U-Line B12115 Technical data

U-Line B12115 Technical data
Oracle® Application Server 10g
Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
10g (9.0.4)
Part No. B12115-01
September 2003
Oracle Application Server 10g Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments, 10g (9.0.4)
Part No. B12115-01
Copyright © 2003, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Primary Author: Orlando Cordero
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Contents
Send Us Your Comments ....................................................................................................................... vii
Preface ................................................................................................................................................................. ix
Intended Audience......................................................................................................................................
Structure of This Guide ..............................................................................................................................
Related Documents .....................................................................................................................................
Conventions .................................................................................................................................................
Documentation Accessibility .....................................................................................................................
Accessibility of Code Examples in Documentation ...............................................................................
1
Enterprise Topology Overview
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.5.1
1.6
1.6.1
1.6.2
2
ix
ix
x
x
x
x
About Enterprise Topologies and Why Oracle Recommends Them .................................. 1-1
Recommended Topologies ........................................................................................................ 1-2
Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications ........................................................... 1-2
Enterprise Data Center Topology: Portal, Wireless, and Business Intelligence
Applications ................................................................................................................... 1-6
Departmental Topology ............................................................................................................. 1-7
Installation Sequence........................................................................................................... 1-9
Development Life Cycle Topology........................................................................................... 1-9
Moving Applications from Test to Stage....................................................................... 1-10
Moving Applications from Stage to Production .......................................................... 1-10
Installation and Configuration Considerations for an Enterprise Topology
J2EE Applications Topology...................................................................................................... 2-1
Hardware Requirements .................................................................................................... 2-2
Installation Sequence........................................................................................................... 2-2
Enterprise Topology: Portal, BI, Wireless, Forms and Reports Services Installation and
Configuration ................................................................................................................. 2-3
2.3
Departmental Topology: Departments Hosting Their Applications .................................. 2-5
2.4
Enterprise Topology: Development Life Cycle Topology Installation and
Configuration ................................................................................................................. 2-6
2.5
Enterprise Topology Post-Installation Tasks .......................................................................... 2-6
2.5.1
Infrastructure........................................................................................................................ 2-7
2.5.1.1
OracleAS Portal and Oracle Internet Directory ....................................................... 2-7
2.5.1.2
OracleAS Portal and OracleAS Web Cache .............................................................. 2-7
2.1
2.1.1
2.1.2
2.2
iii
2.5.2
2.6
2.6.1
2.6.2
2.6.3
2.6.4
2.6.5
2.6.6
2.6.7
2.6.8
2.7
3
Configuring Single Sign-On in an Enterprise Deployment Topology
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.3.1
3.3.2
4
About High Availability ............................................................................................................
About Security.............................................................................................................................
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory ......................
Usage Scenario .....................................................................................................................
Configuration Steps.............................................................................................................
Oracle Application Server Networking Overview ................................................................
Distributed Configuration Management (DCM) ............................................................
Oracle Process Manager and Notification (OPMN) .......................................................
LDAP and Oracle Internet Directory ................................................................................
Enterprise Manager Server Control ..................................................................................
Firewall Considerations: Opening the Right Ports ................................................................
mod_oc4j and OC4J in Different Tiers and Across Firewalls........................................
Opening the Right Ports for mod_oc4j .............................................................................
Configuring iASPT ..............................................................................................................
Load Balancing Considerations ................................................................................................
Configuring Multiple Middle-Tiers with a Load Balancing Router....................................
Configuring Reverse Proxy Servers .........................................................................................
4-1
4-1
4-2
4-2
4-3
4-3
4-4
4-4
4-4
4-5
4-5
4-7
Managing an Enterprise Deployment Topology
5.1
General Management Considerations .....................................................................................
5.1.1
Rotating Log Files ................................................................................................................
5.1.2
Periodic Restarting of OC4J................................................................................................
5.1.3
Starting and Stopping Servers and Applications............................................................
5.1.4
Rolling Out Upgrades, Patches, and Configuration Changes.......................................
5.1.5
Backup and Recovery..........................................................................................................
5.1.6
Taking Advantage of NFS ..................................................................................................
5.1.7
Port Management ................................................................................................................
5.1.8
Using Static and Dynamic IP Addresses ..........................................................................
5.1.9
Leaving and Joining Different Infrastructures ................................................................
5.1.10
Mining Log Files ..................................................................................................................
iv
3-1
3-1
3-2
3-2
3-3
Networking
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.3
4.4
4.5
5
OracleAS Portal and Oracle Application Server Wireless ............................................. 2-7
J2EE Applications Topology Post-Installation Tasks............................................................. 2-8
Oracle Application Server Web Cache ............................................................................. 2-8
Oracle HTTP Server............................................................................................................. 2-9
Oracle Application Server Forms Services....................................................................... 2-9
Oracle Application Server Reports Services .................................................................... 2-9
Oracle Application Server Discoverer .............................................................................. 2-9
Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On.................................................................... 2-10
OracleAS Portal................................................................................................................. 2-10
Oracle Enterprise Manager.............................................................................................. 2-10
What to Read Next................................................................................................................... 2-10
5-1
5-1
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-2
5-3
5-3
5-3
5-3
5.2
5.2.1
5.2.2
5.2.3
5.2.4
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.4
6
Enterprise Data Center Topology: Multiple Departments Sharing the Same
Data Center .................................................................................................................... 5-3
Management Considerations Checklist............................................................................ 5-4
Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control Checklist .............................. 5-4
Backup and Recovery Consideration................................................................................ 5-4
Application Deployment and Performance Considerations ......................................... 5-4
Departmental Topology: Departments Hosting Their Applications .................................. 5-5
Management Considerations ............................................................................................. 5-5
Backup and Recovery Consideration................................................................................ 5-5
Application Deployment and Performance Considerations ......................................... 5-5
Development Life Cycle Topology .......................................................................................... 5-6
Performance and Tuning Considerations
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
Origin Server (OS) Network Parameters.................................................................................
Oracle HTTP Server (OHS)........................................................................................................
SSL.................................................................................................................................................
Oracle Internet Directory (OID) ...............................................................................................
JVM parameters...........................................................................................................................
JSPs ................................................................................................................................................
Web Cache ...................................................................................................................................
Logging Level ..............................................................................................................................
Database Connections ................................................................................................................
Portal.............................................................................................................................................
6-1
6-1
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-2
6-3
Index
v
vi
Send Us Your Comments
Oracle Application Server 10g Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments,
10g (9.0.4)
Part No. B12115-01
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vii
viii
Preface
The Oracle Application Server 10g Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
covers requirements, new features in the installer, Oracle Application Server concepts
that affect installation, compatibility with other products, and managementin
information for an enterprise topology.
Intended Audience
This guide is intended for users who are comfortable performing basic system
administration tasks, such as creating users and groups, adding users to groups, and
installing operating system patches on the computer where Oracle Application Server
will be installed. During the install process, you will need to execute shell scripts as
root.
Structure of This Guide
This guide contains the following chapters and appendixes:
Chapter 1, "Enterprise Topology Overview"
Contains overview information about the several Oracle Application Server enterprise
deployment topologies.
Chapter 2, "Installation and Configuration Considerations for an Enterprise Topology"
Contains pre-installation requirements, installation, post-installation, and
configuration information for each topology.
Chapter 3, "Configuring Single Sign-On in an Enterprise Deployment Topology"
Contains information about configuring Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On in a
variety of middle-tier configurations and topologies.
Chapter 4, "Networking"
Contains information about networking considerations, such as port numbering, load
balancers, and firewalls.
Chapter 5, "Managing an Enterprise Deployment Topology"
Contains information about some of the tools and techniques for managing an
enterprise deployment topology.
Chapter 6, "Performance and Tuning Considerations"
Contains information about the most common performance and tuning issues,
including where to find additional sources of information.
ix
Related Documents
For more information, see the following guides:
■
Oracle Application Server 10g Administrator’s Guide
■
Oracle Application Server 10g Concepts
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x
1
Enterprise Topology Overview
This chapter contains the following:
■
About Enterprise Topologies and Why Oracle Recommends Them
■
Recommended Topologies
■
Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications
■
Departmental Topology
■
Development Life Cycle Topology
1.1 About Enterprise Topologies and Why Oracle Recommends Them
An enterprise topology is an advanced installation and configuration of Oracle
Application Server, usually in a large setting such as a data center.
In an enterprise deployment topology, there are three main application server
deployment goals:
■
Ensuring that quality of service exists in the software and hardware configurations
in any given topology:
■
■
■
The enterprise systems efficiently managed and balanced workloads;
Applications run efficiently when resources such as hardware, network tools,
etc., are added or removed in a deployment topology;
Planned and unplanned activities such as system management tasks have zero
downtime in the topology.
■
Provide a secure application server platform;
■
Security and Identity Management:
■
Ensure that users can be provisioned and managed centrally;
■
Ensure that delegation of administration is possible and done consistently;
■
■
Provide the ability to integrate with other security and identity management
systems in an enterprise topology.
Software Provisioning and Management:
■
Simplify and automate application distribution and accessibility;
■
Ensure that systems can be self managed;
■
Monitor and manage many systems as one logical unit;
Enterprise Topology Overview
1-1
Recommended Topologies
■
Introduce Oracle Enterprise Manager as a one-stop management tool for
managing an enterprise.
To learn more about Oracle
Server 10g Concepts.
Application Server concepts, see Oracle Application
For requirements and installation information for each of the topologies, see Chapter
11 of the Oracle Application Server 10g Installation Guide.
1.2 Recommended Topologies
The following sections describe several configurations in an enterprise topology:
■
Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications
■
Departmental Topology
■
Development Life Cycle Topology
1.3 Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications
This deployment topology is optimized to support J2EE applications. It contains the
components required to run J2EE applications in a secure, high availability
environment.
If you have applications that use components from the Portal and Wireless or the
Business Intelligence and Forms middle tier types, see Section 1.4, "Enterprise Data
Center Topology: Portal, Wireless, and Business Intelligence Applications".
Target Users
This topology is intended for enterprises who have users internal as well as external to
the organization. Requests from external users go through firewalls.
Description
This topology (Figure 1–1) distributes Oracle Application Server components over
multiple computers and tiers. Access to the computers in each tier is guarded by
firewalls. Generally, you do not want Web servers, which are high risk components for
Internet attacks, to have direct access to other computers in the enterprise. You want
the requests to go through firewalls.
The distributed topology enables you to scale the number of computers in each tier (to
increase performance and availability) without affecting computers in other tiers. For
example, if you discover a bottleneck in the computers running OracleAS Web Cache
and Oracle HTTP Server, you can add more computers to run those components.
