User`s Manual - Micronet-Wireless LAN, Switch, ADSL Modem

User`s Manual - Micronet-Wireless LAN, Switch, ADSL Modem
User’s Manual
Wireless LAN USB Adapter
Model No.: SP907GK
http://www.micronet.info
CONTENTS
1
INTRODUCTION ..........................................................................................1
1.1 FEATURES.............................................................................................2
1.2 PACKAGE CONTENTS ...........................................................................2
2
INSTALLATION ...........................................................................................3
3
CONFIGURATION AND MANAGEMENT ......................................................8
3.1 AD-HOC MODE ......................................................................................8
To use this adapter in Ad-Hoc Mode.............................................................................. 8
3.2 INFRASTRUCTURE MODE .....................................................................9
To use this adapter in Infrastructure Mode................................................................... 10
4
INTRODUCTION TO THE WIRELESS LAN UTILITY................................... 11
4.1 STARTING THE WIRELESS LAN UTILITY............................................. 11
4.1.1 GENERAL ....................................................................................... 11
4.1.2 PROFILE ......................................................................................... 12
4.1.3 CONFIGURE THE PROFILE ............................................................ 13
4.1.3.1 BASE CONFIGURATION ............................................................ 13
4.1.3.2 WIRELESS NETWORK SECURITY ............................................. 14
4.1.3.3 802.1X SETTING-CERTIFICATION ............................................. 16
4.1.3.4 802.1X SETTING-CA SERVER ................................................... 18
4.1.4 AVAILABLE NETWORK ................................................................... 19
4.1.5 ADVANCED ..................................................................................... 19
4.1.6 STATUS .......................................................................................... 21
4.1.7 STATISTICS .................................................................................... 21
4.2 AP MODE MANAGEMENT GUIDE......................................................... 22
4.2.1 GENERAL ....................................................................................... 22
4.2.2 ADVANCED ..................................................................................... 22
4.2.3 STATISTICS .................................................................................... 23
4.2.4 SOFTAP .......................................................................................... 24
5
TROUBLESHOOTING................................................................................ 25
1 Introduction
Thank you for purchasing the Micronet SP907GK Wireless LAN USB Adapter and it
launches IEEE 802.11g wireless network at 54 Mbps in the 2.4GHz frequency, which
is also compatible with IEEE 802.11b wireless devices at 11Mbps. When it is
connected to 11b devices, the link speed will be up to 11Mbps. You can configure this
adapter with ad-hoc mode to connect to other 2.4GHz wireless computers or with
Infrastructure mode to connect to a wireless AP or router for accessing to Internet ,
the wireless network will be even more efficient.
This adapter includes a convenient Utility for scanning available networks and saving
preferred networks that users usually connected with. Security encryption can also be
configured by this utility. For WLAN security issues, SP907GK supports 64/128-bit
WEP data encryption that protects your wireless network from eavesdropping. It also
supports WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access) feature that combines IEEE 802.1x and TKIP
(Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) technologies. Client user authorization is required
before accessing to APs or AP Routers, and the data transmitted in the network is
encrypted / decrypted by a dynamically changed secret key. Furthermore, SP907GK
supports AES function, offering a stronger encryption mechanism, which is often
required by corporate and government users.
With its various features and ability to support advanced technology, SP907GK is the
most cost-effective solution to build your wireless network.
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1.1 Features
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Complies with Universal Serial Bus Rev. 1.0, 1.1 and 2.0 specifications.
High Speed transfer data rate up to 54 Mbps
Dynamic data rate scaling at 1, 2, 5.5 and 11Mbps for 802.11b and
6,9,12,18,24,36,48 and 54Mbps for 802.11g
Support turbo mode for 72 Mbps data rate
Support wireless data encryption with 64/128-bit WEP, WPA (TKIP with IEEE
802.1x) and AES functions.
Range Coverage : Indoor 35~100 meters; Outdoor 100~300 meters
Compliant with FCC Part 15.247 for US, ETS 300 328 for Europe
Support driver for Windows 98se, Me, 2000 and XP.
Supports auto-installation and diagnostic utilities.
