www.ntp.org for more information about NTP and NTP server addresses.
10.120.53.100 - PuTTY
[email protected]:~# date ; hwclock
Sat Jan 1 00:00:36 CST 2000
Sat Jan 1 00:00:37 2000 -0.772941 seconds
[email protected]:~# ntpdate time.stdtion.gov.tw
9 Dec 10:58:53 ntpdate[207]: step time server 220.130.158.52 offset 155905087.984256
sec
[email protected]:~# hwclock –w
[email protected]:~# date ; hwclock
Thu Dec 9 10:59:11 CST 2004
Thu Dec 9 10:59:12 2004 -0.844076 seconds
[email protected]:~#
NOTE
Before using the NTP client utility, check your IP and DNS settings to make sure that an Internet
connection is available. Refer to Chapter 2 for instructions on how to configure the Ethernet
interface, and see Chapter 4 for DNS setting information.
Updating the Time Automatically
In this subsection, we show how to use a shell script to update the time automatically.
Example shell script to update the system time periodically
#!/bin/sh
ntpdate time.nist.gov
# You can use the time server’s ip address or domain
# name directly. If you use domain name, you must
# enable the domain client on the system by updating
# /etc/resolv.conf file.
hwclock –-systohc
sleep 100
# Updates every 100 seconds. The min. time is 100 seconds. Change
# 100 to a larger number to update RTC less often.
Save the shell script using any file name. E.g., fixtime
3-10
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Embedded Linux
How to run the shell script automatically when the kernel boots up
Copy the example shell script fixtime to directory /etc/init.d, and then use chmod 755 fixtime to
change the shell script mode. Next, use vi editor to edit the file /etc/inittab. Add the following line
to the bottom of the file:
ntp : 2345 : respawn : /etc/init.d/fixtime
Use the command #init q to re-init the kernel.
Cron—Daemon to Execute Scheduled Commands
Start Cron from the directory /etc/rc.d/rc. local. It will return immediately, so you don’t need to
start it with ‘&’ to run in the background.
The Cron daemon will search /etc/cron.d/crontab for crontab files, which are named after accounts
in /etc/passwd.
Cron wakes up every minute, and checks each command to see if it should be run in that minute.
Modify the file /etc/cron.d/crontab to set up your scheduled applications. Crontab files have the
following format:
mm
min
0-59
h
hour
0-23
dom
date
1-31
mon
month
1-12
dow
week
0-6 (0 is Sunday)
user
user
command
command
The following example demonstrates how to use Cron.
How to use cron to update the system time and RTC time every day at 8:00.
STEP1: Write a shell script named fixtime.sh and save it to /home/.
#!/bin/sh
ntpdate time.nist.gov
hwclock –-systohc
exit 0
STEP2: Change mode of fixtime.sh
#chmod 755 fixtime.sh
STEP3: Modify /etc/cron.d/crontab file to run fixtime.sh at 8:00 every day.
Add the following line to the end of crontab:
* 8 * * * root/homefixtime.sh
STEP4: Enable the cron daemon manually.
#/etc/init.d/cron start
STEP5: Enable cron when the system boots up.
Add the following line in the file /etc/init.d/rc.local
#/etc/init.d/cron start
3-11
4
Chapter 4
Managing Communications
In this chapter, we explain how to configure the W311/321/341’s various communication
functions.
The following topics are covered in this chapter:
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Telnet / FTP
DNS
Web Service—Apache
Installing PHP for Apache Web Server
IPTABLES
NAT
¾ NAT Example
¾ Enabling NAT at Bootup
Dial-up Service—PPP
PPPoE
NFS (Network File System)
¾ Setting up the W311/321/341 as an NFS Client
Mail
SNMP
OpenVPN
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Telnet / FTP
In addition to supporting Telnet client/server and FTP client/server, the W311/321/341 also support
SSH and sftp client/server. To enable or disable the Telnet/ftp server, you first need to edit the file
/etc/inetd.conf.
Enabling the Telnet/ftp server
The following example shows the default content of the file /etc/inetd.conf. The default is to
enable the Telnet/ftp server:
discard dgram udp wait root /bin/discard
discard stream tcp nowait root /bin/discard
telnet stream tcp nowait root /bin/telnetd
ftp stream tcp nowait root /bin/ftpd -l
Disabling the Telnet/ftp server
Disable the daemon by typing ‘#’ in front of the first character of the row to comment out the line.
DNS
The W311/321/341 support DNS client (but not DNS server). To set up DNS client, you need to
edit three configuration files: /etc/hosts, /etc/resolv.conf, and /etc/nsswitch.conf.
/etc/hosts
This is the first file that the Linux system reads to resolve the host name and IP address.
/etc/resolv. conf
This is the most important file that you need to edit when using DNS for the other programs. For
example, before you use #ntpdate time.nist.goc to update the system time, you will need to add the
DNS server address to the file. Ask your network administrator which DNS server address you
should use. The DNS server’s IP address is specified with the “nameserver” command. For
example, add the following line to /etc/resolv.conf if the DNS server’s IP address is 168.95.1.1:
nameserver 168.95.1.1
10.120.53.100 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/etc# cat resolv.conf
#
# resolv.conf This file is the resolver configuration file
# See resolver(5).
#
#nameserver 192.168.1.16
nameserver 168.95.1.1
nameserver 140.115.1.31
nameserver 140.115.236.10
[email protected]:/etc#
/etc/nsswitch.conf
This file defines the sequence to resolve the IP address by using /etc/hosts file or /etc/resolv.conf.
4-2
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Web Service—Apache
The Apache web server’s main configuration file is /etc/apache/conf/httpd.conf, with the
default homepage located at /home/httpd/htdocs/index.html. Save your own homepage to the
following directory:
/home/httpd/htdocs/
Save your CGI page to the following directory:
/home/httpd/cgi-bin/
Before you modify the homepage, use a browser (such as Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla
Firefox) from your PC to test if the Apache Web Server is working. Type the LAN1 IP address in
the browser’s address box to open the homepage. E.g., if the default IP address is still active, type
http://192.168.3.127 in the address box.
To open the default CGI page, type http://192.168.3.127/cgi-bin/test-cgi in your browser’s
address box.
4-3
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
To open the default CGI test script report page, type http://192.168.3.127/cgi-bin/test-cgi in your
browser’s address box.
NOTE
The CGI function is enabled by default. If you want to disable the function, modify the file
/etc/apache/conf/httpd.conf. When you develop your own CGI application, make sure your CGI
file is executable.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/home/httpd/cgi-bin# ls –al
drwxr—xr-x
2 root root
0 Aug 24 1999
drwxr—xr-x
5 root root
0 Nov 5 16:16
-rwxr—xr-x
1 root root
757 Aug 24 1999 test-cgi
[email protected]:/home/httpd/cgi-bin#
Installing PHP for Apache Web Server
This embedded computer supports the PHP option. However, since the PHP file is 3 MB, it is not
installed by default. To install it yourself, first make sure there is enough free space (at least 3 MB)
on your embedded flash ROM).
Step 1: Check that you have enough free space
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/bin# df –h
Filesystem
Size
/dev/mtdblock2
8.0M
/dev/ram0
499.0k
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
tmpfs
30.4M
[email protected]:/bin#
Used Available Use% Mounted on
6.0M
2.0M 75% /
17.0k
457.0k 4% /var
488.0k
5.5M 8% /tmp
488.0k
5.5M 8% /home
488.0k
5.5M 8% /etc
0
30.4M
0% /dev/shm
To check that the /dev/mtdblock3 free space is greater than 3 MB.
4-4
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Step 2: Type “upramdisk” to get the free space ram disk to save the package.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/bin# upramdisk
[email protected]:/bin# df –h
Filesystem
Size
/dev/mtdblock2
8.0M
/dev/ram0
499.0k
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
/dev/mtdblock3
6.0M
tmpfs
30.4M
/dev/ram1
16.0M
[email protected]:/bin#
Used Available Use% Mounted on
6.0M
2.0M 75% /
18.0k
456.0k 4% /var
488.0k
5.5M 8% /tmp
488.0k
5.5M 8% /home
488.0k
5.5M 8% /etc
0
30.4M
0% /dev/shm
1.0k
15.1M 0% /var/ramdisk
Step 3: Download the PHP package from the CD-ROM. You can find the package in
CD-ROM/target/php/php.tar.gz
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/bin# cd /mnt/ramdisk
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# ftp 192.168.27.130
Connected to 192.168.27.130.
220 (vsFTPd 2.0.1)
Name (192.168.27.130:root):
root 331 Please specify the password.
Password:
230 Login successful.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> cd /tmp
250 Directory successfully changed.
ftp> bin
200 Switching to Binary mode.
ftp> get php.tar.gz
local: php.tar.gz remote: php.tar.gz
200 PORT command successful. Consider using PASV.
150 Opening BINARY mode data connection for php.tar.gz (1789032 bytes).
226 File send OK.
1789032 bytes received in 0.66 secs (2.6e+03 Kbytes/sec)
ftp>
Step 4: uhtar the package. To do this, type the command “tar xvzf php.tar.gz”.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# tar xvzf php.tar.gz
envvars
envvars.old
httpd.conf
httpd.conf.old
install.sh
lib
lib/libmysqlclient.so.15
lib/libpng.so.2
lib/libphp5.so
lib/libmysqlclient.so.15.0.0
lib/libgd.so
lib/libxml2.so.2.6.22
lib/libgd.so.2.0.0
lib/libjpeg.so
lib/libxml2.so.2
lib/libgd.so.2
php
php/php.ini
phpinfo.php
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk#
4-5
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Step 5: Run “install.sh” and select to install php.
192.168.3.127 - PuTTY
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk# ./install.sh
Press the number:
1. Install PHP package
2. Uninstall PHP package
3. Exit.
1
Start to install PHP. Please wait ...
Starting web server: apache.
PHP install sucess.
[email protected]:/mnt/ramdisk#
Step 6: Test it. Use the browser to access http://192.168.3.127/phpinfo.php.
If you want to uninstall PHP, follow steps 2 to 5 but select the uninstall option.
4-6
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
IPTABLES
IPTABLES is an administrative tool for setting up, maintaining, and inspecting the Linux kernel’s
IP packet filter rule tables. Several different tables are defined, with each table containing built-in
chains and user-defined chains.
Each chain is a list of rules that apply to a certain type of packet. Each rule specifies what to do
with a matching packet. A rule (such as a jump to a user-defined chain in the same table) is called a
“target.”
