Bristol OpenEnterprise For Beginners

Bristol OpenEnterprise For Beginners
Training Manual
D5091
June, 2007
Bristol OpenEnterprise
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Remote Automation Solutions
www.EmersonProcess.com/Remote
Welcome to OpenEnterprise for Beginners
This manual is the first real exposure most readers will have to the OpenEnterprise product, and
we recognize that first impressions count. We have tried hard to provide a basic introduction,
suitable for anyone with basic knowledge of SCADA or process control. However,
OpenEnterprise is a powerful, flexible product, and as a result there’s a lot to learn – and this
manual is just the beginning.
As OpenEnterprise has expanded into newer and wider markets more of our customers have
become interested in a ‘do it yourself’ approach to setting up their systems. Because of this, the
need arose for a more user-friendly manual that explains how to set up the basic features of
OpenEnterprise, with special emphasis on examples. The result is this manual - OpenEnterprise
for Beginners. We recommend you work though the manual, and set up each of the examples.
On the OpenEnterprise CD we have included some example loads (programs) for Bristol RTUs.
If you don’t have your own RTU loads, you can use these.
Initially, most of the SCADA systems we sold were configured primarily by our own in-house
system engineers, as well as experienced third-party system integrators with a high level of
technical expertise. For these customers we developed a very detailed set of reference manuals,
which can be found on the OpenEnterprise CD. After you have completed the examples in this
manual, we recommend you use these reference guides as you design and implement your
system. You will also find that the product itself includes a comprehensive online help system –
we recommend you use it regularly.
Thank you for buying OpenEnterprise. All of us at Emerson who have worked on this product
are proud of it, and would like to hear any feedback you may have, good or bad. We try hard to
incorporate improvements into each new release, and many of those improvements and new
features arise out of suggestions from our existing customers. Please email or call me with any
suggestions or comments you may have, either on this manual, or on the product.
Steve Hill
SCADA Program Manager
Emerson Process Management
Tel: +1 (860) 945-2501
Email: [email protected]
Contacting the OpenEnterprise Support Team
Telephone support for OpenEnterprise users is available Monday through Friday from 8AM to
4:30PM (Eastern U.S.) excluding holidays and scheduled factory shutdowns at the following
number: 1-860-945-3865
You can e-mail the OpenEnterprise Support Team at: [email protected]
D5091 - OpenEnterprise (OE) for Beginners
Table of Contents
Why OE for Beginners?................................................................................................................... i
Contacting the OpenEnterprise Support Group ............................................................................... i
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise (OE)?................................................... 1-1
How does the Database work?............................................................................................... 1-3
Learning the Real Database ‘Lingo’ (Attributes, Records, and Objects) ........................ 1-3
What sorts of things are saved in the OE database? ........................................................ 1-5
How does data get from the Controller Network into the OE database?............................... 1-6
Alarm Data Collection ..................................................................................................... 1-7
Poll List Collection .......................................................................................................... 1-7
Report by Exception (RBE) ............................................................................................. 1-8
Array and Archive Collection via Open BSI Converter .................................................. 1-8
How do we view the contents of the OE Database? .............................................................. 1-9
Where can I get more information? ....................................................................................... 1-9
Chapter 2- Configuring Controllers to Work with OE.......................................................... 2-1
Preparing Your Control Strategy Files to work with OE....................................................... 2-1
Identifying Which Signals in the Control Strategy File Should be Collected by OE...... 2-2
Preparing an ACCOL Load to work with OE........................................................................ 2-4
Specifying an Alarm Signal in ACCOL Workbench....................................................... 2-4
Specifying a Global Signal in ACCOL Workbench ........................................................ 2-5
Specifying an RBE Signal in an ACCOL Load............................................................... 2-6
Saving, Compiling and Downloading the ACCOL Load ................................................ 2-6
Preparing a ControlWave Project to work with OE............................................................... 2-7
Specifying an Alarm Variable in a ControlWave Project................................................ 2-7
Specifying a Global Variable in a ControlWave Project ................................................. 2-8
Making Sure You Have the Correct Resource Settings in ControlWave Designer......... 2-9
Compiling and Downloading the ControlWave Project .................................................. 2-9
Chapter 3- Building the OpenEnterprise Database................................................................ 3-1
Things you have to do before you start building the OE Database… ................................... 3-1
Your hardware must have been set up ............................................................................. 3-1
Backup Your OpenEnterprise Server (UPGRADES / RE-BUILDS ONLY).................. 3-1
Install Open BSI and configure the Open BSI Network.................................................. 3-2
Verify that communications are possible to RTUs via DataView................................... 3-2
Install OpenEnterprise Server software on the Server Computer.......................................... 3-2
How is the database built? ..................................................................................................... 3-3
Starting the Database Project Builder .............................................................................. 3-3
Using Database Project Builder ....................................................................................... 3-4
Specifying File Locations ................................................................................................ 3-4
i
Allowing ‘Open’ Access to Database Tables During System Configuration.................. 3-5
Including the Default Security Groups ............................................................................ 3-6
During Configuration, You are the SYSTEM User......................................................... 3-7
Verifying that the Time Zone is Correct.......................................................................... 3-8
Choosing How You Will Communicate with the Controllers ......................................... 3-9
Confirming Your Choices and Building the Database Tables....................................... 3-10
Adding Signal/Variable/Tag Names to the Database Tables......................................... 3-11
Creating Poll Lists for Data Collection.......................................................................... 3-12
Estimating the Maximum Database Size ....................................................................... 3-12
Configuring Historical Data Collection ......................................................................... 3-13
Configuring an OpenEnterprise Session........................................................................ 3-16
Completing the Database Project Building Process....................................................... 3-17
Chapter 4 – Using Database Explorer to Find Data............................................................... 4-1
What is the Database Explorer?............................................................................................. 4-1
Before You Begin .................................................................................................................. 4-2
Starting Database Explorer .................................................................................................... 4-2
Identifying the Name and Location of Your Database .......................................................... 4-2
Using the Add Database to Hierarchy Dialog Box................................................................ 4-3
Establishing a Connection with the Database........................................................................ 4-4
Viewing the Overall Structure of the Database ..................................................................... 4-5
Viewing Databases, Tables, Views, and Attributes............................................................... 4-6
Database Tree Control Window............................................................................................. 4-7
Database Detail Window / Table Detail Window................................................................ 4-8
Attribute Detail Window........................................................................................................ 4-9
Searching the Database for A Particular Table.................................................................... 4-11
Searching the Database for A Particular Attribute (Column Name) ................................... 4-11
Searching the Database for A Primary Key Attribute ......................................................... 4-12
Searching the Database for ‘Owned’ Tables ....................................................................... 4-12
Viewing the Contents of the Database Using the Database Object Viewer ........................ 4-13
Starting the Database Object Viewer............................................................................. 4-13
Viewing Data By Constructing Simple Queries ............................................................ 4-13
Identifying the Table You Want to Query ............................................................... 4-14
Specifying the Attributes You Want to Examine ................................................... 4-15
Specifying Conditions to Limit the Amount of Data Returned By Your Query ..... 4-16
Run the Query and View the Results....................................................................... 4-19
Applying Filtering Criteria to Your Query .............................................................. 4-21
Saving the Criteria Used For Your Query in A DBX File....................................... 4-23
Opening An Existing DBX File........................................................................................... 4-23
Adding ‘Live’ Data to Third-Party Applications by Dragging DDE Tags.................... 4-24
Example - Adding An Analog Value To A Spreadsheet Using DDE ........................... 4-25
Chapter 5 – Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process ....................................................... 5-1
What is the OpenEnterprise Graphics Software?................................................................... 5-1
Before You Begin .................................................................................................................. 5-3
Starting the OE Graphics package ......................................................................................... 5-4
Opening a Display.................................................................................................................. 5-4
A Quick Look at the Drawing Tools...................................................................................... 5-6
Choosing Colors............................................................................................................... 5-6
Drawing A Straight Line.................................................................................................. 5-7
ii
Selecting Objects on Displays ......................................................................................... 5-7
Drawing A Box ................................................................................................................ 5-8
Drawing An Ellipse or A Circle....................................................................................... 5-9
Saving A Display ................................................................................................................... 5-9
Switching Between Configure Mode and Runtime Mode................................................... 5-10
Examples of Creating Various Display Objects .................................................................. 5-11
Example #1 - Creating A Text Label on A Display....................................................... 5-12
Example #2 - Displaying A Numerical Value From the Database (Process Point)....... 5-14
Example #3 - Displaying the changing level of liquid in a tank.................................... 5-18
Example #4 - Creating A Sliding Setpoint Control With Which the Operator Can Update
a Value in the Database & RTU .............................................................................. 5-25
Example #5 – Displaying A Message Based on A Logical Value in the Database....... 5-31
Example #6 – Changing the Color of A Pump Based on a Logical Value.................... 5-34
Example #7 - Creating a System Overview Display ..................................................... 5-38
What Now? .......................................................................................................................... 5-41
Saving Your Own Symbols in the Symbol Library, and Updating Objects through Share
Keywords ....................................................................................................................... 5-42
Using Aliasing to allow you to re-use the Same Objects With Different Data From the ....
Database......................................................................................................................... 5-45
Tips For Planning Your Human-Machine Interface (HMI) System.............................. 5-52
Chapter 6 – Working with Historical Data ............................................................................. 6-1
What is Historical Data? ........................................................................................................ 6-1
What is Historical Data Used For? ........................................................................................ 6-1
How Does the Historian Work?............................................................................................. 6-2
Historical Data is Stored Temporarily in Log Files......................................................... 6-2
Historical Data is Stored Permanently in Archive Files .................................................. 6-3
How is the Historian Configured? ......................................................................................... 6-4
Defining a Logging Group............................................................................................... 6-4
Choosing the Source Table: ............................................................................................. 6-5
Figuring out how often you want to log the data ............................................................. 6-5
Assigning individual records to the logging group (optional) ......................................... 6-6
Choosing Columns to be logged and calculations to be performed (if any).................... 6-6
Choosing Columns For Logging................................................................................ 6-6
Decide what calculations (if any) you want to perform on the logged data .............. 6-7
Specifying characteristics of the log file and archive files .............................................. 6-9
Specifying the Source of Data for a Log File ................................................................ 6-10
Determining the Buffer Size and Number of Buffers to be stored in the Log File........ 6-10
Deciding When to Generate An Archive File................................................................ 6-11
Example #1 – Logging 1-minute data for a few signals ...................................................... 6-12
Example #2 – Logging Status Values by Exception............................................................ 6-32
Example #3 - Logging Hourly and Daily Flow Calculations, and using Timed Archives.. 6-39
Example #4 – Using the Archive File Tool ......................................................................... 6-51
iii
Chapter 7 – Trending Your Data ............................................................................................. 7-1
What are Trends? ................................................................................................................... 7-1
Example 1 – Trending a Real-time data value....................................................................... 7-4
Example 2 – Making Some Basic Modifications to the Trend You Just Made................... 7-11
Example 3 – Trending a Historical Data Value ................................................................... 7-22
Example 4 – Having a Trace Change Color when data is questionable .............................. 7-30
Example 5 - Working with Multiple Pens in the Same Trend............................................. 7-34
Example 6 – Optimizing your Trend for data or speed ....................................................... 7-38
Chapter 8 – Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms ............................................................ 8-1
What are the different types of alarms? ................................................................................. 8-1
Analog Alarms ................................................................................................................. 8-1
Logical Alarms..................................................................................................................8-3
Change of State Alarms ................................................................................................... 8-4
Example 1 - Starting the Alarm Viewer and Viewing All Incoming Alarms.........................8-5
Example 2 - Acknowledging Alarms..................................................................................... 8-8
Example 3- Changing the Attributes Displayed in the Alarm Viewer ................................. 8-10
Example 4 - Viewing the Alarm/Event History.....................................................................8-12
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop ................................................................................................. 9-1
What is OE Desktop?............................................................................................................. 9-1
Example 1 - Specifying a Display that appears when you start the Desktop ........................ 9-2
Example 2 - Adding an Alarm View to the Desktop ............................................................. 9-6
Example 3 - Creating an OE Desktop that Includes Menu Items for Displays ................... 9-10
Chapter 10 - Configuring Security for your System............................................................. 10-1
Why Establish a Security Policy? ........................................................................................ 10-1
What are Users and Groups?................................................................................................ 10-1
Creating Users and Groups .................................................................................................. 10-5
Starting the Security Configuration Tool............................................................................. 10-5
Creating Groups ............................................................................................................. 10-6
Choosing Application Tokens for a User or Group ..................................................... 10-12
Choosing Token Groups .............................................................................................. 10-14
Choosing File Tokens, OPC Tokens, and Custom Tokens.......................................... 10-15
Modifying a Group ............................................................................................................ 10-15
Creating Users.................................................................................................................... 10-16
Modifying a User ............................................................................................................... 10-17
Creating a user outside of a group ..................................................................................... 10-18
Assigning a User to an existing Group .............................................................................. 10-18
Dividing the Database up Into Access areas (OPTIONAL) .............................................. 10-20
Assigning Objects (Data) To Particular Access areas ....................................................... 10-22
Allow Users Access to Particular Access areas:................................................................ 10-23
Configuring Security for Tables and Views ...................................................................... 10-24
Common Security Tasks for Users .................................................................................... 10-26
Logging Onto the System ............................................................................................ 10-26
Logging Off the System............................................................................................... 10-26
Changing Your Password ............................................................................................ 10-26
Common Security Tasks for Administrators ............................................................... 10-27
Adding a New User to an existing Group.............................................................. 10-27
Removing a User.................................................................................................... 10-28
iv
Disabling a User's Account.................................................................................... 10-29
Removing the Lock-out of a user........................................................................... 10-29
Resetting a User's Password if they forget the one they chose .............................. 10-30
Other Security Issues ................................................................................................... 10-31
Security in ControlWave Controllers..................................................................... 10-31
Security in Network 3000-series Controllers......................................................... 10-31
Open BSI Security ................................................................................................. 10-32
Network Infrastructure (UDP and TCP Sockets)................................................... 10-32
Windows™ Security .............................................................................................. 10-32
Virus Protection for Your Workstations ................................................................ 10-32
Firewall Software For Your Networks .................................................................. 10-33
Physical Security.................................................................................................... 10-33
Networked Surveillance of Remote Sites using ControlWave .............................. 10-33
Maintain Current Backups ..................................................................................... 10-33
Human Factors ....................................................................................................... 10-33
Chapter 11 – Creating Reports............................................................................................... 11-1
What are Reports?.......................................................................................................... 11-1
Before You Begin .......................................................................................................... 11-1
Step 1. - Create a Report Template................................................................................ 11-3
Step 2. - Create a Report from the Template in the Previous Step .............................. 11-14
Step 3. – Test the Report.............................................................................................. 11-19
Step 4 - Create a Timed Schedule for the Report ...................................................... 11-20
Step 5. – Choose Who Will Receive the Report (Recipients) ..................................... 11-24
Step 6. – Specify the Format of the Report.................................................................. 11-28
Appendix A – Learning SQL
A-1
v
BLANK PAGE
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise (OE)?
OpenEnterprise, often abbreviated as OE, is
Bristol’s primary Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition (SCADA) software package. It is used
primarily in the water, waste water and natural gas
industries. It also includes an integrated human
machine interface HMI to provide data to plant
operators, via graphical displays (mimics), trends,
alarm summaries, and web pages.
OE
The name OpenEnterprise is derived from
two of the principal philosophies behind the
product.
Too many buzzwords!
What is it really?
It is ‘open’ in that its individual components
utilize industry-standard architectures,
languages, and protocols (SQL, ODBC, OPC,
TCP/IP, DDE, etc.), making it extremely
flexible, particularly with respect to
communicating with third-party hardware and
software products.
OpenEnterprise provides a powerful database
that has been optimized for process control,
plus a rich collection of different software
programs that allow you to view, manage,
manipulate, and export the data residing in the
database.
The ‘enterprise’ part of the name applies
because it is designed to provide data to other
parts of your business enterprise.
Client workstations, called OpenEnterprise
Workstations are personal computers (PCs)
that communicate with the OpenEnterprise
Server.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
The OpenEnterprise Database resides on a
computer called the OpenEnterprise Server.
The OE Database is the central storage location
for all real-time data collected from your
process control network, and all historical data
you are currently using for trends, reports, etc.,
plus all of the configuration data for the system
itself. The OE Server uses Open BSI software,
(another Bristol product) which allows
communication with a network of Bristol
remote process controllers. An OPC Server is
also provided for communications with thirdparty devices.
1-1
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
OPENENTERPRISE WORKSTATIONS
For operator interaction with system (HMI).
Users can view graphical displays, trends,
print reports, etc.
OPENENTERPRISE SERVERS
(OE Database resides here, Open BSI software
and RDI 3000 for communication with controller
network.) OPC Server included for export of data
to third-party applications and devices.
ControlWave-series
controller(s) running
ControlWave projects
Network 3000 series
controller(s) running
ACCOL loads
Inputs from field instrumentation
(contact closures, flow meters, pressure transmitters, etc.)
These workstations run software that allows plant
operators, and other users, to view detailed graphical
displays that depict current conditions of your plant or
process. These displays typically use graphical symbols
of things like pumps, valves, tanks, etc. that can change
color, move, etc. based on the status of your plant. The
workstations can also be configured to display and
manage alarm messages, show graphical trends of realtime and historical data, and to print reports. Various
levels of security can be configured to limit access to
different portions of the database, particular displays,
etc. Many other features are available in
OpenEnterprise, but these are the most common ones
used on nearly all systems.
The OpenEnterprise Server responds to requests for
data from the client OpenEnterprise Workstations.
When the OE Workstation requests the data, the OE
Server looks for the requested data in the OE Database,
and then responds by sending back the requested data.
1-2
What do we mean by
Client and Server?
The client / server definitions in
software mirror those in your daily
life. If, for example, you go into a
restaurant and sit down to eat, you
are the client. You request certain
types of food from the waiter /
waitress (your server) who then
returns with the food you requested.
Similarly, an OpenEnterprise
Workstation includes client
software, which requests data from
the OE Server, which responds to the
requests, and serves up the data, at
the OE Workstation.
In summary, the client asks for
something, and the server
serves it up to the client.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
How does the Database work?
A cell of the table. This particular table has 36 cells.
We’ve been using the term ‘Database’
a lot, but we never really said what a
database is.
A database, in its simplest form, is
really just a bunch of tables that have
some pre-defined interrelationship.
When we say tables we’re referring to
a grid of rows and columns, like in a
spreadsheet program.
Column 1 Column 2 Column 3 Column 4 Column 5 Column 6 Column 7 Column 8 Colum
Row1
Row 2
Row 3
Row 4
The intersection of a row and column
is called a cell, and contained within
the cell is a single piece of data called
a value. It could be a numerical value,
a string of text, a Boolean ON/OFF
value, etc.
When we talk about the interrelationships between tables, we mean that certain information in
one table, references other data in yet another table. These complex interactions between tables
are part of the database design, also known as the schema.
OpenEnterprise contains a schema specially designed to handle the information gathered from
complex industrial processes.
Learning the Real Database ‘Lingo’ (Attributes, Records, and Objects)
Each box in the table, can hold one OBJECT. This particular table can hold 36 objects.
The people who write database
programs use a whole different
set of terminology when they
refer to the structure of tables in
a database.
Instead of referring to the name
of a particular column, or a
heading, they call the column
name an attribute. Attributes
are characteristics, or qualities
associated with something.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Attribute 1 Attribute 2 Attribute 3 Attribute 4 Attribute 5 Attribute 6 Attribute 7 Attribute 8 Attribute 9
Record 1
Record 2
Record 3
Record 4
1-3
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
Instead of calling the row of a table a row, they call it a record. That makes sense, because a
record implies something that is recorded or kept for a certain period of time. Another word used
to refer to a record is object.
A simple table from the OE Database, called dvi_schedule is shown, below. (NOTE: The first
row shown, isn’t actually part of the table, it’s the names of the attributes in the table.) The
attributes are called ‘scheduleid’, ‘maxinterval’, ‘mininterval’, ‘offset’, and ‘disable’. Currently,
the table has three records, each of which has those five attributes.
+------------+------------------------+-------------+--------+---------+
| scheduleid | maxinterval
| mininterval | offset | disable |
+------------+------------------------+-------------+--------+---------+
|
1 | '01-JAN-0001 00:00:05' | NULL
| NULL
| NULL
|
|
254 | '01-JAN-0001 00:00:05' | NULL
| NULL
| NULL
|
|
2 | '01-JAN-0001 01:00:00' | NULL
| NULL
| NULL
|
+------------+------------------------+-------------+--------+---------+
Whenever a particular attribute of a record is not defined, or has no value, it is labeled NULL.
For example, if we had a record describing a person, and that person had no middle name then
the middlename attribute would be set to NULL.
Please Remember…
A DATABASE is just a big collection of tables.
An ATTRIBUTE is just the name (heading) of a column in one of the
tables.
A RECORD is just a row of a table. Another word for this is OBJECT.
A single piece of data in the database is a VALUE for a particular
attribute of a particular record. If no value has been assigned, the
value is “NULL”.
1-4
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
What sorts of things are saved in the OE database?
All the configuration data for the OE Server, as well as all of the real-time and historical data
collected from the network of process controllers, is kept in the OE Database.
What do we mean by “Real Time Data” and
“Historical Data”?
Real time data describes conditions occurring right now, i.e. the current state of your process
or plant. Granted, there is a slight delay (usually measured in a few seconds or less) between
the time when the data is sent by process instruments (flow meters, level switches, etc.) and
when it is actually inserted in the OE Database, but this is usually inconsequential. The data
reflects current operating conditions, and you can act on it, to change those conditions.
Conversely, historical data refers to things that happened some time in the past. It is data that
was collected at some previous time, such as last week, last month, etc. Generally, historical
data is used to help identify trends in system operation, and also to generate reports required by
regulatory agencies, such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) etc.
In summary, ‘real time data’ means data from right now, and ‘historical data’
means data from some time in the past….
The data in the OE Database is stored in hundreds of different tables, most of which we’re never
going to look at, because they perform various internal housekeeping tasks. We are, however,
going to list some of the tables that you’re likely to make use of, as you configure your OE
system. You don’t have to memorize these now, we’re just listing them so that you get a feel for
the sorts of things that get stored in the OE Database, and so you might recognize the names
later, when you have to use them.
The Most Frequently Used Tables in OpenEnterprise
Table Name(s)
Realanalog
Digital
Nw3000device
What is this used for?
This table includes all the analog signal data collected from your process
controllers. It includes the signal’s name, the signal value, etc. Examples of
the data stored in the Realanalog table would include pressure readings,
temperature readings, flow readings, etc.
This table includes all the logical signal data collected from your process
controllers. It includes the signal’s name, the signal value, etc. Examples of
the data stored in the Digital table would be valve OPENED/CLOSED
positions, switch ON/OFF statuses, pump RUN/STOPPED statuses, etc.
This table contains information about the individual controllers in the
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
1-5
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
Nw3000polllist
Dvi_schedule
Users
Oelogdata,
Oelogcolumn,
Oelogcontrol,
Loghistory
network.
This table defines lists of signals to be collected from controllers.
This table defines the scan time classes used in poll list collection. We’ll
discuss that subject later in this document.
This table lists all of the persons designated as valid users of the system,
and records information about them, and what they are allowed to do in the
system.
These tables are used in the definition of the OE Historian. The OE
Historian allows data collected into the OE Database to be saved and
reused later in trends and reports.
How does data get from the Controller Network into
the OE database?
Data from your network of remote process controllers is collected and stored in the OE Database.
The actual communication between the Bristol controllers and the OE Database is handled by
Open BSI and a communications driver program called RDI3000. (RDI3000 stands for Remote
Device Interface 3000 -- 3000 refers to Bristol Network 3000-series controllers. Our
ControlWave-series of controllers can also communicate via this method.)
There are five (5) methods by which data goes from the Bristol controllers into the OE Database.
They are:
•
•
•
•
•
Alarm Data Collection
Poll List Collection
RBE Collection
Array Collection via Open BSI Converter
Archive Collection via Open BSI Converter
In addition, RTUs and PLCs manufactured by other vendors can communicate with the OE
Database using vendor-supplied OPC server software and custom communication drivers.
(We’re not going to cover this subject in this book.)
1-6
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
Alarm Data Collection
Alarms are generated in a controller when a particular
signal goes outside a pre-defined range, or changes
state into an alarm state. Some typical alarm
conditions might be that a liquid level is too high, or a
temperature is too low, or that a pump has failed to
start.
We’ll talk, in detail, about alarm concepts in another
chapter. At this point, all you really need to know is
that an alarm is a message that is telling the operator
that something happened, which could potentially be
serious.
An alarm means something
just happened and needs
attention. For example, the
controller detected that a
pump failed, or a pressure
signal is too high….
OpenEnterprise displays these alarms on the OE Workstations. In addition, OE can be
configured to send alarms via e-mail, and to cell phones and pagers.
Poll List Collection
Most people are familiar with the term polling in
connection with elections. Every two years, for
example, your town might have an election for mayor,
and people go to the polls to vote. That’s similar to the
type of polling we’re discussing here. In the Poll List
data collection mechanism, OpenEnterprise sends out
requests for data from the controllers according to a
pre-defined schedule. For example, collect a certain
type of data every two hours. All signals collected as
part of the same scheduled collection are said to be in
the same scan time class. For example, if hourly flow
totals must be collected, an hourly scan time class can
be defined, and all hourly flow totals collected as part
of that scan time class. The signals included in a
particular scan time class are automatically placed into
structures called poll lists, by the OE Poll List Builder.
If you had other signals that you wanted collected
every minute, you would create a 1-minute scan time
class, etc.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
1-7
Poll List Collection
operates on a schedule.
For example, collect all the
flow total signals every
hour, collect all the logical
signals every minute, etc. It
doesn’t matter if there
hasn’t been any change,
Poll List Collection will just
collect the values anyway.
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
Report by Exception (RBE)
Report by exception (abbreviated RBE) causes a
signal to be collected only on exception, in other
words, you only collect the signal when it changes.
RBE is different from poll list collection because in
poll list collection, signals are collected whether or
not they have changed. In RBE, if a signal doesn’t
change, it isn’t collected.
For logical signals that would mean that a signal is
only collected when it changes state from ON to
OFF (or OFF to ON). For analog signals, that
would mean that a signal would only be collected if
its value changes significantly from its previous
value. The determination of whether or not a
change is significant is determined by a value
called the deadband. The deadband is a range
above and below the signal’s value, and must be
configured for every signal.
RBE says, “Check to see if the
data is different from the last
time we collected it. If it hasn’t
changed, don’t bother collecting
it”
Value:
SAME
CHANGED
SAME
SAME
SAME
CHANGED
SAME
SAME
Collect it?:
‡
;
‡
‡
‡
;
‡
‡
If it hasn’t changed more than the value defined by that range, since the last time it was
collected, any change is considered insignificant, and the signal isn’t collected. RBE is a useful
method of data collection because it reduces the amount of data that has to be collected, while
also allowing data to be displayed more rapidly than would be possible via Polled List collection.
Array and Archive Collection via Open BSI Converter
The Open BSI Harvester utility, can collect array data, and archive data, directly from the
controllers, and store it in files on the OE Server computer. A related utility, called the Open BSI
Converter can insert the data from these files directly into tables of the OE Database.
1-8
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 1 - Introduction - What is OpenEnterprise?
How do we view the contents of the OE Database?
The main method for viewing the contents of
the OE Database is the Database Explorer.
Database Explorer is a program that runs on
the OE Server or OE Workstation. Database
Explorer lets you examine the structure of the
database. It also includes a feature called the
Database Object Viewer that lets you search
through the contents of the OE Database, view
portions of particular tables, etc. For
information on how Database Explorer works,
please refer to Chapter 4. Understanding how
to use the Database Explorer is one of the best
ways to get the most out of your OE system.
Database Explorer
Where can I get more information?
Now that you’ve finished this chapter, you should have a pretty good idea about what
OpenEnterprise (OE) is, and what sort of information is stored in the OE Database. You should
also be at least somewhat familiar with the terminology we use when talking about the database.
We also hope you understand the concept of client and server.
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
For information on actually installing OpenEnterprise software, please see the
OpenEnterprise Installation Guide portion of the OpenEnterprise Reference Guide
(document# D5092).
For information on particular features of OpenEnterprise, see the online help files.
For information on configuring your controllers so data will be collected by OE, see Chapter
3.
For information on the Database Explorer program, see Chapter 4.
For information on alarm concepts in Network 3000 controllers, see An Introduction to
ACCOL (document# D4056).
For information on alarm concepts in ControlWave controllers, see the Alarm Configuration
section of the ControlWave Designer Programmer’s Handbook (document# D5125).
For information on how Report By Exception (RBE) works, see the RBE section of the
ACCOL II Reference Manual (document# D4044) and the online help file in ControlWave
Designer. For advanced software developers requiring detailed technical information on RBE
, see Appendix D of the Network 3000 Communications Application Programmer’s
Reference (document# D4052).
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
1-9
Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Chapter 2- Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Preparing Your Control Strategy Files to work with OE
For this chapter, we will assume that data
collected about your plant or process comes
from the network of Bristol remote process
controllers or RTUs. If you are using another
brand of controller, you will need to consult
other documentation beyond this manual.
What’s the difference
between the term ‘RTU’
and Remote Process
Controller?
Bristol controllers are either from the Network
3000-series (that includes the DPC 3330, DPC
3335, RTU 3305, or RTU 3310), or the
ControlWave series that includes the
ControlWave, ControlWave MICRO, and
ControlWave LP, among others.
The controllers execute a pre-defined program
called a control strategy which is responsible
for reading data in from process instrumentation
(flow meters, pressure transmitters, etc.),
performing calculations based on the data
collected, and sending out commands to
instrumentation (switches, valves, etc.)
For Network 3000-series
controllers, the control strategy
is written in a language called
ACCOL II, using a program
called ACCOL Workbench.
If you study the theory of control systems
there are slight differences between these
terms, but for our purposes, they all mean
the same thing. RTU is just an abbreviation
for the term Remote Terminal Unit, which
is basically the same thing as a Remote
Process Controller. Sometimes people will
just use the term Remote. You might also
hear people say DPC (Distributed Process
Controller.) You may even hear someone
say Node, which is a reference to the fact
that a controller can serve as part of a
network.
All of these terms refer to a smallcomputerized device located at a
remote site that collects data from
instrumentation, and performs
control operations based on the
data it collects.
Network 3000
series Controller
The resulting file, which is downloaded into the controller, is referred to as the ACCOL load.
The primary structure for storing an individual data value (pump status, flow reading, etc.) in the
ACCOL load is called an ACCOL signal.
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Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
For ControlWave-series controllers, the control strategy is
written in any one of five (5) IEC 61131-3 languages, using
a program called ControlWave Designer (IEC 61131-3 is
an international standard for process control programming
languages).
ControlWave series
Controller
The resulting file, called a ControlWave project, is
downloaded into the ControlWave controller. The
primary structure for storing a data value (temperature
reading, valve position, etc.) in the ControlWave
project is called a variable, and is equivalent to a
‘signal’ in a 33xx controller. NOTE: When you are
actually working with OE, no distinction is made
between the name signal and the name variable; they
are all referred to as signals. Some other
manufacturers use the word ‘tag’ to refer to the same
thing. These three words; tag, signal and variable are
often used interchangeably
What’s downloading mean?
Downloading means transferring
programs and / or data from one
device to another. In the case, we’re
downloading a file from the
computer to the controller.
TIP - Adopt a Consistent Naming Convention
When you’re coming up with names for ACCOL signals or ControlWave variables, it
will make life a lot easier if you use a consistent naming convention that describes the
data held in the signals. The reason is that if you use consistent names, it will help you
if you ever need to use SQL commands. (SQL commands aren’t required when you’re
first setting up OpenEnterprise, but many advanced users like to use them). It is also
useful if you are establishing rules for historical templates in the Database Project
Builder. A consistent naming convention will also help you with a subject called
aliasing which we won’t talk about until Chapter 5. Furthermore, it also helps you
remember what the signals do!
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Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Identifying Which Signals in the Control Strategy File Should be Collected by OE
For a signal in an ACCOL load or a variable in a ControlWave project to be collected and stored
in the OE Database, it must fall into one of three categories:
!
Alarms - any signal or variable configured as an alarm is automatically collected when it
enters an alarm state, or returns to a normal state. Normally these signals are those for which
it is important that the operators are alerted when pre-determined conditions (like a
maximum tank level) are exceeded.
•
Globals - a global signal or global variable can be collected at a predefined rate via Polled
List collection. The OE server will simply collect these signals at a fixed rate (e.g., once per
minute). The server must ask for these signals.
•
RBE - a report by exception (RBE) signal will be sent from the controller to the server
whenever it changes by more than a pre-configured amount, called the ‘deadband’.
We talked a little bit about the different methods of data collection back in Chapter 1. In the first
part of this chapter, we’re going to highlight the steps within ACCOL Workbench or
ControlWave Designer that need to be performed to identify data to be collected by
OpenEnterprise.
IMPORTANT
This section is NOT going to tell you everything you need to know when using
ACCOL Workbench or ControlWave Designer; it just highlights the parts which
are related to whether or not a signal or variable will get collected into the OE
Database. It doesn’t give detailed instructions. If you need help using ACCOL
Workbench, see the ACCOL Workbench User Manual (document# D4051). If
you need help using ControlWave Designer, see the Getting Started with
ControlWave Designer Manual (document# D5085).
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Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Preparing an ACCOL Load to work with OE
As mentioned, earlier, for any ACCOL signal to be collected into the OE Database, it must be
designated as one of the following:
1) A alarm signal -or2) A global signal -or3) An RBE signal
Specifying an Alarm Signal in ACCOL Workbench
The “Type” you select must be
either ‘Analog Alarm’
or ‘Logical Alarm’
•
On the ‘General’ page of the Signal
Properties dialog box for the signal, you
must choose either ‘Logical Alarm’ or
‘Analog Alarm’ as the signal’s “Type”.
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Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Choose “Alarm Enable”
•
On the ‘Settings’ page of the Signal
Properties dialog box for the signal, you
must choose “Alarm Enable”.
•
For analog alarm signals, you must also
specify at least one alarm limit. You should
also specify an alarm deadband. Click on
the [Alarm Limits] button to begin this
configuration.
For analog alarm signals, you
must specify one or more alarm
limits here.
Specifying a Global Signal in ACCOL Workbench
To make this a global signal, the
“Mark as Global” box must be selected.
•
On the ‘Settings’ page of the Signal
Properties dialog box for the signal, you
must select the “Mark as Global” box.
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Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Specifying an RBE Signal in an ACCOL Load
•
On the ‘Settings’ page of the Signal
Properties dialog box for the signal, you
must select the “Report By Exception”
box.
•
If this is an analog signal, you must enter a
deadband. Do not leave the deadband field
blank, or you could overload your
communications network!
•
You must configure the RBE Module. This
is discussed in the RBE section of the
ACCOL II Reference Manual (document#
D4044).
Select “Report By Exception” to
identify this as an RBE signal.
If this is an analog signal, you MUST
specify an RBE deadband here.
Saving, Compiling and Downloading the ACCOL Load
•
When you have finished editing in ACCOL Workbench, you must save the ACCOL
source file, by clicking on File Æ Save, or by clicking on the ‘Save’ icon.
•
You must then build the ACCOL load (*.ACL) file from the ACCOL source file
using the ‘Build’ command in ACCOL Workbench. Click on Actions Æ Build or
click on the ‘Build’ icon.
•
When the ACCOL load has been built successfully, without errors, you must
download it into the Network 3000 controller, using the Open BSI Downloader. The
Downloader is accessible from within ACCOL Workbench, by clicking on Actions Æ
Download or by clicking on the ‘Download’ icon. For full instructions on
downloading, see Chapter 7 of the Open BSI Utilities Manual (document# D5081).
WARNING! Test Before Downloading
You should always test your control strategy (ACCOL load or ControlWave project) before using
it in a ‘live’ running plant or process. This is especially true when you’re first learning things. We
strongly recommend you do this using a controller that is currently disconnected from the process,
or for which manual overrides are ready and staffed should something go wrong. This is really
important, because if you download an untested control strategy, you could potentially lose control
of your plant or process, due to a programming logic error, and you could damage your equipment,
or even worse, hurt somebody! So if you want to avoid flooding something, blowing something up,
or dealing with personal injury lawyers, ALWAYS test before you download to a ‘live’ RTU
connected to a plant!
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Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Preparing a ControlWave Project to work with OE
As mentioned, earlier, for any variable in a ControlWave project to be collected into the OE
Database, it must be designated as one of the following:
1) An alarm variable
2) A global variable
3) An RBE variable (Requires ControlWave firmware 04.40 or newer.)
Specifying an Alarm Variable in a ControlWave Project
•
In your ControlWave Designer project, each
variable which you want to serve as an alarm
must have its own alarm function block
configured. The alarm function blocks
available are:
ALARM_ANALOG, ALARM_STATE,
ALARM_LOGICAL_ON and
ALARM_LOGICAL_OFF.
•
Descriptions on how to configure these
function blocks are included in the
ControlWave Designer online help, and in
the ControlWave Designer Programmer’s
Handbook (document# D5125).
•
An alarm condition can only be detected at
the time its Alarm function block is
executed.
•
Check the ‘OPC’ box for
each variable you want to
be collected by OpenEnterprise.
The alarm variable must be marked for
“OPC” collection, as well within the
worksheet. This is discussed in the section
Specifying a Global Variable in a
ControlWave Project.
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Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Specifying a Global Variable in a ControlWave Project
Global variables in ControlWave Designer are variables that may be accessed by all the program
organization units (POUs) in the project. (If you don’t know what a POU is, you probably need
to review the documentation accompanying ControlWave Designer.)
In your ControlWave Designer project, we recommend that the only variables you designate as
global should be I/O variables. Configure your I/O variables in the ControlWave Designer’s I/O
Configurator first.
A global variable is identified by ‘VAR_GLOBAL’ in its
“Usage” field.
•
Variables in ControlWave Designer
are designated as global if they are
defined within a global worksheet,
with the VAR_GLOBAL “Usage”.
•
The variables must be marked for
“OPC” collection, as well.
Any variable which is to appear in the OE Database
must also have “OPC” selected.
Specifying an RBE variable in a ControlWave Project
To designate a variable for RBE collection in a ControlWave project, you must run the Variable
Extension Wizard, in ControlWave Designer, and check the “RBE” check box for each variable
you want collected via RBE. For non-BOOL variables (REAL, INT, etc.), you would also
specify a deadband. The resulting _RBE.INI file will be downloaded to the ControlWave with
the bootproject.
You must also configure the RBE function block, and configure appropriate RBE system
variables depending upon whether RBE is running on a serial or IP port. For details on all these
subjects, please see the online help in ControlWave Designer.
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Chapter 2 – Configuring Controllers to Work with OE
Making Sure You Have the Correct Resource Settings in ControlWave Designer
Any variable in your ControlWave project which you want to be included in the OE
Database, must have its OPC parameter check box set, as described in the Specifying a
Global Variable in a ControlWave Project section.
In addition, you must specify, in the Resource Settings dialog box, which OPC variables will be
collected.
•
Generally, you should choose “Marked
variables” so that only those variables
which you have explicitly marked for OPC
collection, will be included in the OE
Database.
•
If you want all global variables to be part
of the OE Database, choose “All global
variables” which automatically marks all
global variables for OPC collection.
Select the “Marked variables” option
Compiling and Downloading the ControlWave Project
•
You must then compile the ControlWave project. Click on Build Æ Make or click on
the ‘Make’ icon.
•
When the ControlWave project has been compiled successfully, you must download it
into the ControlWave controller. (Please heed the warning about downloading on page
2-6.) For details on performing a download into the ControlWave, see the
Downloading section of the ControlWave Designer Programmer’s Handbook
(document# D5125).
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
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BLANK PAGE
Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Chapter 3- Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Things you have to do before you start building the
OE Database…
Okay, we know that you’re just itching to get started, but first, there are some things that MUST
be done, before you start:
Your hardware must have been set up
We’re going to assume, at this point, that you’ve set up all your hardware. By that, we mean that:
•
The OE Server computer has been set up, powered on, and is ready to go. See the
documentation accompanying the server hardware for help on doing this.
•
All the necessary communication cables linking the OE Server, and controllers, must have
been connected.
•
The controller network has been set up, powered on. See the Bristol controller hardware
manuals, and the Open BSI software manuals (see below) for information on this. As
mentioned elsewhere, we recommend you use test hardware (not live hardware) for initial
development.
•
Optionally, OE Workstations can also be set up at this time. Otherwise, they can be added
later (We recommend building the system with a single workstation, and adding others later.)
•
Each controller must be running a control strategy file which has been prepared for use with
OE. This was discussed in Chapter 2.
NOTE: Hardware setup is beyond the scope of this manual.
Backup Your OpenEnterprise Server (UPGRADES / RE-BUILDS ONLY)
Your OpenEnterprise Server should be backed up. That means all files should be copied to
backup media (CD, tape, disk) or to another computer. This ensures that you can restore the
system in the event of a failure during the database creation process.
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Install Open BSI and configure the Open BSI Network
Bristol’s Open Bristol System Interface, called Open BSI, is the communications software
which runs on the OE Server, and allows communications between the OE Server, and the
network of Bristol remote process controllers.
If this is an all-new system, or you are upgrading to a new version of Open BSI as part of your
OpenEnterprise upgrade, you need to install Open BSI on the OE Server computer, and define
the network of controllers within the Open BSI software. This is outside the scope of this
document, but you can find instructions on how to do this in the Open BSI Utilities Manual
(document# D5081).
Verify that communications are possible to RTUs via DataView
Use the Open BSI DataView program to verify that data can be collected from RTUs in the
network. See Chapter 8 of the Open BSI Utilities Manual (D5081) for help on doing this.
Install OpenEnterprise Server software on the Server Computer
Follow the instructions in the OpenEnterprise Installation Guide portion of the OpenEnterprise
Reference Guide for information on how to install OpenEnterprise Server software. At the end of
the installation process, you are given the option of starting the Database Project Builder.
Instructions on using the Database Project Builder follow.
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OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
How is the database built?
It may seem kind of funny to talk about building the OE Database, because it makes it sound like
a physical thing like a house. Although you can’t physically touch the OE Database, it does in
fact have a defined structure. The way in which the OE Database is put together is also similar to
building a house, in that, you have to follow a particular order of construction. Any house that
has an underground basement, for example, must have a foundation built, first, before other
floors are constructed. In the same way, the tables of a database must be created before you
attempt to put data values in them. Just like a house must be built properly and periodic
maintenance must be performed, to keep it safe for occupancy, the database must be built and
maintained properly.
Back in Chapter 1, we explained that the OE Database consists of a large collection of tables
which have various inter-relationships defined. We also said that the running OE Database
contains real-time data, historical data, and all the OE Server configuration data.
In this chapter, we’re going to use a tool called the Database Project Builder to create these
tables and set it up to hold all this data. The Database Project Builder allows us to:
•
Create all the tables that make up the OE Database
•
Configure real-time data collection from controllers/RTUs
•
Configure basic historical data collection and perform initial configuration of historical data
•
Configure the default security accounts
•
Configure which programs run when the OE Server is started
Starting the Database Project Builder
If not started already, Open BSI must be running. If it isn’t, click on Start Æ Programs Æ
OpenBSI Tools Æ NetView. Confirm that communications are functioning.
By default, the Database Project Builder starts automatically following OpenEnterprise
installation (see the OpenEnterprise Installation Guide for more information.)
It may also be started by clicking as follows:
Start ÆPrograms ÆOpenEnterprise Æ Administrative Tools Æ Database Project Builder
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Using Database Project Builder
When the Database Project Builder starts, click on [Next>] to proceed beyond the Welcome
screen. This will take you to the File Locations screen.
This is a list of
steps to be
performed by
the Database
Project Builder.
When a step is
completed, it
appears in
italics.
Click on [Next>]
Specifying File Locations
The File Locations page specifies where OpenEnterprise will store various types of files on the
OE Server. Generally, we recommend you accept the default file locations presented. If you want
to change them, however, click on the […] button to browse to a new location. When you’ve
finished on this page, click on [Next>].
This is where the “live”
running OE Database
will reside.
You can browse to
select a different
folder by clicking on
these buttons.
Historical files (log files
and archive files) are
stored in these folders.
When finished on
this page, click on
[Next>].
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
NOTE: If one or more of the folders
specified on this page doesn’t exist, you
will be prompted to confirm whether you
want to have Database Project Builder
create it. Click on [Yes] to do so.
Allowing ‘Open’ Access to Database Tables During System Configuration
Normally, users only need access to certain OpenEnterprise Database tables, and are prevented
from accessing other tables. This would be referred to as “Secure” database privileges.
While you’re in the process of building your OE system, we recommend you choose “Open” for
the Database Privileges. This will simplify your configuration activities.
We recommend you choose the default
of “Open” while you’re building your system.
Click on [Next>] to proceed
to the next screen.
Click on [Next>] to go to the next screen.
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Including the Default Security Groups
Security Groups are discussed in detail in Chapter 10. We recommend you leave the “Include
the standard Security Groups” box checked, and click on the [Next>] button.
