Sherline-lathe-user-guide

Sherline-lathe-user-guide
SHERLINE Lathe and Mill Setup Instructions .................................................................. 3
Getting answers to your questions about machining ...................................................... 3
An introduction to the world of miniature machining .................................................... 4
What new machinists like most and least ................................................................... 4
There are no shortcuts................................................................................................. 4
Anticipation of a tool's limitations is the craftsman's strength ................................... 4
You don't become a machinist by buying a machine.................................................. 4
SAFETY RULES FOR POWER TOOLS .......................................................................... 5
Electrical connections ..................................................................................................... 6
General precautions ........................................................................................................ 7
Avoid overtightening!..................................................................................................... 8
Don't overstress the motor! ............................................................................................. 8
Customer's responsibilities ............................................................................................. 8
Learning more about machining ..................................................................................... 8
Lubrication...................................................................................................................... 9
Initial assembly of a new machine.................................................................................. 9
Lathe-crosslide mounting procedure............................................................................... 9
Mill-column mounting procedure ................................................................................. 11
Assembly of the model 2000 and related model 8-direction mill columns .................. 12
Check tightness of all bolts ........................................................................................... 12
Mounting the motor and speed control unit to the headstock....................................... 13
The advantages of Sherline's DC motor and electronic speed control ......................... 15
Motor is thermally protected......................................................................................... 15
What to do if the motor shuts down.............................................................................. 15
Operation of the motor and electronic speed control.................................................... 16
Motors are pre-tested at the factory .............................................................................. 16
Mounting the headstock to the lathe or mill ................................................................. 16
Mounting the mill and lathe to a board......................................................................... 18
Converting machines from inch to metric or vice versa ............................................... 20
ADJUSTMENTS .............................................................................................................. 20
Two-speed pulley.......................................................................................................... 20
Preload adjustment........................................................................................................ 21
Gib adjustment .............................................................................................................. 21
Backlash adjustment ..................................................................................................... 21
Handwheel adjustment.................................................................................................. 22
Movement of the handwheels ....................................................................................... 23
Aligning the head and tailstock..................................................................................... 23
Use of cutting oils and lubricants.................................................................................. 24
General machining terms .............................................................................................. 25
General rules for feed rates and cutting speeds ............................................................ 25
Lathe Specifications.......................................................................................................... 27
SHERLINE Lathe Operating Instructions ........................................................................ 28
Review Safety Rules for Power Tools before beginning.......................................... 28
Lathe Operating Instructions............................................................................................. 28
Leveling the Cutting tool .............................................................................................. 29
Initial Test Cutting ........................................................................................................ 30
Holding the Workpiece ................................................................................................. 30
Turning Between Centers ............................................................................................. 31
Center Drilling .............................................................................................................. 32
Tailstock Drilling .......................................................................................................... 33
Headstock Drilling ........................................................................................................ 34
Reaming ........................................................................................................................ 34
Faceplate Turning ......................................................................................................... 35
Taper Turning ............................................................................................................... 35
Tool Shapes and Grinding Your Own Tools ................................................................ 36
Cutoff or Parting Tool................................................................................................... 40
Side Tools ..................................................................................................................... 41
Boring Tool................................................................................................................... 41
Inserted Tip Carbide Tools ........................................................................................... 42
T-Rest (P/N 2110) and Gravers .................................................................................... 44
Knurling Tool (P/N 3004)............................................................................................. 45
Guide to Approximate Turning Speeds ........................................................................ 45
TURNING SPEEDS ..................................................................................................... 45
Use of Accessories and Attachments............................................................................ 46
Lathe Exploded View and Parts Diagram..................................................................... 46
Part Numbers and Descriptions, ................................................................................... 48
SHERLINE Lathes and Mills ....................................................................................... 48
Standard Dimensions of Sherline Tools ........................................................................... 52
Sherline Lathe Dimensions ............................................................................................... 55
Motor and Speed Control.................................................................................................. 55
MOTOR TORQUE CURVE .................................................................................... 56
SHERLINE Lathe and Mill Setup Instructions
Getting answers to your questions about machining
Over the years we have found that the majority of our customers are both highly
intelligent and skilled craftsmen. Often they are also new to machining. The instructions
we have included in this book, while far more extensive than anything included with
other machine tools, even ones costing thousands of dollars, still only scratch the surface
when it comes to machining. We have tried to anticipate the most common problems and
questions asked by a new machinist. What we have provided in this book and with each
accessory, when combined with a liberal amount of common sense, is more than enough
to get you started. If you apply what you learn here, you will be well on your way to
making good parts. No doubt you will also have many questions specific to your project
that simply can't be addressed in a booklet of this type.
Answers to questions beyond the scope of this booklet will have to come from your own
research. Book stores and libraries are full of excellent books on machining, and the
Internet is forming some great user groups that can put you in direct contact with others
who share your specific interests. Our own World Wide Web site is a great source of
information as well, as we have published there all the instructions for all our tools and
accessories for you to read and print out for free. We feel we have written the best book
available on miniature machining with Sherline tools. It is called Tabletop Machining by
Sherline's owner and long-time toolmaker Joe Martin. We also sell Doug Briney's Home
Machinist's Handbook as well as a very informative steam engine project video by Rudy
Kouhoupt, both of which are packed with knowledge for new machinists. For the past 35
years I have found Machinery's Handbook to be the source I turn to for answers to my
own questions. May your journey toward becoming a skilled machinist be an enjoyable
one.
An introduction to the world of miniature machining
What new machinists like most and least
If you are new to machining, you may find it to be either one of the most rewarding skills
one can learn or the most frustrating thing you have ever attempted. What makes
machining fun for some is the complexity and challenge. The same thing will drive others
up the wall. One customer may be overjoyed because he can now make parts that were
not available for purchase. Another may wonder why he just spent all day making a part
that is similar to one he could have purchased for two dollars. (The difference is that it is
not the same as the two dollar part-it is exactly the part needed.)
There are no shortcuts
Machining is a slow process if parts are made one at a time. The interesting thing is, a
skilled machinist may take almost as long to make the same part as a novice. Shortcuts
usually end in failure. Unlike some other trades, mistakes cannot be covered up. There
are no erasers, white-out or "putting-on tools" for machinists; you simply start over. To
expand a little on an old rule: "Think three times, measure twice and cut once!"
Anticipation of a tool's limitations is the craftsman's strength
The skill in machining isn't just "moving the dials". It is a combination of engineering
and craftsmanship. A file is just as useful a tool to a good machinist as a multi-thousand
dollar machine tool. Tools "deflect" or bend under load, and anticipating this bend is
what it is all about. Sharp tools deflect less than dull tools, but with each pass the tool
dulls a little and the deflection becomes greater. If you try to machine a long shaft with a
small diameter, the center will always have a larger diameter than the ends because the
part deflects away from the tool where it has less support. You can go crazy trying to
machine it straight, or you can simply pick up a good flat mill file and file it straight in a
few moments. Machine tools will never replace the "craftsman's touch", and machining is
a combination of both good tools and good technique.
You don't become a machinist by buying a machine
You should strive from the beginning to make better and more accurate parts than you
think you need. Work to closer tolerances than the job demands. Be on the lookout for
ways to make a job easier or better. Having a selection of appropriate materials on hand
and a good cutoff saw to get them to rough size is a good start. Take some time and read
through this instruction book before you try machining anything. We want you to enjoy
the process of creating accurate parts from raw metal. Buying a machine didn't make you
a machinist, but using it along with the skill and knowledge you acquire along the way
eventually will. With the purchase of SHERLINE equipment, you have taken your first
step toward many years of machining satisfaction. We at SHERLINE thank you for
letting us be a part of that.
Joe Martin, President and Owner
SAFETY RULES FOR POWER TOOLS
1. KNOW YOUR POWER TOOL-Read the owner's manual carefully. Learn its
application and limitations as well as the specific potential hazards peculiar to this
tool.
2. GROUND ALL TOOLS-If tool is equipped a with three-prong plug, it should be
plugged into a three-hole receptacle. If an adapter is used to accommodate a twoprong receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a KNOWN GROUND.
Never remove third the prong. (See Figure 1.)
3. KEEP GUARDS IN PLACE-and in working order.
4. REMOVE ADJUSTING KEYS AND WRENCHES-Form a habit of checking
to see that keys and adjusting wrenches are removed from tool before turning on
machine.
5. KEEP WORK AREA CLEAN-Cluttered areas and benches invite accidents.
6. AVOID DANGEROUS ENVIRONMENT-Do not use power tools in damp or
wet locations. Keep work area well illuminated.
7. KEEP CHILDREN AWAY-All visitors should be kept a safe distance from the
work area.
8. MAKE WORKSHOP KID PROOF-with padlocks, master switches or by
removing starter keys.
9. DO NOT FORCE TOOL-Do not force tool or attachment to do a job for which
it was not designed. Use the proper tool for the job.
10. WEAR PROPER APPAREL-Avoid loose clothing, neckties, gloves or jewelry
that could become caught in moving parts. Wear protective head gear to keep long
hair styles away from moving parts.
11. USE SAFETY GLASSES-Also use face or dust mask if cutting operation is
dusty.
12. SECURE WORK-Use clamps or a vise to hold work when practicable. It is safer
than using your hand and frees both hands to operate the tool.
13. DO NOT OVERREACH-Keep your proper footing and balance at all times.
14. MAINTAIN TOOLS IN TOP CONDITION-Keep tools sharp and clean for
best and safest performance. Follow instructions for lubrication and changing
accessories.
15. DISCONNECT TOOLS-Unplug tool before servicing and when changing
accessories such as blades, bits or cutters.
16. AVOID ACCIDENTAL STARTING-Make sure switch is "OFF" before
plugging in power cord.
17. USE RECOMMENDED ACCESSORIES-Consult the owner's manual. Use of
improper accessories may be hazardous.
18. TURN SPINDLE BY HAND BEFORE SWITCHING ON MOTOR-This
ensures that the workpiece or chuck jaws will not hit the lathe bed, saddle or
crosslide, and also ensures that they clear the cutting tool.
19. CHECK THAT ALL HOLDING, LOCKING AND DRIVING DEVICES
ARE TIGHTENED-At the same time, be careful not to overtighten these
adjustments. They should be just tight enough to do the job. Overtightening may
damage threads or warp parts, thereby reducing accuracy and effectiveness.
