Documentation: Digi TransPort User Guide

Documentation: Digi TransPort User Guide
Digi TransPort
User Guide
Digi TransPort User Guide
(Part number 90001019 L)
Revision
Date
Description
A
February, 2009
Initial Release
B
February, 2009
Added bug fixes
C
April, 2009
Revised with firmware updates
D
October, 2009
Revised with firmware updates
E
May, 2005
Added minor changes
F
March, 2012
Changed default IP address and added temperature monitoring section
G
May, 2012
Updated autosa and ouridtype parameters
H
August, 2012
Added GPIO section
K
April, 2013
Added several new commands including network status commands, GOBI
image load selection and MultiTX
L
February, 2015
Added PPP CLI commands and fixed errors
Disclaimers
Information in this document is subject to change without notice and does not represent a commitment on
the part of Digi International. Digi provides this document “as is,” without warranty of any kind, expressed
or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of fitness or merchantability for a particular
purpose. Digi may make improvements and/or changes in this manual or in the product(s) and/or the
program(s) described in this manual at any time.
Trademarks and copyright
Digi, Digi International, and the Digi logo are trademarks or registered trademarks in the United States and
other countries worldwide. All other trademarks mentioned in this document are the property of their
respective owners.
© 2015 Digi International. All rights reserved.
Customer support
If you need assistance, contact technical support:
Telephone (8:00 am - 5:00 pm—U.S. Central Time):
866.765.9885 toll-free U.S.A. & Canada
801.765.9885 Worldwide
Fax: 952.912.4952
Online: www.digi.com/support/eservice/
Mail:
Digi International
11001 Bren Road East
Minnetonka, MN 55343 USA
Contents
Introduction to Digi TransPort routers
Signal strength indicators
16
Warnings
Radio equipment - Canadian warning statements
OEM responsibilities 17
End product labeling 18
Radio equipment - FCC warning statement 18
Antenna specification: RP-SMA 19
17
Digi TransPort command line interface
AT commands and S registers 20
Application commands 20
X.3 commands 20
TPAD commands 21
The AT command interface 21
Digi application commands 23
Reboot command 25
Remote connection 25
Digi TransPort web interface
Accessing the web interface Via a LAN port
Web interface wizards 27
27
Configuring Digi TransPort router with Web interface
Logging-in 33
Configuring and testing W-WAN models 35
Signal strength indicators 36
Wizards 36
Quick start wizard 36
Serial interface wizard 36
Create an aggressive mode LAN to LAN IPsec tunnel
SureLink wizard 38
GOBI module carrier wizard 39
Digi TransPort User Guide
37
3
Dual SIM wizard
39
Network interfaces
Ethernet parameters 41
ETH n 42
Logical Ethernet Interfaces 55
MAC Filtering 56
Wi-Fi parameters 61
Wi-Fi n parameters 65
Mobile parameters 71
Mobile Settings parameters 72
CDMA provisioning 76
PRL update 80
Advanced Mobile parameters 81
SMS settings 89
DSL parameters 92
PVC parameters 92
DSL Network Settings parameters 93
PVC Traffic Shaping parameters 96
Advanced DSL parameters 97
GRE parameters 98
Tunnel parameters 98
ISDN parameters 103
ISDN Answering parameters 103
ISDN Dialing parameters 109
Advanced ISDN parameters 113
ISDN LAPD parameters 116
PSTN parameters 119
Advanced PSTN parameters 123
DialServ parameters 126
DialServ Network Settings parameters 126
Advanced DialServ parameters 130
Serial parameters 133
Sync parameters 138
Rate Adaption parameters 139
Command Mappings parameters 140
Protocol Bindings parameters 141
TRANSIP Serial Ports parameters 143
RealPort parameters 144
Multitx parameters 147
Advanced Interfaces parameters 149
External Modems parameters 150
PPP Mappings parameters 152
PPP parameters 154
PPP Sub-Configs parameters 182
DHCP Server
DHCP Server parameters for Ethernet n
Advanced DHCP parameters 187
Advanced DHCP options 187
Logical Ethernet interfaces 188
DHCP options 189
Digi TransPort User Guide
184
4
Static lease reservations
190
Network Services
DNS Server
DNS Server n 195
DNS Server Update parameters
Dynamic DNS
196
Advanced Dynamic DNS parameters
203
IP Routing / Forwarding
Types of route 205
Dynamic routes 205
Static routes 205
Default routes 206
Routing modes 206
TransPort routing mode 206
CIDR routing mode 207
Route metrics 207
IP Routing parameters 207
Static routes 209
Default Route n parameters 215
Advanced Default route 216
RIP parameters 220
Global RIP Settings 220
Interfaces > Ethernet / PPP / GRE parameters 223
OSPF parameters 225
BGP parameters 227
IP Port Forwarding / Static NAT Mappings parameters 229
Multicast Routes parameters 230
Virtual Private Networking (VPN)
IPsec parameters 232
IPsec Tunnels > IPsec n parameters 232
Tunnel Negotiation parameter 238
IPsec Default Action 243
IPsec Groups 244
Dead Peer Detection parameters 248
IKE parameters 250
IKEv2 parameters 259
L2TP parameters 264
PPTP parameters 268
PPTP n parameters 268
OpenVPN parameters 270
OpenVPN n parameters 271
SSL
SSL Clients parameters
Digi TransPort User Guide
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5
SSL Server parameters
SSH Server
SSH Server n
278
281
SSH Client
SSH Server n parameters 286
SSH parameters 289
Configuration using the web interface 289
Configuration using the command line interface
SSH Authentication with a public/private keypair
289
290
FTP Relay
FTP Relay n parameters 291
Advanced FTP Relay parameters
293
IP Passthrough
UDP Echo
UDP Echo n parameters
298
QoS
DSCP Mappings parameters 301
Queue Profiles parameters 302
Timebands
Timeband parameters
305
Advanced Network Settings
Socket settings 308
XOT settings 309
Backup IP addresses 310
Chaining IP addresses 311
Legacy Protocols
Digi TransPort Systems Network Architecture (SNA) over IP 312
SNAIP parameters 313
SNA parameters 314
SSP (WAN) parameters 315
TPAD parameters 319
X.25 parameters 332
General X.25 parameters 332
X.25 LAPB parameters 333
NUI Mappings parameters 338
NUA / NUI Interface Mappings parameters 338
Calls Macros parameters 340
Digi TransPort User Guide
6
IP to X.25 Calls parameters 341
PADS parameter 343
X.25 PVCs parameters 356
MODBUS Gateway parameters 357
MODBUS Slaves parameters 360
Protocol Switch
Digi TransPort Protocol Switch parameters
CUD Mappings parameters 371
IP Sockets to Protocol Switch 372
NUA to Interface Mappings 375
NUA Mappings parameters 376
364
Alarms
Event Settings parameters 379
Email Notification parameters 381
SNMP Traps parameters 382
SMS Messages parameters 383
Local Logging parameters 384
Syslog Messages parameters 385
Syslog Server n parameters 386
Event Logcodes parameters 388
SMTP Account parameters 392
Systems
Device Identity parameters 395
Date and Time parameters 397
Autoset Date and Time parameters 398
Start 399
Use NTP for greater accuracy 400
General parameters 404
Remote Management
Device Cloud parameters 409
SNMP parameters 415
SNMP User parameters 417
Generate VRRP traps 420
Security
System 423
Users 424
Advanced 425
Firewall parameters 427
Stateful Inspection Settings parameters
RADIUS parameters 430
RADIUS Client n parameters 431
TACACS+ parameters 434
Advanced 437
Command Filters 437
Calling Numbers 438
Digi TransPort User Guide
428
7
Positions
GPS parameters
440
Basic applications
ScriptBasic
445
Python applications
Python Files
447
Interfaces management
Ethernet (ETH n) parameters 449
Wi-Fi parameters 452
Wi-Fi Client Connections table 453
Mobile 454
DSL 459
GRE parameters 462
ISDN parameters 464
PSTN parameters 464
Serial parameters 466
Advanced PPP n parameters 466
IP Routing Table 470
IP Hash Table 471
Port Forwarding Table 473
Firewall parameters 474
Firewall Trace 476
DHCP Status 477
DNS Status 478
QoS 478
Connections management
IP connections 480
Virtual Private Networking (VPN) management 483
IPsec > IPsec Tunnels 483
IPsec peers 485
IKE SAs 486
Position management
GPS
487
Event Log management
Analyser management
Settings 491
Trace 497
PCAP (such as Wireshark) traces
Digi TransPort User Guide
498
8
Top Talkers management
Settings 500
Trace 500
System Information administration
File Management administration
FLASH Directory 505
WEB Directory 508
File Editor 509
X.509 certificate management and administration
Certificate Authorities (CAs) 511
IPsec/SSH/HTTPS Certificates 512
Key Generation 516
Private key files - Splitting Certificates
517
Update Firmware
Factory Default Settings
Execute a command
Save configuration
Reboot
Logout
Filing system and system files
Config Files 527
SREGS.DAT 527
PWDS.DA0 527
Filing System commands 528
COPY Copy file 528
DEL Delete file 528
DIR List file directory 528
FLOCK Lock files 529
FUNLOCK Unlock files 529
MOVE Move file 529
REN Rename file 529
SCAN/SCANR Scan file system
TYPE Display Text file 530
XMODEM file transfer 530
USB support 530
Digi TransPort User Guide
529
9
SD Memory Card support 531
Batch Control commands 531
USB Filing System commands 531
Using USB devices to upgrade firmware
Using USB devices with .all files 532
USB security 532
Disable/enable the USB ports 533
Universal config.da0 using tags 534
532
Access web GUI via serial connection
Installing the driver file 537
Initiating a DUN connection
547
SQL commands
Local Database commands 549
Learning mode - Saving entries 550
Configure a TransPort to use a backup database
Transact SQL commands 551
550
Answering V.120 calls
Initial Set up 553
Initiating a V.120 call 553
Answering V.120 calls 554
Answering ISDN calls
Protocol entities
555
X.25 packet switching
PPP over Ethernet
Using the web page(s) 568
Using text commands 569
IPSEC and VPNs
IPSec
570
Firewall scripts
Firewall Script syntax 575
Labels 575
Comments 575
Filter rules 575
Specifying IP Addresses and ranges
Address/Port translation 581
Filtering on port numbers 581
Filtering on TCP flags 582
Filtering on ICMP codes 583
Stateful inspection 585
Digi TransPort User Guide
579
10
Using [inspect-state] with Flags 586
Using [inspect-state] with ICMP 587
Using [inspect-state] with the Out Of Service option
FWLOG.TXT file 589
Log File examples 590
587
Remote management
Using V.120 595
Using Telnet 595
Using FTP 596
FTP under Windows 596
FTP under DOS 596
Using X.25 597
AT commands
D Dial 598
Dialing with a specified sub-address 598
Dialing stored numbers 598
Combining ISDN and X.25 calls 598
H Hang-up 599
Z Reset 599
&C DCD Control 599
&F Load factory settings 599
&R CTS Control 599
&V View profiles 599
&W Write SREGS.DAT 600
&Y Set Default profile 600
&Z Store Phone Number 600
\AT ignore invalid AT commands 601
\LS Lock Speed 601
\PORT Set Active Port 601
\smib commands 602
System 604
Interfaces 605
IP 607
S registers
S0 V.120 Answer Enabled 610
S1 Ring count 610
S2 Escape Character 610
S12 Escape Delay 610
S15 Data Forwarding Timer 611
S16 RS422/485 serial port settings
S23 Parity 611
S31 ASY Interface Speed 611
S33 DTR Dialling 612
S45 DTR Loss De-Bounce 612
General system commands
CONFIG Show/Save Configuration
Digi TransPort User Guide
611
613
11
Config changes counter 614
REBOOT reboot unit 614
Reset router to factory defaults 614
Disabling the reset button 614
TEMPLOG temperature monitoring 615
Ping and traceroute 615
Clearing the Analyser Trace and Event Log 615
Activate and deactivate interfaces 615
Special usernames 616
GPIO (General Purpose Input Output) 616
GOBI Image Load Selection 618
TCPPERM and TCPDIAL commands
TCPPERM 620
Considerations for use with VPN or GRE tunnels
TCPDIAL 622
Aborting TCPDIAL 622
621
Serial port connections
DR6410, DR6420, DR6460, DR64x0W & WR41 623
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 623
X.21 (RS-422) 624
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 626
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 627
WR44 628
RS-232 Port Pin Outs 628
X.21 (RS-422) 628
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 631
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 631
TA2020 633
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 633
ER2110, IR2110 & MR2110 634
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 634
IR2140 & GR2140 635
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 635
GR2130 636
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 636
X.21 (RS-422) 636
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 638
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 639
IR2140 640
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 640
X.21 (RS-422) 641
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 643
Digi TransPort User Guide
625
625
629
630
637
638
641
642
12
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 643
IR2420 645
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 645
X.21 (RS-422) 645
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock 646
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock 647
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 647
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 648
TA2020B & IR2110B 649
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 649
X.21 (RS-422) 650
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock 650
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock 651
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 652
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 652
DR4410, DR4410i & DR4410p 653
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 653
X.21 (RS-422) 654
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock 654
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock 655
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 656
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 656
MW3410, MW3520 & VC5100 658
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 658
X.21 (RS-422) 658
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock 659
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock 660
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 660
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 661
ER4420, ER4420d, ER4420i, ER4420p, HR4420, HR4420d, HR4420i, HR4420p & IR4420
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 662
X.21 (RS-422) 663
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock 663
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock 664
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 665
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 665
MR4110, ER4110, HR4110, GR4110 & TR4110 667
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs 667
X.21 (RS-422) 668
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock 668
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock 669
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock 670
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock 670
RS-232 (V.24) serial cable wiring 671
25-Pin to 25-Pin straight through cable 671
25-Pin to 9-Pin straight through cable 672
RJ45 to 25-Pin straight through cable 672
RJ45 to 9-Pin straight through cable 673
25-Pin to 25-Pin crossover cable 673
25-Pin to 9-Pin crossover cable 674
RJ45 to 25-Pin crossover cable 674
RJ45 to 9-Pin crossover cable 675
Configuring X.21 on older models 675
Digi TransPort User Guide
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13
Email templates
Template structure
Certifications
677
FCC part 68 declarations (for Transport DR models only)
681
Glossary
0 - 9 683
A 683
B 683
C 684
D 684
E 684
F 684
G 685
H 685
I 685
L 686
M 686
N 686
O 687
P 687
Q 688
R 688
S 688
T 689
U 689
V 689
W 689
X 689
Digi TransPort User Guide
14
Introduction to Digi TransPort routers
The Digi TransPort WR family of 3G/4G cellular routers offers an all-in-one mobile
communications solution with true enterprise class routing, security and firewall. These
multifunction cellular routers feature a flexible design with optional integrated Wi-Fi access point
(with multi SSID) / client, USB, serial, VDSL, 1-, 2- or 4-port Ethernet switch with VLAN. Additional
configuration options include multiple serial ports (async or sync), GPS or telemetry I/O.
The Digi TransPort family offers an advanced routing, security and firewall feature set including
stateful inspection firewall and integrated VPN. Enterprise class protocols incorporate BGP, OSPF
and VRRP+, a patented technology built upon the popular VRRP failover standard providing true
auto-sensing, auto-failure and auto-recovery of any line drop.
Digi TransPort WR routers are ideal for transportation, POS, energy, medical, financial and digital
signage as well as cellular backup and remote device connectivity applications.
Digi management solutions provide easy setup, configuration and maintenance of large
installations of remote Digi TransPort devices. Device Cloud by Etherios offers web-based device
management for remote Digi cellular routers and gateways. Also available is the Windows based
Digi Remote Manager for customer installed device management and reporting. Digi TransPort
routers have the following features:
•
Enterprise class cellular routers with advanced dynamic routing, security and firewall
features.
•
High speed LTE/4G router with fall back to both GSM and CDMA 3G/2G technologies.
•
Optional integrated Wi-Fi access point and multiport Ethernet switch.
•
Flexible interfaces including serial (async/sync), GPS, VDSL, USB, CAN Bus and telemetry I/O,
with flexible DC power options.
•
Powerful integrated end user programming.
•
Remote Management via windows remote management software or cloud hosted Device
Cloud.
Digi TransPort User Guide
15
Signal strength indicators
Signal strength indicators
On units equipped with W-WAN modules, there are three LEDs on the front panel that will
indicate the strength of the signal, as shown in the table below.
LEDs lit
Signal Strength
None
Under -113 dBm (effectively no
signal)
1
-112 dBm to -87 dBm (weak
signal)
2
-86 dBm to -71 dBm (medium
strength signal)
3
-70 dBm to -51 dBm (strong
signal)
Digi TransPort User Guide
16
Warnings
Radio equipment - Canadian warning statements
This device complies with Industry Canada licence-exempt RSS standard(s). Operation is subject
to the following two conditions: (1) this device may not cause interference, and (2) this device
must accept any interference, including interference that may cause undesired operation of the
device.
Under Industry Canada regulations, this radio transmitter may only operate using an antenna of
a type and maximum (or lesser) gain approved for the transmitter by Industry Canada. To reduce
potential radio interference to other users, the antenna type and its gain should be so chosen
that the equivalent isotropically radiated power (e.i.r.p.) is not more than that necessary for
successful communication.
This radio transmitter (identify the device by certification number, or model number if Category
II) has been approved by Industry Canada to operate with the antenna types listed below with the
maximum permissible gain and required antenna impedance for each antenna type indicated.
Antenna types not included in this list, having a gain greater than the maximum gain indicated for
that type, are strictly prohibited for use with this device.
Name / Model
Gain
Impedance
BEC C424-510065-A
1.8dBi
50? Nominal
OEM responsibilities
The WR44v2 Module has been certified for integration into products only by OEM integrators
under the following conditions:
1. The antenna(s) must be installed such that a minimum separation distance of 20cm is
maintained between the radiator (antenna) and all persons at all times.
2. The transmitter module must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other
antenna or transmitter.
As long as the two conditions above are met, further transmitter testing will not be required.
However, the OEM integrator is still responsible for testing their end-product for any additional
Digi TransPort User Guide
17
Radio equipment - FCC warning statement
compliance requirements required with this module installed (for example, digital device
emissions, PC peripheral requirements, etc.).
Note In the event that these conditions can not be met (for certain configurations or co-location
with another transmitter), then Industry Canada certification is no longer considered valid
and the IC Certification Number can not be used on the final product. In these
circumstances, the OEM integrator will be responsible for re-evaluating the end product
(including the transmitter) and obtaining a separate Industry Canada authorization.
End product labeling
The WR44v2 Module is labeled with its own IC Certification Number. If the IC Certification
Number is not visible when the module is installed inside another device, then the outside of the
device into which the module is installed must also display a label referring to the enclosed
module. In that case, the final end product must be labeled in a visible area with either of the
following:
•
Contains Transmitter Module IC: 1846A-55M1644
•
Contains IC: 1846A-55M1644
The OEM of the WR44v2 Module must only use the approved antenna(s) listed above, which have
been certified with this module.
The OEM integrator has to be aware not to provide information to the end user regarding how to
install or remove this RF module or change RF related parameters in the user’s manual of the end
product.
Note To comply with Industry Canada RF radiation exposure limits for general population, the
antenna(s) used for this transmitter must be installed such that a minimum separation
distance of 20cm is maintained between the radiator (antenna) and all persons at all times
and must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other antenna or
transmitter.
Radio equipment - FCC warning statement
This device complies with Part 15 of the FCC Rules. Operation is subject to the following two
conditions:
•
This device may not cause harmful interference.
•
This device must accept any interference received, including interference that may cause
undesired operation.
This equipment complies with FCC radiation exposure limits set forth for an uncontrolled
environment. End users must follow the specific operating instructions for satisfying RF exposure
compliance. This transmitter must not be co-located or operating in conjunction with any other
antenna or transmitter.
Changes or modifications not expressly approved by the party responsible for compliance could
void the user's authority to operate the equipment.
The antenna(s) used for this transmitter must be installed to provide a separation distance of at
least 20 cm from all persons.
Digi TransPort User Guide
18
Radio equipment - FCC warning statement
Any product using the WR44v2 Wi-Fi module must have a label stating ‘Contains FCC ID: MCQ55M1644B’ placed on it in line with FCC labelling regulations.
Antenna specification: RP-SMA
This module obtained its complete certification by using the antenna described here. End users
in North America should use an antenna that matches these specifications to maintain the
module’s certification. Antennas of the same type but operating with a lower gain may be used.
Attribute
Property
Frequency Range
2.4 to 2.5 GHz
Impedance
50 Ohm
VSWR
1.92 max
Return Loss
-10dB max
Gain
1.8 dBi
Polarization
Linear
Radiation Pattern
Near omni-directional in the horizontal
plane
Admitted Power
1W
Electrical
1/2 ? Dipole
Digi TransPort User Guide
19
Digi TransPort command line interface
Using a Web browser to modify text box or table values in the configuration pages is the simplest
way to configure the unit and this process is described in the next chapter. However, if you do not
have access to a Web browser, the unit can be configured using text commands. These
commands may be entered directly at one of the serial ports or via a Telnet session. Remote
configuration is also possible using Telnet or X.25.
Note Low level permission users were designed to work in Web UI only. Command line use is
not supported.
To use the serial ports you will need a PC and some communications software such as
HyperTerminal ™ (supplied with Windows) or TeraTerm™. The same commands may also be used
to configure the unit remotely via Telnet, X.25 or V.120.
There are several types of text command:
AT commands and S registers
Digi TransPort supports AT commands and Special registers (S registers) to maintain
compatibility with modems when the unit is used as a modem replacement.
Application commands
Application commands are specific to Digi International products and control most features of
the unit when not using the Web interface.
X.3 commands
These are standard X.3 commands which are used only in X.25 PAD mode
Digi TransPort User Guide
20
TPAD commands
These are used only in TPAD mode.
The AT command interface
The AT command prefix is used for those commands that are common to modems. To configure
the unit using AT commands, you must first connect it to a suitable asynchronous terminal.
You will first need to set the interface speed/data format for your terminal to 115,200bps, 8 data
bits, no parity and 1 stop bit (these settings can be changed later if necessary). When your
terminal is correctly configured, apply power and wait for the B2 indicator to stop flashing.
The device is now ready to respond to commands from an attached terminal and is in command
mode. Alternatively, you can configure the unit to automatically connect to a remote system on
powerup,
Now type AT (in upper or lower case), and press [Enter]. The unit should respond with the
message OK. This message is issued after successful completion of each command. If an invalid
command is entered, the unit will respond with the message ERROR.
If there is no response, check that the serial cable is properly connected and that your terminal or
PC communications software is correctly configured before trying again.
If you have local command echo enabled on your terminal, you may see the AT command
displayed as AATT. If this happens you may use the ATE0 command (which will appear as
AATTEE00), to prevent the unit from providing command echo. After this command has been
entered, further commands will be displayed without the echo.
The AT command prefix and the commands that follow it can be entered in upper or lower case.
After the prefix, you may enter one or more commands on the same line of up to 40 characters.
When the line is entered, the unit will execute each command in turn.
CLI parameter tables and how to use them
After every section, there will be a table that details the CLI parameters that relate to the web
based parameters.
The CLI parameters nearly always take the following format, there are only a few exceptions.
<entity> <instance> <parameter> <value>
Where:
<entity> = eth, ppp, modemcc, wifi, ike, eroute, etc.
<instance> = 0, 1, 2, 3, etc… Some entities only use 0. Others have multiple instances.
<parameter> = The parameter name, such as, ipaddr, mask, gateway, etc.
<value> = The value to set, such as, off, on, 192.168.1.1, username, free_text, etc.
An example CLI parameter table would look like the following for Ethernet parameters.
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameters
eth
n
descr
Free text field
Description
eth
n
ipaddr
Valid IP address
IP Address
Digi TransPort User Guide
21
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameters
eth
n
mask
Valid Subnet Mask
Mask
eth
n
gateway
IP address
Gateway
eth
n
dnsserver
IP address
DNS Server
eth
n
secdns
IP address
Secondary DNS Server
eth
n
dhcpcli
Off / On
On = Get an IP address
automatically using DHCP
Off = Use the following IP
address
To use this table, read the row from left to right and replace the values as appropriate. Only the
first 4 columns are needed for the CLI parameters, the right hand column shows the equivalent
web based parameter.
If the Instance is n in the table, it is because there are multiple instances available. Use the
instance number you need for your requirements.
If the Instance is set to a specific number, such as 0, use the number specified in the table.
For example, to set a ‘Description’ of ‘Local LAN’ on Ethernet 0:
eth 0 descr “Local LAN”
Take note that because of the space between ‘Local’ and ‘LAN’, the wording is enclosed in double
quotes.
To set an IP address on 192.168.1.1 on Ethernet 0:
eth 0 ipaddr 192.168.1.1
To set an IP address of 172.16.0.1 on Ethernet 1:
eth 1 ipaddr 172.16.0.1
To enable the DHCP client on Ethernet 2:
eth 2 dhcpcli on
Escape sequence
If you enter a command such as ATD, which results in the unit successfully establishing a
connection to a remote system, it will issue a CONNECT result code and switch from command
mode to on-line mode. This means that it will no longer accept commands from the terminal.
Instead, data will be passed transparently through the unit to the remote system. In the same
way, data from the remote system will pass straight through to your terminal.
The unit will automatically return to command mode if the connection to the remote system is
terminated.
To return to command mode manually, you must enter a special sequence of characters called
the escape sequence. This consists of three occurrences of the escape character, a pause (user
configurable) and then AT. The default escape character is + so the default escape sequence is:
+++ {pause} AT
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Entering this sequence when the unit is on-line will cause it to return to command mode but it
will NOT disconnect from the remote system unless you specifically instruct it to do so (using ATH
or another method of disconnecting). If you have not disconnected the call, the ATO command
may be used to go back on-line.
Result codes
Each time an AT command line is executed, the unit responds with a result code to indicate
whether the command was successful. If all commands entered on the line are valid, the OK
result code will be issued. If any command on the line is invalid, the ERROR result code will be
issued.
Result codes may take the form of an English word or phrase (verbose code) or an equivalent
number (numeric code), depending on the setting of the ATV command. Verbose codes are used
by default.
The ATV0 command can be used to select numeric codes if required. The results from the text
based commands can be numeric or verbose. A full list of the Result codes is provided in the
following table:
Numeric Code
Verbose Code
Meaning
0
OK
Command line executed correctly
1
CONNECT ISDN
connection established
2
RING
Incoming ring signal detected
3
NO CARRIER X.25
service not available
4
ERROR
Error in command line
6
NO DIALTONE ISDN
service not available
7
BUSY
B-channel(s) in use
8
NO ANSWER
No response from remote
S registers
S (Special) registers are registers in the unit that are used to store certain types of configuration
information. They are essentially a legacy feature included to provide compatibility with software
that was originally designed to interact with modems. A full list of the registers is provided under
the S registers section.
Digi application commands
The unit also supports numerous text-based application commands that are specific to Digi
International products and do not require the AT prefix. Some of these are generic such as they
are related to the general operation of the unit; others are application or protocol specific.
Application commands may be entered via any of the serial ports but if you are using ASY 0 or
ASY 1 with auto-speed detection enabled (which is not possible on ports 2, 3, etc.), you must first
lock the interface speed to the same as that of your terminal. To do this first ensure that the unit
is responding to AT commands correctly and then enter the command:
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AT\LS
The speed will remain locked until the unit goes on-line and then off-line again, the power is
removed or the unit is reset. Once the port speed has been locked, AT commands will still work
but you may also use the application commands.
Remember that if you subsequently re-enable auto-speed detection on the port it will disable the
use of application commands until the AT\LS command has been re-entered or the port speed
has been set to a specific speed using S31. For example, to set the port speed at 19,200bps enter
the command:
ATS31=6
And then change your terminal settings to match.
Note: Speed locking is not necessary when you use the text commands via a Telnet session.
Digi application commands (referred to just as text commands or CLI commands throughout the
remainder of this guide), can be entered in upper or lower case but unlike AT commands, only
one command may be entered on a line. After each successful command, the OK result code will
be issued. An invalid command will cause the ERROR result code to be issued.
The general syntax for an application commands is:
<entity> <instance> <param_name> <value>
where:
<entity> is the name of the entity.
<instance> is the instance number for the entity that you are configuring.
<param_name> is the name of the parameter that you wish to configure.
<value> is the new value for the specified parameter.
For example, to set the window size to 5 for X.25 PAD instance 1 you would enter:
pad 1 window 5
Even if there is only once instance of particular entity, you should only enter 0 for the instance
number.
Wildcards in the CLI
Wildcards can be used in the field <param_name> when viewing parameters (not setting them),
for example, to view all PPP 1 parameters that start with ‘r’ then command is:
ppp 1 r* ?
The output will show:
ppp 1 r* ?
r_mru: 1500
r_acfc: OFF
r_pfc: OFF
r_pap: ON
r_chap: ON
r_accm: 0xffffffff
r_comp: OFF
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r_addr: OFF
r_callb: 0
rxtimeout: 23
rdoosdly: 0
restdel: 2000
rebootfails: 0
rip: 0
ripip:
ripauth: 1
ripis: OFF
r_md5: 1
r_ms1: 1
r_ms2: 1
rbcast: OFF
OK
Reboot command
The reboot command is used to reboot the unit after altering the configuration. It has three
modes of operation:
reboot - will reboot the unit after any FLASH write operations have been completed. Also, 1
second each is allowed for the following operations to be completed before reboot will take
place:
•
IPSec SA delete notifications have been created and sent
•
TCP sockets have been closed
•
PPP interfaces have been disconnected
reboot <n> - will reboot the unit in <n> minutes where n is 1 to 65,535
reboot cancel - will cancel a timed reboot if entered before the time period has passed.
Active port
When entering AT or text commands it is important to understand that in most cases, the
command only affects the settings for the active port. This is usually the port to which you are
physically connected but you may, if necessary, set the active port to another port of your choice
using the AT\PORT=N command where N is 0-3.
Remote connection
Once you have finished configuring the unit, there are several ways of establishing a link to a
remote system:
•
An outgoing V.120 call may be made using the ATD command
•
You can initiate a DUN session to establish a dial-up PPP connection.
•
An outgoing X.25 call may be made using the ATD command followed by the X.28 CALL
command.
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•
An outgoing TPAD (Transaction PAD) call may be made by using the TPAD a (address)
command followed by the appropriate NUA (this is normally only carried out under software
control).
Similarly, incoming calls will be handled according to which protocols have been bound to the
ASY ports and whether or not answering is enabled for each protocol.
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Digi TransPort web interface
To access the built-in web pages using a web browser (such as, Internet Explorer), there are two
options.
To access the LAN port follow the instructions below. To access the web interface over a serial
connection, see the Access web GUI via serial connection section.
Accessing the web interface Via a LAN port
By default, the Digi Transport has a static IP address of 192.168.1.1 with DHCP server enabled. To
access the unit using a web browser (such as, Internet Explorer), simply connect an Ethernet
cable between the LAN port on the Digi Transport and your PC. Make sure your PC is setup to
automatically receive an IP address by selecting Start > Control Panel > Network >
Configuration and verifying the configuration.
Note All models are auto-sensing for 10/100 operation. Most models are also auto MDI/MDX,
such as will automatically work with either a straight-through or cross-over cable. The only
exceptions are the IR2140 and GR2130, which are NOT auto MDI/MDX.
Web interface wizards
The wizards page contains wizards that simplify common configuration tasks. These wizards will
change the minimum number of parameters to complete the required configuration task. Note
that due to the generic nature of the wizards, they may not be suitable in all scenarios.
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Web interface wizards
Quick Start wizard
The Quick Start Wizard displays the options required for basic configuration of the Eth 0, WLAN
and WWAN interfaces. This page allows you to set up your Ethernet LAN interface.
You can get IP settings assigned automatically if your network supports this capability. Otherwise
you can assign the IP settings appropriate for your network.
Serial Interface wizard
This wizard allows you to select a serial port and profile for your application.
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Web interface wizards
Create an aggressive mode LAN to LAN IPsec Tunnel wizard
This wizard helps you configure an aggressive mode LAN to LAN IPsec tunnel to a remote host.
The IPsec wizard can be used to help configure an aggressive mode LAN to LAN VPN tunnel.
The tunnel is configured as an initiator, this means it is responsible for starting the VPN
connection.
SureLink wizard
This wizard will help you to configure your Digi TransPort router to stay connected to the W-WAN
(Wireless Wide Area Network) under adverse conditions. This can be achieved by a variety of
features designed to recover from network and other problems. The wizard will help you choose
the most appropriate set of features for you. Please read the following explanation carefully as it
is important that you make the correct selection for your circumstances.
Automatic power cycling of the internal Wireless WAN radio will occur if ever the PPP link to the
network cannot be established. In the event of a problem occurring when the PPP link is already
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Web interface wizards
up, some mechanism must be employed to detect the dead link and deactivate it. This wizard
will help you configure the most appropriate dead link detection technique.
There are two types of dead link detection techniques to choose between, passive and active.
Passive techniques
Passive techniques work by monitoring data that would be sent over the W-WAN network
anyway. As it is necessary for data to be sent in order to detect a problem, these techniques are
only suitable if the equipment on the router's LAN (Local Area Network) regularly sends data over
the W-WAN.
The main advantage of passive techniques are:
• No additional data charges (if your mobile operator charges you for data)
• In a hub and spoke deployment, no additional load will be placed on equipment at the hub
The main disadvantages are:
• If the equipment on the LAN does not send data and a problem with the connection manifests,
it will not be possible to connect to the router or the router's LAN remotely until the equipment
on the LAN sends data.
• As equipment on the LAN needs to send data before some problems can be detected, if a
problem does occur, the equipment on the LAN will be subject to delays when it first tries to send
data. This is because it will take the Digi TransPort router a certain amount of time to detect and
recover from the network problem.
Active techniques
Active techniques work by sending data to test the link. For example a ping, UDP packet or IPsec
keep-alive (Dead Peer Detection) packet.
The main advantage of active techniques are:
• Problems are detected promptly and the availability of remote access to the router or its LAN is
maximised
• Problems can be repaired BEFORE equipment on the router's LAN needs to use the W-WAN
resulting in no delays sending data
The main disadvantages are:
• Some mobile operators charge for the data sent to test the link
• In a hub and spoke deployment, addition load will be placed on equipment at the hub end by
the test data.
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Web interface wizards
GOBI Module Carrier wizard
GOBI Module Carrier wizard is used with routers that have a GOBI module installed, to configure
the router for a specified WWAN carrier. This wizard allows you to select the GOBI module
firmware to be used for your WWAN connection.
Changes to the router configuration will be also made depending on the firmware selection.
The router is currently configured to load firmware ID 0 (Generic UMTS).
Dual SIM wizard
This wizard will help you configure your router for dual SIM failover. It will determine the most
appropriate configuration for your circumstances by explaining the options and then asking
questions. Use this wizard to configure the router to detect a link failure and automatically switch
to the second installed SIM. This wizard only helps to configure the most commonly used
methods of link error detection.
Note that it is important that this wizard is run from a factory default configuration or close to a
factory default configuration. If changes have been made to the W-WAN configuration other than
username, password and APN, running this wizard could cause unanticipated behaviour.
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Web interface wizards
SIM weighting
There are two common dual SIM configurations:
1) Both SIM cards/slots have equal weighting. In the event of a problem the router will fail over
from one SIM to the other. Once it has failed over it will remain on the alternate SIM until another
problem is detected in which case it will fail back to the original SIM. This method keeps down
time to a minimum and is used when no SIM is to be given preference over the other.
2) One SIM has a higher weighting than the other. After boot-up the primary SIM will be used if
possible. In the event that a problem occurs the router will fail over to the secondary SIM. The
secondary SIM will be used for a configurable period of time or until a problem is detected. When
either a problem occurs or the time is up the router will attempt to fail back to the primary SIM.
This is useful if one SIM needs to be preferred over another, for example if the data charges are
cheaper on the primary SIM. Please note, however, that the internal radio module must be power
cycled during SIM switchover. So attempting to revert to the primary SIM just because the
secondary SIM has been used for the configured length of time will result in an outage. Also note
that if the primary SIM still cannot be used there will be a further delay whilst the router reverts
back to the secondary SIM.
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Configuring Digi TransPort router with
Web interface
This section describes how to set or change the configuration parameters using the built-in web
pages or the text commands. You can configure the parameters by entering the required values
into text boxes or tables on the page, or by turning features on or off using checkboxes in the
Web pages. You can do the same by entering the appropriate text commands via one of the serial
ports.
Logging-in
To configure the unit via the Web interface, either establish a DUN connection to it and then open
your web browser and enter 1.2.3.4 for the web address, or enter the unit’s Ethernet IP address
(192.168.1.1) into your web browser after configuring your PC to have an address on the same
subnet.
You will be presented with a login page similar to the following image.
The default Username and Password are username and password respectively. Enter these and
click the Login button to access the configuration pages. The password will be displayed as a
series of dots for security purposes.
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Logging-in
Correct entry of the username and password will display the main operations page shown in the
following image.
Clicking on the Click to load Applet graphics! button will display a representation of the front
panel of your unit that will be updated every few seconds to show the actual status of the LED
indicators. The model number of your unit will be shown at the top of the screen. The unit’s serial
number and ID are shown below the front panel representation.
In the left side of the page, you will see the main menu with subsections which further expand
when clicking on them.
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Configuring and testing W-WAN models
Configuring and testing W-WAN models
Refer to the Mobile parameterssection of this guide to configure your router for the correct APN
and PIN code (if any). You can now power up your unit and test connection to the wireless
network. If you have correctly configured everything, the W-WAN SIM indicator on the front panel
should illuminate green to show that a W-WAN enabled SIM card is present. The unit will now
attempt to log on to the specified mobile network and if it is able to do so, the W-WAN NET
indicator will illuminate steady. Data passing to and from the network will be reflected by the
status of the DAT indicator, which will flash green. If you are unable to connect to the network, go
to the Management - Network Status > Interfaces > Mobile web page and press the Refresh
button. The page should appear similar to the following:
Note The signal strength is shown in negative dB, which means that the stronger the signal, the
lower the number. As a guide -51dB would be a very strong signal, only normally obtained
very close to a cell site. -115dB represents no signal. If your unit reports -115dB try
reorienting the antenna or consider adding an external antenna.
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Signal strength indicators
Signal strength indicators
On units equipped with W-WAN modules, there are three LEDs on the front panel that indicates
the strength of the signal, as shown in the following table.
LEDs lit
Signal Strength
None
Under -113 dBm (effectively no signal)
1
-112 dBm to -87 dBm (weak signal)
2
-86 dBm to -71 dBm (medium strength signal)
3
-70 dBm to -51 dBm (strong signal)
Note The above values are pretty specific to LTE, at 2G/3G technology any strength lower than 100dBm becomes unusable.
Wizards
This page contains wizards that simplify common configuration tasks. These wizards will change
the minimum number of parameters to complete the required configuration task. However, due
to the generic nature of the wizards they may not be suitable for all circumstances.
Quick start wizard
The Quick Start wizard displays the options required for basic configuration of the Eth 0, WLAN
and WWAN interfaces.
Serial interface wizard
This wizard allows you to select a serial port and profile for your application.
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Wizards
Create an aggressive mode LAN to LAN IPsec tunnel
This wizard helps you to configure an aggressive mode LAN to LAN VPN tunnel. The tunnel is
configured as an initiator, this means it is responsible for starting the VPN connection.
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Wizards
SureLink wizard
This wizard helps you to configure your Digi TransPort router to stay connected to the W-WAN
(Wireless Wide Area Network) under adverse conditions. This can be achieved by a variety of
features designed to recover from network and other problems. The wizard helps you choose the
most appropriate set of features for you.
Automatic power cycling of the internal Wireless WAN radio occurs if ever the PPP link to the
network cannot be established. In the event of a problem occurring when the PPP link is already
up, some mechanism must be employed to detect the dead link and deactivate it. This wizard
will help you configure the most appropriate dead link detection technique.
There are two types of dead link detection techniques to choose between, passive and active.
Passive techniques
Passive techniques work by monitoring data that would be sent over the W-WAN network
anyway. As it is necessary for data to be sent in order to detect a problem, these techniques are
only suitable if the equipment on the router's LAN (Local Area Network) regularly sends data over
the W-WAN.
The main advantage of passive techniques are:
•
No additional data charges (if your mobile operator charges you for data)
•
In a hub and spoke deployment, no additional load will be placed on equipment at the hub
The main disadvantages are:
•
If the equipment on the LAN does not send data and a problem with the connection
manifests, it will not be possible to connect to the router or the router's LAN remotely until the
equipment on the LAN sends data.
•
As equipment on the LAN needs to send data before some problems can be detected, if a
problem does occur, the equipment on the LAN will be subject to delays when it first tries to
send data. This is because it will take the Digi TransPort router a certain amount of time to
detect and recover from the network problem.
Active techniques
Active techniques work by sending data to test the link. For example a ping, UDP packet or IPsec
keep-alive (Dead Peer Detection) packet.
The main advantage of active techniques are:
•
Problems are detected promptly and the availability of remote access to the router or its LAN
is maximised
•
Problems can be repaired BEFORE equipment on the router's LAN needs to use the W-WAN
resulting in no delays sending data
The main disadvantages are:
•
Some mobile operators charge for the data sent to test the link
•
In a hub and spoke deployment, addition load will be placed on equipment at the hub end by
the test data
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Wizards
GOBI module carrier wizard
This wizard allows you to select the GOBI module firmware to be used for your WWAN
connection. Changes to the router configuration will be also made depending on the firmware
selection. The router is currently configured to load firmware ID 0 (Generic UMTS)
.
Dual SIM wizard
Use this wizard to configure the router to detect a link failure and automatically switch to the
second installed SIM. This wizard only helps to configure the most commonly used methods of
link error detection. There are more options detailed in Application Note 7 which can be found on
the TransPort Support pages of the Digi website.
Note It is important that this wizard is run from a factory default configuration or close to a
factory default configuration. If changes have been made to the W-WAN configuration
other than username, password and APN, running this wizard could cause unanticipated
behavior.
There are two common dual SIM configurations:
•
Equal weighting: Both SIM cards/slots have equal weighting. In the event of a problem the
router will fail over from one SIM to the other. Once it has failed over it will remain on the
alternate SIM until another problem is detected in which case it will fail back to the original
SIM. This method keeps down time to a minimum and is used when no SIM is to be given
preference over the other.
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Wizards
•
SIM 1 has priority over SIM 2: One SIM has a higher weighting than the other. After boot-up
the primary SIM will be used if possible. In the event that a problem occurs the router will fail
over to the secondary SIM. The secondary SIM will be used for a configurable period of time or
until a problem is detected. When either a problem occurs or the time is up the router will
attempt to fail back to the primary SIM. This is useful if one SIM needs to be preferred over
another, for example if the data charges are cheaper on the primary SIM. Please note,
however, that the internal radio module must be power cycled during SIM switchover. So
attempting to revert to the primary SIM just because the secondary SIM has been used for the
configured length of time will result in an outage. Also note that if the primary SIM still cannot
be used there will be a further delay whilst the router reverts back to the secondary SIM.
Note The wizards are designed to assist users. For very specific or uncommon requirements
then further manual configuration may be required after completing any of the above
wizards.
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Network interfaces
The Configuration – Network> Interfaces menu offers the following options:
•
Ethernet
•
Mobile
•
GRE
•
Serial
•
Advanced
Ethernet parameters
The Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Ethernet page opens to list configuration pages for
each of the available Ethernet instances on the unit. Each page allows the user to configure
parameters such as the IP address, mask, gateway, and others.
On units with only one Ethernet port, if more than one Ethernet instance exist these are treated
as logical Ethernet ports. These instances can be used to assign more than one Ethernet IP
address to a router.
On units with more than one physical Ethernet port, the Ethernet instances refer to the different
physical Ethernet ports. These units can be configured for either HUB mode or Port Isolate
mode.
In HUB mode all the Ethernet ports are linked together and behave like an Ethernet hub or
switch. This means that the router will respond to all of its Ethernet IP addresses on all of its ports
(as the hub/ switch behavior links the ports together).
In Port Isolate mode the router will only respond to its Ethernet 0 IP address on physical port LAN
0, its Ethernet 1 IP address on physical port LAN 1, etc. The router will not respond to its Ethernet
1 address on port LAN 0 unless routing has been configured appropriately.
When configured for HUB mode it is important that no more than one of the router’s ports is
connected to another hub or switch on the same physical network otherwise an Ethernet loop
can occur. The default behavior is HUB rather than Port Isolate.
VLAN tagging is not available when the router is configured for Port Isolate mode.
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Ethernet parameters
ETH n
This initial view only shows basic IP address parameters. The choice is to obtain an IP address by
using a DHCP server or to manually configure the IP addressing for this interface.
Description
This parameter allows you to enter a name for this Ethernet instance, to make it easier to
identify.
Get an IP address automatically using DHCP
Selecting this option enables the DHCP client on this interface.
Use the following IP address
Selecting this option enables manual configuration of the IP addressing parameters
IP Address
This parameter specifies the IP address of this Ethernet port on your LAN.
Mask
This parameter specifies the subnet mask of the IP subnet to which the unit is attached via this
Ethernet port. Typically, this would be 255.255.255.0 for a Class C network.
Gateway
This parameter specifies the IP address of a gateway to be used by the unit. IP packets whose
destination IP addresses are not on the LAN to which the unit is connected will be forwarded
to this gateway.
DNS Server / Secondary DNS Server
These parameters specify the IP address of DNS servers to be used by the unit for resolving IP
hostnames.
Note If the IP address, Mask, Gateway, DNS server or Secondary DNS server parameters are
specified manually, but the option to use a DHCP server is later selected, any existing
manually specified parameters will override the DHCP supplied parameters. To change
from manual configuration to DHCP, be sure to remove all manually specified parameters
first.
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Ethernet parameters
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameters
eth
n
descr
Free text field
Description
eth
n
ipaddr
Valid IP address
IP Address
eth
n
mask
Valid Subnet
Mask
Mask
eth
n
gateway
IP address
Gateway
eth
n
dnsserver
IP address
DNS Server
eth
n
secdns
IP address
Secondary DNS Server
eth
n
dhcpcli
on, off
On = Get an IP address automatically
using DHCP
Off = Use the following IP address
Advanced Ethernet parameters
On units with only one Ethernet port, there may be multiple configurable Ethernet instances.
Ethernet 0 is the physical interface. These extra instances are treated as logical Ethernet ports
and can be used to assign more than one Ethernet IP address to a router.
On units with more than one physical Ethernet port, the Ethernet instances refer to the different
physical Ethernet ports. These units can be configured for either HUB mode or Port Isolate
mode.
In HUB mode all the Ethernet ports are linked together and behave like an Ethernet hub or
switch. This means that the router will respond to all of its Ethernet IP addresses on all of its ports
(as the hub/ switch behavior links the ports together).
In Port Isolate mode the router will only respond to its Ethernet 0 IP address on physical port LAN
0, its Ethernet 1 IP address on physical port LAN 1, etc. The router will not respond to its Ethernet
1 address on port LAN 0 unless routing has been configured appropriately.
When configured for HUB mode it is important that no more than one of the router’s Ethernet
interfaces is connected to another hub or switch on the same physical network otherwise an
Ethernet loop can occur. The default behavior is HUB rather than Port Isolate.
Port Isolate mode
If the router is running in Port Isolate mode, the following will be displayed, with an option to
switch to Hub mode.
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Ethernet parameters
Hub Mode (factory default)
If the router is running in Hub mode, the following is displayed, with an option to switch to
Port Isolate mode.
Ethernet Hub group
On units with a built-in hub/switch, the Ethernet Hub Group parameter for each port is
normally set to 0. This means that all ports belong to the same hub. If required however, the
Hub Group parameter may be used to isolate specific ports to create separate hubs. For
example, if Ethernet 0 and Ethernet1 have their Group parameter set to 0 whilst Ethernet 2
and Ethernet 3 have their Group parameter set to 1, the unit will in effect be configured as two
2-port hubs instead of one 4-port hub. This means that traffic on physical ports LAN 0 and
LAN 1 will not be visible to traffic on physical ports LAN 2 and LAN 3 (and vice versa). Group
numbers can be 0 – 3 or use 255 for an interface to be in all groups.
This parameter is not available on the web page when the unit is configured for Port Isolate
mode.
Metric
This parameter specifies the connected metric of an interface, changing this value will alter
the metric of dynamic routes created automatically for this interface. The default metric of a
connected interface is 1. By allowing the interface to have a higher value (lower priority), static
routes can take preference to interface generated dynamic routes. For normal operation,
leave this value unchanged.
MTU
This parameter sets the Maximum Transmit Unit for the specified interface. The default value
is 0 meaning that the MTU will either be 1504 (for units using a Kendin Ethernet device) or
1500 (for non-Kendin devices). The non-zero, values must be greater than 128 and not more
than the default value. Values must also be multiples of 4 and the unit will automatically adjust
invalid values entered by the user. So, if the MTU is set to 1000, the largest IP packet that the
unit will send is 1000 bytes.
Enable auto-negotiation
Selecting this option allows the router and the other Ethernet device it is connected to, to
auto-negotiate the speed and duplex of the Ethernet connection.
Speed (currently 100Base-T)
This parameter selects either of the 10Base-T, 100Base-T, or Auto modes. The currently
selected mode is shown in brackets after the parameter name.
Note, enabling Auto-negotiation and manually setting the speed will only allow the selected
speed to be negotiated.
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Ethernet parameters
Duplex
This parameter selects either of Full Duplex, Half Duplex or Auto mode.
Enabling Auto-negotiation and manually setting the Duplex will only allow the selected
Duplex mode to be negotiated.
Max Rx rate
On models with multiple Ethernet interfaces, this parameter may be used to specify a
maximum data rate in kbps that the unit receives on this interface. This may be useful in
applications where separate Ethernet interfaces are allocated to separate LANs and it is
necessary to prioritize traffic from one LAN over another.
Max Tx rate
On models with multiple Ethernet interfaces, this parameter may be used to specify a
maximum data rate in kbps that the unit will transmit on this interface. This may be useful in
applications where separate Ethernet interfaces are allocated to separate LANs and it is
necessary to prioritize traffic from one LAN over another.
TCP transmit buffer size
When set to a non-zero value, this parameter sets the TCP buffer size of transmitted packets
in bytes. This is useful for slow / lossy connections such as satellite. Setting this buffer to a low
value will prevent the amount of unacknowledged data from getting too high. If retransmits
are required, a smaller TX buffer helps prevent retransmits flooding the connection.
Take this interface out of service after n seconds when the link is lost
(such as cable removed or broken)
This parameter specifies the length of time (in seconds) that the router will wait after detecting
that an Ethernet cable has been removed before routes that were using that interface are
marked as out of service. If the parameter is set to 0, the feature is disabled such as routes
using the interface will not be marked as out of service if the cable is removed.
Enable NAT on this interface
This parameter selects whether IP Network Address Translation (NAT) or Network Address
and Port Translation (NAPT) are used at the Ethernet interface. When the parameter is set to
disabled, no NAT will take place. When this parameter is enabled, extra options described
below will be displayed.
NAT and NAPT can have many uses but they are generally used to allow a number of private IP
hosts (PCs for example) to connect to the Internet through a single shared public IP address.
This has two main advantages, it saves on IP address space (the ISP only need assign you one
IP address), and it isolates the private IP hosts from the Internet (effectively providing a simple
firewall because unsolicited traffic from the Internet cannot be routed directly to the private IP
hosts.
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Ethernet parameters
To use NAT or NAPT correctly in the example of connecting private hosts to the Internet, NAT
or NAPT should be enabled on the router’s WAN side interface and should be disabled on the
router’s LAN side interface.
IP address
When a private IP host sends a UDP or TCP packet to an Internet IP address, the router will
change the source address of the packet from the private host IP to the router’s public IP
address before forwarding the packet onto the Internet host. Additionally it will create an
entry in a NAT table containing the private IP source address, the private IP port number, the
public IP destination address and the destination port number. Conversely, when the router
receives a reply packet back from the public host, it checks the source IP, source port number
and destination port number in the NAT table to determine which private host to forward the
packet to. Before it forwards the packet back to the private host, it changes the destination IP
address of the packet from its public IP address to the IP address of the private host.
IP address and Port
This mode behaves like NAT but in addition to changing the source IP of the packet from the
private host it can also change the source port number. This is required if more than one
private host attempts to connect using the same local port number to the same Internet host
on the same remote port number. If such a scenario were to occur with NAT the router would
be unable to determine which private host to route the returning packets to and the
connection would fail.
Enable IPsec on this interface
This parameter enables or disables IPSec security features for this Ethernet interface.
Use interface x,y for the source IP address of IPsec packets
By default, the source IP address for an IPsec Eroute is the IP address of the interface on which
IPSec was enabled. By setting this parameter to either PPP or Ethernet and the relevant
interface number, the source address used by IPSec matches that of the Ethernet or PPP
interface specified.
Enable the firewall on this interface
This parameter turns Firewall script processing On or Off for this interface.
Remote management access
The Remote access options parameter can be set to No restrictions, Disable management,
Disable return RST, Disable management & return RST. When set to No restrictions, users
on this interface can access the unit’s Telnet, FTP and web services for the purpose of
managing the unit.
When set to Disable management, users on this interface are prevented from managing the
unit via Telnet, FTP or the web interface.
For Disable return RST, whenever a unit receives a TCP SYN packet for one of its own IP
addresses with the destination port set to an unexpected value, such as a port that the unit
would normally expect to receive TCP traffic on, it will reply with a TCP RST packet. This is
normal behaviour.
However, the nature of internet traffic is such that whenever an internet connection is
established, TCYP SYN packets are to be expected. As the router’s PPP inactivity timer is
restarted each time the unit transmits data (but not when it receives data), the standard
response of the unit to SYN packets such as transmitting an RST packet, will restart the
inactivity timer and prevent the unit from disconnecting the link even when there is no
genuine traffic. This effect can be prevented by using the appropriate commands and options
within the firewall script. However, on Digi 1000 series units, or where you are not using a
firewall, the same result can be achieved by selecting this option, such as when this option is
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Ethernet parameters
selected the normal behaviour of the unit in responding to SYN packets with RST packets is
disabled. The option will also prevent the unit from responding to unsolicited UDP packets
with the normal ICMP destination unreachable responses.
The Disable management & return RST option prevents users from managing the unit via
the Telnet, FTP and web interfaces and also disables the transmission of TCP RST packets as
above.
Multihome additional consecutive addresses
This parameter defines how many additional (consecutive) addresses the ethernet driver will
own. For example, if the IP address of the interface was 10.3.20.40, and Multihome additional
consecutive addresses was set to 3, the IP addresses 10.3.20.41, 10.3.20.42 and 10.3.20.43
would also belong to the Ethernet interface.
Enable IGMP on this interface
This parameter enables or disables the Internet Group Management Protocol for this Ethernet
interface.
Enable Bridge on this interface
Bridge mode only applies to models with built in Wi-Fi. If Wi-Fi is enabled, bridge mode must
be enabled on the Eth 0. This creates an Ethernet bridge between the Wi-Fi access point and
the physical Ethernet interface.
Generate Heartbeats on this interface
Enabling this option displays the parameters for Heartbeat packets. These are UDP packets
which can contain status information about the router and can be used in conjunction with
Remote Manager.
Send Heartbeat messages to IP address a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s seconds
Here a.b.c.d specifies the destination IP address for heartbeat packets and h, m and s specifies
how often the router will transmit heartbeat packets to the specified destination in (h) Hours,
(m) Minutes and (s) Seconds.
Use interface x,y for the source IP address
By default, heartbeat packets is sent with the source IP address of the interface on which they
were generated. If the heartbeat is required to be sent via an IPSec tunnel, this parameter can
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Ethernet parameters
be used to specify the source IP address of the heartbeat packet to ensure the source and
destination match the eroute selectors.
Select the transmit interface using the routing table
When enabled, the UDP heartbeats chooses the best route from the routing table. If disabled
the exit interface will be interface on which the heartbeat is configured.
Include IMSI information in the Heartbeat message
When enabled, the heartbeat includes the IMSI of the cellular module.
Include GPS information in the Heartbeat message
When enabled and the appropriate GPS hardware is installed, the heartbeat includes the GPS
co-ordinates of the router.
Generate Ping packets on this interface
Enabling this option displays the parameters for enabling auto-pings to be transmitted from
this interface. These pings can be monitored by the interface auto-pings were enabled on and
in the event of no ping reply, the interface can be taken out of service for a specified amount
of time, before allowing the interface to be used again. Another option is to enable auto-pings
on this interface and let the firewall handle taking the interface out of service in the event of a
failure. Both methods are explained in Application Notes on our Technical Support
Documents webpage.
Send n byte pings to IP host a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s seconds
Here n specifies the payload size of a ping packet when used with the auto ping feature.
Leaving this parameter blank will use the default value. The address a.b.c.d specifies the
destination IP address for auto-ping ICMP echo request. The values h, m and s specifies how
often the router will transmit Auto-ping packets to the specified destination in (h) Hours, (m)
Minutes and (s) Seconds.
Switch to sending pings to IP host a.b.c.d after n failures
Here a.b.c.d specifies an alternative destination IP address for the auto-ping ICMP echo
request to be sent to, should the main IP address specified in the parameter above fail to
respond. This allows the router to double check there is a problem with the connection and
not just with the remote device not responding. The value n specifies the number pings that
need to fail before the 2nd IP address is checked. The extra IP address check is only enabled if
this parameter is set to something other than 0.
Only send Pings when this Ethernet interface is “In Service"
If this parameter is enabled, ICMP echo requests will only be sent from this interface when it is
in service. The default setting is disabled, ICMP echo requests are sent when the interface is in
service and out of service.
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Ethernet parameters
Take this interface "Out of Service" after receiving no responses for s seconds
This parameter specifies the length of time in (s) seconds, before a route will be designated as
being out of service if there has been no response to ANY of the ICMP echo requests during
that time period.
Keep this interface out of service for s seconds
This parameter specifies the length of time in (s) seconds, for which any routes using this
Ethernet interface will be held out of service after a ping failure is detected.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
n/a
n/a
ethvlan
n/a
Switch to Port Isolate Mode
n/a
n/a
ethhub
n/a
Switch to Hub Mode
eth
n
group
0 - 3,255
Ethernet Hub group
eth
n
metric
1 - 16
Metric
eth
n
mtu
64 - 1500
MTU
eth
n
auton
0,1
Enable auto-negotiation
eth
n
speed
0,10,100
Speed
0 = Auto
10 = 10-BaseT
100 = 100-BaseT
eth
n
duplex
0,1,2
Duplex
0 = Auto
1 = Full
2 = Half
eth
n
maxkbps
value in kbps
Max Rx rate
eth
n
maxtkbps
value in kbps
Max Tx rate
eth
n
tcptxbuf
value in bytes
TCP transmit buffer size
eth
n
linkdeact
0 - 86400
Take this interface out of service after n
seconds when the link is lost
eth
n
do_nat
0,1,2
Enable NAT on this interface
0 = Disabled
1 = IP address
2 = IP address and Port
eth
n
ipsec
0,1
Enable IPsec on this interface
eth
n
ipsecent
blank,ETH,PPP
Use interface x,y for the source IP
address of IPsec packets
x = Interface type
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Ethernet parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eth
n
ipsecadd
0 - 255
Use interface x,y for the source IP
address of IPsec packets
y = interface number
eth
n
firewall
0,1
Enable the firewall on this interface
eth
n
nocfg
0,1,2,3
Remote management access
0 = No restrictions
1 = Disable management
2 = Disable return RST
3 = Disable management
and return RST
eth
n
mhome
0 - 255
Multihome additional consecutive
addresses
eth
n
igmp
0,1
Enable IGMP on this interface
eth
n
bridge
0,1
Enable Bridge on this interface
eth
n
heartbeatip
IP address
Send Heartbeat messages to IP address
a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s seconds
eth
n
hrtbeatint
0 - 86400
Send Heartbeat messages to IP address
a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s seconds
This CLI value is entered in seconds
only.
eth
n
hbipent
blank,ETH,PPP
Use interface x,y for the source IP
address
x = Interface type
eth
n
hbipadd
0 - 255
Use interface x,y for the source IP
address
y = interface number
eth
n
hbroute
0,1
Select the transmit interface using the
routing table
eth
n
hbimsi
0,1
Include IMSI information in the
Heartbeat message
Ethernet QoS Parameters
The parameters on this page control the Quality of Service management facility. Each Ethernet
interface has an associated QoS instance, where ETH 0 maps to QoS 5, ETH 1 maps to QoS 6 and
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Ethernet parameters
so on. These QoS instances include ten QoS queues into which packets may be placed when
using QoS. Each of these queues must be assigned a queue profile from the twelve available.
Enable QoS on this interface
This checkbox, when checked, reveals the following QoS configuration parameters:Link speed n Kbps
The value in this text entry box should be set to the maximum data rate that this PPP link is
capable of sustaining. This is used when calculating whether or not the data rate from a queue
may exceed its minimum Kbps setting as determined by the profile assigned to it and send at
a higher rate (up to the maximum Kbps setting).
Queue n
Below this column heading, is a list of ten queue instances. Each instance is associated with
the profile and priority on the same row.
Profile n
This column contains the profile to be associated with the queue. There are twelve available, 0
– 11, which are selected from the drop-down list boxes.
Priority
This column contains drop-down menu boxes which are used to assign a priority to the
selected queue. The priorities available are Very High, High, Medium, Low, and Very Low.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
qos
n
linkkbps
Integer
Link speed n kbps
qos
n
q0prof
0 - 11
Queue 0 Profile
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Ethernet parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
qos
n
q0prio
0–4
0 = Very high
1 = High
2 = Medium
3 = Low
4 = Very Low
Queue 0 Priority
qos
n
q1prof
0 – 11
Queue 1 Profile
qos
n
q1prio
0–4
Queue 1 Priority
qos
n
q2prof
0 - 11
Queue 2 Profile
qos
n
q2prio
0–4
Queue 2 Priority
qos
n
q3prof
0 - 11
Queue 3 Profile
qos
n
q3prio
0–4
Queue 3 Priority
qos
n
q4prof
0 - 11
Queue 4 Profile
qos
n
q4prio
0–4
Queue 4 Priority
qos
n
q5prof
0 - 11
Queue 5 Profile
qos
n
q5prio
0–4
Queue 5 Priority
qos
n
q6prof
0 - 11
Queue 6 Profile
qos
n
q6prio
0–4
Queue 6 Priority
qos
n
q7prof
0 - 11
Queue 7 Profile
qos
n
q7prio
0–4
Queue 7 Priority
qos
n
q8prof
0 - 11
Queue 8 Profile
qos
n
q8prio
0–4
Queue 8 Priority
qos
n
q9prof
0 - 11
Queue 9 Profile
qos
n
q9prio
0–4
Queue 9 Priority
Ethernet VRRP Parameters
VRRP (Virtual Router Redundancy Protocol) allows multiple physical routers to appear as a single
gateway for IP communications in order to provide back-up WAN communications in the event
that the primary router in the group fails in some way. It works by allowing multiple routers to
monitor data on the same IP address. One router is designated as the Master of the address and
under normal circumstances it will route data as usual. However, the VRRP protocol allows the
other routers in the VRRP group to monitor the Master and if, they detect that it is no longer
operating, negotiate with each other to take over the role as owner. The protocol also facilitates
the automatic re-prioritization of the original owner when it returns to operation.
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Ethernet parameters
Enable VRRP on this interface
This parameter enables VRRP on this interface.
VRRP Group ID
The VRRP group ID parameter identifies routers that are configured to operate within the
same VRRP group. The default value is 0 which means that VRRP is disabled on this Ethernet
interface. The value may be set to a number from 1 to 255 to enable VRRP and include this
Ethernet port in the specified VRRP group.
VRRP Priority
This parameter sets the priority level of this Ethernet interface within the VRRP group from 0
to 255. 255 is the highest priority and setting the priority to this value would designate this
Ethernet interface as the initial Master within the group. The value selected for the VRRP
priority should reflect the values selected for other routers within the VRRP group, such as no
two routers in the group should be initialized with the same value.
Boost the priority by n for s seconds after switching to the MASTER state
This parameter increases the VRRP priority by the specified amount for the specified amount
of time when the router has become the VRRP group master. The reason for why you might
want to do this is to provide some network stability if the original Master keeps going on and
off line thus causing a lot of VRRP state switches.
Enable VRRP+ Probing
This parameter enables VRRP+ probing on this Ethernet interface.
VRRP with probing differs from standard VRRP in that it dynamically adjusts the VRRP priority
of an interface and if necessary, changes the status of that interface from master to backup or
vice-versa. It does this by probing an interface, either by sending an ICMP echo request (PING)
or by attempting to open a TCP socket to the specified Probe IP address. Hence VRRP
operation is enhanced to ensure that a secondary router can take over under a wider range of
circumstances.
Send p probe to IP address a.b.c.d TCP port n
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Ethernet parameters
This parameter configures VRRP+ to send a probe packet to desired IP address and TCP port.
The TCP port is needed if the probe type is TCP.
The routing code determines which interface should be used. This allows the unit to test other
interfaces and adjust the VRRP priority according to the status of that interface. For example,
the user may wish to configure probing in such a way that the Digi router WAN interface is
tested, and adjust the VRRP priority down if the WAN is not operational. Another example
would be to probe the WAN interface of another VRRP router, and adjust the local VRRP
priority up if that WAN interface is not operational. When configured to probe in this manner,
it is necessary to configure a second Ethernet interface to be on the same subnet as the VRRP
interface. This is because the VRRP interface cannot be used when it is in backup mode. The
probes should be sent on this second interface. The second interface will have the other VRRP
router as its gateway. The routing table should be configured to direct packets for the probe
address to the desired interface.
every n seconds when in Backup state
The interval between successive probe attempts when the interface is in Backup state.
every n seconds when in Master state
The interval between successive probe attempts when the interface is in Master state.
Adjust priority n dir after x probe failures
These parameter control by how much and in which direction the VRRP priority is adjusted
when the specified number of probes have failed.
Reset probe failure count after n probe successes
The number of consecutive successful probes that are required before the current failure
count is reset to 0.
Use interface x,y over which to send probe
These parameters overrides the routing code and force the probe packets to be sent out of a
specific interface.
Get the source IP address from interface x,y
These parameters can be used to the probe packets have the source IP address from a
specific interface rather than the interface over which it is being transmitted.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eth
n
vrrpid
0 – 255
VRRP Group ID
eth
n
vrrpprio
0 - 255
VRRP Priority
eth
n
vboostprio
0 - 255
Boost the priority by n for s
seconds after switching to the
MASTER state
eth
n
vboostsecs
Integer
Boost the priority by n for s
seconds after switching to the
MASTER state
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Ethernet parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eth
n
vprobemode
off, TCP,
ICMP
Send p probe to IP address a.b.c.d
TCP port n
eth
n
vprobeip
IP Address
Send p probe to IP address a.b.c.d
TCP port n
eth
n
vprobeport
0 – 65535
Send p probe to IP address a.b.c.d
TCP port n
eth
n
vprobebackint
0 - 32767
every n seconds when in Backup
state
eth
n
vprobemastint
0 - 32767
every n seconds when in Master
state
eth
n
vprobeadj
0 - 255
Adjust priority n dir after x probe
failures
eth
n
vprobeadjup
0 = down
Adjust priority n dir after x probe
failures
1 = up
eth
n
vprobefailcnt
0 – 255
Adjust priority n dir after x probe
failures
eth
n
vprobesuccesscnt
0 - 255
Reset probe failure count after n
probe successes
eth
n
vprobeent
Auto, ETH,
PPP
Use interface x,y over which to
send probe
eth
n
vprobeadd
Integer
Use interface x,y over which to
send probe
eth
n
vprobeipent
Auto, ETH,
PPP
Get the source IP address from
interface x,y
eth
n
vprobeipadd
Integer
Get the source IP address from
interface x,y
Logical Ethernet Interfaces
The logical Ethernet interfaces are virtual Ethernet interfaces. You can configure them as per the
standard Ethernet interfaces except for the Speed and Duplex settings which require a physical
interface.
Logical Ethernet interfaces assigns extra IP addresses to the router on the same or an alternate
subnet using the same physical Ethernet connection.
Logical Ethernet interfaces is also used as bridging features (such as used in a Wi-Fi configuration)
where it is desirable to not use a physical interface for the bridging.
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Ethernet parameters
MAC Filtering
Ethernet MAC filtering restricts which Ethernet devices can send packets to the router. If MAC
filtering is enabled on an Ethernet interface, only Ethernet packets with a source MAC address
that is configured in the MAC Filter table will be allowed. If the source MAC address is not in the
MAC Filter table, the packet will dropped.
Enable MAC filtering on Ethernet interfaces
This parameter enables MAC filtering on a specific Ethernet interface.
MAC Address
The Ethernet source MAC address to allow. It is possible to allow a range of MAC addresses by
configuring only the significant part of the MAC address. such as 00:04:2d will allow all
Ethernet packets with a source MAC address starting with 00:04:2d.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eth
n
macfilt
on, off
Enable MAC filtering on Ethernet
interfaces
macfilt
n
mac
MAC address
with no
separators.
MAC Address
Partial MAC
address are
allowed.
MAC Bridging
The Ethernet MAC bridge function creates an Ethernet bridge between two physically separate
Ethernet networks. It is possible to allow bridging over DSL, W-Wan, ISDN and PSTN connections
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Ethernet parameters
but note that the only restriction on the traffic sent across the link is done via MAC address
filtering and that all Ethernet traffic will be bridged, no firewall restrictions are applied to this
traffic.
Once the bridge has been configured, the MAC addresses to bridge need to be configured in the
MAC bridge table.
Enable
Enable MAC bridging on the Ethernet interface.
Forward to IP address
The IP address of the remote router to which the Ethernet packets will be bridged to.
Port
The TCP port that the remote router is listening on.
Listen on Port
The TCP port that the router will listen on for incoming bridged packet from the remote
router.
MAC Address
The Ethernet destination MAC address of packets to be bridged. It is possible to allow a range
of MAC addresses by configuring only the significant part of the MAC address. such as 00042d
will allow all Ethernet packets with a source MAC address starting with 00:04:2d.
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Ethernet parameters
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eth
n
srcbhost
IP Address
Forward to IP address
eth
n
srchport
0 – 65535
Port
eth
n
srcblistenport
0 - 65535
Listen on Port
bridgemac
n
mac
MAC address
with no
separators.
MAC Address
Partial MAC
address are
allowed.
Spanning Tree Protocols
The Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol (RSTP) is a layer 2 protocol which ensures a loop free topology
on a switched or bridged LAN whilst allowing redundant physical links between switches. When
enabled, the TransPort device uses RSTP but this is backwards compatible with STP.
RSTP will not be enabled if the router is in Port Isolate mode. If an Ethernet interface is
configured with a hub group, RSTP will be disabled on that interface.
Enable RSTP
This parameter enables RSTP on the router.
Priority
This parameter sets the RSTP priority.
Group
This parameter sets the RSTP group that the router is in.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
stp
0
enable
on, off
Enable RSTP
stp
0
prio
0 – 65535
Priority
stp
0
group
-
Group
stp
0
debug
0, 1
Not available on the WEB
interface.
Port status
To view the status of RSTP/STP on a router’s Ethernet ports, the following commands can be
used.
stp show
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Ethernet parameters
Port 0, Designated, Forwarding ctrl2:0x6
Port 1, Backup, Discarding ctrl2:0x1
Port 2, Backup, Discarding ctrl2:0x1
Port 3, Disabled, Discarding ctrl2:0x1
The port roles are:
Disabled
There is nothing physically connected to this Ethernet port.
Root
A forwarding port that has been elected for the spanning-tree topology,
towards the root bridge.
Designated
A forwarding port for every LAN segment, away from the root bridge.
Alternate
An alternate path to the root bridge. This path is different than using the root
port.
Backup
A backup/redundant path to a segment where another bridge port already
connects.
The STP port states are:
Disabled
The port is not functioning and cannot send or receive data.
Listening
The port is sending and receiving BPDU's and participates in the election
process of the root bridge. Ethernet frames are discarded.
Learning
The port does not yet forward frames but it does learn source addresses from
frames received and adds them to the MAC address table.
Forwarding
The port receiving and sending data, normal operation. STP still monitors
incoming BPDU’s that would indicate it should return to the blocking state to
prevent a loop.
locking
A port that would cause a switching loop, no user data is sent or received but it
may go into forwarding mode if the other links in use were to fail and the
spanning tree algorithm determines the port may transition to the forwarding
state. BPDU data is still received in blocking state.
The RSTP port states are:
Learning
The port does not yet forward frames but it does learn source addresses from
frames received and adds them to the MAC address table. The port processes
BPDU’s.
Forwarding
The port receiving and sending data, normal operation. STP still monitors
incoming BPDU’s that would indicate it should return to the blocking state to
prevent a loop.
Discarding
A port that would cause a switching loop, no user data is sent or received but it
may go into forwarding mode if the other links in use were to fail and the
spanning tree algorithm determines the port may transition to the forwarding
state. BPDU data is still received in blocking state.
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Ethernet parameters
Ethernet VLANs parameters
VLANs (Virtual LANs) facilitate splitting a single physical LAN into separate Virtual LANs. This is
useful for security reasons, and also helps cut down on broadcast traffic on the LAN.
Enable VLAN support on Ethernet interfaces
This parameter enables VLAN support on the Ethernet interface.
VLAN ID
This parameter specifies the ID of the Virtual LAN. VLAN ID is used in the TCP header to
identify the destination VLAN for the packet.
Ethernet Interface
The Ethernet port that tags the outgoing packets. Packets sent from this interface have VLAN
tagging applied.
IP Address
This is the destination IP address. This parameter is optional. If configured, only packets
destined for this IP address will have VLAN tagging applied.
Mask
This is the destination IP subnet mask. This parameter is optional. If configured, only packets
destined for this IP subnet mask will have VLAN tagging applied.
Source IP Address
This is the source IP address. This parameter is optional. If configured, only packets from this
IP address will have VLAN tagging applied.
Source Mask
This is the source IP subnet mask. This parameter is optional. If configured, only packets from
this IP subnet mask will have VLAN tagging applied.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Ethernet VLANs CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eth
n
vlan
on, off
Enable VLAN support on
Ethernet interfaces
vlan
n
vlanid
0 - 4095
VLAN ID
vlan
n
ethctx
Integer
Ethernet Interface
vlan
n
ipaddr
IP Address
IP Address
vlan
n
mask
IP Mask
Mask
vlan
n
srcipaddr
IP Addess
Source IP Address
vlan
n
srcmask
IP Mask
Source Mask
Wi-Fi parameters
This section of the web interface that contains the configuration options required in order to
configure and enable the Wi-Fi features.
Global Wi-Fi settings
Due to national restrictions on the channels available for use, the correct country should be
selected from the drop down list to restrict the channels that are legal to use by the router. If
required, a specific channel can be selected to over-ride the auto selection.
Country
Selecting a country from the drop down list restricts the channels that the router will use. See
table for more info on licensed channels.
Network Mode
Select your chosen mode of operation from the drop down list. The options are:
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Wi-Fi parameters
•
A
•
B/G
This parameter is not available on all routers.
Channel
Selecting Auto allows the router to scan for a free channel within the range of legal channels
for the selected country. It is possible to manually select a specific channel to use but care
should be taken to ensure the selected channel is legal to use in the country.
Global Wi-Fi Settings CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
wifi
0
country
Country
name
Country
wifi
0
chanmode
a / bg
Network Mode
wifi
0
channel
auto, 1 – 14
Channel
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Wi-Fi parameters
Below is a list of the countries that are currently supported:
Albania
Guatemala
Oman
Algeria
Honduras
Pakistan
Argentina
Hong Kong
Panama
Armenia
Hungary
Paraguay
Australia
Iceland
Peru
Austria
India
Philippines
Azerbaijan
Indonesia
Poland
Bahrain
Iran
Portugal
Belarus
Iraq
Puerto Rico
Belgium
Ireland
Qatar
Belize
Israel
Romania
Bolivia
Italy
Russia
Brazil
Jamaica
Saudi Arabia
Brunei
Japan
Singapore
Bulgaria
Jordan
Slovak Republic
Canada
Kazakhstan
Slovenia
Chile
Kenya
South Africa
China
North Korea
Spain
Colombia
South Korea
Sweden
Costa Rica
Kuwait
Switzerland
Croatia
Latvia
Syria
Cyprus
Lebanon
Taiwan
Czech Republic
Libya
Thailand
Denmark
Liechtenstein
Trinidad and Tobago
Dominican Republic
Lithuania
Tunisia
Ecuador
Luxembourg
Turkey
Egypt
Macau
U.A.E.
El Salvador
Macedonia
Ukraine
Estonia
Malaysia
United Kingdom
Faroe Islands
Mexico
United States
Finland
Monaco
Uruguay
France
Morocco
Uzbekistan
Georgia
Netherlands
Venezuela
Germany
New Zealand
Vietnam
Greece
Nicaragua
Yemen
Norway
Zimbabwe
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Wi-Fi parameters
The following table lists the licensed channels that is used by the Digi when Auto is selected for
the channel number.
Region
Channels
EMEA (excluding France)
1 - 13
France
10 - 13
Americas (excluding Mexico)
1 - 11
Mexico
1 - 8 Indoor, 9 - 11 outdoor
Israel
3–9
China
1 - 11
Japan
1 - 14
Note It is ILLEGAL to use restricted channels in certain countries.
Wi-Fi Hotspot
This section enables the configuration of the global parameters that are applicable if using any
Wi-Fi node as a hotspot.
Enable Wi-Fi Hotspot on
Click the checkbox to enable Wi-Fi Hotspot support on a particular Wi-Fi node.
Splashscreen filename
This selects an ASP web file that will be presented to the client’s internet browser when they
connect for the first time.
Each client can connect for h hrs m mins
The amount of time that a Wi-Fi client can use the Wi-Fi hotspot before having to reauthenticate.
Hotspot Exceptions
It is possible to configure a number of web locations for which authentication is not required.
These allow the splashscreen to access these locations in order to display them to the client
when authenticating.
Wi-Fi Hotspot CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
wifinode
n
hotspot
on, off
Enable Wi-Fi Hotspot on
wifi
0
hotspot_fname
Filename
Splashscreen filename
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Wi-Fi parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
wifi
0
hotspot_lifetime
Integer
Each client can connect for h hrs
m mins.The CLI value is entered
in seconds only.
hshosts
n
host
Hostname
Hotspot Exceptions
Wi-Fi Filtering
You can restrict access to the router via Wi-Fi. When the filtering is enabled, only MAC addresses
configured in the table will be allowed to connect to the router.
Enable Wi-Fi filtering
Enable Wi-Fi filtering so that only clients who have their Wi-Fi MAC address configured in the
MAC address table will be allowed to connect.
MAC Address
MAC addresses of Wi-Fi client that you wish to allow access to.
A valid MAC address has the format: 11:22:33:44:55:66. When entering this parameter, omit
the ‘:’ separators. For example 112233445566.
Note Carefully review settings before applying changes. Incorrect settings can make the
TransPort device inaccessible from the Wi-Fi network.
Wi-Fi Filtering CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
wifi
0
macfilter
on/off
Enable Wi-Fi filtering
wififilt
n
mac
MAC address with
no separators
MAC Address
such as
112233445566
Wi-Fi n parameters
When a Wi-Fi interface is configured to be an Access Point, an SSID must be configured for a Wi-Fi
interface to operate.
In order to forward packets to and from a Wi-Fi interface, it must be bridged to a configured
Ethernet interface. The Wi-Fi interface and Ethernet interface must be in the same Bridge
instance.
If a DHCP server is required to run on the Wi-Fi interface, the DHCP server instance
corresponding bridged Ethernet interface should be configured.
In some cases it may be necessary to bridge multiple Ethernet instances to a single Wi-Fi instance.
If this is required, only one Ethernet instances is should be configured.
Enable this Wi-Fi interface
The Wi-Fi interface can be enabled or disabled.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Description
This parameter allows you to enter a descriptive name for the Wi-Fi interface to make it easier
to identify.
SSID
When the Wi-Fi interface is configured to be an Access Point, this is the SSID that is advertised
to the Wi-Fi clients to.
When the Wi-Fi interface is configured to be a Client, this is the SSID of the Access Point you
wish to connect to.
Mode
The Wi-Fi interface can run in various modes. The options are:
•
Access Point
•
Client
Rogue Detection(Scan for unauthorised Access Points)
This Wi-Fi interface is a member of Bridge instance n and therefore bridged to the following
interfaces.
When the Wi-Fi interface is configured to be an Access Point, in order to forward packets to
and from the Wi-Fi interface it must be bridged with an Ethernet interface using a Bridge
instance.
Interface
This parameter specifies interfaces that are currently members of the selected Bridge
instance. Note that multiple Wi-Fi interfaces can be members of the same Bridge instance.
Link this Wi-Fi client interface with Ethernet n
When the Wi-Fi interface is configured to be a client, it must be bridged to a particular
Ethernet interface.
This Wi-Fi rogue scanner will use Ethernet n
When the Wi-Fi interface is configured to be a rogue scanner, it uses the selected Ethernet
interface.
Hide SSID
When enabled, the SSID is not included in the beacon messages transmitted by the Wi-Fi
interface when in Access Point mode. This means that Wi-Fi clients will not be able to autodetect the Access Point.
Isolation
When enabled, connected Wi-Fi clients is unable to communicate with other Wi-Fi clients or
Ethernet hosts connected to this AP.
Wi-Fi CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
wifinode
0
enabled
on, off
Enable this Wi-Fi interface
wifinode
0
descr
String
Description
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Wi-Fi parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
wifinode
0
ssid
String up to
32
characters
SSID
wifinode
0
mode
ap, client,
rogue
Mode
wifinode
o
bridge_inst
0-3
This Wi-Fi interface is a member of
Bridge instance n and therefore
bridged to the following interfaces
eth
n
bridge_inst
0–3
Interface
eth
n
wificli
on, off
Link this Wi-Fi client interface with
Ethernet n
eth
n
wificli_add
Integer
Link this Wi-Fi client interface with
Ethernet n
wifinode
0
broadcastssid
on, off
Hide SSID
wifinode
0
isolation
on, off
Enable station isolation
Wi-Fi Security
This section is used to configure the security settings for the Wi-Fi interface.
If you are using multiple Wi-Fi interfaces at the same time, the interfaces need to use the same
security settings (except for the pre-shared key (PSK)). The only alternative is that the Wi-Fi is used
with no security.
Use the following security on this Wi-Fi interface
This parameter selects the security that is used on this Wi-Fi interface. The options are:
•
None
•
WEP
•
WPA-PSK(also known as WPA Personal)
•
WPA2-PSK(also known as WPA2 Personal)
•
WPA-RADIUS(also known as WPA Enterprise)
•
WPA2-RADIUS(also known as WPA2 Enterprise)
WEP Settings
This parameter specifies the various WEP security settings for both Access Point and Client
modes.
WEP Key size
This is the key size to use.
WEP Key index
This is the WEP key index number. This needs to match the index selected on the connecting
Wi-Fi clients or Access Points that this router wishes to connect to.
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Wi-Fi parameters
WEP Key / Confirm WEP Key
If the WEP key size is 64 bits, the key should be 5 characters long. If the WEP key size is 128
bits, the key should be 13 characters long.
WPA-PSK / WPA2-PSK
This parameter specifies the various WPA-PSK / WPA2-PSK security settings for both Access
Point and Client modes.
WPA Encryption
This parameter specifies the encryption algorithm to use. The options are:
•
TKIP
•
AES (CCMP)
WPA pre-shared key / Confirm WPA pre-shared key
This is the pre-shared key (PSK) to use. It must be between 8 and 63 characters long.
WPA-RADIUS / WPA2-RADIUS
This parameter species the various WPA-RADIUS / WPA2- RADIUS security settings for both
Access Point and Client modes.
WPA Encryption
This parameter specifies the encryption algorithm to use. The options are:
•
TKIP
•
AES (CCMP)
RADIUS NAS ID
This parameter specifies NAS ID of the RADIUS server.
RADIUS Server IP Address
This parameter specifies IP address of the RADIUS server
RADIUS Server Password / Confirm RADIUS Server Password
This is the password of the RADIUS server.
Wi-Fi Security CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
wifinode
0
security
none
Use the following security on this
Wi-Fi interface
wep
wpapsk
wpa2psk
wparadius
wpa2radius
wifinode
0
Digi TransPort User Guide
weptype
open,
sharedkey
Not available on the WEB.
68
Wi-Fi parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
wifinode
0
wepkeylen
64, 128
WEP Key size
wifinode
0
wepkeyindex
1-4
WEP Key index
wifinode
0
wpatype
tkip, aes
WPA Encryption
wifinode
0
sharedkey
text
WEP Key/WPA pre-shared key
radcli
n*
nasid
String
RADIUS NAS ID
radcli
n*
server
IP Address
RADIUS Server IP Address
radcli
n*
password
String
RADIUS Server Password
* The Wi-Fi interfaces each use a fixed RADIUS client, such as,
•
Wi-Fi 0 uses radcli 1
•
Wi-Fi 1 uses radcli 2
•
Wi-Fi 2 uses radcli 3 and so on.
The following table details the authentication and encryption algorithms and the CLI commands
needed to configure them.
Network
Authentication
Data Encryption
CLI Commands
Open
Disabled
wifinode 0 security none
Shared
Disabled
Not supported
Open
WEP
wifinode 0 security wep
wifinode 0 weptype open
wifinode 0 wepkeylen <64 | 128>
wifinode 0 wepkeyindex <1..4>
wifinode 0 sharedkey <5 or 13 char
key>
Shared
WEP
wifinode 0 security wep
wifinode 0 weptype sharedkey
wifinode 0 wepkeylen <64 | 128>
wifinode 0 wepkeyindex <1..4>
wifinode 0 sharedkey <5 or 13 char
key>
WPA
TKIP
wifinode 0 security wparadius
wifinode 0 wpatype tkip
wifinode 0 radiuscfg 1
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Wi-Fi parameters
Network
Authentication
Data Encryption
CLI Commands
WPA2
TKIP
wifinode 0 security wpa2radius
wifinode 0 wpatype tkip
wifinode 0 radiuscfg 1
WPA-PSK
TKIP
wifinode 0 security wpapsk
wifinode 0 wpatype tkip
wifinode 0 sharedkey <8..63 char
key>
WPA2-PSK
TKIP
wifinode 0 security wpa2psk
wifinode 0 wpatype tkip
wifinode 0 sharedkey <8..63 char
key>
WPA
AES
wifinode 0 security wparadius
wifinode 0 wpatype aes
wifinode 0 radiuscfg 1
WPA2
AES
wifinode 0 security wpa2radius
wifinode 0 wpatype aes
wifinode 0 radiuscfg 1
WPA-PSK
AES
wifinode 0 security wpapsk
wifinode 0 wpatype aes
wifinode 0 sharedkey <8..63 char
key>
WPA2-PSK
AES
wifinode 0 security wpa2psk
wifinode 0 wpatype aes
wifinode 0 sharedkey <8..63 char
key>
Rogue Scan parameters
In Rogue Scan mode, the router performs a scan of the Wi-Fi channels and will report what Wi-Fi
Access Points it detects. This feature can be used to detect unauthorised Access Points that might
be trying to get unsuspecting Wi-Fi clients to connect them.
When an authorised Access Point is detected, an event log entry is created and an alarm (such as
email, SMS, SNMP Trap) can be triggered.
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Mobile parameters
It is possible to configure a list of the MAC addresses of the authorised Access Points that will not
be reported when detected.
MAC Address
This parameter specifies the MAC address of an authorized Access Point.
Rogue Scan CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
macrogue
n
mac
MAC address
with no
separators
MAC Address
such as
112233445566
Mobile parameters
Wireless WAN functionality is only available on models that are fitted with a wireless WAN
module, such as CDMA, GPRS, 3G, HSPA etc. This module is connected to one of the ASY ports
(and USB controller on some models) and is controlled by the router using AT commands (in the
same way as a modem). Any further references to W-WAN technologies such as CDMA, GPRS, 3G
etc. will be referred to as GPRS, GSM, 3G or simply ‘wireless’ networks.
W-WAN modules provide always-on wireless data connectively over the GSM network at speeds
of up to 7.2Mbps. This means that the unit can be used in situations where no ISDN or xDSL
service connection is available. In addition, wireless can be used to send or receive SMS alert
messages (as an alternative to emails for issuing remote alert messages or for automating
remote configuration of deployed units).
Before attempting to connect to a wireless service, you need to set several parameters specific to
your mobile network operator. It will be useful to have the following information to hand:
•
The assigned APN (Access Point Name)
•
PIN Number for your SIM card (if any)
•
Username and password
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Mobile parameters
Once the W-WAN router is correctly configured, check to see if it has obtained an IP address from
the network by navigating to the Diagnostics - Status > PPP > PPP x page (where x is either 1 or 3
depending on the model) and checking the IP address parameter. (It should contain an IP address
other than 0.0.0.0 or 1.2.3.4).
Additionally, check that the SIM is working correctly and also check the signal strength by
navigating to the Status > Mobile page.
SIM
Select a SIM to configure. SIM 1 relates to the SIM card fitted to the slot marked SIM 1 on the
router’s front panel. SIM 2 relates to the SIM card fitted to the slot marked SIM 2.
Note When using a single SIM card, the default action is for the router to use PPP 1 as the
mobile interface.To configure dual SIMs for fail-over browse to Configuration - Network
> Interfaces > Mobile > SIM Selection to launch the Dual SIM wizard.
Mobile Settings parameters
Select the service plan and connection settings used in connecting to the mobile network.
The Configuration – Network > Interfaces > Mobile > Mobile Settings menu options is divided
in three sections.
Mobile Service Provider Settings
Here, you can set the following values:
Service Plan / APN
Enter the APN (Access Point Name) given by the service provider.
Use backup APN
Check this box to enable the backup APN option then enter the backup APN in the free text
field.
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Mobile parameters
APN
This parameter specifies an alternative service APN for use in the event that the unit cannot
connect using the primary APN specified by the APN parameter. The unit will only use this APN
if the primary APN fails and the Use backup APN parameter is enabled.
Retry the main APN after n minutes
If the Use backup APN parameter is enabled, this parameter defines how long the unit will use
the backup APN before attempting to revert to the primary APN.
SIM PIN
Some SIM cards are locked with a Personal Identification Number (PIN) code to prevent
misuse if they are lost or stolen. The GSM operator should be able to confirm if the SIM
requires a PIN code.
If you enter a PIN code in this field, the unit will try to unlock the SIM before attempting to
connect to the network.
Confirm SIM PIN
Enter the PIN again in this field to confirm it.
Username (Optional)
Some APNs require a username and password for the PPP connection. These are not always
pre-defined such as any made-up username or password will suffice.
Password (Optional)
Enter the password for the PPP connection.
Confirm Password
Enter the password again in this field to confirm it.
Mobile service provider settings CLI commands SIM 1 (PPP 1)
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
modemcc
0
apn
Free text field
Service Plan / APN:
modemcc
0
usebuapn
on/off
Checkbox (Use Backup APN)
modemcc
0
buapn
Free text field
Use backup APN
modemcc
0
pin
SIM PIN
number
SIM PIN:/Confirm SIM PIN
ppp
1
username
Free text field
Username:
ppp
1
password
Free text field
Password:/Confirm Password
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Mobile parameters
Mobile service provider settings CLI commands SIM 2 (PPP 1)
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
modemcc
0
Apn_2
Free text field
Service Plan / APN:
modemcc
0
Usebuapn_2
on/off
Checkbox (Use Backup APN)
modemcc
0
Buapn_2
Free text field
Use backup APN
modemcc
0
Pin_2
SIM PIN
number
SIM PIN:/Confirm SIM PIN
ppp
1
username
Free text field
Username:
ppp
1
password
Free text field
Password:/Confirm Password
Mobile Connection Settings
Re-establish connection when no data is received for a period of time.
This checkbox opens to show the following parameters:Inactivity Timeout: h hrs m mins s seconds
This parameter specifies the amount of time the unit will wait without receiving any PPP
packets before disconnecting. An inactivity timeout reset with each received PPP packet.
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Mobile parameters
Mobile Connection Settings CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
rxtimeout
OFF, ON
Re-establish connection when no data
is received for a period of time.
ppp
1
rxtimeout
0–
86400
Inactivity Timeout: h hrs m mins s
seconds
(seconds
)
Mobile Network Settings
Enable NAT on this interface
This parameter enables or disable IP Network Address Translation (NAT) on the mobile
interface.
This checkbox opens to show the following options:IP Address
This parameter enables standard Network Address Translation (NAT).
IP address and Port
This parameter enables Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT).
Enable IPsec on this interface
This parameter enables or disables IPSec processing on the mobile interface. If enabled,
packets sent or received on this interface must pass through the IPSec code before being
transmitted. IPSec may drop the packet, pass it unchanged, or encrypt and encapsulate within
an IPSec packet.
This checkbox opens to show the following parameters:Keep Security Associations (SAs) when this Mobile interface is disconnected
This checkbox configures the router to keep any existing IKE and IPsec associations should the
link drop. This is usually applied on head-end routers with fixed IP addresses.
Use interface X, Y for the source IP address of IPsec packets
By default, the source IP address for an IPSec Eroute will be the IP address of the interface on
which IPSec was enabled. By setting this parameter to either a PPP or Ethernet interface, the
source IP address used by IPSec will match that of the Ethernet or PPP interface specified.
Enable the firewall on this interface
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Mobile parameters
The Firewall parameter enables or disables the Firewall script processing for the mobile
interface.
Note If the firewall is enabled on an interface and with the absence of any firewall rules, the
default action is to block ALL traffic.
Mobile Network Settings CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
1
do_nat
1
Enable NAT on this interface
IP Address
ppp
1
do_nat
2
Enable NAT on this interface
IP Address and Port
ppp
1
ipsec
1
Enable IPsec on this interface
ppp
1
ipsec
2
Keep Security Associations (SAs)
when this Mobile interface is
disconnected
ppp
1
ipsecent
blank,ETH,P
PP
Use interface X, Y for the source IP
address of IPsec packets
x = Interface type
ppp
1
ipsecadd
0 - 255
Use interface X, Y for the source IP
address of IPsec packets
y = interface number
ppp
1
firewall
OFF, ON
Enable the firewall on this interface
SIM Selection
This section allows you to launch the Dual SIM wizard for failing over from 1 SIM to another.
Click here to launch the Dual SIM wizard
Click the here hyperlink to launch the Dual SIM wizard.
CDMA provisioning
CDMA provisioning is different from GSM since CDMA (in most cases) does not use a SIM card.
The CDMA module provisioning process creates a CDMA data connection to the mobile carrier
network. This authenticates the modem and retrieves account information which is written to
flash memory on the CDMA module itself, not the Digi’s configuration file. Mobile account
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Mobile parameters
information is stored on the CDMA module. Therefore, you cannot remove provisioning
information from the CDMA module by performing a factory reset on your TransPort router.
If provisioning fails (the device does not obtain a phone number), contact the carrier and verify
that the device has an active account. You will need to provide the MEID of the device which is
available under Management - Network Status > Interfaces > Mobile. See QN 25 CDMA
Provisioning on a Digi TransPort Router for example configuration.
Provider
If the router was not supplied pre-provisioned, obtain the following details from the Service
Provider:
•
a 15 digit IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)
•
an NAI (Network Access Identifier)
•
an NAI password
Once these details have been obtained, it is possible to provision the CDMA module by inserting
those details into the Automatic Provisioning section of this web page and clicking on the Start
button.
Automatic provisioning
Sprint Vision uses Automatic provisioning (semi-automatic). In most cases, the TransPort router
can be provisioned without entering any information into the configuration page. If for some
reason the TransPort router is an older version using a module that does not support OMA DM,
three fields of information must be entered into the Automatic configuration page. This
information is provided by Sprint. If required, enter the MSL/PTN/MSID parameters before clicking Start
MSL
This parameter specifies master subsidy lock (MSL) code. You can obtain this from the mobile
operator.
PTN
This parameter specifies personal telephone number. You can obtain this from the mobile
operator.
MSID
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Mobile parameters
This parameter specifies mobile station identifier. You can obtain this from the mobile
operator.
Automatic Provisioning CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
provision
0
string1
No data input
required
MSL
provision
0
String2
No data input
required
PTN
provision
0
String3
No data input
required
MSID
Manual provisioning
Manual provisioning should only be attempted by experienced technical personnel who have
obtained all the required information from the mobile operator. Technical personnel with
previous provisioning experience should not require these parameters explaining.
MSL
This parameter specifies master subsidy lock (MSL) code. You can obtain this from the mobile
operator.
MDN
This parameter specifies personal telephone number. You can obtain this from the mobile
operator.
MIN/MSID
This parameter specifies mobile station identifier. You can obtain this from the mobile
operator.
Manual provisioning CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
provision
0
String4
Free text field
MSL
provision
0
String5
Free text field
PTN
provision
0
String6
Free text field
MIN/MSID
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Mobile parameters
Mobile IP settings
Mobile IP profile number
Enter the Mobile IP profile number in this text box.
Network Access ID (NAI)
Enter the Network Access ID in this text box.
MIP Home Address
Enter the MIP Home Address in this text box.
Primary Home Agent
Enter the Primary Home Agent in this text box.
Secondary Home Agent
Enter the Secondary Home Agent in this text box.
HA shared secret:0xn (Hex strings must start 0x)
Enter the HA shared secret in this text box.
AAA shared secret: 0xn (Hex strings must start 0x)
Enter the AAA shared secret in this text box.
HA SPI
Enter the HA SPI in this text box.
AAA SPI
Enter the AAA SPI in this text box.
Enable Reverse tunneling
Enable Reverse tunneling if required in this text box.
Mobile IP Settings CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
provision
0
String7
1
Mobile IP profile number:
provision
0
String8
Free text field
Network Access ID (NAI):
provision
0
String9
Free text field
MIP Home Address:
provision
0
String10
Free text field
Primary Home Agent:
provision
0
String11
Free text field
Secondary Home Agent:
provision
0
String12
Hex string
HA shared secret:0xn (Hex
strings must start 0x)
provision
0
String13
Hex string
AAA shared secret: 0xn (Hex
strings must start 0x)
provision
0
String14
Free text field
HA SPI:
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Mobile parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
provision
0
String15
Free text field
AAA SPI:
provision
0
String16
Free text field
Enable Reverse tunneling:
PRL update
The Preferred Roaming List is a list of bands and channels in order of preference which the CDMA
module uses when it attempts to locate and connect to a cell system. If the router is having
problems with CDMA reception, it would be beneficial to update the PRL information.
MSL
This parameter specifies master subsidy lock (MSL) code. You can obtain this from the mobile
operator.
PRL filename:
This parameter specifies preferred roaming list file name. You can obtain this from the mobile
operator.
Note With the exception of older Sierra Wireless modules, PRL update on both the Verizon and
Sprint networks is carried out over the air (OTA). Manual PRL update using a PRL file is not
available. To initiate automatic over the air PRL update, click the Start button. Please note
that PRL update is normally carried out as part of automatic provisioning on both Sprint
and Verizon.
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Mobile parameters
PRL update CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
provision
0
string1
Free text field
MSL
provision
0
string20
Free text field
PRL Filename
Advanced Mobile parameters
SIM PUK:
(Optional) If known, the SIM PUK code can be entered in these fields. If the router detects that
a PUK is required due to a locked SIM, this number will be sent to the SIM. A SIM PIN must also
be configured for the PUK parameter to take effect.
Confirm SIM PUK:
Enter the PUK code again in this field to confirm it.
Initialisation string <n>:
These parameters (Initialisation string 1, Initialisation string 2, Initialisation string 3) allow you
to specify a number of command strings that are sent to the wireless module each time a
wireless connection is attempted. These can be used to set non-standard wireless operating
modes.
Each string is prefixed with the characters AT before being sent to the wireless module and
they are sent to the wireless module in the order specified until an empty string is
encountered. For example, Initialisation string 3 will not be sent unless Initialisation string 1
and Initialisation string 2 are both specified. Initialisation strings are not normally required for
most applications as the unit will normally be pre-configured for correct operation with most
networks.
Hang-up string:
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Mobile parameters
In a typical wireless application the connection to the network is always on and under normal
circumstances it is not necessary to hang-up the wireless module. Under certain
circumstances however, the router may use the ATH command to try and disconnect the
wireless module from the network, such as if an incorrect APN has been specified and the
module is unable to attach to the network correctly.
This parameter allows you to specify an alternative hang-up string that is sent to the wireless
module when disconnecting a call. As with the Initialisation strings, it is not necessary to
include the AT as this is inserted automatically by the router
Post Hang-up string:
This parameter allows you to specify additional AT commands that is sent to the wireless
module after it has been disconnected. As with the Initialisation strings, it is not necessary to
include the AT as this is inserted automatically by the router.
Wait n seconds between hanging up and allowing another call
This parameter specifies the length of time (in n seconds) that the router will wait after
hanging-up the wireless module before initiating another call attempt.
Wait n seconds between attachment attempts
The number of seconds between network attachment attempts, some networks require 60
seconds between attempts to attach to the wireless network.
Reset the module after n unsuccessful connection attempts The router will normally make
multiple attempts to connect to the wireless network in the event that the signal is lost. In
some cases, this can result in a lock-up situation where the wireless network is unable to
attach the wireless device due to the multiple attempts. This parameter specifies the number
of attempts at connection that the unit should make before power cycling the internal wireless
module. Power cycling the wireless module forces it to re-register and reattach to the
network. The default setting of 10 is the recommended value. Setting this parameter to 0 will
prevent the router from power cycling the wireless module if it cannot obtain an IP address.
Reset the module after n unsuccessful status retrieval attempts
The router periodically collects status information from the internal wireless module. This
information, which may be viewed on the Management - Network Status > Interfaces >
Mobile web page, includes details of the signal strength and network attachment status. As a
safeguard against problems communicating with the wireless module, the Status retries
parameter may be used to specify the number of unsuccessful attempts to retrieve status
information from the wireless module before power cycling it. The default setting of 30 is the
recommended value. Setting this parameter to 0 will prevent the router from power cycling
the wireless module if it cannot read the wireless status information.
Create a signal strength event every n minutes
When you configure this parameter, the devices writes the signal strength to the eventlog
every n minutes.
If registration is lost for 5 minutes
This parameter controls whether the unit will power cycle the wireless module after the
network registration has been lost for 5 minutes. Setting this parameter to Do not reset the
module will never recycle the wireless module, setting to reset the module if GSM
registration is lost will power cycle the module after 5 minutes loss of GSM registration, and
setting to reset the module if GSM registration is lost will power cycle the module after 5
minutes loss of GPRS, 3G or HSPA registration.
Preferred System:
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Mobile parameters
This parameter controls which mobile technology will be used as the preferred system (2G/
3G). When set to Auto the wireless module will choose the fastest technology available. For
GSM: When set to GSM, the wireless module will try GSM (GPRS/EDGE) technology first. When
set to WCDMA, the wireless module will try WCDMA (UMTS/HSPA) technology first. For CDMA:
Select CDMA for 2G (1xRTT) or EVDO for 3G.
