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Safety
Programs
Table of Contents
Safety Programs:
1.) Assured Equipment Grounding Conductor Program………………………………….... 1
2.) Benzene Awareness…………………………………………………………………………. 6
3.) Bloodborne Pathogen Program……………………………………………………………. 9
4.) Crane & Hoist Safety……………………………………………………………………... 17
5.) Disciplinary Action Program……………………………………………………………... 28
6.) Defensive Driving Policy & Procedures………………………………………………….. 29
7.) Electrical Safety…………………………………………………………………………… 38
8.) Emergency Action Plan…………………………………………………………………… 48
9.) Fall Protection………………………………………………………………...…………… 53
10.) Fire Prevention Program……………………………………………………………...… 62
11.) Medical Management & First Aid…………………………………………………….... 68
12.) Tool Safety Program…………………………………………………………………….. 72
13.) Hazard Communication Program (HAZCOM)……………………………………….. 78
14.) Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Exposure Control……………………………………………. 88
15.) Incident Investigation & Reporting…………………………………………………….. 92
16.) Ladder Safety Program………………………………………………………………….. 93
17.) Lockout/Tagout…………………………………………………………………………... 99
18.) Noise Exposure/Hearing Conservation………………………………..………………. 104
19.) Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)………………………………………………… 107
20.) Respiratory Protection……………………………………………………….………… 116
21.) Hot Work/Welding Safety Procedures………………………………………………... 134
22.) Asbestos Safety Program………………………………………………………………. 139
23.) Abrasive Blasting Standard………………………………………………………….… 154
24.) Forklift & Motorized Pallet Jack Safety………………………………………...……. 155
25.) Drug-Free Workplace Program……………………………………………………….. 164
26.) Scaffold Safety Program……………………………………………………………….. 177
27.) Back Protection Program……………...………………………………………………. 183
28.) Lead Safety Program………………………………………………………………….... 192
29.) Aerial & Scissors Lift Safety Program…………………………………………...…… 204
30.) Access to Employee Medical and Exposure Records………………………………… 207
31.) Behavior Based Safety………………………………………………………………….. 209
32.) Confined Space/Permit Confined Space………………………………………………. 211
33.) Gas Hazards…………………………………………………………………………….. 227
34.) Hazard Identification & Risk Assessment…………………………………………….. 229
35.) Short Service Employee (SSE)…………………………………………………………. 230
36.) Excavation and Trenching…….……………………………………………………….. 231
37.) Fatigue Management…………………………………………………………………… 240
38.) General Waste Management……………………………………………………...…… 242
39.) Job Competency………………………………………………………………………… 243
40.) Manual Lifting………………………………………………………………………….. 244
41.) Mobile Equipment…………………………………………………………………….... 245
42.) Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)………………………………….. 247
43.) Stop Work Authority………………………………………………………...………… 248
1
ASSURED EQUIPMENT GROUNDING CONDUCTOR
PROGRAM
It is the policy of Don-Nan Pump & Supply to establish and implement an assured equipment
grounding conductor program on construction sites covering all cord sets, receptacles which are
not a part of the permanent wiring of the building or structure, and equipment connected by cord
and plug which are available for use or used by employees. This policy shall apply to all
construction sites not equipped with ground fault circuit interrupters in accordance with OSHA
standard 1926.400 (h)
Supervisors are designated to implement the assured equipment grounding conductor program:
1926.32 (f) defines competent person as one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable
hazards i the surrounding area or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous or dangerous
to employees, and who is authorized to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
Supervisors will be responsible and accountable for the following:
Each cord set, attachment cap, plug and receptacle of cord set and any equipment connected by
cord and plug, except cord sets and receptacles which are fixed and not exposed to damage, shall
be visually inspected before each day's use for external defects, such as deformed or missing pins,
or insulation damage, and for indication of possible internal damage. Equipment found damaged
or defective may not be used until repaired.
Supervisors are responsible for tests on all cord sets, receptacles which are not a part of the
permanent wiring of the building or structure, and cord and plug connected equipment repaired to
be grounded. Tests shall be documented on the log for assured equipment grounding conductor
program and shall be on the job site for inspection by OSHA officials and any affected employee.
Equipment that does not meet prescribed test shall not be put into service. The following tests shall
be performed:
A.
All equipment grounding conductors shall be tested for continuity and shall be electrically
continuous.
B.
Each receptacle and attachment cap or plug shall be tested for correct attachment of the
equipment grounding conductor. The equipment grounding shall be connected to its
terminal.
In accordance with OSHA Construction Safety and health Standards 1926.21 Safety Training and
Education, supervisors shall attend such training sessions as the company may deem necessary.
A copy of this policy shall be at the job site for inspection and copy by OSHA officials and any
affected employee. Management retains the authority to designate that certain jobs comply with
regulation 1926.400 (h) by use of ground fault circuit interrupters in lieu of the program
established above. A copy of the completed forms will be kept on each applicable job site for
inspection purposes.
2
WRITTEN DESCRIPTION
ASSURED EQUIPMENT GROUNDING CONDUCTOR PROGRAM
I.
Scope
This procedure describes the requirements to assure the installation and maintenance of equipment
grounding conductors for temporary wiring on construction sites in accordance with paragraph (c)
(30 of part 1910.309 of the Occupational Safety and Health Standard and paragraph (h) (3) of part
1926.400 of the Safety and Health regulations for construction.
II.
Policy
Ground fault circuit interrupters (GFCI's) are not required for 120 volt, single phase, 15- and 20ampere receptacles outlets where all of the requirements of this procedure are implemented at the
construction site. Employees shall not use any equipment which has not met the requirements of
this procedure.
III.
IV.
Job site Information
A.
Name or description of construction site: _______________________________
B.
Employer complying with this procedure is: ______________________________
C.
Person designated to implement the procedure is: ________________________
Requirements
Equipment grounding conductors shall be installed and maintained in accordance with
this procedure.
A
Installation - Equipment grounding conductors shall be installed as follows:
1.
All 120 volt, single phase, 15- and 20- ampere receptacles shall be of the
grounding type and their contacts shall be grounded by connection to the
equipment grounding conductor of the circuit supply the receptacle in
accordance with the applicable requirements of the National Electrical
Code.
2.
All 120 volt cord sets (extension cords) shall have an equipment grounding
conductor which shall be connected to the grounding contacts of the
connector(s) on each end of the cord.
3.
The exposed concurrent-carrying metal parts of the 120 volt cord and plugconnected tools and equipment that are likely to become energized shall be
grounded in accordance with the applicable requirements of the National
Electrical Code.
3
B.
Visual Inspection
Employees shall be instructed to visually inspect receptacle, flexible cord sets
(extension cords), except those that are fixed and not exposed to damage, and
equipment connected by cord and plug before each day's use for external defects
such as deformed or missing pins or insulation damage and for indication of
possible internal damage. Where there is evidence of damage, the damaged item
shall be taken out of service and tagged until tested and any required repairs have
been made.
C.
All 120 volt, single phase, 15 and 20- ampere receptacles which are not a part of the
permanent wiring of the building or structure, 1220 volt flexible cord sets, and 120
volt cord and plug connected equipment required to be grounded shall be tested as
follows:
1.
All equipment grounding conductors shall be tested for continuity
and shall be electrically continuous.
2.
Each receptacle and attachment ca or plug shall be tested or correct
attachment of the equipment grounding conductor. The equipment
grounding conductor shall be connected to its proper terminal.
D.
Testing Schedule
All required tests shall be performed:
1.
Before first use
2.
Before equipment is returned to service following any repairs.
3.
Before equipment is used after any incident which can be reasonably
suspected to have caused damage (for example, when a cord set is
run over)
4.
At intervals not to exceed 3 months, except that cord sets and
receptacle which are fixed and not exposed to damage shall be
tested at intervals not exceeding 6 months.
E.
Test Records
Test verification shall be by means of numeric or color coded marking tape ion the
receptacle, cord set or equipment to identify that it has passed the test and to
indicate the date (month or quarter) in accordance with section 5.0 Coding Scheme.
4
ASSURED EQUIPMENT GROUNDING CONDUCTOR PROGRAM
COMPANY NAME: _____________________________________________________________
SHOP ADDRESS:
____________________________________________________________
JOB NAME OR NUMBER ______________________________________________________
ID OF EQUIP
TESTED
*REASON FOR TEST:
DATE
TESTED
ACTION, IF
ANY
REASONA-B-C-D
TESTED BY
(SIGNATURE)
A. BEFORE FIRST USE.
B. BEFORE EQUIPMENT IS RETURNED TO SERVICE
FOLLOWING ANY REPAIRS
C. BEFORE EQUIPMENT IS USED AFTER ANY INCIDENT
WHICH CAN REASONABLY BE SUSPECTED TO HAVE
CAUSED DAMAGE.
D. AT INTERVALS NOT TO EXCEED 3 MONTHS, EXCEPT
THAT CORD SETS AND RECEPTACLES WHICH ARE
FIXED AND NOT EXPOSED TO DAMAGE SHALL BE
TESTED AT INTERVALS NOT EXCEEDING 6 MONTHS.
COMPANY AUTHORIZED SIGNATURE: __________________________________________
5
EFFECTS OF AMOUNT OF AC CURRENT AT 60 CYCLES PER SECOND
More than 3 mA
-
Painful shock which can cause indirect accidents.
More than 10 mA
-
Muscle contraction, "No-Let-Go" danger.
More than 30 mA
-
Lung paralysis, usually temporary.
More than 50 mA
-
Possible ventricular fibrillation
(Heart dysfunction, usually fatal)
100 mA to 4 A
-
Certain ventricular fibrillation, fatal
Over 4 A
-
Heart paralysis, but may be temporary; severe burns. Usually
caused by voltages above 600 Volts.
"mA" - Milli-amp
1 mA
=
A = Ampere
1/1000 Ampere
=
.001 Ampere
6
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Benzene Awareness
Purpose
The purpose of this policy is to prevent potential accidents from exposure to benzene
by educating Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees as to the hazards presented by
benzene in the performance of their duties.
Scope
In this section we will help Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees to understand:
1. What is Benzene
2. Hazardous Characteristics
3. Other Common Names
4. Potential Exposure Points
5. Effects of Exposure
6. Personal Protective Equipment used to minimize injury
7. Safety Precautions
8. Contingency Plans
What is Benzene?
Benzene is a toxic, flammable, and colorless to light yellow liquid which has an
aromatic odor. It is lighter than water and insoluble (not able to dissolve in water).
Benzene has been found to be in association with various fossil fuels and some of
their byproducts.
Other Common Names
Other common names for benzene include:
 Benzol
 Carbon Oil
 Coal Naphtha
 Cyclohexadiene
 Phenyl Hydride
Points of Exposure
Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees may encounter benzene during the performance
of many routine duties such as:
7







Tank Gauging
Field Maintenance
At Refining Sites
Working Near Production Piping
Well Heads
Flow Lines
Fueling Stations
Effects of Exposure
Benzene exposure may present many different serious physical and health hazards,
depending upon the rout and the duration of exposure. Primarily Don-Nan Pump &
Supply employees can be exposed through inhalation, ingestion or absorption,
allowing benzene to influence many different target organs including the:
 Eyes
 Skin
 Respiratory System
 Central Nervous System
 Blood
 Bone Marrow
Acute (short term) effects may include:
 Dizziness
 Vomiting
 Coughing
 Eye, Skin, and Respiratory Irritation
 Weakness
 Exhaustion
 Euphoria
 Shortness of Breath
 Irritability
Chronic (long term) effects may include








Staggered Gait
Anorexia
Dermatitis
Depression
Eye, Skin, and Respiratory Track Irritation
Leukemia
Anemia
Depression of Immune System
8
Permissible Exposure Limits
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the Permissible
Exposure Level (PEL) at 1 part per million (PPM) based off the Time Weighted
Average (TWA) of 8 hours in a 5 day work week. OSHA also placed the Short Term
Exposure Level (STEL) at 5 ppm. This is a level based off a TWA of 15 minutes.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
When working in potential Benzene areas where exposure amount will be above the
PEL, Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees will evaluate the situation and use PPE
according to the level of hazard presented. This equipment may include:
 Respirators
 Chemical Resistant Gloves
 Chemical Resistant Clothing with Long Sleeves
 Aprons
 Safety Goggles
 Face Shields
 Chemical resistant boots
 Safety Showers
 Fire Retardant Clothing
Safety Precautions
As mentioned before Benzene is also extremely flammable with a flash point at 12
degrees Fahrenheit and lower explosive limit (LEL) of 1.2%. For this reason it is
extremely important that Don-Nan Pump & Supply identify all potential sources of
ignition including smoking, and take all necessary precautions including permits,
proper fire extinguishers, smoking only in designated areas, and proper training to
minimize the potential of a fire.
Smoking is prohibited in potential benzene areas
Contingency Plans/ Emergency Plans
Emergencies will vary from site to site and location to location therefore Don-Nan
Pump & Supply employees must be informed of potential hazards in their area of
operation prior to beginning work activities, including owner contingency plans on
location, potential benzene areas, and host facility additional plant safety rules.
9
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Bloodborne Pathogen Program
Purpose:
An infection control plan must be prepared for all persons who handle, store, use,
process, or disposes of infectious medical wastes. This infection control plan complies
with OSHA requirement, 29 CFR 1910.1030, Blood Borne Pathogens. The plan includes
requirements for personal protective equipment, housekeeping, training, and a procedure
for reporting exposures.
Responsibilities:

The Company Nurse or Physician will conduct the Bloodborne Pathogen Program
and maintain records of training and inspections for this program.

Management will ensure proper conduct of the program though inspections,
record keeping and periodic audit.
Definitions:
Biological Hazard - The term biological hazard or biohazard is taken to mean any viable
infectious agent that presents a risk, or a potential risk, to the well-being of humans.
Medical Wastes/Infectious Wastes - All waste emanating from human or animal tissues,
blood or blood products or fluids. This includes used first aid bandages, syringes,
needles, sharps, material used in spill cleanup and contaminated PPE or clothing.
Universal Precautions - Refers to a system of infectious disease control that assumes
that every direct contact with body fluids is infectious and requires every employee
exposed to be protected as though such body fluids were infected with blood-borne
pathogens. All infectious/medical material must be handled according to Universal
Precautions (OSHA Instruction CPL 2-2.44A)
Hazards:
Unprotected exposure to body fluids presents the possible risk of infection from a number
of bloodborne pathogens notably Hepatitis and HIV.
Hazard Control:
Engineering Controls - prevention of exposure to bloodborne pathogens engineering
controls include proper storage facilities and containers, syringes designed to prevent
accidental needle sticks, autoclaves and disinfectant equipment.
Administrative Controls - prevention of exposure to bloodborne pathogen
administrative controls include universal precautions, assignment of PPE, employee
training, use of spill kits specifically designed for blood and body fluids, restricted access
to waste collection points and waste disposal procedures.
Reporting and Record Keeping:
Any reports required by OSHA will be maintained by the Occupational Health
Department. All reports (Training Certificates, Notice of HBV Vaccinations, exposure
reports) will be maintained for 30 years. Occupationally contracted HBV or HIV will be
10
recorded on the OSHA 300 Log of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses as an illness.
Exposures to blood-borne pathogens from contact with sharps will be recorded on the
OSHA 300 Log of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses if treatment such as gamma
globulin, hepatitis B immune globulin or hepatitis B vaccine is prescribed by a Physician.
Training:
All personnel assigned duties as EMT, Paramedics, First Aid Station Staff, HAZMAT
responders, Custodial Employees (those that clean rest rooms, etc.) will receive initial
and annual training by a qualified medical practitioner on the Bloodborne Pathogen
Program. Additionally, personnel trained in First Aid shall be offered this annual training.
All new and current affected Employees will be trained initially and annually thereafter.
The content of the training program will include:
1. Company Policy
2. Types and transmission of Blood-Borne Pathogens
3. General Safety Rules
4. Universal Precautions
5. Use of Personal Protective Equipment
6. Medical Waste Disposal Procedures
7. Post Exposure Treatment and Procedures
8. HBV Vaccinations
Documentation of training will be by Control of Blood-Borne Pathogens Training Certificate
All Employees not affected by this Program will receive an overview of the program
requirements during scheduled department Safety Meetings with documentation by
Safety Meeting Minutes Form.
Hepatitis-B Virus (HBV) Vaccinations:
Occupational Health Professionals and those required to provide first aid or emergency
response duties or medical care on a routine basis will be offered Hepatitis-B Virus
(HBV) Vaccinations at Company expense. Employees that transfer to a job or their job is
reclassified to include exposure to blood-borne pathogens will be offered HBV
Vaccinations within 10 working days of the transfer or reclassification.
The choice for HBV vaccination is not mandatory. If an affected Employee chooses not
to have the vaccination at the initial offering, they will have the opportunity to be
vaccinated when they are ready. The Company will document the offer, acceptance or
declination, and vaccination dates with the Notice of HBV Vaccinations Form.
Post Exposure Treatment and Notification Procedures:
Should an affected Employee or an Employee acting as a "Good Samaritan" be
occupationally exposed to HIV/HAV/HBV the affected Employee will report the
exposure to the Company Nurse. The Company will provide for the Employee to be
tested for HIV/HAV/HBV at Company expense. Following the initial blood test at time
of exposure, seronegative Employees will be retested at 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months
11
to determine if transmission has occurred. During this period, the Employee will follow
the recommendations provided by the Physician or the U. S. Public Health Service.
An "occupational exposure" is defined as blood or body fluid contact from an injured or
ill Employee to the affected Employee or injury by a contaminated sharp object.
The source individual's blood is tested as soon as possible and after consent is obtained to
determine HBV and HIV infectivity. (Hepatitis B surface Antigen, Hepatitis C Antibody
and HIV Screen)
The exposed employee's blood shall be collected as soon as feasible and tested for HBV
(Hepatitis B Antibody, Hepatitis C Antibody) and HIV serological status after consent is
obtained (Employee Consent for HIV Antibody Testing).
During all phases of Post Exposure, the confidentiality of the affected Employee and
exposure source will be maintained on a "need to know basis". The Blood-Borne
Pathogens Exposure and Treatment form is used to document the exposure and offer of
medical assistance to the affected Employee and use the Medical Consent for BloodBorne Pathogens Testing form for the exposure source. The results of any
HIV/HAV/HBV tests conducted will be provided to the exposed and source Employees
within 5 business days of receipt.
General Procedures:
The following procedures must be followed by personnel when in medical rooms or
laboratories.
All supervisors must ensure that their staff is trained in proper work practices, the
concept of universal precautions, personal protective equipment, and in proper cleanup
and disposal techniques.
Resuscitation equipment, pocket masks, resuscitation bags, or other ventilation
equipment must be provided to eliminate the need for direct mouth to mouth contact in
groups where resuscitation is a part of their responsibilities.
Eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics or lip balm, and handling contact lenses
are prohibited in work areas where there is a potential for exposure to any health hazard.
Food and drink must not be stored in refrigerators, freezers, or cabinets where blood or
other potentially infectious material is stored or in other areas of possible contamination.
According to the level of risk, wearing laboratory or protective clothing may be required
for persons entering infectious disease laboratories. Likewise, showers with a germicidal
soap may be required before exit.
Gowns, aprons, or lab coats must be worn whenever there is a possibility that body fluids
could splash on skin or clothing.
Gloves must be made of appropriate disposable material, usually intact latex or vinyl.
They must be used in the following circumstances:

When the employee has cuts, abraded skin, chapped hands, dermatitis, or similar
conditions.