20. It is not recommended that the lathe be used for grinding. The fine dust that
results from the grinding operation is extremely hard on bearings and other
moving parts of your tool. For the same reason, if the lathe or any other precision
tool is kept near an operating grinder, it should be kept covered when not in use.
21. DON'T LET LONG, THIN STOCK PROTRUDE FROM THE BACK OF
THE SPINDLE—Long, thin stock that is unsupported and turned at high RPM
can suddenly bend and whip around.
22. WEAR YOUR SAFETY GLASSES-Foresight is better than NO SIGHT! The
operation of any power tool can result in foreign objects being thrown into the
eyes, which can result in severe eye damage. Always wear safety glasses or eye
shields before commencing power tool operation. We recommend a Wide Vision
Safety Mask for use over spectacles or standard safety glasses.
Electrical connections
The power cord used is equipped with a 3-prong grounding plug which should only be
connected to a properly grounded receptacle for your safety. Should an electrical failure
occur in the motor, the grounded plug and receptacle will protect the user from electrical
shock. If a properly grounded receptacle is not available, use a grounding adapter to adapt
the 3-prong plug to a properly grounded receptacle by attaching the grounding lead from
the adapter to the receptacle cover screw.
FIGURE 1-Always use a properly grounded receptacle.
NOTE: The electrical circuits designed into the speed control of your lathe or mill reads
incoming current from 100 to 240 volts AC and 50 or 60 Hz. and automatically adapts to
supply the correct 90 volts DC to the motor. As long as you have a properly wired,
grounded connector cord for your source, the machine will operate anywhere in the world
without a transformer. This has been true for all SHERLINE machines built since 1994.
Prior to that, we used an AC/DC motor. Use that motor ONLY with the power source for
which it was intended. It will not automatically adapt to any other current and using it
with an improper power source will burn out the motor or speed control. Also, the first
few DC units built did not include the circuits to adapt to other currents. If you have an
early DC model, remove the plastic speed control housing and look for a label on the
aluminum speed control frame. If it has a small metallic label on top of the frame that
lists input voltage as 120VAC, DO NOT ATTEMPT TO CONVERT TO OTHER
CURRENTS. Models that can be used with any current have a paper label on the end of
the speed control frame which lists the model number as KBLC-240DS.
The machines are normally supplied with a USA type plug but can be easily rewired to
accept a European or U.K. type plug by attaching the wires using the color codes
provided below.
WIRE
100/240 V
COMMON
GROUND (EARTH)
USA
EUROPE
BLACK
BROWN
WHITE
BLUE
GREEN GREEN W/YELLOW
FIGURE1a-Wire color codes for USA and European connectors.
General precautions
•
•
DO NOT attempt to operate the lathe or mill without first mounting them to a
secure base. (See page 6.)
DO NOT turn on the motor with a 3-jaw chuck mounted if the jaws are not
tightened on themselves or on a part.
•
A chip guard (P/N 4360) is now available that offers additional protection from
flying chips when working near the spindle. It is not a substitute for wearing
proper eye protection but is an excellent level of additional protection. It will also
contain cutting oil to help keep your work area cleaner.
Avoid overtightening!
One of the problems with designing and manufacturing metal cutting equipment of this
size is that the operator can physically be stronger than the machine, which is not
normally the case with larger tools. For example, a 10-pound force applied a couple of
inches out on a hex key becomes a 650-pound force at the tip of the screw. If you tighten
both screws on the tool post this tight, it becomes approximately 1300 pounds of force on
relatively small parts! Tools and/or parts can become distorted and accuracy will be lost.
Overtightening hold down screws and T-nuts in their slots can distort the crosslide
or mill table. It is not necessary to overtighten parts and tools because loads are smaller
on equipment of this size. Save your equipment and increase accuracy by not
overtightening and by taking light cuts.
Don't overstress the motor!
It is also important to realize that you can overload the motor supplied with this lathe or
mill.* The many variables involved in machining, such as materials being machined, size
of cutter, shape of cutter, diameter of stock, etc., can leave but one rule to
follow...COMMON SENSE!
*The motor is thermally protected, so if it is overloaded it will simply shut down until it
cools. See section on thermal protection.
CAUTION!
Read all operating instructions and safety rules carefully before attempting any
machining operations.
Customer's responsibilities
Always use care when operating the lathe and mill. Follow safety rules for power tools.
Turn off motor before attempting adjustments or maintenance. (Do not simply turn the
speed control down to zero RPM but leave the motor switch on.) Be sure the work piece
is firmly supported on the lathe or mill. Accessories should be mounted and operated
following instructions carefully. Keep your machine clean, lubricated and adjusted as
instructed. Do not leave cleaning rags, tools or other materials on the lathe bed or around
moving parts of the machine.
Learning more about machining
Many fine books have been written on machining techniques and are available at your
local library or book store. Although these books will be referring to machines many
times larger than Sherline's tools, the principle remains the same. For the best reference
that is specific to Sherline tools, see Joe Martin's book, Tabletop Machining.
Lubrication
•
•
•
•
•
•
MACHINE SLIDES-Use a light oil such as sewing machine oil on all points
where there is sliding contact. This should be done immediately after each
cleanup. (We grease the slides at the factory to ensure the lubrication stays in
place during shipping, but light oil will work fine once you begin using the
machine.)
LEAD SCREW, TAILSTOCK SCREW, CROSSLIDE SCREW-Sewing
machine oil should be placed along all threads regularly. At the same time, check
that the threads are free from any metal chips. Use an air hose or paint brush to
keep them clean.
TAILSTOCK SPINDLE-Wind out the spindle as far as it will go and lightly oil
it with sewing machine oil.
HANDWHEEL-A few drops of light oil behind the handwheel will reduce
friction between the surfaces and make operation easier and smoother.
HEADSTOCK BEARINGS-These bearings are lubricated at the factory for the
lifetime of the machine and should not need further lubrication. DO NOT break
the seals.
MOTOR-Sealed ball bearings require no maintenance.
Initial assembly of a new machine
Your new lathe or mill will come packed in a box with some items disassembled for
shipping purposes. On the lathe you will install the crosslide table onto the saddle. On the
mill you will install the "Z" axis column onto the base. On both machines you will need
to install the motor and speed control. The machines are completely assembled and tested
for fit at the factory prior to shipping. They are then disassembled and packaged, so
everything should go together easily when you reassemble it. The motors are "run in" for
approximately one hour to assure proper function and seating of the brushes.
Before you call us and say a part is missing, please look carefully through the packaging.
Some parts are in bags taped to the bottom of cardboard flaps or spacers and you may not
notice them when you open the box and remove the major components.
Lathe-crosslide mounting procedure
Installation of the crosslide requires no tools. First, make sure the bottom of the crosslide
has a light coat of grease on all the sliding surfaces. This will have been applied at the
factory, just make sure it has not been wiped off and that it is evenly distributed.
FIGURE 2
Next, see that the gib is in the proper position on the saddle. (See Figure 2.) It is taped
into position for shipping. Remove the tape holding it in place. If the gib has come off,
position it on the gib lock as shown.
Set the dovetail of the crosslide over the gib and matching dovetail on the saddle. Slide it
onto the saddle about 1/4" (6-7mm) until it stops. (See Figure 3.)
FIGURE 3
Look underneath and align the slide screw with the threads on the brass slide screw insert
on the side of the saddle. (See Figure 4.) Turn the crosslide handwheel clockwise to
engage the threads. Continue to crank the handwheel clockwise until the crosslide is in
the desired position on the saddle.
FIGURE 4
Mill-column mounting procedure
The mill is shipped attached to a piece of plywood to keep it from moving in the box.
Before you begin, remove the screws holding the mill base to the plywood. It was
installed strictly for packing purposes and will need to be removed so that the column can
be installed.
The "Z" axis column is mounted to the base with two 1-3/4" long 1/4-20 socket head
screws. These screws and the hex key tool you will need to tighten them are packaged in
the bag with the motor mounting bracket and drive belt. It is much easier to mount the
column to the base before you mount the motor and speed control to the saddle.
FIGURE 5
Set the column on the base aligned with the mounting holes and hold it in position while
you insert the first screw up from the bottom of the base. Hand turn the first screw part
way in and then start the second screw. This can be done with the machine upright by
letting the base hang over the edge of your table or bench just far enough to expose the
first hole. Using the hex key, snug up both screws lightly first, and then tighten evenly.
Assembly of the model 2000 and related model 8direction mill columns
For specific directions on assembly of the various 8-direction columns and upgrades
introduced in August, 1998, click here. The Model 2000 mill and the related upgrades
that convert standard mills into 8-direction mills offer the ability to drill holes or do
machining operations from an almost infinite number of angles on parts mounted square
to the table.
Check tightness of all bolts
Vibration in shipping can cause some bolts or screws to loosen up. Before using your
new machine, check the tightness of all fasteners. It is also a good idea to check tightness
periodically when using the machine, as vibration from operation may cause some
fasteners to loosen up.
Mounting the motor and speed control unit to the
headstock
(Refer to the exploded views and number list for part number references.)
FIGURE 6-DC Motor and Speed Control Assembly
1. Remove motor pulley from motor shaft. Mount the inner belt guard to the motor
using the two standoffs (P/N 4310). Next install the motor pulley (P/N 4336) to
the motor shaft and tighten the set screw. The end of the pulley should be just
about even with the end of the motor shaft with the smaller pulley toward the end
of the shaft.
2. Place drive belt over motor pulley.
3. Place round post on speed control hinge plate in hole on inner belt guard.
4. Set outer belt guard in place locating other post of hinge plate in its pivot hole.
Motor standoff ends will register in holes in outer belt guard. Make sure the drive
belt is routed properly. Then secure the cover with (2) 1-3/8" pan head screws
which go into nuts pressed into the back of the inner belt guard.
5. Attach motor mounting bracket to rear of headstock with two 10-32 x 3/8" socket
head screws. There is enough "play" in the mounting holes to allow you to ensure
the motor is visually mounted parallel with the spindle axis. (Note: If chip guard
is to be mounted, its attachment screw replaces one of these mounting screws. It
can be mounted at this time or after the headstock is in place. See instructions that
come with the chip guard.)