Related CLI Commands - SIM Slot 1 (PPP 1)
)
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
modemcc
0
puk
sim puk code
SIM PUK/Confirm SIM PUK
modemcc
0
init_str
Free text field
Initialisation string 1
modemcc
0
init_str1
Free text field
Initialisation string 2
modemcc
0
init_str2
Free text field
Initialisation string 3
modemcc
0
hang_str
Free text field
Hang-up string:
modemcc
0
posthang_str
Free text field
Post Hang-up string:
modemcc
0
intercall_idle
0 - 2147483647
Wait n seconds between
hanging up and allowing
another call
modemcc
0
att_interval
0 - 2147483647
Wait n seconds between
attachment attempts
modemcc
0
link_retries
0 - 2147483647
Reset the module after n
unsuccessful connection
attempts
modemcc
0
stat_retries
0 - 2147483647
Reset the module after n
unsuccessful status retrieval
attempts
modemcc
0
ss_interval
0 - 2147483647
Create a signal strength event
every n minutes
modemcc
0
check_reg
0,1,2
If registration is lost for 5
minutes
0 = do not reset the module
1 = reset the module if the GSM
registration is lost
2 = reset the module if the GPRS
registration is lost
modemcc
0
psys
0,1,2
Preferred System
0 = Auto
1 = GSM
2 = WCDMA
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Mobile parameters
Related CLI Commands - SIM Slot 2 (PPP 1)
Entity
Instance Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
modemcc
0
Puk_2
sim puk code
SIM PUK/Confirm SIM PUK
modemcc
0
init_str_2
Free text field
Initialisation string 1
modemcc
0
init_str1_2
Free text field
Initialisation string 2
modemcc
0
init_str2_2
Free text field
Initialisation string 3
modemcc
0
hang_str_2
Free text field
Hang-up string:
modemcc
0
posthang_str_2
Free text field
Post Hang-up string:
modemcc
0
intercall_idle_2
02147483647
Wait n seconds between hanging up
and allowing another call
modemcc
0
att_interval_2
02147483647
Wait n seconds between
attachment attempts
modemcc
0
link_retries_2
02147483647
Reset the module after n
unsuccessful connection attempts
modemcc
0
stat_retries_2
02147483647
Reset the module after n
unsuccessful status retrieval
attempts
modemcc
0
ss_interval_2
02147483647
Create a signal strength event every
n minutes
modemcc
0
check_reg_2
0,1,2
If registration is lost for 5 minutes
0 = do not reset the module
1 = reset the module if the GSM
registration is lost
2 = reset the module if the GPRS
registration is lost
modemcc
0
Psys_
0,1,2
Preferred System
0 = Auto
1 = GSM
2 = WCDMA
Advanced Mobile Network Settings parameters
Metric:
This parameter specifies the connected metric of the mobile interface. The default metric of a
connected interface is 1. By allowing the interface to have a higher value (lower priority), static
routes can take preference to interfaces. For normal operation, leave this value unchanged.
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Generate Heartbeats on this interface
Heartbeat packets are UDP packets that contain status information about the unit that may be
used to locate a remote unit’s current dynamic IP address.
This checkbox opens to show the following parameters:
Send Heartbeat messages to IP address a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s secs
If these parameters are set to a non-zero value, the router will transmit heartbeat packets to
the specified IP address/hostname at the specified interval.
Use interface x,y for the source IP address
This parameter allows the selection of the source interface for the UDP heartbeats. For
example, it may be required to send the heartbeat packets down a VPN tunnel. And in order to
match the corresponding subnets of the VPN, it might require changing the source IP to match
an inside Ethernet interface.
For normal operation, using the mobile interface as the source IP address, leave this value
unchanged.
Select transmit interface using the routing table
When enabled, the UDP heartbeats chooses the best route from the routing table. If disabled
the exit interface will be interface on which the heartbeat is configured.
Include IMSI information in the Heartbeat message
When enabled, the heartbeat includes the IMSI of the wireless module.
Include GPS information in the Heartbeat message
When enabled, the heartbeat includes the GPS co-ordinates of the router.
Generate Ping packets on this interface
This section relates to monitoring pings which can be sent from the mobile interface. For more
details, refer to Application Note 7 Wireless WAN problem Detection and Recovery.
This checkbox opens to show the following parameters:
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Mobile parameters
Send n byte pings to IP host a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s secs
If this parameter is set, the router will automatically generate a ping of n size to the IP host
specified (IP address or hostname) at the interval specified. Deleting the IP host value disables
the monitoring ping facility.
This parameter in conjunction with Reset the link if no response is received within s
seconds can be used to configure the unit to use a back-up interface automatically should
there be a problem with this interface.
Note The n parameter specifies the PING size when using monitoring ping feature. The size
indicates how large the ICMP packet should be excluding the size of the IP header.
Send pings every h hrs m mins s secs if ping responses are not being received
If you set this parameter, the router uses this value as the interval to ping at when more than
one ping request sent out the PPP interface is outstanding. This should be set to a shorter
interval than the above ping request interval so that the router may more quickly react to a
broken PPP link.
Switch to sending pings to IP host a.b.c.d after n failures
This allows a for more reliable problem detection before fail over occurs by testing
connectivity to 2 IP addresses/hostnames. If an IP address or host name is entered and the n
parameter has a value greater than 0, when a ping failure is detected on the primary IP
address, pings will be sent to this 2nd IP address/hostname. This is to ensure that if the main
IP address becomes unavailable for any reason and stops responding to ICMP requests, the
router will check another IP address before starting fail over procedures.
Ping responses are expected within n seconds
If you set this parameter to a non-zero value the unit will wait for the interval specified for a
response from a PING request before applying the Send pings every h hrs m mins s secs if
ping responses are not being received. If this parameter is set to 0 (default), the time
specified in the in Send n byte pings to IP host a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s secs is allowed
before applying the Send pings every h hrs m mins s secs if ping responses are not being
received.
Only send Pings when this interface is "In Service"
When you enable this parameter, the interface sends ICMP echo requests only when it is in
service. The default setting is off and ICMP echo requests are sent when the interface is in
service and out of service.
New connections to resume with previous Ping interval
When enabled, this parameter controls the ping interval after deactivating and subsequently
reactivating the mobile interface. It sets the ping interval to the same interval in use when the
mobile link last disconnected.
Reset the link if no response is received within s seconds
This parameter specifies an amount of time after which the device does not receive any ping
response, the unit terminates the mobile connection in an attempt to re-establish
communications. Because by default the mobile link is always on, the unit automatically
attempts to re-establish a PPP connection that has been terminated.
Use the ETH 0 IP address as the source IP address
If you enable this parameter, the unit to use the IP address of ETH0 (instead of the current IP
address of the mobile interface), as the source address for the auto PING packets.
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Mobile parameters
Note This parameter is useful if you want to send the monitoring pings down a VPN tunnel
where the source IP address needs to match the LAN.
Defer sending pings if IP traffic is being received
When enabled, the timer configured in the Send n byte pings to IP host a.b.c.d every h hrs
m mins s secs parameter is reset if IP data is sent across the mobile link.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
1
metric
0 - 256
Metric
ppp
1
OFF, ON
Generate Heartbeats on this
interface
ppp
1
hrtbeatip
IP address
Send Heartbeat messages to IP
address a.b.c.d every h hrs m
mins s secs
ppp
1
hrtbeatint
0 – 2147483647
Send Heartbeat messages to IP
address a.b.c.d every h hrs m
mins s secs
(seconds)
ppp
1
hbipent
Default,PPP,Ether
net
Use interface x,y for the source
IP address
ppp
1
hbipadd
number
Use interface x,y for the source
IP address
ppp
1
hbroute
on/off
Select transmit interface using
the routing table
ppp
1
hbimsi
on/off
Include IMSI information in the
Heartbeat message
ppp
1
hbgps
on/off
Include GPS information in the
Heartbeat message
ppp
1
OFF, ON
Generate Ping packets on this
interface
ppp
1
pingsiz
number
Send n byte pings to IP host
a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s
secs
ppp
1
pingip
IP addressd
Send n byte pings to IP host
a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s
secs
ppp
1
pingint
0 – 2147483647
Send n byte pings to IP host
a.b.c.d every h hrs m mins s
secs
(seconds)
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Mobile parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
1
pingint2
0 – 2147483647
Send pings every h hrs m mins
s secs if ping responses are not
being received
(seconds)
ppp
1
pingip2
IP address
Switch to sending pings to IP
host a.b.c.d after n failures
ppp
1
ip2count
number
Switch to sending pings to IP
host a.b.c.d after n failures
ppp
1
pingresp
0 – 2147483647
Ping responses are expected
within n seconds
ppp
1
pingis
on/off
Only send Pings when this
interface is In Service
ppp
1
ping2cont
on/off
New connections to resume
with previous Ping interval
ppp
1
pingdeact
0 - 2147483647
Reset the link if no response is
received within s seconds
ppp
1
pingfreth0
on/off
Use the ETH 0 IP address as the
source IP address
ppp
1
pingresetint
on/off
Defer sending pings if IP traffic
is being received
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Mobile parameters
SMS settings
You can configure the mobile routers to send and receive SMS messages. The sending of SMS
messages could for example be in conjunction with sending alarms and received messages for
configuration changes, or status requests.
Poll for incoming SMS messages
This checkbox opens to show the following parameter:Every n minutes
This parameter specifies the interval in minutes that the unit will wait in between checks for
incoming SMS messages. Setting this interval to 0 turns off checking.
Enable command replies via SMS
This parameter enables or disables replies to SMS commands.
Concatenate replies
Normally an SMS message is limited to 160 characters. However, the ETSI standard specifies a
way to allow a number of SMS messages to be linked together by the sender (in this case the
router). This enables the router to reply with long responses to SMS commands of longer than
160 characters. The reply comes back as a series of linked SMS messages which the phone
reassembles and displays as one big message.
Note The routers cannot handle received concatenated SMS messages, it can only transmit
concatenated SMS messages
Use this SMS message centre number n instead of the network default
This setting is optional. It is the number of the SMS message center (sometimes referred to as
the Service Centre Address), used to relay SMS messages or alarms. This number must include
the international dialling code, such as 44 for the UK, but not the + prefix or leading 0’s, such
as 44802000332. SMS alarms are generated when the SMS trigger priority is greater than 0
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Mobile parameters
and an event of this priority or higher occurs. SMS alarms may be configured using the
Configuration - Alarms > Event Settings > SMS web page
If no number is specified it is possible that the unit operates using the default message centre
for the GSM service to which you have subscribed.
SMS access level
The access level for SMS commands. The access level set here needs to match the level
required by the command sent by SMS for the command to be accepted.
Use x as a command separator (default is CR)
This parameter specifies the character to be used to separate multiple command lines when a
remote SMS sender is controlling the unit. The default separator is <CR> but some SMS
capable devices are not equipped with <CR> keys so an additional means of separating
multiple lines is required.
Allow CLI commands from the following SMS numbers.
You may specify up to 10 numbers. Specifying * permits commands from any SMS number.
Numbers are applied in the following input box. Click ‘Add’ to submit.
Related CLI commands - SIM Slot 1 (PPP 1)
Entity
Instance
Parameter
modemcc
0
sms_interval
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
Poll for incoming SMS
messages:Every n minutes
modemcc
0
sms_replies
on/off
Enable command replies via SMS
modemcc
0
sms_concat
Number
0 = off
10 = default
when enabled
Concatenate replies
modemcc
0
sca
Free text field
Use this SMS message centre
number n instead of the network
default
modemcc
0
sms_access
0 = Super
(default)
1 = High
2 = Medium
3 = Low
4 = None
5 = HighLow
6=
HighMedium
7 = CheckPar
SMS access level:
modemcc
0
sms_cmd_sep
Free text field
Use as a command separator
(default is CR)
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Mobile parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
modemcc
0
sms_callerid
Mobile
telephone
number
Allow CLI commands from the
following SMS numbers.
Mobile
telephone
number
Allow CLI commands from the
following SMS numbers.
modemcc
0
sms_callerid_1
to 9
(First SMS number)
(additional SMS numbers 1 to 9)
Related CLI commands - SIM Slot 2 (PPP 1)
Entity
Instance
Parameter
modemcc
0
sms_interval_2
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
Poll for incoming SMS
messages:Every n minutes
modemcc
0
sms_replies_2
on/off
Enable command replies via SMS
modemcc
0
sms_concat_2
Number
0 = off
10 = default
when enabled
Concatenate replies
modemcc
0
Sca_2
Free text field
Use this SMS message centre
number n instead of the network
default
modemcc
0
sms_access_2
0 = Super
(default)
1 = High
2 = Medium
3 = Low
4 = None
5 = HighLow
6=
HighMedium
7 = CheckPar
SMS access level:
modemcc
0
sms_cmd_sep
Free text field
Use as a command separator
(default is CR)
modemcc
0
sms_callerid
Mobile
telephone
number
Allow CLI commands from the
following SMS numbers.
sms_callerid_1 to Mobile
9
telephone
number
Allow CLI commands from the
following SMS numbers.
modemcc
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(First SMS number)
(additional SMS numbers 1 to 9)
91
DSL parameters
DSL parameters
Router models incorporating a DSL broadband interface includes a configuration page having the
title shown above. By default, the configuration in this section is suitable for the majority of ADSL
service providers in the UK. However, advanced users or users outside of the U.K. may wish or
need to adjust some of the parameters.
Enable DSL
This checkbox gives the facility to enable or disable the use of DSL/ADSL functionality on the
router.
Configure PVC
Select the required PVC instance from the drop-down selection box. Subsequent settings
applies to the selected instance (see below).
PVC parameters
The PVC (Permanent virtual circuit) parameters are described here.
Enable this PVC
Check this box to enable PVC settings.
Encapsulation
This parameter selects the method of encapsulation to be used when transporting data over
this APVC. The appropriate value can be selected from a drop list which includes the following
options:
Option
Description
PPPoA VC-Mux
RFC 2364 VC-multiplexed PPP over AAL5
PPPoA LLC
RFC 2364 LLC encapsulated PPP over AAL5
PPPoE VC-Mux
RFC 2516 VC-multiplexed PPP over Ethernet
PPPoE LLC
RFC 2516 LLC encapsulated PPP over Ethernet
Bridged Ethernet VC-Mux
RFC 2684 VC-multiplexed bridged Ethernet
Bridged Ethernet LLC
RFC 2684 LLC encapsulated bridged Ethernet
Routed IP VC-Mux
RFC 1483 VC multiplexing routed IP over ATM
Routed IP LLC
RFC 1483 LLC encapsulated routed IP over ATM
To use PPPoA or PPPoE encapsulation, one of the available PPP instances must first be
configured to use this APVC instance as its Layer 1 interface on the associated Configuration –
Interfaces > PPP > PPP n > Advanced page.
VPI
This parameter sets the Virtual Path Identifier for this APVC in the range 0 - 255.
VCI
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This parameter set sthe Virtual Channel Identifier for this APVC in the range 0 - 65535.
Entity
Instance
apvc
apvc
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
0
0-255
VPI
0
0-65535
VCI
DSL Network Settings parameters
This DSL PVC is using PPP 1
This parameter specifies the default interface for DSL. The default interface for DSL is PPP 1.
Description
Enter a description for the DSL in this text field. This field is optional.
Username
Enter ADSL username in this text field.
Password
Enter the password for the DSL account
Confirm password
Enter the password for the DSL account in this text field.
Enable NAT on this interface
This parameter selects whether IP Network Address Translation (NAT) or Network Address
and Port Translation (NAPT) are used at the Ethernet interface. When the parameter is set to
disabled, no NAT will take place. When this parameter is enabled, extra options described
below will be displayed.
NAT and NAPT can have many uses but they are generally used to allow a number of private IP
hosts (PCs for example) to connect to the Internet through a single shared public IP address.
This has two main advantages, it saves on IP address space (the ISP only need assign you one
IP address), and it isolates the private IP hosts from the Internet, effectively providing a simple
firewall because unsolicited traffic from the Internet cannot be routed directly to the private IP
hosts.
To use NAT or NAPT correctly in the example of connecting private hosts to the Internet, NAT
or NAPT should be enabled on the router’s WAN side interface and should be disabled on the
router’s LAN side interface.
IP address
Enable standard Network Address Translation (NAT).
When a private IP host sends a UDP or TCP packet to an Internet IP address, the router
changes the source address of the packet from the private host IP to the router’s public IP
address before forwarding the packet onto the Internet host. Additionally it will create an
entry in a NAT table containing the private IP source address, the private IP port number, the
public IP destination address and the destination port number. Conversely, when the router
receives a reply packet back from the public host, it checks the source IP, source port number
and destination port number in the NAT table to determine which private host to forward the
packet to. Before it forwards the packet back to the private host, it changes the destination IP
address of the packet from its public IP address to the IP address of the private host.
IP address and Port
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Enable Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT).
This mode behaves like NAT but in addition to changing the source IP of the packet from the
private host it can also change the source port number. This is required if more than one
private host attempts to connect using the same local port number to the same Internet host
on the same remote port number. If such a scenario were to occur with NAT the router would
be unable to determine which private host to route the returning packets to and the
connection would fail.
NAT Source IP address
If specified, and NAT mode is set to NAT or NATP for this interface, then the source address of
packets being sent out this interface is changed to this address, rather than the interface
address.
Enable IPsec on this interface
The IPSec parameter enables or disables IPSec processing on this interface. If this box is
checked, packets sent or received on this interface must pass through the IPSec code before
being transmitted. IPSec may drop the packet, pass it unchanged, or encrypt and encapsulate
within an IPSec packet.
Keep Security Associations (SAs) when this Mobile interface is disconnected
This checkbox configures the router to keep any existing IKE and IPsec associations should the
link drop. This is usually applied on head-end routers with fixed IP addresses.
Use interface X, Y for the source IP address of IPsec packets
By default, the source IP address for an IPSec Eroute is the IP address of the interface on
which IPSec was enabled. By setting this parameter to either a PPP or Ethernet interface, the
source IP address used by IPSec will match that of the Ethernet or PPP interface specified.
Enable the firewall on this interface
The Firewall parameter is used to turn Firewall script processing On or Off for this interface.
Note If the firewall is enabled on an interface and with the absence of any firewall rules, the
default action is to block ALL traffic. To configure the firewall, see the Firewall parameters
section.
Limit the data transmitted over this interface
On W-WAN networks (where charging is based on the amount of data transferred as opposed
to time spent on-line), this parameter specifies a data limit after which the unit will create an
entry in the event log to indicate that this amount of data has been transferred. For example,
if your monthly tariff includes up to 5Mb of data before you are charged an excess, you might
set the Data limit warning level to 4000. This would cause the unit to place a warning entry in
the event log once you had transferred 4Mb. This event could be used to trigger an email alert
message, SNMP trap or SMS alert message.
Issue a warning event after
Enter the maximum data to be transmitted before a warning entry is generated in the
eventlog. You have the option to select either of kilobytes, megabytes or gigabytes via the
drop-down box.
Stop data from being transmitted after
This parameter sets the maximum amount of data that may be transferred before the unit
locks the interface and prevent further transfer. As with the Issue a warning event
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DSL parameters
after parameter it is used on networks where the tariff is based on the amount of data
transferred to help prevent excess charges being incurred. You have the option to select
kilobytes, megabytes or gigabytes via the drop-down box.
Reset the data limit on the x day of the month
If you wish to automatically unlock a locked interface at the start of a new billing period, set
this parameter to the appropriate day of the month (from 1 to 28). When this date is reached
the unit will unlock the interface and data transfer may resume. If the parameter is set to 0,
automatic unlocking will not occur and manual unlocking will be necessary (by clicking on the
Clear Total Data Transferred button on the appropriate Diagnostics - Statistics > PPP > PPP n
page. This parameter will also reset the statistics for the Data limit warning level (kb).
The factory default does not include any DSL settings and so when the router is first installed,
the following message appears.
This DSL PVC is not assigned to any PPP interface
Click here to jump to the PPP Mapping page
When clicked, this link will redirect the browser to the Configuration – Network > interfaces
> Advanced > PPP Mappings page.
From this page, select the desired PPP instance.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
1
description
Free text
Description
ppp
1
username
Free text
Username
ppp
1
password
Free text
Password
ppp
1
do_nat 1
ON
Enable NAT on this interface
(IP Address)
ppp
1
do_nat 2
ON
Enable NAT on this interface
(IP Address and port)
ppp
1
natip
IP Address
NAT Source IP Address
ppp
1
ipsec
ON/OFF
Enable IPSec on this interface
ppp
1
firewall
ON/OFF
Enable the firewall on this interface
ppp
1
dlwarnkb
Kbytes/
Mbytes/
GBytes
Issue a warning event after
ppp
1
dlstopkb
Kbytes/
Mbytes/
GBytes
Stop data from being transmitted
after x Bytes data
ppp
1
dlrstday
1-28
Reset the data limit on the nth day
of the month
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DSL parameters
PVC Traffic Shaping parameters
Service category
You can configure Each ATM PVC with a service category:
•
UBR (unspecified bit rate, the default)
•
VBR-nrt (variable bit rate, non-real-time)
•
VBR-rt (variable bit rate, real-time)
•
CBR (constant bit rate)
•
Additional traffic parameters may be specified:
•
PCR (peak cell rate in cells/sec)
•
SCR (sustained cell rate in cells/sec)
•
MBS (maximum burst size in cells)
The four service categories are characterized by the various traffic parameters as follows:
UBR
PCR, which may be zero for no limit
VBR-nrt
PCR, SCR, MBS
VBR-rt
PCR, SCR, MBS
CBR
PCR
Peak cell rate (cells/sec)
This parameter specifies the maximum allowable rate at which cells can be transported along
a connection in the ATM network. The PCR is the determining factor in how often cells are sent
in relation to time in an effort to minimize jitter. PCR generally is coupled with the CDVT (Cell
Delay Variation Tolerance), which indicates how much jitter is allowable.
Sustained cell rate (cells/sec)
This parameter specifies a calculation of the average allowable, long-term cell transfer rate on
a specific connection.
Maximum burst size (cells)
This parameter specifies the maximum allowable burst size of cells that can be transmitted
contiguously on a particular connection.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
apvc
0
servcat
UBR,VBR-ntr,VBRrt,CBR
Service category
apvc
0
pcr
n
Peak cell rate (cells/sec)
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DSL parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
apvc
0
scr
n
Sustained cell rate (cells/
sec)
apvc
0
mbs
n
Maximum burst size (cells)
Advanced DSL parameters
Operational mode
This parameter specifies the connection mode for the DSL link. The following options are
available (default is Multi mode).
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
Multi-mode
For Annex A models (such as PSTN / POTS) this option provides
automatic selection between G.dmt, G.lite and ANSI (in the order
listed).
For Annex B models (such as ISDN) this option provides automatic
selection between G.dmt (in the order listed)
ANSI
Annex A only - attempt to connect in ANSI T1.413 mode
G.dmt
Attempt to connect in ITU G.992.1 G.dmt mode
G.lite
Annex A only - attempt to connect in ITU G.992.2 G.lite mode
ADSL2
Connect using ADSL2
ADSL2+
Connect using ADSL2+
Load DSL firmware from flash file ‘dspfw.bin’ (if present)
This checkbox enables the use of alternative +ADSL driver firmware and should only be
enabled on the advice of the technical support team. This option also requires that an
additional file be loaded onto the router.
Enable watchdog
This checkbox should only be enabled on the advice of the technical support team.
Manage this PVC using ATM OAM cells
Using Alarm indication signal (AIS) cells downstream and Remote defect indication (RDI) cells
upstream, the router can detect faults between the connecting points of the VP/VC and
suspend transfer of ATM cells until the VC fault condition is cleared.
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GRE parameters
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
adsl
0
oper_mode
Multi,ANSI,G.d Operational mode
mt,G.lite,ADSL
2, ADSL2+
adsl
0
usefwfile
ON/OFF
Load DSL firmware from flash file
adsl
0
watchdog
ON/OFF
Enable watchdog
apvc
0
oammanage
ON/OFF
Manage this PVC using ATM OAM
cells
Additional CLI commands
The following command is not available from the web interface:
adsl 0 debug {0|1}
Where 0 is off and 1 causes debugging information to be sent to the CLI.
GRE parameters
Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) is a means of transporting IP packets from one device to
another through an unencrypted point-to-point IP tunnel. Multiple tunnels may be configured to
multiple devices. Below the GRE Interfaces sub menu, you will find the individual tunnel
configuration. When configured, a GRE tunnel is created between two devices.
Tunnel parameters
Description
This parameter allows you to enter a name for this GRE instance, to make it easier to identify
it.
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GRE parameters
IP address
This is the IP address of the virtual interface that is used by the tunnel. This parameter is used
in conjunction with the mask parameter below. This parameter MUST be entered for the
tunnel to work.
Mask
You can use this parameter with the IP address parameter to clarify the subnet in use on the
virtual interface. This would normally be a 30 bit mask as this is a point-to-point link
(255.255.255.252).
Source IP Address
The two sub options here allows you to specify a source address either from a specified
interface or by manually assigning an address. If you do not select either option the default
address for the route the packet leaves the router through will be used (please note that if the
interface through which the GRE packets exit does not have natting turned on then the default
router address will be used – by default this will be the Ethernet 0 address).
Use Interface:
These two parameters allow you to select the GRE tunnel source interface, so the tunnel end
point can be a physical interface rather than a virtual IP address. This is for using GRE without
IPSec. These parameters should not be used if the source address is used in the parameter
below. Select from the drop down boxes the available interface type and number.
Use IP Address:
A virtual host IP address for the local end of the tunnel, configured for routing purposes. This
IP address has no other use and needs no mask as it is a host address, such as 1.1.1.1. This
option is normally used in conjunction with IPSec. Do not use this parameter if the interface is
selected as the source using the Use Interface options above.
Destination IP Address or Hostname
This is the FQDN or IP address of the remote end of the tunnel. This could also be the virtual
host IP address for the remote end of the tunnel, configured for routing purposes. such as
2.2.2.2
Enable keepalives on this GRE tunnel
Select this checkbox to display the GRE keepalive parameters. Keepalives are needed so allow
the router to determine whether the tunnel interface is receiving traffic correctly or not. If
keepalives fail, the tunnel is marked as down.
Send a keepalive every s seconds
When configured to a non-zero value, keepalive packets is sent to the remote end of the
tunnel and the response is monitored to detect if the tunnel is up or down. If the tunnel is
detected as down, the routing table metric will be altered. Value is configured in seconds. If
this value is set to zero then keepalives will not be used.
Bring this GRE tunnel down after no replies to n keepalives
This parameter specifies the consecutive number of keepalive packets that need to fail before
the tunnel is detected as being down.
Bring this GRE interface up to send keepalives
This specifies whether or not the GRE keepalive packets will activate the tunnel. If set to YES
and the tunnel drops the GRE keepalive packet will try to raise the tunnel again. If set to NO
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GRE parameters
and the tunnel has been marked as down due to the GRE keepalives not being received, the
router will only raise the tunnel if a packet (other than a GRE keepalive) needs to be routed.
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GRE parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tun
n
descr
Free text field
Description
tun
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
IP Address
tun
n
mask
Valid Subnet
Mask
Mask
tun
n
source_ent
blank,ETH,PPP
Use interface x,y for the source IP
address of GRE packets
x = Interface type
tun
n
source_add
0 - 255
Use interface x,y for the source IP
address of GRE packets
y = interface number
tun
n
source
Valid IP address
Source IP address to use for GRE
packets
tun
n
dest
Valid IP address
Destination IP address to use for GRE
packets
tun
n
Kadelay
Seconds
Send a keepalive every s seconds
tun
n
karetries
Number
Bring this GRE tunnel down after no
replies to n keepalives
tun
n
kaactrq
On,off
Bring this GRE interface up to send
keepalives
Advanced GRE parameters
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GRE parameters
Metric
This parameter specifies the connected metric of an interface. The default metric of a
connected interface is 1. By allowing the interface to have a higher value (lower priority), static
routes can take preference to interfaces. For normal operation, leave this value unchanged.
MTU
This parameter specifies the maximum transmission unit. In this text box you can enter the
greatest amount of data that can be transferred in one physical packet. Default value is 1400
Tunnel Key
This parameter is normally used with multi GRE (mGRE). The tunnel key adds an extra field to
the GRE header where a key number can be applied. When used, incoming GRE packets must
have a matching tunnel key number to be accepted by this tunnel. When the Tunnel key
parameter is used the IP address parameter is not required.
Enable the firewall on this GRE tunnel
The Firewall parameter turns Firewall script processing On or Off for this interface. If using the
firewall for problem detection on a tunnel interface, the interface to put OOS will need to be
specified, such as pass out break end on tun n from any to 100.100.100.29 port=4000 flags S!A
inspect-state oos ppp n 5.
Enable GRE checksums
This parameter selects whether to add GRE checksums to GRE packets when the unit is
terminating a GRE tunnel. Set this parameter to Off to disable checksums, and to On to
enables checksums.
Enable IGMP on this GRE tunnel
This IGMP parameter enables or disables the transmission and reception of IGMP packets on
this interface. IGMP is used to advertise members of multicast groups. If IGMP is enabled, and
a member of a multicast group is discovered on this interface, multicast packets for this group
received on other interfaces will be sent out this interface.
Enable IP analysis:
When you set this parameter to ON, the un-encapsulated IP traffic is captured into the
analyser trace.
Enable Tunnel analysis:
When you set this parameter to ON, the GRE encapsulated packets and keepalives is captured
to the analyser trace.
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ISDN parameters
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tun
n
metric
Numeric Metric
value
Metric for the route associated with
this interface
tun
n
MTU
MTU value
Maximum transmission unit size
tun
n
tunkey
Key number
Key number
tun
n
Firewall
on,off
Turn firewall on or off
tun
n
csum
on,off
Enable GRE checksums
tun
n
igmp
On, off
Enable IGMP packets
tun
n
ipanon
On, off
Enable IP analysis for traffic on this
interface
tun
n
tunanon
On, off
Enable GRE tunnel analysis
Note RIP Routing Parameters – CLI only: Please note that under the CLI commands for GRE
Tunnels you will find parameters specifically relating to RIP. Please see the Interfaces >
Ethernet / PPP / GRE parameters section on RIP routing for configuration of these sub
parameters.
ISDN parameters
The Configuration - Network > Interfaces > ISDN page has the following options:
•
ISDN Answering
•
ISDN Dialling
•
LAPD
ISDN Answering parameters
This page allows you to configure the ISDN interface to receive incoming calls.
Load answering defaults button
Click this to button resets the default answering PPP interface (PPP 0) to the factory answering
defaults.
Description
This parameter allows you to enter a name for this PPP instance, to make it easier to identify
it.
Only accept calls from calling numbers
ending with
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ISDN parameters
This parameter restricts the range of numbers from which ISDN will answer incoming calls,
such as the ISDN interface will only answer a call if the trailing digits of the calling number
match what is specified by this parameter. For example, if this parameter was set to 3,
incoming calls from 1234563 would be answered but calls from 1234567 would not.
with ISDN MSN ending with
If answering is disabled this parameter is not used.
This parameter provides the filter for the ISDN Multiple Subscriber Numbering facility. It is
blank by default but when set to an appropriate value on an answering interface, it will cause
the unit to answer incoming calls to only telephone numbers where the trailing digits match
the value selected. For example, setting this parameter to 123 will prevent the unit from
answering any calls to numbers that do not end in 123.
with ISDN sub-address ending with
If answering is disabled this parameter is not used.
This parameter provides the filter for the ISDN sub-address facility. It is blank by default but
when set to an appropriate value on an ISDN answering interface, it will cause the unit to
answer incoming calls only to ISDN numbers where the trailing digits match the Sub-address
value. For example, setting the this parameter to 123 will prevent the unit from answering any
calls to numbers that do not end in 123.
Use the following local IP configuration
Local IP Address:
This is the IP address of the unit’s ISDN answering interface. Set this field to the desired local
IP address.
Attempt to assign the following IP configuration to remote devices
Set this parameter if the remote system needs a supplied address. The interface makes an
attempt to negotiate an IP address from the IP address pool. Generally, this parameter is
enabled for incoming connections. This checkbox opens to show the following parameters.
Assign remote IP addresses from a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
This is the range of IP addresses supplied to incoming callers. This parameter may require
alteration if the default value 10.10.10.0 to 10.10.10.4 does not suit the remote network
configuration.
Mask:
This specifies the IP netmask for the Remote network. This can be used to create a dynamic
route to the remote network whenever the ISDN interface is active.
Primary DNS server:
The answering ISDN interface would normally supply its own PPP IP address to the peer for
DNS requests. This parameter allows you to specify an alternative DNS IP address.
Secondary DNS server:
This parameter can supply a secondary DNS server IP address to the peer for DNS requests if
required.
Enable NAT on this interface
This parameter enables or disables IP Network Address Translation (NAT) on the answering
ISDN interface.
This checkbox opens to show the following options:
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ISDN parameters
IP Address
Enable standard Network Address Translation (NAT).
IP address and Port
Enable Network Address and Port Translation (NAPT).
Enable IPsec on this interface
This parameter enables or disables IPSec processing on the ISDN interface. If enabled, packets
sent or received on this interface must pass through the IPSec code before being transmitted.
IPSec may drop the packet, pass it unchanged, or encrypt and encapsulate within an IPSec
packet.
This checkbox opens to show the following parameters:
Keep Security Associations (SAs) when this ISDN interface is disconnected
This checkbox configures the router to keep any existing IKE and IPsec associations should the
link drop. This is usually applied on head-end routers with fixed IP addresses.
Use interface X, Y for the source IP address of IPsec packets
By default, the source IP address for an IPSec Eroute is the IP address of the interface on
which IPSec was enabled. By setting this parameter to either a PPP or Ethernet interface, the
source IP address used by IPSec will match that of the Ethernet or PPP interface specified.
Enable the firewall on this interface
The Firewall parameter enables or disables the Firewall script processing for the mobile
interface.
Note If the firewall is enabled on an interface and with the absence of any firewall rules, the
default action is to block ALL traffic. To configure the firewall, refer to the Firewall
parameters section.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
0
name
Free text field
Description:
ppp
0
cingnb
number
ending with
ppp
0
msn
number
with ISDN MSN ending with
ppp
0
sub
number
with ISDN sub-address ending with
ppp
0
ipaddr
IP address
Local IP Address:
ppp
0
mask
Network mask
Mask:
ppp
0
ipmin
IP address
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
ppp
0
iprange
1 - 255
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
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ISDN parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
0
dnsserver
IP address
Primary DNS server:
ppp
0
secdns
IP address
Secondary DNS server:
ppp
0
do_nat
1
Enable NAT on this interface
IP Address:
ppp
0
do_nat
2
Enable NAT on this interface
IP address and Port:
ppp
0
ipsec
1
Enable IPsec on this interface
ppp
0
ipsec
2
Keep Security Associations (SAs) when
this ISDN interface is disconnected
ppp
0
ipsecent
Default,Ethern
et, PPP
Use interface X, Y for the source IP
address of IPsec packets
ppp
0
ipsecadd
number
Use interface X, Y for the source IP
address of IPsec packets
ppp
0
firewall
on/off
Enable the firewall on this interface
Advanced ISDN parameters
These are the advanced settings for the ISDN interface.
Metric:
This parameter specifies the connected metric of the mobile interface. The default metric of a
connected interface is 1. By allowing the interface to have a higher value (lower priority), static
routes can take preference to interfaces. For normal operation, leave this value unchanged.
Enable "Always On" mode of this interface
On
This parameter configures the PPP instance so that if the unit is disconnected, it tries to
reconnect again after approximately 10 seconds or dictated by the Configuration - Network
> IP Routing/Forwarding > IP Routing > When an "Always On" route becomes "In
Service", wait n seconds before using it parameter.
On and return to service immediately
This is similar to the above parameter. If you enable this parameter, but the unit will try and
connect immediately and without delay.
Put this interface "Out of Service" when an always-on connection attempt fails
Usually, the always-on interfaces do not go out of service unless they have connected at least
once. When this option is turned On, the interface goes out of service even if the first
connection attempt fails.
Attempt to re-connect after n seconds
This parameter specifies the length of time in seconds that the unit will wait after an alwayson ISDN connection has been terminated before trying to re-establish the link.
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ISDN parameters
If an inhibited PPP interface is connected, attempt to re-connect after n seconds
The value of this parameter takes precedence over Configuration - Network > Interfaces >
ISDN > ISDN Answering > Advanced > Wait n seconds after power-up before activating
this interface when some other PPP that is usually inhibited by this one is connected. This
parameter typically reduces the connection retry rate when a lower priority PPP is connected.
Wait n seconds after power-up before activating this interface
If this parameter is not set to 0, this is the initial delay after power up before the PPP is
activated. After that, the usual always-on activation timers apply.
Control when this interface can connect using Time band n
This parameter specifies the Time Band number to use for this ISDN instance (see the
Timebands section).
Keep this interface up for at least n seconds
If you set this parameter to a non-zero value, ISDN will not close the connection for the
specified period, even if the link is inactive.
Close this interface
After n seconds
This parameter specifies the maximum time that this ISDN Interface may remain connected
during any one session. After this time, the ISDN link is deactivated.
if it has been up for n minutes in a day
This parameter specifies the maximum time that this ISDN interface may remain connected
during any one day. After this time, the ISDN link is deactivated.
If the link has been idle for n seconds
The ISDN interface closes the connection if the link is inactive for the length of time specified
by this parameter.
Alternative idle timer for static routes n seconds
This parameter specifies an alternative Inactivity timeout for use in conjunction with the Use
2nd inactivity timeout when this route becomes available parameter on the Configuration Routing > Routing > Static Route n pages. This timeout will only be used until the PPP next
deactivates. After that, the normal timeout value is used.
If the link has been idle for s seconds
The router will deactivate this interface after the time specified in this text box if it detects that
the link has not passed any traffic for that period.
Alternative idle timer for static routes s seconds
The value in this text box specifies an alternative inactivity timeout for use in conjunction with
the Make PPP n interface use the alternative idle timeout when this route becomes
available parameter on the Configuration – Network > IP Routing/Forwarding > Static
Routes > Routes n > Advanced web page. This timeout will only be used until the PPP
instance next deactivates. After that the normal timeout value is used.
If the link has not received any packets for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the amount of time that the router waits without receiving
any PPP packets before disconnecting. The timer is reset with each received PPP packet.
If the negotiation is not complete in s seconds
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ISDN parameters
The value in this textbox specifies the maximum time (in seconds) allowed for the PPP
negotiation to complete. If negotiations have not completed within this period, the interface is
deactivated.
Generate an event after this interface has been up for m minutes
The value in this text box specifies the number of minutes (if any) after which the router
should create an event in the event log that states that the interface has been active for this
period.
Limit the data transmitted over this interface
When checked, this checkbox enables the following parameters that control what data volume
restrictions (if any) should be applied to this interface.
Issue a warning event after n units
The value in this text box is the amount of traffic which causes a warning event to be
generated in the event log stating that the specified amount of data has been transferred. The
units are specified by a drop-down list, having the following options; KBytes, MBytes, GBytes.
For example, if the monthly tariff includes up to 5MB of data before excess usage charges are
levied, it would be useful to set this threshold to 4MB. This would cause the router to create a
warning entry in the event log once 4MB of data had been transferred. This event could then
be used to trigger an email alert, SNMP trap or SMS alert message.
Stop data from being transmitted after n units
The value in this text box specifies the total amount of data that may be transmitted by this
PPP instance before the link is blocked for further traffic, and the value in the drop-down list
specifies the units which are kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes.
Reset the data limit on the n day of the month
The value in this text box specifies the day of the month on which the data limit is reset to
zero.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
metric
0 - 255
Metric
ppp
n
aodion
Enable “Always On” mode of this
0–2
interface, On, On and return to
0 = disabled
service immediately
1 = enabled
2 = On and
return to service
immediately
ppp
n
immoos
ON, OFF
Put this interface “Out of Service”
when an always-on connection
attempt fails
ppp
n
aodi_dly
0 – 2147483647
Attempt to reconnect after s
seconds
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ISDN Dialing parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
aodi_dly2
0 – 2147483647
If an inhibited PPP interface is
connected, attempt to re-connect
after s seconds
ppp
n
pwr_dly
0 – 2147483647
Wait s seconds after power-up
before activating this interface
ppp
n
tband
0-4
Control when this interface can
connect using Time Band n
ppp
n
minup
0 – 2147483647
Keep this interface up for at least s
seconds
ppp
n
maxup
0 – 2147483647
Close this interface after s seconds
ppp
n
maxuptime
0 – 2147483647
if it has been up for m minutes in a
day
ppp
n
timeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has been idle for s
seconds
ppp
n
timeout2
0 – 2147483648
Alternative idle timer for static
routes s seconds
ppp
n
rxtimeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has not received any
packets for s seconds
ppp
n
maxneg
0 – 2147483648
if the negotiation is not complete in
s seconds
ppp
n
uplogmins
0 – 2147483647
Generate an event after this
interface has been up for m mins
ppp
n
dlwarnkb
0 – 2147483647
Issue a warning after n units
ppp
n
dlstopkb
0 – 2147483647
Stop data from being transmitted
after n units
ppp
n
dlrstday
0 – 255
Reset the data limit on the n day of
the month
ISDN Dialing parameters
This section of the web interface appears when the router is fitted with an optional internal ISDN
MODEM card. When first powered up, navigating to the Configuration – Network > Interfaces >
ISDN page will show a message indicating that the MODEM card does not have a PPP instance
associated with it. Follow the link on the page and select an unassigned PPP interface to the
MODEM. When the browser is refreshed and the Configuration – Network > Interfaces > ISDN
page redisplayed, it should show the parameters described below, along with a message at the
top of the page indicating which PPP instance has been selected.
This ISDN interface is using PPP n
This message simply states which PPP instance has been assigned to the interface.
Description
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ISDN Dialing parameters
The value in this text box is a memorable name for the interface. This may be useful when
referring to the interface, rather than having to remember the name and the function of the
interface.
Dial out using numbers
These four text boxes contain the telephone numbers that should be used, in sequence, to
make an outgoing connection.
Prefix n to the dial out number
The value in this text box specifies the dialling prefix to use, if needed. This may be necessary
when using a PABX.
Username
The text string text box is the username that should be used when using the PPP instance to
connect to the remote peer. This will normally be provided by an ISP for use with a dial-in
Internet access service.
Password
This text box contains the password to use for authenticating the remote peer and is used in
conjunction with the above username.
Confirm password
Type the password into this text box to enable the router to confirm that the password has
been entered identically in both boxes.
Allow the remote device to assign a local IP address to this router
When this radio button is selected, the remote peer will assign this PPP interface an IP
address.
Try to negotiate a.b.c.d as the local IP address for this router
If it would be useful, but not essential, to have a predefined IP address for the interface, the
second radio button should be selected and the desired IP address entered into the text box
to the right.
Use a.b.c.d as the local IP address for this router
If it is essential that the PPP interface has a specific IP address, this radio button should be
selected and the IP address entered into the text box.
Use the following DNS servers if not negotiated
Primary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary DNS server to use if a DNS server is
not assigned as part of the PPP negotiation and connection process. It is fairly common
practice for the DNS server to be assigned automatically by the ISP when making a connection.
Secondary DNS server
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the secondary DNS server to use if one is
not automatically assigned by the remote peer.
Attempt to assign the following IP configuration to remote devices
When checked, this check box reveals the following four configuration parameters which
control how the PPP instance assigns an IP address to a connecting remote peer. The primary
and secondary DNS server addresses will also be sent to the remote peer
Assign remote IP addresses from a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
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The IP addresses in these text boxes define the pool of IP addresses to assign to remote peers
during the IP protocol configuration phase of the PPP negotiation process.
Primary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary DNS server that the remote peer
should use when making DNS requests over the link.
Secondary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the secondary DNS server that the remote peer
should use when making DNS requests, should the primary server be unavailable.
Allow the PPP interface to answer incoming calls
When checked, this checkbox causes the PPP instance to answer an incoming call.
Only allow calling numbers ending with n
When set to answer calls, the value in this textbox provides a filter for ISDN sub-addresses.
This value is blank by default but when the PPP instance is set to answer calls, only numbers
having trailing digits that match the sub-address value in this test will be answered. So for
example, if this value is set to 123, only calls from numbers with trailing digits that match this
value will be answered. For example 01942 605123
Enable NAT on this interface
When checked, this checkbox enables Network Address Translation to operate on this
interface. This is the same as for other PPP interfaces.
IP address/IP address and Port
These radio buttons select whether IP address translation only should be applied or whether
port number translation should also be applied to IP packets.
Enable IPsec on this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to encrypt traffic on this interface using the
IPsec protocol. The following two additional configuration parameters are revealed when this
box is checked.
Keep Security Associations (SAs) when this ISDN interface is disconnected
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to maintain (such as not flush) the SA when
the interface becomes disconnected. The normal behavior is to remove the SAs when the
interface becomes disconnected.
Use interface x,y for the source IP address of IPsec packets
If it is required to use another interface (such as not the interface currently being configured)
as the source address for IPsec packets, this may be achieved by selecting the desired
interface from the drop-down list and typing the desired interface instance number into the
adjacent text box.
Enable the firewall on this interface
When checked, this checkbox applies the firewall rules to traffic using this interface.
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Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
name
Up to 25
characters
Description
ppp
n
phonenum
up to 25 digits
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
ph2
“
“
ppp
n
ph3
“
“
ppp
n
ph4
“
“
ppp
n
prefix
0 – 9999999999
Prefix n to the dial out number
ppp
n
username
Up to 60
characters
Username
ppp
n
password
Up to 40
characters
Password
ppp
n
IPaddr
0.0.0.0
Allow the remote device to assign a
local IP address to this router
ppp
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Try to negotiate a.b.c.d as the local
IP address for this router
(in conjunction with l_addr)
ppp
n
l_addr
OFF,ON
When ON,
allows
negotiation
when OFF force
use of specified
IP address
Use a.b.c.d as the local IP address of
this router
ppp
n
DNSserver
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Use the following DNS servers if not
negotiated
Primary DNS server a.b.c.d
ppp
n
secDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Use the following DNS servers if not
negotiated
Secondary DNS server a.b.c.d
ppp
n
IPmin
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
ppp
n
IPrange
0 - 255
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
ppp
n
transDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Primary DNS server a.b.c.d
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
sectransDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Secondary DNS server a.b.c.d
ppp
n
ans
OFF,ON
Allow this PPP interface to answer
incoming calls
ppp
n
cingnb
up to 25 digits
Only allow calling numbers ending
with n
ppp
n
do_nat
0,1,2
0 = Disabled
1 = IP address
2 = IP address
and port
Enable NAT on this interface
IP address/IP address and Port
ppp
n
nat_ip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
NAT Source IP address a.b.c.d
ppp
n
ipsec
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
2 = Enabled and
Keep SAs
Enable IPsec on this interface/
Keep Security Associations when
this ISDN interface is disconnected
ppp
n
firewall
OFF,ON
Enable the firewall on this interface
Advanced ISDN parameters
Metric
The value in this text box specifies the route metric that should be applied to this interface.
For details, see the PPP parameters section.
Enable “Always On” mode of this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the following two options to appear.
On/On and return to service immediately
These two radio buttons select whether the always-on functionality should simply be enabled
or whether the additional facility to return the interface to the In Service state should be
applied.
Put this interface “Out of Service” when an always-on connection attempt fails
Normally, always-on interfaces do not go out of service unless they have connected at least
once. When checked, this checkbox causes the router to put the interface out of service even if
the first connection attempt fails.
Attempt to re-connect after s seconds
The parameter in this text box specifies the length of time in seconds that the router should
wait after an always-on PPP connection has been terminated before trying to re-establish the
link.
If an inhibited PPP interface is connected, attempt to re-connect after s seconds
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The value in this text box takes precedence over the previous parameter when another PPP
instance that is usually inhibited by this one is connected. This parameter typically reduces the
connection retry rate when a lower priority PPP instance is connected.
Wait s seconds after power-up before activating this interface
The value in this text box is the initial delay that the router applies before activating the PPP
instance after power-up. After the initial power-up delay the normal always-on activation
timers apply. If set to zero, no delay will be applied.
Control when this interface can connect using Time band n
These two controls, the check box and drop-down list determine whether the Time Band
function should be applied to this interface. Checking the checkbox enables the functionality
and the desired time band instance is selected from the drop-down list. Time Band
functionality is explained in the Timebands section.
Keep this interface up for at least s seconds
The value in this textbox specifies the minimum period that the PPP interface should remain
available. This means that even if the link becomes inactive before this period expires, the
connection will remain open.
Close this interface
After s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the maximum time that the link remains active in any one
session. After this time, the link will be deactivated.
If it has been up for m minutes in a day
The router deactivates the PPP instance after it has been active for the value specified in this
text box.
If the link has been idle for s seconds
The router deactivates this interface after the time specified in this text box if it detects that
the link has not passed any traffic for that period.
Alternative idle timer for static routes s seconds
The value in this text box specifies an alternative inactivity timeout for use in conjunction with
the Make PPP n interface use the alternative idle timeout when this route becomes
available parameter on the Configuration – Network > IP Routing/Forwarding > Static
Routes > Routes n > Advanced web page. This timeout is only used until the PPP instance
next deactivates. After that the normal timeout value is used.
If the link has not received any packets for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the amount of time that the router will wait without
receiving any PPP packets before disconnecting. The timer is reset with each received PPP
packet.
If the negotiation is not complete in s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the maximum time (in seconds) allowed for the PPP
negotiation to complete. If negotiations have not completed within this period, the interface is
deactivated.
Generate an event after this interface has been up for m minutes
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The value in this text box specifies the number of minutes (if any) after which the router
should create an event in the event log that states that the interface has been active for this
period.
Limit the data transmitted over this interface
When checked, this checkbox reveals the following parameters that control what data volume
restrictions (if any) should be applied to this interface.
Issue a warning event after n units
The value in this text box is the amount of traffic which causes a warning event to be
generated in the event log stating that the specified amount of data has been transferred. The
units are specified by a drop-down list, having the options kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes. For
example, if the monthly tariff includes up to 5MB of data before excess usage charges are
levied, it would be useful to set this threshold to 4MB. This would cause the router to create a
warning entry in the event log once 4MB of data had been transferred. This event could then
be used to trigger an email alert, SNMP trap or SMS alert message.
Stop data from being transmitted after n units
The value in this text box specifies the total amount of data that may be transmitted by this
PPP instance before the link is blocked for further traffic, and the value in the drop-down list
specifies the units which are kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes.
Reset the data limit on the n day of the month
The value in this text box defines the day of the month on which the data limit is reset to zero.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
metric
0 - 255
Metric
ppp
n
aodion
Enable “Always On” mode of this
0–2
interface, On, On and return to
0 = disabled
service immediately
1 = enabled
2 = On and
return to service
immediately
ppp
n
immoos
ON, OFF
Put this interface “Out of Service”
when an always-on connection
attempt fails
ppp
n
aodi_dly
0 – 2147483647
Attempt to reconnect after s
seconds
ppp
n
aodi_dly2
0 – 2147483647
If an inhibited PPP interface is
connected, attempt to re-connect
after s seconds
ppp
n
pwr_dly
0 – 2147483647
Wait s seconds after power-up
before activating this interface
ppp
n
tband
0-4
Control when this interface can
connect using Time Band n
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
minup
0 – 2147483647
Keep this interface up for at least s
seconds
ppp
n
maxup
0 – 2147483647
Close this interface after s seconds
ppp
n
maxuptime
0 – 2147483647
if it has been up for m minutes in a
day
ppp
n
timeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has been idle for s
seconds
ppp
n
timeout2
0 – 2147483648
Alternative idle timer for static
routes s seconds
ppp
n
rxtimeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has not received any
packets for s seconds
ppp
n
maxneg
0 – 2147483648
if the negotiation is not complete in
s seconds
ppp
n
uplogmins
0 – 2147483647
Generate an event after this
interface has been up for m mins
ppp
n
dlwarnkb
0 – 2147483647
Issue a warning after n units
ppp
n
dlstopkb
0 – 2147483647
Stop data from being transmitted
after n units
ppp
n
dlrstday
0 – 255
Reset the data limit on the n day of
the month
ISDN LAPD parameters
This page allows you to configure the ISDN LAPD interfaces. Link Access Protocol D (LAPD) is the
protocol used for ISDN D-channel signalling and call setup.
LAPD 0 and LAPD 1 can be used as required for SAPI 16 traffic (such as X.25 over D-channel).
LAPD 2 is normally reserved for ISDN call control.
Enable LAPD n
Un-checking this parameter disables the LAPD instance. This may be necessary if you have an
installation where two or more units are connected to the same ISDN S bus. In this case, only
one of the units may be configured for D-channel X.25 on TEI1, SAPI16. On each of the other
units you must disable any LAPD instance for which the TEI is set to 1 in order to prevent it
from responding to X.25 traffic on that TEI that is actually destined for another unit.
When checked, this check box will also reveal the following configuration parameters.
Mode
When the DTE/DCE mode parameter is set to DTE, the unit behaves as a DTE. This is the
default value and should not be changed for normal operation across the ISDN network. If
your application involves using two units back-to-back, one of the units should have the DTE
mode value set to DCE.
N400 Counter
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This is the standard LAPB/LAPD retry counter. The default value is 3 and it should not normally
be necessary to change this.
RR Timer n msecs
This is a standard LAPB/LAPD Receiver Ready timer. The default value is 10,000ms (10
seconds) and it should not normally be necessary to change this.
T1 Timer n msecs
This is the standard LAPB/LAPD timer. The default value is 1000 milliseconds (1 second) and it
should not normally be necessary to change this.
T200 Timer n msecs
This is the standard LAPB/LAPD re-transmit timer in milliseconds. The default value is 1000
milliseconds (1 second) and it should not normally be necessary to change this.
TEI
Each ISDN terminal device connected to your ISDN basic rate outlet must be assigned a
unique Terminal Endpoint Identifier (TEI). In most cases, this is negotiated automatically. In
some cases however, it may be necessary to assign a fixed TEI.
When TEI is set to 255, the TEI is negotiated with the ISDN network. To use a fixed TEI set the
TEI parameter to the appropriate value as specified by your service provider.
D-channel X.25 Tx Window Size
This specifies the transmit window size when using D-channel X.25. The default is 7.
Tx Throughput
The Tx Throughput parameter is used in conjunction with the Rx Throughput parameter to
limit the maximum data throughput on a LAPD link in bits per second.
If this parameter is set to 0, the unit will transmit data across the LADP link as fast as possible
whilst observing hardware or software flow control if enabled.
When set to a value greater than 0, the unit will limit the rate at which data is transmitted over
the LAPD link.
Note If multiple PAD or IP instances are sharing this LAPD instance, the maximum transmission
rates of all instances will be limited.
Rx Throughput
The Rx Throughput parameter is used in conjunction with the Tx Throughput parameter to
limit the maximum data throughput on a LAPD link in bits per second.
If this parameter is set to 0, the unit will transmit data across the LADP link as fast as possible
whilst observing hardware or software flow control if enabled.
When set to a value greater than 0, the unit will limit the rate at which data can be received
over the LAPD link when it detects that receive throughput exceeds the specified rate.
Note If multiple PAD or IP instances are sharing this LAPD instance, the maximum transmission
rates of all instances will be limited.
Reactivate D-channel connection
When you enable this parameter, the unit tries to reactivate a D-channel connection after
disconnection by the network by transmitting SABME frames. If it is unable to reactivate the
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connection after retrying the number of times specified by the N400 counter, it will wait for 1
minute before repeating the retry sequence.
Enabling this parameter also deactivates the Reactivate after n secs parameter.
If this parameter is disabled, the unit will not attempt to reactivate a D-channel link following
deactivation by the network.
Reactivate after n secs
This parameter specifies the number of seconds a deactivation has to be present before the
LAPD instance will try to reactivate itself.
After X.25 PAD session is terminated
This parameter determines if the LAPD session is deactivated when an X.25 PAD session is
terminated
Deactivate the LAPD session
This parameter enables automatic deactivation of a LAPD session when an X.25 PAD session is
terminated.
Do not deactivate the LAPD session
This parameter ensures the unit does not deactivate the LAPD session when an X.25 PAD
session is terminated.
Enable D64S Mode
D64S mode is a mode in which ISDN B-channel(s) may be used without the need to use any D
channel protocol. It is sometimes referred to as nailed up ISDN. To enable this mode for this
LAPD instance, Check the D64S mode parameter checkbox and ensure that the TEI parameter
is set to 255. This means that for any application that uses ISDN (such as. PPP) then it will use
D64S mode.
First D64S B-channel
When using D64S mode there is no dialing protocol to negotiate which B-channel to use. This
must therefore be specified using this parameter. Check B1 radio button to select channel B1
and Check B2 radio button to select channel B2 (if another channel is requested from an
application then it will use the other unused B channel).
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
LAPD
n
enabled
off, on
Enable LAPD n
LAPD
n
dtemode
off, on
Mode
LAPD
n
n400
1 - 255
N400 Counter
LAPD
n
tnoact
1000 - 60000
RR Timer n msecs
LAPD
n
t1time
1 - 60000
T1 Timer n msecs
LAPD
n
t200
1 – 60000
T200 Timer n msecs
LAPD
n
tei
0 - 255
TEI
LAPD
n
window
1-7
D-channel X.25 Tx Window Size
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PSTN parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
LAPD
n
tthruput
01410065407
Tx Throughput
LAPD
n
rthruput
01410065407
Rx Throughput
LAPD
n
keepact
off, on
Reactivate D-channel connection
LAPD
n
reactsecs
02147483647
Reactivate after n secs
LAPD
n
nodeact
off
After X.25 PAD session is terminated:
Deactivate the LAPD session
LAPD
n
nodeact
on
After X.25 PAD session is terminated:
Do not deactivate the LAPD session
LAPD
n
d64smode
off, on
Enable D64S Mode
LAPD
n
d64schan
1, 2
First D64S B-channel: B1, B2
PSTN parameters
This section of the web interface appears when the router is fitted with an optional internal PSTN
MODEM card. When first powered up, navigating to the Configuration – Network > Interfaces >
PSTN page shows a message indicating that the MODEM card does not have a PPP instance
associated with it. Follow the link on the page and select an unassigned PPP interface to the
MODEM. When the browser is refreshed and the Configuration – Network > Interfaces > PSTN
page redisplayed, it should show the parameters described below, along with a message at the
top of the page indicating which PPP instance has been selected.
This PSTN interface is using PPP n
This message states which PPP instance has been assigned to the interface.
Description
The value in this text box is a memorable name for the interface. This may be useful when
referring to the interface, rather than having to remember the name and the function of the
interface.
Dial out using numbers
These four text boxes contain the telephone numbers that should be used, in sequence, to
make an outgoing connection.
Prefix n to the dial out number
The value in this text box specifies the dialing prefix to use, if needed. This may be necessary
when using a PABX.
Username
The text string text box is the username that should be used when using the PPP instance to
connect to the remote peer. This is normally provided by an ISP for use with a dial-in Internet
access service.
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Password
This text box contains the password to use for authenticating the remote peer and is used in
conjunction with the above username.
Confirm password
Type the password into this text box to enable the router to confirm that the password has
been entered identically in both boxes.
Allow the remote device to assign a local IP address to this router
When this radio button is selected, the remote peer assigns this PPP interface an IP address.
Try to negotiate a.b.c.d as the local IP address for this router
If it is useful essential to have a predefined IP address for the interface, select the second
radio button and enter the desired IP address into the text box to the right. This field is
optional.
Use a.b.c.d as the local IP address for this router
If it is essential that the PPP interface has a specific IP address, select this radio button and the
IP address entered into the text box.
Use the following DNS servers if not negotiated
Primary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary DNS server to use if a DNS server is
not assigned as part of the PPP negotiation and connection process. It is fairly common
practice for the DNS server to be assigned automatically by the ISP when making a connection.
Secondary DNS server
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the secondary DNS server to use if one is
not automatically assigned by the remote peer.
Attempt to assign the following IP configuration to remote devices
When checked, this checkbox reveals the following four configuration parameters which
control how the PPP instance assigns an IP address to a connecting remote peer. The primary
and secondary DNS server addresses are also sent to the remote peer
Assign remote IP addresses from a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
The IP addresses in these text boxes define the pool of IP addresses to assign to remote peers
during the IP protocol configuration phase of the PPP negotiation process.
Primary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary DNS server that the remote peer
should use when making DNS requests over the link.
Secondary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the secondary DNS server that the remote peer
should use when making DNS requests, should the primary server be unavailable.
Allow the PPP interface to answer incoming calls
When checked, this checkbox causes the PPP instance to answer an incoming call.
Only allow calling numbers ending with n
When set to answer calls, the value in this text box provides a filter for ISDN sub-addresses.
This value is blank by default but when the PPP instance is set to answer calls, only numbers
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having trailing digits that match the sub-address value in this test will be answered. So for
example, if this value is set to 123, only calls from numbers with trailing digits that match this
value will be answered. For example 01942 605123.
Enable NAT on this interface
When checked, this checkbox enables Network Address Translation to operate on this
interface. This is the same as for other PPP interfaces.
IP address/IP address and Port
These radio buttons select whether IP address translation only should be applied or whether
port number translation should also be applied to IP packets.
Enable IPsec on this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to encrypt traffic on this interface using the
IPsec protocol. The following two additional configuration parameters are revealed when this
box is checked.
Keep Security Associations (SAs) when this PSTN interface is disconnected
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to maintain (such as not flush) the SA when
the interface becomes disconnected. The normal behavior is to remove the SAs when the
interface becomes disconnected.
Use interface x,y for the source IP address of IPsec packets
If it is required to use another interface (such as not the interface currently being configured)
as the source address for IPsec packets, this may be achieved by selecting the desired
interface from the drop-down list and typing the desired interface instance number into the
adjacent text box.
Enable the firewall on this interface
When checked, this checkbox applies the firewall rules to traffic using this interface.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
name
Up to 25
characters
Description
ppp
n
phonenum
up to 25 digits
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
ph2
“
“
ppp
n
ph3
“
“
ppp
n
ph4
“
“
ppp
n
prefix
0 – 9999999999
Prefix n to the dial out number
ppp
n
username
Up to 60
characters
Username
ppp
n
password
Up to 40
characters
Password
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
IPaddr
0.0.0.0
Allow the remote device to assign a
local IP address to this router
ppp
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Try to negotiate a.b.c.d as the local
IP address for this router
(in conjunction with l_addr)
ppp
n
l_addr
OFF,ON
When ON,
allows
negotiation
when OFF force
use of specified
IP address
Use a.b.c.d as the local IP address of
this router
ppp
n
DNSserver
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Use the following DNS servers if not
negotiated
Primary DNS server a.b.c.d
ppp
n
secDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Use the following DNS servers if not
negotiated
Secondary DNS server a.b.c.d
ppp
n
IPmin
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
ppp
n
IPrange
0 - 255
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
ppp
n
transDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Primary DNS server a.b.c.d
ppp
n
sectransDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Secondary DNS server a.b.c.d
ppp
n
ans
OFF,ON
Allow this PPP interface to answer
incoming calls
ppp
n
cingnb
up to 25 digits
Only allow calling numbers ending
with n
ppp
n
do_nat
0,1,2
0 = Disabled
1 = IP address
2 = IP address
and port
Enable NAT on this interface
IP address/IP address and Port
ppp
n
nat_ip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
NAT Source IP address a.b.c.d
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
ipsec
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
2 = Enabled and
Keep SAs
Enable IPsec on this interface/
Keep Security Associations when
this PSTN interface is disconnected
ppp
n
firewall
OFF,ON
Enable the firewall on this interface
Advanced PSTN parameters
Metric
The value in this text box specifies the route metric that should be applied to this interface.
See PPP parameters for more detail.
Enable “Always On” mode of this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the following two options to appear.
On/On and return to service immediately
These two radio buttons select whether the always-on functionality should simply be enabled
or whether the additional facility to return the interface to the In Service state should be
applied.
Put this interface “Out of Service” when an always-on connection attempt fails
Normally, always-on interfaces do not go out of service unless they have connected at least
once. When checked, this checkbox causes the router to put the interface out of service even if
the first connection attempt fails.
Attempt to re-connect after s seconds
The parameter in this text box specifies the length of time in seconds that the router should
wait after an always-on PPP connection has been terminated before trying to re-establish the
link.
If an inhibited PPP interface is connected, attempt to re-connect after s seconds
The value in this text box takes precedence over the previous parameter when another PPP
instance that is usually inhibited by this one is connected. This parameter would typically be
used to reduce the connection retry rate when a lower priority PPP instance is connected.
Wait s seconds after power-up before activating this interface
The value in this text box is the initial delay that the router applies before activating the PPP
instance after power-up. After the initial power-up delay the normal always-on activation
timers apply. If set to zero, no delay will be applied.
Control when this interface can connect using Time band n
These two controls, the check box and drop-down list determine whether the Time Band
function should be applied to this interface. Checking the checkbox enables the functionality
and the desired time band instance is selected from the drop-down list. Time Band
functionality is explained in the Timebands section.
Keep this interface up for at least s seconds
The value in this textbox specifies the minimum period that the PPP interface should remain
available. This means that even if the link becomes inactive before this period expires, the
connection remains open.
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PSTN parameters
Close this interface
After s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the maximum time that the link remains active in any one
session. After this time, the link is deactivated.
If it has been up for m minutes in a day
The router deactivates the PPP instance after it has been active for the value specified in this
text box.
If the link has been idle for s seconds
The router deactivates this interface after the time specified in this text box if it detects that
the link has not passed any traffic for that period.
Alternative idle timer for static routes s seconds
The value in this text box specifies an alternative inactivity timeout for use in conjunction with
the Make PPP n interface use the alternative idle timeout when this route becomes available
parameter on the Configuration – Network > IP Routing/Forwarding > Static Routes >
Routes n > Advanced web page. This timeout will only be used until the PPP instance next
deactivates. After that the normal timeout value is used.
If the link has not received any packets for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the amount of time that the router will wait without
receiving any PPP packets before disconnecting. The timer is reset with each received PPP
packet.
If the negotiation is not complete in s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the maximum time (in seconds) allowed for the PPP
negotiation to complete. If negotiations have not completed within this period, the interface is
deactivated.
Generate an event after this interface has been up for m minutes
The value in this text box specifies the number of minutes (if any) after which the router
should create an event in the event log that states that the interface has been active for this
period.
Limit the data transmitted over this interface
When checked, this checkbox reveals the following parameters that control what data volume
restrictions (if any) should be applied to this interface.
Issue a warning event after n units
The value in this text box is the amount of traffic which causes a warning event to be
generated in the event log stating that the specified amount of data has been transferred. The
units are specified by a drop-down list, with the options of kilobytes, megabytes, gigabytes.
For example, if the monthly tariff includes up to 5MB of data before excess usage charges are
levied, it would be useful to set this threshold to 4MB. This would cause the router to create a
warning entry in the event log once 4MB of data had been transferred. This event could then
be used to trigger an email alert, SNMP trap or SMS alert message.
Stop data from being transmitted after n units
The value in this text box specifies the total amount of data that may be transmitted by this
PPP instance before the link is blocked for further traffic, and the value in the drop-down list
specifies the units which are kilobytes, megabytes, and gigabytes.
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PSTN parameters
Reset the data limit on the n day of the month
The value in this text box defines the day of the month on which the data limit is reset to zero.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
metric
0 - 255
Metric
ppp
n
aodion
Enable “Always On” mode of this
0–2
interface, On, On and return to
0 = disabled
service immediately
1 = enabled
2 = On and
return to service
immediately
ppp
n
immoos
ON, OFF
Put this interface “Out of Service”
when an always-on connection
attempt fails
ppp
n
aodi_dly
0 – 2147483647
Attempt to reconnect after s
seconds
ppp
n
aodi_dly2
0 – 2147483647
If an inhibited PPP interface is
connected, attempt to re-connect
after s seconds
ppp
n
pwr_dly
0 – 2147483647
Wait s seconds after power-up
before activating this interface
ppp
n
tband
0-4
Control when this interface can
connect using Time Band n
ppp
n
minup
0 – 2147483647
Keep this interface up for at least s
seconds
ppp
n
maxup
0 – 2147483647
Close this interface after s seconds
ppp
n
maxuptime
0 – 2147483647
if it has been up for m minutes in a
day
ppp
n
timeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has been idle for s
seconds
ppp
n
timeout2
0 – 2147483648
Alternative idle timer for static
routes s seconds
ppp
n
rxtimeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has not received any
packets for s seconds
ppp
n
maxneg
0 – 2147483648
if the negotiation is not complete in
s seconds
ppp
n
uplogmins
0 – 2147483647
Generate an event after this
interface has been up for m mins
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DialServ parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
dlwarnkb
0 – 2147483647
Issue a warning after n units
ppp
n
dlstopkb
0 – 2147483647
Stop data from being transmitted
after n units
ppp
n
dlrstday
0 – 255
Reset the data limit on the n day of
the month
DialServ parameters
The Dialserv option module mimics a telephone exchange in that it supplies the required
voltages on the line, generates a RING signal and has off-hook detection circuitry. It can be used
to provide similar functionality to dialing into an ISP using an analogue MODEM. The card also
contains an analogue MODEM to handle data on the line.
Use PPP/Protocol Switch
These radio buttons select whether the DialServ card uses a PPP instance or the protocol
switch functionality to control traffic on the interface. If PPP is selected, the web page expands
to reveal the standard PPP configuration settings. If Protocol Switch is selected, only the four
settings described immediately below are visible.
Max time to RING line s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the maximum number of seconds that the RING signal
should be generated for.
RING frequency n Hz
The DialServer module generates a RING signal – the frequency of the RING is selected from
this drop-down list. The available options are:
•
20Hz
•
25Hz
•
30Hz
•
40Hz
•
50Hz.
Initialisation string 1
The text string in this text box contains any required MODEM initialisation commands.
Initialisation string 2
The text string in this text box contain initialisation commands that will be issued to the
MODEM after the first initialisation string.
DialServ Network Settings parameters
The DialServ card may be configured to use PPP as the protocol to connect to the remote peer
and as such should be assigned a free PPP instance to use as part of the configuration. If no PPP
instance has been assigned and the module has been configured to use PPP, a link to the PPP
mappings page and message appear.
If a PPP instance has been assigned, the following configuration options appear:
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DialServ parameters
This DialServ interface is using PPP n
This message simply indicates which PPP instance (n) is being used by the DialServ card.
Description
The value in this text box is a short string that describes the interface and is used as a
convenience when referring to the interface.
Dial out using numbers
These four text boxes contain the telephone numbers that should be used, in sequence, to
make an outgoing connection. These can be used to provide a dialback facility.
Prefix n to the dial out number
The value in this text box specifies the dialling prefix to use, if needed. This may be necessary
when using a PABX.
Username
The text string text box is the username that should be used when using the PPP instance to
connect to the remote peer.
Password
This text box contains the password to use for authenticating the remote peer and is used in
conjunction with the above username.
Confirm Password
Type the password into this text box to enable the router to confirm that the password has
been entered identically in both boxes.
Allow the remote device to assign a local IP address to this router
When this radio button is selected, the remote peer will assign this PPP interface an IP
address.
Try to negotiate a.b.c.d as the local IP address for this router
If it would be useful, but not essential, to have a predefined IP address for the interface, the
second radio button should be selected and the desired IP address entered into the text box
to the right.
Use a.b.c.d as the local IP address for this router
If it is essential that the PPP interface has a specific IP address, this radio button should be
selected and the IP address entered into the text box.
Use the following DNS servers if not negotiated
Primary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary DNS server to use if a DNS server is
not assigned as part of the PPP negotiation and connection process. It is fairly common
practice for the DNS server to be assigned automatically by the ISP when making a connection.
Secondary DNS server
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the secondary DNS server to use if one is
not automatically assigned by the remote peer.
Attempt to assign the following IP configuration to remote devices
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DialServ parameters
When checked, this check box will reveal the following four configuration parameters which
control how the PPP instance assigns an IP address to a connecting remote peer. The primary
and secondary DNS server addresses will also be sent to the remote peer
Assign remote IP addresses from a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
The IP addresses in these text boxes define the pool of IP addresses to assign to remote peers
during the IP protocol configuration phase of the PPP negotiation process.
Primary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary DNS server that the remote peer
should use when making DNS requests over the link.
Secondary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the secondary DNS server that the remote peer
should use when making DNS requests, should the primary server be unavailable.
Allow the PPP interface to answer incoming calls
When checked, this checkbox will cause the PPP instance to answer an incoming call.
Only allow calling numbers ending with n
When set to answer calls, the value in this textbox provides a filter for ISDN sub-addresses.
This value is blank by default but when the PPP instance is set to answer calls, only numbers
having trailing digits that match the sub-address value in this test will be answered. So for
example, if this value is set to “123”, only calls from numbers with trailing digits that match this
value will be answered. For example 01942 605123
Enable NAT on this interface
When checked, this checkbox enable Network Address Translation to operate on this
interface. This is the same as for other PPP interfaces.
IP address/IP address and Port
These radio buttons select whether IP address translation only should be applied or whether
port number translation should also be applied to IP packets.
Enable IPsec on this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to encrypt traffic on this interface using the
IPsec protocol. The following two additional configuration parameters are revealed when this
box is checked.
Keep Security Associations (SAs) when this PSTN interface is disconnected
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to maintain (such as not flush) the SA when
the interface becomes disconnected. The normal behaviour is to remove the SAs when the
interface becomes disconnected.
Use interface x,y for the source IP address of IPsec packets
If it is required to use another interface (such as not the interface currently being configured)
as the source address for IPsec packets, this may be achieved by selecting the desired
interface from the drop-down list and typing the desired interface instance number into the
adjacent text box.
Enable the firewall on this interface
When checked, this checkbox applies the firewall rules to traffic using this interface.
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DialServ parameters
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
name
Up to 25
characters
Description
ppp
n
phonenum
up to 25 digits
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
ph2
“
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
ph3
“
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
ph4
“
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
prefix
0 – 9999999999
Prefix
ppp
n
username
Up to 60
characters
Username
ppp
n
password
Up to 40
characters
Password
ppp
n
IPaddr
0.0.0.0
Allow the remote device to assign a
local IP address to this router
ppp
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Try to negotiate a.b.c.d as the local
IP address for this router
(in conjunction with l_addr)
ppp
n
l_addr
OFF,ON
When ON,
allows
negotiation
when OFF force
use of specified
IP address
Use a.b.c.d as the local IP address
for this router (not negotiable)
ppp
n
DNSserver
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Primary DNS server
ppp
n
secDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Secondary DNS server
ppp
n
IPmin
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
ppp
n
IPrange
0 - 255
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
ppp
n
transDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Primary DNS server a.b.c.d
ppp
n
sectransDNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Secondary DNS server a.b.c.d
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DialServ parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
ans
OFF,ON
Allow this PPP interface to answer
incoming calls
ppp
n
do_nat
0,1,2
0 = Disabled
1 = IP address
2 = IP address
and port
Enable NAT on this interface
IP address/IP address and Port
ppp
n
natip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
NAT Source IP address a.b.c.d
ppp
n
ipsec
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
2 = Enabled and
Keep SAs
Enable IPsec on this interface/
Keep Security Associations when
this DialServ interface is
disconnected
ppp
n
firewall
OFF,ON
Enable the firewall on this interface
Advanced DialServ parameters
Metric
The value in this text box specifies the route metric that should be applied to this interface.
For more information, see the PPP parameters sections.
Enable “Always On” mode of this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the following two options to appear:
On/On and return to service immediately
These two radio buttons select whether the always-on functionality should simply be enabled
or whether the additional facility to return the interface to the In Service state should be
applied.
Put this interface “Out of Service” when an always-on connection attempt fails.
Normally, always-on interfaces do not go out of service unless they have connected at least
once. When checked, this checkbox causes the router to put the interface out of service even if
the first connection attempt fails.
Attempt to re-connect after s seconds
The parameter in this text box specifies the length of time in seconds that the router should
wait after an “always-on” PPP connection has been terminated before trying to re-establish
the link.
If an inhibited PPP interface is connected, attempt to re-connect after s seconds
The value in this textbox takes precedence over the previous parameter when another PPP
instance that is usually inhibited by this one is connected. This parameter would typically be
used to reduce the connection retry rate when a lower priority PPP instance is connected.
Wait s seconds after power-up before activating this interface
The value in this textbox is the initial delay that the router will apply before activating the PPP
instance after power-up. After the initial power-up delay the normal always-on activation
timers apply. If set to zero, no delay will be applied.
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DialServ parameters
Control when this interface can connect using Time band n
These two controls, the check box and drop-down list determine whether the Time Band
function should be applied to this interface. Checking the checkbox enables the functionality
and the desired time band instance is selected from the drop-down list. Time Band
functionality is explained in the Timebands section of this manual.
Keep this interface up for at least s seconds
The value in this textbox specifies the minimum period that the PPP interface should remain
available. This means that even if the link becomes inactive before this period expires, the
connection will remain open.
Close this interface
after s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the maximum time that the link will remain active in any
one session. After this time, the link will be deactivated.
If it has been up for m minutes in a day
The router deactivates the PPP instance after it has been active for the value specified in this
text box.
If the link has been idle for s seconds
The router deactivates this interface after the time specified in this text box if it detects that
the link has not passed any traffic for that period.
Alternative idle timer for static routes s seconds
The value in this text box specifies an alternative inactivity timeout for use in conjunction with
the Make PPP n interface use the alternative idle timeout when this route becomes
available parameter on the Configuration – Network > IP Routing/Forwarding > Static
Routes > Routes n > Advanced web page. This timeout will only be used until the PPP
instance next deactivates. After that the normal timeout value is used.
If the link has not received any packets for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the amount of time that the router will wait without
receiving any PPP packets before disconnecting. The timer is reset with each received PPP
packet.
If the negotiation is not complete in s seconds
The value in this textbox specifies the maximum time (in seconds) allowed for the PPP
negotiation to complete. If negotiations have not completed within this period, the interface is
deactivated.
Generate an event after this interface has been up for m minutes
The value in this text box specifies the number of minutes (if any) after which the router
should create an event in the event log that states that the interface has been active for this
period.
Limit the data transmitted over this interface
When checked, this checkbox reveals the following parameters that control what data volume
restrictions (if any) should be applied to this interface:
Issue a warning event after n units
The value in this text box is the amount of traffic which will cause a warning event to be
generated in the event log stating that the specified amount of data has been transferred. The
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DialServ parameters
units are specified by a drop-down list, having the following options; KBytes, MBytes, GBytes.
For example, if the monthly tariff includes up to 5MB of data before excess useage charges
are levied, it would be useful to set this threshold to 4MB. This would cause the router to
create a warning entry in the event log once 4MB of data had been transferred. This event
could then be used to trigger an email alert, SNMP trap or SMS alert message.
Stop data from being transmitted after n units
The value in this text box specifies the total amount of data that may be transmitted by this
PPP instance before the link is blocked for further traffic, and the value in the drop-down list
specifies the units which are; KBytes, MBytes, GBytes.
Reset the data limit on the n day of the month
The value in this text box defined the day of the month on which the data limit is reset to zero.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
metric
0 - 255
Metric
ppp
n
aodion
Enable “Always On” mode of this
0–2
interface, On, On and return to
0 = disabled
service immediately
1 = enabled
2 = On and
return to service
immediately
ppp
n
immoos
ON, OFF
Put this interface “Out of Service”
when an always-on connection
attempt fails
ppp
n
aodi_dly
0 – 2147483647
Attempt to reconnect after s
seconds
ppp
n
aodi_dly2
0 – 2147483647
If an inhibited PPP interface is
connected, attempt to re-connect
after s seconds
ppp
n
pwr_dly
0 – 2147483647
Wait s seconds after power-up
before activating this interface
ppp
n
tband
0-4
Control when this interface can
connect using Time Band n
ppp
n
minup
0 – 2147483647
Keep this interface up for at least s
seconds
ppp
n
maxup
0 – 2147483648
Close this interface after s seconds
ppp
n
maxuptime
0 – 2147483647
if it has been up for m minutes in a
day
ppp
n
timeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has been idle for s
seconds
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Serial parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
timeout2
0 – 2147483648
Alternative idle timer for static
routes s seconds
ppp
n
rxtimeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has not received any
packets for s seconds
ppp
n
maxneg
0 – 2147483648
if the negotiation is not complete in
s seconds
ppp
n
uplogmins
0 – 2147483647
Generate an event after this
interface has been up for m mins
ppp
n
dlwarnkb
0 – 2147483647
Issue a warning after n units
ppp
n
dlstopkb
0 – 2147483647
Stop data from being transmitted
after n units
ppp
n
dlrstday
0 – 255
Reset the data limit on the n day of
the month
Serial parameters
Digi routers support a variety of serial interfaces, either inbuilt or as optional add-on modules.
Each asynchronous serial (ASY) port may be configured to operate at different speed, data format
etc. These parameters may be changed using the web interface or from the command line using
AT commands and S registers.
The Configuration – Network > Interfaces > Serial menu item opens out when clicked, to show
the list of supported serial interfaces.
Note On models fitted with W-WAN modules, one of the interfaces (and its associated web
page) will be dedicated to the W-WAN module. The title will reflect this. Similarly, on
models fitted with an analogue MODEM, one of the interfaces will be entitled PSTN port.
This section describes the basic configuration of a serial port.
Enable this serial interface
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Serial parameters
When this checkbox is unchecked, this is the only item that appears in the section. Clicking the
checkbox causes the various associated configuration parameters to appear.
Description
This free-form text entry box allows a description for the interface to be added. For example, if
the serial interface is connected to a card payment device, the description could read Till 1 or
similar appropriate text.
Baud Rate
This drop-down selection box selects the required Baud rate for the associated serial port.
Data Bits / Parity
This drop-down selection box selects the required data format for the interface, 8 data bits, no
parity being a very common configuration.
Note When the serial port is not in 8-bit parity mode (such as it is in either 8-bit no parity, or 7bit with parity), the router will continually check for parity when receiving AT commands
and adjust and match accordingly.
Flow Control
The unit supports software flow control using XON/XOFF characters and hardware flow
control using the RS232 RTS and CTS signals. Use this drop-down list to select Software,
Hardware or a combination of Both. To disable flow control select the None option.
Enable echo on this interface
Check this checkbox to enable command echo to be enabled when using the command line
interpreter, uncheck it if the attached terminal provides local echo.
CLI result codes
Select the required level of verbosity for command result codes. The available options are:
•
Verbose
•
Numeric
•
None
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
asy
n/a
descr
Free text –
description of
interface
Description
S31=n
n/a
n/a
Where n =
3 = 115200
4 = 57600
5 = 38400
6 = 19200
7 = 9600
8 = 4800
Baud rate
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Serial parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
S23=n
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 = None
1 = Odd
2 = Even
5 = 8Data Odd
Data Bits / Parity
6 = 8Data Even
Default 0
&Kn
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 = None
1 = Hardware
2 = Software
3 = Both
Flow Control
&En
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 = No echo
1 = echo
Enable echo on this interface
&Vn
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 = numeric
1 = verbose
CLI result codes
Advanced Serial Port parameters
The configuration parameters in this section are changed less frequently than those in the basic
section and so are given a separate page in order to reduce screen clutter.
Answer V.120 calls after n rings (0 = Don’t answer)
This parameter controls the answering of incoming V.120 calls. When set to zero, V.120
answering is disabled, otherwise V.120 answering is enabled on this interface. Enter the
number of rings to wait before answering the call into this text box. This is equivalent to
setting the value of the S0 register for the associated serial port.
DCD
This drop-down selection box selects how the Data Carrier Detect (DCD) signal is controlled.
The available options are:
•
Auto
•
On
•
Off
•
Pulse Low.
Selecting Auto configures the router so that it will only assert the DCD line when an ISDN
connection has been established (this is equivalent to AT&C1).
Selecting On configures the router such that the DCD line is always asserted when the router
is powered-up (this is equivalent to AT&C0).
Selecting Off configures the router such that the DCD line is normally asserted but is deasserted for the time period specified by the S10 register after a call is disconnected (this is
equivalent to AT&C2).
DTR Control
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Serial parameters
This drop-down selection box controls how the router responds to the DTR signal. The
available options are:
•
None
•
Drop call
•
Drop line and call
•
Drop call on transition
•
Drop line & call on transition.
Selecting None configures the router to ignore the DTR signal (this is equivalent to AT&D0).
Selecting Drop call configures the router to disconnect the current call and return to AT
command mode when the DTR signal from the attached terminal (DTE) is de-asserted (this is
equivalent to AT&D1).
Selecting Drop line and call configures the router to disconnect the crrent call, drop the line
and return to AT command mode when the DTR signal is de-asserted (this is equivalent to
AT&D2).
DTR de-bounce time s x 20 milliseconds
This parameter determines the length of time (in multiples of 20ms) for which the DTR signal
must be de-asserted before the router acts on any options that are set to trigger on loss of
this signal. Enter the desired multiple into the text box. Increasing this value makes the router
less sensitive to “bouncing” of the DTR signal. Conversely, decreasing this value makes the
router more sensitive. The default of 100ms (5 times 20ms) is a reasonable value.
Escape Character
This parameter determines the character used in the escape sequence. The default is the +
symbol (ASCII value 43, 0x2b). Changing this value has the same effect as changing the S2
register.
Escape Delay s x 20 milliseconds
This parameter defines the required minimum length of the pause (in multiples of 20ms) in
the escape sequence. The default is 50 x 20ms which means that the escape sequence
becomes +++, a pause of 1 second and then AT in order to drop back to AT command mode.
Enter the desired delay into the text box if a delay of some other value is required.
Forwarding Timeout s x 10 milliseconds
This parameter defines the length of time that the router will wait for more data after
receiving at least one octet of data through the serial port and transmitting it onwards. This
timer is reset each time more data is received. The router will forward data onwards when
either the forwarding timer expires or the input buffer becomes full. This parameter applies to
ADAPT, TCPDIAL, TCPPERM and PANS.
Break Transmit Escape Character c
This parameter determines the character used in the escape sequence. The - symbol (ASCII
value 45, 0x2d) is a recommended value. Changing this value has the same effect as changing
the S3 register. To use the break sequence, type - 3 times, with a 1 second pause either side of
the 3 - characters.
When the Async port detects the following sequence:
<guard time 1 sec>---<guard time 1 sec>
instead of outputting the three minus characters (they are removed from the output stream) a
BREAK condition is placed on the Async transmitter for 1 second.
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Serial parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
S0=n
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 - 255
Answer V.120 call after n rings
&Cn
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 = On
1 = Auto
2 = Off
3 = Pulse low
DCD
&Dn
n/a
n/a
DTR
Where n =
0 = None
1 = Drop line
2 = Drop line & call
5 = Drop call on
transition
6 = Drop line & call
on transition
S45=n
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 - 255
DTR de-bounce
S2=n
n/a
n/a
Where n =
ASCII value
Escape Character
S12=n
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 - 255
Escape delay
S15=n
n/a
n/a
Where n =
0 - 255
Forwarding Timeout
S3=n
n/a
n/a
Where n =
ASCII value
Break Transmit Escape Character
Profiles
Each serial port can have two profiles which can be configured differently. Which profile is in
force when the router powers-up is selected here.
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Serial parameters
Power-up profile n
Select 0 from the drop-down selection box to choose profile 0 to be active when the router
powers-up. Select 1 from the selection box to make profile 1 the active profile.
Load Profile n
Select 0 from the drop-down selection box and click the button to load profile 0.
Save Profile
Select 0 from the drop-down selection box and click the button to save profile 0 after making
any changes.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
&Yn
Where n =
0,1
Power-up profile n
&Zn
Where n =
0,1
Load Profile n
&Wn
Where n =
0,1
Save Profile n
Sync parameters
The most common form of serial communications these days is asynchronous. Synchronous
serial communications links are still in use and the Digi routers can support these. HDLC is a
synchronous protocol that is still in use and can be used with Digi routers. This section describes
how to configure the synchronous communications interfaces. To enable synchronous mode, a
protocol such as LAPB must be configured to use a synchronous port as its lower layer interface.
On certain models, an informational message will appear on the web page which states that
jumper settings may need to be changed in order to support synchronous serial operation.
Note The number of synchronous serial ports available varies depending on the model and any
optional modules fitted.
Description
This text entry box is for a description of the interface, should one be required.
Clock source Internal / External
These two radio buttons select between internal or external clock sources for the interface.
Mode
The radio buttons that appear here select the specific serial protocol to use. Which buttons
appear depend upon the capabilities of the interface. The options available are; V.35, EIA530,
RS232, EIA530A, RS449 and X.21.
Invert RX clock
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to invert the voltage level of the receive clock
signal.
Invert TX clock
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Serial parameters
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to invert the voltage level of the transmit clock
signal.
Encoding NRZ / NRZI
These two radio buttons select between non-return to zero (NRZ) and non-return to zero
(inverted) (NRZI) signal encodings.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
sy
0
descr
Text description
of interface
Description
sy
0
clksrc
int,ext
Clock source
sy
0
rxclkinv
OFF,ON
Invert RX clock
sy
0
txclkinv
OFF,ON
Invert TX clock
sy
0
encode
nrz,nrzi
Encoding
Rate Adaption parameters
The router supports two rate adaptation protocol (Adapt) instances. Each instance enables the
selection and configuration of the protocol to be used for rate adaptation over an ISDN B
channel. The supported protocols are; V.110, V.120 and X.75. Depending on which protocol is
selected, there may be an associated LAPB instance (distinct from the two general purpose LAPB
instances), as for example, when V.120 is used in error-corrected (multi-frame) mode. Clicking the
triangle at the left of the blue bar opens up the two instances described below.
This page displays the configuration parameters directly relevant to the rate adaptation protocol
only, LAPB configuration pages are to be found here in the Configuration – Network > Legacy
Protocols > X.25 > LAPB page. When configuring LAPB parameters, be aware that LAPB 2 is used
for adapt 0 and LAPB 3 is used for adapt 1.
Attempt to redial the connection n times if rate adaption has not been negotiated
If an ISDN connection is established, but rate adaption is not negotiated, the value in this text
box specifies how many times the router should drop the connection and redial it.
Drop the connection if it is idle for h hrs m mins s secs
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Serial parameters
The values in these text entry boxes specify the time to wait before dropping the connection if
the connection becomes idle.
Leased line mode
When checked, this checkbox allows the router to attempt to maintain the connection
automatically once it has been established.
Enable TCP rate adaption
Check this checkbox to enable the use of rate adaptation when using a TCP connection rather
than an ISDN line. When enabled, the following controls become enabled:
Connect to IP Address a.b.c.d Port n
When using a TCP connection, these text entry boxes allow the user to specify the IP address
and port number that the protocol should use.
Listen on Port
This text entry box contains the port number that the router is listening on when in socket
mode.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
adapt
0,1
dial_retries
0 - 255
Attempt to redial the connection n
times
adapt
0,1
tinact
0 - 86400
Drop the connection if it is idle for h
hrs m mins s secs
adapt
0,1
leased_line
OFF,ON
Leased line mode
adapt
0,1
sockmode
0,1
0 = disable
1 = enable
Enable TCP rate adaption
adapt
0,1
ip_addr
valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Connect to IP Address a.b.c.d Port n
adapt
0,1
ip_port
valid TCP port
number
Connect to IP Address a.b.c.d Port n
adapt
0,1
lip_port
valid TCP port
number
Listen on Port n
Command Mappings parameters
The router supports a number of command aliases which specify strings to be substituted for
commands entered at the command line. The table on this page contains two text entry boxes
and an Add button. Up to 23 command mappings may be specified. An example may make this
clear. Suppose, a user coming from a Unix™ background feels more comfortable typing ls rather
than the native dir command in order to list the files in a directory. To achieve this aliasing, enter
ls into the From column in the table, dir into the To column and then click the Add button.
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Serial parameters
From
This text entry box contains the substitute text.
To
This text entry box contains the command that should be substituted.
Add
Click this button to add the command mapping.
Delete
When the mapping has been added, a Delete button will appear in the right-hand column.
Clicking this button removes the binding from the table.
Note If either string contains spaces, the entire string must be enclosed within double quotation
marks. When substituting a command, upper case characters are considered the same as
the corresponding lower case characters.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cmd
n
cmdmapi
Replacement
command
From
cmd
n
cmdmapo
Command to be
substituted
To
Protocol Bindings parameters
Digi routers are soft configurable to allow different protocols to be used on different interfaces.
The process of selecting which protocol will be used on a particular interface is referred to as
binding. So, for example Serial (ASY) port 0 may be used for an ISDN B channel X.25 connection in
which case PAD 0 would be bound to Serial 0 (assuming that PAD 0 is the required PAD). (To
complete this example, it would also be necessary to associate the PAD with a LAPB instance
using the appropriate page). Protocols are bound to serial interfaces using a table with a dropdown list box for selecting the protocol and a drop-down list for selecting the serial port.
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Serial parameters
By default, if no specific protocol has been bound to a serial interface, a PPP instance will
automatically be associated with that port. This means that PPP is treated as the default protocol
associated with the serial ports.
Protocol
Select the desired protocol from this drop-down list.
Bound to
Select the desired serial port from this drop-down list.
Add
Click this button to add the binding.
Delete
When a binding has been added, it appears in the table and a Delete button enables in the
right-hand column. Click this button to remove the binding. Note that the binding does not
come into force until the Apply button at the bottom of the page has been clicked.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
bind
n
prot1
Valid protocol, such as Protocol
PAD 0
bind
n
id1
Valid serial port such
as ASY 5
Bound to
To display a list of the current bindings enter the command:
bind ?
Command line examples:
bind pad 0 asy 0
binds PAD 0 to serial port 0.
bind v120 0 asy 3
binds V.120 instance 0 to asynchronous serial port 3.
To access the Internet using PPP via a terminal connected to serial interface 2, enter the
command:
bind ppp 1 asy 2
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Serial parameters
Currently it is only possible to bind a TANS instance to an ADAPT instance using the bind
command. The format of the command is:
bind adapt <instance> tans <instance>
TRANSIP Serial Ports parameters
TransIP is a way of using virtual serial ports for serial connections over an IP socket, in effect
multiplying the number of concurrent serial connections to a router. TransIP can be configured to
actively connect on a TCP socket (such as make outgoing connections).
The message at the top of this page states which serial interface is being used for the TransIP
connection.
Listen on port n
This parameter is the TCP port number that the router should listen on.
Connect to IP Address or Hostname a.b.c.d Port n
The IP address or hostname text entry box should contain a valid IP address or the hostname
which the router should use to make the outgoing TransIP connection.
If this parameter is set (such as non-zero), the number defined the TCP port number to use
when making TCP socket connections. When zero, TransIP is listening only on the port defined
above.
Send TCP Keep-Alives every s seconds
The value in this text entry box is the amount of time (in seconds) a connection stays open
without any traffic being passed.
Enable Stay Connected mode
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to refrain from clearing the TCP socket at the
end of a transaction, data call or data session (depending on what the TansIP serial port was
bound to and what protocol it was using). Leaving this checkbox unchecked allows the router
to clear the socket. For example, if the TransIP port is bound to a TPAD and the box is
unchecked, the TransIP TCP socket will be cleared at the end of the TPAD transaction.
Disable command echo
When this checkbox is checked command echo for the TransIP port is disabled. When
unchecked all commands issued will be echoed back to the TransIP TCP socket.
Escape char c
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Serial parameters
The parameter in this text entry box is the ASCII character used as the escape character which
is by default +. Entering this escape character three times followed by a pause of at least the
Escape delay parameter below and then an AT command will cause the router to switch back
to command mode from online mode. This is equivalent to the S2 register setting.
Escape delay s milliseconds
The parameter in this text entry box defines the delay required between entering the escape
sequence (default +++) and the AT command in order for the router to drop back into
command mode. This is equivalent to the S12 register setting.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
transip
n
port
Valid port
number
0 – 65535
Listen on port
transip
n
host
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d or
hostname
Connect to IPaddress a.b.c.d or
Hostname
transip
n
remport
Valid port
number
0 – 65535
Port
transip
n
keepact
0 – 255
Send TCP Keep-Alives every s
seconds
transip
n
staycon
ON,OFF
Enable Stay Connected mode
transip
n
cmd_echo_off
ON,OFF
Disable command echo
transip
n
escchar
Valid ASCII
character
Escape char c
transip
n
esctime
0 – 255
Escape delay s milliseconds
RealPort parameters
Digi devices use the patented RealPort COM/TTY port redirection for Microsoft Windows.
RealPort software provides a virtual connection to serial devices, no matter where they reside on
the network. The software is installed directly on the host PC and allows applications to talk to
devices across a network as though the devices were directly attached to the host. Actually, the
devices are connected to a Digi device somewhere on the network. RealPort is unique among
COM port re-directors because it is the only implementation that allows multiple connections to
multiple ports over a single TCP/IP connection. Other implementations require a separate TCP/IP
connection for each serial port. Unique features also include full hardware and software flow
control, as well as tunable latency and throughput. Access to RealPort services can be enabled or
disabled.
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Serial parameters
Encrypted RealPort
Digi devices also support RealPort software with encryption. Encrypted RealPort offers a secure
Ethernet connection between the COM or TTY port and a device server or terminal server.
Encryption prevents internal and external snooping of data across the network by encapsulating
the TCP/IP packets in a Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) connection and encrypting the data using
Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), one of the latest, most efficient security algorithms. Access
to Encrypted RealPort services can be enabled or disabled. Digi’s RealPort with encryption driver
has earned Microsoft’s Windows Hardware Quality Lab (WHQL) certification. Drivers are available
for a wide range of operating systems, including Microsoft Windows Server 2003, Windows XP,
Windows 2000, Windows NT, Windows 98, Windows ME; SCO Open Server; Linux; AIX; Sun Solaris
SPARC; Intel; and HP-UX. It is ideal for financial, retail/point-of-sale, government or any
application requiring enhanced security to protect sensitive information.
Enable RealPort
Selecting this option enables RealPort on the router.
Listen on port
This configures the TCP port on which the router will listen for RealPort connections.
Maximum number of sockets
This defines the maximum number of RealPort connections that the router will support.
Enable encrypted RealPort
Selecting this option enables encrypted RealPort on the router.
Encryption mode to listen on port
This configures the TCP port on which the router will listen for encrypted RealPort
connections.
Maximum number of encryption sockets
This defines the maximum number of encrypted RealPort connections that the router will
support.
Enable Device Initiated RealPort
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Serial parameters
Selecting this option enables router to make a RealPort connection to a host PC.
Connect to host a.b.c.d Port n
This configures the IP address or hostname and TCP port that the router should use when
making a device initiated connection.
Allow s seconds between connection attempts
This configures the interval in seconds between device initiated connection attempts.
Send TCP Keep-Alives every s seconds
This configures the interval at which TCP Keep-Alives are sent over the RealPort connection. A
value of 0 means that Keep-Alives are not sent.
Send RealPort Keep-Alives every s seconds
This configures the interval at which RealPort Keep-Alives are sent over the RealPort
connection. A value of 0 means that Keep-Alives are not sent.
Enable exclusive mode
Selecting this option enables exclusive mode. Exclusive mode allows a single connection from
any one RealPort client ID to be connected only. If this setting is enabled and a subsequent
connection occurs that has the same source IP as an existing connection, the old existing
connection is forcibly reset under the assumption that it is stale.
Enable authentication
Selecting this option enables RealPort authentication.
Authentication secret
This configures the RealPort authentication secret.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
rport
0
enabled
OFF,ON
Enable RealPort
rport
0
ipport
0 - 65535
Listen on port
rport
0
maxnbsocks
0 - 255
Maximum number of sockets
rport
0
encryption
OFF,ON
Enable encrypted RealPort
rport
0
encport
0 - 65535
Encryption mode to listen on port
rport
0
maxnbencsocks
0 - 255
Maximum number of encryption
sockets
rport
0
initiate
OFF,ON
Enable Device Initiated RealPort
rport
0
IPaddr
Valid IP
address
a.b.c.d
Connect to host a.b.c.d Port n
rport
0
initiateport
0 - 65535
Connect to host a.b.c.d Port n
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Serial parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
rport
0
initiatebackoff
0 - 255
Allow s seconds between connection
attempts
rport
0
tcpkeepalives
0 - 255
Send TCP Keep-Alives every s
seconds
rport
0
rportkeepalives
0 - 255
Send RealPort Keep-Alives every s
seconds
rport
0
exclusive
OFF,ON
Enable exclusive mode
rport
0
auth
OFF,ON
Enable authentication
rport
0
secret
Up to 30
characters
Authentication secret
Multitx parameters
The MultiTx page allows users to enable and edit the MultiTx parameters. This supports
sending serial data to multiple (up to 5) TCP or UDP destinations. When enabled, the
configured ASY port is opened and serial data from the port is sent to all configured
destinations.
Enable Multitx
Checking this checkbox displays the MultiTX settings in the GUI and enables the MultiTX
function on the router.
Serial Port
This field specifies the serial interface to use. Data received on this serial will be forwarded to
all configured remote hosts.
Protocol
This field specifies whether TCP or UDP will be used as the transport method.
Socket Inactivity Timeout
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Serial parameters
If there is no data transmitted for the specified number of seconds, the socket will be closed. 0
= no timeout.
Send Socket ID
When enabled, the text entered into the ‘Socket ID’ field is transmitted to the remote host
when the socket connects.
Reopen Closed Socket
This parameter enables an always-on mode. If the socket is closed for any reason, the router
attempts to reconnect to the remote host.
Socket ID
This parameter is used in conjunction with Send Socket ID. Text entered will be transmitted
when the socket connects. \r can be used for CR. \n can be used for NL. Hex can be specified
by using \xhh where hh is replaced with the hex code, such as \x04 will define binary
character 04.
Send serial data only when the match string is present
Match string function is enabled when users check this checkbox.
Match String
When enabled, serial data will only be forwarded to remote hosts when the ‘Match String’ text
is present.
Strip match string before sending
When this parameter is enabled, the text in the ‘Match String’ field will be removed before the
data is forwarded to the remote host.
Remote host
Up to five remote hosts can be specified in these fields.
Host
Enter the hostname or IP address of the remote host in this field.
Port
Enter the TCP or UDP port number that the remote host is listening on.
Add
Click this button to add the remote host.
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
multitx
0
multitx
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
enabled
OFF,ON
Enable MultiTx
0
srcport
OFF,ON
(default: OFF)
Serial Port
multitx
0
prot1
OFF,ON
(default: OFF)
protocol
multitx
0
send_sockid
0 – 255
(default: 0)
Send Socket ID
multitx
0
keepopen
OFF,ON
Reopen Closed Socket
multitx
0
sockid
multitx
0
fwd_match
0 - 65535
Send serial data only when the match
string is present
multitx
0
matchstring
0 - 255
Match String
multitx
0
Strip_match
OFF,ON
Strip match string before sending
Socket ID
Advanced Interfaces parameters
The Configuration – Network > Interfaces > Advanced menu has the following sub-menu
options:
•
External Modems
•
PPP Mappings
•
PPP n
Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is a standard protocol for transporting data from point to multipoint
networks (such as IP) across point-to-point links (such as a serial or ISDN connection). This
functionality is essential for dial-up Internet access.
As data is transferred across IP networks in synchronous format, the router supports
asynchronous to synchronous PPP conversion. This allows asynchronous terminals connected to
the units to communicate with remote synchronous PPP devices. Normally, this is carried out
using a single ISDN B-channel so that data can be transferred at speeds up to 64kbps. This is
known as ASYNC to SYNC PPP operation and is supported as standard by most terminal
adaptors. To use ASYNC to SYNC PPP operation all that is necessary is to ensure that the PPP
protocol is bound to the ASY port to which the terminal or PC is connected. (see Configuration –
Network > Interfaces > Serial).
Note In order to use ASYNC to SYNC PPP the attached terminal must also support PPP
(Windows dial-up networking supports PPP).
