Cytron UC00A User`s manual

Cytron UC00A User`s manual
SC08A
SERVO CONTROLLER
User’s Manual
V1.0
Feb 2011
Information contained in this publication regarding device applications and the like is intended through suggestion only and may
be superseded by updates. It is your responsibility to ensure that your application meets with your specifications. No
representation or warranty is given and no liability is assumed by Cytron Technologies Incorporated with respect to the accuracy
or use of such information, or infringement of patents or other intellectual property rights arising from such use or otherwise. Use
of Cytron Technologies’s products as critical components in life support systems is not authorized except with express written
approval by Cytron Technologies. No licenses are conveyed, implicitly or otherwise, under any intellectual property rights.
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Product User’s Manual – SC08A
Index
1. Introduction and Overview
3
2. Packaging List
4
3. How RC Servo Motor Works
5
4. Board Layout
7
5. Installation (hardware)
9
5.1
Setting Up SC08A
9
5.2
Connecting SC08A to Computer
12
5.3
Connecting SC08A to Microcontroller
14
5.4
Expanding SC08A for 32 Channels
17
6. Installation (software)
6.1
Sample Program for PIC16F877A
7. Getting Started
7.1
Protocol for SC08A
8. Warranty (6 months)
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1. INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW
SC08A offers reliable yet user friendly RC Servo motor controller to hobbyist and students.
Different with SC16A, SC08A is designed to control 8 independent standard RC (Remote
Control) servo motors simultaneously in a single board. Each servo signal pin is able to
generate servo pulses from 0.5 ms to 2.5 ms, which is greater than the range of most servos,
further allows for servos to operate 180 degrees. SC08A comes with small size and different
protocol compare to SC16A.Through serial communication, SC08A can be daisy chain in 2
boards to offer independent control over 16 RC servo motors simultaneously. The host of
SC08A can either be a PC desktop/Laptop with USB to serial(UART) converter, or
microcontroller with UART interface. UART interface present a flexible, fast and easy to use
feature.
It is designed with capabilities and features of:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
8 channels: Servo driven independently
Extendable to 16 Channels: Two controller linked together to drive 16 servos
Optional Position Reporting: User may request position of an individual servo.
Servo Activation for each channel: User may deactivate or activate any channel of
servo.
Independent Starting Position Command for each channel: User may set the
initial position of any channel at the next start-up.
Optional Servo Ramping: Choose one of 100 ramp rate for each servo.
Resolution: 8000 steps = 0.25us.
UART: 9600 baud rate
Servo pulse range: 0.5ms to 2.5ms.
This document explains the method to use SC08A.
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2. PACKAGING LIST
Please check the parts and components according to the packing list. If there are any parts
missing, please contact us at [email protected] immediately.
1. 1 x SC08A main board
2. 1 x 2510H-04 connector (with terminal pins)
3. 1 x 2561-04 connector (with terminal pins)
4. 1 x mini jumper
5. User’s Manual and other necessary softcopy should be downloaded from
www.cytron.com.my
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3. How RC Servo Motor works
Radio Control (RC) hobby servos are small actuators designed for remotely operating model
vehicles such as cars, airplanes, and boats. Nowadays, servos are become more popular in
robotics, creating humanoid robot, biologically inspired robot, robotic arm and etc. This is
because its’ ability to rotate and maintain and certain location, position or angle according to
control pulses from a single wire. Inside a typical servo contains a small motor and gearbox
to do the work, a potentiometer to measure the position of the output gear, and an electronic
circuit that controls the motor to make the output gear move to the desired position. Because
all of these components are packaged into a compact, low-cost unit, servos are great actuators
for robots.
Besides signal wire, a RC servo has other two leads: power and ground. The control signal is
a continuous stream of pulses that are 1 to 2 milliseconds long, repeated approximately fifty
times per second, as shown below.
The width of the pulses determines the position to which the servo moves. The servo moves
to its neutral, or middle, position when the signal pulse width is 1.5 ms. As the pulse gets
wider, the servo turns one way; if the pulse gets shorter, the servo moves the other way.