1.2 Package Contents
Before you begin the installation, please check the items in your package. The package
should include the following items:
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Micronet SP907GK Wireless LAN USB Adapter
Driver and Manual CD
Quick Installation Guide
If any of the above items is missing, contact your supplier as soon as possible.
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2 Installation
Before you proceed with the installation, please read the following notes carefully.
Note1: Please do not install SP907GK into your laptop computer before installing the
software program from the CD.
Note2: The following installation was performed under Windows XP. (Procedures are
similar for Windows 98SE/Me/2000.)
Note3: If you have installed the Micronet Wireless LAN Adapter driver & utility before,
please uninstall the old version first.
Step1.
Insert the Installation CD to your CD-ROM Drive. Execute the “setup” program.
(SP907GK/Utility and Driver/setup.exe)
Step2.
The language-selecting window pops up. Please select the language you use
and click OK.
Step3.
The welcome window pops up. Click the “Next” button to proceed.
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Step4.
Please wait while installation.
Step5. This Windows Logo testing warning window may pop up upon installation. Please
click the “Contiune Anyway” to continue.
Step6.
If you are using Windows 98se or ME, the system may ask for the driver CD.
Please click the Browse button. Select your CD-ROM Drive then select
SP907GKÆ Utility and DriverÆ WIN98 (or WINME) to browse the driver. If not,
please skip this step.
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Step7.
Click the “Finish” button to complete driver and utility installation
Step8. For Windows XP and 2000 users, please insert this wireless adapter to your
computer. If you are using Windows 98se or ME, please restart the system first
before connect this wireless adapter to your computer.
Step9. The “Found New Hardware Wizard“pops up. (Note: This wizard won’t pop up in
Windows 98 and ME. The system finds the new hardware and installs the
hardware automatically. Please skip the following steps)
Step10. Select “No, not this time” and click the “Next” button.
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Step11. Select “Install the software automatically” and click the “Next” button.
Step12. Please wait while installing the driver. The Windows logo testing warning window
may pops up again. Please click the “Continue Anyway” button to continue.
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Step13. Click the “Finish” button after driver installation
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3 Configuration and Management
Read this chapter to understand the management interface of the device and how to
manage the device.
In the following instruction for making a network connection, we use the utility we
provided to configure your wireless network settings.
Note: For Windows XP users that want to configure your wireless network using this
Utility, please perform the following procedures to disable your native Windows XP
wireless support (Wireless Zero Configuration Service)
1. Double click the
icon on your desktop to start the utility.
2. Make sure that the “Windows Zero Config” checkbox is unchecked.
3.1 Ad-Hoc Mode
An Ad-Hoc mode wireless network connects two computers directly without the use of
a router or AP. It is also know as a peer-to-peer network. For example, we can install
this wireless adapter to two computers respectively. The communication between the
two computers is an Ad-Hoc mode network.
To use this adapter in Ad-Hoc Mode
1. Double click the
icon on your desktop.
2. Click the “Available Network” button to scan available wireless network adapters.
Double click on the network adapter that you are going to connect to.
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3. Click the OK button to confirm that you are connecting to an open wireless network.
4. Click OK to add this network into the profile list.
Note: This example is an open wireless network. If you are going to connect to a
Wireless adapter with security protection, you will have to configure the encryption
settings in this profile to be corresponding to the other wireless adapter. Please click on
the “Network Authentication” drop list to select an authentication method, and then
select a “Data encryption” type. Fill in each required blanks and click “OK”.
3.2 Infrastructure Mode
An Infrastructure Mode network contains at least one wireless client and one wireless
AP or router. This client connects to Internet or intranet by communicating with this
wireless AP.
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To use this adapter in Infrastructure Mode
1. Double click the
icon on your desktop.
2. Click the “Available Network” button to scan available access points. Double click on
the AP that you are going to connect to.
3. Click the OK button to confirm that you are connecting to an open wireless network.
Note: This example is an open wireless network. If you are going to connect to an AP
with security protection, you will have to configure the encryption settings in this
profile to be corresponding to your AP. Please click on the “Network
Authentication” drop list to select an authentication method, and then select a
“Data encryption” type. Fill in each required blanks and click “OK”.
Tip: Windows XP and Windows 2000 users is also allowed to connect to your wireless
network with the “RT-Set” setup wizard. Please refer to “Appendix” for more
information.