The W311/321/341 support 3 types of IPTABLES table: Filter tables, NAT tables, and Mangle
tables:
A. Filter Table—includes three chains:
INPUT chain
OUTPUT chain
FORWARD chain
B. NAT Table—includes three chains:
PREROUTING chain—transfers the destination IP address (DNAT)
POSTROUTING chain—works after the routing process and before the Ethernet device
process to transfer the source IP address (SNAT)
OUTPUT chain—produces local packets
sub-tables
Source NAT (SNAT)—changes the first source packet IP address
Destination NAT (DNAT)—changes the first destination packet IP address
MASQUERADE—a special form for SNAT. If one host can connect to Internet, then
other computers that connect to this host can connect to the Internet when the computer
does not have an actual IP address.
REDIRECT—a special form of DNAT that re-sends packets to a local host independent
of the destination IP address.
C. Mangle Table—includes two chains
PREROUTING chain—pre-processes packets before the routing process.
OUTPUT chain—processes packets after the routing process.
It has three extensions—TTL, MARK, TOS.
4-7
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
The following figure shows the IPTABLES hierarchy.
Incoming
Packets
Mangle Table
PREROUTING Chain
NAT Table
PREROUTING Chain
Local Host
Packets
Other Host
Packets
Mangle Table
INPUT Chain
Mangle Table
FORWARD Chain
Filter Table
INPUT Chain
Filter Table
FORWARD Chain
Local
Process
Mangle Table
POSTROUTING Chain
Mangle Table
OUTPUT Chain
NAT Table
OUTPUT Chain
Filter Table
OUTPUT Chain
NAT Table
POSTROUTING Chain
Outgoing
Packets
The W311/321/341 support the following sub-modules. Be sure to use the module that matches
your application.
ip_conntrack
ip_conntrack_ftp
ipt_conntrack_irc
ip_nat_ftp
ip_nat_irc
ip_nat_snmp_basic
ip_queue
ipt_LOG
ipt_MARK
ipt_MASQUERADE
ipt_MIRROT
ipt_REDIRECT
ipt_REJECT
ipt_TCPMSS
ipt_TOS
ipt_ULOG
4-8
ipt_ah
ipt_esp
ipt_length
ipt_limit
ipt_mac
ipt_mark
ipt_multiport
ipt_owner
ipt_state
ipt_tcpmss
ipt_tos
ipt_ttl
ipt_unclean
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
NOTE
Managing Communications
The W311/321/341 do NOT support IPV6 and ipchains.
The basic syntax to enable and load an IPTABLES module is as follows:
#lsmod
#insmod ip_tables
#insmod iptable_filter
Use lsmod to check if the ip_tables module has already been loaded in the W311/321/341 unit.
Use insmod to insert and enable the module.
Use the following command to load the modules (iptable_filter, iptable_mangle, iptable_nat):
#insmod iptable_filter
NOTE
IPTABLES plays the role of packet filtering or NAT. Take care when setting up the IPTABLES
rules. If the rules are not correct, remote hosts that connect via a LAN or PPP may be denied
access. We recommend using the serial console to set up the IPTABLES.
Click on the following links for more information about iptables.
http://www.linuxguruz.com/iptables/
http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO//packet-filtering-HOWTO.html
Since the IPTABLES command is very complex, to illustrate the IPTABLES syntax we have
divided our discussion of the various rules into three categories: Observe and erase chain rules,
Define policy rules, and Append or delete rules.
Observe and erase chain rules
Usage:
# iptables [-t tables] [-L] [-n]
-t tables: Table to manipulate (default: ‘filter’); example: nat or filter.
-L [chain]: List List all rules in selected chains. If no chain is selected, all chains are listed.
-n: Numeric output of addresses and ports.
# iptables [-t tables] [-FXZ]
-F: Flush the selected chain (all the chains in the table if none is listed).
-X: Delete the specified user-defined chain.
-Z: Set the packet and byte counters in all chains to zero.
Examples:
# iptables -L -n
In this example, since we do not use the -t parameter, the system uses the default ‘filter’ table.
Three chains are included: INPUT, OUTPUT, and FORWARD. INPUT chains are accepted
automatically, and all connections are accepted without being filtered.
#iptables –F
#iptables –X
#iptables –Z
4-9
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Define policy for chain rules
Usage:
# iptables [-t tables] [-P] [INPUT, OUTPUT, FORWARD, PREROUTING, OUTPUT, POSTROUTING]
[ACCEPT, DROP]
-P: Set the policy for the chain to the given target.
INPUT: For packets coming into the W311/321/341.
OUTPUT: For locally-generated packets.
FORWARD: For packets routed out through the W311/321/341.
PREROUTING: To alter packets as soon as they come in.
POSTROUTING: To alter packets as they are about to be sent out.
Examples:
#iptables
#iptables
#iptables
#iptables
#iptables
#iptables
–P
–P
–P
–t
–t
-t
INPUT DROP
OUTPUT ACCEPT
FORWARD ACCEPT
nat –P PREROUTING ACCEPT
nat –P OUTPUT ACCEPT
nat –P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
In this example, the policy accepts outgoing packets and denies incoming packets.
Append or delete rules
Usage:
# iptables [-t table] [-AI] [INPUT, OUTPUT, FORWARD] [-io interface] [-p tcp, udp, icmp,
all] [-s IP/network] [--sport ports] [-d IP/network] [--dport ports] –j [ACCEPT. DROP]
-A: Append one or more rules to the end of the selected chain.
-I: Insert one or more rules in the selected chain as the given rule number.
-i: Name of an interface via which a packet is going to be received.
-o: Name of an interface via which a packet is going to be sent.
-p: The protocol of the rule or of the packet to check.
-s: Source address (network name, host name, network IP address, or plain IP address).
--sport: Source port number.
-d: Destination address.
--dport: Destination port number.
-j: Jump target. Specifies the target of the rules; i.e., how to handle matched packets. For
example, ACCEPT the packet, DROP the packet, or LOG the packet.
Examples:
Example 1: Accept all packets from lo interface.
# iptables –A INPUT –i lo –j ACCEPT
Example 2: Accept TCP packets from 192.168.0.1.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.0.1 –j ACCEPT
Example 3: Accept TCP packets from Class C network 192.168.1.0/24.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.1.0/24 –j ACCEPT
Example 4: Drop TCP packets from 192.168.1.25.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.1.25 –j DROP
Example 5: Drop TCP packets addressed for port 21.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp --dport 21 –j DROP
Example 6: Accept TCP packets from 192.168.0.24 to W341’s port 137, 138, 139
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p tcp –s 192.168.0.24 --dport 137:139 –j ACCEPT
Example 7: Drop all packets from MAC address 01:02:03:04:05:06.
# iptables –A INPUT –i eth0 –p all –m mac -–mac-source 01:02:03:04:05:06 –j DROP
4-10
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
NOTE: In Example 7, remember to issue the command #insmod ipt_mac first to load module
ipt_mac.
NAT
NAT (Network Address Translation) protocol translates IP addresses used on one network to
different IP addresses used on another network. One network is designated the inside network and
the other is the outside network. Typically, the W311/321/341 connect several devices on a
network and maps local inside network addresses to one or more global outside IP addresses, and
un-maps the global IP addresses on incoming packets back into local IP addresses.
NOTE
Click on the following links for more information about iptables and NAT:
http://www.netfilter.org/documentation/HOWTO/NAT-HOWTO.html
NAT Example
The IP address of LAN1 is changed to 192.168.3.127 (you will need to load the module
ipt_MASQUERADE):
IP/Netmask: 192.168.3.100/24
Gateway: 192.168.3.127
PC1 (Linux or Windows)
LAN1
LAN1: 192.168.3.127/24
Embedded Computer
LAN2: 192.168.4.127/24
LAN2
PC2 (Linux or Windows)
IP/Netmask: 192.168.4.100/24
Gateway: 192.168.4.127
NAT Area / Private IP
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
#echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
#insmod ip_tables
#insmod iptable_filter
#insmod ip_conntrack
#insmod iptable_nat
#insmod ipt_MASQUERADE
#iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -j SNAT --to-source 192.168.3.127
#iptables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o eth0 -s 192.168.3.0/24 -j MASQUERADE
4-11
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Enabling NAT at Bootup
In most real world situations, you will want to use a simple shell script to enable NAT when the
W341 boots up. The following script is an example.
#!/bin/bash
# If you put this shell script in the /home/nat.sh
# Remember to chmod 744 /home/nat.sh
# Edit the rc.local file to make this shell startup automatically.
# vi /etc/rc.d/rc.local
# Add a line in the end of rc.local /home/nat.sh
EXIF=‘eth0’ #This is an external interface for setting up a valid IP address.
EXNET=‘192.168.4.0/24’ #This is an internal network address.
# Step 1. Insert modules.
# Here 2> /dev/null means the standard error messages will be dump to null device.
insmod ip_tables 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_conntrack 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_conntrack_ftp 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_conntrack_irc 2> /dev/null
insmod iptable_nat 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_nat_ftp 2> /dev/null
insmod ip_nat_irc 2> /dev/null
# Step 2. Define variables, enable routing and erase default rules.
PATH=/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/sbin
export PATH
echo “1” > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
/bin/iptables -F
/bin/iptables -X
/bin/iptables -Z
/bin/iptables -F -t nat
/bin/iptables -X -t nat
/bin/iptables -Z -t nat
/bin/iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -t nat -P PREROUTING ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -t nat -P POSTROUTING ACCEPT
/bin/iptables -t nat -P OUTPUT ACCEPT
# Step 3. Enable IP masquerade.
Dial-up Service—PPP
PPP (Point to Point Protocol) is used to run IP (Internet Protocol) and other network protocols over
a serial link. PPP can be used for direct serial connections (using a null-modem cable) over a
Telnet link, and links established using a modem over a telephone line.
Modem / PPP access is almost identical to connecting directly to a network through the
W311/321/341’s Ethernet port. Since PPP is a peer-to-peer system, the W311/321/341 can also use
PPP to link two networks (or a local network to the Internet) to create a Wide Area Network
(WAN).
NOTE
Click on the following links for more information about ppp:
http://tldp.org/HOWTO/PPP-HOWTO/index.html
http://axion.physics.ubc.ca/ppp-linux.html
4-12
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
The pppd daemon is used to connect to a PPP server from a Linux system. For detailed
information about pppd see the man page.
