AHRS M2, M2-M User`s Manual

AHRS M2, M2-M User`s Manual
Attitude and Heading Reference System
AHRS M2, M2-M
User’s Manual
March, 2009
Revision 3.0
Revision history
Revisio
Date
n
1.0
14-Jun-07
1.1 to 2.6
3.0
20-Mar-09
Author
Description
ON
Released version.
Skipped
For AHRS firmware since v.4.1.7.
Updated output data formats (see item 6.3).
Realized AHRS initial alignment at slow rocking object for
marine applications (option).
ON
Table of contents
1. Introduction..................................................................................................5
1.1. Description of the System................................................….....................5
1.2. Package Contents....................................................................................6
2. AHRS operation principles..........................................................................7
2.1. Description of the AHRS orientation angles.............................................7
2.2. Principles of the AHRS Operation............................................................8
3. AHRS Specifications.................................................................................11
4. Installation.................................................................................................12
4.1. Where to install the AHRS for tests........................................................12
4.2. Where to install the AHRS on the object................................................13
4.3. Mechanically mounting the AHRS..........................................................14
4.4. Variants of the AHRS mounting relative to the object axes....................16
5. Electrical connections................................................................................18
5.1. Cable and Connectors............................................................................18
5.2. Quick Electrical Connections for the AHRS Evaluation..........................21
6. Software interface......................................................................................22
6.1. Operational Modes of the AHRS and Data Formats...............................22
6.2. Executive Instructions for the AHRS.......................................................23
6.3. Output Data Format of the AHRS in the operating modes.....................26
6.4. The Unit Status Word definition..............................................................29
6.5. Examples of Data Reading from the AHRS............................................31
7. AHRS Demo Program...............................................................................33
8. Warranty....................................................................................................34
9. description of AHRS M2-M........................................................................35
10. Peculiarity of the marine AHRS operation...............................................36
11. AHRS M2-M specifications.....................................................................37
12. AHRS Demo Program.............................................................................38
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1. The AHRS .....................................................................................5
Figure 1.2. Data Cables Set ............................................................................6
Figure 1.3. Protective tube...............................................................................7
Figure 1.4. AC/DC adapter with interchangeable plug ....................................7
Figure 2.1. AHRS with body-fixed coordinate system .....................................7
Figure 2.2. Operational Diagram of the AHRS ................................................9
Figure 4.1. The AHRS mounting surfaces A, B and mounting holes 1 – 7....14
Figure 4.2. The AHRS outline drawing .........................................................15
Figure 4.3. Examples of the AHRS mounting on the object...........................17
Figure 5.1. 5-Pin connector male pinout ......................................................18
Figure 5.2. The diagram of electric connection of the AHRS to host
computer .......................................................................................................19
Figure 5.3. The diagram of the interface cable 1 for the AHRS connections to
the СОМ-port of host computer and to the AC/DC adapter ..........................20
Figure 5.4. The view of plug connectors of the interface cable 1 ..................20
Figure 5.5. AHRS light indicator ....................................................................21
Figure 8.1. Location of the seals on the AHRS..............................................34
LIST OF TABLES
Тable 3.1. AHRS M2 typical specifications ...................................................11
Тable 5.1. Pin diagram of the AHRS connector.............................................18
Table 5.2. Electrical specification ..................................................................18
Table 6.1. СОМ-port parameters ..................................................................22
Тable 6.2. Structure of the parameter block for loading to the AHRS
by LoadBlockPar command..........................................................................25
Тable 6.3. Structure of the parameter block read by ReadBlockPar
command ......................................................................................................26
Тable 6.4. Structure of the parameter block read by GetVerFirmware
command ......................................................................................................26
Тable 6.5. Full Output Data format (at AHRS1 command) ............................27
Тable 6.6. Orientation + Incremental Sensor Data format (at AHRS2
command) .....................................................................................................27
Тable 6.7. Quaternion of Orientation format (at AHRS3 command) .............28
Тable 6.8. Orientation + Sensor Outputs format
(at AHRS4 command) ...................................................................................28
Table 6.9. The Unit Status Word description.................................................29
Table 7.1. The recommended requirements for the PC configuration...........33
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1. Description of the System
The AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) is designed for
measuring Euler orientation angles (heading, pitch and roll) in static and
dynamic environment. It consists of three gyros, three accelerometers, three
magnetometers with internal power regulations and embedded
microcomputer. Original algorithm is used for above sensors signal
processing to achieve high accuracy of attitude and heading determination.
The AHRS is a high-speed digital output orientation measuring system. It can
transmit the orientation angles (heading, pitch and roll) of a body which it is
mounted to at a rate of up to 100 samples/second. Data transmissions are
made over a bi-directional serial port using either RS-232 or USB (via COMto-USB converter). Sampling rate is selected by user from 1 Hz to 100 Hz
(default setting).
Fig.1.1. The AHRS
1.2. Package Contents
In addition to your AHRS product you should have:
• 1 Data Cables Set.
It consists of (see Fig.1.2):
- cable 1 provides electrical connection between the AHRS and an
external receiving device through a СОМ port and power supply;
- COM-to-USB converter FTDI FT232BM provides connection with an
external receiving device via a USB port;
• 1 Protective Tube (optional).
This tube (see Fig.1.3) can be screwed on the AHRS connector to protect
it from the external mechanical damage.
• 1 interchangeable AC/DC Adapter.
The two AC plugs are possible: USA and EUR. The adapter is used for
the AHRS powering from 110-240V, 50-60Hz AC power source (see
Fig.1.4).
• 1 miniCD with AHRS Software.
This software allows you immediately to view the outputs of the AHRS on
a PC running Microsoft® Windows™ and save measured data on a PC
hard disk.
• 1 User’s Manual.
It contains useful information about mounting and connecting of the
AHRS, and usage of enclosed demo software for viewing and saving of
the AHRS output data.
• 1 Demo Program “AHRS DEMO” User’s Manual.
It contains useful information about installing and usage of enclosed demo
software for visualization of the AHRS orientation angles and saving of the
AHRS output data.