When examining abraded or non-intact skin of a patient with active bleeding.
12

While handling blood or blood products or other body secretions during routine
laboratory procedures.
Employees must wash their hands immediately, or as soon as possible, after removal of
gloves or other personal protective equipment and after hand contact with blood or other
potentially infectious materials.
All personal protective equipment must be removed immediately upon leaving the work
area, and if this equipment is overtly contaminated, it must be placed in an appropriate
area or container for storage, washing, decontamination, or disposal.
Contaminated clothing must not be worn in clean areas or outside the building.
All procedures involving blood or other potentially infectious agents must be performed
in a manner that will minimize splashing, spraying, and aerosolization.
Medical Wastes:
Medical/infectious waste must be segregated from other waste at the point of origin.
Medical/infectious waste, except for sharps (i.e., razor blades, broken glass, needles, etc.)
capable of puncturing or cutting, must be contained in double disposable red bags
conspicuously labeled with the words "INFECTIOUS WASTE" and "BIOHAZARD."
Used needles or other sharps (razor blades, broken glass, scalpels, etc.) must not be
sheared, bent, broken, recapped, or resheathed.
Infectious sharps must be contained for disposal in leak-proof, rigid puncture-resistant
containers. Infectious waste contained as described above must be placed in reusable or
disposable leak-proof bins or barrels that are conspicuously labeled with the words
"INFECTIOUS WASTE" and "BIOHAZARD." These waste barrels are picked up
regularly by an outside company licensed to handle infectious wastes.
All infectious agents, equipment, or apparatus must be disinfected in an autoclave or
otherwise disinfected before being washed or disposed of. Each individual working with
infectious bio-hazardous agents is responsible for dis-infection and disposal of these
agents.
Biological wastes that do not contain radioactive or hazardous substances may be
disinfected by steam sterilization (autoclave) then disposed of in the regular trash.
Liquid bio-hazardous waste may be disposed of in the sewage system following chemical
decontamination.
Reusable glassware must be decontaminated in sodium hypo chlorite (household bleach)
solution (1:9) prior to rinsing and acid washing. The glassware must then be sterilized in
an autoclave.
To minimize the hazard to firefighters or emergency response personnel, at the close of
each work day and before the building is closed, all infectious or toxic material must be
placed in a refrigerator, placed in an incubator, or autoclaved or otherwise disinfected.
Infectious agents must not be placed in an autoclave and left overnight in anticipation of
autoclaving the next day.
13
Floors, laboratory benches, and other surfaces in buildings where infectious agents are
handled must be disinfected with a suitable germicide, such as 1:9 sodium hypo chlorite
solution (household bleach) as often as necessary as determined by the supervisor.
The surroundings must be disinfected after completion of operations involving planting,
pipetting, centrifuging, and similar procedures with infectious agents.
Infectious agents must not be dumped into the building drainage system without prior
disinfection.
Cuts:
If an employee has a needle stick, cut, or mucous membrane exposure to another persons
body fluids he/she must report the incident immediately to the Company Nurse.
Blood Exposure:
All employees exposed to human blood and blood products must report to the Company
Nurse for information and possible inclusion in the Hepatitis B Immunization Program.
Infection Control Plan:
The purpose of the Infection Control Plan is to protect the health and safety of the
persons directly involved in handling the materials, Company personnel and the general
public by ensuring the safe handling, storage, use, processing, and disposal of infectious
medical waste. This plan complies with OSHA requirement proposed for 29 CFR
1910.1030, Bloodborne Pathogens.
Universal precautions - Refers to a system of infectious disease control which assumes
that every direct contact with body fluids is infectious and requires every employee
exposed to be protected as though such body fluids were infected with blood-borne
pathogens. All infectious/medical material must be handled according to Universal
Precautions (OSHA Instruction CPL 2-2.44A).
The following universal precautions must be taken.
1. Gloves must be made of appropriate disposable material, usually intact latex or
vinyl. They must be used:
A.) when the employee has cuts, abraded skin, chapped hands, dermatitis, or
the like.
B.) when examining abraded or non-intact skin of a patient with active
bleeding.
C.) while handling blood or blood products or other body secretions during
routine procedures.
2. Gowns, aprons, or lab coats must be worn when splashes of body fluid on skin or
clothing are possible.
3. Mask and eye protection are required when contact of mucosal membranes (eyes,
mouth or nose) with body fluids is likely to occur (e.g. splashes or aerosolization).
4. Resuscitation equipment, pocket masks, resuscitation bags, or other ventilation
equipment must be provided to eliminate the need for direct mouth to mouth contact.
Waste Disposal Plan:
14
1. Medical/Infectious waste must be segregated from other waste at the point of
origin.
2. Medical/Infectious waste, except for sharps (e.g. razor blades, broken glass,
needles, etc.) capable of puncturing or cutting must be contained in double disposable
red bags conspicuously labeled with the words, "INFECTIOUS WASTE -BIOHAZARD."
3. Infectious sharps must be contained for disposal in leak-proof, rigid puncture
resistant containers.
4. Infectious waste thus contained as described in procedures 2 and 3 above must be
placed in reusable or disposable leak-proof bins or barrels which must be
conspicuously labeled with the words, "INFECTIOUS WASTE -- BIOHAZARD."
These waste barrels are be picked up regularly by an outside company licensed to
handle infectious wastes.
5. Spills/Disinfectants: a solution of sodium hypo chlorite (household bleach) diluted
1:9 with water must be used to disinfect, following initial cleanup of a spill with a
chemical germicide approved as a hospital disinfectant. Spills must be cleaned up
immediately.
7. After removing gloves, and/or after contact with body fluids, hands and other skin
surfaces must be washed thoroughly and immediately with soap or other disinfectant
in hot water.
8. Other biological wastes that do not contain radioactive or hazardous substances
may be disinfected by steam sterilization (autoclave) and then disposed of in the
regular trash.
9. Liquid biohazard waste may be disposed of in the sewage system following
chemical decontamination.
10. Reusable glassware must be decontaminated in sodium hyper chlorite (household
bleach) solution (1:9) prior to rinsing and acid washing. Then the glassware must be
sterilized in an autoclave.
Personal Protective Equipment for Worker Protection
Against HIV and HBV Transmission
TASK
GLOVES APRON MASK
X
X
EYEWEA
R
X
Control of Bleeding w/ spurting blood
Bleeding control with minimal bleeding
Emergency Child Birth
Blood Drawing
Handling & Cleaning Instruments
Cleaning Bio Spills
Taking Temperature
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
15
Giving Injection
Measuring Blood Pressure
X
The examples provided in this table are based on application of universal
precautions. Universal precautions are intended to supplement rather than replace
recommendation for routine infection control, such as hand washing and using
gloves to prevent gross microbial contamination of hands (e.g., contact with urine or
feces).
Blood-Borne Pathogen Control
Universal Precautions and General Safety Rules
For Posting
Exposure Determination: Don-Nan Pump & Supply and its Divisions and Subsidiaries
will not perform invasive medical treatment or provide intravenous medication.
Therefore, the exposure to Blood-Borne Pathogens, as defined in item # 3 below, is
determined to be from routine and emergency first aid treatment of common workplace
injuries. The following Universal Precautions and General Safety Rules have been
established to prevent the spread of viral and bacterial organisms (namely
HIV/HAV/HBV). In all cases, the Universal Precautions and General Safety Rules
should be followed.
1. Before and immediately after providing patient care, wash exposed areas (hands,
arms, etc.) with antibacterial soap.
2. Don and use the required personal protective equipment for the medical care given
as outlined in the Personal Protective Equipment for Worker Protection Poster.
3. Treat all human body fluids and items soiled with human body fluids (blood, blood
products, seamen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid,
peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, amniotic fluid, concentrated HIV/HAV/HBV, and
saliva (in dental settings) as if contaminated with HIV/HAV/HBV. (Note: Feces,
urine, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, or vomitus need not be treated as
contaminated unless they contain visible blood)
4. No smoking, eating, drinking or storage of food products are permitted in patient
treatment areas. Non-medical items, such as clothing and personal effects, should not
be stored in the treatment facility.
5. Patient treatment areas will be maintained in a near sanitary condition at all times.
Daily and at least once per shift, the Occupational Health Facility will be disinfected
with antibacterial/viral solution (at least 10% Chlorine Bleach or equivalent). All
medical and personal protective equipment contaminated with human body fluids will
be disinfected before being returned for use again.
6. To avoid special handling, all clothing contaminated with human body fluid will be
presoaked (sprayed on the affected areas) with the antibacterial/viral solution before
being sent to the laundry. (Note: Gloves and eye protection should be worn when
handling contaminated clothing until presoaked for 10 minutes)
16
7. Any spills of body fluid will be presoaked (sprayed on the affected area) with
antibacterial/viral solution for 10 minutes before being removed. (Note: Gloves and
eye protection should be worn when handling spills of body fluids)
8. Medical Wastes (those soiled with covered human body fluids) will be treated
following the Medical Wastes Treatment and Disposal Procedures before being
discarded as ordinary wastes.
9. Any suspected exposure to HIV/HAV/HBV by human body fluid contact (via
broken skin, human bites, needle sticks, etc.) should be reported to your Supervisor
immediately.
Control of Blood-Borne Pathogens Program
Medical Waste Treatment and Disposal Procedures
For Posting
1. All Medical Wastes (those soiled with covered human body fluids) will be placed in a
red leak-proof container marked either Biohazard or Medical Waste. All other wastes will
be discarded following customary procedures. (Note: Soiled feminine hygiene/sanitary
napkins, soiled facial tissues, etc. are not considered a biohazard or medical waste.
Pretreatment is not necessary; however, Employees should wear personal protective
equipment and wash hands with antibacterial soap afterwards)
2. Don and use the required personal protective equipment when handling medical wastes
as outlined in the Personal Protective Equipment for Worker Protection Poster.
3. At the end of each shift, all accumulated medical wastes will be treated to remove
biohazards using the following procedure:

Prepare a solution of 10 percent chlorine bleach to water (approximately 2 cups
chlorine bleach to 1 gallon of water)

Pour solution over the medical wastes and thoroughly saturate

Let stand for 10 minutes and then drain into sink

Discard as ordinary wastes
Caution: Sharp objects (broken glass, hypodermic needles, etc.) should not be handled
by hand to prevent accidental punctures and lacerations
4. Rinse medical wastes container and return for use again.
5. Wash hands and exposed areas with antibacterial soap.
17
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Crane & Hoist Safety
Purpose
Many types of cranes, hoists, and rigging devices are used at Don-Nan Pump &
Supply for lifting and moving materials. Don-Nan Pump & Supply's policy is to
maintain a safe workplace for its employees; therefore, it cannot be
overemphasized that only qualified and licensed individuals shall operate these
devices. The safety rules and guidance in this chapter apply to all operations at
Don-Nan Pump & Supply that involve the use of cranes and hoists installed in or
attached to buildings and to all Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees,
supplemental labor, and subcontractor personnel who use such devices.
Responsibilities
Supervisors are responsible for:

Ensuring that employees under their supervision receive the required
training and are certified and licensed to operate the cranes and hoists in
their areas.

Providing training for prospective crane and hoist operators. This training
must be conducted by a qualified, designated instructor who is a licensed
crane and hoist operator and a full-time Don-Nan Pump & Supply
employee.

Evaluating crane and hoist trainees using the Crane Safety Checklist and
submitting the Qualification Request Form to the Safety Office to obtain
the operator's license.

Ensuring that hoisting equipment is inspected and tested monthly by a
responsible individual and that rigging equipment is inspected annually.
Crane and Hoist Operators are responsible for:

Operating hoisting equipment safely.

Conducting functional tests prior to using the equipment.

Selecting and using rigging equipment appropriately.

Having a valid operator's license on their person while operating cranes or
hoists.

Participating in the medical certification program, as required.
Engineering/Maintenance/Operations Department is responsible for:

Performing annual maintenance and inspection of all Don-Nan Pump &
Supply cranes and hoists that are not covered by a program with
maintenance responsibility.

Conducting periodic and special load tests of cranes and hoists.
18

Maintaining written records of inspections and tests, and providing copies
of all inspections and test results to facility managers and building
coordinators who have cranes and hoists on file.

Inspecting and load testing cranes and hoists following modification or
extensive repairs (e.g., a replaced cable or hook, or structural
modification.)

Scheduling a non-destructive test and inspection for crane and hoist hooks
at the time of the periodic load test, and testing and inspecting before use
new replacement hooks and other hooks suspected of having been
overloaded. The evaluation, inspection, and testing may include, but are
not limited to visual, dye penetrant, and magnetic particle techniques
referenced in ASME B30.10 (Hooks, Inspection and Testing.)

Maintaining all manuals for cranes and hoists in a central file for
reference.
Safety Department is responsible for

Conducting training for all Crane & Hoist Operators

Issuing licenses to Crane and Hoist Operators

Periodically verifying monthly test and inspection reports.

Interpreting crane and hoist safety rules and standards.
Safe Operating Requirements
All workers who use any Don-Nan Pump & Supply crane or hoist shall have an
operator's license. The company issues licenses for authorized employees who
have been specifically trained in crane and hoist operations and equipment safety.
Crane and Hoist Operators
To be qualified as a Crane and Hoist Operator, the candidate shall have
received hands-on training from a licensed, qualified crane and hoist
operator designated by the candidate's supervisor. Upon successful
completion of training, the licensed crane and hoist operator and the
candidate's supervisor will fill out and sign the Qualification Request
Form and Crane Safety Checklist and send them to the Safety Office for
approval. The candidate will be issued a license upon approval by the
Safety Manager. Crane and Hoist Operators must renew their license
every three years by satisfying the requirements described above.
Crane and Hoist Safety Design Requirements
Following are the design requirements for cranes and hoists and their
components:

The design of all commercial cranes and hoists shall comply with the
requirements of ASME/ANSI B30 standards and Crane Manufacturer's
Association of America standards (CMAA-70 and CMAA-74). Don-Nan
Pump & Supply-fabricated lifting equipment shall comply with the
19
requirements in Chapter 2.2 (Lifting Equipment) of Mechanical
Engineering Design Safety Standards (latest edition).

All crane and hoist hooks shall have safety latches.

Hooks shall not be painted (or re-painted) if the paint previously applied
by the manufacturer is worn.

Crane pendants shall have an electrical disconnect switch or button to
open the main-line control circuit.

Cranes and hoists shall have a main electrical disconnect switch. This
switch shall be in a separate box that is labeled with lockout capability.

Crane bridges and hoist monorails shall be labeled on both sides with the
maximum capacity.

Each hoist-hook block shall be labeled with the maximum hook capacity.

Directional signs indicating N-W-S-E shall be displayed on the bridge
underside, and a corresponding directional label shall be placed on the
pendant.

A device such as an upper-limit switch or slip clutch shall be installed on
all building cranes and hoists. A lower-limit switch may be required when
there is insufficient hoist rope on the drum to reach the lowest point.

All cab and remotely operated bridge cranes shall have a motion alarm to
signal bridge movement.

All newly installed cranes and hoists, or those that have been extensively
repaired or rebuilt structurally, shall be load tested at 125% capacity prior
to being placed into service.

If an overload device is installed, a load test to the adjusted setting is
required.

Personnel baskets and platforms suspended from any crane shall be
designed in accordance with the specifications in 29 CFR 1926.550(g).
General Safety Rules
Operators shall comply with the following rules while operating the cranes and
hoists:

Do not engage in any practice that will divert your attention while
operating the crane.

Cranes must not be used unless ground conditions are able to support the
equipment and any supporting materials per the manufacturer’s
specifications. Equipment must not be assembled or used unless ground
conditions are firm, drained, and graded to a sufficient extent so that, in
conjunction (if necessary) with the use of supporting materials, the
equipment manufacturer’s specification for adequate support and degree
of level of the equipment are met.
20

Manufacture instructions and prohibitions must be followed at all times
when assembling and/or disassembling equipment.

Only a competent and qualified person will be allowed to direct the
assembly/disassembly of equipment.

Before operation, verify that all operation equipment is not within 20 feet
of a power line. Identify the work zone and do a pre-operation hazard
assessment. The work zone shall be identified by demarcating boundaries
such as flag and range limiting devices, or defining the work zone as 360
degrees around the equipment up to the maximum working radius. The
hazard assessment must determine if any part of the equipment could get
closer than 20 feet to a power line.

Proper measures must be taken if it is determined that any part of the
equipment, load line or load can get closer to 20 feet to a power line:
1.) Determine the line’s voltage and minimum approach distance
permitted in Table A
2.) Ensure the power lines have been de-energized and visibly
grounded
3.) Ensure no part of the equipment, load line or load gets closer
than 20 feet to the power line

Respond to signals only from the person who is directing the lift or any
appointed signal person. Obey a stop signal at all times, no matter who
gives it.

A visual inspection of all the equipment must be conducted by a
competent person at the beginning or prior to each shift. These will
include, but not limited to, control mechanisms, pressurized lines, hooks
and latches, wire rope, electrical apparatus, tires and ground conditions.

All equipment must be inspected monthly by a competent person and
documented.

All safety devices on the equipment must be in proper working condition
before operation begins.

All manufacturer procedures that are applicable to the operational
functions of equipment, including its use with attachments, must be
complied with.

The procedures that are applicable to the operation of the equipment will
be readily available in the cab at all times. Procedures include rated
capacities (load charts), recommended operating speeds, special hazard
warnings, instructions and operator’s manual.

The operator has the authority to stop and refuse to handle loads whenever
there is a safety concern.
21

If the operator’s view is obstructed, if site specific safety requires it, or if
the operator determines that it is necessary then a signal person must be
provided.

If a hazard is identified, it must be marked by boundaries of the crane
swing radius with warning lines, railings, or similar barriers. This applies
if the equipment has the potential to strike and injure an employee or
pinch/crush an employee against any other object.

Do not move a load over people. People shall not be placed in jeopardy by
being under a suspended load. Also, do not work under a suspended load
unless the load is supported by blocks, jacks, or a solid footing that will
safely support the entire weight. Have a crane or hoist operator remain at
the controls or lock open and tag the main electrical disconnect switch.

Ensure that the rated load capacity of a crane's bridge, individual hoist, or
any sling or fitting is not exceeded. Know the weight of the object being
lifted or use a dynamometer or load cell to determine the weight.

Check that all controls are in the OFF position before closing the mainline disconnect switch.

If spring-loaded reels are provided to lift pendants clear off the work area,
ease the pendant up into the stop to prevent damaging the wire.

Avoid side pulls. These can cause the hoist rope to slip out of the drum
groove, damaging the rope or destabilizing the crane or hoist.

To prevent shock loading, avoid sudden stops or starts. Shock loading can
occur when a suspended load is accelerated or decelerated, and can
overload the crane or hoist. When completing an upward or downward
motion, ease the load slowly to a stop.

Any modifications or additions that may affect the capacity or safe
operation of the equipment must not be made without written approval
from the manufacturer or approval from a registered professional engineer.
Operation Rules
Pre-operational Test
At the start of each work shift, operators shall do the following steps before
making lifts with any crane or hoist:
9. Test the upper-limit switch. Slowly raise the unloaded hook block until the
limit switch trips.
10. Visually inspect the hook, load lines, trolley, and bridge as much as
possible from the operator's station; in most instances, this will be the
floor of the building.
11. If provided, test the lower-limit switch.
12. Test all direction and speed controls for both bridge and trolley travel.
22
13. Test all bridge and trolley limit switches, where provided, if operation will
bring the equipment in close proximity to the limit switches.
14. Test the pendant emergency stop.
15. Test the hoist brake to verify there is no drift without a load.
16. If provided, test the bridge movement alarm.
17. Lock out and tag for repair any crane or hoist that fails any of the above
tests.
Moving a Load

Center the hook over the load to keep the cables from slipping out of the
drum grooves and overlapping, and to prevent the load from swinging
when it is lifted. Inspect the drum to verify that the cable is in the grooves.

Use a tag line when loads must traverse long distances or must otherwise
be controlled. Manila rope may be used for tag lines.

Plan and check the travel path to avoid personnel and obstructions.

Lift the load only high enough to clear the tallest obstruction in the travel
path.

Start and stop slowly.

Land the load when the move is finished. Choose a safe landing.

Never leave suspended loads unattended. In an emergency where the crane
or hoist has become inoperative, if a load must be left suspended,
barricade and post signs in the surrounding area, under the load, and on all
four sides. Lock open and tag the crane or hoist's main electrical
disconnect switch.
Parking a Crane or Hoist

Remove all slings and accessories from the hook. Return the rigging
device to the designated storage racks.

Raise the hook at least 2.1 m (7-ft) above the floor.

Store the pendant away from aisles and work areas, or raise it at least 2.1
m (7 ft) above the floor.

Place the emergency stop switch (or push button) in the OFF position.
Rigging
General Rigging Safety Requirements
Only select rigging equipment that is in good condition. All rigging
equipment shall be inspected annually; defective equipment is to be
removed from service and destroyed to prevent inadvertent reuse. The
load capacity limits shall be stamped or affixed to all rigging components.
23
Don-Nan Pump & Supply policy requires a minimum safety factor of 5 to
be maintained for wire rope slings. The following types of slings shall be
rejected or destroyed:




Nylon slings with

Abnormal wear.

Torn stitching.

Broken or cut fibers.

Discoloration or deterioration.
Wire-rope slings with

Kinking, crushing, bird caging, or other distortions.

Evidence of heat damage.

Cracks, deformation, or worn end attachments.

Six randomly broken wires in a single rope lay.

Three broken wires in one strand of rope.

Hooks opened more than 15% at the throat.

Hooks twisted sideways more than 10deg. from the plane of the
unbent hook.
Alloy steel chain slings with

Cracked, bent, or elongated links or components.

Cracked hooks.
Shackles, eye bolts, turnbuckles, or other components that are damaged or
deformed.
Rigging a Load
Do the following when rigging a load:

Determine the weight of the load. Do not guess.

Determine the proper size for slings and components.

Do not use manila rope for rigging.

Make sure that shackle pins and shouldered eyebolts are installed in
accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

Make sure that ordinary (shoulderless) eyebolts are threaded in at least 1.5
times the bolt diameter.

Use safety hoist rings (swivel eyes) as a preferred substitute for eye bolts
wherever possible.

Pad sharp edges to protect slings. Remember that machinery foundations
or angle-iron edges may not feel sharp to the touch but could cut into
24
rigging when under several tons of load. Wood, tire rubber, or other
pliable materials may be suitable for padding.

Do not use slings, eyebolts, shackles, or hooks that have been cut, welded,
or brazed.

Install wire-rope clips with the base only on the live end and the U-bolt
only on the dead end. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for the
spacing for each specific wire size.

Determine the center of gravity and balance the load before moving it.

Initially lift the load only a few inches to test the rigging and balance.
Crane Overloading
Cranes or hoists shall not be loaded beyond their rated capacity for normal
operations. Any crane or hoist suspected of having been overloaded shall
be removed from service by locking open and tagging the main disconnect
switch. Additionally, overloaded cranes shall be inspected, repaired, load
tested, and approved for use before being returned to service.
Working at Heights on Cranes or Hoists
Anyone conducting maintenance or repair on cranes or hoists at heights
greater than 1.8 m (6 ft) shall use fall protection. Fall protection should
also be considered for heights less than 1.8 m. Fall protection includes
safety harnesses that are fitted with a lifeline and securely attached to a
structural member of the crane or building or properly secured safety nets.
Use of a crane as a work platform should only be considered when
conventional means of reaching an elevated worksite are hazardous or not
possible. Workers shall not ride a moving bridge crane without an
approval from the Safety Office, which shall specify the following as a
minimum:

Personnel shall not board any bridge crane unless the main disconnect
switch is locked and tagged open.