Typically, a servo will move approximately 90 degrees for a 1 ms change in pulse width.
However, the exact correspondence between pulse width and servo varies from one servo
manufacturer to another.
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SC08A is designed to simultaneously generate 8 independent servo control signals. The servo
controller can generate pulses from 0.5 ms to 2.5 ms, which is greater than the range of most
servos, and which allows for a servo operating range of over 180 degrees.
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4. BOARD LAYOUT
A
I
H
G
B
C
F
Label
E
Function
D
Label
Function
A
Servo motor power source connector
F
UART/expansion pin connectors
B
Servo motor channels
G
Servo test button
C
SC08A selection channels
H
PIC16F1827
D
Servo power indicator LED
I
Reset button
E
Power indicator LED
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A – Blue terminal block for servo motor power source. Please connect correct power to the
provided connector and check the polarity before plug in. Normally, rated voltage to drive
servo motors is in between 4.8V and 6V. Some may need 7.2V. It is depending on the type of
servo motor used. Over supply voltage may spoil the servo motor!
B – 8 channels of servo motor. Each channel consists of 3 header pin. Servo motor channels t
are labeled at the top. Please follow the label for connecting servo port to SC08A, ‘S’ is for
signal line.
C – Header pin to configure SC08A for expansion mode. For single board usage, a mini
jumper should be put on '1-8'. If SC08A is used in expansion, one of SC08As must be
configure to expansion board, the mini jumper should be put on '9-16'.
D – A small orange LED to indicate power for servo motor. It should illuminate if power
source is connected properly.
E – A small green LED to indicate 5V for PIC operation.
F – 4 ways header pin and connector for UART communication (using UC00A) and for user
to connect SC08A to microcontroller host or another SC08A board. Please be cautions during
making connection to this header, wrong polarity will damage servo controller.
G – Servo test button. Press the test button and the pulses generated will drive servos to the
end of position. It is useful to test if the servo controller is working.
H – 18 pin of PIC16F1827
I – Reset button for SC08A. Pressing this button will stop all pulses generation and return
SC08A to initial stage if after released. Without pulses generation, all servo connected to
SC08A will not rotate, is free run.
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5. INSTALLATION (HARDWARE)
SC08A is designed to control 8 channels of RC servo motor. Following steps will guide user
in using SC08A. The controller can either be a microcontroller with UART interface or PC
desktop/Laptop with UC00A.
5.1
Setting up SC08A
1. Servos are typically powered by independent power source ranging from 4.8V to 9V
(standard is 4.8V to 6.0V). The power source should be connected to blue terminal
block shown as figure below. Over supply voltage may spoil the servo motor!
• Servo power indicator LED (orange) will light on if the power source is
connected correctly.
• The power source should be able to provide several ampere of current if many
servos are expected to have loading simultaneously.
2. User must ensure the power source is connected correctly before plug-in servo to
SC08A. Servo cable may be plugged to any servo channel on SC08A. When
connecting servos, be careful because the servo header pins (connector) are not
polarized and it is possible to plug in a servo backwards. ENSURE the connection of
servo is correct; else the servo may destroyed. The function of each pin is being label
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at the top of servo motor port, please follow the label to connect the servo.
Servo motor pin label
3. For basic connection (8 servos maximum), At JP11, please ensure a mini jumper is set
at 1-8.
A mini jumper is
set at '1-8'.
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4. SC08A needs its own power to power up the circuit;. The standard power source is
5V for SC08A.
5. Following steps will further explain the hardware setup for PC desktop/Laptop,
Microcontroller and also expansion mode.
Caution: Always ensure the Power source for servo is connected correctly before
servo motor is connected to SC08A, else all servo motor will be damaged.
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5.2
Connecting SC08A to Computer
One of the main concerns in controlling servo is the hard work needed to get start. However,
with SC08A, getting start is easy as 1 2 3. Since USB was removed from the board, SC08A
offer a UC00A as alternative method to communicate SC08A with PC or laptop. With
UC00A, no RS232 (serial port, DB9) is needed. This will save tremendous work and time.