Cable 1
COM-to-USB converter
Fig.1.2. Data Cables Set
Fig.1.3. Protective tube
Fig.1.4. AC/DC adapter with
interchangeable plug
2. AHRS OPERATION PRINCIPLES
2.1. Description of the AHRS orientation angles
Fig.2.1 shows the AHRS’ own coordinate system Oxoyozo. This coordinate
system is a body-fixed and defined as the calibrated sensors coordinate
system. Non-orthogonality between the axes of the body-fixed coordinate
system Oxoyozo is less then 0.01°.
Fig.2.1. AHRS with body-fixed coordinate system
The roll angle of the AHRS is zero when the X-axis is oriented horizontally
and Z-axis is in upper half-sphere. If X-axis is horizontal and Z-axis is in lower
half-sphere, then roll angle is equal to 180°. If Z-axis is oriented horizontally
and X-axis is in lower half-sphere, then roll angle is equal to +90°.
The pitch angle of the AHRS is defined as 0° when the Z-axis is pointed up or
down. If Y-axis is pointed up, then pitch angle is equal to +90°. If Y-axis is
pointed down, then pitch angle is equal to –90°.
The heading angle of the AHRS is referenced to magnetic North and is zero
when the projection of the AHRS Y-axis on a horizontal plane is oriented
North. If the projection of Y-axis on a horizontal plane is oriented East, then
heading angle is equal to +90°. Thus heading is positive for clockwise rotation
around the vertical axis.
Measured angles are the standard Euler angles to rotate from the earth-level
frame (East-North-Up) to the body frame, heading first, then pitch, and then
roll.
Orientation angles, measured by the AHRS, are not limited and are within
common ranges:
• Heading 0…360°;
• Pitch
±90°;
• Roll
±180°.
2.2. Principles of the AHRS Operation
The AHRS is designed for measuring Euler orientation angles (heading, pitch
and roll) of an object in static and dynamic environment.
The AHRS is a measurement system that consists of three gyroscopes, three
accelerometers and three magnetometers. All sensor axes are aligned with
the AHRS axes. Using 3-axis gyro, accelerometer and magnetometer units
allows making a complete measurement of an object orientation angles.
The operational diagram of the AHRS is shown in Fig.2.2.
The AHRS uses gyros to measure absolute angular rate of the carrier, then
its orientation angles (heading, pitch and roll) are obtained by using special
integration of gyros outputs.
Accelerometers are used to determine initial attitude of the AHRS and to
correct for gyros drift in the tilt angles (pitch, roll) determination.
Magnetometers are used to determine initial alignment of the AHRS in
heading and to correct for gyro drift in the heading angle determination.
A
c
c G
el yr
er os
o
m
et
er
s
M
a
g
n
et
o
m
et
e
r
s
Initial
alignmen
t
algorith
m
Initial
G
y0
Gz G
x
0
0
Ay
0
Ax
Az
0
M0
y0
rx
ry
o
rz
o
o
ax
ay
o
a
z
o
m
o x
my
o
mz
o
M
z0
M
x0
o
conditions
Numeric
integrating
of the
orientation
equations
Orientati Heading
on
H
Pitch
angles
P
estimati
Roll R
on
rxc ryc rzc
Computati
on of
correction
signals
Kalman filter
based
algorithm
Fig.2.2. Operational Diagram of the AHRS
The AHRS has the sensor fusion algorithm where measurements of gravity
(accelerometers) and magnetic North (magnetometers) compensate for
otherwise unlimited increasing errors from the integration of rate of turn data.
Thus advantage of the AHRS over other non-gyroscopic compasses is using
of gyros, that allows to determine orientation angles with high accuracy not
only in static conditions but in dynamic environment. Moreover the AHRS
supplies a high output speed of attitude data (up to 100 Hz).
The base of the AHRS algorithm is adaptive Kalman filter which is used for
estimation of the bias drift of gyros and calculation of stabilized heading, pitch
and roll angles. The Kalman filter automatically adjusts for changing dynamic
conditions without any external user input.
After start the AHRS it requires about 60 seconds for initial alignment
process. At this initial orientation angles are determined as initial conditions
for integration of gyros outputs. Also gyros drift is estimated using Kalman
filter for next compensation. Therefore don’t move the AHRS during initial
alignment process. If this requirement is not met then large errors may be
occurred in orientation angles determination.
As the AHRS uses magnetic sensors for heading reference, then it directly
determines just magnetic heading.
The AHRS can also provide true North heading when the current magnetic
declination is given. Declination, also called magnetic variation, is the
difference between true and magnetic North, relative to a point on the Earth.
Declination angles vary throughout the world, and change very slowly over
time.
Declination angle can be entered directly in the AHRS memory using special
command (see Table 6.2 in item 6.2). For this the declination angle should be
known or calculated using AHRS software (see “AHRS Demo Program”
User’s Manual, section 4. Options menu). By additional information about
latitude, longitude, altitude and date, the AHRS Demo software calculates the
declination using the World Magnetic Model produced by the U.S. National
Geophysical
Data
Center
and
the
British
Geological
Survey
(http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/geomag/WMM/DoDWMM.shtml). The World Magnetic
Model is the standard model of the US Department of Defense, the UK
Ministry of Defense, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), and the
World Hydrographic Office (WHO) navigation and attitude/heading
referencing systems.