In addition to ASYNC to SYNC operation (where the router only converts the PPP from one form
to another) the router can initiate its own PPP sessions. This is used for example when:
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
The router is configured as a router to connect an Ethernet network to the Internet via ISDN or WWAN.
The router is answering an incoming ISDN call with PPP either for remote management or remote
access to the Ethernet network to which the router is connected.
The router is accessed locally through the serial port for configuration purposes by setting up a
Windows Dial-Up-Networking connection to the phone number 123.
Note With the exception of MLPPP the parameters in this section are only relevant when the
router is generating the PPP, such as they are NOT relevant for ASYNC to SYNC PPP
operation.
The unit also supports Multi-link PPP (MLPPP). MLPPP uses both ISDN B-channels simultaneously
(and two PPP instances), to provide data transfer speeds up to 128Kbps for applications such as
email or establishing a point-to-point connection between two units.
External Modems parameters
The External Modems page contains external modem parameters. External modem support
added to GPRS builds. It is now possible to have a GPRS build that can also make outgoing PPP
connections via an external modem. It is also possible to answer incoming calls via an external
modem. The PPP 'use_modem' field has now been altered so that the value indicates which
modem type should be used. Value 1 indicates that GPRS modem should be used, value 2
indicates that external modem should be used.It is now also possible (by including enough
modem call control instances) to do multilink PPP over multiple external modems.
ASY Port
This is the physical ASY port for the external modem.
W-WAN mode
Checking the check box enables W-WAN mode
Initialization string n
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
These parameters (Initialization string 1, Initialization string 2, Initialization string 3) allow you
to specify a number of command strings that are sent to the wireless module each time a
wireless connection is attempted. These can be used to set non-standard wireless operating
modes.
Each string is prefixed with the characters AT before being sent to the wireless module and
they are sent to the wireless module in the order specified until an empty string is
encountered. For example, Initialization string 3 will not be sent unless Initialisation string 1
and Initialization string 2 are both specified. Initialization strings are not normally required for
most applications as the unit will normally be pre-configured for correct operation with most
networks.
Hang-up string
In a typical wireless application the connection to the network is always on and under normal
circumstances it is not necessary to hang-up the wireless module. Under certain
circumstances however, the router may use the ATH command to try and disconnect the
wireless module from the network, such as if an incorrect APN has been specified and the
module is unable to attach to the network correctly.
This parameter allows you to specify an alternative hang-up string that is sent to the wireless
module when disconnecting a call. As with the Initialization strings, it is not necessary to
include the AT as this is inserted automatically by the router.
Post hang-up string
This parameter allows you to specify additional AT commands that is sent to the wireless
module after it has been disconnected. As with the Initialization strings, it is not necessary to
include the AT as this is inserted automatically by the router.
Listening init string
This is the listening initialization string parameter for external modems.
Listening init interval (secs)
The listening init string is sent at intervals specified by a listening init interval parameter.
Maximum RING count before answering incoming call
The count of the maximum number of rings before answering incoming call can be set in this
field. The default value is 0.
Minimum RING count before answering incoming call
The count of the minimum number of rings before answering incoming call can be set in this
field. The default value is 0.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
modemcc
n
asyport
0 - 255 (Default:
255)
modemcc
n
init_str
Free text field
Initialisation string 1
modemcc
n
init_str1
Free text field
Initialisation string 2
modemcc
n
init_str2
Free text field
Initialisation string 3
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Equivalent Web Parameter
151
Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
modemcc
n
hang_str
Free text field
Hang-up string
modemcc
n
posthang_str
Free text field
Post Hang-up string
modemcc
0
linit_str
Free text field
Listening init string
modemcc
0
linit_int
0 - 2147483647
Listening init interval (secs)
PPP Mappings parameters
The PPP Mappings page contains two columns of as many interfaces as are supported by the
router (this varies between models). Each row in the column contains a drop-down list box that
allows the user to select what function should be associated with each PPP instance. The PPP
instance number is the left-most column. So, for example, to assign a W-WAN interface to PPP
instance 3, select Mobile SIM1 or SIM2 from the drop-down box to the right of instance 3. If a WWAN interface is fitted to the router, this is the default mapping.
Multilink PPP parameters
As mentioned above, the routers may support multilink PPP. This section describes the
configuration of MLPP functionality.
The PPP interface must be configured with Always On mode enabled and an AODI NUA.
Desired local ACCM c
The value in this textbox defines the Asynchronous Control Character Map (ACCM). The
default value of 0x00000000 should work in most cases. Changing this value is for advanced
users only.
Desired remote ACCM c
The value in this textbox defines the ACCM for the remote peer. As above, the default value of
0xffffffff should work in most cases and should only be changed if it is known that other
characters should be used.
Username
The value in this textbox is the username that should be used for logging on to the remote
system.
Password
The value in this textbox is the password that should be used for authentication with the
remote system when using MLPP. This password is used for both B-channel PPP connections.
Confirm password
When changing the password, the new password should also be typed into this text box. The
router will check that both fields are the same before changing the value.
Enable remote CHAP authentication
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to authenticate itself with the remote system
using CHAP. If this parameter is set, the connection will fail if authentication fails. Generally,
this checkbox should be left unchecked.
Enable short sequence numbers
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
When checked, this checkbox enables the use of 12-bit, rather than the more usual 16-bit data
packet sequence numbers.
Bring up the second ISDN B-channel
Never
When selected, this radio button will cause the router not to activate the second B-channel.
When the data rate is greater than n bytes/sec for s seconds
When this radio button is selected, the two associated textboxes become enabled and allow
the user to enter the desired data rate (default 2000 bytes/second) that will trigger activation
of the second B-channel and the period for which the data rate exceeds that value, before the
channel is activated.
Drop the second ISDN B-channel
When the connection is terminated
When this radio button is selected, the second B-channel is only deactivated when the
connection is terminated.
When the data rate is less than n bytes/sec for s seconds
When this radio button is selected, the above two text boxes are enabled. The value in the lefthand one specifies the data rate below which the traffic must fall before the secondary Bchannel will be deactivated. The second box contains the time in seconds for which the data
rate must be below threshold before the second B-channel is deactivated.
Note The following parameters are for use with Always On Dynamic ISDN.
Bring up the first ISDN B-channel
When the data rate is greater than n bytes/sec for s seconds
When Always On mode is enabled, these two textboxes specify the data rate and duration for
which the data rate must be sustained before the B-channel is activated.
Drop the first ISDN B-channel
When the data rate is less than n bytes/sec for s seconds
When Always On mode is enabled, these two textboxes specify the data rate below the traffic
must fall and the duration for which it is below the threshold before the B-channel is
deactivated.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
mlppp
0
l_accm
0x00000000 –
0xFFFFFFFF
Desired local ACCM
mlppp
0
r_accm
0x00000000 –
0xFFFFFFFF
Desired remote ACCM
mlppp
0
username
Valid username
username
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
mlppp
0
password
Valid password
password
mlppp
0
epassword
Encrypted
password
None – this parameter is not
configurable
mlppp
0
r_chap
ON, OFF
Enable remote CHAP authentication
mlppp
0
l_shortseq
ON, OFF
Default OFF
Enable short sequence numbers
mlppp
0
up_rate
0 – 2147483648
Default 2000
When the data rate is greater than n
bytes/sec
mlppp
0
up_delay
0 – 2147483648
Default 10
for s seconds
mlppp
0
down_rate
0 – 2147483648
Default 1000
When data rate is less than n bytes/
sec
mlppp
0
down_delay
0 – 2147483648
Default 10
for s seconds
mlppp
0
dup_rate
0 – 2147483648
Default 500
When data rate is greater than n
bytes/sec
mlppp
0
dup_delay
0 – 2147483648
Default 5
for s seconds
mlppp
0
ddown_rate
0 – 2147483648
Default 500
When data rate is less than n bytes/
sec
mlppp
0
ddown_delay
0 – 2147483648
Default 5
for s seconds
PPP parameters
This section contains those parameters which may need to be adjusted when setting up a PPP
connection but in general can be left at their default values.
Load answering defaults
Clicking this button causes the router to read the default PPP answering default parameters
from a default configuration stored in memory.
Load dialing defaults
Clicking this button causes the router to read the PPP dialing parameters from a default
configuration stored in memory.
Description
This text box holds a description of the PPP instance that may make it easier to refer to. For
example the PPP instance used to connect to an ISP may be named MyISP.
This PPP interface will use
If the PPP mappings have been set up previously using the PPP mappings page, this box will
contain the name of the protocol that has been assigned to this PPP instance. If the mapping
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has not been set up previously and if no default mappings apply, the text in the box should
read Not Assigned. Select the required the required physical interface from the drop-down
selection box.
Dial out using numbers
To allow the router to automatically make outgoing calls, the ISDN number must be specified.
The four text boxes allow four telephone numbers to be entered. The first one is required, the
others are optional and will be used in rotation. These numbers may be the number of the
Internet Service Provider (ISP) or another router.
Prefix n to the dial out number
When making outgoing PPP calls, the value specified in this text box is inserted before the
actual number being called. This may be required if a PABX system is in use which requires a
prefix to be used in order to get an outside line. For example, when using AODI or BACP, the
remote peer may provide a number to be used for raising an additional B-channel to increase
the bandwidth. However, such a number will not normally include the digits needed to
connect to an outside line via a PABX.
Username
The value in this text box is the username to be used for MLPPP login.
Password
This is the password to be used for MLPPP login. This password is used for both B-channel
PPP connections.
Confirm password
Type the password in this text box to confirm that the password has been correctly typed in.
Note The following three radio buttons control how the IP address for the router is assigned.
Allow the remote device to assign a local IP address to this router
When this radio button is selected, the remote peer will assign this PPP interface an IP
address.
Try to negotiate a.b.c.d as the local IP address for this router
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If it would be useful, but not essential, to have a predefined IP address for the interface, the
second radio button should be selected and the desired IP address entered into the text box
to the right.
Use a.b.c.d as the local IP address for this router
If it is essential that the PPP interface has a specific IP address, this radio button should be
selected and the IP address entered into the text box.
Use mask a.b.c.d for this interface
The default value in this text box will normally work and should only be changed if it is known
that the default is not appropriate. Since PPP is a peer-to-peer protocol this value makes sense
in most situations.
Use the following DNS servers if not negotiated
Primary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary DNS server to use if a DNS server is
not assigned as part of the PPP negotiation and connection process. It is fairly common
practice for the DNS server to be assigned automatically by the ISP when making a connection.
Secondary DNS server
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the secondary DNS server to use if one is
not automatically assigned by the remote peer.
DNS Port
Attempt to assign the following IP configuration to remote devices
When checked, this check box will reveal the following four configuration parameters which
control how the PPP instance assigns an IP address to a connecting remote peer. The primary
and secondary DNS server addresses will also be sent to the remote peer
Assign remote IP addresses from a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
The IP addresses in these text boxes define the pool of IP addresses to assign to remote peers
during the IP protocol configuration phase of the PPP negotiation process.
Primary DNS server
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary DNS server that the remote peer
should use when making DNS requests over the link.
Secondary DNS server
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The value in this text box is the IP address of the secondary DNS server that the remote peer
should use when making DNS requests, should the primary server be unavailable.
Request packet data connection
Allow the PPP interface to answer incoming calls
When checked, this checkbox will cause the PPP instance to answer an incoming call.
Only allow calling numbers ending with n
When set to answer calls, the value in this textbox provides a filter for ISDN sub-addresses.
This value is blank by default but when the PPP instance is set to answer calls, only numbers
having trailing digits that match the sub-address value in this test will be answered. So for
example, if this value is set to 123, only calls from numbers with trailing digits that match this
value will be answered. For example 01942 605123
Close the PPP connection after s seconds
The value in this textbox specifies the maximum time that the link will remain active in any
one session. After this time, the link will be deactivated.
if it has been up for m minutes in a day
The router deactivates the PPP instance after it has been active for the value specified in this
text box.
if it has been idle for h hrs m mins s secs
The router deactivates the PPP instance after the time specified in these text boxes if it detects
that the link has not seen traffic.
Alternative idle timer for static routes s seconds
The value in this text box specifies an alternative inactivity timeout for use in conjunction with
the Make PPP n interface use the alternative idle timeout when this route becomes
available parameter on the Configuration – Network > IP Routing/Forwarding > Static
Routes > Routes n > Advanced web page. This timeout will only be used until the PPP
instance next deactivates. After that the normal timeout value is used.
If the link has not received any packets for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the amount of time that the router waits without receiving
any PPP packets before disconnecting. The timer is reset with each received PPP packet.
if the negotiation is not complete in s seconds
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The value in this textbox specifies the maximum time (in seconds) allowed for the PPP
negotiation to complete. If negotiations have not completed within this period, the interface is
deactivated.
Enable NAT on this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to apply Network Address Translation (NAT) to
IP packets on this interface. When enabled, the following additional parameters appear:
IP address/IP address and Port
These radio buttons select whether IP address translation only should be applied or whether
port number translation should also be applied to IP packets.
NAT Source IP address a.b.c.d
This text box contains the IP address of the interface that should be used as the source
address in IP packets crossing the NAT interface.
Enable IPsec on this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to use the IPsec protocol to secure the
connection. When enabled, the following additional parameters appear:
Keep Security Associations (SAs) when this PSTN interface is disconnected
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to maintain (such as not flush) the SA when
the interface becomes disconnected. The normal behavior is to remove the SAs when the
interface becomes disconnected.
Use interface x,y for the source IP address of IPsec packets
If it is required to use another interface (such as not the interface currently being configured)
as the source address for IPsec packets, this may be achieved by selecting the desired
interface from the drop-down list and typing the desired interface instance number into the
adjacent text box.
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Enable the firewall on this interface
Checking this checkbox causes the router to apply the firewall settings to traffic using this
interface. When debugging connections issues it is often helpful to ensure that this checkbox
is NOT checked, as incorrect firewall rules will prevent a connection from passing network
traffic. If the connection works when the firewall is turned off but fails when turned on, a good
place to start checking parameters would be in the firewall settings page, Configuration –
Security > Firewall.
Remote management access
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Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
name
Free text field
Description
ppp
n
l1iface
The layer 1
interface, such
as Async Port,
PPTP, W-WAN
This PPP interface will use
ppp
n
l1nb
Layer 1
Interface
number
This PPP interface will use value
Default: 0
ppp
n
l2face
The lower layer
interface, such
as. LAPB, LAPD,
XOT
ppp
n
l2nb
Lower layer
interface
number.
This PPP interface will use
Default: 0
ppp
n
aodinua
ppp
n
phonenum
up to 25 digits
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
ph2
up to 25 digits
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
ph3
up to 25 digits
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
ph4
up to 25 digits
Dial out using numbers
ppp
n
prefix
0 – 9999999999
Prefix n to the dial out number
ppp
n
username
Valid username
Username
ppp
n
password
Valid password
Password
ppp
n
epassword
The encrypted
password
None – this parameter is not
configurable
ppp
n
r_addr
Default 0.0.0.0
set
automatically
Allow the remote device to assign a
local IP address to this router
ppp
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Try to negotiate a.b.c.d as the local
IP address for this router
ppp
n
l_addr
Valid IP address
Default 1.2.3.4
Use a.b.c.d as the local IP address
for this router
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
mask
Valid IP address use mask a.b.c.d for this interface
Default
255.255.255.255
ppp
n
DNSserver
Valid IP address
Primary DNS server
ppp
n
secDNS
Valid IP address
Secondary DNS server
ppp
n
DNSport
Valid IP address
Default 53
DNS Port
ppp
n
IPmin
Valid IP address
Default
10.10.10.10
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
ppp
n
IPrange
0 – 255
Default 5
Assign remote IP addresses from
a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d Note that these are
not directly equivalent. This address
is obtained by adding the range
value to the minimum.
ppp
n
transDNS
Valid IP address
Primary DNS server
ppp
n
sectransDNS
Valid IP address
Secondary DNS server
ppp
n
cingnb
up to 25 digits
Only allow numbers ending with n
ppp
n
msn
up to 9 digits
with ISDN MSN ending with n
ppp
n
sub
up to 17 digits
with ISDN sub-address ending with
n
cli
ppp
n
maxup
0 – 2147483648
Close the PPP connection after s
seconds
ppp
n
maxuptime
0 – 2147483647
if it has been up for m minutes in a
day
ppp
n
timeout
Default 300s (5
minutes)
if it has been idle for h, m, s
ppp
n
timeout2
0 – 2147483648
Alternative idle timer for static
routes s seconds
ppp
n
rxtimeout
0 – 2147483648
if the link has not received any
packets for s seconds
ppp
n
maxneg
0 – 2147483648
if the negotiation is not complete in
s seconds
ppp
n
do_nat
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Enable NAT on this interface
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
natip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
NAT Source IP address a.b.c.d
ppp
n
ipsec
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Enable IPsec on this interface
ppp
n
ppp
n
ipsecent
Default
PPP
Ethernet
Use interface x,y for the source
address of IPsec packets
ppp
n
ipsecadd
Valid interface
number
Use interface x,y for the source
address of IPsec packets
ppp
n
firewall
OFF, ON
Enable the firewall on this interface
ppp
n
QoS
ppp
n
use_modem
ppp
n
cdma_backoff
Keep Security Associations (SAs)
when this PPP interface is
disconnected
0,1
Default: 1
ppp
n
ppp
ndis
nocfg
0,1,2,3
Remote management access
0 = No restrictions
1 = Disable management
2 = Disable return RST
3 = Disable management and return
RST
ppp
n
igmp
OFF, ON
Enable IGMP
ppp
n
ifspeed
64000 bps
Allows the user to configure
the speed of the interface purely so
that it can be reported in SNMP. CLI
command only.
ppp
n
norxrst
OFF, ON
Mobile PPP parameters
Mobile telephone modules fitted into the router use PPP to connect to the network and send and
receive traffic. This section describes parameters relevant to setting up a mobile telephone
module.
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Use SIM Any, SIM1, SIM2
These radio buttons are used to select which of the SIM cards fitted should be used by the
module.
Detach W-WAN if the link fails
When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to issue the command to detach the mobile
telephone module from the wireless network if it detects that the link has failed. Link failure is
detected by a PPP ping response timer or by a firewall request.
Detach W-WAN between connection attempts
This checkbox controls whether or not the module stays attached to the network if multiple
connection attempts are required to establish a connection. This functionality may be useful if
the connection to the mobile telephone network is not very reliable. Connecting to the mobile
telephone network to send and receive data is a two-stage process. The first stage is where
the module signals its wish to join the network and is accepted by the local cell. The second
stage involves negotiating the link parameters and transferring data. Sometimes it may be
necessary to cleanly detach from the network in order to start the process from the ground
up.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
gprs_sim
0–2
0 = Any
1 = SIM1
2 = SIM2
Use SIM, Any, SIM 1, SIM 2
ppp
n
detach_on_fail
OFF,ON
Detach W-WAN if the link fails
ppp
n
detach
OFF,ON
Detach W-WAN between connection
attempts
Advanced PPP parameters
This section contains PPP configuration parameters that do not normally need changing from the
defaults and are therefore placed in a separate section to reduce clutter on the web pages.
Metric
This parameter specifies the connected metric of the interface. The default metric of a
connected interface is 1. By allowing the interface to have a higher value (lower priority), static
routes can take precedence over interfaces. For normal operation, leave the value in this
textbox unchanged.
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Allow this PP interface to settle for s x 100 milliseconds
On wireless links it is possible that the initial packets sent to the interface by the TCP layer may
be dropped by the network if they are sent too quickly after PPP negotiation has completed.
The value in this textbox defines the delay in notification sent to the TCP layer that PPP
negotiation has completed.
Enable “Always On” mode of this interface
If the Always on option is available on the interface, checking this checkbox reveals the
following two radio buttons. When this functionality is enabled, the router will automatically
try to reconnect after about 10 seconds if the link becomes disconnected. This parameter
should be enabled when using AODI or W-WAN.
On
Default action, the interface will always try and raise this PPP link.
On and return to service immediately
These two radio buttons enable the Always on functionality and additionally the facility to
return to the in-service state after a disconnect event.
Put this interface “Out of Service” when an always-on connection attempt fails
Normally, always-on interfaces will not go out of service unless they have connected at least
once. When checked, this checkbox causes the router to put the interface out of service even if
the first connection attempt fails.
Attempt to re-connect after s seconds
The parameter in this textbox specifies the length of time in seconds that the router should
wait after an Always on PPP connection has been terminated before trying to re-establish the
link.
If a PPP interface that would be inhibited by this PPP is connected, attempt reconnection after
s seconds
The value in this textbox takes precedence over the previous parameter when another PPP
instance that is usually inhibited by this one is connected. This parameter would typically be
used to reduce the connection retry rate when a lower priority PPP instance is connected.
Wait s seconds after power-up before activating this interface
The value in this textbox is the initial delay that the router will apply before activating the PPP
instance after power-up. After the initial power-up delay the normal always-on activation
timers apply. If set to zero, no delay will be applied.
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Keep this interface up for at least s seconds
The value in this textbox specifies the minimum period that the PPP interface should remain
available. This means that even if the link becomes inactive before this period expires, the
connection will remain open.
Enable Multilink PPP on this interface
When checked, this checkbox enables the multilink PPP capability of the router. (See above for
configuration details).
Click here to assign a timeband to this interface
Clicking this link redirects the browser to the timeband configuration page Configuration –
Network > Timebands.
Add a route to a.b.c.d if the peer’s IP address is not negotiated
Normally, the IP address for a device connecting to a remote peer is assigned by the remote
peer. If this is not the case then the router will need a route to the remote peer. The value in
this textbox is set to the IP address of the remote peer so that it can be added to the routing
table.
Forward IP broadcasts over this interface if the interface is on the same IP network as an
Ethernet interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to route broadcast packets to and from
Ethernet interfaces. This will only occur if the PPP instance has issued an address which is part
of the Ethernet interface network.
Send LCP echo request packet to the remote peer
When checked, this checkbox reveal the configuration parameters that cause the router to
send Link Control Protocol (LCP) packets to the remote peer at specified intervals. This facility
can be useful for keeping a link active (W-WAN, for example).
Send LCP echo requests every s seconds
The value in this text box sets the interval at which to send the packets. When set to zero, the
transmission of LCP packets is disabled.
Disconnect the link after n failed echo requests
The value in this text box set the number of consecutive failed echo requests that are allowed
before the router terminates the link. When set to zero, this functionality is disabled, such as
the router will not terminate the link if the LCP echo requests do not elicit a response from the
remote.
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Generate Heartbeats on this interface
When checked, this checkbox reveals the configuration options that control how the router
sends heartbeat packets. Generating a valid configuration enables the router to send
heartbeat packets to the specified destination. Heartbeat packets are UDP packets that
contain various items of information about the router and which may include status
information that may be used to locate its current dynamic IP address. Heartbeats may also
contain GPS position information and mobile telephone module information.
Send Heartbeat messages to IP address a.b.c.d every h hrs, m minutes, s secs
The left-hand text box contains the IP address of the destination for the heartbeat packets.
The remaining text boxes specify the desired interval between sending heartbeat packets.
Use interface x,y for the source IP address
These two text boxes allow selection of the source interface for the UDP heartbeats. Selecting
an Ethernet source will allow the packets to follow the routing table instead of being sent out
from the PPP interface on which they are set.
Select transmit interface using the routing table
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to choose the best route from the routing
table. If unchecked, the exit interface will be the interface on which the heartbeat is
configured.
Include IMSI information in the Heartbeat message
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to include the IMSI of the wireless MODEM
module in the heartbeat packet.
Include GPS information in the Heartbeat message
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to include the GPS co-ordinates in the
heartbeat packet.
Generate Ping packets on this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to reveal the configuration parameters that
enable the sending of ICMP echo request (ping) packets. This feature can be used as part of a
backup interface strategy.
Send n byte pings to IP host a.b.c.d every h hrs, m mins, s secs
These parameters control how the ICMP echo requests are generated. The value in the lefthand text box specifies the number of data bytes in the echo request. Typical values are 32 or
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64 octets. The IP host text box specifies the IP address of the host to which the ping packets
are sent. The remaining parameters specify how often the ping should be sent.
Send pings every h hrs, m mins, s seconds if ping responses are not being received
These three text boxes specify the interval at which to send pings when more than one ping
request is outstanding. When left at the default of zero this function is disabled.
Switch to sending pings to IP host a.b.c.d after n failures
These parameters allow for more reliable problem detection before failover occurs. If the
value in the first text box is a valid IP address, and the value in the second text box is greater
than zero, when a ping failure is detected on the primary host address, this secondary host is
tried. This is to ensure that should the primary host become unavailable for any reason and
stops responding to the ICMP echo requests, the router will check an alternative IP address
before initiating the failover procedure. The value in the second text box is the number of
pings that should be allowed to fail before checking the secondary IP address.
Ping responses are expected within s seconds
When the value in this text box is set to a non-zero value, the router will wait for that specified
interval for a response from a ping request before applying the timeout specified in the Send
pings every ... if ping responses are not being received setting above. If the value is set to
0 (the default) then the router applies the timeout without modification.
Only send Pings when this interface is “In Service”
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to only send ICMP requests when the PPP
instance is in service. The default setting is unchecked which means that ICMP requests are
sent when the interface is in service and out of service.
New connections to resume with previous Ping interval
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to use the ping interval that was in force when
the PPP interface last disconnected.
Reset the link if no response is received within s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the period for which the router should wait before
terminating the PPP connection if no response to the auto-pings has been received. This
behavior is useful in the attempt to re-establish communications, since the router will
automatically attempt to restart an always-on link that has been terminated. This function is
primarily used where IP traffic is being carried over a W-WAN link and where the associated
PPP instance has been configured into the always-on mode.
Use ETH 0 IP address as the source IP address
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to use the IP address of interface ETH 0 as the
source address for ICMP echo requests instead of the current IP address of the PPP interface.
Defer sending pings if IP traffic is being received
One of the uses for sending ICMP echo requests is as a keepalive mechanism. When this
checkbox is checked, it causes the router to defer sending the ping packets out if IP traffic is
being received, since in this case, separate keepalives are not needed.
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Limit the data transmitted over this interface
Some service providers impose a (usually monthly) limit on the amount of data sent over a link
and levy additional charges if the limit is exceeded. This is fairly common practice for W-WAN
links. When checked, this checkbox causes the router to stop sending data on the interface
when the preset data limit has been exceeded. The interface is unlocked manually by clicking
the Clear Total Data Transferred button on the Management – Network Status >
Interfaces > Advanced > PPP > PPP n page. Alternatively, it may be reset automatically on a
certain day of the month.
Issue a warning event after n Kbytes/Mbytes/GBytes
The value in this text box is the amount of traffic which will cause a warning event to be
generated in the event log stating that the specified amount of data has been transferred. The
units are specified by a drop-down list, having the following options; KBytes, MBytes, GBytes.
For example, if the monthly tariff includes up to 5MB of data before excess useage charges
are levied, it would be useful to set this threshold to 4MB. This would cause the router to
create a warning entry in the event log once 4MB of data had been transferred. This event
could then be used to trigger an email alert, SNMP trap or SMS alert message.
Stop data from being transmitted after n Kbytes/Mbytes/GBytes
The value in this text box specifies the total amount of data that may be transmitted by this
PPP instance before the link is blocked for further traffic, and the value in the drop-down list
specifies the units which are; KBytes, MBytes, GBytes.
Reset the data limit on the n day of the month
The value in this text box defined the day of the month on which the data limit is reset to zero.
When the link disconnects, indicate that the connection failed if no IP packets were received
Reset this interface if n packets are transmitted and the connection has been up for at least s
seconds
The values in these text boxes control the circumstances under which the link may be reset. If
the number of packets text box has a value greater than zero, the router will reset the link if
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that many IP packets have been transmitted but none have been received, and the link has
been active for at least the value specified in the second text box.
Reboot the router after n consecutive resets
If the value in this text box is non-zero, the router will reboot if the PPP link has been reset the
specified number of times as a consequence of the value n packets (described immediately
above) being exceeded.
Reboot the router after n consecutive connection failures
If the value in this text box is non-zero, the router will reboot if it fails to establish a connection
over this PPP instance after the specified number of consecutive attempts.
Use RADIUS for authentication when acting as a server
Use RADIUS instance
Allow this PPP interface to attempt to connect n times before allowing other PPP interfaces
inhibited by this interface to connect
The value in this textbox specifies the number of connection attempts this PPP instance is
allowed to make before other PPP instances that are inhibited by this instance may make
connection attempts.
If this PPP interface gets disconnected, allow it to attempt to reconnect n times before
allowing other PPP interfaces inhibited by this interface to connect
On W-WAN routers, the value in this textbox specifies the number of times that a PPP instance
which was connected and is then disconnected, is allowed to attempt to reconnect before
other PPP instances that were inhibited by this PPP instance will be allowed to connect.
Inhibit this PPP interface if the following PPP instances n are Active | Active and not out of
service | Not out of service | Connected and not out of service
Inhibition of this PPP interface may be controlled by the state of other PPP instances. This
behaviour is controlled by the options in this drop-down menu box.
If this PPP interface is inhibited and data needs to be sent
The options in this drop-down selection box control the behavior of the router in the situation
where the PPP instance is in its inhibited state but there is data waiting to be sent over the
interface. The options are:
Do not bring up interface
This option leaves the situation as it is with the interface remaining inhibited.
Bring up interface and use normal idle period
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This option removes the inhibit state from the interface and uses the normal idle time
associated with it to control when it deactivates.
Bring up interface and use idle period of s seconds
This option causes the interface to become activated but rather than using the idle timer
associated with the interface, specify the idle timeout.
Inhibit other PPP interface if this PPP interface is disconnected but operational
When checked, this checkbox enables this PPP instance to inhibit other PPP instances if it is
operational but not currently active.
Attempt to negotiate DEFLATE compression on this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to compress the data transferred over this
link. When unchecked, compression is disabled. The effectiveness of data compression will
vary with the type of data but a typical ratio achieved for a mix of data such as web pages,
spreadsheets, databases, text files and (uncompressed) image files would be between 2:1 and
3:1. Using compression has the effect of increasing the effective throughput. Using
compression may offer cost savings on a network where charges are based upon the amount
of data transferred (such as W-WAN networks). If the data is already compressed (such as .zip
files or JPEG images) then the compression algorithm will detect this and send the data
without attempting further compression.
Attempt to negotiate MPPE encryption on this interface
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to attempt to negotiate Microsoft Point-toPoint Encryption (MPPE) with the remote peer. If the remote peer is unable to negotiate MPPE,
negotiations will fail. When negotiated, the PPP instance will encrypt the PPP frames as per the
MPPE specification.
MPPE key size
The values in this drop-down list select the length (in bits) of the encryption key. The options
are:
•
Auto
•
40 bits
•
56 bits
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
•
128 bits.
Auto indicates that the router will accept whatever the remote suggests. For the other values,
the remote must accept and request the key size specified, else the PPP negotiations will fail.
Enable MPPE stateless mode
When this checkbox is checked, the router negotiates stateless mode in which the session key
is changed after the transmission of each packet. Stateless mode may be useful for lossy links.
Note MPPE does not provide authentication, only encryption. This is because the encryption
keys are determined by the PPP engines themselves on start-up.
Use PPP m for processing CHAP
TCP transmit buffer size n bytes
When the value in this text box is set to a non-zero value, the router uses the value to set the
size of the TCP buffer for transmitted packets. This is useful for slow and/or lossy connections
such as satellite links. Setting this buffer to a low value will prevent the amount of
unacknowledged data from getting too high. If retransmits are required, a smaller TX buffer
helps prevent retransmits flooding the connection.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
metric
0 - 255
Metric
ppp
n
settledly
0 - 200
Allow this PPP interface to settle for
s seconds after the connection has
come up
ppp
n
aodion
Enable “Always On” mode of this
0–2
interface, On, On and return to
0 = disabled
service immediately
1 = enabled
2 = On and
return to service
immediately
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
ppp
n
autoassert
0,1, 3
Equivalent Web Parameter
0 = no
autoassert
1 = autoassert
with route up
delay
2 = autoassert
with no route up
delay
ppp
n
immoos
ON, OFF
Put this interface “Out of Service”
when an always-on connection
attempt fails
ppp
n
rdoosdly
ON, OFF
remote disconnect
ppp
n
aodi_dly
0 – 2147483647
Attempt to reconnect after s
seconds
ppp
n
aodi_dly2
0 – 2147483647
If a PPP interface that would be
inhibited by this PPP is connected,
attempt to re-connect after s
seconds
ppp
n
pwr_dly
0 - 2147483647
Wait s seconds after power-up
before activating this interface
ppp
n
minup
0 - 2147483647
Keep this interface up for at least s
seconds
ppp
n
multi
OFF, ON
Enable Multilink PPP on this
interface
ppp
n
netip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Add a route to a.b.c.d if the peer’s IP
address is not negotiated
ppp
n
rbcast
OFF, ON
Forward IP broadcasts over this
interface if this interface is on the
same IP network as an Ethernet
interface
ppp
n
OFF, ON
Send LCP echo request packet to
the remote peer
ppp
n
echo
0 - 2147483648
Send LCP echo requests every s
seconds
ppp
n
echodropcnt
0 - 2147483648
Disconnect the link after n failed
echo requests
ppp
n
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Generate Heartbeats on this
interface
172
Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
hrtbeatip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Send Heartbeat messages to IP
address a.b.c.d every h hrs, m mins,
s secs
ppp
n
hrtbeatint
0 - 2147483648
Send Heartbeat messages to IP
address a.b.c.d every h hrs, m mins,
s secs
ppp
n
hbipent
Blank, PPP, ETH
Blank is default
Use interface x,y for the source IP
address
ppp
n
hbipadd
Valid interface
number
Use interface x,y for the source IP
address
0 - 2147483648
ppp
n
hbiproute
OFF, ON
Select transmit interface using the
routing table
ppp
n
hbimsi
OFF, ON
Include IMSI information in the
Heartbeat message
ppp
n
hbgps
OFF, ON
Include GPS information in the
Heartbeat message
ppp
n
OFF, ON
Generate Ping packets on this
interface
ppp
n
pingsiz
0 - 2147483648
Send n byte pings to IP host a.b.c.d
every h hrs, m mins, s secs
ppp
n
pingip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Send n byte ping to IP host a.b.c.d
every h hrs, m mins, s secs
ppp
n
pingint
0 - 2147483648
Send n byte ping to IP host a.b.c.d
every h hrs, m mins, s secs
ppp
n
pingint2
0 - 2147483648
Send pings every h hrs, m mins, s
seconds if ping responses are not
being received
ppp
n
pingip2
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Switch to sending pings to IP host
a.b.c.d after n failures
ppp
n
ip2count
0 - 2147483648
Switch to sending pings to IP host
a.b.c.d after n failures
ppp
n
pingresp
0 - 2147483648
Ping responses are expected within
s seconds
ppp
n
pingis
OFF, ON
Only send Pings when this interface
is “In Service”
ppp
n
ping2cont
OFF, ON
New connections to resume with
previous Ping interval
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
pingdeact
0 - 2147483648
Reset the link if no response is
received within s seconds
ppp
n
pingfreth0
OFF, ON
Use ETH 0 IP address as the source
IP address
ppp
n
pingresetint
OFF, ON
Defer sending pings if IP traffic is
being received
ppp
n
OFF, ON
Limit the data transmitted over this
interface
ppp
n
dlwarnkb
0 - 2147483647
Issue a warning event after n XBytes
ppp
n
dlstopkb
0 - 2147483647
Stop Data from being transmitted
after n XBytes
ppp
n
dlrstday
0 – 255
Reset the data limit on the n day of
the month
ppp
n
ppp
n
sscnt
0 - 2147483648
Reset this interface if n packets are
transmitted and the connection has
been up for at least s seconds
ppp
n
sssecs
0 - 2147483648
Reset this interface if n packets are
transmitted and the connection has
been up for at least s seconds
ppp
n
lscnt
0 - 2147483648
Reboot the router after n
consecutive resets
ppp
n
rebootfails
0 - 2147483648
Reboot the router after n
consecutive connection failures
ppp
n
radius
OFF, ON
Use RADIUS for authentication
when acting as a server
ppp
n
radiuscfg
ppp
n
acttries
0 - 255
Allow this PPP interface to attempt
to connect n times before allowing
other PPP interfaces inhibited by
this interface to connect
ppp
n
pdacttries
0 - 255
If this PPP interface gets
disconnected, allow it to attempt to
reconnect n times before allowing
other PPP interfaces inhibited by
this interface to connect
Digi TransPort User Guide
When the link disconnects, indicate
that the connection failed if no IP
packets were received
Use RADIUS instance
174
Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
inhibitno
0 - 2147483648
Inhibit this PPP interface if the
following PPP instances n are Active,
Active and not out of service, not
out of service, Connected and not
out of service
ppp
n
inhmode
0-3
Inhibit this PPP interface if the
following PPP instances n are Active,
Active and not out of service, not
out of service, Connected and not
out of service
ppp
n
actmode
OFF,ON
Inhibit other PPP interface if this
PPP is interface is disconnected but
operational
ppp
n
trafficto
0 - 2147483648
If this PPP interface is inhibited and
data needs to be sent
do not bring up the interface,
bring up interface and use normal
idle period, bring up interface and
use idle period of s seconds
ppp
n
deflate
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Attempt to negotiate DEFLATE
compression on this interface
ppp
n
mppe
OFF, ON
Attempt to negotiate MPPE
encryption on this interface
ppp
n
mppebits
0, 40, 56, 128
0 = Auto
MPPE key size
ppp
n
mppeless
OFF, ON
Enable MPPE stateless mode
ppp
n
other_local_PP OFF, ON
P_mode
Use PPP for processing CHAP
ppp
n
other_local_PP
P_inst
Use PPP n for processing CHAP
ppp
n
tcptxbuf
0 - 2147483648
ppp
n
pppdebug
OFF, On
ppp
n
norxrst
OFF, ON
ppp
n
noremaddr
OFF, ON
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TCP transmit buffer size n bytes
175
Advanced Interfaces parameters
PPP Negotiation parameters
When PPP starts up, the devices at both ends of the link negotiate the link parameters, in order to
find a common subset that both devices can use. The negotiation may be summarized by saying
that both ends send negotiation packets with the following message:
these are the values that I wish to use and these are the values that I wish you to use.
Restrict the negotiation time to s seconds
The parameter in this text entry box specifies the maximum time allowed for a PPP
negotiation to complete. If negotiations have not completed in this time, the PPP instance is
disconnected.
Desired local ACCM
The value in this text box is the local Asynchronous Control Character Map which has the
default value 0x00000000. Changing this value is for advanced users.
Desired remote ACCM
This text box holds the remote ACCM which has the default value 0xffffffff. As above, the
default will work in nearly all circumstances and should be changed only where really
necessary.
Desired local MRU n bytes
The value in this text box is the desired local Maximum Receive Unit (MRU), the default value
of 1500 octets will work fine in most cases.
Desired remote MRU n bytes
The value in this text box is the desired MRU for the remote end of the link. The default value
of 1500 octets will be fine in most cases.
Request local ACFC
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to request Address Control Field Compression
(ACFC). When negotiated, the address/control fields are removed from the start of the PPP
header.
Request remote ACFC
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to ask the remote device to request ACFC.
Request local PAP authentication
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to use the Password Authentication Protocol
(PAP) before allowing a connection to be made. Generally, this parameter is enabled for
incoming connections and disabled for outgoing connections.
Request remote PAP authentication
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to authenticate itself with the remote device
using PAP. If this parameter is set, the connection will fail if authentication is not successful.
Generally, this parameter is disabled.
Request local CHAP authentication
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to use the Challenge Handshake
Authentication Protocol (CHAP) for local authentication. As with PAP, this parameter is
generally enabled for incoming connections and disabled for outgoing connections.
Request remote CHAP authentication
As with PAP above, this checkbox controls whether or not the router should authenticate itself
with the remote device using CHAP. The connection will fail if authentication fails. Generally,
this parameter is enabled for outgoing connection and disabled for inbound connections.
Request local (VJ) compression
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to request the use of Van Jacobson
compression which compresses TCP/IP headers to about 3 rather than the standard 40 octets.
This is generally only used to improve efficiency on slow links.
Request remote (VJ) compression
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to send a negotiation packet that requests
that the remote device requests VJ compression.
Request local PFC
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to request Protocol Field Compression (PFC)
which compresses PPP protocol fields from 2 to 1 octet.
Request remote PFC
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to ask the remote device to request Protocol
Field Compression.
Request BACP
When this checkbox is checked, the router will use the Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol
(BACP) to determine the ISDN number to dial for the seconds or third multi-link connection.
Request callback
When checked, this checkbox will request a callback when it dials into a remote device. Note
that the answering PPP instance of the remote unit must also be configured with the
telephone number of the calling unit and a suitable username, password combination.
Allow remote end to request callback
This drop-down list controls whether or not the router will respond to incoming callback
requests. The options are:
•
Off
•
Desired
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177
Advanced Interfaces parameters
•
Required.
Allow this unit to authenticate using
CHAP-MD5
Selecting enabled from the drop-down menu allows the router to authenticate logins using
the CHAP MD-5 algorithm.
MS-CHAP
Selecting enabled from the drop-down menu allows the router to authenticate logins using
Microsoft’s proprietary MS-CHAP algorithm.
MS-CHAPv2
Selecting enabled from the drop-down menu allows the router to authenticate logins using
version 2 of Microsoft’s proprietary MS-CHAP algorithm.
Allow a remote unit to authenticate using
CHAP-MD5
When checked, this checkbox allows the router to authenticate with a remote unit using the
CHAP-MD5 algorithm.
MS-CHAP
When checked, this checkbox allows the router to authenticate with a remote unit using
Microsoft’s MS-CHAP algorithm.
MS-CHAPv2
When checked, this checkbox allows the router to authenticate with a remote unit using
version 2 of Microsoft’s MS-CHAP algorithm.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
maxneg
0 - 2147483648
Restrict the negotiation time to s
seconds
ppp
n
OFF, ON
Disconnect if the remote request an
IP address
ppp
n
l_accm
0x00000000 –
0xFFFFFFFF
Default
0x00000000
Desired local ACCM
ppp
n
r_accm
0x00000000 –
0xFFFFFFFF
Default
0xFFFFFFFF
Desired remote ACCM
ppp
n
l_mru
0–n
Default 1500
Desired local MRU
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178
Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
r_mru
0–n
Default 1500
Desired remote MRU
ppp
n
l_acfc
OFF, ON
Request local ACFC
ppp
n
r_acfc
OFF, ON
Request remote ACFC
ppp
n
l_pap
OFF, ON
Request local PAP authentication
ppp
n
r_pap
OFF, ON
Request remote PAP authentication
ppp
n
l_chap
OFF, ON
Request local CHAP authentication
ppp
n
r_chap
OFF, ON
Request remote CHAP
authentication
ppp
n
l_comp
OFF, ON
Request local (VJ) compression
ppp
n
r_comp
OFF, ON
Request remote (VJ) compression
ppp
n
l_pfc
OFF, ON
Request local PFC
ppp
n
r_pfc
OFF, ON
Remote PFC
ppp
n
l_bacp
OFF, ON
Request BACP
ppp
n
l_callb
OFF, ON
Request callback
ppp
n
r_callb
0–2
0 = Off
1 = Desired
2 = Required
Allow remote end to request
callback
ppp
n
l_md5
0-2
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
2 = Preferred
Allow this unit to authenticate using
CHAP-MD5
ppp
n
r_md5
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Allow remote unit to authenticate
using CHAP-MD5
ppp
n
l_ms1
0,1
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
2 = Preferred
Allow this unit to authenticate using
MS-CHAP
ppp
n
r_ms1
0,1
0 = On
1 = Off
Allow remote unit to authenticate
using MS-CHAP
ppp
n
l_ms2
0-2
0 = Disabled
1 = Enabled
2 = Preferred
Allow this unit to authenticate using
MS-CHAPv2
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179
Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
r_ms2
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Allow remote unit to authenticate
using MS-CHAPv2
ppp
n
lcn
0 - 4096
LCN
ppp
n
lcnup
1 = up, 0 = down LCN direction
ppp
n
defpak
16,32,64,128,25
6,512 or 1024
Default X.25 packet size
ppp
n
cingnua
text (valid
NUA)
Use NUA
ppp
n
ipmode
0=XOT, 1=raw
TCP
Use TPAD over interface
ppp
n
baklcn
1 - 4095
(Backup) LCN
ppp
n
baklcnup
1 = up, 0 = down (Backup) LCN direction
ppp
n
bakl2iface
lapb, lapd, tcp,
ssl, vxn
Use backup interface
ppp
n
bakl2nb
0 - 255
Use backup interface
ppp
n
bakcingnua
ppp
n
baknum
ppp
n
dmnr_reg
ppp
n
dmnrtun_add
PPP QoS parameters
The parameters on this page control the Quality of Service management facility. Each PPP
instance has an associated QoS instance, where PPP 0 maps to QoS 0, PPP 1 maps to QoS 1 and
so on. These QoS instances include ten QoS queues into which packets may be placed when
using QoS. Each of these queues must be assigned a queue profile from the twelve available.
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180
Advanced Interfaces parameters
To configure the PPP Sub-Configs parameters set the following values:
Enable QoS on this interface
This checkbox, when checked, reveals the following QoS configuration parameters:•
Link speed n Kbps: The value in this text entry box should be set to the maximum data
rate that this PPP link is capable of sustaining. This is used when calculating whether or not
the data rate from a queue may exceed its minimum Kbps setting as determined by the
profile assigned to it and send at a higher rate (up to the maximum Kbps setting).
•
Queue n: Below this column heading, is a list of ten queue instances. Each instance is
associated with the profile and priority on the same row.
•
Profile n: This column contains the profile to be associated with the queue. There are
twelve available, 0 – 11, which are selected from the drop-down list boxes.
•
Priority: This column contains drop-down menu boxes which are used to assign a priority
to the selected queue. The priorities available are: Very High, High, Medium, Low, and Very
Low.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
qos
n
linkkbps
0-
Link speed n kbps
qos
n
q0prof
0 - 11
Queue 0 Profile
qos
n
q0prio
0–4
0 = Very high
1 = High
2 = Medium
3 = Low
4 = Very Low
Queue 0 Priority
qos
n
q1prof
0 – 11
Queue 1 Profile
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Advanced Interfaces parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
qos
n
q1prio
0–4
Queue 1 Priority
qos
n
q2prof
0 - 11
Queue 2 Profile
qos
n
q2prio
0–4
Queue 2 Priority
qos
n
q3prof
0 - 11
Queue 3 Profile
qos
n
q3prio
0–4
Queue 3 Priority
qos
n
q4prof
0 - 11
Queue 4 Profile
qos
n
q4prio
0–4
Queue 4 Priority
qos
n
q5prof
0 - 11
Queue 5 Profile
qos
n
q5prio
0–4
Queue 5 Priority
qos
n
q6prof
0 - 11
Queue 6 Profile
qos
n
q6prio
0–4
Queue 6 Priority
qos
n
q7prof
0 - 11
Queue 7 Profile
qos
n
q7prio
0–4
Queue 7 Priority
qos
n
q8prof
0 - 11
Queue 8 Profile
qos
n
q8prio
0–4
Queue 8 Priority
qos
n
q9prof
0 - 11
Queue 9 Profile
qos
n
q9prio
0–4
Queue 9 Priority
PPP Sub-Configs parameters
PPP Sub-Configs is an alternative to using an entire PPP instance if only a few parameters are
different to those in an existing PPP instance. Using PPP Sub-Configs, you can define up to 50
sub-configs and saves them on system memory.
To configure the PPP Sub-Configs parameters, set the following values:
Nb
This is the instance number for a sub-config.
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182
Advanced Interfaces parameters
Description
The text in this text box is the name to easily identify the sub-config.
Username
The value in this text box is the username that is used when authenticating with the remote
system and is usually only required for outgoing PPP calls.
Password
The value in this text box is the password for authentication with the remote system.
Confirm
When changing the password, enter it into this text box also to allow the router to check for
simple typing errors.
Dialout Number
The value in this text box is the ISDN number to make outgoing calls. This must be a valid
number in order to allow the router to make outgoing calls. This number could be the number
of the Internet Service Provider (ISP) or another router.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
pppcfg
1 - 50
name
Up to 25
characters
Description
pppcfg
1 - 50
username
Valid username
up to 60
characters
Username
pppcfg
1 - 50
password
Valid password
up to 40
cahracters
Password
pppcfg
1 - 50
phonenum
Up to 25 digits
Dialout Number
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183
DHCP Server
Digi routers incorporate one or more Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) servers, one
for each Ethernet port. DHCP is a standard Internet protocol that allows a DHCP server to
dynamically distribute IP addressing and configuration information to network clients.
This section contains a web page for each of the DHCP servers. Additionally, there is a separate
page for mapping MAC addresses to fixed IP addresses.
DHCP Server parameters for Ethernet n
Enable DHCP Server
When checked, this checkbox opens up the page to reveal the following parameters:
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DHCP Server parameters for Ethernet n
IP Addresses a.b.c.d to a.b.c.d
There are six text boxes in this part of the page; three rows of two. The values in these specify
the starting and ending addresses for the range of IP addresses that will be handed out by the
DHCP server. Each of the three rows can be used to specify a different IP address pool, all
pools should be within the same subnet. When the minimum IP address text box is clear, the
DHCP service will be disabled. In other words, in order to enable the DHCP service, there must
be at least one minimum IP address and a range.
Using the CLI, this is specified slightly differently, a starting address and a range are specified
instead.
Mask
The value in this text box specifies the subnet mask used to on the network to which the
router is connected.
Gateway
A gateway is required in order to route data to IP addresses that are not on the local subnet.
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the gateway (which is usually the IP
address of the router itself as configured by the IP address of the Ethernet interface
associated with this DHCP instance). Alternatively, this may be set to the IP address of another
router on the LAN.
DNS Server
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the primary DNS server to be used by
clients on the LAN. This will usually be the IP address of the route itself. Alternatively, this may
be set to the IP address of an alternative DNS server on the LAN.
Secondary DNS Server
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of a secondary DNS server (if available) to be
used by DHCP clients on the LAN.
Domain Name
The value in this text box specifies the domain name which will be returned to clients.
Lease Duration d days h hrs m mins
The values in these three text boxes specify how long a DHCP client may use the assigned IP
address before it must renew its configuration with the DHCP server. When configuring this
value using the command line interface be aware that this parameter is specified in minutes.
The three boxes here are for convenience when using long lease durations.
Wait for s milliseconds before sending DHCP offer reply
When the checkbox box is checked, the router will use the value in the text box as the delay to
use prior to sending out the DHCP_OFFER message. Enabling this functionality and setting the
delay to a non-zero value will allow other DHCP servers on the network to respond first.
Only send offers to Wi-Fi clients
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to only send DHCP offers to Wi-Fi clients. This
is useful if the router is being used as an access point and there is a separate DHCP server on
the Ethernet LAN.
DHCP Relay
Forward DHCP requests to a.b.c.d
The values in these two text boxes specify the IP addresses of the two supported DHCP relay
agents. If the DHCP server is on a different subnet, specifying the IP address of the server in
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185
DHCP Server parameters for Ethernet n
this text box will cause the router to forward DHCP requests to the IP address specified. The
DHCP server must be within 4 hops.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dhcp
n
IPmin
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP Addresses a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
IPrange
0 – 2147483647
Default 20
to a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
IPmin2
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP Addresses a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
IPrange2
0 – 2147483647
Default 0
to a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
IPmin3
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP Addresses a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
IPrange3
0 – 2147483647
Default 0
to a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
mask
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Mask
dhcp
n
gateway
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Gateway
dhcp
n
DNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
DNS Server
dhcp
n
DNS2
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Secondary DNS Server
dhcp
n
domain
Up to 64
characters
Domain Name
dhcp
n
lease
0 – 2147483648
minutes
Default 20160
minutes (14 days)
Lease Duration d days, h hrs, m
mins
dhcp
n
respdelms
0 - 2147483647
Wait for s milliseconds before
sending DHCP offer reply
dhcp
n
wifionly
OFF,ON
Only send offers to Wi-Fi clients
dhcp
n
fwdip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Forward DHCP requests to
a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
fwdip2
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Forward DHCP requests to
a.b.c.d
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DHCP Server parameters for Ethernet n
Advanced DHCP parameters
Next Bootstrap Server a.b.c.d
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of a secondary configuration server. This
server does not have to be on the same logical subnet as the client.
Server Hostname
The value in this text box specifies the name of a host that the DHCP client can make contact
with in order to download a boot file.
Boot file
The value in this text box specifies the name of the boot file the client can download from the
host specified in the Server Hostname text box.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dhcp
n
nxtsvr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Next Bootstrap Server
dhcp
n
sname
Up to 64
characters
Server Hostname
dhcp
n
file
Up to 64
characters
Boot file
Advanced DHCP options
NetBIOS Name Server a.b.c.d
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Logical Ethernet interfaces
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the primary WINS server address.
Secondary NetBIOS Name Server a.b.c.d
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the secondary WINS server address.
TFTP Server Address a.b.c.d
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of a TFTP server. This is mainly used for boot
images.
FTP Server Address a.b.c.d (for WYSE Terminals)
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of an FTP server and is a custom option for
use with WYSE terminals.
FTP Root Dir (for WYSE Terminals)
The value in this text box specifies the root directory for FTP transfers. This is also a custom
option for use with WYSE terminals.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dhcp
n
NBNS
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
NetBIOS Name Server a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
NBNS2
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Secondary NetBIOS Name
Server a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
tftp
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
TFTP Server Address a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
ftp
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
FTP Server Address a.b.c.d
dhcp
n
ftproot
Up to 64
characters
FTP Root Dir
Logical Ethernet interfaces
The web pages in this section are simply a duplicate of the above pages but applying to logical,
rather than physical Ethernet interfaces.
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DHCP options
DHCP options
The DHCP Option pages allow custom (or non-standard) DHCP options to be configured and sent
to the DHCP client when requesting an IP address and other DHCP parameters. This is useful for
devices such as IP telephones that use specific strings. On the web page, these (up to ten) options
are configured using a table.
The table contains the following fields:
Option
The value in this box specifies the DHCP option number.
Data type
The value in this text box specifies the data type for the option and can be any one of the
following; 1,2 or 4 byte value, IPv4 address, text string or hexadecimal data.
Value
The value in this text box specifies the actual data that will be sent in the DHCP option
message.
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Static lease reservations
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dhcpopt
n
optnb
0 - 2147483647
Default 0
Option
dhcpopt
n
type
i1 = 1 byte value
i2 = 2 byte value
i4 = 4 byte value
ipv4 = IPv4 address
string = string
hex = hexadecimal
Data type
dhcpopt
n
value
Up to 127 octets
Value
Command line examples
To set the option number to “9” for LPR Server, the command is:
dhcpopt 0 optnb 9
Static lease reservations
The table on this web page controls the configuration of MAC address to IP address mappings
and is used to assign a specific IP address to a particular Ethernet MAC address. This is
particularly useful for mobile applications, such as W-WAN where a particular item of mobile
equipment should be issued with the same IP address regardless of when it was last connected
to the network. Up to ten MAC to IP address reservations may be specified.
Note It is important to ensure that the IP addresses specified here DO NOT fall within the IP
address ranges specified in the DHCP server page.
IP Address a.b.c.d
The value in this box specifies the IP address to be assigned.
MAC Address aa.bb.cc.dd.ee.ff
The value in this box specifies the MAC address which is to be given the above IP address.
As is usual with the configuration tables, clicking the Add button adds the entry to the table
and clicking the Delete button removes an existing entry from the table.
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Static lease reservations
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
mac2ip
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP Address a.b.c.d
mac2ip
n
mac
Valid MAC address
aa.bb.cc.dd.ee.ff
MAC Address aa.bb.cc.dd.ee.ff
Two separate commands are required to set up a mapping, these are:
mac2ip <instance> mac <MAC address>
mac2ip <instance> IPaddr <IP address>
where <instance> can be 0 – 9.
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Network Services
The web page described here collects together a number of services that are provided by the
router into one section to enable the user to quickly enable or disable these services without
having to navigate to multiple sections of the menu. Detailed configuration is performed within
the specific section.
Enable Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
Click on this checkbox to enable and disable remote management of the router using SNMP.
This checkbox does not actually directly control the SNMP functionality, but enables or
disables the remaining SNMP controls on this page.
Note Simply clicking on this checkbox may not be sufficient to allow this service to start working.
Depending upon the version selected below, additional configuration may be required.
Detailed configuration, including setting up command filters, users and SNMP traps are to be
found at Configuration > Remote Management > SNMP
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Enable SNMP v1
When this checkbox is checked, the router will use version 1 of the protocol.
UDP Port n
The standard UDP port that is used by this service is 161 which is used as the default. If a
different port is required, enter the port number into the text entry box.
Enable SNMP v2c
When this checkbox is checked, the router will use version 2c of the protocol.
Enable SNMP v3
When this checkbox is checked, the router will use version 3 of the protocol.
Enable Simple Network Timer Server (SNTP)
When checked, the router will act as an SNTP time server.
Source
This drop-down selection menu selects the source used to supply time data for the SNTP
server. The usual options are:
•
internal real time clock (RTC) device
•
a GPS module (if supported)
•
an NTP client (if supported).
Enable Secure Shell Server (SSH / SFTP)
The simplest way to check the status or configuration of the router or to upload new firmware
is to use the CLI over a directly connected ASY port or via a telnet session. Both of these
options have security implications. If a user wishes to gain access to the command line
interface of the router but using a more secure protocol, then selecting this checkbox will
enable a secure shell to start. This option also enables support for SFTP for secure file
transfers.
Enable Telnet Server
This radio button selects between a simple telnet server or telnet over SSL. When this option is
selected, the simple, insecure version of telnet is enabled.
Enable Telnet over SSL
If security is an issue, then selecting this option with the radio button disables the simple
version and enables telnet over the secure socket layer (SSL) protocol.
Enable Web Server (HTTP)
Much of the configuration of the router may be performed using the web GUI as described
here. However, HTTP is an insecure protocol and so for security reasons, this service may be
disabled by deselecting this radio button and hence, enabling the following secure web server.
If security is not such an issue, selecting this option allows the simpler and slightly more
convenient web server to be used.
Enable Secure Web Server (HTTPS)
Select this radio button to disable the insecure HTTP protocol and enable the HTTPS service.
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Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snmp
n
v1enable
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Enable SNMP v1
snmp
n
port
Default 161
UDP Port n
snmp
n
v2cenable
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Enable SNMP v2c
snmp
n
v3enable
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Enable SNMP v3
sntp
0
srvr_mode
ON,OFF
Enable Simple Network Time
Server (SNTP)
sntp
0
time_src
0 = RTC
1 = GPS
2 = NTP Client
Source
sockopt
n
ssh_server_ena
ON, OFF
Enable Secure Shell Server
sockopt
n
telnets
ON, OFF
Enable Telnet over SSL
sockopt
n
https
ON, OFF
Enable Secure Web Server
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DNS Server
DNS Server n
The DNS server selection parameters give the ability to specify a DNS server based on the DNS
query. For example, DNS lookups for internal servers can be directed to an internal DNS server
and all other DNS requests can be sent direct to an external DNS server managed by the ISP.
For DNS requests matching pattern, send the request to
This text box contains the hostname pattern to match for the specified DNS server. This
parameter needs a wildcard to prefix the domain name. For example, to match DNS queries
for all digi.com servers, enter *.digi.com.
When using this feature, it is recommended that the last DNS server selection hostname
pattern is set to * to match all other DNS lookups. This ensures that all the DNS lookup
configuration is kept together for ease of troubleshooting. If this is not done, the lookups will
use the DNS server configured on the interface of the default route.
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DNS Server Update parameters
DNS Server a.b.c.d
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the DNS server to use when a DNS
request matches the hostname pattern.
Secondary DNS Server a.b.c.d
In the event of the primary DNS server not being available, the IP address in this text box
specifies the destination for DNS queries matching the hostname pattern.
Route using
Routing table / Interface x,y
The two radio buttons associated with this text control whether the router should look up the
route to the DNS server by using the routing table or should send the DNS query out of a
specific interface. When the Interface radio button is selected, the drop-down box and
interface instance text box are enabled. The options available for the interface are PPP and
Ethernet. The adjacent text box should be filled in with the number of a valid instance of the
interface, such as Ethernet 3. (Different models of router support different numbers of
interfaces).
Use source IP Address of
Sending interface / Interface x,y
The two radio buttons control whether the DNS query should go out having the source
address of the sending interface or a different interface. This will be required for routing if the
route to the DNS server is via an IPsec tunnel, to ensure the local and remote subnet selectors
match.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dnssel
n
pattern
*.domain.com
For DNS requests matching
pattern, send the request to
dnssel
n
svr
Valid IP address
DNS Server a.b.c.d
dnssel
n
secsvr
Valid IP address
Secondary DNS Server a.b.c.d
dnssel
n
ent
PPP,Ethernet
Interface x,y
dnssel
n
add
Valid interface
number
Interface x,y
dnssel
n
ipent
PPP,Ethernet
Interface x,y
dnssel
n
ipadd
Valid interface
number
Interface x,y
DNS Server Update parameters
Dynamic DNS is supported in accordance with RFC2136 and RFC2485. This allows units to update
specified DNS servers with their IP addresses when they first connect to the Internet and at
regular intervals thereafter. The parameters in this section control how the router updates a
specified DNS server with its IP address when it first connects to the Internet and at regular
intervals thereafter.
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DNS Server Update parameters
This is not to be confused with the popular dynamic DNS service dyndns.com, there is a separate
page for configuring the router to work with dyndns.com.
Send an update to DNS Server a.b.c.d for
The IP address in this text box specifies the DNS server that should be sent the updated
information. The server must support DNS Update messages. Dynamic DNS is generally
offered as a subscription-based service by ISPs, but for a large number of deployed routers, it
may be more appropriate to set up a dedicated DNS server locally.
Name
The value in this text box specifies the member of the DNS zone to update. This name is used
in conjunction with the zone parameter (below) to uniquely identify the router. So, for
example, if the router has a name of epos33, the full address of the unit will be
epos33.mycompany.com.
Zone
The value in this text box specifies the DNS zone to update. When using Dynamic DNS it will be
necessary to have domain name (this may be purchased from an appropriate vendor). This
domain name, such as mycompany.com is what should be entered into the zone field.
When the default route changes
Interface x,y becomes active
The two radio buttons determine when the update is sent, such as when the default route
changes or when the specified interface becomes active. The drop-down list offers the options
of PPP or Ethernet and the text box is used to enter the instance number for the specified
interface.
Also send an update every h hrs, m mins, s secs
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DNS Server Update parameters
The values in these text boxes specify the interval at which the unit will issue update messages
to the DNS server.
The DNS server should delete all previous records
When checked, this checkbox causes the DNS server to delete all records of previous
addresses served to the unit.
DNS Server Username
The value in this text box is the username that has been allocated by the Dynamic DNS service
provider.
DNS Server Password
The value in this text box is the password that has been allocated by the Dynamic DNS service
provider.
Password is Base64 encoded
Some Dynamic DNS servers issue passwords that are Base64 encoded, such as Linux Base
servers. If this is the case, check this check box to switch on the Base64 decoding of the
password before transmission. The password is not actually transmitted as part of the
message but is used to create a signature that is appended to the message. If the password is
issued as a hexadecimal string and not straight text, the password in the password text box
must be given the prefix 0x.
Confirm DNS Server Password
The password should be entered into this text box to confirm it.
Local time offset from GMT
Auto detect
The two radio buttons here control whether or not the offset of the local time from GMT
should be auto-detected or specified. This feature is required since a GMT timestamp must be
included as part of the authentication message. When set to auto-detect the router will
automatically apply the correction. When auto detect is not selected, the correct offset should
be selected from the drop-down list.
Required Time Accuracy
The value in this text box specifies the permitted variance between the router’s time and that
of the DNS server. If the time difference exceeds this limit, the DNS update will fail.
Allow DNS clients to cache this entry for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies how long a router that resolved the address is allowed to
cache that address for.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dnsupd
0
server
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Send an update to DNS Server
a.b.c.d
dnsupd
0
name
up to 20
characters
Name
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DNS Server Update parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dnsupd
0
zone
up to 64
characters
Zone
dnsupd
0
ifent
PPP,ETH
when interface x,y becomes
active
dnsupd
0
ifadd
Valid instance
number
when interface x,y becomes
active
dnsupd
0
upd_int
0 – 2147483648
(seconds)
Also send an update every h hrs,
m mins s secs
dnsupd
0
delprevrr
OFF,ON
The DNS server should delete all
previous records
dnsupd
0
username
Valid username
(up to 20
characters)
DNS Server Username
dnsupd
0
password
Valid password
(up to100
characters)
DNS Server Password
dnsupd
0
b64pwd
OFF,ON
Password is Base64 encoded
dnsupd
0
autozone
OFF,ON
Local time offset from GMT auto
detect
dnsupd
0
tzone
–2147483648 2147483647
(hours)
Local time offset from GMT n
dnsupd
0
fudge
0 – 2157483648
(seconds)
Required Time Accuracy s
seconds
dnsupd
0
ttl
0 – 2157483648
(seconds)
Allow DNS clients to cache this
entry for s seconds
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Dynamic DNS
The Dynamic DNS client (DynDNS) is used to update DNS hostnames with the current IP address
of a particular interface. It operates in accordance with the specification supplied by dyndns.com
(go to www.dyndns.com/developers/specs/). When the interface specified by the interface and
interface instance number parameters connects, the client checks the current IP address of that
interface and if it differs from that obtained from the previous connection, www.dyndns.com is
contacted and the hostnames specified in the Hostname parameters are updated with the new
address.
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Host and Domain Name(s)
These five text boxes specify up to five host/domain names that are to be updated using the
service.
Destination port #
The value in this text box specifies the IP port to use as the destination port. The default value
is 0 which causes the router to use the default port number which is port 80.
DynDNS User Name
The value in this text box specifies the username to use when updating the hostnames. This
will have been supplied by the service provider.
DynDNS Password
The value in this text box specifies the password to use when updating the hostnames. This
will have been supplied by the service provider.
Confirm DynDNS Password
Enter the password into this text box to confirm it.
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DynDNS DDNS System
The value selected from this drop-down list is used to identify the dynamic DNS system
containing the hostnames to be updated. The available options are:
•
Dynamic DNS
•
Static DNS
•
Custom DNS.
When default route/interface x,y becomes active, send DDNS update
The radio buttons select whether or not the router should use the default interface or the
interface specified from the drop-down list. If the specified interface option is selected, the
required interface is selected from the drop-down list and the interface instance is entered
into the adjacent text box. If the default interface is selected, the client will keep track of and
use the current default route.
Use Wildcards
This drop-down list selects whether or not wildcard matching on the hostname will be
performed. The options are:
•
Disable wildcards
•
Enable wildcards
•
No change to service settings.
When enabled, the Dynamic DNS service will match DNS requests of the form *.hostname
where * matches any text. For example, if Hostname1 was set to site.dyndns.com and
wildcard matching was enabled, than www.site.dyndns.com would resolve to the interface
address.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dyndns
0
hostname1
Up to 40 characters
Host and Domain Name(s)
dyndns
0
hostname2
Up to 40 characters
Host and Domain Name(s)
dyndns
0
hostname3
Up to 40 characters
Host and Domain Name(s)
dyndns
0
hostname4
Up to 40 characters
Host and Domain Name(s)
dyndns
0
hostname5
Up to 40 characters
Host and Domain Name(s)
dyndns
0
port
0 - 65535
Destination port #
dyndns
0
username
Up to 20 characters
DynDNS User Name
dyndns
0
password
Up to 25 characters
DynDNS Password
dyndns
0
system
Blank, statdns,
custom
DynDNS DDNS System
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Advanced Dynamic DNS parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dyndns
0
ifent
Blank,ETH,PPP
When default route/interface x,y
becomes active, send DDNS
update
dyndns
0
ifadd
0 -2147483647
When default route/interface x,y
becomes active, send DDNS
update
dyndns
0
wildcard
Use Wildcards
0,1,2
0 = Disable wildcards
1 = Enable wildcards
2 = No change to
service settings
Advanced Dynamic DNS parameters
The parameters in this section do not normally need changing from their defaults.
Update interval d days
The value in this text box specifies the number of days between dynamic DNS updates.
Supply the IP address in the update
When checked (the default), this checkbox cause the router to supply the IP address as part of
the dynamic DNS update. When unchecked, the IP address is not supplied and the DYNDNS
server attempts to determine the correct IP address by other means (IP source address in
update packet). This mode would normally only be used if the router is behind a NAT router.
Note It may be helpful to visit the www.dyndns.com website before attempting configuration of
dynamic DNS.
Only send update when this router is the VRRP master
When checked, this checkbox causes the router NOT to send DDNS updates unless at least
one Ethernet interface is a VRRP master.
Enable debug
When checked, this checkbox enables debug tracing of the dynamic DNS transactions.
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Advanced Dynamic DNS parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dyndns
0
updateint
0 -255
Update interval d days
dyndns
0
noip
OFF,ON
Supply the IP address in the update
dyndns
0
ifvrrpmaster
OFF,ON
Only send update when this router
is the VRRP master
dyndns
0
debug
OFF,ON
Enable debug
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IP Routing / Forwarding
The configuration pages and command line commands described in this section control the
routing behavior of the router.
You can view Digi TransPort’s routing table by navigating to Management - Network Status > IP
Routing Table.
The routing table can also be displayed using the CLI command:
route print
Types of route
TransPort routers support three main types of route:
•
Dynamic routes
•
Static routes
•
Default routes
Dynamic routes
Dynamic routes are created automatically when an interface is configured or connected.
For example configuring an Ethernet 0 interface with an IP address of 192.168.1.1 and mask of
255.255.255.0 will cause a dynamic route to be created automatically.
Thus any packet with destination IP address in the range 192.168.1.0 to 192.168.1.255 will
automatically be routed through to the Ethernet 0 interface.
Static routes
Static routes can be added by configuring a route in Configuration - Network > IP Routing/
Forwarding > Static Routes > Routes 0 – 9 > Route n (where n is an instance number).
The minimum configuration required to add a static route is:
•
IP Address
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Types of route
•
Mask
•
Interface
•
Interface number
If a static route is pointing at an Ethernet interface then optionally a gateway IP address can be
added. If a gateway IP address is not added then the gateway IP address configured for the
Ethernet interface itself will be used automatically.
Default routes
Default routes can be added by configuring a route in Configuration - Network > IP Routing/
Forwarding > Static Routes > Default Route n (where n is an instance number).
Default routes will match packets with any destination IP address (when in service).
If a default route is configured, packets with destination IP addresses that do not match any of
the dynamic or static routes will be sent out the interface specified in the first in service default
route.
Routing modes
The TransPort has two routing modes available, these are:
TransPort routing mode
This is the original routing method and may be seen on existing installations.
CIDR routing mode
Now enabled by default on new TransPort routers.
The CLI command to switch between the 2 modes is:
ip 0 cidr [off|on]
TransPort routing mode
When you enable the TransPort routing mode, CIDR routing is disabled.
When the TransPort receives an IP packet to route, the routing table is used to decide through
which interface to send the packet.
Usually the destination IP address of the IP packet is compared with the IP Address and Mask of
each entry in the routing table in index order regardless of the order in the routing table or length
of mask.
There may be more than one match and in this case the index number of the route is taken into
account. The index number is simply the route number in the config, Static Route 0 or 1 is index 0
or 1
Static routes are checked first, then dynamic routes, then default routes.
CLI command: ip 0 cidr off
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IP Routing parameters
CIDR routing mode
When the TransPort receives an IP packet to route, the routing table is used to decide through
which interface to send the packet.
Usually the destination IP address of the IP packet is compared with the IP Address and Mask of
each entry in the routing table.
There may be more than one match and in this case the most specific route is used to route the
packet. Such as, a matching /24 route is used before a matching /16 route.
If multiple routes match the destination and have the same prefix length, the index number of
the routes in the routing table is used to determine the route.
CLI command: ip 0 cidr on
Route metrics
Route Metric settings can be set to override the order in which the routes are searched.
Routes with lower metric numbers will always be used in preference to routes with higher metric
numbers even if the routes with higher metric numbers appear first in the routing table.
Route metrics can be configured by means of the route parameters:
•
Connected Metric
•
Disconnected Metric
Route metrics can be altered automatically according to various circumstances. This is in order to
provide automatic backup connection paths.
Routes and interfaces can be put out of service.
Whenever an interface is out of service (oos) any route pointing at the interface will also be out of
service.
Whenever a route is out of service, the metric value will be set to 16 in TransPort routing mode
and 17 in CIDR mode.
IP Routing parameters
Enable CIDR routing
When this checkbox is checked, the following six text boxes are revealed:
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IP Routing parameters
Connected Interfaces
The value in this text box specifies the CIDR metric that the router should apply to connected
interfaces.
Static Routes
The value in this text box is the CIDR metric that the router should use for static routes.
(Default 1)
eBGP Routes
The value in this text box is the CIDR metric that the router should use for eBGP routes.
(Default 20).
OSPF Routes
The value in this text box is the CIDR metric that the router should use for OSPF routes.
(Default 110)
RIP Routes
The value in this text box is the CIDR metric that the router should use for RIP routing. (Default
120).
iBGP Routes
The value in this text box is the CIDR metric that thae router should use for iBGP routes.
(Default 200).
Maximum static route metric
The value in this text box defines the maximum value for the routing metric. The default value
is 16.
Route directed IP broadcasts
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to route directed broadcasts. The default
state for this parameter is Off. A directed broadcast is an IP packet with a destination address
that is a valid broadcast address for a subnet but does not originate from that subnet.
Directed IP broadcasts are used to send a broadcast from one interface to the subnet of
another.
Wait s seconds before using an alternative route
The value in this text box specifies the latency to apply before passing traffic on an alternative
route in the current route becomes unavailable.
If an interface is configured for “dial on demand” and fails to connect,
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Static routes
Mark a static route as “Out Of Service” for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the default time that a route should be marked as out of
service if the interface it uses fails to establish a connection.
When an “Always On” route becomes “In Service”, wait s seconds before using it
The value in this text box specifies the delay that the router should apply to a route before
passing traffic on it once it has come into service.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ip
0
cidr
on,off
Enable CIDR routing
ip
0
admin_connected
0 - 2147483647
Connected Interfaces
ip
0
admin_static
0 - 2147483647
Static Routes
ip
0
admin_ebgp
0 - 2147483647
eBGP Routes
ip
0
admin_ospf
0 - 2147483647
OSPF Routes
ip
0
admin_rip
0 - 2147483647
RIP Routes
ip
0
admin_ibgp
0 - 2147483647
iBGP Routes
ip
0
inf_metric
0 - 2147483647
Maximum static route metric
ip
0
route_dbcast
0 - 255
Route directed IP broadcasts
ip
0
route_dly
0 - 2147483647
Wait s seconds before using an
alternative route
ip
0
route_dwn
0 - 2147483647
If an interface is configured for
“dial on demand” and fails to
connect, Mark a static route as
“Out Of Service” for s seconds
ip
0
routeup_dly
0 - 2147483647
When an “Always On” route
becomes “In Service”, wait s
seconds before using it
Static routes
The static routing web pages and command line parameters described below control the static
routing table used by the router. These allow the setting up of static IP routes for particular IP
subnets, networks or addresses.
Route n parameters
Each of the static route instances has its own configuration page. These are described below.
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Description
The value in this text box is to allow a memorable name for the route to be assigned.
Destination Network a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is the IP address of the destination subnet, network or IP address for
the route. If the router receives a packet with a destination IP address that matches the
Destination Network/Mask combination it will route the packet through the interface specified
below.
Mask a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is the network mask that is used in conjunction with the above
destination network address to specify the.
Gateway a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is used to override the default gateway IP address configured for the
Ethernet interfaces. Packets matching the route will use the gateway address specified in the
route rather than the address specified on the Ethernet interface configuration page. This
parameter does NOT apply to routes using PPP interfaces.
Interface x,y
The interface used to route the packets is selected from the drop-down list and the interface
instance number is entered into the adjacent text box. The available options are:
•
None
•
PPP
•
Ethernet
•
Tunnel
Use PPP sub-configuration
If PPP sub-configurations are defined, this text will appear in normal highlighting (such as not
disabled out) and text box will accept the number for the desired sub-configuration to use on
this route. This parameter will not appear at all on those models which do not support PPP
sub-configurations.
Metric n
The value in this text box is the routing metric to use when the interface is connected. This
should have a value between 1 and 16 and is used to select which route should be used when
the subnet for a packet matches more than one of the IP route entries.
Each route may be assigned a connected metric and a disconnected metric. The connected
metric parameter is used to specify the metric for a route whose interface is active. The
disconnected metric is used to specify the metric for a route whose interface is inactive.
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Normally both values should be the same but in some advanced routing scenarios necessary
to use different values.
If a particular route fails it will automatically have its metric set to 16 which means that it is
temporarily deemed as being out of service. The default out of service period is set by the IP
route out of service parameter. Note however, that this default period may be overwritten in
certain situations such as when a firewall stateful inspection rule specifies a different period.
When a route is out of service, any alternative routes (with matching subnets) will be used
first.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
route
n
descr
Up to 20 characters
Description
route
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Destination Network a.b.c.d
route
n
mask
Valid netmask
a.b.c.d
Mask a.b.c.d
route
n
gateway
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Gateway
route
n
ll_ent
Blank,PPP,ETH,TUN
Interface x,y
route
n
ll_add
0 – 2147483647
Interface x,y
route
n
upmetric
0 – 2147483647
Metric
Advanced Static Route parameters
Use metric n when the interface is not active
The value in this text box specifies the routing metric to use when the interface is not active.
Use this route only if the source IP address of the packet matches
When this checkbox is checked, the following two parameters are enabled.
IP Address a.b.c.d
If necessary, these IP Address and Mask parameters may be used to further qualify the way in
which the router routes packets. If the values in this text box and the following Mask
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parameter are set, the source address of the packet being routed must match these
parameters before the packet will be routed through the specified interface.
Mask a.b.c.d
The value in this text box specifies the netmask that is used in conjunction with the IP address
as explained above.
Include this route in RIP advertisements
When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to include this static route to be included in
RIP advertisements.
Make PPP n interface use the alternative idle timeout when this route becomes available
When checked, this check box, in conjunction with the PPP interface instance number in the
text box will cause the router to use the alternative inactivity timeout specified for that
interface when this route comes back into service. This feature is useful when it is preferable
to close down a backup route quickly when a primary route comes back into service.
Wait for s seconds after power up before allowing this route to activate the interface
The value in this text box specifies the delay that the router should wait after power-up before
packets matching this route will initiate a connection of the interface configured in the route. It
is typically used on W-WAN routers that have ISDN backup in order to prevent unnecessary
ISDN connections from being made whilst a W-WAN connection is first being established.
Mark this route as “Out of Service” in the interface fails to connect after n consecutive
attempts
Normally, if an interface is requested to connect by a route and fails to connect, the route
metric is set to 16 for the period of time specified by the Mark a static route as Out Of Service
for s seconds parameter on the Configuration – Network > IP Routing/Forwarding > IP
Routing page. If the value in this text box is non-zero, the route metric will not be set to 16
until the number of connection attempts specified by this parameter have been made.
If the interface fails to connect, try again in s seconds
If an interface is requested to connect by this route (due to IP traffic being present) and it fails
to connect, the route will be marked as out of service but the router will continue to attempt to
connect at the interval specified by the value in this text box. If the interface does connect, the
router will clear the out of service status for the route.
Deactivate the interface after it successfully connects
When checked, this check box will cause the router to deactivate an interface once a
successful activation attempt has been made. This is used in conjunction with the above retry
parameter. If the above retry parameter is not set, this checkbox is disabled.
Do not allow this interface to be activated by this route for s seconds after the last activation
attempt
The value in this text box is the delay to wait before re-initiating a connection after it has
dropped whilst still required.
Only queue one packet whilst waiting for the interface to connect
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When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to enqueue only one packet while waiting
for the interface to connect. When unchecked, the router will enqueue two packets.
When this route becomes available, deactivate the following interfaces x,y x,y
The interfaces specified by the values in these two pairs of drop-down list and text boxes will
be deactivated when this route becomes available again after being out of service. This
feature is typically used to deactivate backup interfaces when the primary interface becomes
available after being out of service. Select the required interface from the drop-down list and
enter the interface instance number into the text box as usual.
When this route becomes unavailable, remove the “Out of Service” state on x,y
This drop-down list and text box are used to specify the interface (available options are None,
PPP, Ethernet and Tunnel) and instance that should be taken out of the Out of Service state
when the interface that this route is configured to use is deactivated.
Keep this route in service for s seconds after OOS state is cleared
When this checkbox is checked, the following text box is enabled (such as it is no longer
disabled), allowing a value to be entered. The value specifies the period that the interface
specified above will remain in service even though it is actually unable to pass traffic
immediately. This is behavior useful in situations where a PPP interface is activating and traffic
should not try the next interface until this one has been allowed a certain amount of time to
come up. When this timer expires, if the interface is unable to pass traffic, it will be marked
Out of Service and the next interface will be tried.
Assign this route to recovery group n
The value in this text box is used to assign the route to a recovery group. This means that if all
the routes in a particular recovery group go out of service, the out of service status is cleared
for all routes in that group. If one route in a group comes back into service, all routes with a
lower priority (metric) also have their out of service status cleared.
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Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
route
n
metric
0 – 2147483647
Use metric n when the interface is
not active
route
n
srcip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP Address a.b.c.d
route
n
srcmask
Valid netmask
a.b.c.d
Mask a.b.c.d
route
n
inrip
on,off
Include this route in RIP
advertisements
route
n
doinact2
on,off
Make PPP n interface use the
alternative idle timeout when this
route becomes available
route
n
inact2add
0 – 2147483647
Make PPP n interface use the
alternative idle timeout when this
route becomes available
route
n
pwr_dly
0 - 255
Wait for s seconds after power up
before allowing this route to
activate the interface
route
n
actooslim
0 – 2147483647
Mark this route as “Out Of Service”
if the interface fails to connect
after n consecutive attempts
route
n
chkoos_int
0 – 2147483647
If the interface fails to connect, try
again in s seconds
route
n
chkoos_deact
0 - 255
Deactivate the interface after it
successfully connects
route
n
dial_int
0 – 255
Default 10
Do not allow this interface to be
activated by this route for s
seconds after the last activation
attempt
route
n
q1
on,off
Only queue one packet whilst
waiting for the interface to
connect
route
n
deact_ent
Blank,PPP
When this route becomes
available, deactivate the following
interfaces x,y
route
n
deact_add
0 – 2147483647
When this route becomes
available, deactivate the following
interfaces x,y
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
route
n
deact_ent2
Blank,PPP
When this route becomes
available, deactivate the following
interfaces x,y
route
n
deact_add2
0 – 2147483647
When this route becomes
available, deactivate the following
interfaces x,y
route
n
unoos_secs
0 – 2147483647
Keep this route in service for s
seconds after OOS state is cleared
route
n
rgroup
0 - 255
Assign this route to recovery
group n
Default Route n parameters
The following two web pages and associated command line commands are used to set up default
IP routes that will be used to route non-local IP addresses not specified in a static route. The
parameters are identical to those on the static route pages with the exception that there are no IP
address or Mask parameters.
Description
The text in this text box is used to assign a convenient and memorable description for the
route.
Default route via:
Gateway a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is used to override the default gateway IP address configured for the
Ethernet interfaces. Packets matching the route will use the gateway address specified in the
route rather than the address specified on the Ethernet interface configuration page. This
parameter does NOT apply to routes using PPP interfaces.
Interface x,y
The interface used to route the packets is selected from the drop-down list and the interface
instance number is entered into the adjacent text box. The available options are:
•
None
•
PPP
•
Ethernet
•
Tunnel.
Metric n
The value in this text box is the routing metric to use when the interface is connected. This
should have a value between 1 and 16 and is used to select which route should be used when
the subnet for a packet matches more than one of the IP route entries.
Each route may be assigned a connected metric and a disconnected metric. The connected
metric parameter is used to specify the metric for a route whose interface is active. The
disconnected metric is used to specify the metric for a route whose interface is inactive.
Normally both values should be the same but in some advanced routing scenarios necessary
to use different values.
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If a particular route fails it will automatically have its metric set to 16 which means that it
istemporarily deemed as being out of service. The default out of service period is set by the IP
route out of service parameter. Note that this default period may be overwritten in certain
situations such as when a firewall stateful inspection rule specifies a different period. When a
route is out of service, any alternative routes (with matching subnets) will be used first.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
def_route
n
descr
Up to 20 characters
Description
def_route
n
gateway
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Gateway a.b.c.d
def_route
n
ll_ent
Blank,PPP,ETH,TUN
Interface x,y
def_route
n
ll_add
0 – 2147483647
Interface x,y
def_route
n
upmetric
1 - 16
Metric
Advanced Default route
Use metric n when the interface is not active
The value in this text box specifies the routing metric to use when the interface is not active.
Use this route only if the source IP address of the packet matches
When this checkbox is checked, the following two parameters are enabled.
IP address a.b.c.d
If necessary, these IP Address and Mask parameters may be used to further qualify the way in
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Default Route n parameters
which the router routes packets. If the values in this text box and the following Mask
parameter are set, the source address of the packet being routed must match these
parameters before the packet will be routed through the specified interface.
Mask a.b.c.d
The value in this text box specifies the netmask that is used in conjunction with the IP address
as explained above.
Include this route in RIP advertisements
When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to include this static route to be included in
RIP advertisements.
Make PPP x interface use the alternative idle timeout when this route becomes available
When checked, this check box, in conjunction with the PPP interface instance number in the
text box will cause the router to use the alternative inactivity timeout specified for that
interface when this route comes back into service. This feature is useful when it is preferable
to close down a backup route quickly when a primary route comes back into service.
Wait for s seconds after power up before allowing this route to activate the interface
The value in this text box specifies the delay that the router should wait after power-up before
packets matching this route will initiate a connection of the interface configured in the route. It
is typically used on W-WAN routers that have ISDN backup in order to prevent unnecessary
ISDN connections from being made whilst a W-WAN connection is first being established.
If the interface is configured for “dial on demand”
Mark this route as “Out Of Service” if the interface fails to connect after n consecutive attempts
Normally, if an interface is requested to connect by a route and fails to connect, the route
metric is set to 16 for the period of time specified by the Mark a static route as Out Of Service
for s seconds parameter on the Configuration – Network > IP Routing/Forwarding > IP
Routing page. If the value in this text box is non-zero, the route metric will not be set to 16
until the number of connection attempts specified by this parameter have been made.
If the interface fails to connect, try again in s seconds
If an interface is requested to connect by this route (due to IP traffic being present) and it fails
to connect, the route will be marked as out of service but the router will continue to attempt to
connect at the interval specified by the value in this text box. If the interface does connect, the
router will clear the out of service status for the route.
Deactivate the interface after it successfully connects
When checked, this check box will cause the router to deactivate an interface once a
successful activation attempt has been made. This is used in conjunction with the above retry
parameter. If the above retry parameter is not set, this checkbox is disabled.
Do not allow this interface to be activated by this route for s seconds after the last activation
attempt
The value in this text box is the delay to wait before re-initiating a connection after it has
dropped whilst still required.
Only queue one packet whilst waiting for the interface to connect
When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to enqueue only one packet while waiting
for the interface to connect. When unchecked, the router will enqueue two packets.
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Default Route n parameters
When this route becomes available, deactivate the following interfaces x,y x,y
The interfaces specified by the values in these two pairs of drop-down list and text boxes will
be deactivated when this route becomes available again after being out of service. This
feature is typically used to deactivate backup interfaces when the primary interface becomes
available after being out of service. Select the required interface from the drop-down list and
enter the interface instance number into the text box as usual.
When this route becomes unavailable, remove the “Out Of Service” state on x,y
This drop-down list and text box are used to specify the interface (available options are
None, PPP, Ethernet and Tunnel) and instance that should be taken out of the Out of
Service state when the interface that this route is configured to use is deactivated.
Keep this route in service for s seconds after OOS state is cleared
When this checkbox is checked, the following text box is enabled (such as it is no longer
disabled out), allowing a value to be entered. The value specifies the period that the interface
specified above will remain in service even though it is actually unable to pass traffic
immediately. This is behavior useful in situations where a PPP interface is activating and traffic
should not try the next interface until this one has been allowed a certain amount of time to
come up. When this timer expires, if the interface is unable to pass traffic, it will be marked
Out of Service and the next interface will be tried.
Assign this route to recovery group n
The value in this text box is used to assign the route to a recovery group. This means that if
all the routes in a particular recovery group go out of service, the out of service status is
cleared for all routes in that group. If one route in a group comes back into service, all routes
with a lower priority (metric) also have their out of service status cleared.
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Default Route n parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
def_route
n
metric
0 – 2147483647
Use metric n when the interface
is not active
def_route
n
srcip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP Address a.b.c.d
def_route
n
srcmask
Valid netmask
a.b.c.d
Mask a.b.c.d
def_route
n
inrip
on,off
Include this route in RIP
advertisements
def_route
n
doinact2
on,off
Make PPP n interface use the
alternative idle timeout when
this route becomes available
def_route
n
inact2add
0 – 2147483647
Make PPP n interface use the
alternative idle timeout when
this route becomes available
def_route
n
pwr_dly
0 - 255
Wait for s seconds after power
up before allowing this route to
activate the interface
def_route
n
actooslim
0 – 2147483647
Mark this route as “Out Of
Service” if the interface fails to
connect after n consecutive
attempts
def_route
n
chkoos_int
0 – 2147483647
If the interface fails to connect,
try again in s seconds
def_route
n
chkoos_deac
t
0 – 2147483647
Deactivate the interface after it
successfully connects
def_route
n
dial_int
0 – 255
Default 10
Do not allow this interface to be
activated by this route for s
seconds after the last activation
attempt
def_route
n
q1
on,off
Only queue one packet whilst
waiting for the interface to
connect
def_route
n
deact_ent
Blank,PPP
When this route becomes
available, deactivate the
following interfaces x,y
def_route
n
deact_add
0 – 2147483647
When this route becomes
available, deactivate the
following interfaces x,y
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RIP parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
def_route
n
deact_ent2
Blank,PPP
When this route becomes
available, deactivate the
following interfaces x,y
def_route
n
deact_add2
0 – 2147483647
When this route becomes
available, deactivate the
following interfaces x,y
def_route
n
unoos_secs
0 – 2147483647
Keep this route in service for s
seconds after OOS state is
cleared
def_route
n
rgroup
0 - 255
Assign this route to recovery
group n
RIP parameters
The web pages and command line commands described in this section control the configuration
of the routing Information Protocol (RIP) functionality of the router.
Global RIP Settings
Enable RIP
When checked, this checkbox enables the RIP functionality.
Send RIP advertisements every s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the interval between sending RIP packets. These packets
contain the current routes held by the router (such as any active PPP routes), static routes and
the default route. A value of 0 disables sending.
Mark routes as unusable if we don’t get advertisements for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the time for which an updated metric will apply when a RIP
update is received. If no updates are received within this period, the usual metric will take
over.
Delete routes after another s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the length of time that the router will continue to advertise
this route when a RIP update timeout occurs and the route metric is 16. This behaviour is
designed to help propagate the dead route to other routers. The router will no longer use a
metric advertised by a RIP update if the route has been set out of service locally.
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RIP parameters
Allow RIP to update static routes
When checked, this checkbox allows an incoming, matching RIP update to change the metric
of the static route. This happens when the update matches a configured static route.
Enable Poison Reverse
When checked, this checkbox enables poison reverse, to notify when a neighbouring router is
unavailable.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
rip
n
enable
on,off
Enable RIP
rip
n
interval
0 - 2147483647 Send RIP advertisement every s
seconds
rip
n
ripto
0 - 2147483647 Mark routes as unusable if we don’t
get advertisement for s seconds
rip
n
riplingerto
0 - 2147483647 Delete routes after another s
seconds
rip
n
updatestatic
on,off
Allow RIP to update static routes
rip
n
poisonreverse
on,off
Enable Poison Reverse
Access Lists parameters
The router has the ability to modify route metrics based upon received RIP responses. Static
routes and default routes will have their metric modified if the route fits within one of the routes
found within the RIP packet. For Ethernet routes, the gateway for the route will be set to the
source address of the RIP packet. The route modifications will be enforced for 180 seconds
unless another RIP response is received within that time.
RIP packets must have a source address that is included in the RIP access list.
Adding permitted IP addresses to the access list is controlled using a table with the single
parameter described below.
IP Address a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is the IP address to be added to the list of IP addresses that RIP
packets must come from if they are to modify route metrics. Up to ten IP addresses may be
added. The Add and Delete buttons work in the usual way for configuration tables.
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RIP parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
riprx
0-9
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP Address a.b.c.d
Authentication Keys parameters
RIP authentication keys are used with the plain password and MD5 RIP authentication methods.
Key k
The value in this text box is the RIP authentication key. Enter a string of up to 16 characters
long. A current key will not be displayed.
Confirm Key
Re-enter the new key into this text box to allow the router to check that the two are identical.
Key ID (MD5 only)
The value in this text box is the ID for the key. The ID is inserted into the RIP packet when using
RIP v2 MD5 authentication and is used to look up the correct key for received packets. The
valid range is 0 – 255.
Valid from now/dd,mm,yy
These two radio buttons select, between having the validity period for the key starting
immediately of allowing a start date to be defined. The starting date is specified using a drop
down list to select the start day, a drop-down list to select the start month and a text box to
enter the start year. Selecting the Disable option from the day and None from the month
means that this key should not be used. The year can be specified as either two or four digits
(such as 11 or 2011).
Expires Never/dd,mm,yy
These two radio buttons select between defining the end date using the drop-down lists and
text box or by setting the expiration to Never. The key end day is selected from the first drop
down list, selecting Disable means that the key should not be used. The end month is selected
from the second drop-down list, selecting None means that the key should not be used. The
year is entered into the text box and can be in two or four digit format.
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RIP parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ripauth
0-9
key
Up to 16 characters
Key k
ripauth
0–9
keyid
0 - 255
Key ID
ripauth
0–9
sday
0 - 31
Valid from d,m,y
ripauth
0–9
smon
0 - 12
Valid from d,m,y
ripauth
0–9
syear
0 – 65535
Valid from d,m,y
ripauth
0–9
eday
0 - 31
Expires d,m,y
ripauth
0–9
emon
0 - 12
Expires d,m,y
ripauth
0-9
eyear
0 – 65535
Expires d,m,y
Interfaces > Ethernet / PPP / GRE parameters
The configuration in these three sub-menus is identical.
Send RIP advertisements on this interface
Check this box to enable rip and to reveal further configuration parameters below.
Use RIP
Select from the values ‘v1’, ‘v2’ and ‘v1 Compatible’ in the dropdown list. When RIP version is
set to ‘V1’ or ‘V2’, the unit will transmit RIP version 1 or 2 packets respectively (version 2
packets are sent to the all routers multicast address 224.0.0.9). When RIP Version is set to V1
Compat, the unit will transmit RIP version 2 packets to the subnet broadcast address. This
allows ‘V1’ capable routers to act upon these packets.
Send RIP advertisements as
•
Broadcasts: RIP packets are by default sent out on a broadcast basis or to a multi-cast
address. Do not change this parameter unless you intend to alter this behaviour.
•
Multicasts (Only visible when ‘v2’ is selected in the ‘Use RIP’ option above): This is
automatically selected for sending to the default RIP v2 multicast address 224.0.0.9.
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RIP parameters
•
<BLANK BOX>: This parameter may be used to force RIP packets to be sent to a specified IP
or multicast address. It is particularly useful if you need to route the packets via a VPN
tunnel. By default Broadcasts/multicasts are selected – depending on your RIP version.
Use Authentication:
This parameter selects the authentication method for RIP packets. Selection is by clickable
radio button. Only one option is enabled multiple selections are not possible.
None
When set to “Off”, the interface will send and receive packets without any authentication.
Access list
When set to “Access List”, the interface will send RIP packets without any authentication. When
receiving packets, the interface will check the sender’s IP address against the list entered on
the Configuration – Network > IP Routing / Forwarding > RIP > Global RIP settings >
Access Lists page, and if the IP address is present in the list, the packet will be allowed
through.
Plain password
When set to “Plain password (V1+V2)”, the interface will use the first valid key it finds (set on
the Configuration – Network > IP Routing / Forwarding > RIP > Global RIP settings >
Authentication Keys > Authentication Key n pages), and use the plaintext RIP authentication
method before sending the packet out. If no valid key can be found, the interface will not send
any RIP packets. When receiving a RIP packet, a valid plaintext key must be present in the
packet before it will be accepted. This method can be used with both RIP v1 and RIP v2.
MD5
When set to “MD5 (V2 only)”, the interface will use the first valid key it finds (set on the
Configuration – Network > IP Routing / Forwarding > RIP > Global RIP settings >
Authentication Keys > Authentication Key n pages), and use the MD5 authentication
algorithm before sending the packet out. If no valid key can be found, the interface will not
send any RIP packets. Received RIP packets must be authenticated using the MD5
authentication algorithm before they will be accepted. This method can be used with RIP v2.
Only send RIP advertisements when this interface is in service
Select this parameter for RIP advertisements only to be sent when the interface is in the UP
state in the routing table.
Use Triggered RIP on this interface
Enable triggered RIP (RFC2091). When triggered RIP is enabled, RIP timers are disabled.
Include this interface in Rip advertisements
Select to cause the subnet configured on this interface to not be advertised by RIP.
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OSPF parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tun/ ppp
n
rip
0,1
Enable RIP = 1
Disable RIP = 0
tun/ ppp
n
ripip
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Unicast RIP update address
tun/ ppp
n
ripauth
0-3
0 = None
1 = Access List
2 = Plain Password
3 = MD5 v2 only
tun/ ppp
n
ripis
on,off
Turn on to send updates only
when in service
tun/ ppp
n
inrip
on,off
Include interface subnet in RIP
advertisements
tun/ ppp
n
triggeredrip
on,off
Enable RIP RFC2091
OSPF parameters
Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) developed for IP networks
based on the shortest path first or link-state algorithm.
The router uses link-state algorithms to send routing information to all nodes in a network by
calculating the shortest path to each node based on a topography of the network constructed by
each node. Each router sends that portion of the routing table that describes the state of its own
links and the complete routing structure (network topography).
The advantage of the shortest path first algorithms is that they result in smaller, more frequent
update everywhere. They converge quickly, thus preventing such problems as routing loops and
Count-to-Infinity (where routers continuously increment the hop count to a particular network).
This makes for a stable network.
In order to use OSPF on the router, a valid configuration file must exist in the router’s filing
system.
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OSPF parameters
Enable OSPF
When checked, this checkbox reveals the following parameters:
OSPF Configuration Filename
The file that contains the configuration data for OSPF is selected from this drop-down list. The
file should have a “.conf” extension.
Load Config file
When this button is clicked, the router attempts to load the file specified in the file selection
list box into the edit window below the button. The text in the window can be edited as
required.
Save Config File
When this button is clicked, the text in the edit window will be saved to the filename specified
in the drop-down list above. These three controls allow an OSPF configuration file to be
loaded, edited and saved.
Restart OSPF after configuration file is saved
When checked, this checkbox will cause the OSPF functions to restart once the edited
configuration file has been saved.
Restart OSPF if a fatal error occurs
When checked this checkbox will cause OSPF functioning to restart after a delay of 5 seconds
if a fatal error occurs.
OSPF Tracing
In common with some of the other functionality of the router, OSPF supports some debug
functionality. The amount of information in the debug traces is controlled from this dropdown list. The available levels are “Off”, “Low”, “Med” and “High”. Selecting “Off” disables debug
tracing.
Ignore MTU indications
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BGP parameters
All OSPF routers must have the same Maximum Transmitted Unit (MTU) and this value is
advertised in the OSPF packets. When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to ignore
received packets that have a MTU that differs from that of the router itself.
Use Interface IPsec source IP
When checked, this checkbox will cause OSPF functions to use the source IP address of the
interface specified in Configuration – Network > Interfaces > Advanced > PPP n : Use interface
x,y for the source IP address of IPsec packets on the interface being used. When unchecked,
OSPF will use the source IP address of the interface being used for its source address.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ospf
0
Enable
on,off
Enable OSPF
ospf
0
conffile
ospf
0
new_cfg_rest
on,off
Restart OSPF after a
configuration file is saved
ospf
0
fatal_rest
on,off
Restart OSPF if a fatal error
occurs
ospf
0
debug
0–3
0 = Off
1 = Low
2 = Med
3 = High
OSPF Tracing
ospf
0
ignore_mtu
on,off
Ignore MTU indications
ospf
0
useipsecent
on,off
Use Interface IPsec source IP
OSPF Configuration Filename
BGP parameters
The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing protocol is supported by TransPort routers. This page
contains the configuration parameters used to control the behaviour of BGP. Most of the
configuration is controlled by a configuration file (raw text) named bgp.cnf. This file would
normally be created in a text editor on a computer and loaded onto the router. The router
contains a simple editor that can be used to modify the file. The configuration parameters
described here mainly define what action is to be taken when errors occur and specify the
configuration file to be used.
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BGP parameters
Enable BGP
When checked, this checkbox enables BGP routing.
BGP Configuration Filename
The configuration file to use is selected from this drop-down list. The default filename is
bgp.cnf. An error message will be displayed if the specified file cannot be found.
Load Config file
Click this button to load the file specified from the drop-down list. The contents of the file will
be visible in the edit window which appears below the button.
Save Config File
If the edit functions are used to modify the file, it can be saved back to the filing system by
clicking this button.
Restart BGP after configuration file is saved
When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to restart routing using BGP after the file
has been saved using the above Save button.
Restart BGP if a fatal error occurs
When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to restart routing using BGP if a fatal error
occurs.
Advertise non-connected networks
When checked, this checkbox will cause BGP to advertise networks that exist in the BGP
configuration file but that are not actually a connected network or interface.
BGP Tracing
As with OSPF, the level of debug tracing information is selected from this drop-down list. The
available levels are; “Off”, “Low”, “Med” and High.
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IP Port Forwarding / Static NAT Mappings parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
bgp
0
enable
on,off
Enable BGP
bgp
0
conffile
bgp
0
new_cfg_rest
on,off
Restart BGP after configuration
file is saved
bgp
0
fatal_rest
on,off
Restart BGP if a fatal error
occurs
bgp
0
allow_non_nets
on,off
Default ON
Advertise non-connected
networks
bgp
0
debug
0-3
BGP Tracing
BGP Configuration Filename
IP Port Forwarding / Static NAT Mappings parameters
The router supports Network Address Translation (NAT) and Network Address and Port
Translation (NAPT). NAT or NAPT may be enabled on a particular interface such as a PPP instance.
When operating with NAT enabled, this interface has a single externally visible IP address. When
sending IP packets, the local IP addresses (for example on a local area network) are replaced by
the single IP address of the interface. The router keeps track of the local IP addresses and port
numbers so that if a matching reply packet is received, it is directed to the correct local IP
address. With only one externally visible IP address, NAT effectively prevents external computers
from addressing specific local hosts, thus providing a very basic level of “firewall” security.
Static NAT mappings allow received packets destined for particular ports to be directed to specific
local IP addresses. For example, to have a server, running on a local network, externally
accessible, a static NAT mapping would be set up using the local IP address of the server and the
port number used to access the required service.
Configuring IP port forwarding and static NAT mapping is done by entering the following
configuration values into a table and using the Add button to add them into the NAT
configuration for the router.
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Multicast Routes parameters
External Min Port
The value in this text box specifies the lowest port number to be redirected.