We recommend you include the
standard security groups.
Click on [Next>] to proceed
to the next screen.
A prompt will appear,
notifying you that a default
user called SYSTEM has been
created. That user has a default
password of SYSTEM. Click
on [OK].
A user is someone who has
access to OpenEnterprise
Server software.
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
During Configuration, You are the SYSTEM User
In the “Added Users” box on the Users page, you will see the name SYSTEM. This is the
SYSTEM user that was just added automatically. (The SYSTEM user has full privileges; while
you’re configuring your system, you will be the SYSTEM user.)
The SYSTEM user is added automatically.
Click on [Next>] to
proceed to the next
page.
Although you can optionally add additional users here, we recommend you click on [Next>] and
add users later, as described in Chapter 10.
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Verifying that the Time Zone is Correct
You should always make sure your OpenEnterprise Server computer is configured with the
correct time zone for your geographical area. Having the correct time zone is particularly
important for historical data management. By default, the time zone is set to match the
Windows™ time zone for your computer.
Make sure this represents
the correct time zone for
your geographical area.
Click on [Next>]
If the correct time zone is selected, click on [Next>].
Why does OpenEnterprise use Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)?
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), also known as Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), or military
Zulu (Z) time, is an internationally recognized time standard. Because GMT or UTC is used
worldwide, you can have OpenEnterprise collecting data from different parts of the world (for
example, via satellite links) and the data will always be stored in the OE Database at the
correct time from wherever it originated. This is made possible because the entire planet shares
the same GMT time. Similarly, users from around the globe can view the same data, and have
timestamps (for trends or alarms, for example) corrected to their own local time.
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Choosing How You Will Communicate with the Controllers
Now, you must select the proper device driver. If you are using Bristol controllers, choose
‘Network 3000 and ControlWave Driver’. Now, click on [Next>].
If you are using Bristol controllers, the
Network 3000 and ControlWave driver
must be selected.
Click on [Next>]
What is a Device Driver?
A device driver is simply a program which helps something communicate. In the
case of the Network 3000 and ControlWave driver, it’s a program that allows
communication between OE and Bristol controllers.
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Confirming Your Choices and Building the Database Tables
This page shows a list of the defaults and selections you have made so far. You can use the scroll
bar to bring additional entries into view. If there are any entries you’d like to modify, click on the
[<Back] key until you reach the desired page; otherwise click on [Next>].
This is a summary of the choices made so far.
Click on [Next>]
to create an initial
database.
An initial version of the OE Database, containing the configuration information chosen so far is
now created. When all of the listed actions are marked as ‘Done’, and the ‘Build Completed
Successfully’ message is displayed, click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>] when the Status for all actions shows
as ‘Done’.
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Adding Signal/Variable/Tag Names to the Database Tables
Although we’ve created an initial version of the OE Database, many of its tables are empty. We
need to include information about the signals/variables from your controllers/RTUs. If your
network of controllers is configured and communicating, you can now import this information.
To do this, click on the “Import Signal Data” box, and then click on the [Import…] button.
Click on “Import Signal Data”
then click on the [Import...] button.
Depending upon whether Open BSI is
running, you may be prompted to select, for
OpenEnterprise, the NETDEF file used for
your network of controllers.
The Database Project Builder will start a
separate program called the Database Builder
program (DBB). DBB collects all signals that
are alarms, RBE signals, or have been marked
as global signals, and includes their names in
the OE Database.
This process may take several minutes
depending upon how many signals need to be
collected, and the speed of your network.
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Creating Poll Lists for Data Collection
Templates (also known as poll lists) allow groups of
signals to be collected at certain specified rates.
After DBB finishes, you will be prompted whether or not
you want to build templates for data collection. Click on
[Yes].
Click on [Yes].
The Poll List Builder runs automatically.
Estimating the Maximum Database Size
Based on the number of signals inserted by the
Database Builder (DBB), OpenEnterprise will
attempt to estimate the size of various database
tables. If you know the maximum number of
signals will be larger than the estimate, enter
revised numbers in the fields provided.
Click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>].
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Configuring Historical Data Collection
IMPORTANT: For a full discussion of the concepts of historical data collection, please refer to
Chapter 6.
On the Historical Data page, you have the option of configuring historical data collection for
selected signals you’ve added to your OE Database.
A series of templates are provided to support some of the most common collection schemes.
If you want to configure historical collection using these templates now, click on the [Add]
button. If none of the templates meet your needs, you could create your own templates, however,
that is beyond the scope of this manual.
To configure historical data, click on [Add]
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Chapter 3 - Building the OpenEnterprise Database
Another alternative is that you can pause the configuration and set up the historical system on
your own using the Historical Configuration Tool, by choosing the [Advanced] button. See
Chapter 6 for details on using this tool.
If none of the templates meet your needs,
you can optionally start the Historical
Configuration Tool, and define the historical
parameters manually.
Click on [Next>]
You also have the option of not configuring the
Historian now, because you can configure it later using
the Historical Configuration Tool. If you want to do
that, click on [Next>].
Choose the desired historical
collection template.
If you did choose [Add], the Historical Template dialog
box will appear.
You can now select from one of several pre-defined
historical collection templates which determine how
frequently the historical data is collected, and what
calculations are performed on the data.
When you choose a particular template, a description of
the operations it performs appears in the “Template
Details” box.
Once you’ve chosen a template, you must establish
some filtering criteria for which signals you want
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collected and stored; otherwise, NO signals will be collected and stored by the Historian.
To add a rule, specify the portion of the “Base”, “Extension”, and/or “Attribute” that
represents the signals you want to collect. For example, if you only want this historical template
applied to signals that have a base name beginning with PUMP, enter PUMP* in the “Base”
field. Then, optionally assign a name for the rule, and click on [Add].
You can repeat this entire process to configure additional templates and rules for them.
For the concept of rules to work effectively, you must have established a consistent signal
naming convention.
When you’ve finished configuring the historical system, click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>]
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Configuring an OpenEnterprise Session
The Session page lets you configure an OpenEnterprise session. When you’ve made your
selections, click on [Next>].
What is an OpenEnterprise ‘Session’?
The ‘heart’ of OpenEnterprise software is the OE Database running on the
OpenEnterprise Server computer. In order for the OE Database to function properly,
however, there are other programs that need to be running as well. For example, the
communication driver you selected, earlier, must be running. You might have other
programs you want to run too, such as the Reporting package. Any software you want
to run together with the OE Database can be grouped together in an OE Session. A
session is a collection of programs that run concurrently; when you start the session,
all the programs grouped together in that session are started automatically.
You can choose a different name
from the default, if desired.
If you choose this, you must
start the session manually.
This option causes the session
to be started automatically
whenever Windows is started.
This creates a shortcut
in the Windows startup
folder.
This creates a shortcut
on the Windows desktop.
When checked, will
cause the session to
start immediately after
you exit the Database
Project Wizard.
Click on [Next>]
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The Session Tasks page allows you to choose which software programs (tasks) will be started as
part of the OE session. The “Selected Tasks” box lists all tasks currently included in the session.
The “Available Tasks” box lists tasks which could be added to the session. Use the [>] button to
add programs to the session, or the [<] button to remove programs from the session. Click on
[Next>] when finished.
Copies all “Available Tasks” to the
“Selected Tasks” box.
Copies a single highlighted task
from the “Available Tasks”
box to the “Selected Tasks” box.
Copies a single highlighted task
from the “Selected Tasks”
box to the “Available Tasks” box.
Copies all “Selected Tasks” to the
“Available Tasks” box.
Click on [Next>].
Completing the Database Project Building Process
At this point, the OE Database has been created in a temporary area. When you click on [Next>],
the database will be copied to the \DATA area, which is the final location for the working OE
Database.
Click on [Next>].
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The OE Database is now complete. Click on [Finish] to exit the Database Project Builder.
Click on [Finish].
If you accepted the default settings when creating the OE session, the OE session will be
started automatically. Look for a blue icon with a green checkmark through it in the
taskbar, and double-click on it to view the status of the session.
Congratulations! You’ve now got an OE Database and an OE Session up and running! To verify
that communications are operating properly, you can now connect to the OE Database using the
Database Explorer. We’ll cover all of that in Chapter 4.
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Chapter 4 – Using Database Explorer to Find Data
What is the Database Explorer?
Well, we’ve talked about building the database; now let’s talk about how to find out what’s in
the database. Database Explorer is a tool that runs on the OE Workstation and OE Server.
Typically, you would use the Database Explorer during system configuration and debugging
activities. It allows you to:
•
Examine the hierarchical structure of the OE Database; including tables, attributes and
something we haven’t talked about much yet, called views.
•
View the contents of the OE Database using the integrated Database Object Viewer. The
contents include all of the actual data objects in the database, e.g. signals, configuration data,
etc.
•
Establish “live data points” by dragging OPC Tags from the database onto a graphical mimic
display (created with the OE Graphics package). This allows real-time process data (or any
other information contained in the database) to be included on displays for viewing by
operators at the OE Workstation. This is an essential part of the display-building process, and
is discussed in Chapter 5.
•
Establish links to external spreadsheet programs such as Microsoft® Excel using drag and
drop DDE links.
To perform these functions, you must first start the Database Explorer, then add the database to
the hierarchy (if it isn’t already visible), and then establish a connection with the database. Then
you will be able to examine various parts of the database, and call up actual data using the
Database Object Viewer.
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Before You Begin
Before you attempt to start Database Explorer, the following must be done:
•
Your OE Database must have been created, and must be running. See Chapter 3 for
information on this.
•
You must know the service name of the OE Database (or the IP address and name, if it
resides on another computer). Consult your site-specific documentation for details. If you
don’t know what a service is, don’t worry, we’re going to explain that.
•
You must have successfully logged on to your OE Workstation, with sufficient security
privileges to access the OE Database. Consult your site-specific documentation for details.
NOTE: Security will be discussed in detail in Chapter 10.
Starting Database Explorer
To start Database Explorer, click on:
Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ Database Explorer
If this is the first time you are using the Database Explorer with this particular OE Database, you
must explicitly identify for Database Explorer the name and (if located on a computer other than
the current one) the location of the Database. See Identifying the Name and Location of Your
Database.
A connection must then be requested with the OE
Database. See Establishing a Connection with the
Database.
Tree Hierarchy
Identifying the Name and Location of Your Database
If this is the first time you are using Database Explorer with a particular OE Database, you must
add the database to the tree hierarchy of databases accessible to Database Explorer.
To do so, click on the ‘Add Database’ icon, shown above, or click on File Æ Add Database.
The Add Database to Hierarchy dialog box will appear.
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Using the Add Database to Hierarchy Dialog Box
The Add Database to Hierarchy dialog box allows you to specify, for Database Explorer, the
name of your OE Database. In addition, if the OE Database resides on a PC other than the
current one, you must also specify its location. The combination of the database name and
location is called the service.
What is a ‘Service’?
Enter the name of the
Database, or its address
and name if it resides on
a computer other than the
current one.
A service is a unique address used to
identify a particular program running
on a particular computer in a TCP/IP
network. The default service for the
OE Database is:
‘servername:rtrdb1’
where:
In the Add Database to Hierarchy dialog box, enter
the OE database name, for example ‘rtrdb1’. If the
database resides on a different computer than the one
you are currently using, the name of the database
must be preceded by the IP address of the other
server, for example: ‘120.0.210.10:mydatabase’.
You may also use an alias for the IP address, for
example if the text ‘MYSERVER’ has been defined
in your HOSTS file as being equivalent to an IP
address of ’125.45.2.8’, you could enter either
‘MYSERVER:rtrdb1’ -or- you could enter
‘125.45.2.8:rtrdb1’.
To connect with this database, choose the “Connect
Database” option.
Click on [OK] to exit the dialog box.
The database will be added to the tree hierarchy.
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servername: is replaced with the name
of the computer on which the OE
Database resides, or the IP address of
that computer, or a name defined in
your Windows™ Hosts file which
resolves to that IP address.
(servername: can be omitted if you are
running this copy of Database
Explorer on the computer that contains
the OE Database.)
rtrdb1 is the default name for the OE
Database, which must resolve to an IP
socket number. (By default, OE uses
IP socket 11101 in your Windows™
Services file. You can change this, if
necessary.)
If this all confuses you, think of the
Internet as a neighborhood full of
apartment buildings, and programs as
people living in the buildings. The
server name is the equivalent to the
address for their apartment building
and the IP socket is equivalent to their
apartment number.
Chapter 4 - Using Database Explorer to find data
The database icon will be surrounded by a RED box with
a diagonal line through it, until an actual connection is
established.
Tree Hierarchy
Establishing a Connection with the Database
Once a database has been identified for Database Explorer by adding it to the tree hierarchy, a
connection with the Database must be established so that the Database structure can be accessed.
NOTE
Before attempting to establish a connection with a Database, the Database must be
running. If it is NOT running, you must explicitly start it. In addition, you must
have logged in with security access for this particular Database, or data you wish to
view must be accessible to the ‘PUBLIC’ user.
To establish a connection, click on the icon for the database in the tree hierarchy, then press the
right mouse button, and choose “Connect” from the pop-up menu. Initially, the database will be
shown surrounded by an orange box, indicating that a connection has not yet been made. The
amount of time required to make the connection varies depending upon the size of the database,
and the bandwidth of your connection.
When the icon for the database is
surrounded by a GREEN box, the
connection has been successfully
established.
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IMPORTANT
Once a connection has been successfully established, Database Explorer will issue a
query to the database to obtain details on its internal structure. This structural
information is retained until the database is disconnected. Whenever a re-connection is
made, the query will be issued again to update the structural detail information.
If, while connected, the database structure is altered by some external tool (such as the
SQL Client) queries to the database may NOT be successful, depending upon how the
database was changed. Should this occur, you should disconnect, and then re-connect
so a new query can be initiated.
What if I wasn’t able to connect?
Any of the following items could prevent a successful connection:
•
The OE Database isn’t running. (You can’t connect to it if it isn’t running.)
•
Communications are faulty, or you didn’t specify the correct service. (You
should verify that you can actually communicate with the OE Server computer.
Try pinging it using the DOS ping command.
•
Firewall software (a type of security software) is running, that has prevented the
connection with the IP socket. (The IP socket for the OE Database must be
accessible. By default, this socket is 11101. Check your Windows™ Services file
to verify the correct socket, and notify your System Administrator that the OE
socket must be accessible through the firewall.)
Viewing the Overall Structure of the Database
Once Database Explorer has successfully established a connection with the database, the internal
structure of the database can be examined.
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Viewing Databases, Tables, Views, and Attributes
Each database consists of a series of named tables. Associated with each table are a collection
of attributes (remember, attributes are just the column names of the table). By default, the
standard tables in OpenEnterprise have a suffix of ‘_table’ at the end of their names, for
example, the ‘alarmsummary_table’.
Database Explorer also allows you to look at views. Views are essentially a restricted look into
some portion of a table or set of tables. Views do not have the suffix ‘_table’. Views are
sometimes used for security purposes because they restrict which parts of a table (or tables) a
user can access or change, and for convenience reasons, because they prevent you being
overloaded with more information than you really need to see.
Database Explorer’s main screen is divided into 3 separate windows, each of which displays
different information about the connected database.
If the icon for the database is a red box with a
diagonal line through it, there has never been
a connection to this database. If the icon for the
database is a red box with no diagonal line, the
connection has been lost, possibly due to the
database being shut down.
Database Detail Window -orthe Table Detail Window
Click on ‘+’ to
see tables in
this database
If the icon for the
database is a green
box, a connection is
active.
Database Tree Control Window
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Database Tree Control Window
This window occupies the left-hand side of the screen. It displays all of the databases in the
hierarchy.
If the database is currently connected, it will be displayed with a small GREEN box around it.
If the database is NOT currently connected, it will be displayed with a small RED box around it,
with a diagonal line through the center.
If the database is connected, and Database Explorer is currently performing a query to obtain
detailed information about the database, a small AMBER (dark orange-yellow) box will appear.
If you click on the ‘+’ icon associated with the database, a list of the tables and views which
make up that particular database will be displayed.
Tables which
make up this
database
Use scroll bar to bring
additional table names
into view
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Database Detail Window / Table Detail Window
The Database Detail Window and Table Detail Window alternately occupy the upper-right hand
corner of the Database Explorer’s main screen. Which of the two windows is visible depends
upon selections made in the Database Tree Control Window:
The Database Detail Window displays the names of all databases whenever ‘All Databases’ has
been selected in the Database Tree Control Window. The format of the window can vary; see
Changing the Appearance of Detail Windows.
When ‘All Databases’ is selected in the Tree
Control Window, all of the databases will appear
in the Database Detail Window
The Table Detail Window displays the names of the tables associated with whatever database has
been selected in the Database Tree Control Window. The format of the window can vary; see
Changing the Appearance of Detail Windows.
When database named ‘scada-web:rtrdb1’ is selected
in the Database Tree Control Window, the tables associated with ‘scada-web:rtrdb1’ are shown in the
Table Detail Window.
Use scroll bar to bring
more table names into
view
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Attribute Detail Window
The Attribute Detail Window occupies the lower right hand corner of the Database Explorer
main screen. It displays the attributes (i.e. column names) of the tables that have been selected in
the Database Tree Control Window. The format of the window can vary; see Changing the
Appearance of Detail Windows.
Clicking on a table in the Database Tree Control Window
causes a list of all the attributes (columns) belonging to
that table to be displayed in the Attribute Detail Window.
Use the scroll bars to bring more
attributes, or more details about the
attributes into view
Double-clicking on certain tables or views will launch
the Database Object Viewer, which will query the
database to retrieve data from that table or view.
Clicking once on a table name will display a list of attributes for the particular table. Doubleclicking on certain tables will launch the Database Object Viewer, along with a pre-defined DBX
file to query the database for data from that particular table.
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Changing the Appearance of Detail Windows
The Database Detail, Table Detail, and Attribute Detail windows can be modified to appear in
one of four presentation modes: Large icons, small icons, lists, or detail.
To change the mode, click within the window you want to change, then click on “View” in the
menu bar, and choose “Large Icons”, “Small Icons”, “List” or “Detail” from the pop-up
menu. Alternatively, you can choose the mode from the icons in the menu bar.
Large Icons
In this mode, only a few large icons are visible at any
one time.
Small Icons
In this mode, many more icons are visible. They are
shown, in left-to-right (across) order.
List
This mode is similar to small icons, except the icons
appear in lists from top-to-bottom.
Detail
In this mode, more detailed information is presented
for each item, including information on its location
and function in the database.
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Searching the Database for A Particular Table
A particular OE database can be made up of hundreds of different tables. Sometimes, you may
not remember where a particular table is located in the hierarchy of the database, or even its
exact name - - to solve this problem, you can use the Search For Table dialog box.
To search through the tree hierarchy for a particular table,
click on the database’s icon in the hierarchy presented in the
Database Tree Control Window, then press the right mouse
button. Choose “Search For Table” from the pop-up menu,
and the Search for Table dialog box will appear. Enter the
table name you are looking for (or enter the first few
characters of its name followed by a wildcard ‘*’ character)
then click on the [OK] push button.
Tables and views with the specified name (or matching the partial name and wildcard) will be
listed in the Table Detail Window. If you double-click on a listed table, its location in the
hierarchy will be displayed in the Database Tree Control Window, and the attributes (columns)
associated with the table will be displayed in the Attribute Detail Window.
Searching the Database for A Particular Attribute (Column Name)
A database can include hundreds of different tables, and a particular table can include hundreds
of different attributes (which we’ve said before, are column names). Sometimes, you may not
remember which table holds a particular attribute, and you might not remember the exact name
of the attribute - - to solve this problem, you can use the Search for Attribute dialog box.
To search through the tree hierarchy for a particular attribute, click on the database’s icon in the
hierarchy presented in the Database Tree Control Window, then press the right mouse button.
Choose “Search For Attribute” from the pop-up menu, and the Search for Attribute dialog box
will appear. Enter the attribute name you are looking for (or enter the first few characters of its
name followed by a wildcard ‘*’ character) then click on the [OK] push button.
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Tables with the specified attribute (or matching the partial name and wildcard) will be listed in
the Table Detail Window. If you double-click on a listed table, its location in the hierarchy will
be displayed in the Database Tree Control Window, and the attributes associated with the table
will be displayed in the Attribute Detail Window.
Searching the Database for A Primary Key Attribute
A primary key attribute is simply an attribute that is used as an index (or part of an index) for
manipulating information in a table, because it is unique for each record (row). A primary key
might include multiple attributes. For example, a timestamp attribute and a name attribute might
be combined to form the primary key.
To search through the tree hierarchy for a particular
primary key attribute, click on the database’s icon in
the hierarchy presented in the Database Tree Control
Window, then press the right mouse button. Choose
“Search For Primary Key Attribute” from the popup menu, and the Search for Primary Key Attribute
dialog box will appear.
Enter the attribute name you are looking for (or enter the first few characters of its name
followed by a wildcard ‘*’ character) then click on the [OK] push button.
Tables with the specified primary key attribute (or matching the partial name and wildcard) will
be listed in the Table Detail Window. If you double-click on a listed table, its location in the
hierarchy will be displayed in the Database Tree Control Window, and the attributes associated
with the table will be displayed in the Attribute Detail Window.
Searching the Database for ‘Owned’ Tables
An ‘owned’ table is a table in which the ‘Owner’ attribute has been set to the name of a
particular user. When you choose “Search for Owned Tables” all tables for which the ‘Owner’
attribute matches the name of the currently logged on user will be listed.
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Viewing the Contents of the Database Using the
Database Object Viewer
You can use the Database Object Viewer to:
•
Examine the data residing in the database tables by requesting data that meets certain userspecified criteria. (This is called querying the database for information.)
•
Configure real-time process points in graphical displays using OPC Tags.
•
Configure real-time data links to third-party packages such as Microsoft® Excel using DDE
Links.
Starting the Database Object Viewer
Once the Database Explorer has been started, and a successful connection has been made to your
running database, you can start the Database Object Viewer by clicking on the icon shown
above, -or- by double-clicking on certain Table names in the Database Explorer tree control
window, or- by clicking on: View Æ Database Object Viewer
The Database Object Viewer will appear, with the ‘Tables’ page displayed first. You can now
proceed to query the database for data.
Viewing Data By Constructing Simple Queries
The Database Object Viewer provides various options for querying the database. In this section,
we will cover the simplest approach that will yield useful information for most users. Examples
of queries using more detailed criteria will be covered in the next section:
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xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
The simple approach to querying the database involves:
•
•
•
•
Identifying the table you want to request data from using the ‘Tables’ page.
Identifying the attributes you want to request data from using the ‘Attributes’ page.
Specifying any limiting conditions using the ‘Conditions’ page.
Running the query and looking for our results on the ‘Objects’ page.
If you have trouble remembering this sequence, just remember T-A-C-O which is the first letter
of each of the Database Object Viewer pages you need to use.
Identifying the Table You Want to Query
The ‘Tables’ page of the Database Object Viewer allows you to select which table (or tables) you
want to examine.
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NOTE
Even though the Database Object Viewer allows you to select multiple tables, we
recommend that when you are first learning how to use the Database Object Viewer, you
choose only one table to be searched at any one time. Choosing multiple tables introduces
certain complexities into the query that may result in problems for the novice user.
Click on the name of the table or view you want to request data from in the “Available Tables”
list box, then click on the [Add] push button. The table name will be added to the “Selected
Tables” list box. You can now click on the ‘Attributes’ page to continue defining your query.
Click on the name of
the table (or view) you
want to retrieve data
from, in the Available
Tables list box.
Then click on the [Add]
push button, and the
name of the table will
appear in the Selected
Tables list box.
If you change your mind and want to remove a table from
the Selected Tables list box, click on its name, then click
on the [Remove] push button.
Specifying the Attributes You Want to Examine
The ‘Attributes’ page of the Database Object Viewer allows you to specify which attributes
(columns) from the previously selected table, you want to examine.
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Click on the name of the attributes you want to examine in the “Available Attributes” list box,
then click on the [Add] push button. The attribute name will be added to the “Selected
Attributes” list box.
Click on the name of
the attribute you want
to examine, in the
Available Attributes
list box.
Then click on the [Add]
push button, and the
name of the Attribute will
appear in the Selected
Attributes list box.
If you change your mind and want to remove an attribute
from the Selected Attributes list box, click on its name,
then click on the [Remove] push button. To remove all
attributes, use the [Remove All] push button.
You can now click on the ‘Conditions’ page to continue defining your query.
Specifying Conditions to Limit the Amount of Data Returned By Your Query
The ‘Conditions’ page of the Database Object Viewer allows you to make your query more
specific, and thereby limit the amount of data returned.
For example, if you specified in the ‘Attributes’ page that you wanted to see the names and
values of entries in the realanalog table, you could receive thousands of responses depending
upon the number of objects (such as ACCOL signals) in your database. This may be much more
data than you want, and it also could put an unnecessary burden on communications as the server
attempts to fulfill the request for massive amounts of data. The ‘Conditions’ page, however, lets
you tailor the request by entering more specific criteria, thereby making the resulting data more
usable for you, and more manageable for the communications system.
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Click on the attribute
you want to specify
a condition for, then
click on the [Add]
push button.
Then specify a condition for
that attribute, and click on the
[Update] push button.
Click on the name of the attribute you want to specify a condition for in the “Available
Attributes” list box, then click on the [Add] push button. The attribute name will be added to
the “Condition” line below the push buttons; enter an equation specifying the condition you
want to apply.
Here are some examples of conditions. NOTE: You must leave a single space on each side of an
arithmetic operator ( = , <, >):
value < 500
manualinhibit = TRUE
units = ‘MGD’
extension = ‘INPUT’
name LIKE ‘%PUMP%’
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When finished entering the condition, click on the [Update] push button. The specified condition
will be displayed in the “Conditions” list box, and the “Condition” line will be cleared so that
you can specify any additional conditions. NOTE: When you enter multiple conditions, all
conditions must be satisfied.1
To edit a condition, click on it,
then click on the [Edit] push
button, then make any changes
in the Condition box.
If you want to change any of the conditions you have entered, click on the condition in the
“Conditions” list box, then click on the [Edit] push button, and edit the condition line as
desired, then click on the [Update] push button. When you have finished specifying any
conditions you would like to apply, you can run your query.
1
Essentially, when expressed as boolean logic, the conditions are all ANDed together.
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Run the Query and View the Results
If you want the results of this query to be regularly refreshed as data changes in the
database, click on the ‘Active Query’ icon, shown at left, or click on Options Æ
Active Query. NOTE: If you do not do this, data in the query will not be updated as it
changes.
To run the query, click on the ‘Run Query’ icon or click on Query Æ Apply.
If you did NOT specify any conditions This message will only appear if you didn’t specify
any conditions; it is meant to warn you that the
on the ‘Conditions’ page, by default,
results of the query may be a large amount of data.
you will receive a warning message
(the warning is intended to remind you
that your query could potentially result
in a very large amount of data being
collected, what we call the KILLER
QUERY…). You can ignore the
message and click on [Yes] if you are
unconcerned about the size of the
query, or click on [No] to revise the
query, before running it.
NOTE: These warning messages may
be suppressed by checking the “Auto
run without conditions” item on the
‘Conditions’ page.
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The results of the query can be viewed on the ‘Objects’ page; normally, running the query will
switch to the ‘Objects’ page automatically. If this is an active query, they will be updated
periodically as new data comes in.
Total Number
of objects
Database
name
Number of objects
removed since
Number of objects
Number of objects query issued
changed since
added since
query issued
query issued
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Applying Filtering Criteria to Your Query
The ‘Filters’ page allows you filter the list of available attributes shown on the ‘Attributes’ page.
A description of the various filtering criteria is included below.
Items that are checked are included in the list of ‘Available Attributes’.
String
Attributes in the table that store string data, such as signal names, operator names,
descriptors, etc.
Bool
Attributes in the table that store TRUE/FALSE data such as logical signal values,
the values of manual, control and alarm inhibit/enable flags, etc.
Integer
Attributes in the table that store integer data such as counts, ID numbers, etc.
Real
Attributes in the table that store floating-point data such as analog signal values.
Time/Date
Attributes in the table that store date and time information such as timestamps.
Primary Key Attributes in the table that are part of the primary key for the table and uniquely
identify the objects within the table.
Foreign Key Attributes in the table that are used as part of another table’s primary key, and are
used to reference those objects from this table.
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Not Key
Attributes in the table that are NOT part of any key.
Nullable
Attributes in the table that can hold a NULL value.
Not Nullable Attributes in the table that can NEVER hold a NULL value.
Persistent
Attributes in the table that are saved to disk when the server is shut down.
Not
Persistent
Attributes that are never saved to disk.
Hidden
Attributes in the table that, by default, are not visible to the user. NOTE: This is
not a security feature, just a convenience. These attributes are typically of little
interest to most users.
Not Hidden
Attributes in the table that, by default, are available to the user.
To choose all criteria (i.e. no attributes excluded) click on the [Set All] push button.
To exclude all criteria (typically done to de-select everything, and then select only a few criteria)
click on the [Clear All] push button.
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Saving the Criteria Used For Your Query in A DBX File
Once you have finished creating your query, you can save
the query criteria, so that you can run it again in the future.
To do this, click on the ‘Save As’ icon, or click on File Æ
Save As. Standard Windows™ Save dialog boxes will
appear in which you can specify a path and filename for
your database query. The file extension for database
queries is (.DBX).
DBX files are a way to save
your queries, and re-use
them later…
Subsequent changes can be saved by clicking on the ‘Save’ icon, or by clicking on File Æ Save.
NOTE: If you save your DBX file in the default directory, with the same name as the table or
view from which you queried data, the query can later be recalled by double-clicking on the table
name in the Database Tree Control Window.
DBX files can be recalled into the Database Object Viewer to re-initiate a query, and may also be
used by other OE components.
Opening An Existing DBX File
If you have previously saved the criteria for a query in a DBX file, you can open it by clicking
on the ‘Open Query’ icon, or by clicking on File Æ Open, and selecting the DBX file from the
dialog box.
If you saved your DBX file in the default directory, with the same name as the table or view for
which you issued your query, you can recall the DBX file by double-clicking on the table name
in the Database Tree Control window.
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Adding ‘Live’ Data to Third-Party Applications by
Dragging DDE Tags
Another use of the Database Object Viewer is to establish ‘live’ dynamic data exchange (DDE)
links between OpenEnterprise and a third-party DDE compliant package, such as Microsoft®
Excel. This allows the creation of spreadsheets containing ‘live’ data, which will update as it
changes in the database.
Before You Begin
Before you can add live data to a spreadsheet, you must have already:
•
•
•
•
•
started the third-party application, e.g. Microsoft® Excel, and created a spreadsheet.
installed and started up the Polyhedra DDE Server. (See the OpenEnterprise Reference
Guide (document# D5092) for instructions on how to do this.)
started the OE Database
started the Database Explorer and established a connection with your running database. (See
pages 4-2 through 4-4.)
read through and become familiar with how to create and run a query of your database. (See
pages 4-13 through 4-19 for details.)
An example illustrating this process is included, below:
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Example - Adding An Analog Value To A Spreadsheet Using DDE
The Brighton Hills tank farm has a series of tanks that hold liquids. They use Network 3000series controllers to monitor the tank levels, and they want to display the tank levels (in FEET) in
a spreadsheet for the operator.
Step 1. - Start creating your query by selecting the Table containing the data:
On the ‘Tables’ page of the Database
Object Viewer, there are numerous tables
listed. In this case, we want to select the
table containing analog data values; called
‘realanalog’. Click on the [Add] push
button.
Step 2. - Choose the Attributes included in your query:
On the ‘Attributes’ page of the Database
Object Viewer, click on the ‘Name’
attribute in the “Available Attributes” list
box, then click on the [Add] push button.
Repeat this process for the ‘Value’ and
‘Units’ attributes.
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Step 3. - Specify Conditions of the query:
On the ‘Conditions’ page of the
Database Object Viewer, we only want
tank levels, which we know are in units
of FEET, so we will put a condition on
our query that units must equal ‘FEET’.
To do this, click on ‘units’ in the
“Available Attributes” list box, then
click on the [Add] push button. The
word ‘units’ will appear in the
“Condition” line, add the following
text to the line:
= ‘FEET’
Now, click on the [Update] push button, and the condition you made will appear in the
“Conditions” box above.
Step 4. - Run the query:
Click on the ‘Active Query’ icon, and then run the query by clicking on Query Æ Apply, or just
click on the ‘Run Query’ icon. The results of the query (analog signal values which have units of
‘FEET’) will appear on the ‘Objects’ page of the Database Object Viewer.
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Step 5. - Leave the ‘Objects’ page of the Database Object Viewer on the screen,
and open up your spreadsheet (if not already open)
Keep the ‘Objects’ page of the Database Object Viewer (which contains your analog values)
visible on the screen. Now call up the spreadsheet you want to add ‘live’ data to in Excel.
Step 6. - Change the Default Tag Format in the Database Object Viewer to DDE
The Database Object Viewer is most frequently used to export OPC tags, therefore, that is the
default export tag format it uses. To export DDE links, you must change the export format to
DDE. Click on: Options Æ Tag Format Æ DDE.
Step 7. - Drag the data from the Database Object Viewer to the Appropriate Cell in
the Spreadsheet
Drag the value from the Database Object Viewer window to the cell in the spreadsheet where
you would like the data to be displayed. This establishes the DDE link. Repeat, as necessary, to
bring additional data into the spreadsheet.
Drag the value from the Database
Object Viewer to the appropriate
cell in the spreadsheet
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NOTE: If a message similar to the one shown below is displayed, it means that the Polyhedra
DDE Server did not start.
If the Polyhedra DDE Server has been installed, you can start it by clicking on Start Æ
Programs Æ Polyhedra Æ DDE. If the Polyhedra DDE Server was never installed, you must
install it according to instructions in the OpenEnterprise Reference Guide (document# D5092).
Some advanced topics which we won’t cover here
•
The Database Object Viewer includes a ‘Joins’ page which allows you to query multiple
tables to find data intersections. Don’t try it! It’s not for beginners, and could crash your
system.
•
The Database Object Viewer includes an ‘SQL’ page which lets you edit SQL queries on the
database. If you’re interested in this, review the appendix on SQL at the end of this manual.
•
The OE Menus feature allows you to take DBX files you create in Database Object Viewer,
and tie them into menus, that allow you to pass parameters between OE components, and edit
the database. This is a very powerful feature for customizing your system, but is beyond the
scope of this manual. Please see the OE Menus section of the OE Reference Guide
(document# D5092) if you need information on this.
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Chapter 5 – Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
What is the OpenEnterprise Graphics Software?
The OpenEnterprise Graphics software (also called OEGraphics or GraphicsView) is a
specially licensed version of the Iconics GraphWorX32 software, which has been specifically
modified to support additional functionality. It is used to build and view graphical displays,
sometimes known as mimic displays, which allow operators to monitor their plant or process
from the OE Workstation. The entire collection of displays used by the operator is referred to as
the human-machine interface (HMI) or graphical user interface (GUI).
Data is collected from the plant or process via instrumentation devices (e.g. flow meters,
electrical contacts, pressure transmitters) and transmitted to RTUs. Data from the RTUs is then
sent to the OE Database, where it can be extracted for use on displays.
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Displays consist of a mixture of
static and dynamic objects. These
objects are drawn to resemble
specific parts of the plant or process
such as pumps, valves, compressors,
tanks, etc. Static objects do not
change, and are not connected to the
OE Database. Dynamic objects,
however, are linked to ‘live’ realtime process data in the OE
Database through the use of OPC
Tags.
This is an OPC Tag
The dynamic objects can be configured to change color, size, or flash based on how the real-time
data changes. For example, an analog value might flash when it has entered an alarm state, or a
pump might turn green when it is running and yellow when it is undergoing maintenance.
Besides allowing an operator to monitor the plant or
process, displays can be configured to help the
operator control the process by allowing data entry
of setpoints, by allowing the operator to start and
stop devices depicted on the display such as pumps,
motorized valves, etc. In each case, these actions are
possible by sending commands from the display
down to the OE Database, and then on to the
controller network.
Objects which are to be used on multiple displays
can be saved as symbols in the symbol library.
They can then be easily imported into any new
display which is created. Symbols and displays can
also use a technique called aliasing which allows
symbols and even entire displays to be re-used with
different entries from the database, depending upon
which alias (name) is currently selected.
What is an OPC Tag?
OPC stands for Object-linking and
embedding for Process Control, an
industry standard that was developed
by the OPC Foundation, to allow a
standard method of communication
between different process control
devices and software. An OPC tag
identifies a piece of information
(normally a signal value or attribute)
using the conventions of the OPC
standard. Within OpenEnterprise this
allows data from the OE Database to
be accessed by displays or trends, or
software by other vendors.
This chapter presents an overview of the display building process, including:
•
instructions for starting the OE Graphics software, opening a display, changing from
‘configure’ to ‘runtime’ mode, saving the display, etc.
•
step-by-step examples for creating various display objects. Various features of OE Graphics
are highlighted as part of the examples.
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•
instructions for working with symbols, setting up aliasing of individual symbols, saving them
in the symbol library, and re-using them on other displays.
•
suggestions for designing your entire human-machine interface (HMI) system.
IMPORTANT
This chapter is NOT intended to be a comprehensive reference to all features and functions of the
OE Graphics package. If you need information on a particular feature not covered here, please refer
to the GraphWorX32 User Manual.
Before You Begin
Before you attempt to build displays, the following must have been done:
•
You must have installed the OE Graphics package on your workstation. This process is
briefly covered in the OpenEnterprise Installation Guide portion of the OpenEnterprise
Reference Guide (document# D5092).
•
Your OE Database must have been created and must be running.
•
You must be able to connect to the OE Database using Database Explorer, and issue a query
of the OE Database (This was discussed in Chapter 4.)
•
You must have successfully logged on to your OpenEnterprise Workstation, with sufficient
security privileges to access the OE Database. Consult your site-specific documentation for
details.
•
You must be familiar with the details of the underlying plant or process which will be
depicted on the displays, and also must know which tables and attributes of the OE Database
contain the data you want to include on the display.
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Starting the OE Graphics package
By default, the startup sequence for the OE Graphics package is to click on Start Æ Programs
Æ OpenEnterprise Æ Workstation. This sequence may have been modified, however, when
OE Graphics was initially installed.
If you cannot find OpenEnterprise Graphics, look for GraphWorX32, and start it, instead. After
the splash screen has appeared, the screen should appear as shown, below, with an all-new empty
display open.
Opening a Display
Once OE Graphics is running, you can choose to create an all-new display, or you can open an
existing display.
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Opening An All-New Display
When you first start OE Graphics, an all-new empty display is opened automatically, and the
screen will appear as shown on the previous page.
If you already have other displays open, however, and want to create an all-new display, you can
do so by clicking on the icon shown above, or by clicking on File Æ New.
An empty display will now be opened, and you can begin to add graphic elements to it.
Opening An Existing Display
To open a display which has already been created,
click on the Open icon, shown above, or click on File
Æ Open.
The standard Windows™ Open dialog box will
appear.
Use the controls to locate the directory containing your displays. The recommended directory for
storing OpenEnterprise displays is
\OEStore\ Displays
so you might want to look there first.
When you find the display you want to open, double-click on the name of the display file (must
end in ‘.GDF’), -or- click once on its name, then click on the [Open] button, and the display will
appear on the screen.
Using the Example Displays
If you can’t locate any displays, the OpenEnterprise Software CD comes with a selection of
example displays, which you may use as a starting point for creating your own displays.
The example displays are located in the \Examples\Workstation sub-directories on your
OpenEnterprise Software CD.
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A Quick Look at the Drawing Tools
This section will briefly discuss the most commonly used drawing tools. For more detailed
information, please see the GraphWorX32 User Manual.
Choosing Colors
One of the first things you will want to do when you open up a display is to set the background
color of the display. To do this, click on Format Æ Background Color.
The Color Palette will appear. Click on the color of your choice for the background, then click
on the [OK] push button.
Click on the color you want to
select, then click on the [OK]
push button.
The “Format” pull down menu also has selections
for setting the line color, line style, display
properties, etc. For more details, see the
GraphWorX32 User Manual.
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Drawing A Straight Line
To draw a straight line,
click on the ‘Straight Line’
icon, then click in the
display where you want the
line to begin, and drag the
mouse until you reach the
desired endpoint, then
release the mouse.
To change the line color,
you must use FormatÆ
Line Color, and select the
color from the color
palette.
Then click where you want
to start the line, and drag
the mouse to where you want
to finish the line.
To draw a
straight line,
first click on
the ‘Straight
line’ icon
To move the line after it is
finished, select it and drag
it to the desired location.
Selecting Objects on Displays
To select an object on a display just click on it. A group of eight edit handles
will appear around the object. (The picture at right shows a pump symbol
surrounded by edit handles.) You can click and drag on these handles to resize the object in various directions. To move the object, just click on the
object (not the handles) and hold down the left mouse key while you move
the object to the desired new position.
Drag bounding box
to select multiple
objects
Edit handle
To select more than one object, drag the mouse to form a
bounding box around the objects you want to select, then
release the mouse button and all the complete objects in the
box will be selected.
If a display contains many objects close together, and you are
unable to select the right one, you can select any object on the
display, and repeatedly press the [Tab] key. As you keep
pressing the [Tab] key, a bounding box will move through
each of the objects on the display, allowing you to eventually
select the desired object.
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Drawing A Box
To draw a box, click on the ‘Rectangle/Square’ icon, then click in the location in the display
where you want to draw the box, and drag the mouse until the box is the desired size, then
release the mouse.
To draw a square, follow the same procedure, except hold down the [Shift] key while you are
dragging the mouse.
If you want to re-size the box, you can drag on the handles which appear around its edge when it
is selected.
To move the box after it is finished, select it, and drag it to the desired location.
If you want to change the fill color of the box, select the box, then click on the desired color in
the color palette. If you want to turn on/off the fill color, you can click on Format Æ Toggle Fill
(or just click on the ‘Fill/Unfill’ icon).
To draw a box, first click
on the ‘Rectangle/Square’
icon.
Next, click where you want to draw
the box, and drag the mouse until
the box is at the desired size.
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Drawing An Ellipse or A Circle
To draw an ellipse or circle, click on the ‘Ellipse/Circle’ icon, then click in the location in the
display where you want to draw the ellipse, and drag the mouse until the box is the desired size,
then release the mouse.
To draw a circle, follow the same procedure, except hold down the [Shift] key while you are
dragging the mouse.
If you want to re-size the ellipse/circle, you can drag on the handles which appear when it is
selected.
To move the ellipse/circle after it is finished, select it, and drag it to the desired location.
If you want to change the fill color of the ellipse/circle, select it, then click on the desired color
in the color palette. If you want to turn on/off the fill color, you can click on Format Æ Toggle
Fill (or just click on the ‘Fill/Unfill’ icon).
To draw an ellipse
or circle, first click
on the ‘Ellipse/
Circle’ icon.
Next, click where you
want to draw the ellipse,
and drag the mouse until
it is at the desired size.
For information on the other drawing tools, see the GraphWorX32 User Manual.
Saving A Display
To save a display, click on the ‘Save’ icon, shown above, or click on File Æ Save. The Save or
Save As dialog box will appear. It is recommended that you save your displays in the directory:
\OE Store\ Displays
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Switching Between Configure Mode and Runtime Mode
Configure Mode is used to build your displays, add dynamic data, etc. Live data is NOT visible
in Configure Mode.
Configure Mode is for building
NOTE: In order to make changes to your display, or to the display. You can’t see any live
add ‘live’ data to your display, the OE Graphics data in Configure Mode.
package must be in ‘Configure’ mode - - if you are in
‘Runtime’ mode, click on the ‘Configure’ menu bar Runtime Mode is for running /
item to return to ‘Configure’. If there is no ‘Configure’ viewing the display with live data.
item but you see a ‘Runtime’ item, you are already in
‘Configure’ mode.
If you see ‘Runtime’ here, you are in currently in
Configure Mode. Clicking on ‘Runtime’ will switch
you into Runtime Mode.
If you see ‘Configure’ here you are currently in
Runtime Mode. Clicking on ‘Configure’ will switch
you into Configure Mode.
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Examples of Creating Various Display Objects
The examples which follow should generally be performed in consecutive order, since most
examples build on the information presented in the previous examples.
Each of the examples assume you have successfully connected to your running Database via
Database Explorer, and that you understand how to query the database for information using the
Database Object Viewer. If you are unsure about how to do these things, please review Chapter
4.
The examples also assume you have already started the OE Graphics package, that you have
opened up a display, that you know how to save it, and how to switch back and forth between
‘Configure’ mode and ‘Runtime’ mode. These subjects are discussed earlier in this chapter.
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Example #1 - Creating A Text Label on A Display
Bold
Underline
Font size Italicize
3 While selected, you can
change the appearance of
Click on the ‘Text’ icon
the text with these controls.
Font type
1
2
Click where you want
to place the text, and
start typing
Step 1. Either click the ‘Text’ icon (shown at right), -or- click on Draw Æ Text.
Step 2. Click on the location in the display where you want to add the text label, and start typing.
Step 3. To change the font, size, or style of the label, select it, and use the controls at the top of
the screen.