Personnel shall not use bridge cranes without a permanent platform
(catwalk) as work platforms. Bridge catwalks shall have a permanent
ladder access.

Personnel shall ride seated on the floor of a permanent platform with
approved safety handrails, wear safety harnesses attached to designated
anchors, and be in clear view of the crane operator at all times.

Operators shall lock and tag open the main (or power) disconnect switch
on the bridge catwalk when the crane is parked.
Hand Signals
Signals to the operator shall be in accordance with the standard hand
signals unless voice communications equipment (telephone, radio, or
equivalent) is used. Signals shall be discernible or audible at all times.
Some special operations may require addition to or modification of the
25
basic signals. For all such cases, these special signals shall be agreed upon
and thoroughly understood by both the person giving the signals and the
operator, and shall not be in conflict with the standard signals.
Inspection, Maintenance, and Testing
All tests and inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the
manufacturers’ recommendations.
Monthly Tests and Inspections

All in-service cranes and hoists shall be inspected monthly and the results
documented on Form ___________

Defective cranes and hoists shall be locked and tagged "out of service"
until all defects are corrected. The inspector shall initiate corrective action
by notifying the facility manager or building coordinator.
Annual Inspections
The _________________Department shall schedule and supervise (or perform)
annual preventive maintenance (PM) and annual inspections of all cranes and
hoists. The annual PM and inspection shall cover

Hoisting and lowering mechanisms.

Trolley travel or monorail travel.

Bridge travel.

Limit switches and locking and safety devices.

Structural members.

Bolts or rivets.

Sheaves and drums.

Parts such as pins, bearings, shafts, gears, rollers, locking devices, and
clamping devices.

Brake system parts, linings, pawls, and ratchets.

Load, wind, and other indicators over their full range.

Gasoline, diesel, electric, or other power plants.

Chain-drive sprockets.

Crane and hoist hooks.

Electrical apparatus such as controller contractors, limit switches, and
push button stations.

Wire rope.

Hoist chains.
26
Load Testing

Newly installed cranes and hoists shall be load tested at 125% of the rated
capacity by designated personnel.

Slings shall have appropriate test data when purchased. It is the
responsibility of the purchaser to ensure that the appropriate test data are
obtained and maintained.

Re-rated cranes and hoists shall be load tested to 125% of the new
capacity if the new rating is greater than the previous rated capacity.

Fixed cranes or hoists that have had major modifications or repair shall be
load tested to 125% of the rated capacity.

Cranes and hoists that have been overloaded shall be inspected prior to
being returned to service.

Personnel platforms, baskets, and rigging suspended from a crane or hoist
hook shall be load tested initially, then re-tested annually thereafter or at
each new job site.

All cranes and hoists with a capacity greater than 2722 kg (3 tons) should
be load tested every four years to 125% of the rated capacity. Cranes and
hoists with a lesser capacity should be load tested every eight years to
125% of the rated capacity.

All mobile hoists shall be load tested at intervals to be determined by
___________________.
Records
_________________ Department shall maintain records for all cranes, hoist and
rigging equipment.
References
ASME/ANSI B30.2, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge, Single
or Multiple Girder, Top Running Trolley Hoist)."
ASME/ANSI B30.9, "Slings."
ASME/ANSI B30.10, "Hooks."
ASME/ANSI B30.11, "Monorails and Underhung Cranes."
ASME/ANSI B30.16, "Overhead Hoists (Underhung)."
ASME/ANSI B30.17, "Overhead and Gantry Cranes (Top Running Bridge,
Single Girder, Underhung Hoist)."
ASME/ANSI B30.20, "Below-the-Hook Lifting Devices."
ASME/ANSI B30.21, "Manually Lever Operated Hoists."
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1910.179, "Overhead and Gantry
Cranes."
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1910.184, "Slings."
27
Code of Federal Regulation, Title 29, Part 1926.550, "Cranes and Derricks."
Mechanical Engineering Department Design Safety Standards, Chapter 2.2,
"Lifting equipment."
CMAA Specification No. 70, Specifications for Electric Overhead Traveling
Cranes.
CMAA Specification No. 74, Specifications for Top-Running and Under-Running
Single-Girder Electric Overhead Traveling Cranes Utilizing Under Running
Trolley Hoist.
NFPA 70, Article 610, Cranes and Hoists.
28
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Disciplinary Action Program
These guidelines document the process for Disciplinary Action in the Don-Nan Pump & Supply
organization to be enforced by Management with a goal Of ZERO accidents and injuries. It is the
responsibility of Management to carry out the following actions:







Disciplinary action will be taken for violation of company policy, safety procedures (ex.
Not filling out a hot work permit) or work performance issues.
Disciplinary actions will be effective for a minimum of (6) months.
Initial disciplinary action will include but is not limited to a verbal and written warning.
Subsequent violation while initial disciplinary action is in effect will result in but not
limited to suspension.
Additional violations while secondary disciplinary action is in effect may result in
termination.
A disciplinary action report will be used to document all actions taken.
Depending on the severity of the violation, initial disciplinary action may include
termination.
Employee signature: ________________________________
Date: _____________________________________________
29
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Defensive Driving Policy & Procedures
Don-Nan Pump & Supply is strongly committed to a sound and thorough defensive driving
policy.
While operating vehicles, drivers should always drive in the safest manner possible. Specifically,
our drivers must operate vehicles in accordance with all provisions of this policy and obey all
traffic laws as well as drive in a safe and prudent manner.
Any employee who is authorized to use any vehicle for company business must successfully
complete the Defensive Driving Course.
1. Assignments for classes shall be made by the employee's supervisor to ensure class quotas
are met and to maintain satisfactory work schedules.
2. Frequency of employee attendance of Defensive Driving Courses shall be once per
year.
3. New employees required to drive company vehicles shall be required to complete the
Defensive Driving Course satisfactorily before starting their driving assignment.
4. All vehicles used are intended for a specific purpose and are designed for that purpose and
are the correct size.
The core concepts of defensive driving are:
•
•
•
Recognize the hazard
Understand the defense
Act in time
Vehicle Accident Procedure
Step 1: Stop, stay calm
Step 2: Turn on your emergency flashers as an immediate warning signal. Then do a quick
evaluation of accident victims, if any, and provide assistance. Next, set out emergency warning
devices on the roadway.
Step 3: Either contact local law enforcement personnel and your supervisor yourself or arrange
to have someone do it for you. Be courteous and cooperative when providing information to
authorities. Never admit guilt or liability at the scene of an accident. Never leave the scene of an
accident.
Step 4: Write down names, license numbers and other information regarding the accident and
those people involved in it. Draw a simple diagram of the accident scene. The more detail you
30
can provide, the better it will be for insurance and/or legal purposes later. If you have a camera
for use at the accident scene, document the situation with photographs from various angles.
Step 5: After the vehicle has been secured, warning devices put in place, assistance rendered to
injured person(s) (if any), and law enforcement personnel contacted, you (the driver) should
communicate the accident to your supervisor.
Step 6: Complete Vehicle Accident Report Form at the scene of the accident.
Defensive Driving Procedures
Intersections: Getting into and out of intersections without an accident is a mark of a good
defensive driver. Besides your own skill level, intersections also demand anticipation of the
actions of other drivers and taking appropriate evasive action as required.
Backing: Backing is an extremely hazardous maneuver. If you are backing with the assistance
of a guide, the ultimate responsibility for the safety of the backing maneuver remains with you as
the driver.
Front-End Collisions: The primary way to avoid front-end collisions is by maintaining a safe
and adequate following distance. You should be prepared for possible obstructions on the
roadway, either in plain sight or hidden by curves or the crests of hills. A special situation occurs
at night, when speed should be kept to a level that will allow you to stop within the distance
illuminated by the headlights of your vehicle.
Rear-End Collisions: As a driver, you risk being struck from behind if you do not maintain an
adequate margin of safety in your own following distance. If enough space is not allowed in
front of your vehicle, chances go way up that somebody can (and will) impact you from the rear.
Passing: Failure to pass safely indicates faulty judgment on your part as a defensive driver, and
failure to consider one or more of the factors that need to be checked:
•
•
•
Is there enough room ahead?
Is there adequate space to move back into your lane of traffic after passing?
Have you signaled your intentions?
Being Passed: As a driver, you must be aware of the actions of other drivers, and give way if
another driver begins to sideswipe you or to cut you off. A good defensive driver will avoid
problems with this kind of accident situation.
Encroaching on Other Traffic Lanes: Observant defensive drivers will not usually get
trapped when other drivers change lanes abruptly. In the same manner, entrapment in merging
traffic can be successfully avoided by a good defensive driver with a little preplanning and
willingness to yield. Blind spots are not valid excuses for this kind of accident – allowances must
be made in areas of limited sight distance.
31
Railroad Grade Crossings: Driving across railroad crossings, or in areas where there are rail
vehicles of some sort, demands special care. Careful observance of the traffic situation is your
best defense.
Oncoming Traffic: A defensive driver will avoid a collision with an oncoming vehicle at all
costs. Even if the vehicle enters your lane of traffic, an accident can be avoided with some
evasive maneuvers.
Turning: Turning, like passing, is a dangerous maneuver, and demands special care and an
observant eye from you as a defensive driver. You should be aware of other vehicles in your
path, and of the complete configuration of the turn you are about to undertake.
Pedestrians: As a sensible defensive driver, always assume that if there is a pedestrian (or
small vehicle of some sort) involved in a situation, slowing down is your best defense. Be certain
to give people and small vehicles the benefit of the doubt.
Extreme Weather and Road Conditions: Bad weather and other road hazards place special
stress upon any defensive driver. The best rule in any kind of bad weather or extreme road
condition is get off the road safely and as soon as possible. If you absolutely must continue,
slowing way down and increasing following distance are your best defenses, along with
increased awareness.
Fog: Fog reduces available visibility and impairs distance perception, making it perhaps the
most dangerous type of extreme weather condition. Whenever possible, drivers are to avoid
driving in extremely foggy conditions. Pull off the road and park safely until such time as the fog
dissipates or is burned off, if at all possible. If you cannot safely pull off the road, follow these
procedures:

Never assume the depth or thickness of any fog. Fog can range from a momentary
blurring of the windshield to being several miles thick.

Slow your vehicle's speed. Reduction in speed should be done gradually in order to avoid
becoming a hazard for other motorists. Determining a correct and safe speed depends on
the thickness of the fog and is left to your best judgment.

Use low-beam headlights only when driving in fog. Low-beams serve two purposes.
They help you see the immediate roadway and also allow other motorists to see your
vehicle.

Avoid the use of high-beam headlights while driving in fog. The water particles that
make up fog will reflect more light back at you than onto the roadway when high beams
are used, and will further reduce visibility for you.

Make use of windshield wipers and the defroster when driving in fog. Driving in foggy
conditions will cause a constant fine mist of water to develop on the vehicle's windshield,
32
reducing visibility in the process. Using the windshield wipers and defroster will alleviate
this condition.

Avoid passing other vehicles while driving in fog.

Avoid stopping on any roadway while driving in foggy conditions unless absolutely
necessary. If you must stop, use the emergency or breakdown lane, activate your
emergency flashers, turn off the headlights.
Rain: Rain causes roadways to become slippery, especially when it first begins. Roadways
become covered with a thin layer of oil and other residues. When rain mixes with this layer, it
results in an extremely slippery and dangerous road surface. This condition remains until
additional rain can break down and wash away the oily mixture from the pavement. This process
can take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours, depending on the severity of the rain.
Water on the road surface can also create a potential hazard of hydroplaning. Hydroplaning
happens when a thin layer of water separates the vehicle's tires from the road surface. When a
vehicle is hydroplaning, it is literally riding on water. When the tires ride on water, they lose all
traction and create an extremely dangerous situation. The faster a vehicle travels on standing
water, the greater the chance of hydroplaning. Reducing speed is the best and safest way to avoid
hydroplaning.
Rain also reduces visibility. Because rain presents these hazards, drivers are expected to adhere
to the following procedures when driving in rainy conditions:

Slow the vehicle's speed to avoid hydroplaning. Reduction in speed should be done
gradually in order to avoid becoming a hazard for other motorists. Determining the
correct and safe speed depends on how heavy the rain is and will be left to your best
judgment.

Increase your following distance from other motorists. Since rain causes the road surface
to become slippery, you need to allow for greater stopping distance if the need to stop
arises.

Use windshield wipers and the defroster when driving in rain. Driving in rainy conditions
will cause a constant film of water to develop on the vehicle's windshield, reducing
visibility in the process. Using the windshield wipers and defroster will alleviate this
condition.

You should avoid passing other vehicles while driving in rain. In addition, you are
encouraged to follow other vehicles at a safe distance since vehicles traveling ahead will
throw water off the pavement and leave "tracks". Driving in these tracks will give you the
best possible traction under rainy conditions.
33
Snow: Snow, depending on the type and severity, can present a variety of dangerous conditions.
Because of this, the following procedures have been developed for this defensive driving policy:

Light, powdery snow presents few problems since it is quickly blown of the road surface.
However if there is enough of this type of snow to cover the roadway, it will form a slick,
smooth surface. You should reduce speed and increase following distance. Determining
the correct speed and safe following distance will be left to your best judgment.

Heavier, slushy snow can affect vehicle control. If snow becomes hard packed it can
cause an ice hazard on the road surface. Again, you should reduce speed and increase
following distance. Determining the correct speed and safe following distance will be
left to your best judgment.

All slow maneuvers such as starting out, steering, backing, and turning should be done
smoothly and with extreme care to minimize skids and slides.

Falling or blowing snow can greatly reduce visibility. In addition, falling and blowing
snow can make it hard to see the road, road markings, road signs, and off ramps. If you
must continue in snowy conditions, reducing speed and increasing following distance are
the best techniques a driver can use to maintain vehicle control.

As with driving in foggy conditions, the use of high beam headlights while driving in
snowy conditions should be avoided at all times. The high-beam "shooting" light will
reflect off falling and blowing snow and reflect back at you, further reducing visibility.

Drivers will also be educated on the dangers of "snow hypnosis". Snow hypnosis occurs
when a driver is traveling directly into heavy snow and begins to focus on the falling
snow instead of the road ahead. This can cause a hypnotic-like effect on the driver. The
danger of snow hypnosis is especially prevalent at night.

In extreme conditions, chains may be necessary
Ice: Drivers need to be aware of changes in road surface conditions that may affect the vehicle's
traction. To help, the following procedures for driving on icy roads for this defensive driving
policy have been developed:

As with all extreme weather conditions, if you must continue, the safest techniques to
employ are to reduce speed and increase your following distance. But of these two,
increasing following distance is by far the most important. Depending on the temperature
and road conditions, stopping distance (distance needed to come to a complete stop) on
icy roads can increase four to ten times versus stopping from the same speed on a dry
road.
34

“Black Ice” forms when temperatures drop rapidly and any moisture on the road surface
freezes into a smooth, almost transparent layer of ice. What makes black ice particularly
dangerous is that you may not realize you are on it until it's too late. Determining the
correct speed and safe following distance will be left to your best judgment.

Bridges and overpasses are other areas to which you should give special attention. Ice
will tend to form first on bridges and overpasses because cold air circulates both above
and below these structures causing the temperature to drop more rapidly than on normal
roads. Any moisture on the road surface of a bridge or overpass will freeze quicker and
harder than elsewhere on the road. Extreme caution and a reduction in speed should be
used while traveling over bridges and overpasses.
Night Driving: All drivers need to be aware of the potential hazards driving at night present.
These hazards include fatigue, reduced visibility, poor lighting, other (impaired) motorists, and
animals on the road. To help drivers better prepare for driving at night, the following procedures
have been developed for this defensive driving policy:
Fatigue is perhaps the most dangerous hazard of driving at night. Nothing we do is worth any
one getting hurt.
Fatigue usually sets in at night, but a tired driver, at any time of day, is an unsafe driver. Fatigue
reduces drivers' reaction time and perception. All drivers are to review the following fatigue
warning signs:

Your eyes close or go out of focus by themselves.

You can't stop yawning.

You are experiencing trouble keeping your head up.

You experience short-term memory loss. For example, you can't remember the last
several miles you have driven.

Your thoughts wander or you begin to daydream.

You start drifting into other lanes of traffic, tailgate, or miss traffic signs.

You experience an inability to maintain a constant rate of speed.

You must jerk the steering wheel hard to correct a drift and get back into your lane.
If you experience any of these signs, it's time to get off the road as soon as safely possible and
get some rest.
35

Reduced visibility is a hazard of driving at night. At night, visual acuity (degree of
perception) and peripheral vision (side vision) are reduced, and the eyes may have
difficulty adjusting from light to darkness. These factors all contribute to reduced
visibility while driving at night. The best and safest techniques to counteract these night
driving hazards are to reduce your speed and increase your following distance. Reducing
speed is also the best way to prevent "over-driving" your headlights.

Poor lighting on the open highway or on rural roads is another hazard drivers should be
made aware of. At night, with poor or no lighting aside from the vehicle's headlights,
hazards in the road are much more difficult to see and avoid. You should reduce speed
and use extra caution when traveling on poorly lit or unfamiliar roads.

Impaired motorists (drunk drivers) are a hazard to everyone on the road. Drivers should
be especially cautious when driving between the hours of midnight and 0300 (typical bar
and tavern closing times). Drivers should be wary of motorists driving in an erratic
manner including weaving in and out of traffic lanes, having difficulty maintaining a
constant rate of speed, or braking suddenly. If you, as a driver, suspect that you are
sharing the road with an impaired motorist, reduce your speed, let the motorist pass, and
increase following distance.

Animals on the road present another kind of hazard while driving at night. Drivers are to
be especially alert when driving on roadways lined by woods or tall grass. Animals,
especially deer, can jump out in front of an oncoming vehicle with little or no warning.
The best techniques to avoid collisions with animals are to not "over-drive" your
headlights and to reduce speed. If a collision with an animal is unavoidable, you should
drive "through" the animal. This will help prevent a jackknife or rollover type accident.
Road Construction: Chances are good that from time to time our drivers will be faced with
having to drive on roadways that are being repaired or under construction. Road construction
presents several hazards. Because of this, our drivers are expected to approach road construction
work zones the same way they would any adverse driving situation and follow these procedures:

Reduce speed and maintain a safe following distance.

Drive at or under all special or reduced posted speed limits while traveling through road
construction work zones. Safe following distance will be left to your best judgment.

Be constantly aware of your immediate surroundings, anticipate the possible actions of
other motorists, and expect sudden stops.

Watch for construction workers or vehicles crossing the roadway.

Use the lane furthest from a construction zone when possible.

Avoid sudden lane changes and use headlights and four-way flashers when traveling
through construction zones.
36
Road Hazards: Drivers should be aware of the potential danger of encountering various types
of road hazards including:

Soft shoulders or severe pavement drop-offs that can cause rollover type accidents.

Road debris such as tire recaps, metal or lumber can cause severe damage to tires, tire
rims, electrical systems, and brake lines. You should be aware of the road ahead to
identify potential road debris early and take safe and appropriate avoidance maneuvers.
Underpasses: Hitting a bridge, underpass, or viaduct is a danger you should be constantly
aware of. This type of accident, often referred to as "topping" a trailer, is always preventable.
Drivers need to be aware that the posted height of an underpass is not always accurate. Repaving and packed snow can reduce the clearance of an overpass enough to cause a problem. In
addition, an empty trailer will ride higher than when it is loaded. You should make thorough trip
plans. When in doubt of the clearance of an underpass, you should get out of your vehicle and
make a visual inspection or find an alternate route.
Fixed Objects and Special Intersections: A good defensive driver will observe items in the
area around the vehicle that might cause problems. Checking to be certain there is adequate
clearance is the primary thing to watch. In the areas of driveways, alleyways or plant entrances,
the effective defensive driver will analyze the situation carefully, slow down, sound a warning
when appropriate, and be ready to yield to the other driver involved.
Physical and Mental Condition: Drivers are expected to manage their physical and mental
condition. That especially means keeping a positive attitude when behind the wheel, and taking
good care of their physical health. Fatigue is an especially dangerous factor to be aware of.
Following Distance: Tailgating is probably the single most common complaint lodged by the
general driving public against truck drivers. Here are some specific following distance
guidelines:

3-second interval at speeds up to 40 mph,

4-second interval at any speed over 44 mph,

add extra time in bad weather or poor road conditions,

add extra following distance if you are being tailgated.
Driving Speed: You should drive consistent with posted speed limits, with due regard given to
existing traffic, weather and highway conditions. Never overdrive your headlights at night. That
means you should be able to stop safely in the distance you can see clearly in your headlights.
37
Right of Way: As a defensive driver, you should never attempt to exercise the right of way
principle. Let the other driver go first. Keep to the right except to pass, or when getting into
position to turn left. In town, when you enter a main thoroughfare from a side street, alley,
driveway or a highway ramp, make a full stop at any crosswalk, then another full stop before
actually moving into traffic.
Meeting Other Vehicles: Keep to the right when meeting other vehicles on a roadway. If a
vehicle approaches on your side of the road, slow down and pull to the right as far as you safely
can. If you have to take this kind of evasive action, and
have actually gone off the highway onto the shoulder, be certain you slow the vehicle down
sufficiently before you attempt to come back onto the highway. Never pull to the left to avoid an
oncoming vehicle.
When merging onto a highway drivers are expected to:
•
•
•
•
Signal early,
Be patient and watch for an opening,
Build speed and merge smoothly,
Check mirrors constantly.
When exiting a highway drivers are expected to:
•
•
•
•
Signal and change into the right-hand lane early and safely,
Signal intentions to exit early,
Check mirrors constantly,
Reduce speed and exit.
Curves and Turns: The most important thing to remember in successfully negotiating curves
and turns is to slow down BEFORE you enter the curve. That way you will be able to make any
needed adjustments in steering, etc. as required.
38
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Electrical Safety
Purpose:
The Electrical Safety program is designed to prevent electrically related injuries
and property damage. This program also provides for proper training of
maintenance employees to ensure they have the requisite knowledge and
understanding of electrical work practices and procedures. Only employees
qualified in this program may conduct adjustment, repair or replacement of
electrical components or equipment. Electricity has long been recognized as a
serious workplace hazard, exposing employees to such dangers as electric shock,
electrocution, fires and explosions. References: NFPA 70E, Electrical Safety
Requirements for Employee Workplaces, National Electrical Code (NEC) and
OSHA Standard (Electrical Safety) 29 CFR 1910.331 to 1910.339
Responsibilities
Management:
Provide training for qualified and unqualified employees
Conduct inspections to identify electrical safety deficiencies
Guard and correct all electrical deficiencies promptly
Ensure all new electrical installations meet codes and regulations
Employees:
Report electrical deficiencies immediately
Not work on electrical equipment unless authorized and trained
Properly inspect all electrical equipment prior to use
Hazard Control
Engineering Controls:

All electrical distribution panels, breakers, disconnects, switches, junction
boxes shall be completely enclosed

Water tight enclosure shall be used where there is possibility of moisture
entry either from operations or weather exposure

Electrical distribution areas will be guarded against accidental damage by
locating in specifically designed rooms, use of substantial guard posts and
rails and other structural means

A clear approach and 3 foot side clearance shall be maintained for all
distribution panels.
39

All conduits shall be fully supported throughout its length. Non-electrical
attachments to conduit are prohibited.

