indg402 - Safe use of ladders and stepladders: An employers` guide

indg402 - Safe use of ladders and stepladders: An employers` guide
Health and Safety
Executive
Safe use of ladders
and stepladders
An employers’ guide
Introduction
1 A third of all reported fall-from-height incidents involve ladders and stepladders
– on average this accounts for 14 deaths and 1200 major injuries to workers each
year. Many of these injuries are caused by inappropriate or incorrect use of the
equipment. This guidance is to help employers:
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know when to use a ladder;
decide how to go about selecting the right sort of ladder for the particular job;
understand how to use it;
know how to look after it; and
take sensible safety precautions.
2 HSE believes that misuse of ladders at work can be partly explained by the
way they are used in the home. As with all work equipment, users need adequate
information and training to be able to use ladders and stepladders safely. Adequate
supervision is needed so that safe practices continue to be used.
3 This guidance does not apply to fixed ladders (on buildings, plant or vehicles),
other types of fixed access (step irons etc), specialist rescue ladders used by the
fire service, roof ladders, step stools, warehouse steps/mobile stairs, or temporary
or permanent stairs.
When is a ladder the most suitable
access equipment?
4 This selection process has to take into account the hierarchy of controls:1
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firstly to avoid work at height where possible;
then to prevent falls from height; and, failing that,
to reduce the consequences of a fall.
5 Where work at height is necessary you need to justify whether a ladder
or stepladder is the most suitable access equipment compared to other access
equipment options. You do this by using risk assessment and the hierarchy
of controls.
6 When considering whether it could be appropriate to use a ladder or
stepladder, you need to consider the following factors.
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Is it a suitable activity?
7 This refers to the type of work and its duration. As a guide, only use a ladder
or stepladder:
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7
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Figure 1a Incorrect
- overreaching and not
maintaining three points
of contact
in one position for a maximum of 30 minutes;
for ‘light work’ - they are not suitable for strenuous or heavy work. If a task
involves a worker carrying more than 10 kg (a bucket of something) up the ladder
or steps it will need to be justified by a detailed manual handling assessment;
where a handhold is available on the ladder or stepladder;
where you can maintain three points of contact (hands and feet) at the working
position. On a ladder where you cannot maintain a handhold, other than for
a brief period of time, other measures will be needed to prevent a fall or reduce
the consequences of one. On stepladders where a handhold is not practicable
a risk assessment will have to justify whether it is safe or not (see paragraph 10
for details).
8 On a ladder or stepladder do not:
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Figure 1b Correct - user
maintaining three points
of contact
overload it - the person and anything they are taking up should not exceed the
highest load stated on the ladder;
overreach - keep your belt buckle (navel) inside the stiles and both feet on the
same rung throughout the task (see Figures 1a and 1b).
9 When working on stepladders you should avoid work that imposes a side
loading, such as side-on drilling through solid materials (eg bricks or concrete), by
having the steps facing the work activity (see Figures 2a and 2b). Where side-on
loadings cannot be avoided you should prevent the steps from tipping over, for
example by tying the steps to a suitable point. Otherwise a more suitable type of
access equipment should be used.
10 You should also avoid holding items when climbing (for example by using
tool belts):
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Figure 2a Incorrect - steps
side-on to work activity
on a ladder where you must carry something you must have one free hand to
grip the ladder;
on a stepladder where you cannot maintain a handhold (eg putting a box on a
shelf), the use of a stepladder will have to be justified by taking into account:
- the height of the task;
- a safe handhold still being available on the stepladder;
- whether it is light work (see paragraph 7);
- whether it avoids side loading (see paragraph 9);
- whether it avoids overreaching (see paragraph 8);
- whether the user’s feet are fully supported; and
- whether you can tie the stepladder (see paragraph 16).
Selecting/buying safe ladders and stability devices
3
11 When buying a new ladder, think about the worst type of surface conditions
you come across (eg smooth, wet floor tiles). Manufacturers should be able to
indicate the types of surfaces their products are intended to be used on when they
are unsecured (untied). Only buy the ladder and associated stability devices that
suppliers/manufacturers can confirm will be stable enough to be used unsecured in
your worse-case scenario, otherwise you will need to take additional measures to
secure it (see paragraphs 14-16).
Figure 2b Correct - steps
facing work activity
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12 HSE and BERR recommend Class 12,3 ‘Industrial’ or EN 1314 ladders or
stepladders for use at work. Make sure the ladder is a suitable size for the work
(see paragraphs 9 and 22).
Levelling
device
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Figure 3 Ladder showing
maximum angles at 16o on
a slide slope and 6o on a
back slope
Is it a safe place to use a ladder
or stepladder?
