User Manual - CEO Knowledge Center

User Manual - CEO Knowledge Center
User Manual
REA Series Diode-Pumped Nd:YAG Rod Laser Modules
ƒ REA-XX06
ƒ REA-XX08
ƒ REA-XX10
ƒ REA-XX12
CEO-UMAN-0022B
DECEMBER 2012
uble Shooting Guid
Worldwide Technical Support and Product Information
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Hours: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., Central time*
Service and Technical Support: (636) 916-4900 (follow prompts for department directory)
Email: [email protected]
Cutting Edge Optronics Headquarters
20 Point West Blvd. St. Charles, MO 63301 USA
Sales Support: (636) 916-4900 (follow prompts for department directory)
*After office hours, please leave a voice mail message. Outside North America, contact a Cutting Edge Optronics sales office or distributor;
see the Cutting Edge Optronics website for a list of offices.
© 2006 - 2012 Cutting Edge Optronics, a division of Northrop Grumman Corporation. All rights reserved.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Important Information
Warranty Summary
Cutting Edge Optronics warrants that the products that it manufactures and sells will be free from defects in materials and
workmanship for a period of one year from the date of shipment from an authorized Cutting Edge Optronics distributor. If a
product proves defective within the respective period, Cutting Edge Optronics will provide repair or replacement as described
in the complete warranty statement.
To arrange for service or obtain a copy of the complete warranty statement, please contact your nearest Cutting Edge
Optronics sales and service office.
EXCEPT AS PROVIDED IN THIS SUMMARY OR THE APPLICABLE WARRANTY STATEMENT, CUTTING EDGE
OPTRONICS MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING WITHOUT
LIMITATION THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR
PUPOSE. IN NO EVENT SHALL CUTTING EDGE OPTRONICS BE LIABLE FOR INDIRECT, SPECIAL, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES.
Copyright
Under the copyright laws, this publication may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form, electronic or mechanical,
including photocopying, recording, storing in an information retrieval system, or translating, in whole or in part, without the
prior written consent of Cutting Edge Optronics.
Trademarks
eDrive is a registered trademark of Northrop Grumman Corporation.
Patents
Northrop Grumman Corporation products are covered by U.S. and foreign patents, issued and pending. Information in this
publication supersedes that in all previously published material. Specifications and price change privileges reserved.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Safety Information
Product End-of-Life Handling
Cutting Edge Optronics is committed to protecting the environment. In accordance with
the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment directive (WEEE) and Restriction of
Hazardous Substances in the European Union (RoHS EU) directives, Cutting Edge
Optronics accepts the return of our products for disposal. When you are ready to reclaim
the instrument, you must properly transfer it according to local regulations concerning
WEEE equipment. Contact Cutting Edge Optronics or your local distributor for shipping
instructions. Please package the products as directed for a return for repair.
ROC ROHS Declaration
In accordance with the Clause 6.2 of Marking for Control of Pollution Caused by
Electronic Information Products (SJ/T11364:2006) for Measures for the
Administration on Pollution Control of Electronic Information Products No. 39,
Order of the Ministry of Information Industry of the Peoples Republic of China,
Cutting Edge Optronics includes the following translation about our laser
modules.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Conventions
The following conventions appear in this manual:
This icon denotes a caution or a warning, which advise you of precautions to
take to avoid injury, data loss, or a system crash.
Initial Capped
The first letter in uppercase refers to menu options, e.g., Phase Delay, Pulse
Width.
CAPS
Front-panel buttons, knobs, and connectors appear in all uppercase letters, e.g.,
MENU, CURRENT.
The symbol separates a sequence of button pushes, e.g., MENU CHANNEL SETUP PULSE WIDTH means that you push the MENU
button, then push the CHANNEL SETUP soft key, and then push the PULSE
WIDTH soft key.
italic
Italic text denotes references to other resources that may be helpful to you or to
bring attention to important information.
This icon denotes a note, which alerts you to important information.
I
O
Power Switch Position Symbols
I = On O = Off
The following conventions may appear on the product:
DANGER
An injury hazard immediately accessible as you read the marking.
WARNING
A hazard not immediately accessible as you read the marking.
CAUTION
A hazard to property including the product.
ESD: Handle Appropriately
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Laser Emission: Use caution.
Shock Hazard: Use caution.
Caution: Risk of danger. Refer to manual.
Chassis Ground
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
General Safety Summary
The REA Series module emits laser radiation that can permanently damage eyes
and skin, ignite fires, and vaporize substances. The Laser Safety section (Chapter
2) contains information and guidance about these hazards. To minimize the risk of
injury or expensive repairs, carefully follow these instructions.
Do not open the factory packaging before carefully reading this complete
operation and maintenance manual. If you have any questions on the product
which have not been discussed sufficiently within the manual, contact the
manufacturer for complete instructions. Failure to heed this warning may result
in the destruction or serious damage to the device, and will void the product
warranty.
The Service section is intended to help guide you to the source of problems. Do
not attempt repairs while the unit is under warranty; instead, report all problems to
Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Cutting Edge Optronics (NGAS CEO)
for warranty repair.
Use the form in Appendix A: Customer Service to describe issues with the
module. We also suggest that you record information about the module such as
power, settings, time and date.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
About this Manual
This manual describes the installation, operation, and service of the REA Series
module. The manual consists of the following chapters:
ƒ
Chapter 1: Introduction provides a theory of operation description of the
module and specifications
ƒ
Chapter 2: Laser Safety describes proper safety procedures you should
understand before operating the module.
ƒ
Chapter 3: Module Details provides information about unpacking, storing and
proper environmental conditions for operation.
ƒ
Chapter 4: Installation and Operation discusses how to setup your module
and powering on your system for the first time.
ƒ
Chapter 5: Maintenance provides information on proper maintenance of your
module.
ƒ
Chapter 6: Service provides resources to help fix problems with the REA
Series module
ƒ
Appendix A: Customer Service provides information to expedite any service
request before contacting Cutting Edge Optronics.
ƒ
Appendix B: System International Units identifies commonly used units of
measurement found in this manual.
ƒ
Appendix C: Acronyms provides a list of commonly used abbreviations and
their descriptions used throughout this manual.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction
1 Theory of Operation
1 Temperature Tuning of Laser Diodes
2 REA-Series Description
3 High Voltage DC Power Supply
4 Closed Loop Re-circulating Distilled Water Chiller
4 Specifications
6 Chapter 2: Laser Safety
8 Caution & Warning Statements
9 Precautions for Safe Operation of Class IV Lasers
9 Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) OEM Product
10 Safety Device Checklist
11 Chapter 3: Module Details
12 Unpacking your Module
13 REA Series Module
13 REA Timer
15 Closed Loop Chiller
19 High Voltage DC Power Supply
23 Chapter 4: Installation and Operation
25 REA Series Laser Module Assembly and Connections
26 Closed Loop Water Chiller Assembly
28 Starting the Laser System
29 © Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Standby Condition
31 Turning Off the System
31 Chapter 5: Maintenance
32 Rod Removal and Replacement
33 Rod Cleaning
37 Leak Test Procedure
37 Adjusting the Operating Current
38 Cleaning the Chiller
39 Chapter 6: Service
41 Contacting Customer Service
42 Return the Instrument for Repair
42 Appendix A: Customer Service
43 Questions
44 Appendix B: System International Units
46 Appendix C: Acronyms
47 © Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Table of Figures
Figure 1-1 Exterior Components and Connections
1 Figure 1-2 Nd:YAG Absorption Characteristics
2 Figure 1-3 Pump Light Absorption vs. Pump Array Center Wavelength
3 Figure 1-4 Radial Pump Geometry
3 Table 1-1 REA Physical Configuration
4 Table 1-2 End of life Waste Heat
5 Table 1-3 REA Series Model Specifications1
6 Table 1-4 REA Series General Specifications
7 Figure 2-1 Standard Safety Warning Sign
10 Figure 2-2 Radiation Control Drawing
11 Figure 2-3 Warning Labels
11 Figure 3-1 Reverse Bias Protection Diode Circuit
15 Figure 3-2 REA Series Electronic Timer
16 Table 3-1. Cooling System Requirements
19 Table 3-2. Avoid with Chillers
20 Figure 3-3. Constant Dew Point Lines for Ambient Temperature and Relative Humidity 22 Table 3-3. Table of Air Condensation Temperature at Given Ambient Air Temperature
(Celcius) and Relative Humidity (percent)
23 Figure 4-1 Connection Diagram
27 Figure 4-2 eDrive Rear Panel
27 Figure 4-3 Chiller Assembly Drawing
28 Figure 5-1 Rod Replacement Drawing, REA-XXXX-001X
33 © Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Figure 5-2 Rod Replacement Drawing, REA-XXXX-002X
35 Figure 5-3 REA-XXXX-002X O-rings
36 Figure 5-4 Nitrogen Leak Test Layout
38 © Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
1
Chapter 1: Introduction
This introduction provides the following information:
ƒ
Theory of operation
ƒ
Temperature Tuning of Laser Diodes
ƒ
REA Series description
ƒ
High Voltage DC Power Supply
ƒ
Closed Loop Re-circulating Chiller
ƒ
Specifications
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 1: Introduction
Theory of Operation
The REA Series module was designed for use as a building block “engine” in the
development or production of medium power rod laser systems or as a drop-in
replacement for arc lamp pump chambers in industrial lasers. It is well suited for
medium power applications such as laser marking, and can provide high stability
and beam quality for more precise micro-machining and scientific applications.
Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Cutting Edge Optronics (NGAS CEO)
diode pumped, solid-state lasers and pump modules use temperature-tuned
GaAlAs laser diodes. These diodes replace arc lamps or incandescent light
sources as the optical pump source. The principal advantages of this approach
include:
ƒ
Longer lifetime
ƒ
More compact size
ƒ
More efficient operation
The REA-Series module uses arrays of solid-state laser diodes to optically pump a
neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) lasing medium. The
diode optical output power is radially coupled into the laser rod. The Nd:YAG
laser rod has an anti-reflection coating chosen for the highest gain wavelength of
this material, 1064 nm. The REA-Series module is constructed within a durable
and rigid structure. Exterior components and connections are shown in Figure 11.
Figure 1-1 Exterior Components and Connections
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 1: Introduction
Temperature Tuning of Laser Diodes
The laser diodes are located within the REA-Series module and tuned, wavelength
matched, via the closed loop chiller. For maximum efficiency, the diode output
wavelength must match the laser medium absorption characteristics (see Figure 12). The output spectrum of a conventional pump source for Nd:YAG operation,
the xenon arc lamp, and 808 nm diode array is also shown.
Figure 1-2 Nd:YAG Absorption Characteristics
A single GaAlAs laser diode bar has a 2 nm FWHM distribution of output
wavelengths. However, the process used in the manufacture of GaAlAs laser
diodes results in a peak output wavelength for each diode that fits within a 10 nm
distribution of wavelengths from 800-810 nm. To match the diode output to an
absorption peak of the laser medium, diodes are selected with similar peak output
wavelengths within the manufacturing range. Temperature tuning is possible
because GaAlAs diode characteristics are such that 0.25 nm of wavelength shift
occurs for every 1oC change in temperature of the diode junction. Cooling
shortens the wavelength, and heating lengthens it. Figure 1-3 shows the
percentage of pump light of different wavelengths absorbed by two passes
through a 6.35 mm thick rod of 0.6% doped Nd:YAG. In CEO modules, the laser
diode center wavelength, under normal operating conditions, is near the
absorption peak of the laser medium. The operating temperature of closed loop
chiller is carefully chosen to shift the diode temperature, so that the wavelength
matches the absorption peak. The final test report, included with each module,
indicates the optimum operation temperature for that module.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 1: Introduction
Figure 1-3 Pump Light Absorption vs. Pump Array Center Wavelength
REA-Series Description
The REA-Series module utilizes a radial longitudinal pump geometry to excite the
solid-state laser medium (see Figure 1-4). This pump geometry results in excellent
gain uniformity and lensing performance. The reflector directs the divergent diode
light back to the laser medium, which is kept in a flow tube for coolant
circulation. The laser medium is a rod of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum
garnet (Nd:YAG). Both ends of the rod are optically polished and include anti
reflection coatings at the lasing wavelength. The ends of the rod may be curved
to compensate for thermal lensing, depending on module configuration.
Figure 1-4 Radial Pump Geometry
The REA comes in various physical configurations per table 1-1. In addition,
each of the models listed consists of 5 arrays per module.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 1: Introduction
Table 1-1 REA Physical Configuration
Model
Number
REA4006
REA4008
REA5006
REA5008
REA5010
REA5012
REA6306
REA6308
REA6310
REA6312
REA7006
REA7008
REA7010
REA7012
REA8006
REA8008
REA8010
REA8012
REA9006
REA9008
REA9010
REA9012
REA10006
REA10008
REA10010
REA10012
Rod
Diameter
(mm)
4.0
4.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
6.35
6.35
6.35
6.35
7.0
7.0
7.0
7.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
8.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
9.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
Length
(Inches)
Width
(Inches)
Height
(Inches)
5.74
6.55
5.74
6.55
7.4
8.23
5.74
6.55
7.4
8.23
5.74
6.55
7.4
8.23
5.74
6.55
7.4
8.23
5.74
6.55
7.4
8.23
5.74
6.55
7.4
8.23
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.27
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.57
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.06
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
3.41
Beam
Height
(Inches)
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
1.75
Bars per
Array
Watts
per Bar
6
8
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
High Voltage DC Power Supply
A high voltage DC power supply is required to provide the DC voltage to run the
diode arrays in an REA-Series module. CEO will recommend a power supply
based on the customer’s application.
Closed Loop Re-circulating Distilled Water Chiller
Coolant flow direction is polarized on the REA-Series pump module. Inlet and
Outlet hose barbs are marked on the pumphead. Be sure to connect the coolant
filter for the selected chiller on the Inlet connection, so only clean coolant from
the filter flows through the pumphead. Dirty coolant deposits dirt on the laser
rod, which results in low output power.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 1: Introduction
The module coolant loop is designed for an operating pressure of 50 psi. The
selected chiller must have a heat capacity of greater than the power consumption
for the specific model of REA-Series module. Table 1-2 gives the CEO end of
life operating current and power consumption (waste heat).
Table 1-2 End of life Waste Heat
60 Hz Electrical Outlets
Model
EOL
Waste
Current Heat
REAXX06- 32 A 1920W
1C2H
REAXX06- 50 A 3000W
1C4H
REAXX08- 32 A 2560W
1C2H
REAXX08- 50 A 4000W
1C4H
REAXX10- 32 A 3200W
1C2H
REAXX10- 50 A 5000W
1C4H
REAXX12- 32 A 3840W
1C2H
REAXX12- 50 A 6000W
1C4H
Polyscience Chiller No.
6762T41CE30D
Chiller
Capacity
2500 W
6162T41CE30D
2900 W
6162T41CE30D
2900 W
6862T66CE70D
5200 W
6162T41CE30D
2900 W
6862T66CE70D
5200 W
6862T66CE70D
5200 W
Contact CEO
Contact
CEO
50 Hz Electrical Outlets
Model
EOL
Waste
Current Heat
REAXX06- 32 A 1920W
1C2H
REAXX06- 50 A 3000W
1C4H
REAXX08- 32 A 2560W
1C2H
REAXX08- 50 A 4000W
1C4H
REAXX10- 32 A 3200W
1C2H
REAXX10- 50 A 5000W
1C4H
REAXX12- 32 A 3840W
1C2H
REAXX12- 50 A 6000W
1C4H
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
Polyscience Chiller No.
6752T41CE30E
Chiller
Capacity
2075 W
6852T66CE70E
4316 W
6852T66CE70E
4316 W
6852T66CE70E
4316 W
6852T66CE70E
4316 W
Contact CEO
Contact
CEO
4316 W
6852T66CE70E
Contact CEO
5
Contact
CEO
REA Series User Manual
Chapter 1: Introduction
Specifications
REA-Series modules are tested to exceed the following specifications. The
standard production test configuration consists of a 280 ± 5 mm cavity utilizing a
flat high reflector and a flat 70% reflective output coupler. The modules are run at
normal drive current of 25 A for 1C2H and 40 A for 1C4H.