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4 Introduction to the Wireless LAN Utility
Note: This management instruction uses Windows XP as the presumed operation
system. Some functions are not supported in Windows 98se or Windows ME.
4.1 Starting the Wireless LAN Utility
Double click the
shortcut on your desktop. The Wireless LAN Utility pops up. You
may click on the tabs above to configure this adapter. The checkboxes below provide
the following functions:
Radio Off
Check this checkbox to show the utility icon on your system
tray, which is in the notification area at the lower-right corner
of the windows desktop. You may also uncheck it to remove
the utility icon from system tray.
Uncheck this checkbox to use native Windows XP wireless
support (Wireless Zero Configuration Service) instead of
using this utility to configure your wireless network.
Check this checkbox to prevent this adapter form transmitting
or receiving signals. Uncheck it to communicate.
Disable Adapter
Check this checkbox to disable this wireless adapter.
Uncheck it to enable this adapter again.
Show Tray Icon
Windows Zero Config
4.1.1 General
After starting the utility, the general page pops up This General tab provides the
information of your current wireless network connection. You may click the Renew
button to refresh those listed information.
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Status:
Check if the device associated to target network.
Speed:
The current connection speed
Type:
Infrastructure mode or Ad-Hoc mode.
Encryption:
The performing encryption mode for connecting to current
network profile.
SSID:
The SSID (network name) of the connected wireless network.
Signal Strength:
Indicates the signal strength detected by this adapter.
Network Address:
Shows the current IP addresses settings for this adapter.
4.1.2 Profile
The Profile tab lists the preferred connections. You can click the buttons beside to
do configure each connection. It allows you to manage the networks you
connect to frequently by Add/Remove/Edit/Duplicate/Set Default a profile.
Add
Click this button to add a connection profile for this adapter.
Remove
To remove a connection profile, click this profile on the profile
list and click this button to delete it.
Edit
To modify the configurations for a profile, click this profile on
the profile list and click this button to edit.
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Duplicate
To make a copy of a profile, click the profile that going to be
copied, and click this button to copy it.
Set Default
To select a profile as your default wireless connection, click
this profile on the list and click this button. You may also
double click on each profile to select it as your default wireless
connection.
4.1.3
Configure the Profile
4.1.3.1 Base Configuration
Parameter
Description
Profile Name
Define a recognizable profile name for you to identify the
different networks.
The SSID (up to 32 printable ASCII characters) is the
unique name identified in a WLAN. The ID prevents the
unintentional merging of two co-located WLANs.
SSID
You may specify a SSID for SP908GK and then only the
device with the same SSID can interconnect to the card.
If you want to add the network nearby to the profile list,
pull down the menu, and all the networks will be listed for
you to select from to add to the profile list.
Channel
This is a computer to computer (Ad Hoc) network;
wireless access points are not used. You could configure
the channel range from 1 to 11.
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4.1.3.2 Wireless network security
Parameter
Description
Network
This setting has to be consistent with the wireless networks
Authentication Type that SP908GK intends to connect.
Open System – No authentication is needed in the wireless
network.
Shared Key – Only wireless devices using a shared key (WEP
Key identified) are allowed to connect to each other.
WPA – WPA provides a scheme of mutual authentication using
either IEEE 802.1x/Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP)
authentication or pre-shared key (PSK) technology. It provides
a high level of assurance to enterprises, small businesses and
home users that data will remain protected and that only
authorized users may access their networks. For enterprises
that have already deployed IEEE 802.1x authentication, WPA
offers the advantage of leveraging the existing authentication
databases and infrastructure.
WPA-PSK – It is a special mode designed for home and small
business users who do not have access to network
authentication servers. In this mode, known as Pre-Shared
Key, the user manually enters the starting password in their
access point or gateway, as well as in each wireless station in
the network. WPA-PSK takes over automatically from that
point, keeping unauthorized users that don't have the matching
password from joining the network, while encrypting the data
traveling between authorized devices.