6. Place drive belt over spindle pulley and insert 10-32 x 3/4" socket head screws
(with 2 washers on each) through motor mount slot and into holes in the ends of
the motor standoffs. (These standoff ends should be exposed through locating
holes in the outer belt guard.) NOTE: The normal operating position for the drive
belt is on the large diameter groove on the motor pulley and the small diameter
groove on the spindle pulley. Use of the other (low RPM) position is discussed
elsewhere in these instructions. (See Figure 11.)
7. Tighten motor mount screws, tilt speed control unit out of the way and check the
alignment of the drive belt. It should be perpendicular to the drive pulleys. If it is
not, loosen the set screw on the motor pulley and adjust it in or out on its shaft
until the drive belt is square with the motor.
8. Pull desired tension into drive belt by sliding the motor unit out in the bracket
slot. Tighten mounting screws to hold the motor/speed control unit in place.
NOTE: Do not overtension the drive belt. Just make sure it has enough tension to
drive the spindle pulley without slipping under normal load. By not
overtightening the belt you will not only extend its life, but will also provide a
margin of safety for belt slippage should a tool jam in a part or an accident occur.
The belt must be a little tighter when used in the low speed range because small
diameter pulleys are not as efficient.
9. Set mounting plate into top of belt guard housing so it rests on rails molded onto
inside surfaces of housing. (The pressed-in nut goes down and to the outside.)
Slide the plate toward the outside (toward the spindle pulley) until it stops.
NOTE: The mounting plate was designed to be easily removable so it is out of the
way when changing the drive belt position.
10. Rotate speed control unit into place and insert the single 10-32 x 1/2"* socket
head screw through hole in speed control housing and into nut in mounting plate.
Tighten enough to hold in place. Do not overtighten.
*Changed from 3/8" long screws 1/5/05 for stronger engagement.
NOTE: Those of you who machine a lot of wood or brass may want to purchase and
install a switch cover (P/N 3015) to keep the fine dust out of the power switch. The wood
dust can gum up the switch causing intermittent operation. Brass dust can short out the
switch or cause a risk of electric shock to the operator.
The advantages of Sherline's DC motor and electronic
speed control
Sherline's 90 volt DC motor is very smooth and powerful, particularly at low RPM. The
specially designed electronics package also provides some unique advantages in addition
to smooth speed control with a usable speed range of 70 to 2800 RPM. A special circuit
compensates for load, helping to keep RPM constant. The machines can also be used on
any current world wide from 100 VAC to 240 VAC, 50 or 60 Hz without any further
adjustment other than seeing that the proper wall plug is used. The control reads the
incoming current and automatically adjusts to the proper settings.
We offer the motor and speed control along with the headstock and spindle as a package
to builders of special machinery at a very reasonable price. They are especially popular
for custom tooling in small industrial applications because of the large number of
Sherline accessories that fit the spindle. We use them in our own production facility for a
number of operations.
Motor is thermally protected
Thermal protection means there is a built-in circuit breaker that will shut down the motor
if it gets too hot. This keeps the motor from burning out. The breaker will automatically
reset as soon as the motor cools and you can go back to cutting, but you should be aware
of how it works and what to do if the machine suddenly shuts itself down. If your motor
is shutting down from overheating on a regular basis, it means you are taking too heavy a
cut or operating at too high an RPM for long periods. Slow your speed down, reduce your
cut or feed rate and you should have no further problems.
Due to the nature of miniature machining, overloading the machine is a common
problem. It is often tempting to try to speed up the process by working faster. Keep in
mind this is a small machine and work with patience and precision-don't be in a hurry.
Your parts will come out better and your machine will last much longer if it is not
overstressed.
What to do if the motor shuts down
If your thermal protection circuit shuts down the motor while work is in progress,
immediately shut off the power switch and then back the tool out of the work. It should
only take 10 seconds or less for the circuit breaker to reset, then you can turn the motor
on and start the cut again, this time putting a little less stress on the motor. If you leave
the tool engaged in the part and the power on, when the circuit breaker kicks back on, the
motor must start under load. This can be very hard on your motor.
Remember that the circuit breaker turns the speed control off which turns off the motor.
If power were to be applied to the speed control with the motor disconnected, it could
damage the speed control.
Thermal protection is built into your motor to make sure it is not damaged by
overloading. Use good common sense when operating the motor, and it will provide
many years of trouble free operation.
Operation of the motor and electronic speed control
The lathe is supplied with an electronic speed control that produces a comprehensive
range of speeds suitable for all operations. Special circuitry designed into the DC motor
speed control automatically compensates for speed changes due to increased load. If the
spindle RPM drops noticeably when cutting, you are taking too heavy a cut. The speed
range of the spindle using the speed control is from 70 to 2800 RPM. This is achieved
without the inconvenience of changing belt positions or gear ratios as is often the case
with other designs. A second belt position is offered as an additional feature to provide
extra torque at low RPM for larger diameter parts should your job require it.
To operate the motor, turn the speed control knob counter-clockwise as far as it will go.
Then turn the toggle switch to "ON" and select the speed by turning the speed control
knob clockwise.
Motors are pre-tested at the factory
Your new motor should run smoothly the first time you use it as it has been "run in" for
about an hour before being shipped to you. Despite our secure packaging, there have been
cases where extremely rough handling by a shipper has damaged the magnets in the
motor. If the motor does not run when plugged in, turn the motor by hand. If it does not
turn smoothly, it may have been damaged in shipment. Call Sherline for instructions on
making a damage claim with the shipper. Do not attempt to repair the motor yourself.
Mounting the headstock to the lathe or mill
You may notice that the post onto which the headstock mounts is a loose fit where it
projects from the lathe bed or column saddle. This is normal, and the diagram below will
help you understand how it works.
FIGURE 7-Cross section of headstock showing locking screw.
The screw in the front center of the headstock has a cone point. The pivot pin has a
tapered slot with a corresponding angle. When the screw is tightened, its angled face
engages the groove and, because the pivot pin can not come up, it draws the headstock
down into position, clamping it into place. If the pin were rigid, it could keep the
headstock from pulling down squarely.
FIGURE 8-Headstock and alignment key in position over lathe.
The headstock is aligned with the lathe bed or column saddle with a precision ground key
that fits into keyways in both parts. It is not square in cross section so it will fit in only
one direction. Push the headstock firmly against it as you tighten the hold down screw.
The mill headstock has two keyways milled into it so it can be mounted in conventional
fashion or at a 90° angle for horizontal milling.
CAUTION! Always make sure the key, slot and mating surfaces are free from dirt
and chips before locking down the headstock.
Removing the headstock alignment key allows the headstock to be mounted in positions
other than square. This allows you to mill parts at an angle or turn tapers on the lathe.
When using the lathe or mill without the alignment key, keep cutting loads light.
Mounting the mill and lathe to a board
FIGURE 9-Machines mounted to a base board for stability.
Mounting the lathe to a board is necessary because of the narrow base. This keeps the
machine from tipping. We recommend mounting the lathe on a piece of pre-finished shelf
material which should be available from your local hardware store. (See below for sizes.)
The machine can be secured to the board using four 10-32 screws with washers and nuts.
Lengths should be 1-1/2" for short bed lathes and 1-7/8" for long bed lathes. Rubber feet
should be attached at each corner on the bottom of the mounting boards. They are also
readily available in hardware stores.
This arrangement gives the machines a stable platform for operation yet still allows for
easy storage. The rubber feet help minimize the noise and vibration from the motor.
Mounting the tool directly to the workbench can cause vibration of the bench itself which
acts as a "speaker" and actually amplifies the motor noise. Bench mounting also
eliminates one of the best features of Sherline machines...the ability to easily be put away
for storage.
FIGURE 10-Plans for mounting board hole patterns. Confirm actual dimensions from
your lathe or mill before drilling. The newly added model 2000 multi-direction mill can
be mounted to a board 12" x 18" in a similar fashion.
The mill may be mounted in a similar manner on a 10" x 12" to 12" x 24" pre-finished
shelf board with rubber feet using 10-32 x 1" screws to attach the mill to the board.
To keep your Sherline tools clean, soft plastic dust covers are available. The lathe cover
is P/N 4150 for the Model 4000/4100 and 4500/4530 short bed lathes and P/N 4151 for
the Model 4400/4410 long bed lathe. A mill dust cover is available as P/N 5150.
Converting machines from inch to metric or vice versa
All Sherline tools and accessories are manufactured in your choice of inch or metric
calibrations. Converting a lathe or mill from one measurement system to the other is
possible, but it takes more than changing the handwheels. The leadscrews, nuts and
inserts must also be changed. A look at the exploded views of the machines on pages 27
and 28 will show which parts need to be purchased. (Look for parts that have both a
metric and inch version in the parts listing.) Conversion kits with all the necessary parts
are available. If you are a good mechanic, you can do the conversion yourself, or you can
return your machine to the factory for conversion.
ADJUSTMENTS
Two-speed pulley
The normal pulley position, which is placing the belt on the larger motor pulley and
smaller headstock pulley, will suffice for most of your machining work. Moving the belt
to the other position (smaller motor pulley, larger headstock pulley) will provide
additional torque at lower RPM. It is particularly useful when turning larger diameter
parts with the optional riser block in place.
FIGURE 11-The two pulley positions. Position A is the conventional setting, position B
offers more torque at low RPM. (Seen from pulley end of headstock.)
To change the pulley position, remove the speed control hold down screw and pivot the
speed control housing up out of the way. Remove the mounting plate from its position on
the rails of the two halves of the belt guard housing. Loosen the two nuts that hold the
motor to the motor mounting bracket and take the tension off the belt. With your finger,
push the belt off the larger groove of the pulley and into the smaller one. (Depending on
which way you are changing it, this could be either the motor or spindle pulley.) Then
move the belt to the larger diameter groove on the other pulley and rotate the headstock
by hand to get it to seat. Push the motor outward on the motor mounting bracket to put
the proper tension on the belt and retighten the two motor mounting screws. Now you can
replace the mounting plate, pivot the speed control back down and refasten it. Moving the
belt back to the other position is simply a reverse of the above procedure.