Table 1-3 REA Series Model Specifications1
Model
Number
Bars per
Array
Watts
per Bar
Diode Bias
Voltage
REA4006
REA4008
REA5006
REA5008
REA5010
REA5012
REA6306
REA6308
REA6310
REA6312
REA7006
REA7008
REA7010
REA7012
REA8006
REA8008
REA8010
REA8012
REA9006
REA9008
REA9010
REA9012
REA10006
REA10008
REA10010
REA10012
6
8
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
6
8
10
12
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
20 or 40
60
80
60
80
100
120
60
80
100
120
60
80
100
120
60
80
100
120
60
80
100
120
60
80
100
120
Power
Consumption 2
(20 Watt bar)
1920
2560
1920
2560
3200
3840
1920
2560
3200
3840
1920
2560
3200
3840
1920
2560
3200
3840
1920
2560
3200
3840
1920
2560
3200
3840
Power
Consumption 2
(40 Watt bar)
3000
4000
3000
4000
5000
6000
3000
4000
5000
6000
3000
4000
5000
6000
3000
4000
5000
6000
3000
4000
5000
6000
3000
4000
5000
6000
1
Specifications subject to change without notice
2
At end of life operating current is 32A for 1C2H and 50A for 1C4H
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 1: Introduction
Table 1-4 REA Series General Specifications
Type
Dopant Level
Output Wavelength
Polarization
Cooling
Coolant Flow
Coolant Pressure3
Operating Temperature
All REA-Series Models
CW Diode Pumped Nd:YAG Rod1, 4
Application Dependent
1064 nm
Random
Closed Loop Recycling Coolant2
> 2.0 GPM
50 PSI
20-30 oC non-condensing
1
The Continuous wave diode arrays are sensitive to excessive thermal cycling. Current should not be
turned off completely and then restored to full operating current more than 6 times per day. Current
should be gradually (~1A/s) ramped up when operating current restored. See chapter 3 for more
details.
2
CEO recommends Optishield PlusTM /distilled water coolant (10% Optishield PlusTM, 90% distilled
water).
3
CEO modules are leak tested to 80 psi with Nitrogen gas. CEO recommends 50 psi of chiller water for
actual operation
4
YLF configurations are available by special request
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
2
Chapter 2: Laser Safety
Please read this section carefully before installing or operating your REA Series
module. We recommend that all service and repair operations be performed by a
NGAS Cutting Edge Optronics service engineer. If you do plan to service your laser
module, please follow the procedures in the Service section of this manual.
Sections included in this chapter provide the following information:
ƒ
Caution & Warning Statements
ƒ
Precautions for Safe Operation of Class IV Lasers
ƒ
Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) OEM Product
ƒ
Safety Device Checklist
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 2: Laser Safety
Caution & Warning Statements
WARNING The NGAS Cutting Edge Optronics REA Series component when used as
a laser oscillator is a Class IV-High Power Laser whose beam is, by definition, a safety
hazard. Avoid eye or skin exposure to direct or scattered laser radiation. Avoid direct
viewing of the beam or its specular reflection. When energized, a large amount of high
power invisible laser radiation is emitted from the laser module.
Follow instructions contained in this manual for proper installation and safe operation
of your laser. We recommend the use of protective eyewear at all times; selection
depends on the energy and wavelength of the laser beam as well as operating
conditions. Consult ANSI, ACGIH, or OSHA standards for guidance.
WARNING Use of controls, adjustments or performance of procedures other than
those specified herein may result in hazardous radiation exposure.
WARNING At all times during installation, operation, maintenance, or service of your
laser, avoid exposure to laser or collateral radiation exceeding the accessible emission
limits listed in “Performance Standards for Laser Products,” United States Code of
Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1040 10(d).
ESD CAUTION The laser diodes in the REA Series are sensitive to Electro-Static
Discharge (ESD). Never handle the REA Series module without being properly
grounded through the use of properly installed and maintained grounding wrist straps
or other ESD control devices. Subjecting the REA Series to static shock can seriously
damage or destroy the diode bars, and will void the product warranty.
ELECTRICAL WARNING The voltages in this system can be harmful or even lethal.
Whenever handling or servicing the laser, always disconnect the power cord to the
power supplies and drivers. Use a voltmeter to verify all electronics are discharged
before touching or grounding of electrical connections.
Precautions for Safe Operation of Class IV Lasers
ƒ
Never look directly into the laser beam or at specular reflection, even with
protective eye-wear on.
ƒ
Always wear laser safety eye-wear that is appropriate for the output power at the
wavelengths of operation (808 nm pump light and 1064 nm fundamental).
ƒ
Set aside a controlled-access area for laser operation; limit access to those
trained in the principles of laser safety.
ƒ
Post readily readable warning signs in prominent locations near the laser
operation area.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 2: Laser Safety
ƒ
Use safety interlocks on all entryways. All NGAS CEO system control
electronics are provided with interlock inputs to preclude operation with an open
safety door. NOTE: when multiple interlocks are used, they must be connected
in SERIES for proper function.
ƒ
Restrict access to laser areas to those who have been instructed in the necessary
safety precautions.
ƒ
Enclose beam paths wherever possible.
ƒ
Set up experiments so the laser beam is below eye level.
ƒ
Work in an area that is well lit to avoid dilation of pupils.
ƒ
Set up a target for the beam.
ƒ
Set up shields to prevent reflected beams from escaping the laser operation area.
ƒ
The Q-switched output power of the laser emits extremely high peak optical
powers, powers that can severely damage a wide array of optical components
and detectors. Know the limits of your components before exposing them to the
Q-switched beam.
ƒ
View an infrared laser beam with a protected image converter at an oblique
angle reflecting from a diffuse surface. Do not use phosphorus cards in the Qswitched beam.
ƒ
Ensure that all electrical connections are made in a safe manner.
ƒ
Where possible, position equipment so that electrical connections are shielded
from accidental touch.
ƒ
No smoking, eating, or drinking should be allowed in laser areas.
ƒ
Never leave an operating laser unattended.
Figure 2-1 Standard Safety Warning Sign
Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) OEM Product
The REA-Series module is considered a component according to the Food and Drug
Administration, Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Section 1002.1(b) for use in
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
Chapter 2: Laser Safety
an end system, and therefore does not fully comply with all the requirements of the
Code of Federal Regulations for laser-based systems. The REA-Series module is
capable of emitting Class IV radiation, and extreme care must be exercised in its
installation and operation. Only persons familiar with the safety precautions and
practices in this manual should operate the laser product.
Figure 2-2 Radiation Control Drawing
Figure 2-3 Warning Labels
Safety Device Checklist
1. Verify that all labels are securely affixed.
2. Verify that the safety interlock system is working properly.
3. Locate the module so that operation of laser and/or adjustment of control
electronics do not require exposure to laser radiation.
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3
Chapter 3: Module Details
This chapter describes basic operation of your REA Series module. This chapter
discusses:
ƒ
Unpacking your Module
ƒ
REA Series Module
ƒ
REA Timer
ƒ
Closed Loop Chiller
ƒ
High Voltage DC Power Supply
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Unpacking your Module
Your NGAS Cutting Edge Optronics Model REA Series module was carefully
packed for shipment. If the carton appears to have been damaged in transit, have the
shipper’s agent present when you unpack.
CAUTION The module is susceptible to damage due to electro-static discharge (ESD).
Always use proper ESD control devices when handling the module.
CAUTION Do not open sealed package until package has normalized to room
temperature. Condensation can seriously damage the diode arrays in the laser module
and may void warranty.
Inspect the unit as you unpack it, looking for dents, scratches, or other evidence of
damage. If you discover any damage, immediately file a claim against the carrier
and notify your NGAS CEO representative. NGAS CEO will arrange for repair
without waiting for settlement of your claim.
Keep the shipping container. If you file a damage claim, you may need it to
demonstrate that the damage occurred as a result of shipping. If you need to return
the unit for service, the specially designed carton assures adequate protection. A
manual and a final test report should accompany each unit shipped.
REA Series Module
Proper storage of the REA Series module involves four steps:
1. Remove all coolant from module by blowing dry air through it for 20 minutes.
2. Place a shorting connector across the module electrical contacts.
3. Install rod end covers over both beam tube supports.
4. Store module in a clean, dry atmosphere (relative humidity less than 30%). If
necessary, place module in a sealed bag with some form of desiccant.
The approximate diode bias voltage for the different models of REA-Series module
can be found in the Specifications table at the end of chapter one. The electrical
system should deliver approximately 10 more volts, depending on the FET used.