1-2 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications
Figure 1–1 Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications
External Clients
DMZ
Firewall
HTTP / HTTPS
Web Server Tier DMZ
Load Balancer
Infrastructure Firewall
Infrastructure DMZ
Real Application Clusters or Cold Failover
Cluster
Oracle Internet
Directory
Web Cache
Oracle HTTP Server
for Single Sign-On and
Delegated Administration
Services
SQL*Net
Oracle HTTP Server,
including mod_oc4j
OC4J for Single Sign-On
and Delegated
Administration Services
AJP
OracleAS Metadata
Repository
Product
Metadata
Security
Management
Metadata
Metadata
J2EE
Firewall
J2EE Business Logic DMZ
J2EE (without Web Cache)
Web Cache runs in the Web Server Tier DMZ.
Intranet
Firewall
Intranet
SQL*Net
Real Application Clusters
or Cold Failover Cluster
Business Data
Customer
Database
Single Sign On Middle Tier (Web Server Tier DMZ)
This tier is located just inside the outermost firewall. The load balancer gets requests
from external users and forwards them to the two sets of computers in this tier. For
each set of computers, you should have at least two computers, to serve as a backup
and also to improve performance. You can add more computers to each set as
necessary.
Internal users also access the Web servers running in this tier.
The computers in this tier run the following components:
■
One set of computers runs OracleAS Web Cache and Oracle HTTP Server.
This tier runs all the Web servers. Oracle HTTP Server and OracleAS Web Cache
handle requests for static objects and J2EE applications. They send the requests to
Enterprise Topology Overview
1-3
Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications
computers in the J2EE Business Logic DMZ tier. To increase performance and
availability, the mod_oc4j module in Oracle HTTP Server performs load
balancing and failover.
■
Another set of computers runs Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On and
Oracle Delegated Administration Services.
Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On authenticates internal and external
users, and Oracle Delegated Administration Services enable users to edit their
profiles in the Oracle Internet Directory.
mod_plsql: If you need the Web servers to invoke mod_plsql applications stored in the
customer database, you do not need the J2EE firewall (compare Figure 1–1 and
Figure 1–2). The main purpose of the J2EE firewall is to block SQL*Net access from
Web servers to the intranet. If you are using mod_plsql, which uses SQL*Net, then you
do not want the messages blocked.
1-4 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications
Figure 1–2 Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications that need to access mod_plsql
External Clients
DMZ
Firewall
HTTP / HTTPS
Web Server Tier DMZ
Load Balancer
Infrastructure Firewall
Infrastructure DMZ
Real Application Clusters or Cold Failover
Cluster
Oracle Internet
Directory
Web Cache
Oracle HTTP Server
for Single Sign-On and
Delegated Administration
Services
SQL*Net
Oracle HTTP Server,
including mod_oc4j
mod_plsql
OC4J for Single Sign-On
and Delegated
Administration Services
OracleAS Metadata
Repository
Product
Metadata
Security
Management
Metadata
Metadata
AJP
SQL*Net
J2EE (without Web Cache)
Web Cache runs in the Web
Server Tier DMZ.
SQL*Net
Intranet
Firewall
Intranet
Real Application Clusters
or Cold Failover Cluster
Business Data
Customer
Database
Infrastructure DMZ
In this tier, you run all components of OracleAS Infrastructure 10g, except for Oracle
Application Server Single Sign-On and Oracle Delegated Administration Services,
which run in the Web Server Tier DMZ.
You install the OracleAS Infrastructure 10g behind another firewall so that Web servers
do not have direct access to other computers in the enterprise. Oracle Application
Server Metadata Repository and Oracle Internet Directory contain critical data used by
Oracle Application Server instances.
OracleAS Metadata Repository contains security metadata, management metadata,
and product metadata. J2EE and Web Cache instances and the infrastructure
components such as Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On use this repository.
Enterprise Topology Overview
1-5
Enterprise Data Center Topology: Portal, Wireless, and Business Intelligence Applications
The Oracle Internet Directory contains data for external and internal users. Oracle
Application Server Single Sign-On authenticates users based on the data in Oracle
Internet Directory.
You can install the OracleAS Metadata Repository and the Oracle Internet Directory in
a Real Application Clusters or Oracle Application Server Cold Failover Clusters
environment.
J2EE Business Logic DMZ
In this tier, you deploy and run your applications on J2EE and Web Cache instances.
The applications can access the business data in the customer database.
The number of J2EE and Web Cache instances and computers depend on the number
of applications that you are running and the number of users. You should have at least
two instances so that you can cluster them using OracleAS Clusters. Clustered
instances provide greater availability and scalability, and improve performance.
The J2EE firewall prevents Web servers (in the Web Server Tier DMZ) from directly
accessing the computers in this tier.
Intranet
This tier contains the computers that run enterprise processes, including databases
that contain the business data. The databases can be in a high availability environment
such as Real Application Clusters or Oracle Application Server Cold Failover Clusters.
Applications running in the J2EE Business Logic tier can access the databases. If Web
servers in the Web Server Tier DMZ become compromised, the intranet firewall
prevents the Web servers from accessing the entire corporate intranet.
1.4 Enterprise Data Center Topology: Portal, Wireless, and Business
Intelligence Applications
This deployment topology supports J2EE applications as well as applications that use
components in the Portal and Wireless, and the Business Intelligence and Forms
middle tiers. If you do not need these components, see Section 1.3, "Enterprise Data
Center Topology: J2EE Applications", which describes a topology that uses only the
components in the J2EE and Web Cache middle tier.
Target Users
This topology is intended for enterprises who have users internal as well as external to
the organization. Requests from external users go through firewalls.
Description
This topology (Figure 1–3) distributes Oracle Application Server components over
multiple computers and tiers. Access to the computers in each tier is guarded by
firewalls. This distributed topology enables you to scale the number of computers in
each tier (to increase performance and availability) without affecting computers in
other tiers. For example, if you discover a bottleneck in the computers running your
applications, you can add computers to the Web Server Tier DMZ and run Business
Intelligence and Forms middle tiers on them.
1-6 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Departmental Topology
Figure 1–3 Enterprise Data Center Topology: Portal, Wireless, and Business Intelligence Applications
1.5 Departmental Topology
A departmental configuration topology is a subset of considerations and requirements
that overlap the enterprise data center configuration.
Target Users
This topology is a smaller scale version of the topology described in Section 1.3,
"Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE Applications". It consists of an OracleAS
Infrastructure 10g with two metadata repositories, and multiple middle tiers. This
topology can be used by individual departments within an organization. Users who
access this topology are internal to the organization. As such, this topology does not
consider security requirements that involve external users.
Enterprise Topology Overview
1-7
Departmental Topology
Description
This topology (Figure 1–4) consists of an OracleAS Infrastructure, plus several middle
tiers, including at least one Portal and Wireless middle tier. This topology uses two
metadata repositories:
■
■
one for product metadata (installed on computer 2). The Portal
middle tier uses this metadata repository.
and Wireless
one for Identity Management services (installed on computer 1). All the middle
tiers use this metadata repository for Identity Management services.
Expanding the Topology
You can install Oracle Application Server middle tiers on additional computers, as
needed. You would associate these middle tiers with either metadata repository. For
more information, see Oracle Application Server 10g Administrator’s Guide.
Figure 1–4 Departmental Topology
Computers Running
OracleAS MIddle Tiers
(add more computers
as necessary)
Computer 2
Computer 3
Portal and Wireless
OracleAS
Metadata
Repository
Product Metadata
Security Services
Computer 4
Product
Metadata
J2EE and Web Cache
Security Services
Computer 1
OracleAS
Metadata
Repository
Identity Management Services:
- Oracle Internet Directory
- Oracle Directory Integration and
Provisioning
- Oracle Delegated Administration
Services
- OracleAS Single Sign-On
- OracleAS Certificate Authority
Security Metadata,
Management Metadata
Adding High Availability Features
You can install the infrastructure in a Real
Application Clusters or Oracle
Application Server Cold Failover Clusters environment. See Chapter 9, "Installing
in High Availability Environments" in the Oracle Application Server 10g Installation
Guide for specific steps.
This topology makes the following assumption:
■
When you install the OracleAS Infrastructure 10g, you create a new Oracle
Internet Directory.
1-8 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Development Life Cycle Topology
1.5.1 Installation Sequence
Install the items in the following order. The computers are listed in Figure 1–4.
1.
Computer 1: Install an OracleAS Infrastructure 10g with Identity Management
services and OracleAS Metadata Repository. See Section 6.14, "Installing
OracleAS Infrastructure 10g" in the Oracle Application Server 10g Installation Guide
for specific steps.This creates a database to contain the OracleAS Metadata
Repository. It also creates an Oracle Internet Directory.
2.
Computer 2: Install a second OracleAS Metadata Repository. See Section 6.16,
"Installing OracleAS Metadata Repository in a New Database" in the Oracle
Application Server 10g Installation Guide for specific steps.When the installer
prompts you to register the OracleAS Metadata Repository, enter the connect
information for the Oracle Internet Directory created in step 1.The Portal and
Wireless middle tier will use this second metadata repository for its product
metadata. See Section 6.10, "Can I Use Multiple Metadata Repositories?" in the
Oracle Application Server 10g Installation Guide for specific steps.
3.
Computer 3: Install a Portal and Wireless middle tier. See Section 7.10, "Installing
Portal and Wireless or Business Intelligence and Forms" in the Oracle Application
Server 10g Installation Guide for specific steps.When the installer prompts for Oracle
Internet Directory, enter the connect information for the Oracle Internet Directory
created in step 1. This Oracle Internet Directory contains the registration for the
OracleAS Metadata Repository installed in steps 1 and 2.When the installer
prompts for the OracleAS Metadata Repository, select the OracleAS Metadata
Repository installed in step 2.
4.
Computer 4: Install a J2EE and Web Cache middle tier. See Section 7.8, "Installing
J2EE and Web Cache with OracleAS Cluster and Identity Management Access" in
the Oracle Application Server 10g Installation Guide for specific steps.When the
installer prompts for Oracle Internet Directory, enter the connect information for
the Oracle Internet Directory created in step 1.When the installer prompts for the
OracleAS Metadata Repository, select the OracleAS Metadata Repository installed
in step 1.
1.6 Development Life Cycle Topology
This topology is a combination of other topologies to support moving applications
from test to stage to production environments:
Test environment: Application developers test their applications in their own
environments. Examples of testing environments can be found in the Oracle Application
Server 10g Installation Guide:
■
Section 10.1, "Java Developer Topology"
■
Section 10.2, "Portal and Wireless Developer Topology"
■
Section 10.3, "Forms, Reports, and Discoverer Developer Topology"
Stage environment: Quality assurance personnel test all applications before deploying
them to the production environment. In this environment, you can use the topology
described in Section 1.5, "Departmental Topology". This topology in a stage
environment runs applications from all departments, not just from a single one.
Production environment: Applications are ready for use by users internal and external
to the enterprise. See Section 1.3, "Enterprise Data Center Topology: J2EE
Applications"
Enterprise Topology Overview
1-9
Development Life Cycle Topology
1.6.1 Moving Applications from Test to Stage
To move applications from a test to a stage environment, you deploy them on middle
tiers in the stage environment. The applications use the Identity Management and
Oracle Application Server Metadata Repository of the stage environment.