Example 1: Connecting to a PPP server over a simple dial-up connection
The following command is used to connect to a PPP server by modem. Use this command for old
ppp servers that prompt for a login name (replace username with the correct name) and password
(replace password with the correct password). Note that debug and defaultroute 192.1.1.17 are
optional.
#pppd connect ‘chat -v “ “ ATDT5551212 CONNECT “ “ ogin: username word: password’
/dev/ttyM0 115200 debug crtscts modem defaultroute
If the PPP server does not prompt for the username and password, the command should be entered
as follows. Replace username with the correct username and replace password with the correct
password.
#pppd connect ‘chat -v “ “ ATDT5551212 CONNECT “ “‘user username password password
/dev/ttyM0 115200 crtscts modem
The pppd options are described below:
connect ‘chat etc...’
This option gives the command to contact the PPP server. The ‘chat’ program is used to dial a
remote computer. The entire command is enclosed in single quotes because pppd expects a
one-word argument for the ‘connect’ option. The options for ‘chat’ are given below:
-v
verbose mode; log what we do to syslog
“ “
Double quotes—don’t wait for a prompt, but instead do ... (note that you must include a space after
the second quotation mark)
ATDT5551212
Dial the modem, and then ...
CONNECT
Wait for an answer.
“ “
Send a return (null text followed by the usual return)
ogin: username word: password
Log in with username and password.
Refer to the chat man page, chat.8, for more information about the chat utility.
/dev/
Specify the callout serial port.
115200
The baudrate.
debug
Log status in syslog.
crtscts
Use hardware flow control between computer and modem (at 115200 this is a must).
4-13
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
modem
Indicates that this is a modem device; pppd will hang up the phone before and after making the
call.
defaultroute
Once the PPP link is established, make it the default route; if you have a PPP link to the Internet,
this is probably what you want.
192.1.1.17
This is a degenerate case of a general option of the form x.x.x.x:y.y.y.y. Here x.x.x.x is the local IP
address and y.y.y.y is the IP address of the remote end of the PPP connection. If this option is not
specified, or if just one side is specified, then x.x.x.x defaults to the IP address associated with the
local machine’s hostname (located in /etc/hosts), and y.y.y.y is determined by the remote machine.
Example 2: Connecting to a PPP server over a hard-wired link
If a username and password are not required, use the following command (note that noipdefault is
optional):
#pppd connect ‘chat –v “ “ “ “ ‘ noipdefault /dev/ttyM0 19200 crtscts “
If a username and password is required, use the following command (note that noipdefault is
optional, and root is both the username and password):
#pppd connect ‘chat –v “ “ “ “ ‘ user root password root noipdefault
/dev/ttyM0 19200 crtscts
How to check the connection
Once you’ve set up a PPP connection, there are some steps you can take to test the connection.
First, type:
/sbin/ifconfig
(The folder ifconfig may be located elsewhere, depending on your distribution.) You should be
able to see all the network interfaces that are UP. ppp0 should be one of them, and you should
recognize the first IP address as your own, and the “P-t-P address” (or point-to-point address) the
address of your server. Here’s what it looks like on one machine:
lo
ppp0
Link encap Local Loopback
inet addr 127.0.0.1
Bcast 127.255.255.255
UP LOOPBACK RUNNING
MTU 2000
RX packets 0 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
Link encap Point-to-Point Protocol
inet addr 192.76.32.3
P-t-P 129.67.1.165
UP POINTOPOINT RUNNING
MTU 1500
RX packets 33 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
TX packets 42 errors 0 dropped 0 overrun 0
Mask 255.0.0.0
Metric 1
Mask 255.255.255.0
Metric 1
Now, type:
ping z.z.z.z
where z.z.z.z is the address of your name server. This should work. Here’s what the response could
look like:
waddington:~$p ping 129.67.1.165
PING 129.67.1.165 (129.67.1.165): 56 data bytes
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=0 ttl=225 time=268 ms
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=1 ttl=225 time=247 ms
4-14
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
64 bytes from 129.67.1.165: icmp_seq=2 ttl=225 time=266 ms
^C
--- 129.67.1.165 ping statistics --3 packets transmitted, 3 packets received, 0% packet loss
round-trip min/avg/max = 247/260/268 ms
waddington:~$
Try typing:
netstat –nr
This should show three routes, something like this:
Kernel routing table
Destination iface
129.67.1.165 ppp0
127.0.0.0
0.0.0.0 ppp0
Gateway
0.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
129.67.1.165
Genmask
255.255.255.255
255.0.0.0
0.0.0.0
Flags
UH
U
UG
Metric
0
0
0
Ref
0
0
0
Use
6
0 lo
6298
If your output looks similar but doesn’t have the destination 0.0.0.0 line (which refers to the
default route used for connections), you may have run pppd without the ‘defaultroute’ option. At
this point you can try using Telnet, ftp, or finger, bearing in mind that you’ll have to use numeric
IP addresses unless you’ve set up /etc/resolv.conf correctly.
Setting up a Machine for Incoming PPP Connections
This first example applies to using a modem, and requiring authorization with a username and
password.
pppd/dev/ttyM0 115200 crtscts modem 192.168.16.1:192.168.16.2 login auth
You should also add the following line to the file /etc/ppp/pap-secrets:
*
*
““
*
The first star (*) lets everyone login. The second star (*) lets every host connect. The pair of
double quotation marks (““) is to use the file /etc/passwd to check the password. The last star (*) is
to let any IP connect.
The following example does not check the username and password:
pppd/dev/ttyM0 115200 crtscts modem 192.168.16.1:192.168.16.2
4-15
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
PPPoE
1.
2.
3.
Connect the W311/321/341’s LAN port to an ADSL modem with a cross-over cable, HUB, or
switch.
Log in to the W311/321/341 as the root user.
Edit the file /etc/ppp/chap-secrets and add the following:
“[email protected]”*“password”*
“[email protected]” is the username obtained from the ISP to log in to the ISP account.
“password” is the corresponding password for the account.
4.
Edit the file /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and add the following:
“[email protected]”*“password”*
“[email protected]” is the username obtained from the ISP to log in to the ISP account.
“password” is the corresponding password for the account.
4-16
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
5.
Edit the file /etc/ppp/options and add the following line:
plugin pppoe
6.
Add one of two files: /etc/ppp/options.eth0 or /etc/ppp/options.eth1. The choice depends on
which LAN is connected to the ADSL modem. If you use LAN1 to connect to the ADSL
modem, then add /etc/ppp/options.eth0. If you use LAN2 to connect to the ADSL modem,
then add /etc/ppp/options.eth1. The file context is shown below:
Type your username (the one you set in the /etc/ppp/pap-secrets and /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
files) after the “name” option. You may add other options as desired.
4-17
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
7.
Set up DNS
If you are using DNS servers supplied by your ISP, edit the file
/etc/resolv.conf by adding the following lines of code:
nameserver ip_addr_of_first_dns_server
nameserver ip_addr_of_second_dns_server
For example:
nameserver 168..95.1.1
nameserver 139.175.10.20
8. Use the following command to create a pppoe connection:
pppd eth0
The eth0 is what is connected to the ADSL modem LAN port. The example above uses LAN1.
To use LAN2, type:
pppd eth1
9. Type ifconfig ppp0 to check if the connection is OK or has failed. If the connection is OK,
you will see information about the ppp0 setting for the IP address. Use ping to test the IP.
10. If you want to disconnect it, use the kill command to kill the pppd process.
NFS (Network File System)
The Network File System (NFS) is used to mount a disk partition on a remote machine, as if it
were on a local hard drive, allowing fast, seamless sharing of files across a network. NFS allows
users to develop applications for the W311/321/341, without worrying about the amount of disk
space that will be available. The W311/321/341 supports NFS protocol for client.
NOTE
Click on the following links for more information about NFS:
http://www.tldp.org/HOWTO/NFS-HOWTO/index.html
http://nfs.sourceforge.net/nfs-howto/client.html
http://nfs.sourceforge.net/nfs-howto/server.html
Setting up the W311/321/341 as an NFS Client
The following procedure is used to mount a remote NFS Server.
1.
2.
3.
To know the NFS Server’s shared directory.
Establish a mount point on the NFS Client site.
Mount the remote directory to a local directory.
#mkdir –p /home/nfs/public
#mount –t nfs NFS_Server(IP):/directory /mount/point
Example:
#mount –t nfs 192.168.3.100:/home/public /home/nfs/public
4-18
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Mail
smtpclient is a minimal SMTP client that takes an email message body and passes it on to an
SMTP server. It is suitable for applications that use email to send alert messages or important logs
to a specific user.
NOTE
Click on the following link for more information about smtpclient:
http://www.engelschall.com/sw/smtpclient/
To send an email message, use the ‘smtpclient’ utility, which uses SMTP protocol. Type
#smtpclient –help to see the help message.
Example:
smtpclient –s test –f [email protected] –S IP_address [email protected]
< mail-body-message
-s: The mail subject.
-f: Sender’s mail address
-S: SMTP server IP address
The last mail address [email protected] is the receiver’s e-mail address.
mail-body-message is the mail content. The last line of the body of the message should contain
ONLY the period ‘.’ character.
You will need to add your hostname to the file /etc/hosts.
SNMP
The W311/321/341 have built-in SNMP V1 (Simple Network Management Protocol) agent
software. It supports RFC1317 RS-232 like group and RFC 1213 MIB-II.
The following simple example allows you to use an SNMP browser on the host site to query the
W311/321/341, which is the SNMP agent. The W311/321/341 will respond.
***** SNMP QUERY STARTED *****
1: sysDescr.0 (octet string) Version 1.0
2: sysObjectID.0 (object identifier) enterprises.8691.12.240
3: sysUpTime.0 (timeticks) 0 days 03h:50m:11s.00th (1381100)
4: sysContact.0 (octet string) Moxa Systems Co., LDT.