13 This covers the specific place where you are going to set up and use it. As a
guide, only use a ladder or stepladder:
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Figure 4 Ladder tied at top
stiles (correct for working on,
not for access)
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on firm ground or spread the load (eg use a board);
on level ground - for stepladders refer to the manufacturer’s instructions, for
ladders the maximum safe ground slopes on a suitable surface (unless the
manufacturer states otherwise) are as follows:
- side slope 16o – but the rungs still need to be levelled (see Figure 3);
- back slope 6o (see Figure 3);
on clean, solid surfaces (paving slabs, floors etc). These need to be clean (no oil,
moss or leaf litter) and free of loose material (sand, packaging materials etc) so
the feet can grip. Shiny floor surfaces can be slippery even without contamination;
where it has been secured.
14 The options for securing a ladder are as follows:
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tie the ladder to a suitable point, making sure both stiles are tied, see Figures 4,
5, 6 and 7;
where this is not practical, use a safe, unsecured ladder or a ladder
supplemented with an effective ladder stability device (see paragraph 11);
if this is not possible, then securely wedge the ladder, eg against a wall;
if none of the above can be achieved, foot the ladder. Footing is the last resort
and should be avoided, where reasonably practicable, by the use of other
access equipment.
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Figure 5 Tying part
way down
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Figure 6 Tying near the base
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Figure 7 Securing at
the base
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15 Ladders used for access to another level should be tied (see Figure 8).
Stepladders should not be used for access to another level unless they have been
designed for this.
16 Consider tying a stepladder where possible and advantageous to the task
(eg side-on working or where two free hands are needed).
17 You should only use ladders or stepladders:
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Figure 8 Access ladders
should be tied and extend
at least 1 m above the
landing point to provide a
secure handhold
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where they will not be struck by vehicles, by protecting them with suitable barriers
or cones;
where they will not be pushed over by other hazards such as doors or windows,
by securing doors (not fire exits) and windows where possible. If this is
impractical, have a person standing guard at a doorway, or inform workers not to
open windows until they are told to do so;
where pedestrians are prevented from walking under them or near them, by using
barriers, cones or, as a last resort, a person standing guard at the base;
where ladders can be put up at the correct angle of 75o. To judge the angle use
the angle indicator marked on the stiles of some ladders or the 1 in 4 rule (1 unit
out for every 4 units up, as shown in Figure 10);
where the restraint devices on stepladders can be fully opened. Any locking
devices must also be engaged.
18 On a ladder or stepladder:
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Figure 9 Stand-off device
and working maximum
height on a ladder
Is the ladder or stepladder safe to be used?
19 Establish the ladder or stepladder is in a safe condition before using it. As a
guide, only use ladders or stepladders that:
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Figure 10 Ladder showing
correct 1 in 4 angle
(means of securing omitted
for clarity)
don’t work within 6 m horizontally of any overhead power lines, unless the line
owner has made them dead or protected with temporary insulation. If this is a
regular activity, find out if the lines can be moved;
always use a non-conductive ladder or steps for any necessary5 live
electrical work;
don’t rest ladders against weak upper surfaces (eg glazing or plastic gutters).
Alternatively, you can use effective spreader bars or effective stand-offs
(see Figure 9).
have no visible defects. They should have a pre-use check each working day;
have a current detailed visual inspection. These should be done in accordance
with the manufacturer’s instructions. Ladders that are part of a scaffold system
still have to be inspected every seven days;
are suitable for work use. Use Class 12,3 or EN 1314 ladders or stepladders
at work because domestic (Class 32,3) ones are not normally suitable for use
at work;
have been maintained and stored in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions.
What are pre-use checks and detailed visual inspections?
20 Both are looking for obvious visual defects, they only differ in detail. Both
can be done in-house (pre-use checks should be part of a user’s training).
Detailed visual inspections should be recorded. Ladder stability devices and other
accessories should be pre-use checked and inspected in accordance with the
Safe use of ladders and stepladders: An employers’ guide
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manufacturer’s instructions. Ladder and stepladder feet must be part of the
pre-use check. Ladder feet are essential for preventing the base of the ladder
slipping. Missing stepladder feet cause it to wobble. The feet should be:
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in good repair (not loose, missing, splitting, excessively worn, secure etc); and
clean – the feet should be in contact with the ground.
21 Ladder feet should also be checked when moving from soft/dirty ground (eg
dug soil, loose sand/stone, a dirty workshop) to a smooth, solid surface (eg paving
slabs), to ensure the foot material and not the dirt (eg soil, embedded stones or
swarf) is making contact with the ground.
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Figure 11 Correct - two
clear rungs. Don’t work
any higher up this type
of stepladder
Do my ladder-users know how
to use them safely?