External Max Port
The value in this text box specifies the highest port number to be redirected.
Forward to Internal IP Address a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is the IP address to which packets containing the specified
destination port number are to be redirected.
Forward to Internal Port
The value in this text box specifies the IP port number to which packets containing the
specified port number are to be redirected. When set to “0”, no port remapping occurs and the
original port number is used. The NAT mode parameter of the appropriate interface must be
set to “NAPT” rather than “NAT” or “OFF” for this parameter to take effect.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
nat
0 - 29
minport
0 - 65535
External Min Port
nat
0 - 29
maxport
0 - 65535
External Max Port
nat
0 - 29
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Forward to Internal IP Address
a.b.c.d
nat
0 - 29
mapport
0 - 65535
Forward to Internal Port
Command format
Nat <entry> <parameter> <value>
Example commands
To set the IP address for entry 0 in the table to 10.1.2.10 enter the command:
nat 0 IPaddr 10.1.2.10
Multicast Routes parameters
Digi TransPort routers support multicast routes, allowing them to route packets to multicast
group addresses. Up to 20 different static multicast routes may be configured.
Static multicast routes must be used in conjunction with the IGMP parameter on the outbound
interface. For example, after configuring a static multicast route for multicast traffic via PPP 1, the
IGMP parameter in Configuration – Network > Interfaces > IGMP needs setting to ON.
Multicast routing is configured using a table with the following parameters.
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Multicast Routes parameters
Multicast Address a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is used in conjunction with the Mask parameter below, to specify the
destination multicast group address for packets that will match this route. So, if a router
receives a packet with a destination multicast group address that matches the specified
Multicast Address/Mask combination, it will route that packet through the interface specified
by the Interface parameters below.
Mask a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is the address mask that is used in conjunction with the Multicast
Address parameter as described above.
Interface x,y
These two parameters in the drop-down list and adjacent text box specify the interface and
interface instance used to route packets matching the Multicast Address/Mask combination.
The options available in the drop-down list are; PPP, Ethernet, Tunnel.
Enable multicast source path checking
When checked, this checkbox
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
mcast
0 - 19
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Multicast Address a.b.c.d
mcast
0 - 19
mask
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Mask a.b.c.d
mcast
0 - 19
ll_ent
PPP,ETH,TUN
Interface x,y
mcast
0 - 19
ll_add
Valid interface
number
0 - 2147483647
Interface x,y
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Virtual Private Networking (VPN)
IPsec parameters
IPsec (Internet Protocol security) refers to a group of protocols and standards that may be used
to protect data during transmission over the internet (which is inherently insecure). Various levels
of support for IPsec can be provided on the router depending on the model. The web pages
located under the Configuration – Network > Virtual Private Networking (VPN) > IPsec are
used to set the various parameters and options that are available. You should note however that
this is a complex area and you should have a good understanding of user authentication and
data encryption techniques before you commence. For further information refer to the IPsec and
VPNs section in this manual. Also check the Technical Notes section of the Digi International web
site at www.digi.com for the latest IPsec application notes.
The first stage in establishing a secure link between two endpoints on an IP network is for those
two points to securely exchange a little information about each other. This enables the endpoint
responding to the request to decide whether it wishes to enter a secure dialogue with the
endpoint requesting it. To achieve this, the two endpoints commonly identify themselves and
verify the identity of the other party. They must do this in a secure manner so that the process
cannot be “listened in to” by any third party. The IKE protocol is used to perform this “checking”
and if everything matches up it creates a Security Association (SA) between the two endpoints,
normally one for data being sent TO the remote end and one for data being received FROM it.
Once this initial association exists the two devices can “talk” securely about and exchange
information on what kind of security protocols they would like to use to establish a secure data
link, such as what sort of encryption and/or authentication they can use and what sources/
destinations they will accept. When this second stage is complete (and provided that both
systems have agreed what they will do), IPSec will have set up its own Security Associations which
it uses to test incoming and outgoing data packets for eligibility and perform security operations
on before passing them down or relaying them from the “tunnel”.
IPsec Tunnels > IPsec n parameters
Once the IKE parameters have been set-up, the next stage is to define the characteristics of the
IPsec tunnels, or encrypted routes. This includes items such as what source and destination
addresses will be connected by the tunnel and what type of encryption and authentication
procedures will be applied to the packets being tunnelled. For obvious reasons it is essential that
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IPsec parameters
parameters such as encryption and authentication are the same at each end of the tunnel. If they
are not, then the two systems will not be able to agree on what set of rules or “policy” to adopt for
the IPsec tunnel and communication cannot take place.
Description
This parameter allows you to enter a name for IPsec tunnel to make it easier to identify.
The IP address or hostname of the remote unit
The IP address or hostname of the remote IPsec peer that a VPN will be initiated to.
Use a.b.c.d as a backup unit
The IP address or hostname of a backup peer. If the router cannot open a connection to the
primary peer, this configuration will be used. Please note that the backup peer device must
have an identical IPsec tunnel configuration as the primary peer.
Use these settings for the local LAN
These define the local LAN subnet settings used on the IPsec tunnel.
IP Address
Use this IP address for the local LAN subnet. This is usually the IP address of the router’s
Ethernet interface or that of a specific device on the local subnet (such as a PC running a client
or host application).
Mask
Use this IP mask for the local LAN subnet. The mask sets the range of IP addresses that will be
allowed to use the IPsec tunnel.
Use interface x,y
Use the IP address and mask of the specified interface.
Use these settings for the remote LAN
These define the remote LAN subnet settings used on the IPsec tunnel.
IP Address
Use this IP address for the remote LAN subnet. This is usually the IP address of the peer’s
Ethernet interface or that of a specific device on the local subnet (such as a PC running a client
or host application).
Mask
Use this IP mask for the remote LAN subnet. The mask sets the range of IP addresses that will
be allowed to use the IPsec tunnel.
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IPsec parameters
Remote Subnet ID
Normally used with L2TP/IPsec VPNs. When the router is in server mode and negotiating IPsec
from behind a NAT box, this parameter should be configured to the ID sent by the remote
Windows client (this is usually the computer name).
Use the following security on this tunnel
These define the security identities used on the IPsec tunnel.
Preshared Keys
Requires that both IPsec peers share a secret key, or password,
that can be matched by and verified by both peers.
To configure the PSK, a user will need configuring that matches
the inbound ID of the remote peer and the PSK is configured
using the password parameter. This is done via Configuration –
Security > Users. The User configuration serves a dual purpose
in that it may contain entries for normal login access (such as
HTTP, FTP or Telnet) and entries for IPsec tunnels.
XAUTH Init Preshared Keys
Used when the remote peer is a Cisco device using XAUTH and
PSK authentication.
RSA Signatures
Select this option when the IPsec authentication will use X.509
certificates.
XAUTH Init RSA
Used when the remote peer is a Cisco device using XAUTH and
X.509 certificates for authentication.
Our ID
When Aggressive mode is On, this parameter is a string of up to 20 characters. It is sent to the
remote peer to identify the initiator (such as the router). The variable %s can be used in this
parameter which will cause the router’s serial number to be sent. It can be prefixed with other
text if required.
When certificates are being used, this parameter should be configured with the “Altname”
field in a valid certificate held on the router.
Our ID type
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IPsec parameters
This defines how the remote peer is to process the Our ID configuration.
IKE ID
The Our ID parameter is a simple key ID (such as vpnclient1).
FQDN
The Our ID parameter is a Fully Qualified Domain Name (such as
vpnclient1.anycompany.com)
User FQDN
The Our ID parameter is a Fully Qualified Domain Name with a user element
(such as [email protected]
)
IPv4 Address
An IPv4 Address in dotted decimal notation.
Remote ID
When Aggressive mode is On, this parameter is a string of up to 20 characters which is used to
identify the remote peer. It should contain the same text as the Our ID parameter in the
remote peer’s configuration.
When Aggressive mode is Off, this parameter must be the IP address of the remote peer.
RSA Key File
This parameter can be used to override the private key filename in the IKE configuration. It is
only used when RSA Signatures (Certificates) are being used for the authentication stage of
the IKE negotiation.
Use enc encryption on this tunnel
The ESP encryption protocol to use with this IPsec tunnel. The options are:
•
No (None)
•
Null
•
DES
•
3DES
•
AES (128 bit keys)
•
AES (192 bit keys)
•
AES (256 bit keys)
If the dropdown options only display None and Null, the router will need Encryption enabling.
Please speak to your sales contact with regards to getting Encryption enabled.
Use auth authentication on this tunnel
The ESP authentication algorithm to use with this IPsec tunnel. The options are:
•
No (None)
•
MD5
•
SHA1
Use Diffie Hellman group
The Diffie Hellman (DH) group to use when negotiating new IPsec SAs. When used, the IPsec
SA keys cannot be predicted from any of the previous keys generated. The options are “No
PFS”, 1, 2 or 3. The larger values result in “stronger” keys but they take longer to generate.
Use IKE n to negotiate this tunnel
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IPsec parameters
The IKE version to use to negotiate this IPsec tunnel.
Use IKE configuration
The IKE configuration instance to use with this Eroute when the router is configured as an
Initiator.
Bring this tunnel up
This controls how the IPsec tunnel is brought up. The options are:
•
All the time
•
Whenever a route to the destination is available
•
On demand
If the tunnel is down and a packet is ready to be sent
Defines the action that is performed when the IPsec tunnel is down and a packet needs to be
sent. The options are:
•
Bring the tunnel up
•
Drop the packet
•
Send the packet without encryption and authentication
Bring this tunnel down if it is idle for h hrs m mins s secs
This parameter is used when the IPsec tunnel is configured to come up on demand and
defines how long the IPsec tunnel should remain up if there is no traffic is being sent on the
tunnel.
Renew the tunnel after
Defines the constraints of when the IPsec tunnel SA has to be renewed.
h hrs m mins s secs
Re-new the IPsec SA after the specified amount of time.
n units of traffic
Re-new the IPsec SA after the specified amount of traffic has been passed over the tunnel.
The units can be Kbytes, Mbytes or Gbytes.
A value of 0 means that this parameter will not be used and SAs will expire and be renewed
based time, rather than amount of traffic.
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IPsec parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eroute
n
descr
String
Description
eroute
n
peerip
IP address or
hostname
The IP address or hostname of
the remote unit
eroute
n
bakpeerip
IP address or
hostname
Use n as a backup unit
eroute
n
locip
IP address
IP Address (for Local LAN)
eroute
n
locmsk
IP Mask
IP Mask (for Local LAN)
eroute
n
locipifent
blank, ETH, PPP
Use interface x,y
x = Interface type
eroute
n
locipifadd
Integer
Use interface x,y
y = interface number
eroute
n
remip
IP address
IP Address (for Remote LAN)
eroute
n
remmsk
IP Mask
IP Mask (for Remote LAN)
eroute
n
remnetid
String
Remote Subnet ID
eroute
n
authmeth
Use the following security on
Off, Preshared,
xauthinitpre, rsa, this tunnel
xauthinitrsa
eroute
n
ourid
String
Our ID
eroute
n
ouridtype
0 = IKE ID
Our ID type
1 = FQDN
2 = User FQDN
3 = IPv4 Address
eroute
n
peerid
String
Remote ID
eroute
n
privkey
Filename
RSA Key File
eroute
n
espenc
off, null, des,
3des, aes
Use enc encryption on this
tunnel
eroute
n
enckeybits
128, 192, 256
Use enc encryption on this
tunnel
eroute
n
espauth
off, md5, sha1
Use auth authentication on this
tunnel
eroute
n
dhgroup
0, 1, 2, 3
Use Diffie Hellman group
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IPsec parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eroute
n
ikever
1, 2
Use IKE n to negotiate this
tunnel
eroute
n
ikecfg
0, 1
Use IKE configuration
eroute
n
autosa
0 = On Demand
Bring this tunnel up
1 = When a route
to the
destination is
available
2 = All the time
eroute
n
nosa
drop, pass, try
If the tunnel is down and a
packet is ready to be sent
eroute
n
inact_to
Integer
Bring this tunnel down if it is
idle for h hrs m mins s secs
This CLI value is entered in
seconds only.
eroute
n
ltime
Integer
Renew the tunnel after h hrs m
mins s secs
This CLI value is entered in
seconds only.
eroute
n
lkbytes
Integer
Renew the tunnel after n units
of traffic.
This CLI value is entered in
Kbytes only.
Tunnel Negotiation parameter
Enable IKE tracing
This will enable the router to write IKE negotiation information in the analyser trace.
Negotiate a different IP address and Mask
The IPsec tunnel can be configured to negotiate a different local LAN IP address and mask. The
firewall can then be used to translate the source addresses of the packets to a value that lies
within the negotiated range. This is so that a packet can match more than one IPsec tunnel but
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IPsec parameters
will use a different source address (from the peer’s perspective) depending on which IPsec
tunnel gets used.
IP Address
The alternative IP address to negotiate.
Mask
The alternative IP mask to negotiate.
Negotiate a virtual IP address using MODECFG
Used when the remote peer is a Cisco device using MODECFG to assign a specific IP address to
this router during SA setup negotiations. This is commonly seen in Remote Access (RA) type
VPNs and EasyVPN solutions.
XAuth ID
Extended Authentication ID for use with Cisco XAUTH.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eroute
n
debug
on, off
Enable IKE tracing
eroute
n
neglocip
IP Address
Negotiate a different IP address
and Mask
eroute
n
neglocmsk
IP Mask
Negotiate a different IP address
and Mask
eroute
n
vip
on, off
Negotiate a virtual IP address using
MODECFG
eroute
n
xauthid
String
XAuth ID
Advanced parameters
IPsec mode
Selects the IPsec encapsulation type to use on the IPsec tunnel. In Tunnel mode, the entire IP
packet (header and payload) is encrypted. In Transport mode, only the IP payload is
encrypted.
Use algorithm AH authentication on this tunnel
The AH authentication algorithm to use with this IPsec tunnel. The options are:
•
No (None)
•
MD5
•
SHA1
Use algorithm compression on this tunnel
The compression algorithm to use with this IPsec tunnel. The options are:
•
No (None)
•
DEFLATE
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IPsec parameters
Delete SAs when this tunnel is down
When selected, all SAs associated with the IPsec tunnel are deleted when the tunnel goes out
of service.
Delete SAs when router is not a VRRP master
When selected, at least one Ethernet interface must be set as VRRP Master before the router
can create SAs. If the router switches away from VRRP Master state, the SAs will be deleted.
When the router switches back to VRRP Master state, the SAs will be created automatically.
Go out of service if automatic establishment fails
The router will take the IPsec tunnel out of service if the automatic establishment fails rather
than continually retrying.
Go out of service after n consecutive auto-negotiation failures
The router will take the IPsec tunnel out of service if the auto-negotiation fails for the specified
consecutive number of times rather than continually retrying.
This tunnel can only use apn
When enabled, this parameter allows you to choose between using the main APN or the
backup APN, as defined in the Configuration – Network > Serial > W-WAN Port page.
Link tunnel with interface with x,y
When enabled, this parameter can be set so that the IPsec tunnel will only match packets
using the specified interface. When this parameter is enabled, the route will take outgoing
packets going through this IPsec tunnel and recheck to see if the resultant packet also goes
through a tunnel.
If the inner tunnel is an IPsec tunnel (such as needs IKE), you can get the inner IKE to use the
correct source address (matching the outer tunnel selectors) by enabling the Use secondary IP
address parameter and the inner IKE will use the IP address configured in the Secondary IP
address parameter on the Configuration – Network > Advanced Network Settings page.
Inhibit this IPsec tunnel when IPsec tunnels n are up
This is a list of IPsec tunnels that can inhibit this IPsec tunnel from being used as long as they
are up. If this IPsec tunnel has been allowed to come up, and the IPsec tunnel that inhibits it
comes back up, this IPsec is taken down and any SAs that may have existed are removed. As
soon as an inhibiting IPsec tunnel goes down, the router will check to see if the inhibited IPsec
tunnel can now create SAs.
Inhibit this IPsec tunnel unless IPsec tunnel n is up
This IPsec tunnel will be inhibited unless specified IPsec tunnel is also up.
IKE negotiation source IP address is taken from the
This defines which IP address IKE uses as the source IP address during the negotiation.
Interface
Use the IP address of the interface over which the IKE packets will be transmitted.
Secondary IP address
Use the IP address configured in the Secondary IP address parameter on the Configuration –
Network > Advanced Network Settings page.
Interface x,y
Use the IP address of the specified interface.
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IPsec parameters
Tunnel this IPsec tunnel inside another IPsec tunnel
It is possible to tunnel packets from an IPsec tunnel within a second (or more) tunnel. When
this parameter is enabled.
NAT-Traversal Keepalive timer s seconds
Sets the interval period, in seconds, that the router will use to send regular packets to a NAT
device in order to prevent the NAT table entry from expiring.
Allow protocol IP protocol(s) in this tunnel
This restricts the type of IP packets that will be tunnelled through the IPsec tunnel. The options
are:
•
All
•
TCP
•
UDP
•
GRE
IP packets with ToS values n must use this tunnel
Packets with matching ToS fields will only be tunneled through this IPsec tunnel and no
others. The usual traffic selector matching still takes place as normal. Packets that don’t have
matching ToS values will get tunneled as normal.
Enter the ToS values as a comma separated list, such as, 2,4.
Only tunnel IP packets with
This restricts the IP packets that will be tunneled to those with matching TCP/UDP port
numbers.
local TCP/UDP port n
Allow IP packets with matching source TCP/UDP ports to be tunneled.
remote TCP/UDP port n
Allow IP packets with matching destination TCP/UDP ports to be tunneled.
local TCP/UDP port in the range of n1 to n2
Allow IP packets with source TCP/UDP ports in the specified range to be tunneled. This is only
available when IKEv2 is used.
remote TCP/UDP port in the range of n1 to n2
Allow IP packets with destination TCP/UDP ports in the specified range to be tunneled. This is
only available when IKEv2 is used
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eroute
n
mode
tunnel,
transport
IPsec Mode
eroute
n
ahauth
off, md5, sha1
Use a AH authentication on this tunnel
eroute
n
ipcompalg
off, deflate
Use c compression on this tunnel
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eroute
n
oosdelsa
on, off
Delete SAs when this tunnel is down
eroute
n
ifvrrpmaster
on, off
Delete SAs when router is not a VRRP
master
eroute
n
nosaoos
on, off
Go out of service if automatic
establishment fails
eroute
n
nosadeactcnt
Integer
Go out of service after n consecutive
auto-negotiation failures
eroute
n
check_apnbu
on, off
This tunnel can only use apn
eroute
n
apnbu
0 = Main APN
This tunnel can only use apn
1 = Backup APN
eroute
n
ifent
blank, ETH, PPP
Link tunnel with interface with x,y
x = Interface type
eroute
n
ifadd
Integer
Link tunnel with interface with x,y
y = Interface number
eroute
n
inhibitno
Comma
separated list of
Integers
Inhibit this IPsec tunnel when IPsec
tunnels n are up
eroute
n
requireno
Integer
Inhibit this IPsec tunnel unless IPsec
tunnel n is up
eroute
n
usesecip
on, off
IKE negotiation source IP address is
taken from the Secondary IP Address
eroute
n
ipent
blank, ETH, PPP
IKE negotiation source IP address is
taken from the Interface x,y
x = Interface type
eroute
n
ipadd
Integer
IKE negotiation source IP address is
taken from the Interface x,y
y = Interface number
eroute
n
intunnel
on, off
Tunnel this IPsec tunnel inside
another IPsec tunnel
eroute
n
natkaint
Integer
NAT-Traversal Keepalive timer s
seconds
eroute
n
proto
off, tcp, udp, gre
Allow protocol IP protocol(s) in this
tunnel
eroute
n
toslist
Comma
separated list of
Integers
IP packets with ToS values n must use
this tunnel
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eroute
n
locport
0 - 65535
Only tunnel IP packets with local TCP/
UDP port
eroute
n
remport
0 - 65535
Only tunnel IP packets with remote
TCP/UDP port
eroute
n
locfirstport
0 - 65535
Only tunnel IP packets with local TCP/
UDP port in the range of n1 to n2
eroute
n
loclastport
0 - 65535
Only tunnel IP packets with local TCP/
UDP port in the range of n1 to n2
eroute
eroute
n
remfirstport
n
remlastport
0 - 65535
Only tunnel IP packets with remote
TCP/UDP port in the range of n1 to
n2
0 - 65535
Only tunnel IP packets with remote
TCP/UDP port in the range of n1 to
n2
Setting up IPsec Tunnels for Multiple Users
For small numbers of users it is usual to set up an individual eroute for each user. However, to
ease configuration where large numbers of users are required, the “*” character can be used as a
wildcard to match multiple user IDs. For example, setting the Peer ID parameter to “Digi*” would
match all remote units having an Our ID parameter starting with “Digi”, such as Digi01, Digi02, etc.
Example
To setup multiple users in this way, first set up the Our ID parameter on the host unit to a suitable
name, such as “Host1”. Then set the Peer ID parameter to “Remote*” for example. In addition, an
entry would be made in the user table with “Remote*” for the Username and a suitable Password
value, such as “mysecret”.
Each of the remote units that required access to the host would then have to be configured with
an Our ID parameter of “Remote01”, “Remote02”, etc. and each would have to have an entry in
their user table for User Host1 along with its password (such as the pre-shared key)..
Parameter
Host Router
Remote Router1
Remote Router2
Remote Router1
Peer ID
Remote*
Host1
Host1
Host1
Our ID
Host1
Remote01
Remote02
Remote03
Username
Remote*
Host1
Host1
Host1
Password
mysecret
mysecret
mysecret
mysecret
IPsec Default Action
Like a normal IP routing set-up, IPSec Tunnels have a default configuration that is applied if no
specific tunnel can be found. This is useful when, for instance, you wish to have a number of
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remote users connect via a secure channel (perhaps to access company financial information)
but also still allow general remote access to other specific servers on your network or the
Internet.
When a packet is received which does not match any IPsec tunnel
This parameter specifies how the router responds if a packet is received when there is no SA.
If you select the Drop the packet option, then only packets that match a specified IPsec tunnel
will be routed, all other data will be discarded. This has the effect of enforcing a secure
connection to all devices behind the router.
If you select the Pass the packet option, then packets that match an IPsec tunnel will be
decrypted and authenticated (depending on the IPsec tunnel’s configuration) but data that
does not match will also be allowed to pass.
When a packet is to be transmitted which does not match any IPsec tunnel
How the router will respond if a packet is transmitted when there is no SA.
If you select the Drop the packet option, then only packets that match a specified IPsec tunnel
will be routed, all other data will be discarded.
If you select the Pass the packet option, then data that matches an IPsec tunnel will be
encrypted and authenticated (depending on the IPsec tunnel configuration) but data that does
not match will also be allowed to pass.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
def_eroute
0
nosain
drop, pass
When a packet is received which
does not match any IPsec tunnel
def_eroute
0
nosaout
drop, pass
When a packet is to be transmitted
which does not match any IPsec
tunnel
IPsec Groups
This mode of operation can be used when the router is terminating tunnels to a large number of
remote devices such as when being used as a VPN Concentrator. To keep the size of the
configuration file in the router small and also to maintain ease of configuration, only the
information that is used for all tunnels is stored on the router. All other information that is site
specific is stored in a MySQL database. This means the number of sites that can be configured is
limited only by the SQL database size and performance. This will be literally millions of sites
depending upon the operating system and hardware of the MySQL PC. The number of sites that
can be connected to concurrently are much smaller and limited by the model of the router.
The router with the IPsec Group/MySQL configuration will be the VPN Concentrator. The remote
sites will normally not require an IPsec group configuration as they will normally only need to
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connect to a single peer, the VPN Concentrator. The VPN Concentrator will normally need only a
single IPsec group configured. The local and remote subnet parameters need to be set up wide
enough to encompass all the local and remote networks. The VPN Concentrator can act as an
initiator and/or a responder. In situations where there are more remote sites than the Digi can
support concurrent sessions, it will normally be necessary for the VPN Concentrator and the
remote sites to be both an initiator and a responder. This is so that both the remote sites and the
head-end can initiate the IPsec session when required. Note that it is also important to configure
the IPsec tunnels to time out on inactivity to free up sessions for other sites. In the case of the
VPN Concentrator acting as an initiator, when it receives a packet that matches the main IPsec
tunnel, if no Security Associations already exist it will look up the required parameters in the
database. The TransPort will then create a dynamic IP tunnel containing all the settings from the
base IPsec tunnel and all the information retrieved from the database. At this point IKE will create
the tunnel (IPsec security associations) as normal. The dynamic IPsec tunnel will continue to exist
until all the IPsec Security Associations have been removed. At the point where the maximum
supported (or licensed) number of tunnels has been reached by the router, the oldest Dynamic
IPsec tunnels (those that have not been used for the longest period of time) and their associated
IPsec Security Associations will be dropped to allow new inbound VPNs to connect.
Logic flow - creation of IPSec SAs
VPN Concentrator acting as initiator
The VPN Concentrator will normally act as an initiator when it receives an IP packet for routing
with a source address matching the IPsec tunnel local subnet address & mask and a destination
address matching the remote subnet address & mask (providing that an IPsec SA does not
already exist for this site.)
If an IPsec group is configured to use the matching IPsec tunnel, the router will use a MySQL
query to obtain the site specific information in order to create the SA's. The VPN Concentrator
will create a SELECT query using the destination IP address of the packet and the mask
configured in the IPsec group configuration to determine the remote subnet address. (This
means that the remote subnet mask must be the same on all sites using the current IPsec group.)
Once the site specific information has been retrieved, the router creates a 'dynamic' IPsec Tunnel
which is based upon the base IPSec tunnel configuration plus the site specific information from
the MySQL database. The router can then use the completed IPsec tunnel configuration and IKE
to create the IPsec SAs. For the pre-shared key, IKE will use the password returned from the
MySQL database rather than doing a local look up in the user configuration. Once created, the
SAs are linked with the dynamic IPsec tunnel. Replacement SAs are created as the lifetimes start
to get low and traffic is still flowing. When all SAs to this remote router are removed, the dynamic
IPsec tunnel will also be removed so that IPsec tunnel can then be re-used to create tunnels to
other remote sites. When processing outgoing packets, dynamic IPsec Tunnels are searched
before base IPsec tunnels. So, if a matching dynamic IPsec tunnel is found, it is used, and the base
IPsec tunnel is only matched if no dynamic IPsec tunnel exists. Once the dynamic IPsec tunnel is
removed, further outgoing packets will match the base IPsec tunnel and the process is repeated.
VPN Concentrator acting as a responder to a session initiated from the remote site
When a remote site needs to create an IPsec SA with the VPN Concentrator it will send an IKE
request to the VPN Concentrator. The VPN Concentrator needs to be able to confirm that the
remote device is authorised to create an IPsec tunnel. The remote site will supply its ID to the
host during the IKE negotiations. The VPN Concentrator will use this ID and look through the
IPsec tunnels configured and dynamic IPsec tunnels to see if the supplied ID matches the
configured Peer ID (peerid). If a match is found, the MYSQL database is queried to retrieve the
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information required to complete the negotiation (such as pre-shared key/password). If no
matching base IPsec tunnel is found, the local user configuration is used to locate the password,
and a normally configured IPsec tunnel must also exist. Once the information is retrieved from
the MySQL database, IKE negotiations continue and the created IPsec SAs will be associated with
the dynamic IPsec tunnel. As long as the dynamic IPsec tunnel exists, it behaves just like a normal
IPsec tunnel. such as SAs are replaced/removed as required.
If errors are received from the MySQL database, or not enough fields are returned, the dynamic
IPsec tunnel is removed, and IKE negotiations in progress will be terminated. There are a limited
number of dynamic IPsec tunnel. If the number of free dynamic IPsec tunnel is less than 10% of
the total number of dynamic IPsec tunnel, the Digi router will periodically remove the oldest
dynamic IPsec tunnel. This is done to ensure that there will always be some free dynamic IPsec
tunnel available for incoming connections from remote routers. It is possible to view the current
dynamic tunnels that exist using the WEB server, browse to Management - Connections > Virtual
Private Networking (VPN) > IPsec. The table will indicate the base IPsec tunnel and the Remote
Peer ID in the status display to help identify which remote sites are currently connected.
Preliminary IP Tunnel configuration
The IPsec tunnel configuration Configuration – Network > Virtual Private Networking (VPN) >
IPsec > IPsec Tunnels > IPsec n differs from a normal configuration in the following ways:
•
Peer IP/hostname: Because the peer IP address to each peer is unknown and is retrieved from
the database, this field is left empty.
•
Bakpeerip (CLI only): Because the peer IP address to each peer is unknown and is retrieved
from the database, this field is left empty.
•
Peer ID: When the host Digi is acting as a responder during IKE negotiations, the router uses
the ID supplied by the remote to decide whether or not the MySQL database should be
interrogated. So that the Digi can make this decision, the remote router must supply an ID
that matches the peerid configured into the IPsec tunnel. Wildcard matching is supported
which means that the peerid may contain '*' and '?' characters. If only one IPsec tunnel is
configured, the peerid field may contain a '*', indicating that all remote IDs result in a MySQL
look up.
•
Local subnet IP address / Local subnet mask: Configured as usual.
•
Remote subnet IP address / Remote subnet mask: These fields should be configured in such a
way that packets to ALL remote sites fall within the configured subnet. such as if there are two
sites with remote subnets 192.168.0.0/24, and 192.168.1.0/24 respectively, a valid
configuration for the host would be 192.168.0.0/23 so that packets to both remote sites
match.
All other fields should be configured as usual. It is possible to set up other IPsec groups linked
with other IPsec tunnels. This would be done if there is a second group of remote sites that have
a different set of local and remote subnets, or perhaps different encryption requirements. The
only real requirement is that this second group uses peer IDs that do not match up with those in
use by the first IPsec group.
IPsec Group configuration
This configuration holds information relating to the MySQL database, and the names of the fields
where the information is held. This configuration is also used to identify which IPsec tunnels are
used to create dynamic IPsec tunnels.
Example MySQL schema
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mysql> describe eroutes;
+-----------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| Field
| Type
| Null | Key | Default | Extra |
+-----------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
| peerip
| varchar(20) | YES
|
| NULL
|
|
| bakpeerip | varchar(20) | YES
|
| NULL
|
|
| peerid
| varchar(20) | NO
| PRI |
|
|
| password
| varchar(20) | YES
|
| NULL
|
|
| ourid
| varchar(20) | YES
|
| NULL
|
|
| remip
| varchar(20) | YES
| UNI | NULL
|
|
| remmsk
| varchar(20) | YES
|
|
|
| NULL
+-----------+-------------+------+-----+---------+-------+
7 rows in set (0.01 sec)
Link this IPsec group with IPsec Tunnel
The base IPsec tunnel number. This parameter allows the router to see that an IPsec tunnel
should use the group configuration to retrieve dynamic information from the database.
Remote mask to use for tunnels
This parameter is used in the SQL SELECT query in conjunction with the destination IP address
of packets to be tunnelled from the host to the remote peer to identify the correct record to
select from the MySQL database.
MySQL Server IP Address or Hostname
The IP address or hostname of the MySQL Server.
MySQL Server Port
The port that the MySQL Server is listening on.
Username
The username to use when logging into the MySQL Server.
Password / Confirm Password
The password to use when logging into the MySQL Server.
Database name
The name of the database to connect to.
Database table
The name of the table when the remote site information is stored.
Remote subnet IP
The name of the field in the table where the ‘remip’ data is stored.
Remote subnet Mask
The name of the field in the table where the ‘remmsk’ data is stored.
Peer IP Address
The name of the field in the table where the ‘peerip’ data is stored.
Backup Peer IP Address
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The name of the field in the table where the ‘bakpeerip” data is stored.
Peer ID
The name of the field in the table where the ‘peerid’ data is stored.
Our ID
The name of the field in the table where the ‘ourid’ data is stored.
Password
The name of the field in the table where the password to use in IKE negotiations is stored.
Note The default MySQL field names match the matching IPsec tunnel configuration parameter name.
The default field name for the ‘password’ field is ‘password’.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
egroup
n
eroute
Integer
Link this IPsec group with IPsec Tunnel
egroup
n
remmsk
IP Mask
Remote mask to use for tunnels
egroup
n
dbhost
IP Address or MySQL Server IP Address or Hostname
Hostname
egroup
n
dbport
0 - 65535
MySQL Server Port
egroup
n
dbuser
String
Username
egroup
n
dbpwd
String
Password / Confirm Password
egroup
n
dbname
String
Database name
egroup
n
dbtable
String
Database table
egroup
n
fremip
String
Remote subnet IP
egroup
n
fremmsk
String
Remote subnet Mask
egroup
n
fpeerip
String
Peer IP Address
egroup
n
fbakpeerip
IP Address
Backup Peer IP Address
egroup
n
fpeerid
String
Peer ID
egroup
n
fourid
String
Our ID
egroup
n
fpwd
String
Password
Dead Peer Detection parameters
When Dead Peer Detection (DPD) is enabled on an IPsec tunnel, the router will send an IKE DPD
request at regular intervals. If no response is received to the DPD request, the IPsec tunnel is
considered as suspect and the requests are sent at a shorter interval until either the maximum
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number of outstanding requests allowed is reached or a response is received. If no response is
received to the configured maximum requests, the IPSec tunnels are closed.
Note IKE DPD requests require that an IKE SA is present. If one is not present, the DPD request
will fail.
To help ensure that an IKE SA exists with a lifetime at least as great as the IPsec lifetime, the
router creates new IKE SAs whenever the IPsec SA lifetime exceeds the lifetime of an existing IKE
SA and attempts to negotiate a lifetime for the IKE SA that is 60 seconds longer than the desired
lifetime of the IPsec SA.
Mark the IPsec tunnel as suspect if there is no traffic for n seconds
The period of time of inactivity on a tunnel before it is deemed to be suspect, such as if there
is no activity on a healthy link for the time period defined, then the tunnel is them deemed to
be suspect.
Send a DPD request on a healthy link every n seconds
The interval at which DPD requests are sent on an IPsec tunnel that is deemed to be healthy.
A healthy link is one with traffic.
Send a DPD request on a suspect link every n seconds
The interval at which DPD requests are sent on an IPsec tunnel that is deemed to be suspect.
A suspect link is one where there has been no traffic for a specified period of time.
Close the IPsec tunnels after no response for n DPD requests
The maximum number of DPD requests that will be sent without receiving a response before
the IPsec tunnels are closed.
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Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dpd
0
inact
Integer
Mark the IPsec tunnel as suspect if
there is no traffic for n seconds
dpd
0
okint
Integer
Send a DPD request on a healthy
link every n seconds
dpd
0
failint
Integer
Send a DPD request on a suspect
link every n seconds
dpd
0
maxfail
Integer
Close the IPsec tunnels after no
response for n DPD requests
IKE parameters
The Configuration - Network > Virtual Private Networking (VPN) > IPsec > IKE folder opens to
list configuration pages for IKE 0 and IKE 1 with a separate page for IKE Responder. The IKE 0
instance can be used as an IKE “initiator” or as an IKE “responder” whereas IKE 1 can only be used
as an initiator. The IKE 0 and IKE 1 pages are therefore used to set up the IKE 0 and IKE 1 initiator
parameters as required. The IKE Responder page is used to set up the responder parameters for
IKE 0.
IKE Debug parameters
Enable IKE Debug
This parameter enables IKE debugging to be displayed on the debug port.
Debug Level
This parameter sets the level of IKE debugging. The options are:
•
Low
•
Medium
•
High
•
Very High
Debug IP Address Filter
This parameter is used to filter out IKE packets with particular source or destination IP
addresses. The format of this parameter is a comma-separated list of IP addresses. For
example, you may wish to exclude the capture of IKE traffic from IP hosts 10.1.2.3 and
10.2.2.2. This can be done by entering “10.1.2.3,10.2.2.2” for this parameter.
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Conversely, you may wish to only capture traffic to and from particular IP hosts. To do this, use
a tilde (~) symbol before the list of IP addresses. For example, to only capture packets to and
from IP host 192.168.47.1, enter “~192.168.47.1” for this parameter.
Forward debug to port
When enabled, the IKE debug is sent to debug serial port.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike
0
deblevel
0 = Off
Debug Level
1 = Low
2 = Medium
3 = High
4 = Very High
ike
0
ipaddfilt
Comma separated list Debug IP Address Filter
of IP addresses
ike
0
debug
on, off
Forward debug to port
IKE n parameters
Use the following settings for negotiation
This parameter defines the settings used during the IKE negotiation.
Encryption
This parameter defines the encryption algorithm used. The options are:
•
None
•
DES
•
3DES
•
AES (128 bit keys)
•
AES (192 bit keys)
•
AES (256 bit keys)
Authentication
Defines the authentication algorithm used. The options are:
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•
None
•
MD5
•
SHA1
Mode
Defines the negotiation mode. The options are:
•
Main
•
Aggressive
Historically, fixed IP addresses have been used in setting up IPSec tunnels. Today it is more
common, particularly with Internet ISPs, to dynamically allocate the user a temporary IP
address as part of the process of connecting to the Internet. In this case, the source IP address
of the party trying to initiate the tunnel is variable and cannot be pre-configured.
In Main mode (such as non-aggressive), the source IP address must be known such as this
mode can only be used over the Internet if the ISP provides a fixed IP address to the user or
you are using X.509 certificates.
Aggressive mode was developed to allow the host to identify a remote unit (initiator) from an
ID string rather than from its IP address. This means that it can be used over the Internet via
an ISP that dynamically allocates IP addresses. It also has two other noticeable differences
from main mode. Firstly, it uses fewer messages to complete the phase 1 exchange (3
compared to 5) and so will execute a little more quickly, particularly on networks with large
turn-around delays such as GPRS. Secondly, as more information is sent unencrypted during
the exchange, it is potentially less secure than a normal mode exchange.
Note Main mode can be used without knowing the remote unit’s IP address when using
certificates. This is because the ID of the remote unit (it’s public key) can be retrieved from
the certificate file.
MODP Group for Phase 1
Sets the key length used in the IKE Diffie-Hellman exchange to768 bits (group 1) or 1024 bits
(group 2). Normally this option is set to group 1 and this is sufficient for normal use. For
particularly sensitive applications, you can improve security by selecting group 2 to enable a
1024 bit key length. Note however that this will slow down the process of generating the
phase 1 session keys (typically from 1-2 seconds for group 1), to 4-5 seconds.
MODP Group for Phase 2
Sets the minimum width of the numeric field used in the calculations for phase 2 of the
security exchange.
With “No PFS” (Perfect Forwarding Security) selected, the data transferred during phase 1 can
be reused to generate the keys for the phase 2 SAs (hence speeding up connections).
However, in doing this it is possible (though very unlikely), that if the phase 1 keys were
compromised (such as discovered by a third party), the phase 2 keys might be more easily
compromised.
Enabling group 1 (768) or 2 (1024) or 3 (1536), IPSec MODP forces the key calculation for phase
2 to use new data that has no relationship to the phase 1 data and initiates a second DiffieHellman exchange. This provides an even greater level of security but of course can take
longer to complete.
Renegotiate after h hrs m mins s secs
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Determines how long the initial IKE Security Association will stay in force. When it expires any
attempt to send packets to the remote system will result in IKE attempting to establish a new
SA.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike
n
encalg
des, 3des, aes
Encryption
ike
n
keybits
0, 128, 192, 256
Encryption (AES Key length)
ike
n
authalg
md5, sha1
Authentication
ike
n
aggressive
on, off
Mode
ike
n
ikegroup
1, 2, 5
MODP Group for Phase 1
ike
n
ipsecgroup
1, 2, 5
MODP Group for Phase 2
ike
n
ltime
1 - 28800
Renegotiate after h hrs m mins s secs
This CLI value is entered in seconds
only.
Advanced IKE parameters
Retransmit a frame if no response after n seconds
The amount of time in seconds that IKE will wait for a response from the remote unit before
transmitting the negotiation frame.
Stop IKE negotiation after n retransmissions
The maximum number of times that IKE will retransmit a negotiation frame as part of the
exchange before failing.
Stop IKE negotiation if no packet received for n seconds
The period of time in seconds after which the unit will stop the IKE negotiation when no
response to a negotiation packet has been received.
Enable Dead Peer Detection
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Enables Dead Peer Detection. For more information, refer to the Configuration – Network >
IPsec > Dead Peer Detection (DPD) page.
Enable NAT-Traversal
Enables support for NAT Traversal within IKE/IPsec. When one end of an IPsec tunnel is behind
a NAT box, some form of NAT traversal may be required before the IPsec tunnel can pass
packets. Turning NAT Traversal on enables the IKE protocol to discover whether or not one or
both ends of a tunnel is behind a NAT box, and implements a standard NAT traversal protocol
if NAT is not being performed.
The version of NAT traversal supported is that described in the IETF draft ‘draft-ietf-ipsec-nat-tike-03.txt’.
Send INITIAL-CONTACT notifications
Enables INITIAL-CONTACT notifications to be sent.
Retain phase 1 SA after failed phase 2 negotiation
Normally IKE functionality is to remove the phase 1 SA if the phase 2 negotiation fails. Enabling
this parameter will cause the router to retain the existing phase 1 SA and retry the phase 2
again.
RSA private key file
The name of a X.509 certificate file holding the router’s private part of the public/private key
pair used in certificate exchanges. See ‘X.509 Certificates’ in the ‘IPsec and VPNs’ section for
further explanation.
SA Removal Mode
Determines how IPsec and IKE SAs are removed.
‘Normal’ operation will not delete the IKE SA when all the IPsec SAs that were created by it are
removed and will not remove IPsec SAs when the IKE SA that was used to create them is
deleted.
‘Remove IKE SA when last IPSec SA removed’ will delete the IKE SA when all the IPsec SAs that it
created to a particular peer are removed.
‘Remove IPSec SAs when IKE SA removed’ will delete all IPSec SAs that have been created by
the IKE SA that has been removed.
‘Both’ will remove IPSec SAs when their IKE SA is deleted, and delete IKE SAs when their IPSec
SAs are removed.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike
n
retranint
0 - 255
Retransmit a frame if no response
after n seconds
ike
n
retran
0-9
Stop IKE negotiation after n
retransmissions
ike
n
inactto
0 - 255
Stop IKE negotiation if no packet
received for n seconds
ike
n
dpd
on, off
Enable Dead Peer Detection
ike
n
natt
on, off
Enable NAT-Traversal
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IPsec parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike
n
initialcontact
on, off
Send INITIAL-CONTACT notifications
ike
n
keepph1
on, off
Retain phase 1 SA after failed phase 2
negotiation
ike
n
privrsakey
Filename
RSA private key file
ike
n
delmode
0 = Normal
SA Removal Mode
1 = Remove
IKE SA when
last IPsec SA
removed
2 = Remove
IPsec SAs
when IKE SA
remove
3 = Both
ike
n
openswan
on, off
None. This enables support for
Openswan IKE implementations.
IKE Responder command
This page displays the various parameters for IKE 0 when used in Responder mode.
Enable IKE Responder
This parameter allows the router to respond to incoming IKE requests.
Accept IKE Requests with
This parameter defines the settings that the router will accept during the negotiation
Encryption
This is the acceptable encryption algorithms.
Authentication
This is the acceptable authentication algorithms.
MODP Group between x and y
This is the acceptable range for MODP group.
Renegotiate after h hrs m mins s secs
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IPsec parameters
This parameter determines how long the initial IKE Security Association will stay in force.
When it expires any attempt to send packets to the remote system will result in IKE attempting
to establish a new SA.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike
0
noresp
on, off
Enable IKE Responder
ike
0
rencalgs
des, 3des, aes
Encryption
Multiple
algorithms can
specified in a
comma
separated list
ike
0
keybits
0, 128, 192, 256
Encryption (Minimum AES Key length)
ike
0
rauthalgs
md5, sha1
Authentication
Multiple
algorithms can
specified in a
comma
separated list
ike
0
rdhmingro
up
1, 2, 5
MODP Group between x and y
ike
0
rdhmaxgro
up
1, 2, 5
MODP Group between x and y
ike
0
ltime
1 - 28800
Renegotiate after h hrs m mins s secs
This CLI value is entered in seconds
only.
Advanced IKE Responder parameters
Stop IKE negotiation if no packet received for n seconds
The period of time in seconds after which the unit will stop the IKE negotiation when no
response to a negotiation packet has been received.
Enable NAT-Traversal
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IPsec parameters
Enables support for NAT Traversal within IKE/IPsec. When one end of an IPsec tunnel is behind
a NAT box, some form of NAT traversal may be required before the IPsec tunnel can pass
packets. Turning NAT Traversal on enables the IKE protocol to discover whether or not one or
both ends of a tunnel is behind a NAT box, and implements a standard NAT traversal protocol
if NAT is not being performed.
The version of NAT traversal supported is that described in the IETF draft ‘draft-ietf-ipsec-nat-tike-03.txt’.
Send INITIAL-CONTACT notifications
Enables INITIAL-CONTACT notifications to be sent.
Send RESPONDER-LIFETIME notifications
Enables RESPONDER-LIFETIME notifications sent to the initiator. If an initiator requests an IKE
lifetime that is greater than the responder, a notification will be sent and the initiator should
reduce its lifetime value accordingly.
Retain phase 1 SA after failed phase 2 negotiation
The name of a X.509 certificate file holding the router’s private part of the public/private key
pair used in certificate exchanges. See ‘X.509 Certificates’ in the ‘IPsec and VPNs’ section for
further explanation.
RSA private key file
The name of a X.509 certificate file holding the router’s private part of the public/private key
pair used in certificate exchanges. See ‘X.509 Certificates’ in the ‘IPsec and VPNs’ section for
further explanation.
SA Removal Mode
Determines how IPsec and IKE SAs are removed.
‘Normal’ operation will not delete the IKE SA when all the IPsec SAs that were created by it are
removed and will not remove IPsec SAs when the IKE SA that was used to create them is
deleted.
‘Remove IKE SA when last IPSec SA removed’ will delete the IKE SA when all the IPsec SAs that it
created to a particular peer are removed.
‘Remove IPSec SAs when IKE SA removed’ will delete all IPSec SAs that have been created by
the IKE SA that has been removed.
‘Both’ will remove IPSec SAs when their IKE SA is deleted, and delete IKE SAs when their IPSec
SAs are removed.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike
0
inactto
0 – 255
Stop IKE negotiation if no packet
received for n seconds
ike
0
natt
on, off
Enable NAT-Traversal
ike
0
initialcontact
on, off
Send INITIAL-CONTACT notifications
ike
0
respltime
on, off
Send RESPONDER-LIFETIME
notifications
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IPsec parameters
ike
0
keepph1
on, off
Retain phase 1 SA after failed phase 2
negotiation
ike
0
privrsakey
Filename
RSA private key file
ike
0
delmode
0 = Normal
SA Removal Mode
1 = Remove
IKE SA when
last IPsec SA
removed
2 = Remove
IPsec SAs
when IKE SA
remove
3 = Both
MODECFG Static NAT mappings parameters
MODECFG is an extra stage built into IKE negotiations that fits between IKE phase 1 and IKE phase
2, and is used to perform operations such as extended authentication (XAUTH) and requesting an
IP address from the host. This IP address becomes the source address to use when sending
packets through the tunnel from the remote to the host. This mode of operation (receiving one IP
address from the remote host) is called “client” mode. Another mode, called “network” mode,
allows the unit to send packets with a range of source addresses through the tunnel.
If the unit receives packets from a local interface that need to be routed through the tunnel, it
performs address translation so that the source address matches the assigned IP address before
encrypting using the negotiated SA. Some state information is retained so that packets coming in
the opposite direction with matching addresses/ports can have their destination address set to
the source address of the original packet (in the same way as standard NAT).
If the remote end of the tunnel is to be able to access units connected to the local interface, the
unit that has been assigned the virtual IP address needs to have some static NAT entries set up.
When a packet is received through the tunnel, the unit will first look up existing NAT entries,
followed by static NAT entries to see if the destination address/port should be modified, and
forwards the packet to the new address. If a static NAT mapping is found, the unit creates a
dynamic NAT entry that will be used for the duration of the connection. If no dynamic or stateful
entry is found, the packet is directed to the local protocol handlers.
External Port
The lowest destination port number to be matched if the packet is to be redirected.
Forward to Internal IP Address
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IPsec parameters
An IP address to which packets containing the specified destination port number are to be
redirected.
Forward to Internal Port
A port number to which packets containing the specified destination port number are to be
redirected.
Port Range Count
The number of ports to be matched.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tunsnat
n
minport
0 - 65535
External Port
tunsnat
n
maxport
0 – 65535
Port Range Count
tunsnat
n
ipaddr
IP Address
Forward to Internal IP Address
tunsnat
n
mapport
0 - 65535
Forward to Internal Port
IKEv2 parameters
When IKE Version 2 is supported, it is possible to specify whether the IKEv1 or IKEv2 protocol
should be used to negotiate IKE SAs. By default, IKEv1 is used and routers which have been
upgraded to support IKEv2 will not require any changes to their configuration to continue
working with IKEv1.
Use the following settings for negotiation
This parameter defines the settings used during the IKEv2 negotiation
Encryption
This parameter defines the encryption algorithm used. The options are:
•
None
•
DES
•
3DES
•
AES (128 bit keys)
•
AES (192 bit keys)
•
AES (256 bit keys)
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IPsec parameters
Authentication
This parameter defines the authentication algorithm used. The options are:
•
None
•
MD5
•
SHA1
PRF Algorithm
This parameter defines the PRF (Pseudo Random Function) algorithm used. The options are:
•
MD5
•
SHA1
MODP Group for Phase 1
This parameter sets the key length used in the IKE Diffie-Hellman exchange to768 bits (group
1) or 1024 bits (group 2). Normally this option is set to group 1 and this is sufficient for normal
use. For particularly sensitive applications, you can improve security by selecting group 2 to
enable a 1024 bit key length. Note however that this will slow down the process of generating
the phase 1 session keys (typically from 1-2 seconds for group 1), to 4-5 seconds.
Renegotiate after h hrs m mins s secs
This parameter determines how long the initial IKEv2 Security Association will stay in force.
When it expires any attempt to send packets to the remote system will result in IKE attempting
to establish a new SA.
Rekey after h hrs m mins s secs
When the time left until expiry for this SA reaches the value specified by this parameter, the
IKEv2 SA will be renegotiated, such as a new IKEv2 SA is negotiated and the old SA is removed.
Any IPSec “child” SAs that were created are retained and become “children” of the new SA.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike2
n
iencalg
des, 3des,
aes
Encryption
ike2
n
ienkeybits
128, 192, 256 Encryption (AES Key length)
ike2
n
iauthalg
md5, sha1
Authentication
ike2
n
iprfalg
md5, sha1
PRF Algorithm
ike2
n
idhgroup
1, 2, 5
MODP Group for Phase 1
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IPsec parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike2
n
ltime
1 - 28800
Renegotiate after h hrs m mins s secs
This CLI value is entered in seconds
only.
ike2
n
rekeyltime
1 - 28800
Rekey after h hrs m mins s secs
This CLI value is entered in seconds
only.
Advanced IKEv2 n parameters
Retransmit a frame if no response after n seconds
The amount of time in seconds that IKEv2 will wait for a response from the remote unit before
transmitting the negotiation frame.
Stop IKE negotiation after n retransmissions
The maximum number of times that IKEv2 will retransmit a negotiation frame as part of the
exchange before failing.
Stop IKE negotiation if no packet received for n seconds
The period of time in seconds after which the unit will stop the IKE v2 negotiation when no
response to a negotiation packet has been received.
Enable NAT-Traversal
This parameter enables support for NAT Traversal within IKE/IPsec. When one end of an IPsec
tunnel is behind a NAT box, some form of NAT traversal may be required before the IPsec
tunnel can pass packets. Turning NAT Traversal on enables the IKE protocol to discover
whether or not one or both ends of a tunnel is behind a NAT box, and implements a standard
NAT traversal protocol if NAT is not being performed.
The version of NAT traversal supported is that described in the IETF draft ‘draft-ietf-ipsec-nat-tike-03.txt’.
NAT traversal keep-alive interval n seconds
The interval in seconds in which the NAT Traversal keepalive packets are sent to a NAT device
in order to prevent NAT table entry from expiring.
RSA private key file
The name of a X.509 certificate file holding the router’s private part of the public/private key
pair used in certificate exchanges. See ‘X.509 Certificates’ in the ‘IPsec and VPNs’ section for
further explanation.
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IPsec parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike2
n
retranint
0 - 255
Retransmit a frame if no response after
n seconds
ike2
n
retran
0-9
Stop IKE negotiation after n
retransmissions
ike2
n
inactto
0 - 255
Stop IKE negotiation if no packet
received for n seconds
ike2
n
natt
on, off
Enable NAT-Traversal
ike2
n
natkaint
Integer
NAT traversal keep-alive interval n
seconds
ike2
n
privrsakey
Filename
RSA private key file
IKEv2 Responder parameters
This page displays the various parameters for IKEv2 0 when used in Responder mode.
Enable IKEv2 Responder
This parameter allows the router to respond to incoming IKE requests.
Accept IKEv2 Requests with
This parameter defines the settings that the router will accept during the negotiation
Encryption
This is the acceptable encryption algorithms.
Authentication
This is the acceptable authentication algorithms.
PRF Algorithm
This is the acceptable PRF (Pseudo Random Function) algorithms.
MODP Group between x and y
This is the acceptable range for MODP group.
Renegotiate after h hrs m mins s secs
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IPsec parameters
This parameter determines how long the initial IKE Security Association will stay in force.
When it expires any attempt to send packets to the remote system will result in IKE attempting
to establish a new SA.
Rekey after h hrs m mins s secs
When the time left until expiry for this SA reaches the value specified by this parameter, the
IKEv2 SA will be renegotiated, such as a new IKEv2 SA is negotiated and the old SA is removed.
Any IPSec “child” SAs that were created are retained and become “children” of the new SA.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike2
0
rencalgs
des, 3des, aes
Encryption
ike2
0
renckeybits
128, 192, 256
Encryption (Minimum AES key length)
ike2
0
rauthalgs
md5, sha1
Authentication
ike2
0
rprfalgs
md5, sha1
PRF Algorithm
ike2
0
rdhmingroup
1, 2, 5
MODP Group between x and y
ike2
0
rdhmaxgroup
1, 2, 5
MODP Group between x and y
ike2
0
ltime
1 – 28800
Renegotiate after h hrs m mins s secs
This CLI value is entered in seconds
only.
ike2
0
rekeyltime
1 - 28800
Rekey after h hrs m mins s secs
This CLI value is entered in seconds
only.
Advanced IKEv2 Responder parameters
Stop IKE negotiation if no packet received for n seconds
The period of time in seconds after which the unit will stop the IKEv2 negotiation when no
response to a negotiation packet has been received.
Enable NAT-Traversal
This parameter enables support for NAT Traversal within IKE/IPsec. When one end of an IPsec
tunnel is behind a NAT box, some form of NAT traversal may be required before the IPsec
tunnel can pass packets. Turning NAT Traversal on enables the IKE protocol to discover
whether or not one or both ends of a tunnel is behind a NAT box, and implements a standard
NAT traversal protocol if NAT is not being performed.
The version of NAT traversal supported is that described in the IETF draft ‘draft-ietf-ipsec-nat-tike-03.txt’.
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IPsec parameters
NAT traversal keep-alive interval n seconds
This is the interval in seconds in which the NAT Traversal keepalive packets are sent to a NAT
device in order to prevent NAT table entry from expiring.
RSA private key file
This is the name of a X.509 certificate file holding the router’s private part of the public/private
key pair used in certificate exchanges. See ‘X.509 Certificates’ in the ‘IPsec and VPNs’ section
for further explanation.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ike2
0
inactto
0 - 255
Stop IKE negotiation if no packet
received for n seconds
ike2
0
natt
on, off
Enable NAT-Traversal
ike2
0
natkaint
Integer
NAT traversal keep-alive interval n
seconds
ike2
0
privrsakey
Filename
RSA private key file
L2TP parameters
The Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP) provides a means for terminating a logical PPP connection
on a device other than the one which terminates the physical connection. Typically, both the
physical layer and logical layer PPP connections would be terminated on the same device, a Digi
Router for example.
With L2TP answering the call, the router terminates the layer 2 connection only and the PPP
frames are passed in an L2TP “tunnel” to another device which terminates the PPP connection.
This device is sometimes referred to as a Network Access Server (NAS).
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IPsec parameters
L2TP n parameters
Act as a listener only
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to NOT actively attempt to establish an L2TP
tunnel. In this mode it will only use L2TP if the remote host requests it. When unchecked, the
router will actively try to establish an L2TP connection with the remote host.
Enable Server mode
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to act as a L2TP server.
Initiate connections to a.b.c.d
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the remote host, such as the device that
will terminate the L2TP connection.
Use a.b.c.d as a backup
It is possible to specify a backup remote L2TP host server using this parameter. The text box
contains the IP address of the remote server to use.
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IPsec parameters
Bring this tunnel up All the time/On demand
This parameter only applies to tunnels initiated from this router.
Bring this tunnel down if it is idle for h hrs, m mins, s secs
These radio buttons select whether or not the tunnel is permanently available or not. When
set to On demand, the tunnel will not activate automatically but will wait until it is triggered by
PPP. When set to On demand the values in the text boxes determine the timeout after which
the L2TP tunnel will closed down after the last L2TP call on that tunnel.
L2TP Window Size
The L2TP window size is selected from this drop down list. Available values are from 1 to 7.
Route UDP packets over interface x,y
These two text boxes specify the interface and its instance number that should be used for
L2TP UDP sockets. Specifying these parameters allow the router to raise the interface should it
be disconnected.
Source Port Normal/Variable
These radio buttons select the source port for the L2TP tunnel. When set to Normal the
default port number of 1701 is used. When set to Variable a random source port value will be
used.
Name
The value in this text box is the name that is used to identify the router during the negotiation
phase when establishing an L2TP tunnel.
Authentication Off/Secret
The radio buttons select whether or not to use authentication. This is normally set to Off as
most host systems require that IPsec be used over L2TP tunnels. If Authentication is set to On,
authentication is enabled and the Secret parameter becomes relevant. The value in the text
box contains a passphrase that is shared with the host and which will be used if the remote
host requests authentication and Authentication is set to Off here.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
l2tp
n
listen
OFF,ON
Act as a listener only
l2tp
n
swap_io
OFF,ON
Enable server mode
l2tp
n
remhost
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Initiate connections to a.b.c.d
l2tp
n
backremhost
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Use a.b.c.d as a backup
l2tp
n
aot
OFF,ON
Bring this tunnel up All the time/On
demand
l2tp
n
nocallto
0 - 4294967296
Bring this tunnel down if it is idle for
h hrs, m mins, s secs
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IPsec parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
l2tp
n
window
1–7
Default = 4
L2TP Window Size
l2tp
n
ll_ent
<blank>, PPP,
ETH
Route UDP packets over interface
x,y
l2tp
n
ll_add
0 - 2147483647
Route UDP packets over interface
x,y
l2tp
n
rnd_srcport
OFF, ON
Source Port
l2tp
n
name
Up to 30
characters
Name
l2tp
n
auth
OFF,ON
Authentication Off/Secret
l2tp
n
secret
Up to 80
characters
Authentication Off/Secret
Advanced L2TP n parameters
Retransmit interval s milliseconds
The value in this text box specifies the amount of time in milliseconds that the router will wait
before retransmitting a Start Control Connection Request (SCCRQ) frame. The default value of
250ms should be changed to a higher value (say 4000ms) if L2TP is running over a GPRS link.
Retransmit count n
When using L2TP over GPRS or satellite networks, the first few packets are sometimes lost.
Setting the retransmit count in the text box to a higher value than the default of 5 will increase
reliability of the tunnel.
Layer 1 Interface Sync port n/ISDN
These radio buttons select the layer 1 (physical) interface to be used to terminate the L2TP
connection. The available options are ISDN or one of the router’s synchronous serial ports.
When Sync port n is selected, the sync port number is selected from the drop-down list.
Allow this L2TP tunnel to answer incoming ISDN calls
When checked, this checkbox allows the L2TP entity to answer incoming ISDN calls.
MSN
The value in this text box specifies the filter for the ISDN Multiple Subscriber Numbering
(MSN). It is blank by default but when the answering facility (above) is enabled, the router will
only answer ISDN calls where the trailing digits match this MSN value. For example, setting the
MSN value to 123 will prevent the router from answering calls from any calling number that
does not end in 123. This parameter is not used when answering is off.
Sub-address
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PPTP parameters
The value in this text box specifies the ISDN sub-address filter to use in conjunction with the
ISDN answering function. When answering is set to On and there is a valid sub-address in this
text box, the router will only answer calls where the trailing digits of the calling sub-address
match this sub-address. For example, setting the sub-address value to 123 will prevent the
router from answering calls where the sub-address does not end in 123.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
l2tp
n
retxto
0 - 4294967296
Retransmit interval s milliseconds
l2tp
n
retxcnt
0 - 4294967296
Retransmit count
l2tp
n
l1iface
0 – 255
Layer 1 Interface
l2tp
n
ans
OFF,ON
Allow this L2TP tunnel to answer
incoming ISDN calls
l2tp
n
msn
Up to 9 digits
MSN
l2tp
n
sub
Up to 17 digits
Sub-address
PPTP parameters
The Point-to-Point tunneling protocol (PPTP) is a common way of creating a VPN tunnel to a
Microsoft Windows™ server.
PPTP works by ending a regular PPP session to the peer encapsulated by the Generic Routing
Encapsulation (GRE) protocol. A second session on TCP port 1723 is used to initiate and manage
the GRE session. PPTP connections are authenticated with Microsoft MSCHAP-v2 or EAP-TLS. VPN
traffic is protected by MPPE encryption. PPTP does not work with GPRS/HSDPA mobile operators
that assign a private IP address and then apply NAT to the traffic before it leaves their network.
This because the server tries to build a tunnel back to the router on port 1723 but fails when the
traffic is blocked by the mobile operators’ firewall.
PPTP n parameters
Description
The text string in this text box is a name to aid the identification of the router.
Remote Host a.b.c.d
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PPTP parameters
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the remote host, such as the device that
will terminate the PPTP connection.
Use Interface x,y
The interface to be used for the PPTP tunnel is selected from this drop-down list, the text box
next to it is for the interface instance. Specifying these parameters allow the router to raise
the interface should it be disconnected. The interface options are:
•
Auto
•
PPP
•
Ethernet.
Accept incoming PPTP connections
When checked, this checkbox allow the router to act as a PPTP server and accept incoming
VPN connections.
Enable Server mode
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to send call_out call requests to the remote
device. In the default state which is unchecked, the router will send a call_in request to the
remote device.
Enable Socket mode
When checked, this checkbox enables the use of a Digi proprietary mode whereby PPP
packets are sent via the PPTP control socket rather than in GRE packets.
Encrypt control data using SSL version n
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to encrypt the control data using SSL. This is a
Digi proprietary function and is not part of standard PPTP. The drop-down list allows the SSL
version to be selected. The available options are:
•
Use default
•
TLSv1 only
•
SSLv3 only
•
SSLv2 only.
Enable PPTP debug
When checked, this checkbox enables debug tracing.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
pptp
0-9
name
Up to 30 characters
Description
pptp
0-9
remhost
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Remote Host a.b.c.d
pptp
0-9
ll_ent
Blank, PPP, ETH
Blank means Auto
Use Interface x,y
pptp
0-9
ll_add
0 - 4294967296
Use Interface x,y
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OpenVPN parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
pptp
0-9
listen
OFF,ON
Accept incoming PPTP connections
pptp
0-9
swap_io
OFF,ON
Enable Server mode
pptp
0-9
usesock
OFF,ON
Enable Socket mode
pptp
0-9
sslver
Blank,SSL,TLS1,SSL3,
SSL2
Blank is disabled
(default)
SSL means use
default.
Encrypt control data using SSL
version n
pptp
0-9
debug
OFF,ON
Enable PPTP debug
OpenVPN parameters
OpenVPN can be used for connecting to the router for secure management as well as access to
services on the LAN side of the TransPort router, such as corporate messaging services, file
servers and print servers for example.
OpenVPN is a full-featured SSL VPN which implements OSI layer 2 or 3 secure network extension
using the industry standard SSL/TLS protocol, supports flexible client authentication methods
based on certificates, smart cards, and/or username/password credentials, and allows user or
group-specific access control policies using firewall rules applied to the VPN virtual interface.
OpenVPN is not a web application proxy and does not operate through a web browser.
The Digi TransPort implementation of OpenVPN can be configured as an OpenVPN server (shown
above) or as an OpenVPN client, connecting to an OpenVPN server.
On TransPort firmware, OpenVPN has been implemented as an interface. That means that when
an OpenVPN tunnel connects, an interface is added to the routing table. Static routes may be
configured to point to an OpenVPN instance, and additionally, OpenVPN may learn routes from
the tunnel peer and add these routes to the routing table for the duration of the OpenVPN
tunnel. As each tunnel appears just like an interface, support for features like the firewall, NAT,
IGMP etc are the same as for other interfaces like PPP and ETH.
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OpenVPN parameters
OpenVPN n parameters
Description
The text string is a friendly name to help identify this OpenVPN instance.
IP address a.b.c.d
This must be specified correctly. OpenVPN interfaces use a 30 bit mask, the first address is
the network address, the 2nd is the server address, the 3rd is the client address, the 4th is the
broadcast address. This address must be configured as the 2nd IP address in the block of 4.
For example 192.168.0.1 if configured as a server, or 192.168.0.2 if configured as a client.
Destination host a.b.c.d
This parameter is only required when configured as an OpenVPN client. This is the IP address
of the OpenVPN server.
Link socket interface x,y
If configured, OpenVPN sockets will only be allowed to/from this interface and the routing
table will be ignored. When set to Auto, the OpenVPN sockets will use the routing table to
identify the best interface to use.
Get link socket source address from this interface x,y
The values in these two text boxes define the interface (Auto,PPP,ETH) and the instance
number of the interface to use as a source address for IP sockets when not using the interface
that the socket was created on.
Even when this parameter is not configured, the IP address from the interface on which the
socket was created will be used. The source address specified in this parameter will only be
used if it will cause the traffic to match an Eroute and therefore be sent using IPsec or GRE.
MTU
This parameter is used to set the Maximum Transmit Unit for the OpenVPN instance, in bytes.
The default setting is 1400.
Metric
This parameter specifies the connected metric, changing this value will alter the metric of
dynamic routes created automatically for this interface.
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OpenVPN parameters
NAT mode
This parameter is used to select whether IP Network Address Translation (NAT) or Network
Address and Port Translation (NAPT) are used at the Ethernet interface. When the parameter
is set to disabled, no NAT will take place.
IP analysis
When enabled, the un-encapsulated IP traffic will be captured into the analyser trace.
Firewall
The Firewall parameter is used to turn Firewall script processing “On” or “Off” for this
interface.
IGMP
This IGMP parameter is used to enable or disable the transmission and reception of IGMP
packets on this interface. IGMP is used to advertise members of multicast groups. If IGMP is
enabled, and a member of a multicast group is discovered on this interface, multicast packets
for this group received on other interfaces will be sent out this interface.
Include in RIP advertisements
When checked, this checkbox will cause the router to include this static route to be included in
RIP advertisements.
Automatically connect interface
If enabled, this OpenVPN instance will be considered as an always on interface.
Server mode (listener)
This parameter configures the OpenVPN instance to listen for inbound OpenVPN sockets.
Link socket port
The default port used by OpenVPN is 1194. If a different or non-standard port number is used,
specify it here.
Link socket protocol
OpenVPN can use TCP or UDP as the transport protocol. Select the required protocol here.
TLS auth password / Confirm TLS auth password
This allows the OpenVPN instance to use an extra level of security by having a TLS password
configured.
Push IP address #1/#2/#3
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OpenVPN parameters
When configured as an OpenVPN server, these parameters can be used to push subnets to
the client that need to be routed via the OpenVPN server. Used in conjunction with the Push
Mask parameter below.
Push mask #1/#2/#3
Used with the Push IP address parameter above to define subnets that should be routed via
the OpenVPN server.
Push DNS server address #1/#2
When configured as an OpenVPN server, these parameters can be used to push DNS server
settings to the OpenVPN client.
Pull interface IP address
When configured as an OpenVPN client, this option must be enabled for the router to obtain
and use the local IP address supplied from the OpenVPN server.
Pull routes
When configured as an OpenVPN client, this option must be enabled for the router to use
routes sent from the OpenVPN server.
Pull DNS server addresses
When configured as an OpenVPN client, this option must be enabled for the router to use DNS
servers sent from the OpenVPN server.
Packet replay ID window
When set to a non-zero value, this enables sequence number replay detection. It indicates the
number of packet IDs lower than the current highest ID to allow out of sequence.
Packet replay time window (seconds)
Set to a non-zero value to enable time tracking of incoming packets.
OpenVPN TX ping interval (seconds)
Interval between OpenVPN ping transmissions. These are required to detect the operational
state of the VPN connection.
OpenVPN RX ping timeout (seconds)
The number of seconds, after which no OpenVPN ping has been received, the VPN will be
marked as down.
Include IV
Enabling this option on includes an IV at the head of an encrypted packet. If one peer
prepends this IV and the other isn’t expecting it, packet decryption will fail.
Key negotiation timeout (seconds)
Maximum time in seconds to allow for a data channel key negotiation.
Key renegotiation interval (seconds)
Interval between key re-negotiations.
Key renegotiation bytes
If non-zero, a key renegotiation will take place after this many bytes have traveled through the
data channel (in either direction).
Key renegotiation packets
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OpenVPN parameters
If non-zero, a key renegotiation will take place after this many packets have travelled through
the data channel.
Inactivity timeout (seconds)
The tunnel is disconnected after the tunnel becomes inactive (no IP traffic) for this many
seconds. Note that the timer is only restarted with RX traffic, not TX traffic.
Data channel cipher
Sets the cipher used for data channel encryption/decryption. Select from the dropdown list.
Data channel digest
Sets the digest algorithm used for data channel authentication. Select from the dropdown list.
Debug
Enables output of OVPN related debug.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ovpn
n
descr
Up to 30 characters
Description
ovpn
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP address a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
dest
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Destination host a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
ll_ent
<blank>, PPP, ETH
Link socket interface x,y
x= interface type
ovpn
n
ll_add
0 - 2147483647
Link socket interface x,y
y= interface number
ovpn
n
ip_ent
<blank>, PPP, ETH
Get link socket source address
from this interface x,y
x= interface type
ovpn
n
ip_add
0 - 2147483647
Get link socket source address
from this interface x,y
y= interface number
ovpn
n
mtu
0 - 2147483647
MTU
ovpn
n
metric
0 - 2147483647
Metric
ovpn
n
do_nat
0,1,2
0 = Off
1 = Address only
2= Address and port
NAT mode
ovpn
n
ipanon
OFF,ON
IP analysis
ovpn
n
firewall
OFF,ON
Firewall
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OpenVPN parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ovpn
n
igmp
OFF,ON
IGMP
ovpn
n
inrip
OFF,ON
Include in RIP advertisements
ovpn
n
autoup
OFF,ON
Automatically connect interface
ovpn
n
server
OFF,ON
Server mode (listener)
ovpn
n
port
0 - 65535
Link socket port
ovpn
n
proto
TCP,UDP
Link socket protocol
ovpn
n
tls_auth_key
Up to 30 characters
TLS auth password
ovpn
n
etls_auth_ke
y
ovpn
n
puship
Valid subnet a.b.c.d
Push IP address #1 a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
pushmask
Valid netmask
a.b.c.d
Push mask #1 a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
puship2
Valid subnet a.b.c.d
Push IP address #2 a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
pushmask2
Valid netmask
a.b.c.d
Push mask #2 a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
puship3
Valid subnet a.b.c.d
Push IP address #3 a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
pushmask3
Valid netmask
a.b.c.d
Push mask #3 a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
pushdns
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Push DNS server address #1
a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
pushdns2
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Push DNS server address #2
a.b.c.d
ovpn
n
pullip
OFF,ON
Pull interface IP address
ovpn
n
pullroute
OFF,ON
Pull routes
ovpn
n
pulldns
OFF,ON
Pull DNS server addresses
ovpn
n
sreplay
0 - 2147483647
Packet replay ID window
ovpn
n
treplay
0 - 2147483647
Packet replay time window
(seconds)
ovpn
n
pingint
0 - 2147483647
OpenVPN TX ping interval
(seconds)
ovpn
n
pingto
0 - 2147483647
OpenVPN RX ping timeout
(seconds)
ovpn
n
inciv
OFF,ON
Include IV
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password
275
OpenVPN parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ovpn
n
neg_timeout
0 - 2147483647
Key negotiation timeout
(seconds)
ovpn
n
reneg_int
0 - 2147483647
Key renegotiation interval
(seconds)
ovpn
n
reneg_bytes
0 - 2147483647
Key renegotiation bytes
ovpn
n
reneg_packe
ts
0 - 2147483647
Key renegotiation packets
ovpn
n
inact_timeou 0 - 2147483647
t
Inactivity timeout (seconds)
ovpn
n
cipher
See cipher list below
Data channel cipher
ovpn
n
digest
See digest list below
Data channel digest
ovpn
n
debug
OFF,ON
Debug
Supported Cipher and Digest values for OpenVPN
Cipher values
Digest values
DES-EDE-CBC
md2WithRSAEncryption
AES128
ssl2-md5
DES
MD5
DES-CBC
sha1WithRSAEncryption
AES-128-CBC
ssl3-sha1
AES192
ssl3-md5
AES-192-CBC
SHA1
DES-EDE3-CBC
MD2
AES-256-CBC
RSA-MD2
AES-256
md5WithRSAEncryption
DES3
RSA-SHA1
RSA-SHA1-2
RSA-MD5
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SSL
The secure socket layer (SSL) that provides a secure transport mechanism is supported by Digi’s
TransPort routers. The configuration of the client-side and server are described in the following
pages.
SSL Clients parameters
Some sites require client side authentication when connecting to them. The router’s SSL client
handles the authentication for SSL connections using certificates signed by a Certificate Authority
(CA). For more information regarding certificates and certificate requests, refer to the certificates
page Administration – X.509 Certificate Management > Certificate Authorities (CAs).
Configuring the SSL clients is handled by a table having the columns and parameters listed below:
SSL Client
This column is simply a list of the SSL client numbers supported by the router.
Client Certificate Filename
The name of the required certificate file is selected from those available on the router’s filing
system from this drop-down list.
Client Private Key Filename
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SSL Server parameters
The name of the file that contains the private key that matches the public key stored in the
above parameter, is selected from this drop-down list.
Cipher List
The cipher list in this text box is a list of one or more cipher strings separated by colons.
Commas or spaces are also accepted as separators but colons are normally used. The actual
cipher string can take several different forms. It can consist of a single cipher suite such as
RC4-SHA. It can represent a list of cipher suites containing a certain algorithm or cipher suites
of a certain type. For example, SHA1 represents all cipher suites using the SHA1 digest
algorithm and SSLv3 represents all SSL v3 algorithms. Lists of cipher suites can be combined in
a single cipher string using the “+” character. This forms the logical AND operation. For
example, SHA1+DES represents all cipher suites containing SHA1 and DES algorithms. If left
empty, the cipher list is not used.
For more information see: www.openssl.org/docs/apps/ciphers.html.
Apply to Destination IP Address
The value in this text box allows the configuration of multiple SSL destinations, each having a
different certificate/key pair. When set, this parameter will lock the SSL client settings to a
specific IP address. If this parameter is left blank, the configured SSL client settings will be
used for any connection that requires SSL.
As is usual with the tables on the configuration web pages, the relevant and appropriate
parameters are selected and the Add button on the right-hand side is clicked to add the entry
into the table. Once an entry has been added, it may be removed by clicking the Delete button
that will appear in the right-hand column.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
sslcli
0-4
certfile
Up to 12 characters
(DOS 8.3 format)
Client Certificate Filename
sslcli
0-4
keyfile
Up to 12 characters
(DOS 8.3 format)
Client Private Key Filename
sslcli
0-4
cipherlist
Colon-separated list
of ciphers
Cipher List
sslcli
0-4
IPaddr
Apply to Destination IP
Address
SSL Server parameters
This page describes the parameters needed to configure the SSL server.
Server Certificate Filename
The file containing the server certificate is selected from this drop-down list.
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SSL Server parameters
Client Private Key Filename
The file containing the private key that matches the above certificate is selected from this
drop-down list.
SSL Version
The version of the SSL protocol to use, is selected from this drop-down list. Selecting “Any”
allows the use of any version. The available options are:
•
Any
•
TLSv1 only
•
SSLv3 only
•
SSLv2 only.
Cipher List
The list of ciphers is the same as described above for the client-side configuration table.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
sslsvr
0
certfile
Up to 12 characters
(DOS 8.3 format)
Server Certificate Filename
sslsvr
0
keyfile
Up to 12 characters
(DOS 8.3 format)
Server Private Key Filename
sslsvr
0
ver
Blank, TLS1, SSL3,
SSL2
SSL Version
sslsvr
0
cipherlist
Colon-separated list
Cipher List
sslsvr
0
debug
OFF,ON
n/a
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SSH Server
The secure shell (SSH) server allows remote peers to access the router over a secure TCP
connection using a suitable SSH client. The SSH server provides a Telnet-like interface and secure
file transfer capability.
SSH uses a number of keys during a session. The host keys are used for authentication purposes.
Keys unique to each SSH session are also generated and are used for encryption/authentication
purposes.
The router supports SSH v1.5 and SSH v2. The host key file format differs for each version but
there would normally only be one host key for each version. For this reason the router allows the
user to configure two host key files. These keys may be changed from time to time, specifically if
it suspected that the key has become compromised. Because the host keys need to be secure, it
is highly recommended to store the files on the router’s FLASH filing system using filenames
prefixed with “priv” which makes it impossible to read the files using any of the normal methods
(such as FTP). It is possible (using the genkey command) to create host keys in either format for
use with SSH. Using this utility it is not necessary to have the host key files present on any other
storage device (thus providing an additional level of security). Refer to the section of this manual
that covers certificates on how to generate a private key file.
Unlike the Telnet server it is possible to configure the number of SSH server sockets that listen for
new SSH connections.
Multiple SSH server instances can be configured, each instance can be configured to listen on a
separate port number and can use different keys and encryption methods.
It is possible to configure which authentication methods can be used in an SSH session and the
preferred selection order. The router currently supports MD5, SHA1, MD5-96 and SHA1-96. If
required, a public/private key pair can be used for authentication.
The router currently supports 3DES, 3DES-CBC and AES cipher methods.
DEFLATE compression is also supported. If this is enabled and negotiated, SSH packets are first
compressed before being encrypted and delivered to the remote unit via the TCP socket.
Note The SSH server supports the SCP file copy protocol but does NOT support filename
wildcards.
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SSH Server n
Enable SSH Servers
When checked, this checkbox enables the SSH servers on the router.
SSH Server n
The router supports eight individual SSH servers that are configured independently using the
options described below.
Enable SSH Server
When checked, this checkbox enables the SSH server.
Use TCP port p
The value in this text box is the TCP port number (default 22) that the SSH server will use to
listen for incoming connections. (Port 22 is the standard SSH port).
Allow up to n connections
The value in this text box specifies the number of sockets listening for new SSH connections
(default 1).
Host Key 1 Filename
The value in this text box is the filename of either an SSH V1 or V2 host key. It is highly
recommended that the filename be prefixed with “priv” to ensure that the key cannot be easily
accessed and compromised. This key may be generated using the facilities described in the
Certificates section of this manual.
Host Key 2 Filename
The value in this text box is the filename of either an SSH V1 or V2 key as above.
Note The maximum length for these filenames is 12 characters and they must use the DOS 8.3
file naming convention.
Maximum login time s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the maximum length of time (in seconds) that a user is
allowed to successfully complete the login procedure once the SSH socket has been opened.
The socket is closed if the user has not completed a successful login within this period.
Maximum login attempts n
The value in this text box specifies the maximum number of login attempts allowed in any one
session before the SSH socket will be closed.
Use Deflate compression No/Yes, level n
The radio buttons select whether or not DEFLATE compression will be used. If compression is
selected, the compression level is chosen from the drop-down list.
Enable Port Forwarding
When checked, this checkbox enables the router to accept traffic on ports other than 23. This
functionality is for use with SSH client applications (such as PuTTY) that has port forwarding
capability. For example, one the SSH connection is active, traffic for the HTTP port 80 can be
sent to the router securely.
Command Session IP Address a.b.c.d Port p
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SSH Server n
The values in these two text boxes are used to specify the host IP address and port number
that the router will use to handle incoming requests for a command session from SSH clients.
This is instead of the router’s normal command interpreter. For example, if the values are IP
address 127.0.0.1, port 4000, the SSH client will make a direct connection to ASY 0 and the
device attached to ASY 0 will receive and process the commands from the SSH client.
Enable support for SSH v1.5
When checked, this checkbox allows the server to negotiate SSH V1.5. The router must also
have a SSH V1 key present and the filename entered into the SSG configuration.
Server key size
This option applies to V1 SSH. During initialisation of an SSH session, the server sends its host
key and a server key (which should be of a different size to the host key). The router generates
this key automatically but the length of the server key is determined by this parameter. If
when this value is set it is too similar to the length of the host key, the router will automatically
adjust the selected value so that the key sizes are significantly different.
Enable support for SSH v2.0
When checked, this checkbox allows the server to negotiate SSH V2. The router must also have
a SSH V2 key present and the filename entered into the SSG configuration.
Actively start key exchange
This option applies to V2 SSH. Some SSH clients wait for the server to initiate the key exchange
process when a new SSH session is started unless they have data to send to the server, in
which case they will initiate the key exchange themselves. When checked, this checkbox will
cause the router to automatically initiate a key exchange without waiting for the client.
Rekey Never/After n units of data have been transferred
With SSH V2 it is possible to negotiate new encryption keys after the current ones have been
used to encrypt a specified amount of data. The radio buttons select whether this feature
should be used. If this feature is to be used the amount of data is entered into the text box
and the applicable units (Kbytes, Mbytes, Gbytes) selected from the drop-down list.
Encryption Preferences
The following four configuration options allocate preferences to the encryption method that
should be used to encrypt data on the link. A lower value indicates greater preference apart
from zero which disables the option.
3DES
The value in this text box is the preference level for the Triple-DES algorithm.
AES (128 bits)
The value in this text box is the preference level for the 128-bit AES algorithm.
AES (192 bits)
The value in this text box is the preference level for the AES algorithm using 192 bits.
AES (256 bits)
The value in this text box is the preference level for the AES algorithm using 256 bits.
Authentication Preferences
The following four configuration options allocate preferences to the authentication methods
that should be used. As above, a value of zero disables the particular authentication method
and lower values indicated greater preference than higher values. So, for example if MAC
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SSH Server n
SHA1-96 was the preferred method for authentication, this option would be given the value 1
and the other options given a value of 2 or greater. If all these parameters are set to the same
value, the router automatically uses them in the following order: SHA1, SHA1-96, MD5, MD596.
MAC MD5
The value in this text box is the preference level for MAC MD5.
MAC MD5-96
The value in this text box is the preference level for MAC MD5-96.
MAC SHA1
The value in this text box is the preference level for MAC SHA1.
MAC SHA1-96
The value in this text box is the preference level for MAC SHA1-96.
Enable Debug
The router supports logging and output of debugging information for situations where there
are problems establishing a SSH connection. When checked, this checkbox causes the router
to trace and output information that should be helpful in diagnosing and resolving the
problem.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ssh
0–7
port
0 - 65535
Use TCP port p
ssh
0-7
nb_listen
0 - 2147483647
Allow up to n connections
ssh
0-7
hostkey1
Up to 12 characters
(8.3 format)
Host Key 1 Filename
ssh
0-7
hostkey2
Up to 12 characters
(8.3 format)
Host Key 2 Filename
ssh
0-7
loginsecs
0 - 2147483647
Maximum login time s seconds
ssh
0-7
logintries
0 - 2147483647
Maximum login attempts n
ssh
0-7
comp
0 = disabled
Use Deflate compression , level
ssh
0-7
fwd
0 - 2147483647
Enable port forwarding
ssh
0-7
cmdhost
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Command session IP address
a.b.c.d
ssh
0-7
cmdport
0 - 2147483647
Command session port p
ssh
0-7
svrkeybits
0 - 2147483647
Server key size
ssh
0-7
initkex
OFF,ON
Actively start key exchange
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SSH Server n
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ssh
0-7
rekeybytes
0 - 2147483647
0 = Do not rekey
Rekey After n units of data have
been transferred
ssh
0-7
enc3descbc
0 - 2147483647
0 = Disabled
3DES
ssh
0-7
encaes128c
bc
0 - 2147483647
AES (128 bits)
ssh
0-7
encaes192c
bc
0 - 2147483647
AES (192 bits)
ssh
0-7
encaes256c
bc
0 - 2147483647
AES (256 bits)
ssh
0-7
macmd5
0 - 2147483647
MAC MD5
ssh
0-7
macmd596
0 - 2147483647
MAC MD5-96
ssh
0-7
macsha1
0 - 2147483647
MAC SHA1
ssh
0-7
macsha196
0 - 2147483647
MAC SHA1-96
ssh
0-7
debug
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Enable Debug
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SSH Client
The secure shell (SSH) server allows remote peers to access the router over a secure TCP
connection using a suitable SSH client. The SSH server provides a Telnet-like interface and secure
file transfer capability.
SSH uses a number of keys during a session. The host keys are used for authentication purposes.
Keys unique to each SSH session are also generated and are used for encryption/authentication
purposes.
The router supports SSH v1.5 and SSH v2. The host key file format differs for each version but
there would normally only be one host key for each version. For this reason the router allows the
user to configure two host key files. These keys may be changed from time to time, specifically if
it suspected that the key has become compromised. Because the host keys need to be secure, it
is highly recommended to store the files on the router’s FLASH filing system using filenames
prefixed with “priv” which makes it impossible to read the files using any of the normal methods
(such as FTP). It is possible (using the genkey command) to create host keys in either format for
use with SSH. Using this utility it is not necessary to have the host key files present on any other
storage device (thus providing an additional level of security). Refer to the section of this manual
that covers certificates on how to generate a private key file.
Unlike the Telnet server it is possible to configure the number of SSH server sockets that listen for
new SSH connections.
Multiple SSH server instances can be configured, each instance can be configured to listen on a
separate port number and can use different keys and encryption methods.
It is possible to configure which authentication methods can be used in an SSH session and the
preferred selection order. The router currently supports MD5, SHA1, MD5-96 and SHA1-96. If
required, a public/private key pair can be used for authentication.
The router currently supports 3DES, 3DES-CBC and AES cipher methods.
DEFLATE compression is also supported. If this is enabled and negotiated, SSH packets are first
compressed before being encrypted and delivered to the remote unit via the TCP socket.
Note The SSH server supports the SCP file copy protocol but does NOT support filename
wildcards.
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SSH Server n parameters
Enable SSH Servers
When checked, this checkbox enables the SSH servers on the router.
SSH Server n parameters
Maximum handshake time
This text field specifies the time in seconds to wait for the server to begin the banner
exchange part of the protocol after the socket connects.
‘known_hosts’ Filename
The value in this text field is the name of file to be used as the regular ssh client.
‘identity’ Filename
This text box is used to specify name of file to be used as the regular ssh client.
‘id_rsa’ Filename
The value in this text field is the name of an SSH V1 or V2 host key. There are two 'id_rsa' files
to allow the user to configure a SSHv1 private key into one field, and a SSHv2 private key into
the other.
‘_id rsa’ Filename #2
The value in this text field is the name of an SSH V1 or V2 host key.
Use Deflate compression No/Yes, level n
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SSH Server n parameters
The radio buttons select whether or not DEFLATE compression will be used. If compression is
selected, the compression level is chosen from the drop-down list.
Enable Public Key Authentication
When checked, this checkbox enables SSH public-key authentication to connect to OpenSSH.
Enable Password Authentication
When checked, this checkbox enables SSH password authentication to connect to OpenSSH.
Note No other authentication methods are supported.
Encryption Preferences
The following four configuration options allocate preferences to the encryption method that
should be used to encrypt data on the link. A lower value indicates greater preference apart
from zero which disables the option.
3DES
The value in this text box is the preference level for the Triple-DES algorithm.
AES (128 bits)
The value in this text box is the preference level for the 128-bit AES algorithm.
AES (192 bits)
The value in this text box is the preference level for the AES algorithm using 192 bits.
AES (256 bits)
The value in this text box is the preference level for the AES algorithm using 256 bits.
Authentication Preferences
The following four configuration options allocate preferences to the authentication methods
that should be used. As above, a value of zero disables the particular authentication method
and lower values indicated greater preference than higher values. So, for example if MAC
SHA1-96 was the preferred method for authentication, this option would be given the value 1
and the other options given a value of 2 or greater. If all these parameters are set to the same
value, the router automatically uses them in the following order: SHA1, SHA1-96, MD5, MD596.
MAC MD5
The value in this text box is the preference level for MAC MD5.
MAC MD5-96
The value in this text box is the preference level for MAC MD5-96.
MAC SHA1
The value in this text box is the preference level for MAC SHA1.
MAC SHA1-96
The value in this text box is the preference level for MAC SHA1-96.
Enable Server Keepalives
When checked, this checkbox enables server keepalives to use the same tcp connection for
HTTP conversation instead of opening new one with each new request.
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SSH Server n parameters
Enable Debug
The router supports logging and output of debugging information for situations where there
are problems establishing a SSH connection. When checked, this checkbox causes the router
to trace and output information that should be helpful in diagnosing and resolving the
problem.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
sshcli
0–7
conn_to
0-10 seconds
Time in seconds to wait for the
server to begin the banner
exchange part of the protocol after
the socket connects.
sshcli
0-7
hostsfile
Up to 12 characters
(8.3 format)
Key file to be used as the regular
ssh client
sshcli
0-7
idfile
Up to 12 characters
(8.3 format)
Key file to be used as the regular
ssh client
sshcli
0-7
idrsafile
Up to 12 characters
(8.3 format)
Name of either an SSH V1 or SSH V2
host key
sshcli
0-7
idrsafile1
Up to 12 characters
(8.3 format)
Name of either an SSH V1 or SSH V2
host key
sshcli
0-7
comp
0 = disabled
Use Deflate compression , level
sshcli
0-7
pubkeyauth
0 = disabled
Enables SSH public-key
authentication to connect to
OpenSSH.
sshcli
0-7
pwdauth
0 = disabled
Enables SSH password
authentication to connect to
OpenSSH.
sshcli
0-7
enc3descbc
0 - 2147483647
0 = Disabled
3DES
sshcli
0-7
encaes128c
bc
0 - 2147483647
AES (128 bits)
sshcli
0-7
encaes192c
bc
0 - 2147483647
AES (192 bits)
sshcli
0-7
encaes256c
bc
0 - 2147483647
AES (256 bits)
sshcli
0-7
macmd5
0 - 2147483647
MAC MD5
sshcli
0-7
macmd596
0 - 2147483647
MAC MD5-96
sshcli
0-7
macsha1
0 - 2147483647
MAC SHA1
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SSH parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
sshcli
0-7
macsha196
0 - 2147483647
MAC SHA1-96
sshcli
0-7
svrlaliveint
0 - 2147483647
Interval in seconds to send the
server a keepalive packet
sshcli
0-7
svralivemax
number
Maximum number of keepalives to
send without response before the
connection is killed
sshcli
0-7
debug
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Enable Debug
SSH parameters
In order to fully configure SSH, a version1 SSH key and a version 2 SSH key need to be generated
and the router configured to use them. This procedure will be described below.
Note SSH version 2 is more secure than version 1 and so is the recommended version to use.
However, some SSH clients may only support version 1 keys and so the router supports
both version 1 and version 2 SSH.
Configuration using the web interface
Navigate to Administration – X.509 Certificate Management > Key Generation and select the size
of the key file from the drop-down list. The larger the key file, the more secure it will be.
Enter the name for the key file in the Key filename box or select from those already present using
the drop-down selector. The filename should have a prefix of “priv” and a file extension of “.pem”,
such as “privssh1.pem”. (Please note that the 8.3 file name convention applies as mentioned
previously).
Check the checkbox marked Save in SSHv1 format in order to generate a version 1 SSH key. Click
the Generate Key button to generate the private key file. The key file will be stored in the router’s
FLASH filing system.
Repeat steps 1 to 3 in order to generate the second key. This time, however, make sure that the
Save in SSHv1 format checkbox is unchecked. This key file should be given a different name to the
version 1 file previously generated.
On the Configuration – Network > SSH Server > SSH Server n page, enter the filename generated
in step 3 into the Host Key 1 Filename text box and the filename generated in step 4 into the Host
Key 2 Filename text box.
Apply the configuration changes using the Apply button at the bottom of the page and when the
“Configuration successfully applied” message appears, click on the highlighted link to save the
configuration.
Configuration using the command line interface
Generate the SSH V1 private key using the genkey command as follows:
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SSH parameters
genkey <keybits> <filename> -ssh1 where <keybits> is one of the following values; 384, 512,
768, 1024, 1536 or 2048 and <filename> is the name for the file, such as “privssh1.pem” as
described for the web version of this procedure.
Generate the SSH V2 private key using the genkey command as per step 1 but this time omit the
–ssh1 switch. For example:
genkey 1024 privssh2.pem.
Set the first private key as the SSH Host key 1 using the following command:
ssh 0 hostkey1 privssh1.pem
Set the second private key as SSH Host Key 2 using the following command:
ssh 0 hostkey2 privssh2.pem
Save the configuration:
config 0 save
SSH Authentication with a public/private keypair
Once SSH access has been configured and confirmed to be working, RSA key pair authentication
can be added and used to replace password authentication.
This process will involve the use of PuTTYgen to create public and private keys. Please see the
Technical Notes section on the Digi website for full details on how to perform this procedure.
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FTP Relay
The FTP Relay agents allow any files to be transferred onto the router by a specified user using
the File Transfer Protocol to be temporarily stored in memory and then relayed to a specific FTP
host. This is useful when the router is being used to collect data files from a locally attached
device such as a webcam which must then be to a host system over a slower data connection
such as W-WAN. In effect, the router acts as a temporary data buffer for the files.
The FTP Relay Agent may also be configured to email (as an attachment) any file that it was
unable to transfer to the FTP server. To facilitate this, set the Email Template, To, From and
Subject parameters as appropriate and also configure the SMTP client (Configuration – Alarms >
SMTP Account).
FTP Relay n parameters
There are two FTP Relay Agents available, with a separate web page for each. For command line
configuration, the instance number can be 0 or 1.
Relay files for user locuser to FTP Server ftphost
The value in the left-hand text box is the name of the local user and should be one of the
usernames assigned in the Configuration – Security > Users web page. This name is then used
as the FTP login username when the local device needs to relay a file. The value in the righthand text box is the name of the FTP host to which the files from the locally attached device
are to be relayed.
Server Username
The value in this text box is the username required to log in to the specified FTP host.
Server Password
The value in this text box specifies the password to be used to log in to the host.
Confirm Server Password
The password should be retyped into this text box in order to confirm that it has been entered
correctly, given that it is not echoed in clear text.
Remote directory
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FTP Relay n parameters
The value in this text box is the full name of the directory on the FTP host to which the file is to
be saved.
Rename file
When checked, this checkbox causes the router to store the uploaded files internally with a
filename in the form “relnnnn” where nnnn is a number that is incremented for each new file
received. When the file is relayed to the FTP host the original filename is used. When
unchecked, the file is stored internally using its original filename. This parameter should be
set if it a file having a filename longer than 12 characters is to be uploaded. This is due to the
internal file system having the 8.3 filename format (such as autoexec.bat).
Transfer Mode ASCII / Binary
These two radio buttons select between the two possible file transfer modes, binary data or
ASCII data.
Transfer Command STORE / APPEND
These two radio buttons select between the two possible storage methods, either append to
or replace existing file.
Attempt to connect to the FTP Server n times
The value in this text box specifies the number of connection attempts that the router should
make if the first attempt is not successful.
Wait s seconds between attempts
The value in this text box specifies the interval (in seconds) that the router should wait in
between successive connections attempts.
Remain connected for s seconds after a file has been transferred
The value in this text box specifies how long (in seconds) that the router will maintain the
connection to the FTP host after transferring a file.
If unable to relay file Delete File / Retain file
These two radio buttons select the behavior with respect to storing the file if the router fails to
connect to the FTP host (after retrying for the specified number of attempts). Select Delete File
if the file should not be stored permanently. If the file is retained, manual intervention will be
required to recover it at a later stage.
Note If the file is not retained, it will be lost if the power is removed from the router.
Email the file before storing or deleting it
The configuration options following this checkbox are normally disabled (they should appear
disabled in the browser). When this checkbox is checked, the parameters are enabled and
data can be entered into the text boxes.
Use Email Template File
The value in this text box contains the name of the template file that will be used to form the
basis of any email messages generated by the FTP Relay Agent. This would normally be the
standard “EVENT.EML” template provided with the router but alternative templates may be
created if necessary (refer to Email templates elsewhere in this manual).
To
The value in this text box is used to specify the email address of the recipient of email
messages generated by the FTP Relay Agent.
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Advanced FTP Relay parameters
From
The value in this text box is used to specify the email address of the router. In order for this to
work, an email account must be in place with the Internet Service Provider.
Subject
This text box should contain a brief description of the content of the email.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
frelay
n
locuser
Up to 15 characters
Relay files for user locuser
frelay
n
ftphost
Up to 64 characters
to FTP Server ftphost
frelay
n
ftpuser
Up to 20 characters
Server Username
frelay
n
ftppwd
Up to 20 characters
Server Password
frelay
n
ftpdir
Up to 40 characters
Remote directory
frelay
n
norename
OFF,ON
Rename file
frelay
n
ascii
OFF,ON
Transfer Mode
frelay
n
appe
OFF,ON
Transfer Command
frelay
n
retries
0 - 2147483647
Attempt to connect to the
FTP Server n times
frelay
n
retryint
0 - 2147483647
Wait s seconds between
attempts
frelay
n
timeout
0 - 2147483647
Remain connected
frelay
n
savemode
OFF,ON
Delete/Retain file
frelay
n
smtp_temp
Up to 40 characters
Use Email Template File
frelay
n
smtp_to
Up to 100 characters To
frelay
n
smtp_from
Up to 40 characters
From
frelay
n
smtp_subjec
t
Up to 40 characters
Subject
Advanced FTP Relay parameters
Tx Buffer Size n bytes
The value in this text box specifies the size of the Tx socket buffer.
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Advanced FTP Relay parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ftpcli
n
txbuf
0 - 2147483647
Tx Buffer Size
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IP Passthrough
IP passthrough is a useful feature if a host computer or server on the local area network needs to
have access to it from the Internet with a public IP address. With IP passthrough configured, all IP
traffic, not just TCP/UDP is forwarded back to the host computer. This feature can be useful for
applications that do not function reliably through network address translation.
In this configuration the local PC will share the public IP addressing information with the WAN
side of the router.
Enable IP Pass-through
When checked, this checkbox enables IP passthrough mode.
Ethernet interface
The value in this text box specifies the Ethernet interface that the local PC is connected to.
PPP interface
The value in this text box specifies the PPP interface that will share its WAN address with the
local PC.
Mode
This drop-down list selects the mode of operation for the passthrough functionality. The
available options are Normal/28 bit mask and Fixed IP Address/32 bit mask. The default is
Normal/28 bit mask. When Fixed IP/32 bit mask mode of operation is selected, the DHCP
server will provide a 32-bit subnet mask to the client and sets the address/subnet mask for the
Ethernet interface to 192.168.1.1/32.
Pinhole Configuration
The following parameters are checkboxes that allow specific protocols to be excluded from
the IP passthrough feature. An excluded protocol will terminate at the router instead of being
forwarded to the local PC.
HTTP
When checked, this checkbox excludes HTTP from passthrough.
HTTPS
When checked, this checkbox excludes HTTPS from passthrough.
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Telnet
When checked, this checkbox excludes Telnet from passthrough.
Telnet over SSL
When checked, this checkbox excludes SSL from passthrough.
SSH/SFTP
When checked, this checkbox excludes SSH/SFTP from passthrough.
SNMP
When checked, this checkbox excludes SNMP from passthrough.
iDigi
When checked, this checkbox excludes the iDigi protocol from passthrough.
Note This option only appears on models that support the iDigi remote management
functionality.
GRE
When checked, this checkbox excludes GRE from passthrough.
Ping
When checked, this checkbox excludes the ICMP echo request from passthrough.
Other Ports
The list of TCP and UDP port numbers in this text box will be added to the list that will not be
forwarded to the local PC (comma-separated).
Other Protocols
The list of protocol numbers in this text box will be added to the list that will not be forwarded
on to the local PC (comma-separated).
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
passthru
0
enabled
OFF,ON
Enable IP Pass-through
passthru
0
ethadd
0 - 2147483647
Ethernet interface
passthru
0
pppadd
0 - 2147483647
PPP interface
passthru
0
mode
0,1
0 = Normal
1 = 32-bit mask
Mode
passthru
0
http
OFF,ON
HTTP
passthru
0
https
OFF,ON
HTTPS
passthru
0
telnet
OFF,ON
Telnet
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
passthru
0
telnets
OFF,ON
Telnet over SSL
passthru
0
ssh
OFF,ON
SSH/SFTP
passthru
0
snmp
OFF,ON
SNMP
passthru
0
idigi
OFF,ON
iDigi
passthru
0
gre
OFF,ON
GRE
passthru
0
ping
OFF,ON
Ping
passthru
0
ports
Commaseparated list of
ports
Other Ports
passthru
0
protos
Commaseparated list of
protocols
Other Protocols
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UDP Echo
When enabled, the UDP echo client generates UDP packets that contain the router’s serial
number and ID and transmits them to the IP address specified by the configuration. When the
remote router receives a UDP packet on a local port and UDP echo server is configured, it will
echo the packet back to the sender. There may be more than one UDP echo instance available on
the unit. Instance 0 is used when specifying the local port to listen on.
UDP Echo n parameters
There may be instances of the UDP echo task supported by the router (model-dependent). Each
has its own configuration web page, described below. For the command line configuration, valid
instance numbers start at 0 as normal.
Enable UDP Echo
This checkbox is unchecked by default – when checked, it reveals the configuration
parameters associated with send UDP echo packets.
Send a UDP packet to IP address a.b.c.d port n every s seconds
The values in these three text boxes define the destination IP address for the UDP packets, the
port number to which they should be sent and the sending interval. If the destination IP
address is left blank, the router will not attempt to send any packets.
Use local port n
The value in this text box specifies which local port the router should listen on for UDP
packets. If any UDP packets are sent to this port, the router will send a copy back to the IP
address and port they were sent from.
Route via Routing table / Interface x,y
These two radio buttons select whether the router should use its routing table to determine
how to send the UDP packets or whether it should use the specified interface. If the specific
interface is selected, the interface is selected from the drop-down list. The options available
are PPP and Ethernet. The interface instance is specified in the adjacent text box.
Only send packet when the interface is “In Service”
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UDP Echo n parameters
When checked, and the router is using the specified interface, this checkbox will prevent the
router from sending UDP packets if the interface is out of service.