5: sysName.0 (octet string) Moxa
6: sysLocation.0 (octet string) Unknown
7: sysServices.0 (integer) 6
8: ifNumber.0 (integer) 6
9: ifIndex.1 (integer) 1
10: ifIndex.2 (integer) 2
11: ifIndex.3 (integer) 3
12: ifIndex.4 (integer) 4
13: ifIndex.5 (integer) 5
14: ifIndex.6 (integer) 6
15: ifDescr.1 (octet string) eth0
16: ifDescr.2 (octet string) eth1
17: ifDescr.3 (octet string) Serial port 0
18: ifDescr.4 (octet string) Serial port 1
19: ifDescr.5 (octet string) Serial port 2
20: ifDescr.6 (octet string) Serial port 3
21: ifType.1 (integer) ethernet-csmacd(6)
22: ifType.2 (integer) ethernet-csmacd(6)
23: ifType.3 (integer) other(1)
24: ifType.4 (integer) other(1)
25: ifType.5 (integer) other(1)
26: ifType.6 (integer) other(1)
27: ifMtu.1 (integer) 1500
4-19
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
28: ifMtu.2 (integer) 1500
29: ifMtu.3 (integer) 0
30: ifMtu.4 (integer) 0
31: ifMtu.5 (integer) 0
32: ifMtu.6 (integer) 0
33: ifSpeed.1 (gauge) 100000000
34: ifSpeed.2 (gauge) 100000000
35: ifSpeed.3 (gauge) 38400
36: ifSpeed.4 (gauge) 38400
37: ifSpeed.5 (gauge) 38400
38: ifSpeed.6 (gauge) 38400
39: ifPhysAddress.1 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.41 (hex)
40: ifPhysAddress.2 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.40 (hex)
41: ifPhysAddress.3 (octet string) 00 (hex)
42: ifPhysAddress.4 (octet string) 00 (hex)
43: ifPhysAddress.5 (octet string) 00 (hex)
44: ifPhysAddress.6 (octet string) 00 (hex)
45: ifAdminStatus.1 (integer) up(1)
46: ifAdminStatus.2 (integer) up(1)
47: ifAdminStatus.3 (integer) down(2)
48: ifAdminStatus.4 (integer) down(2)
49: ifAdminStatus.5 (integer) down(2)
50: ifAdminStatus.6 (integer) down(2)
51: ifOperStatus.1 (integer) up(1)
52: ifOperStatus.2 (integer) up(1)
53: ifOperStatus.3 (integer) down(2)
54: ifOperStatus.4 (integer) down(2)
55: ifOperStatus.5 (integer) down(2)
56: ifOperStatus.6 (integer) down(2)
57: ifLastChange.1 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
58: ifLastChange.2 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
59: ifLastChange.3 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
60: ifLastChange.4 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
61: ifLastChange.5 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
62: ifLastChange.6 (timeticks) 0 days 00h:00m:00s.00th (0)
63: ifInOctets.1 (counter) 25511
64: ifInOctets.2 (counter) 2240203
65: ifInOctets.3 (counter) 0
66: ifInOctets.4 (counter) 0
67: ifInOctets.5 (counter) 0
68: ifInOctets.6 (counter) 0
69: ifInUcastPkts.1 (counter) 254
70: ifInUcastPkts.2 (counter) 28224
71: ifInUcastPkts.3 (counter) 0
72: ifInUcastPkts.4 (counter) 0
73: ifInUcastPkts.5 (counter) 0
74: ifInUcastPkts.6 (counter) 0
75: ifInNUcastPkts.1 (counter) 0
76: ifInNUcastPkts.2 (counter) 0
77: ifInNUcastPkts.3 (counter) 0
78: ifInNUcastPkts.4 (counter) 0
79: ifInNUcastPkts.5 (counter) 0
80: ifInNUcastPkts.6 (counter) 0
81: ifInDiscards.1 (counter) 0
82: ifInDiscards.2 (counter) 0
83: ifInDiscards.3 (counter) 0
84: ifInDiscards.4 (counter) 0
85: ifInDiscards.5 (counter) 0
86: ifInDiscards.6 (counter) 0
87: ifInErrors.1 (counter) 0
88: ifInErrors.2 (counter) 0
89: ifInErrors.3 (counter) 0
90: ifInErrors.4 (counter) 0
91: ifInErrors.5 (counter) 0
92: ifInErrors.6 (counter) 0
93: ifInUnknownProtos.1 (counter) 0
94: ifInUnknownProtos.2 (counter) 0
4-20
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
95: ifInUnknownProtos.3 (counter) 0
96: ifInUnknownProtos.4 (counter) 0
97: ifInUnknownProtos.5 (counter) 0
98: ifInUnknownProtos.6 (counter) 0
99: ifOutOctets.1 (counter) 51987
100: ifOutOctets.2 (counter) 3832
101: ifOutOctets.3 (counter) 0
102: ifOutOctets.4 (counter) 0
103: ifOutOctets.5 (counter) 0
104: ifOutOctets.6 (counter) 0
105: ifOutUcastPkts.1 (counter) 506
106: ifOutUcastPkts.2 (counter) 42
107: ifOutUcastPkts.3 (counter) 0
108: ifOutUcastPkts.4 (counter) 0
109: ifOutUcastPkts.5 (counter) 0
110: ifOutUcastPkts.6 (counter) 0
111: ifOutNUcastPkts.1 (counter) 0
112: ifOutNUcastPkts.2 (counter) 0
113: ifOutNUcastPkts.3 (counter) 0
114: ifOutNUcastPkts.4 (counter) 0
115: ifOutNUcastPkts.5 (counter) 0
116: ifOutNUcastPkts.6 (counter) 0
117: ifOutDiscards.1 (counter) 0
118: ifOutDiscards.2 (counter) 0
119: ifOutDiscards.3 (counter) 0
120: ifOutDiscards.4 (counter) 0
121: ifOutDiscards.5 (counter) 0
122: ifOutDiscards.6 (counter) 0
123: ifOutErrors.1 (counter) 0
124: ifOutErrors.2 (counter) 0
125: ifOutErrors.3 (counter) 0
126: ifOutErrors.4 (counter) 0
127: ifOutErrors.5 (counter) 0
128: ifOutErrors.6 (counter) 0
129: ifOutQLen.1 (gauge) 1000
130: ifOutQLen.2 (gauge) 1000
131: ifOutQLen.3 (gauge) 0
132: ifOutQLen.4 (gauge) 0
133: ifOutQLen.5 (gauge) 0
134: ifOutQLen.6 (gauge) 0
135: ifSpecific.1 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
136: ifSpecific.2 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
137: ifSpecific.3 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
138: ifSpecific.4 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
139: ifSpecific.5 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
140: ifSpecific.6 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
141: atIfIndex.1.192.168.27.139 (integer) 1
142: atIfIndex.2.192.168.4.127 (integer) 2
143: atPhysAddress.1.192.168.27.139 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.41 (hex)
144: atPhysAddress.2.192.168.4.127 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.40 (hex)
145: atNetAddress.1.192.168.27.139 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
146: atNetAddress.2.192.168.4.127 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
147: ipForwarding.0 (integer) forwarding(1)
148: ipDefaultTTL.0 (integer) 64
149: ipInReceives.0 (counter) 1289
150: ipInHdrErrors.0 (counter) 0
151: ipInAddrErrors.0 (counter) 0
152: ipForwDatagrams.0 (counter) 9
153: ipInUnknownProtos.0 (counter) 0
154: ipInDiscards.0 (counter) 0
155: ipInDelivers.0 (counter) 1160
156: ipOutRequests.0 (counter) 858
157: ipOutDiscards.0 (counter) 0
158: ipOutNoRoutes.0 (counter) 0
159: ipReasmTimeout.0 (integer) 0
160: ipReasmReqds.0 (counter) 0
161: ipReasmOKs.0 (counter) 0
4-21
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
162: ipReasmFails.0 (counter) 0
163: ipFragOKs.0 (counter) 0
164: ipFragFails.0 (counter) 0
165: ipFragCreates.0 (counter) 0
166: ipAdEntAddr.192.168.27.139 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
167: ipAdEntAddr.192.168.4.127 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
168: ipAdEntIfIndex.192.168.27.139 (integer) 1
169: ipAdEntIfIndex.192.168.4.127 (integer) 2
170: ipAdEntNetMask.192.168.27.139 (ipaddress) 255.255.255.0
171: ipAdEntNetMask.192.168.4.127 (ipaddress) 255.255.255.0
172: ipAdEntBcastAddr.192.168.27.139 (integer) 1
173: ipAdEntBcastAddr.192.168.4.127 (integer) 1
174: ipAdEntReasmMaxSize.192.168.27.139 (integer) 65535
175: ipAdEntReasmMaxSize.192.168.4.127 (integer) 65535
176: ipRouteDest.192.168.4.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.0
177: ipRouteDest.192.168.27.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.0
178: ipRouteIfIndex.192.168.4.0 (integer) 2
179: ipRouteIfIndex.192.168.27.0 (integer) 1
180: ipRouteMetric1.192.168.4.0 (integer) 0
181: ipRouteMetric1.192.168.27.0 (integer) 0
182: ipRouteMetric2.192.168.4.0 (integer) -1
183: ipRouteMetric2.192.168.27.0 (integer) -1
184: ipRouteMetric3.192.168.4.0 (integer) -1
185: ipRouteMetric3.192.168.27.0 (integer) -1
186: ipRouteMetric4.192.168.4.0 (integer) -1
187: ipRouteMetric4.192.168.27.0 (integer) -1
188: ipRouteNextHop.192.168.4.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
189: ipRouteNextHop.192.168.27.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
190: ipRouteType.192.168.4.0 (integer) direct(3)
191: ipRouteType.192.168.27.0 (integer) direct(3)
192: ipRouteProto.192.168.4.0 (integer) local(2)
193: ipRouteProto.192.168.27.0 (integer) local(2)
194: ipRouteAge.192.168.4.0 (integer) 0
195: ipRouteAge.192.168.27.0 (integer) 0
196: ipRouteMask.192.168.4.0 (ipaddress) 255.255.255.0
197: ipRouteMask.192.168.27.0 (ipaddress) 255.255.255.0
198: ipRouteMetric5.192.168.4.0 (integer) -1
199: ipRouteMetric5.192.168.27.0 (integer) -1
200: ipRouteInfo.192.168.4.0 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
201: ipRouteInfo.192.168.27.0 (object identifier) (null-oid) zeroDotZero
202: ipNetToMediaIfIndex.1.192.168.27.139 (integer) 1
203: ipNetToMediaIfIndex.2.192.168.4.127 (integer) 2
204: ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.1.192.168.27.139 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.41 (hex)
205: ipNetToMediaPhysAddress.2.192.168.4.127 (octet string) 00.90.E8.10.02.40 (hex)
206: ipNetToMediaNetAddress.1.192.168.27.139 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
207: ipNetToMediaNetAddress.2.192.168.4.127 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
208: ipNetToMediaType.1.192.168.27.139 (integer) static(4)
209: ipNetToMediaType.2.192.168.4.127 (integer) static(4)
210: ipRoutingDiscards.0 (integer) 0
211: icmpInMsgs.0 (counter) 130
212: icmpInErrors.0 (counter) 3
213: icmpInDestUnreachs.0 (counter) 128
214: icmpInTimeExcds.0 (counter) 0
215: icmpInParmProbs.0 (counter) 0
216: icmpInSrcQuenchs.0 (counter) 0
217: icmpInRedirects.0 (counter) 0
218: icmpInEchos.0 (counter) 2
219: icmpInEchoReps.0 (counter) 0
220: icmpInTimestamps.0 (counter) 0
221: icmpInTimestampReps.0 (counter) 0
222: icmpInAddrMasks.0 (counter) 0
223: icmpInAddrMaskReps.0 (counter) 0
224: icmpOutMsgs.0 (counter) 144
225: icmpOutErrors.0 (counter) 0
226: icmpOutDestUnreachs.0 (counter) 135
227: icmpOutTimeExcds.0 (counter) 0
228: icmpOutParmProbs.0 (counter) 0
4-22
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
229: icmpOutSrcQuenchs.0 (counter) 0
230: icmpOutRedirects.0 (counter) 7
231: icmpOutEchos.0 (counter) 0
232: icmpOutEchoReps.0 (counter) 2
233: icmpOutTimestamps.0 (counter) 0
234: icmpOutTimestampReps.0 (counter) 0
235: icmpOutAddrMasks.0 (counter) 0
236: icmpOutAddrMaskReps.0 (counter) 0
237: tcpRtoAlgorithm.0 (integer) other(1)
238: tcpRtoMin.0 (integer) 200
239: tcpRtoMax.0 (integer) 120000
240: tcpMaxConn.0 (integer) -1
241: tcpActiveOpens.0 (counter) 0
242: tcpPassiveOpens.0 (counter) 0
243: tcpAttemptFails.0 (counter) 0
244: tcpEstabResets.0 (counter) 0
245: tcpCurrEstab.0 (gauge) 0
246: tcpInSegs.0 (counter) 0
247: tcpOutSegs.0 (counter) 0
248: tcpRetransSegs.0 (counter) 0
249: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
250: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
251: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
252: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
253: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
254: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
255: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
256: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
257: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
258: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
259: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
260: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
261: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
262: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
263: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
264: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
265: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
266: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
267: tcpConnState.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
268: tcpConnState.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) listen(2)
269: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
270: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
271: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
272: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
273: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
274: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
275: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
276: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
277: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
278: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
279: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
280: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
281: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
282: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
283: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
284: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
285: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
286: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
287: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
288: tcpConnLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
289: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1024
290: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1024
291: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1025
292: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1025
293: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 2049
294: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 2049