Preload adjustment
SPINDLE ADJUSTMENT-If any end play develops in the main spindle, it can be easily
eliminated by readjusting the preload nut. (See part number 4016 in the exploded view.)
When the headstocks are assembled at the factory, the preload nut is adjusted to .0002"
(.005mm) of end play. This is controlled by the outer races of the bearing being held
apart by the headstock case and the inner races being pulled together by the preload nut.
This setting was determined through experience and, like everything in engineering, it is
a compromise. If the machine is only to be run at high speed, this setting may be too
"tight". The headstock will run fairly warm to the touch normally, but extended periods
of high speed operation may bring about excessive temperature. If this is your case, the
preload may be reduced slightly.
To change the adjustment, remove the spindle pulley, loosen the set screw in the preload
nut and back the preload nut off four degrees of rotation (counter clockwise). The
bearings are lightly pressed into the case, so the inner race will not move without a sharp
tap with a plastic mallet to the end of the spindle where the pulley is attached.
If you find your bearings are set too loose, you may want to take up on the end play. You
can check them with an indicator or by spinning the spindle without the motor belt
engaged. If the spindle spins freely with a chuck or faceplate on it, it is too loose for
normal work. Adjust the preload nut until it turns approximately one and a half
revolutions when spun by hand.
Gib adjustment
Gibs (tapered synthetic adjustment shims) are fitted to the mill headstock, saddle and
table and to the lathe saddle and crosslide. Correct adjustment of the gibs will ensure
smooth and steady operation of the slides. The gib is effectively a taper with an angle
corresponding to the one machined into the saddle. It is held in place by an "L" wire gib
lock which is secured with a locking screw. It is adjusted by loosening the gib locking
screw and pushing the gib in until "play" is removed. After adjusting, retighten the
locking screw. Milling operations require a tighter adjustment of the gibs than lathe
operations.
Backlash adjustment
Backlash is the amount the handwheel can turn before the slide starts to move when
changing directions. This is a fact of life on any machine tool and on machines of this
type it should be about .003" to .005" (.08mm to .12mm).
Backlash must be allowed for by feeding in one direction only. Example: You are turning
a bar to .600" diameter. The bar now measures .622" which requires a cut of .011" to
bring it to a finished diameter of .600". If the user inadvertently turns the handwheel
.012" instead of .011", he couldn't reverse the handwheel just .001" to correct the error.
The handwheel would have to be reversed for an amount greater than the backlash in the
feed screws before resetting the handwheel to its proper position.
Backlash on the "X" and "Y" axes of the mill may be reduced to a minimum by
adjustment on the anti-backlash nuts. These nuts are located on the handwheel ends of the
mill saddle. The nuts are secured by slotted pan head screws which hold a pointed
locking plate that interlocks with teeth on the nut.
To adjust backlash, simply loosen the pan head screw and slide the locking plate to one
side. Rotate the anti-backlash nut clockwise on the "X" axis and counterclockwise on the
"Y" axis until snug. Replace the locking plate and tighten the pan head screw. With the
anti-backlash nuts properly adjusted, the lead screws will turn smoothly and have no
more than the proper .003" to .005" of backlash.
FIGURE 12-Backlash Adjustment. NOTE: A new lock now uses a star gear rather than
the pointer to locate the anti-backlash nut, and a button head socket screw locks it in
place. This system is easier to use, but the function is essentially the same. (The hole
centers are different, which means the star gear cannot be used to replace the pointer on
older models.)
Handwheel adjustment
The handwheels are secured to their corresponding leadscrew shafts by a small set screw
in the side of the handwheel base. Check them periodically to make sure they have not
been loosened by vibration. On the "zero" adjustable handwheels, you must first release
the rotating collar by loosening the locking wheel. Then rotate the collar until you can see
the set screw through the small hole in the side of the collar and adjust the screw as
necessary.
If excessive backlash develops at the handwheel and thrust collar junctions, adjust by first
loosening the handwheel set screw. Index (rotate) the handwheel so the set screw tightens
on a different part of the shaft. (If you don't, it may tend to keep picking up the previous
tightening indentation and returning to the same spot.) Push the handwheel in tightly
while holding the mill saddle and retighten the handwheel set screw.
Movement of the handwheels
Turning the appropriate handwheel moves the saddle, crosslide and tailstock spindle. For
the inch version, one complete turn of the handwheel gives a movement of .050". For the
metric model, one complete turn of the handwheel gives a movement of 1mm.
Handwheels are calibrated in .001" (1/1000") for inch models and .01mm (1/100mm) for
metric models. Keep the screws clean, oiled and free from chips. The handwheels are
quite accurate and should be used accordingly.
Aligning the head and tailstock
The versatile feature of Sherline machines that allows the headstock to be removed or
rotated for taper turning and angle milling keeps us from being able to lock the headstock
in perfect alignment. Precision ground alignment keys and accurate adjustment at the
factory, however, make the machines highly accurate. In standard form, alignment should
be within .003" (.08mm). This should be more than acceptable for most jobs you will
attempt.
Only someone new to machining would talk about "perfect" alignment. Machinists speak
instead in terms of "tolerances", because no method of measurement is totally without
error. We believe the tolerances of your machine are close enough for the work for which
it was intended, however, for those searching for maximum accuracy, here are some tips
for maximizing the accuracy of your machine.
Loosen the headstock, push it back evenly against the alignment key and retighten. This
will maximize the accuracy of the factory setting. To achieve greater accuracy, you will
have to be willing to sacrifice one of the better features of your lathe or mill; that is, its
ability to turn tapers and mill angles in such a simple manner.
HEADSTOCK-If you choose total accuracy over versatility or need it for a particular job,
proceed as follows. Remove the headstock and clean any oil from the alignment key and
slot and from the area of contact between bed and headstock. Replace the headstock,
pushing squarely against the key and retighten. Take a light test cut on a piece of 1/2" to
3/4" diameter by 3" long aluminum stock held in a 3-jaw chuck. Use a sharp pointed tool
to keep cutting loads low so as not to cause any deflection of the part. Measure the
diameter of both machined ends. If there is a difference, the headstock is not perfectly
square. Now, without removing the key, tap the headstock on the left front side if the part
is larger at the outer end. (Tap on the right side if the part is larger at the headstock end.)
You are trying to rotate the headstock ever so slightly when viewed from the top until the
machine cuts as straight as you can measure. There should be enough movement
available without removing the key, as its factory placement is quite accurate.
Take another test cut and remeasure. Repeat this procedure until you have achieved the
level of perfection you seek. Then stand the lathe on end with the alignment key pointing
up and put a few drops of LocTite™ on the joint between key and headstock. Capillary
action will draw the sealant in, and when it hardens, the key will be locked in place. We
prefer this method to "pinning" the head with 1/8" dowel pins, because it offers you the
option to change your mind. The headstock can be removed by prying with a screwdriver
blade in the slot between the bottom of the headstock and the lathe bed to break the
LocTite™ loose should you wish to be able to rotate the headstock again.
TAILSTOCK-To maximize the machine's tailstock alignment, first make sure that there
are no chips caught in the dovetail of the bed and no chips or dents in the taper of your
tailstock center. Now put a 6" long piece between centers and take a long, light test cut.
Measurements at either end will tell you if you need to use an adjustable tailstock tool
holder in the tailstock to achieve better tailstock alignment. We manufacture adjustable
tailstock tool holders (P/N 1202 & 1203) and an adjustable live center (P/N 1201) which
can help you attain near perfect alignment at the tailstock should your job require it.
Instructions for their use are included with each item.
Remember that unless you drill very small holes (less than 1/64") or turn a lot of long
shafts, you are giving up a very useful feature to solve a problem which can usually be
handled with a few passes of a good mill file. The inaccuracy inherent in any drill chuck
is such that perfect machine alignment is meaningless unless you use adjustable tailstock
tool holders.
Use of cutting oils and lubricants
Much can be written about the use of lubricants, but they may usually be dispensed with
where production rates are not very important. A small amount of any kind of oil applied
with a small brush will be sufficient. Aluminum and its alloys may require the use of
cutting oils to prevent the chips from welding to the tool's point. Do not use oils with a
low flash point or a bad smell. If desired, a mixture of one part soluble oil to six parts
water may be used on steel to assist in producing a smoother finish and reduce tool
chatter when parting off. Brass and cast iron are always turned dry. Cutting lubricants
should be cleaned off the tools after use.
Cutting oils can be purchased at an industrial supply store. We used to sell cutting oil, but
dropped it from the line because we received so few orders. We assume our customers
prefer to purchase their cutting oil from local sources. Do not use high sulfur pipe thread
cutting oil. It is good for hard to machine materials, but is so dirty to work with we do not
recommend it. We also find some of the tap cutting fluids are too smelly and unpleasant
to use for general machining.
The main purpose of using lubricants is to keep the chips from sticking to the cutting
tool. When used properly, modern high speed tool bits are not likely to be affected by
heat on the type of work usually done on Sherline tools.
General machining terms
Two terms frequently used in machining are "Feed" and "Cut". Reference to the diagrams
below will show what is meant by these terms. Normal turning on a lathe, when used to
reduce the diameter of a work piece, involves advancing the cutting tool perpendicular
to the lathe bed by an appropriate amount (depth of cut) and feeding the tool along
parallel to the lathe bed to remove material over the desired length. (See Figure 13A
below.)
FIGURE 13-Directions of Feed and Cut showing (A) Turning work between centers and
(B) Facing off a work piece.
In normal machining, the depth of cut is set by the crosslide handwheel, and the feed is
provided by the handwheel on the end of the bed. When facing off the end of a work
piece held in a chuck or faceplate, the depth of cut is set by the handwheel on the end of
the bed, and the feed is provided by the crosslide handwheel. (See Figure 13B above.)
When using a mill, cut is determined by the amount of depth the cutter is set to by the
"Z" axis handwheel. Feed is supplied by either or both the "X" or "Y" axis handwheels
depending on the desired direction of the cut.
General rules for feed rates and cutting speeds
Before attempting to machine any metal, please try to remember this simple rule about
machining: "If the tool chatters, decrease speed and increase feed."