Do not send any data with the UDP packet
When checked, this check box causes the router to send only a single null data byte. This is
useful to minimise packet size in circumstances where the interface has high data charges
(such as W-WAN). When unchecked, the router will send packets that contain the router’s
serial number and ID as text.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
udpecho
n
dstip
Valid hostname
Send a UDP packet to IP
address a.b.c.d port n every s
seconds
udpecho
n
dstport
0 - 65535
Send a UDP packet to IP
address a.b.c.d port n every s
seconds
udpecho
n
interval
0 - 2147483647
Send a UDP packet to IP
address a.b.c.d port n every s
seconds
udpecho
n
locport
0 - 65535
Use local port n
udpecho
n
userouting
OFF,ON
Route via Routing table
udpecho
n
ifent
PPP,ETH
Interface x,y
udpecho
n
ifadd
Valid interface
instance
04294967296
Interface x,y
udpecho
n
onlyis
OFF,ON
Only send packet when the
interface is “In Service”
udpecho
n
nodata
OFF,ON
Do not send any data with the
UDP packet
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QoS
The Quality of Service (QoS) functionality provides the means of prioritizing different types of IP
traffic. It is generally used to ensure that low priority applications do not “hog” the available
bandwidth to the detriment of those having a higher priority. For example, this might mean that
EPOS transactions carried out over XOT will be prioritized over HTTP-type traffic used for Internet
access. Without some form of QoS, all IP packets are treated as being equal, such as there is no
discrimination between applications.
The IP packet Type of Service (TOS) field is used to indicate how a packet should be prioritized.
Using the top 6 bits of the TOS field, a router that supports QoS will assign a Differentiated
Services Code Point (DSCP) code to the packet. This may take place within the router when it
receives the packet or another router closer to the packet source may have already assigned it.
Based on the DSCP code, the router will assign the packet to a priority queue. There are currently
four such queues for each PPP instance within the router and each queue can be configured to
behave a particular way so that packets in that queue are prioritized for routing according to
predefined rules.
There are two principal ways in which priority may be effected:
A priority queue can be configured to allow packets to be routed at a specific data rate (providing
that queues of a higher priority are not already using the available bandwidth)
Weighted Random Early Dropping (WRED) of packets may be used as queues become busy, in an
attempt to get the TCP socket generating the packets to “back off” its transmit timers, thus
preventing the queue overflow (which would result in all subsequent packets being dropped).
QoS is a complex subject and can have a significant impact on the performance of the router. For
detailed background information on QoS, refer to RFC2472 (Definition of the Differentiated
Services Field).
In Digi TransPort routers, the classification of incoming IP packets for the purposes of QoS takes
place within the firewall. The firewall allows the system administrator to assign a DSCP code to a
packet with any combination of source/destination IP address/port and protocol. Details of how
this is done are given in the section on firewall scripts.
When the routing code within the unit receives an incoming packet, it directs it to the interface
applicable to that packet at that time (this is the case whether or not QoS is being applied). Just
before the packet is sent to the interface, the QoS code intercepts the packet and assigns it to one
of the available priority queues (currently 10 per PPP instance) based on its DSCP value.
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DSCP Mappings parameters
Each priority queue has a profile assigned to it. This profile specifies parameters such as the
minimum transmit rate to attempt, maximum queue length and WRED parameters.
The packet is then processed by the queue management code and either dropped or placed in
the queue for later transmission.
There are a couple of configuration web pages associated with QoS functionality:
The Configuration – Network > QoS > DSCP Mappings page which contains parameters to
configure DSCP operation and Configuration – Network > Queue Profiles page which contains
parameters to manage the queue “profiles”.
Each Configuration – Interfaces > Ethernet and Configuration – Interfaces > PPP instance page
contains a QoS sub-page which control how QoS behaves on that particular interface.
When configuring QoS, be aware that the router supports ten queues, numbered from 0 to 9 and
that DSCP codes range from 0 to 64.
DSCP Mappings parameters
Each DSCP value must be mapped to a queue. These mappings are set up using this page.
Default
This drop-down list selects the default queue. When this is changed, any DSCP codes that are
set to use the default will have their queue number changed.
DSCP
This column is simply a list of valid DSCP codes with an associated drop-down list box to the
right.
Queue
Each of the DSCP codes in the left-hand column has a queue associated with it. To change the
value from what is shown, select the desired value from the drop-down list.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
dscp
n
q
0 – 63
Default 4
Queue
Example
To display a DSCP mapping from the command line, type the following:
dscp <code> ?
Where <code> is a valid DSCP code from 0 to 63, or 64 (but see note below).
To change the value of a parameter, use the following command:
dscp <code> q <value>
Where <code> is a valid DSCP code and <value> is from 0 to 9.
To set the default mapping value, enter the command:
dscp 64 q <value>
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Queue Profiles parameters
Where <value> is the default queue number required and has a value from 0 to 9.
Note DSCP code 64 is not actually a valid code but is used to set up the default priority.
Queue Profiles parameters
Up to 12 distinct queue “profiles” may be defined using this page that may then be assigned to
QoS queues as required. The queue profile determines how QoS queues with that profile
assigned to them will behave.
Queue
This is the queue number that relates to the queues defined in the DCSP mappings page.
Minimum kbps
The value in this text box sets the minimum data transfer rate in kilobits/second that the
router will try to attain for the queue.
Maximum kbps
The value in this text box sets the maximum data transfer rate in kilobits/second that the
router will try to attain for this queue. This means that if the router determines that
bandwidth is available to send more packets from a queue that has reached its Minimum kbps
setting, it will send more packets from that queue until the Maximum kbps setting is reached.
Note that if the bandwidth on a queue should be restricted, setting the Maximum kbps value
to the same as, or lower than the Minimum kbps value ensures that only the Minimum kbps
setting will be achieved.
Maximum Packet Queue Length
The value in this text box specifies the maximum length of a queue in terms of the number of
packets in the queue. Any packets received by the router that would cause the maximum
length to be exceeded, are dropped.
WRED Minimum Threshold
The value in this text box specifies the minimum queue length threshold for using the WRED
algorithm to drop packets. Once the queue length exceeds this value, the WRED algorithm
may cause packets to be dropped.
WRED Maximum Threshold
The value in this text box specifies the maximum queue length threshold for using the WRED
algorithm to drop packets. Once the queue length exceeds this value, the WRED algorithm will
cause all packets to be dropped.
WRED Maximum Drop Probability (%)
The value in this text box sets the maximum percentage probability used by the WRED
algorithm to determine whether or not a packet should be dropped when the queue length is
approaching the WRED maximum threshold value.
Note If the length of a queue is less than the WRED minimum threshold value there is a 0%
chance that a packet will be dropped. When the queue length is between the WRED
minimum and maximum values, the % probability of a packet being dropped increases
linearly up to the WRED maximum drop probability.
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Queue Profiles parameters
WRED Queue Length Weight factor
The value in this text box specifies a weighting factor to be used in the WRED algorithm when
calculating the weighted queue length. The weighted queue length is based on the previous
queue length and has a weighting factor that may be adjusted to provide different transmit
characteristics. The actual formula used is:
new_length = (old_length * (1-1/2^n)) + (current_length * 1/2^n)
Small weighting factor values result in a weighted queue length that moves quickly and more
closely matches the actual queue length. Larger weighting factor values result in a queue
length that adjusts more slowly. If a weighted queue length moves too quickly (small
weighting factor), it may result in dropped packets if the transmit rate rises quickly but will
also recover quickly after the transmit rate tails off. If a weighted queue length moves too
slowly (large weighting factor), it will allow a burst of traffic through without dropping packets,
but may result in dropped packets for some time after the actual transmit rate drops off. The
weighting factor should be selected carefully to suit the type of traffic using the queue.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
qprof
n
minkbps
0 - 2147483647
Minimum kbps
qprof
n
maxkbps
0 - 2147483647
Maximum kbps
qprof
n
qlen
0 - 2147483647
Maximum Packet Queue
Length
qprof
n
minth
0 - 2147483647
WRED Minimum Threshold
qprof
n
maxth
0 - 2147483647
WRED Maximum Threshold
qprof
n
mprob
0 - 100
WRED Maximum Drop
Probability (%)
qprof
n
wfact
0 - 2147483647
WRED Queue Length Weight
factor
Examples
To display a queue profile, enter the following command:
gqprof <instance> ?
Where <instance> is the number of the queue profile to be displayed.
To change the value of a parameter, use the following command:
qprof <instance> <parameter> <value>
To set the maximum throughput for queue profile 5 to 10kbps, enter the following command:
qprof 5 maxkbps 10
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Timebands
Digi TransPort routers support “Time Bands” which are used to determine periods of time during
which PPP interfaces allowed or prevented from activating. For example, a router in an office
could be configured so that the ADSL PPP interface is only raised on weekdays. Time Bands may
only be applied to PPP instances.
Time Bands are specified by a series of “transition” times. At each of these times routing is either
enabled or disabled. The default state for a Time Band is On which means that PPP instances that
are associated with unconfigured Time Bands will operate normally. The router supports four
Time Band configurations.
Note An entry is made in the event log whenever a Time Band transition occurs.
Whether or not Time Bands are enabled for a particular PPP instance is controlled by the settings
in a table having the following columns:
Interface
This column simply lists the available PPP instances.
Enable
This column contains checkboxes, each checkbox controls whether or not Time Bands are
enabled for the PPP instance in the left-hand column of the row. Check the checkbox to
enable Time Bands for the associated PPP instance.
Timeband
This drop-down list selects which of the four available Time Band instances should be
associated with the PPP instance.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
tband
0-3
Timeband
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Timeband parameters
The default state of this parameter is blank.
Timeband parameters
These four pages each control the configuration of one Time Band instance. Configuration is
controlled by a table, having the parameters described below. Up to ten transitions may be
configured.
Days
There is a selection of checkboxes in this column which are used to select which days of the
week the Time Band transitions apply to. Days may be selected individually or in groups for
convenience. So, for instance, to select all the days of the week, check the “All” checkbox. To
select the weekend only, check the “Sat->Sun” checkbox. To select weekdays only, check the
“Mon->Fri” checkbox.
Time
The value in this text box is the transition time. This is specified in 24-hour format with a colon
separator between the hours and minutes.
State
This drop-down list selects the routing state which can be On or Off. (For convenience, the
state of this parameter toggles for each new addition so if an on transition is configured, the
default state for the next addition will be Off).
The following screenshot shows a PPP instance configured so that routing is allowed on
weekday from 09:00 to 17:00. Clicking the Add button adds the entry into the table. Once an
entry has been added to the table, it may be removed by clicking the associated Delete button.
As mentioned previously, this Time Band instance is activated by navigating to the associated
PPP Time Band (previous page) configuration page and clicking the Enable checkbox, or by
entering the equivalent command line command.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tband
0-3
days
ALL,MF,Mon,
Tue,Wed,Thu,Fri,Sat,
Sun
Days
tband
0-3
time
HH:MM
Time
tband
0-3
state
OFF,ON
State
Command format:
tband <instance> <days#> <days>
tband <instance> <time#> <time>
tband <instance> <state#> <on|off>
To specify multiple days, separate the days with a comma, such as Mon,Wed,Fri. The abbreviation
MF is used to specify Monday to Friday.
Example commands.
To allow PPP routing only on weekdays between 9:00 a.m. and 5:30 p.m. enter the following
commands:
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Timeband parameters
tband 0 days 0 mf
tband 0 time0 9
tband 0 state0 on
tband 0 days1 mf
tband 0 time1 5:30
tband 0 state1 off
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Advanced Network Settings
The settings described in this web page are advanced in the sense that in the vast majority of
configurations and implementations they should not require changing.
Secondary IP Address a.b.c.d
The value in this text box assigns an additional IP address to the router that is not associated
with any particular interface. The router will respond directly to incoming traffic for this
address, such as it will not attempt to onward route any IP packets for this address.
When connected to a Serial interface using TCP
Advertise an MSS of n bytes
The value in this text box sets the maximum segment size used/advertised by an
asynchronous serial port connected to TCP sockets.
Use a Rx Window size of n bytes
The value in this text box sets the Rx window size used/advertised by an asynchronous serial
port connected to TCP sockets.
Default SSL version for outgoing connections
This drop-down menu box selects which version of the SSL protocol to use in the “tcpdial”
command. The options are:
•
Auto, which allows the server to select the version.
•
TLSv1 only
•
SSLv2 only
•
SSLv3 only
Some servers are configured to work with a particular version, and unless this version is
specifically requested, the connection attempt will fail.
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Socket settings
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cmd
n
sec_ip
Valid IP address
Secondary IP address
a.b.c.d
sockopt
n
asymss
0 - 2147483648
When connected to a serial
interface using TCP
Advertise an MSS of n
bytes
sockopt
n
asyrxwin
0 - 2147483648
Use a Rx Window size of n
bytes
sockopt
n
sslver
0–3
0 = Auto
Default SSL version for
outgoing connections
1 = TLSv1
2 = SSLv2
3 = SSLv3
Socket settings
Default source IP address interface x,y
The values in these two text boxes define the interface (None,PPP,ETH) and the instance
number of the interface to use as a source address for IP when not using the interface that the
socket was created on.
The router creates general-purpose sockets automatically when the controlling application
requests them. As, for example, when TPAD calls are made over IP or XOT. Normally, the
source address used by the socket will be that of the outgoing interface (usually PPP).
However, for some applications such as when setting up a VPN, it may be necessary to specify
that the socket uses a different source address such as that of the local Ethernet port. This
parameter is used to specify the interface from which the source address should be derived.
Note Even when this parameter is not configured, the IP address from the interface on
which the socket was created will be used. The source address specified in this
parameter will only be used if it will cause the traffic to match an Eroute and therefore
be sent using IPsec or GRE.
Connect Timeout s seconds
The value in this text box is used to specify the amount of time after which a TCP socket may
remain idle before being closed. If the value is set to 0 the socket may remain open
indefinitely.
TCP socket inactivity timer s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the maximum period of inactivity (in seconds) that may
occur before and open TCP/IP socket is closed. The default value is 300 seconds (five minutes)
and should not normally require altering.
TCP socket keep-alive s seconds
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XOT settings
The value in this text box specifies the amount of time (in seconds) between sending “keepalive” messages over open TCP connections. The purpose of these messages is to prevent a
connection from closing even when no data is being transmitted or received. The default value
of this parameter is zero which disables keep-alive messages.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
sockopt
n
gp_ipent
0,PPP,ETH
Default source IP address interface
x,y
sockopt
n
gp_ipadd
Valid interface
number
Default source IP address interface
x,y
sockopt
n
sock_connto
0 - 2147483648
Connect Timeout s seconds
sockopt
n
sock_inact
0 - 2147483648
TCP socket inactivity timer s
seconds
sockopt
n
sock_keepact
0 - 2147483648
TCP socket keep-alive s seconds
XOT settings
Default source IP address interface x,y
The values in these two text boxes specify the interface (None,PPP,ETH) and instance number
of that interface that IP address that XOT sockets should use instead of the interface that the
socket was created on.
Note Even when this parameter is not configured, the IP address from the interface on which
the socket was created will be used. The source address specified in this parameter will
only be used if it will cause the traffic to match an Eroute and therefore be sent using IPsec
or GRE.
NB of XOT listening sockets
The value in this text box specifies the maximum number of XOT sockets available. This may
be used to reduce the number of XOT sockets in order to free up more general-purpose
sockets for other purposes. The default value of 0 enables the maximum number of XOT
sockets available.
Maximum ACK time for XOT data
The value in this text box sets the maximum time allowance for a remote unit to acknowledge
TCP data transmitted by a unit’s socket. If this timer expires, the socket is aborted. The default
value of 0 disables the timer.
Note There is no requirement for the remote unit to acknowledge received data immediately,
therefore setting this parameter to too small a value is not recommended. Some stacks
delay sending TCP ACKs in order that they can be incorporated with data sent by the
application.
Do not deactivate outgoing XOT sockets when interface disconnects
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Backup IP addresses
When checked, this checkbox sets outgoing XOT sockets not to close when the interface they
are using disconnects.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
sockopt
n
xot_ipent
Valid interface
type, ETH, PPP
Default source IP address interface
x,y
sockopt
n
xot_ipadd
Valid interface
number
Default source IP address interface
x,y
sockopt
n
xot_listens
0 - 2147483648
NB of XOT listening sockets
sockopt
n
xot_maxack
0 - 2147483648
Maximum ACK time for XOT data
Backup IP addresses
This page contains a table that is used to specify alternative IP addresses to use when the router
fails in an attempt to open a socket. These addresses are used only for socket connections that
originate from the router and are typically used to provide back-up for XOT connections, TANS
(TPAD answering) connections or any application in which the unit is making outgoing socket
connections.
When a backup address is in use, the original IP address that failed to open is tested at intervals
to check if it has become available again. Additionally, at the end of a session, the unit will
remember when an IP address has failed and use the backup address immediately for future
connections. When the original IP address becomes available again, the router will automatically
detect this and revert to using it.
The table has the following four column headings:
IP Address a.b.c.d
This text box should contain the original IP address to which the back-up address relates.
Backup IP address a.b.c.d
This text box should contain the backup address to try when the router fails to open a
connection to the previous IP address.
Retry Time s (seconds)
This text box contains the length of time (in seconds) that the router will wait between checks
to see if a connection can be made to IP Address.
Try Next
In the case that a connection to the primary IP address has just failed, this text box determines
whether a connection to the backup IP address should be attempted immediately or when the
application next attempts to open a connection. When checked, the socket will attempt to
connect to the backup IP address immediately after the connection to the primary IP address
failed and before reporting this failure to the calling application, such as TPAD. If the backup is
successful this means that the application will not experience any kind of failure even though
the router has connected to the backup IP address.
When unchecked, the socket will report the failure to connect back to the calling application
immediately after the connection to the primary IP address has failed. The router will not try
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Backup IP addresses
to connect to the backup IP address at this stage. The next time that the application attempts
to connect to the same IP address, the router will instead, automatically connect to the backup
IP address.
As is usual for these tables, the Add button and Delete button are used to add and delete
entries to and from the table respectively.
Send “Backup IP” system messages to IP Address: a.b.c.d
The IP address in this text box specifies the destination to which system messages notifying of
the unavailability of an IP address should be sent. This allows the router to send UDP
messages to other routers to notify them that an IP address has become available/
unavailable. Devices that receive the IP address available/unavailable messages
Will search their own backup IP address tables for the IP addresses indicated and tag those
addresses as available/unavailable as appropriate.
Chaining IP addresses
It is possible to chain backup IP addresses by making multiple entries in the table.
For example, if the backup IP address for the original IP address appears as the IP address in the
next row, along with a new backup IP address for that IP address, then when, the original IP
address becomes unavailable, the router will try the backup IP address and if that is unavailable,
the router will try its backup IP address and so on. To make this example more concrete, say the
original IP address is 192.168.0.1 with a backup IP address of 192.168.0.2, then setting the IP
address in the next row to 192.168.0.2 with a backup IP address of 192.168.0.3 will cause the
router to try all these IP addresses in succession.
Note The length of time that it takes for a connection to an IP address to fail is determined by
the Connect timeout parameter on the Configuration – Network > Advanced Network
Settings > Socket Settings web page.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ipbu
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
IP Address a.b.c.d
ipbu
n
BUIPaddr
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Backup IP Address a.b.c.d
ipbu
n
retrysec
0 - 2147483648
Retry Time s (seconds)
ipbu
n
donext
OFF,ON
Try Next
sarsys
0
dest
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Send “Backup IP” system messages
to IP address a.b.c.d
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Legacy Protocols
Older protocols that existed before TCP/IP became dominant are often referred to as legacy
protocols. Examples of legacy protocols are X.25, SNA and LAPB.
Digi TransPort routers are capable of connecting to legacy networks such as X.25. They are also
capable of simulating a legacy network so that equipment that in the past would have connected
to a legacy network can connect to the Digi TransPort router instead. Thus old equipment can be
connected to modern networks such as HSUPA.
Digi TransPort Systems Network Architecture (SNA) over IP
The unit is capable of sending Systems Network Architecture (SNA) traffic over TCP/IP, using the
DLSw protocol, this is often called SNAIP. The unit is also capable of sending HDLC traffic over
TCP/IP.
SNA uses Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC) which is an unbalanced mode in which
there is one master station and 1 or more secondary stations. Each secondary station
owns a station address and can only respond when this address has just been polled by
the master. A typical scenario is shown in the diagram below:
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SNAIP parameters
SNAIP parameters
Description
This parameter allows you to enter a name for this SNAIP instance, to make it easier to
identify.
Send SNAIP traffic over interface
This setting determines which physical interface is to be used for carrying SNAIP data. This can
be set to either ISDN, Serial Port or SharedPort. If ISDN is selected then SNAIP data is carried
over the ISDN BRI physical interface. By selecting Serial Port, SNAIP data can be routed to
either serial Port 0 or serial Port 1 (operating in synchronous mode). To configure Port 0 or
Port 1 for synchronous operation refer to the Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Serial
> Serial Port x > Sync Port x.
If Shared Port is selected, the drop down list next to Shared Port specifies the SNAIP instance
that has sync port configured. When sync port sharing is enabled only one SNAIP instance can
currently own the sync port. Other SNAIP instances however can share this sync port in the
event that there is more than one terminal residing on a multi-drop sync line. In this situation
with multiple terminals, each terminal station will operate a DLSw state independently of all
other stations.
The SNAIP parameter Priority is used to select the SNAIP instance to use when more than one
is available; the highest number being given preference.
As an example consider that 4 SNAIP instances to all share sync port 0. To do this, configure
SNAIP 0 in the usual way on PORT 0 and then configure SNAIP instances 1,2 & 3 to use
SharedPort and Sync Port from SNAIP 0.
Use protocol
This parameter sets the appropriate protocol for the interface. Choose LAPB, SNA for SDLC or
RAW for raw mode in which all L2 frames are transmitted and received. You can also choose
RAW_NOHDR for raw mode with no DLSw headers.
Allow this unit to answer calls
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SNAIP parameters
If this parameter is set to On, the unit will answer incoming calls on the relevant LAPB session.
To prevent the unit from answering incoming calls on this LAPB session set the option to Off.
This setting is only relevant when the interface is set to ISDN.
Only accept calls with MSN ending with
This parameter provides the filter for the ISDN Multiple Subscriber Numbering facility. It is
blank by default but when set to an appropriate value with answering calls parameter above
enabled, it will cause the unit to answer incoming calls only to ISDN numbers where the
trailing digits of the called number match the MSN value. For example, setting the MSN
parameter to 123 will prevent the unit from answering any calls to numbers that do not end in
123. This setting is only relevant when the interface is set to ISDN.
Only accept calls with sub-address ending with
This parameter provides the filter for the ISDN sub-addressing facility. It is blank by default but
when set to an appropriate value, with answering calls parameter above enabled, it will cause
the unit to answer incoming ISDN calls only where the trailing digits of the sub address called
match the Sub-address value. For example, setting the Sub-address to 123 will prevent the
unit from answering any calls where the sub-address called does not end in 123. This setting is
only relevant when the interface is set to ISDN.
Assume station exists (Do not send TEST frames)
When this parameter is enabled TEST frames are not transmitted and the TEST response is not
expected. Instead the unit assumes the station exists and proceeds with the protocol as if the
DLSw has received the TEST response.
Toggle DCD output each time the DLSw protocol enters the DISCONNECTED state
When this parameter is set to “On”, the DCD (Data Carrier Detect) output will turn off briefly
each time the DLSw protocol enters the DISCONNECTED state. Thus any attached equipment
that needs to will see signals changing state.
Sync port should not send or receive data when WAN link is down
This parameter causes the Sync port to be deaf and dumb (and have DCD low) while the
connection with the WAN is down. This is so that some terminals don't get too excited just
because L2 is up and think everything else should be working (and go into a management
error state).
SNA parameters
Router to be Master on an unbalanced link
Enable this parameter if this unit is to be the Master in an unbalanced link, or “Off” if the unit is
to be a secondary station.
Polling Response Time
The poll time in milliseconds (if the unit is the master in an unbalanced link).
Polling Stations Addresses
This parameter lists the station addresses on the data link as a comma-separated list of hex
values (such as “c1,d1” for station addresses 0xc1 & 0xd1). This parameter is only applicable in
SNA mode.
SAPs
This parameter contains a list of SAP values which correspond to the station addresses.
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SNAIP parameters
DSAPs(blank=default)
This is the Destination SAP value, if left blank the SAP value above is used.
Send Null XID (XID with no Data)
When this parameter is set to “On” a null XID SSP message will be sent when the unit has just
received or sent a REACH ACK SSP message.
Send XID with Data
This parameter is a hex string to define binary data and defines an XID SSP message that
would be sent in response to a XIDFRAME SSP message being received.
Tx Turn Around Time
This parameter specifies the time in milliseconds between receiving a frame from an
outstation and transmission back to the same station. If this parameter is set to “0” this is
disabled and the Digi can respond immediately. The minimum non-zero value is 10ms.
Mode
This parameter is used to define the mode in balanced links. In unbalanced links (like SNA/
SDLC) the mode is defined by being master or the station, but for balanced links (like HDLC).
N400 counter
This is the standard LAPB retry counter. The default value is 3 and it should not normally be
necessary to change this.
RR Timer
This is a standard LAPB/LAPD “Receiver Ready” timer. The default value is 10,000ms (10
seconds) and it should not normally be necessary to change this.
T1 timer
This is a standard LAPB timer. The default value is 1000 milliseconds (1 second) and under
normal circumstances, it should not be necessary to change it.
T200 timer
This is the standard LAPB re-transmit timer. The default value is 1000 milliseconds (1 second)
and under normal circumstances, it should not be necessary to change it.
Window Size
This parameter is used to set the X.25 window size. The value range is from 1 to 7 with the
default being 7.
Disconnect link if there has been no activity for x seconds
This parameter may be used to specify the length of time (in seconds) before the link is
disconnected if there has been no activity. If this parameter is zero or not specified, then the
inactivity timer is disabled. It is useful to set this to a short period of time (say 120 seconds)
when an LAPB instance is being used over ISDN. This timer can be used as a backup hang-up
timer thus saving ISDN call charges. When LAPB is being used on a synchronous port, this
parameter should normally be set to 0.
SSP (WAN) parameters
Virtual MAC Address
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SNAIP parameters
Virtual MAC address. The host uses MAC addresses and SAP values as the addressing values
to discriminate between circuits (in much the same way as an IP address & TCP port define an
addressing point for a TCP socket). This is the MAC address that is reported as part of the
DLSw protocol.
Virtual MAC Address of Peer
The Virtual MAC address of the peer.
IP address of the Peer DLSw unit
The IP address of the peer DLSw unit.
Listen on Port
The read IP port. The TCP socket SNAIP listens on.
Use Port x if this unit starts the DLSw protocol
The write IP port. This TCP socket will be opened by the unit if it needs to start the DLSw
protocol.
Use interface for source IP address
Setting this parameter to a “PPP” or “ETH” instance will cause the source address used by this
SNAIP instance to match that of the Ethernet or PPP interface specified.
Close TCP connection if it is idle for x secs
This specifies the maximum period of inactivity (in seconds) that may occur before an open
TCP/ IP socket is closed. The default value is 300 seconds (5 minutes) and should not normally
require altering.
DLSw Ver
This parameter controls the DLSw version to be used. Set to 0 (default) for version 1, set to 2
for version 2.
DLSw Role
When this parameter is set to “Active”, and the unit is in SNA mode, then this DLSw switch will
actively connect to the remote DLSw switch.
DLSw Window
This parameter is used to set the DLSw window size. The value range is from 10 to 100 with
the default being 20.
UDP Capable
This controls the UDP transmission of DLSw SSP packets. Reception is always enabled for
version 2 support. If set to “OFF”, the state transitions occur just like DLSw version 1 but the
Digi will indicate it is version 2 capable.
Use 1 socket
When this parameter is set to “On” then only one socket is used for both read and write data.
This is useful if the unit is behind a NAT box and incoming connections are not possible. This
parameter can also be set to “Compatible”, in which mode both sockets are open to start with
and then after a negotiation one of the sockets is dropped.
Include MAC Exclusivity Capability
On or Off. Set this parameter to “On” in order to include the MAC exclusivity value in the
capabilities exchange message.
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SNAIP parameters
MAC Exclusivity Value
See above.
Ignore unsolicited response frames
When this parameter is enabled, the unit will ignore unsolicited response frames.
Wait for Contact before progressing to CONNECT PENDING state
During the DLSw negotiation phase and when XID messages are being exchanged this
parameter controls which end sends the “CONTACT” message. Normally this would be off in
which case this unit would send the “CONTACT” message, but if this parameter is set we would
not send this message but instead wait for it to be sent to us before progressing in the DLSw
state machine.
Make immediate connection attempts before backing off
This parameter defines the number of successive connection attempts before backing off for
the number of seconds (default 30) defined in the “Backoff for x seconds” parameter. This
backoff might be necessary in the case where a servers is behind a firewalls that detects too
many successive connection attempts in a certain time frame.
Backoff for x seconds before attempting to connect again
When backing off because of too many failed consecutive connection attempts this parameter
defines the time in seconds that we should remain idle for before attempting another
connection.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snaip
x
l1iface
ISDN, Port,
Send SNAIP traffic over
interface
SharedPort
snaip
x
l1nb
0 – 255 (Select LAPB,
Port or SharePort
instance)
Send SNAIP traffic over
interface
snaip
x
protocol
LAPB, SNA, RAW,
Use protocol
RAW_NOHDR
snaip
x
ans
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Allow this unit to answer calls
snaip
x
msn
text
Only accept calls with MSN
ending with
snaip
x
sub
text
Only accept calls with subaddress ending with
snaip
x
autocontact
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Assume station exists (Do not
send TEST frames)
snaip
x
dcd_toggle
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Toggle DCD output each time
the DLSw protocol enters the
DISCONNECTED state
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SNAIP parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snaip
x
l1oos
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Sync port should not send or
receive data when WAN link is
down
snaip
x
master
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Router to be Master on an
unbalanced link
snaip
x
pollresp
0 - 2147483647
Polling Response Time
snaip
x
stations
text
Polling Stations Addresses
snaip
x
saps
text
SAPs
snaip
x
dsaps
text
DSAPs(blank=default)
snaip
x
send_xid_nu 1 = enabled, 0 =
ll
disabled
Send Null XID (XID with no
Data)
snaip
x
xid_data
text
Send XID with Data
snaip
x
turntxtim
0 - 2147483647
Tx Turn Around Time
snaip
x
dtemode
1 = DTE, 0 = DCD
Mode
snaip
x
n400
0 - 255
N400 counter
snaip
x
tnoact
1000 - 60000
RR Timer
snaip
x
t1time
1 - 60000
T1 timer
snaip
x
t200
1 - 60000
T200 timer
snaip
x
window
1-7
Window Size
snaip
x
tinact
0 - 3000
Disconnect link if there has
been no activity for x seconds
snaip
x
vmac
Text (valid MAC
address)
Virtual MAC Address
snaip
x
peervmac
Text (valid MAC
address)
Virtual MAC Address of Peer
snaip
x
IPaddr
Text (valid IP address)
IP address of the Peer DLSw
unit
snaip
x
r_IPport
0 - 65535
Listen on Port
snaip
x
w_IPport
0 - 65535
Use Port x if this unit starts
the DLSw protocol
snaip
X
srcipent
auto, eth, ppp
Use interface for source IP
address
snaip
x
srcipadd
0 - 255
Use interface for source IP
address
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TPAD parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snaip
x
sock_inact
0 - 2147483647
Close TCP connection if it is
idle for x secs
snaip
x
ver
0-2
DLSw Ver
snaip
x
passive
0 = active, 1 = passive
DLSw Role
snaip
x
dlswwindow 1 - 100
DLSw Window
snaip
x
udp_cap
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
UDP Capable
snaip
x
use1sock
On, Off, Compatible
Use 1 socket
snaip
x
inc_mac_exc 1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Include MAC Exclusivity
Capability
snaip
x
mac_exc_val 0 - 1
Mac Exclusivity Value
snaip
x
iunsolresp
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Ignore unsolicited response
frames
snaip
x
waitforcont
act
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Wait for Contact before
progressing to CONNECT
PENDING state
snaip
x
con_attemp
ts
0 - 2147483647
Make immediate connection
attempts before backing off
snaip
x
con_boff_ti
me
0 - 2147483647
Backoff for x seconds before
attempting to connect again
Forcing SNAIP to use a specific instance
If several SNAIP instances are sharing an ASY port, a switchover to a specific instance can be
initiated by issuing snasw x. Where x is the SNAIP instance number, this instance must be
available to go online or this command will fail.
To revert back and use the default instance, issue the snadis x command. Normal priorities will
be used to determine which SNAIP instance gets to use the SYNC port.
TPAD parameters
TPAD is a simplified version of the X.25 PAD specification that is commonly used for carrying out
credit-card clearance transactions. Digi units support the use of TPAD over:
•
ISDN B and D-channels
•
TCP
•
UDP
•
SSL
•
XoT
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Automatic back-up between any two of these “layer 2 interfaces” or “transport protocols” is
supported.
For further information on using TPAD please refer to Digi technical support and ask for a copy of
“TG2 - Introduction to TPAD and X.25”.
Legacy Protocols TPAD n
Use TPAD over interface
This section is used to select whether the TPAD instance will use ISDN B-channel X.25, ISDN Dchannel X.25, TCP, VXN or SSL as the transport protocol. For ISDN D-channel operation, ensure
that the “LAPD” option is selected. For ISDN B-channel operation or operation through a
synchronous port, select “LAPB”. In the case of LAPB and LAPD it is also possible to specify an
interface number. This parameter specifies which LAPB or LAPD instance to use for the
relevant TPAD instance. Select “0” or “1” for LAPB or “0” or “1” for LAPD. When using LAPB with
ISDN this parameter may be set to “255”, which means use any free LAPB instance. This is
useful when more than 2 POS terminals are connected to the router and the acquirer does not
support multiple Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs) on a single B-Channel. A value of 254 will use
an available LAPB instance but will use the same ISDN B channel if two calls are attempted to
the same ISDN number at the same time. (All services that the POS terminals may dial must
support multiple SVCs if using the setting 254.)
Use backup interface
This section is used to specify a backup interface that will be used automatically if the call to
the primary interface fails. Note that the primary interface will be tried first for every new call
attempt.
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TPAD parameters
ISDN Settings parameters
Use number x to make outgoing ISDN calls
This parameter may be used to specify an ISDN number. This is used in cases where no ISDN
number is provided with the ATD command when making an outgoing call.
Use prefix x
This parameter is used to specify a dialling code that the unit will place in front of the
telephonenumber that is issued by the terminal in the ATD command. For example, if the
Prefix # was set to 0800 and the number specified by the terminal in the ATD command was
123456, the actual number dialled by the unit would be 0800123456.
Remove prefix x from number in ATD command
This parameter is used to specify a dialling prefix that is normally inserted by the terminal in
the ATD command that is removed by the unit before dialling takes place. For example, if the
Prefix removal # was set to 0800 and the terminal issued an ATD command containing
0800123456 then the actual number dialled by the unit would be 123456.
Use suffix x
The Suffix # parameter may be set to contain additional numbers that are dialled after the
number specified by B-channel ISDN #. For example, if B-channel ISDN # was set to 123456
and Suffix # was set to 789, the actual number dialled would be 123456789.
On the main interface Deactivate LAPB session x seconds after TPAD X.25 call has been
cleared
Once a TPAD X.25 call has been cleared, the unit will keep a LAPB instance active for the length
of time set by this parameter. This is to allow further TPAD transactions to take place without
having to make another ISDN call. The default value of 10 seconds should be acceptable for
most applications. The value of 1 is a special value which means terminate layer 2 immediately
the transaction is finished. (When the X.25 call is cleared.)
If you select LAPD as the TPAD layer-2 interface, this value will automatically be set to 0 to
disable layer-2 deactivation. You may still override the 0 setting by entering a new value but
note that most network service providers prefer that LAPD connections are not repeatedly
deactivated.
On the backup interface Deactivate LAPB session x seconds after TPAD X.25 call has been
cleared.
This is equivalent to the deactivation timer above but applies only to backup calls.
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TPAD parameters
X.25 settings parameters
Default X.25 Packet Size
This parameter specifies the default X.25 packet size to be used for TPAD transactions.
Use NUA
This parameter specifies the X.25 Network User Address to be used for outgoing X.25 calls if
no NUA is specified in the call string.
Use NUI
This specifies the X.25 Network User Identifier to be used for outgoing X.25 calls if no NUI is
specified in the call string.
LCN
The unit supports up to eight logical X.25/TPAD channels. In practice, the operational limit is
determined by the particular service to which you subscribe (usually 4).
Each logical channel must be assigned a valid Logical Channel Number (LCN). The LCN
parameter is the value of the first LCN that will be assigned for outgoing X.25 CALLs. The
default is 1027. For incoming calls, the unit accepts the LCN specified by the caller.
LCN direction
This parameter determines whether the X.25 LCN used for outgoing TPAD calls is incremented
or decremented from the starting value when multiple TPAD instances share one layer 2
(LAPB or LAPD), connection. The default is “DOWN” and LCNs are decremented, such as if the
first CALL uses 1024, the next will use 1023, etc. Setting the parameter to “UP” will cause the
LCN to be incremented from the start value.
On the backup interface
Use NUA
The LCN parameter is used to set the first LCN that will be used for the backup interface.
Use NUI
This specifies the X.25 Network User Identifier to be used for outgoing X.25 calls if no NUI is
specified in the call string for the backup interface.
LCN
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TPAD parameters
The LCN parameter is used to set the first LCN that will be used for the backup interface.
LCN direction
This parameter determines whether the LCN used for the backup X.25 interface is
incremented or decremented from the starting value when multiple X.25 instances share a
single layer 2 connection.
Report our NUA as n to the X.25 network
This is the NUA that the unit will report to the X.25 network as its own NUA when making a call.
It is also known as the calling NUA. Often the X.25 network will override this NUA.
Send X.25 RESTART packets
d
Delay the X.25 RESTART packets by x milliseconds
d
Call User Data
This specifies a text string that will be placed in the Call User Data field of an outgoing X.25 call
request packet. Whether or not this information is required will depend on the X.25 host that
you are connecting to. In most cases the information is not required.
X.25 calls
These setting control how transactions are sent to the host when TPAD is running in “direct
mode”.
One per transaction
Only one transaction is allowed per call.
Allow consecutive transactions
Multiple transactions are allowed per X.25 call, but not until a response has been received
from the host.
Allow concurrent transactions
Multiple transactions per X.25 call are allowed irrespective of whether a response has been
received from the host.
Use ASCII character x as the delimiter character
This parameter specifies the character used to separate a main NUA from a backup NUA, and
a main NUI from a backup NUI in an ATD command. The default value is the ASCII “!” character
(decimal 33).
Forward mode time x milliseconds
If not framed with STX and ETX characters, can still have data formatted after this period.
Create an event when reply from X.25 host matches
This parameter can be used to generate a “Data Trigger” event (code 47) when the reply from
the X.25 host contains the string specified in this parameter. It is possible to configure the unit
to generate an email alert message when this event occurs. See “LOGCODES.TXT” for a
complete list of events.
XoT/TCP settings
Connect to remote IP address
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TPAD parameters
When the unit is configured for XOT or TCP socket mode, this parameter is used to specify the
IP address of the host to which the TCP/XOT connection is made. Note that the transport
protocol must be set to TCP.
Port
When making a TCP socket connection (such as the transport protocol has been set to TCP not
XoT), this parameter must be used to specify the TCP port number to use.
IP length header
When making a TCP socket connection (such as the transport protocol has been set to TCP),
setting this parameter to “On” will pre-pend the data sent to the host with a 2 byte length
header. The 2 byte length header will not be included in the length calculation. When set to
“8583 Ascii 4 byte”, the IP length header will conform to the ISO 8583 format. When set to “On
Inclusive” it will pre-pend a 2 byte length header and the calculation of the length will include
the 2 bytes of the length header.
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TPAD parameters
TPAD Settings
Use Terminal ID (TID)
The Terminal ID parameter can be used to insert or replace a Terminal ID in the APACS 30
string.
Replace TID provided by connected terminal with configured TID
When this check box is ticked, any Terminal ID provided by a connected terminal will be
replaced by the ID set in the Use Terminal ID field above.
The TID will be become inactive in n seconds.
This specifies the time in seconds before the Terminal ID is considered inactive. Local
authorisations may be configured to occur on active TIDs (terminal Ids), so this parameter
defines how long a time (without transactions) must pass for a TID to change from active to
inactive.
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TPAD parameters
Use TID xxxxxxxxx with incoming APACS 50 polling calls
This parameter specifies the terminal ID to associate with this TPAD instance when answering
an incoming APACS 50 polling call.
Use merchant Number
This parameter can be used to insert a merchant number into the APACS 30 string when the
locally connected equipment does not transmit a merchant number.
Use Connect String
This parameter specifies a string to be sent to the user’s terminal when an outgoing TPAD call
has been connected, instead of the normal ENQ character. For example, this might be used to
make a TPAD connection look like a PAD connection by specifying “CON COM” as the connect
string.
The polling character set is c
This parameter is a string that specifies a character or set of characters to be treated as polling
characters. The unit will respond to any of these characters using ACK. This parameter should
normally be left blank.
Enable Message Numbering
When this check box is ticked the unit will override the message numbering of the local
equipment and substitute its own message numbering in the APACS 30 data. This is useful
when the locally connected equipment does not automatically increment the APACS 30
message number.
Disable Direct Mode
Enabling this setting will prevent the unit from automatically using Direct Mode (see below)
when it receives an APACS 30 packet without any call set-up.
Boot to Direct Mode
Direct mode is a mode of operation whereby the unit automatically routes APACS 30 packets
to their destination without the terminal having to perform any call control. If this parameter
is set to “Yes”, then the next time the unit is rebooted it will operate in direct mode. For Direct
Mode to work you must set up the appropriate addressing information (such as Transport
protocol, NUA, NUI, IP address etc). If this parameter is not enabled the unit will still try to use
direct mode if it detects that it is required (due to the absence of call control information). This
parameter can be used in certain cases where for some reason the unit cannot automatically
determine whether or not to use direct mode.
Use response code n in "unable to authorise" message
This parameter only applies when the unit is operating in direct mode. In cases where the unit
is unable to send the APACS 30 packet to the remote host, it replies to the terminal with an
unable to authorize message. By default, this message contains a response code 05 which
means declined. Entering a number for this parameter causes the unit to use that number in
place of the default response code. A value of zero for this parameter prevents the unit from
replying.
Clearing time n milliseconds
This parameter defines the clearing time in milliseconds that an X.25 call will be left open after
receiving a response from the host. Each response from the host resets this timer.
Delay transmitting the APACS 30 string for x milliseconds after connecting to X.25 host
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TPAD parameters
Setting this parameter will cause the unit to pause for the specified number of milliseconds in
between successfully connecting to the remote X.25 host and transmitting the APACS 30
string.
Retransmit APACS 30 string if error detected
Ticking this check box will cause the unit to retransmit the APACS 30 string to the terminal if an
error is detected. (such as no ACK received from terminal).
STX/ETX removal
Enabling “Del STX&ETX” will cause the unit to strip off the STX and ETX characters that normally
surround the APACS 30 string before sending it to the host. Enabling “Del STX only” will cause
it to strip of the STX character only.
Do not transmit ENQ characters
Under the TPAD protocol the ENQ character is normally used to indicate that a call has
connected and that the TPAD terminal may proceed with the transaction. Enabling this
parameter will prevent the router from transmitting ENQ characters to the TPAD terminal
when a connection is made.
Delay sending ENQ characters to TPAD terminal for x milliseconds when a call has been
connected
This parameter may be used to set the delay in ms from when the router first connects the call
to when it transmits the ENQ to the terminal. By default there is no delay.
Wait for x milliseconds for an ACK before retransmitting the data
This parameter defines the time period the unit will wait for an ACK character to be received
after sending data to the terminal. If an ACK character is not received within this time the data
will be retransmitted. A value of “0” entered here will default to a delay of 1 second.
Transmit TPAD transactions directly in a Synchronous frame
When this check box is ticked TPAD transactions are transmitted without any “outer” protocol
such as X.25, such as they are placed directly in a synchronous frame on ISDN. This sometimes
referred to as HDLC by certain card acquirers.
Include LRC
The LRC (Longitudinal Redundancy Check) is a form of error checking that may be required by
some TPAD terminals. When the Include LRC option is enabled the unit will check the LRC sent
by the terminal and if it indicates a problem has occurred NAK the message. If this parameter
is enabled but no LRC is sent by the terminal, the transaction will not be forwarded to the
host.
Include LRC line
This parameter is normally disabled so that any LRCs received from a TPAD terminal will be
removed before the transaction data is transmitted to the remote host. In most cases this is
acceptable because the network will provide error correction and so the LRC is redundant. In
some circumstances it may be necessary to enable this parameter so that the unit transmits
the LRC to the remote host along with the transaction data.
Force parity when sending data to the terminal
When this parameter is enabled the unit will always use even parity when relaying data from a
remote host to a locally connected TPAD terminal. To allow data to pass through without the
parity being changed disable this setting.
Strip parity when sending data to the host
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TPAD parameters
Enabling this parameter will cause the unit to remove any parity before sending the data to
the host.
Force parity when sending data to the host
When this parameter is enabled the unit will always use EVEN parity when relaying data from
the locally connected TPAD terminal to the remote host. To allow data to pass through without
the parity being changed disable this setting.
Strip Trailing Spaces
When this parameter is enabled the TPAD instance will look at responses coming from the
host and remove any trailing space characters from the end of the packet before relaying the
data to the terminal. This may be necessary if the host system “pads out” responses with
unnecessary spaces which can cause abnormal behaviour in some terminals.
Acknowledge TPAD data packets
This parameter causes the unit to acknowledge TPAD data packets from the terminal. This
parameter should normally be enabled. Note that this parameter is only used if no polling
characters (see above) are defined.
Convert leading STX character to SOH
Enabling this parameter will cause the unit to convert the leading STX character in a
transaction to an SOH character.
Terminate TPAD call is EOT only
A TPAD call is normally terminated with a DLE EOT sequence. Some terminals only require the
EOT character on its own. If this is the case then enable this parameter.
Clear TPAD call if there is no response to a TPAD transaction request for x seconds
This is the length of time in seconds that the unit will wait for a response to a TPAD transaction
request before clearing the TPAD call.
Generate an event when a TPAD transaction takes longer than x seconds
Setting this parameter to a non-zero value causes the unit to generate an Excessive
Transaction Time event (code 56) each time a TPAD transaction takes longer that the
specified number of seconds. This could be used in conjunction with an appropriate Event
Handler configuration to generate email alert messages or SNMP traps when TPAD
transactions take longer than expected. See Configuration - Alarms > Event Logcodes for a
complete list of events.
When the transaction time exceeds x milliseconds, increment the "SLA Exceptions" statistic
When the total transaction time exceeds the value (in ms) set in this parameter, the NB SLA
exceptions statistic on the Diagnostics - Statistics > TPAD page is incremented. This statistic
can be viewed on the CLI interface by entering the at\mibs=tpad.n.stats command, where n is
the TPAD instance.
Clear the call x seconds after receiving a response
This parameter defines the time period for which the socket closing or the X.25 call clearing is
delayed by after the TPAD session has finished. For example, if this parameter is set to 10 then
10 seconds after the TPAD session is finished (NO CARRIER is seen on the ASY TPAD port) the
network call (X25 or TCP socket) is cleared. The number “1” is a special value. If set to the
number “1” the call will be cleared immediately (not after 1 second).
If the terminal dial command specifies V.120 use PANS context x
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TPAD parameters
This parameter is for advanced users only. It enables TPAD transactions to be carried out
using the V.120 protocol (“ATDV” command). The parameter is used in conjunction with the
Polling Answering Service (PANS), and identifies which PANS instance is to be used for an
outgoing V.120 call. For this to work, the PANS instance must be bound to a Rate Adaption
instance.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tpad
n
l2iface
lapb, lapd, tcp, ssl, vxn
Use TPAD over interface
tpad
n
l2nb
0 – 255
Use TPAD over interface
tpad
n
ipmode
0=XOT, 1=raw TCP
Use TPAD over interface
tpad
n
bakl2iface
lapb, lapd, tcp, ssl, vxn
Use backup interface
tpad
n
bakl2nb
0 - 255
Use backup interface
tpad
n
bnumber
text (valid ISDN number) Use number x to make
outgoing ISDN calls
tpad
n
prefix
text (numeric)
Use prefix x
tpad
n
prefix_rem
text (numeric)
Remove prefix x from
number in ATD command
tpad
n
suffix
text (numeric)
Use suffix x
tpad
n
tl2deact
0 - 10000
On the main interface
Deactivate LAPB session x
seconds after TPAD X.25 call
has been cleared
tpad
n
baktl2deact
0 – 10000
On the backup interface
Deactivate LAPB session x
seconds after TPAD X.25 call
has been cleared.
tpad
n
defpak
16,32,64,128,256,512,10
24
Default X.25 Packet Size
tpad
n
nua
text
Use NUA
tpad
n
nui
text
Use NUI
tpad
n
lcn
1 - 4095
LCN
tpad
n
lcnup
1 = up, 0 = down
LCN direction
tpad
n
baknua
text
(Backup) Use NUA
tpad
n
baknui
numeric text
(Backup) Use NUI
tpad
n
baklcn
1 - 4095
(Backup) LCN
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TPAD parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tpad
n
baklcnup
1 = up, 0 = down
(Backup) LCN direction
tpad
n
cingnua
numeric text
Report our NUA as n to the
X.25 network
tpad
n
cud
text
Call User Data
tpad
n
samecall
0
One per transaction
tpad
n
samecall
1
Allow consecutive
transactions
tpad
n
samecall
2
Allow concurrent
transactions
tpad
n
delimchar
32 - 127
Use ASCII character x as the
delimiter character
tpad
n
ftime
0 - 20000
Forward mode time x
milliseconds
tpad
n
trig_str
text
Create an event when reply
from X.25 host matches
tpad
n
IPaddr
IP address
Connect to remote IP
address
tpad
n
iphdr
0=Off
IP length header
1=On
2=8583 Ascii 4 byte
tpad
n
termid
text
tpad
n
dotermid
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Replace TID provided by
connected terminal with
configured TID
tpad
n
tid
text
Use TID xxxxxxxxx with
incoming APACS 50 polling
calls
tpad
n
merchnum
text
Use merchant Number
tpad
n
useconstr
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Use Connect String
tpad
n
constr
text
Use Connect String
tpad
n
pollchars
text
The polling character set is c
tpad
n
domsgnb
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Enable Message Numbering
tpad
n
disdir
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Disable Direct Mode
tpad
n
bdir
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Boot to Direct Mode
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TPAD parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tpad
n
uaarc
0 - 99
Use response code n in
unable to authorise
message
tpad
n
clear_dirtime
0 - 60000
Clearing time n milliseconds
tpad
n
trandel
0 - 5000
Delay transmitting the APACS
30 string for x milliseconds
after connecting to X.25 host
tpad
n
teretran
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Retransmit APACS 30 string if
error detected
tpad
n
delstx
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled STX/ETX removal
tpad
n
no_enq
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Do not transmit ENQ
characters
tpad
n
tenqdel
0 - 5000
Delay sending ENQ
characters to TPAD terminal
for x milliseconds when a call
has been connected
tpad
n
tackdel
0 – 10000
Wait for x milliseconds for an
ACK before retransmitting
the data
tpad
n
dsync
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Transmit TPAD transactions
directly in a Synchronous
frame
tpad
n
inclrc
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Include LRC
tpad
n
incllrc
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Include LRC line
tpad
n
fpar
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Force parity when sending
data to the terminal
tpad
n
lrpar
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Strip parity when sending
data to the host
tpad
n
lfpar
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Force parity when sending
data to the host
tpad
n
strip_tspaces
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Strip Trailing Spaces
tpad
n
ackdat
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Acknowledge TPAD data
packets
tpad
n
stx_2_soh
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Convert leading STX
character to SOH
tpad
n
eot_only
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled Terminate TPAD call is EOT
only
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X.25 parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tpad
n
tresp
0 – 1000
Clear TPAD call if there is no
response to a TPAD
transaction request for x
seconds
tpad
n
texcess
0 – 100
Generate an event when a
TPAD transaction takes
longer than x seconds
tpad
n
tsla
0 – 3000
When the transaction time
exceeds x milliseconds,
increment the SLA
Exceptions statistic
tpad
n
clear_time
0 - 2147483647
Clear the call x seconds after
receiving a response
tpad
n
dialctx
0 - 255
If the terminal dial command
specifies V.120 use PANS
context x
X.25 parameters
The Configuration – Network > Legacy Protocol > X.25 menu has the following sub-menu
options:
•
General
•
LAPB
•
NUI Mappings
•
NUA / NUI Interface Mappings
•
Calls Macros
•
IP to X.25 Calls
•
PADS n
•
X.25 Settings
•
IP Settings
•
PADs
•
X.25 PVCs
General X.25 parameters
This section contains some global X.25 settings.
When answering a X.25 call, use the addresses from CALL packet in the CALL CNF packet
When this setting is enabled when answering a call the called and calling addresses from the
CALL packet are used in the X25 CALL CNF (call confirm packet) that the unit sends to answer
the call. This setting can be enabled on a per “interface type” basis, (LAPD, LAPB or XoT)
Reset XOT PVC if the router is the Initiator
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X.25 parameters
When this parameter is enabled the unit is responsible for resetting the links when an XOT
PVC comes up. This parameter should only be set to “Off” when it is known that the responder
will reset the links.
Reset XOT PVC if the router is the Responder
When this parameter is set to “On” the unit is responsible for resetting the links on XOT PVC
links when it is the responder. The default for this parameter is “Off”.
Include length of header in IP length header
For all X.25 calls which include an IP header length indication (such as IP Length Header is set
to “On” a TPAD or PAD, etc.) this parameter specifies whether the length indicated includes or
excludes the length of the header itself.
By default it is “Off”, in which case the length of the header is NOT included in the
value. For example, say we had one byte of data of value 67 to encode. Then “00 01
67” is the encoding if this parameter is set to “Off” as the length (00 01) is 1 because
the length does not include the length of the header. When set to “On” the length of
the IP header is included in the value, such as “00 03 67” is the encoding as the
header bytes are included.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
X25gen
0
lapd_cnf_addr
1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
When answering a X.25 call,
use the addresses from CALL
packet in the CALL CNF packet.
LAPD setting
X25gen
0
lapd_cnf_addr
1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
When answering a X.25 call,
use the addresses from CALL
packet in the CALL CNF packet
LAPB setting
X25gen
0
xot_cnf_addr
1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
When answering a X.25 call,
use the addresses from CALL
packet in the CALL CNF packet
XoT setting
X25gen
0
reset_xotpvc_ini 1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
Reset XOT PVC if the router is the
Initiator
X25gen
0
reset_xotpvc_re
sp
1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
Reset XOT PVC if the router is the
Responder
X25gen
0
en_incl_iphdr
1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
Include length of header in IP
length header
X.25 LAPB parameters
LAPB (Link Access Procedure Balanced) is a standard subset of the High-Level Data Link Control
(HDLC) protocol. It is a bit-oriented, synchronous, link-layer protocol that provides data framing,
flow control and error detection and correction. LAPB is the link layer used by X.25 applications.
On Digi TransPort routers LAPB can be used over ISDN or over a synchronous serial port.
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X.25 parameters
Use: Serial port Port x (in Synchronous Mode)
To use the LAPB instance over a synchronous serial port enable this setting and select a serial
port number. To configure settings of the synchronous port such as speed and clock source
navigate to Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Serial > Serial Port n > Sync Port n.
Use: ISDN
Enable this setting to use LAPB over ISDN.
Mode DTE or DCE
Determines whether LAPB will behave as DTE (Data Terminal Equipment) or DCE (Data Circuitterminating Equipment) in an X.25 protocol sense. (Physical DTE vs. DCE wiring cannot be
changed by configuration.)
N400 Counter x
This is the standard LAPB retry counter. The default value is 3 and it should not normally be
necessary to change this.
RR Timer x milliseconds
This is a standard LAPB “Receiver Ready” timer. The default value is 10,000ms (10 seconds)
and it should not normally be necessary to change this.
T1 Timer x milliseconds
This is a standard LAPB timer. The default value is 1000 milliseconds (1 second) and under
normal circumstances, it should not be necessary to change it.
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X.25 parameters
T200 Timer x milliseconds
This is the standard LAPB re-transmit timer. The default value is 1000 milliseconds (1 second)
and under normal circumstances, it should not be necessary to change it.
X.25 Window Size
This parameter is used to set the X.25 window size. The value range is from 1 to 7 with the
default being 7.
Disconnect link if there has been no X.25 activity for x seconds
This parameter may be used to specify the length of time (in seconds) before the link is
disconnected if there has been no X.25 activity. If this parameter is zero or not specified, then
the inactivity timer is disabled.
Disconnect link if there has been no activity for x seconds
This parameter may be used to specify the length of time (in seconds) before the link is
disconnected if there has been no activity. If this parameter is zero or not specified, then the
inactivity timer is disabled. It is useful to set this to a short period of time (say 120 seconds)
when a LAPB instance is being used over ISDN for example with TPAD. Should the POS device
fail to instruct TPAD to hang up then this timer can be used as a backup hang-up timer thus
saving ISDN call charges. When LAPB is being used on a synchronous port, this parameter
should normally be set to 0.
Send X.25 Restart packet on receipt of SABM frame
This parameter can be set to “No” or “Immediate”. When set to “Immediate”, the LAPB instance
will send an X.25 restart packet immediately on receipt of an SABM (Set Asynchronous
Balanced Mode) frame. If the parameter is set to “No”, then no X.25 restart is sent.
ISDN Parameters
Allow this unit to answer calls
When this parameter is enabled this instance of LAPB will answer incoming ISDN calls.
Only accept calls from calling number ending with
This parameter provides the filter for the ISDN Multiple Subscriber Numbering facility. It is
blank by default but when set to an appropriate value with “Allow this unit to answer calls”
enabled it will cause the unit to answer incoming calls only to ISDN numbers where the trailing
digits match the MSN value. For example, setting the MSN parameter to 123 will prevent the
unit from answering any calls to numbers that do not end in 123.
Only accept calls with sub-address ending with
This parameter provides the filter for the ISDN sub-addressing facility. It is blank by default but
when set to an appropriate value, with “Allow this unit to answer calls” enabled it will cause the
unit to answer incoming ISDN calls only where the trailing digits of the sub address called
match the Sub-address value. For example, setting the Sub-address to 123 will prevent the
unit from answering any calls where the sub-address called does not end in 123.
Keep ISDN LAPB link activated when user sends a DISC or X.25 PAD session terminated
When this parameter is enabled
Wait x milliseconds before attempting to establish the LAPB link after B-channel becoming
active
This parameter sets the length of time (in milliseconds), that the LAPB instance will wait from
an ISDN B-channel becoming active before attempting to establish a LAPB connection, such as
the length of time for which the LAPB instance stays passive. The default is 0 as most ISDN
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X.25 parameters
networks allow CPE devices to initiate a LAPB link. If your ISDN network does not permit CPE
devices to initiate the LAPB link you should set this parameter to a value that allows the
network sufficient time to establish the LAPB link.
Use as x a calling party number when making ISDN calls
This is “Calling Line Identification”. The unit will only answer calls from numbers whose trailing
digits match what is entered in this field. The line the unit is connected to must have CLI
enabled by the telecoms provider, and the calling number cannot be withheld.
Async Mux 0710 Parameters
For certain W-WAN modules LAPB is used to perform multiplexing of serial channels. If using
LAPB for X.25 over ISDN or serial then these settings should be ignored. These settings should
not be changed unless under the instruction of technical support.
Mux 0710 mode
When enabled configures the LAPB instance to be used for multiplexing of serial channels
instead of X.25.
Mux mode
This setting controls the multiplexing mode.
DLC #
The data link channel number to use for this virtual ASY port.
ASY port
This is the physical ASY port over which to multiplex.
Virtual ASY port
This is the virtual ASY port number that this LAPB instance will multiplex over the physical
port.
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X.25 parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
lapb
n
l1iface
port, isdn (use
“port” for sync
port)
Use: Serial port Port x (in Synchronous
Mode)
lapb
n
l1nb
0,1
Use: Serial port Port x (in Synchronous
Mode)
0 for “Port 0”, 1 for “Port 1”
lapb
n
l1iface
port, isdn (use
“isdn” for
ISDN)
Use: ISDN
lapb
n
dtemode
DTE/DCE
mode:
Mode DTE or DCE
0=DTE
1=DCE
lapb
n
N400
1 - 255
N400 Counter x
lapb
n
tnoact
1000 - 60000
RR Timer x milliseconds
lapb
n
t1time
1 - 60000
T1 Timer x milliseconds
lapb
n
t200
1 - 60000
T200 Timer x milliseconds
lapb
n
Window
1-7
X.25 Window Size
lapb
n
tinactx25
0 - 3000
Disconnect link if there has been no
X.25 activity for x seconds
lapb
n
tinact
0 - 3000
Disconnect link if there has been no
activity for x seconds
lapb
n
restartact
1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
Send X.25 Restart packet on receipt of
SABM frame
lapb
n
ans
1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
Allow this unit to answer calls
lapb
n
msn
text
Only accept calls from calling number
ending with
lapb
n
sub
text
Only accept calls with sub-address
ending with
lapb
n
ptime
0 - 60000
Wait x milliseconds before attempting
to establish the LAPB link after Bchannel becoming active
lapb
n
cli
text
Only answer calls from numbers
whose trailing digits match
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
lapb
n
mux_0710
1 = enabled, 0
= disabled
Mux 0710 mode
lapb
n
mux_mode
0 = Basic, 1 =
Mux mode
Error Recovery
lapb
n
dlc
0 - 63
DLC #
lapb
n
asyport
0 - 255
ASY port
lapb
n
virt_async
0 - 255
Virtual ASY port
NUI Mappings parameters
When a TPAD call is taking place the attached terminal sometimes only specifies an “NUI”
(Network User ID) to call. If the X.25 network requires an NUA instead of an NUI to determine the
destination of a call then the NUI Mappings table can be used to convert an NUI to an NUA.
If a TPAD call specifies a call in which the NUI matches an entry the call actually placed on the
network will contain the respective NUA and no NUI.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
nuimap
n
nua
text
Maps to NUA
nuimap
n
nui
text
NUI
NUA / NUI Interface Mappings parameters
For PAD and TPAD instances, this table can be used to override the following:
•
Interface
•
Backup interface
•
IP address
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X.25 parameters
•
TCP/UDP port number
Based upon data in the call request matching the following comparison fields:
•
NUA called
•
NUI called
•
X.25 Call Data
•
PID
All the comparison fields, NUA, NUI, Call Data and PID can use the wildcard matching
characters “?” and “*”.
NUA
This is the Network User Address.
NUI
This is the Network User Identifier.
Call Data
This is the X.25 Call Data.
PID
This is the Protocol Identifier.
IP address
This is the IP address.
IP Port
This is the IP port number.
Interface
This is the Primary interface name.
Backup Interface
This is the Backup interface name.
Note This table is duplicated in the Configuration - Network > Protocol Switch > NUA to
Interface Mappings section as it can also be used by the Protocol Switch. Not all of
the fields are visible in the Protocol Switch section as they do not all apply to the
Protocol Switch.
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X.25 parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
nuaip
N
nua
text
NUA
nuaip
N
nui
text
NUI
nuaip
N
cud
text
Call Data
nuaip
n
pid
text
PID
nuaip
n
IPaddr
IP address
IP Address
nuaip
n
ip_port
0 - 65535
IP Port
nuaip
n
swto
0 -15
Interface
nuaip
n
buswto
0 -15
Backup Interface
The interface and backup interface values are as follows:
Parameter Value
Interface Type
0
Default
1
LAPD
2
LAPB 0
3
LAPB 1
4
XOT
5
LAPD x (instance determined by NUA)
6
LAPB 0 PVC
7
LAPB 1 PVC
8
XOT PVC
9
TCP Stream
10
UDP Stream
12
LAPB 2
13
LAPB 2 PVC
14
VXN
15
SSL
Calls Macros parameters
This page allows you to define up to 64 X.25 CALL “macros” that can be used to initiate ISDN and/
or X.25 layer 3 calls. These simple English-like names are mapped to full command strings. For
example, the call string:
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X.25 parameters
0800123456=789012Dtest data
could be given the name “X25test” and then executed simply by entering:
CALL X25test
To create a macro, enter a name for the macro in the left column of the Call Macros table and in
the right column enter the appropriate command string (excluding the ATD). Then click Add.
Macro
The name of the macro, this can be any text.
Command
The X.25 call command.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
macro
n
name
text
Macro
macro
n
cmd
text
Command
IP to X.25 Calls parameters
This page contains a table that allows you to enter a series of IP Port numbers and X.25 Call
strings as shown below. It is used to configure the unit so that IP data can be switched over X.25.
For example data that is received on a TCP connection can be answered by a PAD as if it is an X.25
call.
This table is duplicated in the Protocol Switch section as it is also used by the protocol switch. It is
included at this point in the web user interface as a convenience in case the table is being used in
conjunction with PAD and not the protocol switch.
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X.25 parameters
IP Port
The IP Port field is used to setup the port numbers for those IP ports that will “listen” for
incoming connections that are to be switched over X.25 or other protocol. In the case of
switching to X.25, when such a connection is made the unit will make an X.25 Call to the
address specified in the X.25 Call field. Once this call has been connected, data from the port
will be switched over the X.25 session.
Number of Sockets
The Number of Sockets field is used to select how many IP sockets should simultaneously
listen for data on the specified port. The number of available IP sockets will depend on the
model you are using and how many are already in use (see note below).
X25 Call
The X.25 call field may contain an X.25 NUA or NUI or one of the X.25 Call Macros defined on
the Configuration - Advanced applications > X25 > Macros page.
PID
The PID (Protocol Identifier), field specifies the PID to use when the unit switches an IP
connection to X.25. The PID (protocol ID) field takes the format of four hexadecimal digits
separated by commas, such as 1,0,0,0, at the start of the Call User Data field in the X.25 call.
Confirm Mode
When confirm mode is set to “On” then the incoming TCP socket will not be successfully
connected until the corresponding outgoing call has been connected. The incoming TCP
socket will trigger the corresponding outgoing call either to a local PAD instance or to
whatever is configured. The effect of this mode is that the socket will fail if the outbound call
fails and so may be useful in backup scenarios. In addition it will ensure that no data is sent
into a “black hole”. (When this setting is not enabled data that is sent on the inbound TCP
connection before the outbound connection has been successful can be lost.)
RFC 1086 Mode:
RFC 1086 specifies a mode of operation in which the IP socket answers and then with a simple
protocol in the socket identifies the X.25 address and other X.25 call setup parameters to be
used. Then when the X.25 call parameters have been identified the X.25 call is made and if
successful then data is then switched between the X.25 call and the IP socket. The protocol will
select whether incoming or outgoing support is required.
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X.25 parameters
IP length header
When IP length header is “On”, the IP length indicator field is inserted at the start of each
packet. When set to “8583 Ascii 4 byte”, the IP length header will conform to the ISO 8583
format.
In the example above, 3 IP sockets will “listen” for an incoming connection on IP Port 2004.
Once connected they will each will make an X.25 Call to “jollyroger”. The unit will recognise that
“jollyroger” is a pre-defined macro (as illustrated below), and will translate it into an X.25 Call
to address 32423 with the string “x25 data” included as data in the call. The outgoing X.25
call(s) will be made over whichever interface is specified by the Switch from XOT(TCP) to
parameter on the Configuration - Network > Protocol Switch page.
Note At the top of the page the total number of sockets available and the number currently free
is shown. Care should be take not to allocate too many of the free sockets unless you are
confident that they are not required for other applications.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web
Parameter
ipx25
n
ip_port
0 - 65535
IP Port
ipx25
n
nb_listens
0 – software dependant max
Number of Sockets
ipx25
n
x25call
NUA, NUI or X.25
X25 Call
macro name
ipx25
n
pid
hex numbers
PID
ipx25
n
cnf_mode
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled
Confirm Mode
ipx25
n
rfc1086_mode 1 = enabled, 0 = disabled
RFC 1086 Mode
ipx25
n
iphdr
IP length header
0=Off
1=On
2=8583 Ascii 4 byte
PADS parameter
PAD which stands for Packet Assembler Dissembler is used to interface between a character
based serial connection and an X.25 synchronous packet switched network.
There are two main elements to the configuration procedure for accessing X.25 networks:
•
General and service related parameters
•
PAD parameters (X.3)
Each X.25 PAD configuration page also includes a sub-page detailing the X.3 PAD parameters.
Collectively this set of values is known as a PAD profile. Your unit contains four pre-defined
standard PAD profiles numbered 50, 51, 90 and 91. You may also create up to four custom PAD
profiles numbered 1 to 4 for each PAD instance.
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X.25 parameters
Use PAD over interface
This section is used to select whether the PAD instance will use ISDN B-channel X.25, ISDN Dchannel X.25, TCP, UDP, VXN, SSL TCP or SSL XoT as the transport protocol. For ISDN DDigi TransPort User Guide
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X.25 parameters
channel operation, ensure that the “LAPD” option is selected. For ISDN B-channel operation or
operation through a synchronous port, select “LAPB”. In the case of LAPB and LAPD it is also
possible to specify an interface number. This parameter specifies which LAPB or LAPD
instance to use for the relevant TPAD instance. Select “0” or “1” for LAPB or “0” or “1” for LAPD.
Use backup interface
This section is used to specify a backup interface that will be used automatically if the call to
the primary interface fails. Note that the primary interface will be tried first for every new call
attempt.
X.25 Settings
Default X.25 packet size
This parameter determines the default X.25 packet size. This may be set to “16”, “32”, “64”,
“128”, “256”, “512” or “1024”, but the actual values permitted will normally be constrained by
your service provider.
Answer incoming calls from NUA
This is the NUA that the unit responds to for incoming X.25 calls.
Only answer calls with CUG
The PAD will only answer calls with this Call User Group (CUG) specified.
Use X.25 Call Macro macroname to an ATD command
This parameter specifies the name of an X.25 call macro that is used when an ATD command
is received by the unit. The ATD command is ignored, and a PAD CALL command using the
macro replaces it. The purpose of this feature is to allow non-PAD terminals to use an X.25
PAD network connection. X.25 call macros are set up in the Configuration - Network >
Legacy Protocols > X.25 > Call Macros web page, or by using the macro text command.
Use NUA
This NUA will be used as the calling NUA when an outgoing X.25 call is made.
LCN
The unit supports up to eight logical X.25 channels. In practice, the operational limit is
determined by the particular service to which you subscribe (usually 4).
Each logical channel must be assigned a valid Logical Channel Number (LCN). The LCN
parameter is the value of the first LCN that will be assigned for outgoing X.25 CALLs. The
default is 1027.
For incoming calls, the unit accepts the LCN specified by the caller.
LCN Direction
This parameter determines whether the LCN used for outgoing X.25 calls is incremented or
decremented from the starting value when multiple X.25 instances share one layer 2 (LAPB or
LAPD), connection. The default is “Down” and LCNs are decremented, such as if the first CALL
uses 1024, the next will use 1023, etc. Setting the parameter to “Up” will cause the LCN to be
incremented from the start value.
NUI/NUA selection
If both an NUI and an NUA are included in the call string, this parameter allows the unit to
filter one of these out of the X.25 call request. This can be extremely useful in backup
scenarios. Consider the following example; the unit is configured to do online authorisations
via the ISDN D channel and to fall back to B-channel (if the D-channel host did not respond for
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X.25 parameters
any reason). Using this parameter in conjunction with the backup equivalent, it is possible to
configure the unit to use the supplied NUA to connect over D-channel and the supplied NUI to
connect over B channel (for backup).
On the backup interface LCN
The LCN parameter is used to set the first LCN that will be used for the backup interface.
On the backup interface LCN Direction
This parameter determines whether the LCN used for the backup X.25 interface is
incremented or decremented from the starting value when multiple X.25 instances share a
single layer 2 connection.
On the backup interface NUI/NUA selection
If both an NUI and an NUA are included in the call string, this parameter allows the unit to
filter one of these out of the X.25 call request.
Enable X.25 Restart Packets
It is normally possible to make X.25 CALLs immediately following the initial SABM-UA
exchange. In some cases however, the X.25 network may require an X.25 Restart before it will
accept X.25 CALLs. The correct mode to select depends upon the particular X.25 service to
which you subscribe. The default value is “On”. This means that the unit WILL issue X.25
Restart packets. To prevent the unit from issuing Restart packets set this parameter to “Off”.
Restart delay
When the Restarts parameter is “On” the Restart Delay value determines the length of time in
milliseconds that the unit will wait before issuing a Restart packet. The default value is 2000
giving a delay of 2 seconds.
IP Settings
Remote IP address
This field indicates the destination host that will answer the XOT, TCP, SSL, UDP call.
Remote IP Address when using the backup interface
This field indicates the destination host that will answer the XOT, TCP, SSL, UDP call if a
connection via the primary interface has failed and the PAD is configured to backup to a
secondary interface that is using an IP based protocol.
IP Stream port
This is the TCP or UDP port number to use for IP (but not XoT) connections.
IP length header
When set to “On”, and in IP Stream mode, the length of a data sequence is inserted before the
data. For the receive direction it is assumed the length of the data is in the data stream. When
set to “8583 Ascii 4 byte”, the IP length header will conform to the ISO 8583 format.
PAD Settings
PAD prompt
This parameter allows you to redefine the standard “PAD>” prompt. To change the prompt
enter a new string of up to 15 characters into the text box.
PAD mode
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X.25 parameters
The PAD Mode parameter can be set to “Normal” or “Prompt Always On”. In Prompt Always On
mode, the ASY port attached to the PAD behaves as if it were permanently connected at layer
2, such as it always displays a “PAD>” prompt. AT commands may still be entered but the
normal result codes are suppressed. To disable this mode set the parameter to “Normal”.
Use PAD Profile
The PAD profile # allows you to select the PAD profile to use for this PAD instance. There are
four pre-defined profiles numbered “50”, “51”, “90” and “91”. In addition to the pre-defined
profiles you can also create up to four user-defined profiles numbered “1”, “2”, “3” and “4”. To
assign a particular profile to the PAD select the appropriate number from the list.
Strip Trailing Spaces
When this parameter is turned on any spaces received at the end of a sequence of data from
the network will be removed before being relayed to the PAD port.
Enable Leased Line Mode
When this parameter is set to “On”, it causes the PAD to always attempt to be connected using
the Auto macro setting as the call command.
Send ENQ on Connect
When this parameter is set to “On” the PAD will send an ENQ character on the ASY link when
an outgoing call has been answered.
Enable STX / ETX Filtering
When this parameter is “On”, the PAD will ignore data that is not encapsulated between ASCII
characters STX (Ctrl+B) and ETX (Ctrl+C). To disable this feature select the “Off” option.
Delay connect message n x 10 milliseconds
Delay the Connect message by the number of milliseconds specified. (Useful when working
with equipment that previously connected to slower networks and is upset by the quicker
“Connect” when used with modern networks.)
Delay data transfer after connection by n x 10 milliseconds
Delays the data delivered from the X.25 or other type of connection to the terminal upon
initial connection.
Terminate the PAD call after x seconds if there has been no data transmission
This parameter specifies the length of time in seconds after which the PAD will terminate an
X.25 call if there has been no data transmission.
Disconnect the layer 2 call if there is no layer 3 call in progress for x seconds
This parameter specifies the length of time in seconds after which the unit will disconnect a
layer 2 link if there are no layer 3 calls in progress. For LAPB sessions this will also terminate
the ISDN call.
Create an event when the following data is on the PAD
This parameter specifies a string, which if it appears in the received data causes a “Data
Trigger” (47) event to be generated and recorded in the event log.
Create an event when there has been no activity on the PAD for x seconds
This specifies the time in seconds in which if there is no activity on the PAD an event in the
event log will be posted. This can be used to trigger email exceptions.
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X.25 parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
pad
n
l2iface
lapb, lapd, TCP, SSL
Use PAD over interface
pad
n
l2nb
0 – 255 (instance of
LAPB or LAPD)
Use PAD over interface
pad
n
ip_stream
0 = off (for XoT), 1 = TCP,
2 = UDP
Use PAD over interface
pad
n
defpak
16,32,64,128,256,512 or
1024
Default X.25 packet size
pad
n
ansnua
text (valid NUA)
Answer incoming calls from
NUA
pad
n
anscug
text (valid CUG)
Only answer calls with CUG
pad
n
amacro
text
Use X.25 Call Macro
macroname to an ATD
command
pad
n
cingnua
text (valid NUA)
Use NUA
pad
n
lcn
1 - 4095
LCN
pad
n
lcnup
1 = up, 0 = down
LCN Direction
pad
n
nuaimode
0 = NUI and NUA, 1 =
NUA only, 2 = NUI only
NUI/NUA selection
pad
n
dorest
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Enable X.25 Restart Packets
pad
n
restdel
0 - 60000 (ms)
Restart delay
pad
n
IPaddr
text
Remote IP address
pad
n
buipaddr
text
Remote IP Address when
using the backup interface
pad
n
ip_port
0 - 65535
IP Stream port
pad
n
iphdr
0=Off, 1=On, 2=8583
Ascii 4 byte
IP length header
pad
n
prompt
text
PAD prompt
pad
n
padmode
0 = Normal, 1 = Prompt
Always On
PAD mode
pad
n
profile
1-4, 50, 51,90,91
Use PAD Profile
pad
n
strip_tspaces
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Strip Trailing Spaces
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Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
pad
n
llmode
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Enable Leased Line Mode
pad
n
enqcon
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Send ENQ on Connect
pad
n
stxmode
1 = enabled, 0 =
disabled
Enable STX / ETX Filtering
pad
n
delconmsg
0 - 10
Delay connect message n x 10
millisecondss
pad
n
data_del
0 - 2147483647
Delay data transfer after
connection by n x 10
milliseconds
pad
n
inacttim
0 - 1000
Terminate the PAD call after x
seconds if there has been no
data transmission
pad
n
nocalltim
0 - 60000
Disconnect the layer 2 call if
there is no layer 3 call in
progress for x seconds
pad
n
trig_str
text
Create an event when the
following data is on the PAD
pad
n
inactevent
0 - 2147483647
Create an event when there
has been no activity on the
PAD for x seconds
Stopping and starting PADs
PAD instances can be stopped and started using the following CLI commands:
stoppads
gopads
The stoppads command stops all PAD instances from accepting and performing any PAD
commands.
The gopads command resumes processing of PAD commands.
The stoppads and gopads commands can have the PAD number specified in the syntax to stop
and start individual PAD instances.
For example:
To stop PAD 1 from processing PAD commands:
stoppads 1
and to re-enable PAD 1:
gopads 1
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X.25 parameters
X3 parameters
Each PAD configuration page has an attached sub-page that allows you to edit the X.3
PAD parameters. These pages allow you to load one of the standard profiles or edit the
individual parameters to suit your application requirements and save the resulting
customised “user” profile to non-volatile memory.
Loading and Saving PAD Profiles
To create your own PAD profiles, edit the appropriate parameters and then select user profile
1, 2, 3 or 4 as required from the list and click the “Save Profile” button.
Each PAD profile page includes two list boxes that allow you to load and save PAD profiles. To
load a particular profile, select the profile from the list and click the “Load Profile” button. The
parameter table will be updated with the values from the selected profile.
1 PAD Recall Character
This parameter determines whether PAD recall is enabled. When this facility is enabled, typing
the PAD recall character temporarily interrupts the call and returns you to the PAD> prompt
where you may enter normal PAD commands as required. To resume the interrupted call, use
the CALL command without a parameter.
The default PAD recall character is [Ctrl-P]. This may be changed to any ASCII value in the
range 32-125 or disabled by setting it to 0.
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X.25 parameters
When a call is in progress and you need to actually transmit the character that is currently
defined as the PAD recall character, simply enter it twice. The first instance returns you to the
PAD> prompt; the second resumes the call and transmits the character to the remote system.
Option
Description
0
Disabled
1
PAD recall character is CTRL-P (ASCII 16, DEL)
32 - 126
PAD recall character is user defined as specified
2 Echo
This parameter enables or disables local echo of data transmitted during a call. When echo is
enabled, X.3 parameter 20 may be used to inhibit the echo of certain characters.
Option
Description
0
Echo off
1
Echo on
3 Data Forwarding Characters
This parameter defines which characters cause data to be assembled into a packet and
forwarded to the network.
Option
Description
0
No data forwarding character
1
Alphanumeric characters (A-Z, a-z, 0-9)
2
CR
4
ESC, BEL, ENQ, ACK
8
DEL, CAN, DC2
16
EXT, EOT
32
HT, LF, VT, FF
64
Characters of decimal value less than 32
Combinations of the above sets of characters are possible by adding the respective values
together. For example, to define CR, EXT and EOT as data forwarding characters, set this
parameter to 18 (2 + 16).
If no forwarding characters are defined the Idle timer delay (parameter 4) should be set to a
suitable value, typically 0.2 seconds. Description
4 Idle Timer Delay
This parameter defines a time-out period after which data received from the DTE is assembled
into a packet and forwarded to the network. If the forwarding time-out is disabled, one or
more characters should be selected as “data forwarding characters” using parameter 3.
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.
Option
Description
0
No data forwarding time-out
1
Data forwarding time-out in 20ths of a second.
5 Ancillary Device Control
This parameter determines method of flow control used by the PAD to temporarily halt and
restart the flow of data from the DTE during a call.
Option
Description
0
No flow control
1
XON/XOFF flow control
3
RTS/CTS flow control (not a standard X.3 parameter)
6 Suppression of PAD Service Signals
This parameter determines whether or not the “PAD>” prompt and/or Service/Command
signals are issued to the DTE.
Option
Description
0
PAD prompt and signals disabled
1
PAD prompt disabled, signals enabled
4
PAD prompt enabled, signals disabled
5
PAD prompt enabled, signals disabled
7 Action on Break (from DTE)
This parameter determines the action taken by the PAD on receipt of a break signal from the
DTE.
Option
Description
0
No action
1
Send an X.25 interrupt packet
2
Send an X.25 reset packet to the remote system
4
Send an X.29 indication of break
8
Escape to PAD command state
16
Set PAD parameter 8 to 1 to discard output
Multiple actions on receipt of break are possible by setting this parameter to the sum of the
appropriate values for each action required.
For example, when parameter 7 is set to 21 (16 + 4 + 1), an X.25 interrupt packet is sent
followed by an X.29 indication of break and then parameter 8 is set to 1.
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You should NOT set this parameter to 16 because the remote system would receive no
indication that a break had been issued and output to the DTE would therefore remain
permanently discarded. If you need to use the discard output option, use it in conjunction with
the X.29 break option so that on receipt of the X.29 break the remote system can re-enable
output to your DTE using parameter 8.Option Description
8 Discard Output
This parameter determines whether data received during a call is passed to the DTE or
discarded. It can only be directly set by the remote system and may be used in a variety of
circumstances when the remote DTE is not able to handle a continuous flow of data at high
speed.
Option
Description
0
Normal data delivery to DTE
1
Output to DTE discarded
9 Padding after CR
Slower terminal devices, such as printers, may require a delay after each Carriage Return
before they can continue to process data. This parameter controls the number of pad
characters (NUL - ASCII 0) that are sent after each CR to create such a delay.
Option
Description
0
No padding characters after CR
1 - 255
Number of padding characters (NUL) sent after CR
10 Line Folding
Controls the automatic generation of a [CR],[LF] sequence after a certain line width has been
reached.
Option
Description
0
No line folding
1 - 255
Width of line before the PAD generates [CR],[LF]
11 Port Speed
This is a “read only” parameter, set automatically by the PAD and accessed by the remote
system.
Option
Description
15
19,200 bps
14
9,600 bps
12
2,400 bps
3
2,400 bps
12 Flow Control of PAD (by DTE)
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Determines the flow control setting of the PAD by the DTE in the on-line data state.
Option
Description
0
No flow control
1
XON/XOFF flow control
3
RTS/CTS flow control (not a standard X.3 parameter)
13 LF Insertion (after CR)
Controls the automatic generation of a Line Feed by the PAD.
Option
Description
0
No line feed insertion
1
Line Feeds inserted in data passed TO the DTE
2
Line Feeds inserted in data received FROM the DTE
4
Line Feeds inserted after CRs echoed to DTE
The line feed values can be added together to select Line Feed insertion to any desired
combination.
14 LF Padding
Some terminal devices such as printers require a delay after each Line Feed before they can
continue to process data. This parameter controls the number of padding characters (NUL ASCII 0) that are sent after each [LF] to create such a delay.
0
No line feed padding.
1 - 255
Number of NUL characters inserted after LF
15 Editing
Enables (1) or disables (0) local editing of data input fields by the PAD before data is sent. The
three basic editing functions provided are character delete, line delete and line re-display.
The editing characters are defined by parameters 16, 17 and 18. In addition, parameter 19
determines which messages are issued to the DTE during editing.
When editing is enabled, the idle timer delay (parameter 4) is disabled and parameter 3 must
be used to select the desired data forwarding condition.
16 Character Delete Character
This parameter defines the edit mode delete character (ASCII 0-127). The default is backspace
(ASCII 08).
17 Line Delete Character
This parameter defines the edit mode line buffer delete character (ASCII 0-127). The default is
CTRL-X (ASCII 24).
18 Line Redisplay Character
Specifies the character that re-displays the current input field when in editing mode (ASCII 0127). The default is CTRL-R (ASCII 18).
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19 Editing PAD Service Signals
Specifies the type of service signal sent to the DTE when editing input fields.
0
No editing PAD service signals
1
PAD editing service signals for printers
2
PAD editing service signals for terminals
20 Echo Mask
This parameter defines characters that are NOT echoed when echo mode has been enabled
using parameter 2.
0
No echo mask (all characters are echoed)
1
CR
2
LF
4
VT, HT or FF
8
BEL, BS
16
ESC,ENQ
32
ACK,NAK,STX,SOH,EOT,ETB,ETX
64
No echo of characters set by parameters 16, 17 & 18
128
No echo of characters set by parameters 16, 17 & 18
Combinations of the above sets of characters are possible by adding the respective values
together.
21 Parity Treatment
This parameter determines whether parity generation/checking is used.
0
No parity generation or checking
1
Parity checking on
2
Parity generation on
3
Parity checking and generation on
22 Page Wait
This parameter determines how many line feeds are sent to the terminal before output is
halted on a page wait condition. In other words, it defines the page length for paged mode
output. A page wait condition is cleared when the PAD receives a character from the terminal.
0
Page wait feature disabled
1
Number of line feeds sent before halting output
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X.25 PVCs parameters
Related CLI commands
The X.3 PAD parameters can be edited from the command line using the set command
described under the X.28 Commands section.
X.25 PVCs parameters
A Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC) provides the X.25 equivalent of a leased line service.
With a PVC there is no call setup or disconnect process; you can just start sending and
receiving X.25 data on a specified LCN. For each X.25 service connection you may setup
up multiple PVCs each of which uses a different LCN (or a mixture of PVCs and SVCs).
Digi routers support up to four PVCs numbered 0-3.
Enable this PVC
Enables or disables the PVC.
LCN
This is the LCN value to be used for this PVC. In the case of an XOT PVC, this parameter defines
the Responder LCN field in the PVC setup packet (though an LCN of 1 is always used in the XOT
PVC connection). So for an XOT PVC this field should contain the remote connections LCN.
PVC Mode
This parameter defines the lower layer interface to be used for the PVC and can be set to
“LAPB”, “LAPD” or “TCP” (for XOT mode).
Connect this PVC to PAD x
This parameter defines what type of upper layer interface is connected to this PVC and can be
set to “PAD” (for an X.25 PAD), “TPAD” (for a TPAD instance) or “XSW” (for X.25 switching). Note
that if set to “XSW” (for the X.25 switch) then the X.25 switch will need to also be configured
regarding the interfaces to switch this PVC to/from. For example, if this is an incoming XOT
PVC we are configuring then the Switch from XOT PVC parameter needs to be set to the
desired destination interface.
Use packet size
This parameter defines the packet size to be used for the PVC. Select the appropriate value
from the drop down list.
Use window size
This parameter defines the layer 3 window size to be used for the PVC. Select the appropriate
value from the drop down list.
Remote IP address
This is the IP address to be used for outgoing XOT calls.
Use the source IP address from interface x,y
This parameter defines which Ethernet or PPP interface to use for the source IP address.
Initiator interface
This parameter may be set to the name of the interface from which the PVC was initiated, such
as Serial 1. The initiator and responder strings are used to identify the circuit when PVCs are
being set up. They must match the names in the remote unit that terminates the XOT PVC
connection. If the unit terminating the PVC XOT connection is not another Digi unit then you
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need to refer to the documentation or the configuration files of the other unit to determine
the names of the interfaces.
Responder interface
This parameter may be set to the name of the interface to which a PVC initiator is connected,
such as Serial 2.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
pvc
n
l2iface
Blank or lapb, lapd,
tcp
Enable this PVC
pvc
n
lcn
0 - 4096
LCN
pvc
n
uliface
pad, tpad, xsw
Connect this PVC to PAD x
pvc
n
psize
0=default
Use packet size
4=16
5=32
6=64
7=128
8=256
9=512
10=1024
pvc
n
window
1-7
Use window size
pvc
n
ipaddr
IP address
Remote IP address
pvc
n
srcipent
auto, eth, ppp
Use the source IP address from
interface x,y
pvc
n
srcipadd
0 - 255
Use the source IP address from
interface x,y
pvc
n
iniface
text
Initiator interface
pvc
n
respiface
text
Responder interface
MODBUS Gateway parameters
Digi TransPort routers support conversion from MODBUS serial to MODBUS TCP.
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When converting from MODBUS serial to MODBUS TCP over a WAN link it is necessary to have
intelligence in the gateway\router to minimise the effect of the higher latency.
Digi TransPort supports being a MODBUS server only. Clients (such as remote PCs) can
send overlapping requests and the Digi TransPort will create a queue of info requests and
deal with them appropriately sending them out over the serial port and relaying the
responses back. Overlapping polls from multiple clients are supported.
Enable MODBUS Gateway
Enables or disables MODBUS gateway instance.
Async Port
Configure the local serial port number (asynchronous port) for the MODBUS serial interface.
Async Mode
Configures the serial driver for RS232 or RS485 on supported hardware.
Duplex Mode
Sets the duplex mode to half or full. Full would be for 4-wire installations otherwise half is
required.
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MODBUS Gateway parameters
Operation mode
This parameter sets the operation mode to master or slave.
Idle Gap
When receiving an modbus response from a station when this idle gap (pause with no
reception of characters) is detected the message (currently received from the station) is at that
staged forwarded on as the complete response.
Fix slave address
The address of the slave is fixed at this value. An address conversion will take place if a
message that does not contain this address is received from the TCP master. If not used the
TCP master must use the correct slave address.
Adjust slave address
The address of the slave is adjusted by this value. If left to zero then the slave address is not
adjusted at all.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
modbus
n
enabled
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled
Enable MODBUS Gateway
modbus
n
asy_add
0 - 255
Async Port
modbus
n
op_mode
Master/Slave
Operation mode
modbus
n
async_mode
RS322 or RS422
Async Mode
modbus
n
duplex
0 = full,
Duplex Mode
1 = half
modbus
n
idle_gap
0 - 2147483647
Idle Gap
modbus
n
fix_slave_addre
ss
0 - 255
Fix slave address
modbus
n
adj_slave_addre 0 - 255
ss
Adjust slave address
modbus
n
ipport0
0 - 65535
IP Port (row 1)
modbus
n
nbsocks0
0 - “currently available”
Number of sockets (row 1)
modbus
n
ipmode0
0 = TCP,
IP Mode (row 1)
1 = UDP
modbus
n
rawmode0
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled
Raw Mode (row 1)
modbus
n
Ipport1
0 - 65535
IP Port (row 2)
modbus
n
nbsocks1
0 - “currently available”
Number of sockets (row 2)
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MODBUS Gateway parameters
Entity
Instance Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
modbus
n
0 = TCP,
IP Mode (row 2)
ipmode1
1 = UDP
modbus
n
rawmode1
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled
Raw Mode (row 2)
modbus
n
bcasts_on
OFF, ON
Broadcast support.
MODBUS Slaves parameters
This page defines access for the following MODBUS slaves when operating as act-as-slave. Up to
32 slave definitions may be defined.
Slave addresses/unit ids
This field specifies the address of the slave unit.
Remote Host
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the remote host, such as the slave unit.
IP Port
This is the IP port number. The default port is 502.
IP Mode
Select the IP mode using this drop down list. The default mode is TCP.
Add
Click on the add button to add the slave.
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Protocol Switch
The Protocol Switch software is available on some of the Digi TransPort models. The Protocol
Switch provides X.25 call switching between the various protocols and interfaces that may be
available including:
Interface / Protocol
Description
Off/None
Data will not be switched from / backed-up to this protocol
LAPD
Data will be switched from / backed-up to LAPD using the X.25
service.
LAPD X
As above but the actual LAPD instance used will be determined by
the NUA.
LAPB 0
Data will be switched from / backed-up to LAPB 0.
LAPB 1
Data will be switched from / backed-up to LAPB 1.
LAPB 2
Data will be switched from / backed-up to LAPB 2.
LAPB 0 PVC
Data will be switched from / backed-up to an X.25 PVC on LAPB 0.
LAPB 1 PVC
Data will be switched from / backed-up to an X.25 PVC on
LAPB 1.
LAPB 2 PVC
Data will be switched from / backed-up to an X.25 PVC on
LAPB 2.
XoT
Data will be switched from / backed-up to an XOT (X.25 over TCP/
IP) connection.
XoT PVC
Data will be switched from / backed-up to an XOT PVC
connection.
TCP stream
Data will be switched from / backed-up to a TCP socket. The
socket’s IP address will be determined from the IP stream port
setting.
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Interface / Protocol
Description
UDP stream
This is similar to the TCP stream setting but instead of switching
onto a TCP socket, data is switched onto a UDP socket. In the case
of switching from X.25. the effect is that a UDP frame will be sent
for each packet of X.25 data being switched.
VXN
Data will be switched / backed-up to Datawire’s VXN protocol
SSL
Data will be switched / backed-up to SSL
DialServ
Data will be switched backed-up to an analogue modem via the
built in DiaslServ daughter card.
When this optional feature is included, the device can be configured to pass X.25 calls or data
received in a TCP connection to another protocol or interface.
In addition, it is possible to specify a backup protocol or interface so that if an outgoing call on
one interface fails, then the backup interface is automatically tried. LAPB can be used to switch to
either ISDN or X.25 over serial depending on the configuration of the LAPB instance chosen.
The logic used in the switching software is outlined in the flowchart below. The following notes
provide a more in-depth explanation of the actions taken in each of the numbered boxes.
The unit will first look up the Called NUA/NUI in the Configuration - Network > Protocol Switch >
NUA to Interface Mappings mapping table to determine the IP address to use in the event that
the call ends up being switched to a TCP or XOT interface. If a match is found on the Called NUA/
NUI the unit assigns the matching IP address from the table to the call. If IP address mapping
table does not contain an entry for the Called NUA/NUI and the call is eventually switched to a
TCP or XOT channel then the default IP address (IP Stream or XOT Remote IP Address) is used.
The unit then determines from the source interface of the incoming call which interface type it
should be switched to (from the Switch from parameters on the Protocol Switch page). For
example, if the call arrived via a LAPB 0 interface and the Switch from LAPB 0 to parameter was
set to LAPD, then the outgoing interface would LAPD.
If the outgoing interface is LAPD the unit changes the Calling NUA field of the incoming call to the
D-Channel NUA value (as defined on the Protocol Switch page). If the outgoing interface is NOT
LAPD processing proceeds as at step 6.
The unit then searches the Configuration - Network > Protocol Switch > NUA Mappings table to
see if there are any matches for the Called or Calling NUA values on the specified interface. In
cases where there Interface Description Off/None Data will not be switched from / backed-up
from this protocol is a match, the NUA In value is substituted by the NUA out value, such as the
mapping is applied individually to both the Calling NUA and Called NUA for the packet.
The unit then checks the leading characters of the Calling NUA to see if there is a match with the
Call Prefix parameter. If there is a match then the prefix digits are removed before the outgoing
X.25 call is made. Otherwise the call is made anyway and the switching process is complete for
this call.
If after step 3, the unit has determined that the outgoing interface is not LAPD, it checks if the
outgoing interface is LAPB. If it is, it then checks to see if the Called NUA field in the call packet
matches the LAPB 0 NUA parameter and if it does, selects LAPB 0 as the outgoing interface. If the
Called NUA field does not match LAPB 0 NUA, it checks for a match with LAPB 1 NUA and if there
is a match, sets the outgoing interface to LAPB 1.
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If the Called NUA field in the calling packet matches neither the LAPB 0 NUA or LAPB 1 NUA
parameters then the outgoing interface is set to the interface specified by the relevant Switch
from parameter.
If the call is being switched over LAPB 0 the unit then sets the Called NUA to the TE NUA
(LAPB 0) value. If the call is being switched over LAPB 1 the unit then sets the Called NUA
to the TE NUA (LAPB 1) value.
The Configuration – Network > Protocol Switch menu has the following sub-menu options:
•
CUD Mappings
•
IP Sockets to Protocol Switch
•
NUA to Interface Mappings
•
NUA Mappings
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Digi TransPort Protocol Switch parameters
Digi TransPort Protocol Switch parameters
TCP or XoT
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This parameter controls the switching of incoming X.25 calls received via TCP or XOT. Select
the interface to which data should be switched from the drop down list, or select “Off” and the
protocol switch will not respond to any incoming XOT or TCP connections.
LAPD
This parameter controls the switching of incoming X.25 calls received via ISDN LAPD. Select
the interface to which data should be switched from the drop down list, or select “Off” and the
protocol switch will not respond to any incoming LAPD calls.
LAPB X
This parameter controls the switching of incoming X.25 calls received via LAPB X. Select the
interface to which data should be switched from the drop down list, or select “Off” and the
protocol switch will not respond to any incoming LAPB X calls.
LAPB X PVC
This parameter controls the switching of incoming X.25 calls received via an LAPB X PVC. Select
the interface to which data should be switched from the drop down list, or select “Off” and the
protocol switch will not respond to any incoming PVC calls on LAPB X.
XOT PVC
This parameter controls the switching of incoming X.25 calls received via an XOT PVC. Select
the interface to which data should be switched from the drop down list, or select “Off” and the
protocol switch will not respond to any incoming XOT PVC calls.
TCP XOT backup to interface
If any of the Switch from parameters has been set to XOT, and XOT is unavailable, this
parameter may be used to specify an alternative interface to switch the X.25 call to. Any of the
other interfaces may be chosen, or “None”. If “None” is chosen, then no backup call will be
attempted.
LAPD backup to interface
If any of the Switch from parameters has been set to LAPD, and LAPD is unavailable, this
parameter may be used to specify an alternative interface to switch the X.25 call to. Any of the
other interfaces may be chosen, or “None”. If “None” is chosen, then no backup call will be
attempted.
LAPB X backup to interface
If any of the Switch from parameters has been set to LAPB X, and LAPB X is unavailable, this
parameter may be used to specify an alternative interface to switch the X.25 call to. Any of the
other interfaces may be chosen, or “None”. If “None” is chosen, then no backup call will be
attempted.
VXN backup to interface
If any of the Switch from parameters has been set to VXN, and VXN is unavailable, this
parameter may be used to specify an alternative interface to switch the X.25 call to. Any of the
other interfaces may be chosen, or “None”. If “None” is chosen, then no backup call will be
attempted.
LAPD Parameters
Calling Prefix
This parameter specifies the call prefix to inserted in front of the NUA in calls being switched
to LAPD. For example, if the called NUA in the call being received by the LAPB 0 interface is
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Digi TransPort Protocol Switch parameters
56565 and the call prefix is 0242 then the call placed on the LAPD interface is to NUA
024256565. Also, for calls in the reverse direction, if the prefix in the calling NUA matches this
parameter then it is removed from the calling NUA field.
D-Channel LCN
This is the value of the first LCN that will be assigned for outgoing X25 calls on LAPD.DChannel LCN Direction.
Max VCs: Unlimited
This parameter sets the maximum number of Virtual Circuits (VCs) to be used on an LAPD
interface. When the maximum has been reached, then the backup call will take place
immediately (or the call will clear if there is no backup call). If this parameter is set to “0”, there
is no limit.
Default Packet Size
This is the default packet size for X.25 calls being switched onto LAPD. The default packet size
is 128, other possible values are 256, 512 or 1024 bytes.
Default Window Size
This is the default window size for calls being switched onto LAPD. The default window size is
2, the valid range is 1 to 7.
LAPB Parameters
LCN
This is the value of the first LCN that will be assigned for outgoing X25 calls on LAPB.
LCN direction: Up Down
This parameter determines whether the LCN used for outgoing X.25 calls on LAPB is
incremented or decremented from the starting value.
Max VCs: Unlimited
This parameter sets the maximum number of Virtual Circuits (VCs) to be used on an LAPB
interface. When the maximum has been reached, then the backup call will take place
immediately (or the call will clear if there is no backup call). If this parameter is set to “0”, there
is no limit.
B-Channel Number
This parameter specifies an ISDN number to be used for calls being switched in the direction
of LAPB 0 or LAPB 1.
Enable ENQ Char
When this parameter is set to “On”, when an incoming call on LAPB is switched and the unit
connects to it, the X.25 switch sends a data packet on the LAPB X.25 SVC containing the ENQ
character.
LAPB 0 Default Packet Size: 128 256 512 1024
This is the default packet size for calls being switched onto LAPB 0. The default packet size is
128, other possible values are 256, 512 or 1024 bytes.
LAPB 0 Default Window Size: 2 1 3 4 5 6 7
This is the default window size for calls being switched onto LAPB 0. The default window size is
2, the valid range is 1 to 7.
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LAPB 1 Default Packet Size: 128 256 512 1024
This is the default packet size for calls being switched onto LAPB 1. The default packet size is
128, other possible values are 256, 512 or 1024 bytes.
LAPB 1 Default Window Size: 2 1 3 4 5 6 7
This is the default window size for calls being switched onto LAPB 1. The default window size is
2, the valid range is 1 to 7.
LAPB 2 Default Packet Size: 128 256 512 1024
This is the default packet size for calls being switched onto LAPB 2. The default packet size is
128, other possible values are 256, 512 or 1024 bytes.
LAPB 2 Default Window Size: 2 1 3 4 5 6 7
This is the default window size for calls being switched onto LAPB 2. The default window size is
2, the valid range is 1 to 7.
IP Stream / XOT Parameters
IP Stream or XOT Remote IP Address:
For calls being switched in the direction of XOT, this parameter specifies the destination IP
address to be used for the outgoing XOT call. This is also used as the destination IP address in
the IP/UDP stream modes.
IP Stream or XOT Backup IP Address
If the Switch from XOT to parameter is set to “XOT”, this is the IP address that the XOT call will
be switched to, in the event the original XOT IP address is unavailable.
IP Stream Port
This parameter determines the IP port number used when IP stream or UDP stream are
selected as the parameter for any of the Switch from or Backup from parameters.
Note:
The XOT remote IP address and IP stream port parameters will be overridden by the values in
the NUA/NUI to IP addresses table if the call matches any entry in that table.
IP Length Header: Off On 8583 Ascii 4 byte On(inclusive)
When IP length header is “On”, a length indicator field is inserted at the start of each packet.
When set to “8583 Ascii 4 byte”, the IP length header will conform to the ISO 8583 format.