295: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1026
4-23
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
296: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 1026
297: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 9
298: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 9
299: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 111
300: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 111
301: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 80
302: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 80
303: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 21
304: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 21
305: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 22
306: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 22
307: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 23
308: tcpConnLocalPort.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 23
309: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
310: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
311: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
312: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
313: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
314: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
315: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
316: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
317: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
318: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
319: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
320: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
321: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
322: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
323: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
324: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
325: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
326: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
327: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
328: tcpConnRemAddress.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (ipaddress) 0.0.0.0
329: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
330: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.1024.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
331: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
332: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.1025.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
333: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
334: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.2049.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
335: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
336: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.1026.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
337: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
338: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.9.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
339: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
340: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.111.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
341: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
342: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.80.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
343: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
344: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.21.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
345: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
346: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.22.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
347: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.27.139.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
348: tcpConnRemPort.192.168.4.127.23.0.0.0.0.0 (integer) 0
349: tcpInErrs.0 (counter) 6
350: tcpOutRsts.0 (counter) 37224
351: udpInDatagrams.0 (counter) 434
352: udpNoPorts.0 (counter) 8
353: udpInErrors.0 (counter) 0
354: udpOutDatagrams.0 (counter) 903
355: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1024 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
356: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1024 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
357: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.2049 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
358: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.2049 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
359: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1026 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
360: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1026 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
361: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.1027 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
362: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.1027 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
4-24
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
363: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.9 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
364: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.9 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
365: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.161 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
366: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.161 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
367: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.4800 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
368: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.4800 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
369: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.854 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
370: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.854 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
371: udpLocalAddress.192.168.27.139.111 (ipaddress) 192.168.27.139
372: udpLocalAddress.192.168.4.127.111 (ipaddress) 192.168.4.127
373: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1024 (integer) 1024
374: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1024 (integer) 1024
375: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.2049 (integer) 2049
376: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.2049 (integer) 2049
377: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1026 (integer) 1026
378: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1026 (integer) 1026
379: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.1027 (integer) 1027
380: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.1027 (integer) 1027
381: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.9 (integer) 9
382: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.9 (integer) 9
383: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.161 (integer) 161
384: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.161 (integer) 161
385: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.4800 (integer) 4800
386: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.4800 (integer) 4800
387: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.854 (integer) 854
388: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.854 (integer) 854
389: udpLocalPort.192.168.27.139.111 (integer) 111
390: udpLocalPort.192.168.4.127.111 (integer) 111
391: rs232Number.0 (integer) 4
392: rs232PortIndex.1 (integer) 1 [1]
393: rs232PortIndex.2 (integer) 2 [2]
394: rs232PortIndex.3 (integer) 3 [3]
395: rs232PortIndex.4 (integer) 4 [4]
396: rs232PortType.1 (integer) rs232(2)
397: rs232PortType.2 (integer) rs232(2)
398: rs232PortType.3 (integer) rs232(2)
399: rs232PortType.4 (integer) rs232(2)
400: rs232PortInSigNumber.1 (integer) 3
401: rs232PortInSigNumber.2 (integer) 3
402: rs232PortInSigNumber.3 (integer) 3
403: rs232PortInSigNumber.4 (integer) 3
404: rs232PortOutSigNumber.1 (integer) 2
405: rs232PortOutSigNumber.2 (integer) 2
406: rs232PortOutSigNumber.3 (integer) 2
407: rs232PortOutSigNumber.4 (integer) 2
408: rs232PortInSpeed.1 (integer) 38400
409: rs232PortInSpeed.2 (integer) 38400
410: rs232PortInSpeed.3 (integer) 38400
411: rs232PortInSpeed.4 (integer) 38400
412: rs232PortOutSpeed.1 (integer) 38400
413: rs232PortOutSpeed.2 (integer) 38400
414: rs232PortOutSpeed.3 (integer) 38400
415: rs232PortOutSpeed.4 (integer) 38400
416: rs232AsyncPortIndex.1 (integer) 1 [1]
417: rs232AsyncPortIndex.2 (integer) 2 [2]
418: rs232AsyncPortIndex.3 (integer) 3 [3]
419: rs232AsyncPortIndex.4 (integer) 4 [4]
420: rs232AsyncPortBits.1 (integer) 8
421: rs232AsyncPortBits.2 (integer) 8
422: rs232AsyncPortBits.3 (integer) 8
423: rs232AsyncPortBits.4 (integer) 8
424: rs232AsyncPortStopBits.1 (integer) one(1)
425: rs232AsyncPortStopBits.2 (integer) one(1)
426: rs232AsyncPortStopBits.3 (integer) one(1)
427: rs232AsyncPortStopBits.4 (integer) one(1)
428: rs232AsyncPortParity.1 (integer) none(1)
429: rs232AsyncPortParity.2 (integer) none(1)
4-25
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
430: rs232AsyncPortParity.3 (integer) none(1)
431: rs232AsyncPortParity.4 (integer) none(1)
432: rs232InSigPortIndex.1.2 (integer) 1 [1]
433: rs232InSigPortIndex.2.2 (integer) 2 [2]
434: rs232InSigPortIndex.3.2 (integer) 3 [3]
435: rs232InSigPortIndex.4.2 (integer) 4 [4]
436: rs232InSigPortIndex.1.3 (integer) 1 [1]
437: rs232InSigPortIndex.2.3 (integer) 2 [2]
438: rs232InSigPortIndex.3.3 (integer) 3 [3]
439: rs232InSigPortIndex.4.3 (integer) 4 [4]
440: rs232InSigPortIndex.1.6 (integer) 1 [1]
441: rs232InSigPortIndex.2.6 (integer) 2 [2]
442: rs232InSigPortIndex.3.6 (integer) 3 [3]
443: rs232InSigPortIndex.4.6 (integer) 4 [4]
444: rs232InSigName.1.2 (integer) cts(2)
445: rs232InSigName.2.2 (integer) cts(2)
446: rs232InSigName.3.2 (integer) cts(2)
447: rs232InSigName.4.2 (integer) cts(2)
448: rs232InSigName.1.3 (integer) dsr(3)
449: rs232InSigName.2.3 (integer) dsr(3)
450: rs232InSigName.3.3 (integer) dsr(3)
451: rs232InSigName.4.3 (integer) dsr(3)
452: rs232InSigName.1.6 (integer) dcd(6)
453: rs232InSigName.2.6 (integer) dcd(6)
454: rs232InSigName.3.6 (integer) dcd(6)
455: rs232InSigName.4.6 (integer) dcd(6)
456: rs232InSigState.1.2 (integer) off(3)
457: rs232InSigState.2.2 (integer) off(3)
458: rs232InSigState.3.2 (integer) off(3)
459: rs232InSigState.4.2 (integer) off(3)
460: rs232InSigState.1.3 (integer) off(3)
461: rs232InSigState.2.3 (integer) off(3)
462: rs232InSigState.3.3 (integer) off(3)
463: rs232InSigState.4.3 (integer) off(3)
464: rs232InSigState.1.6 (integer) off(3)
465: rs232InSigState.2.6 (integer) off(3)
466: rs232InSigState.3.6 (integer) off(3)
467: rs232InSigState.4.6 (integer) off(3)
468: rs232OutSigPortIndex.1.1 (integer) 1 [1]
469: rs232OutSigPortIndex.2.1 (integer) 2 [2]
470: rs232OutSigPortIndex.3.1 (integer) 3 [3]
471: rs232OutSigPortIndex.4.1 (integer) 4 [4]
472: rs232OutSigPortIndex.1.4 (integer) 1 [1]
473: rs232OutSigPortIndex.2.4 (integer) 2 [2]
474: rs232OutSigPortIndex.3.4 (integer) 3 [3]
475: rs232OutSigPortIndex.4.4 (integer) 4 [4]
476: rs232OutSigName.1.1 (integer) rts(1)
477: rs232OutSigName.2.1 (integer) rts(1)
478: rs232OutSigName.3.1 (integer) rts(1)
479: rs232OutSigName.4.1 (integer) rts(1)
480: rs232OutSigName.1.4 (integer) dtr(4)
481: rs232OutSigName.2.4 (integer) dtr(4)
482: rs232OutSigName.3.4 (integer) dtr(4)
483: rs232OutSigName.4.4 (integer) dtr(4)
484: rs232OutSigState.1.1 (integer) off(3)
485: rs232OutSigState.2.1 (integer) off(3)
486: rs232OutSigState.3.1 (integer) off(3)
487: rs232OutSigState.4.1 (integer) off(3)
488: rs232OutSigState.1.4 (integer) off(3)
489: rs232OutSigState.2.4 (integer) off(3)
490: rs232OutSigState.3.4 (integer) off(3)
491: rs232OutSigState.4.4 (integer) off(3)
492: snmpInPkts.0 (counter) 493
493: snmpOutPkts.0 (counter) 493
494: snmpInBadVersions.0 (counter) 0
495: snmpInBadCommunityNames.0 (counter) 0
496: snmpInBadCommunityUses.0 (counter) 0
4-26
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
497: snmpInASNParseErrs.0 (counter) 0
498: snmpInTooBigs.0 (counter) 0
499: snmpInNoSuchNames.0 (counter) 0
500: snmpInBadValues.0 (counter) 0
501: snmpInReadOnlys.0 (counter) 0
502: snmpInGenErrs.0 (counter) 0
503: snmpInTotalReqVars.0 (counter) 503
504: snmpInTotalSetVars.0 (counter) 0
505: snmpInGetRequests.0 (counter) 0
506: snmpInGetNexts.0 (counter) 506
507: snmpInSetRequests.0 (counter) 0
508: snmpInGetResponses.0 (counter) 0
509: snmpInTraps.0 (counter) 0
510: snmpOutTooBigs.0 (counter) 0
511: snmpOutNoSuchNames.0 (counter) 0
512: snmpOutBadValues.0 (counter) 0
513: snmpOutGenErrs.0 (counter) 0
514: snmpOutGetRequests.0 (counter) 0
515: snmpOutGetNexts.0 (counter) 0
516: snmpOutSetRequests.0 (counter) 0
517: snmpOutGetResponses.0 (counter) 517
518: snmpOutTraps.0 (counter) 0
519: snmpEnableAuthenTraps.0 (integer) disabled(2)
***** SNMP QUERY FINISHED *****
NOTE
Click on the following links for more information about MIB II and RS-232 like groups:
http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1213.html
http://www.faqs.org/rfcs/rfc1317.html
Æ W311/321/341 do NOT support SNMP trap.