3. AHRS SPECIFICATIONS
Тable 3.1. AHRS M2 typical specifications
Parameter
Update Rate
Full accuracy data (warm-up time) (1)
Measurement range (full in 3D)
Maximum angular rate
Static accuracy at normal conditions
• heading
• pitch and
roll
Static accuracy in operating temperature
range
• heading
• pitch and
roll
(3)
Dynamic accuracy
• heading
• pitch and roll
Noise (standard deviation) at 100 Hz
output
Sensors bandwidth (4)
Operating temperature range
Dimensions
Weight
Power supply:
Supply current
AHRS
M2
Hz
1...100 (user settable)
sec
60
0...360 heading
deg
±90 pitch; ±180 roll
deg/sec
±300
Unit
deg
< 0.3 (2)
< 0.1
deg
< 0.5 (2)
< 0.3
deg
RMS
deg
RMS
Hz
deg C
mm
kg
V DC
A
0.7
0.4
0.03 heading
40
-40 to +70
109 x 31 x 29 (case)
127 x 31 x 29
0.19 / 0.16 (5)
+5.5 to +6.5 (6)
0.11
(1)
including time of initial alignment, it may be decreased on request;
(2)
in homogeneous magnetic environment, for latitude up to ±65 deg;
(3)
root mean square error (1 sigma), may depend on type of motion;
-3 dB level;
depends on material of the AHRS case;
AHRS may be powered by AC voltage 100 to 240 V, 50/60 Hz from an AC/DC
adapter which comes with the device.
(4)
(5)
(6)
4. INSTALLATION
This section describes how to mount the AHRS into your system and make
electrical connections. To install the AHRS into your system, follow these
steps:
•
choose a mounting location;
•
mechanically mount the AHRS;
•
make electrical connections to the AHRS;
•
evaluate the AHRS using the included "AHRS_Demo" Program.
4.1. Where to install the AHRS for tests
The AHRS has magnetometers with wide dynamic range and its
sophisticated calibration algorithms allow it to operate in many environments.
For optimal performance however, you should mount the AHRS with the
following considerations in mind.
• Locate the AHRS away from local sources of magnetic fields
The place for testing must not have ferromagnetic (magneto-susceptible)
materials and the lab room itself must have the level of intrinsic magnetic and
electro-magnetic fields suitable for the magnetic heading system testing:
- inside and near the lab room there must be no powerful source of
magnetic, electrical and electro-magnetic fields. The magnetic field
intensity must not be different from the Earth magnetic field intensity at the
test site more than 0.01%;
- small ferromagnetic objects must be as far as 3 meters from the test table.
Large size ferromagnetic objects such as cars and trucks must be as far
as 15 m from the table;
- it is necessary to conduct a regular check-up of the magnetic field
uniformity inside the lab room.
It is highly recommended to degauss AHRS before heading test to remove
permanent magnetization of some components in the AHRS (if you
accidentally expose the unit to a large magnetic field). You can use a handheld demagnetizer (tape eraser) to demagnetize the AHRS. Most audio and
video degaussing units can be used. Follow the instructions for your
demagnetizer.
• The AHRS should be mounted in a physically stable location
Choose a location that is isolated from excessive shock, oscillation, and
vibration. Special rotary table must be used for the AHRS accuracy testing,
that mounted on a special testing basement which is free from the laboratory
oscillations and vibrations.
Tests on vibrations and shocks are fulfilled separately from the main
accuracy tests.
4.2. Where to install the AHRS on the object
It is necessary to follow the recommendations listed in it.4.1. whenever it is
possible, when installing the AHRS on an object.
• AHRS should be installed on an object as far as possible from large
ferromagnetic masses of the object and powerful sources of
magnetic, electrical and electro-magnetic fields
If the residual effects of ferromagnetic masses of the object distort the Earth
magnetic field to no more than 20%, AHRS software allows compensation of
influence of the carrier object soft and hard iron on the heading angle
determination accuracy. For this purpose, field calibration of the AHRS
magnetometers is provided. This calibration does not require any additional
equipment, but it requires turns of the carrier object, on which the AHRS is
mounted.
Note that the above field calibration remains active until the residual magnetic
field of the object surrounding the AHRS is changed. If this field is changed
due to displacement of ferromagnetic masses of the object or magnetic field
sources, the AHRS should be re-calibrated.
Field calibration procedure is described in User’s Manual on the HRS Demo
Program. Field calibration procedure is developed by after type of the object,
on which the AHRS will be used, is agreed on with a customer.
• It is preferable to locate the AHRS as close to the centre of mass of
the object as possible
With such location, effects of linear accelerations during oscillations on the
AHRS accelerometers are reduced, and therefore, orientation angle
determination errors are also reduced.
4.3. Mechanically mounting the AHRS
The AHRS housing has two base surfaces A and B (see fig.4.1, fig.4.2)
designed for AHRS mounting during its run and testing.
Fig.4.1. The AHRS mounting surfaces A, B
and mounting holes 1 – 7
Salient bottom base surface А has threaded holes designed for mounting of
the AHRS. Lateral base surface B is designed for the AHRS alignment during
mounting. The AHRS is factory calibrated with respect to the base surfaces A
and B, thus it must be aligned within the host system with respect to these
mounting surface, not the device edges.
Fig.4.2. The AHRS outline drawing
(all dimensions are in millimeters)
When mounting AHRS on your system, please pay attention to orientation of
input axes X", "Y", "Z" (Fig.2.1) – respective marking is engraved on the
cover of the AHRS. During the ordinary operation on the carrier object the
AHRS is set on the surface A with the axis Y directed on the nose of the
object. To obtain accurate attitude and heading, please remember that
mounting is very important and mounting error can cause attitude and
heading errors. When AHRS mounting please align it on two base surfaces
relative your system axes.
There are two variants of the AHRS mounting on your system:
1) Use 4 threaded holes M2x5 mm on the bottom of AHRS (see Fig.4.1,
positions 1 – 4).
2) Use 3 holes ∅2.5 mm on 3 lugs (see Fig.4.1, positions 5 – 7).
Note: For the AHRS with aluminum case it is not recommended to use threaded holes
(see Fig.4.2, positions 1 – 4) for mounting the AHRS because of possible damage of these
threads.
Requirements to the mounting surface of the carrier object: flatness tolerance
is 0.03 mm; undulation is Ra=1.25.
4.4. Variants of the AHRS mounting relative to the object axes
Since firmware version 3.3.9 the AHRS can be mounted on the object in any
known position (up to upside-down, upright etc.) relative to the object axes.
Such mounting doesn’t change right determination of the object orientation if
angles of the AHRS mounting are correctly stored in the AHRS nonvolatile
memory.