Source IP address interface: Auto Ethernet PPP
The default value for this parameter is “Auto”, which means that the source IP address of an
outgoing XOT connection on an un-NATed W-WAN link is the address of the PPP interface
assigned to W-WAN. This is because the XOT connection is initiated (automatically) within the
router and so does not originate from the local subnet (LAN segment to which the unit is
attached via the Ethernet interface).
However, this means that if you are routing traffic from the local subnet across a VPN tunnel
you would have to set up two Eroutes; one to match the local subnet address and one to
match the XOT source address (such as the address of the PPP interface associated with to the
wireless network).
By setting this parameter to “Ethernet” the unit will use the IP address of the Ethernet port
instead of that of the PPP interface so that you need only set up on Eroute.
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X.25 Parameters
Don't switch facilities
If this parameter is set to “Off”, the packet size and window size are only switched if they need
to, such as they specify a value different from what is currently being negotiated. If this
parameter is set to “On”, the facilities shall not be switched.
Don't strip facilities
When set to “On” this parameter stops the X.25 switch from stripping packet size and window
size facilities as it switches an X.25 call. When set to “Off”, the X.25 switch will strip facilities if
the requested facilities match the defined defaults for that interface.
L2 Deactivation Clear Cause
When one side of a switch call fails because layer 2 drops, the other side is usually cleared with
a clear cause 9 “out of order”. This parameter allows you to set this code to any value.
X25 Version: 84 88
This parameter allows you to switch between X.25 version 88, and X.25 version 84, in which
clear causes are always “0” when issued if the unit is the DTE.
Interpret no facilities on Call Accept as P7W2
When this parameter is set to “On”, the X.25 switch will interpret any call accept packets that
do not include the window size (’W’) or packet size (’P’) as if the call accept has ’P7W2’ (such as
a packet size of 128 bytes and a windows size of 2).
Notes on PAD Answering
Because the other interfaces can operate as normal, even when the switch is operating, take
special care with regard to answering NUAs programmed on active PADs. For example when a
call is being received on a LAPD or LAPB interface, a PAD instance (or remote configuration
session) is capable of answering and terminating the call in preference to the call being
switched. This means that the PADs “Answering NUA” parameters should be left blank to
ensure that the unit’s PADs are not answering calls that need to be switched. If you do want a
PAD instance to answer a call then program the “Answering NUA” field with as many digits as
you can to ensure it only answers calls destined for that PAD. The same precautions apply to
the Allow CLI access from X.25 address parameter on the Configuration - System >
General page.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
X25sw
0
swfrlapb0
0,1,3- 10,12-15
(see below)
Switch from LAPB 0 to
X25sw
0
swfrlapb0pvc
0-5,7-10,12-15
(see below)
Switch from LAPB 0 PVC to
X25sw
0
swfrlapb1
0-2,4-10,12-15
(see below)
Switch from LAPB 1 to
X25sw
0
swfrlapb1pvc
0-6,8-10,12-15
(see below)
Switch from LAPB 1 PVC to
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Digi TransPort Protocol Switch parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
X25sw
0
swfrlapb2
0-10,13-15
(see below)
Switch from LAPB 2 to
X25sw
0
swfrlapb2pvc
0-10,12, 14, 15
(see below)
Switch from LAPB 2 PVC to
X25sw
0
swfrlapd
0, 2-10,12-15
(see below)
Switch from LAPD to
X25sw
0
swfrxot
0-3,5-10,12-15
(see below)
Switch from XOT (TCP) to
X25sw
0
swfrxotpvc
0-7,9,10,12-15
(see below)
Switch from XOT PVC to
X25sw
0
callprefix
<NUA>
Calling Prefix
X25sw
0
dlcn
0-65535
D-Channel LCN
X25sw
0
dlcnup
off, on
Off = Down
On = Up
D-Channel LCN Direction
X25sw
0
dmaxvc
0-65535
Max VCs
X25sw
0
lapb0ppar
7,8,9,10
7=128
8=256
9=512
10=1024
Default Packet Size
X25sw
0
lapb0wpar
1-7
Default Window Size
X25sw
0
blcn
0-65535
LCN
X25sw
0
blcnup
off, on
Off = Down
On = Up
LCN direction
X25sw
0
bmaxvc
0-65535
Max VCs
X25sw
0
bnumber
ISDN number
B-Channel Number
X25sw
0
benqcon
off, on
Enable ENQ Char
X25sw
0
lapdppar
7,8,9,10
7=128
8=256
9=512
10=1024
LAPB 0 Default Packet Size
X25sw
0
lapdwpar
1-7
LAPB 0 Default Window Size
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Digi TransPort Protocol Switch parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
X25sw
0
lapb1ppar
7,8,9,10
7=128
8=256
9=512
10=1024
LAPB 1 Default Packet Size
X25sw
0
lapb1wpar
1-7
LAPB 1 Default Window Size
X25sw
0
lapb2ppar
7,8,9,10
7=128
8=256
9=512
10=1024
LAPB 2 Default Packet Size
X25sw
0
lapb2wpar
1-7
LAPB 2 Default Window Size
X25sw
0
ipaddr
IP address
IP Stream or XOT Remote IP
Address
X25sw
0
buipaddr
IP address
IP Stream or XOT Backup IP
Address
X25sw
0
ip_port
0-65535
IP Stream Port
X25sw
0
iphdr
0,1,2
0=Off
1=On
2=8583 Ascii 4 byte
IP Length Header
X25sw
0
srcipadd
Interface number
0-65535
Source IP address interface
X25sw
0
srcipent
<blank>, PPP, ETH
Source IP address interface
X25sw
0
noswfac
off, on
Don't switch facilities
X25sw
0
nostripfac
off, on
Don't strip facilities
X25sw
0
l2deactcc
0-65535
L2 Deactivation Clear Cause
X25sw
0
x25ver84
off, on
Off=88
On=84
X25 Version
X25sw
0
accdefp7w2
off, on
Interpret no facilities on Call
Accept as P7W2
Interfaces are coded as follows:
Parameter value
Interface type
0
None
1
LAPD
2
LAPB 0
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CUD Mappings parameters
Parameter value
Interface type
3
LAPB 1
4
XOT
5
LAPD X (actual instance is determined by NUA)
6
LAPB 0 PVC
7
LAPB 1 PVC
8
XOT PVC
9
TCP stream
10
UDP stream
12
LAPB 2
13
LAPB 2 PVC
14
VXN
15
SSL
CUD Mappings parameters
Protocol Switch CUD mappings allow you to map an incoming call’s CUD (call user data) from one
value to another. The PID (protocol identifier) portion of the CUD (if present) is maintained from
input to output and is not involved in the comparison.
The Configuration - Network > Protocol Switch > CUD Mappings web page displays a table
with four columns in which you can specify the CUD In values, corresponding CUD Out values and
to which interfaces the mappings should be applied. The “interface” field defines which output
interfaces this mapping applies to. Wildcard characters are allowed, and In each case the
interface type to which the mapping applies can be selected from “ANY”, “LAPD”, “LAPB0”, “LAPB1”
“LAPB2” or “XOT”.
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IP Sockets to Protocol Switch
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cudmap
0-9
cudfrom
0-65536
CUD In
cudmap
0-9
cudto
0-65536
CUD Out
cudmap
0-9
Interface
0,1,2,3,4,12
0=Any
1=LAPD
2=LAPB 0
3=LAPB 1
4=XOT
12=LAPB 2
Interface
IP Sockets to Protocol Switch
This page contains a table that allows you to enter a series of IP Port numbers and X.25 Call
strings as shown below. It is used to configure the unit so that IP data can be switched to any of
the protocols support by the protocol switch includingX.25. For example data that is received on
a TCP connection can be forwarded over SSL, XoT or a UDP stream. The only columns that must
be filled out are “Port” and “Number of Sockets”.
This table is duplicated in the Configuration - Network > Legacy Protocols > X.25 > IP to
X.25 Call section as it can also be used to convert an incoming TCP connection to an X.25
session to be answered by PAD without using the protocol switch. It is included at this
point in the web user interface as a convenience in case the table is being used in
conjunction with PAD and not the protocol switch.
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IP Sockets to Protocol Switch
IP Port
The IP Port field is used to setup the port numbers for those IP ports that will “listen” for
incoming connections that are to be switched over X.25 or other protocol. In the case of
switching to X.25, when such a connection is made the unit will make an X.25 Call to the
address specified in the X.25 Call field. Once this call has been connected, data from the port
will be switched over the X.25 session.
Number of Sockets
The Number of Sockets field is used to select how many IP sockets should simultaneously
listen for data on the specified port. The number of available IP sockets will depend on the
model you are using and how many are already in use (see note below).
X25 Call
The X.25 call field may contain an X.25 NUA or NUI or one of the X.25 Call Macros defined on
the Configuration - Advanced applications > X25 > Macros page.
PID
The PID (Protocol Identifier), field specifies the PID to use when the unit switches an IP
connection to X.25. The PID (protocol ID) field takes the format of four hexadecimal digits
separated by commas, such as 1,0,0,0, at the start of the Call User Data field in the X.25 call.
Confirm Mode
When confirm mode is set to “On” then the incoming TCP socket will not be successfully
connected until the corresponding outgoing call has been connected. The incoming TCP
socket will trigger the corresponding outgoing call either to a local PAD instance or to
whatever is configured. The effect of this mode is that the socket will fail if the outbound call
fails and so may be useful in backup scenarios. In addition it will ensure that no data is sent
into a “black hole”. (When this setting is not enabled data that is sent on the inbound TCP
connection before the outbound connection has been successful can be lost.)
RFC 1086 Mode:
RFC 1086 specifies a mode of operation in which the IP socket answers and then with a simple
protocol in the socket identifies the X.25 address and other X.25 call setup parameters to be
used. Then when the X.25 call parameters have been identified the X.25 call is made and if
successful then data is then switched between the X.25 call and the IP socket. The protocol will
select whether incoming or outgoing support is required.
IP length header
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IP Sockets to Protocol Switch
When IP length header is “On”, the IP length indicator field is inserted at the start of each
packet. When set to “8583 Ascii 4 byte”, the IP length header will conform to the ISO 8583
format.
In the example above, 3 IP sockets will “listen” for an incoming connection on IP Port 2004.
Once connected they will each will make an X.25 Call to “jollyroger”. The unit will recognise that
“jollyroger” is a pre-defined macro (as illustrated below), and will translate it into an X.25 Call
to address 32423 with the string “x25 data” included as data in the call. The outgoing X.25
call(s) will be made over whichever interface is specified by the Switch from XOT(TCP) to
parameter on the Configuration - Network > Protocol Switch page.
Note At the top of the page the total number of sockets available and the number currently free
is shown. Care should be take not to allocate too many of the free sockets unless you are
confident that they are not required for other applications.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web
Parameter
ipx25
n
ip_port
0 - 65535
IP Port
ipx25
n
nb_listens
0 – software dependant
max
Number of Sockets
ipx25
n
x25call
NUA, NUI or X.25
X25 Call
macro name
ipx25
n
pid
hex numbers
PID
ipx25
n
cnf_mode
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled
Confirm Mode
ipx25
n
rfc1086_mode
1 = enabled, 0 = disabled
RFC 1086 Mode
ipx25
n
iphdr
0=Off
IP length header
1=On
2=8583 Ascii 4 byte
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NUA to Interface Mappings
NUA to Interface Mappings
This page contains a table that allows you to enter a series of X.25 NUA or NUI values along with
IP addresses/Ports to which they should be mapped if you need to override the default settings in
the Configuration - Network > Legacy Protocols > X.25 > NUA/NUI Interface Mappings page.
So, if in the Protocol Switch configuration you had configured the unit to switch from LABP 0 to
TCP, the IP Address and Port values would normally be determined from the XOT Remote IP
address and IP stream port parameters. However, having set up the NUA/NUI to IP addresses
table as shown in the example above, if an X.25 call with NUA of value “222” is received on LAPB 0
it will be switched onto a TCP socket using IP address “1.2.3.4” on port 45 instead of those settings
configured on the Configuration - Network > Legacy Protocols > X.25 > NUA/NUI Interface
Mappings page.
Similarly, NUIs can also be matched and in this example a call with NUI of value “test” will be
switched onto a TCP socket using IP address “100.100.100.1” on port 678.
All 3 comparison fields, NUA, NUI and Call Data, can use the wildcard matching characters “?” and
“*”. In the example shown above when an X.25 call is received with either the NUA having “1234”
followed by any 2 digits or a call being received with call user data with any 4 characters followed
by “aa” then the call is switched to a TCP socket on address 100.100.100.52 on port 4001.
When a connection has been successfully established and data is being switched from the X.25
call to the socket and from the socket to the X.25 connection, it can be terminated by either the
socket closing or the X.25 call clearing.
If the connection terminates because of an incoming X25 Call Clear packet then the switch will
terminate the socket connection. If the connection terminates because the socket is closed then
the switch will clear the X.25 call by transmitting a CALL CLEAR packet.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
nuaip
0-255
nua
0-65536
NUA
nuaip
0-255
ipaddr
IP address
IP Address
nuaip
0-255
ip_port
0-65536
IP Port
nuaip
0-255
swto
0-10, 12-15
(see table below)
Interface
nuaip
0-255
buswto
0-10, 12-15
(see table below)
Backup Interface
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NUA Mappings parameters
Interfaces are coded as follows:
Parameter Value
Interface Type
0
Default
1
LAPD
2
LAPB 0
3
LAPB 1
4
XOT
5
LAPD X (actual instance determined by NUA)
6
LAPB 0 PVC
7
LAPB 1 PVC
8
XOT PVC
9
TCP stream
10
UDP stream
12
LAPB 2
13
LAPB 2 PVC
14
VXN
15
SSL
NUA Mappings parameters
Protocol switch NUA mappings allow you to redirect specified NUAs to alternative NUAs for
switched X.25 calls. Up to twenty “NUA In” to “NUA Out” mappings are available. These mappings
alter the called NUA field in any X.25 call. The comparison uses “tail” matching, so that only the
rightmost digits in the NUA are compared with the table entry.
This page displays a table with four columns in which you can specify the NUA In values,
corresponding NUA Out values, to which interfaces the mappings should be applied, and
whether the mapping should apply if the unit is making the call, receiving the call, or both. For
example, if the called NUA is 123456789345 and there is an NUA In table entry of 9345, with
Called/Calling set to either “Both” or “Called”, then this will match, and the entire called NUA will
be replaced with the corresponding NUA Out entry. In each case the interface type to which the
mapping applies can be selected from “ANY”, “LAPD”, “LAPB0”, “LAPB1” “LAPB2” or “XOT”.
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NUA Mappings parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
X25map
0-19
nuafrom
0-65536
NUA In
X25map
0-19
nuato
0-65536
NUA Out
X25map
0-19
interface
0,1,2,3,4,12
0=Any
1=LAPD
2=LAPB 0
3=LAPB 1
4=XOT
12=LAPB 2
Interface
X25map
0-19
ca_or_ci
0,1,2
0=Both
1=Called
2=Calling
Called / Calling
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NUA Mappings parameters
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Alarms
You can configure the Alarm parameters of your router with Digi TransPort Web Interface. The
Configuration -Alarms page has the following menu options:
•
SMTP AccountEvent Logcodes parametersSMTP Account parameters
•
Event Logcodes
•
SMTP AccountEvent Logcodes parametersSMTP Account parameters
Event Settings parameters
The router maintains a log of events in the “LOGCODES.TXT” pseudo file. When an event of a
specified (or lower priority) level occurs, a syslog message, an email alert or SMS alert (on W-WAN
models) can be sent to a pre-defined address. The Configuration > Alarms > Event Settings menu
has the following sub-menu items:Email Notification parameters
•
Email Notifications
•
SNMP Traps
•
SMS Messages
•
Local Logging
•
Syslog Messages
•
Syslog Server n
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Event Settings parameters
SNMP Traps parametersSMS Messages parametersSyslog Messages parametersSyslog Server n
parametersTo configure the Event Settings, set the following parameter values:
Only log events with a log priority of at least n
This parameter enables a filter that ensures that only events having a specified severity or
lower level are logged.
Do not log the following events
This is a numerical list of comma-separated values specifying events to be excluded from the
log. These numerical values can be found in the eventlog.txt file on the router.
After power up, wait s seconds before sending Emails, SNMP traps, SMS or Syslog messages
This parameter specifies the delay, in seconds, after power-up that the router should wait
before sending any alert messages. This is useful in circumstances where the sending of those
items would fail if sent too soon after the unit powers up because the underlying interface
that would be used has not completed initialization.
Include event number in the event log and Email, SNMP traps or Syslog messages
When you enable this option, event numbers from the “logcodes.txt” file is included.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
event
n
loglevel
0–9
0 none
1 low
9 high
Only log events with a log
priority of at least n
event
n
ev_filter
Comma separated list of
event numbers
Do not log the following
events
event
n
action_dly
Number of seconds (such After power up, wait s
as 60)
seconds before sending
Email, SNMP traps, SMS or
Syslog messages
event
n
incevnums
0,1
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380
Event Settings parameters
Email Notification parameters
To use the email alert facility, you must first specify a valid Dial-out number, Username and
Password and set the SMTP parameters correctly. The Dial-out number, Username and Password
parameters are available in the Configuration – Network > Interfaces > Advanced > PPP n pages
where n is the relevant interface number.
The SMTP parameters are to be found under Configuration – Alarms > SMTP Account.
Send email notifications
This checkbox enables the display of the configurable parameters when checked.
Send an email notification when the event priority is at least n
This is the lowest priority event that will generate an email alert message. For example, if this
value is set to 6, only events with a priority of 6 or lower (7, 8 or 9) will trigger an automated
email alert message. To disable email alarms, set this value to 0.
Send a maximum of n emails per day
This parameter sets the limit on the number of emails that may be sent during any 24 hour
period. The intention is to prevent excessive alerts being sent when the event trigger value is
set to a high priority / low value (1, 2 or 3 for example), such as a value that results in a large
number of automated email alert messages being generated.
n emails have been sent today
This is a status message, indicating how many emails have been sent during the last 24 hour
period.
Use email template file
This field contains the name of a template file that will be used to form the basis of any email
alert messages generated by the event logger. The default template is a file called
“EVENT.EML” that is stored within the compressed .web file. Alternative templates may be
created, but in order to be valid, these must have the “.EML” file extension and be stored in the
normal file directory. A new template having the name “EVENT.EML” will take precedence over
the predefined “EVENT.EML” template but it is recommended that a new name is used, such
as “event1.eml”.
Email To
This text field is the standard email address format for the intended recipient of the alert.
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Event Settings parameters
Email From
This text field should contain a valid email address that will be accepted by the SMTP server as
being authorised to send email.
Email Subject
This text field should contain a short description of the email content.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
event
n
etrig
0–9
0 disables sending alerts
Send an email notification
when the event priority is at
least n
event
n
emax
0 – 255
Send a maximum of n
emails per day
event
n
etemp
The name of a template
Use email template file
file. Default is EVENT.EML
event
n
to
A valid email address,
such as
Email To
[email protected]
event
n
from
A valid email address
Email From
event
n
subject
A brief description of the
content of the email
Email Subject
SNMP Traps parameters
The router firmware supports the use of SNMP, with the ability to generate traps. To make the
SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocols) functional, a SNMP trap server will need to be
configured. SNMP trap server configuration is to be found under Configuration – Remote
Management > SNMP > SNMP Traps menu.
Send SNMP Traps
This checkbox, when checked enables the display of the following parameters:
Send a SNMP Trap when the event priority is at least n
This is the lowest priority event that will generate an SNMP trap message. For example, if this
value is set to 6, only events with a priority of 6 or lower (7, 8 or 9) will trigger an automated
SNMP trap message. To disable SNMP traps, set this value to 0.
Send a maximum of n SNMP taps per day
This parameter sets the limit on the number of emails that may be sent during any 24 hour
period. The intention is to prevent excessive alerts being sent when the event trigger value is
set to a high priority / low value (1, 2 or 3 for example), such as a value that results in a large
number of SNMP trap messages being generated.
n SNMP traps have been sent today
This is a status message, indicating how many SNMP trap messages have been sent during the
last 24 hour period.
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Event Settings parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
event
n
trap_trig
0–9
0 disables sending alerts
Send a SNMP Trap when the
event priority is at least n
event
n
trap_max
0 – 255
Send a maximum of n SNMP
traps per day
SMS Messages parameters
This menu option has three identical rows, each of which controls the setting of the SMS alert
messages.
Note The SMS Messages option is only available on routers with W-WAN capability.
Send SMS messages to
This field should contain the destination telephone number (MSISDN) for SMS alert messages.
The format for this field is the international dialing code followed by the number, but should
not contain a ‘+’ prefix. For example, UK mobile 07871 445677 would be 447871445677
If the event priority is at least n
This numeric input field sets the trigger level for the alert message. If, for example, this field is
set to the value 6, only events having a priority of 6 or higher will trigger an automated SMS
alert. Setting this field to 0 disables the sending of SMS alerts.
Use SMS template
This field contains the name of the template file that will be used to form the basis of any
alarm messages generated by the event logger. The default template file is a test file called
“EVENT.SMS” that is stored in the compressed .web file. A new template may be created, and if
named “EVENT.SMS” will take precedence over the pre-defined “EVENT.SMS” template but it is
recommended that a new name is used, such as “event1.sms”. Templates should use the
“.SMS” file extension.
Send a maximum of n SMS messages per day
This parameter limits the number of SMS alert messages sent by the router in any one day.
n SMS messages have been sent today
This is a status message, indicating how many SMS alert messages have been sent during the
last 24-hour period.
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Event Settings parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
event
n
sms_to
A valid mobile number
such as 447871445677
Send SMS messages to
event
n
sms_trig
0–9
If the event priority is at
least n
event
n
sms_to2
A valid mobile number
such as 447871445677
Send SMS messages to
event
n
sms_trig2
0–9
If the event priority is at
least n
event
n
sms_to3
A valid mobile number
such as 447871445677
Send SMS messages to
event
n
sms_trig3
0–9
If the event priority is at
least n
event
n
sms_temp
event.sms (template file
Use SMS template
stored in the compressed
.web file)
event
n
sms_max
0 – 255
Send a maximum of n SMS
messages per day
Local Logging parameters
A secondary log file can be created on a USB flash drive and events will be appended to this log
file. This facility is useful if an extended logging period is required where, the normal eventlog.txt
file would overwrite early events before the operator has had a chance to view them. The
secondary log file can be limited in size or allowed to fill the USB flash drive. Once the log file is
full, earlier events will be pruned from the end of the file to allow new events to be added.
To configure the local logging parameters, set the following values in the web interface:
Local Drive to log to
This parameter determines the drive letter where the USB flash drive is located. This is
designated “u” for a USB drive.
Log filename
This specifies the name of the file for the secondary event log.
Log size
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Event Settings parameters
This field specifies the maximum size of the log file in kilobytes.
XML logs
On platforms that support it, event logs can be saved in XML format. This field specifies the
size of the XML log file in kilobytes. The files created will be named EVXML1.XML, EVXML2.XML
etc.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
event
n
logdrive
Drive letter, such as “u”
for USB flash drive
Local drive to log to
event
n
logfile
Name of the file
such as mylog.txt
Log filename
event
n
logsizek
Size of log in kilobytes
such as 1048576
Which is 1MB
Log size
event
n
xmllogs
None
Syslog Messages parameters
As well as logging events to an internal log file and to a file on a USB flash drive, the router can log
events to a Syslog server.
To configure the router to send Syslog messages to a Syslog server, set the following values in the
web interface:
Send Syslog messages
When this checkbox is checked, the following options are displayed:
Send a Syslog message when the event priority is at least n
This is the lowest priority event that will generate a syslog message. For example, if this value
is set to 6, only events with a priority of 6 or lower (7,8 or 9) will trigger an automated syslog
message. To disable syslog messages, set this value to 0.
Send a maximum of n Syslog messages per day
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Event Settings parameters
This parameter sets the limit on the number of syslog messages that may be sent during any
24 hour period. The intention is to prevent excessive alerts being sent when the event trigger
value is set to a high priority / low value (1, 2 or 3 for example), such as a value that results in a
large number of syslog messages being generated.
n Syslog messages have been sent today
This is a status message that indicates how many Syslog messages have been sent in the last
24 hour period.
Related CLI commands.
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
event
n
syslog_trig
0–9
Send a Syslog message when the
event priority is at least n
event
n
syslog_max
0 - 255
Send a maximum of n Syslog
messages per day
Syslog Server n parameters
This section describes the configuration of the router for defining the Syslog server to send
messages to.
Syslog server IP address
This parameter sets the IP address of the server.
Port
This parameter sets the port to use.
Note The following three items (Mode, TCP timeout and Route) only appear on routers that
have the TCP logging software option enabled. This is not a commonly used option.
Mode
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There are currently three supported communication modes, these are selected from a dropdown list and are TCP, UDP and a protocol described in RFC 3195.
TCP timeout s seconds
For TCP communications, this parameter sets the timeout on the socket.
Route using
These radio buttons selects which method of establishing a route to the server should be
used.
Routing table
When this radio button is selected, the routing table is used to determine the interface that
will be used to transmit the syslog message.
Interface x,y
If the routing table is not to be used, an interface type (PPP or Ethernet) may be selected from
the drop-down selection box and the interface instance number may be typed into the
adjoining text entry box. The route is then determined by that interface.
Priority
The checkboxes listed in this section select the event priorities that should cause the event to
be logged.
Facility
The checkboxes listed in this section select which of the router facilities should be logged.
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Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
syslog
n
server
IP address
Syslog server IP address
syslog
n
port
IP port number
Port
syslog
n
mode
UDP, TCP, RFC3195
Mode
syslog
n
tcp_to
Timeout in seconds, such
as 86400
TCP timeout s seconds
syslog
n
source_ent
PPP, ETH
Interface x,y
x = Interface type
syslog
n
source_add
0-4
Interface x,y
y = interface number
syslog
n
priority
Hyphen separated
0–7
Comma separated 0,3,5
Priority checkboxes
or ‘all’
syslog
n
facility
Hyphen separated
0 – 23
Comma separated
4,3,5,10,15,22
or ‘all’
Facility checkboxes
Event Logcodes parameters
This page allows you to edit the logcodes used to describe events entered in the “EVENTLOG.TXT”
pseudo file. If a change is made to the logcodes.txt file, the changes will be saved in the file
logcodes.dif so when a firmware upgrade is performed the changes to the logcodes are retained.
The page that appears under the blue bar initially shows a table containing the Event descriptions
and reason. Clicking on an item shown in bright blue (an HTML link) causes a configuration page
associated with that item to be opened. The newly-opened page allows that item to be
configured. The configuration options shown on that page are described below.
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Event
This is not a configurable parameter; it is simply the event number, displayed for information
only. This is the number to refer to when filtering events in the event log settings
Configuration – Alarms > Event Settings.
Description
This field is a description of the event code. Clicking on a link in this field brings up the
configuration page associated with that event.
Filter
This parameter is for information only. If event filtering is applied to an event, the associated
filter is shown as “On”. This is a result of enabling the parameter ‘Do not log this event’ as
described below.
Event Priority
This parameter controls the priority of the event and is used to determine whether an event
will trigger email, SMS messages or SNMP traps.
Reasons
The reason why the event occurred. Not every event has a list of reasons.
Reason Priority
This parameter is for information only.
Attachment List ID
This is just a fixed list of values that may be used to conveniently refer to the associated list of
files to attach to an email.
Files
This text entry box allows the user to type in a comma-separated list of names for the files that
should be attached to an email.
Configuring Events
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This page controls the configuration of the event that is displayed in bold font at the top of the
page, just below the blue title bar.
Do not log this event
When checked, this checkbox disables logging of the event.
Note This parameter is not saved in the logcodes.txt file but in the config.dan file. This means
that after changing this parameter, you must save the changes by clicking the save
changes link when prompted (this appears after clicking the “Apply” button). If you click
the Save All Event Code Changes, your changes will not be reflected.
Log Priority
This parameter sets the priority of the event to determine whether the event will trigger
emails, SMS messages or SNMP traps. 0 = disabled, 1 = highest priority, 9 = lowest priority.
Alarm Priority
If the above “Inherit alarm priority from event” checkbox is not checked, this parameter
selects the priority of the reason. Valid values are 0 to 9.
Alarm Priority is dependent on the event being logged by Entity
Selecting this checkbox makes the priority conditional on which system entity triggered the
event (such as ethernet) and enables the following two configuration options:
Entity
This drop-down selection box contains a list of the system entities.
All
Selecting this radio button causes all of the system entities.
Instance
Selecting this radio button enable a text entry box that allows the user to enter the instance of
the selected entity.
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Priority only applies to
This configuration section comprises a set of checkboxes, each checkbox controlling whether
the priority is applied to that interface instance. So for example, to apply the priority to PPP
interface 1, click on the checkbox labelled PPP 1.
Store a snapshot of the Traffic Analyser trace on the log drive
Selecting this checkbox causes a snapshot of the analyser trace to be stored on the USB flash
drive
If this event creates an Email alarm
Attach a snapshot of the Traffic Analyser trace
Checking this checkbox will cause a snapshot of the analyser trace to be attached to the email.
After this event
Leave the Analyser trace
This option will leave the analyser trace unchanged.
Freeze the Analyser trace
This selection will cause the analyser to be “frozen”, such as no more logging will take place
until the email has been sent.
Delete the Analyser trace
This selection will cause the analyser trace to be deleted once the email has been sent.
Attach a snapshot of the Event Log
Selecting this checkbox will cause the eventlog to be attached to the email.
After this event
Leave the Event Log
Selecting this radio button will leave the event log unchanged.
Delete the Event Log
Selecting this radio button will cause the event log to be deleted after the email has been sent.
Attachment List ID
This text entry box allows the user to specify which files to attach to the email. The ID refers to
the table of files.
Syslog Priority
This drop-down selection box contains the following options:
•
Emergency
•
Alert
•
Critical
•
Error
•
Warning
•
Info
•
Debug
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Syslog Facility
This drop-down selection box contains the following options:
•
Kernel
•
User
•
Mail
•
System
•
Auth
•
Syslog
Configuring Reasons
The page invoked by selecting a reason link in the event logcodes table is very similar to the
Configuring Events page but with the following differences.
There is no “Do not log this event” checkbox. There is the following additional parameter:
Inherit alarm priority from event
Selecting this checkbox causes the following “Alarm Priority” parameter to be disabled and
cause the priority to be the same as the event that triggered it. The “Alarm Priority” parameter
is the same as in the “Configuring Events” page.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
event
n
ev_filter
Comma separated
list of event codes
Do not log this event
There are no CLI commands for editing Event logcodes. However, it is possible to edit the
“LOGCODES.TXT” file which holds all the logcode information. For details on how to do this, refer
to the “Event Log” section of this manual.
SMTP Account parameters
In order for the router to successfully send emails, an email account (SMTP) must be available.
This section describes the configuration of the router in order to use the email account that has
been set up for it.
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Hostname or IP address of your SMTP server
This parameter sets the IP address or hostname of the SMTP mail server, such as
smtp.myisp.com. Sending email requires a connection to the Internet so depending upon how
the router is configured, it may be necessary to check that the PPP configuration allows a
connection to the ISP or external SMTP mail server.
Port
The Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) uses TCP port 25, which is the default for this
parameter. If the mail server uses a different TCP port, enter it here.
Username
Email accounts are controlled by requiring a username and password in order to send and
receive mail. This field is where the account username is set. This information will be provided
by the administrator of the email server.
Password
This field is where the account password is set.
Confirm Password
This field is used to re-enter the password. The two passwords are compared to check that
they are the same and that there hasn’t been a typographical error when entering them. This
check is used since the password characters are not echoed and so the usual visual feedback
is not available.
Display “Email From” as
This parameter specifies the text to be used as the “MAIL FROM” parameter which forms part
of the protocol when connecting to the email server. Most SMTP servers will accept an empty
string whereas others require that this parameter is present. It may be necessary to consult
with the SMTP server administrator (or ISP) to determine whether or not this parameter is
required.
Attachment size limit n Kbyte, Mbyte
Some email service providers place a limit on the size of an email attachment that they will
accept, this parameter can be used to ensure that the limit is not exceeded. The inbuilt traffic
analyser and event logger can generate substantial files and it may be required that these files
are truncated when sent as email attachments. The size is specified in kilobytes, so for
example, setting this limit to 250 will truncate the attachment to 250kB before transmission.
Setting the size to 0 means that no limits are imposed.
If the email template does not contain one, use “Reply To” address
This address will be inserted into the email header if it is found that no reply address exists in
the appropriate email template. If the email template does contain an address in the “reply
to:” field, that will override the default reply address.
Route using Routing table, Interface x,y
When selected, the routing code is used to determine the outbound interface and that
interface will determine the source IP address.
If the “Route using routing table” option is not selected, the settings in the interface and
interface instance text boxes are used to determine the outbound interface and source IP
address. These are selected from the drop-down selection box and are None, PPP and
Ethernet.
Resend the email after s seconds if the first attempt fails
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Event Logcodes parameters
This checkbox and associated text entry box enable the retry mechanism. If the first attempt
to deliver the email fails, the router will wait the specified number of seconds (which must be
non-zero) before making another attempt.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
smtp
n
server
Valid hostname or IP
address
Hostname or IP address
mailserver.isp.com
122.134.156.178
smtp
n
port
Valid port number,
such as
25
Port n
smtp
n
username
Free text field
containing a valid
account username
such as
my_account
Username
smtp
n
password
Free text field
containing account
password, such as
my_password
Password
smtp
n
mail_from
Free text field
Display “Email From” as
smtp
n
att_lim
0 – 65535
Attachment size limit
This CLI value is entered in
Kilobytes only.
smtp
n
reply_to
Free text field
If the email template does not
contain one,
use Reply To address
smtp
n
userouting
0,1
Route using routing table
smtp
n
ll_ent
Blank,PPP,ETH
Route using Interface x,y
x = Interface type
smtp
n
ll_add
0 - 255
Route using Interface x,y
y = interface number
smtp
n
retry_dly
0 - 255
Resend the email after s
seconds if the first attempt fails
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Systems
The Configuration – Systems menu has the following sub-menu options:
•
Device Identity
•
General
•
Date and Time
•
Power ControlDate and Time parameters
Device Identity parameters
You can configure the identity of your router with the Digi TransPort web interface.
To configure your router’s device identity, set the following values
Description
This free-form text input field is for entering a description of the router that can be used to
uniquely identify it. This is useful where there are a large number of routers on a site and a
descriptive name would be easier to use when referring to the router, rather than having to
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Device Identity parameters
use the serial number or other unique parameter. This parameter is used by the SNMP
function within the router.
Contact
This is another SNMP parameter which is used to enter a contact name.
Location
This SNMP parameter sets a location string for the router, which again may be helpful when
referring to a particular router within a site or for identifying a particular site.
Device ID
This field is taken from the device cloud configuration and should not normally need to be
changed. When using device cloud to manage the router, the configuration procedure assigns
a device ID to the router. The device ID is a 64-byte value, with each 8-byte section separated
with a “-“ character. Valid digits are upper case hexadecimal. The first 16 digits (reading from
left to right) are normally set to “0” and the second 16 comprise the MAC address of the
primary Ethernet interface and the digits “FF” in order make up the full 8-digit. The following
device ID illustrates the format:
00000000-00000000-001122FF-FF334455
This example uses the MAC address 00:11:22:33:44:55.
Router Identity
This is a string of up to 20 characters that can be used to identify the router in email alert
messages generated by the event logger. This is also the prompt string that appears when
logging on to the router remotely. The factory configuration uses the character sequence “%s”
which gets replaced by the serial number of the router when the unit identity is displayed. This
character sequence may be used when creating a custom identity for the router. For example,
if the serial number of the router is 012345, entering the string “My_Router_%s>” would show
the prompt “My_Router_012345>” during a remote login.
Hostname
This parameter assigns a hostname to the local IP address of the router.
Secondary Hostname
This parameter allows a second hostname to be assigned to a router. This is associated with
the secondary IP address.
Note Character limitations of the Description and Hostname fields should be 64 characters.
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Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snmp
n
Name
Free text field
upto 64
characters
Description
snmp
n
Contact
Free text field
Contact
snmp
n
Location
Free text field
Location
cmd
n
Unitid
Free text field
Router Identity
cmd
n
Hostname
Free text field
upto 64
characters
Hostname
cmd
n
sec_hostname
Free text field
upto 64
characters
Secondary Hostname
Date and Time parameters
The router keeps track of calendar time using an internal real time clock (RTC) device. The clock is
used to time/date stamp logfiles. The date and time configuration pages allow the system time to
be set and maintained. Since maintaining an accurate system clock can be important for routers
on the Internet, NTP and SNTP services are supported and the router may be configured to use
one of these protocols for maintaining the internal system time. The router uses the 24-hour
clock.
Current system time
The current system time appears at the top of this web page.
Manually set the time h hours, m minutes s seconds, M month D day Y year
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Date and Time parameters
These parameters are set using the associated drop-down selection menus.
Hours
Select from the drop-down list to set the hours.
Minutes
Select from the drop-down list to set the minutes.
Seconds
Select from the drop-down list to set the seconds.
(This may have limited use due to human reaction times).
Month
Select from the drop-down list to set the month.
Day
Select from the drop-down list to set the day.
Year
Select from the drop-down list to set the year.
Set
Click this button to cause the above settings to take effect.
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
n/a
n/a
time
hh [mm [ss [DD [MM
[YYYY]]]]]
Manually set the time
Autoset Date and Time parameters
Do not auto-set the system time
This is the system default and this radio button will appear filled in when the unit is new
unless a different default configuration has been supplied. Click this radio button to close the
SNTP or NTP configuration pages.
Auto-set the system time
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Date and Time parameters
Selecting this radio button expands the page to include the SNTP settings. These are
described below.
SNTP server
The hostname or IP address of the desired SNTP server is entered here.
Check on Power-up
This checkbox, when checked, will cause the router to attempt to connect to the SNTP server
every time it boots.
Update every h hours
Enter the interval, in hours that the router should wait between updating the system clock.
Randomly between s1 and s2 seconds
It is possible to use a random update interval rather than a fixed interval. There are two textentry boxes for this purpose, enter the minimum interval into the left-hand box and the
maximum desired interval into the right-hand box. Selecting the random update will clear the
fixed interval.
Offset from GMT
This parameter should be set to + or - the number of hours the unit’s time should be ahead or
behind Greenwich Mean Time.
Update for Daylight Saving Time.
When checked, this checkbox causes the following parameters to appear, the router will then
use those settings to automatically adjust the system time to ensure that local daylight saving
is used.
Start
Month
Use this drop-down selection box to select the month in which to switch to daylight saving
time.
Day
Use this drop-down selection box to select the day on which to switch to daylight saving time.
Hour
Use this drop-down selection box to select the hour at which to switch to daylight saving time.
End
Month
Use this drop-down selection box to select the desired month in which to switch back to GMT
(UTC).
Day
Use this drop-down selection box to select the desired day on which to switch back to GMT.
Hour
Use this drop-down selection box to select the desired hour at which to switch back to GMT.
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Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
sntp
n
server
Valid hostname or IP
address
sntp.timeserve.org
SNTP Server
sntp
n
pwrchk
0,1
Check on Power-up
0 = Off
1 = On
sntp
n
interval
0 – 255
Update every h hours
Default = 24
sntp
n
randintsecs
0 - 86400
randomly between s1 and s2 seconds
Use format [s1,s2]
eg min 50, max 500 would be:
[50,500]
sntp
n
offset
-12 - +13
Offset from GMT
sntp
n
dstonmon
0 – 12
Start: Month
Update for Daylight Saving Time
0 disables daylight saving
sntp
n
dstonday
0 - 31
Start: Day
sntp
n
dstonhr
0 - 23
Start: Hour
sntp
n
dstoffmon
0 - 12
End: Month
sntp
n
dstoffday
0 - 31
End: Day
sntp
n
dstoffhr
0 - 23
End: Hour
sntp
n
ntp
0,1
0 = SNTP
1 = NTP
Default = OFF
Use NTP for greater accuracy
Selecting this checkbox expands the page to show the NTP settings. These are described below.
NTP is much more accurate than SNTP, with NTP an accuracy of 200 microseconds (1/5000
second) can be achieved. The NTP functionality is in accordance with RFC1305.
Up to 4 remote peers can be configured, all the peers are polled at intervals and the “best” peer is
selected for using as the time source.
SNTP should be configured prior to using NTP. The router will calculate the accuracy of the NTP
time servers over a period of time (up to 2 hours), once the drift compensation is calculated the
NTP client will be used.
The drift compensation value will be stored in NVRAM and written to the config.da0 file, if the
router looses power or is rebooted it will not need to re-calculate the accuracy of the NTP servers
again. The compensation value is constantly monitored to ensure it remains correct.
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Note If SNTP is used the accuracy of around 1 second is achieved.
If NTP is used 200 microsecond accuracy can be achieved.
Not all models support NTP – this option will only appear for models that do.
Initial Drift Compensation n ppm
NTP incorporates compensation for clock drift. If this parameter is known, it can be entered
here. Otherwise, the router will calculate this value over a period of time. Once calculated, the
value will be displayed in the text box.
Clock Precision Limit
Select the clock precision limit from the drop-down selection box.
Disable NTP when interface x,y is out of service
If the specified interface is out of service, the NTP is disabled until the interface is available
again.
NTP Servers 1 - 4
The router has the capability of configuring up to four NTP server connections. The more
servers that are used, the more accurate the time setting will be. The following section
describes the configuration of the connections.
NTP Server 1/2/3/4 Hostname
This field sets the NTP server hostname or IP address.
Broadcast Mode
When enabled, the NTP client will operate in a different manner. Rather than sending out an
NTP client message and expecting a reply, the NTP module will send out a broadcast mode
packet to the IP address configured in 'NTP host' field. The broadcast interval will be
determined by the value of 'Minimum poll interval'.
Poll Interval s1 to s2 seconds
These two parameters define the minimum and maximum intervals between poll broadcasts.
The values are time in seconds represented as a power of 2. This means that a value of 4
means that the minimum poll interval is 2^4 = 16 seconds.
Startup burst Interval s seconds
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When connecting to an NTP time server in polled mode, it may be necessary to send polls at
intervals shorter than the minimum poll interval in order to speed up the synchronization
process. This parameter controls the interval between polls during the startup process. This
feature is useful in situations where the router only has an intermittent Internet connection.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ntp
n
driftppm
-10000 - +10000
Initial Drift Compensation
ntp
n
precision
-10 - 0
Clock Precision Limit
ntp
n
inhibit_int
Blank,PPP,Ethernet
Disable NTP when interface x,y
is out of service
x = Interface type
ntp
n
inhibit_add
0 - 255
Disable NTP when interface x,y
is out of service
y = interface number
ntp
n
server
Valid IP address or
hostname, such as
[email protected]
NTP Server
ntp
n
bcast
0,1
Broadcast Mode
0 = disabled
1 = enabled
ntp
n
minpoll
3 - 14
Poll Interval s1, s2
3=8
4 = 16
5 = 32
6 = 64
7 = 128
8 = 256
9 = 512
10 = 1024
11 = 2048
12 = 4096
13 = 8192
14 = 16384
ntp
n
maxpoll
3 – 14
Poll Interval s1, s2
See ‘minpoll’ for values
ntp
n
burstint
0 – 255
Startup burst Interval s
seconds
ntp
n
server2
Valid IP address or
hostname, such as
[email protected]
NTP Server
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ntp
n
bcast2
0,1
Broadcast Mode
0 = disabled
1 = enabled
ntp
n
minpoll2
3 - 14
Poll Interval s1, s2
See ‘minpoll’ for values
ntp
n
maxpoll2
3 - 14
Poll Interval s1, s2
See ‘minpoll’ for values
ntp
n
burstint2
0 – 255
Startup burst Interval s
seconds
ntp
n
server3
Valid IP address or
hostname, such as
ntp3.timeserver.org
NTP Server
ntp
n
bcast3
0,1
Broadcast Mode
0 = disabled
1 = enabled
ntp
n
minpoll
3 - 14
Poll Interval s1, s2
See ‘minpoll’ for values
ntp
n
maxpoll
3 - 14
Poll Interval s1, s2
See ‘minpoll’ for values
ntp
n
burstint3
0 – 255
Startup burst Interval s
seconds
ntp
n
server4
Valid IP address or
hostname, such as
ntp4.timeserver.org
NTP Server
ntp
n
bcast4
0,1
Broadcast Mode
0 = disabled
1 = enabled
ntp
n
minpoll4
3 - 14
Poll Interval s1, s2
See ‘minpoll’ for values
ntp
n
maxpoll4
3 - 14
Poll Interval s1, s2
See ‘minpoll’ for values
ntp
n
burstint4
0 – 255
Startup burst Interval s
seconds
To check the status of the NTP client, the following commands can be used:
To view NTP system status information
ntpstat sys
To view NTP peer information
ntpstat peers
To reset system information and allow NTP to recalculate the drift compensation
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ntpstat rst
General parameters
You can configure you router functionalities that applies to the router in general rather than
specific features.
Autorun Commands
The router may be configured to run a number of commands once it has booted. These
commands are associated with specific asynchronous serial interfaces. Configuration of
this facility is via a table on this web page. As an example, it may be required that a
Script Basic script, sample.bas needs to be run at boot up. Auto commands are normally
associated with an ASY port, but running a script for example is not ASY port specific.
To configure the autorun commands, set the following values:
#
This parameter is the command interface to be associated with the command. In the above
example, this would be set to the number “0”.
Command
This parameter is the CLI command to run on start-up. In the above example, this field would
be set to the string “bas sample.bas”
Related CLI commands.
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cmd
n
autocmd
Valid CLI command
Autorun Commands
Web / Command Line Interface
The router may be configured using several different methods. This section describes how to
configure the web GUI and CLI (Command Line Interface) options.
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Automatically log user out if idle for h hours m minutes s seconds
In order to limit the probability of unauthorised users gaining access to the router, login
timeouts are applied. These cause an existing connection to be closed after a predefined
period. The default is 20 minutes.
For users connected on the local Async port
Use access level None, Low, Med, High, Super
For security purposes, logging into the unit is controlled by a user access level. This parameter
controls the access level that applies when logging in via the local asynchronous serial port.
Automatically log user out Never / If idle for h hrs m mins s secs
These radio buttons control how long the local port allows access before terminating the
connection and requiring the user to log in again. Selecting the “Never” buttons allows
permanent access to the router via the local asynchronous serial port. If, for security reasons,
it is required that the access should be limited, the appropriate time period can be entered
into the text entry boxes.
Disable Remote command echo for Telnet sessions
This checkbox enables/disables command echo for remote access. This applies to telnet and
TRANSIP sessions.
CLI Pre-Login Banner
The router offers the facility to display a banner before any login information is requested.
The parameter specifies the name of a file that is stored in the flash filing system and contains
the text to be displayed before the request for the username and password. This can be
useful for displaying a standard welcome message or any site-specific user instructions.
CLI Post-Login Banner
Once the user has successfully logged on to the router, a second message may be displayed this parameter specifies the name of a file containing the text to display. As above, the file may
contain site-specific instructions to be carried out once the user has logged in.
Allow CLI access from X.25 address n
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General parameters
This parameter enables/disables logging into the router over an X.25 connection. The
paramtern n must be a valid X.25 NUA (Network User Address).
With TRANSIP, use access level None, Low, Med, High, Super
This drop-down selection box controls the security access level when using TRANSIP to access
the router.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cmd
n
tremto
0 – 86400 seconds
Automatically log user out if idle
for h hrs m mins s seconds
This CLI value is entered in
seconds only.
local
n
access
0–4
Use access level
0 = Super
1 = High
2 = Medium
3 = Low
4 = None
8 = Read only
local
n
tlocto
Free text field
Never, h hrs, m mins, s secs
cmd
n
noremecho
0,1
Enable Remote command echo
0 = Off (default)
1 = On
cmd
n
prebanner
Valid filename such
as
“welcome1.txt”
CLI Pre-Login Banner
cmd
n
postbanner
Valid filename such
as
“welcome2.txt”
CLI Post-Login Banner
cmd
n
cmdnua
0 - 1023
Allow CLI access from X.25
address
local
n
transaccess
0–4
With TRANSIP, use access level
0 = Super
1 = High
2 = Medium
3 = Low
4 = None
8 = Read only
Miscellaneous
This section is for those configuration items that do not fit neatly into any other section.
Note Depending on the router model, some of these options may not be available.
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General parameters
Use Config n when the router powers up
The router maintains two configuration files, either of which may be invoked on power-up.
Select the required one from the drop-down selection box. Use this option with care as
selecting the incorrect configuration file can cause confusion.
Allow anonymous FTP login
When checked, this checkbox will enable the router to accept anonymous logins. The default
state is Off and the security implications of enabling this option should be considered carefully
before applying.
Additional FTP NAT port n
Standard FTP uses two well-known ports, a control port and data port. These are low number
ports and may be blocked by firewall rules. As such, it may be that an FTP server may be
listening on a non-standard control port. This parameter is used to specify the port that the
router should monitor for the FTP “PORT” and ”PASV” commands. These commands contain
information relating to IP addresses and Ports which should be modified during the NAT
process. The NAT modifications may result in different sized packets being generated that
then require that the TCP sequence numbers be modified to allow for the changes.
SNMP Enterprise number
This parameter specifies the value of the OID (Object IDentifier) to be used by SNMP
management tools when accessing the MIB (Management Information Block). This number
must form part of the OID used to access individual items in the MIB as a prefix.
For example: SNMPv2-SMI::enterprises.16378.10001.
SNMP Enterprise Name
This is the name corresponding to the above Enterprise Number.
Only resolve DNS request for domain
Entering a domain name here will restrict DNS requests to the specified domain only.
W-WAN LED to display W-WAN, ISDN/PSTN
On the front panel of the display of models fitted with a W-WAN module, is an LED that may be
used to display the status of the W-WAN module or the status of the PSTN/ISDN connection.
Use the drop-down selection box to choose which. The ISDN/PSTN settings depend upon
which of these two options are available on the router.
Serial LED to display Connection, DTR
On the front panel of the router is an LED dedicated to indicating the status of various signals
on the asynchronous serial line. Use the drop-down selection box to choose which signal
status to display. On modules fitted with W-WAN, this LED has additional functionality, it can
also be used to display the W-WAN signal strength.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
config
n
powerup
0,1
Use Config n when the router
powers up
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General parameters
cmd
n
anonftp
0,1
Allow anonymous FTP login
0 = Off (default)
1 = On
snmp
n
ftpnatport
0 - 65535
Additional FTP NAT port
snmp
n
ent_nb
0 – 65535
SNMP Enterprise Number
Default 16378
cmd
n
ent_name
Free text field
SNMP Enterprise Name
cmd
n
dnsname
Valid Domain
name, such as
mydomain.org
Only resolve DNS request for
domain
cmd
n
gprsled_mode
0,1
W-WAN LED to display W-WAN,
ISDN/PSTN
0 = W-WAN
1 = ISDN/PSTN
cmd
n
asyled_mode
0,1
Serial LED to display Connection,
DTR
0 = Connection
1 = DTR status
2 = W-WAN signal strength
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Remote Management
The Configuration – Remote Management page has the following menu options:
•
Device Cloud parameters
•
SNMP parameters
Device Cloud parameters
Device Cloud is a hosted remote configuration and management system that has been designed
to facilitate the management of large numbers of routers. Before this service can be used, a
device cloud account must be set up. Applying for an account is a straightforward procedure; the
local sales representative will have details. The Device Cloud homepage is to be found at
www.etherios.com/devicecloud
The service is hosted on the device cloud servers and these provide a web-based interface that
shows the configuration of selected routers allows the configuration to be changed and also
facilitates remote firmware upgrade. The device cloud servers also provide a data storage facility.
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Device Cloud parameters
Connection Settings
To configure Device Cloud connection settings parameters, set the following values:
Enable Remote Management using a client-initiated connection
Select this checkbox to display the basic configuration parameters and enable the unit to
make the connection to the remote device cloud server.
Server Address
This text entry box is used to enter the IP address or (more usually) the domain name of the
device cloud host, for example login.etherios.com. (This information will be supplied when
your device cloud account is activated).
Automatically reconnect to the server after being disconnected
The protocol used to communicate with the server allows the router to detect that it is no
longer connected to the server. Ticking this checkbox will cause the router to attempt a
reconnection when it discovers that the connection has been lost.
Reconnect after h hours m minutes s seconds
If the reconnect checkbox is enabled, these parameters specify the interval to wait before
attempting to reconnect to the server.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cloud
n
clientconn
0,1
Enable Remote Management and
Configuration using a clientinitiated connection
0 = Off
1 = On
cloud
n
server
Valid IP address
such as 1.2.3.4 or
domain name such
as
login.etherios.com
Server Address
cloud
n
reconnect
0,1
Automatically reconnect the
server after being disconnected
0 = Off
1 = On
cloud
n
reconnectsecs
0 – 86400
Reconnect after h, m, s
This CLI value is entered in
seconds only.
Device Cloud SMS Settings parameters
The SMS feature supports sending and receiving SMS messages between Device Cloud and a
Device Cloud-registered router. SMS can be used to:
•
Send an SMS message to the router in order to have the router dynamically establish its EDP
connection with Device Cloud
•
Send user defined data to and from Device Cloud and Device Cloud-registered router
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Device Cloud parameters
•
Perform limited device management such as pinging the router, as well as provisioning it
properly for SMS functionality with Device Cloud
For more information on SMS feature, see the Device Cloud User Guide.
You can configure the Device Cloud SMS Settings parameters using the Digi TransPort web
Interface.
To Configure the Device Cloud SMS Settings, set the following value:
Enable Device Cloud SMS
Check this box to enable Device Cloud SMS feature
Enable Opt-in
Enable the Opt-in to ensure that you have subscribed to the SMS service. Check this box to
enable opt-in.
Enable Strict Sender
You can enable the Strict Sender mode to ensure that the SMSs from Device Cloud are never
blocked. Check this box to enable the Strict Sender framework.
Enable responses to be sent to the sender’s phone number
Check this box to enable responses to be sent to the sender’s phone number
Accept Device Cloud client connection requests
Enable client connection requests to accept the incoming connections. Check this box to
enable Device Cloud client connection requests.
Accept requests to connect to other Device Cloud servers
Check this box to accept request to connect to other Device Cloud servers.
Override the destination phone number with the following number
Check this box if you want to override the destination phone number with another phone
number. Once you check this box, the phone number text box is enabled. You can enter the
phone number in this text box.
Override the service ID with the following value
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Device Cloud parameters
Check this box if you want to specify the service ID value. Once you check this box, the service
ID text box is enabled. You can enter your service ID in this text box.
Limit CLI reponses to
You can specify the maximum CLI response size in this text box.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cloudsms
n
OFF/ ON
Enable Device Cloud SMS
enable
Default: OFF
cloudsms
n
optinenable
OFF/ ON
Enable Opt-in
Default: OFF
cloudsms
n
strictsender
OFF/ ON
Enable Strict Sender
Default: OFF
cloudsms
n
replytosender
OFF/ ON
Default: OFF
cloudsms
n
pagedconnect
OFF/ ON
Default: OFF
cloudsms
n
connectoverride
OFF/ ON
Default: OFF
Enable responses to be sent
to the sender’s phone number
Accept Device Cloud client
connection requests
Accept requests to connect to
other Device Cloud servers
cloudsms
n
phnum
Number
Override the destination
phone number with the
following number
cloudsms
n
svcid
Number
Override the service ID with
the following value
cloudsms
n
maxcliresp
Number
Limit CLI reponses to
Default: 0
cloudsms
n
debug
OFF/ ON
Default: OFF
Advanced
The settings in the previous section, along with the system defaults are sufficient to establish a
connection to the device cloud server. The settings in the advanced section allow the connection
to be fine-tuned. The parameters described here are concerned with detecting loss of
connection. When the router first connects to the device cloud server, the link parameters are
sent to it. The WAN settings and Ethernet settings described below are identical, but it should be
noted in the command line descriptions that the default keepalive intervals are different. This is
due to the different characteristics of PPP and Ethernet links.
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Device Cloud parameters
Connection Settings
Disconnect when the device cloud server is idle
Once the router has connected to the device cloud server, and the server has established that
all the settings it holds for the router are current, and no new changes are being requested,
the traffic between the router and device cloud server reduces to the sending of keep-alive
packets. In this situation, it may be advantageous to terminate the connection in order to
reduce bandwidth or to keep data costs down. Ticking this checkbox will cause the router to
negotiate termination of the connection.
Idle Timeout h hours, m minutes, s seconds
The timeout entered here defines how long the router should wait after detecting the idle
condition before negotiating termination of the link. Default is 10 seconds.
WAN Settings
Receive Interval s seconds
This is the time between keep-alive packets that the router should wait before considering
that the connection may be lost.
Transmit Interval s seconds
This is the interval between transmission of keep-alive packets.
Assume connection is lost after n timeouts
Occasional packet loss is to be expected, this parameter will allow for a specified number of
lost keep-alive packets before the connection is deemed to have failed.
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Device Cloud parameters
Ethernet Settings
Receive Interval s seconds
This is the time between keep-alive packets that the router should wait before considering
that the connection may be lost.
Transmit Interval s seconds
This is the interval between transmission of keep-alive packets.
Assume connection is lost after n timeouts
Occasional packet loss is to be expected, this parameter will allow for a specified number of
lost keep-alive packets before the connection is deemed to have failed.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cloud
n
idledisconn
0,1
Disconnect when device cloud
server is idle
0 = Do not disconnect
1 = disconnect
cloud
n
disconnsecs
0 - 28800
Idle Timeout h,m,s
This CLI value is entered in
seconds only.
cloud
n
ppprxkeepalive
0 - 28800
WAN - Receive Interval seconds
cloud
n
ppptrxkeepalive
0 - 28800
WAN - Transmit Interval seconds
cloud
n
pppwaitfor
1 - 255
WAN - Assume connection is lost
after n timeouts
cloud
n
ethrxkeepalive
0 - 28800
Ethernet - Receive Interval
seconds
cloud
n
ethtxkeepalive
0 - 28800
Ethernet - Transmit Interval
seconds
cloud
n
ethwaitfor
1 - 255
Ethernet - Assume connection is
lost after n timeouts
There is an additional cloud CLI command cloudstat. You can this command with no extra
syntax to return the status of the socket connections, such as whether there is a live connection
to the device cloud server or not.
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SNMP parameters
SNMP parameters
The Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) is a well established way of managing clusters
of remote routers – the TransPort routers support versions 1, 2c and 3 of this protocol. The
standard Management Information Bases (MIBs) that are supported by the router are detailed
below. Alongside these, there are two other MIBs that are supplied as standard. This is a MIB that
is generated after the firmware has been installed. This is accomplished using the “mibprint” CLI
command and the “MIBEXE” DOS tool which is available from the Technical Support Team. This
MIB changes with every firmware release since the firmware revision is embedded in the Object
Identifiers (OIDs). This MIB provides access to most of the configuration and statistics that are
associated with the router.
The second MIB is the “Monitor MIB” which is a standard MIB that gives access to various Digi
TransPort proprietary objects. The OIDs in this MIB do not change with every release although it
is possible for new objects to be added to it. This MIB is available from the Technical Support
team.
The standard MIBs supported are:
•
SNMP MIB (RFC3418)
•
Interfaces MIB (RFC2233)*
•
IP MIB (RFC2011)
•
IP Forwarding Table MIB (RFC2096)
•
TCP MIB (RFC2012)
•
UDP MIB (RFC2013)
•
VRRP MIB (RFC2787)
•
SNMP MPD MIB (RFC3412)
•
SNMP USM MIB (RFC3414)**
* The following groups/tables in RFC2233 are not supported: ifXTable, ifStackTable,
ifRcvAddressTable.
** The following groups/tables in RFC3414 are not supported: usmUserTable.
Other MIBs may be available on request.
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SNMP parameters
Enable SNMPv1
Ticking this checkbox enables support for version 1 of the protocol.
Enable SNMPv2c
Ticking this checkbox enables support for version 2c of the protocol.
Enable SNMPv3
Ticking this checkbox enables support for version 3 of the protocol.
Use UDP Port n
This is the UDP port number to use. The default is UDP port 161.
SNMPv3 Engine ID
This is required as part of the SNMP v3 protocol. This is a 24 hexadecimal character string; any
trailing zeroes in this string making the value up to 24 characters can be omitted. A remote
engine ID is required when a SNMP v3 Inform is configured. The remote engine ID is used to
compute the security digest for authenticating and encrypting packets sent to a user on the
remote host.
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SNMP parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snmp
n
v1enable
0,1
Enable SNMPv1
0 = Off
1 = On
snmp
n
v2cenable
0,1
Enable SNMPv2c
0 = Off
1 = On
snmp
n
v3enable
0,1
Enable SNMPv3
0 = Off
1 = On
snmp
n
port
0 - 65535
Use UDP Port
Default = 161
snmp
n
engineid
String
SNMPv3 Engine ID
SNMP User parameters
This page controls the configuration of the SNMP users.
SNMPv1 / SNMPv2c
Community
The text in this text entry box specifies the community string for Version 1 and Version 2c
SNMP packets.
Confirm Community
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SNMP parameters
The community string is echoed as dots in the text entry box and so having a second
confirmation field where the string is retyped, allows a simple check to be performed for
correct entry.
SNMPv3
Username
This field is the name of the SNMP user.
Authentication None, MD5, SHA1
These three radio buttons select what authentication algorithm is to be applied to the SNMP
transactions.
Authentication Password
This is the authentication password for the user.
Confirm Authentication Password
The authentication password is not shown as clear text. The confirmation box allows a simple
check that the password has been entered correctly.
Encryption None, DES, AES
These three radio buttons select which encryption (privacy) algorithm should be applied to the
SNMP data.
Encryption Password
The user’s password that is used to control the privacy of the SNMP transactions is entered
into this text entry box.
Confirm Encryption Password
The encryption password is not shown as clear text. The confirmation box allows a simple
check that the password has been entered correctly.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snmpuser
n
community
public / private
Community
snmpuser
n
name
user_dave
Username
snmpuser
n
auth
Off,MD5,SHA1
Authentication, None, MD5,
SHA1
snmpuser
n
authPassword
my_password
Authentication Password
snmpuser
n
priv
Off,DES,AES
Encryption, None, DES, AES
snmpuser
n
privPassword
my_password
Encryption Password
SNMP Filter parameters
SNMP filters allow the system administrator to control access to the router MIBs via SNMP. This
functionality is controlled by a table on the web configuration page. This table has three columns,
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SNMP parameters
two main headed columns as described below and a control column containing button widgets.
The table has a capacity of ten entries, snmp filter instances range from 0 to 9.
Username
The username (as configured in the Configuration – Security > Users section) of the user to
whom the access restriction is applied.
OID Prefix
The Object ID prefix for the range of objects in the MIB that the user is not allowed to view.
such as 1.3.6.1.2.1.4
Add
This button adds the username and OID prefix into the table.
Delete
This button causes the associated entry in the table to be deleted.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snmpfilter
n
user
username
Username
snmpfilter
n
oid
Valid SNMP OID
OID Prefix
SNMP Trap parameters
SNMP traps are events that are generated when the specified condition is met. The web page and
CLI configuration parameters are described here. The TansPort routers support two trap servers.
Generate Enterprise traps
When this check box is ticked, the router will generate product-specific traps.
Generate Generic traps
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SNMP parameters
SNMP specifies several generic traps (Cold Start, Warm Start, Link Down, Link Up etc). When
this checkbox is ticked, generic traps are generated.
Generate Authentication Failure traps
This checkbox enables the generation of authentication failure traps.
Generate VRRP traps
Checking this checkbox enables the generation of VRRP traps. See the VRRP section in this
manual for the configuration of VRRP.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snmp
n
enterprisetraps
0,1
Generate Enterprise traps
0 = Off
1 = On
snmp
n
generictraps
0,1
Generate Generic traps
0 = Off
1 = On
snmp
n
authtraps
0,1
Generate Authentication traps
0 = Off
1 = On
snmp
n
vrrptraps
0,1
Generate VRRP traps
0 = Off
1 = On
SNMP Trap Server parameters
Digi TransPort routers support two SNMP trap servers. The following options and description
explain how to configure a trap server.
Trap Server IP Address a.b.c.d
This is the IP address of the server running the SNMP software and determines the
destination for the trap notifications.
Port n
This is the UDP port number that the SNMP server is listening on, the default is 162 which is
the standard port number for this service.
Use SNMP Version
Select the required SNMP version number from this drop-down selection box.
Send “Inform Request” message
If SNMP version 2c or 3 is selected, the router can send a SNMP Inform Request message
instead of a Trap message. Inform Request messages are acknowledged by the SNMP Trap
server whereas Trap messages are not.
If no response, retransmit the Inform Request message after n seconds
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SNMP parameters
The period after which the Inform Request message is retransmitted if no response has been
received.
Retransmit a maximum n times
The maximum number of times an Inform Request message will be retransmitted. If no
acknowledgment is received after the maximum number of retransmissions, an event is
logged.
Community
Enter the desired community string into this text entry box.
Confirm Community
Entering the community string again here enables verification of the string since the string is
not displayed.
Trap Server Engine ID
This item will be configured within the application and is the SNMP server software engine ID
which is used for authentication and encryption.
SNMP User
This is the username that should be associated with the trap server. This should match a user
from one of the previously configured SNMP users (Configuration – Remote Management >
SNMP > Users).
User Security Level
Select the desired security level from this drop-down selection box. The choices are these:
•
No Authentication, No Privacy
•
Authentication, No Privacy
•
Authentication, Privacy
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SNMP parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
snmptrap
n
IPaddr
Valid IP address
such as 1.2.3.4
Trap Server IP Address a.b.c.d
snmptrap
n
port
0 - 65535
Port
Default = 162
snmptrap
n
version
v1, v2c, v3
Use SNMP Version
snmptrap
n
sendInforms
on | off
Send “Inform Request” messages
snmptrap
n
informto
Integer
If no response, retransmit the
Inform Request message after n
seconds
snmptrap
n
informretries
Integer
Retransmit a maximum n times
snmptrap
n
community
String
Community
snmptrap
n
engineid
String
Trap Server Engine ID
snmptrap
n
securityname
String
SNMP User
snmptrap
n
securitylevel
noauthnopriv
authnopriv
authpriv
User Security Level
noauthnopriv = No
Authentication, No Privicy
authnopriv = Auth, No Priv
authpriv = Auth & Priv
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Security
The Configuration – Security page has the following menu options:
•
System
•
Users
•
Firewall
•
RADIUS
•
TACACS+
•
Command Filters
•
Calling Numbers
• GPS
System
Configuration – Security> System
This page allows you to configure the USB and miscellaneous security.
Disable the following USB devices
This parameter provides an option of enabling or disabling any of the following USB devices:
•
All devices
•
Mass storage devices
•
Serial devices
•
Hub devices
Allow autoexec.bat files to run from Mass Storage Devices
This parameter allows you to enable/ disable running the autoexec.bat files from the mass
storage devices.
Enable "Factory Default" reset button
Use this parameter to enable/disable execution of a complete hardware reset.
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Users
Users
Configuration – Security> Users> User n
These pages allow you to configure a number of authorized users. The number of users available
depends on the firmware build the router is running. Each user has a password and access level
that determines what facilities the user has access to.
Username
The name of the user. Up to 14 characters are allowed.
There are some special usernames that can also be used, these are:
•
This uses the serial number of the router as the username.
•
This uses the IMEI of the cellular module as the username.
•
This uses the ICCID of the SIM as the username.
If a ‘%’ symbol is part of the username, it must be escaped with another ‘%’ symbol.
For example ‘user%1’ should be entered as ‘user%%1’.
Password / Confirm Password
The password for the user. Up to 14 characters are allowed.
Access Level
Selects the access level for the User. There are the following options:
Super
Allows full access to all facilities.
High
Allows user to reconfigure the general configuration of the router
and to change some settings such as the time and date.
Not allowed to change user settings.
Medium
Allows user to access medium level configuration commands
which allow some configuration of the router.
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Users
Super
Allows full access to all facilities.
Low
Allows user to access low level commands which tend to be
status and statistics commands.
Read Only
Read only access of the configuration.
None
User is not allowed to login via Web, FTP, SSH and Telnet.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
user
0
name
String
Username
(up to 40 chars)
user
0
password
String
Password
(up to 40 chars)
user
0
access
0 = Super
1 = High
2 = Medium
3 = Low
4 = None
8 = Read Only
Access Level
Advanced
Configuration – Security> Users> User n> Advanced
Allow this user to log in over a PPP network
Enabling this will allow the user to log in to the router using PPP. Disabling this will disable PPP
login for the user no matter what the user’s access level is.
Use this number x when PPP dial-back is required for this user
The telephone number for the user in the event that “dial-back” is required. If the username
that the remote router uses during the PPP authentication matches the username of the user
where a dial-back number is configured, the user’s dial-back number will override any dialback number configured in the answering PPP interface.
Alternate IKE Key / Confirm Alternate IKE Key
When IKE is the initiator, the responder supplied HASH is checked using the normal password
(above) and if that fails, the Alternate Key (here). The initiator will remember which password
was successful, and use that password to create the HASH if it becomes the responder of
some new negotiation. If the IKE becomes a responder and IKE negotiations fail after
supplying the HASH, the other password will be used during the next negotiation.
Using this Alternate Key, it should be possible to configure new passwords into both ends of a
tunnel, and not have too many failed negotiations. The process would be to add the Alternate
Key into the remote router, then update the local router with the Alternate Key. Once that has
been done, the administrator would then be able to move the Alternate Key to the usual
location (Password) and remove the Alternate Key (newpwd) from the configuration. Should a
negotiation take place during the period where the Alternate Key has been entered into the
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Users
remote router, but not the local router, there should be no more than one failed negotiation,
and only if the remote router is the initiator.
Remote Peer IP address
In certain circumstances, it may be desirable for a user connecting in over a PPP connection to
be allocated a specific IP address, rather than be allocated an address from a pool configured
on a PPP interface. When this parameter is configured, the IP address negotiated on the PPP
link will be this one, not an address from the regular IP address pool.
Remote Peer IP subnet
In the event that multiple PPP interfaces are enabled for answering and that multiple remote
routers can dial into the local router, static routes cannot always be used to ensure that
packets which should be routed to the remote network are sent through the correct PPP
interface. This parameter can be used in conjunction with the ‘Remote Peer IP subnet mask’
parameter to associate a network subnet with a user.
When a remote unit “connects in” and authenticates with the unit, the unit will then create a
dynamic route (that will override any static routes) for the duration of the PPP session. The
interface for the dynamic route will be the PPP interface that answered the call. The network
address for the dynamic route will be taken from the entry in the user table that matches the
username that the remote unit used during the PPP authentication.
Remote Peer IP subnet mask
The remote subnet mask parameter is used in conjunction with the ‘Remote Peer IP subnet’
parameter above to fully qualify the network address for the user.
Public Key file
The name of the file containing the public key for that user. If the public key matches the client
supplied public key, the user is allowed access.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
user
0
dun_en
on, off
Allow this user to log in over a PPP
network
user
0
phonenum
Number
Use this number x when PPP dialback is required for this user
user
0
newpwd
String
Alternate IKE Key
(up to 14 chars)
user
0
fieldip
IP Address
Remote Peer IP address
user
0
ipaddr
IP Address
Remote Peer IP subnet
user
0
mask
IP Mask
Remote Peer IP subnet mask
user
0
keyfile
Filename
Public Key file
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Firewall parameters
Firewall parameters
Configuration – Security> Firewalls
All Digi TransPort routers incorporate a comprehensive firewall facility. A firewall is a security
system that is used to restrict the type of traffic that the router will transmit or receive based on a
combination of IP address, service type, protocol type, port number and IP flags. Firewalls are
used to minimize the risk of unauthorized access to the local network resources by external users
or to restrict the range of external resources to which local users have access. A more detailed
description of how firewalls operate on Digi routers is given in the “Firewall Scripts” section. Refer
to this section before attempting to implement a firewall.
The rules governing the operation of the firewall are contained in a pseudo-file called “fw.txt”.
This file can be created either by using the controls in the web page described below or by using
a text editor on a PC and then loading the resulting file onto the router using FTP or XMODEM.
Digi Routers are shipped with a default fw.txt file that can be used as the starting point for a
custom firewall configuration.
Configuration of the firewall is carried out by using the table described below. There are three
other buttons that appear just below the table. Their use will also be described.
Since a default file is supplied, when this page loads it will show the rules in the default “fw.txt”
file. If “fw.txt” does not exist, a blank table will be shown.
Hits
The numbers that appear in this column of the table are the number of hits for the rule that
appears to the right.
#
This is non-editable and is simply the rule number.
Delete
Clicking this button deletes the rule that appears to its left.
Insert
These buttons are used to insert new lines. The insert buttons that appear alongside existing
rules insert new blank lines above the line on which they appear. The button at the bottom
creates a new blank line at the end of the table. (An empty table will only have the one button
at the bottom). To create a new rule, click the button at the point the new rule should appear
and a new text box should appear. Type the rule into the text box and once complete, click the
“ok” button. To abandon any changes click the “cancel” button. Once the “ok” button has been
clicked the firewall task will validate the rule and if valid, will add it the table. If errors are
detected, a warning message will be displayed, at which point the rule may be edited or
deleted.
Edit
These buttons that appear to the right of the rule open up the rule in an edit text box which
allows the text to be edited. Click on the “ok” button to commit the changes or “cancel” to
abandon the edit.
Reset Hit Counters
Clicking this button resets (to zero) all the rule hit counts that appear in the left-hand column
of the table.
Save
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Clicking this button saves changes to the table to the “fw.txt” file. If the changes are not saved
using this button, they will be lost if the router is rebooted or loses power.
Restore
If, after reviewing changes to the table it is decided that the edit should be abandoned, clicking
this button will restore the original “fw.txt” to the table, provided that they have not been
saved.
Below the firewall editor table is another table that controls which interfaces the firewall rules
apply to.
Interface
This column is simply a list of the available interfaces to which the firewall rules may be
applied.
Enabled
Check the checkbox next to the interface(s) that the firewall should operate on in order to
enable the firewall for that interface.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
fw
n/a
logclr
-
Reset Hit Counters
fw
n/a
save
-
Save
fw
n/a
-
-
Restore
The firewall rule hits may be viewed from the command line console by using the command:
type fwstat.hit
Stateful Inspection Settings parameters
Configuration – Security> Firewalls> Stateful Inspection Settings
The page described below contains timer timeout values and other options that are used
by the firewall stateful inspection module. This module establishes firewall rules that last
for the duration of a single connection only. Typically, the first packet of a TCP connection
(SYN packet) is used to create a stateful inspection rule that only allows subsequent
packets for that TCP connection through the firewall. The timers described below are used
to set limits on how long such rules persist.
Timers
TCP Opening s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the length of time following receipt of a TCP packet that
causes a stateful inspection rule to be created before a TCP connection must be established. If
a TCP connection is not established within this period, the associated stateful rule will be
removed.
TCP Open s seconds
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The value in this text box specifies the length of time that an established TCP connection may
remain idle before the stateful inspection rule created for it is removed. The timer is restarted
each time a packet is processed by the associated stateful inspection rule.
TCP Closing s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the length of time that is allowed for a TCP socket to close
once the first FIN packet has been received. If the timer expires before the socket has
completed closing, the stateful inspection rule is removed.
TCP Closed s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the length of time that a stateful inspection rule will remain
in place after a TCP connection has closed.
UDP s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the length of time that a stateful inspection rule will remain
in place following the receipt of UDP packet. The timer is restarted each time packets
matching the rule pass in each direction. As a consequence, rules based on UDP should only
be used if it anticipated that packets will travel in both directions.
ICMP s seconds
Some ICMP packets – for instance the ECHO request – generate response packets. The value
in this text box specifies the length of time that a stateful inspection rule created for an ICMP
packet will remain in place if the response is not received. The rule is removed immediately
following receipt of the response.
Other protocols s seconds
If a stateful inspection rule is created from a packet type other than TCP, UDP or ICMP, a rule
timeout should be created for it. The parameter in this text box specifies the length of time
such a rule persists. The timer is restarted each time a packet is processed by the rule.
Other Options
Expire entry after n consecutive packets in one direction
The value in this text box specifies the maximum number of consecutive packets that should
pass in one direction before the corresponding rule entry is expired.
Count missed UDP echo packets as dropped
When checked, this checkbox will cause the firewall to increment the dropped packet count
for each failed echo request in the situation where UDP echo is active on an interface that
becomes disconnected.
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RADIUS parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
fwall
0
opening
0 - 4294967296
TCP Opening s seconds
fwall
0
open
0 – 4294967296
TCP Open s seconds
fwall
0
closing
0 - 4294967296
TCP Closing s seconds
fwall
0
closed
0 – 4294967296
TCP Closed s seconds
fwall
0
udp
0 – 4294967296
UDP s seconds
fwall
0
icmp
0 – 4294967296
ICMP s seconds
fwall
0
other
0 – 4294967296
Other protocols s seconds
fwall
0
maxuni
0 - 2147483647
Expire entry after n consecutive
packets in one direction
fwall
0
cntmissedecho
OFF,ON
Default OFF
Count missed UDP echo packets
as dropped
RADIUS parameters
Configuration – Security> Radius
The RADIUS client may be used for authentication purposes at the start of remote command
sessions, SSH sessions, FTP sessions, HTTP sessions and Wi-Fi client connections (PEAP & EAPTLS). Depending on how the RADIUS client is configured, the router may authenticate with one or
two RADIUS servers, or may authenticate a user locally using the existing table configured on the
router.
There are 2 RADIUS client configurations, RADIUS client 0 and RADIUS client 1, both have specific
functions and the correct instance (0 or 1 or both) should be configured depending on the
requirements.
To use RADUIUS for authenticating router administration access, configure RADIUS client 0.
To use RADUIUS for authenticating Wi-Fi clients, configure RADIUS client 1.
When the router has obtained the remote user username and password, the RADIUS client is
used to pass this information (from the Username and Password attributes) to the specified
RADIUS server for authorisation. The server should reply with an ACCEPT or REJECT message.
The RADIUS client may be configured with up to two Network Access Servers (NAS). It may also
have local authentication turned on or off depending on system requirements.
When a user is authenticated, the configured RADIUS servers are contacted first. If a valid ACCEPT
or REJECT message is received from the server, the user is allowed or denied access respectively.
If no response is received from the first server, the second server is tried (if configured). If that
server fails to respond, local authentication is used unless disabled. If both servers are
unreachable and local authentication is disabled, all authentication attempts fail.
If a RADIUS server replies with a REPLY-MESSAGE attribute (18), the message will be displayed to
the user after the login attempt and after any configured “post-banner” message. The router will
then display a “Continue Y/N?” prompt to the user. If “N” is selected, the remote session will be
terminated. This applies to remote command sessions and SSH sessions only.
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If the login attempt is successful and the server sends an IDLE-TIMEOUT attribute (28), the idle
time specified will be assigned to the remote session. If no IDLE-TIMEOUT attribute is sent, the
router will apply the default idle timeout values to the session.
The access level is determined by the value of the SERVICE-TYPE attribute returned by the RADIUS
server. Administrative access is determined by the value 6 being returned by the server. Any
other value or no value returned will result in the access level “low” being assigned.
When the session starts and ends, the router will send the RADIUS accounting START/STOP
messages to the configured server. Again, if no response is received from the primary accounting
server, the secondary server will be tried. No further action is taken if the secondary accounting
server is unreachable.
As a consequence of the fact that the router has separate configurations for authorization
and accounting servers, it is possible to configure the router to perform authorization
functions only, accounting only, or both. An example of how this might be used could be
to perform local authorizations but send accounting start/stop records to an accounting
server.
RADIUS Client n parameters
Configuration – Security> Radius > RADIUS Client n
The following pages describe the configuration parameters available for setting up a RADIUS
client on the router.
Authorization
Primary Authorization Server
IP Address a.b.c.d
The value in this text box specifies the IP address of the primary authorisation NAS.
NAS ID
The value in this text box is an identifier which is passed to the primary authorisation NAS and
is used to identify the RADIUS client. The appropriate value will be supplied by the primary
authorisation NAS administrator.
Password
The value in this text box is the password supplied by the primary authorisation NAS
administrator and is used in conjunction with the primary authorisation NAS ID to
authenticate RADIUS packets.
Confirm Password
Type the above password into this text box so that the router may determine if the two are
identical.
Secondary Authorization Server
IP Address a.b.c.d
The value in this text box is the IP address of the secondary authorisation NAS server.
NAS ID
The value in this text box is an identifier which is passed to the secondary authorisation NAS
and is used to identify the RADIUS client. The appropriate value will be supplied by the
secondary authorisation NAS administrator.
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RADIUS parameters
Password
The value in this text box is the password supplied by the secondary authorisation NAS
administrator and is used in conjunction with the secondary authorisation NAS ID to
authenticate RADIUS packets.
Confirm Password
Type the above password into this text box so that the router may determine if the two are
identical.
Enable local authorization if there is no response from the authorization server(s)
When checked (default state), this checkbox will allow local authorisation if the RADIUS servers
are unreachable or not configured. Uncheck the box to disable local authorisation.
Accounting
Primary Accounting Server
IP Address
The value in this text box is the IP address of the primary accounting NAS.
NAS ID
The value in this text box is an identifier that is passed to the primary accounting NAS and is
used to identify the RADIUS client. The appropriate value will be supplied by the primary
accounting NAS administrator.
Password
The value in this text box is the password that is supplied by the primary accounting NAS
administrator and is used in conjunction with the primary accounting NAS ID to authenticate
RADIUS packets.
Confirm Password
Type the above password into this text box to enable the router to check that they are
identical.
Secondary Accounting Server
IP Address
The value in this text box is the IP address of the secondary accounting NAS.
NAS ID
The value in this text box is an identifier that is passed to the secondary accounting NAS and is
used to identify the RADIUS client. The appropriate value will be supplied by the secondary
accounting NAS administrator.
Password
The value in this text box is the password that is supplied by the secondary accounting NAS
administrator and is used in conjunction with the secondary accounting NAS ID to
authenticate RADIUS packets.
Confirm Password
Type the above password into this text box to enable the router to check that they are
identical.
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RADIUS parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
radcli
0,1
server
Valid IP Address
a.b.c.d
Primary Authorization Server
IP Address
radcli
0,1
nasid
Up to 80 characters
Primary Authorization Server NAS
ID
radcli
0,1
password
Up to 40 characters
Primary Authorization Server
Password
radcli
0,1
server2
Valid IP Address
a.b.c.d
Secondary Authorization Server
IP Address
radcli
0,1
nasid2
Up to 80 characters
Secondary Authorization Server
NAS ID
radcli
0,1
password2
Up to 40 characters
Secondary Authorization Server
Password
radcli
0,1
localauth
OFF,ON
Default ON
Enable local authorization if there is
no response from the authorization
server(s)
radcli
0,1
aserver
Valid IP Address
a.b.c.d
Primary Accounting Server
IP Address
radcli
0,1
anasid
Up to 80 characters
Primary Accounting Server
NAS ID
radcli
0,1
apassword
Up to 40 characters
Primary Accounting Server
Password
radcli
0,1
aserver2
Valid IP Address
a.b.c.d
Secondary Accounting Server
IP Address
radcli
0,1
anasid2
Up to 80 characters
Secondary Accounting Server NAS
ID
radcli
0,1
apassword2
Up to 40 characters
Secondary Accounting Server
Password
Advanced parameters
Configuration – Security> Radius> Radius Client n> Advanced
If there is no response from the server
Use Source IP Address
If required an alternative source interface and instance may be selected here. Select the
required interface from the drop-down list and enter the instance of that interface into the
adjacent text box. The available interface options are
•
Auto
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TACACS+ parameters
•
PPP
•
Ethernet
Retransmit the request after s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the interval between retransmissions of RADIUS packets.
Stop the negotiation after n retransmissions
The value in this text box specifies the maximum number of times RADIUS data should be
transmitted to the NAS before the negotiation is deemed to have failed.
Stop the negotiation if there is no activity for s seconds
The value in this text box specifies the inactivity period after which the negotiation procedure
is deemed to have failed.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
radcli
0
ip_ent
Blank,ETH,PPP Blank
= Auto
Use Source IP Address
radcli
0,1
retranint
0 – 2147483647
Default 5
Retransmit the request after s
seconds
radcli
0,1
retran
0 – 2147483647
Default 3
Stop the negotiation after n
retransmissions
radcli
0,1
inactto
0 – 2147483647
Default 30
Stop the negotiation if there is
no activity for s seconds
TACACS+ parameters
The Digi TransPort range of routers supports Terminal Access Controller Access-Control System
Plus (TACACS+) for controlling access to the router. TACACS+ provides authentication,
authorization and accounting (AAA) services.
TACACS+ can be used to control the following access methods: Secured asynchronous serial (ASY)
ports, Telnet, SSH, FTP, HTTP/HTTPS and SNMP.
When any sort of request is to be performed by the TACACS+ client, the client first checks to see if
a socket to the server (primary or backup) is already open. If a socket is already open, that socket
is used for the TACACS+ request. If no socket is open, the primary server is tried first. If the
primary server socket fails to open, the backup server will be tried. Regardless of whether the
primary or backup socket connected, the primary server is always tried first on the next
connection attempt. Once the connection to the TACACS+ server opens, all pending requests are
sent to the TACACS+ server.
If a connection to the TACACS+ server is not possible due to network or server problems, all
requests by applications are denied.
Functions of the AAA services
If TACACS+ authentication is enabled, the request is sent to the TACACS+ server. If disabled, the
router performs the authentication. At this point authorisation is also performed. If TACACS+
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TACACS+ parameters
authorisation is disabled, the user access level is obtained from the local user table on the router.
If TACACS+ authorisation is enabled, an authorisation request is sent to the TACACS+ server. The
server will return a privilege level and may also return other attributed such as a new idle time for
this session which takes precedence over locally configured values.
When the user has been authenticated and access has been authorised, the login is allowed. If
the connection is via telnet or SSH a welcome message will be displayed that shows the access
level and the method of authentication. If the access level was assigned locally the following
message will be displayed:
Welcome. Your access level is SUPER
If the access level was assigned by the TACACS+ server, the following message will be displayed:
Welcome. Your access level is obtained remotely
If accounting is enabled, session start and stop messages are sent to the TACACS+ server when
the session opens and closes. During the session, details of commands executed and denied due
to access level control will be sent to the TACACS+ server. At the end of the session the stop
message is sent to the TACACS+ server with the elapsed session time included.
TACACS+ to local privilege level mappings:
TACACS+ level
Local level
>= 15
Super
12 - 14
High
8 – 11
Medium
4-8
Low
0-3
None
Primary TACACS+ Server
Hostname or IP address of Server a.b.c.d Port n
The IP address or hostname of the primary TACACS+ server is entered into the left-hand text
box. If required a port number may also be specified using the right-hand text box. TACACS+
uses TCP port 49 by default. Entering a different number into this text box will cause the
router to use that port instead. The port number is used by both the primary and secondary
TACACS+ servers.
Server Key
The value in this text box specifies the encryption key to use when communicating with the
primary server.
Confirm Server Key
The key is typed into this text box to allow the router to confirm that the two strings are
identical.
Secondary TACACS+ Server
Hostname or IP address of Server
The value in this text box is the IP address or hostname of the secondary (backup) TACACS+
server. This will be used if a socket to the primary server cannot be opened.
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TACACS+ parameters
Server Key
The value in this text box is the encryption key to use when communicating with the
secondary server.
Confirm Server Key
Enter the key into this text box to allow the router to confirm that the two entries are identical.
Enable local authentication if there is no response from the server(s)
When checked, this checkbox will allow local authentication if TACACS+ authentication fails.
Enable TACACS+ Authentication
When checked, this checkbox enables authentication. When authentication is enabled, user
authentication takes place on the TACACS+ server. When disabled, user authentication takes
place locally on the router.
Enable TACACS+ Authorisation
When checked, this checkbox enables authorisation which means that authorisation of the
application takes place and authorisation of application-related commands also takes place.
Enable TACACS+ Accounting
When checked, this checkbox enables accounting. When accounting is enabled, accounting messages
are sent at the start and end of application sessions (where applicable) and update messages are also
sent from command sessions when commands are denied locally or after they are executed.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tacplus
0
svr
Up to 64 characters
for hostname or
valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Hostname or IP address of server
tacplus
0
port
0 – 2147483647
Default 49
Port
tacplus
0
key
Up to 20 characters Server Key
tacplus
0
svr2
Up to 64 characters
or valid IP address
a.b.c.d
tacplus
0
key2
Up to 20 characters Server Key
tacplus
0
localauth
OFF,ON
Enable local authentication if there
is no response from the server(s)
tacplus
0
authent
OFF,ON
Enable TACACS+ Authentication
tacplus
0
author
OFF,ON
Enable TACACS+ Authorisation
tacplus
0
acct
OFF,ON
Enable TACACS+ Accounting
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Advanced
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tacplus
0
debug
OFF,ON
n/a
tacplus
0
tacacspageau
th
OFF,ON
n/a
Advanced
The parameters described in this section should not normally need to be adjusted.
Use source IP Address x,y
If required, due to the TACACS+ server being accessed via a VPN tunnel, an alternative source
interface and instance may be selected here. Select the required interface from the dropdown list and enter the instance of that interface into the adjacent text box. The available
interface options are
•
Auto
•
PPP
•
Ethernet
Response Timeout s seconds
Text box
Stop the negotiation if there is no activity for s seconds
The number in this text box specifies the amount of time (in seconds) before an inactive
socket is closed.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
tacplus
0
ip_ent
Blank,ETH,PPP
Blank = Auto
Use source IP Address x,y
tacplus
0
ip_add
0 - 2147483647
Use source IP Address x,y
tacplus
0
respto
0 – 2147483647
Default = 30
Response Timeout s seconds
tacplus
0
inact
0 – 2147483647
Default = 30
Stop the negotiation if there is no
activity for s seconds
Command Filters
When this feature is enabled, commands will not reach the router’s command interpreter unless
they are defined in the Command Filters table. Terminal devices may send commands that the
router will not necessarily understand but that require a basic “OK” or “ERROR” response.
With command filtering turned on, any command entered will be responded to with a MODEMlike “OK” or “ERROR” response (depending on settings below) unless the command is found in the
Command Filters table. The command filter uses wild-character matching so that command
filters such as “cmd*” are permitted which would allow all “cmd 0 ...” commands to be executed.
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Calling Numbers
Note that the command mapping table is checked first and the command filter table is only
checked if there was not a match in the command matching table.
For more information on command filtering there is an application note “Command Line
Response Manipulation” which is available on the Digi web site (www.digi.com).
The table is generated by typing the desired command into the text box and clicking the “Add”
button. Once a command has been entered into the table, it can be removed by clicking the
“Delete” button that appears on the right hand side.
Command
This text box contains the command to filter.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
cfilter
n
cmd
Valid command line
command
Command
cmd
n
cfilton
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
n/a
cmd
n
cfilterr
0,1
0 = Off – OK
1 = On – ERROR
n/a
Command filtering is enabled from the command line for any particular instance of the
command interpreter with the following command cmd <n> cfilton 1
The default action is to respond with the “OK” response. If the response needed is “ERROR”, use
the parameter cmd <n> cfilterr 1
Where n is the instance number.
Note If the command string contains blank characters, it must be enclosed by double quotation
marks. When substituting a command, upper case characters are considered the same as
the corresponding lower case characters.
Calling Numbers
This web page contains a table that accepts a series of telephone numbers, each of which has an
associated Answer or Reject parameter and in the case of numbers from which calls are to be
rejected, a user-defined reason code. For each number set to “Reject”, the router will reject
incoming calls from that number using the reason code specified. The reason code is simply a
numeric value that is chosen to suit the particular application. If any one of the entries is set to
“Answer” the router will only answer incoming calls from that number and will reject calls from
other numbers using a standard ISDN reject code.
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Calling Numbers
Note This feature is for use by experienced personnel for network testing and fault diagnosis. It
should not be required for normal use. To use this feature, the ISDN circuit must support
the Calling Line Identification (CLI) facility. If CLI is supported, incoming calls from specified
numbers may be answered normally or alternatively rejected with an optional reject code.
Number
The number in this text box is the telephone number to either answer or reject.
Mode
The drop-down list in this column selects either “Answer” to answer calls or “Reject” to reject
calls.
Reject Code
The value in this text box is the reason code pertaining to the rejection of the call.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
rejlst
n
num
up to 20 digits
Number
rejlst
n
ans
OFF,ON
Mode Answer,Reject
rejlst
n
code
0 – 255
code
Command line examples:
To display an entry in the calling numbers list enter the command:
rejlst <instance> ?
where <instance> is 0 – 9.
Such as, rejlst 5 ?
To set up an entry to reject a number, use the following commands:
rejlst 0 num 1234567
rejlst 0 ans OFF
rejlst 0 code 42
To set up an entry to answer a number, use the following commands:
rejlst 1 num 1234567
rejlst 1 ans ON
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Positions
GPS parameters
One of the options available on some models is the ability to connect a GPS receiver which
enables the router access to geographical position information. The module may be internal or
external. In either situation, an internal asynchronous serial (ASY) port will be used for the
connection. The standard way that GPS modules send the data is using National Marine
Electronics Association (NMEA) standard 0183 messages. This protocol is usually simply referred
to as NMEA. Routers offering this functionality support the most common NMEA data messages.
These will be described below. GPS receiver modules normally accept configuration commands
which specify which of the NMEA messages should be sent to the requesting host. The following
descriptions show how to configure a router to accept and forward GPS data using the web
interface and by using CLI commands.
Enable local monitoring
When checked, this checkbox allows messages from the GPS receiver may be viewed on the
Management – Position > GPS status page. Which messages are displayed is configured via
entries in a table.
GPS Module Initialization String
Some GPS receivers may require configuration via an initialization message at start-up in
order to send the appropriate messages in the required format, at the required data rate. Any
such required command string is entered into the text entry box and will be sent to the
attached GPS receiver module when the router initialises the module.
The table described here controls which NMEA messages should be sent from the module.
The default is to enable all messages.
Fix data (GGA)
When the associated checkbox is checked the fix data (2D, 3D or no fix) will be output.
Position (GLL)
This checkbox, when checked, causes the Geographic position (Latitude/Longitude) sentence
to be output.
Active Satellites (GSA)
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Checking this checkbox causes the NMEA sentence containing the number of active satellites
used to calculate the position, to be output.
Satellites in view (GSV)
Checking this checkbox causes the NMEA sentence containing the number of satellites in view
to be output.
Position and Time (RMC)
Checking this checkbox causes the NMEA sentence containing the current position and time,
to be output.
Course over Ground (VTG)
Checking this checkbox causes the NMEA sentence containing the course data to be output.
UTC and local date/time data (ZDA)
Checking this checkbox causes the NMEA sentence containing the current local time and date,
to be output.
All other messages
The above messages are the most common and useful NMEA sentences. Many GPS modules
support additional messages. Checking this checkbox causes the modules to output any other
supported messages.
IP Connection 1
GPS data may be sent to up to two IP destinations. These are specified in the following two
sections of the web page.
Send GPS messages to IP address a.b.c.d
This text entry box holds the IP address that the GPS data should be sent to.
Port n
The required TCP/UDP port number that the GPS data should be sent to is specified here.
Every n interval(s)
The number entered into this text entry box controls how often the GPS data is transmitted to
the specified host. A value of 1 will cause collected GPS data to be transmitted each time a UTC
and local date/time data (ZDA) message is received from the GPS receiver module. A value of 2
will cause every second message to be sent and so on. For this feature to work over a TCP/IP
connection, the ZDA message must be enabled.
Use TCP / UDP
These radio buttons select which protocol to use for sending the messages.
Prefix the message with t
Enter any text string that the user wishes to precede the NMEA data into this text entry box.
Suffix the message with t
Enter any text string that the user wishes to follow the NMEA data into this text entry box.
IP Connection 2
Send GPS messages to IP address a.b.c.d
This text entry box holds the IP address that the GPS data should be sent to.
Port n
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GPS parameters
The required TCP/UDP port number that the GPS data should be sent to is specified here.
Every n interval(s)
The number entered into this text entry box controls how often the GPS data is transmitted to
the specified host. A value of 1 will cause collected GPS data to be transmitted each time a UTC
and local date/time data (ZDA) message is received from the GPS receiver module. A value of 2
will cause every second message to be sent and so on. For this feature to work over a TCP/IP
connection, the ZDA message must be enabled.
Use TCP / UDP
These radio buttons select which protocol to use for sending the messages.
Prefix the message with t
Enter any text string that the user wishes to precede the NMEA data into this text entry box.
Suffix the message with t
Enter any text string that the user wishes to follow the NMEA data into this text entry box.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
gps
0
asy_add
The ASY port the GPS n/a
receiver is connected
to
gps
0
gpson
On, Off
Enable local monitoring
gps
0
init_str
Valid command for
GPS receiver
GPS Module Initialization string
gps
0
gga_on
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Fix data (GGA)
gps
0
gll_on
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Position (GLL)
gps
0
gsa_on
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Active Satellites (GSA)
gps
0
gsv_on
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Satellites in view (GSV)
gps
0
rmc_on
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Position and time (RMC)
gps
0
vtg_on
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Course over Ground (VTG)
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442
GPS parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
gps
0
zda_on
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
UTC and local date/time (ZDA)
gps
0
oth_on
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
All other messages
gps
0
IPaddr1
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Send GPS message to IP
address (1)
gps
0
IPport1
Valid IP port n
port n
gps
0
nsecs1
Time s seconds
every n interval(s)
gps
0
udpmode1
0,1
0 = TCP
1 = UDP
Use TCP/UDP
gps
0
IPprefix1
Free text
Prefix the message with
gps
0
IPsuffix1
Free text
Suffix the message with
gps
0
IPaddr2
Valid IP address
a.b.c.d
Send GPS message to IP
address (2)
gps
0
IPport2
Valid IP port n
port n
gps
0
nsecs2
Time s seconds
every n interval(s)
gps
0
udpmode2
0,1
0 = TCP
1 = UDP
Use TCP/UDP
gps
0
IPprefix2
Free text
Prefix the message with
gps
0
IPsuffix2
Free text
Suffix the message with
The following CLI parameters are not available on the web interface:
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
gps
0
gga_int
s seconds
0 – 255
n/a
gps
0
gll_int
s seconds
0 - 255
n/a
gps
0
gsa_int
s seconds
0 – 255
n/a
gps
0
gsv_int
s seconds
0 – 255
n/a
gps
0
rmc_int
s seconds
0 – 255
n/a
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GPS parameters
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
gps
0
vtg_int
s seconds
0 – 255
n/a
gps
0
zda_int
s seconds
0 - 255
n/a
Additional GPS CLI commands
cmd <instance> gpson {on|off}
When set to on, this indicates that an instance of the command line interpreter is connected to
the GPS receiver. The instance number should be the ASY port number to which the GPS receiver
is connected. This parameter has two purposes. Firstly, it tells a particular command interpreter
instance that it is connected to a GPS receiver so that commands received by that instance should
be ignored, rather than being treated as invalid commands. Secondly, it is used by the at\gps
command to determine where the GPS messages originate.
at\gps
This command causes messages from the GPS receiver to be sent directly to the ASY port from
which the command has been entered. This requires that the gpson parameter (above) is set to
“on” for one of the command interpreter instances. As soon as the at\gps command has been
issued, data from the GPS receiver will be sent to that ASY port. In order to stop the GPS data, the
+++ escape sequence must be entered, followed by a pause, followed by at.
GPS support for the GOBI3000 module
GOBI3000 module supports the usage the GPS functionality. The GPS init string should be
configured with $GPS_START.
gps 0 init_str $GPS_START
Also set the GPS asy_add parameter to 3.
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Basic applications
ScriptBasic
In order to allow end users to extend and enhance the functionality of the TransPort routers,
scripting support is provided. ScriptBasic is a scripting language supported by Digi TransPort
routers. This section describes how to run simple ScriptBasic scripts. The main configuration
entity is a table containing a list of reference numbers and associated user parameters. The
second is a text box containing the name of the script to run. Initially, the table is displayed
empty, with a row that states “No parameters have been defined”. The leftmost column contains
the number “1”.
#n
This is the number of the parameter that appears in the next column. Up to 30 parameters
may be configured. It is best to enter the numbers in a consecutive, ascending sequence since
this is how the parameters will be referred to in any ScriptBasic script.
Parameter
Type the name of the parameter you wish to create. This can be any alphanumeric string.
These parameters can then be referenced by a ScriptBasic script. For example, a script using
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ScriptBasic
parameter “string1” will use the string defined in the text entry box associated with command
index 1.
Add
Clicking this button adds the parameter to the list of parameters. Parameters are added
consecutively, with each parameter number referring to the string in the adjacent column.
Run Script
The text in this text entry box is the name of the ScriptBasic file to run. This script must exist
within the filing system. Conventionally, ScriptBasic scripts use the “.sb” file extension, such
as”myscript.sb”.
Run
Clicking this button will cause the ScriptBasic interpreter to run the named script.
Stop
Clicking this button will stop the execution of the ScriptBasic script.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
basic
0
string1 –
string30
Free form
alphanumeric text
Parameter
basic
0
n/a
kill
Stop
bas
n/a
n/a
Name of ScriptBasic
script
Run Script
Examples
To set User parameter 1 to IPv4 address 10.1.1.1, enter the command:
basic 0 string1 10.1.1.1
To execute a script from the CLI, enter the command:
bas <myscript.sb>
To kill a running script from the CLI, enter the command:
Basic 0 kill
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Python applications
Python Files
Some of the Digi TransPort routers support the Python scripting language which gives users the
facility to extend and enhance the basic functionality of the router. The routers contain a Python
interpreter which may be invoked from the command line. This can be useful for developing
scripts. The more usual way to use Python is to write a script to implement a required function
and to run this script autonomously. It is common practice for python scripts to use the file
extension “.py”, such as “myscript.py”. A Python script is a text file containing python commands
and may be created using a normal plain text editor. Python is a powerful language and obtains
some of its power from the many modules that are available for it. A description of the Python
language is outside the scope of this manual.
Module search path
The parameter in this text entry box sets the search path for Python modules that are not in
the default search path. Multiple locations may be specified by separating pathnames with
colons, such as “pymod1.zip:python21.zip”. This will cause the interpreter to search for the
two compressed files pymod1.zip and python21.zip. Note that TransPort routers have a flat
filing system structure that does not support subdirectories.
Redirect the Python output to debug
When checked, this checkbox allows the redirection of the stdout file handle to the debug
output (stderr) file handle. The default state of this parameter is “Off”. The easiest way to see
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Python Files
this in action is to issue the command to start the Python interpreter from a debug/CLI
terminal and note that the screen remains blank. Stop the interpreter (using the “exit()”
command), set this parameter to “ON” and re-issue the command to start the interpreter. This
time, the familiar Python welcome message and prompt should appear on the console.
Related CLI Commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
pycfg
0
modpath
valid search path,
such as “mymod.py”
Module search path
pycfg
0
stderr2stdout
0,1
0 = Off
1 = On
Redirect the Python output to
debug
The following additional command line informational / debugging commands may be helpful
when developing Python scripts.
•
pycfg files which displays the status of any Python files.
•
pycfg mem which shows the memory useage for the router.
•
pycfg scripts which shows the status of any scripts and change count.
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Interfaces management
The Management-Network Status> Interfaces menu has the following sub-menu options:
Ethernet (ETH n) parameters
This page displays the current status and statistics of the selected Ethernet interface.