All non-rigid cords shall be provided strain relief where necessary.
Administrative Controls:

Only trained and authorized employees may conduct repairs to electrical
equipment.

Contractors performing electrical work must be hold a license for the rated
work

Areas under new installation or repair will be sufficiently guarded with
physical barriers and warning signs to prevent unauthorized entry

Access to electrical distribution rooms is limited to those employees who
have a need to enter

All electrical control devices shall be properly labeled

Work on energized circuits is prohibited unless specifically authorized by
senior facility management

All qualified employees will follow established electrical safety
procedures and precautions
Protective Equipment:

Qualified employees will wear electrically rated safety shoed/boots.

All tools used for electrical work shall be properly insulated

Electrical rated gloves shall be available for work on electrical equipment

Electrically rated matting will be installed in front of all distribution
panels in electric utility rooms
Electrical Equipment
Examination:
Electrical equipment shall be free from recognized hazards that are likely to cause
death or serious physical harm to employees. Safety of equipment shall be
determined using the following considerations:

Suitability for installation and use in conformity with the provisions of this
subpart. Suitability of equipment for an identified purpose may be
evidenced by listing or labeling for that identified purpose.

Mechanical strength and durability, including, for parts designed to
enclose and protect other equipment, the adequacy of the protection thus
provided.
40

Electrical insulation.

Heating effects under conditions of use.

Arcing effects.

Classification by type, size, voltage, current capacity, and specific use.

Other factors which contribute to the practical safeguarding of employees
using or likely to come in contact with the equipment.
Identification of Disconnecting Means and Circuits:
Each disconnecting means for motors and appliances shall be legibly marked to
indicate its purpose. Each service, feeder, and branch circuit, at its disconnecting
means or overcurrent device, shall be legibly marked to indicate its purpose.
These markings shall be of sufficient durability to withstand the environment
involved.
A disconnecting means is a switch that is used to disconnect the conductors of a
circuit from the source of electric current. Disconnect switches are important
because they enable a circuit to be opened, stopping the flow of electricity, and
thus can effectively protect workers and equipment.
Each disconnect switch or overcurrent device required for a service, feeder, or
branch circuit must be clearly labeled to indicate the circuit's function, and the
label or marking should be located at the point where the circuit originates. For
example, on a panel that controls several motors or on a motor control center,
each disconnect must be clearly marked to indicate the motor to which each
circuit is connected. In the figure below, the Number 2 circuit breaker in the panel
box supplies current only to disconnect Number 2, which in turn controls the
current to motor Number 2? This current to motor Number 2 can be shut off by
the Number 2 circuit breaker or the Number 2 disconnect.
All labels and markings must be durable enough to withstand weather, chemicals,
heat, corrosion, or any other environment to which they may be exposed.
Definition of Terms
Qualified Worker: An employee trained and authorized to conduct electrical
work.
Unqualified: Employees who have not been trained or authorized by
management to conduct electrical work.
Training
Training for Unqualified Employees:
Training for Unqualified Employees is general electrical safety precautions to
provide an awareness and understanding of electrical hazards..
41
Electrical Safety Rules for Non-Qualified Workers:
1. Do not conduct any repairs to electrical equipment
2. Report all electrical deficiencies to your supervisor
3 Do not operate equipment if you suspect and electrical problem
4. Water and electricity do not mix.
5. Even low voltages can kill or injure you
6. Do not use cords or plugs if the ground prong is missing
7. Do not overload electrical receptacles
Training for Qualified Employees:
Training for Qualified Employees includes specific equipment procedures and
requirements of Electrical Safety, 29 CFR 1910.331 to 1910.339
Training for employees (qualified and unqualified) who face a risk of electric shock that
is not reduced to a safe level by proper electrical installation. Training can be either in the
classroom or on-the-job type. The degree of training required is dependent upon the risk
to the employee. Specific required training includes:
o
o
o
Skills and techniques necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts
of electric equipment.
Skills and techniques necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live
parts,
Clearance distances specified in OSHA Standard 1910.333(c) and the
corresponding voltages to which the qualified person will be exposed.
Personal Protective Equipment:
Employees working in areas where the potential contacts with exposed electrical
sources are present and likely, will be provided and shall use Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE). The following rules apply to the use and care of PPEs:
1. PPEs shall be used where contact with exposed electrical sources are
present and likely.
2. PPEs shall be designed for the work being performed and environment in
which it is used.
3. PPEs shall be visually inspected and/or tested before use. Any defects or
damage shall be replaced, repaired or discarded.
4. In cases where the insulating capabilities of the PPEs may be damaged
during the work, a protective outer cover, such as leather, must be used.
5. Employees shall wear non-conductive head protection wherever there is a
danger of injury from electrical burns or shock from contact with exposed
energized parts.
42
6. Employee shall wear protective eye/face equipment whenever there is a
danger from electrical arcs or flashes or from flying objects resulting from an
electrical explosion.
Electrical PPE Inspection Schedule
Type of equipment
When to test
Rubber insulating line hose
Upon indication that insulating value is suspect.
Rubber insulating covers
Upon indication that insulating value is suspect.
Rubber insulating blankets
Rubber insulating gloves
Rubber insulating sleeves
Before first issue and every 12 months
Before first issue and every 6 months
Before first issue and every 12 months
Electrical Lockout & Tagout Requirements
Application of locks and tags:
A lock and a tag shall be placed on each disconnecting means used to de-energize
circuits and equipment on which work is to be performed, except as provided for
below.
1. The lock shall be attached so as to prevent persons from operating the
disconnecting means unless they resort to undue force or the use of tools.
2. Each tag shall contain a statement prohibiting unauthorized operation of the
disconnecting means and removal of the tag.
3. If a lock cannot be applied a tag may be used without a lock.
4. A tag used without a lock must be supplemented by at least one additional
safety measure that provides a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by
use of a lock. Examples of additional safety measures include the removal of
an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling switch, or opening of an
extra disconnecting device.
5. A lock may be placed without a tag only under the following conditions:
A. Only one circuit or piece of equipment is de-energized, and
B. The lockout period does not extend beyond the work shift, and
C. Employees exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the
circuit or equipment are familiar with this procedure.
Working at Elevated Locations:
Any person working on electrical equipment on a crane or other elevated must
take necessary precautions to prevent a fall from reaction to electrical shock or
other causes. A second person, knowledgeable as a safety watch, must assume the
43
best possible position to assist the worker in case of an accident. Portable ladders
shall have non-conductive siderails if they are used where the employee or the
ladder could contact exposed energized parts.
General Protective Equipment and Tools:
General Protective Equipment and Tools shall be used when in the proximity of,
or working on, exposed energized parts. The following rules apply:
1. When working on or near exposed energized parts, Qualified Employees
shall use insulated tools or handling equipment suitable for the voltage present
and working environment. In cases where the insulation may be damaged, a
protective outer layer should be employed.
2. Fuse handling equipment, insulated for the circuit voltage, shall be used to
remove or install fuses when the terminal is energized.
3. Ropes and other handlines used near exposed energized equipment shall be
non-conductive.
Warnings and Barricades:
Warnings and barricades shall be employed to alert unqualified Employees of the
present danger related to exposed energized parts. The following rules apply:
1. Safety signs, warning tags, etc., must be used to warn Unqualified
Employees of the electrical hazards present, even temporarily, that may
endanger them.
2. Non-conductive barricades shall be used with safety signs to prevent
Unqualified Employees access to exposed energized parts or areas.
3. Where barricades and warning signs do not provide adequate protection
from electrical hazards, an Attendant shall be stationed to warn and protect
Employees.
Powered Equipment Safety Rules:
Electrical equipment is defined as cord or plug-type electrical devices which
include the use of flexible or extension cords. Examples of portable electrical
equipment included powered hand tools, powered bench tools, fans, radios, etc.
The following safety rules apply to portable electrical equipment (PEE):
1. PEE shall be handled in such a manner as to not cause damage. Power
cords may not be stapled or otherwise hung in a way that may cause damage
to the outer jacket or insulation.
2. PEE shall be visually inspected for damage, wear, cracked or spilt outer
jackets or insulation, etc., before use or before each shift. PEE that remain
connected once put in place need not be inspected until relocated. Any
44
defects; such as cracked or split outer jackets or insulation must be repaired,
replaced or placed out of service.
3. Always check the compatibility of cord sets and receptacles for proper use.
4. Ground type cord sets may only be used with ground type receptacles when
used with equipment requiring a ground type conductor.
5. Attachment plugs and receptacle may not be altered or connected in a way
that would prevent the proper continuity of the equipment grounding
conductor. Adapters may not be used if they interrupt the continuity of the
grounding conductor.
6. Only portable electrical equipment that is double insulated or designed for
use in areas that are wet or likely to contact conductive liquids may be used.
7. Employees that are wet or have wet hands may not handle PEEs (plug-in,
un-plug, etc.). Personal protective equipment must be used when handling
PEEs that are wet or covered with a conductive liquid.
8. Locking-type connectors shall be properly secured after connection to a
power source.
Electrical Circuit Safety Procedures:
Electrical power and lighting circuits are defined as devices specifically designed
to connect, disconnect or reverse circuits under a power load condition. When
these circuits are employed, the following rules apply:
1. Cable connectors (not of load-break type) fuses, terminal plugs or cable
splice connectors may not be used, unless an emergency, to connect,
disconnect or reverse in place of proper electrical circuits.
2. After a protective circuit is disconnected or opened, it may not be
connected or closed until it has been determined that the equipment and circuit
can be safely energized.
3. Overcurrent protectors of circuits or connected circuits may not be
modified, even on a temporary basis, beyond the installation safety
requirements.
4. Only Qualified Employees may perform test on electrical circuits or
equipment.
5. Test equipment and all associated test leads, cables, power cords, probes
and connectors shall be visually inspected for external damage before use.
Any damage or defects shall be repaired before use or placed out of service.
6. Test equipment shall be rated to meet or exceed the voltage being tested
and fit for the environment in which it is being used.
7. Where flammable or ignitable materials are stored, even occasionally,
electrical equipment capable of igniting them may not be used unless
measures are taken to prevent hazardous conditions from developing.
45
Standard Operating Procedure
Electrical Pre-Work Procedure:
Except in extreme cases, work on electrical equipment will be done with all
electrical circuits in the work area de-energized by following the Lockout/Tagout
procedure. When working on or near energized electrical circuits with less than
30 volts to ground, the equipment need not be de-energized if there will be no
increased exposure to electrical burns or to explosion from electric arcs.
To prepare for work on electrical systems or components, the following procedure
applies:
Caution: Treat all electrical circuits as "Live" until they have been Tagged
and Locked Out and tested by the following procedure.
1. Obtain permission from supervisor to conduct work
2. Lockout and Tagout all sources of electrical power
3. Verify de-energized condition before any circuits or equipment are
considered and worked as de-energized.
A. A qualified person shall operate the equipment operating controls
or otherwise verify that the equipment cannot be restarted.
B. Verify proper operation of the Voltmeter at a live electrical source
of the same rated voltage as the circuit to be worked.
C. Using the Voltmeter, check all exposed circuits phase to phase and
phase to ground for evidence of voltage/current in the circuit.
D. Conduct work on the circuit only after determining that there is no
voltage in any of the exposed circuits.
E. If voltage is detected in any exposed circuit, STOP, inform
supervisor and determine source and procedure to eliminate voltage.
4. Conduct work
5. Close up all exposed circuits, boxes, controls, equipment.
6. Remove Lockout/Tagout
7. Obtain supervisor permission to energize circuits
Standard Operating Procedure
Working on or Near Exposed Energized Circuits:
In the rare situation when energized equipment (or working in near proximity to
energized equipment) cannot be de-energized, the following work practices must
be used to provide protection:
46
Caution: Unqualified Employees are prohibited from working on or near
exposed energized circuits.
1. Obtain permission from Manager to work on or near energized electrical
circuits
2. Lockout and Tagout all circuits possible
3. Treat all circuits as energized.
4. Remove all conductive clothing and jewelry (rings, watches, wrist/neck
chains, metal buttons, metal writing instruments, etc.).
5. Use proper personal protective equipment, shields and/or barriers to provide
effective electrical insulation from energized circuits. This may include
electrically rated insulated gloves, aprons, rubber soled shoes, insulated
shields, insulated tools, etc.
6. Provide adequate lighting. Do not enter areas with exposed energized parts
unless illumination (lighting) is provided so that Employee may work safely.
Do not reach around obstructions of view or lighting (blindly) into areas
where exposed energized parts are located.
7. Employees entering a Confined Space with exposed energized parts must
use protective barriers, shields, or equipment or insulated materials rated at or
above the present voltage to avoid contact.
8. Doors or other hinged panels shall be constructed and secured to prevent
them from swinging into an Employee and causing contact with exposed
energized parts.
9. Housekeeping in areas of exposed energized parts may not be completed in
areas with close contact unless adequate safeguards (insulation equipment or
barriers) are present. Conductive cleaning material (Steel Wool, Silicon
Carbide, etc.) or liquids may not be used unless procedures (Lock and Tag
Out, etc.) are in place and followed.
10. Station a safety observer outside work area. The sole function of this
person is to quickly de-energize all sources of power or pull worker free from
electrical work area with a non-conductive safety rope if contact is made with
an energized electrical circuit.
11. A person qualified in CPR must be readily available to the scene.
Standard Operating Procedure
Re-energizing Electrical Circuits After Work Completed:
These requirements shall be met, in the order given, before circuits or equipment
is reenergized, even temporarily.
1. A qualified person shall conduct tests and visual inspections, as necessary,
to verify that all tools, electrical jumpers, shorts, grounds, and other such
47
devices have been removed, so that the circuits and equipment can be safely
energized.
2. Warn employees exposed to the hazards associated with reenergizing the
circuit or equipment to stay clear of circuits and equipment.
3. Remove each lock and tag. They shall be removed by the employee who
applied it or under his or her direct supervision. However, if this employee is
absent from the workplace, then the lock or tag may be removed by a
qualified supervisor designated to perform this task provided that:
A. The supervisor ensures that the employee who applied the lock or
tag is not available at the workplace, and
B. The supervisor ensures that the employee is aware that the lock or
tag has been removed before he or she resumes work at that
workplace.
4. Conduct a visual determination that all employees are clear of the circuits
and equipment.
48
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Emergency Action Plan
It is not the intent of Don-Nan Pump & Supply to have its employees trained as
professional fireman or emergency response teams. They are to be first responders only.
Their training shall include the use and care of fire extinguishers, how to respond to an
emergency situation, First Aid/ CPR training and proper notification procedures.
EMERGENCY PROCEDURES:
Office:
If the emergency is a fire, other than an incipient fire that can be controlled with a fire
extinguisher, then the employee is to flee through the nearest marked exit that is away
from the emergency, notify all employees and guest that are on the premises and then
assemble on the east side of the street. The office manager will then account for all
personnel. The office manager will designate someone to contact 911.
If the emergency is weather related such as a tornado, high winds or severe lightning
storm, all employees and guest will assemble in the hall and sit on the floor.
Field: (Accidents and injuries)
If the emergency does not involve a fatality, then the employee will administer First
Aid and or CPR at their discretion and contact the management of Don-Nan Pump &
Supply.
If the emergency does involve a fatality, then the employee will contact the
management of Don-Nan Pump & Supply. The management of Don-Nan Pump &
Supply will contact 911.
The employee will stay on location and allow only authorized personnel to enter. The
employee will return to the office and put into writing everything that he/she
witnessed.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration must be contacted within 8 hours
of any fatality or catastrophe that involves employees of Don-Nan Pump & Supply.
Note: A catastrophe is any accident that puts two or more people in the hospital.
Field: (Fires and weather)
If the emergency is a fire that cannot be controlled with a fire extinguisher, then the
employee is to flee upwind, if possible, then contact 911. The employee will then
contact the management of Don-Nan Pump & Supply.
If the emergency is weather related such as high winds or tornado, then the employee
is to get in a low area such as a ditch or draw, taking care to check for toxic fumes
etc.
If emergency is lightning storm, then employees are to get into vehicle and move
away from storage tanks. Do not get into any vehicle that has extended poles or
derricks.
FIRE PREVENTION PLAN:
49
Office and Field Areas:

Flammable chemicals shall be stored or transported in approved containers only.

Portable fire extinguishers will be inspected monthly.

Ignition Sources shall be kept clear of flammable materials. Examples: cigarettes,
lighters, and matches etc.

Burning of waste oil, grass, weeds, brush, trash, or flammable material is
prohibited without management approval.
VIOLENT AND HOSTILE BEHAVIOR:

Any act or threatened act of violence on the part of anyone in a Don-Nan Pump &
Supply area or on a customer’s location must be reported to management and
management will investigate and call law enforcement if necessary.

Employees are not to endanger their own welfare if the person engaging in the
violent act is armed in any manner. The employee is to flee the area and notify all
other personnel, notify local law enforcement.
EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS
Objectives:
To stress the importance of always expecting, and thus being prepared to handle,
emergencies and to highlight the existence and value of the company’s emergency
contingency plan. The results should be fast, proper response in the event of an
emergency.
Suggested Materials to Have on Hand:

Company contingency plan

First-aid kit

Fire extinguisher

Map of emergency evacuation route

Names and phone numbers of people inside and outside the company to contact in
an emergency.
Note: You may want to include a test sounding of your company’s alarm system or
walk workers through a proper evacuation as part of this objective.
Introduction/Overview:
The purpose of all our safety meetings and training programs is to alert you to the
risks you may encounter on the job and to prepare you to avoid those risks when
possible.
Sometimes, however, accidents happen, so you also have to be prepared to deal with
emergencies that arise.
There are two old sayings that apply to emergencies:
50
1. Murphy’s Law: Whatever can go wrong will go wrong.
2. The Boy Scout slogan: Be prepared.
We have a contingency plan here that covers all different types of emergencies. But
the best-laid plans count for nothing if don’t know about them and don’t follow them.
In most emergencies, your role is limited. One of the keys to handling these situations
is to turn them over to people who have special training and who have the proper
equipment for the job.
But even if you’re not part of a special emergency crew, you still have two important
roles to play: getting yourself away safely and doing what you can to expedite and
clear the way for the people handling the problem.
OSHA Regulations:
OSHA requires companies to be equipped and prepared to deal with various kinds of
emergencies.
The agency defines in detail the exits that must be available (1910.37). It also requires
written emergency plans for most companies (1910.38) that include:

Emergency escape procedures and routes

Procedures for employees who operate critical plant operations before
evacuating

Procedures to account for employees following emergency evacuation

Rescue and medical duties for assigned employees

Means of reporting emergencies

People to contact for further information.
This regulation also requires an alarm system, which is further detailed in the
regulations for fire protection (1910.165), an evacuation plan, and training for
employees regarding the plan.
The Hazard Communication Standard (1910.1200(h)) also requires companies to
include emergency procedures in the information and training they provide to
employees.
Identifying Hazards:
The first step in emergency preparedness is being familiar with all the risks in your
work area:

Flammable liquids and the circumstances in which they could catch fire

Reactive chemicals and the types of reactions they could cause

Explosive agents and what could cause them to explode

Electrical hazards that could cause fires

Vapors and dusts that could burn or explode

Chemical vapors that could be toxic in the air
51

Confined space entry
In other words, work on the premise that anything that could go wrong will go wrong.
Pay attention to what you’re working with and where you’re using it. Know what
problems could arise so that you can take steps to prevent them and so you’ll know
what to do if the worst happens.
Protection Against Hazards:
Among your best protections against accidents that could lead to real emergencies
are chemical labels and material safety data sheets.
Study the information they provide whenever you’re working with or around a
hazardous chemical. They’ll tell you what could go wrong, as well as what
procedures to follow to prevent accidents from occurring.
If you get in the habit of always referring to labels and MSDS’s, and always
following their instructions as well as what you learn in safety training, you’ll be
doing your part to prevent incidents that become what we consider emergencies.
Safety Procedures:
But accidents do happen, whether someone is at fault or not. So it’s important to be
totally familiar with the procedures to follow in an emergency. In a real emergency,
there’s not enough time to think and to look things up. You have to act fast and do it
right.
Here’s what to keep in mind:
Note: The following is a general description of emergency plan components.