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Making Changes To An Existing Text Label
If you want to change the text label you’ve
just created, you must right click on it, and
choose “Property Inspector” from the popup menu.
(You could also have chosen Edit Æ Text
to edit the text directly on the screen, but
the Property Inspector provides more
options.)
You should experiment with the Property
Inspector dialog box to see the various
options for representing text.
Use this list box to
change the edge
around the text.
You can have a
raised edge, a
sunken edge, etc.
Click here to call up
the Font dialog box
to change the font
styles of the text
Call up a pallette to
select a different
background color
for the data
If desired, you can edit the
text directly in this field
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Example #2 - Displaying A Numerical Value From the
Database (Process Point)
2
1
Construct a query using the
Database Object Viewer.
Open a display in the
OpenEnterprise Graphics
package
7
Switch to “Runtime” mode
Click on the approximate
location where you would
like the data to appear. The
Property Inspector dialog
box will pop-up.
4
6
5
Click and drag the value from the
Database Object Viewer into the
“Data Source” field in the Property
Inspector dialog box. This is called
dragging an OPC Tag.
3
Click on the [OK]
push button.
Click on the Process Point icon.
Step 1. Using the Database Object Viewer, construct an active query of the database which calls
up the signal data you are interested in from the ‘realanalog’ table. Leave the window
open. (If you’re not sure how to do this, please read Chapter 4).
Step 2. Open a display in the OE Graphics package, and move it side-by-side with the Database
Object Viewer window, so that both windows are in view.
Step 3. Either click on the process point icon, -orclick on Dynamics Æ Intrinsics Æ Process Point.
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Step 4. Click on the approximate location in the display where you want the data to appear (you
can adjust the location later, if necessary.) The Property Inspector dialog box will pop-up.
Step 5. Drag whichever value you want to display from the Database Object Viewer window into
the “Data Source” field in the Property Inspector dialog box. This is called dragging an
OPC Tag.
OPC Tag
Step 6. Click on the [OK] push button to save the process point. The process point will appear as
a series of question marks ‘?????’ surrounded by drag handles.
The drag handles can be used to manually re-size the text. The color red indicates that
this object in the display contains ‘live’ data.
NOTE: The OPC tag is now visible within the display if you move the cursor over the
process point.
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Step 7. Switch to ‘Runtime’ mode to view the active data on the display, by clicking on
“Runtime” in the menu bar. The live data value should appear on the display, and should
match that in the active query of the Database Object Viewer.
In ‘Runtime’ mode, the data value in the active
query of the Database Object Viewer, and the
value of the process point should be the same.
Variations on Example #2
•
Making changes to an existing Process Point: If you want to change
the process point, you just created, you can recall the Property
Inspector dialog box to the screen and make changes. To do this, right
click on the process point in ‘Configure’ mode, and select “Property
Inspector” from the pop-up menu.
•
Displaying non-numerical data in the Process Point:
There is no restriction on the type of attribute you drag into the
Property Inspector dialog box. While the example described using a
numerical value using the ‘Value’ attribute, you could have dragged
the ‘Units’ or ‘Name’ attribute into the “Data Source” field.
•
Making the Process Point changeable by the
Operator: If you want the process point to be Select this to
changeable by the operator, for example, to enter
make operator
setpoint levels, simply select “Data Entry” as part of
entry possible
the “Point Type” in the PPT/DE page of the Property
Inspector dialog box. In ‘Runtime’ mode, the operator
can enter new values into this process point which are
copied to the database, and down into the RTU.
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•
Changing Background & Foreground Colors of the Process Point, Changing the Font:
The ‘Text’ page of the Property Inspector dialog box includes various fields for changing the
style of how the text appears. You should experiment with this to see a style you prefer.
Use this list box to
change the edge
around the text.
You can have a
raised edge, a
sunken edge, etc.
Click here to call up
the Font dialog box
to change the font
styles of the text
Call up a pallette to
select a different
background color
for the data
Common Mistakes Which Occur When Creating Process Points
• Dragging data without first clicking the ‘Process Point’ icon, and clicking in the display
If you do this, you will be dragging just the text for the OPC tag onto your display, which is
useless by itself. Click on the tag in the display, and press the [Delete] key, then start again.
•
Dragging the wrong OPC tag
This is the most common error when creating a process point. Depending upon which
attribute (column) you drag from, you might see data in the wrong format (e.g. text instead of
numerical data) or you might be dragging from a row above or below the one you want. If
the displayed value does NOT match the value displayed in the active query, you can just
delete the current tag in the "Data Source" field, and drag in the correct one. Alternatively,
just click on the value in the display, press the [Delete] key, and start again.
•
Forgetting to use an active query
If you forgot to click on the ‘Active Query’ icon (shown at right) before running your
query, the query will only be updated if you manually run the query again, and
consequently, the data on your display WILL NOT change when you go into
‘Runtime’ mode. Click on the ‘Active Query’ icon and re-run the query. If this does
NOT fix the problem, verify that your connection to the database is functioning.
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Example #3 - Displaying the changing level of liquid in
a tank
NOTE: The tank we are drawing in this example is a simple box; you can be much more
elaborate in your tank design if you desire. In addition, you may wish to check the symbol library
to see if there is a tank symbol already made that you want to use.
2
1
Open a display in the
OpenEnterprise Graphics
package
3
Click on the box icon,
and create a box.
Construct a query using the
Database Object Viewer.
10
6
Switch to “Runtime” mode
Click on:
Dynamics->Actions->Size
8
9
7
Drag the appropriate tank level value
from the Database Object Viewer into
the “Data Source” field in the Property
Inspector
5
4
Change the background
color from the palette
Choose the
direction in
which the
inner box will
change size.
Specify the range
and click on [OK]
Create a second box
inside the first box. The
second box represents
the liquid in the tank.
Step 1. Using the Database Object Viewer, construct an active query of the database which calls
up the tank level signal data you are interested in from the ‘realanalog’ table. Leave the
window open. (If you’re not sure how to do this, please read Chapter 4).
Step 2. Open a display in the OE Graphics package, and move it side-by-side with the Database
Object Viewer window, so that both windows are in view.
Step 3. Click on the box icon, then move the cursor to the location where you want to add the
tank. Click and drag until you have created a box which represents the tank.
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First, click on
the box icon
Next, click and
drag the cursor
until a box is
created
Color palette
Step 4. Change the background color of the tank to black by
clicking on black in the color palette while the tank is
selected. Alternatively, you can right click on the tank
and change both the "Fill Color" and the "Line Color"
to black, separately.
Step 5. Using the same method described in steps 3 and 4, create another slightly smaller box
with a blue color which will represent the liquid in the tank, and drag it just inside the
first box, so all of its edges appear inside the first box.
Outer box represents
the tank itself
Inner box represents
the liquid in the tank
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Step 6. With the smaller blue box selected, click on Dynamics Æ Actions Æ Size and the
Property Inspector dialog box will appear.
Step 7. Drag the appropriate tank level value from the Database Object Viewer into the “Data
Source” field of the Property Inspector dialog box.
Step 8. Choose the direction in which the
inner box changes size to depict the
liquid level.
Step 9. Click on the “Range Override”
check box, and enter values for
“Low”
and
“High”
which
correspond to the minimum and
maximum tank levels to be displayed.
Then click on the [OK] push button.
OPC tag dragged
in from Database
Object Viewer
Choose the
direction in
which the
size changes
Define range
for tank level
Step 10.Switch to ‘Runtime’ mode to view the active data on the
display, by clicking on “Runtime” in the menu bar. The
inner box representing the liquid should change size as
the value changes in the active query of the Database
Object Viewer.
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Variations on Example #3
Making more realistic looking objects using the drawing tools:
The tank we just drew consisted of two boxes - one for the tank, and one for the liquid in the
tank If you want to make a more realistic
looking tank for this example, you can use the
drawing tools provided in the toolbar. In fact, it
is a good idea to experiment with the drawing
tools to see what sorts of objects you can
create.
Select an existing object on the screen
Draw a straight line
Draw a box
Draw an ellipse (hold down [Shift] to make a circle)
Draw a curve
Draw a multi-line segmented object
Type text labels
Fill an enclosed object with the currently selected color
The straight line and curve tools operate similarly to the box tool; just click on their icons in the
toolbar, then click within the display and drag the cursor until the tool draws the line or curve as
you want it. The ellipse tool also operates similarly, however, if you want to create a circle, hold
down the [Shift] key while using the ellipse tool.
One thing to remember when using the multi-line segmented tool is that to exit that tool, you
must double-click the mouse on the endpoint where you want to stop drawing lines; otherwise it
will continue to try to draw more line segments.
For more information on using these tools, see the GraphWorX32 User Manual.
Making changes and corrections to objects:
To make changes to the non-dynamic parts of the object, just click on them in ‘Configure’ mode,
and make changes using the drawing tools, etc. To make changes in the dynamic properties (i.e.
sizing based on an analog value) right-click on the object in ‘Configure’ mode, and make any
necessary changes in the Property Inspector. If the dynamic properties are too difficult to change
in this way, you can select the object by clicking on it until you see red handles, then, from the
menu bar, click on EditÆDelete Selected Dynamics. You can also do this by right-clicking on
the object, and choosing “Delete Dynamics” from the pop-up menu. Now re-create the
dynamics as you want them.
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Using Irregularly Shaped Borders:
You can use the drawing tools to create an irregularly shaped object for your tank (for example, a
cut-away view) which will be re-sized based on a real-time value in the database.
To do this, create the irregular (but enclosed) object with the segmented line tool, then duplicate
it by depressing the [Ctrl]+[D] keys. Now you have two objects; change one object’s fill color to
be lightly colored (to show the liquid level) and the other object’s fill color to be darker colored
(to represent the background). Align the objects by dragging the cursor around them both to
select them, then click on ArrangeÆAlignÆBoth Centers. If necessary, use the “Bring to
Front” and “Send to Back” options to make sure the lighter colored object is on top.
Make two identical objects. The
lighter colored one will change size
based on the analog value; the
darker colored one does not change.
Use the cursor to select both objects,
then align them using the “Align”
feature so that they appear as one
single object; with the lighter colored
object on top.
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Now, click on DynamicsÆActionsÆSize and the Property Inspector dialog box will appear.
Use the exact same methods you used before when you were making the tank using boxes. The
only difference is, this time, make sure you select the “Clip” option as shown in the figure,
below:
When creating irregularly
shaped dynamic objects,
be sure to select the
“Clip” option.
If you forget to use clipping, the entire dynamic object will be scaled, and the result will look
wrong for this type of object. The figure on the left, below, shows the results of scaling an
irregular dynamic object (wrong method), and the figure on the right shows the results of
clipping the irregular dynamic object (correct method).
Dynamic object
is scaled instead
of clipped
(WRONG)
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Dynamic
object is
correctly
clipped
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Using A Pre-Drawn Object From the Symbol Library
If you are having trouble drawing a satisfactory tank, you can always look in the symbol library
to see if there is one you would prefer to use.
Click on the ‘Symbol Library’ icon, shown at left, and the Symbol Library will be
opened.
Click on the category of symbols you want to look at, and the available symbols in that category
will appear. When you see a symbol you want to use, drag it from the symbol library into your
display.
Click on the category
you want to choose
from, and its associated
symbols will be displayed
Next, drag the
symbol you want
into your display
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Example #4 - Creating A Sliding Setpoint Control With
Which the Operator Can Update a Value in
the Database & RTU
NOTE: Beginning with this example, we assume that you are familiar enough with the general
display building process to know that you must run a query with the Database Object Viewer,
leave it active while you call up your display, drag it into the data source field of the Property
Inspector, etc. These items will no longer be listed as steps in the example, because their
inclusion is implied. In addition, by this example, we assume that you are familiar with use of the
drawing tools, and how to make use of the topics in the previous examples such as creating a
process point, making an object change size based on an analog value, etc.
Suppose your controller includes logic which allows an operator to adjust a setpoint for a tank
level; the operator alters the setpoint causing other logic controlling input and output valves to
the tank to open or close in order for the tank level to reach the setpoint. There are many ways to
incorporate this operator setpoint within a display.
You could, for example, create a data entry process point (see Making the Process Point
changeable by the Operator on page 5-21) in which the operator manually enters a new
setpoint.
Another approach, which is the subject of this
example, is to create a sliding setpoint control, which
the operator drags on the screen to dynamically change
the setpoint; as the value changes, it is updated in the
database, and copied down to the RTU.
Step 1. Start out by creating a tank liquid level graphic
which re-sizes based on the tank level value. In
this case, just show the level as a dark colored
bar, on top of an identically sized lighter
colored object. (The light colored bar
underneath does not change - - only make the
dark colored object dynamic.) It would also be
a good idea to display the tank level as a
process point just below the graphical
representation on the display.
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This bar will be
used to represent
the tank level. The
level will also be
displayed below
as a process point.
Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
If you’re unsure how to create this graphic, please review Example #3 beginning on page
5-18. If you’re unsure how to create a process point, please review Example #2 beginning
on page 5-14.
Step 2. Using the segmented line tool,
draw a triangular pointer, which
will be used as the setpoint slider.
Segmented
(You can draw the pointer on
line tool
another part of the display, and
drag it over later; it doesn’t have to
Fill tool
be right next to the bar
representing the tank level yet;
eventually however, the tip of the
pointer should be next to the bar
representing the tank level.) Color palette
Double-click when you have
finished enclosing the pointer (to
exit the segmented line tool) then,
with the pointer still selected,
choose a color for the pointer from
the color palette, and click on the
fill tool to set the new fill color.
Use the segmented line tool
to create a triangular pointer.
Then choose a color for it from
the color palette, and click on
the fill icon to set the new color.
Step 3. Create a process point next to the triangular pointer (created in Step 2). This
process point should use the value of whichever signal is your setpoint signal. Do
NOT make it a data entry point; just make it a normal process point which
displays the value of the setpoint signal.
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Step 4. Select both the triangular pointer and the process point next to it, then group them
together as a single object by clicking on ArrangeÆGroup into Symbol.
Select both the triangular pointer,
and the process point you created
in the last step, and group them
together as a single object.
Step 5. Now that the process point
and triangular pointer are
grouped together as a single
object, you should move
them next to the bottom edge
of the tank level graphic.
Now we can add dynamic
capability to them. To do
this, click on Dynamics Æ
Actions Æ Location /
Slider.
The
Property
Inspector dialog box will
appear.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Now that the triangular
pointer and the process
point have been grouped
together, choose the
Location/Slider menu option.
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Step 6. Complete entries in the Property Inspector dialog box as follows:
•
Drag the value representing the setpoint signal into the “Data Source” field. (This is the
same signal value you used for the process point in step 3.)
•
Choose the “Slider” option.
•
Determine how you want data to be updated at the RTU by the setpoint control. We
recommend you choose “Tracking” because this will cause the change to be written only
when the operator releases the mouse at the desired setpoint. If you choose “Continuous”
the data will continually be written to the RTU as you move the mouse; this can impose a
burden on your system communications if you are using radios, for example, because
OpenEnterprise will initiate a new communication transaction for each incremental move of
the mouse. If you choose “Detent” you can specify an incremental value after which data
will be written to the RTU, mouse changes which are less than that increment will not be sent
to the RTU.
•
Enter the lowest and highest possible values for the setpoint signal.
•
Click on the [Set Limits] push button, and define the limits for the sliding setpoint control
(See step 7).
OPC tag for the setpoint
signal (must be dragged
in from Database Object
Viewer)
You must click on [Set Limits]
to specify how the sliding
pointer will move.
Choose “Slider”
Specify the range
of values for the
setpoint signal.
These selections
determine when
the RTU receives
the new setpoint.
‘Tracking’ is the
recommended
method.
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Step 7. Drag the setpoint control from the bottom of the tank level graphic to the top (this
represents the full range of movement for the control). Then press the [Esc] key and you
will return to the Property Inspector dialog box. Click on [OK].
When you reach
the upper limit,
press the [Esc] key.
Drag the setpoint control
along its full range of
movement. In this case,
that would be from the
bottom up to the top of
the level graphic.
Step 8. Go to ‘Runtime’ mode, and test the setpoint control. Drag it with the mouse and watch
the value of the setpoint process point change. If your RTU logic was active, and
controlling a process, this would cause valves to open/close etc. in order to raise or lower
the liquid level in the tank (as displayed by the tank level graphic) in order to meet the
new operator setpoint.
Drag the setpoint
control, and watch
the setpoint change.
If your control logic
in the RTU is active,
the level value would
also change as valves
are opened/closed to
change the tank level
until it reaches the
operator’s setpoint.
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Variations on Example #4
Making the setpoint visible as a second graphic next to the tank level graphic:
In the example we just completed, the setpoint is manipulated by moving the setpoint control
next to the level, but the change in the level is not immediately reflected, since it depends on
changes in the RTU and the process. You could create a second bar graphic representing the
setpoint value next to the level graphic. When you move the setpoint control in runtime mode,
the setpoint bar should move along with it.
As you drag the setpoint
control, the setpoint graphic
bar will change size as you
move the control.
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Example #5 – Displaying A Message Based on A
Logical Value in the Database
Step 1. On a display, use the text tool to enter the text label you want to present. For example,
let’s say that in the event of a chlorine leak detection, you want to display in large red
letters “CHLORINE LEAK DETECTED”. (For help on using the text tool, see Example
#1 - Creating A Text Label on A Display)
Step 2. Select the text by clicking on it; it will be surrounded by edit handles.
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Step 3. Now that the text is selected click as follows: DynamicsÆActionsÆHide/Disable
The Property Inspector dialog box will appear.
Step 4. On the ‘Hide’ page of the Property Inspector dialog box, drag in the OPC tag from the
Database Object Viewer, and place it in the “Data Source” field.
Choose “Hide/Disable when False” because when the Chlorine Leak signal is OFF, we
don’t want to display the ‘CHLORINE LEAK DETECTED’ message; we only want to
display it when the Chlorine Leak signal is ON (True).
Click on [OK].
Drag in the OPC tag which specifies
the value of the “Chlorine Leak” signal
Choose which state will cause the
text label to be hidden. In this case
we don’t want to display the “Chlorine
Leak“ label unless the associated signal
is ON (true), so when it is false, hide the
label.
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Step 5. To test that the label is displayed correctly, simulate a chlorine leak by turning the
associated chlorine leak signal ON via Open BSI DataView, then verify that the chlorine
leak label is displayed in Runtime Mode. (Be sure to turn the signal OFF when you’re
finished testing.)
Variation on Example #5
Making the ‘CHLORINE LEAK DETECTED’ label flash on and off when it is ON.
In the example we just completed,
we displayed the ‘CHLORINE
LEAK DETECTED’ label when the
associated signal was ON. Suppose,
to grab the attention of the operator,
we also want the label to FLASH
on and off.
You can alter the
flash rate here.
To do this click as follows:
DynamicsÆActionsÆFlash
Choose
“Flash When True”
Go to the ‘Flash’ page of the dialog
box. Specify the state when flashing
is to appear (in this case “Flash
When True”) and if desired, adjust
the “Flash Rate”.
Click on [OK] and go into Runtime Mode to verify that the text flashes as expected.
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Example #6 – Changing the Color of A Pump Based on
a Logical Value
Step 1. On a display, draw a simple pump using a circle and two rectangles. (See figure, below
left). Use the Arrange Æ Send to Back and Arrange Æ Bring to Front commands as
necessary to put the rectangles behind the circle. (See figure, below right). It’s true, it
doesn’t look much like a pump, but it’s fine for the purposes of this example.
Step 2. Select the pump by dragging a bounding box
around it. When you release the mouse, edit
handles will appear around all of the pieces.
Step 3. Group the pump into a single symbol by using
Arrange Æ Group into Symbol
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Step 4. Click on Dynamics Æ Actions Æ Color
Step 5.Let’s say that when the pump is running, you want to show it in RED. Drag the OPC tag
for the pump status signal value into the upper part of the “Data Source” field, then click
on the [Add] button. This will cause the tag to be copied to the lower part of the field.
Once here, its value can be used to change the color of the object.
Drag the OPC tag in
as usual
Choose the NEW
color you want the
pump to change to
from the color
pallette.
Click on the [Add]
button, and the tag
will be copied to
here.
In this case, we
want to change
color when the
value is ON.
Now choose ‘RED’ for the “Fill Color” in the “Apply Change to” part of the dialog box.
Then choose “Change Color on True” because we want the pump to appear in RED when it
was ON. (If we had wanted it to appear in RED when the associated signal was OFF, we would
have chose “Change Color on False”).
Finally, click on [OK].
Step 6. Switch to Runtime Mode and verify that the pump changes color based on its status.
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Variations on Example #6
Showing ‘RUNNING’ or ‘STOPPED’ next to the pump, based on its status
In the example we just completed, all we do is show that the pump is running by changing the
pump’s color. What if your operator is color blind?
In a real world example, you probably would also want to show a label ‘RUNNING’ next to it,
and a ‘STOPPED’ label next to it when it was stopped. This ensures there is no confusion about
what a particular color indicates. (You could do that using the techniques described in Example
#5 – Displaying A Message Based on A Logical Value in the Database)
Allowing the Operator to Call Up Another Display by clicking on the pump symbol
IMPORTANT: Be sure you save your
current display before you try this.
By default, the left mouse
button is used when clicking.
Select the pump we have already
configured to change color.
Choose
Choose Dyamics Æ Actions Æ Pick to
“Load Display”
call up the Property Inspector dialog
box. From the ‘Pick’ page of the dialog
box, choose “Load Display” from the
Actions” list box, then use the
[Browse] key to locate/specify the
display you want to have loaded when
the operator clicks on the pump. Click
Specify the display
on [OK] when finished, then test it in
to be loaded
Runtime Mode.
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Allowing the Operator to START/STOP the pump by clicking on the pump symbol
If you want the operator to be able to START/STOP the pump from your display, you could
create dedicated START and STOP labels. If your system uses the same signal for both starting
and stopping a pump (like an ON/OFF switch), you could configure the pump symbol to be an
ON/OFF switch.
NOTE: In this case, the pump’s color is still tied to the pump status signal, but you click on the
pump to START/STOP it. (The START/STOP signal is different from the status signal.)
To do this, select the pump we have already configured to change color, and click on Dynamics
Æ Actions Æ Pick.
Click on the ‘Pick’ page of the dialog box, and choose ‘Toggle Value’ for the “Action” and drag
in the start/stop value OPC tag from the Database Object Viewer. Specify 0 as the “Toggle
Value1” state (STOP pump) and 1 as the “Toggle Value2” state.
Choose ‘Toggle Value’
Drag in the start/stop pump OPC tag
Specify ‘0’ for START PUMP
and ‘1’ for STOP PUMP
In Runtime Mode, the operator can now start/stop the pump by clicking on the pump symbol.
There are variations to this example, as well. For example, instead of clicking on the pump
symbol, we could have created [Start] and [Stop] push buttons for the operator to click on using
Dynamics Æ Instrinsics Æ Pushbutton. Try that as an exercise.
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Example 7 - Creating a System Overview Display
Most plant operators create an Overview display that they leave up on the screen when not
looking at other displays.
Typically the Overview display consists of a photograph of their plant, or a map of their system.
Links are added to various parts of the picture or map that the operator can click on to bring up a
display corresponding to that geographic area of the plant.
Step 1. - Get a photo or map which you can use for your Overview display.
There are several ways you can do this.
•
Take a picture of your plant or
process with a digital camera.
•
Scan a picture or map of your
plant or process.
•
Draw the map or picture
yourself using the drawing tools.
•
Download a map from an
Internet mapping site. (Your
local state government or
chamber of commerce may also
have one available.)
Talbot
Brown
Hill Top
Valley Center
NMSCGC
Control
Center
Bielen
Mitchell
Garrett
Franktown
Elf’s Peak
Louville
Gillette
Griffeth Town
State
Route 9
Crystal
Lake
Johnson
Corners
Masonville
Cliff Rock
LongView
Lake
View
Rolling Forest State Park
Hunte Town
Route 103
The resulting graphic should have an extension such as TIF, GIF, BMP, or JPG.
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Step 2. - Import the photo or map into OE Graphics
•
In ‘Configure’ mode, open an empty OE Graphics display by clicking on File Æ New.
•
Click on Draw Æ Import Æ Image and browse to the photo or map file created in Step 1,
and click [Open]. The photo or map file will be brought into OE Graphics.
Step 3. - Add labels, logos, etc. (OPTIONAL)
•
Click on Draw Æ Text (or click on the icon, shown at right) to add text labels, to the map or
photo. See Example 1, earlier in this chapter, for help on doing this.
•
You could even draw or import other items like your company’s logo. You could add
buttons, process points, anything that appears on any other display.
NMSCGC
Northeast Midwest Southern Consolidated
Gas Company (NMSCGC)
Brown
Hill Top
Valley Center
Bielenville
Mitchell
Garrett
Elf’s Peak
Louville
Griffeth Town
State
Route 9
Crystal
Lake
Johnson
Corners
Gillette
Cliff Rock
Lake
View
Long
Rohrmanton
Masonville
Rolling Forest State Park
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Franktown
I-325
NMSCGC
Control
Center
Talbot
Hunte Town
Route 103
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Step 4. - Add Links to Call Up Other Displays
(This step is similar to one of the variations discussed in Example 6.)
Using the drawing tools, create
objects (you could use buttons,
or little boxes or circles or
whatever) that users would
click on to load a display, and
position them where you want
the user to click. Typically this
would be on the map location
or photo location which
corresponds to the display you
want to load. For this particular
example, we’ve added little
boxes to be used as links.
NMSCGC
Northeast Midwest Southern Consolidated
Gas Company (NMSCGC)
Brown
Hill Top
Valley Center
NMSCGC
Control
Center
Bielenville
Mitchell
Garrett
IMPORTANT: Be sure you save
your current display before you try
this.
•
Select one of the objects (little boxes)
you just created.
•
Choose Dyamics Æ Actions Æ Pick
to call up the Property Inspector dialog
box.
Crystal
Lake
Johnson
Corners
Franktown
Elf’s Peak
Louville
Griffeth Town
State
Route 9
Talbot
I-325
•
Long
Rohrmanton
Gillette
Masonville
Cliff Rock
Lake
View
Rolling Forest State Park
Hunte Town
Route 103
By default, the left mouse
button is used when clicking.
Choose
“Load Display”
•
From the ‘Pick’ page of the dialog
box, choose “Load Display” from the
Actions” list box, then use the
[Browse] key and “Browse Files” to
locate / specify the display you want to
Specify the display
have loaded when the operator clicks
to be loaded
on that particular link in the Overview
display.
•
Click on [OK] when finished, then test it in Runtime Mode. Clicking on the little box should
bring up the specified display. Repeat this process for each additional link.
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What Now?
Well, we’ve really only scratched the surface on the subject of display building. There are
numerous other dynamics / actions you can configure. The best way to learn about them is to
experiment. Try things out, play with the example displays, and when necessary, review the online help and the GraphWorX32 manual.
Before you do this though, there are three more important topics that need to be covered. They
are important because they can save you hours of time and effort if you understand them, and use
them when building the actual displays for your system. These topics are covered in the
following sections:
•
•
•
Saving Your Own Symbols in the Symbol Library, and Updating Objects Through Share
Keywords
Using Aliasing to allow you to re-use the Same Objects with Different Data From the
Database
Tips for Planning Your Human Machine Interface (HMI) System
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Saving Your Own Symbols in the Symbol Library, and
Updating Objects through Share Keywords
Earlier in this chapter, we described how to retrieve pre-defined symbols from the symbol
library. What if you want to create your own symbols? Let’s say you have defined a symbol that
is good enough that you want to re-use it. For example, suppose you have created a symbol for a
water tank, and you want to use it throughout your displays. You can save it in the symbol
library.
Saving objects as symbols in the symbol library
Let’s say your display uses some simple shapes to represent a meter.
Step 1. Select the entire object.
Step 2. Group the object into a symbol by clicking on:
Arrange Æ Group Into Symbol
Step 3. Right-click on the object and choose “Property Inspector” from the pop-up menu.
Assign a “Share Keyword” in the Property Inspector. A share keyword is just a name,
but it has an important function if you make subsequent changes to the symbol.
Step 4. The Symbol Library is divided up into a tree of
folders. Each folder has one or more category
pages; the category pages contain individual
symbols. If desired, create a folder and
category page of your own by clicking on the
“Categories” folder, and clicking on File Æ
Add Æ Subdirectory and then File Æ Add Æ
Category. Alternatively, you can use existing
folders and category pages.
IMPORTANT: You should always assign a
“Share Keyword” to any object you intend
to re-use. In complex objects, you may even
want to define a “Share Keyword” for each
piece of the object.
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Assign a share
keyword name
here.
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Step 5. Drag the symbol into the desired category page and symbol sub-directory.
Drag the symbol into the desired
category and sub-directory of the
symbol library.
Now you can proceed to use the symbol in various displays, by dragging it out of the symbol
library, when needed. (See Using a Pre-Drawn Object from the Symbol Library which was part
of Example 4.)
Updating Shared Objects
Suppose you have used the symbol multiple times on
multiple displays, but now, you decide, for whatever reason,
that you want to change the symbol’s line style to use
thicker lines (as shown at right). If you had to manually
change each individual symbol, it could result in hours of
work. Because, you assigned a share keyword, however,
you only need to make the change once.
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To do this, right-click on the symbol in one of
the displays, and choose the line width option
from the pop-up menu. (We’re choosing line
width for this example, but we could have
chosen other items from the menu.)
NOTE: You should never ungroup a symbol, or
the shared object name will be lost. To edit parts
of the symbol choose “Edit Symbol” - - in this
case those parts should have had shared
keywords defined.
When the change has been completed, choose
Edit Æ Update Shared Objects and you will be
prompted to identify the scope of the change
(current display, multiple files), and if multiple
files, select which files are to be updated. Also,
specify if there are parts of the object to be
preserved.
Choose the scope of the change,
in this case, we want the change
to affect multiple files.
Click here to
specify the file(s)
to be changed.
Choose parts of
the object you
DON’T want
changed, if any.
NOTE: Once you have completed updating the shared objects in your display(s), if you can save
the new version of the symbol in the symbol library by saving it as if it was a new
symbol. (The old version will still remain in the symbol library, unless you delete it.)
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Using Aliasing to allow you to re-use the Same
Objects With Different Data From the Database
You’ll recall that we talked about OPC tags previously. They contain the information that links
the dynamic objects in your displays with the actual data values driving them in the OE
Database.
Machine
Name
(OE Server)
Database
Name
(IP socket)
Signal Name
BristolBabcock.BristolOPCServer\"oent1:rtrdb1"."realanalog"."name:char:RPC4:TANK8.LEVEL."."value:float"
OPC Server Name
Source Table from
the OE Database
The OPC tags are stored in your display, to allow it to reference the correct database attributes
when required.
Suppose, however, you have a system with 8 water tanks, which are identical in every way,
except for the signal names in their OPC tags. You could create 8 separate displays (1 for each
water tank). That would be difficult to support, however, because if you decided later that you
wanted to change the layout of the displays, add items, etc., you would have to do that on 8
different displays.
An easier way to do that, is to make use of a technique called aliasing. Aliasing is a powerful
technique for substituting, at runtime, certain parts of the OPC tag. This allows objects or
displays to be re-used dynamically for different OPC tags.
IMPORTANT
In order for aliasing to be used, you must adopt a consistent naming scheme for similar
objects in your database. For example, if you have 24 separate, identical pumps in your
database, the signals should be consistent from pump to pump, i.e. PUMP1.RUN,
PUMP2.RUN, PUMP3.RUN, etc. for all 24 pumps. If instead, you are inconsistent in
naming signals i.e. PUMP.RUN.1, and PMPNUM3.RUN, etc., then aliasing CANNOT
BE USED effectively.
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The first step in using aliasing is to modify the OPC tags stored in your display files. Any part of
a signal name which varies can be replaced with an alias.
For example, if your system has 8 identical water tanks, rather than creating 8 separate displays,
one for each tank, you could create one display to handle all of them. That single display would
use aliases to dynamically call in the correct signal data from the database for whichever tank the
operator wanted to see.
To do this, your database must use a consistent naming convention, e.g.
TANK1.LEVEL.
TANK2.LEVEL.
TANK3.LEVEL.
:
:
TANK8.LEVEL
Now create a simple display for tank 1, using the TANK1.LEVEL signal. All text displayed
should be taken from attributes in the database (name, value and units attributes in the
Realanalog table.)
Verify that it works correctly in Runtime Mode.
Simple display for Tank Number 1
(All text shown comes directly from
the database)
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Now, go to Configure Mode, and use the Edit Æ Replace command to change the OPC tags in
the display to include an alias. Instead of TANK1, we want to use TANK<<tanknum>> where
tanknum is an alias that gets replaced with a value of 1 to 8, depending upon which tank we want
to look at. (IMPORTANT: Aliases are case-sensitive, i.e. Tanknum, TANKNUM, and tanknum
would all be considered different aliases.) Click on [OK], and execute the changes for all objects
in the display.
We want to replace all the TANK1
occurrences in this display with TANK<<tanknum>>
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Next, add a button to the display which will
allow the operator to select which tank
should be displayed. To do this, choose
Dynamics Æ Instrinsics Æ Pushbutton.
Enter a label for
the button here
On the ‘Button’ page of the Property
Inspector, enter the label ‘Choose Tank
Number’.
Choose ‘Alias Dialog’
Then, click on
[Set Aliases]
On the ‘Pick’ page of the Property
Inspector, choose ‘Alias Dialog’ for the
“Action”, then click on the [Set Aliases]
push button.
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In the Set Aliases dialog box, use the [Aliases] button to select the alias ‘tanknum’ (which
should be the only one currently defined. ‘tanknum’ will be copied into the “Alias Name” field.
Then enter the number ‘1’ in the “Alias Definition” field, and click on the [Add] button. The
pair ‘tanknum’ and ‘1’ will be copied into the center box of the dialog box. Now enter ‘2’ in the
“Alias Definition” field, and click on [Add]. Repeat this process until all 8 tanks have alias
definitions which go with ‘tanknum’.
Use the [Aliases] button
to choose among the aliases
for the display (tanknum should
be the only one currently defined)
Enter a value for the
alias (for example, ‘1’
for tank1) in the “Alias
Definition“ field, and
click on the [Add] button.
Then repeat that for every
other tank.
Click on [OK] and exit the Property Inspector as usual. Go into Runtime Mode.
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In Runtime Mode, a pushbutton now appears called ‘Choose Tank Number’.
When the operator clicks on the push button, the Set New Alias Values dialog box appears. The
operator chooses the desired tank number from the list box (or just enters the number), and it will
be substituted in place of ‘tanknum’ in the OPC tags for this display. As a result, any of the 8
different tanks can be selected and displayed from this one display.
When the operator clicks
on this button, a dialog box
appears which allows
selection of the desired
tank number.
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Other Uses of Aliasing:
•
Saving aliases as part of symbols
When we created symbols before, we didn’t include dynamic information with them, because
we were using different signals with the symbol each time we re-used it. Aliasing allows us
to store dynamic OPC tag information when creating symbols for the symbol library to
minimize the amount of typing when entering dynamic information. With this technique, you
don’t have to keep dragging tags from the Database Object Viewer for each use of the
symbol because you do it once, and then use an alias in the tag which allows you to select it
when re-using the symbol. For example, once we defined aliases for it, we could have
grouped our entire tank and its associated dynamics together as a symbol with a shared object
name, and saved it in the symbol library. Then we could have re-used it on other displays,
and simply inserted the desired alias information when placing the symbol by using Dyamics
Æ Edit Local Aliases. (NOTE: Dynamics Æ Edit Local Aliases makes the choice of
aliases ahead-of-time, and permanently sets them for a particular display. In this case, no
pushbutton for setting aliases is needed by the operator, because the operator does not make
the choice, the choice was made when the symbol was placed within the display.)
Drag the symbol in from the
symbol library, and right-click
on it; choose
Dyamics-->Edit Local Aliases
•
Now delete <<tanknum>> here,
and enter the alias value you want
to use for this particular display,
e.g. 1.
Using aliases to pass data between OpenEnterprise Components
Another powerful use of aliases is to allow data to be passed between OpenEnterprise
components. Users can create customized trends, displays, etc. that can be activated through
one OE component, and then data can be passed in using aliases, and the aliases dynamically
filled in from columns of a Database Object Viewer query. See the 'OE Menus' section of the
OE Reference Guide (document# D5092) for more information.
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Tips For Planning Your Human-Machine Interface
(HMI) System
So far, we have discussed the ‘mechanics’ of how to create a particular display. The examples
presented some basic techniques, and if you needed to do something not described in the
examples, you referred to the GraphWorX32 User Guide to find out how to do it. Once you are
familiar with how to create a display, you may be tempted to rush forward and start generating
all of the displays for your particular system - - before you do this, though, we strongly
recommend you spend some time planning your human-machine interface (HMI) system.
The goal of a human-machine interface is to provide your operators with the information they
need in a clear, understandable format. Operators should not have to hunt for information during
a critical situation; displays should be organized such that an operator can access the information
he or she needs with a minimal number of mouse clicks.
Don’t make displays too complicated
for the user! Displays should be
designed to be clear, and easy to use.
Displays should not be overloaded with
information; it is better to create a
larger number of logically thought-out
displays than to try to cram lots of
information on a few displays, and then
force the operator to sort out what is
important.
…Don’t make displays too
complicated for the user!
Displays should be designed to be clear,
and easy to use. Displays should not be
overloaded with information
With these thoughts in mind, here is a recommended approach for creating your HMI system:
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Step 1
Plan out your display hierarchy
The way your different displays fit together as part of your system is called the display
hierarchy.
Generally, at the top of the display hierarchy is some sort of startup or welcome screen. It might
include a map of your system, or a menu screen.
Welcome to the
Bristolvillle Water
Treatment Facility
Main Menu
Current
Alarms
Display
System Status
Display
FILTERS
Overview
Display
Filter #1
Display
Filter #2
Display
Communications
Status Display
PUMPS
Overview
Display
Filter #3
Display
Pump #1
Display
Pump #2
Display
Pump #3
Display
A series of overview displays generally make up the next level of your hierarchy. You might
want to have one or more overviews of your process, an alarm overview display, a
communications status display, etc.
The next level of displays typically correspond to
functional or geographical sections of your process. For
example, if your system has 34 compressor stations, you
might need to have a detailed display for each compressor
station. If the compressor stations are all identical, you
may be able to use a single display with aliases, which
allow the operator to select the desired station, thereby
reducing the amount of disk space used by the displays.
…If it takes more than 2 or 3
mouse clicks to reach the
information you need, you
should re-think your display
hierarchy.
Your system might include additional displays for more detailed information for each station
such as alarms, trends, communications, etc.
You might want to embed certain displays within other displays, for example, a small display for
starting or stopping a pump, or a ‘faceplate’ display for entering setpoints.
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Whichever way you choose to setup your hierarchy, it should follow a logical, consistent format.
Operators should easily be able to navigate from one display to another, and to go up and down
through the different levels of the hierarchy. If it takes more than 2 or 3 mouse clicks to reach the
information you need, you should re-think your display hierarchy.
You should also consider what sort of display properties you want to set. For example, what size
will your displays be? Will they appear in multiple windows, side-by-side, or will each new
display called up fill the entire window? Will the displays be scaleable? All of these, and other
properties of the displays, should be determined and set as preferences in the Display Properties
dialog box before the displays are built, otherwise they will have to be set individually for each
display.
Step 2
Adopt a consistent method for navigation throughout the display
hierarchy
Each and every display should include a
toolbar or menu object with links to other
displays in the system. Although the display
links in it will vary from display to display,
you should include this object in the same
place on every display, so operators know how
to get to it quickly.
Step 3
Determine what objects you will need on your displays
The display building process will be much easier if you use a consistent library of objects for all
your displays. You might, for example, determine that you will need three different pump
symbols, two types of valve symbols, and one type of liquid tank, and that you want all of your
process points to follow a particular format. These symbols, when you have built them (as part of
a later step in the process) can be saved in a library, and re-used on all of your displays. Be sure
to check and see what symbols are already available in your symbol library - - it may include
most of the objects you need.
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Step 4
Establish a common signal naming convention for your database, and
an aliasing convention for your displays
As we discussed earlier in this manual, aliasing is a powerful method which allows you to re-use
objects, symbols, and displays, multiple times. In order for it to be used properly, however, your
database must use a signal naming convention which includes common portions which can be
used for aliasing. You can then define a strict aliasing convention which must be followed when
building your displays.
In your database, therefore, if you have 50 identical compressor stations, each with its own set of
signals from 50 different RTUs, make sure the signals’ names follow the same format in each
RTU. For example, if you use signals like COMPRS8.POWER.STRT in one RTU, do NOT use
COMPRESS.START.PWR5 in another. Use the same signal name format in each RTU.
Similarly, if you intend to define aliases for the station number, pump number, and tank number,
make sure they are used consistently from display to display:
i.e. if you use:
station<<station-number>>
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on one display, don’t use:
station<<stationnum>>
on another display. Use aliases consistently from display to display.
Step 5
Build a few of your more complex objects for testing purposes
Create some of your more complex objects, to verify that they work as expected. Setup aliases
and verify that they work correctly. Be sure when saving symbols to use the shared object name,
as discussed earlier in this manual.
Step 6.
Build your display hierarchy using a framework of empty displays
Build empty displays (without objects or
data) for your entire display hierarchy.
Make sure each display includes the
toolbar or menu object used for
navigation purposes. Test to make sure
that the navigation functions work
correctly
throughout
the
display
hierarchy. Put a few objects on the
displays for demonstration purposes.
Step 7
Review your design with the users of the
system, and revise, as necessary
Now that you have a basic framework of displays, together
with some demo objects, you should show the system to the
people who will use it. This is a very important step. You may
find, for example, that the operators need additional
information on certain displays, or that they need to have
multiple displays open to perform certain tasks. Perhaps your
hierarchy is too cumbersome, or requires too many mouse
clicks to locate certain displays. Revise the system, as
necessary, to accommodate your user’s concerns.
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Show the displays to the
people who will actually
be using them….
Make sure the displays
are organized in a way
that people can easily
find the information they
need…
Change things if
necessary…
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Chapter 5 - Building Displays to ‘Mimic’ Your Process
Step 8
Build all of the objects for your system
Create all of the objects needed for your system (pumps, valves, tanks, compressors, analog
setpoints, faceplates, etc.) and set up aliases for them according to the previously established
convention. Save the objects in the symbol library with shared object names.
Step 9
Build the Displays
Finally, you should build the displays using the objects from the symbol library. Each display
should be included in the proper place of the previously defined hierarchy.
Step 10 Test Your HMI System and Revise as Necessary
Test each of your displays, and verify that they function as expected. Make any necessary
corrections.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Chapter 6 – Working with Historical Data
What is Historical Data?
The OE Database, by its very nature, is constantly
being updated with the latest available data values
from signals in the RTUs. Data from a particular
instant in time, however, is only maintained in
memory for a short period of time (usually, no
longer than a few seconds, depending upon how fast
data is collected in your system). This is because
when a new value is collected, it automatically
overwrites the previous value in the database.
Unlike ‘live’ real-time data, which
is continuously being updated as
your process variables change,
historical data is not updated; it
reflects past conditions, from
minutes, hours, days, weeks, or
months in the past.
Although this is ideal for operators viewing the current state of process variables in your system,
most users need to retain certain data for a longer period of time (hours, weeks, months, etc.)
This data is referred to as historical data and it is saved using the OpenEnterprise Historian.
What is Historical Data Used For?
Historical data is typically used in printed reports
or spreadsheets. Often, records of certain
variables such as flow, temperature, etc. must be
maintained for months or even years to fulfill
particular plant management or regulatory
requirements. Government agencies may require
detailed records using historical data, or historical
data may be used to generate bills for customers.
What does ODBC-compliant
mean?
ODBC is an industry-standard for
databases. It stands for Open Database
Connectivity, which means that data can
be shared between different databases
and applications. ODBC compliant refers
to applications which follow this industry
standard.
Because the OE database supports a 32-bit ODBC data access, data can be directly extracted
from it by any ODBC compliant application, such as Microsoft® Excel or Access, or you can
use the data in the OpenEnterprise Report Configuration Tool (See Chapter 11).
Historical data is also frequently incorporated into graphical trends to allow a graphical
representation of data from a given period of time. (Trends are a big enough subject that we’re
going to discuss them in Chapter 7.)
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
How Does the Historian Work?
The Historian is actually an extension of the OE Database; it is simply another set of user
defined tables and columns which hold data extracted from specified OE Database tables at
either specified intervals, or based on specific events.
In some cases the actual data value is stored; this is referred to as raw data. In other cases,
calculations are performed on value(s) before storage is performed, for example minimum,
maximum, average, etc; this is referred to as compressed data because only the calculated result
is stored, not the values used to generate the calculated result.
Differences between Raw and Compressed Data
•
Raw data is data that is unchanged from the way it was at the RTU. No
calculations have been performed on it.
•
Compressed data is the result of some sort of calculation on the raw data,
such as minimum, maximum, average, etc. It is called ‘compressed’
because only the result of the calculation is stored, NOT the individual raw
samples used to make the calculation. NOTE: It is possible to keep both
the compressed and original raw values on the system, though this
consumes more disk space.