If an application uses custom data in a database, you need to move that data from that
database to a database in the stage environment.
1.6.2 Moving Applications from Stage to Production
You can move applications from a stage environment to a production by deploying the
applications and moving any application-specific data from the stage environment to
the production environment.
Another method is to use the rejoin feature, which enables you to unjoin a middle tier
from its infrastructure and associate it with a different infrastructure. You can use this
feature to move middle tiers (and their applications) from stage to production.
You still need to move application-specific data stored in a stage database to a
database in the production environment.
Rejoining middle tiers is convenient if you need additional computers and application
server resources for the production environment. In one step, you can add a computer
that already has a middle tier and deployed applications.
See the Oracle Application Server 10g Administrator’s Guide for details on rejoining
middle tiers.
1-10 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
2
Installation and Configuration
Considerations for an Enterprise Topology
The following sections contain installation and configuration considerations for these
topologies:
■
■
■
■
J2EE Applications Topology
Enterprise Topology: Portal, BI, Wireless, Forms and Reports Services Installation
and Configuration
Departmental Topology: Departments Hosting Their Applications
Enterprise Topology: Development Life Cycle Topology Installation and
Configuration
■
Enterprise Topology Post-Installation Tasks
■
J2EE Applications Topology Post-Installation Tasks
■
What to Read Next
2.1 J2EE Applications Topology
Table 2–1 summarizes considerations when installing and configuring a J2EE
Applications topology in an enterprise environment such as a data center.
Table 2–1
Installation Considerations for the J2EE Application Developer Topology
Consideration
Deployment Scenarios
Install
Multiple Host installations on hardware clusters, NFS
machines
Multiple Middle Tier instances
Dedicated Product Metadata Services for Portal applications
Shared Product Metadata Services for some applications
Shared Security Services for throughout the enterprise
Central Management Services
Support for Test to Stage to Production cycles
Oracle Application Server won’t break if there are hard disk
replacements, CPU changes, or RAM upgrades
Installation and Configuration Considerations for an Enterprise Topology
2-1
J2EE Applications Topology
Table 2–1 (Cont.) Installation Considerations for the J2EE Application Developer
Consideration
Deployment Scenarios
Management
Central Management Services
Oracle Application Server plugs into existing central
management services
Role-based management (initial functionality in 904 and major
functionality in Oracle Application Server)
Multiple administrators
Backup and Recovery: Complete cold backup of the entire
distributed environment
Security
Global OID/SSO or logical SSO (consisting of 1 or more SSO
instances) sharing the same logical OID (consisting of 1 or
more OID instances)
Both SSO and OID behind the external firewall for internal
users
When hosting applications for both internal and external users
(such as MOC), security considerations will need to make sure
some security services can be shared by both users.
Integrating with departmental third-party directories (iPlanet,
Active Directory, eDirectory)
Provisioning/De-Provisioning users
Application Deployment
and Performance
J2EE applications deployed on Oracle Application Server
Clusters with or without Web Cache
Portal application using Web Cache, even on a single node
environment
Forms applications working against a OLTP System with no
SSO
BI applications working against a data warehouse with tighter
security
All applications accessible by Portal and Wireless devices
Self Service Applications (using IP and Workflow)
High Availability (HA)
Infrastructure HA: Multiple types of HA solutions for different
Infrastructure Services
Optional: OPMN based cluster management for middle tier
applications
Third-Party Products
Firewall, load balancers, hardware clusters, hardware
accelerators
2.1.1 Hardware Requirements
You can look at Table 2–2 to get an idea of some of the hardware requirements you’ll
need to meet to successfully install, configure, and run various components of an
enterprise deployment topology.
2.1.2 Installation Sequence
Install the items in the following order:
1.
Infrastructure DMZ: Install an OracleAS Infrastructure 10g with Identity
Management services and Oracle Application Server Metadata Repository. See
Chapter 5, Section 5.14, "Installing OracleAS Infrastructure" in Oracle Application
Server 10g Installation Guide for complete installation information.
2-2 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Enterprise Topology: Portal, BI, Wireless, Forms and Reports Services Installation and Configuration
Do not select Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On or
Oracle Delegated Administration Services in the Select
Configuration Options screen. You will install these components in
the next step.
Note:
2.
Web Server Tier DMZ: Install Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On and Oracle
Delegated Administration Services.
See "Installing Identity Management Components Only (Excluding Oracle Internet
Directory)" in Oracle Application Server 10g Installation Guide. Note the following
points:
■
■
3.
In the Select Configuration Options screen, select only Oracle Delegated
Administration Services and Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On.
When the installer prompts you for Oracle Internet Directory information,
enter the connect information for the Oracle Internet Directory installed in
step 1.
Web Server Tier DMZ: Install Business Intelligence and Forms (or Portal and
Wireless) middle tier. This installs Oracle HTTP Server and OracleAS Web Cache
as well.
For more information, see Chapter 6, "Installing Portal and Wireless or Business
Intelligence and Forms" in the Oracle Application Server 10g Installation Guide.
2.2 Enterprise Topology: Portal, BI, Wireless, Forms and Reports
Services Installation and Configuration
The following table is a summary of the user considerations when installing and
configuring Portal, BI, Wireless, and Forms and Reports
Installation and Configuration Considerations for an Enterprise Topology
2-3
Enterprise Topology: Portal, BI, Wireless, Forms and Reports Services Installation and Configuration
Table 2–2 Considerations when installing and configuring Portal, BI, Wireless, and
Forms and Reports
Consideration
User Consideration
Overview
Web Server Tier: OHS stand alone installs on multiple
machines
Application Server Tier: Middle tiers hosted on one big
machine or multiple machines for multiple applications
Infrastructure: Dedicated or shared Product Metadata Services.
Shared Security Service, Centralized Management
Special Install Requirements:
Cluster Machine installs
Cloning, Reassociation: NFS Machine installs Hardware
Cluster Support
Co-existence of other Oracle Products: Oracle Application
Server and Oracle Application Server Infrastructure in 2
different Oracle Home, IP Platform Build time environment in
another Oracle Home
Criteria for Best User Experience regarding Install:
Easy to install and clone
No patch requirements immediately after install
Installations that can be easily cloned
Flexible Distributed Infrastructure Services
Hardware Details
Web server tier/Application Server tier:
Single big Host or farm of small machines for Middle tier
Single big Host machine details:
OS: Solaris (Of the order of E280’s or above) or HP or IBM AIX
CPU: 2 – 4 (400Mhz or greater)
RAM: 8G
Hard Disk: 80GB
Small machine details (min. 2-3, high end 6-8):
OS: Linux, or Solaris or HP or IBM AIX
CPU: 1 - 2 (400Mhz or greater for Solaris, 600Mhz or greater for
Linux)
RAM: 512M – 1G per node
Hard Disk: 10 – 20 GB
Infrastructure:
OS: Solaris or HP or IBM AIX
CPU: 1 – 2 CPU
RAM: 512M - 1G
Hard Disk: 10 – 20 GB
2-4 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Departmental Topology: Departments Hosting Their Applications
Table 2–2 (Cont.) Considerations when installing and configuring Portal, BI, Wireless,
and Forms and Reports
Consideration
User Consideration
Distributed Install
Topology
Web Server Tier: OHS in DMZ – 1, separate from application
server.
Application Server Tier: Application Server in DMZ – 2
Product Metadata Services: In DMZ – 2 for most cases.
Dedicated host running just Product Metadata Services used
by either dedicated or a small set of middle tier instances
Security Services: Behind the firewall. Dedicated host running
just Security Services. Shared by all middle tier instances
Management Services: Central management inside the firewall
User Profile
System Administrator (Advanced User)
2.3 Departmental Topology: Departments Hosting Their Applications
Table 2–3 describes the considerations for installing and managing a departmental
topology:
Table 2–3
Considerations for the Departmental Topology
Consideration
User Considerations
Installation and
Management
Multiple Host installations on cluster machines, NFS machines
Multiple Middle Tier instances used
No Infrastructure used if deploying only Java or J2EE
applications
Dedicated Product Metadata Services for Portal applications
Shared Product Metadata Services for some applications
Shared Security Services to secure subset of enterprise level
users
Management Services -> Number of instances managed is less
than enterprise data center. All other management issues are
the same
Oracle Application Server should not break if there are hard
disk replacement, or CPU change or RAM upgrades or
Network Interfaces
Security
Single install which would contain both Infrastructure
Software and OID/SSO data
Contains subset of users as compared to the enterprise OID
Application Deployment
and Performance
Important not to pay overhead for enterprise configuration
services
Use OHS as load balancer for multiple OC4J instances.
J2EE applications deployed on Oracle Application Server
Clusters with or without Web Cache
Portal application using Web Cache
High Availability (HA)
HA requirement for departmental deployment depends on the
nature of the application
If there is a requirement, recommendation would be Local Data
Guard or Cold Failover ClusterIf there is no requirement,
complete cold backup and recovery methodology is used
Installation and Configuration Considerations for an Enterprise Topology
2-5
Enterprise Topology: Development Life Cycle Topology Installation and Configuration
Table 2–3 (Cont.) Considerations for the Departmental Topology
Consideration
User Considerations
Third-Party Products
Depending on the load on the application, Load balancers
might be needed
2.4 Enterprise Topology: Development Life Cycle Topology Installation
and Configuration
Table 2–4 describes the installation and management considerations for the
development life cycle topology:
Table 2–4
Considerations for the Development Life Cycle Enterprise Topology
Consideration
User Considerations
Install
Test Environment: Single host for mid tier and Infrastructure
(all services from one DB).
Staging Environment: Multiple mid tiers on one single big
machine or multiple machines with either dedicated or shared
product metadata services, but always shared security services.
Production Environment: Very similar to Staging environment,
except now using enterprise wide security service
Oracle Application Server won’t break when there are hard
disk replacements, CPU changes, or RAM upgrades
Management
Test - Stand Alone or command line tools
Development - Stand Alone or centralized management
Production - Centralized Management
Security
Fluid Security requirements
Re-association of security services is mandatory
Application Deployment
and Performance
Shutdown/startup, deploy time are prioritiesFrequent
reconfiguration of tunable parameters, needs to be fastMay
have multiple versions installed and possibly runningThis is
the environment for testing load balancing, combinations of
applications on one box.
High Availability (HA)
Testing Environment: Not a concern. Applications and specific
configuration files will be backed up.
Staging Environment: Cold Failover Cluster or Local DG.
Complete cold backup.
Production Environment: RAC or Cold Failover Cluster and
Remote DG for Disaster Recovery. Complete cold backup.
Third-Party Products
Depending on the load on the application, DMZ, firewalls,
load balancers, routers might be needed.