Know how to report a fire, spill or other incident. The names and numbers
of people to contact are posted next to each phone. Keep in mind that you
must act quickly. If people have to be evacuated or if the problem has to
be contained, there is no time to lose. There could be lives at stake.

Recognize the sound of the emergency alarm.

Know your responsibilities for shutting down operations or systems.

Know where to find first-aid supplies and fire extinguishers.

Follow your assigned evacuation route and meet at your assigned
assembly point. Don’t wander around. We have to be able to find you to
make sure you are safe.

If you have emergency response responsibilities, follow your instructions
on where to go and what to do.
These procedures are vitally important. There is no time to waste when people’s
safety and even lives are at risk. In some of these emergencies, outside people
such as fire departments and chemical response emergency teams also have to be
involved. Emergencies such as spills and toxic releases also have to be reported to
specific people in the community.
To keep an emergency from becoming a disaster, everyone has to play his or her
own role perfectly. Your role is critical even if you aren’t assigned to put out fires
52
or clean up spills. If you don’t fulfill your responsibilities quickly and properly,
those people won’t be able to fulfill theirs.
Suggested Discussion Questions:
1. What are some of the types of emergencies we might have here?
2. What are some of the materials we work with that could create accidents?
3. Where can we get information on risks and protections?
4. What should you do if you spot a fire or spill?
5. What is your evacuation route?
6. Where do you assemble after evacuating?
7. Where do we keep first-aid supplies and fire extinguishers?
8. Why is it important to act quickly in an emergency?
Wrap-Up:
Emergency preparedness is everyone’s responsibility. The company has worked
hard to prepare a detailed plan to handle emergencies and has trained and
equipped people to deal with specific types of accidents. But everyone in the
company has emergency responsibilities:

To be informed about risks

To take steps to prevent accidents

To respond quickly in an emergency

To follow emergency procedures quickly and properly
We want a safe workplace, and even if some unforeseen accident occurs, we
want everyone to get out of it in good condition. So know exactly what to do in
an emergency-and do it.
53
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Fall Protection
Purpose:
The purpose of the fall protection program is to:



ensure all areas are free from uncontrolled fall hazards
all employees are properly trained in fall prevention and protection
fall prevention systems are inspected and monitored to ensure
effectiveness
Policy:
It is the policy of Don-Nan Pump & Supply to take all practical measures possible to prevent
employees from being injured by falls. We will take necessary steps to eliminate, prevent, and
control fall hazards. We will comply fully with the OSHA Fall Protection standard (CFR 1926,
Subpart M, Fall Protection). The first priority is given to the elimination of fall hazards. If a fall
hazard cannot be eliminated, effective fall protection will be planned, implemented, and
monitored to control the risks of injury due to falling.
All employees exposed to potential falls from heights will be trained to minimize the exposures.
Fall protection equipment will be provided and its use required by all employees. Foreman will
be responsible for implementation of a fall protection plan for their jobsite.
Hazard Identification:
The foreman on each jobsite will be responsible for identifying fall hazards on their jobsite. The
foreman will evaluate each situation or work procedure where employees may be exposed to a
fall of 6 feet or more. The foreman will be responsible for developing a plan to eliminate the
exposures, if possible, or to select the appropriate fall protection systems and/or equipment.
Hazard Control:
Engineering Controls:





Personal Fall Protection
Guard Rail Systems
Positioning Devices
Warning Line Systems
Floor Opening Covers
Administrative Controls:


Controlled access zones
Employee training
54




Audits
Inspections
Supervision
Signs
Fall Protection Required:
The following are examples of situations were fall protection would be needed. This listing is by
no means complete, and there are many other situations where a fall of 6 feet or more is possible.
It should be noted that ladders and scaffolding are not included in this list because they are
covered by other OSHA standards and other requirements of our safety program.
Wall Openings:
Each employee working on, at, above, or near wall openings (including those with
chutes attached) where the outside bottom edge of the wall opening is 6 feet (1.8
meters) or more above lower levels and the inside bottom edge of the wall
opening is less than 39 inches (1.0 meter) above the walking/working surface
must be protected from falling by the use of a guardrail system, a safety net
system, or a personal fall arrest system.
Holes:
Personal fall arrest systems, covers, or guardrail systems shall be erected around
holes (including skylights) that are more than 6 feet (1.8 meters) above lower
levels.
Leading Edges:
Each employee who is constructing a leading edge 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more
above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or
personal fall arrest systems.
Excavations:
Each employee at the edge of an excavation 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more deep shall
be protected from falling by guardrail systems, fences, barricades, or covers.
Where walkways are provided to permit employees to cross over excavations,
guardrails are required on the walkway if it is 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above
the excavation.
Formwork and Reinforcing Steel:
For employees, while moving vertically and/or horizontally on the vertical face of
rebar assemblies built in place, fall protection is not required when employees are
moving. OSHA considers the multiple hand holds and foot holds on rebar
assemblies as providing similar protection as that provided by a fixed ladder.
Consequently, no fall protection is necessary while moving point to point for
heights below 24 feet (7.3 meters). An employee must be provided with fall
protection when climbing or otherwise moving at a height more than 24 feet (7.3
meters), the same as for fixed ladders.
55
Hoist Areas:
Each employee in a hoist area shall be protected from falling 6 feet (1.8 meters) or
more by guardrail systems or personal fall arrest systems. If guardrail systems (or
chain gate or guardrail) or portions thereof must be removed to facilitate hoisting
operations, as during the landing of materials, and a worker must lean through the
access opening or out over the edge of the access opening to receive or guide
equipment and materials, that employee must be protected by a personal fall arrest
system.
Overhand Bricklaying and Related Work:
Each employee performing overhand bricklaying and related work 6 feet (1.8
meters) or more above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety
net systems, or personal fall arrest systems, or shall work in a controlled access
zone. All employees
reaching more than 10 inches (25 cm) below the level of a walking/working
surface on which they are working shall be protected by a guardrail system, safety
net system, or personal fall arrest system.
Precast Concrete Erection and Residential Construction:
Each employee who is 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above lower levels while
erecting precast concrete members and related operations such as grouting of
precast concrete members and each employee engaged in residential construction
shall be protected by guardrail systems, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest
systems.
Ramps, Runways, and Other Walkways:
Each employee using ramps, runways, and other walkways shall be protected
from falling 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more by guardrail systems.
Low-slope Roofs:
Each employee engaged in roofing activities on low-slope roofs with unprotected
sides and edges 6 feet (1.8 meters) or more above lower levels shall be protected
from falling by guardrail systems, safety net systems, personal fall arrest systems
or a combination of a warning line system and guardrail system, warning line
system and safety net system, warning line system and personal fall arrest system,
or warning line system and safety monitoring system. On roofs 50 feet (15.24
meters) or less in width, the use of a safety monitoring system without a warning
line system is permitted.
Steep Roofs:
Each employee on a steep roof with unprotected sides and edges 6 feet (1.8
meters) or more above lower levels shall be protected by guardrail systems with
toeboards, safety net systems, or personal fall arrest systems.
56
Controlled Access Zones:
A Controlled access zone is a work area designated and clearly marked in which certain types of
work (such as overhand bricklaying) may take place without the use of conventional fall
protection systems, guardrail, personal arrest or safety net to protect the employees working in
the zone.
The employer shall provide for prompt rescue of employees in the event of a fall or shall assure
the employees are able to rescue themselves.
Controlled access zones are used to keep out workers other than those authorized to enter work
areas from which guardrails have been removed. Where there are no guardrails, masons are the
only workers allowed in controlled access zones.
Controlled access zones, when created to limit entrance to areas where leading edge work and
other operations are taking place, must be defined by a control line or by any other means that
restrict
access. Control lines shall consist of ropes, wires, tapes or equivalent materials, and supporting
stanchions, and each must be:



Flagged or otherwise clearly marked at not more than 6-foot (1.8 meters) intervals with
high-visibility material
Rigged and supported in such a way that the lowest point (including sag) is not less than
39 inches (1 meter) from the walking/working surface and the highest point is not more
than 45 inches (1.3 meters)--nor more than 50 inches (1.3 meters) when overhand
bricklaying operations are being performed from the walking/working surface
Strong enough to sustain stress of not less than 200 pounds (0.88 kilonewtons). Control
lines shall extend along the entire length of the unprotected or leading edge and shall be
approximately parallel to the unprotected or leading edge Control lines also must be
connected on each side to a guardrail system or wall. When control lines are used, they
shall be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 meters) nor more than 25 feet (7.6 meters) from
the unprotected or leading edge, except when precast concrete members are being
erected. In the latter case, the control line is to be erected not less than 6 feet (1.8 meters)
nor more than 60 feet (18 meters)
or half the length of the member being erected, whichever is less, from the leading edge.
Controlled access zones when used to determine access to areas where overhand bricklaying and
related work are taking place are to be defined by a control line erected not less than 10 feet (3
meters) nor more than 15 feet (4.6 meters) from the working edge. Additional control lines must
be erected at each end to enclose the controlled access zone. Only employees engaged in
overhand bricklaying or related work are permitted in the controlled access zones.
On floors and roofs where guardrail systems are not in place prior to the beginning of overhand
bricklaying operations, controlled access zones will be enlarged as necessary to enclose all points
of access, material handling areas, and storage areas.
57
On floors and roofs where guardrail systems are in place, but need to be removed to allow
overhand bricklaying work or leading edge work to take place, only that portion of the guardrail
necessary to
accomplish that day's work shall be removed.
Fall Protection Systems:
When there is a potential fall of 6 feet or more, we will utilize one or more of the
following means of providing protection:
Guardrail Systems:
Guardrail systems must meet the following criteria. Toprails and midrails of
guardrail systems must be at least one-quarter inch (0.6 centimeters) nominal
diameter or thickness to prevent cuts and lacerations. If wire rope is used for
toprails, it must be flagged at not more 6 feet intervals (1.8 meters) with highvisibility material. Steel and plastic banding cannot be used as toprails or
midrails. Manila, plastic, or synthetic rope used for toprails or midrails must be
inspected as frequently as necessary to ensure strength and stability.
The top edge height of toprails or (equivalent) guardrails must be 42 inches (1.1
meters) plus or minus 3 inches (8 centimeters), above the walking/working level.
When workers are using stilts, the top edge height of the top rail, or equivalent
member, must be increased an amount equal to the height of the stilts.
Screens, midrails, mesh, intermediate vertical members, or equivalent
intermediate structural members must be installed between the top edge of the
guardrail system and the walking/working surface when there are no walls or
parapet walls at least 21 inches (53 centimeters) high. When midrails are used,
they must be installed a to a height midway between the top edge of the guardrail
system and the walking/working level.
When screens and mesh are used, they must extend from the top rail to the
walking/working level and along the entire opening between top rail supports.
Intermediate members, such as balusters, when used between posts, shall not be
more than 19 inches (48 centimeters) apart.
Other structural members, such as additional midrails and architectural panels,
shall be installed so that there are no openings in the guardrail system more than
19 inches (48 centimeters).
The guardrail system must be capable of withstanding a force of at least 200
pounds (890 newtons) applied within 2 inches of the top edge in any outward or
downward direction. When the 200 pound (890 newtons) test is applied in a
downward direction, the top edge of the guardrail must not deflect to a height less
58
than 39 inches (1 meter) above the walking/working level.
Midrails, screens, mesh, intermediate vertical members, solid panels, and
equivalent structural members shall be capable of withstanding a force of at least
150 pounds (667 newtons) applied in any downward or outward direction at any
point along the midrail or other member.
Guardrail systems shall be surfaced to protect workers from punctures or
lacerations and to prevent clothing from snagging.
The ends of top rails and midrails must not overhang terminal posts, except where
such overhang does not constitute a projection hazard.
When guardrail systems are used at hoisting areas, a chain, gate or removable
guardrail section must be placed across the access opening between guardrail
sections when hoisting operations are not taking place.
At holes, guardrail systems must be set up on all unprotected sides or edges.
When holes are used for the passage of materials, the hole shall have not more
than two sides with removable guardrail sections. When the hole is not in use, it
must be covered or provided with guardrails along all unprotected sides or edges.
If guardrail systems are used around holes that are used as access points (such as
ladderways), gates must be used or the point of access must be offset to prevent
accidental walking into the hole.
If guardrails are used at unprotected sides or edges of ramps and runways, they
must be erected on each unprotected side or edge.
Personal Fall Arrest Systems:
These consist of an anchorage, connectors, and a body belt or body harness and
may include a deceleration device, lifeline, or suitable combinations. If a personal
fall arrest system is used for fall protection, it must do the following:





Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 900 pounds (4
kilonewtons) when used with a body belt
Limit maximum arresting force on an employee to 1,800 pounds (8
kilonewtons) when used with a body harness
Be rigged so that an employee can neither free fall more than 6
feet (1.8 meters) nor contact any lower level
Bring an employee to a complete stop and limit maximum deceleration
distance an employee travels to 3.5 feet (1.07 meters)
Have sufficient strength to withstand twice the potential impact
energy of an employee free falling a distance of 6 feet (1.8 meters)
or the free fall distance permitted by the system, whichever is less.
59
The use of body belts for fall arrest is prohibited and a full body harness is
required.
Personal fall arrest systems must be inspected prior to each use for wear damage,
and other deterioration. Defective components must be removed from service.
Positioning Device Systems:
Body harness systems are to be set up so t hat a worker can free fall no farther
than 2 feet (0.6 meters). They shall be secured to an anchorage capable of
supporting a least twice the potential impact load of an employee's fall or 3,000
pounds (13.3 kilonewtons), whichever is greater.
Safety Monitoring Systems:
When no other alternative fall protection has been implemented, the employer
shall implement a safety monitoring system. Employers must appoint a competent
person to monitor the safety of workers and the employer shall ensure that the
safety monitor:




Is competent in the recognition of fall hazards
Is capable of warning workers of fall hazard dangers and in
detecting unsafe work practices
Is operating on the same walking/working surfaces of the workers
and can see them
Is close enough to work operations to communicate orally with
workers and has no other duties to distract from the monitoring
function.
Mechanical equipment shall not be used or stored in areas where safety
monitoring systems are being used to monitor employees engaged in roofing
operations on low-sloped roofs.
No worker, other than one engaged in roofing work (on low-sloped roofs) or one
covered by a fall protection plan, shall be allowed in an area where an employee
is being protected by a safety monitoring system.
All workers in a controlled access zone shall be instructed to promptly comply
with fall hazard warnings issued by safety monitors.
Warning Line Systems:
Warning line systems consist of ropes, wires, or chains, and supporting stanchions
and are set up as follows:


Flagged at not more than 6-foot (1.8 meters) intervals with
high-visibility material
Rigged and supported so that the lowest point including sag) is no
less than 34 inches (0.9 meters) from the walking/working surface and
60



its highest point is no more than 39 inches (1 meter) from the
walking/working surface
Stanchions, after being rigged with warning lines, shall be capable
of resisting, without tipping over, a force of at least 16 pounds 71
newtons) applied horizontally against the stanchion, 30 inches (0.8
meters) above the walking/working surface, perpendicular to the
warning line and in the direction of the floor, roof, or platform
edge
The rope, wire, or chain shall have a minimum tensile strength of
500 pounds (2.22 kilonewtons) and after being attached to the
stanchions, must support without breaking the load applied to the
stanchions as prescribed above
Shall be attached to each stanchion in such a way that pulling on
one section of the line between stanchions will not result in slack
being taken up in the adjacent section before the stanchion tips over.
Warning lines shall be erected around all sides of roof work areas. When
mechanical equipment is being used, the warning line shall be erected not less
than 6 feet (1.8 meters) from the roof edge parallel to the direction of mechanical
equipment operation, and not less than 10 feet (3 meters) from the roof edge
perpendicular to the direction of mechanical equipment operation.
When mechanical equipment is not being used, the warning line must be erected
not less than 6 feet (1.8 meters) from the roof edge.
Covers:
Covers located in roadways and vehicular aisles must be able to support at least
twice the maximum axle load of the largest vehicle to which the cover might be
subjected. All other covers must be able to support at least twice the weight of
employees, equipment, and materials that may be imposed on the cover at any one
time. To prevent accidental displacement resulting from wind, equipment, or
workers. Activities, all covers must be secured. All covers shall be color coded or
bear the markings "HOLE" or "COVER."
Protection from Falling Objects:
When guardrail systems are used to prevent materials from falling from one level
to another, any openings must be small enough to prevent passage of potential
falling objects. No materials or equipment except masonry and mortar shall be
stored within 4 feet (1.2 meters) of working edges. Excess mortar, broken or
scattered masonry units, and all other materials and debris shall be kept clear of
the working area by removal at regular intervals.
During roofing work, materials and equipment shall not be stored within 6 feet
(1.8 meters) of a roof edge unless guardrails are erected at the edge, and materials
piled, grouped, or stacked near a roof edge must be stable and self-supporting.
61
Training:
Employees will be trained in the following areas:
(a) The nature of fall hazards in the work area
(b) The correct procedures for erecting, maintaining, disassembling, and
inspecting fall protection systems
(c) The use and operation of controlled access zones and guardrail, personal fall
arrest, safety net, warning line, and safety monitoring systems
(d) The role of each employee in the safety monitoring system when the system is
in use
(e) The limitations on the use of mechanical equipment during the performance of
roofing work on low-sloped roofs
(f) The correct procedures for equipment and materials handling and storage and
the erection of overhead protection
(g) Employees role in fall protection plans.
(h) Retraining shall be provided if one of the following occurs:
1.) Work place changes and there are needs to be addressed
2.) Fall protection systems and/or equipment changes that are currently in
place are no longer prevalent or become obsolete
3.) Deficiencies in training or lack thereof
(i) All training for fall protection is documented and kept up to date by the Safety
Director
(j) If an accident happens to occur, it will be fully investigated by the Supervisor
and the Safety Director. After investigation is complete, it will then be recorded
and addressed to see if additional training or a modification in the training is
needed
(k) In the event of a fall, the proper authorities will be contacted immediately. If
the accident is an obviously serious fall, call 911 and get in touch with your
Supervisor immediately. This could truly be a life or death situation and time is
crucial.
62
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Fire Prevention Program
Purpose:
The Company Fire Safety Plan has been developed to work in conjunction with company
emergency plans and other safety programs. This includes reviewing all new building
construction and renovations to ensure compliance with applicable state, local, and
national fire and life safety standards. Fire prevention measures reduce the incidence of
fires by eliminating opportunities for ignition of flammable materials.
Responsibilities:
Management:

Ensure all fire prevention methods are established and enforced

Ensure fire suppression systems such as sprinklers and extinguishers are
periodically inspected and maintained to a high degree of working order

Train supervisors to use fire extinguishers for incipient fires

Train employees on evacuation routes and procedures
Supervisors:

Closely monitor the use of flammable materials and liquids

Train assigned employees in the safe storage, use and handling of flammable
materials

Ensure flammable material storage areas are properly maintained
Employees:

Use, store and transfer flammable materials in accordance with provided training

Do not mix flammable materials

Immediately report violations of the Fire Safety Program
Hazards:
Fire and explosion hazards can exist in almost any work area. Potential hazards include:

Improper operation or maintenance of gas fired equipment

Improper storage or use of flammable liquids

Smoking in prohibited areas

Accumulation of trash

Unauthorized Hot Work operations
Hazard Control
Elimination of Ignition Sources:
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All nonessential ignition sources must be eliminated where flammable liquids are used or
stored. The following is a list of some of the more common potential ignition sources:

Open flames, such as cutting and welding torches, furnaces, matches, and heatersthese sources should be kept away from flammable liquids operations. Cutting or
welding on flammable liquids equipment should not be performed unless the
equipment has been properly emptied and purged with a neutral gas such as
nitrogen.

Chemical sources of ignition such as D.C. motors, switched, and circuit breakersthese sources should be eliminated where flammable liquids are handled or stored.
Only approved explosion-proof devices should be used in these areas.

Mechanical sparks-these sparks can be produced as a result of friction. Only nonsparking tools should be used in areas where flammable liquids are stored or
handled.