Historical Data is Stored Temporarily in Log Files
The historical data is stored in files on the OE Server called log files.
(Sometimes they’re referred to as history files or historical files, but
it’s all the same thing – files that store historical data.) Log files are
‘active’ meaning that the system continues to deposit more historical
data in them. Depositing data in log files is called logging the data.
Log files are defined during Historical system configuration to be a
fixed size. Before they become full of data, the data in them gets
saved into another file called an archive file. Then the oldest data in
the log file is overwritten when new data comes in. Because of this,
they are only used for temporary, short-term storage.
6-2
Storing historical
data in a file is called
‘logging’ the data.
The files containing
the data are called
log files. Log files
are for temporary
short-term storage.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Historical Data is Stored Permanently in Archive Files
As we said, when the log file fills up, its oldest data
gets overwritten. “Wait!” you say, "I can’t have my
data overwritten!" Don’t worry, that’s where archive
files (that we mentioned before) come into play.
When you configure the historical system, you
specify the size of the log file, and you also say at
what percentage of the log file size you want an
archive file generated. That way, you don’t lose data
when the log file fills up, because the data gets
copied to an archive file. Archive files are very
similar to log files, except they are closed to
accepting new data, and they don’t get overwritten.
A certain number of archive files are kept on-line;
that is, they are available to be queried for data from
OE tools, such as Trend windows. All other archive
files are off-line; they are inaccessible, and cannot be
queried for data. That’s not a problem, though,
because if, for some reason, you need to retrieve
some data in an off-line archive file, you can easily
make it on-line using the Archive File Tool. (We’ll
talk more about the Archive File Tool, later in this
chapter.)
"Okay", you say, "Why don’t I keep all of the
archive files on-line?" Well… you can’t do that,
because on-line archive files consume lots of
memory, especially if people are viewing them. If
you try to keep too many of them on-line at the same
time, you will exhaust system memory, and system
performance will suffer, until the point that the
system won’t work at all.
Please don’t confuse archive files in OE
with archive files in the RTU – The
term ‘archive file’ in the context of
OpenEnterprise, refers to historical data
storage at the OE Server computer.
Most Bristol RTUs also can store
historical data locally in structures
which also happen to be called ‘archive
files’. They are different, even though
they serve a similar purpose - - storing
historical data.
•
Data from log files is copied
into archive files for
permanent storage.
•
Archive files can only be
queried for data if they are online. Only a certain number of
archive files can be on-line.
•
The Archive File Tool can
bring archive files on-line, and
take them off-line as needed.
•
Don’t keep too many archive
files on-line, or system
performance may suffer.
In addition, since archive files are permanent, and don’t get overwritten, new ones are regularly
being generated. Because of that, over time, the hard disk on the OE Server can get filled up with
off-line archive files. To avoid that from happening, you should periodically back-up those offline archive files to another place. The Archive File Tool, that we mentioned earlier, can
automatically copy the off-line archive files to another hard disk or server to prevent the server
disk from filling up. If you don't have another server, you could back up the off-line archive files
onto storage media (tape, CD, etc.) and then delete those archive files from the OE Server.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Comparing Log Files and Archive Files
Log Files…
Archive Files…
• Contain raw and compressed
• Contain raw and compressed historical
historical data, which came from
data, which was copied in from log files.
realtime data values.
• Are a fixed size; when they become
• Are a fixed size, but data is never
full, the oldest data is overwritten
overwritten. It is maintained in the archive
with the new data.
file
• Can receive additional raw and
• Are closed. They CANNOT receive
compressed historical data.
additional data.
• Can be queried at any time.
• Can only be queried if the archive file is
currently ONLINE.
How is the Historian Configured?
Configuring the Historian is one of the most difficult concepts in OpenEnterprise to understand.
For one thing, while real-time data collection is always dealing with what’s happening right now,
historical requires you to deal with the issues of both time and space, i.e. in this case, how much
time should I keep certain data, and how much space do I need to store the data?
The Historian is configured using the Historical Configuration Tool in the OE Toolbox.
Configuration involves setting several parameters which interact to identify what gets logged,
and when the logging occurs. As with most things in OpenEnterprise, this interaction is governed
by entries in database tables.
We’re going to oversimplify this a little bit, but the main tasks you need to perform when
configuring the Historian are described, below. We’ll talk about them in general terms first and
later, we’ll provide you with some specific examples.
•
•
•
Defining a Logging Group
Choosing Columns to Be Logged and Calculations to be performed (if any)
Specifying Characteristics of the Log File and Archive Files
Defining a Logging Group
•
A logging group defines what data you want to log,
and how often you want to log it.
6-4
A logging group defines
what data you want to log,
and how often you want to
log it.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
•
A particular logging group can only log data from a single table. The table containing the
data you want to log is called the source table.
•
You can define as many different logging groups as you need. Each and every logging group
must have a unique logging group id number, however, to differentiate it from all the other
logging groups in the system.
•
Logging groups are configured by making entries into the oelogcontrol table using the
Historical Configuration Tool. Because of this, logging groups are sometimes referred to as
logcontrols.
•
If you don’t want to log all the records from a particular table, you need to assign only the
records you want to log to this logging group.
Choosing the Source Table:
The Historian can save data from almost any table in the OE Database. The table containing the
data you want is referred to as the source table. Most users will be saving data from only two
tables:
Realanalog_Table – this table includes all of the analog
signals collected from your RTUs. This would include
things like flows, temperatures, and pressures that have
been collected from process variables.
Digital_Table – this table includes all of the logical
signals collected from your RTUs. This would include
ON/OFF statuses of pumps, OPENED/CLOSED
statuses of valves, all collected from process variables.
The source table is usually
going to be either
'Realanalog_table' or
'Digital_table'. Most people
don't need to log anything
from any other table.
Figuring out how often you want to log the data
Logging data at a pre-set rate – Generally, people choose to log data at a particular rate.
The type of data you want to log often dictates how frequently you want to log it. If you have
critical flow or pressure information, you might want to log a reading every minute, for a
total of 60 samples per hour. If you are looking at levels of water in a tank, which don’t
change often, maybe you only want to log the level once an hour, for a total of 24 samples in
a day. Think carefully about what your system requirements are, because this will affect the
size of your log files, and the rate you consume disk space.
Logging data on ‘exception’ - You may also have certain data that you only want to log
when a certain event occurs. For example, you might only want to log data when the value of
a particular signal changes. In that case, there needs to be some sort of trigger, which says,
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‘log this data now’. This is similar to the Report By Exception (RBE) data collection, used in
real-time data collection, except here the concept is being applied to historical logging.
Assigning individual records to the logging group (optional)
By default, all records of the source table will be logged. Depending upon the size of the
source table, that may require you to create a very large log file. The Realanalog_table, for
example, might contain thousands of different signals, but maybe you only want to log data
for a few hundred. If that’s the case, it would waste considerable disk space to log all the
signals in the table. You’ll need to identify which signals you want to log. If this is so, then
you have to use a technique called userenable logging. In userenable logging, a logging
group will only log records (in this case rows of signal data) from records which have been
specifically assigned to that logging group via the dataset attribute in the source table.
The assignment of records to a logging group is performed in the Historical Configuration
Tool.
Choosing Columns to be logged and calculations to
be performed (if any)
•
Most any table you log data from contains many columns (attributes) which you don’t need
to log. You should decide which columns contain the data that is worth logging.
•
Choosing to log only the columns you need saves memory and disk space.
•
Columns are chosen by making entries in the oelogcolumn table, using the Historical
Configuration Tool.
•
Calculations can be performed on the raw data, such as averages, minimums, maximums, etc.
The new calculated data is called compressed data.
Choosing Columns For Logging
Assuming you’re logging signal data, you’ll usually want to log things like the signal’s
value, its questionable data status, the timestamp of the reading, etc. We recommend you
also log the daylight savings time offset dstoffset if you’re in a region which uses daylight
savings time; otherwise, you can end up with problems in third-party software that depends
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on timestamps. You don’t need to log the signal name, because that will be automatically
logged and used to organize the data in the Logging Group. (We’ll talk about that later in the
examples.)
Decide what calculations (if any) you want to perform on the logged data
If you just want to save raw data samples, you don’t need to perform calculations. But if you
want to calculate things like averages, minimum values, etc., that means you will be saving
compressed data, which we mentioned earlier. Again, the sorts of data compression you
perform are dictated by the requirements of your particular system.
Table 6-1 - Calculations that can be performed
Type of
calculation
Description
0 = None
Raw unprocessed
sample from the source
table.
First non-NULL input
value is chosen from
samples
Last non-NULL input
value is chosen from
samples
Maximum input value is
chosen from samples
Minimum input value is
chosen from samples
Each sample is
multiplied by the
number of seconds it
was in the source table.
The resulting weighted
samples are added
together, and divided by
the total number of
seconds of all the
samples.
4 = First value
5 = Last value
6 = Maximum
value
7 = Minimum
value
8 = Average value
(time-weighted)
11 = Integral
12 = logical AND
Estimated area bounded
by input values. Used
for calculating totals,
e.g. total flow.
Logical AND applied to
input values
Data Type
required in source
table column
any
Example input(s)
Result stored for example
calculation:
23.47
23.47
any
38.1, 50.6, 33.7, 48.1
38.1
any
38.1, 50.6, 33.7, 48.1
48.1
INTEGER, REAL
or DATETIME
INTEGER, REAL
or DATETIME
INTEGER or
REAL
38.1, 50.6, 33.7, 48.1
50.6
38.1, 50.6, 33.7, 48.1
33.7
38.1 (for 58 seconds),
50.6 (for 62 seconds,
33.7 (for 59 seconds),
48.1 (for 61 seconds)
(38.1 x 58) + (50.6 x 62) + (33.7 x 59)
+ (48.1 x 61)
(58 + 62 + 59 + 61)
= 42.78916
INTEGER or
REAL
INTEGER or
BOOL
38.1 (for 58 seconds),
50.6 (for 62 seconds,
33.7 (for 59 seconds),
48.1 (for 61 seconds
Example 1:
1, 1, 1, 1, 0
NOTE: The time weighted average is
more accurate than a straight average
of summing the samples and dividing
by the total.
(38.1 x 58) + (50.6 x 62) + (33.7 x 59)
+ (48.1 x 61) = 10269.4
0
Example 2:
13 = logical OR
Logical OR applied to
input values
INTEGER or
BOOL
1, 1, 1, 1, 1
Example 1:
1, 1, 1, 1, 0
1
1
Example 2:
14 = ON count
The number of times a
boolean switched to
ON.
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1, 1, 1, 1, 1
ON, OFF, ON
BOOL
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1
2
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Type of
calculation
Description
Data Type
required in source
table column
BOOL
15 = ON percent
Percentage time a
BOOLEAN was ON.
16 = duration
Duration of time a nonNULL value was in the
source table
Any
20 = occurrence
time
Time at which the value
of the sourcecolumn
attribute was logged in
this compression period
Any
6-8
Example input(s)
Result stored for example
calculation:
ON (60 seconds),
OFF (60 seconds),
ON, (60 seconds),
OFF (60 seconds)
5.1 (60 seconds), 3.2
(60 seconds),
2.8 (60 seconds),
NULL (60 seconds)
50
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Specifying characteristics of the log file and archive
files
What’s memory?
•
Historical data is initially transferred from the
real time source table and stored in an predefined area of memory called the log buffer.
You need to specify the size of the log buffer,
during configuration. (NOTE: buffer is just
another word for memory)
•
When the log buffer becomes full, data in the
log buffer is automatically copied to the log file
on the OE Server hard disk. The size of the log
file is some multiple of the log buffer size.
•
The log file is a fixed size, as new data is
logged, the oldest data is overwritten. To
prevent a loss of data, therefore, data is copied
from the log file (temporary storage) to the
archive file (permanent storage).
•
Configuration of the log buffer, log file, and
archive file is performed by making entries in
the oelogdata table, via the Historical
Configuration Tool.
As the OpenEnterprise Server computer
runs its program(s), the CPU (central
processing unit) of the computer executes
each instruction in the programs. These
instructions, and the data associated with
them, are read from, and/or written to,
physical locations within computer chips
in the computer. These physical locations
are referred to as memory. They are
similar to memory you might have in
your personal computer at home. Each
memory location also has a numerical
identifier called an address. The address
is used internally to locate data stored in
memory.
The amount of memory in your computer
varies depending upon the purchased
memory options.
Information in memory is stored as a
series of 0's and 1's; each '0' or '1' is
referred to as a bit. These bits are
grouped together into chunks of 8, 16 or
32, which are called bytes. Each byte can
hold a character of data. A group of 1024
bytes is referred to as 1 kilobyte or 1k.
1024K is referred to as a Megabyte or
1MB.
RAM (Random Access Memory) only
provides temporary storage. The data
stored in RAM is destroyed if the power
fails on the OE Server. That’s not true
with data on the hard disk, but don’t
confuse RAM memory with the hard
disk; they are different things. In
OpenEnterprise, real-time data is stored
in memory, and historical data is stored
on the hard disk.
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Specifying the Source of Data for a Log File
The source of the data going into the log file is
defined by one of the logging groups you have
defined. You must provide the id number of the
logging group.
You must also identify whether the data you are
storing is raw samples, or if you are storing
calculated data.
Determining the Buffer Size and Number of
Buffers to be stored in the Log File
•
•
The log buffer holds only a limited amount of
logged data, for a limited period of time, usually
less than an hour, depending upon how fast
you’re logging data. The log buffer data is
periodically copied to the log file.
What’s the difference between
RAM memory and the hard
disk?
A hard disk is a long-term storage
medium for data. Although, like
memory, a hard disk stores data, it
differs from RAM memory in several
respects:
•
Hard disks normally do NOT lose
data in the event of a power
failure. They allow long-term
storage of data. If RAM memory
loses power, the data disappears.
•
To retrieve and use data on the
hard disk, it has to be copied into
memory; that means using data
from the hard disk takes longer
than data in RAM, because data in
RAM is, by definition, already in
memory.
•
Computers are generally built
with several orders of magnitude
more hard disk space, than
memory.
You must make the buffer larger than the
maximum amount of data you’re going to save in
a particular snapshot of time.
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Deciding When to Generate An Archive File
The figure, below shows an example of the relationship between log buffers, log files, and
archive files in a typical system. Log files are fixed in size. As the contents of the log buffer are
copied into the log file, they overwrite the oldest data in the log file. To prevent a loss of this
data, you need to specify an archive file to permanently store it.
LOG BUFFER (in memory)
contents is regularly copied
to the log file, overwriting
oldest data in the log file.
LOG FILE (on hard disk)
Size is some multiple of
the buffer size.
When LOG FILE is some percentage full,
(typically 70-90%), that amount of data
is copied all at once into an ARCHIVE
FILE, for long-term storage.
ARCHIVE FILE(S)
In addition, you need to choose at what percentage of a full log file, that you will generate the
archive file. Archive files must always be smaller than the log file, otherwise, the system would
be attempting to save the entire log file at the same time it is receiving a new log buffer of data.
We recommend that you perform the archiving at from 70 to 90% of a full log file.
Alternatively, the Historical Configuration Tool lets you specify that archive files be generated at
a particular time of day, week, etc. These are called timed archives.
Enough talk… let’s show some examples!!!
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Example #1 – Logging 1-minute data for a few signals
Let’s say we have three flow meters connected to our controller, and we want to log the current
flow readings, every minute. Let’s also say, since we want to keep this example somewhat
simple, for illustration purposes, that we want to log only the three flow signals associated with
those flow meters.
Step 1. - Start the OE Toolbox
To start the OE Toolbox, click as follows:
StartÆProgramsÆOpenEnterpriseÆToolbox
Step 2. - Start the Historical Configuration Tool
To start the Historical Configuration Tool, double-click on the ‘Historian’ icon
in the OE Toolbox window. The Historical Configuration dialog box will
appear.
NOTE: If you do not see the ‘Historian’ icon, you may have not logged on
with sufficient security privileges. Click on SecurityÆLogin and log on with
appropriate security privileges. (Ask your System Manager for help if you are
unable to do this.)
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Step 3. - Create A Logging Group
Now, we have to create a logging group.
To add a new logging group, click on the [Add] push button
in the Historical Configuration dialog box. The Logging
Group page will appear.
Click on [Add] to create
a new logging group.
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REMINDER: A logging group
defines what data you want
to log, and how often you
want to log it.
Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Logging Group Page
The Logging Group page allows you to select the
name of the table in the Database from which data
will be logged as well as specify how much data will
be logged.
This lets you select a table in
the Database. Typically, users
collecting signal data will want
to select either: ‘realanalog’ or
‘digital’ as the source table. Here
we chose ‘realanalog’ because
it contains the signals we want
to log.
If you are collecting
signal data, you should
choose ‘name’ since the
signal name is a unique
identifier for each signal,
and is used as the primary
key (index) for the table.
The Logging Group page basically
configures the oelogcontrol table in
the OE Database.
Every logging group must
have a unique ID number.
You cannot advance to the
next page without completing this field.
You can optionally
enter a meaningful
description here.
These fields
identify internal
database tables
which will store
the historical
data
This enables/disables
logging for this Logging
Group.
When logging signal data,
this would be the number of
signals to be logged.
To log every object
(signal, for example)
in the source table,
choose, Log All Objects.
Otherwise, leave it blank.
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Most applications
don’t require the
Advanced features.
When finished, click
here to go to the next
page
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Let’s talk about the various fields on the Logging Group page:
Source Table
Use this list box to select the name of the table in the Database from which
you would like to log historical data. If you are collecting signal data, you
would typically want to choose either ‘realanalog’ or ‘digital’ as the source
table (we’ve chosen ‘realanalog’ because that’s where the flow data we
want to collect would reside.) Once you have defined a particular logging
group, you CANNOT change its associated “Source Table”. NOTE: This
field will omit the suffix ‘_table’ from any source table names that happen
to end in ‘_table’.
Group ID
This is an integer that uniquely identifies the number of this logging group,
so we don’t get it mixed up with any other logging groups we define. In
general, your first logging group should have a “Group ID” of 1, the
second logging group should have a “Group ID” of 2, etc. This entry
CANNOT be changed once this logging group is fully configured. For this
example, we will choose a “Group ID” of 4.
Description
You can optionally enter a textual description of this logging group here.
Name Column
This is the name of a column in the source table which uniquely identifies
the data in the table. Anytime you want to collect signal data from
‘realanalog’ or ‘digital’ you should always choose ‘name’ as the “Name
Column” (which we’ve done here) because that column is used to hold
signal names, which are unique throughout the table. The name serves as a
primary key or index for the rest of the data in the table. For this example,
we need to specify ‘name’ because that will allow us to use the signal
names from the realanalog_table for organizing the data.
Raw Data Table
is a read-only field provided for informational purposes. It identifies the
table that will be used when queries are made to the tables containing raw
historical data.
Compressed Data
Table
is a read-only field provided for informational purposes. It identifies the
table that will be used when queries are made to the tables containing
compressed historical data.
Estimated
Number of
Objects to Log
This is the number of records (rows) in the source table that will be logged.
When collecting signal data, this would refer to the number of signals in
the source table to be logged. By estimating this number, the Historian can
determine how much disk space to allocate for historical storage. Since we
want to size our system for 300 signals, we enter 300 here.
NOTE: Although you must provide an estimated number of objects in
order to fully configure the Historian, it will compensate, if you
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
underestimate the number of objects, by generating archive files at a faster
rate.
Enabled
When checked, activates logging for this logging group. Because certain
characteristics of a logging group CANNOT be modified once they have
been initially specified, it is sometimes easier to disable the logging group
(by de-selecting the “Enabled” check box) and simply create a new
logging group.
Log All Objects
If checked, all objects (rows) in the source table will be logged. If you are
logging signals, checking this means that ALL signals in the designated
table will be logged. If left unchecked, only those rows that have the
“Group ID” of this logging group in their “Dataset” column will be
logged. NOTE: If this option is NOT selected, objects must be selected
individually on the Logging Group - Select Objects page. That’s what we’ll
do for purposes of this example.
[Advanced]
This calls up the Historical Advanced Settings dialog box. (We’re not
going to use it in this example, but we’ve included an explanation of it
below, in case someday you want to experiment with it.)
The Historical Advanced Settings dialog box should only be used by those
experienced in database configuration. It contains three fields that allow
particular columns of the source table to be singled out, and configures the
Historian to alter the normal logging based on the data in those columns.
“Enable Column” identifies a column in the source table which holds a
boolean (true/false) value which enables/disables logging for the current
row. For example, if collecting signal data, the ‘ReadControlInhibit’ field
could be specified here to disable collection for any signal that is currently
control inhibited.
“Timestamp Column” identifies a column in the source table that holds a
date/time value. This allows a timestamp to be associated with each
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historical sample. By default, all timestamps saved in the historical system
reflect the time the data was saved. This feature, however, allows some
other timestamp to be associated with the saved data.
“Rate Column” identifies a column in the source table that holds an
integer value. This value will be used as a special collection rate for this
particular row, instead of the collection rate configured for the dataset
(discussed later). For example, if you are collecting signal data, you might
want to collect certain signals faster than normal based on changing
conditions in your process.1
When finished in the Historical Advanced Settings dialog box, click on the
[OK] push button.
When finished with the Logging Group page, click on the [Next >] push button. The Logging
Group - Select Fields page will appear.
1
The tables for signal data do NOT support this feature by default; if you want to use this feature, you will need to
customize the signal extensions table to include an additional column for this purpose.
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Logging Group - Select Fields Page
The Logging Group Select Fields page specifies which of the
columns (fields) in the source table should be logged, as well
as which compression options, if any, should be applied to the
raw data before it is logged. We’re not doing any compression
for this example, though, so we just have to select which
columns we want, and the ‘Raw’ option.
Choose which
columns from
the source
table should
be logged, by
clicking on the
column name,
and then clicking on the [>>]
push button.
The Logging Group –
Select Fields page allows
you to select which columns
of the source table you want
to log.
For each of the
selected columns
of a given type,
specify whatever
data compression
options which are
to be performed.
We just want ‘raw’
for this example.
To de-select a column name,
click on the [<<] button.
Click here to proceed to the next page
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Available Fields
The “Available Fields” list box shows the names of all columns in
the source table. To specify that data from a particular column
should be logged, click on the column name, then click on the [>>]
push button; the column name will be removed from the
“Available Fields” list and then appear in the “Fields to be
Logged” box. Which “Fields to be Logged” box it appears in
depends upon the data type of the field. For example, analog data
(signal values) would appear under ‘Analog Fields’; whereas status
bits like questionable data would appear under ‘Boolean fields’.
Fields to Be Logged
The three “Fields to be Logged” boxes show which of the columns
selected from the “Available Fields” box are to be logged by the
Historian.
They also specify which calculations (compression options) if any,
should be applied to the logged data. For this example, we’re only
using the ‘raw’ data. For an explanation of the various compression
options, see Table 6-1 on page 6-7.
To add a particular column name to the “Fields to be Logged” box,
click on its name in the “Available Fields” box, then click on the
[>>] push button. To remove a particular column name from the
“Fields to be Logged” box, click on its name in the “Fields to be
Logged” box, then click on the [<<] push button.
NOTE: When you first come to this page, you may see the
‘AccessArea’ field in the “Fields to be Logged” box; ‘AccessArea
relates to security issues that are beyond the scope of this chapter,
therefore, we decided not to log that field. We just want to log the
following fields:: ‘timestamp’, ‘currentdstoffset’, ‘value’ and
‘questionable’.
I understand why you’d want to log timestamp, value, and questionable, but why do we
need to log the daylight savings time offset?
OpenEnterprise stores all historical data internally with GMT timestamps. The OpenEnterprise
software that displays this data (trends, reports, etc.) knows how to correct this to a local time
including DST offsets. However, if you are using your own or third party software to access
this data, you may need to know if daylight savings time was in effect at the time the data was
saved.
How come we aren’t choosing to log the signal ‘name’ column?
We could, but basically we’d be wasting space by logging the same signal names over and
over. The signal name will already be logged once with the data, because back when we
defined the logging group we chose ‘name’ as the namecolumn by which all this data gets
stored.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Text/Date Fields
Any source table column name selected from the “Available
Fields” list box which stores timestamps, or textual data will
appear in this box. The compression options available for Text and
Date fields include Raw, First, Last, Duration, Occurrence Times
and Indexing. To select a particular compression option, go to the
line that holds the desired column name, then click on the cell
underneath the desired compression option. (The option is selected
when it appears ‘checked’.)
Because textual data can vary in length, you must supply an
estimated string length for textual data in the “Length” column.
This allows proper sizing of tables in the database, and allocation of
disk space. Since we’re using a date field ‘timestamp’ instead of a
text field, we don’t need to do that.
Analog Fields
Any source table column name selected from the “Available
Fields” list box which stores analog data will appear in this box.
The compression options are Raw, First, Last, Maximum (Max),
Minimum (Min), Average (Avg), Integral, Duration, Occurrence
Times and Indexing. To select a particular compression option, go
to the line which holds the desired column name, then click on the
cell underneath the desired compression option. (The option is
selected when it appears ‘checked’.)
For this example, we aren’t doing any compression, just using the
‘Raw’ choice.
Boolean Fields
Any source table column name selected from the “Available
Fields” list box which stores boolean data will appear in this box.
The compression options are Raw, First, Last, AND, OR, Count,
Percent, Occurrence Times and Duration. To select a particular
compression option, go to the line which holds the desired column
name, then click on the cell underneath the desired compression
option. (The option is selected when it appears ‘checked’.)
For this example, we aren’t using any Boolean fields.
When finished with the Logging Group - Select Fields page, click on the [Next >] push button.
The Logging Group - Name Fields page will appear.
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Logging Group - Name Fields Page
The Logging Group Name Fields page displays each of the source table columns selected on the
Logging Group - Select Fields page, along with any selected compression options for each
column, and a default name for the destination column that will hold the logged data. The main
purpose of this page is to allow renaming of the destination columns. Any new column names
you define here will be used when SQL or ODBC compliant programs access the data held by
the Historian.
Each destination column name must be unique for a given destination table.2 By default, if a
duplication conflict could cause two destination columns to have the same default name, a prefix
will automatically be added, such as ‘object’. To change the destination column name, type a
new name in the “Data Access Column”.
The destination column in the
historical logging table can be
renamed, by typing a new name
here.
Click here to go to the next page.
2
This is because the name is part of the primary key for the table.
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When finished with the Logging Group - Name Fields page, click on the [Next >] push button.
Step 4. - Define the Dataset
Logging Group - Define Datasets Page
A Dataset is nothing more than a set of data collected from a
particular logging group. There are one or more datasets
associated with each logging group.
REMINDER – A ‘dataset’
is just a collection of
data from a particular
logging group.
Each dataset will contain the same set of data objects (normally signals), but the compression
will be different. For example, one may contain raw values (samples), another may contain 15
minute averages and totals, etc.
Click here to add
a new dataset.
Click on the [Add] push button, and the Dataset Configuration dialog box will appear.
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OpenEnterprise Historical Configuration Dialog Box – Dataset Configuration
This allows you to create or modify the dataset. You can move from one page of the dialog box,
to the other, by clicking on the tabs near the top of the dialog box.
“Maximum Unsaved Data”
must always be greater
than the polling rate. Since,
for this example, the polling
rate is 60 seconds, we’re
fine with 30 minutes.
We are taking raw
samples, from the
real-time database,
every minute
We want the log file
to have at least 24
hours of data in it.
Move between pages of
the dialog box by clicking
on the tabs.
We want the log buffer to
be copied into the log file
at least every 30 minutes.
Use the [Browse]
button, if necessary,
to specify the path
where log files will
be stored.
Fed From Dataset
This is a read-only field. If it shows the word ‘Raw’ (which is the case
for this example) it means that the data comes directly from the source
table. If, instead, a textual description appears in this field, or a
description showing the rate, start time, and period appears, it means that
the current dataset you are configuring receives data from this other
dataset.
Description
This is used to enter an optional textual description of this dataset. If this
dataset will be used as the source for another dataset, the description
entered here will appear in the “Fed From Dataset” field in the Dataset
Configuration dialog box when you configure the other dataset.
Collect Data When
Triggered By
Column
When selected, this indicates that data should be collected based on a
change in the value in the specified column. This is called logging by
exception. This function is only available in a raw dataset, but we’re not
going to use it in this example, anyway. NOTE: This setting CANNOT
be modified once the dataset has been saved.
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Collect Data by
Polling Every
When selected, this indicates the rate at which data should be collected
from the source table of this logging group (or from another dataset if the
“Fed From Dataset” field is NOT ‘Raw’.) The units can be Seconds,
Minutes, Hours, Days, Weeks, Months, or Years. The Historian will
convert the specified units into a format of either seconds or months,
since that is how the Historian computes time internally. NOTE: This
setting CANNOT be modified once the dataset has been saved.
Starting From
This indicates a time (which must be from the past) at which polling
began for this dataset. If NOT selected, polling will begin immediately
upon completion of dataset definition. This is used to define the offset at
which storage will occur, e.g. 10 minutes past the hour. Unless you
specify a date, it is stored in the database, as an offset from the beginning
of 12:00 midnight on January 1, 2001 Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).
That particular date is Day 0 in the OE historical system; time is
measured internally from that date forward.
Keep For At Least
This determines (in conjunction with the “Maximum Unsaved Data”
field) the amount of data to be stored in the log file. This setting
CANNOT be modified once the dataset has been saved.
NOTE: When polled collection is used, this is measured in time units
(seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years). If triggered
collection is used, this is expressed in generations of saved data.
Recommendations:
•
•
•
•
For 1-minute samples, the log file should hold 24 hours worth of
data.
For compressed hourly data (1 hour averages, for example), the log
file should hold one week’s worth of data.
For compressed daily data (daily averages, totals, etc.), the log file
should hold one month’s worth of data.
Log file size should be kept to 100 megabytes or less. (You can
examine the resulting log files to see how large they are.)
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Maximum Unsaved
Data
This specifies how much data the user is willing to lose (worst case) due
to a system failure. It essentially defines the size of the logging buffer in
active memory that holds data prior to its being written to disk in a log
file, or permanently stored in an archive file. If there is a power failure,
any data in the logging buffer is lost.
You have to have some unsaved data…
When you see the "Maximum Unsaved Data" field, it's tempting to say: "I don't want to have
any unsaved data." The reality is, you have to have some unsaved data. If the "Maximum
Unsaved Data" value is too small, system performance will suffer. You should typically set it to
at least 10 times the collection rate, for example, if the collection rate is 60 seconds, maximum
unsaved data should be 10 minutes. Anything more frequent will adversely affect system
performance.
NOTE: When polled collection is used, this is measured in time units
(seconds, minutes, hours, days, weeks, months, or years). If triggered
collection is used, this is expressed in generations.
NOTE: Once the dataset has been saved, this setting can only be
modified via SQL statements.
SOME NOTES ABOUT LOGGING BUFFER SIZE: The buffer size
must always be more than the maximum amount of data you are going to
save at one snapshot in time. For example, if you’re saving 1-minute
data, the buffer size must be at least large enough to hold a minute’s
worth of data. Actually, though, you should multiply this number by the
number of snapshots of data you want to retain in memory, for example
30 minutes for 1-minute data. If you make your buffer size too small
(smaller than the amount needed to hold a single snapshot of data) you
will receive an error message in the DB.TXT file, and historical
collection for that logging group will not work.
Log Directory
This specifies the directory path in which log files will be stored. To
change the directory, use the [Browse] push button. NOTE: Once the
dataset has been saved, this setting can only be modified via SQL
statements. IMPORTANT: The log data is filled in a cyclical manner;
therefore, data is only maintained in the log file until such time as it is
overwritten by new data coming in. The only way to retain such data for
a longer period of time is to configure the archive mechanism.
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Now we have to configure archiving, so click on the ‘Archive Configuration’ tab to bring up
that page of the dialog box.
OpenEnterprise Historical Configuration Dialog Box – Archive Configuration
There are two different ways to configure archive files. In this example, we’re going to cover
archive files created when the log file reaches a certain specified size. The other way to create an
archive file is on a pre-defined schedule.
Specify the path
where archive files
will be stored. Use
the [...] button, if
necessary,
This means we are going
to create an archive whenever
the log file is 75% full.
Click on [OK] when finished
This is the number of
archive files kept on-line,
in memory. In this example,
each archive file includes
75% of a log file worth of
data (or 0.75 x 24 hours, i.e.
approximately 18 hours
of data.) If we keep 15 of
them on-line, that means we
have 15 x 18 or 270 hours
of data on-line (about 11 days
worth of data).
Timed Archive
ID, Description,
Timed Archives are archives that are configured to occur according to a
Start Time, Repeat regular schedule. (We’re going to cover Timed Archives in a different
Interval, [Add],
example, so we won’t talk about them here.)
[Delete], [Modify]
Archive Directories
Online Archives
Offline Archives
This specifies the directory path in which on-line OpenEnterprise Archive
files will be stored. To specify the directory path you can either type it in
directly or use the [Browse] push button. NOTE: Once the dataset has
been saved, this setting can only be modified via SQL statements.
As specified by the “Maximum Online Archives” field, OpenEnterprise
can only maintain a limited number of archive files for a dataset on-line,
in memory, at any one time. When that number is exceeded, the oldest online archive is made off-line, and is moved to the “Offline Archives”
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directory. (It can be brought on-line again, if needed, using the Archive
File Tool.) To specify this directory path you can either type it in directly
or use the [Browse] push button.
Auto Archive
When selected, this causes OpenEnterprise to create an Archive file,
automatically, whenever the criteria specified by “Archive When” are
met.
Archive When
This specifies a maximum percentage of un-archived data. When this
percentage is exceeded, an Archive file will automatically be generated.
Suppose, for example, the “Keep For At Least” value is set to 1 day, and
the maximum percentage of un-archived data, i.e. “Archive When” is set
to 25 percent, i.e. 6 hours. This would mean that when 75 percent of a day
is complete, an Archive file would be generated. In other words, every 18
hours, an archive file will be generated.
Automatically
Online Archives
This specifies the number of archives that the system will automatically
maintain on-line. This number differs from the “Maximum Online
Archives” number, because it does not encompass previously off-line
archives brought on-line manually using the Archive File Tool.
Maximum Online
Archives
Archive files provide permanent storage, but must be on-line in order to
be accessible to the database. This value specifies the default maximum
number of Archive files which should be kept accessible to the database
(including both those kept on-line automatically, as well as others that
have been brought on-line using the Archive File Tool.) (NOTE: Once an
Archive is no-longer on-line, it can be manually restored to make it
accessible again.)
Archive
Cataloguing
When checked, this stores index information about archive files. We
recommend you check this, because it helps in archive file management,
and makes it easier to retrieve archive files later, in the Archive File Tool.
When finished with this dialog box, click on the [OK] push button. Then click on the [Next >]
push button to go to the next page.
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The Logging Group – Define Datasets page will re-appear, with the new dataset shown in a tree
structure. Click on [Next>].
The dataset has been added to a tree structure.
Click on [Next>]
On the next page, you can optionally rename the internal table used for holding this dataset.
Change the name, if desired, then click on [Next>].
Here, you can optionally enter a new
name for the internal table used for
holding this dataset.
Click on [Next>]
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Logging Group - Select Objects Page (NOT applicable in all cases)
Remember, way back at the beginning of this example, we said that we only wanted to log data
for certain signals? We indicated that by not checking the “Log All Objects” option on the
Logging Group dialog box (see page 6-14.)
Now it’s time to actually identify which signals we do want to log. That’s the purpose of the
Logging Group - Select Objects page.
Objects list box
Click here to
bring additional
signals into the
box.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Instead of logging data
for all objects (in this case,
signals), we only log data
for selected objects.
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the next page
Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Browse Objects
The “Browse Objects” area is optional. It allows the number of objects
displayed in the Objects list box, below it, to be reduced, by entering one or
more filter strings for particular columns. When a filter string is entered, the
Objects list box can be refreshed by clicking on the [Refresh] push button.
For example, if collecting signal data, and only those signals beginning with
the word, ‘PUMP’ should be logged, enter PUMP* in the name field of the
“Browse Objects” area.
[Refresh]
This push button refreshes the Objects list box, below it, based on filter
strings entered in the “Browse Objects” area. You should also use this push
button after removing objects from the “Logged Objects” list box, so they
will re-appear in the Objects list box.
Options
This push button calls up the Options dialog box.
It allows the user to make selection easier by restricting the number of
objects displayed in the Objects list box, by entering a number in the
“Retrieve x Objects” field. If “Prompt for Filter Before Querying
Database” is selected, the Objects list box will be empty when the Logging
Group - Select Objects page is initially called up.
[Next]
This push button allows the next set of objects in the database to be brought
into the objects list box (based on any filters set) thereby allowing selections
of objects for logging to be made.
Logged Objects
This list box displays only those objects that have been specifically selected
for logging.
To add an object to this list box, click on its name in the Object list box, then
click on the [>>] push button.
To remove an object from this list box, click on its name in the “Logged
Objects” list box, then click on the [<<] push button. Then click on the
[Refresh] button to refresh the “Objects” list box.
[Show All
Objects]
This push button allows all objects currently marked for logging to be
displayed, even if the object is not among those currently in view in the
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Objects list box.
When finished with this page, click on the [Next >] push button to go to the next page.
Logging Group - Summary Page
Okay. We’re almost done! The Logging Group Summary Page displays all of the configuration
choices you have made for this logging group, and its associated dataset(s). Among the most
important information you will find on the Summary Page is the number of bytes required to
store all of the historical data you want to retain. This is important to know since the amount of
available space on your OpenEnterprise Server’s hard disk must be larger than this amount, and
have room to spare for running programs, etc.
NOTE: Certain items CANNOT be changed after you save them; thereby requiring you to recreate the entire logging group in order to fix problems. It is recommended, therefore, that you
review information on the Logging Group Summary Page carefully, since this is your final
opportunity to make changes, before saving all information to the database.
If there are items you want to change, click on the [< Back] push button, and continue using the
[< Back] push button on earlier pages until you reach the items you want to change.
If there are no items you want to change, click on the [Finish] push button, and changes will be
written to the database. Wow!!!! We’re done! Woo hooo!!
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Example 2 – Logging Status Values by Exception
Let’s say you have many logical signals in your database. They change values as pumps start and
stop, valves open and close, etc. If you wanted to keep a history of their value changes, you
could log them every minute, but it’s probably the case that they don’t change that frequently, so
you’d be logging the same value over and over most of the time.
A more efficient way to log this information is to use logging by exception that we mentioned
earlier.
NOTE: We're skipping the steps about starting the Historical Configuration Tool, and clicking
on [Add] to add a new Logging Group because we're assuming you're familiar with them. If you
don't remember those, please go back to page 6-12 and review those steps.
Step 1. – Create a Logging Group
In the first page of the Logging Group dialog box, you must specify:
•
The OE Database table from which the data will be logged must be specified in the "Table"
field. (Since we want to log changes to logical signals, this must be the 'digital_table'.
•
You must choose which column (attribute) in the table will be used to organize the data and
specify it in the "Name" field. (In database terminology, this is sometimes referred to as the
primary key). Because we are logging signal data, we always want to choose 'Name' as the
column, because, that has the signal name.
•
An ID number to uniquely identify this Logging Group must be entered in the "Group ID"
field.
•
You can optionally enter text describing what's in this Logging Group, in the "Description"
field. (It's a good idea to do this because it helps you differentiate between the different
Logging Groups.)
•
We need to specify the approximate number of objects to be logged. In this case that's 500
signals.
•
We only want to log selected signals, so do NOT check "Log All Objects". If we wanted to
log every signal in this table, we would have checked it, however.
•
We also want to check the "Enable" box to enable logging for this group.
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First, we need to identify the table in
the OE Database, that we’re collecting
data from. In this case, it’s ‘digital_table’.
The ID identifies this Logging Group.
It must be unique within the system.
This textual description
is optional.
Number of objects to
log would be the number
of signals you want to
log, in this case.
This must be checked, or else
logging would be disabled.
We also need to choose which column of
the source table will serve as the primary
key for all the logged data. Any time we
log signal data, we always choose ‘name’
for this, so that data will be organized based
on the signal name.
Click on [Next>]
to continue defining
this Logging Group.
Click on [Next>] to go to the next page of the dialog box.
Step 2. - Choose the Columns You Want to Log
Choose the columns (attributes) you want to
log on the Logging Group - Select Fields page.
For the logical signals we want to log the
readvalue field (i.e. the last value read from
the controller), the inhibit bits (alarminhibit,
controlinhibit, manualinhibit), and the
questionable data bit (questionable).
Choose the fields you want to log
Click on [Next>] when you're ready to proceed
to the next page.
Click here when finished.
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How come we didn't log the timestamp?
The Historian automatically logs the time at which signal data is placed into the Historian from
the realanalog_table and digital_table. "Hold on!" you say "How come back in the earlier
example, we did choose to log the timestamp?"
Good question. The timestamp attribute reflects the time the data arrived from the RTU, and
was placed into the realanalog_table or digital_table. We chose to log it in the earlier example,
because in that example, it could have been different from the time at which data was placed in
the Historian, because data was being put into the Historian at a fixed rate. For example, say
you're collecting real-time values into the realanalog _table every minute, and then every 15
minutes, you're collecting the value and putting it into the Historian. The time automatically
stored by the Historian will only change every 15 minutes, i.e. the time it does its historical
storage, but the timestamp in the realanalog_table is changing every minute. That's why we
saved the timestamp in the earlier example.
In this example, however, we're doing something a little different. We're collecting by
exception (i.e. when something changes). So as soon as something changes in the digital_table,
it will be copied into the Historian. The timestamp in the digital_table, therefore, is the same
as the Historian's own time of storage, which is automatically logged. Since there's no
difference, we don't need to collect the timestamp.
Still confused? Don't worry about it. We're getting into some pretty arcane material here, and
most people don't need such precision in their historical data, since they're more concerned with
hourly and daily averages.
============================================================
How come you’re using the “readvalue” column instead of the “value” column?
It’s really just a matter of choice. The “readvalue” column and the “value” columns are
usually the same; “readvalue” contains the last value read from the RTU; the “value” column
contains the last value read from the RTU or written by the operator. The difference only occurs
when the operator has changed the signal’s value, and the changed value hasn’t yet been read
back from the RTU, either because the change wasn’t accepted (manually inhibited signal at
RTU) or communications were interrupted.
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Step 3. Rename Columns (OPTIONAL)
If desired, you can rename fields
If desired, you can specify new names
for columns in the log file. When
finished, click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>] when finished.
Step 4. - Define the Dataset
Click on [Add]
Click on [Add] to add a new dataset.
In the OpenEnterprise Historical Configuration
dialog box select the "Collect Data When
Triggered" button, and choose "By Column" and
'Readvalue'. This means that data will only be
collected when the 'Readvalue' column for a signal
changes.
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Because data, therefore,
isn't being logged at a
fixed rate, we measure the
amount of data in
generations. One change
of a signal is considered to
be one generation.
Choose “Collect Data When Triggered”
since we’re logging by exception.
Check the
“By Column” box,
and choose ‘Readvalue’
as the column which
triggers logging, if it
changes.
When logging by exception
instead of time, generations
of changes are saved. For
example, 5 changes to a
signal would require 5
generations.
Specify the log file folder
where the log file will be
generated.
Specify the location where
the log file will be stored
on disk.
When you're finished with
this page, click on the
'Archive Configuration'
tab.
In the Archive Configuration
page, specify the drive and
directory that will hold the
archive files. Check "Auto
Archive" and specify a
percentage of how full the log
file should be, before you
generate an archive file.
Specify the
location where
archive files
should be saved.
Check “Auto Archive”
and specify when the
archive file should
be generated, based
on the log file size.
Check the “Maximum
Online Archives” box
and specify how many
archive files you want
to keep accessible.
Specify how many archives you
want on-line (accessible by the
user.) Also, make sure
"Archive Cataloging" is
checked - - this aides in archive
file management.
Select “Archive
Cataloging”
Click on [OK]
when finished.
Click on [OK] when finished.
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Click on [Next>]
The Dataset is now defined. Click on
[Next>] in the Logging Group - Define
Datasets dialog box.
Step 5. - Rename the Internal Table Used to Hold This Dataset (Optional)
On this page, you have the option of
renaming the internal table used to hold
this data.
If desired, rename the view, here.
Rename the view, if desired, and click
on [Next>].
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Step 6. - Choose the Objects (Signals) You Want to Log
Select the signals you want to log, and click on
the [>>] button to mark them for logging.
Because we didn't select "Log All
Objects" back on page 6-33, we
now have to choose which signals
you want to log.
Select the signals, and click on the
[>>] button to mark them for
logging. Click on [Next 100] to
bring additional signals into the
window, and repeat the process.
When you're finished, click on
[Next>].
Click here to bring more signals
into view.
Click on [Next>]
when finished.
Click on [Finish] and you’re done.
Now click on [Finish] on the
Logging Group - Summary page,
and you're done.
The only real difference between
this example and Example 1, is that
we logged signals only when they
changed, i.e. logging on exception
based on a trigger (the readvalue
column.)