2.5 Enterprise Topology Post-Installation Tasks
This section describes post-installation tasks you’ll need to perform for these areas of
your enterprise deployment topology:
■
Infrastructure
■
OracleAS Portal and Oracle Application Server Wireless
■
Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On
2-6 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Enterprise Topology Post-Installation Tasks
2.5.1 Infrastructure
OracleAS Portal needs post-installation steps with Oracle Internet Directory and
OracleAS Web Cache at the Infrastructure level.
2.5.1.1 OracleAS Portal and Oracle Internet Directory
Every OracleAS Portal middle-tier installation drops and recreates the Portal users in
Oracle Internet Directory (OID). This means that the Oracle Application Server
instance password of the last run middle-tier installation should be used for Portal
runtime access.
After all the middle-tier installations are performed, users can change their Portal user
passwords in OID. This does not require any other changes in the OracleAS Metadata
Repository.
2.5.1.2 OracleAS Portal and OracleAS Web Cache
Detailed steps for setting up Oracle Application Server Web Cache in a multiple
middle-tier environment are described in section 5.1.2 of the Oracle Application Server
Portal Configuration Guide.
2.5.2 OracleAS Portal and Oracle Application Server Wireless
If Oracle Application Server Wireless is configured with OracleAS Portal during the
middle-tier installation, the middle-tier install registers the Portal on the Oracle
Application Server Wireless service. In case of multiple middle-tier installs, the last
configured Oracle Application Server Wireless service URL is stored in the OracleAS
Portal instance. You can change this to your choice of Oracle Application Server
Wireless service by running the following scripts in the Oracle Application Server
middle-tier selected for the Oracle Application Server Wireless service:
UNIX:
ORACLE_HOME/wireless/sample/portalRegistrar.sh
Windows:
ORACLE_HOME/wireless/sample/portalRegistrar.bat
Portal Provider UI Framework
Multiple Portal middle-tier installations overwrite the existing Default JPDK Instance
URL that is used for creating the Providers. Users can change this to their choice of
JPDK Instance URL using the following steps:
1.
Log in to Portal using the browser.
2.
Click on the Builder link.
3.
Click the Administrator tab.
4.
Click on Global Settings in the Services portlet.
5.
Click the Configuration tab.
6.
Enter the Default JPDK Instance URL of any installed Portal middle-tier.
See also:
Oracle Application Server Portal Configuration Guide
Installation and Configuration Considerations for an Enterprise Topology
2-7
J2EE Applications Topology Post-Installation Tasks
2.6 J2EE Applications Topology Post-Installation Tasks
This section describes the post-installation tasks for the J2EE applications that are part
of the Web Tier of an Enterprise Deployment Topology:
■
Oracle Application Server Web Cache
■
Oracle HTTP Server
■
Oracle Application Server Forms Services
■
Oracle Application Server Reports Services
■
Oracle Application Server Discoverer
■
Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On
■
OracleAS Portal
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager
2.6.1 Oracle Application Server Web Cache
Here is a post installation and configuration check list for OracleAS Web Cache.
1.
Configure a Ping URL
For Watchdog to check the health status of Web Cache, the configurable URL
recommend being a cacheable. When a non-cacheable URL is configured, Web
Cache will try to connect to the origin server. If the origin server is not responding
with the time out from Watchdog, Watchdog will restart Web Cache.
2.
Optimize connection limits
The Application Server (origin server) connection limit and the Inbound
Connection limit should be set to an optimum number.This number depends on
the volume of traffic from client requests from OracleAS Web Cache to the origin
server when it caches missed requests.
3.
Physical memory
To reduce disk swapping with objects in the cache, install enough memory for the
cache. Oracle recommends a minimum of 256MB.
4.
Set up apology pages (Network Error, Server Busy, and ESI Fragment)
The default apology pages for network error, Origin server busy and ESI fragment
may not match the format (look-and-feel) of the application.
5.
Set up SSL Certificates
To set up the client side SSL certificate:
a.
Create a new wallet with the Oracle Wallet manager
b.
Specify the new wallet in the Listen Ports page (Ports -> Listen Ports) of the
OracleAS Web Cache Manager administrative interface.
To set up the origin server (OS) SSL certificate:
6.
a.
Create a new wallet with the Oracle Wallet manager
b.
Specify the new wallet in the Origin Servers, Sites, and Load Balancing page
(Origin Servers, Sites, and Load Balancing -> Origin Server Wallet)
Set up Site Definitions (virtual hosting)
2-8 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
J2EE Applications Topology Post-Installation Tasks
Site definitions enable Web Cache to apply different caching rules for different
sites. Requests for different sites can also be routed to specific origin servers
through Site-to-Server Mappings.
Site Definitions in Web Cache must match the visibly external host name. By
default Web Cache takes on the default name and port numbers of the host it is
installed on.
Alias definitions enable the mapping of multiple host names to a single site. For
example, site www.company.com:80 may have an alias of company.com:80. By
specifying the alias of company.com:80 for site www.company.com:80, Web Cache
can cache the same content from either company.com:80 or www.company.com:80.
Site and alias definitions also affect Error Pages configuration.
7.
Logging
Make sure to disable verbose event logging while Web Cache is running in normal
mode. Verbose logging is for debugging purposes and is system-resource
intensive.
For more information, see Chapter 10, "Administering Oracle Application Server
Web Cache", in Oracle Application Server Web Cache Administrator’s Guide.
8.
Invalidation Requests
For advance invalidation request use the invalidation index option.
For more information, see Chapter 10, "Administering Oracle Application
Server Web Cache", in Oracle Application Server Web Cache Administrator’s Guide.
2.6.2 Oracle HTTP Server
Be aware that you may need to make changes to the Oracle HTTP Server based on
components and services that are reconfigured. See the appropriate sections in the
respective component guide for configuration information.
2.6.3 Oracle Application Server Forms Services
There is no additional post-installation task to configure Oracle Application Server
Forms Services. See chapter 8 of the Oracle Application Server Forms Services
Deployment Guide for more information about how Oracle Application Server
Forms Services works. You should also consult the Oracle Application Server Forms
Services Release Notes for last minute issues and workarounds.
2.6.4 Oracle Application Server Reports Services
There is no additional post-installation task to configure Oracle Application Server
Reports Services. You should also consult the OracleAS Reports Services Release Notes
for last minute issues and workarounds.
2.6.5 Oracle Application Server Discoverer
In the Discoverer Configuration and Communications Protocols page, change the
value from default to tunneling to work with the load balancer and the firewall.
Installation and Configuration Considerations for an Enterprise Topology
2-9
What to Read Next
2.6.6 Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On
If you are working with multiple Single Sign-on servers, you may need to perform
additional configurations to the Oracle HTTP Server. See Chapter 3.3, "Multiple Single
Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory" for more information.
2.6.7 OracleAS Portal
Post-installation tasks for Oracle Portal include:
■
Chapter 4.3, "Load Balancing Considerations"
■
Chapter 4.4, "Configuring Multiple Middle-Tiers with a Load Balancing Router"
■
Chapter 4.5, "Configuring Reverse Proxy Servers"
2.6.8 Oracle Enterprise Manager
Make sure that EM is only accessible within a firewall setup. Port 1814 must be open to
the various tiers behind a firewall for Application Server Control to work correctly.
For more information about using Application Server Control to administer an
enterprise deployment topology, see Chapter 5, "Managing an Enterprise Deployment
Topology", and the Oracle Enterprise Manager Advanced Configuration guide.
2.7 What to Read Next
After installing Oracle Application Server, you should read the Oracle Application
Server 10g Administrator’s Guide. It contains an excellent chapter called "Getting Started
After Installing Oracle Application Server".
If you plan to use any of the components listed in this chapter, you need to perform
some steps specific to the component after installation before you can use the
component. Table 2–5, " Component Configuration Guides" lists the component guides
that describe the steps.
Table 2–5
Component Configuration Guides
Component
Guide That Describes the Post-Installation Steps
OracleAS Portal
Oracle Application Server Portal Configuration Guide
Oracle Application Server Forms
Services
Oracle Application Server Forms Services Deployment
Guide
Oracle Application Server Forms Services Release Notes
Oracle Application Server Single
Sign-On
Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On Administrator’s
Guide
Oracle Application Server
Discoverer
Oracle Application Server Discoverer Configuration Guide
Oracle Application Server Reports
Services
Oracle Application Server Reports Services Publishing
Reports to the Web
OracleAS Web Cache
Oracle Application Server Web Cache Administrator’s
Guide
Oracle HTTP Server
Oracle HTTP Server Administrator’s Guide
2-10 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Note: You can find this guide on the documentation
CD-ROM for Oracle Developer Suite, not Oracle
Application Server.
3
Configuring Single Sign-On in an Enterprise
Deployment Topology
The following sections provide brief information and additional resources for
OracleAS Single Sign-On in an enterprise deployment topology:
■
About High Availability
■
About Security
■
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory
3.1 About High Availability
The availability of a system or any component in that system is defined by the
percentage of time that it works normally. A system works normally when it meets its
correctness and performance specifications.
You should become familiar with basic concepts of how high availability affects Oracle
Application Server security features such as Oracle Internet Directory and OracleAS
Single Sign-On.
For more information, see the Oracle Application Server 10g High Availability Guide.
3.2 About Security
Oracle Application Server provides a comprehensive security framework supporting
all its components, as well as third-party and custom applications deployed on the
application server. The framework is based on OracleAS Single Sign-On for
authentication, Oracle Internet Directory for authorization and centralized user
provisioning, Oracle HTTP Server for the Web server component, and the Oracle
Application Server Java Authentication and Authorization Service (JAAS) provider for
security in Java2 Enterprise Edition (J2EE) applications.
For complete information about security in Oracle Application Server, see the Oracle
Application Server 10g Security Guide. Updated information can always be found on the
Oracle Technology Network (OTN) at http://otn.oracle.com/.
Additionally, refer to the documentation for each component regarding security in that
component.
Configuring Single Sign-On in an Enterprise Deployment Topology 3-1
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory
3.3 Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet
Directory
The simplest high availability scenario involves failover within the single sign-on
instance itself, at the middle tier. Adding middle tiers increases scalability and
therefore makes the single sign-on server more available.
In this configuration, a single HTTP load balancer is placed in front of two or more
Oracle HTTP servers. At the backend is one directory server and one identity
management infrastructure database. The purpose of the load balancer is to publish a
single address to single sign-on partner applications while providing a farm of single
sign-on middle tiers that actually service the application requests. The HTTP load
balancer can detect when one of these Oracle HTTP server instances has failed and can
then fail over requests to another instance.
3.3.1 Usage Scenario
The usage scenario presented here assumes the following hypothetical configurations:
■
■
■
The directory server and identity management infrastructure database are located
at oid.mydomain.com.