To store angles of mounting in the AHRS please use the AHRS Demo
Program (item «Device option …» from the «Options» menu) or send
LoadBlockPar command to the AHRS directly (see structure of the
LoadBlockPar command in the Table 6.2 below).
Angles of the AHRS position (alignment angles) are set in next order (like
heading, pitch and roll setting):
 first alignment angle sets position of the AHRS longitudinal axis Y
relative to longitudinal axes of the object measured in the horizontal
plane of the object. Clockwise rotation is positive;
 second alignment angle is equal to angle of inclination of the AHRS
longitudinal axis Y relative to the horizontal plane of the object. Positive
direction is up;
 third alignment angle is equal to inclination angle of the AHRS lateral
axis X measured around AHRS’s longitudinal axis. Positive rotation is X
axis moving down.
All angles are set in degrees.
Some examples of the AHRS mounting relative the object are shown on
Fig.4.3.
y
z
x
b
c
d
y
y
z
a
x
x
z
z
x
y
Fig.4.3. Examples of the AHRS mounting on the object
a – alignment angles are 0, 0, 0 (degrees);
b – alignment angles are 0, 0, 180 (degrees);
c – alignment angles are 90, 0, 0 (degrees);
d – alignment angles are 0, -90, 180 (degrees);
To check correctness of the alignment angles please run the AHRS using the
AHRS Demo Program.
5. ELECTRICAL CONNECTIONS
5.1. Cable and Connectors
The AHRS has 5-Pin connector Binder 719 09-9789-71-05 (Male) for
electrical connection to host system. Fig.5.1 shows the AHRS connector
pinout.
1 5
2
3
4
Fig.5.1. 5-Pin Connector Male Pinout
(view from the AHRS connector)
Тable 5.1. Pin diagram of the AHRS connector
Pin
1
2
3
4
5
Signal
RxPC
GND
TxPC
VDD
not used
Тable 5.2. Electrical specifications
Parameter
Input Supply
Current
Power
Conditions
VDD = +6V
VDD = +6V
Min
+5.5V
Typical
+6V
110
660
Max
+6.5V
Units
Volts DC
mA
mW
For the AHRS power supply the outer AC/DC adapter also can be used which
receives the power from the 100…240V 50…60Hz AC power source. AC/DC
power adapter is included in the delivery set.
The set of components for the AHRS electrical connection includes:
- AHRS;
- interface cable 1 for the AHRS connection to the СОМ-port of IBM PC or
another device, with branch wires for the AHRS DC powering;
- AC/DC adapter.
Fig.5.2 shows diagram of electric connection of the AHRS to host computer
(IBM PC). The AHRS exchanges the information with host computer through
the СОМ-port.
X1
Innalabs AHRS
5
Cable 1
X3
9
СОМ
Host Computer
100÷ 240 V
50 ÷ 60Hz
Power Block
100÷ 240V/
+6V
X2
2
AC/DC Adapter
Fig.5.2. The diagram of electric connection of the AHRS to host computer
Fig.5.3 shows the diagram of the interface cable 1 for the AHRS connections
to the СОМ-port of host computer and to the DC power source. Fig.5.4 shows
pinouts of the interface cable 1 connectors.
Х1
5
Х3
9
Х2
2
Х 3 ( СОМ) – Female
c onnector DB-9F i n the case
Х1 – Female connector Binder 719
09- 9790-71-05
1
DCD
RxPC
1
2
Rx
TxPC
3
3
Tx
GND
2
4
DTR
VDD
4
5
SG
5
6
DSR
7
RTS
8
CTR
9
RI
Х2 ( Power)
GND
VDD
Fig.5.3. The diagram of the interface cable 1 for the AHRS connections to the СОМport of host computer and to the AC/DC adapter
Х1
Х2
Vdd
5 1
4
3
2
GND
Fig.5.4. The view of plug connectors of the interface cable 1
5.2. Quick Electrical Connections for the AHRS Evaluation
To test the AHRS provide the working place as it is shown in Fig.5.2.
11 Connect cable 1 to the AHRS and to a PC СОМ port. Connection of the
cable 1 to the AHRS is done through the Binder 719 09-9789-71-05
(Male) connector on the AHRS case.
11 Connect cable 1 to the AC/DC network adapter.
11 Apply power to the AHRS; for this, connect the network adapter to the
mains. Start-up time for the device is not more than 2 seconds. Red light
of the indicator lamp near the connector (see Fig.5.5) will signify
readiness of the AHRS.
Indicator
Indicator
Fig. 5.5. AHRS light indicator
red light: the AHRS is powered, no programs run;
green light: one of the AHRS programs is running
11 Start the demo program (see “AHRS Demo Program” User’s Manual).
When any program in the AHRS is running, the light indicator changes its
color from red to green.
6. SOFTWARE INTERFACE
The AHRS provides heading, pitch and roll angles outputs as 2 bytes integers
– signed or unsigned words (see below for details).
After power connection the primary initialization of the AHRS microcomputer
takes place and the main program starts working. The time of the device
pretreatment is not more 1 seconds. The program works in the waiting mode
of the commands.
The commands are transmitted through the serial port according to the
protocol RS232.
Тable 6.1. СОМ-port parameters
СОМ-port parameters
Baud rate
115200
Data bits
8
Parity
none
Stop bits
1
6.1. Operational Modes of the AHRS and Data Formats
The AHRS can operate in the two modes:
1. Idle mode. All sensors and electronics are powered. The AHRS
microprocessor waits any command from the host computer to start operate
in one of the next modes. In idle mode the AHRS’ indicator lamp lights red
(see Fig.5.5).
2. Operating mode. At this the AHRS operates in the endless loop, providing
the continuous output of calculated orientation angles and some other signals
according to chosen output data format (see below). Data rate is set by user
from 1 Hz to 100 Hz.
The next output data formats are available in the operating mode:
• Full Output Data;
• Orientation + Incremental Sensor Data;
• Quaternion of Orientation;
• Orientation + Sensor Outputs.