Understanding this simple rule can save you many hours of grief. When the tool
"chatters", it is not cutting in a continuous fashion. Metal likes to be machined in a way
that allows the material to come off in a continuous strip while the tool is in contact with
the metal. If the tool is not fed at a rate that is fast enough, the tool skips along the
surface, occasionally digging in. The surface of the tool that is doing the most cutting will
find a frequency of vibration that is a product of all the variables involved. This can cause
anything from a high pitched whine on light, high speed cuts to a resonating racket that
can rip the work out of the chuck on heavy cuts. If you maintain the same feed rate and
reduce the RPM, the feed will increase because chip will be thicker. (If that sounds
wrong at first, think of it this way: At the same feed rate, if you cut the RPM in half,
twice as much metal must be removed with each rotation to get to the end of the cut in
the same amount of time. The chip is twice as thick, so the feed is GREATER at lower
RPM if the feed RATE stays constant.)
When a tool chatters it gets dull faster because it must keep cutting through the
previously machined surface that has been "work hardened" by machining. As you can
imagine, there are limits to how much you can increase feed rate, so the answer lies in
adjusting both speed and feed to achieve the proper cut.
Proper cutting speed is the rate a particular material can be machined without damaging
the cutting edge of the tool that is machining it. It is based on the surface speed of the
material in relation to the cutter. This speed is a function of both the RPM of the spindle
as well as the diameter of the part or size of the cutter, because, as the part diameter or
cutter size increases, the surface moves a greater distance in a single rotation. If you
exceed this ideal speed, you can damage the cutting tool. In the lathe and mill
instructions, we give some examples of suggested cutting speeds, but what I wanted to
get across here is that it isn't a slow process. A tool can be destroyed in just a few
seconds. It isn't a case of getting only one hour of use instead of two. The cutting edge
actually melts. If you machine tough materials like stainless steel, you will ruin more
tools than you care to buy if you don't pay a lot of attention to cutting speeds. Charts
showing suggested cutting speeds for various materials are included in both the lathe and
mill sections that follow.
Lathe Specifications
FEATURE
Swing over bed
Swing over carriage
Distance between
centers
Hole through spindle
Spindle nose thread
Spindle nose taper
Travel of crosslide
Tailstock spindle taper
Protractor graduations
Handwheel
graduations
Length overall
Width overall
Height overall
Shipping weight
Motor
Spindle speed range
4000(4100)
3.50" (90 mm)
1.75" (45 mm)
4400(4410)
3.50" (90 mm)
1.75" (45 mm)
8.00" (200 mm)
17.00" (430 mm)
.405" (10 mm)
3/4"-16 T.P.I.
#1 Morse
4.25" (110 mm)
#0 Morse
0° to 45° by 5°
.405" (10 mm)
3/4"-16 T.P.I .
#1 Morse
4.25" (110 mm)
#0 Morse.
0° to 45° by 5°
.001" (.01 mm)
.001" (.01 mm)
24" (610 mm)
32.25" (820 mm)
7.5" (190 mm)
8.75" (220 mm)
6" (150 mm)
8" (200 mm)
24 lb. (10.9 kg)
30 lb. (13.6 kg)
90 volt DC with electronic speed control that accepts any incoming current from 100VAC
to 240 VAC, 50 Hz or 60 Hz. Click here for motor specifications.
70-2800 RPM continuously variable by electronic speed control
SHERLINE Lathe Operating Instructions
(Reprinted from the Sherline Assembly and Instruction Guide, Fourth Edition (1997)
CAUTION!
Read all operating instructions carefully
before attempting any machining operations!
Review Safety Rules for Power Tools before beginning.
Lathe Operating Instructions
FIGURE 1--Parts of a Sherline lathe (Note: Tailstock locking screw is now relocated to a
vertical position on the newer tailstocks. This drawing shows an older style tailstock
without gib or cutout front face.)
Leveling the Cutting tool
Each type of turning work requires the correct tool for the job. It is important that the
cutting tool is sharp and correctly set up in the tool post. The cutting edge of the tool
should be exactly level with the center height of the lathe. Check this against either the
headstock center or tailstock center. We also manufacture a simple tool height adjustment
gauge (P/N 3009) which allows you to check tool height at any time by measuring from
the table surface.
FIGURE 2—Leveling the tool using (A) the tip of a head- or tailstock center or (B)
Sherline's tool height gauge P/N 3009. The standard tool post shown comes with 4000series lathes. The 4400-series lathes come with an upgraded rocker tool post that allows
the tip of the tool to be adjusted up or down without shimming.
The standard Sherline tool post is designed to hold common 1/4" square tool bits which
have had a few thousandths of an inch (.1mm) ground off the top edge for sharpening.
Loosen the hold-down bolt and slide the tool post as close to the center as possible. The
tip of the tool bit may be raised or lowered by sliding a shim* underneath it. The cutting
edge must be on center or just below center (0.004" or .01mm maximum). Ensure that the
tool is fixed securely in position by firmly tightening the socket head screws. Try not to
have the tool cutting edge protruding more than 3/8" (10mm) from the tool post.
*NOTE: Thin metal shim stock can be used for this purpose. If you don't have any metal
thin enough, a single thickness of paper business card stock will usually do the job. Do
not use more than one thickness as it will compress too much. Our optional rocker tool
post (P/N 3057) allows this adjustment to be made without shims. It comes standard with
the Model 4400/4410 long bed lathe.
Initial Test Cutting
If you have never operated a lathe before, we suggest that you make a trial cut on a scrap
of material to learn the operation of the machine. In a 3- or 4-jaw chuck, secure a piece of
round aluminum stock approximately 3/4" (19mm) diameter and 1-1/2" (38mm) long.
Secure the presharpened 1/4" square cutting tool supplied with the lathe in the tool post,
making sure that it is properly positioned. Turn the speed control all the way
counterclockwise, and then turn the motor on. Bring the speed up to approximately 1000
RPM (about 1/3 speed). To establish tool position in relation to the work, bring the tool in
slowly until it just starts to scribe a line on the work. Crank the tool towards the tailstock
until it clears the end of the work. Advance the tool .010" (.25mm) using the crosslide
handwheel (10 divisions on the inch handwheel scale). Using the bed handwheel, move
the tool slowly across the work toward the headstock.
Cutting tools used on lathes are designed to remove metal much as paper is removed
from a roll. It takes a positive feed rate to accomplish this. If the feed rate isn't fast
enough, it would be similar to tearing an individual sheet of paper off the roll. The results
when cutting metal would be shorter tool life, a poor finish and tool "chatter". Chatter is a
function of rigidity, but it is controlled by speed (RPM) and feed rate.
Since you already have a piece of aluminum chucked up, experiment with speed and feed
rate. You just took a cut of .010" (.25mm) and probably noticed that the machine didn't
even slow down in the slightest. Now take a 1/2 inch long cut .050" or 1mm deep, which
is 1 revolution of the handwheel. If you used the sharpened cutting tool that came with
your machine it should have made the cut easily. If the tool "squealed", reduce the RPM a
little and take another .050" cut while feeding the tool faster. You will probably be
surprised at how easily your machine takes cuts this heavy.
We will now purposely try to make the machine "chatter". Make sure the stock you are
cutting is sticking out of the chuck no more than 1 inch (25mm). Crank the handwheel
two turns further in from the last setting which will give you a .100" (100 thousandths of
an inch) or 2mm cut. Set the spindle speed to about 1000 RPM (1/3 speed) and feed the
tool slowly into the material. Vary speed and feed until you get a substantial chatter.
Without changing the depth of the cut, drop the speed to about 200 RPM and feed the
tool into the work with more force. The chatter should disappear. Once you have learned
to control chatter by adjusting speed and feed, you will be on your way to becoming a
machinist.
Holding the Workpiece
Work can be held between centers, in three- or four-jaw chucks, on the faceplate or with
a collet. Sometimes it is necessary to use a chuck and center, and, if the work is spinning
fast, a live center should be used. (See Figures 3 and 4.)
FIGURE 3—Holding a round work piece in a 3-jaw chuck.
FIGURE 4—Holding a square work piece in a 4-jaw chuck. .
Turning Between Centers
This is done by fitting the dog to the work that is to be turned and placing the work and
dog between the centers in the headstock and tailstock. The maximum diameter that can
be held with the dog is 5/8" (15mm). (See Figure 5.)
FIGURE 5—Turning between centers with a faceplate and drive dog.
The dog is driven by fitting it into one of the faceplate holes. This method of turning is
ideal for bar work or turning of steps on a bar. The tailstock center must be greased to
prevent overheating. (An optional "live center"—such as P/N 1191—turning on ball
bearings is the solution preferred by most machinists.) The headstock spindle has a Morse
No. 1 taper in the spindle nose. The spindle thread is 3/4-16 TPI. Accessories held in the
spindle using the Morse No. 1 taper can be removed with the use of a knockout rod (not
supplied) approximately 3/8" diameter and 6" long. The bar is inserted through the back
of the spindle, and accessories, such as centers, can be removed with a few taps. The
tailstock spindle is equipped with a Morse No. 0 taper and accessories such as drill
chucks and centers can be removed by turning the handwheel counterclockwise until the
accessory is ejected.
Center Drilling
Because the work turns and the drill does not on a lathe, it is necessary to use a center
drill before a standard drill can be used. Due to the flexibility of a standard drill bit, it will
tend to wander on the surface of the rotating work whereas a center drill is designed to
seek the center and begin drilling. Cutting oil is recommended for all drilling operations.
A center drill should be withdrawn, cleared of chips and oiled several times during the
drilling of a hole to keep the tip from breaking off.
FIGURE 6—Center drilling. The work turns while the drill is stationary.
See chart of commonly available center drill sizes.
FIGURE 7--Center drilling a long work piece held in a steady rest.
Tailstock Drilling
Hold the work in a 3- or 4-jaw chuck. If the work is longer than approximately 3"
(76mm), support the free end with a steady rest. Fit the drill chuck to the tailstock with a
No. 0 Morse arbor and secure a center drill in the chuck. Adjust the tailstock to bring the
center drill close to the work and lock in position. Turn the tailstock handwheel to bring
the center drill forward. After the hole is started with the center drill, switch to a standard
drill bit of the desired size to drill the hole.