There are two single sign-on middle tiers. One is installed on host
sso1.mydomain.com, IP address 138.1.34.172. The other is installed on
sso2.mydomain.com, IP address 138.1.34.173. Both servers listen on non-SSL port
7777. Both are configured to use the directory and identity management
infrastructure database located at oid.mydomain.com.
The address of the single sign-on server that is published to partner applications is
sso.mydomain.com, IP address 138.1.34.234. The HTTP load balancer is configured
to listen on sso.mydomain.com, port 80. It load balances user requests between
sso1.mydomain.com and sso2.mydomain.com.
Notes:
■
■
In this scenario, the load balancer is listening on port 80, a
non-SSL port number. If the load balancer is configured to use
SSL to interact with the browser, a different port number must
be selected. The default SSL port number is 443.
In this scenario and the one immediately following, two single
sign-on middle tiers are used. There can, in fact, be any number
of middle tiers.
Figure 3–1 shows two single sign-on middle tiers configured to use a single instance of
Oracle Internet Directory.
3-2 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory
Figure 3–1 Two Single Sign-On Middle Tiers, One Oracle Internet Directory
3.3.2 Configuration Steps
Setting up the single sign-on system presented in Figure 3–1 involves the following
tasks:
■
Install the identity management infrastructure database, the directory server and
the single sign-on servers
■
Configure the Oracle HTTP servers on the single sign-on middle tiers
■
Configure the HTTP load balancer
■
Configure the identity management infrastructure database
■
Reregister mod_osso on the single sign-on middle tiers
Install the identity management infrastructure database, the directory server and
the single sign-on servers
1. Choose a single sign-on server name that will be published to partner applications.
This will also be the address of the load balancer. In the scenario presented here,
the address is sso.mydomain.com.
2.
Install the Oracle Application Server infrastructure on oid.mydomain.com,
choosing the option "Identity Management and Oracle Application Server
Configuring Single Sign-On in an Enterprise Deployment Topology 3-3
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory
Metadata Repository." When presented with the component list for this installation
type, choose Oracle Internet Directory only.
3.
Install the Oracle Application Server infrastructure on the middle tiers
sso1.mydomain.com and sso2.mydomain.com, again choosing the option "Identity
Management and Oracle Application Server Metadata Repository."
4.
When presented with the component list for this installation type, choose Oracle
Application Server Single Sign-On only. When the Oracle Universal Installer asks
you to name the directory server associated with these single sign-on instances,
enter oid.mydomain.com.
The Oracle Application Server installer, by default, assigns
port numbers from a range of numbers. If you want to assign a
different port number to a component, see "Static Port Numbers" in
Oracle Application Server 10g Installation Guide
Note:
Configure the Oracle HTTP servers on the single sign-on middle tiers
When a load balancer is placed between the user and the Oracle HTTP Server, the
effective URL of the single sign-on server changes. The Oracle HTTP configuration file
httpd.conf on both single sign-on middle tiers must be modified to reflect this
change. This file can be found at $ORACLE_HOME/Apache/Apache/conf.
1.
Add the following lines to the httpd.conf file on sso1.mydomain.com and
sso2mydomain.com:
KeepAlive off
ServerName sso.mydomain.com
Port 80
This step configures the Oracle HTTP servers at the single sign-on middle tiers to
listen at the externally published name, which, in the scenario presented, is
sso.mydomain.com.
2.
If you configure the HTTP load balancer to use SSL, configure mod_certheaders on
both sso1.mydomain.com and sso2.mydomain.com. This module enables the
Oracle HTTP Server to treat requests that it receives over HTTP as SSL requests.
The sequence is as follows:
a.
In the httpd.conf file on both middle tiers, enter the following line:
LoadModule certheaders_module libexec/mod_certheaders.so
b.
If you are using Oracle Application Server Web Cache as a load balancer, enter
the following line:
AddCertHeader HTTPS
If you are using a hardware load balancer, enter the following line:
SimulateHttps on
c.
Synchronize system clocks between both middle tiers.
d.
Execute the following command to update the Distributed Cluster
Management (DCM) schema with the changes:
$ORACLE_HOME/dcm/bin/dcmctl updateConfig -v -d
3-4 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory
Configure the HTTP load balancer
The HTTP load balancer used can be hardware such as BigIP, Alteon, or Local Director
or software such as Oracle Application Server Web Cache.
■
Hardware Load Balancer
If you are using a hardware load balancer, configure one pool of real servers with
the addresses 138.1.34.172 and 138.1.34.173. Configure one virtual server with the
address 138.1.34.234. This virtual server is the external interface of the load
balancer. For instructions, consult the documentation provided by your load
balancer vendor.
■
Software Load Balancer
If you are using Oracle Application Server Web Cache to load balance connection
requests, see both of the following links:
"Routing Single Sign-On Server Requests" and "Leveraging Oracle Identity
Management Infrastructure" in Oracle Application Server Web Cache
Administrator’s Guide.
Note:
For optimal performance, use a hardware load balancer.
Configure the identity management infrastructure database
Run the script ssocfg on one of the single sign-on middle tiers. This script configures
the single sign-on server to accept authentication requests from the externally
published address of the single sign-on server. Using the example provided, the script
would be executed in the following way:
■
UNIX:
$ORACLE_HOME/sso/bin/ssocfg.sh http sso.mydomain.com 80
■
Windows NT/2000:
%ORACLE_HOME%\sso\bin\ssocfg.bat http sso.mydomain.com 80
Note that the command example provides the listener protocol, host name, and port
number of the load balancer as arguments. Recall that the load balancer address is the
externally published address of the single sign-on server. If the load balancer is
configured to use SSL, replace non-SSL port 80 with SSL port 443 and http with
https.
After executing ssocfg, restart the single sign-on middle tiers:
$ORACLE_HOME/opmn/bin/opmnctl restartproc process-type=OC4J_SECURITY
Finally, test the application:
http://sso.mydomain.com/pls/orasso
Reregister mod_osso on the single sign-on middle tiers
On both middle tier machines, reregister mod_osso as the partner application
sso.mydomain.com.
To reregister mod_osso on sso1.mydomain.com:
1.
On the computer sso1.mydomain.com, log in to the single sign-on administration
pages as the single sign-on administrator. Be sure to log in to
http://sso.mydomain.com/pls/orasso.
Configuring Single Sign-On in an Enterprise Deployment Topology 3-5
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory
2.
Use the Administer Partner Applications page to delete the existing entry for the
partner application sso1.mydomain.com.
3.
Set the environment variable ORACLE_HOME to point to the Oracle home for
sso1.mydomain.com. Include $ORACLE_HOME/jdk/bin in the PATH variable.
4.
Run the registration script. For the URLs, be sure to substitute values appropriate
for your installation. The script creates a partner application called
sso.mydomain.com.
$ORACLE_HOME/jdk/bin/java -jar $ORACLE_HOME/sso/lib/ossoreg.jar
-oracle_home_path orcl_home_path
-site_name site_name
-config_mod_osso TRUE
-mod_osso_url mod_osso_url
-u userid
[-virtualhost virtual_host_name]
[-update_mode CREATE | DELETE | MODIFY]
[-config_file config_file_path]
[-admin_id adminid]
[-admin_info admin_info]
For a description of command parameters, please see "Registering mod_sso" in
Chapter 4 of the Oracle Application Server Single Sign-On Administrator’s Guide.
To reregister mod_osso on sso2.mydomain.com:
1.
On the computer sso2.mydomain.com, log in to the single sign-on administration
pages as the single sign-on administrator. Be sure to log in to
http://sso.mydomain.com/pls/orasso.
2.
Use the Administer Partner Applications page to delete the existing entry for the
partner application sso2.mydomain.com.
3.
Create a clear text osso.conf file using the following steps:
a.
Click the Edit Partner Application Page for sso.mydomain.com.
b.
On the Edit Partner Application page, make a note of the parameters sso_
server_version, cipher_key, site_id, site_token, login_url,
logout_url, and cancel_url. You will use the same values that you used
when you registered the application on sso1.mydomain.com. The idea is to
maintain the same site id, site token, and cipher key between both middle
tiers. This enables these servers to act as clones of each other.
c.
Create the osso.conf file, using a text editor:
sso_server_version=v1.2
cipher_key=encryption_key
site_id=id
site_token=token
login_url=http://sso.mydomain.com/pls/orasso/orasso.wwsso_app_admin.ls_
login
logout_url=http://sso.mydomain.com/pls/orasso/orasso.wwsso_app_admin.ls_
logout
cancel_url=http://sso.mydomain.com:80/
4.
Log in to sso2.mydomain.com as root; then navigate to the osso.conf file that
you created in Step 3. Obfuscate the file:
$ORACLE_HOME/Apache/Apache/bin/iasobf osso.conf $ORACLE_HOME/Apache/Apache/
conf/osso/osso.conf
3-6 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory
5.
Restart the Oracle HTTP Server:
$ORACLE_HOME/opmn/bin/opmctl restartproc type=ohs
6.
Change the base URL for the Delegated Administration Service (DAS), using the
oidadmin tool:
a.
Start the tool:
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/oidadmin
b.
Log in to Oracle Directory Manager as cn=orcladmin.
c.
Navigate to the entry that contains the attribute orcldasurlbase:
cn=OperationalURLs,cn=DAS,cn=Products,cn=OracleContext
d.
Change the attribute to the following value:
http://sso.mydomain.com/
Make sure that you include the backslash after the host name. When you click
useradmin in a portal, the URL for useradmin is appended to this value.
7.
Test the partner application oiddas:
http://sso.mydomain.com/oiddas
Configuring Single Sign-On in an Enterprise Deployment Topology 3-7
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers with One Oracle Internet Directory
3-8 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
4
Networking
The following sections contains networking considerations in an Oracle Application
Server topology:
■
Oracle Application Server Networking Overview
■
Firewall Considerations: Opening the Right Ports
■
Load Balancing Considerations
■
Configuring Reverse Proxy Servers
4.1 Oracle Application Server Networking Overview
Oracle Application Server has several features to connect and manage the various
parts of an enterprise deployment topology, including:
■
Distributed Configuration Management (DCM)
■
Oracle Process Manager and Notification (OPMN)
■
LDAP and Oracle Internet Directory
■
Enterprise Manager Server Control
4.1.1 Distributed Configuration Management (DCM)
DCM is a management framework that enables you to manage the configurations of
multiple Oracle Application Server instances across an enterprise deployment
topology. DCM consists of clients, a daemon, and a metadata repository.
DCM features enable you to:
■
■
■
Manage clusters and farms of Oracle Application Server instances. Manage the
configuration of individual components, such as Oracle Application Server
Containers for J2EE instances, Oracle HTTP Server instances, and Oracle Process
Management and Notification, or Java Authentication and Authorization Service.
Perform cluster-wide Oracle Application Server Containers for J2EE application
deployment, especially in Development Life Cycle topology.