Usually, “Full Output Data” format is used by the AHRS developers for full
control of calculations in the AHRS microprocessor. Also this format can be
used by user at any troubles to get full data from the AHRS for next sending
them to developers.
“Orientation + Incremental Sensor Data” format provides the AHRS’ output in
the form of 3 orientation angles (heading, pitch and roll) and integrated
angular rate, linear acceleration (specific force), magnetic field increments. In
the AHRS output these increments are divided by time step of data output so
they may be interpreted as average angular rates, linear acceleration and
magnetic field for cycle of data output. On the other hand, incremental sensor
data are more fit for the AHRS using as IMU (inertial measurement unit).
“Quaternion of Orientation” format gives quaternion presentation of an object
orientation in addition to 3 orientation angles.
“Orientation + Sensor Outputs” format adds to orientation angles the
calibrated outputs of 9 sensors (gyros, accelerometers, magnetometers) that
give information about current angular rates, linear acceleration of the AHRS
and components of outer magnetic field. This is default data format. This
format represents instant values of 9 sensors output In contrast to
“Orientation + Incremental Sensor Data” which provides average output data
from 9 sensors.
6.2. Executive Instructions for the AHRS
After power connection the working program is in the idle mode. Red light of
the indicator lamp near the connector (see Fig.5.5) signifies readiness of the
AHRS to receive commands from the host computer. When the AHRS
switches to operation mode, the light indicator changes its color from red to
green.
There are next commands are used for control the AHRS:
• AHRS1, AHRS2, AHRS3, AHRS4;
• Stop;
• LoadBlockPar;
• ReadBlockPar;
• GetVerFirmware.
• The commands AHRS1, AHRS2, AHRS3, AHRS4 (command
codes 0x80, 0x81, 0x82, 0x83) are used to start the AHRS in the operating
mode with one of four variants of output data:
- AHRS1 command, code 0x80 – Full Output Data format,
- AHRS2 command, code 0x81 – Orientation + Incremental Sensor Data
format,
- AHRS3 command, code 0x82 – Quaternion Of Orientation format,
- AHRS4 command, code 0x83 – Orientation + Sensor Outputs format.
After receiving of any from these commands the AHRS starts process of
initial alignment (see item 2.2. Principles of the AHRS Operation). After that
the AHRS gives out the block of the report footing (50 bytes including 48
bytes of data and 2 bytes of check sum) and goes in the operating mode.
In the operating mode set by any of these commands, the program in the
AHRS microprocessor operates in the endless loop, providing the process of
data reading from ADC and orientation angles calculating. Data blocks are
transmitted according to chosen variant of output data. In all variants data
block has 36 bytes (34 bytes of data and 2 bytes of check sum). Data
structure depends on chosen variant of output data (see item 6.3, Output
Data Format of the AHRS in the Operating Modes).
The update rate of data blocks is set by the user in range (1...100) Hz.
Default update rate is 100 Hz.
• At the command Stop (command code 0xFE) the program stops
operating mode working and goes into the idle mode. At that the light
indicator changes its color to red (see Fig.5.5).
Important Note: Before using all other commands please send Stop command to the
AHRS to switch device into the idle mode. Be sure that the AHRS’ light indicator is red
before sending of any other commands.
• The command LoadBlockPar (command code 0x10) is used to
load block of the AHRS parameters (which available for changing by user)
into the AHRS nonvolatile memory. Below is structure of this block of
parameters:
Тable 6.2. Structure of the parameter block for loading to the AHRS by
LoadBlockPar command
Byte
0-1
2-3
4-7
8-11
12-15
16-19
20-23
24-27
28-31
32-35
36-49
50-51
Parameter
Update rate
Initial alignment
time
Magnetic
declination
Latitude
Longitude
Altitude
Date (Year, Month)
Alignment angle A1
Alignment angle A2
Alignment angle A3
Reserved
Check sum
Format Length
word
2
word
2
Note
in Hz
in seconds
float
4
in degrees
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
14
2
in degrees
in degrees
in meters
word
Angles of the AHRS
mounting on the object,
degrees (see section 4.4)
The AHRS calculates the check sum of accepted parameters and return it for
a checking.
The format of the check sum transmitting – 2 bytes
byte0
byte1
low byte
high byte
The low byte is transmitted by first.
The check sum is the arithmetical sum of bytes 0…49
check sum=byte0+byte1+…byte49
Note: Before using LoadBlockPar command it is highly recommended to use
ReadBlockPar command (see below) to read parameters from the AHRS at first. After
that user can change some parameters listed in the Table 6.2, and to send back all block
of parameters to the AHRS.
• The command ReadBlockPar (command code 0x11) is used to read
block of AHRS parameters (52 bytes) from AHRS nonvolatile memory.
Тable 6.3. Structure of the parameter block read by ReadBlockPar command
Byte
Parameter
0-1
2-3
Update rate
Initial alignment
time
Magnetic
declination
Latitude
Longitude
Altitude
Date (Year, Month)
Alignment angle A1
Alignment angle A2
Alignment angle A3
Device ID
Reserved
Check sum
4-7
8-11
12-15
16-19
20-23
24-27
28-31
32-35
36-43
44-49
50-51
Forma
t
word
word
Length
Note
2
2
in Hz
in seconds
float
4
in degrees
float
float
float
float
float
float
float
char
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
8
6
2
in degrees
in degrees
in meters
word
Angles of the AHRS
mounting on the object,
degrees (see section 4.4)
only read
As in previous LoadBlockPar command, the check sum is the arithmetical
sum of bytes 0…49. The low byte is transmitted by first.
• The command GetVerFirmware (command code 0x1F) is used to read
firmware version of AHRS (52 bytes) from AHRS nonvolatile memory.
Тable 6.4. Structure of the parameter block read by GetVerFirmware command
Byte Parameter
Format Length Note
0-49
Firmware version
char
50
50-51 Check sum
word
2
As in previous ReadBlockPar command, the check sum is the arithmetical
sum of bytes 0…49. The low byte is transmitted by first.