Simply plug UC00A to SC08A and (PC or Laptop), driver will installed automatically (1 st
time user only) and there is an extra virtual COM port. Only power source for servo motor is
needed if SC08A is connected to PC. Anyway, the power of UC00A is isolated from the 5V
pin (external supply).
1. Simply connect UC00A to SC08A and PC/laptop as shown in following figure. The
driver will installed automatically (1st time user only) and there is an extra virtual
COM port.
Connect to PC or
laptop
2. Connect servo power source at JP2(blue terminal block). SC08A get it power from
UC00A.
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3. Please beware that, only one host can be connected to SC08A at a moment. Either
computer or a microcontroller. DONOT connect two hosts (computer and
microcontroller) to a SC08A at the same time.
Caution: Only one host should be connected to SC08A, either computer (through
UC00A) or microcontroller (through UART).
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5.3
Connecting SC08A to Microcontroller
Another concern of user is for embedded system to control servo motors. For microcontroller
to interface with SC08A, the minimum requirement will be TTL UART (Universal
Asynchronous Receiver and Transmitter) and 5V supply. 5V will not be an issue since most
of embedded or microcontroller system is 5V powered, tapping the 5V from host system will
be reasonably easy. As for UART, a minimum of Transmit pin is required to send command
to SC08A.
1. Please refer to the sample schematic to interface SC08A to microcontroller. Following
sample schematic shows PIC16F877A interface to SC08A. No restriction to what type or
brand of microcontroller can be used, as long as it has UART peripheral. Schematic
above show sample schematic to interface SC08A to SK40C.
2. Although SC08A come with Tx pin, it is an alternative for user to connect if positioning
report is needed. Thus minimum wires from the host, microcontroller to SC08A are 3
wires. Please use proper connector to connect the wires. Following figure show an
example of wire interface to SC08A. It uses 4 ways 2561 socket. Please ensure the cable
is not connected in wrong direction, wrong connection will spoilt SC08A and worst the
host or microcontroller. Tx and Rx pin of SC08A should be cross connected to Tx and Rx
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pin of SK40C. In other words, Rx of SC08A should be connected to SK40C's Transmitter
pin (Tx), while Tx of SC08A should be connected to SK40C's Receiver pin (Rx).
8
9
10
* For step 6, please repeat step 1 – 5 for other end of rainbow cable.
**For step 10, Tx and Rx should cross connected.
3. In this setup, SC08A will share 5V power source from host or microcontroller board. If
5V power source is ON and connection is correct, the small green LED (5V) will light
ON to indicate controller is powered.
4. The hardware interface for SC08A to microcontroller host is ready. However in order to
control servo from microcontroller, user is require to write program for microcontroller
sending command according to protocol in software section.
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Hardware connection between SK40C and SC08
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5.4
Expanding SC08A for 16 Channels
SC08A provides the flexibility to be expanded and control 16 channels of servo motor
simultaneously. In some application, more than 8 servos are required. No worries, 2 units of
SC08A can be combined for expansion mode to control 16 servos. Following steps will guide
user to setup SC08A for expansion mode.
1. Two units of SC08A are needed.
2. Setup both SC08A according to steps in section 5.1. User may share the same power
source for servo motor. However, please ensure power source is capable to supply
higher current since more servos are used.
3. Create a 4 ways cable for interlink between two SC08As. Following figure shows the
cable connection. Please ensure the polarity is correct. This cable connection is not
same with cable in previous section. Do not use this cable to connect SC08A with
microcontroller.
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4. Link up both SC08A with the cable. Following figure shows the sample connection.
Please ensure the 2510 connector is being connected. Users may use either U_1 or
U_2 to connect SC08A to another SC08A board.
UART cable to connect to
UC00A or microcontroller
4 way cable to link
SC08A_1 and SC08A_2
5. For SC08A_1(board 1), a mini jumper should be put at “1-8” while for
SC08A_2(board 2) a mini jumper should be at “9-16”.