The final test report shipped with the REA-Series module indicates the beginning of
life current required to obtain the module’s rated output power in a short cavity test.
NGAS CEO recommends users not exceed the listed current, as overdriving the
module reduces diode lifetime.
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The REA-Series module connects to a diode driver in via power lugs on the base of
the pumphead module.
REA-Series module output is a result of the optical pump power from the
continuous wave laser diodes. These continuous wave diodes are sensitive to
thermal shock from repeatedly applying and removing drive current. Diodes should
not be cycled on/off more than 6 times a day. When initially applying power to the
module, the current should be gradually increased (~3 A/s) until the normal
operating current is achieved (see final test report for initial recommended operating
current). This “ramping” process reduces thermal shock and helps prolong diode
lifetime. If the REA module is going to be installed in a system where quick
transitions between lasing and non-lasing are repeatedly required, then drive current
to the diodes should be maintained at ~ 3 A below normal operating current when
the system is not lasing. This “simmer” current will keep the diodes at close to the
operating (lasing) temperature and thereby reduce thermal shock.
The diode arrays within the REA-Series module are aligned and sealed at the
factory. Other than the laser rod, there are no user serviceable parts within the
module. Contact a NGAS CEO field service engineer for repairs. Before lasing, the
operator should verify that rod faces are clean. If necessary, the rod faces can be
cleaned by following the procedure in the maintenance section of this manual.
Reverse Bias Protection
Diodes are polarized with respect to electrical flow. A forward biased diode readily
conducts; while a reverse biased diode blocks conduction. If sufficient voltage is
applied in the reverse direction, the diode is permanently damaged. Laser diodes are
the single most expensive component of a REA Series module, so the customer
should be careful to connect diode drive current correctly.
In order to provide the REA Series modules with some protection against reverse
biasing, all REA Series modules are equipped with a reverse protection diode. This
is another diode, usually located in the module, which forms a circuit across the
laser diode arrays in the opposite flow direction (Figure 3-1). In the event of the
laser diode drive current being reversed, the reverse bias protection diode will act
like a short circuit, allowing the electricity to flow for a brief time with no
resistance. However, the reverse bias protection diode is not able to withstand the
high currents that laser diodes require. The protection diode will burn out after a
brief time, and the drive current will be sent through the laser diodes in reverse.
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Figure 3-1 Reverse Bias Protection Diode Circuit
NGAS CEO drive electronics are designed to detect the shorted reverse protection
diode, and suspend drive current before damaging the laser diodes. Customers who
use third party manufactured drive electronics must configure them for use with
NGAS CEOs reverse bias protection diodes. The driver should be able to detect the
shorted condition because with a short across the array, the full power supply
voltage will suddenly be impressed across the driver control FETs. For drivers
which have a fixed power supply voltage, a much larger voltage across the drive
FETs will increase the heat load and cause a dramatic rise in their temperature. For
third-party drivers which have the capability to servo the voltage to produce the
necessary current, a sudden decrease in output voltage should cause a corresponding
large decrease in the voltage required internally within the driver, which could be
detected and reported. If any of the conditions are detected, the driver should
suspend diode drive current and send the operator an error message.
REA Timer
The REA Series module includes an electronic timer circuit which monitors the
operation of the pump head and tracks the number of hours of operation, the number
of pulsed shots, and the number of on/off cycles over the lifetime of the head. These
data may be displayed to the user on a 4-digit LCD display on the front of the
module. This timer is powered by the applied module operating voltage and will
only be operational when the module is operating.
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Timer LCD Readout
Figure 3-2 REA Series Electronic Timer
When the module is powered on, the timer will startup and displays two startup
readings. After these readings have been displayed, the timer transitions into a
looping operational display mode in which operating values are repeatedly
displayed. These modes are described below.
Startup Display
On startup, the timer will display a 4-digit software revision number. This number
will be underlined and the digits are decoded as follows:
Digit 1:
Major Revision Level
Digit 2:
Minor Revision Level
Digits 3-4:
Build Number
An example is shown below:
1025
Version 1.0.25
Build Number = 25
Minor Revision Level = 0
Major Revision Level=1
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After 2-3 seconds, the display will then display the number of power on/off cycles
which have occurred and the underline will be turned off. This count is not the
number of shots or pulses which have been generated by the module, but instead is
the number of times the module has gone from an inactive state to an active state.
This number is incremented each time the timer goes through its startup routines.
After a short delay, the timer will transition to a repeating operational display mode.
This is described below.
Operational Display
In this mode, the timer displays a sequence start indicator followed by up to three
timer values depending on the operating mode and the configuration which was
applied at the factory. These are described below.
Sequence Start Indicator
In order to indicate the beginning of the display sequence, the timer displays the
Sequence Start Indicator. The display briefly shows the following readout: −−−−
First Readout Value
The next value displayed is the module hour counter. This displays the number of
hours the module has been operating. If the number of hours exceeds 9999, then the
display will scroll to the left to show the additional digits.
Second Readout Value
The second value displayed in the sequence can be one of two values depending on
the operating mode. If the pump head is being operated in CW mode, then the
display will again report the number of operating hours. If the module is being
pulsed, then the display will show the number of shots or pulses which the module
has generated. See the description below for an explanation of the meaning of the
shot counter display.
Optional Third Readout Value
The third value which is displayed is an optional value which is configured at the
factory when the module is built. Contact NGAS CEO for information about the
values which can be selected. If no value is selected, this display value is skipped
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Chapter 3: Operation
and the display cycle starts over. Typically, the module will be programmed to
display the on/off cycle count in this third position.
After displaying all of these values, the cycle will repeat with the display of the
sequence start indicator.
Shot Count Display:
The shot counter display is capable of displaying a very large number of shots with
3 significant figures. The first 3 digits of the shot count represent the first 3 digits of
the number of shots. The fourth digit represents the number of zeros to place behind
this 3 digit number. For example, if the readout showed 8385 this would
represent approximately 83,800,000 shots. If the value shown has a line beneath it,
such as 1480 then the fourth digit should be increased by 10 to determine the
number of zeros. In this case, the shot count would be approximately
1,480,000,000,000
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Chapter 3: Operation
Closed Loop Chiller
The single most common cause of laser module return for repair involves customer
damage. More than one third of all customer damaged laser modules involve
cooling problems. Coolant problems almost always require the replacement of the
diode arrays - the single most expensive component in NGAS CEO laser modules.
Read the following section carefully to avoid damaging arrays.
CAUTION Do not operate module without cooling. Inadequate heat dissipation will
seriously damage the laser diodes and will void warranty.
Table 3-1. Cooling System Requirements
Chiller and Cooling System Requirements
Optishield PlusTM /distilled water coolant (10% Optishield PlusTM, 90%
distilled water) 1, 2
Coolant circulated at 50 psi.
Filter connected between chiller and inlet on module 3, 4
Module first in coolant loop 5
Chiller Heat Capacity > Power Consumption (Table 1-2)
Flow sensor (connected to coolant interlock on drive electronics) 6
1
Clean coolant is important to keeping coolant lines from clogging. Untreated tap water
is not an acceptable coolant and may cause damage. Optishield PlusTM is the
recommended coolant. It is made from DI water with additives to control the pH. By
using DI water in the solution, scale will not form in the cooling loop. It contains biocide
to prevent algae growth and corrosion inhibitors to protect yellow metals and aluminum.
2
Optishield Plus is available from Opti Temp, Inc
(http://www.optishield.net/home.php?cat=103).
3
The filter should be capable of removing particles 5 μm or larger.
4
Every month, or whenever the filter is changed, the coolant should be drained. The
chiller should then be cleaned. The filter should be changed more frequently if the chiller
manufacturer recommends a shorter interval.
5
This ensures the cleanest, coolest coolant passes through the diodes (the most
expensive component of most lasers).
6
When not using CEO drive electronics, verify that flow sensor interrupts current to
diodes less than 500 milliseconds after a low flow condition occurs.
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Table 3-2. Avoid with Chillers
Avoid with Chillers
Untreated De-ionized water1
Iron or aluminum parts in plumbing loop
Operation below air condensation temperature
1
CEO recommends chiller water have a resistivity of less than 1.0 MΩ. Deionized water
can be used if the resistivity is closely monitored and the coolant loop does not have iron
or aluminum parts.