Manage versions of configurations with archive, save and restore, and import and
export functions. You can automate some of these functions as part of routine
systems maintenance.
dcmctl is the Distributed Configuration Management command-line utility. You can
use it to manage configurations and deploy applications. Instructions on using dcmctl
and complete descriptions of all commands are described in Chapter 2, "dcmctl
Commands "in the Distributed Configuration Management Reference Guide.
Networking 4-1
Oracle Application Server Networking Overview
All configuration and topology data is stored in the Distributed Configuration
Management metadata repository, which may be part of the Oracle Application Server
Metadata Repository.
For additional information on working with DCM, see the Distributed Configuration
Management Reference Guide.
4.1.2 Oracle Process Manager and Notification (OPMN)
OPMN is installed and configured with every Oracle Application Server installation
type and is essential for running Oracle Application Server.
OPMN features the following functionality:
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
■
Provides a command-line interface for process control and monitoring for single or
multiple Oracle Application Server components and instances.
Provides an integrated way to manage Oracle Application Server components.
Enables management of Oracle Application Server subcomponents and
sub-subcomponents.
Channels all events from different Oracle Application Server component instances
to all Oracle Application Server components that can utilize them.
Solves interdependency issues between Oracle Application Server components by
enabling you to start and stop components in order.
Enables customizing of enterprise functionality by using event scripts.
Enables gathering of host and Oracle Application Server process statistics and
tasks.
Provides automatic restart of Oracle Application Server processes when they
become unresponsive, terminate unexpectedly, or become unreachable as
determined by ping and notification operations.
Provides automatic death detection of Oracle Application Server processes
Does not depend on any other Oracle Application Server component being up and
running before it can be started and used.
The OPMN server should be started as soon as possible after turning on the host.
OPMN must be running whenever OPMN-managed components are turned on or off.
Oracle Application Server components managed by OPMN should never be started or
stopped manually. Do not use command line scripts or utilities from previous versions
of Oracle Application Server for starting and stopping Oracle Application Server
components. OPMN must be the last service turned off whenever you reboot or turn
off your computer.
Use the Application Server Control and the opmnctl command line utility to start or
stop Oracle Application Server components.
For more information about OPMN, see Oracle Process Manager and Notification Server
Administrator’s Guide
4.1.3 LDAP and Oracle Internet Directory
LDAP is a standard, extensible directory access protocol. It is a common language that
LDAP clients and servers use to communicate.
Oracle Internet Directory is a general purpose directory service that enables fast
retrieval and centralized management of information about dispersed users and
4-2 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Firewall Considerations: Opening the Right Ports
network resources. It combines Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) Version
3 with the high performance, scalability, robustness, and availability of Oracle9i.
For more information on working with LDAP and Oracle Internet Directory, see
Oracle Internet Directory Administrator’s Guide. Make sure your application
developers read Oracle Internet Directory Application Developer’s Guide.
4.1.4 Enterprise Manager Server Control
Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control enables Web site administrators
to configure Oracle Application Server instances, to monitor and optimize them for
performance and scalability, and to respond proactively to problem conditions.
The Application Server Control allows administrators to stop and restart Oracle
Application Server instances from the Oracle Application Server Instance Home Page.
They can also modify the configuration settings based on performance statistics
collected to improve performance and scalability or to address any problems.The
Application Server Control provides performance metrics for each component in both
tabular and chart formats so you can identify problem conditions at a glance. When
you drill down on an Oracle Application Server, you can view the status, historical
uptime statistics, and the current performance and availability for each Oracle
Application Server instance.
Metrics vary from one component type to another, but typical metrics include:
■
Up/down status
■
Memory usage
■
Error rate
■
Start time
■
Number of connections
4.2 Firewall Considerations: Opening the Right Ports
In a distributed installation of Oracle Application Server, such as an Enterprise
Topology, you’ll need to configure ports in the firewalls to allow Oracle Application
Server services to work correctly. Specifically, you’ll need to allow for:
■
■
HTTP and HTTPS to be open for users (clients) to contact the web server
Application servers (middle tier installations) to communicate with the
Infrastructure (SQL*Net, ORCL-LDAP, ORCL-LDAP-SSL, ONS, OPMN)
■
Application servers to databases, SQL*Net, and LDAP protocols if necessary
■
Application servers to use ONS outbound
■
■
Port 1814 for Enterprise Manager (for Infrastructure and middle tier installations)
and for any other tools and services, such as LDAP ports.
AJP to be opened for mod_oc4j to OC4J communications
Default ports may differ between operating systems
(Solaris, Windows, and Linux). Use Application Server Control
to discover and manage ports.
Note:
Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control is the preferred way to track
port information if default ports have been changed. For default port information refer
Networking 4-3
Firewall Considerations: Opening the Right Ports
to the default ports section of the Oracle Application Server 10g Administrator’s
Guide.
Firewall Stateful Inspection is not used between DMZ, mid-iers, and infrastructure
and Oracle recommends that FSI be used in the external internet interface.
For information about configuring and managing firewalls, see your administrator or
the documentation for your firewall implementation.
4.2.1 mod_oc4j and OC4J in Different Tiers and Across Firewalls
mod_oc4j is located within Oracle HTTP Server and (1) identifies the requests it needs
to act on, (2) determines which OC4J to route those requests to, and (3) communicates
with that process. Mod_oc4j now extracts some relevant parameters (for example SSL
information, certain environment variables, etc.) and forwards them to OC4J, using
AJP13 protocol.
mod_oc4j analyzes the response from OC4J and takes appropriate actions, for
example, if a Single Sign-On redirect is required.
By default, OPMN processes on all Oracle Application Server instances in the farm
notify each other of the up/down status of OC4J within their instance. In turn, every
OPMN also notifies its local mod_oc4j of changes in the OC4J status on all machines
within the cluster. This allows mod_oc4j to keep its routing table updated, without any
intervention from an administrator.
4.2.2 Opening the Right Ports for mod_oc4j
As a security practice, you can place mod_oc4j in one tier (usually in a DMZ tier) and
have it communicate with OC4J processes that are located in another tier (usually
another DMZ tier). Since mod_oc4j uses AJP to communicate to other OC4J instances,
it is important to have the correct ports opened for AJP and OPMN.
For more information about OC4J architecture, see the whitepaper Oracle9i
Application Server: mod_oc4j Technical Overview at
http://otn.oracle.com/products/ias/ohs/collateral/r2/mod_oc4j_wp.pdf.
4.2.3 Configuring iASPT
The Application Server 10g Port Tunneling (iASPT) feature reduces the number of
ports required to communicate to multiple OC4J processes to one. The iASPT process
acts as a communication concentrators for connections between Oracle HTTP Server
(OHS) and the Java virtual machine (JVM). (OHS) does not connect directly to the
servlet engines, instead, OHS connects to an iASPT. iASPT then forwards
communication on to the servlet engine. Each iASPT routes requests to multiple servlet
engines. By doing this concentration of connections, you’re only required to open one
port per iASPT process on the internal firewall DMZ rather than one port per OC4J
container.
As part of configuring iASPT, you’ll need to need to tell iASPT where mod_oc4j lives
and where the OC4J containers are. There are several directives to add in mod_oc4j,
such as wallet files and their passwords. On the server containing the target OC4J
instance, you’ll need to configure opmn.xml and set the iASPT status to enabled, as
well as specify the port or range of ports use. Finally, modify iaspt.conf to validate for
the correct location of wallet and port information.
For complete information on configuring iASPT, see Chapter 10 of Oracle HTTP Server
Administrator’s Guide.
4-4 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Configuring Multiple Middle-Tiers with a Load Balancing Router
4.3 Load Balancing Considerations
In a configuration where there is a pool of applications servers (called a resource pool),
and a pool of Single Sign-On servers, you’ll need to add a virtual IP address to the
load balancers (either software or hardware) then add pools to the virtual IP
addresses. The application server pool needs to have persistence specified. Often, this
is an active HTTP cookie setting in the software or hardware configuration page in the
load balancer. See your administrator or documentation for your load balancer.
With SSL, cookies are problematic because of how encryption works. Often, you’ll
need to use the SSL session ID to specify persistence in your load balancer. Chapter 5
of Oracle Application Server Portal Configuration Guide contains extensive information on
load balancing. Some of that information is presented in the following section.
4.4 Configuring Multiple Middle-Tiers with a Load Balancing Router
This section describes how you can set up multiple middle-tiers, front-ended by a load
balancing router (LBR) to access the same OracleAS Metadata Repository.
The purpose of a Load Balancing Router (LBR) is to provide a single published
address to the client tier, and front-end a farm of servers that actually service the
requests, based on the distribution of the requests done by the LBR. The LBR itself is a
very fast network device that can distribute Web requests to a large number of
physical servers.
Let us assume that we want to configure the multiple middle-tier configuration,
shown in Figure 4–1. In the example, we show OracleAS Web Cache on the same
machine as the Portal and Wireless middle-tier, although they can theoretically be on
different machines.
Figure 4–1 Multiple Middle-Tier Configuration with Load Balancer
Networking 4-5
Configuring Multiple Middle-Tiers with a Load Balancing Router
Table 4–1
Additional information About the Graphic
Machine
Details
Load balancing router
Machine Name: lbr.abc.com
IP Address: L1.L1.L1.L1
Listening Port: 80
Invalidation Port: 4001 (accessible only from
inside)
Oracle Application Server (Portal
and Wireless middle-tier) 1
Machine Name: m1.abc.com
IP Address: M1.M1.M1.M1
Oracle HTTP Server Listening Port: 7778
OracleAS Web Cache Listening Port: 7777
OracleAS Web Cache Invalidation Port: 4001
Oracle Application Server (Portal
and Wireless middle-tier) 2
Machine Name: m2.abc.com
IP Address: M2.M2.M2.M2
Oracle HTTP Server Listening Port: 7778
OracleAS Web Cache Listening Port: 7777
OracleAS Web Cache Invalidation Port: 4001
To understand how to configure OracleAS Portal with LBR, it is important to
understand the internal architecture of Portal:
■
■
■
■
The Parallel Page Engine (PPE) in Portal makes loopback connections to Oracle
Application Server Web Cache for requesting page metadata information. In a
default configuration, OracleAS Web Cache and the OracleAS Portal middle-tier
are on the same machine and the loopback is local. When Oracle Application
Server is front-ended by an LBR, all loopback requests from the PPE will start
contacting OracleAS Web Cache through the LBR. Assume that the OracleAS
Portal middle-tier and OracleAS Web Cache are on the same machine, or even on
the same subnet. Then, without additional configuration, loopback requests result
in network handshake issues during the socket connection calls.
In order for loopbacks to happen successfully, you must set up a Network Address
Translation (NAT) bounce back rule in the LBR, which essentially configures the
LBR as a proxy for requests coming to it from inside the firewall. This causes the
response to be sent back to the source address on the network, and then forwarded
back to the client.