6.3. Output Data Format of the AHRS in the operating modes
As it was mentioned above, user can select one from 4 variants of output
data: full output data, orientation + incremental sensor data, quaternion of
orientation, orientation + sensor outputs. The last variant is default.
Format of these data is listed below, where is denoted:
word = unsigned 2 byte integer;
sword = signed 2 byte integer.
Тable 6.5. Full Output Data format (AHRS1 command 0x80)
Byte
number
0–1
2–3
4–5
Parameter
Heading
Pitch
Roll
Length
2 byte
word
2 byte
sword
2 byte
sword
Note
Orientation angles, deg*100
6-7
8–9
10 – 11
12 – 29
30 – 31
32 – 33
34 –
35
Ugyro,
Combined
Uacc,
Utermo Check sum
Data
Umag
9×
2 byte
2 byte
2 byte
2 byte
2 byte
2byte
2 byte
sword
sword
sword
word
sword
sword
Raw sensor
data (gyros,
Average angular rates
See
Temperatu
accelero(incremental angles divided by time
description re in each
meters,
step), deg/s*100
below
sensor
magnetometers)
GyroX
GyroY
GyroZ
The following data are recorded in the field «Combined Data» sequentially:
- the AHRS input voltage;
- stabilized voltage supplied to the AHRS sensors;
- the low byte of the Unit Status Word (USW), see section 6.4 for details;
- the high byte of the USW.
In the «Utermo» field ADC codes are recorded sequentially from 7 temperature sensors
inside gyros, accelerometers and magnetometers.
The low byte is transmitted by first.
Check sum is the arithmetical sum of bytes 0…33
The Full Output Data format is used by AHRS developers for full control of
calculations in the AHRS microprocessor.
Тable 6.6. Orientation + Incremental Sensor Data format (AHRS2 command, code 0x81)
Byte
number
0–1
Paramete
Heading
r
Length
Note
2 byte
word
2–3
4–5
Pitch
Roll
2 byte
sword
2 byte
sword
Orientation angles, deg*100
6 – 11
12 – 17
GyroX,
AccX,
GyroY,
AccY,
GyroZ
AccZ
3×
3×
2 byte
2 byte
sword
sword
Average Average
angular
accelerates,
rations,
deg/s*100 g*10000
18 – 23
MagX,
MagY,
MagZ
3×
2 byte
sword
Average
magnetic
fields,
nT/4
24 – 27
28 – 29
30 – 31
32 – 33
34 – 35
Reser-ved
USW
Vdd
Utermo
Check
sum
4 byte
2 byte
word
2 byte
word
2 byte
sword
2 byte
Supply
voltage, Temperat
VDC*100 ure, ºC*10
Average angular rates, linear accelerations and magnetic fields are in AHRS axes (X is
lateral axis, Y is longitudinal axis, Z is vertical axis). Average data are integrated sensor
output increments divided by time step of data output.
USW is unit status word (see section 6.4 for details).
Vdd is input voltage of the AHRS.
Utermo is averaged temperature in 3 accelerometers.
The low byte is transmitted by first.
Check sum is the arithmetical sum of bytes 0…33.
Тable 6.7. Quaternion of Orientation format (AHRS3 command, code 0x82)
Byte
0–1
2–3
number
Param
Heading
Pitch
eter
2 byte
Length
2 byte sword
word
Note
4–5
6–7
8–9
10 – 11
Roll
Lk0
Lk1
Lk2
Lk3
2 byte
sword
2 byte
sword
2 byte
sword
2 byte
sword
2 byte
sword
Orientation angles, deg*100
12 – 13 14 – 27
28 – 29
30 – 31
32 – 33
34 – 35
Reserved
USW
Vdd
Utermo
Check
sum
14 byte
2 byte
word
2 byte
word
Supply
voltage,
VDC*100
2 byte
sword
2 byte
Quaternion of orientation *10000
Tempera
ture,
ºC*10
USW is unit status word (see section 6.4 for details).
Vdd is input voltage of the AHRS.
Utermo is averaged temperature in 3 accelerometers.
The low byte is transmitted by first.
Check sum is the arithmetical sum of bytes 0…33.
Тable 6.8. Orientation + Sensor Outputs format
(AHRS4 command, code 0x83)
Byte
numbe
r
0–1
Param
Heading
eter
Length
Note
2 byte
word
2–3
4–5
Pitch
Roll
2 byte sword
2 byte
sword
Orientation angles, deg*100
6 – 11
12 – 17
18 – 23
GyroX,
AccX,
GyroY,
AccY,
GyroZ
AccZ
3×
3×
2 byte
2 byte
sword
sword
Angular
Accelerates,
rations,
deg/s*100 g*10000
MagX,
MagY,
MagZ
3×
2 byte
sword
Magnetic
fields,
nT/4
24 – 27
28 – 29
30 – 31
32 – 33
34 – 35
Reser-ved
USW
Vdd
Utermo
Check
sum
4 byte
2 byte
word
2 byte
word
2 byte
sword
2 byte
Supply
voltage, Temperat
VDC*100 ure, ºC*10
Angular rates, linear accelerations and magnetic fields are in AHRS axes (X is lateral axis,
Y is longitudinal axis, Z is vertical axis).
USW is unit status word (see section 6.4 for details).
Vdd is input voltage of the AHRS.
Utermo is averaged temperature in 3 accelerometers.
The low byte is transmitted by first.
Check sum is the arithmetical sum of bytes 0…33.
6.4. The Unit Status Word definition
The Unit Status Word (USW) provides the AHRS state information. The low
byte (0-7) of USW indicates failure of the AHRS. If this byte is 0, the AHRS
operates correctly, if it is not 0, see the table 6.9 for type of failure or contact
the developers directly. The high byte (8-15) contains a warning or is
informative for the user. Status of each bit of the USW warning byte is
specified in the table 6.9.