The fact that they were logical signals instead of analog signals only makes a difference in the
choice of the source table.
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Example 3 - Logging Hourly and Daily Flow
Calculations, and using Timed Archives
NOTE: This example is heavily based on Example 1, so you're going to notice some repetition.
Again, we're skipping the initial steps related to starting the Historical Configuration Tool. If
you don't remember those, please go back to page 6-12 and review those steps.
Let's say that instead of just saving 1-minute samples of data that we want to do some
calculations on the data. If we have signals that represent flow rates through a pipeline, maybe
we want to know what time of day the minimum and maximum flow rates occurred. Maybe we
also want to know the average flow rate for an hour, or for the whole day. This type of data can
be obtained using the compression options we talked about way back in the beginning of the
chapter (See Table 6-1 on page 6-7.)
Step 1. - Create a Logging Group
To start out, fill in the first page of the Logging Group dialog box the same way as before. The
only change we made was increasing the number of objects from 500 to 1000. (We didn't do that
for any particular reason, other than to show you that it can be some other number than 500 – it
is set to however many signals you want to log.)
Enter a textual description of this Logging Group
Choose a unique Logging Group number
Choose ‘name’ since we’re logging signal data
Choose the ‘realanalog’ table
When logging signal data
this is the number of signals
you want to log
This must be enabled
Click on [Next>] when finished
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Step 2. - Choose the Columns you Want to Log and Specify Compression Options
As in the previous examples, we choose the columns
which we want to log.
The big difference, though, is that in this example,
we're going to specify some compression options.
Remember, in this context,
'compression' doesn't mean file
compression. It just means to
save the results of calculations
on data, not all of the original
data.
We want to save the minimum, maximum, and average flow values for the signals in this
Logging Group. Therefore, we need to check the "Max", "Min" and "Avg" boxes for the
'Value' field. We also want to know the time that the minimum and maximum occurred, so we
check the 'Occurrence Times' option as well.
Choose a field
you want to log,
then click on the
[>>] button. Repeat
for each additional
field you want to
log.
Choose ‘Max’, ‘Min’ and ‘Avg’
compression options for the
Value field, as well as the
‘Occurrence Times’ option.
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Step 3. - Rename Columns in the Log File (OPTIONAL)
Rename the columns which will be
used in the log file (if desired)
If desired, you can rename the columns
that will be used in the Log File.
Click on [Next>] when finished.
Click on [Next>] when finished.
Step 4. - Define the Dataset for 1-minute Data
Click on [Add] to add a new dataset.
Click on [Add]
The Historical Configuration dialog box will appear.
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•
We want to collect the data by polling, and we need to specify the polling rate at '60 seconds'
or '1 minutes' because we are logging data every minute, and we start it from the current time
and date.
•
We want to keep an entire day of 1-minute data in the Log File, so "Keep for at least" must
be '1 days' or '24 hours' or '1440 minutes' or '86400 seconds'. (The choice of units is up to
you, they all equal 1 day).
•
"Maximum Unsaved Data" should be set to 1 hour or so. That means, the log buffer
contents (which are in RAM memory, and so could be lost in a power failure) will be
emptied into the Log File on disk, every hour.
We’re collecting the data
every minute, so choose
‘60 seconds’ (or ‘1 minutes’)
here.
Enter a textual
description here
For minute data
you can just choose
the current time.
For 1-minute data
we want to keep an
entire day’s worth
We want to write
the log buffer’s
contents to disk
every hour.
Specify the location
where the log file will
be stored.
When you're finished on the 'Dataset Configuration' page, click on the 'Archive Configuration'
page.
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On the Archive Configuration page, start by specifying the location where archive files will be
stored, then specify how many you want to keep online, etc.
Fill in these fields first:
Specify the location where archive
files, and off-line archive files, will
be stored.
Specify how many of these archive files
you want to keep online and accessible.
Specify the maximum number you want
to allow to be online simultaneously.
Now, click on the [Add]
button to call up the Create
New Timed Archive dialog box.
Now, we said we're going to use Timed Archives in this example, so click on the [Add] button to
add a new timed archive.
In the Create new Timed Archive
dialog box, we need to specify the
"Start Time" for the archive. Think
of the start time as the beginning
point from which future archive files
will be scheduled for creation.
The “Start Time” must be
in the past.
Specify how frequently
archive files are generated.
Specify an offset from the
starting time, at which the
archive file is generated.
Click on
[OK] when
finished.
We chose midnight of the current day
as the "Start Time". We recommend
your starting time always be in the past.
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The "Repeat Interval" is the period of time, as measured from the "Start Time" at which
future archive files will be created. For example, if my "Start Time" is January 1, 2005 at 12:00
AM, and the "Repeat Interval" is 'Daily', then the next time an archive file would be created
would be at 12:00 AM on January 2, 2005.
Sometimes, if your system has a great deal of
activity on the hour, because of polling or
report generation, etc., you may want to
schedule the Archive File generation to occur
at some offset into the interval. For example, if
you specify an offset of 5 minutes, that means
that the system won't generate the Archive File
until 5 minutes after the scheduled interval
time. In this case, that would be 12:05 AM,
instead of 12:00 AM.
The Timed Archive is now defined.
When finished defining the timed archive,
click on [OK]. Then click on [OK] again to
exit the dialog box.
Click on [OK].
Step 5. - Define the Dataset for the Hourly Data
We now have defined a
dataset for the raw 1minute samples. Now, we
need to define two more
datasets - one for the
hourly data, and one for
the daily data. Each of
these additional datasets
will be 'fed from' the raw
1-minute samples dataset.
Select the raw dataset, and click on [Add].
Select the raw dataset you
just finished, and click on
[Add].
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This new dataset gets its data from the 1-minute samples dataset we defined earlier.
•
We want to collect the data by
polling, and we need to specify
the polling rate at '60 minutes' or
'1 hours' because we are logging
data every hour. The start time
must be in the past, so we chose
'12:01 AM'.
•
We want to keep an entire
month's worth of 1-hour data in
the Log File, so "Keep for at
least" is set to '32 days' or some
variation of that using different
units.
•
"Maximum Unsaved Data" is
set to 12 hours. That means, the
log buffer contents will be
emptied into the Log File on
disk, every 12 hours.
Data is coming from the samples dataset we
defined earlier.
We want to save a month’s worth of data.
We want to collect the data every hour.
"Keep for at least" defines the size of your log file on disk. If we enter '32
days' as the "Keep for at least" value, that means our log file can hold up to 32
days worth of data, and on the 33rd day, the oldest day in the Log File gets
overwritten. (If you configure archiving, you don't have to worry about data being
overwritten, since it would be archived in an archive file before that happens.)
"Maximum Unsaved Data" defines the size of the log buffer (the amount of
log data kept in RAM memory) that hasn't yet been written to the log file on disk.
If you set your "Maximum Unsaved Data" to 12 hours, that means up to 12 hours
of unsaved data can reside in memory. In other words, twice a day, you save the
data. If a power failure occurs, therefore, up to 12 hours of data from the log buffer
could be lost. It's tempting to set this to a very low value, so as not to lose any
data, however, be aware that doing so could have negative effects on system
performance, and prevent you from adding additional signals during future system
expansion (since the buffer size is fixed and cannot be changed). Because of this,
the “Maximum Unsaved Data” should typically be set to at least 5 to 10 times the
“Collect Data by Polling” rate specified for this dataset, and should never be less
than twice that rate. (Note: A feature called database persistence can reduce the
amount of data lost in power failures – see the Session Manager documentation in
the OE Reference Manual for more information.)
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On the 'Archive Configuration'
page, enter parameters defining
how many archive files you
want online for this dataset, and
where you want to store them.
Now, click on the [Add] button
to add a new timed archive for
this dataset.
Click on [Add]
to define the Timed
Archive.
Location
of Archive
files.
Number of
on-line Archive
Files (accessible
to the user.)
This time we want to specify that the hourly
data gets archived on a weekly basis. Specify a
"Start Time" in the past, and a "Repeat
Interval" of 'Weekly'.
We want to generate an archive file
of the hourly flow data every week.
We specify that we want the Archive File
generated at 12:15AM every Sunday.
Click on [OK] when finished.
Then, click on [OK] again to exit the
OpenEnterprise Historical Configuration
dialog box. The hourly dataset is now
complete.
The flow data will be stored in
the archive file every Sunday
at 12:15 AM. (NOTE 10 minute
offset.)
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Step 6. - Define the Dataset for the Daily Data
Click on the raw dataset, then click on [Add].
We need to add the last dataset for the
daily data. Again, this dataset will be
'fed from' the raw 1-minute samples
dataset. (Don't feed it from the hourly
dataset.)
Select the raw dataset, and click on
[Add].
This daily dataset gets its data from
the 1-minute samples dataset we
defined earlier, (not the hourly dataset).
•
We want to collect the data by
polling, and we need to specify the
polling rate at '24 hours' or '1 days'
or '86400 seconds' because we are
logging data once every hour. The
start time must be in the past, so we
chose '12:15 AM'.
•
We want to keep an entire year's
worth of daily data in the log file,
so "Keep for at least" is set to '1
years'.
•
"Maximum Unsaved Data" is set
to 5 days. That means, the log
buffer contents will be emptied into
the Log File on disk, every 5 days.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Data is coming from the samples dataset we
defined earlier.
We want to save a year’s worth of daily data.
We want to collect the data every day.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Once again, on the 'Archive
Configuration' page, enter
parameters defining how
many archive files you want
online for this dataset, and
where you want to store them.
Now, click on the [Add]
button to add another new
timed archive.
Click on [Add]
to define the Timed
Archive.
Location
of Archive
files.
Number of
on-line Archive
Files (accessible
to the user.)
This time we want to specify that the daily data gets
archived on a weekly basis. Specify a "Start Time"
in the past, and a "Repeat Interval" of 'Weekly'.
We want to generate an archive file
of the daily flow data every week.
We specify that we want the Archive File generated at
12:45AM every Sunday (12:15 plus a 30 minute
offset.)
Click on [OK] when finished.
Then, click on [OK] again to exit the OpenEnterprise
Historical Configuration dialog box. The daily dataset
is now complete.
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The flow data will be stored in
the archive file every Sunday
at 12:45 AM. (NOTE 30 minute
offset.)
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Your datasets for 1-minute, 1-hour, and
1-day data are now complete. Click on
[Next>].
Now that your datasets are
complete, click on [Next>].
Step 7. - Rename the Internal Tables Used to Hold These Datasets (Optional)
On this page, you have the option of
renaming the internal tables used to
hold this data. (Later on, when you
actually want to query the historical
data, you'll need to know the names of
these tables.)
Rename the view, if desired, and click
on [Next>].
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Step 8. - Choose the Objects (Signals) You Want to Log
Select the signals you want to log, and click on
the [>>] button to mark them for logging.
Because we didn't select "Log
All Objects" back on page 639, we now have to choose
the flow signals we want to
log.
Select the signals, and click
on the [>>] button to mark
them for logging. Click on
[Next 100] to bring additional
signals into the window, and
repeat the process. When
you're finished, click on
[Next>].
Click on [Next>]
when finished.
Click here to bring more signals
into view.
Click on [Finish] and you’re done.
Now click on [Finish] on the
Logging Group - Summary page,
and you're done.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Example 4 – Using the Archive File Tool3
We've talked a lot about archive files. We explained earlier that because log files are periodically
overwritten with new data, data from the log files gets copied to archive files for permanent
long-term storage.
We also said that a certain number of archive files are maintained online (so they can be
accessible for queries), and that if an archive file is off-line it is inaccessible. Therefore, if you
have a particular offline archive file containing data you need to view, you will need to bring it
online again.
How do we keep track of all these archive files? How do we bring old ones online, or take other
ones offline? You guessed it - we use the Archive File Tool.
Before You Begin
Obviously, in order to make use of the Archive File Tool, you need to have some archive files.
They could either be online in your Archive Files directory, in an offline archive files directory,
or you might have them on some other computer or storage media.
NOTE: If you have archive files you saved previously on CD-ROM, or some other storage
media, their Windows™ file attributes MUST be set to read-write after you restore them, or else
they cannot be read by the Archive File Tool.
Starting the Archive File Tool
From the OE Toolbox, double-click on the 'Archive
Files' icon.
Double-click on the
‘Archive Files’ icon.
3
In order for the Archive File Tool to run properly, another program called OEArchiveFileManager.exe must be
running. Normally this would be started automatically by the Session Manager. Session Manager configuration is
outside the scope of this manual. See the Online Help for details. If Session Manager hasn't been configured yet, you
can start it manually from the /OpenEnterprise /BIN folder.
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When the Archive File Tool appears, you can see a list of all Archive Files known to the system,
both online and offline. This list is called the Archive Catalog.
The files are organized in a tree structure.
Logging groups for particular table(s) are
displayed, and then a list of datasets
associated with each Logging group is
shown.
The source table(s) from
which the data was originally
collected.
The datasets for
each Logging Group.
Any online Archive Files for each dataset
will be listed. If a particular dataset does
not show an Archive File, it could be that
archiving has not been configured, or that
logging has not been underway long
enough for an Archive File to be generated.
The Logging Group Numbers
Click on the '+' sign to view branches of
the Archive File tree. The archive files are
named based on the date range they
encompass.
Use the ‘+’ to expand the tree and see
a list of archive files.
You can find out more information about a
particular Archive File by selecting it, and
clicking on the [Properties] button.
Archive files preceded by a red X are
currently offline.
Archive files preceded by a blue
checkmark are currently online.
If the blue checkmark for an online archive
file has a small 'A' underneath it that means
that this particular archive file was brought
online automatically.
Archive files marked with a red X are
currently offline, and inaccessible.
Archive files marked with a blue check
mark, are online. If the online archive
file has a small ‘A’ below it, that means
that it was brought online automatically
by the system.
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Bringing an Offline Archive File Online
First, choose the Archive File you want to bring online.
In the Archive Catalog, Offline archive
file names are preceded with a red X.
In the Archive File Tool, click on the
name of the Archive File that you want to
bring online, then click on the [Bring
Online] button.
Then click on the [Bring Online] button.
A message box will appear, asking you to confirm
that you want to bring this Archive File online.
Click on [Yes]. The Online Properties dialog box
will appear.
Click on [Yes].
The source table.
The Logging Group number.
The Online Properties dialog box displays
various information about this Archive File,
including the source table from which the data
originated, the Logging Group number, the
name of the Archive File, and its associated
dataset (0s = raw samples, 3600s = hourly,
etc.)
Choose how long
you want to keep
this Archive File
online.
You can choose how long you want this
Archive File to remain online. If you choose
"Indefinitely" it will remain online until you
manually take it offline. If you choose "For"
you can specify that the Archive File should
remain online for a certain number or hours
and minutes.
Click on [OK].
If you choose "Until", you can specify a date and time at which the Archive File will be taken
offline by the system; it will remain online until that moment.
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Click on [OK] and the Archive File will be brought online.
Restoring Offline Archive File(s) from Backup Media or a different Server
If you have Archive Files that are currently
not visible in the Archive Catalog tree, you
will need to add them in.
First, copy them to the Online Archives
folder (archdirectory in oelogdata) you
specified during historical configuration.
If you are copying the files from a CD-ROM
they will typically be read-only, even after
you restore them to Online Archives folder
the server. If this is the case, you must
change their file attribute to read-write
before you try to add them into the Archive
Catalog.
How do I change the file
attribute for the Archive Files
to Read-Write?
In Windows™ Explorer, go to the
location on the server where you have
restored the Archive Files, and select the
files. Right-click on the files and choose
"Properties" from the pop-up menu. Deselect the 'Read-only' box and click on
[OK].
Once you have copied them to the Online Archive folder, and adjusted the file attribute, as
necessary, you need to add them into the Archive Catalog.
Click on [Add Archives]
To do this, click on the [Add Archives]
button in the Archive File Tool.
The Archive File Import dialog box will
appear.
The Archive File Import dialog box will show a list of all archive files in the Online Archive
folder, which do not currently exist in the Archive Catalog tree.
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If you want the file(s) brought online automatically once
they are added to the catalog, make sure you select the
"Keep files online after they are imported" box.
Select the file you want to add into
the Archive Catalog.
You can now add the files into the catalog by selecting the
file(s) you want to add, and clicking on [OK]. Any files
you selected will be added to the Archive Catalog tree. If
you didn't specify that they should be kept online after
import, you should proceed to bring them online, when
you need them. (See Bringing an Offline Archive File
Online earlier in this chapter, for details.)
Click on [OK].
Interpreting What the Archive Filenames Mean
In the Archive Catalog, the archive filenames are organized in the tree, and have timestamps
written out, for example, March, instead of 03.
When the archive files are stored on disk, however, they have more complicated names. An
example is explained below:
1_0s_20000212233428_12345_0.arch
g rt yyyyMMddHHmmSS time x
where:
g is the historical group
rt is the collection rate
yyyy is the year
MM is the month
dd is the day of the month
HH is the hours that
time is the number of seconds in the archive file
x is an incremental count
(continued)
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
Interpreting What the Archive Filenames Mean (continued)
The timestamp (yyyyMMddHHmmSS) is the start time of the archive file, i.e. no data should
appear before this date.
The time (number of seconds in the archive file) along with the timestamp will determine the
bounding region of time that the archive file maintains.
The incremental count (x) should increase by a value of one after each archive. If an archive
file is generated and the database crashes, restarting the database may start it with an older
'realtime.dat'. This may have an older count and therefore you will find duplicate counts for
the same file.
Taking an Online Archive File Offline
First, select the file you want to make offline.
Because of memory limitations, you
shouldn't keep more archive files online
than you think you will need.
Online archive file names are preceded
with a blue checkmark.
In the Archive File Tool, click on the
name of the Archive File that you want
to take offline, then click on the [Take
Offline] button.
The file will be taken offline, and will
now appear with a red X preceding its
name.
Then, click on [Take Offline].
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Setting Up Automatic Backup of Offline Archive Files
As your system continually generates archive files of old log data, you consume more and more
hard disk space. Eventually, your disk will fill up with archive files. Some people prevent this by
periodically copying the offline archive files to CD-ROM, and then deleting them.
An alternative way to back up the offline archive files is to periodically copy them to a different
computer. You can do this manually, or you can automate this process using the Archive File
Tool.
Click on [Add].
To do this, go to the 'Backup' page of the
Archive File Tool, and click on [Add].
Specify a name and description.
Specify a name and
description for your backup
scheme, and choose when you
want the files transferred to
the backup machine. (You can
specify that you want them
sent as soon as they are
created, as soon as they are
offline, or at some
predetermined time of day.
Then, click on [Add].
Choose when you want your
archive files transferred to the
other computer.
Click on [Add] to specify
the location of the other
computer or folder.
Now choose the logging group, and the dataset (samples = '0s', hourly = '3600s', daily = '86400s',
etc.) from which these archive files were generated.
Also, you must select the folder containing the offline archive files, and the destination on the
other machine to which you want to transfer the archive files.
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Chapter 6 - Working with Historical Data
When finished, click on [OK] and
continue to click on [OK] until
you return to the 'Backup' page of
the tool.
Choose the Logging Group
that has the archive files you
want backed up on another
computer.
Specify which dataset
you want backed up.
Select the folder containing
the archive files you want
backed up.
Specify the destination for
the files, i.e.where they will
be backed up (name and
folder on other computer.)
You can then exit the Archive
File Tool, if you are finished with
your configuration activities.
Click on [OK] when
finished.
What can I do with all this historical data?
So you've saved and archived tons and tons of historical data. What's it good for? Well, most
customers like to create trends of certain variables from their historical data. If you want to do
that, we have a whole chapter (Chapter 7) which talks about creating trends.
Customers also like to generate reports based on their historical data. You can use the Report
Tool, to generate reports from data stored in the OpenEnterprise Database. See Chapter 11 for
information on using the Report Tool. Alternatively, you can use any third-party ODBC
compatible reporting package to generate reports.
Finally, if you’re comfortable working with SQL, and you just want to view the historical
data, you can query the raw or compressed table from which the original data came.
Depending upon the specifications of your query, the system will automatically access the
online Archive files, if that's where the data you requested resides. See Appendix A for details
on using SQL.
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Chapter 7 – Trending Your Data
What are Trends?
We hear and read about trends all the
time in the news, for example, prices of
some commodity are going down, or
the inflation rate is going up. When you
think about it, all of these things are
just measurements of some variable
over a period of time.
That’s basically what a trend is in
OpenEnterprise. It’s a graphical
representation of one or more variables
(signals), over a given period of time.
Trends can include real-time data,
historical data, or both real-time and
historical data. You might trend things
like the amount of natural gas
distributed through a particular
pipeline, or the amount of electricity
used by a certain device. The choice of
what you trend is entirely up to you,
and you can trend just about any data
from the OE Database.
Each signal displayed in a trend has its
own dedicated trend pen. When you
define the trend pen, you specify
various characteristics of how the data
from that pen will be displayed,
including the color, what sort of
symbol will be used to depict a sample
of data, etc.
The line that the pen draws on the
screen for a particular trended signal is
called the trace. If you are including
multiple signals (pens) in this particular
trend, you will want to make sure that
the traces differ in appearance;
otherwise you won’t be able to tell the
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Why do we use the term
‘pen’ when we talk about
trends?
We say a trend pen because the pen you define
draws a representation of the signal values on the
screen, just as if you had drawn a chart on a piece of
paper. In fact, the concept of pens is actually
borrowed from the analog chart recorder market.
Chart recorders are mechanical devices in which
paper rotates past one or more ink pens, which
change their position, based on the value of a
particular value. Although chart recorders are still in
use, in recent years, electronic devices have
replaced many of them.
If you’re too young to have seen a chart recorder,
you might be have seen seismographs on television
or the movies, which measure the force of
earthquakes, or polygraphs, which measure blood
pressure, perspiration etc in an attempt to detect
someone lying. All of these devices operate on the
same basic principle, a strip of paper or a round
chart moving through a mechanical device, with
some pens recording data on it.
The main difference is that in OpenEnterprise, the
data is trended on your computer’s screen, instead
of on a paper chart.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
different traces apart.
To tell the different traces in the trend apart, the Trend Viewer will automatically use a different
color for each trace. We’ll talk more about this later.
Trends are drawn on a grid. The X-axis is a horizontal line with
marks evenly spaced along it. Each mark represents some
moment of time. The distance between two adjacent marks
could represent a minute, an hour, etc.
The grid also has a Y-axis, which is a vertical line
corresponding to the range of values which will be displayed
for the trend, or a particular trace within the trend.
A particular trend may show more than one set of X and Y
axes. This is recommended if you are showing more than one
variable in the same trend, and the variables don’t share the
same range of values. Each set of axes would correspond to a
particular trace.
Y-axis shows
the range of
values for the
variable
Grid
The X-axis is
horizontal. It represents
the time range for the
trend.
The Y-axis is vertical. It
represents the range of
values of the process
variable.
The plural of axis is
‘axes’, so we say X and
Y axes.
Trace for a particular variable
X-axis shows
the time scale
Details pane:
shows information
on the variable
being displayed.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Now, let’s look at some examples. Please follow them in order
because the later examples build on information introduced in
the earlier ones.
Before You Begin these Examples:
•
To perform any of the following examples, you must be logged on at an
OpenEnterprise Workstation, which is currently connected to a running
OE Database.
•
You must be familiar with how to use Database Explorer, and the
Database Object Viewer. For information on these, see Chapter 4 of this
manual.
•
In addition, you must know the name of the signal(s) you want to trend.
•
Your OE historical system must have been configured if you want to
trend historical data, and it must have been running long enough for
some data to have been collected that you can trend. In addition, you
must know which historical groups contain the data you want to trend.
(See Chapter 6 for information on historical configuration.)
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Example 1 – Trending a Real-time data value
On the OE workstation, start the OE Trend Viewer by clicking as shown, below:
Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ Views Æ Trends
Something called the Trend View Container will appear. (It’s called a container because it will
hold the trend information.)
Start Database Explorer and connect to your running OE Database, then start the Database
Object Viewer, and query the data that you’re interested in trending. (If you’re unsure how to use
Database Explorer, and the Database Object Viewer, please review the examples in Chapter 4 of
this book.)
Locate the “Value” attribute for one of the signals you want to display, and drag it from the
Database Object Viewer, and drop it into the Trend grid. A real-time trend is automatically
configured.
Drag the value from the Database Object Viewer, and drop it into the grid of the OE Trend View.
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You’ve now defined a real-time trend pen. As real-time values are collected for that signal, they
will be displayed, and gradually, you will see a graph line appear, starting from the right hand
side of the window.
If desired, you could drag the value(s) for additional signals in, and each will have its own pen in
this trend. We recommend you don't try to have more than 3 or 4 pens on a single trend, though,
because too many pens will make it confusing for the user.
You can add additional pens to this trend by the same method.
We recommend, though, that you don't try to have more than 3
or 4 pens in the same trend, or else the trend will be confusing
for the user.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Before we go on to another example, Let’s notice a few things about the Trend Viewer:
For one thing, you should see that the most recent
value for the signal would also be displayed on the
line for that pen in the Detail pane.
If you have multiple pens in the trend (in this case we
don’t) you can match up the information in the Detail
pane with the trace by its color.
Each Trace has its
Own Color…
Each pen in the trend has a
line of information in the
Detail pane. The color shown
at the left side of a line in the
Detail pane matches the color
of the trace for its
corresponding variable.
Another thing to notice is that prior to when we
dragged the value in, the Y-axis was a scale from 0
to 100, representing 0 to 100 percent.
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Now that we have an actual signal in there, the
scale has been redrawn to show the range between
the highest and lowest values that have been
collected into the Trend window. This is called
auto-scaling, because the X-axis is automatically
changing based on the actual values coming in the
window. In fact, the scale will continue to be
redrawn if values go above or below those values
received thus far.
Actually, the Y-axis actually goes from slightly
below the lowest value yet received, to slightly
above the highest value yet received. This area above
and below the signal value range is called the
deadband.
Auto scaling can be turned off. Remember that we
did the simplest possible trend by just dragging and
dropping a signal into the trend. We’ll talk about this
more, later.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
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If auto-scaling is ON,
the Y-axis changes
based on the values
coming in…
The Y-axis is re-drawn to show
only the range of values coming
in for the trend pen. This is
called auto-scaling. For
example, if the values being
collected for the variable being
trended are currently ranging
between 72 and 95, then the Yaxis will show a scale from
slightly below 72 to slightly
above 95.
Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Another thing you might have noticed about the trend is
that as new data comes in, the Detail pane is continually
being updated with the latest value received, i.e. the
value at the far right of the X-axis.
The reason you’re getting the latest value is that the
Marker Bar sits at the far right of the X-axis when you
first open the trend.
The Marker Bar is a vertical bar that chooses from
where, along the trace, the data being presented in the
Detail pane should originate.
Marker Bar can be
moved to any point
along the trace by
double-clicking
Use the Marker Bar
to find out a Value
along the Trace…
To find out the value of the
signal at any given point along
the trace, double click on that
point of the trace, or drag the
marker bar to the point of
interest, and the value at that
point will be displayed in the
Detail pane.
You can move the Marker Bar to any
point along the trace by simply doubleclicking on that point in the trace, or just
dragging the Marker Bar. The Marker
Bar will move to the new location, and
the Detail pane will be updated with the
value of the trace(s) at that point in time.
The timestamp and value shown in the
Detail pane are the timestamp and value
at the location of the Marker Bar.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Another thing you should know about trends is that you can
enlarge the view of a part of the Graph pane to see more
detail. This is called zooming.
You can zoom in at a certain pre-defined percentage by
right-clicking in the middle of the Graph pane, and choosing
from the percent zoom options shown on the pop-up menu.
Alternatively, you can choose the “Custom…” choice to
specify your own percentage of zoom.
Zooming lets you
enlarge parts of
the trend…
If you aren’t sure what percentage of
zooming to use, try the “Zoom In” or
“Zoom Out” options. They allow you to
incrementally zoom in or out, without
specifying a percentage.
You can set your
These are pre-defined
own zoom percentage
zoom levels.
“Zoom In” and
using “Custom...”
“Zoom Out” are
good if you’re
not sure how
much you want
to zoom.
Dragging a box in the Graph pane
to enlarge a particular area is is called
‘rubber-band zooming’.
There’s also a technique called ‘rubberband zooming’ where you click and drag
the area of the Graph pane you want to
enlarge. When you release the mouse
button, the zoom is activated.
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Once you’ve set a zoom level, you can always go back to the ‘un-zoomed’ state by right-clicking
in the Graph pane, and choosing “Zoom Undo” to undo the last zoom, or “Zoom Undo Full” to
undo all of your zooming.
Trend configurations
can be saved in a TVD
file for re-use at a later
time.
You should save your trend, because we’re going to use it some more in Example 2. Trend
configurations can be saved in a file by using the FileÆ Save As command. This is helpful
because it lets you pre-configure trends, and recall them at a later time. Trend files have *.TVD
file extensions.
Once you have configured a trend and saved it in a TVD file, you can:
•
Re-open that TVD file, at any time, in the Trend Viewer, using the File Æ Open command.
•
Save it under a different name, and then re-use it as a starting point (or template) when
creating other trends.
•
Embed the trend within an OE Graphics display. (This is beyond the scope of this chapter.)
•
Load the trend into an OE Desktop file, or tie it to a menu item using the OE Menu Editor.
(Details on how to do this are outside the scope of this chapter.)
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Example 2 – Making Some Basic Modifications to the
Trend You Just Made
This example assumes you created the trend discussed in Example 1 and that you saved it (or at
least didn’t close it without saving), and that it is open for modification.
If there’s something about the trend you don’t like,
it’s usually pretty easy to change. Double-clicking
on the line for a pen in the Detail pane (or rightclicking and choosing “Modify Pen” from the
pop-up menu) will call up the Pen Configuration
dialog box, which lets you change configuration
for that pen, only.
(NOTE: Depending upon how your system was configured, you may need to click on the
“Configure” item in the menu bar, to go into Configure Mode, if the person who set up the
Trend didn’t allow Runtime Configuration.)
In Configure Mode, the Configure menu bar item will be replaced with a menu bar item called
‘Runtime’; this is similar to Configure / Runtime modes used in OE Graphics View; when you
see ‘Runtime’ you’re in Configure Mode, and when you see ‘Configure’ you’re in Runtime
Mode. You should also know that we could have configured the Real-Time trend in Example 1
from Configure Mode, instead of dragging and dropping in Runtime Mode.
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Specifying what should appear in the Detail Pane for an individual Pen
Right-click on the pen you want to modify in the Detail pane, and choose “Modify Pen” from
the pop-up menu. In this case, we only have one pen. The Pen Configuration dialog box will
appear.
The only field filled in at this point is the “Data Source” field. It was filled in automatically in
Example 1, when we dragged a value from the Database Object Viewer into the Graph pane of
the Trend Viewer. (Actually, we could have dragged the value directly to this field, if we had had
the Pen Configuration dialog box open.)
TREND22.CDR
This is the signal which is being trended
by this pen. The entry can either be typed
in manually, filled automatically by dragging
in from the Database Object Viewer, or chosen
by clicking the [...] button to select the signal
via the Historical Data Access (HDA) Server.
Select this to have the Trend System fill in the
“Device”, “Status”, “Name”, “Description”
and “Units” fields by extracting them from
attributes of the “Data Source” signal which
are already defined in the OE Database.
The other fields on the ‘Data’ page (“Device”, “Status”, “Name”, “Description” and “Units”)
are not important to the operation of the trend itself, but are used to fill the Detail pane with
information about this particular pen. You could fill them in yourself, by dragging entries from
the Database Object Viewer directly into a field. It’s much easier, though, to check the “AutoPopulate with Signal Data” box, to have the Trend Viewer automatically fill in the fields. The
Trend Viewer does this by looking in the OE Database and extracting attributes for the signal
named in the “Data Source” field.
When you check the “Auto-Populate
with Signal Data” box, you will be
prompted to confirm that you want to
do that, since anything you typed in
those fields, yourself will be
overwritten.
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Click on [Yes] and the fields will be filled in with attributes from the OE Database for that
signal.
TREND24.CDR
When this is checked
fields are filled in
automatically if the
data exists in the OE
Database for the signal
named in “Data Source”.
Setting Ranges for a single Pen, and Disabling Auto-Scaling for the Common YAxis
Earlier in this chapter, we talked
about auto-scaling which is a
feature in which the Y-axis of
the trend is set dynamically
based on values coming in for
the signal being trended.
TREND30.CDR
To change the range
for the Y-axis, you can
enter the lowest and
highest values for the
signal in directly, or you
can use the Database
Object Viewer to drag in
signals from the OE
Database which will
hold the minimum
or maximum value.
If desired, we can turn auto-scaling off and, instead, have the Y-axis scale set based on a defined
range for the signal. This range would typically be the lowest and highest possible values for the
signal.
To set the range for the Y-axis, click on the ‘Ranges’ tab of the Pen Configuration dialog box,
and enter a range using the “Minimum” and “Maximum” fields. Alternatively, you could drag
in signals using the Database Object Viewer, the value of which will serve as the values for the
fields.
Once you click on [OK] to exit the dialog box, you might expect that the scale would appear
differently in the Graph pane. That’s not the case, however, because auto-scaling is still active.
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Some trend configuration settings affect just a
single pen, while others apply to all pens in the
trend. There are even some things that may be
set in two places (once for the entire Trend, and
once for an individual pen). Settings that apply
to all pens in the trend are called common
because they are shared in common.
Some trend
configuration settings
affect just a single pen,
while others apply to
all pens in the trend.
So, if auto-scaling is still active, do we need to
change it for the individual pen, or for the entire
trend? Good question. Auto-scaling applies to
the Y-axis, so it depends on which Y-axis you
want to disable auto-scaling.
There are even some things that may be
set in two places (once for the entire
Trend, and once for an individual pen).
Settings that apply to all pens in the trend
are called common because they are
shared in common.
At this point, you’re probably saying “Wait!
How can there be more than one Y-axis?”
That’s a good question. The OE Trend control
allows you to optionally have both a common
Y-axis, which is shared by every pen in the
trend, and also to optionally display an
individual Y-axis for each pen in the trend. This
may sound confusing to you, but, if you have
multiple pens in your trend, and each signal has
a different range you really might want to
display a separate Y-axis for each one, so you
can see the actual range for each signal.
•
Settings that apply only to the current
pen are set in the Pen Configuration
dialog box.
•
Settings that apply to all pens in the
trend, i.e. common settings, are set in
the OE Trend Client Control
Properties dialog box.
•
If a particular setting appears in both
of these places, the pen setting
typically overrides the common
setting for that pen.
Now, we only have one pen in this particular trend, and while we could have set it so that it had
an individual Y-axis displayed for the pen, in addition to the common Y-axis, we didn’t do that.
So we just need to turn off auto-scaling for the common Y-axis. Any changes to common
settings for the trend are done in the OE Trend Client Control dialog box.
To bring up the OE Trend Control Client dialog box you need to switch to Configure Mode, by
clicking on the “Configure” item in the menu bar.
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You must then call up the OE Trend Client Control Properties dialog box by right-clicking in the
Graph pane, and choosing “Properties” from the pop-up menu.
In Configure Mode, right-click in the
middle of the Graph pane, and choose
“Properties” from the pop-up menu.
Click on the ‘Graph’ tab
The ‘General’ page of the OE Trend Client Control
Properties dialog box will appear. Click on the
‘Graph’ tab.
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Click on the
[Axis...]
button.
From the ‘Graph’ page of the OE Trend
Client Control Properties dialog box, the
[Axis…] button.
In the Axis Configuration dialog box, de-select the
“Autoscale” box. Since you’re here, we also
recommend that unless you have a specific need for it,
you de-select the “Independent Scaling” option as
well, since it can be confusing to the user, if they don’t
know what it’s used for. Then click on [OK] and click
on [OK] again to exit the OE Trend Client Control
Properties dialog box.
De-select the
“Autoscale”
option.
De-select the
“Independent
Scaling” option.
Then, click on
[OK].
Now, if you return to Runtime Mode (by clicking on
“Runtime” in the menu bar) auto-scaling will be
disabled for the Common Y-axis.
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What is “Independent
Scaling” and why shouldn’t I
use it unless I know what I’m
doing?
If “Independent Scaling” is selected,
each pen trace is automatically stretched
(or crunched) so that its highest value
appears just under the top value for the
common axis, and its lowest value
appears just above the bottom value for
the common axis. When this is done,
the common axis is misleading (you
can’t figure out a value based on the
Common Axis in this case) and the
Graph pane is useful only to show the
relative relationship of multiple pens.
You'd also need to activate individual
axes for each pen to see actual values.
"Independent Scaling” is useful if you
want to display two or more pens with
very different magnitudes of values on
the same trend. For example, it allows a
flow signal with a range of 0 to 10,000
GPM and a pressure signal with a range
of 0 to 10 PSI to be put on the same
trend, and you can see meaningful
values for both.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Changing the Appearance of the Trace for a Particular Pen
If desired, you can choose a different color for a pen’s
trace, a different line style or thickness, etc. To do this,
you need to go to the ‘Styles’ page of the Pen
Configuration dialog box.
If you’re already in the OE Trend Client Control
Properties dialog box, you can call up the Pen
Configuration dialog box by going to the ‘Pens’ page,
selecting the pen you want to set alarm limits for, and
clicking on the [Modify] button. Otherwise, call up the
Pen Configuration dialog box by the method we discussed
on page 7-11.
Select the pen you want to change,
then click on the [Modify] button.
Click on the [Styles...] button
When the Pen Configuration dialog box is opened, click
on the ‘Styles’ tab and the ‘Styles’ page will be displayed.
Next, click on the [Styles…] button.
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“Visible” should remain checked.
If you de-select this, the pen
will be hidden (not visible in the
Graph pane).
Usually, you’ll want to leave
the “Plot Style” at ‘Line’.
You can set the “Width” to be
from 1 to 6 points in size.
Anything other than 1 requires
a solid line style.
“Style” lets you change the pen trace
from a solid line to a dashed line.
Other choices are also available.
Click here to call up a
color palette for changing
the color of this pen’s
trace.
If desired, each data point
along the trace can appear
as some symbol. There are
several symbols to choose
from.
We suggest you experiment with the various options in the
Styles dialog box and see how your choices look in
“Runtime” mode. For example, the figure, below, shows a
trace where a 'diamond' was chosen as the "Marker Style".
7-18
Note: If the "Width" is greater
than 1, the "Styles" choice is
automatically set to 'Solid' and
can't be changed.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Modifying the Color of a Trace if its Value goes past a pre-defined limit
If the value of the signal being trended passes a pre-defined limit, it is sometimes useful to have
that portion of the trace drawn in a different color, to draw attention to the situation. The predefined limit could be an alarm limit defined for the signal in the RTU, but it doesn't have to be.
It could be some other arbitrary limit that has
been defined.
To configure this, go to the ‘Limits’ page of
the Pen Configuration dialog box. On the
‘Limits’ page of the Pen Configuration dialog
box, you can specify up to six different limits
and corresponding trace colors, for a pen.
(Again, these could correspond to actual alarm
limits defined in the RTU, or they could be
other limits you define.)
Then,click on the
[Modify] button.
First, select the limit
you want to define.
To specify a limit, click on the type of limit you want to define (“Hi” for example), then click on
the [Modify] button.
The Limit Configuration dialog box will appear.
You can type in a limit directly, drag a value
from a signal in from the OE Database using the
Database Object Viewer, or click on the […] to
specify a historical value using the HDA Server
Tag Browser.
Now, click on the [Line Styles…] button to
choose the color for the pen when its value
exceeds this limit. In the Line Styles dialog box,
click on the “Color” box to bring up a palette, and
select the color you want the trace to be drawn in,
when this particular limit is exceeded. You can
also, for example, have the trace drawn in a
different style (thicker point size, different style)
while exceeding the limit, by modifying the
“Width” and “Plot Style” settings. Click on [OK]
repeatedly until you have exited all the way out of
the dialog boxes. Go to “Runtime” mode, and
when the trace exceeds that limit, it should appear
in the selected color and style.
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You can enter in a value directly, drag
one in from a signal in the OE Database
using the Database Object Viewer, or you
can click on [...] to access the HDA Server
Tag Browser and bring in a historical value
for the limit.
Click here to
call up a color
palette from
which you can
select the color
you want the
trace to be when
this limit is
exceeded.
You can have other aspects of the
trace appearance change when the
limit is exceeded, such as the point
size of the trace width or the style.
Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Do I have to set all these styles and parameters for
every single pen in my trend?
No. Remember, we could just drag in the value, like we did in Example 1. These are just
ways you can change the appearance of the trend pen. If you find setting these styles to be
tedious, and you want all the pens in the trend to have the same characteristics (except for
the color, of course), you can configure the 'Default Pen'. (See below)
Using the Default Pen to Set Characteristics for Pens
You may have noticed the 'Default Pen' in the Pen dialog boxes
earlier in this example. The default pen is special. It can't actually
trend data; it's just a mechanism where you can set default
characteristics for any new pens you add to this Trend. Just go into
the 'Pens' page, select the 'Default Pen' (just like any other pen),
and set your defaults. Then, when you add any more pens to this
trend, they will be based on the characteristics you defined for the
default pen.
The default pen doesn't
trend any data. It's an
optional feature that
lets you set default
characteristics (styles,
for example) for all
subsequent pens used
in this trend.
To set default characteristics for all
subsequent pens in a trend, select the
<Default> pen and then choose [Modify]
to set the characteristics.
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Setting Pens to Trend Historical Data by Default
If desired, you can specify that all new pens should trend
historical data by default. This would allow you to drag a
historical pen into the graph pane, just like the real-time
pens we discussed earlier.
To have pens display historical
data, by default, check this.
To do this, select the default pen, and click on the
[Modify] button.
In the Pen Configuration dialog box, check the "Convert
Realtime Data Sources to Historical" box, and click on
[OK].
From now on, when you drag a value into the
graph pane from the Database Object Viewer,
you will be prompted to confirm whether you
want it to display as historical data. Click on
[Yes] if you want to trend historical data.
Click on [Yes] if you want
to trend historical data.
In order for the pen to display the historical data, you need
to identify for it, which dataset should be chosen (for
example, 1-minute, hourly, daily, etc.) This is chosen via
the "Sample Rate" list box. You also need to choose the
one type of data to be trended by this pen, for example, the
average, minimum, maximum, etc.
From the “Sample Rate” list box,
select the dataset containing the data
you are interested in.
Then, from the various types of data logged
in that dataset, choose the one type of data
you want to trend.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Example 3 – Trending a Historical Data Value
On the OE workstation, start the OE Trend Viewer by clicking as shown, below:
Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ Views Æ Trends
The Trend View Container will appear. Go into Configure Mode by clicking on the ‘Configure’
menu bar item.
Click on Configure
NOTE: We're repeating a few things here, since we know some of you skipped over Example 1
and 2. You really should read those, because they'll be useful to you later.
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•
Right-click in the center of the container, and click on “Properties” when it pops up.
Right-click in the middle of the grid, and choose
“Properties” from the pop-up menu.
The OE Trend Client Control Properties dialog box will appear. Click on the ‘Pens’ tab to go to
the ‘Pens’ page, then click on the [Add…] button.
Click on [Add...] to add a new trend
pen.
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The Pen Configuration dialog box will appear.
If you check the “Auto Populate with Signal Data”
box, the Trend Viewer will attempt to fill in the
“Device”, “Status”, “Name”, “Description”, and
“Units” fields with corresponding entries from the
OE Database, based on the “Data Source”. (These
fields are not essential for the trend to work, they are
simply used to provide useful information in the
Detail pane during Runtime. You will also be
prompted to confirm that you want to use this feature,
as it overwrites anything you typed in directly into
those fields.)
The “Data Source” field is the most important field.
In Example 1, when we dragged the real-time value
(OPC tag) from the Database Object Viewer into the
trend grid, we were essentially filling in this field
dynamically. We could have actually dragged that
value right into the “Data Source” field.
The “Data Source” for a pen can either
be a real-time OPC tag value (dragged
in from the Database Object Viewer), or
a historical tag from the Historical Data
Access (HDA) Tag Browser.
Since for this example, we want to
trend historical data, we need to
access the Historical Data Access
(HDA) Tag Browser. To do this, click
on the [...] button next to the “Data
Source” field.
For this example, however, we want to trend historical values. To do this we need to activate the
Historical Data Access (HDA) Tag Browser. To do this, click on the […] button next to the
“Data Source” field.
Expand the tree
Use the
scroll bar
to locate
the signal
you want
to trend.
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Here’s the signal we
want to trend.
Once you’re in the Tag Browser, use the
scroll bar to locate the signal you want to
trend. Double-click on the signal to expand
its branch of the tree.
This is its Historical
Group Number
Locate the rate for the data you want to
trend, and double-click on it.
Double-click on the rate which identifies
the data you want to trend. In this case,
we choose samples ‘0s’.
In this case, we chose ‘0s’ which is the raw
sample data, but we could have chosen
‘3600s’ for hourly data, or ‘86400s’ for
daily data.
Once you choose the rate you want to trend,
by double-clicking on it, the right-side of
the Tag Browser will display the attributes
which have been logged at that rate. In this
case that’s just the ‘Value’ and
‘Questionable’ attributes. We will want to
trend the ‘Value’ attribute, since that’s what
has the actual signal value, so select the
‘Value’ attribute.