Headstock Drilling
The drill chuck comes fitted with a #0 Morse arbor that fits in the tailstock spindle. To
use it in the headstock you will need to first change to the #1 Morse arbor which is
included with your lathe. To change arbors, put the drill chuck key in its hole to give you
better purchase to grip the chuck while using a wrench to remove the #0 arbor and
replace it with the larger #1 arbor. Put the drill chuck in the headstock. Then put the
drawbolt with its washer through the spindle hole from the other end of the headstock and
tighten the drawbolt. DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN! (To remove, loosen the drawbolt a
little and give it a light tap with a plastic mallet to break the chuck loose from the taper
before completely removing the drawbolt.)
FIGURE 8—Headstock Drilling. The drill turns while the work is held stationary.
The easiest way to center drill the end of a round shaft which has a diameter too large to
be put through the spindle is to support it with a steady rest (P/N 1074) while the end is
being drilled. If this isn't possible, find the center with a centering square, prick punch a
mark and center drill by hand. (See accessories, page 16. See also our Tools and
Accessories Catalog for a photo of the steady rest in use.)
Reaming
Twist drills will generally not drill perfectly accurate sizes, and very small boring tools
are not satisfactory in deep holes because of their flexibility. Therefore, reaming is used
for holes requiring accuracy within .0005" (.013mm). Reamers are available in any
standard size but are rather expensive and are generally not purchased to do one-of-a-
kind type work. Use them only when a boring tool cannot be used because of the depth of
the hole. Because of their length, they cannot always be used on a small lathe.
Reamers are used only to "clean up" the hole. To make an accurate hole, the work is
drilled approximately .010" (.25mm) smaller than the reamer size. The work should be
slowly rotated and the reamer slowly fed into the hole while applying plenty of cutting
oil. The reamer should be frequently removed and cleared of chips. Never rotate a reamer
backwards in the work as this can dull the cutting edges.
Faceplate Turning
The faceplate has three slots which allow work to be bolted to its surface. Flat work can
be screwed directly to the faceplate. Extra holes can be drilled to suit odd shaped work
unsuitable for a chuck. If the work is mounted off center, be sure to counter balance the
faceplate and use very low RPM. Don't hesitate to drill holes in or modify the faceplate as
needed to do a particular job. That's what they are for. They are inexpensive and you can
have several on hand modified for special jobs.
Taper Turning
On most lathes a taper can be cut by offsetting the tailstock. On the Sherline lathe it is
done by removing the headstock key and turning the headstock to any angle away from
dead center. To rotate the headstock, the alignment key must first be removed. Loosen
the set screw in the front of the headstock and lift the headstock and motor unit off the
locating pin. Tap the alignment key out of its slot on the bottom of the headstock and
replace the headstock unit on the pin. While pressing down on the headstock, rotate it to
the angle you desire by referring to the angle scale on the bed. The base is calibrated in 5°
increments up to 45° both left and right of dead center. When set to the proper angle,
retighten the set screw against the pin to lock the headstock into position. The compound
slide (P/N 1080) is another tool that makes taper tuning easy. (See Figure 6, Pages 11/12
in Sherline's Tools and Accessories Catalog for a photo.)
FIGURE 9--Turning a taper with the Headstock rotated.
Short work can be inserted in a 3- or 4-jaw chuck and turned as shown in Figure 9. If the
headstock is angled towards the lathe front, the taper will cut smaller at the right. Tapers
can also be bored in work held in the 3- or 4- jaw chuck. To machine a taper in longer
stock, center drill both ends of the bar, set the headstock angle and mount the part
between centers. (See Fig. 10.)
FIGURE 10—Long, shallow tapers can be cut in a continuous pass by pivoting the
headstock to the proper offset while supporting the other end with the tailstock. The work
is driven by using a drive dog in the faceplate. The dog acts like a "universal joint" as the
drive pin slides in the faceplate slot.
Tool Shapes and Grinding Your Own Tools
The shaping of cutting tools to suitable angles for the type of material and nature of work
being performed can be very important to satisfactory work. When tools become dull,
gently re-grind and preserve the original angles and shapes. Do not grind the top face of
the tools, but confine sharpening to the end and/or sides except form tools which are
ground on the top surface.
Remember that heavy cuts and rapid feed will cause greater strain on the chuck and lathe.
This may induce "spring" or binding of work and tools which can produce a poor finish.
NOTE: Because of the importance of a sharp and properly ground tool to the cutting
process, Sherline has prepared a special instruction sheet on Grinding Your Own Lathe
Tools. There are a few tips that can make the process a simple one. The instructions are
included with each lathe and with cutting tool sets when you order them from us, or you
may call us and request a copy. (Cost is $5.00 postage paid.) They are also available from
our World Wide Web site by clicking on the highlighted words above.
FIGURE 11—Tool Shapes.
*These shapes are available in high speed steel tool set, P/N 3007.
**The 60° threading tool is included as part of the carbide tool set, P/N 3006 and also
comes with the thread cutting attachment, P/N 3100.
***The parting tool comes with the cutoff tool holder, P/N 3002. Other shapes are
custom ground to accomplish special purposes as needed.
Cutting tools are ground to various shapes according to their usage. Tools are usually
ground to shape as needed by the operator. Some standard tools are described below:
Normal Turning Tool—This feeds from right to left, is used to reduce work to the
desired diameter and is the most frequently used of all tools.
Side Tools—These are used to face off the ends of shoulders and may also be used as
normal turning tools. Note that a tool which is fed from LEFT to RIGHT is called a
LEFT side tool.
Parting —The conventional parting tool is shaped like a dovetail when viewed from
above and is used to cut off work pieces by feeding the end of the tool across the lathe
bed and through the work piece. The Sherline parting tool instead uses a thin .040"
(1mm) blade which has a slightly thicker ridge at the top to accomplish the same job of
providing clearance for the tool while cutting. Parting tools thicker than .040" (1mm) will
be too thick for use on your Sherline lathe.
Boring Tool—Used in the tool post on a lathe or in an offsettable boring head on a mill
to enlarge holes in a work piece.
FIGURE 12—A Boring Tool in use.
Form Tool—A custom contour can be ground into a tool to produce a special shape like
a radius in a part. The width of the cutting edge must be less than 2-1/2 times the smallest
diameter. Cutting speed must be slow to prevent chatter.
FIGURE 13—Form tool and the part it shapes.
The clearances ground behind the cutting edges indicate the type of material for which
the tool may be used and the direction in which it is fed along the work. When grinding
tool bits, correct clearances are essential or "rubbing" can occur.
Turning Tools (left and right hand)—Reference to Figure 11 will illustrate the lateral
positioning of this tool. Note the clearance behind the point between the end of the tool
and the work. Insufficient clearance will cause the tool to "rub" and excessive clearance
will produce a ridged or wavy finish due to the small length of tool edge in contact with
the work. This ridging becomes more pronounced with rapid feed. To provide a smooth
finish, the sharp cutting point may be slightly rounded with an oilstone, taking care to
preserve the side clearance underneath this corner.
FIGURE 14—Arrows show direction of tool feed in all diagrams.
This tool should not be advanced directly endwise into the work. The depth of cut is set
while the tool is clear of the end of the work. The starting procedure is to advance the
tool until the point just touches the work. Note the reading on the crosslide handwheel,
withdraw the tool slightly and move along until clear of the end of the work. Now
advance the crosslide to the above reading, add desired depth of cut and then feed the tool
along the work piece the desired distance. Withdraw the tool clear of the work, having
noted the reading on the crosslide handwheel, mentally note the reading on the lead screw
handwheel, return the tool to starting position and advance to the previous reading plus
the desired cut.
(Note: Sherline offers optional adjustable "zero" handwheels which allow you to reset the
handwheel to zero...a handy feature often found only on expensive full size machine
tools.)
The second feed is now commenced, ceasing at the same previous reading of the lead
screw handwheel. This procedure enables turning to accurate length.
Repeat the procedure until the work has been reduced to within about .010" (0.25mm) of
desired diameter, noting that each .015" (0.4mm) increase in depth of cut will reduce the
work diameter by twice this amount; that is, .030" (0.8mm). For the finishing pass,
advance the tool by the required amount and feed along the work just far enough to gauge
the finished diameter. Adjust depth of cut if necessary and complete the final pass using a
SLOW feed to obtain a smooth finish and exact size.
Cutoff or Parting Tool
After completing a part in the lathe it is frequently necessary to separate the part from the
excess material used for chucking. This operation is best accomplished with the use of a
cutoff tool or "parting tool" as it is sometimes called. The Sherline cutoff tool and holder
(P/N 3002) utilizes a very slender, high speed tool steel cutting blade mounted in a
special tool holder. The thinness of the blade (.040") enables it to feed into the part quite
easily and at the same time minimizes the amount of waste material. One word of
caution; never use a parting tool on a part mounted between centers. The part may bind
on the cutter and result in a scrapped part or a broken cutting tool.
FIGURE 15—A parting tool used to separate a part from it's workpiece.
Always try to lay work out so the cutoff tool is used as close to the spindle as possible.
Set blade height by sliding the blade in its slot in the tool holder. It should be set so the
tip is aligned with the centerline of the part being cut. An unusual diameter may require a
shim under the front or rear of the holder to accomplish this. The tool can also be
mounted on the back side of the table by using the rear mounting block, P/N 3016.
NOTE: A rear mount cutoff tool is now available that allows the parting tool to be left in
place on the rear side of the part for quick use. The parting tool is held upside down in the
holder. See P/N 3018.
NOTE: ALWAYS USE CUTTING OIL WHEN USING THE CUTOFF TOOL. The
cut will be made much smoother, easier and cooler.
The turning speed for parting should be about one half the normal turning speed and feed
rate should be a little heavy so the chip will not break up in the slot. If speed and feed are
correct, there will not be any chatter, and the chip will come out as if it were being
unrolled. Cutting oil plays a major roll in this occurring properly.
If the tool chatters, first check to see if the work is being held properly. Then decrease
speed (RPM) or increase feed rate or both. Once the blade has chattered, it leaves a
serrated finish that causes more chatter. Sometimes a serrated finish can be eliminated by
stopping the spindle, adding a liberal amount of cutting oil, bringing the blade up so there
is a slight pressure on it without the spindle turning, and then turning by hand or as
slowly as possible with the speed control.
Very small work may be completely cut off when held in a chuck and allowed to fall onto
the crosslide. It is too small and light to cause any damage. Hollow articles, such as rings,
may be caught on a piece of wire whose end is held in a suitable position.