IP Address
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Ethernet (ETH n) parameters
The IP address of the Ethernet interface. This could be either manually configured or assigned
via DHCP.
Mask
The mask of the Ethernet interface. This could be either manually configured or assigned via
DHCP.
DNS Server / Secondary DNS Server
The primary and secondary DNS Server IP addresses of the Ethernet interface. These could be
either manually configured or assigned via DHCP.
Gateway
The IP gateway of the Ethernet interface. This could be either manually configured or assigned
via DHCP.
MAC Address
The Ethernet interface’s MAC address.
Speed
The current speed of the Ethernet interface.
Duplex
The current duplex mode of the Ethernet interface.
Bytes Received
The number of bytes that have been received on the Ethernet interface.
Bytes Sent
The number of bytes that have been sent on the Ethernet interface.
Packets Received
The number of packets that have been received on the Ethernet interface.
Packets Sent
The number of packets that have been sent on the Ethernet interface.
Unicast Packets Received
The number of unicast packets that have been received on the Ethernet interface.
Unicast Packets Sent
The number of unicast packets that have been sent on the Ethernet interface.
Broadcast Packets Received
The number of broadcast packets that have been received on the Ethernet interface.
Broadcast Packets Sent
The number of broadcast packets that have been sent on the Ethernet interface.
Multicast Packets Received
The number of multicast packets that have been received on the Ethernet interface.
Multicast Packets Sent
The number of multicast packets that have been sent on the Ethernet interface.
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Ethernet (ETH n) parameters
Rx Overruns
The number of receive overruns that have occurred on the Ethernet interface. An Rx overrun
occurs when there are not enough buffers to receive incoming packets which results in the
received packets being dropped.
Collisions
The number of times the router has detected a packet collision on the Ethernet network when
transmitting a packet.
Late Collisions
The number of times the router has detected a late packet collision on the Ethernet network
when transmitting a packet.
Flood Protection
The number of times the router has detected an Ethernet packet flood on the network and
has enabled the Flood Protection mechanism. Flood protection is designed to stop the router
from being overwhelmed by the sudden large increase in packets on the Ethernet network.
Alignment Errors
The number of alignment errors that have been detected when receiving an Ethernet packet.
FCS Errors
The number of Ethernet packets that have been received but had an invalid FCS.
Tx Deferred
The Ethernet packets successfully transmitted after being initially deferred.
Long Frames
The number of Ethernet packets that have been received which are too long.
Carrier Sense Error
The number of carrier sense errors that have occurred. These occur when the router attempts
to transmit an Ethernet packet but cannot detect the carrier sense condition on the Ethernet
network.
Rx MAC Errors
The number of internal errors that have occurred when receiving an Ethernet packet.
Tx MAC Errors
The number of internal errors that have occurred when attempting to transmit an Ethernet
packet.
Other Errors
The number of errors that have occurred which are not counted by the other statistics.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Related CLI commands
Command
Instance
Parameter
Equivalent Web Parameter
eth
n
status
Displays the current configuration and
status of Ethernet interface n.
ethstat
n
n/a
Displays the statistics for Ethernet
interface n.
at\mibclr=eth.n.stats
n/a
n/a
Clears the statistics for Ethernet interface
n.
Wi-Fi parameters
Module Detected
This indicates that the Wi-Fi hardware has been detected by the router.
Admin Status
The current administrative state of the Wi-Fi interface. It indicates whether there is sufficient
configuration to bring the Wi-Fi interface up. It can be either “Up” or “Down”.
Operational Status
The current operational state of the Wi-Fi interface. It can be either “Up” or “Down”.
Channel Mode
The Wi-Fi channel mode that is being used. The possible values for this parameter are “B/G”
and “A”.
Channel
The Wi-Fi channel that is being used.
Bytes Received
The number of bytes that have been received on the Wi-Fi interface.
Bytes Sent
The number of bytes that have been sent on the Wi-Fi interface.
Packets Received
The number of packets that have been received on the Wi-Fi interface.
Packets Sent
The number of packets that have been sent on the Wi-Fi interface.
Receive Errors
The number of receives errors have occurred on the Wi-Fi interface.
Transmit Errors
The number of transmit errors have occurred on the Wi-Fi interface.
Received Packets Dropped
The number of received packets have been dropped on the Wi-Fi interface.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Wi-Fi Client Connections table
This table gives information on the Wi-Fi clients that are connected to the router’s Wi-Fi
Access Point interface.
Node
The MAC address of the connected Wi-Fi client.
Wi-Fi Node
The Wi-Fi node on the router the client is connected to.
RSSI
The signal strength experienced by the Wi-Fi client.
Flags
The state information for the Wi-Fi client connection.
Power Save
The current power saving state of the Wi-Fi client. The possible values are “Awake” and “Sleep”.
Neg. Rates (Mbps)
The transmission rates that have been negotiated with the Wi-Fi client.
Capability Info
The capabilities that the router has advertised to the Wi-Fi client.
Access Point Connections Table
This table gives information on the Wi-Fi Access Points that the router is connected to.
Access Point
The name and MAC address of the Wi-Fi Access Point that the router is connected to.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Wi-Fi Node
The Wi-Fi node that has been used to connect to the Access Point.
RSSI
The signal strength experienced by the router when connected to the Wi-Fi Access Point.
Flags
The state information for the Wi-Fi Access Point connection.
Power Save
The current power saving state of the router. The possible values are “Awake” and “Sleep”.
Neg. Rates (Mbps)
The transmission rates that have been negotiated with the Wi-Fi Access Point.
Capability Info
The capabilities of the Access Point that the router is connected to.
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
wificonn
n/a
wificonn
x
wifistat
n/a
Parameter
Equivalent Web Parameter
Displays the Wi-Fi connection table.
cscan
Performs wifi network scan
Displays the Wi-Fi statistics.
Mobile
The Mobile status page displays the current mobile connection, network and module
information.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Mobile Connection
Registration Status
The GSM registration status of the mobile module with respect to the GSM network. It may be
one of the following
•
Not Registered, not searching
•
Not registered, searching
•
Registered, home network
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Wi-Fi parameters
•
Registered, roaming
•
Registration denied
•
Unknown
•
ERROR
The registration status may sometimes be followed by additional information about the
Location Area Code (LAC) and the Cell Identifier (CI).
Signal Strength
The signal strength in dBm being received by the mobile module. The range is -113dBm (min)
to -51dBm (max). The signal strength bars should match the Signal Strength LEDs on the front
of the router.
Mobile Statistics
IP Address
The IP address of the mobile interface.
Primary DNS Address / Secondary DNS Address
The primary and secondary DNS addresses used by the mobile interface.
Data Received
The number of data bytes that have been received on the mobile interface whilst it has been
connected.
Data Sent
The number of data bytes that have been sent on the mobile interface whilst it has been
connected.
Mobile Information
For GSM networks, the Mobile Information section can have the following items.
SIM Status
This indicates whether or not a valid SIM card has been installed in the router. It may be one of
the following
•
READY- SIM is OK
•
SIM PIN- PIN number required
•
SIM PUK- SIM blocked (unblocking code required)
•
ERROR- SIM is not installed or is faulty
Radio Technology
The current network technology in use. It may be one of the following
•
GSM
•
GPRS
•
EDGE
•
UMTS
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Wi-Fi parameters
•
HSDPA
•
HSUPA
•
CDMA
Manufacturer
The manufacturer of the mobile module.
Model
The model of the mobile module.
IMEI
The International Mobile Equipment Identification (IMEI) of the mobile module.
ESN
The Electronic Serial Number (ESN) of the mobile module.
MEID
The Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) of the mobile module.
IMSI
The International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI) of the mobile module.
ICCID
This field specifies Integrated Circuit Card Identifier (ICCID) of the SIM card.
Firmware
This specifies firmware running on mobile module.
Bootcode
This field specifies bootcode firmware running on the mobile module.
Hardware Version
This specifies the hardware version of the mobile module.
GPRS Attachment Status
This is the current status of the mobile module with respect to the Mobile service. It may be
one of the following
•
Not attached- the unit has not connected to a mobile service.
•
Attached- the unit has connector to a mobile service.
•
ERROR- unknown response from the mobile module.
GPRS Registration
See Registration Status.
Network
The name of the GSM network to which the mobile module is currently connected to or
ERROR if no network is available.
Preferred system
The preferred technology. It can be one of following:
• Auto
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Wi-Fi parameters
• GSM only
• WCDMA only
For CDMA networks, the Mobile Information can have the following items.
Current system ID
The current system ID reported by the mobile module.
Current network ID
The current network ID reported by the mobile module.
Network
The current network reported by the mobile module.
Signal strength 1xRTT
The signal strength in dBm being received by the mobile module from 1xRTT networks.
Signal strength EVDO
The signal strength in dBm being received by the mobile module from EVDO networks.
Manufacturer
The manufacturer of the mobile module.
Model
The model of the mobile module.
MDN
The Mobile Directory Number (MDN) of the mobile module.
MIN
The Mobile Identification Number (MIN) of the mobile module.
ESN
The Electronic Serial Number (ESN) of the mobile module.
MEID
The Mobile Equipment Identifier (MEID) of the mobile module.
Firmware
The firmware running on mobile module.
Bootcode
The bootcode firmware running on the mobile module.
Hardware version
The hardware version of the mobile module.
Registration State
See Registration Status.
Roaming status
The current roaming status of the mobile module.
Radio interfaces in use
It can be one of the following
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Wi-Fi parameters
•
CDMA 1x
•
EVDO
•
No service
•
Unknown
PRL version
The version of the Preferred Roaming List (PRL) loaded on the mobile module.
Activation status
The activation state of the mobile module. It can be of the following:
•
0 – Not activated
•
1 – Activated
Related CLI commands
Command
Option
Equivalent Web Parameter
modemstat
?
Mobile Information
modemstat
s
Scan for Networks
pppstat
n
Mobile Statistics (where n is the PPP interface being used by
the mobile interface)
at\mibs=ppp.n.st
ats
n
Displays the current interface statistics
at\mibclr=ppp.n.s n
tats
Clears the current interface statistics
DSL
This page displays the current status and statistics of the DSL interface.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Modem Status
The current status of the DSL modem. On the DR64 platform, the values can be one of the
following:
•
Idle
•
Activating
•
Ghs
•
Training
•
Up
Link Uptime
The amount of time the modem has been in the Up state.
Firmware Version
The version of the firmware running on DSL modem.
Operational Mode
The operational mode that the DSL modem is in when in the Up state. It is in the format of:
<Mode> Annex <A | B | M>
where the <Mode> can be one the following:
•
ANSI
•
ETSI
•
G.dmt
•
G.lite
•
ADSL2
•
ADSL2+
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Wi-Fi parameters
Remote Vendor ID
The remote vendor ID of the DSLAM that the DSL interface connected to.
Speed
The current speed the downstream and upstream DSL channels in Kbps.
Channel
The channel type being used. It can be either “Fast” or “Interleaved”.
Relative Capacity
The current relative capacity on the downstream and upstream DSL channels. The relative
capacity is the percentage of your overall available bandwidth used to obtain your ATM service
rate.
Attenuation
The current attenuation, in decibels, on the downstream and upstream DSL channels.
Attenuation is the measure of how much the signal has degraded between the DSLAM and the
DSL modem. The lower the attenuation, the better the performance will be.
Noise Margin
The current noise margin, in decibels, on the downstream and upstream DSL channels. The
noise margin (aka Signal to Noise Ratio) is the relative strength of the DSL signal to noise. The
larger the noise margin, the better the performance will do. In some instances, interleaving
can help raise the noise margin.
Power Output
The current amount of power, in dBm, that the DSL modem (upstream) and DSLAM
(downstream) are using. The lower the power output, the better the performance will be.
Indicator Bits
The indicator bit values being used on the downstream and upstream DSL channels.
Cells
The number of cells that have received (downstream) and transmitted (upstream).
CRC
The number of CRC errors that have occurred downstream and upstream.
HEC
The number of Header Error Controls (HEC) errors that have occurred downstream and
upstream.
LOS
The number of Loss of Signal (LOS) errors that have occurred downstream and upstream.
SEF
The number of Severely Errored Frame (SEF) errors that have occurred downstream and
upstream.
Corrected Blocks
The number of blocks that have been received and corrected by the forward error correction
(FEC) code.
Uncorrected Blocks
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Wi-Fi parameters
The number of blocks that have been received and could not be corrected by the forward
error correction (FEC) code.
Overrun Cells
The number of cells lost because of overrun errors.
Idle Cells
The number of idle cells received.
Related CLI commands
Command
Instance
Equivalent Web Parameter
adslst
n/a
Displays the current DSL interface status.
at\mibs=adsl.0.stats
n/a
Displays the current DSL interface statistics.
at\mibclr=adsl.0.stats
n/a
Clears the current DSL interface statistics.
pppstat
n
DSL Statistics (where n is the PPP interface being
used by the DSL PVC).
GRE parameters
This page displays a summary table of the configured GRE interfaces.
#
This indicates GRE interface number.
Description
The configured GRE interface description.
Oper. Status
The current operational status of the GRE interface. It can be one of the following values:
Up
The GRE interface is up.
Lower Layer Down
The GRE interface has keepalives enabled but is not
getting any response from the configured destination.
IP Address
The configured IP address for the GRE interface.
Mask
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Wi-Fi parameters
The configured IP subnet mask for the GRE interface.
Source
The configured source IP address or interface of the GRE interface.
Destination
The configured destination IP address or domain name of the GRE interface.
Further information on particular GRE interfaces can be obtained by selecting the appropriate
GRE interface submenu underneath the GRE summary table.
As well as the above information, the following statistics are also displayed.
Bytes Received
The number of bytes that have been received on the GRE interface.
Bytes Sent
The number of bytes that have been sent on the GRE interface.
Packets Received
The number of packets that have been received on the GRE interface.
Packets Sent
The number of packets that have been sent on the GRE interface.
Keepalives Received
The number of GRE keepalive packets that have been received on the GRE interface.
Keepalives Sent
The number of GRE keepalive packets that have been sent on the GRE interface.
Rx Errors
The number of receive errors that have occurred on the GRE interface. These can include the
received being an invalid GRE packet.
Tx Errors
The number of transmit errors that have occurred on the GRE interface. These can include an
internal error due to no packet buffers being available.
Rx Unknown
The number of packets that have been received with an unknown IP protocol and have been
dropped.
Tx Discards
The number of packets that have been discarded during transmission due to the GRE
interface not being up or if a routing loop has been detected.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
tunstat
n
n/a
Displays the GRE interface specific status and
statistics.
tunstat
n
clear
Clears the statistics for the GRE interface.
ISDN parameters
This section contains the status information for the ISDN interface.
ISDN BRI
The status information is presented as a simple table having three or four columns as
described below:
Channel
There are three supported channels; the D-channel, B1 and B2 channels that appear in this
column. Each channel row has an associated status, protocol and (for data channels) action.
The Action column will only appear when the associated channel becomes active.
Status
The status of each channel is shown in this column. The status is either ON or OFF.
Protocol
The protocol in use by the channel is shown in this column. This should be as set up in the
configuration procedure. For D-channels, this will be LAPD. If the associated channel is not
active, this entry will be blank.
Action
When the link becomes active, a button should appear in this column. The text on the button
will be “Drop Link”. Clicking the button will deactivate the channel.
Related CLI commands
If a PPP instance has been associated with a B-channel, the statistics for that PPP instance will be
available using the normal pppstat command.
PSTN parameters
This section contains the network status information for the PSTN interface.
Link Name
If a description of the interface has been assigned during the configuration, it will appear here.
This PSTN interface is using PPP n
When configuring the PSTN module, a PPP instance is assigned – the instance number of the
assigned PPP interface appears here.
IP Address
The IP address assigned to the interface is shown here.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Mask
This value is the subnet mask being used by the interface.
DNS Server
The IP address of the DNS server being used by the interface appears here.
Bytes Received
This value is the number of bytes received by the interface.
Bytes Sent
This value is the number of bytes sent by the interface.
LCP Packets Received
This value is the number of Link Control Protocol (LCP) packets received.
LCP Packets Sent
This value is the number of LCP packets sent by the interface.
PAP Packets Received
This value is the number of Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) packets sent by the
interface.
PAP Packets Sent
This value is the number of PAP packets sent by the interface.
IPCP Packets Received
This value is the number of IP Control Protocol (IPCP) packets received by the interface.
IPCP Packets Sent
This value is the number of IPCP packets sent by the interface.
Receive Errors
This value indicates the number of frames received that contain an error (CRC etc).
Transmit Errors
This value indicates the number of frames that the interface attempted to transmit, but were
found to contain an error.
Refresh
Clicking this button causes the status page to be refreshed with the updated statistics.
Clear PPP n Statistics
Clicking this button causes the statistics to be reset to zero.
Related CLI commands
The CLI commands are the same as for other interfaces and are described in the PPP status
section. The command to obtain the status is:
pppstat <n>
where <n> is the interface number for the PPP interface assigned to the PSTN module and is
shown at the top of the web page.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Serial parameters
This page displays the current status and statistics of the selected Serial interface.
DTR
The current status of the Data Terminal Ready (DTR) signal.
Bytes Received
The number of bytes that have been received on the serial interface.
Rx Overruns
The number of receive overruns that have occurred on the serial interface. A receive overrun
occurs when there are not enough buffers to receive incoming data which results in the
received data being dropped.
Tx Underruns
The number of transmit underruns that have occurred on the serial interface. A transmit
underrun occurs when there is not enough data available when it is about to be transmitted.
Breaks Received
The number of times a break signal has been received.
Framing Errors Received
The number of framing errors that have been detected when receiving data on the serial
interface.
Parity Errors Received
The number of parity errors that have been detected when receiving data on the serial
interface.
Buffer Shortages
The number of times data that has been received on the serial interface has been dropped
because of a lack of system buffers.
Message Shortages
The number of times data that has been received on the serial interface has been dropped
because of a lack of system messages.
Related CLI commands
Command
Instance
Parameter
Equivalent Web Parameter
at\mibs=asy.n
n/a
n/a
Displays the statistics for serial interface n.
at\mibclr=asy.n
n/a
n/a
Clears the statistics for serial interface n.
Advanced PPP n parameters
This page displays the current status and statistics of the selected PPP interface.
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Wi-Fi parameters
Name
The name assigned to the PPP interface.
Uptime
The amount of time the PPP interface has been up.
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Wi-Fi parameters
MRU
The maximum receive unit (MRU) that has been negotiated by each peer on the PPP
connection.
ACCM
The Asynchronous Control Character Map (ACCM) that has been negotiated by each peer on
the PPP connection.
VJ Compression
The Van Jacobson (VJ) compression that has been negotiated by each peer on the PPP
connection.
Link with Active Entity
The entity that this PPP interface is using for connectivity.
IP Address
The IP address that has been assigned to this PPP interface. This could be either statically
configured or assigned by the remote PPP peer.
DNS Server IP Address / Secondary DNS Server IP Address
The primary and secondary DNS server IP addresses that are being used by the PPP interface.
Outgoing Call To
If this is dial-out PPP interface, this is the number it used to make the call.
Total Data Transferred
The total amount of data bytes received and transmitted on the PPP interface including PPP
headers and payload.
Total Up Time Today
The total amount of time in minutes that the PPP interface has been connected in the current
24 hour period.
Bytes Received
The number of bytes that have been received on the PPP interface.
Bytes Sent
The number of bytes that have been sent on the PPP interface.
LCP Packets Received
The number of Link Control Protocol (LCP) packets that have been received on the PPP
interface.
LCP Packets Sent
The number of Link Control Protocol (LCP) packets that have been sent on the PPP interface.
PAP Packets Received
The number of Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) packets that have been received on
the PPP interface.
PAP Packets Sent
The number of Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) packets that have been sent on the
PPP interface.
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Wi-Fi parameters
IPCP Packets Received
The number of IP Control Protocol (IPCP) packets that have been received on the PPP
interface.
IPCP Packets Sent
The number of IP Control Protocol (IPCP) packets that have been sent on the PPP interface.
BACP Packets Received
The number of Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP) packets that have been received
on the PPP interface.
BACP Packets Sent
The number of Bandwidth Allocation Control Protocol (BACP) packets that have been sent on
the PPP interface.
BAP Packets Received
The number of Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) packets that have been received on the
PPP interface.
BAP Packets Sent
The number of Bandwidth Allocation Protocol (BAP) packets that have been sent on the PPP
interface.
Unknown Packets Received
The number of packets received with an unknown or unsupported PPP protocol.
Receive Errors
The number of receive errors that have occurred on the PPP interface.
Transmit Errors
The number of transmit errors that have occurred on the PPP interface.
CRC Errors Received
The number of packets that have been received on the PPP interface with invalid CRCs.
Framing Errors Received
The number of packets that have been received on the PPP interface with invalid framing.
Transaction Stats
Last Counter Reset Timestamp
The time when the PPP transaction statistics where last reset.
Successful Transaction Count
The number of successful PPP transactions.
Dropped Transaction Count
The number of transactions sent but no response has been received.
Minimum Transaction Time
The shortest response time in milliseconds for a PPP transaction.
Maximum Transaction Time
The longest response time in milliseconds for a PPP transaction.
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IP Routing Table
Average Transaction Time
The average response time in milliseconds for the successful PPP transactions.
Route OOS Count
The number of Route “Out Of Service” messages sent by the firewall to the routing code. These
messages put routes out of service for a period of time and are sent when enough failed PPP
transactions have occurred.
Related CLI commands
Command
Instance Parameter
Equivalent Web Parameter
ppp
n
status
Displays the current status of PPP
interface n.
at\mibs=ppp.n.stats
n/a
n/a
Displays the statistics for PPP interface n.
at\mibclr=ppp.n.stats
n/a
n/a
Clears the statistics for PPP interface n.
IP Routing Table
This page displays the IPv4 routing table.
Destination
The destination IP network of the route. The destination needs to match the destination IP
address of an IP packet for the route to be used.
For default routes, the destination IP network is always 0.0.0.0/0. Default routes are used
when no other route matches the destination IP address of an IP packet.
Src Addr
When source address routing is being used, the src addr needs to match the source IP address
of an IP packet for the route to be used.
Gateway
The IP address of the next router to which the IP packet will be routed to in order to reach the
destination network.
On PPP and TUN interfaces and ETH interfaces that have the gateway configured, this
parameter can be blank.
Metric
The route metric defines the “cost” of the route. If CIDR routing is enabled and there are two
routes to the same destination, the route with the lower metric is used.
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IP Hash Table
Protocol
The protocol that created the route. It can be one of the following:
Local
The route is for a network connected directly to the router.
Remote
The route is for a remote network accessed via a PPP
connection.
Static
The route is a static route.
Static/RIP
The route is a static route that has been updated by RIP.
RIP
The route is a RIP route.
IBGP
The route is an interior BGP route.
EBGP
The route is an exterior BGP route.
OSPF
The route is an OSPF route.
Idx
This parameter is only used for static routes and it defines the index of the configured static
route.
Interface
The interface over which the IP packet will be routed when the route is used.
Status
The current status of the route. It can be one of the following:
UP
The route is up and can be used for routing.
DOWN
The interface that the route uses is currently down. The interface
can be activated if the route is required.
OOS
The interface that the route uses is currently “Out of Service”.
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
route
print
Displays the IPv4 routing table.
route
printsrc
Displays the IPv4 routing table with the src addr information.
IP Hash Table
The router uses a routing hash table to improve IPv4 routing performance by reducing route
lookup times.
The IP hash table contains information on recently routed IP packets such as source and
destination IP address, IP protocol, etc. It also contains information on the interface and gateway
used when routing the IP packet.
When the router receives an IP packet to route, it will look in the IP hash table before looking in
the IPv4 routing table.
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IP Hash Table
Whenever the IPv4 routing table changes (such as a route is added, deleted or modified), all
entries in the IP hash table are flushed out.
The IP hash table can be flushed manually using the “Flush” button.
Entries in the IP hash table are automatically deleted if it is not used for 10 seconds.
Src IP Address
The source IP address of the routed IP packet.
Src Port
The source TCP/UDP port of the routed IP packet. If the IP protocol is not TCP or UDP, then this
field is “0”.
Destination IP Address
The destination IP address of the routed IP packet.
Dest Port
The destination TCP/UDP port of the routed IP packet. If the IP protocol is not TCP or UDP,
then this field is “0”.
Next Hop
The next hop gateway to which the routed IP packet was sent to.
IP Protocol
The IP protocol field in the routed IP packet.
Interface
The interface that was used when the IP packet was routed.
Age
The age in seconds of the entry in the IP hash table.
Idx
The index in the IP hash table of the entry.
Usage
The number of times the entry has been used.
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Port Forwarding Table
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
route
hash
Displays the IP hash table.
route
flush
Flushes the IP hash table.
Port Forwarding Table
This page displays the Port Forwarding / NAT table.
The Port Forwarding table is used by the router to keep track of IP packets that have been
modified via NAT or NAPT in to order to be routed over a particular network.
When the router receives a response to a previously modified IP packet, it will look up the
matching entry in the Port Forwarding table in order to correctly modify the response IP packet.
Src IP Address
The source IP address of the modified IP packet.
Dest IP Address
The destination IP address of the modified IP packet.
IP Protocol
The IP protocol field of the modified IP packet.
Src Port
The source TCP/UDP port of the modified IP packet. For ICMP packets, this defines the ICMP
Echo identifier value.
NAPT Port
The new destination TCP/UDP of the modified IP packet. For ICMP packets, this defines the
ICMP Echo identifier value.
Dest Port
The original destination TCP/UDP port of the modified IP packet.
TTL
The time to live in seconds for the Port Forwarding entry. If the entry is not used for the
specified amount of time, the entry is deleted from the Port Forwarding table.
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Firewall parameters
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
nat
list
Displays the Port Forwarding / NAT table.
Firewall parameters
This page displays the current Firewall statistics and the Firewall Stateful Inspection table.
Passed Packets
The number of packets the firewall has passed.
Blocked Packets
The number of packets the firewall has blocked.
Logged Packets
The number of packets the firewall has logged.
Stateful Packets
The number of packets that have matched a stateful rule.
Undersized Packets
The number of packets received by the firewall that are too small.
Oversized Packets
The number of packets received by the firewall that are too large.
Return TCP RST
The number of times the firewall has returned a TCP Reset packet.
Return ICMP
The number of times the firewall has returned an ICMP packet.
Stateful rule shortages
The number of times there has been a shortage of entries stateful inspection table.
HASH table errors
The number of times there has been a hashing error when looking into the stateful inspection
table.
In use stateful rules reused
The number of times an in-use stateful inspection table has been reused.
Firewall Stateful Inspection Table
The Firewall Stateful Inspection table is a sophisticated scripted “Stateful Firewall” and “Route
Inspection” engine. Stateful inspection is a powerful tool that allows the unit to keep track of a
TCP/UDP or ICMP session and match packets based on the state of the connection on which they
are being carried.
The table contains a list of dynamic firewall rules that have been created when packets
have matched a configured firewall with the inspect-state keyword specified.
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Firewall parameters
For more information on the inspect-state keyword, see “Stateful Inspection” in the
Firewall section.
TTL
The number of seconds for the table entry to live. When this reaches zero, the entry is
removed from the table.
Hits
The number of times an IP packet has been matched against the firewall rule.
Direction
The direction of the IP packets that match the firewall rule.
Src IP Addr
The source IP address of the IP packets that match the firewall rule.
Src Port
The source TCP/UDP port of the IP packets that match the firewall rule.
Dest IP Addr
The destination IP address of the IP packets that match the firewall rule.
Dest Port
The destination TCP/UDP port of the IP packets that match the firewall rule.
Trans. Src IP Addr
If the firewall is configured to modify (such as NAT or NAPT) the source IP address of the IP
packets that match the firewall, this defines the new source IP address of the IP packets.
Trans. Src Port
If the firewall is configured to modify (such as NAPT) the source TCP/UDP port of the IP
packets that match the firewall, this defines the new source TCP/UDP port of the IP packets.
Trans. Dest IP Addr
If the firewall is configured to modify (such as NAT or NAPT) the destination IP address of the
IP packets that match the firewall, this defines the new destination IP address of the IP
packets.
Trans. Dest Port
If the firewall is configured to modify (such as NAPT) the destination TCP/UDP port of the IP
packets that match the firewall, this defines the new destination TCP/UDP port of the IP
packets.
Protocol
The IP protocol of the IP packets that match the entry.
Interface
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Firewall Trace
The interface over which the IP packets that match the entry are sent or received.
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
fwall
show
Displays the Firewall Stateful Inspection table.
Firewall Trace
The firewall trace output is appended to when the log keyword is used in the firewall.
Most commonly, the log keyword is used in the last rule in form block log break end to log
a summary of all packets that did not match one of the preceding allow rules.
The log keyword is much more versatile in its usage and what can be logged. For more
information see “log:” in the Firewall Scripts section.
An example output is show below, this is from the commonly used firewall rule.
block log break end
----- 5-10-2009 23:12:08 -----FW LOG Dir: IN Line: 37 Hits: 4730 IFACE: ETH 3
Source IP: 222.45.112.59 Dest IP: 217.34.133.21 ID: 256 TTL: 106 PROTO: TCP (6)
Src Port: 12200 Dst Port: 8118
block log break end
-------------- 5-10-2009 23:13:15 -----FW LOG Dir: IN Line: 37 Hits: 4731 IFACE: ETH 3
Source IP: 218.61.22.42 Dest IP: 217.34.133.21 ID: 35372 TTL: 136 PROTO: TCP (6)
Src Port: FTP CTL (21) Dst Port: 16794
block log break end
---------Two example logged packets are shown. The output of the 1st logged packet can be explained as
follows:
----- 5-10-2009 23:12:08 -----This is the time stamp of the blocked packet.
FW LOG Dir: IN Line: 37 Hits: 4730 IFACE: ETH 3
‘Dir:’ is the direction of the packet that was logged, either IN or OUT of the router.
‘Line:’ is the line number within the firewall rules that caused this packet to be logged.
‘Hits:’ is the number of packets that have matched this rule.
‘IFACE:’ is the interface which the packet was logged on.
Source IP: 222.45.112.59 Dest IP: 217.34.133.21 ID: 256 TTL: 106 PROTO: TCP (6)
‘Source IP:’ is the source IP address of the packet that was logged.
‘Dest IP:’ is the destination IP address of the packet that was logged.
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DHCP Status
‘ID:’ is the ID of the packet, this is taken from the packet header.
‘TTL:’ is the Time To Live value.
‘PROTO:’ is the layer 3 protocol of the logged packet.
Src Port: 12200 Dst Port: 8118
‘Src Port’ is the source TCP or UDP port number of the packet that was logged.
‘Dst Port’ is the destination TCP or UDP port number of the packet that was logged.
‘block log break end’ This is the actual rule that caused the packet to be logged.
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
type fwlog.txt
n/a
Displays the current Firewall trace.
DHCP Status
This page displays the current DHCP status table.
IP Address
The IP address assigned to the hostname.
Hostname
The hostname to which the IP address has been assigned.
Lease time left (mins)
The length of time in minutes the IP address lease is valid for. After this time, the DHCP client
will need to renew its IP address.
Mac Adress
This describes the MAC address
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Equivalent Web Parameter
dhcp
0
status
Displays the current status of the DHCP table.
dhcp
0
clear
Deletes all the entries in the DHCP table.
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DNS Status
DNS Status
This page displays DNS status table.
Hostname
The hostname that has been resolved.
IP Address
The IP address of the hostname.
TTL
The time to live in seconds for the DNS entry. When the TTL reaches zero, the entry is deleted.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Equivalent Web Parameter
dns
0
status
Displays the current status of the DNS
table.
dns
0
clear
Deletes all the entries in the DNS table.
QoS
This page displays the current QoS status table for a particular interface.
Priority Q
The priority queue in the table.
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QoS
TX rate (kbps)
The current transmit rate in kbps of the queue.
Limit
The current transmit rate limit in kbps of the queue.
Weighted Q length
The weighted queue length using the Weighted Random Early Discard (WRED) algorithm.
Q length
The number of packets on the queue.
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Connections management
The Management- Connections page has the following menu options:
•
IP connections
•
PPP Connections
•
Virtual Private Networking (VPN) management
IP connections
This page displays the current status of the TCP sockets on the router.
The router has two types of sockets.
TCP Sockets
Reserved for WEB and FTP connections.
General Purpose Sockets
Can be used by any application for TCP
connections.
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IP connections
TCP Sockets
ID
The TCP socket identifier.
SID
An internal socket identifier.
State
The current state of the socket.
Local IP Addr
The IP address on the router that is being used for the TCP connection.
Local Port
The TCP port on the router that is being used for the TCP connection or is being listened on.
Remote IP Address
The IP address of the remote device that has the TCP connection to the router.
Remote Port
The TCP port being used by the connected remote device.
SYNs Waiting
The number of TCP SYN packets that are currently being processed by the router.s
Free SYN entries
The number of entries available to process an incoming TCP SYN packet.
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IP connections
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
socks
Description
Displays the current status of the TCP sockets.
General Purpose Sockets
ID
The ID of the general purpose socket.
Owner
The software task that created the socket.
Protocol
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Virtual Private Networking (VPN) management
The protocol being used by the socket.
Mode
The mode of operation of the socket.
State
The current state of the socket.
Local Port
The port of the router that is being used by the socket.
Remote IP Addr
The IP address of the remote device that has a TCP connection with the socket.
Remote Port
The TCP port being used by the remote device.
Inactivity Timeout
The socket’s inactivity timeout (in seconds). If the timer reaches zero seconds, the TCP
connection is closed.
Total Number of Sockets
The total number of general purpose sockets available on the router.
Number of Free Sockets
The number of free general purpose sockets available on the router.
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
gpstat
gpstat
Description
Displays the current status of the general purpose
sockets.
close <ID>
Closes the GP Socket connection with the ID number
specified.
Virtual Private Networking (VPN) management
The Management-Connections> VPN menu has the following sub-menu options:
•
IPsec > IPsec Tunnels
•
OVPN
IPsec > IPsec Tunnels
This page displays the current status of the IPsec tunnels.
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Virtual Private Networking (VPN) management
#
IPsec tunnel number.
SPI
The Security Parameters Index (SPI) is a pointer that references the session key and algorithm
used to protect the data in the IPsec tunnel.
Peer IP
The IP address of the remote device that is the other end of the IPsec tunnel.
Local Network
The local IP network of the IPsec tunnel that is connected to the router.
Remote Network
The remote IP network of the IPsec tunnel that is connected to the remote device.
First Rem. IP / Last Rem. IP
For IPsec tunnels that have been negotiated using IKEv2, this is the range IP addresses
available on the remote IP network.
First Loc. IP / Last Loc. IP
For IPsec tunnels that have been negotiated using IKEv2, this is the range IP addresses
available on the local IP network.
AH
The AH algorithm in use, if any.
ESP Auth
The ESP authentication algorithm in use, if any.
ESP Enc
The ESP encryption algorithm in use, if any.
IPComp
The data compression algorithm in use, if any.
KBytes Delivered
The total amount of data that has been transferred (in both directions) over this IPsec tunnel.
KBytes Left
The amount of data left to be transferred over the IPsec tunnel before the data duration limit
is reached. The data duration is negotiated between the router and the remote device.
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Virtual Private Networking (VPN) management
such asTime Left
The time left (in seconds) before the time duration limit is reached. The time duration is
negotiated between the router and the remote device.
Interface
The interface over which the IPsec tunnel is on.
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Description
sastat
[dyn]
Displays the current status of all of the IPsecs tunnels.
The optional “dyn” parameter can be used to display the
status of the dynamic IPsec tunnels.
sastat
[dyn] <first> <last>
Displays the current status of the IPsec tunnels in the range
from <first> to <last>.
such as sastat 0 49
or sastat dyn 0 49
sastat
[dyn] peer <peer>
Displays the current status of the IPsec tunnels that match
the given peer. The <peer> value can contain the ‘*’ wildcard
character.
such as sastat peer uk-north-*
or sastat dyn peer uk-north-*
IPsec peers
This page displays the current status of the IPsec peers.
This is the list of remote devices that have successfully negotiated an IPsec tunnel with the router.
Peer IP Address
The IP address of the remote device.
Our ID
The ID of the router.
Peer ID
The ID of the remote device.
Dead Peer Detection (DPD)
The DPD status and the time until the next DPD request.
NATT Local Port
The local NAT-Traversal port.
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Virtual Private Networking (VPN) management
NATT Remote Port
The remote NAT-Traversal port.
IKE SAs
This page displays the current status of the IKE Security Associations (SA).
Our ID
The ID of the router.
Peer ID
The ID of the remote device with which the IKE SA has been negotiated.
Peer IP Address
The IP address of the remote device.
Our IP Address
The IP address the router used to negotiate the IKE SA.
Time Left
The time remaining (in seconds) for the IKE SA to remain in force.
Session ID
The ID of the IKE SA.
Internal ID
An internal identifier for the IKE SA.
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Position management
GPS
This page displays a summary of the most recent information received from the GPS module (if
fitted) and the status of the IP connections.
Longitude
The current longitude contained in the last GGA, GLL or RMC message from the GPS module.
Latitude
The current latitude contained in the last GGA, GLL or RMC message from the GPS module.
No of Satellites
The current number of satellites being used as indicated in the last GGA message from the
GPS module.
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GPS
Type of fix
The current fix status as indicated in the last GGA, GLL or RMC message, followed by the type
of fix (such as 2D, 3D or no fix) as indicated in the last GSA message.
UTC
The current UTC time as indicated in the last ZDA, GGA, GLL or RMC message from the GPS
module.
True Heading
The current true heading as indicated in the last RMC message from the GPS module. If the
router is not moving, this value is not available.
Speed
The current speed as indicated in the last RMC message from the GPS module.
Integrity
The current data integrity as indicated in the last RMC message from the GPS module. It can
be either “Valid” or “Not Valid”.
IP Connections
The current IP address, port number, connection type and status of the IP connections.
Related CLI commands
Command
at\mibs=gps.0.stats
Options
Description
Displays the current status of the GPS receiver.
Event Log Management
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Event Log management
The Management – Event Log page displays the current contents of the event log on the router.
The event log is stored in a pseudo-file called “eventlog.txt”. It acts as a circular buffer so that
when there is no space available for new entries, the oldest entries are overwritten.
Each entry in the log normally consists of a single line containing the date, time and a brief
description of the event. In some case it may also identify:
the type/number of the protocol instance the generated the message (such as PPP 0)
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a reason code
Additional information such as an X.25 address or ISDN telephone number.
The specific events that generate a log entry are pre-defined and cannot be altered although the
text and priority of each event can be modified. This can be done via the Configuration - Alarms
> Event Logcodes page.
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Description
type eventlog.txt
Displays the contents of the event log.
clear_ev
Clears the contents of the event log.
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Analyser management
The router can be configured to capture a trace of the data being transmitted and received on the
various interfaces. It is able to capture the layer 1, 2 and 3 protocol data and present it in an easily
read format.
Settings
Enable Analyser
This checkbox is used to enable or disable the analyser.
Maximum packet capture size
The number of bytes that are captured and stored for each packet. If the packet is bigger than
the configured size, the packet is truncated. Bear in mind that the larger this value, the quicker
the pseudo file “ana.txt” will become full so that the effective length of the analyser trace is
reduced.
Log Size
The maximum size of the pseudo file “ana.txt” that is used to store the captured data packets.
Once the maximum size is reached, the oldest captured data packets are overwritten when
new packets are captured.
The maximum value is 180Kb, but the data is compressed so more than 180Kb of trace data
will be captured.
Protocol layers
The check-boxes shown under this heading are used to specify which protocol layers are
captured and included in the analyzer trace. You can choose to capture Layer 1 (physical /
PPP), Layer 2 (Layer protocol, the Network Layer (Layer 3) protocol or any combination, by
checking or clearing the appropriate check-boxes. In addition, you may select XOT (X.25 over
TCP/IP) tracing if this feature is included on the router.
Enable IKE debug
This checkbox is used to enable or disable the inclusion of IKE packets in the analyser trace
when using IPsec.
Enable QMI trace
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Settings
This checkbox is used to enable or disable the inclusion of data from the Qualcomm
Management Interface in the analyser trace.
Enable SNAIP trace
This checkbox is used to enable or disable the inclusion of SNAIP packet in the analyser trace.
ISDN Sources
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the ISDN channels (D, B1 and B2)
over which packets will be captured and included in the analyser trace.
LAPB Links
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the LAPB links over which
packets will be captured and included in the analyser trace.
Serial Interfaces
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the serial interfaces over which
packets will be captured and included in the analyser trace. The list of available interfaces will
include the physical serial interfaces, internal virtual serial interfaces (if present) and
interfaces used by built-in WWAN and/or PSTN modems.
Ethernet Interfaces
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the Ethernet interfaces over
which packets will be captured and included in the analyser trace.
Raw SYNC Sources
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the synchronous sources over
which packets will be captured and included in the analyser trace.
DSL PVC Sources
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the ADSL ATM PVCs over which
packets will be captured and included in the analyser trace.
PPP Interfaces
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the PPP interfaces over which
packets will be captured and included in the analyser trace.
IP Sources
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the IP sources over which
packets will be captured and included in the analyser trace. These sources include IP packets
transmitted and received over Ethernet, PPP and OpenVPN (OVPN) interfaces. It is also
possible to select GRE Tunnels via the advanced sections of the individual GRE Tunnel
configuration pages.
IP Options
Trace discarded packets
This checkbox is used to enable or disable the capture of packets that are discarded by an
interface along with a reason for why the packet was discarded.
Trace loopback packets
This checkbox is used to enable or disable the capture of IP loopback packets.
IP Packet Filters / Discarded IP Packet Filters
TCP/UDP Ports
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Settings
This parameter is used to filter out TCP or UDP packets with particular source or destination
port numbers. The format of this parameter is a comma-separated list of port numbers. For
example, you may wish to exclude the capture of Telnet and HTTP traffic that would otherwise
swamp the data of interest. This can be done by entering “23,80” for this parameter.
Conversely, you may wish to only capture traffic on a specific source or destination port. To do
this, use a tilde (~) symbol before the list of ports. For example, to only capture Telnet and SSH
packets, enter “~22,23” for this parameter.
IP Protocols
This parameter is used to filter out IP packets with particular IP protocol numbers. The format
of this parameter is a comma-separated list of protocol numbers. For example, you may wish
to exclude the capture of TCP traffic that would otherwise swamp the data of interest. This can
be done by entering “6” for this parameter.
Conversely, you may wish to only capture traffic with a specific IP protocol number. To do this,
use a tilde (~) symbol before the list of protocol numbers. For example, to only capture UDP
traffic, enter “~17” for this parameter.
IP Addresses
This parameter is used to filter out IP packets with particular source or destination IP
addresses. The format of this parameter is a comma-separated list of IP addresses. For
example, you may wish to exclude the capture of traffic from IP hosts 10.1.2.3 and 10.2.2.2.
This can be done by entering “10.1.2.3,10.2.2.2” for this parameter.
Conversely, you may wish to only capture traffic to and from particular IP hosts. To do this, use
a tilde (~) symbol before the list of IP addresses. For example, to only capture packets to and
from IP host 192.168.47.1, enter “~192.168.47.1” for this parameter.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ana
0
anon
on, off
Enable Analyser
ana
0
maxdata
16 - 2000
Maximum packet capture size
ana
0
logsize
3 -180
Log Size
ana
0
l1on
on, off
Protocol Layers / Layer 1
ana
0
l2on
on, off
Protocol Layers / Layer 2
ana
0
l3on
on, off
Protocol Layers / Layer 3
ana
0
xoton
on, off
Protocol Layers / XOT
ana
0
ikeon
on, off
Enable IKE debug
ana
0
qmion
on, off
Enable QMI trace
ana
0
snaipon
on, off
Enable SNAIP trace
ana
0
lapdon
0–7
ISDN Sources
See below
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Settings
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
ana
0
lapbon
0–7
LAPB Links
See below
ana
0
asyon
Bitmap
Serial Interfaces
See below
ana
0
syon
Bitmap
Raw SYNC Sources
See below
ana
0
discardson
on, off
IP Options / Trace discarded packets
ana
0
loopon
on, off
IP Options / Trace loopback packets
ana
0
ipfilt
Comma
separated list
IP Packet Filters / TCP/UDP Ports
ana
0
ipprotfilt
Comma
separated list
IP Packet Filters / IP Protocols
ana
0
ipaddfilt
Comma
separated list
IP Packet Filters / IP Addresses
ana
0
discportfilt
Comma
separated list
Discarded IP Packet Filters / TCP/UDP
Ports
ana
0
discprotofilt
Comma
separated list
Discarded IP Packet Filters / IP
Protocols
ana
0
discipaddfilt
Comma
separated list
Discarded IP Packet Filters / IP
Addresses
eth
n
ethanon
on, off
Ethernet Interfaces
eth
n
ipanon
on, off
IP Sources
ovpn
n
ipanon
on, off
IP Sources
ppp
n
ipanon
on, off
IP Sources
ppp
n
pppanon
on, off
PPP Interfaces
tun
n
ipanon
on, off
GRE IP Sources
tun
n
tunanon
on, off
GRE Tunnel Interfaces
Related CLI commands (not available via the Web Interface)
)
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Description
ana
0
fcon
on, off
Enable serial flow control tracing
ana
0
stopbufs
0 - 255
Stop analyser when number of free
system buffers matches this value
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Settings
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Description
ana
0
stopmsgs
0 - 255
Stop analyser when number of free
system messages matches this value
ana
0
stopflood
0-1
Stop analyser when Ethernet flood
protection is activated.
ana
0
lowbufcmd
Command
String
Run this command when the number
of free system buffers match
“lowbuflvel”
ana
0
lowbuflev
Integer
Free system buffer threshold used by
“lowbufcmd”.
ana
0
lowmsgcmd
Command
String
Run this command when the number
of free system messages match
“lowmsglvel”
ana
0
lowmsglev
Integer
Free system message threshold used
by “lowmsgcmd”.
ana
0
logdrive
String
Specifies an alternate file system
drive on which to store the analyser
trace. To use an external USB flash
device, this should be set to “u:”.
If the router has an internal SDIO
flash device, it can be selected with
“s:”.
ana
0
logfile
Filename
The file on the alternate drive to
which the analyser trace will be
stored.
ana
0
contfile
Filename
The file on the alternate drive to
which the analyser trace will be
stored once the file indicated by
“logfile” is reaches its max size as
specified by “logsizek”.
ana
0
logsizek
Value in Kbytes
The maximum size in Kbytes of the
file on the alternate drive.
When set to 0, the file size is only
limited by the flash device.
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Settings
ISDN Sources
LAPD2
LAPD1
LAPD0
Value
OFF
OFF
OFF
0
OFF
OFF
ON
1
OFF
ON
OFF
2
OFF
ON
ON
3
ON
OFF
OFF
4
ON
OFF
ON
5
ON
ON
OFF
6
ON
ON
ON
7
LAPB Links
LAPD1
LAPD0
Value
OFF
OFF
0
OFF
ON
1
ON
OFF
2
ON
ON
3
Serial Interfaces
Interface
Value
Serial 0
1
Serial 1
2
Serial 2
4
Serial 3
8
Serial 4
16
Serial 5
32
Serial 6
64
Serial 7
128
Serial 8
256
Serial 9
512
Serial 10
1024
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Trace
Interface
Value
Serial 11
2048
Serial 12
4096
To enable the analyser on multiple serial interfaces, add the appropriate values together. For
example, to enable the analyser on serial interfaces 2 and 3, the value should 12 (4 + 8).
The number of Serial interfaces can vary on different depending on which hardware and
software options are available.
Raw Sync Interfaces
Interface
Value
ISDN D
1
ISDN B1
2
ISDN B2
4
Physical Port 0
8
Physical Port 1
16
To enable the analyser on multiple serial interfaces, add the appropriate values together. For
example, to enable the analyser on Physical Ports 0 and 1, the value should 24 (8 + 16).
Trace
This displays the current analyser trace.
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PCAP (such as Wireshark) traces
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Description
type ana.txt
Displays the contents of the event log.
ana 0 anaclr
Clears the contents of the event log.
PCAP (such as Wireshark) traces
The traffic captured by the Analyzer is also available in PCAP format. This format can be read by a
network protocol analyzer such as Wireshark. This powerful feature gives a network engineer the
ability to diagnose network protocol issues with relative ease.
There are several PCAP files which are available to download. Each file contains a different set of
captured packets.
Option
PCAP File
Contents
IP
anaip.pcap
IP traffic captured from all enabled IP sources.
Ethernet
anaeth.pcap
Ethernet traffic captured from all enabled Ethernet sources.
PPP
anappp.pcap
PPP traffic captured from all enabled PPP sources.
Wi-Fi
anawifi.pcap
Wi-Fi traffic captured from the enabled Wi-Fi source.
Wireshark is free software and can be obtained from http://www.wireshark.org.
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PCAP (such as Wireshark) traces
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Top Talkers management
The router can be configured to monitor the data being transmitted and received on the various
interfaces. It is able to report which IP hosts are generating the most traffic over a period of one
minute and 30 minutes.
Top Talkers also allows you to block particular IP traffic flows to stop them from using bandwidth.
The Management-Top Talkers page has the following menu options:
Settings
Ethernet Interfaces
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the Ethernet interfaces that Top
Talkers will monitor.
PPP Interfaces
The checkboxes shown under this heading are used to select the PPP interfaces that Top
Talkers will monitor.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
eth
n
ttalker
on | off
Ethernet Interfaces
ppp
n
ttalker
on | off
PPP Interfaces
Trace
This displays the current top talkers trace.
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Trace
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System Information administration
The Administration – System Information page gives an overview of the status of the router.
Model
This describes the model of the router.
Part Number
This describes the Digi part number of the router.
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Ethernet 0 MAC Address
This describes the MAC address of the Ethernet 0 interface.
Firmware Version
This describes the firmware version that is currently running on the router.
SBIOS Version
This describes the SBIOS firmware version that is currently running on the router.
Build Version
This describes the build configuration of the firmware that is currently running on the router.
HW Version
This describes the hardware version on the router. Please note this item may be blank.
CPU Utilization
This describes the current and historical CPU utilization since the router booted up.
Up Time
This describes the amount of time since the router booted up.
Date and Time
This describes the current date and time on the router.
Total Memory
This describes the total amount of RAM that is fitted on the router.
Used Memory
This describes the amount of RAM that is currently being used on the router.
Free Memory
This describes the amount of RAM that is currently free on the router.
Mobile Module
This describes which mobile module is fitted on the router.
SW Opts
This describes which firmware options have been enabled on the router.
SW Cnts
This describes some configuration parameters that are used by firmware.
Switch Mode
This describes the current setting of the Ethernet switch on routers with multiple Ethernet
interfaces. It can be either “Hub” or “Port Isolate”.
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Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
ati5
n/a
Model
Firmware Version
SBIOS Version
Build Version
Mobile Module
SW Opts
hw
n/a
Part Number
Ethernet 0 MAC Address
HW Version
cpu
n/a
CPU Utilization
uptime
n/a
Up Time
time
n/a
Date and Time
mem
n/a
Total Memory
Used Memory
Free Memory
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File Management administration
FLASH Directory
This page displays the contents of the router’s flash file system.
The unit has its own FLASH memory fling system that uses DOS-like filenames of up to 12
characters long (8 characters followed by the “.” separator and a 3-character extension). The filing
system is used to store the system software, Web pages, configuration information and statistics
in a single root directory.
Sub-directories are not supported and a maximum of 80 - 300 files (depending on the product)
can be stored (including system files), providing there is sufficient memory remaining. New files
can be uploaded into the unit from a local terminal or from a remote system over the WAN
connection. Existing files can be renamed or deleted using DOS-like commands.
Although the filing system will only store a limited number of files, all those associated with the
built-in Web interface are stored in a single file with the .WEB extension and extracted as
required.
The Administration - File Management > FLASH Directory web page displays a listing of files held
on the FLASH file system. These files appear as hyperlinks which can be downloaded and
displayed in the web browser as long an appropriate viewer is installed and a file association with
the viewer has been made.
The directory listing of files on the FLASH directory also shows the file size, the access of rw (read
write) or ro (read only) and the date the file was last modified.
Below the file list is a summary of the FLASH file system, this includes the number of
files, FLASH free and FLASH used.
Action
Action checkbox is used to select each read/write file for deletion.
File
This is the name of the file in the flash file system.
Size (bytes)
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FLASH Directory
This is the size of the file in bytes. This is not a fixed value. When downloaded, the size of the
downloaded file will be different.
Access
This is the access settings for the file.
rw
Read / Write access
ro
Read Only access
Last Modified
The date and time of when the file was last modified.
Delete Selected Files
This button is used to delete the selected files.
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FLASH Directory
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WEB Directory
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
dir
dir
Equivalent Web Parameter
Displays the entire contents of the router’s flash file
system.
<filter>
Displays a filtered view of the router’s flash file system.
The filter can contain wildcards using the *.
such as
dir *.pem
to display all the files ending in “.pem”.
dir
u:
Displays the contents of an USB flash stick if inserted
into the USB port of the router.
WEB Directory
The WEB directory contains a list of the files held within the active web file. The web file is shown
on the FLASH file system as a single file, this file is compressed and holds approximately 300 files.
Direct access to these files by an engineer is not normally required.
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File Editor
File
The name of the file in web file.
Size (Bytes)
The size of the file in bytes.
Compressed Size (Bytes)
The compressed size of the file in bytes.
File Editor
The file editor allows the user to edit text files on the router.
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File Editor
Filename
The name of the file to edit.
It is possible to create a new file by typing in the filename and clicking on the “Save File”
button.
Load File
Load the file specified in “Filename” into the editor box.
Save File
Save the file to the flash file system.
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X.509 certificate management and
administration
The X.509 Certificate Management pages are for loading and managing X.509 certificates and
public/private host key pairs that are public key infrastructure (PKI) based security.
Certificate Authorities (CAs)
A certificate authority (CA) is a trusted third party which issues digital certificates for use by other
parties.
Digital certificates issued by the CA contain a public key. The certificate also contains information
about the individual or organization to which the public key belongs.
A CA verifies digital certificate applicants' credentials. The CA certificate allows verification of
digital certificates and the information contained therein, issued by that CA.
Installed Certificate Authority Certificates
This table lists the current CA certificates that have been installed onto the router. It is possible to
view the contents of each certificate using the “View” button.
Upload CA Certificates
CA Certificates can be uploaded from a host PC onto the router using the “Browse” and “Upload”
buttons.
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Certificate Authorities (CAs)
Obtain CA certificates from a SCEP Server
The Simple Certificate Enrolment Protocol (SCEP) allows the user to request and enrol CA
certificates from a CA server.
The CA certificate files will automatically stored with the name CA<n>.pem where n increments
with each certificate.
SCEP Server IP address
The IP address of the SCEP server / CA server.
Port
The port on which SCEP server is listening. If the port is 0, the default port of 80 will be used.
Path
The path on the server to the SCEP application. The path can either be entered manually if
known or select from cgi-bin or Microsoft SCEP from the drop-down list.
Application
The SCEP application running on the server.
CA identifier
The identifier for the CA server. The CA identifier to use to identify a particular CA when
multiple CAs might be running on the server.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
scep
0
host
IP Address
SCEP Server IP address
scep
0
port
0 - 65535
Port
scep
0
path
String
Path
scep
0
app
String
Application
scep
0
caident
String
CA Identifier
IPsec/SSH/HTTPS Certificates
This page contains fields that required when sending a certificate request to a Certificate
Authority (CA). This information forms part of the certificate request, and thus part of the signed
public key certificate.
The router can use certificates to establish IPsec tunnels with other routers and support SSH and
HTTPS connections. For more information on using certificates with the router,
please refer to the Application Note “How to configure an IPSEC VPN tunnel between two Digi
Routers using Certificates and SCEP”, which are available from the Digi web site.
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Certificate Authorities (CAs)
Installed Certificates
This table lists the current certificates that have been installed onto the router. It is possible to
view the contents of each certificate using the “View” button.
Upload Certificate or Private Keys
Certificates and private key files can be uploaded from a host PC onto the router using the
“Browse” and “Upload” buttons.
Enrolment
The following parameters allow the user to create a certificate request, enroll them and to install
the certificates on the router.
SCEP Server IP address
The IP address of the SCEP server / CA server.
Port
The port on which SCEP server is listening. If the port is 0, the default port of 80 will be used.
Path
The path on the server to the SCEP application. You can either enter your own path or select
from cgi-bin or Microsoft SCEP from the drop-down list.
Application
The SCEP application running on the server.
CA identifier
The identifier for the CA server. The CA identifier to use to identify a particular CA when
multiple CAs might be running on the server.
CA certificate
The filename of the CA certificate.
CA encryption certificate
Sometimes when you get a CA certificate, a CA encryption certificate is installed on the router
at the same time. You can identify a CA encryption certificate by looking at the X.509 Key
Usage section in the certificate. It should say something like the following
X509v3 Key Usage: critical
Key Encipherment, Data Encipherment
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Certificate Authorities (CAs)
If a CA encryption certificate has been installed by the CA you wish to use for the certificate
request, the CA encryption certificate should be entered.
If no CA encryption certificate has been installed for the CA, leave this file blank.
CA signature certificate
Sometimes when you get a CA certificate, a CA signature certificate is installed on the router at
the same time. You can identify a CA signature certificate by looking at the X.509 Key Usage
section in the certificate. It should say something like the following
X509v3 Key Usage: critical
Digital Signature, Non Repudiation
If a CA signature certificate has been installed by the CA you wish to use for the certificate
request, the CA signature certificate should be entered.
If no CA signature certificate has been installed for the CA, leave this file blank.
RSA Private key
This parameter allows you to select between using an existing private key and generating a
one for each certificate request.
Private key filename
The filename of the private key file to use.
Enrolment Password
Before you can create a certificate request you must first obtain a challenge password from
the Certificate Authority Server. This password is generally obtained from the SCEP CA server
by way of a WEB server or a phone call to the CA Server Administrator. For the Microsoft®
SCEP server, you browse to a web interface. If the server requires a challenge password, it will
be displayed on the page along with the CA certificate fingerprint.
This challenge password is usually only valid once and for a short period of time, in this case
60 minutes, meaning that a certificate request must be created after retrieving the challenge
password.
Common Name (CN)
A name for the router. This parameter is important as the common name will be used as the
router’s ID for IKE negotiations.
Country Code (C)
The two character county code of where the router is located. A list of valid country codes can
be found at http://www.iso.org/iso/english_country_names_and_code_elements.
State or Province (ST)
The state, county or province of where the router is located.
Locality (L)
The town or city of where the router is located.
Organisation (O)
The company to whom the router belongs to.
Organisational Unit (OU)
The company department maintaining the router.
E-mail
An appropriate email address of a contact for the router.
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Certificate Authorities (CAs)
Unstructured Name
This parameter is optional. It can contain some descriptive to help identify the certificate.
Digest Algorithm
The digest algorithm used (MD5 or SHA1) when signed the certificate request.
Ignore NONCE in SCEP response
The parameter instructs the router to ignore the NONCE field in the SCEP response. The
NONCE is primarily used to prevent replay attacks.
Related CLI commands
Entity
Instance
Parameter
Values
Equivalent Web Parameter
scep
0
host
IP Address
SCEP Server IP address
scep
0
port
0 - 65535
Port
scep
0
path
String
Path
scep
0
app
String
Application
scep
0
caident
String
CA Identifier
scep
0
cafile
Filename
CA certificate
scep
0
caencfile
Filename
CA encryption certificate
scep
0
casigfile
Filename
CA signature certificate
creq
0
challenge_pwd
String
Enrolment Password
creq
0
commonname
String
Common Name (CN)
creq
0
country
String
Country Code (C)
creq
0
state
String
State or Province (ST)
creq
0
locality
String
Locality (L)
creq
0
orgname
String
Organisation (O)
creq
0
org_unit
String
Organisational Unit (OU)
creq
0
email
Email Address
E-Mail
creq
0
unstructname
String
Unstructured Name
creq
0
digest
MD5 or SHA1
Digest Algorithm
The creq command can also be used to generate the certificate request using the configured
parameters. If the private key does not already exist and appropriate parameters are entered,
the key will be generated at the same time.
To generate a certificate request, enter the command:
creq new -k<priv key file> -o<cert request file>
To generate a private key and a certificate request, enter the command:
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Certificate Authorities (CAs)
creq new ?b<priv key length> -k<priv key file> -o<cert req file>
For example, to generate a certificate request file called “request.pem” from a private key called
“priv001.pem”, enter:
creq new -kpriv001.pem -o request.pem
To generate a 512 bit private key called “private.pem”, and generate a certificate request called
“certreq.pem” using that file, enter:
creq new -b512 -kprivate.pem -ocertreq.pem
Key Generation
This page allows you to generate a private key. A private key must be created before a certificate
can be requested as it is used in the request.
Key filename
Enter a name for the private key (the filename must be prefixed with “priv” and have a
“.pem” extension).
Key size
The size of the private key in bits. The key size can be one of the following:
•
384
•
512
•
768
•
1024
•
1536
•
2048
The larger the key, the more secure the connection, but also the larger the key
the slower the connection.
Save in SSHv1 format
If this checkbox is checked the private key will be generated in SSH version 1 format. If it is
cleared the private key will be generated in SSH version 2 format.
Related CLI commands
The genkey command can be used to generate a private key file.
To generate a private key, enter the command:
genkey 0 <keysize> <filename> <-ssh1>
where
<keysize> is the size of the key in bits.
<filename> is the name of the private key file.
<-ssh1> is optional, and will generate the private key file in SSH version 1 format.
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Certificate Authorities (CAs)
Note IPsec requires SSH version 2 private keys.
For example, to generate a 1024 bit SSH version 2 key called privkey.pem, enter:
genkey 1024 privkey.pem
You will see the following output:
OK
Starting 1024 bit key generation. Please wait. This may take some time...
Key generated, saving to FLASH file privkey.pem
Closing file
Private key file created
All tasks completed
Private key files - Splitting Certificates
For increased security there is the option of splitting the private key file between the Digi flash
and an USB memory stick. Once a private key has been split and stored in 2 parts, the USB
memory stick must be present for any successful IKE negotiations that involve the private key. As
the USB memory stick only contains a part of the private key, it cannot be used in another unit.
The command to split a private key is:
privsplit <certificate filename>
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Update Firmware
The Administration –Update Firmware page allows the user to update the router’s firmware.
The router will download a zip file onto the router, uncompress it, validate each file within the zip
file and then update the files in its flash file system.
The zip file containing the latest firmware version is available from the Digi website (http://
transport.digi.com/digi/firmware/ftp/). The zip file should be downloaded to your PC before
starting the firmware update.
Note
It is important that you do not navigate away from the Update Firmware page whilst an
update is in progress as it can cause the update to abort prematurely. It is also important
that you do not remove the power from the router whilst an update is in progress as it can
corrupt the router’s flash file system and might leave the router unable to boot up.
Model
This indicates which model this router is.
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Firmware Version
This indicates the current firmware version running on the router.
Select Firmware
Select the zip file on your PC containing the firmware version to you wish to update to.
Once the firmware update is complete, the router has to be rebooted before the new firmware
version can run.
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Factory Default Settings
The Administration – Factory Default Settings page allows you to reset the router’s
configuration back to the factory defaults.
The router must be rebooted before the configuration changes take effect.
Keep network settings
Selecting this option will mean that certain network settings will be preserved and not
reverted back to the factory defaults.
The network settings that are preserved are:
•
Ethernet 0 IP address
•
Ethernet 0 Mask
•
Ethernet 0 Gateway
•
Ethernet 0 DHCP Client
•
Ethernet 0 DNS Server
•
Default Route 0 Interface
•
PPP 1 Username
•
PPP 1 Password
•
PPP 3 Username
•
PPP 3 Password
•
Mobile APN
•
Mobile SIM PIN
Restore
Clicking this button initiates a factory reset of the router.
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Related CLI commands
The router’s configuration can be reset back to the factory defaults using the following
commands:
del pwds.da0
copy config.fac config.da0
This assumes that you are using configuration profile 0. If configuration profile 1 is being used,
then the .da1 suffix should be used instead of .da0.
Please note that using these commands does not preserve any network settings.
Reset using the hardware Reset button
There is a reset button on the underside of most routers, holding this button in for 5 seconds will
perform a factory reset on the router. When the reset is initiated in this manner, the LEDs on the
front of the router will flash to indicate a reset is in progress, the router will automatically reboot
once the procedure is complete. Do not remove the power whilst the router is running this reset
procedure. Using this method will not preserve any settings.
The CLI command to disable the reset button is cmd 0 pbreset off.
To re-enable the reset button functionality cmd 0 pbreset on.
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Execute a command
The Administration –Execute a Command page allows CLI commands to be entered via
the web browser. Almost all of the CLI commands detailed in this reference guide can be
entered via this page. The corresponding output will be shown when the ‘Execute’ button
is pressed.
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Save configuration
Once you have configured the router, your chosen settings must be saved to non-volatile
memory to avoid losing them when the power is removed.
Save current configuration to Config n
This parameter can be used to set the configuration file to which the current configuration will
be saved when the “Save” button is clicked. There are 2 options, profile 0 and profile 1.
The default power up profile is profile 0.
The configuration profile that is used when the router powers up is indicated in the selection
box.
Save all configuration
The “Save All” button saves the router’s entire configuration.
•
The current configuration parameters to config.da0 or config.da1 file**
•
The ciphered versions of the passwords to the pwds.da0 or pwds.da1 file**
•
The Firewall configuration to the fw.txt file
•
The serial port configuration to profile 0 of the sregs.dat file
•
The PAD parameters on all the PADs to profile 0 of the x3prof file
Related CLI commands
Parameter
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
config
save
Save current configuration to Config n
saveall
n/a
Save all configuration
** The default power up profile is profile 0. *.da0 = profile 0, *.da1 = profile 1.
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Reboot
The Administration - Reboot page is used to reboot the router immediately or at a scheduled
time.
A reboot will be performed after any FLASH write operations have been completed. Also, one
second each is allowed for the following operations to be completed before reboot will take
place:
•
IPSec SA delete notifications have been created and sent
•
TCP sockets have been closed
•
PPP interfaces have been disconnected
Immediately
Selecting this option will cause the router to reboot after a few seconds. The router will cleanly
terminate any TCP and VPN connections before rebooting.
In h hrs m mins s secs
Selecting this option will cause a reboot to be scheduled after the configured period of time.
A scheduled reboot can be cancelled by clicking the “Cancel” button.
Related CLI commands
Command
Options
Equivalent Web Parameter
reboot
n/a
Immediately
reboot
0 – 86400
In h hrs m mins s secs.
This CLI value is entered in minutes only.
reboot
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Cancel reboot
524
Logout
Clicking the Logout link in the menu on the left will log out the current user and return to the
login page
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Filing system and system files
The dir command described below is used to display a list of the currently stored files. A typical
file directory will include the following files:
Filename
Description
ana.txt
Pseudo file for Protocol Analyser output
config.da0
Data file containing Config.0 settings
direct
File directory
eventlog.txt
Pseudo file for Event Log output
fw.txt
Firewall script file
fwstat.txt
Firewall script status file
image
Main system image
*.web
File containing compressed Web pages for your model
logcodes.txt
Text file containing Event Log config. info.
pwds.da0
File containing obfuscated passwords
sbios
TransPort BIOS and bootloader
sregs.dat
Data file containing AT command & S register settings
x3prof
X.25 PAD profile parameters
Once you have configured the unit, your chosen settings must be saved to non-volatile memory
to avoid losing them when the power is removed. Application command settings are stored in
one of two “CONFIG” files. AT command and S register settings are stored in one file call
“SREGS.DAT”.
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Config Files
Config Files
Most configuration information is stored in one of two files called “CONFIG.DA0” and
“CONFIG.DA1”. This allows two different sets of configuration information to be stored using the
Save option in the directory tree at the left of the web interface, or by using the config command
from the command line.
The Save All button will save:
File name
Configuration held in file
config.da0
Main configuration parameters
pwds.da0
Encrypted passwords
fw.txt
Firewall rules
sregs.dat
Serial port S registers
x3prof
X.25 PAD profiles
You may select which of the two config files is loaded when the unit is powered-up or rebooted
by setting the parameter Configuration - System > General > Miscellaneous > Use Config n
when the router powers up as required (or by using the config n powerup CLI command).
Note The CONFIG files only contain details of settings that have been changed from the default
values.
SREGS.DAT
A combined set of AT command and S register settings are referred to as a profile. Two such
profiles (0 and 1) may be stored for each ASY port in a file called SREGS.DAT using the Save
Profile button on the relevant Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Serial > Serial Port n
web page, or by using the AT&W command.
It is important to remember that saving the settings for one ASY port does not save the settings
for the other ports so the settings for each port must be saved individually.
For each ASY port, the profile to be loaded at reboot or power-up is specified in the Power-up
Profile setting on the relevant Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Serial > Serial Port 0
web page (or by using AT&Y command).
A profile for a particular ASY port may also be loaded to take immediate effect by using the Load
Profile button on the ASY port’s web page, or by using the ATZ command.
PWDS.DA0
As of firmware version 4981, the encrypted forms of passwords entered into the
configuration are stored in a separate file named pwds.da0. This file can only be accessed
by users with Super level privileges. The file can be read with the type command, such
as, type pwds.da0.
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Filing System commands
The pwds.da0 file is only created when a password is changed from default and the configuration
is saved. The encrypted versions of the default passwords are then removed from the config.da0
file and the new pwds.da0 is created and used instead.
If the pwds.da0 file is deleted all remote access to the router that requires authentication will fail,
a serial cable connection will be required to re-configure passwords to gain access to the router.
If both the pwds.da0 file exists and the config.da0 contains passwords also, the passwords in the
config.da0 take precedence and will over write the passwords in the pwds.da0 when a save
command is issued.
Filing System commands
COPY Copy file
The copy command is used to make a copy of a file. The format is:
copy <filename> <newfilename>
where <filename> is the name of an existing file and <newfilename> is the name of the new copy
that will be created.
DEL Delete file
The del command is used to delete files from the filing system. The format is:
del <filename>
where <filename> is the name of an existing file.
You can also use wild cards in the filename in order to delete several files at once. The * character
can represent one or more characters in the filename.
For example, del fw*.txt will delete fw.txt and fwstat.txt. The del command returns OK if
files have been deleted, or ERROR if no matching files have been found.
DIR List file directory
The dir command is used to display the file directory. For example:
dir
direct
sbios
mirror
image
sregs.dat
x3prof
CAcert.cer
60720
524288
60720
4300995
4096
4096
1371
ro
ro
ro
rw
rw
rw
rw
11:30:41,
11:30:43,
11:30:41,
15:22:23,
11:30:41,
11:30:41,
11:30:41,
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
2011
CRC
CRC
CRC
CRC
CRC
CRC
CRC
???
6ba8
???
ab19
08b2
bb5f
6764
Each line shows the file name and extension (if any), the file size (in bytes), the read/write status
(ro = read only, rw = read/write), the time/date of creation and the CRC value.
Note File write operations are carried out as a background task and can be relatively slow due
to the constraints of FLASH memory. As a result, the file directory may only be updated
several seconds after a particular file operation has been carried out.
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Filing System commands
You can also use wildcards with the dir command in order to narrow your search. The *
character can represent one or more characters in the filename. For example, dir fw*.txt will
list only the fw.txt and fwstat.txt files (if they are present on the TransPort).
FLOCK Lock files
The flock command prevents any further writing to the FLASH memory. This means that no files
can be written to, added to or deleted from the filing system.
FUNLOCK Unlock files
The funlock command unlocks the FLASH memory if it had been locked using the flock
command. Files can then be added, deleted or copied to the filing system.
MOVE Move file
The move command is used to replace one file with another whilst retaining the original filename.
The format is:
move <fromfile> <tofile>
For example, the command:
move fw-temp.txt fw.txt
will delete the file called fw.txt and then rename the file called fw-temp.txt as fw.txt.
REN Rename file
The ren command is used to rename files in the filing system. The format is:
ren <oldfilename> <newfilename>
SCAN/SCANR Scan file system
The scan command performs a diagnostic check on the file system and reports any
errors that are found. For example:
scan
Please wait...
direct ....ok
sbios ....ok
mirror ....ok
image ....ok, data ok
sregs.dat ....ok
x3prof ....ok
CAcert.cer ....ok
The scanning process may take several seconds so you should not enter any other commands
until the results are listed.
The scanr command works in a similar fashion, except that it will return ERROR if any file is in
error. This is useful when used with scripts that can look for the ERROR failure result.
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USB support
TYPE Display Text file
The type command is used to display the contents of a text file. The format is:
type <filename>
For example:
type config.da0
[CFG]
config last_saved "12:04:45, 31 Jan 2011"
config last_saved_changes "1"
config last_saved_user "ASY 0"
eth 0 descr "LAN 0"
eth 0 IPaddr "10.1.51.3"
eth 0 mask "255.255.0.0"
eth 0 bridge ON
eth 1 descr "LAN 1"
eth 2 descr "LAN 2"
eth 3 descr "LAN 3"
eth 4 descr "ATM PVC 0"
XMODEM file transfer
The xmodem command is used to initiate an XMODEM file upload from the port at which the
command is entered. The format is:
xmodem <filename>
where <filename> is the name under which the file will be saved when the upload is complete.
After entering the xmodem command the unit will wait for your terminal program to start
transmitting the file. When the upload is complete and the file has been saved, the unit will
respond with the OK result code.
A remote XMODEM upload can also be initiated by establishing a Telnet session over ISDN, and
then issuing the xmodem command from the remote terminal.
USB support
Most TransPort routers come equipped with USB ports that you can use to connect Mass Storage
Devices (MSDs) such as external hard drives or flash-memory pen drives. All the files on the USB
device will be listed under the USB Directory Listing heading on the Administration - File
Management > FLASH Directory page.
Note The USB storage device must be formatted using the FAT16 or FAT32 file system.
When the USB storage device is first inserted into the unit, the operating system looks for a file
named “autoexec.bat”, and if found, executes it. Other batch files can be executed by pressing
the reset button one or more times. The batch file to be executed must be called “pb<n>.bat”,
where <n> is the number of times the reset button is to be pressed in order to execute the file.
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USB support
SD Memory Card support
Some TransPort routers are available with internal SD memory card, the drive letter assigned to
this card is “s:”. To access the SD memory using an FTP client, the subdirectory assigned is
“sdmmc”. The SD card can be used in the same way as USB MSDs. The SD card is internal and not
removable.
Batch Control commands
Any batch file can contain one of the following two control lines: ERROR_EXIT or ERROR_RUN. If
ERROR_EXIT is specified in a batch file, any commands run after that point in the file will cause the
termination of the batch file if that command causes an error (for example, attempting to delete
a file that does not exist). ERROR_RUN can be used to return the operation to default, which is to
continue the execution of the batch file commands.
USB Filing System commands
The USB storage device will respond to any of the standard filing system commands. For all filing
system commands, the USB storage device is regarded as drive u:.
Note The unit does not support sub-directories. Any sub-directories on the USB device will
appear with a size of 0 bytes on the Administration - File Management > FLASH Directory
page.
Example 1:
To display the contents of the USB storage device, you would enter the command:
dir u:
SERIALS.TXT 1843
EVENTL~1.TXT 1449
USB.TXT 4278
MASSR1~1.TXT 1255
OK
If the USB storage device is empty, you will get the following message:
No files
If no USB device is present, the following message is displayed:
No USB flash directory
Example 2:
To copy a file called “image” from the main flash memory onto the USB device, you would enter
the command:
copy image u:image
To copy a file called “Logcodes.TXT” from the USB device to the main flash memory, you would
enter the command:
copy u:Logcodes.TXT Logcodes.TXT
or
copy u:Logcodes.TXT
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USB support
If no destination file is specified, the destination is set to the FLASH directory and the file name
remains the same.
Using USB devices to upgrade firmware
Functionality available from firmware version 4891 onwards.
The firmware of a TransPort can be upgraded using the USB storage device. To do this procedure,
using the information given above, a simple batch file called pb2.bat should created and the
relevant files placed into the root directory of the USB storage device. Then, when the USB device
is inserted into the TransPort and the reset button is pressed twice, the upgrade is performed.
ERROR_EXIT
del *.web
copy u:sbios1 sbios1
copy u:logcodes.txt logcodes.txt
copy u:image image
copy u:image4.c3 image4.c3
copy u:Y4890wVS.web Y4890wVS.web
move sbios1 sbios
scanr
flashleds
When the LEDs on the TransPort start flashing, the upgrade is complete and the TransPort must
be rebooted for the new firmware to be activated.
Using USB devices with .all files
Functionality available from firmware version 4910 onwards.
A .all file is a special file that contains all of the firmware and configuration files in a single file that
has the file extension .all and is an exact copy of the TransPort router in its current state. This .all
file can then be applied to another TransPort router, as long as it is the same model.
To extract a .all file use the Digi Flash Writer software.
Copy the .all file to a USB storage device and insert the device into the TransPort router. Issue the
command “dir u:” to confirm the TransPort can access the USB device. To copy the .all file onto
the TransPort router, from the command line enter “copy u:mr4110.all t.all” (replacing mr4110.all
with the correct .all file name and the t.all destination name can be anything). Please note that
the source file (mr4110.all in this example) must adhere to the 8.3 filename convention (due to
limits of the FAT file system) or the process will fail.
USB security
In order to prevent unauthorised access to a TransPort unit using a USB storage device (such as
inserting a USB storage device with an autoexec.bat file designed to copy usernames and
passwords, etc.) the usbcon command can be used to define an access key. If the .bat file does
not contain the matching key, it will not be allowed to execute. The put parameter of the uflash
command is used to encode the key onto the file.
Note
When using the uflash command, the filename should not be prefixed with u:, as the
uflash command can only act on files stored on a USB storage device.
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USB support
For example, to create a key you would enter the command:
usbcon 0 flashkey
In order to encode this key onto a file called “autoexec.bat” on the USB storage device, you would
enter the command:
uflash autoexec.bat put
In order to remove a key from a file, you would use the clr parameter of the uflash command,
thus:
uflash autoexec.bat clr
Note You must be logged onto the unit with Super access level in order to use the uflash
command.
By default, an autoexec.bat file will be executed if found when a USB drive is inserted. Other
batch files can also be executed. This behaviour can be controlled if required by issuing the
command:
usbcon 0 batfile <off|on>
Disable/enable the USB ports
If required, the external USB ports can be disabled to prevent any unauthorised copying of files
to or from the router and prevent unauthorised use of flash drives or serial devices connected to
the USB ports. This is also done with the usbcon command. The parameters used with the
usbcon command are dislist to disable or enalist to explicitly enable a list of USB drivers. The
driver list can be comma separated to specify more than one driver if required.
The format of the disable command is:
usbcon 0 usb-x-p<.p>.<DRIVER>
Where x=1 for the bottom USB port and 2 for the top port.
Where p=<port #> (if connected to a USB hub the port numbers can increase).
Where DRIVER = MSD for Mass Storage Device. SERIAL for serial devices, or HUB for hub devices.
To disable a Flash Stick on the top port only:
usbcon 0 dislist usb-2-2.MSD
Wildcards are also possible so to disable flash devices entirely. For example:
usbcon 0 dislist usb-*.MSD
This will match on ALL MSD devices even if in another HUB.
To disable both external USB ports on a DR64x0 the following commands can be used...
usbcon 0 dislist "usb-1-2*,usb-2-2*"
or
usbcon 0 dislist "usb-?-2*"
Note that the final -2 is important in both cases as otherwise the command would disable the
internal USB devices which could include connections to the wireless module or other
components.
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USB support
To disable Serial devices from using either external USB port on a DR64x0, or on a port connected
to a hub on either these ports...
usbcon 0 dislist "usb-1-2*.SERIAL,usb-2-2*.SERIAL"
or
usbcon 0 dislist usb-?-2*.SERIAL
The enalist takes the same format but when matches it causes the device to be specifically
enabled. If a device matches the enable list as well as the disable list the enable list will take
preference.
When a device matches a list an event is written to the event log of the form...
"USB device usb-1-2.4.MSD disabled"
or
"USB device usb-1-2.4.MSD enabled"
in the case the device matches the enalist.
These events can be used to debug the correct matching string to match on when trying to
configure these parameters.
If both lists are left blank, all drivers are enabled and no extra events will appear in the event log.
Universal config.da0 using tags
The config.da0 contains a list of commands, one per line that are parsed at boot. The commands
in this file differ depending on the model of the router, the firmware in use and the hardware
options installed.
A single universal configuration file can be created with the use of tags, defining sections that
only relate to a specific hardware type or firmware version.
The tag values that can be used are:
•
The base model, for example: DR6410
•
The complete model, for example: DR6410-H0A
•
The platform build string, for example: 8W
•
The type of DSL, for example: DSL2, 2+
•
The type of WWAN module detected, for example: E (Edge), C (CDMA)
•
The complete WWAN module string, for example: MOTO_G24, SIEMENS_GPRS,
SIEMENS_MC75, NOVATEL_3G, SIERRA_3G, OPTION_3G, NOVATEL_CDMA, CMOTECH_CDMA,
SIERRA_CDMA
PSTN or ISDN module, for example: PSTN, ISDN
Tags must be used within angle brackets and the configuration sections must be opened AND
closed with the relevant tag, for example: To open <DR6410>, to close </DR6410>. Note the use
of the “/“ in the closing tag.
To view a list of defined tags on a router, the CLI command tags can be used:
Example output of tags command:
Router>tags
tags defined:..
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USB support
TransPort
DR64
dr6410
8W
OPTION_3G
ISDN
DSL
61690
OK
Example scenario:
A single configuration file is required for a range of DR6410 routers, there is a mix of 3 types of 3G
WWAN modules and some have GPRS modules installed. Different W-WAN modules need
different modemcc commands to correctly configure the ASY ports. All these modules can have
their own specific commands in one config file.
Example configuration using tagged sections:
Comments are in red and prefixed with a # symbol. Comments may be used in configuration files
to make them easier to read. The info_asy_add parameters are just for illustration purposes only
and are not the actual ASY port numbers used.
<DR6410-H0A>
#Start of DR6410-H0A config
<NOVATEL_3G>
#Start of Novatel specific config
modemcc 0 asy_add 7
modemcc 0 info_asy_add 8
#End of Novatel specific config
</NOVATEL_3G>
<OPTION_3G>
#Start of Option specific config
modemcc 0 asy_add 7
modemcc 0 info_asy_add 9
#End of Option specific config
</OPTION_3G>
<SIERRA_3G>
#Start of Sierra specific config
modemcc 0 asy_add 7
modemcc 0 info_asy_add 10
#End of Sierra specific config
</SIERRA_3G>
#End of DR6410-H0A config
</DR6410-H0A>
<DR6410-E0A>
#Start of DR6410-E0A config
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USB support
modemcc 0 asy_add 7
modemcc 0 info_asy_add 11
#End of DR6410-E0A config
</DR6410-E0A>
#Rest of generic config goes below here
modemcc 0 apn internet”
eth 0 ipaddr 192.168.0.99
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Access web GUI via serial connection
To access the web interface through one of the unit’s serial ports (using Windows dial-up
networking) follow the steps below.
Note To use Dial-up Networking you must have the TCP/IP > Dial-up adapter installed in the
Network Configuration for Windows. Check this by selecting Settings > Control Panel >
Network > Configuration.
Installing the driver file
You will need to install the “standard windows 33000 modem ” driver file and create a Windows
PPP Dial-up Networking connection (DUN) for the unit as described below. It is assumed that you
already have a basic knowledge of Windows networking concepts and terminology.
Download the driver file from the Digi support Website at http://www.digi.com/support/drivers.
The precise procedure for installing the .inf driver file for the unit will vary slightly between
different versions of Windows. The following description applies to Windows XP.
1. Start by selecting Start > Control Panel > Phone and Modem Options. You must be in Classic
View. Select the Modems tab and you will see a dialog similar to the following:
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Installing the driver file
2. Click on Add… to install a new modem driver.
3. Check the Don’t detect my modem, I will select it from a list option before clicking Next >
to display the following dialog screen:
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Installing the driver file
4. Select the manufacturer from the Manufacturer list. Select Standard 33600bps Modem
from the list of routers appearing in the Models list.
5. Choose the entry corresponding to the COM port your router is connected to, and click Next
>. The wizard will ask you which COM port you wish to install the modem on.
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Installing the driver file
6. Select the appropriate port and click Next >, and Windows will install the driver. Once
installation is complete click Finish to return to the Phone and Modem Options dialog, where
your unit will be listed
7. Click on the Finish button if you are satisfied with the installation.
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Installing the driver file
Note During the installation you may receive a warning that the driver is not digitally signed.
Click on Continue Installation to install the driver.
Creating A New Dial-Up Network Connection
You now need to create a new DUN connection through which you can access your unit.
If you are planning to connect the unit directly to your PC for configuration purposes, connect it
to the appropriate COM port now using a suitable serial cable.
If you wish to configure a remote unit, make sure it is connected to a suitable ISDN line and make
a note of the ISDN number.
1. From the Windows Start menu, select All Programs > Accessories > Communications > New
Connection Wizard. You will be presented with the New Connection Wizard introduction
screen. Click on Next > to proceed to the Network Connection Type dialog:
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Installing the driver file
2. Select the Connect to the network at my workplace radio-button then
click on Next >:
3. Select the Dial-up connection radio-button then click on Next >:
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Installing the driver file
4. From the Select a Device dialog, select the unit you have just installed and make
sure that any other devices in the list are unchecked. Click Next >.
5. You must now enter a name for the connection. It is helpful to choose a name that you will
easily remember such as “My Digi Router” or “DR64 - Bristol Office”. Click Next >. The following
dialog allows you to fill in the phone number for the connection:
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If the connection is being created for direct local access using a COM port, you should set the
phone number to 123. This number will be intercepted by the unit and recognized as an attempt
to connect locally.
If the connection is being created for remote access, enter the correct ISDN telephone number
(including the area code) for the remote unit.
When you have done this click Next >. The final dialog screen will confirm that the connection has
been created and includes a check box to allow you to create a shortcut on your desktop if
necessary. Click on Finish to complete the task.
Configuring the New DUN Connection
The new DUN connection that you have just created may now be used to connect to the unit but
before you do this, you will need to check some of the configuration properties.
1. Click on the Start button and select Connect To > My Digi Router (substituting the connection
name you chose).
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Installing the driver file
2. Click on the Properties button to display the properties dialog for the connection:
3. On the General tab, click the Configure… button to display the Modem Configuration dialog:
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Make sure that the Maximum speed (bps): value is set to 115200 and that the Enable hardware
flow control box is checked. Click OK when you have finished to return to the main properties
dialog.
4. Now select the Networking tab:
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Make sure that the Type of dial-up server I am calling is set to PPP: Windows 95/98/NT/2000,
Internet and click on Settings:
Make sure that all three options are unchecked before clicking OK to return to the Networking
tab. In the This connection uses the following items list, Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) should be
the only item that is checked. Make sure that this is the case and then click OK to return to the
main dialog. You are now ready to initiate a connection.
Initiating a DUN connection
In the main dialog, you are asked to enter a username and password. The default settings for
your unit are “username” and “password” respectively but you should change as soon as
possible in order to prevent unauthorised access to your unit (refer to the section entitled
Configuration - Security > Users for instructions on how to do this). The username is not case
sensitive, but the password is.
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Installing the driver file
Note When you type the password it will appear as a series of dots to ensure privacy.
Once you have entered these, initiate a connection to your unit by clicking the Dial button.
During the dialling and connection process, you may see a series of status dialog boxes and, if the
connection is successful, the final dialog box will indicate that the PPP login has been
authenticated.
After a short delay, this dialog will minimise to a “linked computers” icon in the Windows taskbar:
You should now be ready to access the built-in web pages using your Web browser. The
default “web address” for the unit is http://1.2.3.4. By default, this is also mapped to
the system IP hostname digi.router.
You will need a valid username and password to access the web interface. Once again, the
default settings are username and password respectively. If these values do not allow access,
you should contact your system administrator.
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SQL commands
When IPSec Egroups are used with a SQL database for dynamic Eroute configuration, there are
CLI commands that will help with configuration and troubleshooting on the Digi router.
Local Database commands
As well as using an external SQL database, the Digi can cache the SQL table entries it learns from
the SQL server in RAM so if the SQL server goes offline for any reason, the database entries are
still available to renew existing IPSec SA’s.
To configure the caching options the command used is sql 0 <parameter> <value>.
The following parameters are available to configure the caching of database entries:
dbsrvmem <n>
This parameter is used to specify the amount of memory (RAM) the MySQL server cache should
use. Where <n> is specified in multiples of 1k. such as 10Mb = 10240
To calculate the amount of memory to specify in this parameter:
1. Look at the size of the database file (.csv) that will be loaded into the Digi memory.
2. Double this value and add 100Kb, for example, if the csv file is 200Kb, this would
make a value of 500Kb for the memory allocation. Use the command sql 0 dbsrvmem
500.
3. Load the database file into memory and check the memory allocated and free using
the smem command. This will show the memory allocated and left available. Increase
the memory in the dbsrvmem command if required.
dbfile <name>
This is the name of the csv file that the Digi will use to store the table definitions (1st line) and
data records. This file is stored in flash and is used to populate the database stored in RAM on
power up or when a new file matching this name has just been stored. The dbfile can be
populated with records or be empty except for the definitions line. The dbfile stored in RAM will
be populated from both the dbfile stored in flash and (if configured) via caching items learnt from
the main SQL server. The dbfile in flash can then be updated from the dbfile in RAM and saved.
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dbname <name>
This is the name of the backup database in case the main database goes offline. This name needs
to match the database name in use on the SQL server.
learn <off|on>
When enabled, the Digi will cache entries learnt via the main SQL database in a file stored in RAM.
This can be used as a backup in the event of the main SQL database going offline. To use learning
mode, at least one column in the csv dbfile must be marked as a unique key, with the U prefix.
For example, remip is marked as the unique key:
peerip[IP],bakpeerid[IP],peerid[K20],password[20],ourid[20],remip[UKIP],remmsk[IP]
Learning mode - Saving entries
When learning mode is used, the dynamic backup database is stored in RAM. This database will
be lost if the Digi router is power cycled. The database in RAM can be saved to flash to over-write
the dbfile with the one in RAM that includes the learnt entries or it can be saved to a new file.
To save the dbfile to flash from RAM, use the following command.
sqlsave 0 <filename>
Where <filename> is the name of the destination file.
For example, to save the learnt database entries to a file called backup.csv
sqlsave 0 backup.csv
If there are no learnt entries, this command will not create a file. To view the number to
learnt entries, use the command sql 0 ? and refer to the section headed Learning info.
Learning info.
items learned:0
matched retrievals:0
OK
Configure a TransPort to use a backup database
Once the Digi has been configured to run a SQL csv database locally, this backup csv database
can be used in the event of the main SQL database going offline. The configuration parameters
required are:
Configure the IP address of the SQL server to use.
egroup 0 dbhost "192.168.0.50"
Configure the IP address of the SQL server that will have a backup database. If a socket
connection fails to this IP address, the Digi will use the backup IP address.
ipbu 0 IPaddr "192.168.0.50"
Configure the backup database IP address. eg. the loopback address of the Digi router or an
alternative SQL server, this eaxmple shows the loopback IP address of the Digi router.
ipbu 0 BUIPaddr "127.0.0.1"
Set the amount of time in seconds that the connection to the main SQL server will be retried.
ipbu 0 retrysec 30
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Set the Digi to use the backup IP address if the main database is unavailable.
ipbu 0 donext ON
For example, to configure and use a local backup database when the main SQL database
at 192.168.0.50 is offline, the configuration may look similar to this:
egroup 0 dbhost "192.168.0.50"
sql 0 dbsrvmem 200
sql 0 dbfile "sardb.csv"
sql 0 dbname "sarvpns"
sql 0 learn ON
sqlsave 0 backup.csv
ipbu 0 IPaddr "192.168.0.50"
ipbu 0 BUIPaddr "127.0.0.1"
ipbu 0 retrysec 30
ipbu 0 donext ON
Memory information
smem
Displays the amount of memory allocated, in use and available for use by the MySQL server on
the Digi.
Transact SQL commands
To query a SQL database manually using transact SQL statements, the following commands can
be used.
To connect to the SQL server and database:
sqlcon <host> <user> <pwd> <database>
For example:
sqlcon 192.168.0.50 sqluser sqlpass eroute-db
To issue transact SQL statements:
sqldo <"cmd">
For example:
sqldo "select * from site where subnet='10.110.100.0' limit 3"
To limit the sqldo command to only act on specified fields, the following command can be used:
sqlfields “<field1> <field2> <field3>”
For example:
sqlfields “remmsk password peerip”
After issuing the sqlfields command, all further sqldo commands will apply to these fields only.
When finished, to close the SQL server connection correctly:
sqlclose
If the database being queried is held locally on the Digi, these commands can be preceded with
the SQL debug command to give extra feedback on any commands issued.
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Transact SQL commands
To enable the SQL debug:
sql 0 debug_opts 3
To view the debug data via the ASY 0 port:
debug 0
To view the debug data via telnet:
debug t
To disable the SQL debug:
sql 0 debug_opts 0
debug off
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Answering V.120 calls
V.120 is a protocol designed to provide high-speed point-to-point communication over ISDN. It
provides rate adaptation and can optionally provide error control. Both the calling and called
units must be configured to use V.120 before data can be transferred. Similarly, if one unit is
configured to use the error control facility, the other must be configured in the same way.
Initial Set up
Before using V.120 you must first bind one of the two available V.120 instances to the required
ASY port using the Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Serial > Protocol Bindings page or
by using the bind command from the command line, for example:
bind v120 0 asy 0
You should also select the appropriate method of flow control for the ASY port using the
Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Serial > Serial Port n page or by using the AT&K
command from the command line. Other ASY port options such as command echo, result code
format, etc. should also be configured as necessary.
Initiating a V.120 call
Once the initial configuration is complete, V.120 calls may be initiated using the appropriate ATD
command. For example:
atd01234567890
A successful connection will be indicated by a CONNECT result code being issued to the ASY port
and the unit will switch into on-line mode. In this mode, all data from the terminal attached to the
bound ASY port will be passed transparently through the unit across the ISDN network to the
remote system. Similarly, all data from the remote system will be passed directly to the terminal
attached to the bound ASY port.
If a V.120 call fails the unit will issue the NO ANSWER or NO CARRIER result code to the ASY port
and remain in command mode.
The ATD command may also be used to route a call to an ISDN sub-address by following the
telephone number with the letter S and the required sub-address value. For example:
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Answering V.120 calls
atd01234567890s003
In this case, the remote system will only answer the call if it has been configured to accept
incoming calls on the specified sub-address.
Answering V.120 calls
V.120 answering can be enabled from the command interface by setting register S0 for the
appropriate ASY port to a non-zero value. For example:
ats0=1
You should ensure that you have set S0 for the correct ASY port by either entering it directly on
that port or by using the AT\PORT command to select the correct port first.
The actual value used for the parameter sets the number of rings the unit will wait before
answering.
Finally, you must ensure that there are no conflicts with other protocols configured to answer on
other ASY ports. This can be done by disabling answering for the other ports/protocols or by
using the MSN and/or Sub-address parameters to selectively answer calls to different telephone
numbers using different protocols.
For example, if you have subscribed to the ISDN MSN facility, you may have been allocated say
four telephone numbers ending in 4, 5, 6 and 7. You could then set the MSN parameter for the
appropriate V.120 instance to 4 to configure V.120 to answer only incoming calls to the MSN
number ending in 4.
You should check that if PPP answering is enabled you have NOT selected the same MSN and
Sub-address values for PPP. If they are the same, V.120 will answer the call ONLY if S0 is set to 1.
Otherwise, PPP will take priority and answer the call.
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Answering ISDN calls
Digi routers are capable of answering incoming B-channel ISDN calls with 3 main protocols.
Usually several instances of these protocols exist. This section explains how answering priorities
work for the different protocols.
Protocol entities
The following protocol instances are capable of answering an incoming ISDN call:
Adapt
Adapt instances provide rate adaptation protocols such as V.120 or V.110.
LAPB
LAPB instances allow the unit to answer incoming X.25 calls over ISDN. They can optionally
connect the caller to a synchronous serial port, an asynchronous serial port bound to a PAD, or
switch the call to another interface.
PPP
IP data tunnelled over PPP instances allow remote access to the unit’s IP-based management
features and also facilitate onward IP routing through any of the unit’s IP enabled interfaces.
The unit will automatically answer an incoming ISDN call if any of the following statements are
true (subject to the entity MSN, Calling Number and Sub-address parameters being set to their
default values):
•
An Adapt instance is bound to an asynchronous serial port (ASY) and the answer ring
count (S0) for that serial port is set to 1
•
A LAPB instance has its answering parameter set to On
•
A PPP instance has its answering parameter set to On
If more than one of these protocols are configured to auto answer then the priority is as follows:
Adapt instances (normally V.120) will take priority over LAPB, which will take priority over PPP. If
an Adapt instance is bound to an asynchronous serial port (ASY port) but the answer ring count
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Protocol entities
(ATS0) is not set to 1 for that same serial port then Adapt entity will not answer automatically. If
any other protocol entities (such as LAPB, PPP or another Adapt instance) are configured to
answer then one of these protocol entities will answer the call. If no other protocol entities are
configured to answer then a repeating RING message will be sent out of the serial port and the
RS232 ring indicator control will be activated. If a terminal attached to the serial port sends ATA
followed by carriage return then the ISDN call will be answered by the Adapt entity and any
incoming data will be channelled out of the serial port and vice-versa.
Multiple Subscriber Numbers
An MSN (multiple subscriber number) is an alternative number provided by the telephone service
provider which when dialled will also route through to your ISDN line. It is possible to purchase
several MSNs for an ISDN line. This means that in effect one ISDN line can have several ISDN
numbers.
Every entity in the router which is capable of answering an ISDN call (Adapt, LABP and PPP) has an
MSN parameter.
A protocol entity’s MSN parameter can be used to:
•
Cause a protocol instance not to answer an incoming ISDN call (if the trailing digits of the ISDN
number called do not match the entry in this field).
•
Increase the answering priority of an instance (if more than one protocol instance is
configured to answer and the trailing digits of the ISDN number called match the value of the
MSN parameter for a particular protocol instance).
Example
Consider the following:
• An Adapt instance is bound to a serial port and ATS0 for that serial port is set to 1
•
PPP instance 0 has answering turned On
•
The ISDN line to which the router is connected has two numbers: the main number is 123456
and the MSN number is 123789
Normally, because ADAPT has a higher answering priority than PPP, the Adapt instance will
answer when either of the numbers are called. However if the ISDN number dialled is 123456 and
456 is entered into the MSN parameter of PPP then PPP will answer instead. This will also have
the effect of preventing PPP from answering if any other ISDN number (such as 123457) has been
called.
This means that whenever 123456 is called the PPP instance will answer and that whenever
123789 is called the V120 instance will answer.
It is possible to connect multiple ISDN devices to the same ISDN line. MSNs can then be used to
allow the different ISDN devices to be dialled individually (such as dial the main ISDN number and
get through to ISDN device one, dial the first MSN and get through to ISDN device number two,
dial the second MSN and get through to ISDN device number three, etc.).
Multiple PPP Instances
It is also possible to configure multiple instances of a particular entity to answer. For example,
PPP instance, 0, 1 and 4 could be configured to answer. In this case provided that none of the PPP
instances are busy, the PPP instance with the highest number will answer first. MSNs can also be
used to ensure that a chosen PPP instance answers the call.
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Protocol entities
Multiple protocol entity answering instance rules:
ADAPT
The lowest free Adapt instance with auto-answering enabled will answer first.
PPP
The lowest free PPP instance with answering on will answer first.
LAPB
The lowest free LAPB instance with answering on will answer first.
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X.25 packet switching
Introduction
X.25 is a data communications protocol that is used throughout the world for wide area
networking across Packet Switched Data Networks (PSDNs). The X.25 standard defines the way in
which terminal equipment establishes, maintains and clears Switched Virtual Circuits (SVCs),
across X.25 networks to other devices operating in packet mode on these networks.
The protocols used in X.25 operate at the lower three layers of the ISO model. At the lowest level
the Physical layer defines the electrical and physical interfaces between the DTE and DCE. Layer 2
is the Data Link Layer that defines the unit of data transfer as a “frame” and includes the error
control and flow control mechanisms. Layer 3 is the Network layer. This defines the data and
control packet structure and the procedures used to access services that are available on PSDNs.
A further standard, X.31 defines the procedures used to access X.25 networks via the ISDN B and
D-channels.
Digi ISDN products include support for allowing connected terminals to access X.25 over ISDN B
channels, the ISDN D-channel or over TCP. They can also be configured so that if there is a
network failure it will automatically switch to using an alternative service. The Packet Assembler/
Disassembler (PAD) interface conforms to the X.3, X.28 and X.29 standards.
Up to six PAD instances (from an available pool of 8), can be created and dynamically assigned to
the asynchronous serial ports or the REM pseudo-port.
Each application that uses the unit to access an X.25 network will have its own particular
configuration requirements. For example, you may need to program your Network User Address
(NUA) and specify which Logical Channel Numbers (LCNs) should be used on your X.25 service.
This information will be available from your X.25 service provider. You will also need to decide
whether your application will use B or D-channel X.25.
Once you have this information, the PAD configuration pages can be used to set up the
appropriate parameters.
B-channel X.25
The unit can transfer data to/from X.25 networks over either of the ISDN B-channels.
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Once the unit has been configured appropriately, the ISDN call to the X.25 network can be made
using an ATD command or by executing a pre-defined macro. The format of the ATD command
allows you to combine the ISDN call and the subsequent X.25 call in a single command.
Alternatively, the X.25 call may be made separately from the PAD> prompt once the ISDN
connection to the X.25 network has been established.
D-channel X.25
The unit can transfer data to/from X.25 networks over the ISDN D-channel if your ISDN
service provider supports this facility. The speed at which data can be transferred varies
depending on the service provider but is generally 9600bps or less.
X.28 Commands
Once an X.25 session layer has been established the unit switches to “PAD” mode. In this mode
operation of the PAD is controlled using the standard X.28 PAD commands listed in the following
table:
Command
Description
CALL
Make an X.25 call
CLR
Clear an X.25 call
ICLR
Invitation to CLR
INPAR?
List X.3 parameters of specified PAD instance
INPROF
Load or save specified PAD profile
INSET
Set X.3 parameters of specified PAD instance
INT
Send Interrupt packet
LOG
Logoff and disconnect
PAR?
List local X.3 parameters
PROF
Load or save PAD profile
RESET
Send reset packet
RPAR?
List remote X.3 parameters
RSET
Set remote X.3 parameters
SET
Set local X.3 parameters
STAT
Display channel status
CALL Make an X.25 Call
The full structure of a CALL command is:
CALL [<facilities->]<address>[D<user data>]
where:
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<facilities-> is an optional list of codes indicating the facilities to be requested in the call
(separated by commas, terminated with a dash)
<address> is the destination network address.
<user data> is any optional user data to be included with the call.
The facility codes supported are:
F
Fast select - no restriction
Q
Fast select - restricted response
Gnn
Closed User Group
Gnnnn
Extended Closed User Group
R
Reverse charging
N<NUI>
Network User Identity code (NUI)
Example
CALL R,G12,NMYNUI-56512120DHello
places a call to address 56512120 using reverse charging and specifying Closed User Group 12.
The string “MYNUI” is your Network User Identity and the string “Hello” appears in the user data
field of the call packet.
Note The particular facilities that are available will vary between X.25 service providers.