Now, click on the ‘Exit Tag Browser’
button.
Exit Tag
Browser
button
The Tag Browser will close, and the selected attribute will be copied automatically into the
“Data Source” field of the Pen Configuration dialog box.
Click on [OK] to exit the Pen Configuration dialog box, then click on “Runtime” to view your
trend. Historical sample data will begin to appear on the screen.
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Variations on Example #3 - Changing the Time Range for Displayed Data
In all of the examples we've done so far, we've been starting the trend from the current
workstation time. We did that for the Real-time trends, and we did that when we were looking at
historical samples. Usually, we were only showing about an hour of data on the screen.
Let's say though, that you've saved a week's worth of historical data, and instead of seeing the
historical samples for the last hour, you want to see the historical samples from 4 days ago.
How do you do that? You would have to adjust the starting time of the trend, and check that the
period and viewable time range are correct.
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There are three things that determine the time range of the data you can see on
the Trend:
The period specifies the total length of time encompassed by the trend. For example, if you
want to trend the last 7 days of data, then your period is 7 days. NOTE: You could have
different periods defined for different pens in the trend.
The viewable time range determines how much of the period can be displayed on the screen
in the trend, at any one time. For example, you might want to show 1 day worth of data on the
screen at any one time. If the viewable time range is less than the specified period that means
that the entire trend can't be displayed all at once, so a scroll bar will be added at the bottom
of the trend so you can scroll to the data you want to see.
The start time specifies the earliest time for which data will be displayed. The system takes
the start time and searches the OE Database for the data closest to that start time and then
retrieves it into the trend. By default, the start time is calculated by taking the current
workstation time, and subtracting the amount of time represented by the period.
Alternatively, you can override this default and specify the start time yourself.
To specify the period for the Common X-axis (total length of time encompassed by this
trend):
•
Call up the OE Trend Control Properties dialog
box, and go to the X-Axis portion of the 'Ranges’
page.
•
Specify the total period (length) of time you want
to be reflected in this trend, using any combination
of the “Period days”, “hours”, “minutes” and
“seconds” fields. For example, if you want to
trend 8 and one half-hours worth of data, enter 8 in
the “hours” field and 30 in the “minutes” field.
The period comes into effect when you have exited
the dialog box and entered Runtime Mode.
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Specify the period for the
common X-axis here.
Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
To specify the period for an individual pen (total length of time for this pen):
•
Call up the Pen Configuration dialog box, for When specifying the period for a pen,
the selected pen, and go to the X-Axis
it must be relative to the current workstation
portion of the ‘Ranges’ page.
time.
•
Select the “Override Global Time
Settings” box, and the "Use time period
relative to Current Workstation time"
box.
•
Specify the total period (length) of time you
want to be reflected in this trend, using any
combination of the “Period days”, “hours”,
“minutes” and “seconds” fields. For
example, if you want to trend three days and
eight hours worth of data, enter 8 in the
“hours” field and 3 in the “days” field.
Don't try to trend too much data…
Before we go on, there is one warning we want to pass along when setting the period for a
trend. Don't try to trend too much data in one trend. As a general guide, you should never try to
display more trend data points than there are pixels across your screen. For example, if your
screen resolution is 1024 x 768, that means no more than 1024 data points can possibly appear
horizontally on the screen. For example, if you are trying to see 1-minute data for the last 90
days, that's 1440 data points x 90 days which equals 129,600 samples. That’s a lot of data to try
to fit onto one screen, and can really slow down your system performance, and use up lots of
communication bandwidth as all the data is requested.
If you really want to display that much data you have two alternatives.
1) Use Performance Mode, which was added in OpenEnterprise 2.7. In Performance Mode, the
trend will change the resolution of data requested from the server as you zoom in and out. This
will speed up the rate at which the trend is drawn, and reduce the network bandwidth required
to request the data. See Example 6 for details on using Performance Mode.
2) Set the viewable time range to a few hours and then use the double-arrow buttons on the
ends of the scroll bar to bring additional hours of data into view. You won’t be able to see all
the data at once, but this will save on system resources, by not requesting the data until it needs
to be displayed.
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To specify the Viewable Time Range (amount of period visible on screen at any one time):
•
Call up the OE Trend Control Properties dialog box, and go to the ‘Data’ page.
•
Specify the total range of time you want to be visible (viewable) on the screen, at any one
time, using any combination of the “Range days”, “hours”, “minutes” and “seconds”
fields. For example, if you want two hours of data to be visible at any one time, enter 2 in the
“hours” field. If the trend's period (see above) encompasses more than 2 hours, the scroll
bar must be used to bring additional data into view. Typically, users set the range to be the
same as the period.
To specify the Start Time:
Go to the 'Ranges' page of the Pen
Configuration dialog box.
If the you want the start time to be
calculated based on the current
workstation time: (i.e. the period is
subtracted from the current workstation time to
calculate the start time)
•
Type in the hours
and minutes for the
start time directly,
or use the control
to select the time.
Type in the date
directly, or use the
control to bring up
the calendar, then
select the date from
the calendar.
Check "User Current Workstation
Time" (for the common X-axis)
-or-
•
Check "Use time period relative to
Current Workstation time" (for the
individual pen's X-axis)
If you want to specify a different start time, further in the past than that calculated above:
•
Leave the "Use time period relative to Current Workstation time" box de-selected, and
select the "Override Global Time Settings" box.
•
Once you have defined the period of time, choose the starting time for the trend in the
“Start” field. You can type in the hours and minutes directly or use the control to select
them. If you are specifying a different date, you can type it in directly or click on the control
to bring up a calendar for you to choose the correct date.
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Example 4 – Having a Trace Change Color when data
is questionable
This example assumes you are pretty familiar with modifying pens (see Example 2) and using the
HDA Tag Browser (see Example 3).
If data being collected is marked questionable (i.e. there is doubt about it being good data) you
may want the trace for that data to indicate the questionable status somehow. Let's say we want
to have a trace appear in yellow if its value is questionable. To do that, we need to use the
Expression Editor.
Click on the [Styles...] button
First, select the desired pen, and call up the Pen
Configuration dialog box. Then, from the 'Styles' page
of the Pen Configuration dialog box, click on the
[Styles…] button.
Click on the “Expression” button
then click on the [...] button.
In the ‘Styles’ page, select the
"Expression" button, then click on the
[…] button to call up the Expression
Editor.
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Because we want to have the trace
change based on the questionable
value of this signal, we need to use
the HDA Tag Browser to load the
proper OE Database attribute into
the “Tag” field.
Now, in the Expression Editor, we need to specify the OE
Database attribute for the 'Questionable' status of this signal.
To do this, click on the […] button to call up the HDA Tag
Browser.
Here’s the signal we
want to trend.
Once you’re in the Tag Browser, navigate
through the tree and use the scroll bar to
locate the signal you want to trend. Doubleclick on the signal to expand its branch of
the tree.
This is its Historical
Group Number
Locate the rate for the data you want to
trend, and double-click on it.
Double-click on the rate which identifies
the data you want to trend. In this case,
we choose samples ‘0s’.
Once you choose the rate you want to trend,
by double-clicking on it, the right-side of
the Tag Browser will display the attributes
which have been logged at that rate. We will
want to trend use the 'Questionable' attribute
in our expression, so select that one.
(NOTE: If we had other attributes, we could
have used them too, but this example is
using 'Questionable' because that's when we
want to have the trace turn yellow. It should
be apparent that this is a pretty powerful
feature.)
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Now, click on the ‘Exit Tag Browser’
button.
Exit Tag
Browser
button
The questionable
attribute is now
in the “Tag” field.
The Tag Browser will close, and
the selected attribute (in this case
'Questionable') will be copied
automatically into the “Tag” field
Expression Editor.
of the
Now, click on the
[Add] button to
add the conditions
of your expression.
Now, click on the [Add] button and
the Edit Condition dialog box will
appear.
We want to have the trace turn
yellow when the 'Questionable'
attribute for this signal is TRUE. In
the OE Database, logical / Boolean
values which are true are stored as
1.0. So, in this case, we need to
create an expression which says
"When the Questionable' attribute is
greater than or equal to 1.0, make
the trace yellow". Yellow is the
"Return value" when that
condition is TRUE.
We want to have the trace change
color when that ‘Questionable’ attribute
is true (i.e. when it is greater than or
equal to 1.0).
Choose ‘greater than
or equal to’ for the
“Operator”.
Choose ‘1.0’ for the
“Comparison value”.
Call up the color palette and select yellow for the
“Return value” since that’s what we want the trace
to be when ‘Questionable’ is TRUE’ i.e. when
‘Questionable’ is >=1.
When you've finished with the Edit Condition dialog box, click, on [OK].
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Your expression
is now complete.
Now, whenever that expression is TRUE, the trace
color will change to yellow. Otherwise it will be the
color specified by "Default Return Value".
After specifying the condition, you can click on
[OK] to exit the Expression Editor. Then continue to
click on [OK] until you exit all the dialog boxes, and
are ready to go into Runtime Mode.
Click on [OK] to exit the Expression Editor.
If the value of the signal is Questionable, you will see the trace change color.
Trace changes color now, if the
‘Questionable’ attribute for this
signal is TRUE.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Example 5 - Working with Multiple Pens in the Same
Trend
We mentioned, before, that you could have multiple pens in the same trend. Let's go over,
briefly, a few things you should be aware of when working with multiple pens.
Click on the [Add] button to add
an additional pen.
Adding Pens
To add a second, third, fourth, etc. pen to an existing
trend, simply click on the [Add…] button on the 'Pens'
page of the OE Trend Client Control Properties dialog
box, and then proceed to define the pen, as you would
any other pen.
Distinguishing One Pen From Another
Each pen (trace) is displayed in a different color. To tell which pen is which, find the
corresponding color in the Detail pane. Also, remember that the signal value(s) displayed in the
Detail pane reflects the value at the current location of the Marker bar. (See page 7-8.)
Color at beginning of line in Detail pane matches color of its associated pen trace
Detail pane
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OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Showing Multiple Axes when Working with Multiple Pens
When you have multiple pens on the same trend, you have to decide what sort of scale(s) you
need on the X and Y-axes.
If, for example, you are trending three real-time values in the same trend, but they all have
widely different ranges of values, it might make sense to hide the Common Y-axis and instead,
show three separate Y-axes, one for each pen in the trend. Similarly, if you are comparing two
signals that are coming from different time periods, you might want different X-axes for each
signal trace.
Showing / Hiding the Common Y-axis (or Common X-axis)
•
•
To show or hide the Common Y-axis or
Common X-axis, call up the OE Trend Control
Properties dialog box, and go to the ‘Graph’
page.
Click on the [Grid] button to call up the
Grid Configuration dialog box. In the 'Grid
Settings' section, check the "X-axis
Visible" and/or "Y-axis Visible" box to
show the common axis, or de-select it to
hide the common axis. Click on [OK] when
finished.
Click on the [Grid] button
To show the axis for a pen, check the box.
To hide the axis for a pen, uncheck the box.
This calls up a color
palette to let you change
the color of the axis.
While you're in this dialog box, we should also note that you can click on the "Color" box to
change the color of the common axes.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
To show a separate Axis for Each Pen
To display a separate axis for a pen, you first have to
enable multiple axes. To do this:
•
Call up the OE Trend Control Properties dialog box,
and go to the ‘Graph’ page.
•
Check the “Show Multiple X-Axis” and “Show
Multiple Y-Axis” boxes.
If you’re going to have multiple X
and Y axes on your trend, these
boxes must be checked, first.
Click on the pen you want to
modify, then click on the [Modify...] button.
•
Now, click on the 'Pens' tab, and select the
pen for which you want to enable the axis,
and choose [Modify] to call up the Pen
Configuration dialog box.
Click on the [Axis...] button.
•
In the Pen Configuration dialog box, click on the
'Styles' tab, then click on the [Axis…] button.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
•
•
The Axis Configuration dialog
box will appear. Click on its
'Styles' tab.
To have a separate
axis displayed for this
pen, check the “Visible”
box for that axis.
In the 'Styles' page of the Axis
Configuration dialog box check
the "Visible" box for the X-axis
and/or Y-axis if you want either or
both of them displayed for this
pen. Click on [OK] when finished.
Repeat this procedure for each pen for which you want to display an axis. Later, in Runtime
Mode, separate axes will appear for each pen.
Here, we are using auto-scaling, but each pen has a significantly
different range of values. In order to help the user interpret the
traces correctly, we have included separate Y-axes, one for each
pen in the trend.
Y-axis for first pen
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Y-axis for third pen
Y-axis for second pen
7-37
Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Example 6 – Optimizing your Trend for data or speed
We mentioned back in Example 3 that you shouldn’t try to display more data that can actually fit
on the screen. For example, if you have a screen that is 1024 pixels wide (i.e. 1024 x 768) the
absolute maximum number of data samples you could display would be 1024. In practical terms,
the number of samples would be much less than that because you also would need space to show
the axes, labels, etc., but for purposes of this discussion, let’s assume you could actually use all
1024.
Optimization for Data – Data Mode
The default optimization mode for the Trend Viewer is Data Mode. Here’s how it works: Let’s
say you had 90 days worth of 1-minute data, and you wanted to try to display all of that on the
screen at one time. That would be 24 x 60 x 90 samples of data, or 129,600 samples. That’s a lot
of data to try to display within a width of 1024 pixels. If that’s what you request, though,
OpenEnterprise will try to accommodate you. OE will collect all 129,600 samples, which may
take some time, depending upon the speed of your network, and then, because it only has 1024
pixels in which to display them, it will take the 129,600 samples and divide them by 1024, which
gives a value of about 127. That means each pixel on the screen will represent 1 random sample
out of every 127 collected. That also means that you collected and processed 128,576 samples
that can’t be used because there’s no where to display them. It used up processing time, it slowed
down the speed at which the trend could be displayed, and it also used up a lot of
communications bandwidth. That’s kind of wasteful, and it also doesn’t really do you any good,
since only a fraction of the data (1 out of every 127 samples) gets used.
The advantage to Data Mode is
that you have all the data. If you
wanted to export it to Excel or
some other application it’s all
there.
By default, trends
are optimized for
data (Data Mode).
The disadvantage of Data Mode is
that some trends may be slow in
coming up. Also, lots of data gets
collected that you won’t ever be
able to see, unless you zoom in
sufficiently.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
Optimization for Speed and Efficiency – Performance Mode
To choose ‘Performance Mode’
click here, then click on the
[Advanced] button to configure
the associated settings.
As an alternative to Data Mode, you can opt to use
Performance Mode. Performance Mode limits the
amount of data collected for the trend to only what
can actually be displayed. Trends optimized for
Performance Mode can be displayed on the screen
much faster because they don’t have to collect as
much data, and consequently, they don’t use as
much communication bandwidth.
You have two options to choose from in
Performance Mode.
This number represents
the width of the current
trend in pixels.
If you choose the
“Pixels Per Sample”
option, with a number
greater than 1, this
means an individual
sample will be spread
out over multiple pixels.
If you choose the
“Samples Per Pixel”
option, this is the
number of samples that
will be displayed at that
pixel width location.
This is the maximum
number of pixels that
can be displayed on
the screen at any one
time, based on these
settings and the number
of pixels of the X-axis.
If you choose “Pixels Per Sample” you are specifying the width of each sample. For example, if
the X-axis width is 900 pixels, and you choose ‘1’ pixels per sample, then you can have up to
900 samples displayed on the screen at any one time. If however, you chose ‘3’ pixels per
sample, then each sample would be 3 pixels wide, and you could only display a maximum of 300
samples on the screen at any one time. Using “Pixels per Sample” results in the lowest
resolution type of trend, i.e. it displays the least amount of data, and so will be the fastest to be
displayed.
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Chapter 7 - Trending Your Data
If you choose “Samples Per Pixel” you are specifying the number of samples to be represented
at each pixel position. For example, if the X-axis is 700 pixels, and you choose ‘1’ sample per
pixel, the trend will collect 700 samples, and display each one at a particular pixel position on
the X-axis. If you choose a number greater than 1, say ‘5’ samples per pixel, the trend will try to
display 5 samples at each pixel position along the 700 pixels of the X-axis, that’s 3500 samples.
You might ask, how can it display 5 samples at one pixel position? Well, the first of the 5
samples is plotted, and then the remaining 4 samples will be shown at their appropriate Y-axis
positions, though with the same X-axis position. In other words, there will be a vertical line of
pixels at each pixel position, and the points along that line represent the 5 samples.
This should give you a good start…
Well, that should be enough trend examples to get you started. Don't be afraid to experiment
with different trend and plot styles - be creative, if you want to.
Once you get good at creating trends, someone is going to come along and say something like
“Gee… that’s a nice trend, but can you change the color of the marker bar?" or “Can you change
the way the label looks for that axis?" There are a lot of things like that that you can change. We
really can’t give detailed examples for all of them, because it’s just beyond the scope of a book
like this. If you need to know more, please consult the online help, or see the ‘OE Trend View’
section of the OE Reference Guide (document# D5092).
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
Chapter 8 – Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
We talked about alarms a little back in Chapter 1. An
alarm is a message that gets generated when a particular
signal’s value exceeds a predefined range (i.e. it goes too
high or too low), or when a particular signal changes to
an alarm state (i.e. a pump fails, a valve opens, etc.)
Alarms are collected and sent to the OE Server computer,
but in order for you to see them on the OE Workstation,
you need to use the OE Alarm Viewer (sometimes
referred to as the Alarm Client).
An alarm means something
just happened and needs
attention. For example, the
controller detected that a
pump failed, or a pressure
signal is too high….
When using Bristol hardware, we recommend that alarms be generated at the controller (RTU).
If you are using third-party devices that don't support remote alarm generation, or if you need to
define other special types of alarms, the OpenEnterprise Database can generate local alarms.
Local alarm configuration is handled via the Alarm Condition Tool item in the OE Toolbox. We
won't cover local alarm configuration in this manual, however, it is covered in the Alarm
Condition Tool section of the OpenEnterprise Reference Guide.
It might be useful, at this point, to go over the different types of alarms:
What are the different types of alarms?
There are three basic types of alarms:
Analog Alarms
These alarms are generated when an analog signal or
variable’s value exceeds a pre-defined alarm limit. A
return-to-normal message is generated when the signal
or variable’s value returns to within the pre-defined limit.
There are four different alarm limits that can be
configured in Bristol controllers: low-low, low, high, and
high-high.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
8-1
Analog alarms are used
for variables that
measure things like:
•
•
•
•
flows
temperatures
pressures
equipment run times.
Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
Deadbands can be established around the
analog alarm limits so that the value can
fluctuate slightly near the alarm limit
without constantly going into and out of an
alarm state, and thereby flooding the
system with repetitive alarms.
Example - alarm limits and deadbands
Let’s say we have a tank full of water
which must be maintained at a certain
temperature range. A temperature
transmitter is mounted on the tank to
measure the current temperature of the
water, and it has been decided that the
water temperature should be kept between
40.00 C and 70.00 Celsius. Any
temperature reading outside of that range
indicates an alarm condition.
The figure, below, shows a plot of the
value of the variable measuring Celsius
temperature in the tank, as it fluctuates
over time. Four alarm limits and two
deadbands have been defined.
What are deadbands?
We strongly recommend that you define
deadbands around your alarm limits. Two
deadbands are supported, one is applied to the
high and high-high alarm limits, and one is
applied to the low and low-low alarm limits.
Deadbands are ranges above a low limit, or
below a high limit, in which a return-to-normal
message will NOT be sent, even though a
process variable has returned inside the range
defined by the alarm limits. This is to prevent the
system from being flooded with alarm messages
if a process variable is fluctuating slightly
around the alarm limit. Without a deadband
defined, every time the process variable enters or
leaves the normal range, a return-to-normal or
alarm message would be generated, thereby
flooding the system with repetitive alarms, even
though the process variable has changed very
little. Deadbands are especially important on
systems using radios or satellite links, because
repetitive alarms would consume
communications bandwidth.
Starting from the left of the graph, the value of the variable increases until it reaches 70.00 C, the
high alarm limit (see Item 1). At this point a high alarm message is generated, and the variable is
considered to be in a ‘high alarm’ state.
The value of the variable
continues
to
increase.
When it passes the highhigh alarm limit of 90.00 C
a
‘high-high’
alarm
message is generated (see
Item 2). At this point, the
variable is considered to be
in a high-high alarm state.
The value of the variable
then starts to decrease.
Although the value passes
below 90.00C, it is still
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
considered to be in a ‘high-high’ alarm state because there is a 10.00 high deadband in effect
(deadbands are shown as shaded areas on the graph.) When the variable value falls lower than
80.00 C point (90.00 C high alarm limit minus the high deadband of 10.00 C) the variable is no
longer in a ‘high-high’ alarm state (See Item 3). It is still however in a ‘high’ alarm state.
As the value of the variable decreases below 70.00 C, it remains in a ‘high’ alarm state until its
value falls below 60.00 C (70.00 C alarm limit, minus a 10.00 C high deadband). (See Item 4). At
this point, the variable is in its normal range, and a ‘return-to-normal’ alarm message is sent.
Then, however, the value of the variable continues to drop. When it reaches 40.00 C, a ‘Low
Alarm’ message is generated (See Item 5).
The variable remains in a ‘Low Alarm’ state until the variable value drops to 20.00 C. (See Item
6). This causes a ‘Low Low Alarm’ message to be generated.
The variable remains in a ‘Low-Low Alarm’ state until the variable rises above 30.00 C, (20.00 C
low-low alarm limit plus low deadband of 10.00 C). (See Item 7). The variable is still in a ‘Low
Alarm’ state, however.
Once the variable rises above 50.00 C (40.00 C low alarm limit + low deadband of 10.00 C), it has
left the low-alarm state, and a ‘return to normal’ alarm message is sent (See Item 8).
As long as the variable remains in the normal range (between 40.0 and 70.00 C), no more alarm
messages will be generated.
Logical Alarms
Logical alarms are a much easier concept to understand
because there are no limits or deadbands involved. These
alarms are only generated when a Boolean variable or
logical signal enters its 'in-alarm' state. A return-to-normal
message is generated when the variable returns to its
opposite (non-alarm) state.
Logical alarms are used
for variables that report
things like…
•
•
The user chooses which state is the 'in alarm' state when
they configure the alarm. Either the alarm is generated when
the signal or variable becomes TRUE, or the alarm is
generated when the alarm becomes FALSE.
•
valves OPENING or
CLOSING
pumps STARTING or
STOPPING
switches, relays, or
electrical contacts
A typical example for a logical alarm would be an electrical switch which turns ON in the event
of a compressor power failure. When the switch turns ON, we want to generate an alarm. When
the power is restored, the switch turns OFF and a return-to-normal message will be generated.
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
Change of State Alarms
Change of state alarms are similar to logical alarms in that
they are used with logical signals or Boolean variables. The
difference is, that they only enter an alarm state when they
change. A change of state from either ON-to-OFF (TRUEto-FALSE) or OFF-to-ON (FALSE-to-TRUE) causes an
alarm to be generated.
You might want to use a change-of-state alarm if you had a
critical process, and you always wanted to know when the
process started and when it stopped. An everyday, realworld example of a change-of-state alarm is the bell you
hear when you open and close the door at the entrance of a
store or shop. The storekeeper has that bell so that they
know whenever the door is opened or closed.
Change-of-state
alarms…
•
are generated
whenever the logical
state of the variable
changes.
•
return to normal only
occurs when the
alarm has been
acknowledged by the
operator.
Because there is no ‘normal’ state for these alarms, a return-to-normal message is only generated
when the alarm has been acknowledged by the operator.
Where can I get more information on configuring
alarms?
For Network 3000 users, a general discussion of alarm concepts is included in An
Introduction to ACCOL (document# D4056). Information on configuring those alarms
in ACCOL Workbench is included in the ACCOL Workbench User Manual (document#
D4051).
For ControlWave users, see the ControlWave Designer Programmer’s Handbook
(document# D5125). Also see the ControlWave Designer online help for the individual
alarm function blocks.
You should also review the alarm configuration information in the OpenEnterprise
Reference Guide. Of particular interest is the Alarm Condition Tool section, which
describes how to configure local alarms.
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
Example 1 - Starting the Alarm Viewer and Viewing All
Incoming Alarms
On the OE workstation, start the OE Alarm Viewer by clicking as shown, below:
Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ Views Æ Alarms
Something called the OE Alarm View Container will appear. It’s called a container because it
doesn’t include the alarm view information in it yet.
•
The first thing you need to
do is go into Configure
Mode by clicking on the
‘Configure’ button.
NOTE: The Configure
menu bar item will be
replaced with a menu bar
item called ‘Runtime’; this
is similar to Configure /
Runtime modes used in
OE Graphics; when you
see ‘Runtime’ you’re in
Configure Mode, and
when you see ‘Configure’
you’re in Runtime Mode.
•
Right-click in the center of
the container, and click on
“Properties” when it
pops up.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
This menu bar item allows you
to toggle between ‘Configure’ mode
and ‘Runtime’ mode. Currently,
‘Configure’ mode is Active.
Right-click within the window,
to bring up the pop-up menu,
and click on “Properties” to
activate the OE Alarm Client
Control Properties dialog box.
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
•
The OE Alarm Client Control Properties
dialog box will appear.
•
Click on the ‘Databases’ page, and then
click on the [Add] button.
•
The Add Data Service dialog box will
appear.
•
Enter the Data Service for this OE
Database, and click on [OK].
From the ‘Databases’ tab, click on [Add...]
What’s a data service
again?
We haven’t really talked about this since Chapter
4, so it’s fair to have a refresher. The default data
service for the OE Database is:
‘servername:rtrdb1’
where:
servername: is replaced with the name of the
computer on which the OE Database resides, or
the IP address of that computer, or a name defined
in your Windows™ Hosts file which resolves to
that IP address. (the servername: portion is
omitted if you are running this copy of Alarm
Viewer on the computer that contains the OE
Database.)
The data service you entered will now be
visible in the ‘Databases’ page of the OE
Alarm Client Control Properties dialog box.
•
Click on [OK] to close that dialog box
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
•
Now, click on the “Runtime” item in the menu bar, and alarms should be displayed in the
window. You now have a realtime alarm view.
Number of
active alarms
Number of alarms
which haven’t returned
to normal (Uncleared)
Number of unacknowledged
alarms
Number of acknowleged
alarms
If you need to return to ‘Configure’ mode,
click here
I don’t see any alarms. What did I do wrong?
Maybe nothing. There might not be any alarms. Remember that alarms only appear if
something changed down in the RTU to generate them. You can verify whether or not
alarms exist by using Database Explorer to examine the AlarmSummary table. All current
alarms displayed in the Alarm Viewer come from that table. There are a few other reasons
why you might not see alarms:
1) Did you forget to specify the OE Database containing the alarms in the ‘Databases’
page of the OE Alarm Client Control Properties dialog box? If you don’t specify the OE
Database, you won’t see any alarms.
2) Are you still in Configure Mode? In order to see alarms you must be in Runtime Mode.
You can tell you’re in Runtime mode if it says ‘Configure’ in the menu bar of the Alarm
Viewer.
3) Are the alarms you expect to see being filtered out?
If you, or someone else, have changed the filtering criteria for the alarms, the alarms you
expect to see might not be displayed. The concept of alarm filtering is outside the scope of
this manual; for more information, please see the OE Alarm View section of the
OpenEnterprise Reference Manual (document# D5092).
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
Example 2 - Acknowledging Alarms
This example assumes you have the Alarm Viewer up, and it currently has active alarms in it.
(See Example 1 for help on setting up the Alarm View).
To acknowledge an alarm:
•
Right-click on the alarm that you want to acknowledge.
•
Choose “Acknowledge” from the pop-up menu.
•
If the alarm has also returned to normal, it will be removed from the Alarm View.
Right-click on the
alarm you want to
acknowledge, then
click on “Acknowledge”
in the pop-up menu.
To acknowledge ALL the alarms in this Alarm Viewer:
•
Right-click on one of the alarms that you want to acknowledge.
•
Choose “Acknowledge All” from the pop-up menu.
•
You will be prompted to confirm that you want to acknowledge all alarms. Click on “Yes”
and all alarms in this Alarm Viewer (either visible, or which you can scroll to) will be
acknowledged. Any alarms that have also returned to normal (cleared) will be removed from
the Alarm Viewer.
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
What is the difference between an alarm being
‘cleared’ and an alarm being ‘acknowledged’?
These are two very different things. If an alarm is cleared, it means that the condition that
caused the alarm no longer exists. For example, if the alarm was generated because a
temperature went too high, but then the temperature returned to the normal range, then the
alarm is cleared. Just because an alarm has cleared though, doesn’t mean that the alarm
will be removed from the Alarm View. That’s where the concept of alarm
acknowledgement comes in.
In order for an alarm to be removed from the Alarm View, it must have been cleared and it
must have been acknowledged. Acknowledgement means that the operator must have
recognized the existence of the alarm. This is required because you don’t want an alarm
condition occurring, then returning to normal, without anyone knowing about it, because it
could mean something serious is occurring in your plant or process. (NOTE: If desired, the
system can be configured to automatically acknowledge alarms of lesser importance,
without operator intervention.)
All my alarms have the wrong timestamp on them.
What’s wrong?
Check the OE Alarm Client Properties dialog box ‘Time Zone’ page. Make sure you have
selected the correct time zone.
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
Example 3- Changing the Attributes Displayed in the
Alarm Viewer
This example assumes you have the Alarm Viewer up, and it currently has active alarms in it.
(See Example 1 for help on setting up the Alarm View).
The information displayed as part of the alarm message in the Alarm Viewer comes directly
from columns (attributes) in a table from the OE Database. By default, all attributes from the
Alarmsummary table are included in the alarm message.
You can change this, so that only those attributes you are interested in are displayed.
By default, all attributes are selected.
You can click on [Remove All] to deselect them all, and then add back only
those which you are interested in.
The order in which
attributes are displayed
on the alarm line is
determined based on their
order in this list. If you
want to change the order,
just drag the attribute to the
desired position in the list.
Select any attribute(s) you want to
have displayed in the Alarm Viewer
from the “Available Attributes” list box,
then click on [Add] and they will appear
in the “Selected Attributes” list box.
•
If you are in Runtime Mode, you need to go into Configure Mode by clicking on the
‘Configure’ button.
•
Right-click in the center of the container, and click on “Properties” when it pops up.
•
The OE Alarm Client Control Properties dialog box will appear.
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
•
Click on the ‘Attributes’ tab, and the Attributes page will be displayed.
•
By default, all attributes are included. You can tell whether or not a particular attribute is
included by looking at the “Selected Attributes” list box. Any attribute included is
displayed there. You can click on [Remove All] to remove all of the attributes, and then add
back only those you’re interested in by selecting them in the “Available Attributes” list
box, and then clicking on [Add].
•
The left-to-right order in which attributes are displayed in the Alarm Viewer corresponds to
the top-to-bottom order in which they appear in the “Selected Attributes” list box. You can
drag individual attributes within the “Selected Attributes” list box to adjust this order.
How do I know which attributes to include?
That really depends on the type of information you want. Most people will want the
following, as a minimum:
occurencetime
name
value
units
acknowledged
cleared
description
condition
The time the alarm was generated.
The name of the signal which went ‘into alarm’.
The current value of the signal.
The engineering units associated with that signal (if
applicable).
The acknowledgement state of the alarm (i.e. has the operator or the
system acknowledged that the alarm has occurred).
If true, the signal is no longer in an alarm state.
Descriptive text about the signal in Alarm.
The condition (limit) that caused the alarm (e.g. High, LowLow)
There are many other attributes you could include. For a full description of what all these
attributes mean, please see the alarmsummary table description in the OpenEnterprise
Schema Reference Manual.
When you’ve finished setting up the Alarm
Viewer the way you want it, be sure to save it!
You can save the configuration of your Alarm
Viewer in an Alarm View (*.AC) file. Just
click on File Æ Save As… while the Alarm
View is visible, and enter a name, when
prompted, then click on [Save]. You can then
open that AC file configuration in the Alarm
Viewer at any time by specifying that as the
“Config File” on the ‘General’ page of the OE
Alarm Client Control Properties dialog box.
You can also include the AC file as part of an
OE Desktop, which we will discuss in Chapter 9.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Enter a file name here
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Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
Example 4 - Viewing the Alarm/Event History
IMPORTANT: If you have already configured a Realtime Alarm View in the previous examples,
we recommend that you save that AC file and open up a new Alarm View file or else your
previous configuration will be erased by what you do in Example 4.
So far, as we’ve been using the Alarm Viewer, we’ve
been looking at all current alarms (i.e. alarms that
either have not cleared, have not been acknowledged,
or both). It’s possible, though to look at the history of
the alarms. That is, we can look back at older alarms
that have already been both acknowledged and
cleared, as well as a journal of important system
events. This information is stored in the eventhistory
table.
•
Click on the ‘General’ tab of the OE Alarm Client
Control Properties dialog box, and select the
“Historical” option.
•
To view the alarm and event history, configure the Alarm View as described in Example 1
(specify the ‘Database’, etc.)
•
When you click on [OK] and go into ‘Runtime’ mode, no current alarms will be displayed;
instead the alarm/event history will appear.
8-12
Choose “Historical” first,
before doing any other
configuration.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 8 - Using Alarm Viewer to Manage Alarms
What other things can I do with the Alarm Viewer?
We’ve really only scratched the surface. There are lots of other features associated with the
Alarm Viewer. You can:
•
•
•
Customize the colors in which alarms appear.
Filter out alarms, so that only alarms that meet certain criteria are displayed.
Associate particular displays with alarms, so operators can quickly call up displays
associated with an alarm condition.
For more information on these subjects, see the OE Alarm View section of the
OpenEnterprise Reference Manual (document# D5092).
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8-13
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
What is OE Desktop?
OE Desktop is an application that allows you
to pre-configure the “look-and-feel” of your
OpenEnterprise Workstation. It lets you
organize the screen so users can easily find the
information they need. OE Desktop controls
several different things including:
Why do you call it a
‘Desktop’?
Nothing mysterious here. We use the term
desktop, because just as a physical desk has
different items on it (pieces of paper, books,
an appointment calendar, etc.) the computer
screen can have different windows on it
which contain various items (process
displays, alarm views, trend views etc.) Just
think of the OE Desktop as a way to organize
the different items appearing on the screen.
•
The types of OpenEnterprise components
which will appear in windows on the
screen (displays, alarm views, trends, etc.)
•
The size, location, and number of windows
on the screen.
•
The interaction of different OE components (for example, allowing pop-up menu items on
displays, to call up an alarm window or a trend).
Why use OE Desktop?
The advantage of using OE Desktop is that it allows you to
customize the appearance of the OE Workstation screen,
thereby making it easier to use. Operators can have a menu
of just the displays, trends, etc. that they need to see,
eliminating the need for them to search through a lot of
extraneous information. The OE Desktop application saves
all user desktop settings in an OE Desktop File.
An OE Desktop file allows you
to pre-configure the “lookand-feel” of your
OpenEnterprise Workstation.
An OE Desktop file has the extension (*.OED). Although you can have any number of OED files
on your workstation, each of which can hold several different windows of information, only one
OED file can be active and running at any one time on a workstation’s monitor. NOTE:
Beginning with OpenEnterprise Version 2.50, if you have multiple monitors attached to the same
OE Workstation, you can run a different OED file on each monitor. Also, beginning with
OpenEnterprise 2.53, each user can have their own OED file, which is automatically loaded
when they log into OpenEnterprise.
Before You Begin
Before you start creating an OE Desktop file, you should have at least 2 or 3 OE Displays
(created with OE Graphics in Chapter 5) and an alarm view window (created in Chapter 8).
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Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
Hopefully, you have some from when you went through those chapters. If not, you can use the
sample displays included on the OpenEnterprise CD-ROM. Otherwise, it doesn’t make sense to
create an OE Desktop, yet, because you wouldn’t have anything to put on it.
Example 1 - Specifying a Display that appears when
you start the Desktop
Often, people want to have some sort of graphical display start as soon as they open an OE
Desktop file.
•
Start OE Desktop by clicking as follows:
Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ DeskTop
The OE Desktop program will open, but it will be empty.
•
Click on the ‘New Window’ icon (or click on Desktop Æ New), and the New dialog box
will appear.
Click on the ‘New Window’ icon (or use Desktop -> New)
and the New dialog box will appear.
You can optionally enter a name for this window, here
Here you choose which type of
OE component you want to have
loaded into this window.
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OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
•
In the ‘New’ dialog box, select the type of OE component you want to load into the window.
(For this example, we’re going to choose ‘Bristol OpenEnterprise Display’ but you could
choose any of the OE components listed.)
•
We can optionally enter a name that will appear in the title bar of the window in the
“Window Name” field. It’s actually useful to give it a name, because we can make use of
that name in a later example. We're going to call it 'Main Display'.
•
Click on [OK]. You now have an empty OE Desktop that’s configured to hold a Display.
We now have an empty window on our desktop
which is configured to hold a ‘Bristol OpenEnterprise
Display’. The name ‘Main Display’ comes from
entering that text in the “Window Name” field of
the ‘New’ dialog box.
Click on File -> Open to specify
the display you want to have loaded
into this window.
Choose the display you want to
load in the window and click on
[Open].
•
Now, we want to load a display into the
window. We’re going to use an Overview
Display created back in Chapter 5. (If you
didn’t create that display, use a different
one.) Click on File Æ Open then choose
the display and click on [Open].
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Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
The display you selected, in this case Overview.gdf, will be loaded into the window.
•
You should adjust the window, now, so the display appears exactly as you want it. You can
do this by dragging the window to the desired location within the desktop, maximizing the
desktop, etc.
Now that you have the display loaded into the ‘Main Display’
window, you should adjust the window so it appears exactly
as you want it to look.
You can maximize the
OE Desktop so it fills
all the available screen
space, if desired.
You can maximize
the window, so it fills
the entire OE Desktop,
by clicking here. (This
is useful because it
fills the part of the
desktop not occupied
by docked windows.)
You can use the
horizontal and
vertical scroll bars
to adjust which parts
of the display are
visible.
Saving the OE Desktop File
When you’ve finished editing the OE Desktop File,
and everything is sized the way you want it, you can
save it.
•
OE Desktop - Saving the desktop.cdr
OEDESKTOPNEW-2.GIF
Click on Desktop Æ Save Desktop As… and
enter a name for the desktop file, then click on
[Save] and the desktop file will be saved.
OE Desktop files are saved with the file extension
(*.OED).
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OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
We recommend you create a folder called ‘OESTORE’, and that you create separate sub-folders
within it for storing OE Desktop files, displays, trends, alarms, etc. NOTE: Although you could
call these folders whatever you wish, we recommend ‘OESTORE’, because that is the standard
folder name used by our engineers for this purpose.
So what do we do with this desktop file now?
If you completed the last example, you now have an OE Desktop file containing a single
display. That window is NOT limited to just holding that one display. Here are some things you
can do with it:
•
If you have pick points within that display, or customized menu items (which we will cover
in Example 3) you can call up other displays into that same window, or create new
windows for other OE components.
•
You can add other OE components to that OE Desktop file. This allows you to configure a
whole screen full of items for the user (displays, alarms, etc.) We’ll talk about that in
Example 2.
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9-5
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
Example 2 - Adding an Alarm View to the Desktop
NOTE: In order to do this example, we assume you’ve already completed Example 1, and have
saved an OE Desktop file. We also assume that you have an Alarm View (*.AC) file already
created (See Chapter 8).
Now we want to add another OE component window to our existing OE Desktop file. In this
case we’re going to add an Alarm View, but we could use any of the supported OE components
(another display window, a trend window, etc.)
Opening Up an Existing Desktop File
•
To start, open up the OE Desktop file created previously by clicking on:
Desktop Æ Open Desktop…
and select the *.OED desktop file you created earlier. -or - you can click on:
Desktop Æ Recent Desktops
and select from the desktops shown in the pop-up menu.
Open a new window to hold the new OE component
•
Why are we opening up a second
desktop via Desktop Æ New?
To open the new window click on:
Desktop Æ New
We’re not really. It may be a little confusing,
but we’re actually just opening up a new
window within the same Desktop.
The ‘New’ dialog box will appear.
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Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
Choose the type of component and the type of window
In the ‘New’ dialog box, complete the fields as
described, below:
•
Choose the type of OE component you
want to bring into the window. In this case,
we are choosing ‘OE Alarm View’.
•
Choose the type of window: ‘MDI Child’,
‘Docked’ or ‘Floating’. Choose ‘Docked’.
•
Optionally enter a name for the window in
the “Window Name” field. Here we’re
using the name ‘Alarm Window’ but you
could choose any name you want.
•
You can enlarge the dialog box to specify
additional characteristics of the window by
clicking on [More>>] but we’re just doing
a basic desktop so we won’t do that for this
example.
•
Click on [OK] to create the window.
Different types of windows…
The term MDI is a Microsoft® term for
multiple-document interface. A MDI child
window is a window that can’t be moved
outside of another window. The other window
is called the parent window. For our purposes,
the parent window is the OE Desktop.
When a ship comes into port, and is tied up to
the pier, it is attached to the pier with ropes, i.e.
docked, so it doesn’t move around. A docked
window means the window is attached to a
particular side of the desktop; it doesn’t move
and can’t be dragged to other areas of the
screen.
Going back to our ship analogy, just as a ship
that isn’t tied up to the pier can float by itself,
and can be towed around the harbor, or even
out to sea, a floating window can be dragged
around the screen, even outside the confines of
the OE Desktop. A floating window will
always appear on top of any MDI or docked
windows.
Choose the type of OE component
you want to occupy the new window.
Choose the
window type
‘MDI Child’,
‘Docked’ or
‘Floating’. For
this example,
we’re going to
choose ‘Docked’.
Optionally, enter a name
for the window here.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
9-7
Click here if you want
to specify additional
characteristics for the
window.
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
Open a file of that component type in the new Window
Now you have a new empty window on your OE Desktop. This window is configured
exclusively for holding the type of OE component you specified. (If you try to include an OE
component of a different type, you’ll get an error.)
A new window is created. We named it ‘Alarm Window’
but you could have entered any name you wanted. It is
‘docked’ to the bottom of the OE Desktop, and is
currently empty.
•
Click on File Æ Open from the menu bar, to
include a file, of the component type
previously specified, in the new window you
created. In our case, we said this would be an
‘OE Alarm View’ window, so we need to
insert a previously saved Alarm View file
(*.AC).
Choose the file you want to open,
then click on [OK].
Make sure you are opening a file of the
correct type. In this case, it must be an
OE Alarm View (*.AC)
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Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
The file you select will be opened within the new window.
Our Overview.gdf
display is maximized
in the ‘Main Display’
window. We can see
other parts of it by
moving the scroll bars.
•
The ‘docked’ Alarm Window now
includes actual alarm data
Click on Desktop Æ Save Desktop to save your modified OE Desktop file.
You now have an OE Desktop file with a main window for holding displays called 'Main
Display', and an alarm window for displaying your current alarms called 'Alarm Window'. If
desired, you could add some additional windows for more components (trends, for example),
however, remember that although there is no fixed limit on the number of windows within the
desktop (other than available memory) adding too many windows may overwhelm the user.
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9-9
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
Example 3 - Creating an OE Desktop that Includes
Menu Items for Displays
Suppose you have several displays, and you want to create menu items for accessing the displays
within the desktop. That way, the operator can easily select which displays they want to see.
To do this, start OE Desktop (if it's not currently running) by clicking as follows:
Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ DeskTop
Now, open up the desktop file we created earlier, in Example 2, by choosing Desktop Æ Recent
Desktops, and selecting the filename.
You now have the desktop we created earlier. NOTE: You don't have to use that desktop, it's just
easier to build on the previous example.
Now, we need to start making menu items. Click as follows:
Desktop Æ Customize
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OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
The OE Desktop Properties dialog box will appear. In the ‘Menu’ page, click on the [New…]
button.
This list shows the menu items
which appear in the menu bar
of the OE Desktop. (If an item
isn’t checked, it isn’t currently
visible).
We want to add a new menu bar
item called ‘Displays’ so click on
[New]
The New Menu Item dialog box will appear. Type the
name ‘Displays’ in the “Name” field. (This defines the
name that will appear in the menu bar of the OE
Desktop). Now click on the [Configure…] button.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
9-11
Enter the name
‘Displays’ then click
on [Configure...]
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
The OE Menu Editor will be called up.
Right-click on the Menu folder icon.
In the Menu Editor, right-click on the ‘Menu’ icon,
and a pop-up menu will appear. You have some
choices about what you want to do:
•
If you want to have the user be able to perform
something from this menu item, such as call up a
display directly, choose ‘New Command’. The
user would call up the display by clicking on
Displays Æ display name.
•
If you want to have the menu item call up another
part of the menu (called a group) which contains
your display choose ‘New Group’. The user would
call up the display by clicking on Displays Æ
group name Æ display name.
•
If you want to insert a separator line between menu
items, choose ‘New Separator’.
Choose ‘New Command’
For purposes of this example, we’re going to choose ‘New
Command’ first.
Type in ‘System Overview’
here.
When we do so, a new menu item will appear in the menu
hierarchy, called ‘New Command’.