Table 6.9. The Unit Status Word description
Low
(failure)
byte
High
(warning)
byte
Bit
0
Parameter
Initial Alignment
1
AHRS Parameters
2
Gyroscope Unit
3
Accelerometer Unit
4
Magnetometer Unit
5
Electronics
6
Software
7
8
Reserved
9
Incorrect Power Supply
10
11
Angular Rate Exceeding
Detect
12
13
14
Large Magnetic Field
Detect
Environmental Temperature
15
Reserved
Performance
0 – Successful initial alignment
1 – Unsuccessful initial alignment due to AHRS
moving or large changing of outer magnetic field
0 – Parameters are correct
1 – Parameters are incorrect
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
0 – No failure
1 – Failure detected
0 – Supply voltage is not less than minimum level
1 – Low supply voltage detected
0 – Supply voltage is not higher than maximum level
1 – High supply voltage detected
0 – X-angular rate within the normal range
1 – X-angular rate is outrange
0 – Y-angular rate within the normal range
1 – Y-angular rate is outrange
0 – Z-angular rate within the normal range
1 – Z-angular rate is outrange
0 – Total magnetic field within the normal range
1 – Total magnetic field limit is exceeded
0 – Temperature within the operating range
1 – Temperature is out of the operating range
6.5. Examples of Data Reading from the AHRS
The following Pascal program is a sample program that can help user to get
data easily from the AHRS.
Below is function GetData for the block data reading. This function uses next
variables and function which should be described in outer program:
• Cntbyte – size of block to read;
• masOut – array of accepted data from the AHRS;
• ReadByte – the function of accepting of 1 byte from СОМ-port.
Function GetData(var masOut,Cntbyte):boolean;
// Function for reading the block data with size Cntbyte
var Bufdata:array [0.. $FFF] of byte;
nn,ll, datwrd,sum:word;
wrdW:record LO:byte; HI:byte; end absolute datwrd;
label gw1;
Begin
GetData:=False;
// ll – index in the array for accepted byte
ll:=0;
// Read block with size Cntbyte
gw1: for nn:=ll to Cntbyte-1 do
if not ReadByte( Bufdata[nn] ) then Break;
// Search sum of the first Cntbyte-2 bytes
sum:=0;
for nn:=0 to Cntbyte-3 do
sum:=sum+Bufdata [nn];
// Last two bytes are check sum. The low byte is first.
wrdW.Lo:=Bufdata [Cntbyte-2]; wrdW.Hi:=Bufdata [Cntbyte-1];
// if sum of accepted bytes is not equal to the check sum
if (datwrd<>sum ) then
begin
// Shift array to 1 byte left
for nn:=0 to Cntbyte-2 do Bufdata [nn]:=Bufdata [nn+1];
// Read 1 byte to the end of the array
ll:= Cntbyte-1;
goto gw1;
end;
for nn:=0 to Cntbyte - 1 do masOut[nn]:= Bufdata[nn];
// Data block is accepted
GetData:=True;
End;
Below is example for using of GetData function to read 12 numbers of 4-bytes
float. This is need for reading the block of 50 bytes (including 48 bytes of data
and 2 bytes of check sum) after initial alignment of the AHRS (see description of
the AHRS* commands in above section 6.2).
Size of this block is Cntbyte = 50 bytes (12*4=48 + 2 bytes of the check sum).
var
mas_sng: array [0..11] of single;
mas_byte:array [0..49] of byte;
datflt:single;
flt:record bf0:byte; bf1:byte;bf2:byte; bf3:byte; end
absolute datflt;
ii:word;
Begin
if not GetData (mas_ byte, 50 ) then Break;
for ii:=0 to 11 do
begin
flt.bf0:= mas_ byte [ii*4+0]; flt.bf1:= mas_ byte [ii*4+1];
flt.bf2:= mas_ byte [ii*4+2]; flt.bf3:= mas_ byte [ii*4+3];
mas_sng[ii]:= datflt;
end;
End.
Next example shows how to get 17 numbers in smallint format (2 bytes
signed integer). This is need to get the AHRS output data in the endless loop
at the AHRS* command (see sections 6.2) according to any from four output
data formats described in section 6.3.
Size of this data block is Cntbyte = 36 bytes (17*2=34 + 2 bytes of the check
sum).
var
mas_small: array [0..16] of smallint;
mas_byte:array [0..35] of byte;
ii, datwrd:word;
wrdW:record LO:byte; HI:byte; end absolute datwrd;
Begin
if not GetData (mas_ byte, 36 ) then Break;
for ii:=0 to 16 do
begin
wrdW.Lo:= mas_byte [ii*2+0]; wrdW.Hi:= mas_byte [ii*2+1];
mas_small [ii]:= datwrd;
end;
End.
In this example the array mas_small contains current orientation angles calculated in the AHRS:
Heading:= word(mas_small [0])/100;
Pitch:= mas_small [1])/100;
Roll:= mas_small [2])/100;
Note: it is important that Heading must be word (2 bytes unsigned).
7. AHRS DEMO PROGRAM
provides a «AHRS_Demo» Demo Program for users who want to test the
AHRS and to apply this product to a system simply. This program can
visualize the AHRS orientation angles and save data as well.
To run the program, set the OS Windows XP on your PC.
To install the program «AHRS_Demo», copy the program folder (just files
AHRS_Demo.exe, AHRS_Demo.ini, AHRS_Demo.bmp, AHRS_Demo.dat,
AHRS_Demo.glm and AHRS_Demo.lng) on the HDD in any handy place for
the user.
The recommended requirements for the PC configuration to ensure the
effective operation of the Demo Program «AHRS_Demo»
In order to ensure the effective operation of the program «AHRS_Demo», you
should fill the base unit with the following equipment:
Table 7.1. The recommended requirements for the PC configuration
Processor
• RAM
•
• Video
• HDD
«Pentium 4» 2.2GHz
256 Mb
GeForce Ti 4400, the analog of this
card, or the card of better model
> 500 Mb (the length, needed for data
recording)
Notation:
To display the all graphic information correctly, you need to have the monitor
with resolution power more than 1024×768 pixels, the color reproduction of
32 bits and font scale factor of 32 pix/inch setting in the Windows.
See User’s Manual on the AHRS Demo Program for description of the AHRS
software operation.