SC08A_1 : a mini jumper is set to '1-8'
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SC08A_2 : A mini jumper is set to '9-16'
6. For SC08A_2, servo connected at “S1” will be recognized as “S9” in software. This
applied to the rest of servo port on SC08A_2. Every label should be added with 16
during software development.
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6. INSTALLATION (SOFTWARE)
Cytron Technologies was provided a sample program for users understanding. The sample
program is using SK40C and PIC16F877A to control servo through SC08A.
6.1 Sample program for PIC16F877A
Most servo motor is being used as actuator for humanoid, legged mobile robot and many
other applications. All these developments are based on embedded controller, which is
microcontroller or microprocessor. Considering this reason, Cytron Technologies has also
developed a sample embedded program using PICC Lite for PIC16F877A. Following steps
will guide user to use the sample program.
1. The sample program (SK40C_16F877A_SC08A.zip) can be downloaded from Cytron
website (www.cytron.com.my), the link under SC08A page.
2. Extract the file into hard disc.
3. Ensure the hardware interface for microcontroller to SC08A is setup properly.
Besides, the power for servo motor is also needed. Please refer to section 5.3 for
example of schematic.
4. There
are
2
files
available
for
user,
SK40C_16F877A_SC08A.c
and
SK40C_16F877A_SC08A.hex. For fast testing, user may load SC08A+16F.hex to
PIC16F877A and plug into microcontroller board that was being completed in step 3.
5. The sample program is based on SK40C startup kit. Power up the board, it will further
power the SC08A.
6. If all connections and setups are correctly done, press SW1 to activate all servo motor
channel. Press SW2 and every servo on SC08A will turn from left to right and return
to left.
7. Please refer to SK40C_16F877A_SC08A.c for details on method to send command to
SC08A.
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8. Sample source code for PIC16F877A is compatible for PIC16F876A. Cytron
Technologies developed based on PIC16F877A is because PICC Lite does not
support PIC16F876A.
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7. GETTING STARTED
7.1
Protocol of SC08A
Like SC16A, SC08A has two types of protocol but the protocols are different with SC16A.
The 1st protocol is important which is uses to send command to SC08A, further control a
particular servo to a position with a defined speed. 2nd protocol is for host to request the
current position of servo. The 2nd protocol is alternative to user, if position reporting is not
requirement, it can be ignored. If position reporting is required, please do remember to
connect the Tx pin of SC08A to Rx pin of host.
Activate Servo Channel Command
The initial status for servo motor is deactivate. Users need to send this command to SC08A to
activate selected channels or all channels before running the servo motor.
a) The command is being sent in packet format. Each packet consists of 2 bytes. Servo
motor channel is from 0-16. Select '0' to activate/deactivate all servo motor from
channel 1 to 8(if single SC08A used) or 1 to 16 (if double SC08A used).
1st byte: Mode + Servo motor channel
i.
0b
1
1
0
x
Mode to activate
servo channel
x
x
x
x
Servo motor channel
2nd byte: On/Off
ii.
0b
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
x
1 = activate motor
0 = deactivate motor
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Position and Speed Command
Both computer and microcontroller actually send command to SC08A serially. This section
explains the protocol to send command.
a) The command is being sent in packet format. Each packet consists of 4 bytes.
i.
1st byte: Mode + Servo motor channel
ii.
2nd byte: Position (Higher 7 bit)
iii.
3rd byte: Position (Lower 6 bit)
iv.
4th byte: Speed (0-100)
b) SC08A translate four bytes of data into three parameter:
Byte
1st Byte
2nd Byte
3rd Byte
4th Byte
Binary
0b111XXXXX
0b0XXXXXXX
0b00XXXXXX
0b0XXXXXXX
Hexadecimal
0xE0 to 0xFF
0x00 to 0x7F
0x00 to 0x3F
0x00 to 0x64
Decimal
224 to 255
0 to 127
0 to 63
0 to 100
i. 1st byte is combination of mode and servo motor channel. Servo motor channel
is from 0-16. Select '0' to activate all servo motor from channel 1 to 8(if single
SC08A used) or 1 to 16 (if double SC08A used).