OpenVPN
OpenVPN provides two types of tunnels for users to implement VPNS: Routed IP Tunnels and
Bridged Ethernet Tunnels. To begin with, check to make sure that the system has a virtual device
/dev/net/tun. If not, issue the following command:
# mknod /dev/net/tun c 10 200
An Ethernet bridge is used to connect different Ethernet networks together. The Ethernets are
bundled into one bigger, “logical” Ethernet. Each Ethernet corresponds to one physical interface
(or port) that is connected to the bridge.
On each OpenVPN machine, you should generate a working directory, such as /etc/openvpn,
where script files and key files reside. Once established, all operations will be performed in that
directory.
4-27
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Setup 1: Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on Different Subnets
1.
Set up four machines, as shown in the following diagram.
Host A
local net
OpenVPN A
LAN1: 192.168.2.173
LAN1: 192.168.2.171
Internet
LAN2: 192.168.8.173
LAN1: 192.168.8.174
LAN1: 192.168.4.172
LAN2: 192.168.4.174
Host B
local net
OpenVPN B
Host A (B) represents one of the machines that belongs to OpenVPN A (B). The two remote
subnets are configured for a different range of IP addresses. When this setup is moved to a
public network, the external interfaces of the OpenVPN machines should be configured for
static IPs, or connect to another device (such as a firewall or DSL box) first.
# openvpn --genkey --secret secrouter.key
Copy the file that is generated to the OpenVPN machine.
2.
Generate a script file named openvpn-bridge on each OpenVPN machine. This script
reconfigures interface “eth1” as IP-less, creates logical bridge(s) and TAP interfaces, loads
modules, enables IP forwarding, etc.
#---------------------------------Start----------------------------#!/bin/sh
iface=eth1 # defines the internal interface
maxtap=`expr 1` # defines the number of tap devices. I.e., # of tunnels
IPADDR=
NETMASK=
BROADCAST=
# it is not a great idea but this system doesn’t support
# /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth1
ifcfg_vpn()
{
while read f1 f2 f3 f4 r3
do
if [ “$f1” = “iface” -a “$f2” = “$iface” -a “$f3” = “inet” -a “$f4” = “static” ];then
i=`expr 0`
while :
do
if [ $i -gt 5 ]; then
break
fi
i=`expr $i + 1`
read f1 f2
case “$f1” in
address ) IPADDR=$f2
4-28
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
;;
netmask ) NETMASK=$f2
;;
broadcast ) BROADCAST=$f2
;;
esac
done
break
fi
done < /etc/network/interfaces
}
# get the ip address of the specified interface
mname=
module_up()
{
oIFS=$IFS
IFS=‘
‘
FOUND=“no”
for LINE in `lsmod`
do
TOK=`echo $LINE | cut -d’ ‘ -f1`
if [ “$TOK” = “$mname” ]; then
FOUND=“yes”;
break;
fi
done
IFS=$oIFS
if [ “$FOUND” = “no” ]; then
modprobe $mname
fi
}
start()
{
ifcfg_vpn
if [ ! \( -d “/dev/net” \) ]; then
mkdir /dev/net
fi
if [ ! \( -r “/dev/net/tun” \) ]; then
# create a device file if there is none
mknod /dev/net/tun c 10 200
fi
# load modules “tun” and “bridge”
mname=tun
module_up
mname=bridge
module_up
# create an ethernet bridge to connect tap devices, internal interface
brctl addbr br0
brctl addif br0 $iface
# the bridge receives data from any port and forwards it to other ports.
i=`expr 0`
while :
do
# generate a tap0 interface on tun
openvpn --mktun --dev tap${i}
# connect tap device to the bridge
brctl addif br0 tap${i}
# null ip address of tap device
ifconfig tap${i} 0.0.0.0 promisc up
4-29
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
i=`expr $i + 1`
if [ $i -ge $maxtap ]; then
break
fi
done
# null ip address of internal interface
ifconfig $iface 0.0.0.0 promisc up
# enable bridge ip
ifconfig br0 $IPADDR netmask $NETMASK broadcast $BROADCAST
ipf=/proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
# enable IP forwarding
echo 1 > $ipf
echo “ip forwarding enabled to”
cat $ipf
}
stop() {
echo “shutdown openvpn bridge.”
ifcfg_vpn
i=`expr 0`
while :
do
# disconnect tap device from the bridge
brctl delif br0 tap${i}
openvpn --rmtun --dev tap${i}
i=`expr $i + 1`
if [ $i -ge $maxtap ]; then
break
fi
done
brctl delif br0 $iface
brctl delbr br0
ifconfig br0 down
ifconfig $iface $IPADDR netmask $NETMASK broadcast $BROADCAST
killall -TERM openvpn
}
case “$1” in
start)
start
;;
stop)
stop
;;
restart)
stop
start
;;
*)
echo “Usage: $0 [start|stop|restart]”
exit 1
esac
exit 0
#---------------------------------- end -----------------------------
Create link symbols to enable this script at boot time:
# ln -s /etc/openvpn/openvpn-bridge /etc/rc.d/rc3.d/S32vpn-br # for example
# ln -s /etc/openvpn/openvpn-bridge /etc/rc.d/rc6.d/K32vpn-br # for example
4-30
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
3.
Managing Communications
Create a configuration file named A-tap0-br.conf and an executable script file named
A-tap0-br.sh on OpenVPN A.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.174
dev tap0
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
up /etc/openvpn/A-tap0-br.sh
#----------------------------------Start-----------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.4.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev br0
#---------------------------------- end ------------------------------
Create a configuration file named B-tap0-br.conf and an executable script file named
B-tap0-br.sh on OpenVPN B.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.173
dev tap0
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5 tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
up /etc/openvpn/B-tap0-br.sh
#----------------------------------Start-----------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev br0
#---------------------------------- end ------------------------------
NOTE: Select cipher and authentication algorithms by specifying “cipher” and “auth”. To see
with algorithms are available, type:
# openvpn --show-ciphers
# openvpn --show—auths
4.
Start both of OpenVPN peers,
# openvpn --config A-tap0-br.conf&
# openvpn --config B-tap0-br.conf&
If you see the line “Peer Connection Initiated with 192.168.8.173:5000” on each machine, the
connection between OpenVPN machines has been established successfully on UDP port 5000.
5.
On each OpenVPN machine, check the routing table by typing the command:
# route
Destination
192.168.4.0
192.168.2.0
192.168.8.0
Gateway
*
*
*
Genmsk
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
Flags
U
U
U
Metric
0
0
0
Ref
0
0
0
Use
0
0
0
Iface
br0
br0
eth0
Interface eth1 is connected to the bridging interface br0, to which device tap0 also connects,
whereas the virtual device tun sits on top of tap0. This ensures that all traffic from internal
networks connected to interface eth1 that come to this bridge write to the TAP/TUN device
that the OpenVPN program monitors. Once the OpenVPN program detects traffic on the
virtual device, it sends the traffic to its peer.
4-31
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
6.
Managing Communications
To create an indirect connection to Host B from Host A, you need to add the following routing
item:
route add –net 192.168.4.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
To create an indirect connection to Host A from Host B, you need to add the following routing
item:
route add –net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 dev eth0
Now ping Host B from Host A by typing:
ping 192.168.4.174
A successful ping indicates that you have created a VPN system that only allows authorized
users from one internal network to access users at the remote site. For this system, all data is
transmitted by UDP packets on port 5000 between OpenVPN peers.
7.
To shut down OpenVPN programs, type the command:
# killall -TERM openvpn
Setup 2: Ethernet Bridging for Private Networks on the Same Subnet
1.