WPA2 – Like WPA, WPA2 supports IEEE 802.1 x/EAP
authentication or PSK technology. It also includes a new
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Data encryption
802.1x Setting
WPA Pre-Shared Key
WEP Key
(Key1 ~ Key4)
advanced encryption mechanism using the Advanced
Encryption Standard (AES). AES is required by the corporate
user or government users. The difference between WPA and
WPA2 is that WPA2 provides data encryption via the AES. In
contrast, WPA uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP).
WPA2-PSK – WPA2-PSK is also for home and small business.
The difference between WPA-PSK and WPA2-PSK is that
WPA2-PSK provides data encryption via the AES. In contrast,
WPA-PSK uses Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP).
WPA 802.1X – Set the wireless devices using a WPA 802.1X
mode
WPA2 802.1X – Set the wireless devices using a WPA2
802.1X mode
None – Disable the encryption mode.
WEP – Enable the WEP Data Encryption. When the item is
selected, you have to continue setting the WEP Encryption
keys.
TKIP – TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) changes the
temporal key every 10,000 packets (a packet is a kind of
message transmitted over a network.) This ensures much
greater security than the standard WEP security.
AES – AES has been developed to ensure the highest degree
of security and authenticity for digital information and is the
most advanced solution defined by IEEE 802.11i for security in
the wireless network.
Note: All devices in the network should use the same
encryption method to ensure the communication.
When you set the Authentication Type to Open, Shared, WPA
or WPA2, you can also enable IEEE 802.1x setting to use the
authentication server or certification server to authenticate
client users.
The WPA-PSK key can be from 8 to 64 characters and can be
letters or numbers. This same key must be used on all of the
wireless stations in the network.
The WEP keys are used to encrypt data transmitted in the
wireless network. There are two types of key length: 64-bit and
128-bit. Select the default encryption key from Key 1 to Key 4
by selected the radio button.
Fill the text box by as instructed below:
64-bit – Input 10-digit Hex values (in the “A-F”, “a-f” and “0-9”
range) or 5-digit ASCII characters (including “a-z” and “0-9”) as
the encryption keys. For example: “0123456aef“or “test1”.
128-bit – Input 26-digit Hex values (in the “A-F”, “a-f” and “0-9”
range) or 13-digit ASCII characters (including “a-z” and “0-9”)
as the encryption keys. For example:
“01234567890123456789abcdef“ or “administrator”.
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The IEEE 802.1X specification describes a protocol used for authenticating both clients
and servers on a network. The authentication algorithms and methods are those provided
by the Extensible Authentication Protocol (EAP), a method of authentication that has
been in use for a number of years on networks that provide Point-to-Point Protocol
(PPP) support as many internet service providers and enterprises do.
When an AP acting as an authenticator detects a wireless station on the LAN, it sends an
EAP-Request for the user's identity to the device. (EAP, the Extensible Authentication
Protocol, is an authentication protocol that runs before network layer protocols transmit
data over the link.) In turn, the device responds with its identity, and the AP relays this
identity to an authentication server, which is typically an external RADIUS server.
An example for MD5 Authentication
IEEE 802.1x
Access Client
RADIUS
Client
3
RADIUS
Server
1
Access Point
2
4
Windows 2000 IAS
(Internet Authentication
Service)
(1) Client requests to login the
network.
(3) Send username, password to
RADIUS server.
(2) Login with username,
password.
(4) Approve or deny user
login to the LAN.
4.1.3.3 802.1x Setting-Certification
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Parameter
Description
Authentication Type
The EAP authentication protocols this card supports are
listed below. This setting has to be consistent with the
wireless APs or Routers that SP908GK intends to connect.
PEAP &TTLS – PEAP and TTLS are similar and easier than
TLS in that they specify a stand-alone authentication
protocol to be used within an encrypted tunnel. TTLS
supports any protocol within its tunnel, including CHAP,
MS-CHAP, MS-CHAPv2, PAP and EAP-MD5. PEAP
specifies that an EAP-compliant authentication protocol must
be used; this card supports EAP-MSCHAP v2,
EAP-TLS/Smart card and Generic Token Card. The client
certificate is optional for authentication needs.
TLS/Smart Card –TLS is the most secure of the EAP
protocols but is not easy to use. It requires exchanging
digital certificates in the authentication phase. The server
presents a certificate to the client. After validating the
server’s certificate, the client will then present a client
certificate to the server for validation.