•
Type in the words ‘System Overview’ since we want
our first display to be the Overview display.
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OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
•
In the Command “Target” list box, choose ‘Bristol OpenEnterprise Display’.
•
Choose ‘Load File’ in the “Action” list box.
•
In the 'Window' portion of the dialog box, enter the name of the window into which you want
to load this display. Since 'Main Display' is the only window we have configured to hold
OpenEnterprise displays, that's the name we enter. (NOTE: We chose the name 'Main
Display' in an earlier example on page 9-3).
•
You can optionally enter a title for the display, which will appear in the title bar of its
desktop window by clicking on the [Caption] button, and entering the title there.
First, choose ‘Bristol OpenEnterprise
Display’ in the “Target” list box.
Specify here the window into
which you want this display
loaded. Since we only have
one window in our OE Desktop
for displays (called ‘Main Display’)
that’s the one we specify.
Next, choose ‘Load File’ in the
“Action” list box.
Optionally, you can call up the
Caption dialog box and enter a
name that will appear in the title
bar of the window for this display.
Finally, click on the [Configure] button.
•
When you have finished completing these fields, click on
the [Configure] button. The Load file dialog box will
appear.
•
Specify the path and file name of the display you want to be
activated by this menu selection. (Alternatively, you can use
the […] button to locate the desired display, and select it in
the Open File dialog box.)
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
9-13
Use this button to navigate
to the desired file, via the Open
File dialog box.
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
•
Click on [OK] when you’ve finished.
Congratulations! You’ve just created your first menu item.
Now you’ve got a menu item for calling up the Overview
display. Let’s say that you also have three more displays
that relate to water filtration units, called filter1, filter2, and
filter3. If you want to have menu items at the top of the
menu hierarchy for each of the filters, you could create them
exactly as we did for the Overview display, just specifying a
different file to be loaded.
Now the OE Desktop has
a ‘Displays’ menu bar item,
with ‘System Overview’ as
the menu choice.
Alternatively, you could do what we’re about to describe next, which is to add a name in the
menu (in this case ‘Filter Displays’) to group those menu items together.
If you’ve already exited the Menu Editor, call it up again by choosing the ‘Displays’ item in the
menu page of the OE Desktop Properties dialog box, then click on the [Edit] button.
First, we’re going to create a separator in our menu. To do this, right-click on the ‘Menu’ icon,
and choose “New Separator” from the pop-up menu. (This is optional, you don’t really have to
have separators in your menus.)
What’s a Separator?
A separator is just a gray line that divides up
selections in the menu. In fact, the picture at right,
which describes how to create a separator, actually
happens to have a separator in it, (between the
“New Separator” and “Copy” menu items).
Now, we need to add a new group to our menu (a new group is
nothing more than just a name for another part of the menu.)
Choose ‘New Group’
Click on the ‘Menu’ icon, again, and choose “New Group” from
the pop-up menu. The name ‘New Group’ will now appear in the
menu.
Backspace over that, and enter the word
‘Filter Displays’ since we want to group
together the filter displays for our plant.
Type in
‘Filter Displays’
The ‘Filter Displays’
menu item will call
up another menu (a
list of the filter displays)
9-14
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
Now you need to add a separate ‘New Command’
for each of the filter displays in the group, and
configure them similarly as you did the Overview
display:
•
You must specify a name in place of
the ‘New Command’.
•
In the Command “Target” list box,
choose ‘Bristol OpenEnterprise
Display’.
Now you need to add
a ‘New Command’ under
the Filter Displays for each
of the filter displays.
Now, you have
three new menu
items one for each
of the three filter
displays.
Again, we want
to load our display
into our display
window that is
called ‘Main Display’.
You can optionally
specify a title for the
window here.
•
Choose ‘Load File’ in the “Action” list box,
and use the [Configure] button to specify the
actual display file.
When you’ve finished for each of the three filter displays, your OE Desktop menu for the Filter
Displays will now be complete. You can use the same process for adding other menu items to the
OE Desktop. NOTE: We’ve used displays, but you could have used the same basic method to
load trend files, alarm files, etc.
Note the separator
added earlier
Now the user can call
up any of the filter displays
from the menu items we
created.
•
Save the desktop file using Desktop Æ Save Desktop As...
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Chapter 9 - Using OE Desktop
Can I use this OE Menu Editor in other places?
Yes. Although we’ve been talking about the OE Menu editor with respect to
loading displays in the OE Desktop, it is possible to use it to configure menu items
that pass parameters between different OE components, that call other OE
programs, and that call up third-party Windows applications. For more details, see
the OE Menus section of the OE Reference Manual (document# D5092).
9-16
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Chapter 10 - Configuring Security for your system
Chapter 10 - Configuring Security for your System
Why Establish a Security Policy?
A properly implemented security policy can help protect your system from accidental changes or
deletions to configuration tables or other critical areas of the database. We strongly recommend,
therefore, that every System Administrator establish a security policy for all users of
OpenEnterprise Server and OpenEnterprise Workstation(s).
NOTE: If this is an all-new OpenEnterprise system, you probably want to wait until the system is
fully configured, and ready to go into service, before you implement the security policy.
Otherwise, certain configuration activities will be rather cumbersome, because the person
configuring the system would regularly need to sign into the system.
OpenEnterprise Security configuration is divided up into two major parts, each of which has
various steps:
•
Use the Security Configuration Tool to create users and groups at the OpenEnterprise
Workstation. Assign each user a username and default password (which they will change).
Also, specify access privileges for particular OpenEnterprise components for each user or
group of users using tokens (which we'll talk about later).
•
Defining table and view access for users and groups at the OpenEnterprise Server.
What are Users and Groups?
Users
A user is any person who will be able to log on at an OpenEnterprise Workstation. Before you
do any configuration, you need to think about your staff, and make a list of all the potential users
of your system.
Each user will have a name (called the Username) and a
password which they must type in, whenever they log
on at an OpenEnterprise Workstation, using the
OpenEnterprise Login Client.
NOTE: In addition to the users you define, every system also has two special users already
created called SYSTEM and PUBLIC. We'll talk about them more later.
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Chapter 10 - Configuring Security for your system
Choosing Usernames and Passwords:
Usernames
A username is just a name that is used in OpenEnterprise to refer to this OE user. The
name must be unique within the system. For example, if we have a person named
Robert Johnson, his username could be BOB. If we had a Robert Johnson and a Robert
Jones, each would need different usernames, so one could be BOB, and the other could
be ROBERT, or you could use their last names (JOHNSON and JONES).
Passwords
Each username must be associated with a password. A password is just a combination
of letters and/or numbers that a user must enter each time they log into an
OpenEnterprise Workstation. The System Administrator can institute rules like ' a
password has to be at least 8 characters' or ' a user has to change their password every
60 days'. We'll talk more about those rules later when we get to the 'Accounts' page of
the Group / User Properties dialog box. When choosing passwords you want to try to
choose something that you can remember easily, but is not easy for someone else to
guess. According to experts, the best passwords are mixtures of letters and numbers
rather than words that can be found in the dictionary. Make sure it's something you can
remember, though. If a user forgets their password, the System Administrator will need
to issue a new one for them.
Why do we say 'Log in' or 'Sign On' anyway?
Both 'Log in' or 'Sign On' refer to a person typing in their Username and Password
to gain access to some part of the system. We say 'Log in' or 'Sign On' because
OpenEnterprise records the fact that a particular person signed in (or attempted to
sign in) on a particular OE Workstation. Similarly, when a person logs off, or signs
off, it records that fact as well.
Groups
Once you know who all your users are, we recommend you organize the users into different
categories called groups. For example, you might create a group of users called OPERATORS
which refers to all the people who are plant operators. You might also create another group
called ADMINISTRATORS who are the plant managers.
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Chapter 10 - Configuring Security for your system
Some examples of possible groups appear below (You can name the groups whatever you want):
•
ADMINISTRATORS - Every system should have a System Administrator who has full
access to the entire system. Administrators are typically also responsible for security
configuration. Only someone with administrative responsibilities for the entire system should
be able to configure security, because they would know who should have privilege to access
particular portions of the system. You might have more than one System Administrator, but,
in general, you want to limit this to a small number of people.
•
ENGINEERS - You might have engineers who are responsible for programming the system,
modifying the Database, configuring displays, and trends. They would typically be given
access to the entire system except for security configuration tables, which are reserved for
the System Administrator.
•
OPERATORS - Operators would typically be the largest group of people using your
SCADA system. They monitor processes in your plant, view displays and trends,
acknowledge alarms, and take actions, as necessary, to ensure things are running smoothly.
You might want to prevent them from deleting files or making major changes to the
configuration, which are reserved for the engineers.
•
VISITORS - You might have other people who need access to the system, but you want to
significantly limit what they can do. For example, you might have operator trainees, who are
still learning their job. Or you may occasionally have visitors to your facility for whom you
have to demonstrate the SCADA system, and you want to allow them to call up a few
displays, but you don't want them to be able to change anything. These people would have
very restricted access.
IMPORTANT: The Database Project Builder offers a set of standard Group (including some of
those shown above), all pre-configured. You may want to consider using them instead of creating
groups on your own.
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Chapter 10 - Configuring Security for your system
Everyone is a member of the DEFAULT group. No matter what other groups a
user is assigned to, they remain a member of the DEFAULT group.
IMPORTANT: In addition to any groups of users you create, there is also a special group called
DEFAULT. Every user is automatically part of the DEFAULT group, and cannot be removed
from the DEFAULT group. Because everyone is part of the DEFAULT group, you need to make
sure that the DEFAULT group has the fewest privileges of any of the groups. Also, privileges
granted in the DEFAULT group, are available for everybody, and can't be taken away even
when people are assigned to different groups, because they still remain in the DEFAULT group.
If this confuses you, pretend you work for a big company with hundreds of employees (maybe
you really do). Let's say everyone in the company might have a badge to let them enter the
building (that's the DEFAULT). In addition, certain employees might have special keys that let
them enter special areas of the building, i.e. they are members of other groups besides the
DEFAULT group.
No matter what group they may be in,
everyone also has the privileges of the
DEFAULT GROUP, because every other
group is a sub-set of the DEFAULT GROUP.
ADMINISTRATORS
GROUP
ENGINEERS
GROUP
DEFAULT
GROUP
OPERATORS
GROUP
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Chapter 10 - Configuring Security for your system
Creating Users and Groups
First, let's do a little planning. Make a list of the people who use our SCADA system, and choose
a single word username for each person.
Full Name:
Robert Johnson
James MacDonald
Thomas Nguyen
Vijay Patel
Donna Rodriguez
Andrew Smith
Frederick Winchell
Username:
BOB
JIM
TOM
VIJAY
DONNA
ANDY
FRED
Job Description:
SCADA System Manager
Operator - 3rd Shift
Operator - Weekends
Weekend Shift Engineer
Operator - 2nd Shift
Operator - 1st Shift
Weekday Shift Engineer
You can see from the table, above, that we have a staff of seven, so we'll need to create seven
users. Of those seven users, we have:
•
•
•
One manager
two engineers
four operators
Using groups makes it easy to specify
privileges for multiple users.
Otherwise, you'd have to specify
privileges for each user individually….
Although not required, to simplify configuration, we're going to assign these users to groups.
We're going to have an ADMINISTRATORS group for the one manager, an ENGINEERS
group for the two engineers and an OPERATORS group for the four operators.
Why use groups? Each Operator is going to need access to the same sets of things. The same is
true of the Engineers. Finally, the manager is going to be in a special group that allows access to
the security configuration tool. Defining groups makes it easier to set or modify privileges for
more than one person at a time.
Now, let's proceed to actually create these groups and users. To do this, we need to use the
Security Configuration Tool in the OE Toolbox.
Starting the Security Configuration Tool
First, open the OE Toolbox by clicking on Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ Toolbox
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Double-click on the
‘Security Config’ icon
Within the OE Toolbox, double-click
on the 'Security Config' icon, and the
Security Configuration tool will start.
Creating Groups
To start creating
a new group, rightclick on the ‘Groups’
icon and choose
‘New Group’ from the
pop-up menu.
To define a group, right-click on the
'Groups' icon in the left pane tree of the
Security Configuration tool. The word
'New Group' will appear. Type a name for
the new group. (In this case we will
choose the name 'ADMINISTRATORS'
since that is the first group we want to
create. NOTE: You might already have a
group called ‘ADMINISTRATORS’ since
that is one of the default security groups
created by the Database Project Builder.
If so, you can choose a different name.
When finished, press the [Enter] key.)
Type a name
for the new group
in the box that
appears in the
other window pane.
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The 'Properties' page of the Group Properties / User Properties dialog box will appear with the
name 'ADMINISTRATORS' in the title bar.
This is the name
of the Group.
These fields don’t apply when
defining groups.
You can add additional
text about the group in
these fields. (Optional)
Checking this prevents
a user in this group from
changing their password.
If “Change Password At
Next Logon” is checked,
this CANNOT be checked.
These fields don’t apply
when defining groups.
ACCESSAREA refers to
areas of the OpenEnterprise
Database. We won’t cover
this right now.
Checking this prevents
a user in this group from
logging on or changing
their password.
This invokes the
Security Group
Privileges Tool
If desired, you can have a particular
OED file (OE Desktop) loaded whenever
users in this group log onto a workstation.
To do this, select the “Login” box, then
use the [...] button to browse to the OED
file you want to have loaded on login.
When checked, forces users
in this group to change their
password the next time they
log on. If “User Cannot Change
Password” is checked, this
CANNOT be checked.
If desired, you can have a particular
OED file (OE Desktop) loaded whenever
users in this group log OFF a workstation.
To do this, select the “Logout” box, then
use the [...] button to browse to the OED
file you want to have loaded on logout.
Checking this prevents
a user in this group from
logging on or changing
their password. (Lockouts
are normally NOT done this
way; they are done by the
system in response to
repeated incorrect passwords.)
There are many different options on the 'Properties' page. We say options, because they are all
optional.
It's your own choice whether you make any of these selections. The figure, above, gives short
explanations of them; for more detailed descriptions, see the Online Help or the OE Reference
Guide (document# D5092).
All the settings on the 'Properties' page are optional. You can set them as
desired.
Since we said we're making the ADMINISTRATORS group (who are presumably going to be
very responsible individuals) we don't really need to force ADMINISTRATORS users to do
anything such as change their passwords when they log on. If you're defining the OPERATORS
group, you might want to choose some of these items.
Let's look at some of the other tabs in the Group / User Properties dialog box.
The security configuration information stored for particular groups and users is referred to as an
account. The 'Accounts' page lets you specify rules and restrictions on users who log into the
OpenEnterprise Workstation.
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On the 'Accounts' page of the Security Configuration Tool you can configure
various restrictions for a group or a user, for example:
• You can force users to change their passwords on a regular basis by setting
an expiration time for the password.
• You can specify that passwords must be a certain length to be valid.
• You can specify the users should be locked out if they have a certain number
of failed login attempts.
• You can have a user logged out automatically if there is no activity (database
reads or writes) for a specfied period of time.
When checked, if their password has
expired, a user attempting to log in will
be allowed in using the old password,
but will then be forced to change their
password before they can do anything
else.
If you want a user to
change their password,
periodically, check
“Expires In” and
specify the number
of days you want the
password to be valid.
When this number of
days expires, the user
will be forced to change
their password.
This is optional. You can
specify the minimum and
maximum number of
characters required to
make a valid password.
This is a limit on the amount
of time a user will be locked
out of their account if they
fail on successive login attempts.
This is the maximum number of failed login
attempts allowed before lockout. If a user
cannot provide the correct username /
password combination, after this number
of login attempts, they will be prevented
from logging on, even if they then have the
correct password. After being locked out,
they cannot get back in unless the System
Administrator allows it, or “Lock Out
Duration” has been configured, and has
expired.
When checked, if their password
expires, a user will be unable to
use tools such as the OE Toolbox
or SQL Client to access the OE
Database.
If “Expires In” is checked, the
“Expiry Warning”can be checked
to force the system to issue a warning
prompt to the user that their password
will expire within a specified number
of days. This way, they know they need
to change it soon.
“Minimum Age” is useful if
you want to have users change
their passwords on a regular
basis, but you don’t want them
to change them too often. For
example, if you want a user
to change their password every
30 days, you wouldn’t want them
changing it back to their original
password after a few days, so
you would set a value of say
21 days, to force them to use
their new password for at least
3 weeks.
Check this to log off a user automatically
after the specified period of time.
Check this to log off a user automatically
after the specified period of inactivity.
Normally, automatic log out applies to the entire workstation,
logging off all users. If there are multiple connections to the
OE Database active, for example, a program extracting report
data, as well as a user viewing trends, you can check this box
so that automatic log out only applies to the particular connection
meeting the log out criteria.
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Why bother having all these rules about passwords
and accounts?
Good question. Which rules you establish is entirely up to you.
You certainly don't have to force people to change their passwords regularly or specify that
passwords have to expire. If you don't choose "Expires In" that user's password will never
need to be changed. Similarly, if you want people to be able to use a simple 1-character
password, you can let them do that by not specifying a "Minimum Length". You don't
have to log people out if there is no operator activity.
The idea behind these (and other items on the 'Accounts' page) is to increase the security of
your system. Having people change passwords regularly, having people use passwords that
aren't easy to guess, and logging people out if there is no activity is to make it more difficult
for an unauthorized person to gain access to your SCADA system. Changing passwords
frequently might make it difficult for a potential intruder to figure out a password, or if they
did, it wouldn't last long. Having longer passwords makes them harder for a potential
intruder to guess. Logging someone out after a period of inactivity helps prevent someone
from sitting down at the Workstation and gaining access while the real Operator has gone
out for lunch.
There are tradeoffs to all of these things. For example, if one of your Operators forgets their
password, and after a certain number of guesses, gets locked out, they're not going to be able
to get back into the system without help from a System Administrator (maybe that's you!) If
a System Administrator isn't available to help them, your plant might be operating without a
human operator - and that's not good. If you force users to choose a long password, it might
be more likely that they'll forget it, which, again, means the System Administrator gets
called in.
The bottom line is, that you need to look at your system, and consider which of these
restrictions makes sense for your SCADA system staff, and the security needed by your
organization.
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Now, let's go to the 'Access area' page of the Group / User Properties dialog box.
What's an access area?
The OpenEnterprise Database can be divided up into logical pieces called access areas.
When the OE Database is initially built, there is only one access area, named 'ALL' and
the entire database resides in the 'ALL' area. If desired, additional access areas can be
defined, and different objects (e.g. signals) in the OE Database can be assigned to those
access areas. Once this is done, users will be unable to see data outside of the areas to
which they have been granted access.
If this concept sounds confusing, don't worry about it right now. It's enough for you to
know that access areas exist, and that we're going to allow the 'ADMINISTRATORS'
group access to the 'ALL' access area.
Since we haven’t set up any other accessareas, just
leave this ‘as is’. The ADMINISTRATORS group has
access to the ‘ALL’ accessarea.
For now, just leave the 'Access area' unchanged. We'll talk more about this
concept later in the chapter.
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All the remaining pages of the Group / User Properties dialog box deal with tokens so we better
talk a little about them.
Tokens give you privileges to access certain OpenEnterprise components. If you don't have the
proper token to access a particular OpenEnterprise component, you are denied permission to use
it.
What are Tokens?
Tokens are like tickets or passes that grant you certain privileges. Possessing a token
gives you permission to do something. In the real world, for example, you might,
purchase subway tokens that give you permission to ride on a subway train. You
present the token when you want to board the train, and you are allowed to get on
board. If you don't have the right token, the conductor won't let you get on board the
train.
Tokens in OpenEnterprise operate similarly. Every component of OpenEnterprise has
certain tokens associated with it. In order for a user (a person) or a group of users to
make use of that OpenEnterprise component, they are required to possess the
appropriate token, otherwise they are denied access.
A user or group is presented with a particular token by placing that token in that user
(or group's) include list.
A user or group is denied the use of a particular token by placing that token in that
user's exclude list. (NOTE: Not including a token is the same as excluding it, so you
usually don't have to explicitly exclude a token; just don't include it.
A token group is simply a bundle of several tokens. Usually a token group includes all
the tokens associated with a particular OpenEnterprise component. Therefore, if you
want to give a user or group access to all of the tokens associated with a particular
OpenEnterprise component, give them the token group associated with that
component. (You can also create user-defined token groups that contain tokens from
more than one OpenEnterprise component. That is beyond the scope of this manual.)
There are different categories of tokens, that's why they're on different pages of the Group /
Users. We'll talk about each of them as we go to each page.
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Choosing Application Tokens for a User or Group
NOTE: When we're creating the 'ADMINISTRATORS' group, we can skip this page and go
directly to 'Token Groups'. Since you're going to create other groups as well, though, we'll
describe how it works.
Select the application token(s) you want to award to
this group or user from the “Available Tokens” list,
then click on [Include>>] to put them on the “Include
List”.
Select the application token(s) you want to deny
from this group or user from the “Available Tokens”
list, then click on [Exclude>>] to put them on the
“Exclude List”.
Application tokens are tokens associated with one of the OpenEnterprise tools, such as the
Trend Viewer, the Alarm Viewer, etc. Each of these tools has several tokens. If you deny access
to a particular item, it will either be 'grayed out' on the menu for that tool, or it won't appear at
all. So, for example, if you choose to prevent all Operators from silencing alarms, and put the
'Silence' and 'Silence All' tokens on the OPERATORS Exclude List, those options will be
unavailable to operators when they are logged on and using the Alarm Viewer.
•
To grant a user or group access to a particular item, choose the token from the "Available
Tokens" field, then click on the [Include>>] button, and the token for that item will be
added to the "Include List" for this user or group.
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•
To explicitly deny a user or group access to a particular item, choose the token from the
"Available Tokens" field, then click on the [Exclude>>] button, and the token for that item
will be added to the "Exclude List" for this user or group.
IMPORTANT: As we said before, everyone belongs to the DEFAULT group. Initially, the
DEFAULT group also has all tokens included. This means that when the system
is first set up, everyone has access to everything. Make sure you examine the
DEFAULT group, and remove any token that you don't want everyone to have.
How do I know which application tokens to choose?
Good question. If you can't figure out what a given token allows by looking at its name, you can
look it up in the 'Security Configuration Tool' section of the OpenEnterprise Reference Guide
(document# D5092).
In general, Administrators and Engineers would have all tokens (which can be chosen via Token
Groups), instead of individual Application Tokens.
Operators would generally have the following sorts of application tokens:
Alarm Client:
OE Desktop:
OE Graphics:
Notes Client:
Trend Client:
Acknowledge, Acknowledge All
Change a Windows File, Close Windows, Exit Desktop, Move Menu or
Toolbar, Open OE Alarm Banner, Open OE Alarm Client, Open OE Alarm
Printer, Open OE Control Display, Open OE Graphic View, Open OE
Notes Client, Open OE Trend View, Exit Application
GenTray AutoStart, GenTray Autostop, Menu: Display Back/Forward,
Menu: File Open, Menu: Help Functions, Menu: Zoom Functions, Pick:
Display Back/Forward, Pick: Launch Application, Pick: Load Display,
Pick: Popup Window, Pick: Run Script, Start Application, Tab Load
Display
Forward, New Note, View
Zoom In, Zoom Out, Zoom Out Full, Zoom to 100%, Zoom to 150%, Zoom
to 25%, Zoom to 250%, Zoom to 50%, Zoom to 75%, Zoom to Custom,
Zoom Undo
Again, the choice is up to you. Make sure, however, that you have your staff try to do their various
jobs using their assigned tokens, and check that they are able to do everything they need to do.
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Choosing Token Groups
As we said before, a token group is nothing more than a bundle of several tokens. The 'Token
Group' page lets you award several tokens at the same time, rather than choosing them
individually from the 'Application Token' page.
In general, ADMINISTRATORS and ENGINEERS would have all of the token groups in their
"Include List" while OPERATORS would have none.
Select the token group(s) you want to award to
this group or user from the “Available Tokens” list,
then click on [Include>>] to put them on the “Include
List”.
Select the token group(s) you want to deny
from this group or user from the “Available Tokens”
list, then click on [Exclude>>] to put them on the
“Exclude List”.
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Choosing File Tokens, OPC Tokens, and Custom Tokens
File tokens can be used to restrict access to certain files. OPC tokens can be used to prevent
data values from certain OPC tags from being displayed, trended, etc. Custom tokens can be
used to restrict access to user-defined menu items in OpenEnterprise components. We
recommend you place all these tokens on the "Include List" unless you have a specific reason
not to. For more information on these subjects, please consult the 'Security Configuration Tool'
section of the OpenEnterprise Reference Guide (document# D5092).
Repeat this process for each group you want to define. If you need to
change any of the token choices or other settings, just double-click on
the name for that group, and make your modifications.
When you're finished defining groups, you can assign users to them…
Modifying a Group
To modify a group, just double-click on the icon for the group, or right-click on the icon for the
group, and choose "Properties" from the pop-up menu. Make your modifications in the Group /
User Properties dialog box and click on [OK] to exit.
.
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Creating Users
Now that we've created our groups, creating users is
easy.
Just right-click on the name of the group you want to
add the user to, and choose "New User in Group" from
the pop-up menu.
An empty box will appear in the
right-hand pane of the Security
Configuration Tool. Type the name of
the user into the box. When you press
the [Enter] key to complete the name,
the Group / User Properties dialog
box will appear.
Right-click on the
group into which you
want to assign the user,
then choose “New User
in Group” from the popup menu.
Type the name of
the user in the box,
and press the [Enter]
key.
You can now customize the information for that user, such as their name, etc. All of the
privileges are pre-defined, because we added the user directly into the group we defined earlier.
Enter text in these fields to describe the user.
When you click on [OK] to exit the Group /
User Properties dialog box, an icon will have
been created for that user.
Select this
ONLY if this
user is the
System
Administrator.
Repeat this for each additional user. For our
fictitious plant staff, that means we would
create FRED and VIJAY in the Engineers
group, and TOM, JIM, ANDY and DONNA
in the OPERATORS group.
Notice that
the group
is already
defined, because
we added the
user under the
group name.
Enter the initial password for the user in the “Password”
field, then enter it again in the “Verify Password” field.
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Modifying a User
To modify the information for a user, you can double-click on a user's icon to recall the Group /
User Properties dialog box. Alternatively, you can right-click on the user's icon, and choose
"Properties" from the pop-up menu. Make your modifications in the Group / User Properties
dialog box and click on [OK] to exit.
You can give a user special privileges, that other people in their group
don't have just by modifying that user alone.
If a particular user needs to have a special privilege, that no one else in the group has, you can
add it. Just open up the Group / User Properties dialog box for that user by double-clicking on its
name in the right-hand pane of the Security Configuration Tool, and add the appropriate token(s)
to the "Include List" for that user.
If a particular privilege is granted to a group, you CANNOT revoke that
privilege for individual member(s) of the group.
A user that is a member of a group, cannot have a privilege taken away, if that privilege was
given to him or her, via the group. To take away such a privilege, it would either have to be
taken away from the entire group, or that user would have to be removed from the group. If the
privilege comes from the DEFAULT group, it CANNOT be taken away, unless it is taken away
from the DEFAULT group, since users CANNOT be removed from the DEFAULT group.
What if I don't know which group to put a
particular user in?
As we said, earlier, creating groups is optional. If you aren't sure which group to put a
user in, you can just create them separately, and they'll belong to the DEFAULT group
until you assign them to a group.
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Creating a user outside of a group
To create a user, but not assign them to a particular
group, just right-click on the 'Users' icon in the left
pane of the Security Configuration Tool and choose
'New User' from the pop-up menu.
Right-click on the
‘Users’ icon, then
choose “New User”
from the pop-up
menu.
An empty box will appear in the right-hand pane of the Security Configuration Tool. Type the
name of the user into the box. When you press the [Enter] key to complete the name, the Group /
User Properties dialog box will appear. Define the user as explained earlier.
Assigning a User to an existing Group
There are two ways to assign a user to an existing group:
Method 1:
One way is to call up the Group / User
Properties dialog box for that user (either by
double-clicking on the icon for that user, or
right-clicking on it and choosing
"Properties" from the pop-up menu), and
then select the group for that user. The group
is selected through the "Parent Group" list
box on the Properties page. Click on [OK]
and the user will be moved to that group.
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Assign this user to
a group using the
“Parent Group”
list box.
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Method 2:
Drag the icon for that user over to their new group.
Another way is to select
the icon for that user
from the right pane of
the Security
Configuration Tool
window, and drag it
over onto the icon for
the group, within the left
pane of the window.
Two Special Users - SYSTEM and PUBLIC
You've probably noticed that in addition to the users you created, there are two other
users - SYSTEM and PUBLIC. You should remember SYSTEM, because when you
used the SQL Client (way back in Chapter 2) you had to log in as SYSTEM.
SYSTEM is the default user when you are configuring OpenEnterprise. While you are
performing configuration tasks, you need access to basically everything, so, by default
SYSTEM has access to everything.
PUBLIC is a user who has very limited access - just the access you would give a
visitor to your facility. For example, they might be able to view tables, but they cannot
edit or delete them. Don't give PUBLIC access to anything that you wouldn't everyone
to see.
When you have finished system configuration, i.e. you're all done, you should edit the
file POLY.CFG on the OpenEnterprise Server, and change the default user from
SYSTEM to PUBLIC.
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Dividing the Database up Into Access areas
(OPTIONAL)
Earlier in this chapter, we talked, briefly about access areas.
Access areas restrict user access to certain objects (data)
in the OE Database A particular object can reside in only
one access area.
Generally, plant managers want to create access areas
based on geographical locations. For example, you might
have a large SCADA system that covers an entire
Metropolitan area. As part of the system, you might have
a Control Center that is responsible for everything, as well
as local stations that control only their local area.
You could come up with some other scheme for the access
areas not based on geography; it's completely up to you
how you do it.
When first created, the OpenEnterprise Database has only
one access area. By default, that access area is called
‘ALL’. All parts of the Database which utilize access
areas initially reside in the ‘ALL’ area.
Let's say, for example, we have a SCADA system with one main control center in the city of
Centerville and an operator sub-station in each of the two neighboring towns of Weston and
Laraby. The operators in Centerville need to be able to see everything in Centerville, as well as
everything in Weston and Laraby. The operators in Weston need to see their own data only. The
operators in Laraby need to see the data in Laraby, as well as the data in Weston.
We can create an access area for each of
these geographical locations. The access
areas will be called CENTERVILLE,
LARABY, and WESTON.
Right-click on the “AccessArea”
item in the tree, and choose
“New AccessArea” from the pop
-up menu.
To start, right-click on the "AccessArea"
item in the tree in the Security
Configuration Tool, and choose "New
AccessArea" from the pop-up menu.
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A box will appear in the right pane of the tool. Type the name of
the new access area in the box, and press the [Enter] key. In this
instance, we are typing in 'CENTERVILLE'.
Enter the name of
the Access Area in
the box, and press
the [Enter] key.
After pressing the [Enter] key, the Access Area Enter a textual description of
Properties dialog box will appear. You can optionally this Access area, then click on
enter a description of the access area. Click on [OK] [OK].
and the access area will be created, and added to the
tree.
Continue to add new access areas for each access area
you want to create. When you're finished, the access
areas will all appear in the tree in the Security
Configuration tool.
The Access Areas
now appear in the
tree.
OpenEnterprise
Database
NOTE: At this point, all we have done is define names of new
Access areas in the OpenEnterprise Database; they do
NOT have anything in them yet. The contents of the
Database still reside ONLY in the ‘ALL’ area. We will
actually assign different parts of the database to the new
Access areas next.
‘ALL’
‘CENTERVILLE’
‘LARABY’
‘WESTON’
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Assigning Objects (Data) To Particular Access areas
Critical elements of the database should be placed in restricted Access areas, to prevent
unauthorized users from inadvertently or deliberately changing data. By default, all parts of the
database that can be part of Access areas reside in the 'ALL' access area.
To perform these assignments, we need to start the SQL Client. (For information on SQL, please
see Appendix A.)
The format for moving objects from the ‘ALL’ access area to another access area is as follows:
update tablename set accessarea = 'accessarea_name'
commit;
where
tablename
is the name of a table in the database.
accessarea_name
is the access area where this object will
reside.
You can also choose to assign only certain portions of an object to a particular access area, for
example, you can put certain entries of a table in one access area, and other entries in another
access area. Such a statement would appear as follows:
update tablename set accessarea = 'accessarea' where condition
where condition
specifies some attribute related to the object,
and the value that attribute should have in
order to assign corresponding parts of
tablename to accessarea.
NOTE: There are hundreds of different tables in the database, each of which includes one or
more attributes. For more information, see the OpenEnterprise Schema Reference Manual.
Examples:
Continuing with our previous example, we are going to assign the realanalog table which holds
live ACCOL analog signal data to the 'Centerville' access area, except for certain signals (with an
ACCOL basename of DEMO) which will be used in the 'Laraby' access area. The statements
below, when included in the OBJECT SECURITY section of the CUSTOM_SECURITY.SQL
file, will accomplish these changes.
update realanalog set accessarea = 'CENTERVILLE';
update realanalog set accessarea = 'LARABY' where basename = 'DEMO';
commit;
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This process must be repeated for each object you want to move. There are hundreds of tables
containing objects; which objects you move is up to you.
Allow Users Access to Particular Access areas:
Users do NOT automatically have access to particular access areas. Access to any particular
access area must be specifically granted to each user.
In the Security Configuration Tool, right-click on the user's icon, and choose "Properties" from
the pop-up menu.
From the 'Properties' page, click on the
'Access Areas' tab.
Don't get fooled by the "Accessarea"
field on the 'Properties' page!
On the 'Access Areas' page, select the
accessarea to which you want to grant access
from the "Available Accessareas" field,
and then click on the [Add] button.
That accessarea will be added to the
"Associated" list for this user. To grant this
user access to additional access areas, repeat
the process of selecting the accessarea, and
choosing [Add].
Now some of you are thinking… "Hey I
know what to do. I'll just use the
"Accessarea" field on the 'Properties' page
of the dialog box, right?" Wrong - that's not
what that's for. That field is to assign a
particular user to an accessarea; NOT to
grant them access to that accessarea.
Choose the accessarea you want this user to be
able to access, and click on [Add].
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Configuring Security for Tables and Views
Except for what we've just done related to access areas, most of what we've done thus far deals
with security restrictions imposed on users of an OpenEnterprise Workstation. But what about
people (or programs) connecting to the OpenEnterprise Server? We haven't really dealt with that
yet. All your users and groups need access to tables in the OpenEnterprise Database; otherwise
even though they can run various configuration tools, they're not going to be able to actually
change anything in the OpenEnterprise Database. The Security Group Privileges tool lets you
grant access to tables in OpenEnterprise.
The Security Group
Privileges tool is
accessible from the
OE Toolbox. (It can
also be started from
the [Configure Group
Privileges] button of
the Group Properties
dialog box.)
OE Systems
Double-click on ‘Security
Group Privileges’.
Group Names
To grant
privileges,
click on an
item, and
choose
either ‘RO’
(Read only)
or ‘RW’
(Read Write).
Click on the ‘+’ sign to assign privileges
to individual tables of an OE system. Here
OE historical tables are shown.
The top line of the Security Group Privileges tool displays the names of all the security groups
defined in your system.
Along the left edge are the names of the various OpenEnterprise systems (Historical, Alarms,
etc.) to which you can grant table privileges. If you don’t want to grant a group privileges to all
the tables for a particular OE system, click on ‘+’ to display individual tables, and grant
privileges only on specific tables.
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Find the box intersecting the OE system, and the group, and click on it to grant a privilege.
There are two privileges that can be allowed, ‘RO’ (Read Only), or ‘RW’ (Read Write). If
neither of these are specified, the default is ‘None’, i.e. no privileges.
After you have granted privileges, as desired, click on [OK] to exit the tool.
What’s the difference between ‘RO’ and ‘RW’ and how do
I know what to assign to which groups?
Read-Only ‘RO’ privileges mean just that; members of that group
can only read data from those tables and views; they are prohibited
from changing data in them. Read Write ‘RW’ privileges allow data
to be read and changed. As a rule of thumb, Administrators usually
would be granted RW access to everything. You might want to
grant ‘Engineers’ similar privileges. Operators might only need
‘RW’ access to certain tables that contain data that they need to
change. For a full description of what all the tables are used for, see
the OpenEnterprise Schema Reference Manual.
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Common Security Tasks for Users
Logging Onto the System
From the OE Desktop menu bar, click on Security
Æ Login to call up the OE Login Client. (NOTE:
If the OE Desktop hasn't been configured yet, you
can click on Start Æ Programs Æ
OpenEnterprise Æ Login.)
Enter your "Username" and "Password" and
click on [OK].
NOTE: If this icon doesn’t have a
green box around it, you can’t log
in, because the Database is unavailable.
The name of the user currently logged on at this workstation always appears in the status bar in
the lower right corner of the OE Desktop window. Verify that your username appears in that
location.
Logging Off the System
To log off the system, call up the OpenEnterprise
Login Client, and click on the [Log out] button.
Alternatively, if you are in an OE Desktop window,
you can click on Security Æ Logout.
Changing Your Password
Click on “Log out”
To change your password, call up the
OpenEnterprise Login Client, and click on the
[Change Password] button.
In the dialog box that appears, enter your current
password in the "Old Password" field, and enter
the new password you have chosen in both the "New
Password" and "Confirmation" fields, and click
on [OK].
Click on [Change Password]
Enter your current
pasword here.
NOTE: If you are unable to change your password
due to insufficient security privileges, contact your
Administrator.
Enter the new
password in both
of these fields
Click on [OK] to exit.
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Common Security Tasks for Administrators
Adding a New User to an existing Group
Start the OE Security Configuration Tool.
Just right-click on the name of the group you want to
add the user to, and choose "New User in Group" from
the pop-up menu.
An empty box will appear in the
right-hand pane of the Security
Configuration Tool. Type the name of
the user into the box. When you press
the [Enter] key to complete the name,
the Group / User Properties dialog
box will appear.
Right-click on the
group into which you
want to assign the user,
then choose “New User
in Group” from the popup menu.
Type the name of
the user in the box,
and press the [Enter]
key.
You can now customize the information for that user, such as their name, etc. All of the
privileges are pre-defined, because we added the user directly into an existing group.
Enter text in these fields to describe the user.
When you click on [OK] to exit the
Group / User Properties dialog box, an
icon will have been created for that user.
Select this
ONLY if this
user is the
System
Administrator.
Notice that
the group
is already
defined, because
we added the
user under the
group name.
Enter the initial password for the user in the “Password”
field, then enter it again in the “Verify Password” field.
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Removing a User
To permanently remove a user from your system, first start
the Security Configuration Tool.
Right-click on the icon for the user you want to remove, and
choose "Delete" from the pop-up menu. You will be
prompted to confirm the deletion. Click on [Yes] and the
user will be removed from the system.
Right-click on the name
of the user, and choose
“Delete” from the popup menu.
Sometimes you can't delete a user…
Let's say one of your Operators named ANDY quits his job and goes to work for another
company, so you decide you want to delete ANDY from the system. You try to delete the
user, according to the example above, but the system doesn't allow it. Why?
Well, the OpenEnterprise Server maintains records about who performs certain actions in
the system. For example, if ANDY acknowledged several alarms, and those alarms have
not been cleared entirely from the OpenEnterprise Database, you will NOT be allowed to
delete ANDY, since the database still needs to identify who he is.
If this comes up, we suggest you disable the user's account (see next section). That way,
their name remains in the system for record-keeping purposes, but they are unable to log in
and do anything.
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Disabling a User's Account
If a user is going
away on vacation, or
will be away for an
extended period, you
can disable their
account. While the
account is disabled,
this user will not be
able to log into the
system.
Select “Account Disabled”
to temporarily de-activate
this user’s account.
De-select it to re-enable
this user’s account.
To do this, start the Security Configuration Tool and call up the Group / User Properties page for
this user, by double-clicking on the icon for this user.
Select the "Account Disabled" box, and click on [OK].
Later, to re-activate the account, simply de-select this box and click on [OK].
Removing the Lock-out of a user
Users can be locked out of
the system if you configured
automatic lockout based a
number of failed login
attempts. Lockouts can be
configured to turn off
automatically after a certain
number of minutes; or they
can be set so that only a
System Administrator with
Security Administration
privileges can remove the
lockout.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
De-select this box
to allow the user to
use their account
again.
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To remove the lockout, first, call up the Group / User Properties dialog box for this user, by
double-clicking on the user's icon in the Security Configuration Tool.
Next, de-select the "Account Lockout" box in the 'Properties' page of the Group / User
Properties dialog box for this user.
Finally, click on [OK] and the account will be re-activated.
Resetting a User's Password if they forget the one they chose
Enter a temporary password
in the “Password” and
“Verify Passord” fields.
Check this to force
the user to change
their password the
next time they log
on.
Call up the Group / User Properties
dialog box for this user, by doubleclicking on the user's icon in the
Security Configuration Tool.
Enter a temporary password, such as
'PASSWORD', in the "Password"
and "Verify Password" fields.
Select the "Change password at
next logon" box.
Click on [OK] to exit the Security
Configuration Tool.
Give the user the temporary password, and instruct them to log on, and change their password,
when prompted to do so.
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Other Security Issues
The most secure SCADA system would be self-contained, i.e. it would have no connections to
the outside Internet. In addition, it would be isolated from other network activities in your
organization, for example, the process control network would not be on the same network as the
billing department. If, however, your organization chooses to share networks, or include
connections to the outside world, security should be of paramount concern.
Security in ControlWave Controllers
The Security page of the Flash Configuration Utility allows usernames and passwords to be
created for ControlWave-series users, and for user privileges to be defined. See the 'Security'
section of the ControlWave Designer Programmer's Handbook (document# D5125) for details.
If you are using the Point-to-Point (PPP) Internet Protocol, via the ControlWave-series
controller’s serial ports, you should consider using either the PAP or CHAP security protocols.
CHAP is considered more secure than PAP, because it uses encryption. For information on these
protocols, see the ‘Security Protocols’ section of the ControlWave Designer Programmer's
Handbook (document# D5125) for details.
Also once ControlWave-series controllers are configured and running, you should remove the
‘RUN / REMOTE / LOCAL’ keys from the controllers, and put them in a safe place. Otherwise,
someone could accidentally or deliberately change the operating mode of the controller.
Security in Network 3000-series Controllers
The running ACCOL load file incorporates six different levels of security access (1 to 6), as well
as security level 0, which indicates no access. Operators possessing a particular security level
have on-line access to any system function or structure with a security level less than or equal to
their own. For example, an operator who signs on to an RTU with the security level of 3 will
only have access to those system functions which accept security levels 1 through 3; functions
which require security levels of 4 or above will be inaccessible.
If you use IP_Client / IP_Server modules to send signal list or array data between one or more
Network 3000 controllers, you may want to set up restrictions on which arrays or lists are
accessible for read or read/write access. See the sections on 'IP_Client' and 'IP_Server' in the
ACCOL II Reference Manual (document# D4044) for details.
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Chapter 10 - Configuring Security for your system
Open BSI Security
Open BSI facilitates communication between OpenEnterprise, and a network of Bristol
controllers (ControlWave or Network 3000-series). Open BSI security should therefore be
configured. For information on configuring security for your Open BSI network, please see
Chapter 6 of the Open BSI Utilities Manual (document# D5081). That chapter also includes
information on granting proxy access to the network, from remote Open BSI Workstations,
which can have security implications.
Network Infrastructure (UDP and TCP Sockets)
While this is generally more concerned with network traffic issues, UDP and TCP sockets
throughout an IP network must match for each controller and Open BSI Workstation. It is
recommended that these numbers be changed from their default values, for greater security. For
information on setting these at the Open BSI level, see the Open BSI Utilities Manual
(document# D5081). For information on setting these in your ControlWave controller, please see
the ‘IP Parameters’ section of the ControlWave Designer Programmer's Handbook (document#
D5125).
Windows™ Security
If appropriate for your system security, you may want to configure additional security through
Microsoft® Windows™. See your Microsoft® documentation for details.
Also, computer security experts widely recommend that you keep your operating system up-todate. Make sure, for example, if new Service Packs are released by Microsoft® to address
Windows™ security issues, that you apply them to your system.
Virus Protection for Your Workstations
Each workstation should be equipped with Virus Protection software, and you should subscribe
to a regular update service for this software, so the virus protection remains current as 'new'
viruses become a threat. Virus protection is particularly important if the workstation has any
connection to outside networks, or even to other departments via company intra-network(s).
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Firewall Software For Your Networks
If your process control network is connected to the World-Wide Web, you are strongly urged to
purchase and configure commercially available firewall software, to provide some level of
protection against external intrusion from ‘hackers’.
Physical Security
Consider issues related to the physical security of your workstations, and the nature of your
operation. Are the workstations in a 'high traffic' area? Are they in a room which can be locked
up to prevent unauthorized access? Are the environmental conditions in the room poor?
(Excessive dust, humidity, etc.)
Networked Surveillance of Remote Sites using ControlWave
If surveillance cameras are part of your physical security scheme, you should be aware that
ControlWave-series controllers have successfully been used as part of surveillance schemes.