22 These are common issues about setting up and using ladders under the direct
control of the user. Users should also be aware of the limitations covered in the
other headings. People should only use a ladder, stepladder or stability device if:
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Figure 12 Correct - three
clear steps. Don’t work
any higher up this type
of stepladder
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they are competent - users should be trained and instructed to use the
equipment safely;
the ladder or stepladder is long enough for ladders:
- don’t use the top three rungs (see Figure 9);
- ladders used for access should project at least 1 m above the landing point
and be tied; alternatively a safe and secure handhold should be available
(see Figure 8);
for stepladders:
- don’t use the top two steps of a stepladder, unless a suitable handrail is
available on the stepladder (see Figure 11);
- don’t use the top three steps of swing-back or double-sided stepladders,
where a step forms the very top of the stepladder (see Figure 12);
the ladder or stepladder rungs or steps are level. This can be judged by the
naked eye. Ladders can be levelled using specially designed devices but not by
using bits of brick or whatever else is at hand;
the weather is suitable - do not use them in strong or gusting winds (follow the
manufacturer’s safe working practices);
they are wearing robust, sensible footwear (eg safety shoes/boots or trainers).
Shoes should not have the soles hanging off, have long or dangling laces, or be
thick with mud or other slippery contaminants;
they know how to prevent members of the public and other workers from
using them;
they are fit - certain medical conditions or medication, alcohol or drug abuse
could stop them from using ladders. If you are in any doubt, speak to an
occupational health professional;
they know how to tie a ladder or stepladder properly.
23 On a ladder or stepladder, don’t:
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move them while standing on the rungs/steps;
support them by the rungs or steps at the base;
slide down the stiles;
stand them on moveable objects, such as pallets, bricks, lift trucks, tower
scaffolds, excavator buckets, vans, or mobile elevating work platforms;
extend a ladder while standing on the rungs.
Safe use of ladders and stepladders: An employers’ guide
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References and further reading
References
1 The Work at Height Regulations 2005 (as amended): A brief guide Leaflet
INDG401(rev1) HSE Books 2007 (single copy free or priced packs of 10
ISBN 978 0 7176 6231 9)
2 BS 1129: 1990 Specification for portable timber ladders, steps, trestles and
lightweight stagings British Standards Institution
3 BS 2037: 1994 Specification for portable aluminium ladders, steps, trestles and
lightweight stagings British Standards Institution
4 BS EN 131-1 Ladders. Terms, types, functional sizes (2007) and BS EN 131-2
Ladders. Specification for requirements, testing, marking (1993) and BS EN 131-3
Ladders. User instructions (2007) and BS EN 131-4 Ladders. Single or multiple
hinge-joint ladders (2007) British Standards Institution
5 Memorandum of guidance on the Electricity at Work Regulations 1989.
Guidance on Regulations HSR25 HSE Books 2007 ISBN 978 0 7176 6228 9
Further reading
A toolbox talk on leaning ladder and stepladder safety Leaflet INDG403 HSE Books
2005 (single copy free or priced packs of 5 ISBN 978 0 7176 6106 0)
Top tips for ladder and stepladder safety Pocket card INDG405 HSE Books 2005
(single copy free or priced packs of 25 ISBN 978 0 7176 6127 5)
Evaluating the performance and effectiveness of ladder stability devices RR205
HSE Books 2004 ISBN 978 0 7176 2822 3
Ergonomics evaluation into the safety of stepladders. Literature and standards
review Phase 1 CRR418 HSE Books 2002 ISBN 978 0 7176 2302 0
Ergonomics evaluation into the safety of stepladders. User profile and dynamic
testing - Phase 2 CRR423 HSE Books 2002 ISBN 978 0 7176 2315 0
Falls from height webpages on the HSE website: www.hse.gov.uk/falls/index.htm
Safe use of ladders and stepladders: An employers’ guide
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Further information
HSE priced and free publications are available by mail order from HSE Books,
PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA Tel: 01787 881165 Fax: 01787 313995
Website: www.hsebooks.co.uk (HSE priced publications are also available from
bookshops and free leaflets can be downloaded from HSE’s website:
www.hse.gov.uk.)
For information about health and safety ring HSE’s Infoline Tel: 0845 345 0055
Fax: 0845 408 9566 Textphone: 0845 408 9577 e-mail: [email protected] or
write to HSE Information Services, Caerphilly Business Park, Caerphilly CF83 3GG.
This leaflet contains notes on good practice which are not compulsory but
which you may find helpful in considering what you need to do.
This leaflet is available in priced packs of 5 from HSE Books,
ISBN 978 0 7176 6105 3. Single free copies are also available from HSE Books.
© Crown copyright This publication may be freely reproduced, except for
advertising, endorsement or commercial purposes. First published 10/05.
Please acknowledge the source as HSE.
Published by the Health and Safety Executive
INDG402
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