Operating the Chiller
WARNING. Do not operate module without cooling. Inadequate heat dissipation will
seriously damage the laser diodes and will void warranty. If you notice coolant in the
immediate vicinity of the module, shut the laser system down immediately. Check to see
if the coolant is coming from the module. If so, return the module for repair. If not, repair
the source of the leak and allow the module to dry thoroughly before resuming operation.
The REA-Series module has a coolant loop to prevent thermal damage to the laser
diodes. The diodes should be kept at approximately 20-35 °C. See the final test
report for optimum temperature and flow rate settings. Operating the laser diodes
for even a short period of time (less than 1 second) without coolant will cause
permanent damage. To help prevent this, all NGAS CEO drive electronics are
equipped with a coolant interlock. This interlock interrupts drive current to the
diodes when coolant flow rate drops below set point. For this to function properly, a
flow sensor must be used in the coolant loop. It is a good idea to test the function of
the flow sensor before firing when first setting up the laser system. This can be
accomplished by setting the drive current to a very low level (~ 1 A) then attempting
to fire the laser with the chiller off. In case interlock does not function correctly, be
prepared to manually turn off laser. By testing the interlock with a minimal current,
the risk to the laser diodes is minimized.
WARNING. Do not operate the coolant system below air condensation temperature (dew
point) at the laser head. Condensation on the diode arrays can seriously damage the
laser head and will void the warranty. Consult a Cutting Edge Optronics field service
engineer if you have any questions.
Air Condensation Temperature
The air condensation temperature (or dew point) is the highest surface temperature
that allows water to form from the ambient water vapor. The dew point is dependent
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Chapter 3: Operation
on the surrounding air temperature and relative humidity. If a surface (such as a
laser diode) is cooled at or below the condensation temperature, water may collect
on that surface. A formula for calculating dew point is given below, along with a
calculated table. All temperatures are given in Celsius.
Condensation Temperature
Td =
237 .7 × α (T , RH )
17 .27 − α (T , RH )
α (T , RH ) =
17 .27 × T
⎛ RH ⎞
+ ln ⎜
⎟
237 .7 + T
⎝ 100 ⎠
where
T is the ambient air temperature in degrees Celsius (0 < T < 60)
RH is the relative humidity in percent (1% < RH < 100%)
Td is the air condensation temperature
For example, suppose your chiller is running at 22 °C and the ambient air
temperature near the laser is 28 °C (82 °F). Referring to Figure 3-3 and Table 3-3,
find the intersection of the 28 °C air temperature and the curve for the 22 °C diode
temperature. At a relative humidity of 70 percent or greater, condensation will form
on the laser diodes.
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Chapter 3: Operation
Figure 3-3. Constant Dew Point Lines for Ambient Temperature and Relative Humidity
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Chapter 3: Operation
Table 3-3. Table of Air Condensation Temperature at Given Ambient Air Temperature (Celcius) and Relative Humidity (percent)
Relative Humidity
1%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
10
-43.9
-20.2
-11.9
-6.8
-3.0
0.1
2.6
4.8
6.7
8.4
10.0
12
-42.6
-18.7
-10.3
-5.0
-1.2
1.9
4.5
6.7
8.7
10.4
12.0
14
-41.4
-17.1
-8.6
-3.3
0.6
3.7
6.4
8.6
10.6
12.4
14.0
16
-40.2
-15.6
-7.0
-1.6
2.4
5.6
8.2
10.5
12.5
14.4
16.0
18
-39.0
-14.1
-5.3
0.2
4.2
7.4
10.1
12.4
14.5
16.3
18.0
20
-37.8
-12.5
-3.6
1.9
6.0
9.3
12.0
14.4
16.4
18.3
20.0
22
-36.6
-11.0
-2.0
3.6
7.8
11.1
13.9
16.3
18.4
20.3
22.0
24
-35.4
-9.5
-0.4
5.3
9.6
12.9
15.7
18.2
20.3
22.3
24.0
26
-34.2
-8.0
1.3
7.1
11.3
14.8
17.6
20.1
22.3
24.2
26.0
28
-33.0
-6.5
2.9
8.8
13.1
16.6
19.5
22.0
24.2
26.2
28.0
30
-31.8
-4.9
4.6
10.5
14.9
18.4
21.4
23.9
26.2
28.2
30.0
32
-30.6
-3.4
6.2
12.2
16.7
20.3
23.2
25.8
28.1
30.1
32.0
34
-29.5
-1.9
7.8
13.9
18.5
22.1
25.1
27.7
30.0
32.1
34.0
36
-28.3
-0.4
9.5
15.7
20.2
23.9
27.0
29.6
32.0
34.1
36.0
38
-27.1
1.1
11.1
17.4
22.0
25.7
28.9
31.6
33.9
36.1
38.0
40
-26.0
2.6
12.7
19.1
23.8
27.6
30.7
33.5
35.9
38.0
40.0
If required to operate a laser in conditions near to the condensation temperature, take
precautions to keep the REA Series module dry. The module should be operated
inside an area that is purged with nitrogen (N2) or encased in a sealed enclosure with
a desiccant.
High Voltage DC Power Supply
The REA-Series requires a high voltage DC power supply to provide electricity to
the laser diodes. The chosen power supply should be regulated. Unregulated
supplies tend to either drop below the minimum voltage required to maintain
regulation, or to sit at an unnecessarily high voltage at lower currents, causing FET
overheating.
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The chosen power supply should be capable of providing the end of life current
mentioned in the specifications table 1-2. The power supply must also be capable of
providing the voltage listed in table 1-3 with an additional 2 volts for FET turn on.
CEO Drivers can tolerate a large amount of ripple, since the pass FET typically
filters this out. However, ripple should not exceed +/- 0.5 volt at full output current.
WARNING. Hazardous voltages are present during normal operation. Before removing
the cover, the power source should be disconnected and a period of 20 minutes allowed
for the discharge of stored capacitance. Use a voltmeter to verify all electronics are
discharged before touching or grounding of electrical connections.
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4
Chapter 4: Installation and Operation
NGAS CEO recommends using the eDrive diode drive electronics, an external
power supply, and a Polyscience chiller to operate the REA Series module (see
Chapter 1 for chiller capacities). The following chapter contains step by step
procedures detailing the installation and operation of the REA Series module with
these peripherals. This chapter covers:
ƒ
REA Series Laser Module Assembly and Connections
ƒ
Closed Loop Water Chiller Assembly
ƒ
Starting the Laser System
ƒ
Pre-start Conditions
ƒ
Turning on the Laser System
ƒ
Powering the REA Series Module
ƒ
Standby Condition
ƒ
Turning Off the System
The purchaser is responsible for any loss and injury during installation and use of
the REA Series module. NGAS CEO recommends that a qualified service technician
install and maintain the laser. If you intend to service the laser yourself, please
follow the following procedures.
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Chapter 4: Installation and Operation
REA Series Laser Module Assembly and Connections
CAUTION. The module is susceptible to damage due to electro-static discharge (ESD).
Always use proper ESD control devices when handling the module.
See Module Connection Diagram (figure 4-1).
1. Check to make sure the AC power switch located on the rear panel of the eDrive
Laser Diode Controller is in the OFF position.
2. Connect the Array Drive lugs from the rear of the eDrive to the power lugs on
the side of the REA module. (Positive to positive and negative to negative.)
ELECTRICAL WARNING The voltages in this system can be harmful or even lethal.
Whenever handling or servicing the laser, always disconnect the power cord to the
power supplies and drivers. Use a voltmeter to verify all electronics are discharged
before touching or grounding of electrical connections.
3. Connect the lab door interlock switch (or other interlock used) to the Interlock
connector on the rear of the eDrive. If multiple interlocks are needed, be sure all
interlocks are connected in SERIES to this port. If no remote interlocks are used,
short the connection to allow for normal laser operation.
4. Prior to connecting an external power supply, check to make sure the AC power
switch of the external power supply is in the OFF (O) position. Then, connect
the output of the supply to the input power lugs of the eDrive located at the
upper left of the rear panel.
5. Verify the eDrive has clear space in rear and on each side of unit to allow proper
air flow.
6. Verify shroud over eDrive power lugs is in place to prevent human access to
dangerous voltage.
7. Plug the eDrive and external power supply cords into the appropriate facility
power.