MD5-Challenge – MD5-Challenge is the easiest EAP Type.
It requires the wireless station to enter a set of user name
and password as the identity to RADIUS Server.
Session Resumption
Select from “Disabled”, “Reauthentication”, “Roaming”,
“SameSSID” and “Always” options when you want to
recover the session in different status.
Identity
Name the server for server identification.
Password
Enter the password for server identification.
Use Client Certificate
A client certificate is required for TLS, and is optional for
TTLS and PEAP. This item forces a client certificate to be
selected from the appropriate Windows Certificate Store and
made available to the RADIUS server for certification.
Tunneled Authentication
Protocol
Identity
Password
When the authentication type is PEAP or TTLS, select a
protocol for building the encrypted tunnel.
This is the protected user EAP Identity used for
authentication. The identity specified may contain up to 63
ASCII characters, is case sensitive and takes the form of a
Network Access Identifier, consisting of <name of the
user>@<user’s home realm>. The user’s home realm is
optional and indicates the routing domain.
The password used for authentication. It may contain up to
63 ASCII characters and is case sensitive.
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4.1.3.4 802.1x Setting-CA Server
Parameter
Description
Use Certificate Chain
When the EAP authentication type such as TLS, TTLS or
PEAP is selected and requires a certification to tell the client
what server credentials to accept from the authentication
server in order to verify the server, you have to enable this
function.
Choose the server from the list to issue the certificate. If “Any
Trusted CA” is selected, any CA included on the list (provided
by the Microsoft Certificate Store) will be permitted.
When the server designates an issuer as a trusted root authority, it
places the issuer's self-signed certificate, which contains the issuer's
public key, into the trusted root certification authority certificate
store of the host computer. Intermediate or subordinate certification
authorities are trusted only if they have a valid certification path
from a trusted root certification authority.
Enter the authentication server name.
Certificate Issuer
Allow Intermediate
Certificates
Server Name
Server name must match
exactly
Domain name must end in
specified name
When selected, the server name must match exactly with the
server name found on the certificate.
When selected, the server name field will identify a domain.
The certificate must use a server name belonging to this
domain or to one of its sub-domains (e.g. zeelans.com, where
the server is blueberry.zeelans.com) but it may be any name
used in the certificate name field.
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4.1.4
Available Network
When you open the Configuration Utility, the system will scan all the channels to find
all the access points/stations within the accessible range of Wireless LAN Adapter and
automatically connect you to the wireless device with the greatest signal strength. The
“Available Network” will list all the networks nearby.
You can change the
connection to another AP or add one of the APs to your own profile list.
Refresh
Click this button to rescan available networks around the
adapter.
Add to Profile
To add an available Network to your profile list, select an
available network and click this button to add.
4.1.5
Advanced
This Advanced tab provides advanced configurations to this adapter. Every
modification in this tab will be performed after clicking the Apply button.
To restore the default settings of the advanced tab, click the Set defaults button to
perform restoring.
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Power Save
None
Disable Power saving function.
Min
Minimum power consumption
Max
Maximum power consumption
Turbo Mode
OFF
Disable turbo mode
ON
Enable turbo mode
AUTO
Enable or disable turbo automatically according to the detected
environment
Fragment Threshold
The maximum size of a packet that is going to be segmented and transmitted.
Select the size from 256 to 2432(default) bytes.
RTS Threshold
Select the RTS Threshold form 0 to 2432(default)
Wireless Mode
802.11g/b
802.11b
Connect to a 802.11b/g network (2.4GHz/54Mbps)
Connect to a 802.11b network (2.4GHz/11Mbps)
802.11b Preamble Mode
Select the preamble mode to be long, short or auto detection mode.
Region Domain
Select your region from the drop list. Please note that it is necessary for you to
select a correct region. Selecting an incorrect region may again the applicable law.
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4.1.6
Status
This tab shows the current connection status of this adapter.
4.1.7
Statistics
See this tab to show the transmission activity record. Clicking the “Reset” button
recounts the values from zero.
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4.2 AP mode management guide
4.2.1
General
After configuring the adapter in AP mode, this “General” page shows up, which
shows the general information of this AP.