0b
1
1
1
x
Mode for position and
speed command
x
x
x
x
Servo motor channel
ii. 2nd and 3rd byte combined to provide 13 bit data of servo position, 0-8000. The
resolution of SC08A is 0.5us. It will start from 0.5ms and increase the duty
cycle of pulses according to value of Position. Thus, following formula show
the duty cycle of pulses generated:
Duty cycle = (resolution x Servo Position) + 0.5ms
= (0.5us x Servo Position) + 0.5ms
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2nd byte: Higher 7bit
0b 0 x x x x x x x
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
3rd byte: Lower 6 bit
0b 0 0 x x x x x x
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
3rd byte: Lower 6 bit
2nd byte: Higher 7bit
0b
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
13 bit servo position
4th byte represents the speed of servo rotation. The speed is from 0 –
iii.
100. The higher value, the faster and the lower value is servo will rotate to its
position. Decimal value ‘1’ indicates that the servo will run at slowest speed
and decimal value ‘100’ will run at fastest speed. However, value '0' is special
value. Value '0' is more faster than value '100'.
0b
0
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Servo motor speed
from 0 - 100
c) The speed of servo motor is depending on the brand of servo motors. Therefore,
different type of servo would result in different speed. For Cytron C36S servo, the
approximate time of speed range from 0 degree to 180 degree of rotation is shown as
follows:
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0 = 0.3 seconds
40 = 3.60 seconds
1 = 2.0 minutes
50 = 2.80 seconds
10 = 14 seconds
60 = 2.2 seconds
20 = 7.0 seconds
63 = 1.9 seconds
30 = 4.14 seconds
d) For more details, user may refer to sample source code provided. Comments are being
provided in the sample code to help user understanding.
Servo position reportingCommand
This section explains the position reporting command.
a) If position report is needed, the host (computer or microcontroller) should send this
command to SC08A. The command is being sent in packet format. Each packet
consists of a byte.
1st byte: Mode + Servo motor channel
i.
0b
1
0
1
x
Mode for position
reporting command
x
x
x
x
Servo motor channel
(1-16).If '0' SC08A
will ignore this
command
b) After receive reporting command, SC08A will reply the position for the regarding
servo channel in 2 bytes. Please refer back to Position and Speed Command section
(b)ii for the description of these 2 bytes.
i.
1st bye: Position (Higher 7 bit)
ii.
2nd byte: Position (Lower 6 bit)
c) User is requires to receive and process these 2 bytes. User may refer to sample source
code provided. Comments are being provided in the sample code to help user
understanding. Please refer to sample program named “SK40C_16F877A_SC08A.c”.
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Servo starting position Command
a) This command useful for users to initialize the starting position for servo motors. To
initialize starting position, the command is being sent in packet format. Each packet
consists of 3 bytes.
i. 1st byte: Mode + Servo motor channel
ii. 2nd byte: Position (Higher 7 bit)
iii. 3rd byte: Position (Lower 6 bit)
b) 1st byte is combination from mode and servo motor channel. Servo starting position
command mode is '100' which is 3 MSB bits from 1st byte. Servo motor channel is
from 0-16. Select '0' to activate all servo motor from channel 1 to 8(if single SC08A
used) or 1 to 16 (if double SC08A used).
0b
1
0
0
Mode for servo starting
position command
x
x
x
x
x
Servo motor channel
c) 2nd and 3rd byte is combined to provide 13 bit servo position. Please refer back
Position and Speed command section (b)ii for description for these 2nd and 3rd byte.
d) After received starting position command, SC08A will reply one byte (0x04) to
microcontroller.
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Product User’s Manual – SC08A
8.WARRANTY
Product warranty is valid for 6 months.
Warranty only applies to manufacturing defect.
Damage caused by misuse is not covered under warranty.
Warranty does not cover freight cost for both ways.
Prepared by
Cytron Technologies Sdn. Bhd.
19, Jalan Kebudayaan 1A,
Taman Universiti,
81300 Skudai,
Johor, Malaysia.
Tel:
Fax:
+607-521 3178
+607-521 1861
URL: www.cytron.com.my
Email: [email protected]
[email protected]
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