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Figure 4-1 Connection Diagram
Figure 4-2 eDrive Rear Panel
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Chapter 4: Installation and Operation
Figure 4-3 Chiller Assembly Drawing
Closed Loop Water Chiller Assembly
1.
Place the chiller on the floor near the REA Series laser module. Refer to the
chiller instruction manual for power requirements, settings and instructions on
how to set up the chiller.
2. Attach the cooling lines (included with the plumbing accessory kit) to the hose
barb fittings on the chiller and on the REA Series laser module. Remember to
attach the water filter between the chiller and the laser head. The filter may be
attached to the back of the chiller or to some other stable mounting point (i.e.
wall).
The standard plumbing arrangement for a typical closed loop chiller (including hose
diameters) is shown in Figure 4-3. The input/output coolant connections on the REA
Series are polarized. Coolant flow direction is important, see Figure 1-1 for coolant
inlet and outlet orientation for the REA Series module.
CAUTION. Do not use de-ionized (DI) water in the closed loop chiller based system. If
you must use DI water, monitor the resistivity (less than 1.0 MΩ) closely and avoid iron
or aluminum parts in the coolant loop.
3. Fill the chiller reservoir and filter housing manually with coolant (10%
Optishield PlusTM, 90% distilled water) It is made from DI water with additives
to control the pH. By using DI water in the solution, scale will not form in the
cooling loop. It contains biocide to prevent algae growth and corrosion
inhibitors.
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CAUTION. Do not allow chiller to fill the filter housing, as air can become trapped within
the system.
4. Power on the chiller
5. Make sure no air remains trapped in the lines resulting in a positive back
pressure when chiller is turned off. Positive back pressure can hold the flow
switch closed even though flow is not being supplied to the laser module. Air is
trapped in the lines if coolant level drops when chiller is turned on and then rises
when turned off. Failure to heed this warning may result in the destruction or
serious damage to the device, and will void the product warranty.
6. Verify the pressure gauge located on the front panel of the chiller reads
approximately 50 psi. If it does not, adjust the bypass valve on the rear of the
chiller. Minimum coolant flow is one gallon per minute. See final test report for
optimum flow rate, which should be ~2 gallons per minute.
7. Verify the temperature located on the front panel of the chiller reads
appropriately. Optimum temperature is listed on the final test report but will be
between 20 °C -35 °C.
8. Connect coolant flow switch to coolant interlock on rear of eDrive diode driver.
When connecting the coolant flow switch, make sure that it is connected to the
return line of the chiller and the arrow located on the top of the switch is
pointing in the direction of coolant flow.
Starting the Laser System
Pre-start Conditions
1. Wear laser safety goggles which protect user from1064 nm (fundamental) and
808 nm radiation.
2. Position the REA Series module in a laser cavity such the output will be directed
toward a safe target.
3. Verify that the system is correctly assembled.
4. Verify that the rod faces are clean and not capped or covered.
5. Verify that the filter on the closed loop chiller is connected to the inlet hose
barb.
6. Switch the Closed Loop Chiller to the ON position. Verify coolant flow from
chiller.
WARNING. Do not operate coolant system below air condensation temperature (dew
point) at laser head. Condensation on the diode arrays can seriously damage the laser
head and may void warranty. Consult a CEO field service engineer if you have any
questions.
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Turning The Laser System On
1. Verify coolant temperature and flow rate are correct.
2. Turn power switch on external power supply to ON position. Set the voltage to
the voltage shown on the data sheet, and set the current to supply the required
amount for the application.
3. Turn the AC power switch on rear of the eDrive to the ON position.
4. Turn the Key switch to the ON position.
5. Press the main AC POWER switch of the eDrive, located on the front panel.
6. Before applying current to diodes, shut off chiller to verify that the Coolant Fault
interlock comes on within 1 second.
7. Restart the chiller. Select Clear and verify the error display is no longer present.
Powering the REA Series Module
1. From the eDrive main menu, select Channel Setup Channel 1 Set
Current Limit. Use the selection knob to set your maximum current amplitude
to a value considered safe for the intended module. The eDrive will not allow
the current amplitude to be set higher than the limit.
REA-1C2H modules should never be run with more than 32 Amps and REA1C4H should never be run at more than 50 A. However to prevent premature
diode degradation, you may wish to set this limit at the beginning of module life
to 5 Amps greater than the recommended operating current.
2. From the main menu, select Channel Setup Channel 1 Set Current. Use
the selector knob to select a low current level of approximately 10A.
3. Press EMISSION. After a few warning beeps (approximately 4 second delay),
the eDrive begins to drive current to the module.
4. Slowly begin to adjust the current amplitude setting until the desired current
level is achieved. Rate increase in current should not exceed 3A/s (For initial
use, see final test report for current.)
5. Using an infrared viewer or phosphor card continue increasing the current
checking for output at the laser threshold current indicated on the final test
report.
6. Continue increasing the current until the desired output is obtained or until the
current reaches approximately 5 A greater than the current used during the last
time an acceptable laser output was achieved. (For initial use, see final test
report for current.)
7. If you cannot achieve desired output within 5 A, contact NGAS CEO for
assistance.
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Standby Condition
If you are finished using the module but want to use it again within the next hour, it
is best to go to “standby”. To go to standby from a lasing condition, press the
EMISSION button on the eDrive Laser Controller. In this condition, the drive
current to the laser diode shuts off but the closed loop chiller maintains the optimum
diode temperature.
To resume lasing, press the EMISSION button on the eDrive laser controller. Again
an audible warning will sound for approximately 4 seconds prior to firing the laser.
Turning Off the System
1. Press the EMISSION button to turn off drive current.
2. Close shutter (if installed).
3. Press the main AC POWER switch of the eDrive, located on the front panel.
Hold down for approximately 5 seconds until the eDrive shuts down.
4. Switch the main AC power switch on the external power supply, located on the
front panel, to the OFF position.
5. Turn the AC power switch on rear of the eDrive to the OFF position.
6. Using a voltmeter, verify voltage has discharged on module power lugs
7. Allow chiller to run for a couple of minutes (1-2 minutes).
8. Switch the closed loop chiller to the OFF position.
9. Turn the key switch on the eDrive to the OFF position.
10. Remove the key. Do not leave the laser accessible to people who are untrained
in laser safety or operation.
WARNING. Hazardous voltages are present in this system during normal operation.
Use a voltmeter to verify all electronics are discharged before touching or grounding of
electrical connections.
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5
Chapter 5: Maintenance
The chapter contains information in these sections:
ƒ
Rod Removal and Replacement
ƒ
Rod Cleaning
ƒ
Leak Test Procedure
ƒ
Adjusting the Operating Current
ƒ
Cleaning the Chiller
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Chapter 5: Maintenance
Rod Removal and Replacement
The only user serviceable part in the REA Series module is the Nd:YAG rod, which
can be replaced by the user. YAG rods rarely break, frequent replacement may be a
sign of another problem in the REA Series module. Contact Cutting Edge Optronics
if you have any further questions.
CAUTION. The module is susceptible to damage due to electro-static discharge (ESD).
Always use proper ESD control devices when handling the module.
CAUTION. Ensure gloves or finger cots are worn during this procedure and that it is
carried out in a clean environment, preferably under a laminar flow hood.
REA-XXXX-001X Configuration
Figure 5-1 Rod Replacement Drawing, REA-XXXX-001X
1. Remove four fasteners releasing Macor shields.
2. Remove the two retainer caps from the ends of the module.
CAUTION. Use extreme caution during the remaining steps of this procedure to insure
that the rod faces and/or coatings are not damaged. Never use a tool that can scratch
the rod on the O-rings.
3. Extract one of the O-rings that hold the rod in place using a dental pick or other
similar tool. Stick the sharp end of the dental pick into the O-ring and pull away
from the pump module. New O-rings will be used during the installation of the
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Chapter 5: Maintenance
new rod. Be very careful not to damage the rod ends, or barrel, with the
extraction tool.
4. Remove the rod by applying slight pressure in order to break the O-ring seal on
the opposite end. Partial extraction of the O-ring on the opposite end may be
needed. If necessary, loosen the O-ring with the dental pick. Once again, be
careful not to damage the rod ends, or barrel.
5. Unwrap the new rod and inspect the end faces.
6. Obtain two#007 white Viton O-rings when using a 4mm diameter rod, two #008
white Viton O-rings when using a 5mm diameter rod, or two #010 white Viton
O-rings when using a 6.35mm diameter rod.