SSID:
BSSID:
Config:
Association Table:
4.2.2
The SSID (network name) of the wireless network
constructed by this AP.
The MAC address of this AP
Click this button to change configurations to this AP
Shows the information of those devices that associated
with this AP including their MAC addresses and the time
that they connected with this device.
Advanced
Beacon Interval:
DTIM Period:
Preamble Mode:
Set Defaults:
Apply:
Define the interval between beacons from 20~1000
Set the DTIM period between 1~255
Click the drop list to select the preamble to be long,
short or auto
Click this button to restore the settings above to default
Click this button to execute changes.
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4.2.3
Statistics
See this tab to show the transmission activity record. Clicking the “Reset” button
recounts the values from zero.
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4.2.4
SoftAP
This page allows users to select the adapter for connect to public network.
Please click on the device that are used for connecting to public network and click the
“Select” button, and then click the “Apply” button to execute.
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5 Troubleshooting
This chapter provides solutions to problems commonly encountered during the
installation and operation of the adapter.
1. What is the IEEE 802.11g standard?
802.11g is the new IEEE standard for high-speed wireless LAN communications which
provides up to 54 Mbps data rate in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11g is quickly becoming the
next mainstream in wireless LAN technology for the home, office and public networks.
802.11g defines the use of the same OFDM modulation technique specified in IEEE
802.11a for the 5 GHz frequency band and applies it in the same 2.4 GHz frequency
band as IEEE 802.11b. The 802.11g standard requires backward compatibility with
802.11b.
The standard specifically calls for:
A. A new physical layer for the 802.11 Medium Access Control (MAC) in the 2.4 GHz
frequency band, known as the extended rate PHY (ERP). The ERP adds OFDM as
a mandatory new coding scheme for 6, 12 and 24 Mbps (mandatory speeds), and
18, 36, 48 and 54 Mbps (optional speeds). The ERP includes the modulation
schemes found in 802.11b including CCK for 11 and 5.5 Mbps and Barker code
modulation for 2 and 1 Mbps.
B. A protection mechanism called RTS/CTS governs how 802.11g devices and
802.11b devices interoperate.
2. What is the IEEE 802.11b standard?
The IEEE 802.11b Wireless LAN standard subcommittee formulates the
standard for the industry. The objective is to enable wireless LAN hardware
from different manufactures to communicate.
3. What does IEEE 802.11 feature support?
The product supports the following IEEE 802.11 functions:
z
z
z
z
z
z
CSMA/CA plus Acknowledge Protocol
Multi-Channel Roaming
Automatic Rate Selection
RTS/CTS Feature
Fragmentation
Power Management
4. What is Ad-hoc?
An Ad-hoc integrated wireless LAN is a group of computers, each having a Wireless
LAN adapter, connected as an independent wireless LAN. Ad hoc wireless LAN is
applicable at a departmental scale for a branch or SOHO operation.
5. What is Infrastructure?
An integrated wireless and wired LAN is called an Infrastructure configuration.
Infrastructure is applicable to enterprise scale for wireless access to central
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database, or wireless application for mobile workers.
6. What is BSS ID?
A specific Ad hoc LAN is called a Basic Service Set (BSS). Computers in a BSS
must be configured with the same BSS ID.
7. What is WEP?
WEP is Wired Equivalent Privacy, a data privacy mechanism based on a 40 bit
shared key algorithm, as described in the IEEE 802 .11 standard.
8. What is TKIP?
TKIP is a quick-fix method to quickly overcome the inherent weaknesses in WEP
security, especially the reuse of encryption keys. TKIP involves IEEE 802.11i
WLAN security standard.
9. What is AES?
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard), a chip-based security, has been developed to
ensure the highest degree of security and authenticity for digital information, wherever
and however communicated or stored, while making more efficient use of hardware
and/or software than previous encryption standards. It is also included in IEEE 802.11i
standard. Compare with AES, TKIP is a temporary protocol for replacing WEP security
until manufacturers implement AES at the hardware level.
10. Can Wireless products support printer sharing?
Wireless products perform the same function as LAN products. Therefore, Wireless
products can work with Netware, Windows 2000, or other LAN operating systems to
support printer or file sharing.