Side Tools
While these may be, and often are, used as general purpose turning tools, their specific
use is for facing the sides of collars and shoulders; that is, finishing these to correct
dimension and with a smooth, flat surface. They are also for facing work held on a
faceplate or in a chuck. The facing of work in this manner is very useful for the
production of truly flat surfaces and for producing articles to an exact thickness. The two
uses of the side tools are illustrated in Figure 11 and 14. The sharp corner at the cutting
point should not be slightly rounded, as may be done with the normal turning tool, as
knife tools may be required to produce sharp corners.
Boring Tool
The use of this tool requires the existence of a drilled or cored hole, or it may be used to
enlarge the bore of a tube. The work must be mounted in a chuck or on a faceplate and
the boring tool set as shown in Figure 24. Note the clearance behind the cutting point as
shown in Figure 16 below.
FIGURE 16--Boring tool clearance.
A slow rate of feed should be used as the turnings are not able to escape freely from the
hole. Frequent withdrawal of the tool to allow turnings to escape may be necessary. Care
should be taken not to feed the tool beyond the depth required or to feed so deeply as to
damage the chuck or faceplate.
Where a hole must be bored right through the work, it should be shimmed out from the
faceplate to provide clearance for the tool to feed through. The lead screw handwheel
graduations can be used to indicate the correct depth at which to stop the feed. Notice that
with boring, the depth of cut is increased by moving the tool and crosslide towards the
operator and not away as with normal turning.
The boring of holes often necessitates greater than normal overhang of the tool from the
tool post, so the depth of cut and rate of feed should be reduced from normal.
Inserted Tip Carbide Tools
Sherline brings the home shop machinist into the space age with cutting tools that add a
new dimension to small lathes. When working with tough metals, high speed steel tools
need constant sharpening and have a relatively short life. Brazed carbide tools cut great
but chip easily. Inserted carbide cutting tools are the answer and have replaced those
other tools in the modern machine shop. Carbide inserts have the ability to consistently
give good finishes and long tool life at a much higher cutting speed. This is especially
important with small lathes because they do not have excessive power at low RPM. With
inserted carbide tools you can cut stainless steel at the same RPM you were formerly
using to cut aluminum with high speed steel tools without any sacrifice in quality in
surface finish.
FIGURE 17--A Carbide Inserted Tip Cutter installed on the tip of a special tool designed
to hold them.
These tools are more expensive than high speed steel; however, they are worth every
penny if you have problems grinding your own steel tools or are cutting exotic materials
like stainless steel. Sherline offers a tool post ( P/N 7600) which holds the larger 3/8"
diameter tool shanks used to hold carbide or diamond inserted tips. It also has a 3/8"
round hole for boring tools. A good starting point for a tool is the P/N 7615 right hand
holder that uses the P/N 7605 insert. This is a 55° insert good for turning, facing and
profiling. Also available are 80° inserts which are slightly less versatile but offer longer
tool life because of their stronger, more square shape. These tools should not be used to
cut hardened steels or piano wire. Materials such as those should be ground to shape, not
cut. Abrasive materials such as glass reinforced plastics can be easily cut with these tools.
FIGURE 18—3/8" Negative rake insert tool holder (P/N 7610).
Another tool available to Sherline machinists which holds carbide inserts is the 3/8" IC
55° negative rake insert tool holder (P/N 7610). The indexable carbide insert sits on the
tool holder at a 5° negative angle. This gives the sides of the cutter clearance even though
the insert has square sides. By having square sides, both top and bottom of the insert can
be used as cutting edges, giving a total of four cutting edges on each insert. Because of its
design, it cuts like a positive rake cutter which requires less rigidity than a negative rake
cutter. It gives you the best of both worlds—the four cutting edges of a negative rake tool
along with the lower stress loading of a positive rake cutter which is appropriate for a
lathe of this type.
FIGURE 19—Negative and Positive Rake Carbide Cutting Tips. Negative Rake tips can
be held upside down giving 4 cutting edges. Positive Rake tips cut from one side only, but
cut better.
When searching for a mirrorlike finish on copper or aluminum, a four-sided diamond
insert (P/N 7609) and a tool holder (P/N 7619) are also available. Though expensive, the
four cutting edges of the diamond insert mean you are really getting four tools in one,
making it a better deal than it may first appear.
NOTE: Never attempt to cut steel with a diamond cutter.
While inserted tip carbide and diamond cutting tools will improve the performance of the
Sherline Lathe, they will not correct poor machining technique. Rigid setups are a must
for tools such as these.
FIGURE 20—The Sherline W.R. Smith T-Rest
T-Rest (P/N 2110) and Gravers
Another method of removing metal is with a hand held cutting tool called a "graver". It is
rested on and moved along a repositionable rest called a T-Rest. It is traditionally
associated with clock and watch makers using jeweler's lathes, but can be a useful skill to
anyone turning small, custom parts because of its freehand versatility. World renowned
watch and clock maker, William R. Smith designed Sherline's T-Rest, and with it, your
Sherline lathe becomes a first class jeweler's lathe. Complete instructions on use of the TRest as well as 3 additional pages by W.R. Smith on how to make your own high quality
gravers are included with purchase of the rest. (They can also be found here on our World
Wide Web site.)
FIGURE 21—The Sherline knurling tool holder.
Knurling Tool (P/N 3004)
Sherline's knurling system is designed to be used only with the Sherline Lathe. The
knurling holder mounts directly to the crosslide. A good knurl is produced by embossing,
not by cutting, and this creates high tool loads. Using two knurls opposing each other
equalizes these loads allowing successful knurling on a small machine. A number of
patterns can be achieved by changing the knurls. A 25 thread per inch medium diamond
pattern set comes with the tool. A number of additional straight and spiral knurls can be
ordered.
Guide to Approximate Turning Speeds
MATERIAL
Stainless, 303
Stainless, 304
Stainless, 316
Steel, 12L14
Steel, 1018
Steel, 4130
Grey Cast Iron
Aluminum,
7075
Aluminum,
6061
Aluminum,
2024
Brass
CUT SPEED,
S.F.M.
67
50
47
174
87
82
57
1/4" (6mm) Dia. 1//2" (13mm) Dia. 1" (25mm) Dia.
1000 RPM
800 RPM
700 RPM
2600 RPM
1300 RPM
1250 RPM
900 RPM
500 RPM
400 RPM
350 RPM
2300 RPM
650 RPM
650 RPM
450 RPM
250 RPM
200 RPM
175 RPM
650 RPM
300 RPM
300 RPM
225 RPM
400
2800 RPM
2800 RPM
1400 RPM
375
2800 RPM
2800 RPM
1400 RPM
268
2800 RPM
2000 RPM
1000 RPM
400
2800 RPM
2800 RPM
1400 RPM
FIGURE 22—Turning speeds for high speed steel cutting tools
TURNING SPEEDS
The chart above provides a guide to approximate speeds at which work of differing
materials should be rotated. Note that the turning speed is inversely proportional to the
diameter of the work; that is, the larger the diameter, the slower the turning speed.
Material often differs in its hardness, so these figures may have to be varied. The harder
the material, the slower the turning speed should be.
Keep in mind that, apart from possible production of excessive heat and the fact that
excessive speed may damage the cutting edge or cause it to "rub" instead of cutting,
turning speeds are not too critical. Slower speeds than normal cause no harm, except by
increasing the time involved. Aluminum, however, usually gives a better finish turned at
high speed and lubricated.
Use of Accessories and Attachments
Your lathe can be made more versatile with the addition of suitable attachments and
accessories. These include various chucks and collets, a thread cutting attachment,
vertical milling column, knurling tool, a live center and many others. Remember that
accessories and attachments must be cared for in the same way as the lathe. Always make
sure that threads are free from metal chips and dirt. Chucks should be lightly oiled
frequently so that they continue to function smoothly and accurately. Gears in the thread
cutting attachment should be lightly greased when in operation. Some attachments have
moving slides and these should be lubricated in the same way as the slides in your lathe.
Each accessory comes with complete instructions for its use when it is purchased.
Lathe Exploded View and Parts Diagram
Refer to part number list below drawing for description and material.
Part Numbers and Descriptions,
SHERLINE Lathes and Mills
KEY TO MATERIALS: A=Aluminum, B=Brass, C=Composite, DC=Die Cast,
P=Plastic, U=Urethane, S=Steel
PART NO.