If a CALL command is issued without the address parameter, it is assumed that you wish to go
back on-line to a previously established call (having used the PAD recall facility to temporarily
return to the PAD> prompt).
Fast select (ISDN B-channel only)
When the standard Fast select facility is requested using the “F” facility code, the call packet
generated by the CALL command is extended to allow the inclusion of up to 124 bytes of user
data. For example:
CALL F-1234567890DThis DATA sent with call packet
would cause an X.25 CALL packet to be sent using the Fast select facility including the message
“This DATA sent with call packet” (the Carriage Return used to enter the command is not
transmitted). Without the inclusion of the Fast select facility code, only the first 12 characters
would be sent.
When a Fast select CALL has been made the PAD accepts an extended format response from the
called address. This response, consisting of up to 124 bytes of user data, may be appended to the
returning call accepted or call clear packet. When one of these packets is received, the user data
is extracted and passed from the PAD to the terminal immediately prior to the “CLR DTE . . .”
message in the case of a call clear packet or “CON COM” message in case of a call accepted
packet.
When a restricted response Fast select call has been made using the Q facility code, the call
packet indicates that a full connection is not required so that any response to the user data in the
CALL packet should be returned in a call clear packet.
When the PAD receives an incoming call specifying Fast select, the call is indicated to the terminal
in the normal way. For example:
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IC 1234567890 FAC: Q,W:2 COM
would indicate that an incoming call had been received requesting Restricted response fast select
and a window size of 2. The user (or system) then has 15 seconds in which to pass up to 124 bytes
of data to the PAD to be included in the clear indication packet that is sent in response to the call.
The PAD does NOT differentiate between standard and restricted response Fast select on
incoming calls and, consequently, will always respond with a clear indication.
Network User Identity (NUI)
The N facility code allows you to include your Network User Identity in the call packet. For
security reasons the PAD echoes each character as an asterisk (*) during the entry of an NUI.
Some X.25 services use the NUI field to pass both a username and password for validation.
For example, if your Username is MACDONALD and your password is ASDF, a typical CALL
command would have the format:
CALL NMACDONA;ASDF-56512120
where the “;” is used to separate the username from the password.
Closed User Group (CUG)
Most X.25 networks support Closed User Groups. They are used to restrict subscribers to only
making calls or receiving calls from other members of the same CUG. The CUG number
effectively provides a form of sub-addressing that is used in conjunction with the NUA to
identify the destination address for a call.
When the G facility code is specified in a CALL packet, it must be followed by the CUG number.
This may be a 2 or 4 digit number. If you are a member of a closed user group, the network
may restrict you to only making calls to or receiving calls from other members of the same
group.
Reverse charging
Reverse charging, specified using the R facility code, allows outgoing calls to be charged to the
account of destination address. Whether or not a call is accepted on a reverse charging basis
is determined by the service provider and by the type of account held by the called user.
Calling user data
The calling user data field for a normal call may contain up to 12 bytes of user data. If the first
character is an exclamation mark (!), the PAD omits the four byte protocol identifier and allows
the full 16 bytes as user data. The same is true for a fast select call except that the maximum
amount of user data is increased from 124 to 128 bytes.
When entering user data, the tilde character (~) may be used to toggle between ASCII and
binary mode. In ASCII mode data is accepted as typed but in binary mode each byte must be
entered as the required decimal ASCII code separated by commas. For example to enter the
data “Line1” followed by [CR][LF] and “Line2” you would enter:
DLine1~13,10~Line2
Aborting a CALL
An X.25 CALL may be aborted using the X.28 CLR command, by pressing [Enter] or by dropping
DTR from the terminal while the call is in progress. Dropping DTR will also terminate an
established call.
If a call is terminated by the network or by the remote host, the unit returns a diagnostic message
before the NO CARRIER result code. Messages may be numeric or verbose depending on the
setting of the ATV command.
The following table lists the verbose messages and equivalent numeric codes:
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Code
Verbose message
1
Unallocated (unassigned) number
2
No route to specified transit network
3
No route to destination
4
Channel unacceptable
6
Channel unacceptable
7
Call awarded and being delivered in an established channel
16
Normal call clearing
17
User busy
18
No user responding
19
No answer from user (user alerted)
21
Call rejected
22
Number changed
26
Non-selected user clearing
27
Destination out of order
28
Invalid number format
29
Facility rejected
30
Response to STATUS ENQUIRY
31
Normal, unspecified
34
No circuit/channel available
38
Network out of order
41
Temporary failure
42
Switching equipment congestion
43
Access information discarded
44
Requested circuit/channel not available
47
Resources unavailable, unspecified
49
Quality of service unavailable
50
Requested facility not subscribed
57
Bearer capability not authorized
58
Bearer capability not presently available
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63
Service or option not available, unspecified
65
Bearer capability not implemented
66
Channel type not implemented
69
Requested facility not implemented
70
Only restricted digital information bearer
79
Service or option not implemented, unspecified
81
Invalid call reference value
82
Identified channel does not exist
83
A suspended call exists, but this call identity does not
84
Call identity in use
85
No call suspended
86
Call having the requested call identity has been cleared
88
Incompatible destination
90
Destination address missing or incomplete
91
Invalid transit network selection
95
Invalid message, unspecified
96
Mandatory information element is missing
97
Message type non-existent or not implemented
98
Message not compatible with call state or message type
nonexistent or not implemented
99
Information element non-existent or not implemented
100
Invalid information element contents
101
Message not compatible with call state
102
Recovery on timer expired
111
Protocol error, unspecified
127
Interworking, unspecified
128
General level 2 call control failure (probable network failure)
Note Some verbose messages may be abbreviated by the unit.
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CLR Clear an X.25 Call
The CLR command is used to clear the current call and release the associated virtual channel for
further calls. On completion of call clear the PAD> prompt is re-displayed. A call may also be
cleared as a result of a number of other situations. If one of these situations occurs, a message is
issued to the PAD in the following format:
CLR <Reason> C:<n> - <text>
where:
•
<Reason> is a 2/3 character clear down code
•
<n> is the numeric equivalent of the clear down code
•
<text> is a description of the reason for clear down
The clear down reason codes supported by the unit are listed in the following table:
Reason Code
Numeric Code
Text
DTE
0
by remote device
OOC
1
number busy
INV
3
invalid facility requested
NC
5
temporary network problem
DER
9
number out of order
NA
11
access to this number is barred
NP
13
number not assigned
RPE
17
remote procedure error
ERR
19
local procedure error
ROO
21
cannot be routed as requested
RNA
25
reverse charging not allowed
ID
33
incompatible destination
FNA
41
fast select not allowed
SA
57
ship cannot be contacted
If an unknown reason code is received, the text field is blank.
ICLR Invitation To CLR
The ICLR command “invites” the remote X.25 service to CLR the current X.25 session.
INT Send Interrupt Packet
INT causes PAD to transmit an interrupt packet. These packets flow “outside” normal buffering/
flow control constraints and are used to interrupt the current activity.
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LOG Logoff and Disconnect
LOG is used to terminate an X.25 session. It causes the PAD to clear any active X.25 calls,
disconnect and return to AT command mode.
PAR? List Local X.3 Parameters
PAR? lists the local X.3 parameters for the current session.
PROF Load/Save PAD Profile
The PROF command is used to store or retrieve a pre-defined set of X.3 PAD parameters (referred
to as a PAD profile). The information is stored in system file called X3PROF. There are four predefined profiles numbered 50, 51, 90 and 91. Additionally, you may create four “user PAD
profiles” numbered 1 to 4.
Profile 50 is automatically loaded when a PAD is first activated. To load one of the other predefined profiles use the PROF command followed by the required profile number. For example:
PROF 90
To create a User PAD profile you must use the SET command to configure the various PAD
parameters to suit your application and then use the PROF command in the format:
PROF &nn
where “nn” is the number of the User PAD profile to be stored, such as 03. Alternatively,
you may use the web interface to edit the parameters directly (Configuration Network > Legacy Protocols > X.25 > PADs n-n > PAD n > PAD Settings).
The pre-defined profiles (50, 51, 90, 91), cannot be overwritten and are permanently
configured as shown in the following table:
Profile
Parameter
50
51
90
91
1
1
0
1
0
2
0
0
1
0
3
0
0
126
0
4
5
5
0
20
5
0
3
1
0
6
5
5
1
0
7
0
8
2
2
8
0
0
0
0
9
0
0
0
0
10
0
0
0
0
11
15
15
15
15
12
0
3
1
0
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13
0
0
0
0
14
0
0
0
0
15
0
0
0
0
16
8
8
127
127
17
24
24
24
24
18
18
18
18
18
19
2
2
1
1
20
64
64
0
0
21
0
0
0
0
22
0
0
0
0
Stored X.25 PAD profiles are held in non-volatile memory and will not be lost when the unit is
switched off.
When used in the format:
prof nn
the PROF command loads the stored profile specified by “nn”.
RESET Send Reset Packet
RESET is used to issue a reset for the current call to the network. It does NOT clear the call but it
does return the network level interface to a known state by re-initializing all Level 3 network
control variables. All data in transit will be lost.
RPAR? Read Remote X.3 Parameters
RPAR? lists the current X.3 parameter settings for the remote system.
RSET Set Remote X.3 Parameters
RSET is used to set one or more X.3 parameters for the remote system. It is entered in the format:
RSET par #:value[,par #:value[,par #:value ...]]
SET Set Local X.3 Parameters
SET is used to set one or more of the local X.3 parameters for the duration of the current session.
The format of the command is:
SET par #:value[,par #:value[,par #:value ...]]
STAT Display Channel Status
STAT displays the current status for each logical channel indicating whether it is free or engaged.
For example:
stat
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PAD STATE
1
ENGAGED
2
FREE
3
FREE
4
FREE
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PPP over Ethernet
PPP over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a means of establishing a PPP connection over the top of an
Ethernet connection. The implementation provided is compliant with RFC 2516, “A Method for
Transmitting PPP Over Ethernet”. A typical application would be to allow non-PPPoE enabled
devices to access Internet services where the connection to the Internet is provided by an ADSL
bridge device.
Using the web page(s)
There is no dedicated web page for configuring the unit to use PPPoE; rather there are a number
of parameters that appear on other web pages that must be used in conjunction with each other
to establish a PPPoE connection over the appropriate Ethernet interface.
In particular, the following configuration pages and parameters are important.
On the appropriate Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Advanced > PPP n - n pages, you
should configure the following parameters on the Configuration - Network > Interfaces >
Advanced > PPP n - n > PPP n pages:
As a minimum requirement the Username and Password parameters should be initialised.
The parameter This PPP interface will use x,y defines the physical Ethernet interface over
which the PPPoE session will operate. In most cases this is PPPoE 0 (for Ethernet 0). The fact that
you have selected “PPPoE 0” as the physical interface for operation with PPP automatically
enables PPPoE mode. If another Ethernet instance is used, Eth 1 for example, this will need to be
specified as PPPoE 1 to ensure the correct MAC address is used, this is in the format 0 or blank for
port 0, 1 for port 1, 2 for port 2 etc.
If necessary, continue to the page Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Advanced > PPP n n > PPP n > Advanced and set the Enable "Always On" mode of this interface parameter to
“On” to configure the unit so that it will attempt to renegotiate the PPP link should it go down for
any reason.
PPP negotiation
The advanced PPP options on this page should be initialised as required by your ISP.
In addition:
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Using the web page(s)
•
Desired Local MRU and Desired Remote MRU should be set to “1492”.
•
Request Local ACFC and Request Remote ACFC should be set to “No”.
•
Request Local PFC and Request Remote PFC should be set to “No”.
•
Desired Local ACCM and Desired Remote ACCM should be set to “0xffffffff”.
Using text commands
There are no specific PPPoE commands available to the user via the text command interface. The
appropriate ppp CLI commands should be used to set the required options.
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IPSEC and VPNs
IPSec
One inherent problem with the TCP protocol used to carry data over the vast majority of LANs
and the Internet is that it provides virtually no security features. This lack of security, and recent
publicity about “hackers” and “viruses”, prevent many people from even considering using the
Internet for any sensitive business application. IPSec provides a remedy for these weaknesses
adding a comprehensive security “layer” to protect data carried over IP links.
IPSec (Internet Protocol Security) is a framework for a series of IETF standards designed to
authenticate users and data, and to secure data by encrypting it during transit. The protocols
defined within IPSec include:
• IKE – Internet Key Exchange protocol
•
ISAKMP – Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol
•
AH – Authentication Header protocol
•
ESP – Encapsulating Security Payload protocol
•
HMAC – Hash Message Authentication Code
•
MD5 – Message Digest 5
•
SHA-1 – Security Hash Algorithm
and the cryptographic (encryption) techniques include:
• DES – Data Encryption Standard
•
3DES – Triple DES
•
AES – Advanced Encryption Standard (also known as Rijndael)
Two key protocols within the framework are AH and ESP. AH is used to authenticate users, and
ESP applies cryptographic protection. The combination of these techniques is designed to ensure
the integrity and confidentiality of the data transmission. Put simply, IPSec is about ensuring that:
• only authorised users can access a service and
•
that no one else can see what data passes between one point and another.
There are two modes of operation for IPSec, transport mode and tunnel mode.
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IPSec
In transport mode, only the payload (such as the data content), of the message is encrypted. In
tunnel mode, the payload and the header and routing information are all encrypted thereby by
providing a higher degree of protection.
Data Encryption Methods
There are several different algorithms available for use in securing data whilst in transit over IP
links. Each encryption technique has its own strengths and weaknesses and this is really, a
personal selection made with regard to the sensitivity of the data you are trying to protect. Some
general statements may be made about the relative merits but users should satisfy themselves
as to suitability for any particular purpose.
DES (64-bit key)
This well-known and established protocol has historically been used extensively in the banking
and financial world. It is relatively “processor intensive”, such as to run efficiently at high data
rates a powerful processor is required. It is generally considered very difficult for casual hackers
to attack but may be susceptible to determined attack by well-equipped and knowledgeable
parties.
3-DES (192-bit key)
Again, this is a well-established and accepted protocol but as it involves encrypting the data three
times using DES with a different key each time, it has a very high processor overhead. This also
renders it almost impossible for casual hackers to attack and very difficult to break in any
meaningful time frame, even for well-equipped and knowledgeable parties.
AES (128-bit key)
Also known as Rijndael encryption, AES is the new “de-facto” standard adopted by many USA and
European organisations for sensitive applications. It has a relatively low processor overhead
compared to DES and it is therefore possible to encrypt at higher data rates. As with 3-DES, it is
almost impossible for casual hackers to attack and is very difficult to break in any meaningful
time frame, even for well-equipped and knowledgeable parties.
To put these into perspective, common encryption programs that are considered “secure”
(such as PGP) and on-line credit authorisation services (such as Web-based credit card
ordering) generally use 128-bit encryption.
Note Data rates are the maximum that could be achieved but may be lower if other applications
are running at the same time or small IP packet sizes are used.
VPNs (Virtual Private Networks) are networks that use the IPSec protocols to provide one or more
secure routes or “tunnels” between endpoints. Users are issued either a shared “secret” key or
“public/ private” key pair that is associated with their identity. When a message is sent from one
user to another, it is automatically “signed” with the user’s key. The receiver uses the secret key or
the sender’s public key to decrypt the message. These keys are used during IKE exchanges along
with other information to create session keys that only apply for the lifetime of that IKE exchange.
The Benefits of IPSec
IPSec is typically used to attain confidentiality, integrity, and authentication in the transport of
data across inherently insecure channels. When properly configured, it provides a highly secure
virtual channel across cheap, globally available networks such as the Internet, or creates a
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IPSec
“network within a network” for applications such as passing confidential information between
two users across a private network.
X.509 Certificates
In the previous section, security between two points was achieved by using a “pre-shared secret”
or password. Certificates provide this sort of mechanism but without the need to manually enter
or distribute secret keys. This is a complex area but put simply a user’s certificate acts a little like
a passport providing proof that the user is who they say they are and enclosing details of how to
use that certificate to decrypt data encoded with it. Passports however can be forged so there
also needs to be proof that the passport has been properly issued and hasn’t been changed since
it was. On a paper passport this is achieved by covering the photograph with a coating that shows
if it has been tampered with, embedding the user’s name in code in a long string of numbers, etc.
In the same way, for a Security Certificate to be genuine it has to be protected from alteration as
well. Like a passport, you also have to trust that the issuer is authorized and competent to create
the certificate.
Certificates use something called a “Public/Private Key Pair”. This a complex area but the principle
is that you can create an encryption key made up from two parts, one private (known only to the
user), the other public (known to everyone). Messages encrypted with someone’s public key can
only be recovered by the person with the Public AND Private key but as encrypting the message
to someone in the first place only requires that you know their public key, anyone who knows
that can send them an encrypted message, so you can send a secure message to someone
knowing only their publicly available key. You can also prove who you are by including in the
message your “identity” whereupon they can look up the certified public key for that identity and
send a message back that only you can understand. The important principles are that a) your
private key cannot be determined from your public key and b) you both need to be able to look
up the others certified ID. Once you’ve established a two way secure link you can use it to
establish some rules for further communication.
Before this gets any more complicated we’ll assume that Digi International are a competent
authority to issue certificates and given that they exist and are valid, see how they are used.
Generally, the issuing and management of certificates will be provided as a managed service by
Digi or its partners, but some general information is provided here for system administrators.
Certificates are held in non-volatile files on the unit. Any private files are named privxxxx.xxx and
cannot be copied, moved, renamed, uploaded or typed. This is to protect the contents. They can
be overwritten by another file, or deleted.
Two file formats for certificates are supported:
•
PEM – Privacy Enhanced MIME
•
DER – Distinguished Encoding Rules
Certificate and key files should be in one of these two formats, and should have an extension of
“.pem” or “.der” respectively.
Note The equivalent filename extension for .PEM files in Microsoft Windows is “.CER”. By
renaming “.PEM” certificate files to “.CER”, it is possible to view their makeup
under Windows.
The unit maintains two lists of certificate files. The first is a list of “Certificate Authorities” or CAs.
Files in this list are used to validate public certificates sent by remote users. Public certificates
must be signed by one of the certificates in the CA list before the unit can validate them.
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IPSec
Certificates with the filename CA*.PEM and CA*.DER are loaded into this list at start-up time. In
the absence of any CA certificates, a public certificate cannot be validated.
The second list is a list of public certificates that the unit can use to obtain public keys for
decrypting signatures sent during IKE exchanges. Certificates with a filename CERT*.PEM and
CERT*.DER are loaded into this list when the unit is powered on or rebooted. Certificates in this
list will be used in cases where the remote unit does not send a certificate during IKE exchanges.
If the list does not contain a valid certificate communication with the remote unit cannot take
place.
Both the host and remote units must have a copy of a file called CASAR.PEM. This file is required
to validate the certificates of the remote units.
In addition, the host unit should have copies of the files CERT02.PEM (which allows it to send this
certificate to remote units) and PRIVRSA.PEM. Note that before it can send this certificate, the
“Remote ID” parameter in the Configuration - Network > Virtual Private Networking (VPN) > IPsec
> IPsec Tunnels > IPsec n - n > IPsec n page must be set to “[email protected]”.
The remote unit must have copies of CERT01.PEM and PRIVRSA.PEM. In addition, any Eroutes that
are going to use certificates for authentication should be configured as follows:
Our ID
Should be set to “[email protected]”. This is the same as the subject “Altname” in certificate
CERT01.PEM which makes it possible for the router to locate the correct certificate to send to
the host.
Authentication Method
Should be set to RSA Signatures. This indicates to IKE that RSA signatures (certificates) are to
be used for authentication.
When IKE receives a signature from a remote unit, it needs to be able to retrieve the correct
public key so that it can decrypt the signature, and confirm that the signature is correct. The
certificate must either be on the FLASH file system, or be provided by the remote unit as part
of the IKE negotiation. The ID provided by the remote unit is used to find the correct certificate
to use. If the correct certificate is found, the code then checks that it has been signed by one of
the certificate authority certificates (CA*.PEM) that exist on the unit. The code first checks the
local certificates, and then the certificate provided by the remote (if any). IKE will send a
certificate during negotiations if it is able to find one that has subject “AltName” that matches
the ID being used. If not able to locate the certificate, then the remote must have local access
to the file so that the public key can be retrieved.
A typical set-up may be that the host unit has a copy of all certificates. This means that the
remote units only require the private key, and the certificate authority certificate. This eases
administration as any changes to certificates need only be made on the host. Because they do
not have a copy of their certificate, remote units rely on the host having a copy of the
certificate. An alternative is that the remote units all have a copy of the certificate, as well as
the private key and certificate authority certificate, and the host only has its own certificate.
This scenario requires that the remote unit send its certificate during negotiations. It can
validate the certificate because it has the certificate authority certificate.
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Firewall scripts
A firewall is a protection system designed to prevent your local area network from unauthorized
external access by other users of the Internet or another wide area network. It may also limit the
degree of access local users have to external network resources. A firewall does not provide a
complete security solution; it provides only one element of a fully secure system. Consideration
should also be given to the use of user authentication and data encryption. Refer to the IPSec
section for further information.
In simple terms, a firewall is a packet filtering system that allows or prevents the transmission of
data (in either direction) based on a set of rules. These rules can allow filtering based on the
following criteria:
•
Source and destination IP addresses
•
Source and destination IP port or port ranges
•
Type of protocol in use
•
Direction of the data (in or out)
•
Interface type
•
The eroute the packet is on
•
If an interface is OOS (out of service)
•
ICMP message type
•
TCP flags (SYN, ACK, URG, RESET, PUSH, FIN)
•
TOS field
•
Status of a link and/or data packets on UDP/TCP and ICMP protocols
In addition to providing comprehensive filtering facilities, Digi TransPort routers also allow you to
specify rules relating to the logging of information for audit/debugging purposes. This
information can be logged to a pseudo-file on the unit called FWLOG.TXT, the EVENTLOG.TXT
pseudo-file or to a syslog server. It can also be used to generate SNMP traps.
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Firewall Script syntax
A firewall must be individually configured to match the needs of authorised users and their
applications. On Digi routers the rules governing firewall behaviour are defined in a script file
called FW.TXT. Each line in this file consists of a label definition, a comment or a filter rule.
Labels
A label definition is a string of up to 12 characters followed by a colon. Labels can only include
letters, digits and the underscore character and are used in conjunction with the break option to
cause the processing of the script to jump to a new location.
Comments
Any line starting with the hash character (“#”) is deemed to be a comment and ignored.
Filter rules
The syntax for a filter rule is:
[action] [in-out] [options] [tos] [proto] [dnslist] [ip-range] [inspect-state]
When the firewall is active, the script is processed one line at a time as each packet is received or
transmitted. Even when a packet matches a filter-rule, processing still continues and all the other
filter rules are checked until the end of the script is reached. The action taken with respect to a
particular packet is that specified by the last matching rule. With the break option however the
script processing can be redirected to a new location or to the end of the script if required. The
default action that the firewall assigns to a packet is to block. This means that if the packet does
not match any of the rules it will be blocked.
The various fields of a script rule are described below:
[action]
The [action] field may be specified as block, pass, pass-ifup, dscp, vdscp or debug.
These operate as follows:
block
The block action prevents a packet from being allowed through the firewall. When block is
specified an optional field can be included that will cause an ICMP packet to be returned to the
interface from which that packet was received. This technique is sometimes used to confuse
hackers by having different responses to different packets or for fooling an attacker into
thinking a service is not present on a network.
The syntax for specifying the return of an ICMP packet is:
“return-icmp” [icmp-type [icmp-code]]
where [icmp_type] is a decimal number representing the ICMP type or can be one of the
predefined text codes listed in the following table:
ICMP type value
ICMP type
1
Unreach
2
Echo
3
Echorep
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4
squench
5
redir
6
timex
7
paraprob
8
timest
9
timestrap
10
inforeq
11
inforep
12
maskreg
13
maskrep
14
routerad
15
routersol
The optional [icmp-code] field can also be a decimal number representing the ICMP code of the
return ICMP packet but if the [icmp-type] is [unreach] then the code can also be one of the
following pre-defined text codes:
ICMP code
Meaning
net-unr
Network unreachable
host-unr
Host unreachable
proto-unr
Protocol unrecognised
port-unr
Port unreachable
needfrag
Needs fragmentation
srcfail
Source route fail
For example:
block return-icmp unreach in break end on ppp 0
This rule would cause the unit to return an ICMP Unreachable packet in response to all packets
received on PPP 0.
Instead of using the return-icmp option to return an ICMP packet, return-rst can be used to
return a TCP reset packet instead. This would only be applicable for a TCP packet. For example:
block return-rst in break end on eth 0 proto tcp from any to 10.1.2.0/24
This would return a TCP reset packet when the firewall receives a TCP packet on the Ethernet
interface 0 with destination address 10.1.2.*.
pass
The pass action allows packets that match the rule to pass through the firewall.
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pass-ifup
The pass-ifup action allows outbound packets that match the rule to pass through the
firewall but only if the link is already active.
debug
The debug action causes the unit to tag any packets matching the rule for debug. This means
that for every matching rule that is encountered from this point in the script onwards, an entry
will be placed in the pseudo-file FWLOG.TXT.
dscp
The dscp action causes any packets matching this rule to have its DSCP value adjusted
according to this rule. The DSCP value of a packet indicates the type of service required and is
used in conjunction with QOS (Quality of Service) functions. A decimal or hex number must
follow the dscp keyword to indicate the value that should be set.
vdscp
The vdscp action is very similar to the dscp action as described above in that it adjusts the
DSCP value in a packet. The difference however is that this is a virtual change only which
means that the actual packet is not changed, and that the packet is processed as if it had the
DSCP value as indicated. Like the dscp action, a decimal or hex number must follow.
[in-out]
The [in-out] field can be in or out and is used to specify whether the action applies to
inbound or outbound packets. When the field is left blank the rule is applied to any packet
irrespective of its direction.
[options]
The [options] field is used to define a number of options that may be applied to packets
matching the rule. These are:
log
When the log option is specified, the unit will place an entry in the FWLOG.TXT file each time it
processes a packet that matches the rule. This log will normally detail the rule that was
matched along with a summary of the packet contents. If the log option is followed by the
body sub-option, the complete IP packet is entered into the log file so that when the log file is
displayed, a more detailed decode of the IP packet is shown.
The log field may also be followed by a further sub-option that specifies a different type of log
output. This may either be snmp, syslog or event.
If snmp is specified an SNMP trap (containing similar information to the normal log entry), is
generated when a packet matches the rule.
If syslog is specified, a syslog message is sent to the configured syslog manager IP address.
This message will contain the same information as that entered into the log file, but in a
different format.
If the body option has also been specified, some of the IP packet information is also included.
Note that the size of the syslog message is limited to the maximum of 1024 bytes. The syslog
message is sent with default priority value of 14, which expands out to facility of USER, and
priority INFO.
If event is specified the log output will be copied to the EVENTLOG.TXT pseudo-file as well as
the FWLOG.TXT file. The event log entry will contain the line number and hit count for the rule
that caused the packet to be logged.
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Example:
Say your local network is on subnet 192.168.*.* and you want to block any packets received on
PPP 0 that were “pretending” to be on the local network and log the receipt of any such packets to
the FWLOG.TXT file and to a syslog server. The filter rule would be constructed as follows:
block in log syslog break end on ppp 0 from 192.168.0.0/16 to any
break
When the break option is specified it must be followed by a user-defined label name or the
predefined end keyword. When followed by a label, the rule processor will jump to that label
to continue processing. When followed by the end keyword rule processing will be terminated
and the packet will be treated according to the last matching rule.
Example:
break ppp_label on ppp 0
# insert rule processing here for packets that are not on ppp 0
break end
ppp_label
# insert rule processing here for packets that are on ppp 0
on
The on option is used to specify the interface to which the rule applies and must be followed
by a valid interface name. For example, if you were only interested in applying a particular rule
to packets being transmitted or received by PPP 0, you would include on ppp 0 in the rule.
Valid interface-names are either eth n, tun n or ppp n, where n is the instance number.
oneroute
The oneroute option is used to specify that a rule will only match packets associated with the
specified eroute. For example, including the option oneroute 2 would cause the rule to only
match on packets transmitted or received over Eroute 2. The oneroute option can be followed
with the keyword any, which will match if the packet is on any eroute.
routeto
When the routeto option is specified and the firewall is processing a received packet, if the
rule is the last matching rule, then the packet is tagged as being required to be routed to the
specified interface.
For example:
pass in break end routeto eth 1 from 10.1.0.0/16 to 1.2.3.4 port=telnet
would ensure that all packets from 10.1.*.* to 1.2.3.4 on the telnet port are all routed to ETH 1.
oosed
The oosed option is used to check the out of service status of an interface. For example,
including the option oosed ppp 1 would cause the rule to match only if interface PPP 1 is out
of service.
[tos]
The [tos] field may be used to specify the Type of Service (TOS) to match. If included, the
[tos] field consists of the keyword tos followed by a decimal or hexadecimal code identifying
the TOS to match. For example, to block any inbound packet on PPP 0 with a TOS of 0 you
would use a rule such as:
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block in on ppp 0 tos 0
[proto]
The [proto] field is used to specify a protocol to match and consists of the proto keyword
followed by one of the following protocol identifiers:
Identifier
Meaning
udp
UDP packet
tcp
TCP packet
ftp
FTP packets regardless of port number
icmp
ICMP packet
decimal number
decimal number matched to protocol type in IP header
The [proto] field is also important when stateful inspection is enabled for a rule (using the
[inspect-state] field), as it describes the protocol to inspect (see [inspect-state] below).
[dnslist]
The [dnslist] field is used to match packets that contain DNS names that are in a given
dnslist. Following dnslist there needs to be a name of a dnslist as specified by the #dns
command. For example, say we have the following dnslist.
#dns gglist www.Digi.co.*,www.*.co.nz
Then the following firewall rule will block all dns lockups to DNS names matching the above
list.
block out break end on ppp 1 proto udp dnslist gglist from any to any port=dns
[ip-range]
The [ip-range] field is used to describe the range of IP addresses and ports to match upon
and may be specified in one of several ways. The basic syntax is:
ip-range = “all” | “from” ip-object “to” ip-object [flags] [icmp]
where ip-object is an IP address specification. Full details of the syntax with examples are
given under the heading Specifying IP Addresses and Address Ranges below.
[inspect-state]
The [inspect-state] field is used in create rules for stateful inspection. This is a powerful option
in which the firewall script includes rules that allow the unit to keep track of a TCP/UDP or ICMP
session and therefore to only pass packets that match the state of a connection.
Additionally, the [inspect state] field can specify an optional OOS (Out Of Service) parameter.
This parameter allows the unit to mark any route as being out-of-service for a given period of
time in the event that the stateful inspect engine has detected an error.
A full description of how the [inspect state] field works is given below under the heading
Stateful Inspection.
Specifying IP Addresses and ranges
The ip-range field of a firewall script rule identifies the IP address or range of addresses to which
the rule applies. The syntax for specifying an IP address range is:
ip-range = “all” | “from” ip-object “to” ip-object [ flags ] [ icmp ]
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where:
ip-object = addr [port-comp | port-range]
flags = “flags” { flags } [ !{ flags } ]
icmp = “icmp-type” icmp-type [ “code” decnum ]
addr = “any” | ip-addr[ “/”decnum ] [ “mask” ip-addr | “mask” hexnum ]
port-comp = “port” compare port-num
port-range = “port” port-num “<>” | “><” port-num
ip-addr = IP address in format nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn
decnum = a decimal number
hexnum = a hexadecimal number
compare = “=” | “!=” | “<” | “<=” | “>” | “>=”
port-num = service-name | decnum
service-name = “http” | “telnet” | “ftpdat” | “ftpcnt” | “pop3” | “ike” | “xot”| “sntp” |
“smtp”
In the above syntax definition:
• Items in quotes are keywords
•
Items in square brackets are optional
•
Items in curly braces are optional and can be repeated
•
The vertical bar symbol (“|”) means or
An ip-object therefore consists of an IP address and an IP port specification, preceded by the
keyword from or to to define whether it is the source or destination address. The most basic
form for an ip-object is simply an IP address preceded by from or to. For example, to block all
packets destined for address 10.1.2.98 the script rule would be:
block out from any to 10.1.2.98
An ip-object can also be specified using an address mask. This is a way of describing which bits
of the IP address are relevant when matching. The script processor supports two formats for
specifying masks.
Method 1: The IP address is followed by a forward slash and a decimal number. The decimal
number specifies the number of significant bits in the IP address. For example, if you wanted to
block all packets in the range 10.1.2.* the rule would be:
block from any to 10.1.2.0/24
such as, only the first 24 bits of the address are significant.
Method 2: This same rule could be described another way using the mask keyword:
block from any to 10.1.2.0 mask 255.255.255.0
The IP address can also contain either addr-ppp n or addr-eth n where n is the eth or ppp
instance number. In this case the rule is specifying that the IP address is that allocated to the PPP
interface or to the Ethernet interface. This is useful in the situation were IP addresses are
obtained automatically and therefore are not known by the author of the filtering rules. For
example:
block in break end on ppp 0 from addr-eth 0 to any
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Address/Port translation
Address/Port translation
One further option that may be used when specifying addresses is to use address translation.
The syntax for this is:
srcdst = “all | fromto [-> [ip-object] “to” object]
such as, directly after the IP addresses and port are specified an optional -> can follow indicating
that the addresses/ports should be translated. The first source object is optional and is unlikely to
be used as it is more normal to translate the destination address. The following example will
reroute packets originally destined for 10.10.10.12 to 10.1.2.3:
pass out break end from any to 10.10.10.12 -> to 10.1.2.3
Additionally to this complete subnets can have NAT applied, the address bits not covered by the
subnet mask are taken from the original IP address, so for example to NAT the destination
subnet of 192.168.0.0/24 to be 192.168.1.0/24 the firewall rule is:
pass out break end from any to 192.168.0.0/24 -> to 192.168.1.0/24
Filtering on port numbers
Now let us say there is a Telnet server running on a machine on IP address 10.1.2.63 and you
wish to make this accessible. Using the filter from the previous example would block all packets
to 10.1.2.*. To make the Telnet server available on 10.1.2.63 we need to add the following line in
front of the blocking rule:
pass break end from any to 10.1.2.63 port=23
A packet being sent to the Telnet server (port 23) on IP address 10.1.2.63 matches this rule and
further checking is prevented by the break end option.
The above example illustrates the = comparison. Other comparison methods supported are:
Symbol
Meaning
!=
not equal
>
greater than
<
less than
<=
less than or equal to
>=
greater than or equal to
It is also possible to specify a port in range or a port out of range with the >< or <> symbols. For
example, to pass all packets to addresses in the range 23 to 28, the rule would be specified as:
pass break end from any to 10.1.2.63 port 23><28
To simplify references to ports, some commonly used port numbers are associated with the
predefined strings listed in the table below. For instance, in the example above we could
substitute the number 23 with the string telnet. This would make the rule:
pass break end from any to 10.1.2.63 port=telnet
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Address/Port translation
The other port keywords that are defined are:
Keyword
Std. Port
Service
Ftpdat
20
File Transfer Protocol data port
Ftpcnt
21
File Transfer Protocol control port
telnet
23
Telnet server port
smtp
25
SMTP server port
http
80
Web server port
pop3
110
Mail server port
sntp
123
NTP server port
ike
500
Source/destination port for IKE key
xot
1998
Destination port for XOT packets
Note The above service keywords are pre-defined based on standard port numbers. It is
possible that these may have been defined differently on your system in which case you
should use the port numbers explicitly (not the defined names).
Filtering on TCP flags
An ip-object can be followed by an optional [flags] field. This field allows the script to filter
based on any combination of TCP flags. The [flags] field is used to specify the flags to check and
consists of the flags keyword followed by a string specifying the flags themselves. Each letter in
this string represents a particular flag type as listed below:
Code
Flag
f
FIN Flag
r
RESET Flag
s
SYN Flag
p
PUSH Flag
u
URG Flag
a
ACK Flag
These flag codes allow the filter to check any combination of flags.
Following on from the previous example, to block packets that have all the flags set you would
need to precede the pass rule with the following block rule:
block break end from any to 10.1.2.0/24 port=telnet flags frspua
Here, the list of flags causes the unit to check that those flags are set. This list may be optionally
followed by an exclamation mark (“!”) and a second list of flags that the unit should check for
being clear.
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Address/Port translation
For example:
flags s!a
would test for the s flag being on and the a flag being off with all other flags ignored.
As a further example, let us say we want to allow outward connections from a machine on
10.1.2.33 to a Telnet server. We have to define a filter rule to pass outbound connections and the
inbound response packets. Because this is an outbound Telnet service we can make use of the
fact that all incoming packets will have their ACK bits set. Only the first packet establishing the
connection will have the ACK bit off. The filter rules to do this would look like this:
pass out break end from 10.1.2.33 port>1023 to any port=telnet
pass in break end from any port=telnet to 10.1.2.33 port>1023 flags !a
The first rule allows the outward connections, and the second rule allows the response packets
back in which the ACK flag must always be on. This second rule will filter out any packets that do
not have the ACK flag on. This will bar any attackers from trying to open connections onto the
private network by simply specifying the source port as the Telnet port (note that there is a
simpler way to achieve the same effect using the inspect state option described below).
Filtering on ICMP codes
An ip-object can be followed by an optional [icmp] field. This allows the script to filter packets
based on ICMP codes. ICMP packets are normally used to debug and diagnose a network and can
be extremely useful. However they form part of a low-level protocol and are frequently exploited
by hackers for attacking networks. For this reason most network administrators will want to
restrict the use of ICMP packets.
The syntax for including ICMP filtering is:
icmp = “icmp-type” icmp-type [“code” decnum]
The icmp-type can be one of the pre-defined strings listed in the following table or the
equivalent decimal numeric value:
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Address/Port translation
ICMP Type
ICMP Value
Unreach
3
Echo
8
Echorep
0
Squench
4
Redir
5
Timex
11
Paramprob
12
Timest
13
Timestrep
14
Inforeq
15
Inforep
16
Maskreq
17
Maskrep
18
Routerad
9
Routersol
10
The following two rules are therefore equivalent:
pass in break end on ppp 0 proto icmp from any to 10.1.2.0/24 icmp-type 0
pass in break end on ppp 0 proto icmp from any to 10.1.2.0/24 icmp-type echorep
Both of these rules allow echo replies to come in from interface ppp 0 if they are addressed to
our example local network address (10.1.2.*).
In addition to having a type, ICMP packets also include an ICMP code field. The filter syntax allows
for the specification of an optional code field after the ICMP type. When specified the code field
must also match. The ICMP code field is specified with a decimal number.
For example, suppose we wish to allow only echo replies and ICMP unreachable type ICMP
packets from interface PPP 0. Then the rules would look something like this:
pass in break end on ppp 0 proto icmp from any to 10.1.2.0/24 icmp-type echorep code 0
pass in break end on ppp 0 proto icmp from any to 10.1.2.0/24 icmp-type unreach code 0
block in break end on ppp 0 proto icmp
The first two rules in this set allow in the ICMP packets that we are willing to permit and the third
rule denies all other ICMP packets in from this interface. Now if we ever expect to see echo
replies in on ppp 0 we should allow echo requests out on that interface too. To do that we would
have the rule:
pass out break end on ppp 0 proto icmp icmp-type echo
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Stateful inspection
Stateful inspection
The Digi routing code stack contains a sophisticated scripted Stateful Firewall and Route
Inspection engine. Stateful inspection is a powerful tool that allows the unit to keep track of a
TCP/UDP or ICMP session and match packets based on the state of the connection on which they
are being carried. In addition to providing sophisticated Firewall functionality the SF/RI engine
also provides a number of facilities for tracking the health of routes, marking dead routes as
being Out Of Service (OOS) and creating rules for the automatic status checking of routes
previously marked as OOS (for use in multilevel backup/restore scenarios).
The firewall may be used to place interface into an OOS state and also control how the interfaces
return to service. When an interface goes OOS, all routes configured to use that interface will
have their route metric set to 16 (the maximum value), meaning that some other route with a
lower metric will be selected.
When a firewall stateful inspection rule expires, a decision is made as to whether the traffic being
allowed to pass by this rule completed successfully or not. For example, if the stateful rule
monitors SYN and FIN packets in both directions for a TCP socket then that rule will expire
successfully. However, if SYNs are seen to pass in one direction but no SYNs pass in the other
direction, the stateful rule will expire and the unit will tag this as a failure.
The following conditions tag a stateful rule as a failure:
•
packets have only passed in one direction
•
10 packets have passed in one direction with no return packets (for TCP the packets must also
be re-transmits) All of these features depend upon the stateful inspection capabilities of the
Firewall engine which are explained below.
The [inspect] field takes the following format:
inspect = [“inspect-state” {“oos” {interface-name¦logical-name} secs {t=secs} {c=count}
{d=count}} {r=“ping”¦“tcp”{,secs{secs}}} {rd=x} {dt=secs}{stat}]
The field can be used on its own or with an optional oos (Out Of Service) parameter.
To understand this better let us look at a simple example in which we want to set up a filter to
allow all machines on a local network with addresses in the range 10.1.2.*, to access the Internet
on port 80. We will need one rule to filter the outgoing packets and another to filter the
responses:
pass out break end on ppp 0 from 10.1.2.0/24 to any port=80
pass in break end on ppp 0 from any port=80 to 10.1.2.0/24
In this example, the first rule allows outgoing http requests on PPP 0 from any address matching
the mask 10.1.2.* providing that the requests are on port 80 (the normal port address for HTTP
requests).
The second rule allows http response packets to be received on PPP 0 providing they are on port
80 and they are addressed to an IP address matching the mask 10.1.2.*.
However, rule 2 creates a potential security hole. The problem with filtering based on the source
port is that you can trust the source port only as much as you trust the source machine. For
instance an attacker could perform a port scan and provided the source port was set to 80 in
each packet, it would get through this filter. Alternatively, on an already compromised system, a
Trojan horse might be set up listening on port 80.
A more secure firewall can be defined using the “inspect-state” option. The stateful inspection
system intelligently creates and manages dynamic filter rules based on the type of connection
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Stateful inspection
and the source/destination IP addresses. Applying this to the above example, we can redesign
the script to make it both simpler and more effective as described below.
As a consequence of the fact that only the first packet in a TCP handshake will have the SYN flag
set, we can use a rule that checks the SYN flag:
pass out break end on ppp 0 from 10.1.2.0/24 to any port=80 flags s inspect-state
block in break end on ppp 0
The first rule matches only the first outgoing packet because it checks the status of the s (SYN)
flag and will only pass the packet if the SYN flag is set. At first glance however, it appears that the
second rule blocks all inbound packets on PPP 0. Whilst this may be inherently more secure, it
would also mean that users on the network would not be able to receive responses to their HTTP
requests and would therefore be of little use!
The reason that this is not a problem is that the stateful inspection system creates temporary
filter rules based on the outbound traffic. The first of these temporary rules allows the first
response packet to pass because it also will have the SYN flag set. However, once the connection
is established, a second temporary rule is created that passes inbound or outbound packets if
the IP address and port number match those of the initial rule but does not check the SYN flag. It
does however monitor the FIN flag so that the system can tell when the connection has been
terminated. Once an outbound packet with the FIN flag has been detected along with a FIN/ACK
response, the temporary rule ceases to exist and further packets on that IP address/port are
blocked.
In the above example, if a local user on address 10.1.2.34 issues an http request to a host on
100.12.2.9, the outward packet would match and be passed. At the same time a temporary filter
rule is automatically created by the firewall that will pass inbound packets from IP address
100.12.2.9 that are addressed to 10.2.1.34 port x (where x is the source port used in the original
request from 10.1.2.34).
This use of dynamic filters is more secure because both the source and destination IP addresses/
ports are checked. In addition, the firewall will automatically check that the correct flags are being
used for each stage of the communication.
The potential for a security breach has now been virtually eliminated because even if a hacker
could time his attack perfectly he would still have to forge a response packet using the correct
source address and port (which was randomly created by the sender of the HTTP request) and
also has to target the specific IP address that opened the connection.
Another advantage of inspect-state rules is that they are scalable, such as many machines can
use the rule simultaneously. In our above example for instance many machines on the local
network could all browse the Internet and the inspection engine would be dynamically creating
precise inward filters as they are required and closing them when they are finished with.
The inspect-state option can be used on TCP, UDP protocols and some ICMP packets. The ICMP
types that can be used with the inspect-state option are echo, timest, inforeq and maskreq.
Using [inspect-state] with Flags
As can be seen above, the inspect-state option can be used with flags. To illustrate this we will
refer back to the earlier example of filtering using flags. It is possible to simplify the script by
using the inspect-state option. The original script was:
pass out break end from 10.1.2.33 port>1023 to any port=telnet
pass in break end from any port=telnet to 10.1.2.33 port>1023 flags a!
Using the inspect state option this can be replaced with a single filter rule:
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Stateful inspection
pass out break end from 10.1.2.33 port>1023 to any port=telnet flags s!a inspect-state
No rule is needed for the return packets because a temporary filter will be created that will only
allow inbound packets to pass if they match sessions set up by this stateful inspection rule.
A further point to note about the new rule is that the “flags s!a” specification ensures that it
only matches the first packet in a connection. This is because the first packet in a TCP connection
has the SYN flag on and the ACK flag off and so we only match on that combination. The stateful
inspection engine will take care of matching the rest of the packets for this connection.
Using [inspect-state] with ICMP
The [inspect-state] option can be also used with ICMP codes. To allow the use of echo request
and to allow echo replies you would have just the one rule:
pass out break end on ppp 0 proto icmp icmp-type echo inspect-state
The advantage of using inspect-state, other than just needing one rule, is that it leads to a
more secure firewall. For instance with the inspect-state option the echo replies are not
allowed in all the time; they will only be allowed in once an echo request has been sent out on
that interface. The moment that a valid echo reply comes back (or there is a timeout), echo
replies will again be blocked. Furthermore, the full IP address is checked; the IP source and
destination must exactly match the IP destination and source of the echo request. If you compare
this to the rule to allow echo replies in without using inspect-state it would not be possible to
check the source address at all and the destination address would match any IP address on our
network.
The inspect-state option can be used with the following ICMP packet types:
ICMP Type
Matching ICMP Type
Echo
Echo reply
Timest
Timestrep
Inforeq
Inforep
Maskreq
Maskrep
Using [inspect-state] with the Out Of Service option
The inspect-state field can be used with an optional oos parameter. This parameter allows the
stateful inspect engine to mark as “out of service” any routes that are associated with the
specified interface and also to control how and the interfaces are returned to service. Such routes
will only be marked as out of service if the specified oos option parameters are met. The oos
parameter takes the format:
oos {interface-name¦logical-name} secs {t=secs} {c=count} {d=count}
{r=“ping”|“tcp”{,secs}}
where:
interface-name or logical-name specifies the interface with which the firewall rule is
associated, such as, PPP 1. This can also be a logical interface name which is simply a name that
can be created (such as, waffle). When a logical interface name is specified then this name can
become oos (out of service) and can be tested in other firewall rules with the oosed keyword.
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Stateful inspection
secs specifies the length of time in seconds for which the routes that are using the specified
interface are marked as out of service.
{t=secs} is an optional parameter that specifies the length of time in seconds the unit will wait
for a response the packet that matched the rule.
{c=count} is an optional parameter that specifies the number of times that the stateful
inspection engine must trigger on the rule before the route is marked as out of service.
{d=count} is an optional parameter that specifies the number of times that the stateful
inspection engine must trigger on the rule before the interface is deactivated (only applies to PPP
interfaces).
{r=“ping”|“tcp”{,secs{,secs}}} is an optional parameter that specifies a recovery procedure.
When a recovery procedure is specified then after the oos timeout has expired instead of
bringing the interface back into service immediately the link is tested first. It is tested by either
sending a TCP SYN packet or a ping packet to the address/port that caused the oos condition. The
“secs” field specifies the retry time when checking for recovery. Only when the recovery succeeds
will interface become in service again.
UDP example
pass in
pass out
pass out on ppp 1 proto udp from any to 156.15.0.0/16 port=1234 inspect-state oos ppp 1 300
t=10 c=2 d=2
The first two rules simply configure the unit to allow any type of packets to be transmitted or
received (the default action of the firewall is to block all traffic).
The third rule is more complex. What it does is to configure the stateful inspection engine
to watch for UDP packets (with any source address) being routed via the PPP 1 interface
to any address that begins with 156.15 on port 1234. If a hit occurs on this rule but the
unit does not detect a reply within 10 seconds (as specified by the t= parameter), it will
increment an internal counter. When this counter reaches the value set by the c=
parameter, the stateful inspection engine will mark the PPP 1 interface (and therefore any
routes using it), as being out of service for 300 seconds. Similarly, if this counter matches
the d= parameter the stateful inspection engine will deactivate PPP 1. So in the above
example, the stateful inspection engine will mark any routes that use PPP 1 as out of
service AND deactivate PPP 1 if no reply is detected within 10 seconds for two packets in
a row.
Routes will come back into service when either the specified timeout expires or if there are no
other routes with a higher metric in service.
PPP interfaces will be re-activated when either the routes using them are back in service and
there is a packet to route and the AODI mode parameter is set to “On”.
TCP example
pass out log break end on ppp 3 proto tcp from any to 192.168.0.1 flags S!A inspect-state
oos 30 t=10 c=2 d=2
pass in
pass out
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Stateful inspection
This rule will specifically trace attempts to open a TCP connection on PPP 3 to the 192.168.0.1 IP
address and if it fails within 10 seconds twice in a row, will cause the PPP 3 interface to be flagged
as out of service (such as its metric will be set to 16), for 30 seconds. The optional d=2 entry will
also cause the PPP link to be deactivated. Deactivating the link can be useful in scenarios where
renegotiating the PPP connection is likely to resolve the problem. Again, if a matching route with
a higher metric has been defined it will be used whilst PPP 3 routes are out of service thus
providing a powerful route backup mechanism.
Using [inspect-state] with the Stat option
The inspect-state option can be used with the stat option. The stat option will cause this
firewall rule to record statistics associated with this firewall rule. Transaction times, counts and
errors are recorded under the PPP statistics with this option.
Assigning DSCP values
When using QOS, packet priorities will be determined by the DSCP values in their TOS fields.
These priorities may have already been assigned but if necessary, the router can be configured to
assign them by inserting the appropriate rules in the firewall. This is done by using the dscp
command.
For example:
dscp 46 in on eth 0 from 100.100.100.25 to 1.2.3.4 port=4000
would set the DSCP value to 46 for almost any type of packet received on ETH 0 from IP address
100.100.100.25 addressed to 1.2.3.4 on port 4000. This allows you to set the DSCP value for
almost any type of packet.
As a further example:
dscp 46 in on eth 0 proto smtp from any to any
would cause outgoing mail traffic to the same top priority queue (46 is by default a very high
priority code in the DSCP mappings).
FWLOG.TXT file
When the log option is specified within a firewall script rule, an entry is created in the FWLOG.TXT
pseudo-file each time an IP packet matches the rule. Each log entry will in turn contain the
following information:
Parameter
Description
Timestamp
The time when the log entry is created.
Short
Description
Usually “FW LOG” but could be “FW DEBUG” for packets that hit rules with
the “debug” action set.
Dir
Either “IN” or “OUT”. Indicates the direction the packet is travelling.
Line
The line number of the rule that cause the packet to be logged.
Hits
The number of matches for the rule that caused this packet to be logged.
Iface
The Interface the packet was to be transmitted/received on.
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Source IP
The source IP address in the IP packet.
Dest. IP
The destination IP address in the IP packet.
ID
The value of the ID field in the IP packet.
TTL
The value of the TTL field in the IP packet.
PROTO
The value of the protocol field in the IP packet. This will be expanded to
text as well for the well-known protocols.
Src Port
The value of the source port field in the TCP/UDP header.
Dst Port
The value of the source port field in the TCP/UDP header.
Rule Text
The rule that caused the packet to be logged is also entered into the log
file.
In addition, port numbers will be expanded to text pre-defined port numbers.
Log File examples
Example: log entry without the body option:
----- 15-8-2002 16:25:50 -----FW LOG Dir: IN Line: 11 Hits: 1 IFACE: ETH 0
Source IP: 100.100.100.25 Dest IP: 100.100.100.50 ID: 39311 TTL: 128
PROTO: TCP (6)
Src Port: 4232 Dst Port: WEB (80)
pass in log break end on eth 0 proto tcp from 100.100.100.25 to addr-eth 0
flags S/SA inspect-state
---------Example: Log entry with the body option:
----- 15-8-2002 16:27:56 -----FW LOG Dir: IN Line: 7 Hits: 1 IFACE: ETH 0
Source IP: 100.100.100.25 Dest IP: 100.100.100.50 ID: 40140 TTL: 128
PROTO: ICMP (1)
block return-icmp echorep log body break end proto icmp icmp-type echo
From REM TO LOCIFACE: ETH 0
45 IP Ver: 4
Hdr Len: 20
00 TOS: Routine
Delay: Normal
Throughput: Normal
Reliability: Normal
00 3C Length: 60
9C CC ID: 40140
00 00 Frag Offset: 0
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Congestion: Normal
May Fragment
Last Fragment
80 TTL: 128
01 Proto: ICMP
0C E1 Checksum: 3297
64 64 64 19 Src IP: 100.100.100.25
64 64 64 32 Dst IP: 100.100.100.50
ICMP:
08 Type: ECHO REQ
00 Code: 0
04 5C Checksum: 1116
---------Example: Text included in the EVENTLOG.TXT pseudo-file when the event sub-option is specified:
16:26:32, 15 Aug 2002,Firewall Log Event: Line: 10, Hits: 3
Example: Syslog message where the body option is not specified:
2002-09-04 16:30:06 User.Info100.100.100.50Aug 15 16:31:59 arm.1140
IP Filter Filter Rule: block return-icmp unreach host-unr in log syslog break end on eth 0 proto tcp
from any to 100.100.100.50 port=telnet
Line: 10
Hits: 4
Example: Syslog message with the body option is specified:
2002-08-30 16:19:59 User.Info100.100.100.50Aug 10 16:21:56 arm.1140
IP Filter - Filter Rule: block return-icmp unreach port-unr in log body syslog break end on
eth 0 proto tcp from any to 100.100.100.50 port=telnet
Line: 9
Hits: 3
PKT:
Source IP: 100.100.100.25
Dest IP: 100.100.100.50
ID: 13317
TTL: 128
Protocol: TCP
Source Port: 1441
Dest Port: 23
TCP Flags: S
Further [inspect-state] examples
Here is a basic inspect-state rule with no OOS options:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
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inspect-state
This rule will allow TCP packets from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port 23 with the SYN flag set to pass out
on PPP 2. Because the inspect-state option is used, a stateful rule will also be set up which
allows other packets for that TCP socket to also pass.
Next, we will modify the rule to mark an interface OOS if a stateful rule identifies a failed
connection:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
inspect-state oos 60
The addition of oos 60 means that if the stateful rule sees a failure, interface PPP 2 will be set
OOS for 60 seconds. If no interface is specified after the oos keyword, the interface set to OOS
will be the one the packet is currently passing on. It is possible to OOS a different interface by
specifying the interface after the oos keyword, such as oos ppp 1 60 to put PPP 1 out of service
for 60 seconds.
The default time allowed by the stateful rule for a connection to open may be overridden by
using the {t=secs} option. Such as, to override the default TCP opening time of 60 seconds to 10
seconds:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
inspect-state oos 60 t=10
A socket will now only have 10 seconds to become established (such as exchange SYNs) before
the stateful rule will expire and be tagged as a failure.
It is possible to configure the firewall so that the interface is only set to OOS after a number of
consecutive failures occur. To do this, use the {c=count} option. For example:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
inspect-state oos 60 t=10 c=5
PPP 2 will now only be set OOS after 5 consecutive failures.
It is possible to deactivate the interface after a number of consecutive failures. This is useful for
WWAN interfaces, which may get into a state where the PPP connection appears to be
operational, but in fact no packets are passing. In this case, deactivating and reactivating the
interface will sometimes fix the problem.
For example:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
inspect-state oos 60 t=10 c=5 d=10
Now, PPP 2 will be deactivated after 10 consecutive failures.
Keeping a route out of service and using recovery
It may be that the user wants to keep the interface OOS until he is sure that a future connection
will work. To help achieve this, one or more recovery options may be specified. These options get
the unit to test connectivity between the unit and the destination IP address of the packet that
established the stateful rule. The recovery can be in the form of a PING or a TCP socket
connection. An interval between recovery checks must also be specified. For example:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
inspect-state oos 60 t=10 c=5 d=10 r=tcp,120
Now the interface will be set to OOS for 60 seconds after 5 consecutive failures. After the 60
seconds elapses, the recovery procedure will be initiated. In this example the recovery will consist
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Stateful inspection
of TCP connection attempts executed at 2 minute intervals. The interface will remain OOS until
the recovery procedure completes successfully. The destination IP address in this case will be
10.1.2.1.
To override the default socket connection time, it is possible to specify an additional recovery
option. For example:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
inspect-state oos 60 t=10 c=5 d=10 r=tcp,120,10
Now, 10 seconds is allowed for each recovery attempt. If the socket connects within that time, the
recovery is successful, else the recovery is unsuccessful.
There is also an option {rd=x} to disconnect the interface after a recovery attempt completes.
This option can be used to deactivate the interface after a recovery failure, success, or either. x is
a bitmask indicating the cases where the interface should be deactivated. Bit 0 is used to
deactivate the interface after a recovery failure. Bit one is used to deactivate the interface after a
recovery success, such as
•
rd=1 – means deactivate after a recovery failure
•
rd=2 – means deactivate after a recovery success
•
rd=3 – means deactivate after either recovery success or recovery failure
Extending our firewall rule to include this option gives:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
inspect-state oos 60 t=10 c=5 d=10 r=tcp,120,10 rd=3
Now the interface will be deactivated after a recovery success or failure.
If the {rd=x} option is not used, the interface will remain up until its inactivity timer expires, or it
is deactivated by some other means.
The {dt=secs} option may be used to indicate that the interface is to remain OOS when it is
disconnected, and that it should be reactivated some time after it last disconnected. Recovery
procedures will take place after the interface connects.
Extending our firewall rule to include this option gives:
pass out break end on PPP 2 proto TCP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 port=telnet flags S!A
inspect-state oos 60 t=10 c=5 d=10 r=tcp,120,10 rd=3 dt=60
Now the interface will be reconnected 60 seconds after it disconnects and recovery procedures
will start after the interface connects. This option would normally be used with the {rd=x} option
so that recovery has control over when the interface connects and disconnects.
Keeping a route out of service and using recovery with a list of addresses.
This expands on the functionality above and gives the ability to check connectivity to a range of
addresses using a ping. It is possible to specify an address list that the recovery mechanism will
ping in turn to see if any respond. This will help ensure that even when 1 or maybe 2 or 3
destinations cant be reached due to an outage on the remote network, the connection will be
made available again if at least one of the addresses in the list responds.
The address lists are created using the following syntax:
#addrs <list-name> <address1,address2,address3,address4>
Address lists can span multiple lines if required, for example:
#addrs <list-name> <address1,address2>
#addrs <list-name> <address3,address4>
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Stateful inspection
The address list is called using the recovery option pingl. An example firewall rule would be:
pass out break end on PPP 1 proto ICMP from 10.1.1.1 to 10.1.2.1 inspect-state oos 60 t=10
c=5 d=10 r=pingl listA ,120,10 rd=3 dt=60
This rule would allow pings outbound and on detecting a communication failure it will use pings
to a address list named listA. The address list named listA could look like this:
#addrs listA 10.1.2.1,10.1.3.1,10.1.4.1,10.1.5.1
#addrs listA 10.1.6.1,10.2.1.1,10.2.2.1
This causes the recovery to ping the range of address shown in the list above.
Debugging a firewall
During the creation and management of firewall scripts, firewall scripts may need debugging to
ensure that packets are being processed correctly. To assist in this, a rule with the debug action
may be used.
If a rule with the debug action is encountered, an entry is made in the FWLOG.TXT pseudo-file
each time the packet in question matches a rule from that point on. This gives the administrator
the ability to follow a packet through a rule set, and can help determine what, if any, changes are
required to the rule set. Rules that specify the debug action would typically be placed near the top
of the rule set, so that all matching rules from that point on are entered into the log file.
Entries the FWLOG.TXT file created as the result of a debug rule may be identified by the short
description FW_DEBUG at the top of the log entry.
An example rule set using a debug rule:
debug in on ppp 2 proto tcp from any to any port=http
pass in break end proto tcp from any to any port=http flags s/sa inspect state
pass out break end proto udp
If placed at the top of the rule set, any packet received on interface PPP 2 to destination port 80
will generate a debug entry in the log file for each subsequent rule that it matches. In the
example rule set above, a packet that matched the second rule would also match the first rule,
and would therefore create two log entries. The same packet would not match the third rule, and
so no log entry would be made for this rule.
Because of the extra processor time required to add all of these additional log entries, debug
rules should be removed (or commented out) once the rule set is operating as desired.
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Remote management
Digi products equipped with ISDN BRIs can be accessed and controlled remotely via the ISDN
network by using:
•
a V.120 connection to access the text command interface
•
PPP to access the Web Interface
•
PPP to access the text command interface using Telnet
•
the X.25 remote command channel
Remote access via any one of these methods can be used to reconfigure the unit, upload/
download files or upgrade the software, examine the event log or protocol analyser traces or to
view statistics.
Using V.120
To establish a remote access session using V.120, initiate a V.120 call as normal using the ATD
command. Enter “%%%” within 5 seconds of the remote unit answering and you will be prompted
to enter your username and password. Correct entry of these will allow access to the text
command interface. If the remote unit has been programmed with a Router Identity string on
the Configuration - System > Device Identity page, the Router Identity will appear as the
command line prompt. Three login attempts are permitted before the connection is reset.
Using Telnet
If you have created a PPP DUN (Dial-up Networking) entry for the remote unit that you wish to
access, any terminal program that supports Telnet may be used to establish a remote
connection.
To initiate the connection, launch the DUN. If the remote unit is configured correctly with one of
the PPP instances enabled for answering, it will connect and the linked computers icon will
appear in the Windows system tray. You may then load your Telnet software.
To configure your Telnet software you must first specify that you require a TCP/IP connection and
then enter the appropriate IP address or hostname (such as 1.2.3.4, 192.168.1.1 or digi.router by
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Using FTP
default). After ensuring that your software is configured to connect to TCP port number 23 you
may then initiate a new connection.
If the connection is successful you will see a connect confirmation message and you will be
prompted to enter your username and password. Correct entry of these will allow access to the
text command interface. If the remote unit has been programmed with a Router Identity string
on the Configuration - System > Device Identity page the Router Identity will appear as the
command line prompt.
Three login attempts are permitted before the connection is reset.
Using FTP
TransPort routers incorporate an FTP server. FTP allows users to log on to remote hosts for the
purpose of inspecting file directories, retrieving or uploading files, etc. For PC users, MS-DOS
includes FTP support and there are a number of Windows-based specialist FTP client programs
such as CuteFTP™ and Ws_ftp™. Many browsers also incorporate FTP support.
To initiate remote access to a unit using FTP, first establish a PPP DUN connection to the unit and
then run your FTP software.
Note If your unit has a USB storage device attached, it will show up as a sub-folder named “usb”.
FTP under Windows
Once the connection has been established, enter the Web address for the unit. By default this will
be:
1.2.3.4, 192.168.1.1 or digi.router
If you are using a browser, as opposed to a specific FTP program, you will need to precede the
address with ftp://. For example:
ftp://digi.router
This will give you an anonymous FTP login to the remote unit and you should see a listing of the
file directory (the format of this will depend on the FTP client software that you are using). With
an anonymous login you will be able to view and retrieve files, but NOT upload, rename or delete
them.
For full file access, you will need to log in with your correct username and password. To do this,
enter the address in the following format:
ftp://username:[email protected]
This will give you full access and will allow you to copy, delete, rename, view and transfer files.
When using a browser Cut, Copy, Delete and Paste may be used for manipulating files as if they
were in a normal Windows directory. If you are using a specific FTP client program, these
operations may be carried out using menu options or buttons.
FTP under DOS
To use FTP under DOS, use Windows DUN to establish the connection and then run the MSDOS
prompt program. At the DOS prompt type:
ftp digi.router
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Using X.25
or
ftp 192.168.1.1
When the connection has been established you will be prompted to enter your username and
password. Following a valid login the ftp> prompt will be issued and you may proceed to use the
various ftp commands as appropriate. To obtain a list of available commands enter “?” at the
prompt.
Using X.25
Remote access to your unit may also be carried out over an X.25 connection. The remote unit
must first have the parameter Allow CLI access from X.25 address set to an appropriate value
(see Configuration - System > General). If the unit then receives an incoming X.25 call where the
trailing digits of the NUA match the specified sub-address, the calling user will receive the
standard login prompt. On entry of a valid username and password, they will be given access to
the command line as if they were connected locally.
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AT commands
D Dial
The ATD command causes the unit to initiate an ISDN call. The format of the command depends
on the mode of operation.
When using the unit to make data calls on one of the ISDN B-channels, enter the ATD command
followed by the telephone number. For example, to dial 01234 567890 enter the command:
atd01234567890
Spaces in the number are ignored. If the call is successful the unit will issue the CONNECT result
code and switch to on-line mode.
Dialing with a specified sub-address
The ATD command may also be used to route a call to an ISDN sub-address by following the
telephone with the letter S and the required sub-address. The sub-address may be up to 15 digits
long. For example:
atd01234567890s003
Dialing stored numbers
To dial numbers that have previously been stored within the unit using the AT&Z command,
insert the S= modifier within the dial string. For example, to dial stored number 3 use the
command:
atds=3
Combining ISDN and X.25 calls
A further option for the ATD command for X.25 applications is to combine the ISDN call and the
subsequent X.25 CALL in the same command. To do this, follow the telephone number with the
“=” symbol and the X.25 call string. For example:
atd01234 567890=123456789
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H Hang-up
Pressing any key while the ATD command is being executed will abort the call attempt.
H Hang-up
The ATH command is used to terminate an ISDN call. If the unit is still on-line you must first
switch back to command mode by entering the escape sequence, such as +++, wait 1 second and
then enter an AT command or just AT<CR>.
After entering the ATH command the call will be disconnected and the NO CARRIER result will be
issued.
Z Reset
The ATZ command is used to load one of the stored profiles for the active ASY port. The
command is issued in the format ATZn where n is the number (0 or 1) of the ASY port profile you
wish to load.
&C DCD Control
The AT&C command is used to configure the way in which the unit controls the DCD signal to the
terminal. There are three options:
•
&C0 DCD is always On
•
&C1 DCD is On only when an ISDN connection has been established (Layer 2 is UP)
•
&C2 DCD is always Off
•
&C3 DCD is normally On but pulses low for a time in 10 msec units determined by S register
10.
&F Load factory settings
The AT&F command is used to load a pre-defined default set of S-register and AT command
settings (the default profile). These are:
E1, V1, &C1, &K1, &D2, S0=0, S2=43
All other values are set to 0.
&R CTS Control
The AT&R command is used to configure the way in which the unit controls the CTS signal to the
terminal. There are three options:
•
&R0 CTS is always On
•
&R1 CTS follows RTS. The delay between RTS changing and CTS changing is set in AT register
56 in multiples of 10msec
•
&R2 CTS is always Off
&V View profiles
The AT&V command displays a list of the current AT command and S register values, and the
settings for the two stored profiles. For example:
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&W Write SREGS.DAT
at&v
CURRENT PROFILE:
&c1 &d2 &k1 &s1 &r0 e1 q0 v1 &y0
S0=0 S2=43 S12=50 S31=3 S45=5
states DTR:1 RTS:1
STORED PROFILE 0:
&c1 &d2 &k1 &s1 &r0 e1 q0 v1
S0=0 S2=43 S12=50 S31=3 S45=5
STORED PROFILE 1:
&c1 &d2 &k1 &s1 &r0 e1 q0 v1
S0=0 S2=43 S12=50 S31=3 S45=5
OK
&W Write SREGS.DAT
The AT&W command is used to save the current command and S registers settings (for the active
port), to the file SREGS.DAT. The settings contained in this file can be reloaded at any time using
the ATZ command.
The AT&W command may be immediately followed by a profile number, either 0 or 1, to store the
settings in the specified profile, for example:
at&w1
would store the current settings as profile 1. If no profile number is specified, profile 0 is
assumed.
All S register values and the following command settings are written by AT&W:
e, &c, &d, &k
&Y Set Default profile
The AT&Y command is used to select the power-up profile (0 or 1). For example, to ensure that
the unit boots up using stored profile 1, enter the command:
at&y1
&Z Store Phone Number
The AT&Z command is used to store “default” telephone numbers within the unit that may
subsequently dialled when DTR dialling is enabled or by using the S= modifier in the ATD dial
command. One telephone number may be stored for each ASY port. For example, to store the
phone number 0800 123456 as the default number to be associated with ASY 2, use the
command:
at&z2=0800123456
If the number of the ASY port is not specified, the number will be stored against the port from
which the command was entered, such as entering the command:
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\AT ignore invalid AT commands
at&z=0800123456
from ASY 3 has the same effect as:
at&z3=0800123456
from any port. Once a number has been stored it may be dialled from the command line using
the ATD command with the S= modifier:
atds=3
This means that any stored number can be dialled from any port. If DTR dialling has been
enabled by setting S33=1 for the port, the number associated with that port will be dialled when
the DTR signal for that port changes from Off to On, such as DTR dialling can only be used with
the number associated with the port to which the terminal is connected.
\AT ignore invalid AT commands
This command is a work-around for use with terminals that generate large amounts of
extraneous text. If not ignored, this text can cause many error messages to be generated by the
router, and may result in a communications failure. To turn on this feature, type the following
command:
at\at=1
To turn off the feature, type the following command:
at\at=0
When this feature is turned on, the ASY port ignores all commands except real AT commands. As
with other ASY modes this can be saved by AT&W but is not included in the AT&V status display.
To determine whether or not this mode is enabled type:
at\at ?
The unit will display 0 if the feature is Off, 1 if it is On.
\LS Lock Speed
The AT\LS command is used to lock the speed and data format of the port at which it is entered to
the current settings so that the non-AT application commands may be used.
\PORT Set Active Port
Text commands which affect the settings associated with the serial ports normally operate on the
port at which they are entered, such as entering the AT&K command from a terminal connected
to ASY 1 will affect only the flow control settings for port 1.
The AT\PORT command is used to select a different “active” port from that at which the
commands are entered. For example, if your terminal is connected to port 0 and you need to
reconfigure the settings for port 2, you would first enter the command:
at\port=2
PORT 2
OK
Port 2 is now the active port and any AT commands or changes to S registers settings which affect
the serial ports will now be applied to port 2 only. This includes:
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\smib commands
Commands: Z, &D, &F, &K, &V, &Y, &W
S registers: S31, S45
The AT\PORT? command will display the port to which you are connected and the active port for
command/ S register settings. For example:
at\port?
PORT 2
ASY0
OK
Here, ASY2 is the active port and ASY0 is the port at which the command was entered. If the
default port and the port to which you are connected are the same, only one entry will be listed.
To reset the default port to the one to which you are connected use the AT\PORT command
without a parameter.
\smib commands
The at\smib command allows you to view a single standard MIB variable. To view the variable use
the at\smib=<mib_name> command, where <mib_name> is the variable to be displayed. The
variables are sorted according to the hierarchy shown below.
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\smib commands
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\smib commands
System
The System hierarchy consists of the following:
at\smib=mib-2.system.sysdescr
This variable shows the software version information (equivalent to what is shown on the ‘ati5’
CLI command output).
mib-2.system.sysdescr =
Software Build Ver5121.
Jan 31 2011 12:26:04
9W
at\smib=mib-2.system.sysobjectid
The authoritative identification of the network management subsystem. The Digi does not
support outputting OID variables. Instead, “oid” is output.
mib-2.system.sysobjectid = oid
at\smib=mib-2.system.sysuptime
The time the unit has been running in 10msec units (hundredths of a second).
mib-2.system.sysuptime = 1806718
The above example shows that the unit has been running for 5 hours, 1 minute and 7.18 seconds.
at\smib=mib-2.system.syscontact
A description of the contact person for the unit. For the Digi, this is always a zero-length string.
at\smib=mib-2.system.sysname
The name of the unit (the name set in the Router Identity parameter on the Configuration System > Device Identity page).
mib-2.system.sysname = digi.router
at\smib=mib-2.system.syslocation
The physical location of the unit. For the Digi, this is always a zero-length string.
at\smib=mib-2.system.sysservices
This variable displays a value that represents the set of services the unit provides. For each OSI
layer the unit provides services for, 2(L-1) is added to the value, where L is the layer. The layers
are shown below:
Layer
Functionality
1
Physical
2
Data Link
3
Network
4
Transport
5
Session
6
Presentation
7
Application
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\smib commands
For the Digi, this value is always 7 (Physical layer (21-1) + Data Link layer (22-1) + Network layer
(23-1)).
Interfaces
The Interfaces hierarchy consists of the ifnumber variable and the iftable node:
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.ifnumber
The total number of interfaces on the unit. This includes Ethernet, PPP and virtual interfaces
(such as IPSec tunnels) and SYNC ports.
mib-2.interfaces.ifnumber = 52
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable
The iftable node contains ifentry nodes for each interface. For each table entry, an index specifier
must be appended to the end of each variable (such as for PPP0, 1 must be appended).
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifindex
The unique index number of the interface.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifdescr
This variable displays information about the interface. This information is displayed in the format
<interface type>-<instance>, where:
<interface type> can be one of PPP, ETH, TUN (for IPSec tunnels), SNAIP (for SNAIP links)
or SYNC, and
<instance> is the instance.
For example:
mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifdescr.1 = PPP-0
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.iftype
The type of interface, as described by the physical/link protocol below the network layer
in the protocol stack. Values can be one of the following:
PPP
23
ETH
6
IPSec Tunnel 131
SNAIP
17
SYNC port 118
For example:
mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.iftype.1 = 23
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifmtu
The size of the largest datagram (in octets) which can be sent on the interface. SNAIP and SYNC
ports always return 0. IPSec tunnel interfaces will return the underlying interface if it can be
located, otherwise 0 is returned. PPP interfaces will return the negotiated MTU if the link is
connected, otherwise 0 is returned.
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\smib commands
For example:
mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifmtu.21 = 1504
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifspeed
This variable displays an estimate of the interface’s current bandwidth in bits per second. SNAIP
and SYNC ports will always return 0. PPP ports will always return 64000.
For example:
mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifspeed.1 = 64000
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifphysaddress
The interface’s address at the protocol layer immediately below the network layer in the protocol
stack. For interfaces without such an address, a zero-length octet string is returned. For PPP,
SNAIP and SYNC ports, a 0 length string is returned.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifadminstatus
The desired state of the interface. The testing state (3) indicates no operational packets can be
passed.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifoperstatus
The current operational state of the interface. The testing state (3) indicates no operational
packets can be passed.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifinoctets
The total number of octets received on this interface, including framing characters.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifinucastpkts
The number of subnetwork-unicast packets delivered by this interface to a higher-layer protocol.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifinnucastpkts
The number of non-unicast (such as broadcast or multicast) packets delivered by this interface to
a higher-layer protocol.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifinerrors
The number of inbound packets received by this interface that contained errors preventing them
from being delivered to a higher-level protocol.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifoutoctets
The total number of octets transmitted by this interface, including framing characters.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifoutucastpkts
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested this interface to transmit to a
subnetwork-unicast address, including those that were discarded or not sent.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifoutnucastpkts
The total number of packets that higher-level protocols requested this interface to transmit to a
non-unicast (such as broadcast or multicast) address, including those that were discarded or not
sent.
at\smib=mib-2.interfaces.iftable.ifentry.ifouterrors
The number of outbound packets that this interface could not transmit because of errors.
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\smib commands
IP
The IP node consists of the ipforwarding variable and the ipaddrtable and iproutetable nodes.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.ipforwarding
This variable indicates whether the unit is acting as an IP gateway in respect to the forwarding of
datagrams received by, but not addressed to, the unit. IP gateways forward datagrams, IP hosts
do not. For the Digi, this value is always 1.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.ipaddrtable
The ipaddrtable node contains ipaddrentry nodes for each IP address assigned to each interface
of the unit. For each table entry, an index specifier must be appended to the end of each variable
that specifies the interface (such as for PPP0, 1 must be appended).
at\smib=mib-2.ip.ipaddrtable.ipaddrentry
at\smib=mib-2.ip.ipaddrtable.ipaddrentry.ipadentaddr
The IP address to which this entry’s addressing information pertains.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.ipaddrtable.ipaddrentry.ipadentifindex
The index identifier for the interface associated with this IP address.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.ipaddrtable.ipaddrentry.ipadentnetmask
The subnet mask associated with the IP address.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.ipaddrtable.ipaddrentry.ipadentbcastaddr
The value of the least-significant bit in the IP broadcast address used for sending datagrams on
the IP address of this interface.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.iproutetable
The iproutetable node contains iprouteentry nodes for each route defined on the unit.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.iproutetable.iprouteentry
at\smib=mib-2.ip.iproutetable.iprouteentry.iproutedest
The destination IP address for the route. An entry with a value of 0.0.0.0 is considered the default
route. Multiple routes to a single destination can appear in the routing table, but access to such
multiple entries is dependant on the table-access mechanisms defined by the network
management protocol in use.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.iproutetable.iprouteentry.iprouteifindex
The index value which uniquely identifies the local interface through which the next hop of the
route should be reached.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.iproutetable.iprouteentry.iproutemetric1
The primary routing metric for the route.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.iproutetable.iprouteentry.iproutenexthop
The IP address of the next hop of the route.
at\smib=mib-2.ip.iproutetable.iprouteentry.iproutetype
The type of route. Valid values are:
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\smib commands
1
Valid
2
Invalid
3
Direct
4
Indirect
at\smib=mib-2.ip.iproutetable.iprouteentry.iproutemask
The netmask for the route.
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S registers
In addition to the AT commands there are a number of Special (“S”) registers. These registers
contain numeric values that may represent time intervals, ASCII characters or operational flags.
To display the contents of a particular “S” register, the ATS command is used in the form ATSn?
where n is the number of the register whose contents are to be shown.
To store a new value into a register, use the S command in the form ATSN=X where N is the
number of the register to be changed and X is the new value. For example, ATS31=4 would store
the value 4 in S31.
The unit maintains one set of registers for each ASY port. By default, the S command operates
ONLY on the S register set for the active port. To select an alternative default port, use the
AT\PORT command first.
Each register can only be set to a limited range of values as shown in the table below:
Reg.
Description
Units
Default
Range
S0
V.120 Answer enable
Rings
0
0-255
S1
Ring count
Rings
n/a
n/a
S2
Escape character
ASCII
43
0-255
S9
DCD on delay
ms x 20
0
0-255
S10
Pulse time for DCD Low
ms x 10
0
0-255
S12
Escape delay
ms
50
0-255
S15
Data forwarding timer
ms
2
0-255
S16
RS422/485 serial port
settings
N/A
0
0, 2, 3
S23
Parity
N/A
0
0-2 5 6
S31
ASY interface speed
refer to full description
n/a
0-11
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S0 V.120 Answer Enabled
S33
DTR dialling
N/A
0
01
S45
DTR loss de-bounce
0.05 seconds
(0.25s)
1-255
S0 V.120 Answer Enabled
Units: Rings
Default: 0
Range: 0-255
S0 is used only in V.120 mode to enable or disable automatic answering of incoming ISDN calls.
Auto answering is disabled when S0 is set to the default value of 0. Setting S0 to a non-zero value
enables auto-answering.
The actual value stored determines the number of “rings” that the unit will wait before answering.
For example, the command ATS0=2 enables auto-answering after two incoming rings have been
detected.
With each ring the RING result code is issued and the value stored in S1 is incremented. When the
value in S1 equals the value in S0 the call is answered.
S1 Ring count
Units: Rings
Default: n/a
Range: n/a
When ADAPT detects an incoming ISDN call on an ASY port, it will print “RING” to the ASY port at 2
second intervals. It also increments the S1 register, counting how many times “RING” is printed.
S2 Escape Character
Units: ASCII
Default: 43
Range: 0-255
The value stored in S2 defines which ASCII character is used as the Escape character, which by
default is the “+” symbol. Entering this character three times followed by a delay of 1-2 seconds
and then an AT command will cause the unit to switch from on-line mode to command mode.
S12 Escape Delay
Units: ms
Default: 50
Range: 0-255
The value stored in S12 defines the delay between sending the escape sequence and entering an
AT command for the unit to switch from on-line mode to command mode.
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S15 Data Forwarding Timer
S15 Data Forwarding Timer
Units: 10ms
Default: 0
Range: 0-255
S15 is used to set the data forwarding timer for the ASY port in multiples of 10ms. The default
data forwarding time is 20ms and in normal use this there should be no need to change this.
However, setting S15 to 1 enables a special mode of operation in which data is forwarded as fast
as possible for the data rate for which the port is configured (at 115000bps this will typically be 23ms).
Note that the default value of 0 is equivalent to setting the register to 2 in order to maintain
compatibility with older systems.
S16 RS422/485 serial port settings
The RS485 option is only available on specific hardware versions.
Units: N/A
Default: 0
Range: 0,2,3, where 0 = RS232, 2 = RS485 full duplex, 3 = RS485 half duplex
Following example shows how to setup and save ASY 0 in 485 half-duplex mode
AT\port=0
ATS16=3
AT&w
AT\port
The at\port=0 is needed to ensure that subsequent AT commands are directed to the right port
(ASY0). The port settings can be saved permanently using AT&W.
Issue the command ats16? and check that the value of this S register is 3. To set it back to RS232
then set ATS16 to zero and save it with the &w command.
S23 Parity
Units: N/A
Default: 0
Range: 0-2,5,6
The value stored in S23 determines whether the parity used for the ASY port is set to None (0),
Odd (1), Even (2), 8Data Odd (5) or 8Data Even (6).
S31 ASY Interface Speed
Units: N/A
Default: 0
Range: 0-11
Register S31 is used to set the speed and data format for the ASY port to which you are currently
connected.
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S33 DTR Dialling
The default value for ASY 0 is 0, such as the port speed/data format is not set to a specific value, it
is determined automatically from the AT commands that you enter.
The default value for ASY 1, 2 and 3 is 3, such as the ports will only accept AT commands at
115,200bps (8 data bits, no parity and 1 stop bit).
To set the speed of one of the ports to a particular value, the appropriate register should be set
to the required value from the following table:
S31
Port Speed (bps)
S31
Port Speed (bps)
0
Auto-detect
6
19200
1
Reserved
7
9600
2
Reserved
8
4800
3
115200
9
2400
4
57600
10
1200
5
38400
11
300
For example, to change the speed of ASY 1 to 38,400bps, connect your terminal to that port with
the speed set to 9600bps. Enter the command:
ats31=5
then change the speed of your terminal to 38,400bps before entering any more AT commands.
The data format used when the ATS31=n command is entered is selected as the data format for
all further commands.
The auto-detect option is only available for ASY0 and ASY1.
S33 DTR Dialling
Units: N/A
Default: 0
Range: 0, 1
S33 is used to enable or disable DTR dialling for the port. When DTR dialling is enabled, the unit
will dial the number stored for that port (see AT&Z) when the DTR signal from the terminal
changes from Off to On.
S45 DTR Loss De-Bounce
Units: 0.05 seconds
Default: 5
Range: 1-255
The value in S45 determines the length of time for which the DTR signal from the terminal device
must go off before the unit acts upon any options that are set to trigger on loss of DTR. Increasing
or decreasing the value in S45 makes the unit less or more sensitive to “bouncing” of the DTR
signal respectively.
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General system commands
The application commands described in this section are basic configuration commands that do
not relate to specific types of application or network.
CONFIG Show/Save Configuration
The config command is used for the following purposes to show current or stored configuration
settings, to save the current configuration or to specify which configuration is to be used when
the unit is powered up or rebooted.
The format of the config command is:
config <0|1|c> <save|show|powerup>
Two separate configurations can be stored, numbered 0 and 1. The first parameter of the config
command specifies to which configuration the command applies. The letter “c” denotes the
current configuration settings, such as those currently in use.
The second parameter is one of the following keywords:
•
show displays the specified configuration (either 0, 1 or c for the current configuration)
•
save saves the current settings as the specified configuration (either 0 or 1)
•
powerup sets the specified configuration (either 0 or 1) to be used at power-up or reboot
For example, to display the current configuration use the command:
config c show
The output will appear similar to the following example:
config c show
eth 0 descr "LAN 0"
eth 0 IPaddr "192.168.1.1"
eth 0 mask "255.255.255.0"
eth 0 bridge ON
eth 1 descr "LAN 1"
eth 2 descr "LAN 2"
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Config changes counter
eth 3 descr "LAN 3"
eth 4 descr "ATM PVC 0"
The config files only contain details of those settings that are different from the unit’s default
settings. If you make a setting that is the same as the default setting, it will not appear in a stored
configuration.
To save the current settings to configuration file 1, enter:
config 1 save
To use configuration 1 when the unit is powered up or rebooted, enter:
config 1 powerup
Config changes counter
The config changes command shows the number of changes to the current configuration since
the unit has powered up and the initial configuration file run. Also shows the time when the
config file was last saved.
REBOOT reboot unit
The reboot command causes the unit to execute a complete hardware reset, loading and
running the main image file from cold. It has three modes of operation:
reboot - will reboot the unit after any FLASH write operations have been completed. Also, 1
second each is allowed for the following operations to be completed before reboot will take
place:
•
IPSec SA delete notifications have been created and sent
•
TCP sockets have been closed
•
PPP interfaces have been disconnected
reboot <n> - will reboot the unit in <n>minutes where n is 1 to 65,535.
reboot cancel - will cancel a timed reboot if entered before the time period has passed.
Note You can enable or disable the reset button using the WEB GUI. For more information, see
the System section.
Reset router to factory defaults
For information on resetting router to factory defaults, see the Factory Default Settings section.
Disabling the reset button
Normally when the reset button is held in for 5 seconds the router is reset to factory defaults. The
factory reset button functionality can be disabled / enabled if required.
The command to disable the reset button is cmd 0 pbreset off.
To re-enable the reset button functionality cmd 0 pbreset on.
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TEMPLOG temperature monitoring
You can also disable the reset button using the Digi TransPort web interface. For more
information see the Factory Default Settings section.
TEMPLOG temperature monitoring
The on-board temperature sensors are sampled every 60 seconds and any 'interesting'
changes in the temperature are logged to a special flash file, 'templog.c1'. Use 'templog
0 status' to view the last stored record in this file.
There are 2 sensors built in, there is one on the motherboard and one on the modem
module. If a temperature is reached that is outside of normal operating limits, an event
will be logged in the eventlog.txt
Note The only transport models that support TEMPLOG are DR64 and VC7400.
Ping and traceroute
From the CLI, these commands can be used to help troubleshoot connectivity problems.
The syntax of the ping command is:
ping <ip address|FQDN> [n]
Where n (if used) is the number of ICMP echo requests to send. If not specified, only 1 echo
request will be sent.
To stop pings when n has been set to a high value use ping stop.
The syntax of the traceroute command is:
traceroute <ip address|FQDN>
To stop a failed trace if hosts can not be detected, use traceroute stop.
Clearing the Analyser Trace and Event Log
To clear the analyser trace, the CLI command is ana 0 anaclr
To clear the event log, the CLI command is clear_ev
Activate and deactivate interfaces
To manually activate (or raise) an interface, the following CLI command can be used as an
activation request.
<entity> <instance> act_rq
To manually deactivate (or lower) an interface, the following CLI command can be used as an
activation request.
<entity> <instance> deact_rq
Where <entity> can be:
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Special usernames
PPP
for PPP interfaces
TUN
for GRE TUN interfaces
OVPN for OpenVPN interfaces
And <instance> is the interface number, such as 0, 1, 2 etc
For example, to activate PPP 1, the CLI command would be:
ppp 1 act_rq
and to deactivate PPP 1:
ppp 1 deact_rq
Special usernames
There are some special usernames that can also be used for both local and remote
authentication, these are:
%s
This uses the serial number of the router as the username.
%i
This uses the IMEI of the cellular module as the username.
%c
This uses the ICCID of the SIM as the username.
If a ‘%’ symbol is part of the username, it must be escaped with another ‘%’ symbol.
For example, ‘user%1’ should be entered as ‘user%%1’.
GPIO (General Purpose Input Output)
GPIO commands are necessary to configure a WR44, which has one Digital Input/Output port and
one Digital Input port. This command allows configuration of the I/O port either as an input port
or an output port. For example:
Command
Description
gpio inout input
Configures the I/O port as an input.
gpio inout output
Configures the I/O port as an output.
gpio inout ON
Sets the I/O port to ON when configured as an output.
gpio inout OFF
Sets the I/O port to OFF when configured as an output.
The syntax of the command is as follows:
Usage: gpio [inout ON|OFF|input|output]
With no parameters, the command will display the current status of the ports. For example:
gpio
Input(s):
in : OFF
Output(s):
inout : OFF
OK
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GPIO (General Purpose Input Output)
To set the I/O port to be an output:
gpio inout output
Input(s):
in : OFF
Output(s):
inout : OFF
OK
To set the I/O port to ON when it is configured as an output:
gpio inout on
Input(s):
in : OFF
Output(s):
inout : ON
OK
The Input and Input/Output connections (pins 2 and 3) are programmed via the command line
using the gpio command. The default setting for pins 2 and 3 are OFF as seen in the above
example.
Note Only one of the power connectors should be used. Never apply power to both the MAIN
and AUX connectors at the same time.
Pin
Description
Pin 1
GROUND
Pin 2
INPUT
Pin 3
Input/ Output
Pin 4
Power
The following image shows the pins and the corresponding numbers:
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GOBI Image Load Selection
For more information on wiring and other details, refer to Digi Transport 4-pin DC Power
Cord User Guide.
GOBI Image Load Selection
For the qdl command, it is used to specify which image to load onto a GOBI cellular module.
The syntax of the command is:
qdl 0 fw <n>
where n can be 0 .. 14. The default value is 0.
Instance
Value
0
Generic UMTS
1
Verizon
2
Sprint PCS
3
IUSACELL
4
Bell Mobility
5
Alltel
6
Cingular Blue
7
Cingular Orange
8
T-Mobile
9
Docomo
10
Orange
11
Vodafone
12
Telefonica
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GOBI Image Load Selection
13
Telital
14
OMH
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TCPPERM and TCPDIAL commands
This section describes the operation of the tcpperm and tcpdial commands which are available
only as application commands and have no equivalent web pages.
TCPPERM
The tcpperm command is used to establish a permanent “serial to IP” connection between one of
the ASY ports and a remote IP host. After the command has been executed, the unit will
automatically open a socket connection to the remote peer whenever data is received from a
terminal attached to the specified ASY port. When the socket is first opened and the connection
has been established, the unit will issue a CONNECT message to the terminal and will
subsequently relay data between the socket and the ASY port. The format of the CONNECT
message can be modified using the standard AT commands (such as ATV, ATE, etc.) or using the
Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Serial > Serial Port n web page.
Note The serial port should also be pre-configured to use the appropriate word format,
speed and flow control.
While the serial-to-IP connection is established, if the attached serial device drops the DTR signal,
then the socket connection will be terminated, much as with a standard modem or terminal
adapter. Again this behaviour can be modified via the AT&D command or the serial port settings.
The format of the command is:
TCPPERM <[ASY 0-1]> <Dest Host> <Dest Port> [UDP] [nodeact] [-l<listening port>] [i<inact_timeout>] [-f<fwd_time>] [-e<eth_ip>][-d(deact link)] [-k<keepalive_time>] [s<src_port>] [-ok] [-t<telnet_mode>] [-ho(host only)] [-ssl] [-ao(always open)] [-m<mhome
idx>]
The parameters are detailed in the following table:
Parameter
Description
ASY
The number of the ASY port that the link will be made from/to
Dest Host
The IP address (or name) of the remote peer
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TCPPERM
Dest Port
The port number to use on the remote peer
UDP
Open a UDP connection (the default is TCP)
-ao
Open socket immediately, and reopen if and when the socket is closed
-e
Use the address of ethernet port ’n’ for the socket connection rather than the
default of the address of the interface over which the socket is opened (i.e
ppp 1, ppp 2, etc.)
-d
Deactivate link - if non-zero, when the socket is closed and there are no other
sockets using the interface then the interface connection is dropped
(switched connections only)
-f
The forwarding time (x10ms) for packetising data from the serial port
-ho
Host - indicates that the socket should only accept connections from the
specified host.
-i
The inactivity timeout (s) after which the socket will be closed
-k
Keep alive packet timer (s)
-l
Listening port - allows the user to set a new TCP port number to listen on
rather than the default value of 4000+ASY port #
-m
Multihome additional consecutive addresses index
-ok
Open socket in ’quiet mode’, such as there is no ’OK’ response to the
TCPPERM command.
-s
Source port number
-ssl
Use SSL mode
-t
Use Telnet mode. Opens socket in the corresponding Telnet mode (port 23
default), 0= raw, 1 Telnet Mode, 2 - Telnet Mode with null stuffing. If this is not
specified then the mode specified for the associated ASY port in general setup
is used. If the -t option is specified then the “ok” option is always used.
The command can also be made to execute automatically on power-up by using the “cmd n
autocmd ‘cmd’” macro command, such as
cmd 0 autocmd ’tcpperm asy 0 192.168.0.1 -f3 -s3000 -k10 -e1’
Considerations for use with VPN or GRE tunnels
When the socket used by TCPPERM is opened the default behavior is to use the address of the
interface over which the socket is carried (ETHn or PPPn) as the source address of the socket. If
the socket data is to be tunneled then it may be necessary to use the -en modifier so that the
source address of the socket matches the local subnet address specified in the appropriate
Eroute. A similar effect can also be achieved by setting the parameter Default source IP address
interface: Ethernet n in the Web interface on the Configuration - Network > Advanced
Network Settings.
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TCPDIAL
TCPDIAL
TCPDIAL operates in an identical manner to TCPPERM except that establishment of the socket
connection is not automatic and must be initiated by the tcpdial command. The simplest method
of achieving this is to map a command using the Configuration - Network > Interfaces > Serial
> Command Mappings, such as, Command to Map ATDT0800456789 maps to tcpdial asy 1
217.36.133.29 -e0. Now, whenever the attached terminal device attempts to dial the number
defined the unit will map it to an IP socket connection.
In this way multiple dial commands can be directed to the same or different IP hosts with other
simple command mappings.
Aborting TCPDIAL
The tcpdab command can be used to cancel a TCPDIAL connection before the connection has
been made. It can also be used from a command session to disconnect an existing TCPDIAL
connection on another ASY port.
The format of the command is:
tcpdab <instance> ATH
where <instance> is the number of the ASY port.
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Serial port connections
Depending upon the model, the asynchronous serial ports on may be presented as DB 25
sockets, DB 9 sockets or 8-pin RJ45 sockets. On some models, a combination of the above may be
used. The following tables list the pin designations of each type of connector for each Digi model.
The RS-232 port pin-outs are suitable for both Async and Sync port connections. When used in
Async mode the pins for TxC, RxC & ETC are not required, these are needed for Sync mode only.
DR6410, DR6420, DR6460, DR64x0W & WR41
RS-232 Port Pin-Outs
Description
RS232 signal
Direction1
DB 25 Pin#
RJ45 Pin#
Transmit Data
TxD
in
2
6
Receive Data
RxD
out
3
3
Ready To Send
RTS
in
4
1
Clear To Send
CTS
out
5
8
Data Set Ready
DSR
out
6
n/a
Ground
GND
n/a
7
5
Data Carrier
Detect
DCD
out
8
7
Transmitter
Clock
TxC
out
15
n/a
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DR6410, DR6420, DR6460, DR64x0W & WR41
Description
RS232 signal
Direction1
DB 25 Pin#
RJ45 Pin#
Receiver Clock
RxC
out
17
n/a
Data Terminal
Ready
DTR
in
20
2
Ring Indicate
RI
out
22
n/a
External
Transmitter
Clock
ETC
in
24
n/a
1 With respect to Digi units
X.21 (RS-422)
Note For the DR64x0(W) to operate in X.21 mode, a kepler daughter card must be fitted.
Description
X.21 signal
Direction1
DB 25 Pin#
Receive Data (A)
RxDA
out
3
Receive Data (B)
RxDB
out
16
Transmit Data (A)
TxDA
in
2
Transmit Data (B)
TxDB
in
14
Indication (B)
INDB
out
13
Ground
GND
n/a
7
Control (B)
CTLB
in
19
Clock (A)
CLKA
in or out2
17
Clock (B)
CLKB
in or out2
9
Indication (A)
INDA
out
5
Control (A)
CTLA
in
4
1 With respect to Digi units
2 Direction depends on whether the Digi unit is clock sink or clock source.
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DR6410, DR6420, DR6460, DR64x0W & WR41
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock
This is normally the cable to use to connect an X.21 terminal (such as, an ATM) to the Digi. Use
this cable when the Digi is the clock source or configured as internal clock.
DB 25 - Digi Side
DB 15
Signal
Pin # (DCE)
Pin # (DTE)
Signal
Frame Ground (Case)
Shield
Shield
Frame Ground (Case)
RxDA
3
4
RxDA
RxDB
16
11
RxDB
TxDA
2
2
TxDA
TxDB
14
9
TxDB
INDB
13
12
INDB
GND
7
8
GND
CTLB
19
10
CTLB
CLKB
9
13
CLKB
CLKA
17
6
CLKA
INDA
5
5
INDA
CTLA
4
3
CTLA
Note that Frame Ground is optional.
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock
This is normally the cable to use to connect an X.21 terminal (such as, an ATM) to the Digi. Use
this cable when the Digi is the clock sink or configured as external clock.
DB 25
DB 25 - Digi Side
Signal
Pin # (DCE)
Pin # (DTE)
Signal
Frame Ground (Case)
Shield
Shield
Frame Ground (Case)
RxDA
3
4
RxDA
RxDB
16
11
RxDB
TxDA
2
2
TxDA
TxDB
14
9
TxDB
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DR6410, DR6420, DR6460, DR64x0W & WR41
DB 25
DB 25 - Digi Side
Signal
Pin # (DCE)
Pin # (DTE)
Signal
INDB
13
12
INDB
GND
7
8
GND
CTLB
19
10
CTLB
CLKB
9
13
CLKB
CLKA
17
6
CLKA
INDA
5
5
INDA
CTLA
4
3
CTLA
Note that Frame Ground is optional.
Note When operating an X.21 (RS-422) link synchronously, it is necessary to fit termination
resistors to each signal pair at the receiving end. The Digi unit has in-built terminating
resistors, but terminating resistors should be fitted between the RxDA and RxDB pins,
CLKA and CLKB pins and INDA and INDB pins at the DTE.
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - internal clock
Use this cable to connect the Digi unit to an X.21 leased line. Use this cable when the Digi unit is
the clock source or configured as internal clock.
DB 25 - Digi Side
DB 15
Signal
Pin # (DCE)
Pin # (DTE)
Signal
Frame Ground (Case)
Shield
Shield
Frame Ground (Case)
RxDA
3
2
TxDA
RxDB
16
9
TxDB
TxDA
2
4
RxDA
TxDB
14
11
RxDB
INDB
13
10
CTLB
GND
7
8
GND
CTLB
19
12
INDB
CLKB
9
13
CLKB
CLKA
17
6
CLKA
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DR6410, DR6420, DR6460, DR64x0W & WR41
DB 25 - Digi Side
DB 15
Signal
Pin # (DCE)
Pin # (DTE)
Signal
INDA
5
3
CTLA
CTLA
4
5
INDA
Note that Frame Ground is optional.
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin crossover cable - external clock
Use this cable to connect the Digi unit to an X.21 leased line. Use this cable when the Digi unit is
the clock sink or configured as external clock.
DB 25 - Digi Side
DB 15
Signal
Pin # (DCE)
Pin # (DTE)
Signal
Frame Ground (Case)
1
1
Frame Ground (Case)
RxDA
3
2
TxDA
RxDB
16
9
TxDB
TxDA
2
4
RxDA
TxDB
14
11
RxDB
INDB
13
10
CTLB
GND
7
8
GND
CTLB
19
12
INDB
CLKB
9
13
CLKB
CLKA
17
6
CLKA
INDA
5
3
CTLA
CTLA
4
5
INDA
Note that Frame Ground is optional.
Note When operating an X.21 (RS-422) link synchronously, it is necessary to fit termination
resistors to each signal pair at the receiving end. The Digi unit has in-built terminating
resistors, but terminating resistors should be fitted between the TxDA and TxDB pins,
CLKA and CLKB pins and CTLA and CTLB pins at the DTE.
Digi TransPort User Guide
627
WR44
WR44
RS-232 Port Pin Outs
Description
RS232 signal
Direction1
DB 25 Pin#
DB 9 Pin#
RJ45 Pin #
Transmit Data
TxD
in
2
3
6
Receive Data
RxD
out
3
2
3
Ready To Send
RTS
in
4
7
1
Clear To Send
CTS
out
5
8
8
Data Set Ready
DSR
out
6
6
n/a
Ground
GND
n/a
7
5
5
Data Carrier
Detect
DCD
out
8
1
7
Transmitter
Clock
TxC
out
15
n/a
n/a
Receiver Clock
RxC
out
17
n/a
n/a
Data Terminal
Ready
DTR
in
20
4
2
Ring Indicate
RI
out
22
9
n/a
External
Transmitter
Clock
ETC
in
24
n/a
n/a
Direction1
DB 25 Pin#
Transmit Data(A) TxDA
in
2
Receive Data(A)
RxDA
out
3
Control (A)
CTLA
in
4
Indication (A)
INDA
out
5
1 With respect to Digi units
X.21 (RS-422)
Description
Digi TransPort User Guide
X.21signal
628
WR44
Description
X.21signal
Direction1
DB 25 Pin#
Ground
GND
n/a
7
Clock (B)
CLKB
in or out2
9
Indication (B)
INDB
out
13
Transmit Data
(B)
TxDB
in
14
Receive Data (B)
RxDB
out
16
Clock (A)
CLKA
in or out2
17
Control (B)
CTLB
in
19
1 With respect to Digi units
2 Direction depends on whether the Digi unit is clock sink or clock source.
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - internal clock
Use this cable to connect an X.21 terminal (such as, an ATM) to the Digi unit. Use this cable when
the Digi unit is the clock source or configured as internal clock.
DB 25 - Digi Side
DB 15
Signal
Pin # (DCE)
Pin # (DTE)
Signal
Frame Ground (Case)
Shield
Shield
Frame Ground (Case)
RxDA
3
4
RxDA
RxDB
16
11
RxDB
TxDA
2
2
TxDA
TxDB
14
9
TxDB
INDB
13
12
INDB
GND
7
8
GND
CTLB
19
10
CTLB
CLKB
9
13
CLKB
CLKA
17
6
CLKA
INDA
5
5
INDA
CTLA
4
3
CTLA
Digi TransPort User Guide
629
WR44
Note that Frame Ground is optional.
X.21 25-Pin to 15-Pin straight through cable - external clock
Use this cable to connect an X.21 terminal (such as, an ATM) to the Digi unit. Use this cable when
the Digi with is the clock sink or configured as external clock.
DB 25 - Digi Side
DB 25
Signal
Pin # (DCE)
Pin # (DTE)
Signal
Frame Ground (Case)
Shield
Shield
Frame Ground (Case)
RxDA
3
4