7. Place one of the corresponding O-rings over one end of the rod. Position the Oring inside the O-ring groove on the end plate.
8. Insert the opposite end of the rod into the corresponding hole in one end of the
module until it protrudes from the hole in the opposite end. Center the rod. The
rod is very fragile. Be careful not to chip or scratch the rod while inserting it.
9. Place one of the retainer caps over the end of the rod with the O-ring. Attach via
the hardware removed during disassembly.
10. Place the second white O-ring over the opposite end of the rod. Slide O-ring
along rod into O-ring groove in endplate.
11. Inspect this rod end for cleanliness. If needed, clean the end of the rod with
methanol and cotton swabs
12. Attach the second retainer cap onto the pump module.
13. Position the rod equidistant from each end of the pump module using the soft
end of a cotton swab.
14. Reinstall Macor shields. Ensure that the gap is minimal between Macor shield
and laser rod. The Macor shields protect the retainer nut and O-rings from stray
laser radiation.
15. Inspect both rod ends for cleanliness. If necessary, clean the ends of the rod
with a puff of dry nitrogen or moisture-free canned air.
16. Leak test according to the following procedure. Alternately, turn on the chiller
and allow coolant to flow for approximately 20 minutes. Examine pump module
for leaks.
17. If pumphead leaked: first fix the leak, then test again for leaks, finally allow
module to dry thoroughly before lasing. Firing wet diodes will permanently
damage them.
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Chapter 5: Maintenance
REA-XXXX-002X Configuration
Figure 5-2 Rod Replacement Drawing, REA-XXXX-002X
1. Remove beam tube supports and the Macor shields from both ends of the rod.
CAUTION. Use extreme caution during the remaining steps of this procedure to insure
that the rod faces and/or coatings are not damaged. Never use a tool that can scratch
the rod on the O-rings.
2. Starting with the end of the module without the hose barbs apply methanol to the
rod o-ring.
3. Remove the six screws that hold the insert to the endplate and then slowly rotate
and pull the insert off the rod.
4. Moving to the other end of the module with the hose barbs remove the six
screws holding the insert to the endplate and pull the insert and rod out of the
module.
5. Apply methanol to the rod o-ring and remove the second insert.
6. Remove rod from its packaging and inspect end faces under 50X magnification.
7. Inspect rod o-rings in the center of the inserts, if no damage is found reuse the
original o-rings but if damage is found obtain two #10 white o-rings if using a
6.35mm diameter rod, two #8 white o-rings if using a 5mm wide rod or two #7
white o-rings if using a 4mm wide rod and replace the original o-rings.
8. Each insert has one large o-ring groove on the surface near the edge of the insert
this is the inside surface of the insert, Figure 5-3 shows correct installation of the
#28 black o-ring into this groove.
9. Lubricate both white o-rings in the center of the inserts and both #28 black orings with the syringe of methanol.
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Chapter 5: Maintenance
10. Place a #15 black medium o-ring in the matching groove on the right endplate of
the module, as shown in Figure 5-3, that has the two hose barbs and then
lubricate with the methanol syringe.
Figure 5-3 REA-XXXX-002X O-rings
11. Push the rod through the white o-ring in the center bore of one insert from the
inside surface side of the insert until it sticks past and out the other side about
1/8” making sure not to shave or cut the white o-ring.
12. Holding the rod with one insert on it carefully slide the end without the insert in
to the center bore of the hose barbed end plate until the rod comes out the other
end of the module, being careful not to hit the rod end on the endplate.
13. Holding the insert up against the hose barbed endplate so it is flat and level place
a gloved fingertip over the rod to keep it from being pushed out in step 14.
14. With one hand held as stated in step 13, use the other hand to push the second
insert onto the exposed rod end making sure the white o-ring is not damaged as
the rod passes through the center bore of the insert and the #28 black o-ring
faces the endplate.
15. Once the inserts are pushed safely onto the rod ends they should lay flush with
each of their endplates of the module with the #28 black o-rings as the seal
between the two pieces.
16. Fasten each of the two inserts to their endplates with five #4 sized 3/8” SHC
Screws and one #4 sized 3/8” BHC Screw that goes in the slotted hole, shown in
Figure 5-3, of each insert.
17. Clean the rod ends at 50x with canned air and methanol soaked q-tips
18. Reattach the Macor shields.
19. Double check the rod ends with a microscope after the Macor shields are in
place to ensure the rod ends are still clean. Then replace the beam tube supports.
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Chapter 5: Maintenance
Rod Cleaning
CAUTION. Ensure gloves or finger cots are worn during this procedure and that it is
carried out in a clean environment, preferably under a laminar flow hood.
1. Blow optical surface with dry nitrogen
2. Remove four fasteners releasing Macor shields.
3. Using hemostats and lens tissue, wetted with acetone or methanol, wipe the rod
face in a circular motion from the center of the rod to the edges.
4. Inspect the rod for cleanliness.
5. Reinstall Macor shields. Ensure that the gap is minimal between Macor shield
and laser rod. The Macor shields protect the retainer nut and O-rings from stray
laser radiation.
Leak Test Procedure
Laser diodes are very sensitive to water damage. If you have access to pressurized
nitrogen and a pressure gage, you can test for leaks without exposing the diodes to
water.
1. Attach a nitrogen source to one of the coolant ports on the module being tested
(test article) and attach the termination valve to the other coolant port on the test
article.
2. Close the termination valve.
3. Open the inlet valve and adjust the regulator to obtain 80 psi on the pressure
gauge.
4. Close the inlet valve. Wait.
5. Return after 30 minutes and record pressure on the gauge. Subtract this pressure
from starting pressure of 80 psi to get the pressure drop over 30 minutes.
6. Pass/Fail requirements: if the pressure drop is greater than 3 psi FAIL, if the
pressure drop is less than 3 psi PASS.
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Chapter 5: Maintenance
Figure 5-4 Nitrogen Leak Test Layout
Adjusting the Operating Current
The specification for laser module optical output is provided in the final test report
delivered with the system. During its early lifetime, the laser diodes will deliver this
specified power at or below 25 A of current for 1C2H modules or 45A. for 1C4H
modules. Due to the high average powers of the diode bars used in your NGAS
Cutting Edge Optronics laser module, it is reasonable to expect the diode array to
gradually degrade with use.
Determining when the current limit requires adjustment:
Make sure the temperature is at the correct set point. If the temperature is incorrect
low output power can result, leading to unnecessary current increases. Check to
make sure the rod faces are clean. If the rod faces are dirty low output power will
result, leading to unnecessary current increases. Check to make sure the coolant and
filter are clean. If the coolant is dirty, deposits accumulate on the Nd:YAG rod,
which prevents absorption of diode light. This results in low output power, leading
to unnecessary current increases. If the temperature is correct and the rod faces and
coolant are clean, yet the output power is still low, the operating current may need to
be slightly raised. Contact your NGAS Cutting Edge Optronics field service
engineer if you have any doubts.
CAUTION. Raising the current limit before it becomes necessary can severely shorten
diode lifetime.
Adjusting the Temperature Set Point for the Re-circulating Water Chiller
The temperature set point for the water chiller was determined at NGAS CEO and
indicated on the Final Test Report. Normally the temperature will not need
adjustment. It is possible however, that this adjustment may be recommended by
your Cutting Edge Optronics field service engineer during the later part of the laser
diodes’ lifetime and after several current increases. Increasing the diode drive
current increases the heat load on the diode, resulting in a shift in diode wavelength.
In order to compensate for this shift a slight adjustment, most likely colder, of the
temperature set point on the recirculation water chiller may be required. Changing
the temperature set point will change the output wavelength of the laser diode; this
adjustment should be done in one degree Celsius increments. Look for an increase in
optical output power on an external power meter. Wait a few minutes between each
adjustment allowing the chiller to stabilize. Continue until you obtain the maximum
possible power.
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Chapter 5: Maintenance
WARNING. Do not operate coolant system below air condensation temperature (dew
point) at laser head. Condensation on the diode arrays can seriously damage the laser
head and may void warranty. Consult a CEO field service engineer if you have any
questions.