11950
11980
11990
30220
30230
31080
34000 (34100)
34060
34210
34220
34230 (34240)
34250
34260 (34270)
34410
40020
40040
40050 (41050)
40070
40080
(410400)
40090
40100
40111
40112
40120
40160
40170 (41170)
40180
40200 (41200)
(Updated 10/24/01)
DESCRIPTION
1/4" HSS cutting tool (RH)
Rocker Tool Post Body
Rocker Tool Post Rocker
Toggle Switch Retaining Ring
Toggle Switch
10-32 x 3/8" Flat Pt. Set Screw
Oversize Handwheel, Inch (Metric)
Thrust Bearing Washer Set
2" handwheel Body
Handwheel Locking Nut
Y Axis/Crosslide Collar, Inch (Metric)
6-32 x 7/8" Pan Hd. Screw
X, Z Axis and Leadscrew Collar, Inch (Metric)
2-1/2" Handwheel Body
Motor Bracket
Drive Belt
1-5/8" Handwheel, Y Axis/Crosslide, Inch (Metric)
Faceplate
MATERIAL
S
A
S
S
-S
A
Ball
A
S
A
S
A
A
DC
U
A
DC
1-5/8" Handwheel, X Axis/Leadscrew, Inch (Metric)
A
Drive Dog
Headstock Casing
Tailstock Casing (Gib style)
Tailstock Gib
15" Lathe Bed
Preload Nut
Saddle Nut, Inch (Metric)
Tool Post
Tailstock Feed Screw (complete), Inch (Metric)
DC
A
A
B
DC
S
B
A
S
40221 (41221)
40220 (41220)
40230
40240
40250
40260
40270 (41270)
40280
40290
40300
40310
40320
40330
40340
40345
40370
40380
40390
40400
40420
40440
40500
40501
40510
40520
40530
40540
40550
40560
40570
40580
40590
40600
40620
40630
40640
Tailstock Feed Screw body only, Inch (Metric)
Feed Screw, Inch (Metric)
Headstock Spindle
Headstock Pivot Pin, Lathe
Tool Post Tee Nut
Head Key
Tailstock Spindle, Inch (Metric)
Thrust Collar
Leadscrew end
Leadscrew Thrust
5-40 x 1" SHCS
Bearing Washer
10-32 x 5/8" Skt. Hd. Cap Screw
10-32 x 1" Skt. Hd. Cap Screw
(See 45450)
Leadscrew Support
#1 Morse Center
#0 Morse Center
Plug Button
Headstock Bearing
Self Tapping Screw
10-24 x 7/8" Skt. hd. Cap Screw
10-32 x 1/2" Button Head Hex Screw
10-32 x 3/8" Skt. Hd. Cap Screw
10-32 x 3/16" Cup Pt. Set Screw
5-40 x 3/8" Skt. Hd. Cap Screw
5/16-18 x 3/4" Cone Pt. Set Screw
5/32" Hex Key
3/16" Hex Key
3/32" Hex Key
Spindle Bar
1/4" I.D. Washer
10-32 x 1/4" Flat Pt. Set Screw
Power Cord, USA
Power Cord, UK
Power Cord, Europe
S
S
A
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
-S
S
S
P
Ball
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
S
----
40660
40670
40690
40760
40820
40860
40870
40890 (41890)
40900
40910
40980
40990
41080
41110
41130
43100
43110
43120
43130
43140
43150
43160
43170
43180
43190
43200
43230
43360
43450
43460
44010
44120
44200 (44230)
44210 (44220)
44211 (44221)
44880
3/16" I.D. Washer
10-32 x 1/2" Skt. Hd. Cap Screw
10-32 x 3/4" Skt. Hd. Cap Scrw
10-32 x 5/8" Thumbscrew
Gib Lock
Tailstock Locking Screw Grommet
Tailstock Spindle Locking Screw
Slide Screw Insert, Inch (Metric)
10-32 x 3/8" Flat Hd. Skt. Screw
Saddle
Crosslide Gib
Saddle Gib
6-32 Hex Nut
Tailstock Casing
DC Speed Control Knob and Set Screw
DC Motor Standoff
DC Speed Control Case
DC Speed Control Hinge Plate
DC Speed Control Cover Mounting Plate
DC Speed Control Tab, Small
DC Speed Control Tab, Large
Belt Guard, Outer
6-32 x 1-3/8" Pan Hd. Screw
Belt Guard, Inner
#2 x 1/4" Flat Hd. Sheet Metal Screw
DC Speed Control Foil Label
Stepped Main Spindle Pulley
Stepped Motor Pulley
(See P/N 45450)
DC Speed Control Electronics
24" Lathe Base
24" Lathe Bed
24" Leadscrew, Inch (Metric)
Slide Screw, Inch (Metric)
Slide Screw body only, Inch (Metric)
Crosslide
S
S
S
S
S
P
S
B
S
A
C
C
S
A
P/S
A
P
P
P
P
P
P
S
P
S
Foil
A
A
Motor
-DC
S
S
S
S
A
45010 (45160)
45040
45170
45180
45190
45450
or
45460
90060
90080
Leadscrew, Z Axis, Inch (Metric)
Saddle, Z Axis
Column Saddle Lock
3/16" Ball Bearing
#10 Type B Washer
45450=DC Motor with externally replaceable brushes (Leeson)
45460=DC Motor with externally replaceable brushes (Hill
House)
(NOTE: We purchase motors from two different manufacturers
to keep pricing competitive. Specifications on both are the
same, but replacement motors should be ordered with the same
part number as the original. Part number is printed on motor.)
DC Speed Control 5K Potentiometer
3/8-32 Hex Nut
S
A
P
S
S
Motor
-S
This double rotary table setup by Bob Breslauer of Ft. Lauderdale, Florida,
is an example of the type of special setups Sherline tool owners sometimes develop.
Standard Dimensions of Sherline Tools
If you are making special tooling or a custom accessory for your Sherline tools, this will
save you the trouble of measuring your particular machine to find a dimension, some of
which are actually quite difficult to measure. If you need a dimension not listed here,
please call or write with your request.
Most of the regular specifications can be found by looking at the Lathe and Mill
descriptive pages which have a Specifications List at the end of each.
LOCATION
Bed dovetail angle
Lathe bed to spindle centerline
Lathe table surface to spindle centerline (calculated)
Headstock spindle nose internal taper
Lathe tailstock internal taper
Headstock spindle external thread
DIMENSION
55.5 degrees*
1.75"
.940"
#1 Morse
#0 Morse
3/4-16
Pulley groove side angle
Table T-slot centerline distance (lathe and mill)
T-slot nominal dimensions**
19°
1.5"
Slot width, top: .25"
T width, bottom: .40"
**Note: The T-slots are extruded into the material. Table Upper slot depth: .10"
T Slot depth: .10"
surfaces are machined for flatness, but the slots
(Total depth: .20")
themselves require no additional finishing processes.
20 threads per inch or
Leadscrew thread pitch, inch
.050" travel per
revolution (handwheels
(Lathe, mill X and Y axes = 1/4-20, Mill Z axis = 3/8-20) divided into 50
increments of .001")
Leadscrew thread pitch, metric
1 mm travel per
revolution (handwheels
(Lathe, mill X and Y axes = 6.3 x 1 mm, Mill Z = 10 x 1 divided into 100
increments of .01mm)
mm)
Right-hand: Lathe
crosslide, Mill X-axis
Leadscrew thread directions
Left-hand: Lathe
leadscrew and tailstock
screw, Mill Y-axis and
Z-axis
*NOTE: This dimension was determined by measuring the extruded bases that were
supplied when we first took over production in the USA from the former Australian
manufacturer. The base and several other parts were cast to match this angle and it
was not economically feasible at the time to change it to an easier-to-manufacture 60
degrees. The original 55-degree angle was determined by a reference to Machinery's
Handbook, Vol. 17 as the ideal angle to cut a dovetail. When we took over
production, a fixture was produced in-house to duplicate the existing angle which
had changed slightly from the original 55° to an actual 55.5°. This fixture became
the "standard", and every machine built since the early 1970's has been measured
against this same fixture. The older brass beds and the current steel beds as well as
the parts that fit them are all ground to this same angle.
ALLOWABLE TOLERANCES
Spindle Runout (at spindle nose), Maximum allowable
0.0005"
(Most are within .0002-.0003")
with 2800 RPM Pulleys:
0.0002"
Spindle End Play (adjustable with preload nut), Factory
Settings
with 10,000 RPM
Pulleys: 0.0003"
Self-Centering 3-jaw and 4-jaw chuck runout
0.003" or less
±0.001" per inch of
travel
Leadscrew thread pitch accuracy
COLLETS
Sherline WW Collet body diameter
8 mm WW collets (by others), body diameter
WW and 8 mm collet thread
HEADSTOCK BEARINGS
Designation/stock number (ZZ refers to "double
shielded")
Size of bore
Tolerance of bore
Outside Diameter
Tolerance of OD
Width
Bearings
0.312" to 0.313"
0.314" to 0.315"
.275-40
6004ZZ
20 mm (0.7874")
0.0004"
42 mm (1.6535")
0.0005"
12 mm (0.4724")
9 balls, 1/4" dia.
HISTORICAL NOTE
You might find it interesting to note that a problem similar to the one mentioned above is
probably why Morse tapers are not perfectly consistent to this day. A Morse taper is
listed as "about 5/8" per foot". Standard fixtures were probably made years ago and
machines and tools over the years were made to match these fixtures. Modern
measurement techniques were able to establish that these fixtures were not all perfectly
consistent in angle. Changing the angle, however, would make it impossible for new parts
to fit the old machines. Therefore, today we have Morse tapers that each vary slightly
from a taper of 5/8" (.6250") per foot. The actual tapers for each number Morse taper are
as follows:
MORSE
TAPER #
TAPER
PER FT.
TAPER
PER IN.
0
.62460
.05205
1
.59858
.04988
2
.59941
.04995
3
.60235
.05019
4
.62326
.05193
5
.63151
.05262
6
.62565
.05213
7
.62400
.05200
Sherline Lathe Dimensions
The drawing below shows the key dimensions on a Sherline Model 4000 lathe. It is
provided to help those who wish to make special equipment to fit to your lathe. If you
wish to download a higher quality version of the drawing, it is also available as a .pdf
file.
Motor and Speed Control
ELECTRIC MOTOR SPECIFICATIONS FROM MANUFACTURER
• Type of enclosure: Totally enclosed, non-vented
• Duty rating: Continuous--10 oz. in. at 6100 rpm, .85 amperes;
Intermittent--30 oz. in. at 5500 rpm, 1.75 amperes (5 minutes on / 15
minutes off)
• Output horsepower: .06 KW (60 W) at 10 oz. in. / 6100 rpm
• AC voltage (input): Normally 115 VAC, 60 Hz, Single Phase to rectifier
(Sherline electronic speed control converts any input from 100 VAC to
240 VAC, 50-60 Hz.)
• DC voltage: 90 VDC to motor (60 Hz)
• Speed in rpm: 6100 rpm continuous
• Class of insulation: Class A, 105° (C.) insulation system
• Normal full load current: .85 amperes
• Starting current: 17 amperes instantaneous starting current (<100
milliamperes). This is also stall current in True RMS
• Max current at time of changeover from lower speed to higher speed:
Depends on load
• Type of motor: 3.00 inch (outer diameter) sub-fractional horsepower
brush-type permanent magnet motor
• Temperature rise at ambient 50° C.: Less than or equal to 45° C.
• Motor frame size: 3 inches
• End use of motor: Drive unit for lathe or mill
MOTOR TORQUE CURVE
NOTE: Electronic circuitry built into the speed control supplies a constant 90 VDC
output to the motor regardless of the input current from 100VAC to 240VAC, 50 or 60
Hz, so Sherline machines can be plugged in and used in any country in the world without
a transformer as long as you have the correct wall plug converter..
USE WITH AN INVERTER: This motor and speed control can be used with an inverter
that produces a sine wave. It cannot be used with an inverter that produces a square wave.
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