OracleAS Portal leverages OracleAS Web Cache to cache a lot of its content. When
cached content in OracleAS Web Cache changes, OracleAS Portal sends Web
Cache invalidation requests from the database to OracleAS Web Cache. OracleAS
Portal can only send invalidation messages to one Web Cache node. In an
OracleAS Web Cache cluster, Portal relies on one OracleAS Web Cache member to
invalidate content in the other member of the cluster.
When Oracle Application Server is front-ended by an LBR, the LBR must be
configured to accept invalidation requests from the database and balance the load
among the cluster members.
4-6 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Configuring Reverse Proxy Servers
You will notice that the infrastructure is behind the LBR.
The infrastructure can be one host, or distributed over multiple
hosts. In order to configure the infrastructure properly, refer to the
Chapter titled "Advanced Configurations" in the Oracle Application
Server Single Sign-On Administrator’s Guide
Note:
To configure the server so that the PPE loops back to the LBR for the loopback
connections, you must perform the following steps:
Install a Single Portal and Wireless Middle-Tier
■
Step 1: Install a Single Portal and Wireless Middle-Tier (M1)
■
Step 2: Configure OracleAS Portal on M1 to Be Accessed Through the LBR
■
Step 3: Confirm That OracleAS Portal is Up and Running
■
Step 5: Configure the New Middle-Tier (M2) to Run Your Existing Portal
For complete information about these steps, see Chapter 5 of the Oracle Application
Server Portal Configuration Guide.
See Also: For information on the platform used, see Oracle
Application Server 10g Installation Guide.
4.5 Configuring Reverse Proxy Servers
A reverse proxy server is a host process that is used as part of a firewall architecture to
isolate the internal hosts from the externally accessible host(s). It does this by
providing a proxy through which external requests must pass to access internal
services. Typically, a proxy server takes the form of a dual-homed host. This means
that it is a host with two network interface cards. One interface connects to the external
network, and the other interface connects to the internal network, or demilitarized
zone (DMZ) of the firewall.
Figure 4–2 shows an architecture in which the browser accesses the server through the
hostname that is published by the proxy server. The proxy server then forwards the
request to the actual host within the firewall.
For this example, we will assume that you have properly configured the OracleAS
Single Sign-On server to work with the reverse proxy server.
See Also: Chapter 9, "Deploying Oracle Application Server
Single Sign-On with a Proxy Server" in the Oracle Application Server
Single Sign-On Administrator’s Guide.
Networking 4-7
Configuring Reverse Proxy Servers
Figure 4–2 Internet Configuration with Reverse Proxy Server
For this example, let’s assume the following:
■
■
■
The published address is www.abc.com.
Internal to the firewall, the server name for the Oracle Application Server
middle-tier is internal.company.com. This Application Server middle-tier machine
hosts contains both OracleAS Web Cache, as well as the Oracle HTTP Server.
Externally, the server is addressed with the default port 80; however, internally, the
internal.company.com is listening on port 7777.
Information to complete these steps to configure OracleAS Portal for the architecture
shown in Figure 4–1 can be found in Chapter 5 of the Oracle Application Server Portal
Configuration Guide.
You’ll find additional information about how to set up proxy servers in the paper "A
Primer on Proxy Servers," on Portal Center, http://portalcenter.oracle.com. Click the
Search icon in the upper right corner of any Portal Center page.
4-8 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
5
Managing an Enterprise Deployment
Topology
This chapter provides information on managing an enterprise deployment:
■
■
General Management Considerations
Enterprise Data Center Topology: Multiple Departments Sharing the Same Data
Center
■
Departmental Topology: Departments Hosting Their Applications
■
Development Life Cycle Topology
5.1 General Management Considerations
Regardless of the type of topology you are managing, here are some general
considerations:
■
Rotating Log Files
■
Periodic Restarting of OC4J
■
Starting and Stopping Servers and Applications
■
Rolling Out Upgrades, Patches, and Configuration Changes
■
Backup and Recovery
■
Taking Advantage of NFS
■
Port Management
■
Using Static and Dynamic IP Addresses
■
Mining Log Files
■
Leaving and Joining Different Infrastructures
5.1.1 Rotating Log Files
Many services and components generate their own log files that need to be maintained
regularly. This need for maintenance varies on the size and scale of an enterprise
topology.
Log files in Oracle Application Server have a maximum limit of 2 gigabytes before
application server performance becomes adversely affected. You need to make sure
that log files are archived and reset before they near the 2 gigabyte limit. This task may
have to be performed daily or several times per week.
Managing an Enterprise Deployment Topology
5-1
General Management Considerations
One way of managing log files is by using a "waterfall" approach, i.e. working on one
server or component at a time during non-peak load times. This approach allows a
data center to maintain high availability when a server is taken off-line, or when it is
not brought down properly. Then, when that server or component has restarted, you
can bring down the next server for log file maintenance, for example, one hour later.
You can also automate these tasks with "chron" jobs as a way to ensure this task is
done. For more information, see the Oracle Application Server 10g Administrator’s Guide.
5.1.2 Periodic Restarting of OC4J
For increased performance of OC4J, Oracle recommends regular restarting of OC4J.
Sometimes memory leaks from applications or from the virtual machine (VM) within
OC4J itself can degrade application server performance. You determine how often you
need to restart OC4J based on daily observation and if automatic restarting does not
happen. Your business needs may also affect how often you’ll have to restart OC4J.
5.1.3 Starting and Stopping Servers and Applications
Starting and stopping servers and any applications depends on which servers are
involved and the needs of users and the applications they use. Starting and stopping
servers and applications can be automated through shell scripts and chron jobs as
necessary.
When implementing automated starting and stopping of servers, you should take into
account any applications that need to be started with the server. You should also
consider the effects on high availability while a server is brought down for restarting,
or if a server or application fails to start correctly.
You can also plan stopping and restarting procedures on a tier-by-tier basis. For
example, you may only need to restart the application server, but not the database, in
the case of rolling out patches.
5.1.4 Rolling Out Upgrades, Patches, and Configuration Changes
When rolling out configuration changes for upgrade and patching purposes, you do it
once for each virtual host in httpd.conf. For information on configuring httpd.conf, see
Oracle HTTP Server Administrator’s Guide.
5.1.5 Backup and Recovery
You can use the Archive feature in Oracle Application Server as part of the disaster
and backup and recovery strategies for your enterprise topology. Possible daily
strategies include:
1.
Making a complete operating system TAR of the entire code tree.
2.
Backup of the file repository (database) for all installation types.
You can also use archives in a development environment where a new server comes
online and you need data for research and development.
Your actual backup and recovery strategies should also take into account your
business needs and security issues.
5.1.6 Taking Advantage of NFS
You can take advantage of NFS in your data center to:
5-2 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Enterprise Data Center Topology: Multiple Departments Sharing the Same Data Center
■
■
■
Keep static content on NFS partitions and mount it as needed to a server or
application as needed
Deploy static content quickly
Resynch data across an enterprise topology quickly (sometimes minutes versus
hours without NFS)
5.1.7 Port Management
Sometimes it can get difficult to track ports and port conflicts in a large enterprise
topology, especially when specialized port configurations are implemented. It can also
be difficult to figure out what the next available port to assign is.
You can associate many ports with one IP address as necessary.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager to view information and manage port usage in your
enterprise topology.
5.1.8 Using Static and Dynamic IP Addresses
Choosing and using static and dynamic IP addresses can be influenced by:
■
The virtual IP structure in your enterprise topology
■
How the hardware or software load balancer controls IP addressing
■
Firewall configurations and implementations
5.1.9 Leaving and Joining Different Infrastructures
A new feature in Oracle Application Server is the ability to reassociate a middle tier
with a new SSO/OID instance (infrastructure).
For example, you could point a middle tier instance to an SSO/OID instance that is
strictly for development purposes, allowing you to develop, test, or upgrade before
rolling out, then reassociate that middle tier to its original SSO/OID instance. For
more information about joining or leaving an infrastructure, see Oracle Application
Server 10g Administrator’s Guide.
The following sections provide information that is relevent to the type of topology you
may be managing.
5.1.10 Mining Log Files
Mining the log files in an enterprise topology has several advantages:
■
Assists development teams in debugging before deploying to production
environments
■
Provides security information such as hacker attempts
■
Provides information about errors at many different levels
■
Provides information about automated processes
5.2 Enterprise Data Center Topology: Multiple Departments Sharing the
Same Data Center
The following sections describe considerations for managing an enterprise
deployment topology:
Managing an Enterprise Deployment Topology
5-3
Enterprise Data Center Topology: Multiple Departments Sharing the Same Data Center
■
Management Considerations Checklist
■
Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control Checklist
■
Backup and Recovery Consideration
■
Application Deployment and Performance Considerations
5.2.1 Management Considerations Checklist
■
■
Use the monitoring and alerting capabilities of Oracle Enterprise Manager to
ensure you are notified of any potential performance problems in your system(s).
Use the default alerting thresholds or configure custom thresholds if needed for
monitoring and alerts. Use historical data collected by Oracle Enterprise Manager
to specify baselines for thresholds.
Create Web applications for monitoring availability and response for applications
deployed.
5.2.2 Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control Checklist
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control for application server
administration. It’s installed automatically with the application server. You access this
console from the Administer link in the Application Server Control.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control for:
■
Starting and Stopping components as needed
■
Enable/Disabling unused components so they do not consume system resources
■
Setting or changing configuration parameters for any of the application server
components
■
Deploying and configuring applications
■
Managing application security
■
Monitoring application and component performance and resource consumption in
real-time
■
Viewing and setting ports
■
Browsing and searching log files
■
Managing infrastructure schemas
■
Command line utilities are available for scripting and automation.
5.2.3 Backup and Recovery Consideration
■
Complete cold backup of the entire distributed environment.
5.2.4 Application Deployment and Performance Considerations
Use this checklist to ensure that:
■
J2EE applications are deployed on Oracle Application Server clusters with or
without Web Cache
■
Portal application are using Web Cache, even on a single node environment
■
Forms applications are working against an OLTP system with no Single Sign-On
5-4 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Departmental Topology: Departments Hosting Their Applications
■
Business Intelligence (BI) applications are working against a data warehouse with
tighter security
■
All applications are accessible by Portal and Wireless devices
■
Self Service Applications are using IP and Workflow
5.3 Departmental Topology: Departments Hosting Their Applications
The following sections describe considerations for managing a departmental topology:
■
Management Considerations
■
Backup and Recovery Consideration
■
Application Deployment and Performance Considerations
5.3.1 Management Considerations
■
■
■
Use the monitoring and alerting capabilities of Enterprise Manager to ensure you
are notified of any potential performance problems in your system. Use the
out-of-box alerting thresholds or configure custom thresholds if needed for
monitoring and alerts. Use historical data collected by Enterprise Manager to
specify baselines for thresholds.
Create Web Applications for monitoring availability and response for applications
deployed.
Use Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control for application server
administration. Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control is installed
automatically with the application server.