Set up four machines as shown in the following diagram:
Host A
local net
OpenVPN A
LAN1: 192.168.2.173
LAN1: 192.168.2.171
Internet
LAN2: 192.168.8.173
LAN1: 192.168.8.174
LAN1: 192.168.4.172
LAN2: 192.168.4.174
Host B
2.
local net
OpenVPN B
The configuration procedure is almost the same as for the previous example. The only
difference is that you will need to comment out the parameter “up” in
“/etc/openvpn/A-tap0-br.conf” and “/etc/openvpn/B-tap0-br.conf”.
4-32
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
Setup 3: Routed IP
1.
Set up four machines as shown in the following diagram:
Host A
local net
OpenVPN A
LAN1: 192.168.2.173
LAN1: 192.168.2.171
Internet
LAN2: 192.168.8.173
LAN1: 192.168.8.174
LAN1: 192.168.4.172
LAN2: 192.168.4.174
Host B
2.
local net
OpenVPN B
Create a configuration file named “A-tun.conf” and an executable script file named “A-tun.
sh”.
# point to the peer
remote 192.168.8.174
dev tun
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
ifconfig 192.168.2.173 192.168.4.174
up /etc/openvpn/A-tun.sh
#----------------------------------Start-----------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.4.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw $5
#---------------------------------- end ------------------------------
Create a configuration file named B-tun.conf and an executable script file named B-tun.sh on
OpenVPN B:
remote 192.168.8.173
dev tun
secret /etc/openvpn/secrouter.key
cipher DES-EDE3-CBC
auth MD5
tun-mtu 1500
tun-mtu-extra 64
ping 40
ifconfig 192.168.4.174 192.168.2.173
up /etc/openvpn/B-tun.sh
4-33
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Managing Communications
#----------------------------------Start-----------------------------#!/bin/sh
# value after “-net” is the subnet behind the remote peer
route add -net 192.168.2.0 netmask 255.255.255.0 gw $5
#---------------------------------- end ------------------------------
Note that the parameter “ifconfig” defines the first argument as the local internal interface and
the second argument as the internal interface at the remote peer.
Note that $5 is the argument that the OpenVPN program passes to the script file. Its value is
the second argument of ifconfig in the configuration file.
3.
Check the routing table after you run the OpenVPN programs, by typing the command:
# route
Destination
192.168.4.174
192.168.4.0
192.168.2.0
192.168.8.0
Gateway
*
192.168.4.174
*
*
Genmsk
255.255.255.255
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
255.255.255.0
4-34
Flags Metric Ref
UH
0
0
UG
0
0
U
0
0
U
0
0
Use
0
0
0
0
Iface
tun0
tun0
eth1
eth0
5
Chapter 5
Tool Chains for Application
Development
This chapter describes how to install a tool chain in the host computer that you use to develop your
applications. In addition, the process of performing cross-platform development and debugging are
also introduced. For clarity, the W311/321/341 embedded computer is called a target computer.
The following functions are covered in this chapter:
‰ Linux Tool Chain
¾ Steps for Installing the Linux Tool Chain
¾ Compilation for Applications
¾ On-Line Debugging with GDB
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Tool Chains for Application Development
Linux Tool Chain
The Linux tool chain contains a suite of cross compilers and other tools, as well as the libraries
and header files that are necessary to compile your applications. These tool chain components
must be installed in your host computer (PC) running Linux. We have confirmed that the following
Linux distributions can be used to install the tool chain.
Fefora core 1 & 2.
Steps for Installing the Linux Tool Chain
The tool chain needs about 485 MB of hard disk space. To install it, follow the steps.
1.
Insert the package CD into your PC and then issue the following commands:
#mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom
#sh /mnt/cdrom/tool-chain/linux/install.sh
2.
3.
Wait for the installation process to complete. This should take a few minutes.
Add the directory /usr/local/arm-linux/bin to your path. You can do this for the current login
by issuing the following commands:
#export PATH=“/usr/local/arm-linux/bin:$PATH”
Alternatively, you can add the same commands to $HOME/.bash_profile to make it effective
for all login sessions.
Compilation for Applications
To compile a simple C application, use the cross compiler instead of the regular compiler:
#arm-linux-gcc –o example –Wall –g –O2 example.c
#arm-linux-strip –s example
#arm-linux-gcc -ggdb –o example-debug example.c
Most of the cross compiler tools are the same as their native compiler counterparts, but with an
additional prefix that specifies the target system. In the case of x86 environments, the prefix is
i386-linux- and in the case of W311/321/341 ARM boards, it is arm-linux-.
For example, the native C compiler is gcc and the cross C compiler for ARM in the W311/321/341
is arm-linux-gcc.
The following cross compiler tools are provided:
ar
as
c++, g++
cpp
gcc
gdb
ld
nm
objcopy
objdump
ranlib
readelf
size
strings
strip
Manages archives (static libraries)
Assembler
C++ compiler
C preprocessor
C compiler
Debugger
Linker
Lists symbols from object files
Copies and translates object files
Displays information about object files
Generates indexes to archives (static libraries)
Displays information about ELF files
Lists object file section sizes
Prints strings of printable characters from files (usually object files)
Removes symbols and sections from object files (usually debugging information)
5-2
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Tool Chains for Application Development
On-Line Debugging with GDB
The tool chain also provides an on-line debugging mechanism to help you develop your program.
Before performing a debugging session, add the option -ggdb to compile the program. A
debugging session runs on a client-server architecture on which the server gdbserver is installed int
the targe computer and the client ddd is installed in the host computer. We’ll asuumne that you
have uploaded a program named hello-debug to the target computer and strat to debug the
program.
1.
Log on to the target computer and run the debugging server program.
#gdbserver 192.168.4.142:2000 hello-debug
Process hello-debug created; pid=38
The debugging server listens for connections at network port 2000 from the network interface
192.168.4.142. The name of the program to be debugged follows these parameters. For a
program requiring arguments, add the arguments behind the program name.
2.
In the host computer, change the directory to where the program source resides.
cd /my_work_directory/myfilesystem/testprograms
3.
Execute the client program.
#ddd --debugger arm-linux-gdb hello-debug &
4.
Enter the following command at the GDB, DDD command prompt.
Target remote 192.168.4.99:2000
The command produces a line of output on the target console, similar to the following.
Remote debugging using 192.168.4.99:2000
192.168.4.99 is the machine’s IP address, and 2000 is the port number. You can now begin
debugging in the host environment using the interface provided by DDD.
5.
Set a break point on main by double clicking, or by entering b main on the command line.
6.
Click the cont button.
5-3
6
Chapter 6
Programmer’s Guide
This chapter includes important information for programmers.
The following functions are covered in this chapter:
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
‰
Flash Memory Map
Device API
RTC (Real Time Clock)
Buzzer
WDT (Watch Dog Timer)
UART
DO
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Flash Memory Map
Partition sizes are hard coded into the kernel binary. To change the partition sizes, you will need to
rebuild the kernel. The flash memory map is shown in the following table.
Address
0x00000000 – 0x0003FFFF
0x00040000 – 0x001FFFFF
0x00200000 – 0x009FFFFF
0x00A00000 – 0x00FFFFFF
Size
256 KB
1.8 MB
8 MB
6 MB
Contents
Boot Loader—Read ONLY
Kernel object code—Read ONLY
Root file system (JFFS2)—Read ONLY
User directory (JFFS2)—Read/Write
Mount the user file system to /mnt/usrdisk with the root file system. Check to see if the user file
system was mounted correctly. If user file system is okay, the kernel will change the root file
system to /mnt/usrdisk. If the user file system is not okay, the kernel will use the default Moxa
file system. To finish boot process, run the init program.
NOTE
1. The default Moxa file system only enables the network and CF. It lets users recover the user
file system when it fails.
2. The user file system is a complete file system. Users can create and delete directories and files
(including source code and executable files) as needed.
3. Users can create the user file system on the PC host or target platform, and then copy it to the
W311/321/341.
4. To improve system performance, we strongly recommend that you install your application
programs on the on-board flash. However, since the on-board flash has a fixed amount of free
memory space, you must not over-write it, and instead use an external storage card, such as an
SD or CF card, for the data log.
Device API
The W311/321/341 support control devices with the ioctl system API. You will need to include
<moxadevice.h>, and use the following ioctl function.
int ioctl(int d, int request,…);
Input: int d - open device node return file handle
int request – argument in or out
Use the desktop Linux’s man page for detailed documentation:
#man ioctl
RTC (Real Time Clock)
The device node is located at /dev/rtc. The W311/321/341 support Linux standard simple RTC
control. You must include <linux/rtc.h>.
1.
Function: RTC_RD_TIME
int ioctl(fd, RTC_RD_TIME, struct rtc_time *time);
Description: read time information from RTC. It will return the value on argument 3.
2.
Function: RTC_SET_TIME
int ioctl(fd, RTC_SET_TIME, struct rtc_time *time);
Description: set RTC time. Argument 3 will be passed to RTC.
6-2
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Buzzer
The device node is located at /dev/console. The W311/321/341 support Linux standard buzzer
control, with the W311/321/341’s buzzer running at a fixed frequency of 100 Hz. You must
include <sys/kd. h>.
Function: KDMKTONE
ioctl(fd, KDMKTONE, unsigned int arg);
Description: The buzzer’s behavior is determined by the argument arg. The “high word” part
of arg gives the length of time the buzzer will sound, and the “low word” part gives the
frequency.
The buzzer’s on / off behavior is controlled by software. If you call the “ioctl” function, you
MUST set the frequency at 100 Hz. If you use a different frequency, the system could crash.
WDT (Watch Dog Timer)
1.
Introduction
The WDT works like a watch dog function. You can enable it or disable it. When the user
enables WDT but the application does not acknowledge it, the system will reboot. You can set
the ack time from a minimum of 50 msec to a maximum of 60 seconds.
2.
How the WDT works
The sWatchDog is disabled when the system boots up. The user application can also enable
ack. When the user does not ack, it will let the system reboot.
Kernel boot
.....
....
User application running and enable user ack
....
....
3.
The user API
The user application must include <moxadevic.h>, and link moxalib.a. A makefile example
is shown below:
all:
arm-linux-gcc –o xxxx xxxx.c –lmoxalib
int swtd_open(void)
Description
Open the file handle to control the sWatchDog. If you want to do something you must first to
this. And keep the file handle to do other.
Input
None
Output
The return value is file handle. If has some error, it will return < 0 value.
You can get error from errno().
6-3
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
int swtd_enable(int fd, unsigned long time)
Description
Enable application sWatchDog. And you must do ack after this process.