Static sparks-these sparks can be generated as a result of electron transfer between
two contacting surfaces. The electrons can discharge in a small volume, raising
the temperature to above the ignition temperature. Every effort should be made to
eliminate the possibility of static sparks. Also proper bonding and grounding
procedures must be followed when flammable liquids are transferred or
transported.
Removal of Incompatibles:
Materials that can contribute to a flammable liquid fire should not be stored with
flammable liquids. Examples are oxidizers and organic peroxides, which, on
decomposition, can generate large amounts of oxygen.
Control of Flammable Gases:
Generally, flammable gases pose the same type of fire hazards as flammable liquids and
their vapors. Many of the safeguards for flammable liquids also apply to flammable
gases, other properties such as toxicity, reactivity, and corrosivity also must be taken into
account. Also, a gas that is flammable could produce toxic combustion products.
Fire Extinguishers:
A portable fire extinguisher is a "first aid" device and is very effective when used while
the fire is small. The use of fire extinguisher that matches the class of fire, by a person
who is well trained, can save both lives and property. Portable fire extinguishers must be
installed in workplaces regardless of other firefighting measures. The successful
performance of a fire extinguisher in a fire situation largely depends on its proper
selection, inspection, maintenance, and distribution.
Classification of Fires and Selection of Extinguishers
Fires are classified into four general categories depending on the type of material
or fuel involved. The type of fire determines the type of extinguisher that should
be used to extinguish it.
1) Class A fires involve materials such as wood, paper, and cloth which
produce glowing embers or char.
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2) Class B fires involve flammable gases, liquids, and greases, including
gasoline and most hydrocarbon liquids which must be vaporized for
combustion to occur.
3) Class C fires involve fires in live electrical equipment or in materials
near electrically powered equipment.
4) Class D fires involve combustible metals, such as magnesium,
zirconium, potassium, and sodium.
Extinguishers will be selected according to the potential fire hazard, the
construction and occupancy of facilities, hazard to be protected, and other
factors pertinent to the situation.
Location and Marking of Extinguishers:
Extinguishers will be conspicuously located and readily accessible for immediate
use in the event of fire. They will be located along normal paths of travel and
egress. Wall recesses and/or flush-mounted cabinets will be used as extinguisher
locations whenever possible.
Extinguishers will be clearly visible. In locations where visual obstruction cannot
be completely avoided, directional arrows will be provided to indicate the location
of extinguishers and the arrows will be marked with the extinguisher
classification.
If extinguishers intended for different classes of fire are located together, they will
be conspicuously marked to ensure that the proper class extinguisher selection is
made at the time of a fire. Extinguisher classification markings will be located on
the front of the shell above or below the extinguisher nameplate. Markings will be
of a size and form to be legible from a distance of 3 feet.
Condition:
Portable extinguishers will be maintained in a fully charged and operable
condition. They will be kept in their designated locations at all times when not
being used. When extinguishers are removed for maintenance or testing, a fully
charged and operable replacement unit will be provided.
Mounting and Distribution of Extinguishers:
Extinguishers will be installed on hangers, brackets, in cabinets, or on shelves.
Extinguishers having a gross weight not exceeding 40 pounds will be so installed
that the top of the extinguisher is not more than 3-1/2 feet above the floor.
Extinguishers mounted in cabinets or wall recesses or set on shelves will be
placed so that the extinguisher operating instructions face outward. The location
of such extinguishers will be made conspicuous by marking the cabinet or wall
recess in a contrasting color which will distinguish it from the normal decor.
Extinguishers must be distributed in such a way that the amount of time needed to
travel to their location and back to the fire does not allow the fire to get out of
control. OSHA requires that the travel distance for Class A and Class D
extinguishers not exceed 75 feet. The maximum travel distance for Class B
extinguishers is 50 feet because flammable liquid fires can get out of control
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faster that Class A fires. There is no maximum travel distance specified for Class
C extinguishers, but they must be distributed on the basis of appropriate patterns
for Class A and B hazards.
Inspection and Maintenance:
Once an extinguisher is selected, purchased, and installed, it is the responsibility
of the Safety Officer to oversee the inspection, maintenance, and testing of fire
extinguishers to ensure that they are in proper working condition and have not
been tampered with or physically damaged.
Fire Safety Inspections & Housekeeping:
First line supervisors and Safety Committees are responsible for conducting work site
surveys that include observations of compliance with the Fire Safety Program. These
surveys should include observations of worksite safety and housekeeping issues and
should specifically address proper storage of chemicals and supplies, unobstructed access
to fire extinguishers, and emergency evacuation routes. Also, they should determine if an
emergency evacuation plan is present in work areas and that personnel are familiar with
the plan.
Emergency Exits:
Every exit will be clearly visible, or the route to it conspicuously identified in such a
manner that every occupant of the building will readily know the direction of escape from
any point. At no time will exits be blocked.
Any doorway or passageway which is not an exit or access to an exit but which may be
mistaken for an exit will be identified by a sign reading "Not An Exit" or a sign
indicating it actual use (i.e., "Storeroom"). Exits and accesses to exits will be marked by a
readily visible sign. Each exit sign (other than internally illuminated signs) will be
illuminated by a reliable light source providing not less than 5 foot-candles on the
illuminated surface.
Emergency Plan for Persons with Disabilities:
The first line supervisor is assigned the responsibility to assist Persons with Disabilities
(PWD) under their supervision. An alternate assistant will be chosen by the supervisor.
The role of the two assistants is to report to their assigned person, and to either assist in
evacuation or assure that the PWD is removed from danger.

Supervisors, alternates, and the person with a disability will be trained on
available escape routes and methods.

A list of persons with disabilities is kept in the Main Office.

Visitors who have disabilities will be assisted in a manner similar to that of
company employees. The Host of the person with disabilities will assist in their
evacuation.
Emergencies Involving Fire
Fire Alarms:
In the event of a fire emergency, a fire alarm will sound for the building.
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Evacuation Routes and Plans:
Each facility shall have an emergency evacuation plan. All emergency exits shall
conform to NFPA standards.
Should evacuation be necessary, go to the nearest exit or stairway and proceed to an area
of refuge outside the building. Most stairways are fire resistant and present barriers to
smoke if the doors are kept closed.
Do not use elevators. Should the fire involve the control panel of the elevator or the
electrical system of the building, power in the building may be cut and you could be
trapped between floors. Also, the elevator shaft can become a flue, lending itself to the
passage and accumulation of hot gases and smoke generated by the fire.
Emergency Coordinators/Supervisors:
Emergency Coordinators/Supervisors will be responsible for verifying personnel have
evacuated from their assigned areas.
Fire Emergency Procedures:
If you discover a fire
18. Activate the nearest fire alarm.
19. Notify your Supervisor and other occupants.
Fight the fire ONLY if:
1. The fire department has been notified of the fire, AND
2. The fire is small and confined to its area of origin, AND
3. You have a way out and can fight the fire with your back to the exit, AND
4. You have the proper extinguisher, in good working order, AND know how to use
it.
5. If you are not sure of your ability or the fire extinguisher's capacity to contain the
fire, leave the area.
If you hear a fire alarm:
1. Evacuate the area. Close windows, turn off gas jets, and close doors as you leave.
2. Leave the building and move away from exits and out of the way of emergency
operations.
3. Assemble in a designated area.
4. Report to the monitor so he/she can determine that all personnel have evacuated
your area.
5. Remain outside until competent authority states that it is safe to re-enter.
Evacuation Routes:
1. Learn at least two escape routes, and emergency exits from your area.
2. Never use an elevator as part of your escape route.
3. Learn to activate a fire alarm.
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4. Learn to recognize alarm sounds.
5. Take an active part in fire evacuation drills
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Medical Management & First Aid
General:
Occupational health concerns receive high priority. It is essential that each
location be able to adequately respond to first-aid events and resolve all other
occupational health problems quickly. The health and wellness of each employee
is a key segment of the overall safety environment.
OSHA Requirements:
OSHA requirements for medical services and first aid are found in Standard
Number 1910.151 and are listed below:

Ensure the ready availability of medical personnel for advice and
consultation on matters of plant health.

In the absence of an infirmary, clinic, or hospital in near proximity to the
workplace which is used for the treatment of all injured employees, a
person or persons shall be adequately trained to render first aid.

Where the eyes or body of any person may be exposed to injurious
corrosive materials, suitable facilities for quick drenching or flushing of
the eyes and body shall be provided within the work area for immediate
emergency use.
Responsibilities
Management:



Ensure there is a sufficient number of qualified first-aid providers
Provide first aid training for all supervisors
Offer first aid training for all employees
Safety Manager:









Ensure first-aid and health programs are adequate
Maintain all required records
Ensure First-Aid supplies are always well stocked
Conduct First Aid Training
Administration of all medical management programs
Administration of the Return to Work Program
Maintain Employee Health/Medical Files
Provide all necessary services in a courteous and professional manner
Conduct Physical screenings
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


Maintain all clinic areas clean, neat, and well stocked.
Follow accepted medical practices and procedures.
Adhere to all standards of the Bloodborne Pathogen Program
Records
Treatment Records - are permanent records and will be filled out for any of the
following:




All visits to the processing plant First-Aid Station w/ exception of visits
for minor cuts, comfort care, etc.
All accidents that result in any injury
All Occupational Illnesses
Prior to referral to any medical provider
Medical Appointment Log - will be filled in when any appointment for medical
treatment, evaluation, or other medical service is made for an employee.
Modified Duty Assignment - forms shall be completed by Consulting Physician
for any employee who has a condition that prevents them from conducting their
normal duties. This form shall be used to notify management of the limitations of
the employee. Management will assign tasks consistent with any limitations.
Questions concerning the limitations are to be directed to Consulting Physician.
Human Resources shall maintain a file for original forms. Copies shall be
provided to the employee, the employee's Supervisor and Manager.
Confidentiality - records of all first-aid and medical events shall be kept in each
individual's medical file. All medical record information is confidential and shall
not be released to third parties without written authorization by the employee
involved or as authorized by law.
First Aid Kits:
Well stocked First-Aid kit(s) for employee use will be maintained.

The basic inventory of each first aid kit must be approved by the company
consulting physician. This approval shall be initiated and record maintained by
Safety Coordinator.

These kits will be located so as to allow easy and quick access. First-aid
kits and required contents are to be maintained in a serviceable condition.