Using third-party security cameras and software, captured images can be uploaded to the
controller, and stored in FLASH memory. Customers can download the images via File Transfer
Protocol (FTP). See the ControlWave Security Vision Application User's Guide (document#
D5126) for more information.
Maintain Current Backups
This is valuable not only for security issues, but for any type of disaster recovery. System
Administrators should back up all necessary files on a regular basis, and store the backup media
(tapes, CDs, zip-disks) in a safe, secure location, preferably off-site.
Human Factors
This may seem basic, but the downfall of security is often the human factor. No matter how well
you configure your security system, please remember the following:
•
•
•
•
•
Don't post your passwords right next to the workstation.
Don't write passwords down where unauthorized persons can read them.
Don't keep using default, published passwords.
Don't keep using old passwords known by former employees.
Don't use simple passwords that are easy for an intruder to figure out (like your name, or the
name of the company).
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Chapter 11 – Creating Reports
Chapter 11 – Creating Reports
What are Reports?
Sometimes, historical data must be provided to plant managers or to third parties to fulfill
various management, or regulatory requirements. The raw, historical data, however, isn’t really
in an accessible format for a third party. It needs to be organized in such a way that it is easy to
understand. To do this, we use reports. Reports are just tabular presentations of historical data
that can be printed, e-mailed, or stored in files.
Before You Begin
In order to run reports, the Report Scheduler software must be configured to start as part of your
OpenEnterprise session. See the Session Manager documentation in the OE Reference Guide, for
details on starting programs from the Session Manager.
What is a “plug-in”?
How are Reports Created?
In OpenEnterprise, reports are created using the Report
Configuration Tool, and a special OpenEnterprise plugin that works with Microsoft® Excel.
There are six major tasks that need to be completed
when creating a report.
A “plug-in” is simply a piece of
software that has been created
specifically to work with another
more complex software package.
It’s added in to support some
additional feature. In this particular
case, a plug-in to Microsoft® Excel
allows it to receive historical data
from OpenEnterprise.
1. Create a Report Template
A report template defines where the data will come from, and how the data is organized on
the report. The report template can be re-used for multiple reports that follow that same
organization.
The remaining steps can be completed in any order:
2. Create the Report
The report itself, must be created using the report template you created in Step 1.
3. Test the Report
It’s important to verify that you actually can retrieve data and generate the report file, so we
recommend you test the report before proceeding.
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4. Define a Schedule for when the Report Should be Generated
The schedule determines the time of day the report is printed, or sent. In addition, it is
possible to generate reports based on operator request (on-demand), or based on the value
change of an OPC tag, but we won’t cover those topics in this manual.
5. Specify the recipients of the report
The recipients are basically the destinations where the report is sent, for example, e-mail
addresses, server locations, or an FTP server.
6. Specify the format of the report
The format is the end product of how the report is presented. For example, you might want it
printed on a printer, or transformed into a particular file type such as CSV, HTML, or PDF,
among others.
Together, these various steps allow you to create a wide variety of reports.
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Step 1 - Create a Report Template
Report Templates define the layout of the report, and what data
goes into it.
Double-click on the ‘Reporting’ icon in the OpenEnterprise Toolbox.
Double-click on the ‘Reporting’ icon.
The Report Configuration Tool will appear. Right click on the Templates icon and choose ‘New
Report Template’ from the pop-up menu -or- click on Edit Æ New Template from the menu
bar.
Right-click on ‘Templates’ and
choose “New Report Template
from the pop-up menu. Alternatively,
choose Edit New Template from
the menu bar.
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Template Configuration – General
On this page, enter a name for the report template in the “Name” field. You can optionally
specify a more detailed description of what the template does in the “Description” field.
Enter a name for the report template. You can
optionally add a description also. Then click on
[Create].
Now click on [Create] and Microsoft® Excel will be started automatically. In addition, the
OpenEnterprise plug-in will be added to the menu bar in Excel.
Before you can begin working with the ‘plug-in’, several report properties must be defined, first.
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Report Properties – Data Service
This page lets you define the default name of the Data Service for your OpenEnterprise Server (if
you don’t know what a service is, please refer to Chapter 4.)
If you are using redundant OpenEnterprise Servers, you must specify the data service for each
one. You can do this by listing the server names, separated by commas, e.g. SERVER_A:rtrdb1,
SERVER_B:rtrdb1.
NOTE: You can override the default data service when making individual queries if your report
will include data from multiple OE Servers. (This is discussed later in this chapter.)
You should click on [Test Connection] to verify that the Reporting package can access the OE
Database.
When finished, click on [Next>].
This is the data service for your OE Server.
Click on [Test Connection] to verify that
the Report package can communicate with
the database. Then click on [Next>].
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Report Properties – Report Period
This page defines the time window (starting and ending time) for the data you want to appear in
your report.
By default, the choice is data from today, but you could choose data from yesterday, last month,
last year, etc. (This also assumes that the data you want to choose actually is stored somewhere
in your OE Database; obviously you can’t put data on your report that doesn’t exist.)
Also, by default, days run from midnight to midnight. Some applications, however, may consider
a day to be when the first working shift starts say 8AM one day to 8AM the next day. Some
natural gas companies use the concept of a ‘gas day’ that might run from 6AM to 6AM. If you
want to have your reports reflect these sorts of time shifts, you can specify an “Offset from
midnight” of 8 hours, or 6 hours, or whenever you consider that your work day begins.
Feel free to play with the different controls on this page to get the exact period of time from
which you want data for the report. You can see how the changes you make will affect things by
looking at the “If this report were run on” and “The report would contain data from” fields
at the bottom of the page. When you’ve got the time window defined the way you want it, click
on [Next>].
This page defines the date/time window from
which you want data for this report.
Based on the choices you make for the
‘Report Period’ the actual timeframe to
be used for the report will be calculated
and displayed here.
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Report Properties – Event Logging
A log may be maintained of all events that occur
as part of generating this report.
This page lets you specify that the
Report package will maintain a log of
events that occur regarding how it is
operating, etc. We suggest you “Enable
Logging” and choose a folder where the
log should be stored, since this log file
can be helpful if you’re trying to debug
problems, such as “Why didn’t my
report run?” etc.
Click on [Finish] to complete
the report properties.
Click on [Finish] to go into Excel, and begin configuring the report template.
In Excel, click on the cell where you want to display the data for the report, then click on
OpenEnterprise Æ Import History Æ New Query…
Click here to access the
OpenEnterprise ‘plug-in’
in Excel
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Chapter 11 – Creating Reports
Each query must have a name. You
can use the default, or choose a name,
then click on [Next>].
Now you need to create a query
for the OE Database for data that
you want to appear on your
report. Depending upon the size
and complexity of your report, it
may include multiple queries.
Each query, therefore, must be
identified by a unique name. For
our first query, we are using the
default name of ‘Query1’ but you
could assign a different name to it
if desired. After a name is chosen,
click on [Next>].
For each query, you have the option of overriding
the selection you made earlier for the data service.
You can also test the connection to the database
from this page. Click on [Next>] to continue.
Although you specified the
default data service for this
report, you are given the option of
overriding the default and using a
different data service in a query.
(You might want to do this if this
report will contain data from
more than one OE Server.) If you
do specify a different data
service, you should verify that
you can communicate with it by
clicking
on
the
[Test
Connection] button.
Click on [Next>] to proceed.
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Choose the Historical Data Set that
includes the data you want to include
on the report, then click on [Select].
Finally, click on [Next>].
Now we come down to selecting the
actual historical data we want to
include on the report. If you
remember from Chapter 6, historical
data is grouped into data sets. Click
on the data set that contains the data
you want to display in this query,
and click on the [Select] button,
then click on [Next>].
If you don’t want all signals/variables to be part
of this query, click on “Named signals only”
and then click on [Add Signals].
On the Create New Query – Signal
Selector page, you can choose to
either query all signals/variables in
this dataset, or you choose only to
query certain signals.
Generally, you would only want
certain signals. Click on “Named
signals only”, and then click on
[Add Signals].
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First, choose search criteria for the
signals you want to include on the
report, then click on [Find Signals].
The Signal Browse dialog box
will appear. Enter some search
criteria in the fields at the top of
the page, and click on [Find
Signals].
Signals/variables meeting that
criteria will be displayed. Select
the signals you want to appear
on the report, and click on [Add
Signals]. When you have
selected all the signals, click on
[Close].
Next, the signals meeting the specified
criteria will be displayed in this window.
Choose the ones you want to add to the
report, and click on [Add Signals].
To exit this dialog box, click on [Close].
The signals you selected will
now appear in the window.
Click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>].
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The Create New Query –
Query Period page allows you
to optionally override the
period of time from which data
should come for this report.
This might be necessary in
certain situations where you
might not have enough data to
properly test the report, so you
want to specify a different time
window.
This page gives you the option of specifying a
different time window for the data that will appear
in this query. To accept the default time window
you defined earlier in the Report Properties, just
click on [Next>].
If you want to change the time
frame, click on “Override
default report period”, and
change the time frame as
desired.
To continue, click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>],
On the Create New Query – Data Transform page, you choose which columns from the historical
tables you want to include in the report. Typically, you would choose ‘Value’ (the actual value of
the signal), but you may choose others as well. For each of the “Available columns” you want
to include on the report, click on [>] to add it to the “Display columns” window.
Most users should leave this at ‘timestamp’.
Choose each column you
want to display in the report,
and click on [>] for it. If you
are displaying several different
columns, you can use the [Up]
and [Down] buttons to move
through them.
Timestamp rounding
allows the timestamp
to be rounded to the
nearest unit of measure
(second, minute, etc.)
After you’ve chosen which
columns to display, click
on [Next>].
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The other items included on this page allow you to specify how you want to use timestamps.
Normally, the “Transform timestamp” would just be the ‘Timestamp’ column, though if you
have other timestamps saved in the database, because you’re doing a more advanced historical
system, you can select that different timestamp column.
You can also specify how timestamp values are rounded.
When you’re finished with your column selection and timestamp settings, click on [Next>].
On the Create New Query – Output page, you can optionally change the location of the cell
where data will be displayed by clicking on the […] button.
You can also choose whether or not you want to display column headers or signal names over
the data in the report.
After making your format selections, click on [Finish].
You can optionally change the way items appear.
Object names would
be the signal names.
Leave this checked if
you want the signal
name to be included
on the report.
Column headers are
the column (attribute)
from the database.
Leave this checked if
you want that on the
report.
Click on [Finish].
Click on [Yes].
You will be prompted as to whether you want
to run the historical query right now. Click on
[Yes].
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The queried data will now be displayed within Excel.
column headers
The report template now includes actual historical
data in its columns.
object names (signal names)
NOTE: You can add additional information to the report template, but don’t try to change the
actual data/timestamps/headers that come from the database, since any changes you make will be
overwritten when the report is generated.
We can however, add
additional information in
unused cells of the report
such as a title and station
names.
We’ve added a Title to the top
and included names for each station
Okay, now you’ve completed your report template. Save the Excel file by clicking on File Æ
Save As or by clicking on the ‘Save’ icon.
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You could just print the Excel file and call the resulting printout a report, since it has real data in
it, but it’s really just a report template.
To have a fully configured and useful report, you’ll want it to be generated automatically at a
particular time, and you might want to automatically send copies to people. You might want to
print it, or you might only want to save a copy of it in a file. The remaining steps of report
configuration allow you to set up these features.
Step 2 - Create a Report from the Template in the previous step
Okay. Now you’ve got a report template. Let’s
create an actual report from the template. To
do this, click on Edit Æ New Report, or rightclick on ‘The Configured Reports’ in the
Report Configuration Tool, and choose “New
Report” from the pop-up menu.
Report Configuration – General
On this page, enter a “Name” for the report, and then optionally enter a “Description” for the
report.
First, enter a name
for the report and
optionally enter a
description.
Next, choose the template
you created in Step 1, then
click on [Next>].
In the ‘Report Template’
section of the page, click on
the name of the template
you created in Step 1. Some
processing will occur, and
then that name will appear
in the “Selected Template”
field. Click on [Next>] to
proceed.
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Report Configuration – Alias Values
Aliases can be used to allow
the same report to be re-used
with different signals that are
chosen based on the aliases.
This is a fairly advanced
topic, so we’re not going to
cover it here.
Just leave the defaults ‘as is’
and click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>].
Report Configuration – Publishing
Specify the path and folder where you want reports to be generated in the “Directory” field, or
use the [Browse] button to locate it. Now, click on [Next>].
Specify the folder where you want reports generated.
Click on [Next>].
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Report Configuration – Formats
At this point, we haven’t
defined any formats, so just
click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>].
Report Configuration – Schedule
Once again, we don’t have any schedules configured yet, so just click on [Next>].
Click on [Next>].
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Report Configuration – Credentials
On this page, you should choose ‘SYSTEM’ as the “Named User” and then click on [Next>].
You should choose SYSTEM.
Click on [Next>].
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Report Configuration – Alarm Conditions
Optionally, you can specify that an alarm will be generated if a problem occurs with the report.
You can also specify that you want an alarm generated when the report runs successfully. Make
any choices as desired, then click on [Finish]. Okay – now you’ve created your report. It’s time
to test it.
You can optionally choose to have alarms generated
if there are problems with the report generation process.
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Step 3. – Test the Report
Right-click on your report,
and choose “Test Report”.
Now that you’ve created a report
template, and a report based on that
template, it’s a good idea to test that
the report is actually able to connect
to the database, retrieve data, and be
included in the report file.
To test the report, right-click on the
report name, and choose “Test
Report” from the pop-up menu. The
Test Report dialog box will appear.
Click on [Test] and the testing will
begin. Messages describing the
process of the test will appear. When
the test is complete, click on [Close].
Click on [Test] to begin the testing.
Status messages will appear telling
you the progress of the testing. When
the testing is complete, click on [Close].
To see what the report looks like, go
to the directory you specified on the
Report Configuration – Publishing
page, and review the report to see
that it looks the way you expect it
should. If it does, continue on to Step
4. If it doesn’t, you should verify that
the template is configured the way
you want it, and that you can
successfully connect to the database.
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Step 4 Create a Timed Schedule for the Report
Now it’s time to define when the report should actually
be generated. Although it’s possible to have it generated
‘On Demand’ i.e. the operator requests the report when
they need it, or based on the value of an OPC tag,
typically, reports are generated on a timed schedule, so
that’s what we’ll discuss now.
Right-click on ‘Schedules’
and choose “New Report
Schedule” or choose
Edit -> New Schedule from
the menu bar.
First, let’s create a schedule. Click on EditÆ New
Schedule or right-click on ‘Schedules’ and choose
“New Report Schedule” from the pop-up menu.
Schedule Configuration – General
On this page, specify a “Name” for the schedule, and, if desired, enter a “Description” for the
schedule.You can have a report generated immediately, i.e. on-demand, or based on a value of an
OPC tag. Generally, though, you’re going to want to generate reports at a particular time of day.
For this example, choose “Timed” to have the report generated at a specific time of day.
Now, click on [Next>].
First, choose a “Name” for the schedule,
and optionally enter a “Description”.
Then choose “Timed” and
finally, click on [Next>].
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Schedule Configuration – Type
On this page, specify exactly when you want the report to be generated. Choose the time, and
then the interval, at which the report generation should be repeated. (The summary area of the
page will report the resulting schedule based on your choices so you can verify that you created
the schedule correctly based on your needs.) When finished, click on [Next>].
Specify the time you want the report to be generated
and then specify how frequently you want it to be
repeated. In this example, the report is scheduled to
run daily, at 11:55 PM.
Click on [Next>].
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Schedule Configuration - Reports
On this page, you are actually associating a report with the schedule you are creating.
The “Available Reports” window displays a list of all the reports that have been created. Click
on the name of the report you want to associate with this schedule, then click on [>] and the
report will be added to the “Selected Reports” field.
Click on [Next>] to proceed to the next page.
Click on the report you created, earlier, in the “Available Reports”
field, then click on [>] and it will be moved to the “Selected
Reports” field.
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Schedule Configuration – Alarm Conditions
Optionally, you can specify that you want alarms to be generated based on the success or failure
of the Report. If so, select those options.
Now, click on [Finish] and your report schedule is complete.
You can optionally choose to generate alarms based on
the whether the report runs or does not run successfully.
Click on [Finish] when done.
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Chapter 11 – Creating Reports
Step 5. – Choose Who Will Receive the Report (Recipients)
Now you have to decide where reports
will be sent. For example, you might
want to e-mail copies of a report to the
accounting department so they can bill
customers. Or you might want to have a
report stored on a hard disk somewhere,
so you can retrieve it later, if needed.
Recipients are essentially the destination
of the report. This could be an e-mail
address, a file server location, or an FTP
server.
To do this, you need to define the
recipients for the report. Click on Edit Æ
New Recipient or right-click on
“Recipients” and choose “New Report
Recipient” from the menu bar.
Right-click on ‘Recipients’ and choose
“New Report Recipient” or choose
Edit --> New Recipient from the menu bar.
Recipient Configuration – General
Decide whether the report will be sent as an e-mail message,
or as a file stored on a drive or FTP server. Here we are choosing
“Email”.
Enter a “Name” for the recipient, and optionally include
a “Description”.
Now specify a “Name” for the
recipient, and choose a
“Delivery
Type”
that
specifies how the report will
be sent (e-mail, file copy, etc.)
Click on [Next>] when
finished.
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Report Configuration – Settings
On this page, you specify the destination e-mail address, server location, or FTP server details
for this report recipient.
Here, we are choosing the e-mail address. You can test that the e-mail address is valid by
clicking on [Test].
If the recipient is an e-mail address, enter the address here.
You should also click on [Test] to verify that it is a valid address.
When you have entered
the address, click on [Next>].
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Chapter 11 – Creating Reports
If you had chosen “File Copy” instead of “E-mail” you would need to specify the location on a
computer where you want to store the report. Similarly, if you had chosen “FTP Copy”, you
would need to specify details on the FTP server that would hold the report. (Not shown)
Use the [Browse] button to specify the destination on the server
for this report.
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Recipient Configuration – Alarm Conditions
Optionally, you can specify that an alarm will be generated if a problem occurs with the report.
You can also specify that you want an alarm generated when the report runs successfully. Make
any choices as desired then click on [Finish]. You’ve now defined your recipient. Repeat this
process if you have other recipients to define.
You can optionally choose to have alarms generated
if there are problems with the report generation process.
Click on [Finish] to complete defining the recipient.
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Step 6. – Specify the Format of the Report
We’re almost done. The last thing we have to
do is specify the file format of the report.
The configuration of the format varies
depending upon which format you choose.
Either right-click on ‘Formats’
and choose “New Report Format”
from the pop-up menu, or click on
Edit --> New Format from the menu
bar.
Format Configuration – General
The figure, below, shows the configuration of a printer.
Create a “Name” for the format, and optionally
enter a “Description” for the format.
If you choose ‘Printer’ as the format “Type”,
you will need to specify the network “Destination”
for the printer. Use the [Browse...] button to locate
it, if necessary.
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The figure, below, shows that for a format “Type” other than printer, a file is generated, so you
will need to specify a “Destination” path and “File Name” format.
For any format “Type” other than ‘Printer’, you will need to
specify a “File Name”. You can type a name in directly, or
click on the [Format] button to choose items that will be
used to make up the filename, such as the date and time.
Create a “Name” for the format, and optionally
enter a “Description” for the format.
If you choose a format other than ‘Printer’ as the format
“Type”, you will need to specify the “Destination”
path for the resulting file.. Use the [Browse...] button
to locate it, if necessary.
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Format Configuration – Purging
This page allows you to specify that older reports be deleted. Just click on [Next>] to proceed.
Purging can be used to remove old reports from the system.
We won’t cover this here, so just click on [Next>].
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Format Configuration – Recipients
On this page, choose from the recipients you defined, earlier, in Step 5, and click on [>] or [>>]
to select them. Then click on [Next>].
Click on the recipient that you want
to receive this format of report, then
click on [>] to select it. Alternatively,
to select all the recipients, click on [>>].
Click on [Next>] when finished.
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Format Configuration – Alarm Conditions
Finally, just as before, you have the option of generating alarms if there are problems with the
report. Make your choices and then click on [Finish].
You can optionally choose to have alarms generated
if there are problems with the report generation process.
Click on [Finish] to complete the format configuration.
Congratulations! You’ve now created a report, it’s got a schedule and you’ve defined where the
report will be sent.
In addition, since you’ve created the report in pieces, i.e. the report template, the formats, the
recipients, etc., you can quickly create additional reports. These individual pieces serve as
building blocks which will simplify any other reports you create.
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Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
Do I really need to learn SQL to use OE?
Chapter 2 - SQL Commands - A Crash Course for OE Users
Probably not. Earlier versions of OpenEnterprise required that even the most basic system
configuration be performed using SQL commands. Now OpenEnterprise has many userfriendly configuration tools, available through the OE Toolbox, that simplify configuration,
and don’t require you to use SQL. Because of this you don’t really need to learn SQL. (A
little secret you might want to know, though, is that most of what these configuration tools
are doing behind the scenes, transparently to you, is to generate SQL statements to query
the database. Therefore, it might aid your understanding of the system if you knew a little
SQL.) SQL statements can often allow you to obtain data very quickly, that might take
many mouse clicks through a configuration tool. Also, there are certain advanced
configurations, that a ‘power user’ might want to do, that can only be done via SQL. If
you’re not planning to do any of those, you really don’t need it. If you are, you probably
ought to read this appendix.
SQL queries follow a certain pre-defined structure,
thus the name ‘structured query language’ (SQL).
It is important to create the queries properly, in order
to perform the desired action successfully. If you
type something in the wrong order, or misspell the
command, or put a semicolon in the wrong place,
your SQL entry won’t be correct, and you won’t
achieve the desired result.
There are dozens of different SQL commands, and
before you’re done configuring the more advanced
features of OE, you’re going to use several, but
we’re going to concentrate on just seven of them,
because they are the ones you are most likely going
to use, when working with OpenEnterprise.
Also, we’re only going to deal with the basic usage
of these seven commands. Sometimes there are more
complicated options that you can use with these
commands, but we don’t really need to get into those
options here, so don’t worry about them right now.
What is SQL?
SQL stands for structured query
language. Sometimes people will
say the word ‘sequel’ instead of
SQL. They both refer to the same
thing. SQL is an industry-standard
method for communicating with a
database. Query is essentially
another word for question or request.
To make a structured query means to
generate a formatted request for
information from the database. The
structured part is important. In
order to get useful information back,
you must carefully construct the
query according to a predefined set
of rules. In order to enter actual SQL
commands, we use a program at the
OE Server called the SQL Client.
While you’re still learning SQL, don’t use a LIVE system!!!
Because SQL is a programming language, it doesn’t include some of the
protections built into other parts of OpenEnterprise. Always be careful when
entering SQL commands, and don’t use them on an OE system which is
connected to a real plant or process unless you are sure of what you are doing.
Otherwise this crash course could really end up in a crash!
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Starting the SQL Client
To start the SQL Client, click on:
Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ SQL Client
NOTE: Every SQL Client command begins with the command name, and ends with a semicolon
‘;’. If you leave out the semicolon, the SQL Client will interpret anything you type after
that as also being part of the command. When you’re finished with a command, you
would press the [Enter] key on your keyboard.
“Help! The SQL Client shut itself down just a
few seconds after I started it!!!”
If the SQL Client closed shortly after when you opened it, then check to see that your
database is running. If it's not, then the SQL Client can’t connect to it, and so it closes
down. You need to start the OE Database in order to use the SQL Client.
If your system has the Session Manager configured to start OE, you should start it
using the Session Manager. If you don’t know what the Session Manager is, you can
start the OE Database, by clicking on: Start Æ Programs Æ OpenEnterprise Æ
Database Æ Database
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LOGIN command
Because you don’t want unauthorized persons connecting to the OE Database, and extracting
your company’s data, the OE Database is protected by a security system. To gain access to the
database, users must supply a valid username and password.
The basic syntax of the LOGIN command is:
LOGIN username
where
is replaced with the name of a valid OE user
(a user is just a person who has been given
permission to use OE, or some part of it.).
Once the username is entered, the user will
be prompted to enter a password.
username
The username
Enter the password
in answer to the prompt
In the picture shown, at right, we show a login
command being entered in the SQL Client. In
this picture, the username is SYSTEM, and the
password hasn’t been entered yet. The
SYSTEM user is defined for every OE Server.
NOTE: Both the username and password are case sensitive. That means that capitalization
(UPPERCASE and lowercase) are important. The words Fred, FRED, and fReD would all be
considered different users. We recommend, therefore, that you either choose all UPPERCASE or
all lowercase when entering usernames and passwords, or you could get confused later.
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SELECT command
The SELECT command is a great way to view various columns (attributes) of a table. What’s
nice about it is you can look search for various items in a table, which meet some specified
criteria. For example, if you want to look at all the signals in the realanalog table which currently
are in an alarm state, you could do that.
The basic syntax of the SELECT command is:
SELECT search_item(s) FROM table_name;
There is also an extended version which looks like this:
SELECT search_item(s) FROM table_name WHERE condition;
where
search_item(s)
is replaced with the name of the attribute or
attributes (columns) you want to view from the
table. If searching for more than one attribute,
separate them with commas. If you enter the
wildcard character ‘*’ for search_items(s), all
attributes in the table will be included in the
search. NOTE: Exercise caution when using the
‘*’, because if you enter that, there are no limits
on the amount of data you’re requesting from the
table. If it’s a really large table, you could crash
your system.
table_name
is replaced with name of a table within the OE
Database. We talked about some of the
commonly used table names earlier in this
appendix.
WHERE
condition
(optional)
is used to specify some sort of criteria to limit the
number of records (rows) displayed. Typically,
you would enter an expression here, like
WHERE value < 20.
Here are some examples.
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Example 1:
Suppose we want to know the name of every signal in the analog portion of the OE Database
which is currently in an alarm state.
We would enter the command:
SQL> select name,value from realanalog where inalarm=TRUE;
The SELECT command
These are attributes (the name
and value columns) that we want
to be displayed from the table
This is the name of the
table from which we are
requesting data
We only want to see the
records where this criteria
is met. We only want to see
those signals for which the
Inalarm attribute (column)
is currently TRUE.
Here are the results of our query.
There are 3 signals in the Realanalog
table that are currently in an alarm state.
We can see the names of these signals,
and their values, because that’s what we
asked to see.
So now we know that when we issued that query, there were 3 signals in alarm within the
Realanalog table.
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Example 2:
Say we only wanted to see the names of signals in the Realanalog table, and we didn’t care about
their value, or whether they were in an alarm state. We could have entered a simpler command,
that specifies only one attribute, and no WHERE condition option.
SQL> select name from realanalog;
Our result would be a list of all the signal names (stored in the ‘name’ attribute column) of the
realanalog table.
+-------------------------+
| name
|
+-------------------------+
| 'TANKS:#RCNT.002.'
|
| 'TANKS:#RCNT.003.'
|
| 'TANKS:#RCNT.004.'
|
| 'TANKS:#RCNT.005.'
|
| 'TANKS:#RCNT.006.'
|
| 'TANKS:#RCNT.007.'
|
| 'TANKS:M1.TEMP.1'
|
| 'TANKS:M1.TEMP.2'
|
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
we’re not showing all the results because
it would go on for 3 pages.
| 'TANKS:SYS.CHARGE.TIME' |
| 'TANKS:TANK.LIQUID.LEV' |
+-------------------------+
Query Done: 203 records selected
SQL>
Pretty easy huh? But maybe you’re saying at this point, “Well that’s fine, but I’m just learning
this stuff. How am I supposed to know about all these different attribute names for the columns,
and which ones to use?”
Good point. Some of this comes from practice. You’ll probably find that, over time, you’ll know
that certain attributes are interesting to you, and others you don’t have to remember.
You also could have looked in the OpenEnterprise Schema Reference Manual and read about the
Realanalog table, and with a little study, and page-turning, you would have found all the
different attributes for that table.
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Say you don’t want to do that, though, because you don’t have a manual nearby, you could do
what we do in Example 3.
Example 3:
If you know that the data you are looking for is in a particular table, but you can’t remember the
name of the attribute, you could look in another table, called the Attributes table. Yep, that’s
right, there’s a table that shows the names of all the attributes in all the other tables:
SQL> select name from attributes where table_name='realanalog';
+---------------------------+
| name
|
+---------------------------+
| 'name'
|
| 'devicename'
|
| 'regionname'
|
| 'datumaddress'
|
| 'scheduleid'
|
| 'status'
|
| 'disable'
|
| 'timestamp'
|
| 'forcepoll'
|
| 'forcewrite'
|
| 'private'
|
| 'timestampdstoffset'
|
| 'description'
|
| 'plantarea'
|
| 'accessarea'
|
| 'calloutarea'
|
| 'display'
|
| 'calloutdisplay'
|
| 'questionable'
|
| 'acknowledged'
|
| 'cleared'
|
| 'suppressiongroup'
|
| 'manualinhibit'
|
| 'controlinhibit'
|
| 'alarminhibit'
|
| 'currentalarmprecedence' |
| 'printer'
|
| 'updatemask'
|
| 'changemask'
|
| 'readchangemask'
|
| 'readtrigger'
|
| 'dataset'
|
| 'lastdataset'
|
| 'timezone'
|
| 'dstoffset'
|
| 'hasnotes'
|
| 'totalnotes'
|
| 'base'
|
| 'extension'
|
| 'attribute'
|
| 'occurrencetime'
|
| 'resetalarmstatistics'
|
| 'occurrencetimedstoffset' |
| 'currentdstoffset'
|
| 'writeoverride'
|
| 'locked'
|
| 'locker'
|
| 'currentlocker'
|
| 'inalarm'
|
| 'value'
|
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| 'readvalue'
|
| 'units'
|
| 'lowlimit'
|
| 'highlimit'
|
+---------------------------+
Query Done: 54 records selected
SQL>
Example 4:
Finally, let’s use a wildcard. If we want to look at the entire table called ‘dvi_schedule’ we could
enter:
SQL> select * from dvi_schedule;
+------------+------------------------+-------------+--------+---------+
| scheduleid | maxinterval
| mininterval | offset | disable |
+------------+------------------------+-------------+--------+---------+
|
1 | '01-JAN-0001 00:00:10' | NULL
| NULL
| NULL
|
|
254 | '01-JAN-0001 00:00:00' | NULL
| NULL
| NULL
|
+------------+------------------------+-------------+--------+---------+
Query Done: 2 records selected
It’s a small table, and we didn’t know what the attribute names in it were, so we just used the
wildcard character ‘*’ where we normally would have listed the attributes.
Just as we did for Realanalog though, we could have requested the names of the columns from
the attributes table:
SQL> select name from attributes where
table_name='dvi_schedule';
+---------------+
| name
|
+---------------+
| 'scheduleid' |
| 'maxinterval' |
| 'mininterval' |
| 'offset'
|
| 'disable'
|
+---------------+
Query Done: 5 records selected
SQL>
See, you got the five names of the columns that appeared when we requested the whole table.
Be careful, though, about using wildcards on extremely large tables. Typically, this would be in
OE historical tables such as raw1, which can contain tens of millions of records. For example, if
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you use a wildcard, without any WHERE condition, on one of these tables you could run into a
nasty condition called - - THE KILLER QUERY!
Beware the killer query, especially when using
wildcards ‘*’ without a WHERE condition
The tables we’ve been using so far in these examples are pretty small. If however, we
had a historical table with millions of pieces of data, we shouldn’t try to bring back
every attribute from that table by using a wildcard ‘*’ without some limiting
condition. Why? Because we have to be very careful about exhausting all our memory
with a KILLER QUERY! A killer query is a query that brings back so many records
from the OE Database, that you run out of memory. As one of our OE Support
Engineers says, “Your system ends up in a smoking heap! And that’s not good a good
thing.”
If you are using Database Explorer, you will receive a warning if you request data
without any limiting conditions, but in the SQL Client, or certain third-party packages,
such as Microsoft® Excel, you don’t receive any warning.
For advanced users, there is a special database parameter, called:
query_max_intermediate_record_count=number
located in the POLY.CFG file, that you can set to prevent killer queries from doing
any damage. This parameter is like a safety valve that basically cuts off the query
after a certain number of records. Specify a number which represents the largest
query you want to allow, and this parameter will prevent the query from returning
more records than that number. If you’re not sure what number to use, experiment a
little bit, before the system is active with live equipment. Try 10,000 to start, and
adjust the number up or down, slightly, depending upon your results.
1
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INSERT command
The INSERT command puts information into the OE Database.
The basic syntax of the INSERT command is:
INSERT INTO table_name (attribute(s)) VALUES (value(s));
where
table_name
is replaced with name of a table within the OE
Database, into which you want to insert data.
attributes(s)
is replaced with the name of the attribute or
attributes (columns) into which you want to insert
data. The number of attribute(s) must match the
number of value(s).
value(s)
is replaced with the actual data you want to insert
in the table. The number of attribute(s) must
match the number of value(s).
If you’re inserting more than one attribute at a time, separate the attributes with commas, and
separate the values, with commas.
For example, let’s say we have a table called accessareaconfig. (Access areas are a feature of OE
Database security which is discussed elsewhere.)
The accessareaconfig table has two attributes called ‘accessarea’ and ‘description’, and currently
has two accessareas defined, called ‘ALL’ and ‘operators’. The table is shown, below:
+------------------+-----------------------------------+
| accessarea
| description
|
+------------------+-----------------------------------+
| 'ALL'
| 'Default Access Area'
|
| 'operators'
| 'Signals for operator use'
|
+------------------+-----------------------------------+
To insert a new access area called ‘Administration’ with a description of ‘Signals for
Administrators only’ into the accessarea config table, enter the following:
SQL> insert into accessareaconfig (accessarea,description)
values ('Administration', 'Signals for Administrators only');
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To take a closer look at this command, see the figure, below.
This is the table into which
data will be inserted
The INSERT command
These are the names of the
attributes (columns) into which
the data will be inserted
This is the actual data
which will be inserted
in the table
It’s important to note that the number of attributes (columns) into which you are inserting, must
match the amount of data you are putting in. So if you are inserting data into two columns, you
must have two items of data to put into those two columns.
NOTE: The data is isn’t actually entered in the database until you enter one additional
command, which we will talk about later. It is called the COMMIT command:
SQL> commit;
Once the COMMIT command has been run, the table will be updated. If you look at the table,
now, it will appear as shown, below:
+------------------+-----------------------------------+
| accessarea
| description
|
+------------------+-----------------------------------+
| 'ALL'
| 'Default Access Area'
|
| 'operators'
| 'Signals for operator use'
|
| 'Administration' | 'Signals for Administrators only' |
+------------------+-----------------------------------+
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
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Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
UPDATE command
The UPDATE command lets you change information for records that are already in the OE
Database.
The basic syntax of the UPDATE command is:
UPDATE table_name SET attribute=expression;
There is also an extended version which looks like this:
UPDATE table_name SET attribute=expression WHERE condition;
where
table_name
is replaced with name of a table within the OE
Database.
attribute=
expression
specifies that attribute attribute is being set to the
value of expression expression. For example, if
the attribute is ‘value’ and the expression is ‘5.0’
then ‘value=5.0’ would go here.
WHERE
condition
(optional)
is used to specify some sort of criteria to limit the
number of records (rows) affected by the
command.
Example:
Below, we’re showing the ‘name’ and ‘description’ attributes for two signals from the table
called ‘Signal_Table’:
+------------------------+-------------+
| name
| description |
+------------------------+-------------+
| 'RPC5:M1.PRES.IN'
| ''
|
| 'RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN'
| ''
|
As you can see, the description column doesn’t have any useful information in it. We can use the
UPDATE command to assign descriptive information for these signals.
update signal_table set description ='MOTOR1 PRESSURE' where
name ='RPC5:M1.PRES.IN';
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Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
update signal_table set description ='MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE' where
name ='RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN';
commit;
Again, let’s take a close-up look at this command:
The name of the table
you want to update
The column in the table
which contains the items
you want to update
This tells you which criteria
you use for determining which
records to update
What this command says, is to go to the table called ‘signal_table’, find the records which have
those signal names (‘RPC5:M1.PRES.IN’ and ‘RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN), and change the contents of
their ‘description’ fields to say ‘MOTOR1 PRESSURE’ and ‘MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE’,
respectively. Again, the actual updating doesn’t occur until the ‘commit;’ statement is executed.
After running these statements, those attributes of the table will now look like this:
+------------------------+----------------------------+
| name
| description
|
+------------------------+----------------------------+
| 'RPC5:M1.PRES.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 PRESSURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
You should be careful when you’re doing UPDATE commands. For example, what would
happen if we ran these commands again, but we left out the WHERE portion?
update signal_table set description ='MOTOR1 PRESSURE’;
update signal_table set description ='MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE’;
commit;
Think about it, we’re saying go to the signal_table, and set the description attribute to ‘MOTOR1
PRESSURE’, but we haven’t limited it to any particular signal name, so ALL of the description
attributes for the entire table ‘signal_table’ will be set to ‘MOTOR1 PRESSURE’. Then, since
we have a second UPDATE statement, which also sets the description attribute, ALL the
description attributes would then be set to ‘MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE’. After you enter
COMMIT and both statements are run, the entire table will look similar to this:
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
A-13
Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
+------------------------+----------------------------+
| name
| description
|
+------------------------+----------------------------+
| 'RPC5:M1.PRES.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M1.DP.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M1.DAILY.FLOW'
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M1.HOURLY.FLOW' | 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M2'PRES.IN’
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M2.TEMP.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M2.DP.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
:
:
and it would continue on throughout the entire table.
As you can see, you have to be careful when using the UPDATE command.
DELETE command
As you might expect, the DELETE command removes records from the OE Database.
Be careful when using the DELETE command!
Use extreme caution when using the DELETE command. You are actually deleting
records from the OE Database. Make sure you enter the command correctly, or you could
accidentally delete an entire table, instead of certain records in the table.
The basic syntax of the DELETE command is:
DELETE FROM table_name WHERE condition;
where
table_name
is replaced with name of a table within the OE
Database.
table_name
is replaced with name of a table within the OE
Database.
WHERE
is used to specify some sort of criteria to limit the
A-14
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
condition
(optional)
number of records (rows) deleted. Typically, you
would enter an expression here, like WHERE
value < 20.
Example - Deleting a Signal
So for example, if you have a signal called RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN in the database, as shown in the
portion of the database, below:
+------------------------+----------------------------+
| name
| description
|
+------------------------+----------------------------+
| 'RPC5:M1.PRES.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 PRESSURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 TEMPERATURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M1.DP.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 DIFF PRESSURE'
|
delete from realanalog_table where name=’RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN;
commit;
would completely remove the signal RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN from the realanalog_table. Obviously,
you want to be very careful using this command.
+------------------------+----------------------------+
| name
| description
|
+------------------------+----------------------------+
| 'RPC5:M1.PRES.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 PRESSURE'
|
| 'RPC5:M1.DP.IN'
| 'MOTOR1 DIFF PRESSURE'
|
Be really careful. If you omit the ‘FROM’ portion of the command, and the ‘WHERE’ portion,
you can obliterate the entire table. Don’t do that!!! Always specify a FROM and a WHERE.
Example - Using LIKE and the Wildcard in your DELETE Command
You can also use wildcards in the DELETE command (or the INSERT, UPDATE, or SELECT
commands, for that matter). They are used with a modifier called LIKE.
In SQL, the wildcard symbol ‘%’ (not the ‘*’ we used earlier) means that a particular portion of
an expression can be anything. For example, if you have an expression that says
WHERE description LIKE ‘MOTOR%’
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
A-15
Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
that means the description must begin with ‘MOTOR’ but the %’ can be replaced with anything
else. So MOTOR1, MOTOR2, or even MOTOR HOME would all be okay.
For example, say we want to delete all the signals from a table that have names starting with the
word ‘SYSTEM’. We can use:
delete from realanalog_table where name LIKE 'SYSTEM:%';
commit;
COMMIT command
We’ve already used the COMMIT command in several of our examples, but we didn’t really talk
about what it does. Any SQL command which actually changes the database (i.e. it is writing to
the database, not just reading information) won’t actually be executed, until a COMMIT
command is run.
This is actually useful because you can enter several different commands that you all want
performed sequentially, and they won’t be executed until the COMMIT is issued.
So, in other words, if you are using the UPDATE, INSERT, or DELETE commands, they won’t
be executed until a COMMIT is entered, because they all change the contents of the OE
Database.
The advantage of COMMIT is that if you make a big mistake, and you haven’t typed commit
yet, you can exit out of the SQL Client, ending the session, without any of the erroneous
commands being executed, because you didn’t issue the COMMIT. (You can also type in the
command ROLLBACK to have the same effect, without ending the session.)
NOTE: The SELECT command doesn’t need a COMMIT, because it just reads data from the OE
Database; it doesn’t change the data, add new data, or remove data.
EXIT command
The EXIT command is pretty straightforward. It lets you shut down the SQL Client, thereby
ending your current session with the OE Database. The OE Database itself is still running, you
just aren’t communicating with it through the SQL Client.
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OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
INCLUDE Command, and SQL Script Files - What Are
They?
Hopefully, after reviewing these examples,
you can see that SQL is a pretty powerful
language, and a great way to extract
information from the OE Database. These
examples have covered the basic stuff, that
you will need to know.
Why do they call them
SCRIPTS?
If you actually tried out the commands
with a real OE Database, you might have
noticed that typing in all these commands
can be tedious. For that reason, we
strongly recommend you make use of SQL
script files, wherever possible.
When movie or TV directors create a new
movie or television program, they have actors
who recite lines of dialogue on a cue from the
director, that were written ahead of time. These
lines of dialogue are called a script. Similarly,
in SQL, script files contain a collection of
commands that are written ahead of time, by
the SQL programmer. The script files are
executed ‘on cue’ when an INCLUDE
command calls the script file.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
A-17
Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
SQL script files are simply text files which include sequences of SQL commands. For example,
we could have typed some of our SQL commands into a text file in a text editor (such as
Notepad). Here we used some of our UPDATE commands, and saved them in a file named
‘mytestfile.SQL’:
update signal_table set description ='MOTOR1
PRESSURE' where name ='RPC5:M1.PRES.IN';
update signal_table set description ='MOTOR1
TEMPERATURE' where name ='RPC5:M1.TEMP.IN';
commit;
mytestfile.SQL
Then, in the SQL Client, you can run this file, just as if you were typing it in, by including it,
using the INCLUDE command.
SQL>include mytestfile;
This will have the exact same result as if you entered it manually in the SQL client.
What are the advantages of using SQL files instead of typing commands in
directly?
There are several reasons why SQL files are more useful than just typing commands in directly:
•
In an SQL file, you can easily correct mistakes, because you’re using a text editor. It also
gives you the opportunity to check things over carefully, before you actually run the file.
•
You have all the advantages of the text editor, for example, you can ‘Cut’ and ‘Paste’, ‘Find’
and ‘Replace’, etc. That allows you to generate large amounts of SQL statements quickly,
because you can re-use text from earlier statements.
•
Perhaps the biggest advantage in using SQL script files is that you have a record of what
commands were performed. This allows you to go back and identify problems, if it turns out
you have a configuration error in the OE Database. It also allows you to re-issue those
commands at some time in the future, if you need to re-build some part of your OE system.
A-18
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
Appendix A - Learning SQL (A Crash Course for OE Users)
Custom SQL Files Can be Very Useful…
Now that we’ve sold you on the idea of using script files (we hope, anyway), we want to strongly
recommend that when you do, you only call those script files from within the Bristol Custom
Files.
The Bristol Custom Files are a set of SQL script files which are
used on all customer projects. They are used for setting up
various OE features such as the historical system, the security
system, etc. So if you have SQL statements you want to perform
on a particular part of the OE system, find the appropriate
custom file, and call your SQL script file, from within that file.
This ensures that if need to see which SQL commands were
executed on the OE Database, you can find the file. If you don’t
include a reference in the custom file, you might not remember
the name of your own script file, and then you’re out of luck.
REMEMBER:
If you’re creating
your own scripts,
call them from within
the Bristol Custom
Files.
The details of the custom files are beyond the scope of this manual; however, if you used the
Database Project Builder, discussed in Chapter 3, to build the database, these custom files were
created for you automatically. A special batch file called OERebuild.CMD can be used to rebuild
your database to its initial state using these custom files. You should only use this, though, if
you’ve kept the custom files up to date with your latest changes, otherwise, the rebuild would
overwrite all changes made since the initial custom SQL files were generated.
Where can I get more information?
Now that you’ve finished this appendix, you should have at least a minimal understanding of
what SQL is used for.
•
If you’re really interested in Structured Query Language (SQL) you might want to look at the
Polyhedra SQL Reference Manual. In addition, since SQL is an industry standard, there are
numerous books available. Just stroll down the ‘Computers’ aisle of your local bookstore,
and you’ll likely find several books on SQL.
•
If you’re really curious about all the different tables in OpenEnterprise, you can find
information in the OE Schema Reference Manual.
•
If you want to learn about Database Explorer, which is the other main method for looking at
the contents of the OE Database, please go to Chapter 4.
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
A-19
OpenEnterprise for Beginners
A-1
Training Manual
D5091
June, 2007
Bristol OpenEnterprise
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