Cleaning the Chiller
The cooling fluid should run for a maximum period of 1 month after which the
system should be drained, cleaned and refilled with clean coolant. The filter on the
closed loop system should be monitored weekly. The system should also be drained,
cleaned and refilled with clean coolant if any discoloration of the filter occurs.
Chemicals and Supplies Needed
ƒ
3% Hydrogen Peroxide solution sufficient to fill the system.
ƒ
Optishield PlusTM and distilled water solution (10% Optishield PlusTM, 90%
distilled water).
ƒ
Distilled water, sufficient to fill the system.
ƒ
Two replacement particle filters (NGCEO part # 37023165).
Cleaning Procedure
1. Drain chiller and clean any residue or contamination in the reservoir with the use
of a bottle brush or alcohol wipes.
2. Using a filter housing wrench, dismantle the particle filter housing. Empty the
coolant trapped in the filter housing into a container for later disposal.
3. Dispose of the expired particle filter and clean any residue or contamination
from the inside of the filter housing. Install a new filter in the housing.
4. Refill with distilled water and circulate for 5 minutes.
5. Drain system completely as detailed in steps 1 and 2.
6. Fill the chiller with a 3% solution of Hydrogen Peroxide. Care should be taken
to ensure that the mixture completely fills to the top of the reservoir to ensure all
wetted surface areas of the chillers are cleaned. Cycle the chiller on and off. Top
off the reservoir as necessary to ensure it is full of the cleaning solution. Ensure
that the cap of the chiller reservoir is loose or remove it completely to allow gas
to escape from the system.
7. Circulate the cleaning solution through the system including the diode pump
module for 40 minutes.
8. Drain the cleaning solution mixture from the chiller as detailed in steps 1 and 2.
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Chapter 5: Maintenance
9. Refill and circulate distilled water for 5 minutes and drain. Ensure that the cap of
the chiller reservoir is loose, or remove it completely to allow gas to escape from
the system.
10. Drain the chiller and dispose of the filter.
11. Disconnect the chiller from the diode pump module and blow out water from the
diode pump module coolant loop prior to refilling the chiller coolant reservoir.
12. Reconnect the diode pump module coolant loop.
13. Install new 5 micron filter into housing.
14. Record cleaning date on sticker with a one-month reminder to drain & clean the
system. Affix sticker to chiller (or cabinet).
15. Refill the chiller reservoir with Optishield plus and distilled water coolant
following the manufacturer’s directions. Run for 30 minutes with the cap loose
to allow gas to escape from the system.
16. Secure the reservoir cap. It should have a 0.125 inch (~3mm) diameter hole in it
to allow the cooling system to vent. A hole should be drilled into the reservoir
cap if one is not already present.
17. Chiller ready to use.
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
6
Chapter 6: Service
At Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Cutting Edge Optronics, we are proud of
the durability of our products. Our manufacturing and quality control processes
emphasize consistency, ruggedness, and high performance. Nevertheless, even the
finest instruments break down occasionally. We believe that the reliability record of
our instruments compares favorably with that of our competition, and we hope to
demonstrate our superior service by providing dependable instruments and, if the
need arises, service facilities that can restore your instrument to peak performance
without delay.
When calling for service in the U.S., dial (636) 916-4900. To phone for service in
other countries, contact your sales agent.
This chapter provides reference to types of customer service needs:
ƒ
Contacting customer service
ƒ
Return the instrument for repair
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Chapter 6: Service
Contacting Customer Service
To expedite your service needs, please complete the questionnaire in Appendix A:
Customer Service before you contact Cutting Edge Optronics Customer Service.
Complete the questionnaire with as much detail as possible and retain a copy for
your records.
E-mail or fax the form to Cutting Edge Optronics (refer to the second page of this
manual for contact information) and notify your customer service representative that
it has been sent.
Return the Instrument for Repair
A return merchandise authorization (RMA) is required prior to shipping any
instruments to Cutting Edge Optronics. Contact Cutting Edge Optronics or your
local distributor for RMA and shipping instructions.
CAUTION. Failure to obtain proper shipping instructions may result in damage to the
instrument.
Use the packing boxes supplied by Cutting Edge Optronics to ship your instruments.
If shipping boxes have been lost or destroyed, replacements are available for a
nominal charge from Cutting Edge Optronics.
Remove all coolant from module by blowing dry air through it for 20 minutes, prior
to packaging for shipment. Place a shorting connector across the electrical connector
(see example Figure 1-1). Place module in a sealed bag inside shipping container.
Place some form of desiccant in bag with module.
WARNING. Damage from residual water due to condensation or expansion can be
catastrophic to the diode arrays or laser rod if not dealt with properly. Such damage is
excluded from warranty coverage.
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A
Appendix A: Customer Service
This form has been provided to encourage you to tell us about any difficulties you
may have experienced while using your Northrop Grumman Cutting Edge
Optronics instruments or user manuals. Call or write our customer service
department to bring attention to problems that you may not have personally
experienced. We are always interested in improving our products and manuals,
and we appreciate all suggestions.
Date:
Name:
Company or Institution:
Department:
Address:
Module Model Number:
Serial Number:
Chiller Model Number:
Serial Number:
External Power Supply Model Number:
Serial Number:
eDrive Model Number:
Serial Number:
Module Manufacture Date:
Total Module Lifetime (hours):
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Appendix A: Customer Service
Questions
What is the coolant flow rate (GPM)?
What is the set temperature on the chiller (oC)?
What is the coolant pressure on chiller (PSI)?
What are the set current and actual current from eDrive (A)?
What is the external power supply voltage (V)?
What is the laser cavity configuration?
What is the measured CW power (W)?
When did the problem happen?
Have you changed any settings recently (yes/no)?
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Appendix A: Customer Service
What are the changes made recently to the system?
Please describe the problem or module behavior as detailed as possible:
Suggestions
Email or send to:
Northrop Grumman
Cutting Edge Optronics, Inc.
20 Point West Boulevard
Saint Charles, MO 63301 USA
Phone: (636) 916-4900
FAX: 636-916-4994
Email: [email protected]
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REA Series User Manual
B
Appendix B: System International Units
The following System International (SI) units, abbreviations, and prefixes are
used throughout Cutting Edge Optronics user manuals:
Quantity
Unit
Symbol
Abbrv.
Prefixes
mass
gram
g
tera
(1012)
T
length
meter
m
giga
(109)
G
time
second
s
mega
(106)
M
frequency
Hertz
Hz
kilo
(103)
k
force
Newton
N
deci
(10-1)
d
energy
Joule
J
centi
(10-2)
c
power
Watt
W
milli
(10-3)
m
electric current
Ampere
A
micro
(10-6)
µ
electric charge
Coulomb
C
nano
(10-9)
n
electric potential
Volt
V
pico
(10-12)
p
resistance
ohm
Ω
femto
(10-15)
f
inductance
Henry
H
atto
(10-18)
a
magnetic flux
Weber
Wb
magnetic flux
density
Tesla
T
luminous intensity
candela
cd
temperature
Kelvin
K
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Appendix C: Acronyms
Appendix C: Acronyms
Acronym
Description
ACGIH
American Council of Government
Industrial Hygienists
ANSI
American National Standards
Institute
AR
Anti-Reflective
AO
Acusto-Optical (type of Q-switch)
CDRH
Center for Devices and
Radiological Health - U.S. Food
and Drug Administration
CEO
Cutting Edge Optronics,
Incorporated
CFR
Code of Federal Regulations
CW
Continuous Wave
DC
Direct Current
EO
Electro-Optical (type of Q-switch)
ESD
Electro-Static Discharge
FET
Field Effect Transistor
FDA
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
FWHM
Full Width - Half Max
GaAlAs
Gallium Aluminum Arsenide
GPM
Gallons Per Minute
HR
High Reflector
HV
High Voltage
IR
Infrared
KTP
Potassium Titanyl Phosphate
LBO
Lithium Triborate
MCC
Meters Concave
Nd:YAG
Neodymium-doped Yttrium
Aluminum Garnet
NGAS
Northrop Grumman Aerospace
Systems
NIR
Near Infrared
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Appendix C: Acronyms
Acronym
Description
OSHA
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration
PRF
Pulse Repetition Frequency
PSI
Pounds per Square Inch
SHG
Second Harmonic Generator
TTL
Transistor - Transistor Logic
VAC
Volts, Alternating Current
© Northrop Grumman Corporation
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REA Series User Manual
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