All items which must be kept sterile must be individually wrapped and
sealed. Items such as scissors, tweezers, tubes of ointments with caps, or
rolls of adhesive tape, need not be individually wrapped, sealed, or
disposed of after a single use or application.
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Post-Accident Substance Abuse Evaluations:
For all accidents that result in injuries or property damage or that requires off-site
medical attention and/or evaluation, a DOT Drug and Alcohol screening will be
conducted in accordance with procedures provided by the Texas State Worker's
Compensation Program. This screening is part of the company Drug Free
Workplace Program.
Minor Care:
Comfort providing systems such as wraps, balms, hot-wax and other noninvasive, non-medicative procedures may be employed to provide comfort to the
employee experiencing minor work related physiological stresses.
Medical Referrals:
Safety Coordinator will arrange for employees to see appropriate medical care
providers for other than minor work related complaints. A Medical Referral and
Work Release Form shall be filled in by Consulting Physician all medical
referrals. This record shall accompany the employee to the care provider and be
returned for use in determining the need for any modified duty.
Modified Duty:
When an employee has been identified by proper medical authority as having a
condition that would limit them in their normal job function, Human Resources
shall initiate a Modified Duty Assignment Sheet. This sheet will list the
limitations and advise management of the need for assignment to duties that will
not exceed the limitations. Management will assign limited duties in writing on
the Modified Duty Assignment Sheet. The original shall remain in a Pending &
Review file, held by Human Resources, to prompt periodic monitoring of the
employees condition. Copies shall be provided to the employee, the employee's
supervisor and manager.
Return to Duty:
When conditions have changed, such that the Employee no longer has limitations,
Safety Manager shall initiate Return To Duty actions by filling out the reverse
side of the Modified Duty Assignment sheet. Consulting Physician shall consult
with the employee's manager to provide guidance for any appropriate
reconditioning program based on the Employee's normal job functions. Examples
of elements that would be considered are normal job functions, length of time
away from normal job, type of limitation, etc. If the limitation was caused by
physiological stress factors, Consulting Physician will provided the employee
71
information to be used to minimize the chance of reoccurrence of the same or
similar stress limitation. The original form shall be filed in the employee's
medical record and copies provided to the employee, supervisor and manager.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Tool Safety Program
Purpose:
Use of tools makes many tasks easier. However, the same tools that assist us, if
improperly used or maintained, can create significant hazards in our work areas.
Employees who use tools must be properly trained to use, adjust, store and maintain tools
properly. This programs covers hand, electrical, pneumatic, powder driven, and hydraulic
tool safety.
Responsibility
Management:
* Provide correct tools for assigned tasks
* Ensure tools are maintained and stored safely
* Provide employee training
* Provide for equipment repair
Employees:
* Follow proper tool safety guidelines
* Report tool deficiencies and malfunctions
* Properly store tools when work is completed
Hazard Control
Engineering:
* Properly designed tools
* Guards & safety devices
Administrative:
* Tool sharpening program
* Use of PPE
* Control of tool issue
* Employee Training
* Controlled access to equipment and tool areas
General Safety Precautions:
Employees who use hand and power tools and who are exposed to the hazards of falling,
flying, abrasive and splashing objects, or exposed to harmful dusts, fumes, mists, vapors,
or gases must be provided with the particular personal equipment necessary to protect
them from the hazard.
All hazards involved in the use of tools can be prevented by following five basic safety
rules:
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* Keep all tools in good condition with regular maintenance.
* Use the right tool for the job.
* Examine each tool for damage before use.
* Operate according to the manufacturer's instructions.
* Provide and use the proper protective equipment.
Hand Tools;
Hand tools are non-powered. They include anything from axes to wrenches. The greatest
hazards posed by hand tools result from misuse and improper maintenance.
Some examples:
* Using a screwdriver as a chisel may cause the tip of the screwdriver to break and fly,
hitting the user or other employees.
* If a wooden handle on a tool such as a hammer or an axe is loose, splintered, or
cracked, the head of the tool may fly off and strike the user or another worker.
* A wrench must not be used if its jaws are sprung, because it might slip.
* Impact tools such as chisels, wedges, or drift pins are unsafe if they have
mushroomed heads. The heads might shatter on impact, sending sharp fragments
flying.
.
Appropriate personal protective equipment, e.g., safety goggles, gloves, etc., should be
worn due to hazards that may be encountered while using portable power tools and hand
tools.
Floors shall be kept as clean and dry as possible to prevent accidental slips with or around
dangerous hand tools.
Around flammable substances, sparks produced by iron and steel hand tools can be a
dangerous ignition source. Where this hazard exists, spark-resistant tools made from
brass, plastic, aluminum, or wood will provide for safety.
Power Tool Precautions:
Power tools can be hazardous when improperly used. There are several types of power
tools, based on the power source they use: electric, pneumatic, liquid fuel, hydraulic, and
powder-actuated.
The following general precautions should be observed by power tool users:
* Never carry a tool by the cord or hose
* Never yank the cord or the hose to disconnect it from the receptacle
* Keep cords and hoses away from heat, oil, and sharp edges
* Disconnect tools when not in use, before servicing, and when changing accessories
such as blades, bits and cutters
* All observers should be kept at a safe distance away from the work area
* Secure work with clamps or a vise, freeing both hands to operate the tool
74
* Avoid accidental starting. The worker should not hold a finger on the switch button
while carrying a plugged-in tool
* Tools should be maintained with care. They should be kept sharp and clean for the
best performance. Follow instructions in the user's manual for lubricating and
changing accessories
* Be sure to keep good footing and maintain good balance
* The proper apparel should be worn. Loose clothing, ties, or jewelry can become
caught in moving parts
* All portable electric tools that are damaged shall be removed from use and tagged
"Do Not Use"
Guards:
Hazardous moving parts of a power tool need to be safeguarded. For example, belts,
gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other
reciprocating, rotating, or moving parts of equipment must be guarded.
Guards, as necessary, should be provided to protect the operator and others from the
following:
* point of operation
* in-running nip points
* rotating parts
* flying chips and sparks
Safety guards must never be removed when a tool is being used. For example, portable
circular saws must be equipped with guards. An upper guard must cover the entire blade
of the saw. A retractable lower guard must cover the teeth of the saw, except when it
makes contact with the work material. The lower guard must automatically return to the
covering position when the tool is withdrawn from the work.
Safety Switches:
The following hand-held powered tools are to be equipped with a momentary contact
"on-off" control switch: drills, tappers, fastener drivers, horizontal, vertical and angle
grinders with wheels larger than 2 inches in diameter, disc and belt sanders, reciprocating
saws, saber saws, and other similar tools. These tools also may be equipped with a lockon control provided that turnoff can be accomplished by a single motion of the same
finger or fingers that turn it on.
The following hand-held powered tools may be equipped with only a positive "on-off"
control switch: platen sanders, disc sanders with discs 2 inches or less in diameter;
grinders with wheels 2 inches or less in diameter; routers, planers, laminate trimmers,
nibblers, shears, scroll saws and jigsaws with blade shanks ¼-inch wide or less.
Other hand-held powered tools such as circular saws having a blade diameter greater than
2 inches, chain saws, and percussion tools without positive accessory holding means must
be equipped with a constant pressure switch that will shut off the power when the
pressure is released.
75
Electrical Safety:
Among the chief hazards of electric-powered tools are burns and slight shocks which can
lead to injuries or even heart failure. Under certain conditions, even a small amount of
current can result in severe injury and eventual death. A shock also can cause the user to
fall off a ladder or other elevated work surface.
To protect the user from shock, tools must either have a three-wire cord with ground or
be grounded, be double insulated, or be powered by a low-voltage isolation transformer.
Three-wire cords contain two current-carrying conductors and a grounding conductor.
One end of the grounding conductor connects to the tool's metal housing. The other end
is grounded through a prong on the plug. Anytime an adapter is used to accommodate a
two-hole receptacle, the adapter wire must be attached to a known ground. The third
prong should never be removed from the plug.
Double insulation is more convenient. The user and the tools are protected in two ways:
by normal insulation on the wires inside, and by a housing that cannot conduct electricity
to the operator in the event of a malfunction.
Electric Power Tool General Safety Practices:
* Electric tools should be operated within their design limitations.
* Gloves and safety footwear are recommended during use of electric tools.
* When not in use, tools should be stored in a dry place.
* Electric tools should not be used in damp or wet locations.
* Work areas should be well lighted.
Powered Abrasive Wheel Tools:
Powered abrasive grinding, cutting, polishing, and wire buffing wheels create special
safety problems because they may throw off flying fragments.
Before an abrasive wheel is mounted, it should be inspected closely and sound- or ringtested to be sure that it is free from cracks or defects. To test, wheels should be tapped
gently with a light non-metallic instrument. If they sound cracked or dead, they could fly
apart in operation and so must not be used. A sound and undamaged wheel will give a
clear metallic tone or "ring."
To prevent the wheel from cracking, the user should be sure it fits freely on the spindle.
The spindle nut must be tightened enough to hold the wheel in place, without distorting
the flange. Follow the manufacturer's recommendations. Care must be taken to assure
that the spindle wheel will not exceed the abrasive wheel specifications.
Due to the possibility of a wheel disintegrating (exploding) during start-up, the employee
should never stand directly in front of the wheel as it accelerates to full operating speed.
Portable grinding tools need to be equipped with safety guards to protect workers not
only from the moving wheel surface, but also from flying fragments in case of breakage.
Powered Grinder Safety Precautions:
* Always use eye protection.
* Turn off the power when not in use.
76
* Never clamp a hand-held grinder in a vise.
Pneumatic Tools:
Pneumatic tools are powered by compressed air and include chippers, drills, hammers,
and sanders. There are several dangers encountered in the use of pneumatic tools. The
main one is the danger of getting hit by one of the tool's attachments or by some kind of
fastener the worker is using with the tool. Eye protection is required and face protection
is recommended for employees working with pneumatic tools. Working with noisy tools
such as jackhammers requires proper, effective use of hearing protection.
When using pneumatic tools, employees are to check to see that they are fastened
securely to the hose to prevent them from becoming disconnected. A short wire or
positive locking device attaching the air hose to the tool will serve as an added safeguard.
A safety clip or retainer must be installed to prevent attachments, such as chisels on a
chipping hammer, from being unintentionally shot from the barrel.
Screens must be set up to protect nearby workers from being struck by flying fragments
around chippers, riveting guns, staplers, or air drills.
Compressed air guns should never be pointed toward anyone. Users should never "deadend" it against themselves or anyone else.
Powder-Actuated Tools:
Powder-actuated tools operate like a loaded gun and should be treated with the same
respect and precautions. In fact, they are so dangerous that they must be operated only by
specially trained employees.
Powder-Actuated Tool Safety:
* These tools should not be used in an explosive or flammable atmosphere.
* Before using the tool, the worker should inspect it to determine that it is clean, that all
moving parts operate freely, and that the barrel is free from obstructions.
* The tool should never be pointed at anybody.
* The tool should not be loaded unless it is to be used immediately. A loaded tool
should not be left unattended, especially where it would be available to unauthorized
persons.
* Hands should be kept clear of the barrel end. To prevent the tool from firing
accidentally, two separate motions are required for firing: one to bring the tool into
position, and another to pull the trigger. The tools must not be able to operate until
they are pressed against the work surface with a force of at least 5 pounds greater than
the total weight of the tool.
If a powder-actuated tool misfires, the employee should wait at least 30 seconds, then try
firing it again. If it still will not fire, the user should wait another 30 seconds so that the
faulty cartridge is less likely to explode, than carefully remove the load. The bad
cartridge should be put in water.
Suitable eye and face protection are essential when using a powder-actuated tool.
77
The muzzle end of the tool must have a protective shield or guard centered
perpendicularly on the barrel to confine any flying fragments or particles that might
otherwise create a hazard when the tool is fired. The tool must be designed so that it will
not fire unless it has this kind of safety device.
All powder-actuated tools must be designed for varying powder charges so that the user
can select a powder level necessary to do the work without excessive force.
If the tool develops a defect during use it should be tagged and taken out of service
immediately until it is properly repaired.
Powder-Actuated Tool Fasteners:
When using powder-actuated tools to apply fasteners, there are some precautions to
consider. Fasteners must not be fired into material that would let them pass through to the
other side. The fastener must not be driven into materials like brick or concrete any closer
than 3 inches to an edge or corner. In steel, the fastener must not come any closer than
one-half inch from a corner or edge. Fasteners must not be driven into very hard or brittle
materials which might chip or splatter, or make the fastener ricochet.
Hydraulic Power Tools:
The fluid used in hydraulic power tools must be an approved fire-resistant fluid and must
retain its operating characteristics at the most extreme temperatures to which it will be
exposed. The manufacturer's recommended safe operating pressure for hoses, valves,
pipes, filters, and other fittings must not be exceeded.
Jacks:
All jacks - lever and ratchet jacks, screw jacks, and hydraulic jacks - must have a device
that stops them from jacking up too high. Also, the manufacturer's load limit must be
permanently marked in a prominent place on the jack and should not be exceeded.
A jack should never be used to support a lifted load. Once the load has been lifted, it must
immediately be blocked up.
Use wooden blocking under the base if necessary to make the jack level and secure. If the
lift surface is metal, place a 1-inch-thick hardwood block or equivalent between it and the
metal jack head to reduce the danger of slippage.
To set up a jack, make certain of the following:
* the base rests on a firm level surface
* the jack is correctly centered
* the jack head bears against a level surface
* the lift force is applied evenly
Proper maintenance of jacks is essential for safety. All jacks must be inspected before
each use and lubricated regularly. If a jack is subjected to an abnormal load or shock, it
should be thoroughly examined to make sure it has not been damaged.
Hydraulic jacks exposed to freezing temperatures must be filled with adequate antifreeze
liquid.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Hazard Communication Program (HAZCOM)
General Information:
In order to comply with 29 OFR 1926.59, Hazard Communication, and the following written
Hazard Communication Program has been established by Don-Nan Pump & Supply. All work
units of the company are included within this program. The Safety Coordinator is responsible
for the implementation and ongoing compliance with the program.
Employee Training and Information:
The Job Superintendent is responsible for the employee training program. He will ensure that all
elements specified below are carried out.
Prior to starting work each new employee of Don-Nan Pump & Supply will attend a health and
safety orientation and will receive information and training on the following:
An overview of the requirements contained in the Hazard Communication Standard.
Chemicals present in their workplace operations
Location and availability of our written hazard communication program,
Physical and health effects of the hazardous chemicals.
Methods and observation techniques used to determine the presence or release of
hazardous chemicals in the work area.
How to lessen or prevent exposure to these hazardous chemicals through usage of
control/work practices and personal protective equipment.
Steps Don-Nan Pump & Supply has taken to lessen or prevent exposure to these
chemicals.
Emergency procedures to follow if they are exposed to these chemicals.
How to read labels and review MSDS's to obtain appropriate hazard information.
After attending appropriate training, each employee will sign a form to verify that they received
and understood the training, procedures and policies within Don-Nan Pump & Supply hazard
Communication Program
Prior to a new chemical hazard being introduced into any section of this company, each
employee of that section will be given information as outlined above. The Safety Coordinator or
the Job Superintendent is responsible for ensuring that MSDS on the new chemicals are
available.
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Written Hazard Communication Program
It is the policy of the Don-Nan Pump & Supply, that the first consideration in the performance of
work shall be the protection of the safety and health of all employees. The company has
developed this Hazard Communication Program to ensure that all employees receive adequate
information relevant to the possible hazards that may be involved with the various hazardous
substances used in the company's operations and processes. The following program outlines how
we will accomplish this objective.
Scope:
This policy covers all potential workplace exposures involving hazardous substances as defined
by federal, state and local regulations.
Hazard Determination:
The company does not intend to evaluate any of the hazardous substances purchased from
suppliers and/or manufacturers but have chosen to rely upon the evaluation performed by the
suppliers or by the manufacturers of the substances to satisfy the requirements for hazard
determination.
Container Labeling:
No container or hazardous substances will be released for use unless the container is correctly
labeled and the label is legible.
All chemicals in bags, drums, barrels, bottles, boxes, cans, cylinders, reaction vessels, storage
tanks, or the like will be checked by the receiving department to ensure the manufacturer's label
is intact, is legible, and has not been damaged in any manner during shipment. Any containers
found to have damaged labels will be quarantined until a new label has been installed.
The label must contain the chemical name of the contents, the appropriate hazard warnings, and
the name and address of the manufacturer, and any other information required.
All secondary containers shall be labeled. The information must include details of all chemicals
that are in the referenced container.
Material Safety Data Sheets:
Each location must maintain a master MSDS file as well as a department-specific file. These
Material Safety Data Sheets are available to all employees, at all times, upon request.
The Safety Committee or a designee will be responsible for reviewing all incoming MSDSs for
new and significant health/safety information (the company will ensure that any new information
is passed on to the employees involved).
The Safety Coordinator or designee will review all incoming MSDSs for completeness. If any
MSDS is missing or obviously incomplete, a new MSDS will be requested from the
manufacturer or distributor. OSHA is to be notified if the manufacturer or distributor will not
supply the MSDS or if it is not received after 30 days from request. Any new information will be
passed on to employees involved.
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New materials will not be introduced into the work area until an MSDS has been received.
The purchasing department will make it an ongoing part of its function to obtain MSDSs for all
new materials when they are first ordered.
The safety coordinator or his or her designee shall coordinate with appropriate departments to
make sure all MSDSs are obtained, distributed and communicated.
List of Hazardous Substances:
Each company should compile, annually review, and update as necessary a complete inventory
of all substances present in that facility. The name of those materials determined to be hazardous
are defined in applicable federal and state standards.
Employee Information and Training:
All employees will attend an orientation meeting for information and training on the following
items prior to starting work with hazardous substances; (Training checklist is to be completed
and kept on file.) An overview of the requirements of the Hazard Communication Standard,
including their rights under this regulation. Information on where hazardous substances are
present in their work areas. Information regarding the use of hazardous sub- stances in their
specific work areas. The location and availability of the written hazard communication program.
A copy of the program will be given to all employees during the orientation meeting. Subsequent
to this, the program will be available from managers and also from the office. The physical and
health aspects of the substances in use. Methods and observation techniques used to determine
the presence or release of hazardous substances in the work area. The controls, work practices
and personal protective equipment that are available for protection against possible exposure.
Emergency and first aid procedures to follow if employees are exposed to hazardous substances.
How to read labels and material safety data sheets to obtain the appropriate hazard information.
Refresher training shall be conducted annually.
It is most important that all of our employees understand the information given in the orientation
meetings. Questions regarding this information should be directed to the Safety Coordinator.
When new substances are introduced into the workplace the department manager will review the
above items with you as they are related to the new materials. The department manager will relay
all the above information to new employees who will be working with hazardous substances,
prior to their starting work. An Acknowledgment Statement is to be completed by each employee
receiving this information and training. These are to be kept on file in the human resources
department.
Non-routine Tasks:
Infrequently, employees may be required to perform non-routine tasks that involve the use of
hazardous substances. Prior to starting work on such projects, each involved employee will be
given information by his or her supervisor about hazards to which they may be exposed during
such an activity. This information will include:
- The specific hazards
- Protective/safety measures that must be utilized
81
The measures the company has taken to lessen the hazards, including special ventilation,
respirators, and the presence of another employee, air sample readings, and emergency
procedures.
Plan Administration:
This Hazard Communication program will be monitored by the Safety Coordinator.
Questions regarding this program should be directed to the Safety Coordinator.
Signature
Title
Date
This document must be approved and signed by the senior executive on site.
MSDS Information
OSHA rules outline the content, but not the exact form, of every Material Safety Data Sheet.
Here is what OSHA requires each data sheet to contain:
 Identity - The data sheet must contain the name of the chemicals found on the label. In addition,
subject to deletion of legitimate trade secrets, it must give the chemical and common name of the
substance. If the substance is a mixture and has not been tested as such, the data sheet must give
the name of each hazardous constituent.
 Characteristic - The data sheet must recite the physical and chemical characteristics of the
chemical, such as vapor pressure, flash point, etc.
 Physical Hazards - Any potential for fire, explosion or reaction must be included in the data
sheet.
 Health Hazards - Signs and symptoms of exposure must be entered, as must all medical
conditions that are likely to be aggravated by exposure.
 Routes of Entry - The data sheet must specify whether the chemical typically enters the system
by ingestion, inhalation, dermal exposure or some other route.
 Exposure Limits - If OSHA has established an exposure limit for the chemical, or if a Threshold
Limit Value has been established by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists, these must be entered on the data sheet, as must any exposure limit used by the
authority preparing the data sheet.
 Carcinogens - The data sheet must indicate whether the chemical is listed as a carcinogen by the
National Toxicology Program, by OSHA, or by the International Agency for Research in Cancer.
 Use and Handling - The data sheet must recite any general applicable precautions for safe
handling and use that are known to the firm preparing the data sheet, including hygiene practices,
protective measures during repair and maintenance of contaminated equipment and procedures
for clean-up of spills and leaks. Industrial chemical consumers often might add site-specific
procedures to the more general information offered by the chemical manufacturer.
 Exposure Controls - The data sheet must include a description of special procedures to be
employed in emergencies, as well as a description of appropriate first aid.
 Dates - The sheet must bear the date of its preparation or of its latest revision.
 Information Source - Finally, the sheet must recite the name, address and telephone number of
the person who prepared the data sheet or of some other person who can provide additional
information relating to the chemical, such as citations to scientific literature or specialized
emergency procedures.
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MANAGER TRAINING OF EMPLOYEE CHECKLIST
Has the employee been informed of and trained in the following:
1.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
Trai
2.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
(h)
(i)
(j)
(k)
(l)
Information: Has the employee been informed of the following?
The requirements of this section.
Any operation in the work area where hazardous substances are
present.
The location of the written Hazard Communication Program.
Availability of the written program.
Location and availability of hazardous substances list(s).
Location and availability of Material Safety Data Sheets.
Training:
Has the employee been trained in the following?
Methods and observations that may be used to detect the presence
or release of hazardous substances in the work areas.
The physical and health hazards of the substances in the work
areas.
How employees can protect themselves from these hazards.
Procedures the employer has implemented for employee
protection.
Appropriate work practices.
Emergency procedures.
Personal protective equipment to be used.
Explanation of labeling systems.
Explanation of material safety data sheets.
How employees can obtain and use appropriate hazard
information.
Personal hygiene when working with substances.
General first aid for contact with hazardous substances.
Employee Signature, Date
YES
Manager's Signature, Date
NO
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REQUEST FOR MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
Date of
Request
Department
To
From
I hereby request that I be given the Material Safety Data Sheets on the following hazardous
substance(s):
Date Received
Acknowledge
Department
Manager
Date
cc: Corporate Safety Department
(Requesting Employee)
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PROGRAM/TRAINING DOCUMENT
TRAINING ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I have received information on the Hazard Communication Standard 29 CFR 1910.1200 or the
appropriate state standard and understand how to interpret and to use the labeling systems and
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) that are in use and accessible to me in my work area. I
agree to observe and follow the safe work practices as presented to me in the training sessions I
attended on
at
Employee Signature
Date
The above named employee has been informed and instructed by
work
practices, chemical hazards recognition, interpretation and use of chemical labels, MSDSs, the
CFR 29, 1910.1200 (e) or appropriate state standard and the location at which these items are
accessible to the employee.
Supervisor
Date
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Explanation of terms used on Material Safety Data Sheets
Section 1:
Chemical Name and Synonyms - The product identification. The chemical or generic name of
single elements and compounds.
Trade Names and Synonyms - The name under which the product is marketed and the common
commercial name of the product.
Chemical Family - Refers to a grouping of chemicals that behave and react with other chemicals
in a similar manner.
Formula - The chemical formula or single elements or compounds.
CAS Number - The Chemical Abstracts Service number, if applicable.
EPA - The code number assigned by the Environmental Protection Agency, if applicable.
DOT Classification - The appropriate classification as determined by the regulations of the
Office of Hazard Material, Department of Transportation.
Section II:
Hazardous Ingredients - The major components as well as any minor one(s) having potential for
harm that are considered when evaluating the product.
TLV - Threshold Limit Value (TLV) indicates the permissible exposure concentration, a limit
established by a government regulatory agency, or an estimate if none has been established.
Section III:
Physical Data
Boiling Point (F) - The temperature in degrees fahrenheit at which the substances will boil.
Vapor Pressure - The pressure of saturated vapor above the liquid expressed in mm Hg at 20C.
Vapor Density - The relative density or weight of a vapor or gas (with no air present) compared
with an equal volume of air at ambient temperature.
Solubility in Water - The solubility of a material by weight in water at room temperature. The
terms negligible, less than 0.1 percent, 0.1 to 1 percent; moderate 1 to 10 percent, applicable 10
percent or greater.
Appearance and Odor - The general characterization of the material, i.e., powder, colorless
liquid, aromatic odor, etc.
Specific Gravity (H2O=1) - The ratio of the weight of a volume of the material to its weight of
an equal volume of water.
Percent, Volatile by Volume (%) - The percent by volume of the material that is considered
volatile. (The tendency or ability of a liquid to vaporize.)
Evaporation Rate - The ratios of the time required to evaporate a measured volume of a liquid to
the time required to evaporate the same volume of a reference liquid (ethyl ether) under ideal test
conditions. The higher the ratio, the slower the evaporation rate.
Section IV:
Flash Point (Method Used) - The temperature in degrees Fahrenheit at which a liquid will give
off enough flammable vapor to ignite in the presence of a source of ignition.
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Section V:
Conditions to Avoid - Conditions that, if they exist with the substance present, could cause it to
become unstable.
Incompatibility (Materials to Avoid) - Materials that will react with the substance.
Hazardous Decomposition Products - Refers to that reaction that takes place at a rate that
releases large amounts of energy. Indicates whether or not it may occur and under what storage
conditions.
Section VI:
Health Hazard Data - Possible health hazards as derived from human observation, animal studies
or from the results of studies with similar products.
Threshold Limit Value (TLV) - The value for airborne toxic material that are to be used as
guides in the control of health hazards and represent concentrations to which nearly all workers
may be exposed eight hours per day over extended periods of time without adverse effects.
Effects of Overexposure - The effects on or to an individual who has been exposed beyond the
specified limits.
Emergency and First-Aid Procedures - Gives first-aid and emergency procedures in case of eye
and/or skin contact, ingestion and inhalation.
Section VII:
Stability - Whether the substance is stable or unstable, an unstable substance is one that will
vigorously polymerize, decompose, condense, or will become self-reactive under conditions of
shock, pressure, or temperature.
A copy of the form you may want to use to list your hazardous substances by work area follows
this page. This information would be based on the initial survey and subsequent hazard
determination.
Section VIII:
Spill or Leak Procedures - Steps to be taken if material is released or spilled. Method and
materials to use to clean up or contain.
Waste Disposal Method - Method and type of disposal site to use.
Section IX:
Special Protection Information
Respiratory Protection - Specific type should be specified, i.e., dust mask, NIOSH-approved
cartridge respirator with organic-vapor cartridge.
Ventilation - Type of ventilation recommended, i.e., local exhaust, mechanical, etc.
Protective Gloves - Refers to the glove that should be worn when handling the product, i.e.,
cotton, rubber.
Eye Protection - Refers to the type of eye protection that is to be worn when handling or around
the product.
Flammable Limits - The range of gas or vapor concentration (percent by volume in air) that will
burn or explode if an ignition source is present. (Lel) means the lower explosive limits and (Uel)
the upper explosive limits given in percent.
Extinguishing Media - Specifies the fire-fighting agent(s) that should be used to extinguish fires.
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Special Fire-Fighting Procedures/Unusual Fire and Explosion Hazards - Refer to special
procedures required if unusual fire or explosion hazards are involved.
Work Area Hazardous Substance List
Work Area:
Chemical Identity
Label/Special Information
CAS # or Serial #
Vendor
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S) Exposure Control
Purpose:
The purpose of this program is to reduce employee hydrogen sulfide (H2S) exposure to
below the Permissible Exposure Limits by means of engineering and work practice
controls at Don-Nan Pump & Supply. This program meets the requirements of OSHA
Standard 29CFR 1910.1000 Table Z-2.
Definitions:
Acceptable ceiling concentration – Airborne concentration that should not be exceeded at
anytime during an 8-hour shift.
Acceptable maximum peak concentration – The maximum airborne concentration
allowed over a short time period if there is no other measurable exposure over any 8-hour
shift.
Container – Any barrel, bottle, can, cylinder, drum, reaction vessel, storage tank, or the
like, but does not include piping systems.
Emergency – Any occurrence such as equipment failure, rupture of containers, or failure
of control equipment that may or does result in an unexpected significant release of
hydrogen sulfide.
Employee exposure – Exposure to airborne hydrogen sulfide that would occur if the
employee were not using respiratory protective equipment.
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) – The OSHA limit for exposure to airborne hazards.
For benzene the limits are 10ppm TWA, 15ppm STEL 20ppm acceptable ceiling and
50ppm acceptable maximum peak above ceiling once for 10 min if no other exposure
occurs.
Route of exposure – The route by which air contaminants enter the body. Exposure routes
include inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption.
Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) – Airborne concentration measured of any 15 minute
time period.
Time- weighted Average (TWA) – Airborne concentration average over an 8-hour
period.
Responsibilities:
The Program Administrator will:
 Issue and implement this program and ensure that it meets applicable
requirements
89




Provide Hazard Communication Training for H2S
Implement engineering and work practice controls to prevent exposure to H2S
Provide appropriate personal protective equipment for exposed employees
Maintain exposure monitoring records according to the recordkeeping section of
this program
Managers and Supervisors will:



Know and understand the hazards of H2S exposure
Comply with engineering and work practice controls to prevent exposure to H2S
Ensure the availability and use of appropriate personal protective equipment for
exposed employees
Employees will:



Comply with all aspects of this H2S exposure control program
Use engineering and work practice controls to prevent exposure to H2S
Use personal protective equipment as necessary to prevent H2S exposure
Program Activities
Hazard Recognition
Don-Nan Pump & Supply works to ensure that employees are not exposed to H2S above
OSHA exposure limits at any time.
Hydrogen sulfide, or H2S, is colorless, flammable gas that has a distinctive “rotten egg”
odor. It is also referred to as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur hydride, sewer gas and stink damp.
The physical characteristics of H2S gas are below:
H2S Characteristic
Color
Odor
Toxicity
Flammability
Solubility
Incompatibilities
Colorless
“Rotten eggs” (detectable @ 10ppb)
Highly toxic
Flammable
0.4%
Strong oxidizers, strong nitric acid, metals
H2S is produced naturally by decaying organic matter, released from liquid manure and
natural gas, a byproduct of industrial processes including petroleum refining, mining,
tanning, wood pulp processing, and used to produce elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid, heavy
water for nuclear reactors. H2S exposure could occur as a result of the following
processes:
 Drilling operations
- Recycling drilling mud
90


- Contact with water from crude wells
- Blowouts
Tank Gauging
Routine maintenance at refining operations
Exposure to H2S above published limits can result in adverse heath effects including:
 Eye irritation
 Lung effects
 Central Nervous System effects on parts of the brain that controls breathing
 Shock, convulsions and death at high exposures
Symptoms of H2S exposure include:
 Eye irritation
 Nose and throat irritation
 Headache, dizziness
 Nausea
 Cough, breathing difficulty
Hazard Evaluation:


Monitoring
- Monitoring for airborne concentrations of H2S at Don-Nan Pump & Supply
work sites is conducted using four-gas meter
Area four-gas monitors will be set to alarm when airborne H2S concentrations
exceed the OSHA STEL limit of 10ppm
Hazard Control:




Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees will not work in areas with airborne
concentrations above OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits.
If circumstances require an exception to the above, NIOSH approved self
contained breathing apparatus or air-supplied respirators will be used.
Controls include but are not limited to dilution ventilation, forced air ventilation
and use of NIOSH approved respiratory protection (SCBA and air supplied only).
Other safety precautions include:
- Whenever the four-gas monitor alarms leave area immediately to fresh air
area and do not reenter until conditions are proven safe or appropriate
respiratory protection is donned.
- Upon commencing operations at a work site obtain, know and understand the
facility contingency plan.
Training:
91


Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees will be trained in the hazards and safe
control of H2S exposure using the training materials included in this program
Training is documented according to the recordkeeping section of this program as
well as the recordkeeping sections of the HazCom Program
Recordkeeping:


Training records included in this program are retained with and according to the
requirements of the HazCom Program
H2S monitoring results are documented and retained
92
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Incident Investigation & Reporting
Procedure:
Begin by asking the employee and any witnesses for their version of the events. Trained
investigators should insure that the statements are true and unbiased. In addition, inspect the
location of the accident as soon as possible. Initial identification of evidence includes making a
list of people involved, equipment, environmental factors (weather, lighting, temperature,
ventilation, noise level, etc…).
-
Determine whether or not the accident is a “reportable” incident in accordance with
OSHA regulations.
Ask questions. What caused the employee to fall? Wet floors? Poor footwear?
Obstructions in the walkway? Carelessness?
After determining the broad cause, continue to break it down until the basic issue is
determined.