8. WARRANTY
Warranty coverage:
1. AHRS is warranted for 12 (twelve) months from the date of delivery of
the AHRS to the end user. During this period warrants the AHRS
performance in accordance with the AHRS certificate.
2. The warranty makes no provision for periodic maintenance, installation
and configuration of the device at consumer’s site.
3. Operating environment of the AHRS shall meet the requirements
specified in item 3.1.
4. Consumer has the right to assert claims to in accordance with the
warranty regulations.
5. All consumer claims shall be asserted in written form with the situation in
which problems arose described.
6. reserves the right to dismiss a warranty claim of a consumer in the
following cases:
6.1. If the seals on the AHRS case are broken (external view of the seals
and their placement location on the AHRS is shown in Fig. 8.1).
Fig. 8.1. Location of the seals on the AHRS
7.
6.2. If the AHRS has damages resulting from an attempt to unseal the
device.
6.3. If the AHRS has external damages on basic parts and eternal
connector of various origins (mechanical, chemical).
If the warranty terms specified in items 3, 6 are violated, warranty
liabilities of specified in item 1 to the consumer are cancelled.
9. DESCRIPTION OF AHRS M2-M
Here are description of additional features of the marine modification of the
AHRS and also some differences in operations of such AHRS in comparison
with usual AHRS.
The AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) is designed for
measuring Euler orientation angles (heading, pitch and roll) in static and
dynamic environment. It consists of three gyros, three accelerometers, three
magnetometers and embedded microcomputer. Original algorithm is used for
above sensors signal processing to achieve high accuracy of attitude and
heading determination.
Fig.1.1. The AHRS
AHRS M2-M especially designed for marine applications. It has waterproof
case. Its software allows start and initial alignment of the AHRS at vehicle
rocking. AHRS M2-M can be used also in other traditional applications.
Fig.1.2 shows the AHRS’ own coordinate system Oxoyozo. This coordinate
system is a body-fixed and defined as the calibrated sensors coordinate
system. Non-orthogonality between the axes of the body-fixed coordinate
system Oxoyozo is less then 0.01°.
Fig.1.2. AHRS with body-fixed coordinate system
Measured angles are the standard Euler angles to rotate from the earth-level
frame (East-North-Up) to the body frame, heading first, then pitch, and then
roll. The heading angle of the AHRS is referenced to the magnetic North
10. PECULIARITY OF THE MARINE AHRS OPERATION
After start the AHRS it requires some time for initial alignment process. At this
initial orientation angles are determined as initial conditions for integration of
gyros outputs. Also gyros biases are estimated for their compensation in run.
AHRS M2-M is special modification of the AHRS for marine vehicles which
allows initial alignment of AHRS at slow rocking vehicle. For such
modification initial alignment consists from two stages. After start the AHRS,
the short (1 second) initial alignment takes place during which initial
orientation angles are determined as initial conditions for integration of gyros
outputs. Next 90 seconds are need for gyros bias estimation using Kalman
filter even at rocking vehicle. During this period don’t accelerate the AHRS,
only slow rocking is admissible. If the AHRS will be moved with acceleration
during these initial 90 seconds, then gyros bias estimation may be corrupted
and large errors may be occurred in orientation angles determination. After
these 90 seconds will over, no limitations are to the AHRS motion.
11. AHRS M2-M SPECIFICATIONS
Тable 3.1. AHRS M2-M typical specifications
Parameter
Update rate
Full accuracy data (warm-up time) (1)
Unit
Hz
sec
Measurement range (full in 3D)
deg
Maximum angular rate
Static accuracy at normal conditions
• heading
deg/sec
Value
1...100 (user settable)
90
0...360 heading
±90 pitch; ±180 roll
±300
deg
< 0.3 (2)
< 0.1
deg
< 0.5 (2)
< 0.3
deg RMS
0.7
0.4
0.03 heading
0.02 pitch and roll
40
-40 to +70
109 x 31 x 29 (case)
127 x 31 x 29
(with mounting lugs and
connector)
0.19 / 0.16 (5)
+5.5 to +6.5 (6)
0.11
• pitch and roll
Static accuracy in operating temperature range
• heading
• pitch and roll
Dynamic accuracy (3)
• heading
• pitch and roll
Noise (standard deviation) at 100 Hz output
(4)
Sensors bandwidth
Operating temperature range
Dimensions
Weight
Power supply:
Supply current
deg RMS
Hz
deg C
mm
kg
V DC
A
(1)
including time of initial alignment, it may be decreased on request;
(2)
in homogeneous magnetic environment, for latitude up to ±65 deg;
(3)
root mean square error (1 sigma), may depend on type of motion;
-3 dB level;
depends on material of the AHRS case;
AHRS may be powered by AC voltage 100 to 240 V, 50/60 Hz from an AC/DC
adapter which comes with the device.
(4)
(5)
(6)
12. AHRS DEMO PROGRAM
provides a «AHRS_Demo» Program for users who want to test the AHRS
and to apply this product to a system simply. This program can visualize the
AHRS orientation angles and save data as well.
See “User’s Manual on the AHRS Demo Program” for description of the
AHRS software operation.
This document describes only specific of the Demo Program using for the
marine modification of the AHRS M2-M.
Fist, you can not change Initial alignment time in the window «Device
option …» from the «Options» menu (see Fig.4.2 in the “User’s Manual on
the AHRS Demo Program”). For the marine modification of the AHRS M2-M
the initial alignment consists of two stages. For first stage initial alignment
time is set to 1 sec (this value appears in window on Fig. 4.2 and can’t be
changed). Second stage of the initial alignment takes 90 sec.
According to two stages of the AHRS M2-M initial alignment, some changes
are in warning capture in the main window (Fig.5.1 or Fig.5.3) after the AHRS
start. At short first stage (1 second) of the initial alignment the message
«Initial alignment. Please wait!» is displayed, and during large second stage
(90 seconds) this message changes to «Don't move AHRS while its
parameters being adjusted!». Only slow rocking of the AHRS is admissible
during the second stage of the initial alignment.
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