11. Would the information be intercepted while transmitting on air?
WLAN features two-fold protection in security. On the hardware side, as with Direct
Sequence Spread Spectrum technology, it has the inherent security feature of
scrambling. On the software side, WLAN series offer the encryption function (WEP)
to enhance security and Access Control. Users can set it up based on their needs.
12. What is DSSS?What is FHSS?And what are their differences?
Frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) uses a narrowband carrier that
changes frequency in a pattern that is known to both transmitter and receiver.
Properly synchronized, the net effect is to maintain a single logical channel. To
an unintended receiver, FHSS appears to be short-duration impulse noise.
Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) generates a redundant bit pattern for
each bit to be transmitted. This bit pattern is called a chip (or chipping code). The
longer the chip is, the greater the probability that the original data can be
recovered. Even if one or more bits in the chip are damaged during transmission,
statistical techniques embedded in the radio can recover the original data
without-the need for retransmission. To an unintended receiver, DSSS appears
as low power wideband noise and is rejected (ignored) by most narrowband
receivers.
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13. What is Spread Spectrum?
Spread Spectrum technology is a wideband radio frequency technique developed
by the military for use in reliable, secured, mission-critical communication
systems. It is designed to trade off bandwidth efficiency for reliability, integrity,
and security. In other words, more bandwidth is consumed than in the case of
narrowband transmission, but the trade off produces a signal that is, in effect,
louder and thus easier to detect, provided that the receiver knows the
parameters of the spread-spectrum signal being broadcast. If a receiver is not
tuned to the right frequency, a spread –spectrum signal would look like
background noise. There are two main types: Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
(DSSS) and Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS).
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Copyright 2006 Micronet Communications, Inc. All rights reserved. No Part of the
contents of this guide maybe transmitted or reproduced in any form or by any means
without the written permission of manufacturer. Printed in Taiwan.
FCC Statement
This product has been tested and found to comply with the limits for a Class B digital
device pursuant to Part 15 of FCC Rules. These limits are designed to provide
reasonable protection against such interference when operating in a commercial
environment. This equipment generates, uses, and can radiate radio frequency
energy, and if not installed and used according to the instructions, may cause
harmful interference to radio communications. Operation of this equipment in a
residential area is likely to cause interference in which case the user, at his or her
owns expense will be required to take whatever measures may be required to correct
the interference.
FCC Caution
This device and its antenna must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with
any other antenna or transmitter.
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the
following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause harmful interference, and (2)
this device must accept any interference received, including interference that may
cause undesired operation.
Any changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for
compliance could void the authority to operate equipment.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) Radiation Exposure Statement
This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure set forth for an uncontrolled
environment. In order to avoid the possibility of exceeding the FCC radio frequency
exposure limits, human proximity to the antenna shall not be less than 2.5cm (1 inch)
during normal operation.
Federal Communications Commission (FCC) RF Exposure Requirements
SAR compliance has been established in the laptop computer(s) configurations with
PCMCIA slot on the side near the center, as tested in the application for Certification,
and can be used in laptop computer(s) with substantially similar physical dimensions,
construction, and electrical and RF characteristics. Use in other devices such a PDAs
or lappads is not authorized. This transmitter is restricted for use with the specific
antenna(s) tested in the application for Certification. The antenna(s) used for this
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transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna
or transmitter.
R&TTE Compliance Statement
This equipment complies with all the requirements of DIRECTIVE 1999/5/EC OF
THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL of March 9, 1999 on radio
equipment and telecommunication terminal Equipment and the mutual recognition of
their conformity (R&TTE)
The R&TTE Directive repeals and replaces in the directive 98/13/EEC
(Telecommunications Terminal Equipment and Satellite Earth Station Equipment) As
of April 8, 2000.
Safety
This equipment is designed with the utmost care for the safety of those who install
and use it. However, special attention must be paid to the dangers of electric shock
and static electricity when working with electrical equipment. All guidelines of this
and of the computer manufacture must therefore be allowed at all times to ensure
the safe use of the equipment.
CE Mark Warning
This is a Class B product. In a domestic environment, this product may cause radio
interference in which case the user may be required to take adequate measures.
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