Input
int fd
- the file handle, from the swtd_open() return value.
unsigned long time - The time you wish to ack sWatchDog periodically. You must ack the
sWatchDog before timeout. If you do not ack, the system will be reboot automatically. The
minimal time is 50 msec, the maximum time is 60 seconds. The time unit is msec.
Output
OK will be zero. The other has some error, to get the error code from errno().
int swtd_disable(int fd)
Description
Disable the application to ack sWatchDog. And the kernel will be auto ack it. User does not to
do it at periodic.
Input
int fd
- the file handle from swtd_open() return value.
Output
OK will be zero. The other has some error, to get error code from errno.
int swtd_get(int fd, int *mode, unsigned long *time)
Description
Get current setting values.
mode –
1 for user application enable sWatchDog: need to do ack.
0 for user application disable sWatchdog: does not need to do ack.
time – The time period to ack sWatchDog.
Input
int fd
- the file handle from swtd_open() return value.
int *mode
to do ack.
- the function will be return the status enable or disable user application need
unsigned long *time
- the function will return the current time period.
Output
OK will be zero.
The other has some error, to get error code from errno().
int swtd_ack(int fd)
Description
Acknowledge sWatchDog. When the user application enable sWatchDog. It need to call this
function periodically with user predefined time in the application program.
6-4
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Input
int fd
Programmer’s Guide
- the file handle from swtd_open() return value.
Output
OK will be zero.
The other has some error, to get error code from errno().
int swtd_close(int fd)
Description
Close the file handle.
Input
int fd
- the file handle from swtd_open() return value.
Output
OK will be zero.
The other has some error, to get error code from errno().
4.
Special Note
When you “kill the application with -9” or “kill without option” or “Ctrl+c” the kernel will
change to auto ack the sWatchDog.
When your application enables the sWatchDog and does not ack, your application may have a
logical error, or your application has made a core dump. The kernel will not change to auto
ack. This can cause a serious problem, causing your system to reboot again and again.
5.
User application example
Example 1:
#include
#include
#include
#include
<stdio.h>
<stdlib.h>
<string.h>
<moxadevice.h>
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
int fd;
fd = swtd_open();
if ( fd < 0 ) {
printf(“Open sWatchDog device fail !\n”);
exit(1);
}
swtd_enable(fd, 5000); // enable it and set it 5 seconds
while ( 1 ) {
// do user application want to do
…..
….
swtd_ack(fd);
…..
….
}
swtd_close(fd);
exit(0);
}
6-5
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
The makefile is shown below:
all:
arm-linux-gcc –o xxxx xxxx.c –lmoxalib
Example 2:
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
#include
<stdio.h>
<stdlib.h>
<signal.h>
<string.h>
<sys/stat.h>
<sys/ioctl.h>
<sys/select.h>
<sys/time.h>
<moxadevice.h>
static void mydelay(unsigned long msec)
{
struct timeval time;
time.tv_sec = msec / 1000;
time.tv_usec = (msec % 1000) * 1000;
select(1, NULL, NULL, NULL, &time);
}
static int swtdfd;
static int stopflag=0;
static void stop_swatchdog()
{
stopflag = 1;
}
static void do_swatchdog(void)
{
swtd_enable(swtdfd, 500);
while ( stopflag == 0 ) {
mydelay(250);
swtd_ack(swtdfd);
}
swtd_disable(swtdfd);
}
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
pid_t sonpid;
signal(SIGUSR1, stop_swatchdog);
swtdfd = swtd_open();
if ( swtdfd < 0 ) {
printf(“Open sWatchDog device fail !\n”);
exit(1);
}
if ( (sonpid=fork()) == 0 )
do_swatchdog();
// do user application main function
…..
…..
…..
// end user application
kill(sonpid, SIGUSR1);
swtd_close(swtdfd);
exit(1);
}
6-6
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
The makefile is shown below:
all:
arm-linux-gcc –o xxxx xxxx.c –lmoxalib
UART
The normal tty device node is located at /dev/ttyM0
… ttyM3.
The W311/321/341 support Linux standard termios control. The Moxa UART Device API allows
you to configure ttyM0 to ttyM3 as RS-232, RS-422, 4-wire RS-485, or 2-wire RS-485. The
W311/321/341 support RS-232, RS-422, 2-wire RS-485, and 4-wire RS485.
You must include <moxadevice.h>.
#define
#define
#define
#define
1.
RS232_MODE
0
RS485_2WIRE_MODE
RS422_MODE
2
RS485_4WIRE_MODE
1
3
Function: MOXA_SET_OP_MODE
int ioctl(fd, MOXA_SET_OP_MODE, &mode)
Description
Set the interface mode. Argument 3 mode will pass to the UART device driver and change it.
2.
Function: MOXA_GET_OP_MODE
int ioctl(fd, MOXA_GET_OP_MODE, &mode)
Description
Get the interface mode. Argument 3 mode will return the interface mode.
There are two Moxa private ioctl commands for setting up special baudrates.
Function: MOXA_SET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE
Function: MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE
If you use this ioctl to set a special baudrate, the termios cflag will be B4000000, in which case the
B4000000 define will be different. If the baudrate you get from termios (or from calling tcgetattr())
is B4000000, you must call ioctl with MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE to get the actual
baudrate.
Example to set the baudrate
#include <moxadevice.h>
#include <termios.h>
struct termios term;
int fd, speed;
fd = open(“/dev/ttyM0”, O_RDWR);
tcgetattr(fd, &term);
term. c_cflag &= ~(CBAUD | CBAUDEX);
term.c_cflag |= B4000000;
tcsetattr(fd, TCSANOW, &term);
speed = 500000;
ioctl(fd, MOXA_SET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE, &speed);
6-7
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
Programmer’s Guide
Example to get the baudrate
#include <moxadevice.h>
#include <termios.h>
struct termios term;
int fd, speed;
fd = open(“/dev/ttyM0”, O_RDWR);
tcgetattr(fd, &term);
if ( (term.c_cflag & (CBAUD|CBAUDEX)) != B4000000 ) {
// follow the standard termios baud rate define
} else {
ioctl(fd, MOXA_GET_SPECIAL_BAUD_RATE, &speed);
}
Baudrate inaccuracy
Divisor = 921600/Target Baud Rate. (Only Integer part)
ENUM = 8 * (921600/Targer - Divisor) ( Round up or down)
Inaccuracy = (Target Baud Rate – 921600/(Divisor + (ENUM/8))) * 100%
E.g.,
To calculate 500000 bps
Divisor = 1, ENUM = 7,
Inaccuracy = 1.7%
*The Inaccuracy should less than 2% for work reliably.
Special Note
1.
If the target baudrate is not a special baudrate (e.g. 50, 75, 110, 134, 150, 200, 300, 600, 1200,
1800, 2400, 4800, 9600, 19200, 38400, 57600, 115200, 230400, 460800, 921600), the termios
cflag will be set to the same flag.
2.
If you use stty to get the serial information, you will get speed equal to 0.
DO
Using Dout pin 22 to control Dout close nad open , if make Pin 22 pull high being closed and
Pin22 pull low being open.
Usage like:
echo “22 1 1” > /proc/driver/dio Æ The Do will be open
echo “22 1 0” > /proc/driver/dio Æ The Do will be close
6-8
7
Chapter 7
Software Lock
“Software Lock” is an innovative technology developed by the Moxa engineering team. It can be
adopted by a system integrator or developer to protect his applications from being copied. An
application is compiled into a binary format bound to the embedded computer and the operating
system (OS) that the application runs on. As long as one obtains it from the computer, he/she can
install it into the same hardware and the same operating system. The add-on value created by the
developer is thus lost.
Moxa’s engineerings used data encryption to develop this protection mechanism for your
applications. The binary file associated with each of your applications needs to undergo an
additional encryption process after you have developed it. The process requires you to install an
encryption key in the target computer.
1.
Choose an encryption key (e.g.,”ABigKey”) and install it in the target computer by a preutility program, ‘setkey’.
#setkey ABigKey
NOTE: set an empty string to clear the encryption key in the target computer by:
#setkey ““
2.
Develop and compile your program in the development PC.
3.
In the development PC, run the utility program ‘binencryptor’ to encrypt your program with
an encryption key.
#binencryptor yourProgram ABigKey
4.
Upload the encrypted program file to the target computerby FTP or NFS and test the program.
The encryption key is a computer-wise key. That is to say, a computer has only one key installed.
Running the program ‘setkey’ multiple times overrides the existing key.
To prove the effectiveness of this software protection mechanism, prepare a target computer that
has not been installed an encryption key or install a key different from that used to encrypt your
program. In any case, the encrypted program fails immediately.
This mechanism also allows the computer with an encryption key to bypass programs that are not
encrypted. Therefore, in the development phase, you can develop your programs and test them in
the target computer cleanly.
A
Appendix A
System Commands
busybox (V0.60.4): Linux normal command utility collection
File manager
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
cp
ls
ln
mount
rm
chmod
chown
chgrp
sync
mv
pwd
df
mkdir
rmdir
copy file
list file
make symbolic link file
mount and check file system
delete file
change file owner & group & user
change file owner
change file group
sync file system, let system file buffer be saved to hardware
move file
display now file directly
list now file system space
make new directory
delete directory
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
vi
cat
zcat
grep
cut
find
more
test
sleep
echo
text editor
dump file context
compress or expand files
search string on file
get string on file
find file where are there
dump file by one page
test file exist or not
sleep (seconds)
echo string
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
ping
route
netstat
ifconfig
tracerout
tftp
telnet
ftp
ping to test network
routing table manager
display network status
set network ip address
trace route
Editor
Network
W311/321/341 Linux User’s Manual
System Commands
Process
1.
2.
kill
ps
kill process
display now running process
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
dmesg
sty
zcat
mknod
free
date
env
clear
reboot
halt
du
gzip, gunzip
hostname
dump kernel log message
to set serial port
dump .gz file context
make device node
display system memory usage
print or set the system date and time
run a program in a modified environment
clear the terminal screen
reboot / power off/on the server
halt the server
estimate file space usage
compress or expand files
show system’s host name
Other
Moxa Special Utilities
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
backupfs
bf
kversion
cat /etc/version
upramdisk
downramdisk
backup file system (user directory)
built the file system (user directory)
show kernel version
show user directory version
mount ramdisk
unmount ramdisk
A-2
Was this manual useful for you? yes no
Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Download PDF

advertisement