Use the Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server Control for these tasks:
■
■
■
Starting and Stopping components as needed
Enable/Disabling unused components so they do not consume system
resources
Setting or changing configuration parameters for any of the application server
components
■
Deploying and configuring applications
■
Managing application security
■
Monitoring application and component performance and resource
consumption in real-time
■
Viewing and setting ports
■
Browsing and searching log files
■
Managing infrastructure schemas
■
Command line utilities are available for scripting and automation
5.3.2 Backup and Recovery Consideration
■
Complete cold backup of the entire distributed environment.
5.3.3 Application Deployment and Performance Considerations
■
OHS used as load balancer for multiple OC4J instances
Managing an Enterprise Deployment Topology
5-5
Development Life Cycle Topology
■
■
■
J2EE applications deployed on Oracle Application Server clusters with or without
Web Cache
Portal applications using Web Cache
Monitor application performance and availability using the Oracle Enterprise
Manager Application Server Control.
5.4 Development Life Cycle Topology
Test Environment: For application server installation use Oracle Enterprise Manager
Application Server Control. For standalone components use command line tools.
Staging Environment: For application server installation use Oracle Enterprise
Manager Application Server Control. For standalone components use command line
tools.
Production Environment: For application server installation use Oracle Enterprise
Manager Application Server Control. For standalone components use command line
tools.
5-6 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
6
Performance and Tuning Considerations
The most important factor in optimizing the performance of your enterprise
deployment topology is understanding how to monitor its behavior and resource
usage. Oracle Application Server provides several tools to help. See Oracle Application
Server 10g Performance Guide for more information on how to monitor your installation.
In addition, most hardware vendors supply a number of tools to monitor hardware
resource usage.
This chapter contains the following reference information to help you tune your
deployment topology’s performance.
■
Origin Server (OS) Network Parameters
■
Oracle HTTP Server (OHS)
■
SSL
■
Oracle Internet Directory (OID)
■
JVM parameters
■
JSPs
■
Web Cache
■
Logging Level
■
Database Connections
■
Portal
6.1 Origin Server (OS) Network Parameters
Ensure that your OS network parameters have been set for performance and that you
have sufficient network capacity. See the Oracle Application Server 10g Performance Guide
for more information.
6.2 Oracle HTTP Server (OHS)
Understand how to use the MaxClients parameter for OHS to control concurrency for
your Application Server configuration. Understand when to use persistent connections
with OHS (keep alive) and how long to maintain a persistent connection. Each
persistent connection will use an Apache child process (on Unix). See the Oracle
Application Server 10g Performance Guide for more information.
Performance and Tuning Considerations
6-1
SSL
6.3 SSL
Remember that the use of SSL can add substantial performance overhead and use it
appropriately. The first request in an SSL session takes more longer than subsequent
requests. You should also understand how to configure session duration for SSL. See
the Oracle Application Server 10g Performance Guide and Oracle Application Server
Certificate Authority Administrator’s Guide for more information
6.4 Oracle Internet Directory (OID)
When using OID, use LDAP caching. you can also improve your performance with
jazn-xml if it is sufficient for your security requirements. See these guides for more
information;
■
Oracle Application Server 10g Performance Guide
■
Oracle Internet Directory Administrator’s Guide
■
Oracle Application Server 10g Security Guide
6.5 JVM parameters
Set the appropriate Java Virtual Machine (JVM) parameters for your Java application
and your platform. Use the most recently certified JVM if possible. For example, JDK
1.4.1 is faster than JDK 1.3.1 in Oracle Corporation’s tests. See Oracle Application Server
10g Performance Guide for more information.
6.6 JSPs
You can improve JSP performance by disabling timestamp checking and disabling
session generation if they are not required.
6.7 Web Cache
Using of Web Cache can dramatically improve the performance of your application.
Evaluate your application for caching potential. Provide sufficient memory and
network bandwidth for Web Cache and use the fastest CPU possible. The increase in
throughput that is achievable with Web Cache can make network bandwidth the
primary bottleneck.
For more information, see Oracle Application Server Web Cache Administrator’s Guide.
6.8 Logging Level
By default, Oracle Application Server components have been set to logging levels
appropriate for a production system. More detailed logging can be enabled to provide
additional information, but will add performance overhead to your system. Reserve
the use of debug log levels for troubleshooting.
6.9 Database Connections
Several Oracle Application Server components provide database connectivity and
allow you to tune the number of database connections maintained and the duration of
database sessions. See Oracle Application Server 10g Performance Guide for more
6-2 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Portal
information on tuning database connections and working with JDBC and PL/SQL
metrics.
6.10 Portal
For portal installations with high usage, you can increase the concurrency of the Portal
Parallel Page Engine. However, if your system(s) lack sufficient resources to handle the
increased concurrency, this can have a negative impact on your overall performance.
Performance and Tuning Considerations
6-3
Portal
6-4 Advanced Topologies for Enterprise Deployments
Index
A
E
advance invalidation request, 2-9
alias definitions
multiple host names, 2-9
site definitions, 2-9
Application Deployment
considerations, 5-5
Application deployment
considerations, 5-4
Application Server Control
Management checklist, 5-4
management tasks, 5-5
performance metrics, 4-3
Enterprise Data Center Topology
J2EE Applications, 1-2
Portal, Wireless, and Business Intelligence
Applications, 1-6
Portal, Wireless, and Business Intelligence
Applications, Description, 1-6
Portal, Wireless, and Business Intelligence
Applications,Target Users, 1-6
Enterprise Data Center Topology, J2EE Applications
Description, 1-2
Target Users, 1-2
Enterprise Deployment Topology
Management Considerations, 5-1
Enterprise Topologies, recommended, 1-1
Enterprise Topology
Post-Installation Tasks, 2-6
Infrastructure, 2-7
Enterprise Topology Post-Installation Tasks
OracleAS Portal and Oracle Application Server
Wireless, 2-7
OracleAS Portal and Oracle Internet
Directory, 2-7
OracleAS Portal and OracleAS Web Cache, 2-7
C
Component Configuration Guides, table of,
configuration changes
distributing, 5-2
2-10
D
database connectivity
monitoring connections, 6-2
Departmental Topology, 1-7
Description, 1-8
expanding, 1-8
Installation Sequence, 1-9
management considerations, 5-5
Target Users, 1-7
Development Life Cycle Support Topology
considerations, 5-6
description, 1-9
Development Life Cycle Topology
Moving Applications from Stage to
Production, 1-10
Disaster Recovery
Archiving, 5-2
Distributed Configuration Management
dcmctl command-line utility, 4-1
Distributed Configuration Management (DCM)
Overview, 4-1
Dynamic IP Addresses
Choosing, 5-3
F
features, 3-1
Firewall
Opening Ports, 4-3
Opening Ports for AJP, 4-3
Opening Ports for Application servers and
databases, 4-3
Opening Ports for Application servers and
Infrastructure, 4-3
Opening Ports for Application servers and
outbound ONS, 4-3
Opening Ports for Enterprise Manager, 4-3
Opening Ports for HTTP and HTTPS, 4-3
Firewall Stateful Inspection, 4-4
H
High Availability
about, 3-1
Index-1
L
High Availability Features
adding, 1-8
LDAP
system performance, 6-2
Load Balancing Router
Configuring with multiple middle-tiers, 4-5
Log Files
managing with waterfall approach, 5-2
maximum limit, 5-1
Mining, 5-3
rotating, 5-1
Logging Levels
optimizing, 6-2
loopback
Configuration steps, 4-7
Configuring with NAT, 4-6
I
iASPT
and mod_oc4J, 4-4
and OC4J, 4-4
configuring, 4-4
specifying wallet information, 4-4
index option, 2-9
Infrastructure DMZ
description, 1-5
installing, 1-5
Infrastructures
joining or leaving, 5-3
Installation and Configuration
Departmental Topology, 2-5
Development Life Cycle Support Topology,
Portal, BI, Wireless, Forms and Reports
Services, 2-3
Installing and configuring
J2EEApplications Topology, 2-1
Intranet
tier description, 1-6
J
J2EE and Web Cache instances
determining number of, 1-6
J2EE Applications Topology
Installation Sequence, 2-2
J2EE Applications Topology Post-Installation
Tasks, 2-8
apology pages, 2-8
Checklist, 2-8
Discoverer, 2-9
Enterprise Manager, 2-10
Forms Services, 2-9
Invalidation Requests, 2-9
Logging, 2-9
Optimize connection limits, 2-8
Oracle HTTP Server, 2-9
Physical memory requirements, 2-8
Ping URL, 2-8
Portal, 2-10
Reports Services, 2-9
Single Sign-On, 2-10
SSL Certificates, 2-8
J2EE Business Logic DMZ, 1-6
J2EEApplications Topology
Hardware Requirements, 2-2
JPDK Instance URL
changing choice of, 2-7
JSP
improving performance, 6-2
JVM
setting appropriate parameters, 6-2
Index-2
2-6
M
Management considerations
Multiple Departments Sharing the Same Data
Center, 5-3
mod_plsql
application access, 1-4
Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers
configuring, 3-3
Configuring HTTP load balancer, 3-5
Configuring identity management infrastructure
database, 3-5
Configuring Oracle HTTP servers, 3-4
Reregistering mod_osso, 3-5
Usage Scenario, 3-2
N
Network Parameters
tuning for origin server, 6-1
NFS
Using in Data Center, 5-2
O
OC4J
Periodic Restarting, 5-2
OID
and Multiple Single Sign-On Middle Tiers, 3-2
opmn.xml
and iASPT, 4-4
Oracle Application Server Networking
Overview, 4-1
Oracle Enterprise Manager Application Server
Control
about, 4-3
Oracle HTTP Server
using MaxClients parameter, 6-1
Oracle Internet Directory
and LDAP, 4-2
Oracle Process Manager and Notification (OPMN)
features, 4-2
OracleAS Portal
Configuring with LBR, 4-6
origin server (OS) SSL certificate
configuring, 2-8
P
Port Tunneling
about, 4-4
Portal Parallel Page Engine
handling increased concurrency, 6-3
Portal Provider UI Framework
and Default JPDK Instance URL, 2-7
Ports
Managing, 5-2
proxy server, 4-7
Q
quality of service, ensuring, 1-1
R
Recommended Topologies, 1-2
Reverse Proxy Servers
Configuring, 4-7
routers
configuring load-balancing, 4-5
S
Security, 3-1
Single Sign On Middle Tier, 1-3
Single Sign On Middle Tier (Web Server Tier DMZ)
about, 1-3
Site Definitions
configuring virtual hosts, 2-8
SSL
about cookies and encryption, 4-5
configure session duration, 6-2
Starting and Stopping
Applications, 5-2
Servers, 5-2
Static IP
Choosing, 5-3
V
virtual hosts
setting up site definitions, 2-8
virtual IP address
adding to load balancers, 4-5
W
Web Cache
improving performance,
6-2
Index-3
Index-4
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