-
-
Why was the floor wet? An employee was mopping a spill
Did the employer alert others of the wet floor with the appropriate safety placards?
No.
Why not? The employee didn’t know where the placards were.
Are they ready available? Yes.
Once the floor has been identified, determine what needs to be done to prevent further
accidents. Should retraining take place? Should a new policy be implemented? Did
faulty equipment contribute to the incident?
Determine corrective action, if any, should be taken if the event is due to employee
negligence. Establish a retraining session for all parties involved.
Follow up. Implement new procedures and follow up with all personnel involved in the
incident. Ensure that new policies are being followed and rules are being enforced.
Encourage all employees to report unsafe working conditions and violations of company
safety procedures immediately.
All evidence gathered within the scope of an accident investigation shall be secured in the
accident file and retained for future review.
Incident Reports:
An incident report should be filled out for each accident. This report should include a complete
description of the event, names of all parties involved (including those investigating the
accident), and recommendations to prevent further accidents of the same type.
Ultimately, employees are the first line of defense in preventing accidents. Each employee has
the right to speak freely and without retaliation to their supervisor or the Safety Coordinator
when they feel safety has been compromised. Each issue, even without an accident, will be
addressed, investigated and reconciled.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Ladder Safety Program
Purpose:
The purpose of this safety policy and procedure is to establish guidelines for the safe use of
ladders throughout Don-Nan Pump & Supply by employees, contractors and visitors.
Ladders are used when employees need to move up or down between two different levels. Slips,
trips, and falls are significant contributors to Don-Nan Pump & Supply accidents.
Slips, trips, and falls can occur when wrong ladder selection is made and when improper
climbing techniques and/or defective ladders are used.
At Don-Nan Pump & Supply, the appropriate ladder will be used for the corresponding job and
defective ladders will not be used. When hazards exist that cannot be eliminated, then
engineering practices, administrative practices, safe work practices, Personal Protective
Equipment (PPE), and proper training regarding ladders will be implemented. These measures
will be implemented to minimize those hazards to ensure the safety of employees and the public.
Reference:
This safety policy and procedure is established in accordance with Occupational
Safety and Health Standards for General Industry (29 CFR 1910.25-27) and
Occupational Safety and Health Standards for the Construction Industry (29 CFR
1926.1053).
Responsibilities
Managers/Unit Heads:
Managers/Unit Heads are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds are available and
budgeted for the purchase of ladders in their areas. Managers/Unit Heads will obtain and
coordinate the required training for the affected employees. Managers/Unit Heads will also
ensure compliance with this safety policy and procedure through their auditing process.
Supervisors:
Supervisors are responsible for ensuring that all ladders (fixed and portable) are regularly
inspected and properly maintained. They will also be responsible for tagging ladders in need of
repair and removing defected ladders from service for repair or destruction.
Supervisors will audit for compliance with this safety policy and procedure during their facility
and jobsite audits.
Employees:
Employees shall comply with all applicable guidelines contained in this safety policy and
procedure. Employees are also responsible for reporting immediately suspected unsafe
conditions or ladders to their supervisor. Employees are to inspect ladders before using and are to
keep ladders clean and in good condition.
Safety and Loss Control:
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Safety and Loss Control will provide prompt assistance to managers/unit heads, supervisors or
others as applicable on any matter concerning this safety policy and procedure. Additionally,
Safety and Loss Control will assist in developing or securing of required training. Safety
Engineers will provide consultative and audit assistance to ensure effective implementation of
this safety policy and procedure. Safety and Loss Control will also work with Purchasing
Department to ensure that all newly purchased ladders comply with this safety policy and
procedure and current safety regulations.
Training:
Employees using the ladders shall be trained in:
• The proper use of the ladders
• What kind of ladder to use
• How to set up ladders
• Ladder inspection
• Proper maintenance
This training shall be done upon initial employment and/or job assignment. Refresher training
shall be provided to employees at the discretion of their supervisor.
Ladder Hazards & Safe Use
Ladder Hazards:
There are inherent hazards associated with ladder use. Typical ladder hazards include:
• Insufficient surface resistance on ladder rungs and steps
• Ladder structural failure
• Ladders tipping sideways, backwards, or slipping out at the bottom
• Ladder spreaders not fully opened and locked, causing the ladder to “walk”, twist or close up
when a load is applied to the ladder
• Using metal ladders around electricity
• Using deteriorated ladders
• Using fixed ladders without cages or fall protection
Safe Ladder Use:
Employees should follow certain rules when placing, ascending, and descending ladders which
include:
• Hold on with both hands when going up or down. If material must be handled, raise or lower it
with a rope either before going down or after climbing to the desired level.
• Always face the ladder when ascending or descending.
• Never slide down a ladder.
• Be sure shoes are not greasy, muddy, or slippery before climbing.
• Do not climb higher than the third rung from the top on straight or extension ladder, or the
second tread from the top on stepladders.
• Carry tools on a tool belt not in the hand.
• Never lean too far to the sides. Keep your belt buckle within the side rails.
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• Use a 4 to 1 ratio when leaning a single or extension ladder. (place a 12 foot ladder so that the
bottom is 3 feet away from the object the ladder is leaning against.)
• Inspect ladder for defects before using.
• Never use a defective ladder. Tag or mark it so that it will be repaired or destroyed.
• Never splice or lash a short ladder together.
• Never use makeshift ladders, such as cleats fastened across a single rail.
• Be sure that a stepladder is fully open and the metal spreader locked before starting to climb.
• Keep ladders clean and free from dirt and grease.
• Never use ladders during a strong wind except in an emergency and then only when they are
securely fastened.
• Never leave placed ladders unattended.
• Never use ladders as guys, braces, or skids, or for any other purpose other than their intended
purposes.
• Never attempt to adjust a ladder while a user is standing on the ladder.
• Never jump from a ladder. Always dismount from the bottom rung.
Ladder Safety Devices:
Safety devices are available for both portable and fixed ladders to prevent a climber from falling.
Safety devices for portable ladders include slip-resistant bases, safety tops, and any other device
to increase the ladder stability. A portable ladder positioned at a location where it may be tipped
over by work activities shall be securely fastened at the bottom and top. Safety devices for fixed
ladders include cages (which enclose the stairwell) or a restraint belt attached to a sliding fixture
anchored to the ladder.
Ladder Inspection:
An inspection program should be set up by which all ladders are inspected once every three
months. Appendix B presents a general inspection form. Ladders that are weak, improperly
repaired, damaged, have missing rungs, or appear unsafe shall be removed from the job or site
for repair or disposal. Before discarding a wood ladder, cut it up so no one can use it again.
Additionally, portable ladders must be maintained in good condition at all times and inspected
frequently. Tag any ladders that have developed defects with DANGEROUS – DO NOT USE,
and remove from service for repair or disposal.
For portable wood ladders, all wood parts shall be free from sharp edges and splinters; sound and
free from accepted visual inspection from shake, wane, compression failures, decay, or other
irregularities. For portable metal ladders, the design shall be without structural defects or
accident hazards such as sharp edges, burrs, etc. The selected metal shall be of sufficient strength
to meet the test requirements and shall be protected against corrosion. For fixed ladders, all
wood parts shall meet the criteria of wood ladders. All metal parts shall meet the criteria of metal
ladders.
Maintenance:
Portable wood ladders may be coated with a water-repellent preservative to provide a suitable
protective material. Metal ladders and metal parts on wood ladders should be corrosion-resistant
and kept free from nicks. If nicks occur, they should be promptly treated to prevent possible
metal fatigue due to rust.
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Ladder Inspection Checklist
All Ladders:
- Loose steps or rungs are considered loose if they can be moved at all with the hand
- Loose nails, screws, bolts, or other metal parts
- Cracked, split, or broken uprights, braces, steps, or rungs
- Slivers on uprights, rungs, or steps
- Damaged or worn non-slip bases
- Rusted or corroded spots
Stepladders:
- Wobbly from side strain
- Loose or bent hinge spreaders
- Stop on hinge spreaders broken
- Broken, split, or worn steps
- Loose hinges
Extension Ladders:
- Loose, broken, or missing extension locks
- Defective locks that do not seat properly when the ladder is extended
- Deterioration of rope, from exposure to weather, acid or other destructive agents
Fixed Ladders:
- Loose, worn, or damaged rungs or side rails
- Damaged or corroded parts of cage
- Corroded bolts and rivet heads on inside of metal stacks
- Damaged or corroded handrails or brackets on platforms
- Weakened or damaged rungs on brick or concrete slabs
- Base of ladder obstructed
Definitions
Cage – A guard that may be referred to as a cage or basket guard which is an enclosure that is
fastened to the side rails of the fixed ladder or to the structure to encircle the climbing space of
the ladder for the safety of the person who must climb the ladder.
Extension Ladder – Non-self-supporting portable ladder adjustable in length. It consists of two
or more sections traveling in guides or brackets so arranged as to permit length adjustment. Its
size is designated by the sum of the lengths of the sections measured along the side rails.
Fixed Ladder – Ladder permanently attached to a structure, building, or equipment.
Individual-Rung Ladder – Fixed ladder each rung of which is individually attached to a
structure, building, or equipment.
97
Ladder – An appliance usually consisting of two side rails joined at regular intervals by crosspieces called steps, rungs, or cleats, on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
Ladder Safety Device – Device, other than a cage or well, designed to eliminate or reduce the
possibility of accidental falls and which may incorporate such features as life belts, friction
brakes, and sliding attachments.
Pitch – The included angle between the horizontal and the ladder, measured on the opposite side
of the ladder from the climbing side.
Platform Ladder – A self-supporting ladder of fixed size with a platform provided at the
working level. The size is determined by the distance along the front rail from the platform to
the base of the ladder.
Rail Ladder – Fixed ladder consisting of side rails joined at regular intervals by rungs or cleats
and fastened in full length or in sections to a building, structure, or equipment.
Railings – A railing is any one or a combination of those railings constructed in accordance with
OSHA Standard 1910.23. A standard railing is a vertical barrier erected along exposed edges of
floor openings, wall openings, ramps, platforms, and runways to prevent falls of persons.
Rungs – Ladder cross-pieces of circular or oval cross-section on which a person may step in
ascending or descending.
Section Ladder – Non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of
two or more sections of ladder so constructed that the sections may be combined to function as a
single ladder. Its size is designated by the overall length of the assembled sections.
Side-Step Ladder – A ladder in which an individual getting off at the top must step sideways in
order to reach the landing.
Single Ladder – Non-self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, consisting of but
one section. Its size is designated by the overall length of the side rail.
Special-Purpose Ladder – Portable ladder which represents either a modification or a
combination of design or construction features in one of the general-purpose types of ladders
previously defined, in order to adapt the ladder to special or specific uses.
Stepladder – Self-supporting portable ladder, nonadjustable in length, having flat steps and a
hinged back. Its size is designated by the overall length of the ladder measured along the front
edge of the side rails.
Steps – Flat cross-pieces of a ladder on which a person may step in ascending or descending.
Through Ladder – A ladder in which an individual getting off at the top must step through in
order to reach the landing.
98
Well – A permanent complete enclosure around a fixed ladder, which is attached to the walls of
the well. Proper clearances for a well will give the person who must climb the ladder the same
protection as a cage.
99
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Lockout Tagout
Purpose:
Control of Hazardous energy is the purpose of the Lockout- Tagout Program. This
program establishes the requirements for isolation of both kinetic and potential electrical,
chemical, thermal, hydraulic and pneumatic and gravitational energy prior to equipment
repair, adjustment or removal. Reference: OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910. 147, the control
of hazardous energy.
Hazards - Improper or failure to use Lockout - Tagout procedures may result in:
* Electrical shock
* Chemical exposure
* Skin burns
* Lacerations & amputation
* Fires & explosions
* Chemical releases
* Eye injury
* Death
Hazard Controls:
* Only authorized and trained employees may engage in tasks that require use of
lockout-tagout procedures
* All equipment has single sources of electrical power
* Lockout procedures have been developed for all equipment and processes
* Restoration from Lockout is a controlled operation
Definitions:
Authorized (Qualified) Employees - are the only ones certified to lock and tagout
equipment or machinery. Whether an employee is considered to be qualified will depend
upon various circumstances in the workplace. It is likely for an individual to be
considered "qualified" with regard to certain equipment in the workplace, but
"unqualified" as to other equipment. An employee who is undergoing on-the-job training
and who, in the course of such training, has demonstrated an ability to perform duties
safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct supervision of a qualified
person, is considered to be "qualified" for the performance of those duties.
Affected Employees - are those employees who operate machinery or equipment upon
which lockout or tagging out is required under this program. Training of these individuals
will be less stringent in that it will include the purpose and use of the lockout procedures.
Other Employees - are identified as those that do not fall into the authorized, affected or
qualified employee category. Essentially, it will include all other employees. These
100
employees will be provided instruction in what the program is and not to touch any
machine or equipment when they see that it has been locked or tagged out.
Training:
Authorized Employees Training:
All Maintenance Employees, Department Supervisors and Janitorial employees will be
trained to use the lock and tag out Procedures. The training will be conducted by the
Maintenance Supervisor or Safety Coordinator at time of initial hire. Retraining shall be
held at least annually. The training will consist of the following:
1. Review of General Procedures
2. Review of Specific Procedures for machinery, equipment and processes
3. Location and use of Specific Procedures
4. Procedures when questions arise
Affected Employee Training:
1. Only trained and authorized Employees will repair, replace or adjust
machinery, equipment or processes
2. Affected Employees may not remove Locks, locking devices or tags from
machinery, equipment or circuits.
3. Purpose and use of the lockout procedures.
4. All training and/or retraining must be documented, signed and certified by either a
Supervisor or Safety Director.
Other Employee Training:
1. Only trained and authorized Employees will repair, replace or adjust machinery
or equipment.
2. Other Employees may not remove Locks, locking devices or tags from
machinery, equipment or circuits
Preparation for Lock and Tag Out Procedures
A Lockout - Tagout survey has been conducted to locate and identify all energy sources
to verify which switches or valves supply energy to machinery and equipment. Dual or
redundant controls have been removed.
A Tagout Schedule has been developed for each piece of equipment and machinery. This
schedule describes the energy sources, location of disconnects, type of disconnect, special
hazards and special safety procedures. The schedule will be reviewed each time to ensure
employees properly lock and tag out equipment and machinery. If a Tagout Schedule
does not exist for a particular piece of equipment, machinery and process, one must be
developed prior to conducting a Lockout - Tagout. As repairs and/or renovations of
existing electrical systems are made, standardized controls will be used.
Routine Maintenance & Machine Adjustments:
Lock and Tag Out procedures are not required if equipment must be operating for proper
adjustment. This rare exception may be used only by trained and authorized Employees
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when specific procedures have been developed to safely avoid hazards with proper
training. All consideration shall be made to prevent the need for an employee to break the
plane of a normally guarded area of the equipment by use of tools and other devices.
Locks, Hasps and Tags:
All Qualified Maintenance Personnel will be assigned a lock with one key, hasp and tag.
All locks will be keyed differently, except when a specific individual is issues a series of
locks for complex lockout-tagout tasks. In some cases, more than one lock, hasp and tag
are needed to completely de-energize equipment and machinery. Additional locks may be
checked out from the Department or Maintenance Supervisor on a shift-by-shift basis. All
locks and hasps shall be uniquely identifiable to a specific employee.
SOP: General Lock and Tag Out Procedures:
Before working on, repairing, adjusting or replacing machinery and equipment, the
following procedures will be utilized to place the machinery and equipment in a neutral
or zero mechanical state.
Preparation for Shutdown. Before authorized or affected employees turn off a
machine or piece of equipment, the authorized employee will have knowledge of
the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy to be controlled,
and the means to control the energy.
Notify all affected Employees that the machinery, equipment or process will be
out of service
Machine or Equipment Shutdown. The machine or equipment will be turned or
shut down using the specific procedures for that specific machine. An orderly
shutdown will be utilized to avoid any additional or increased hazards to
employees as a result of equipment de-energization.
If the machinery, equipment or process is in operation, follow normal stopping
procedures (depress stop button, open toggle switch, etc.).
Move switch or panel arms to "Off" or "Open" positions and close all valves or
other energy isolating devices so that the energy source(s) is disconnected or
isolated from the machinery or equipment.
Machine or Equipment Isolation:
All energy control devices that are needed to control the energy to the machine or
equipment will be physically located and operated in such a manner as to isolate
the machine or equipment from the energy source.
Lockout or Tagout Device Application:
Lockout or tagout devices will be affixed to energy isolating devices by
authorized employees. Lockout devices will be affixed in a manner that will hold
the energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position.
Where tagout devices are used they will be affixed in such a manner that will
clearly state that the operation or the movement of energy isolating devices from
the "safe" or "off" positions is prohibited.
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The tagout devices will be attached to the same point a lock would be attached. If
the tag cannot be affixed at that point, the tag will be located as close as possible
to the device in a position that will be immediately obvious to anyone attempting
to operate the device.
Lock and tag out all energy devices by use of hasps, chains and valve covers with
an assigned individual locks.
Stored Energy:
Following the application of the lockout or tagout devices to the energy isolating
devices, all potential or residual energy will be relieved, disconnected, restrained,
and otherwise rendered safe.
Where the re-accumulation of stored energy to a hazardous energy level is
possible, verification of isolation will be continued until the maintenance or
servicing is complete.
Release stored energy (capacitors, springs, elevated members, rotating fly wheels,
and hydraulic/air/gas/steam systems) must be relieved or restrained by grounding,
repositioning, blocking and/or bleeding the system.
Verification of Isolation:
Prior to starting work on machines or equipment that have been locked or tagged
out, the authorized employees will verify that isolation or de-energization of the
machine or equipment have been accomplished.
After assuring that no Employee will be placed in danger, test all lock and tag
outs by following the normal start up procedures (depress start button, etc.).
Caution: After Test, place controls in neutral position.
Extended Lockout – Tagout:
Should the shift change before the machinery or equipment can be restored to service, the
lock and tag out must remain. If the task is reassigned to the next shift, those Employees
must lock and tag out before the previous shift may remove their lock and tag.
SOP: Release from LOCKOUT/TAGOUT:
Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and the energy restored to the machine or
equipment, the following actions will be taken:
1. The work area will be thoroughly inspected to ensure that nonessential items
have been removed and that machine or equipment components are operational.
2. The work will be checked to ensure that all employees have been safely
positioned or removed. Before the lockout or tagout devices are removed, the
affected employees will be notified that the lockout or tagout devices are being
removed.
3. Each lockout or tagout device will be removed from each energy isolating
device by the employee who applied the device.
SOP: LOTO Procedure for Electrical Plug-Type Equipment:
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This procedure covers all Electrical Plug-Type Equipment such as Battery Chargers,
some Product Pumps, Office Equipment, Powered Hand Tools, Powered Bench Tools,
Lathes, Fans, etc.
When working on, repairing, or adjusting the above equipment, the following procedures
must be utilized to prevent accidental or sudden startup:
1. Unplug Electrical Equipment from wall socket or in-line socket.
2. Attach "Do Not Operate" Tag and Plug Box & Lock on end of power cord.
An exception is granted to not lock & tag the plug is the cord & plug remain in
the exclusive control of the Employee working on, adjusting or inspecting the
equipment.
3. Test Equipment to assure power source has been removed by depressing the
"Start" or On" Switch.
4. Perform required operations.
5. Replace all guards removed.
6. Remove Lock & Plug Box and Tag.
7. Inspect power cord and socket before plugging equipment into power source.
Any defects must be repaired before placing the equipment back in service.
NOTE: Occasionally used equipment may be unplugged from power source when not in
use.
SOP: LOTO Procedures Involving More Than One Employee:
In the preceding SOPs, if more than one Employee is assigned to a task requiring a lock
and tag out, each must also place his or her own lock and tag on the energy isolating
device(s).
SOP: Management's Removal of Lock and Tag Out:
Only the Employee that locks and tags out machinery, equipment or processes may
remove his/her lock and tag. However, should the Employee leave the facility before
removing his/her lock and tag, the Maintenance Manager may remove the lock and tag.
The Maintenance Manager must be assured that all tools have been removed, all guards
have been replaced and all Employees are free from any hazard before the lock and tag
are removed and the machinery, equipment or process are returned to service.
Notification of the employee who placed the lock is required prior to lock removal.
Contractors:
Contractors, working on company property and equipment must use this Lockout Tagout procedure while servicing or maintaining equipment, machinery or processes.
104
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Noise Expsoure/Hearing Conservation
Purpose:
Conservation of hearing is achieved through preventative measures. To reduce
occupational hearing loss, all employees, who work in potentially noisy areas, are
provided hearing protection, training and annual hearing tests. OSHA's hearing
conservation standard is covered in 29 CFR 1910.95. Engineering controls are applied to
reduce noise from equipment and operations.
Responsibilities:
Management:

Use Engineering and Administrative controls to limit employee exposure

Provide adequate hearing protection for employees

Post signs and warnings for all high noise areas

Conduct noise surveys annually or when new equipment is added

Conduct annual hearing tests for all employees

Conduct hearing conservation training for all new employees

Conduct annual hearing conservation training for all employees
Employees:

Use company provided, approved hearing protection in designated high noise
areas

Request new hearing protection when needed

Exercise proper care of issues hearing protection
Training:
At time of hire and annually thereafter, all affected Employees must attend Hearing
Conservation Training. The initial training is conducted as part of the New Hire
Orientation Program by the Human Resource Department and consists of:
20. Rules and procedures
21. Where hearing protection is required
22. How to use and care for hearing protectors
23. How noise affects hearing and hearing loss
Engineering Controls:
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After it is determined that noise exposure above 85 dB (A) are present, engineering
controls should be evaluated and implemented to reduce the noise exposure before
administrative controls are initiated. Some examples of engineering controls include:
6. Noise reducing baffles
7. Compartmentalization
8. Installing noise reducing gears
9. Installing rubber pads under machinery
When new equipment or machinery is evaluated for purchase, the Safety Manager should be
consulted to conduct an evaluation from a safety and health standpoint. One criteria of
the evaluation should include the amount of noise the equipment will produce and how it
will affect the overall noise exposure.
Administrative Controls:
After engineering controls are evaluated for effectiveness or feasibility, administrative
controls should be considered to reduce noise exposure. Administrative controls include
restricting exposure time or using personal protective equipment (PPE).
Personal Protective Equipment, such as ear plugs or muffs, may be used to reduce the
amount of noise exposure. Each plug or muff has a noise reductions factor (NR) as
evaluated by ANSI Standards (S3.19 - 1974 or Z24.22 - 1957). For example, if a work
area has an ambient noise exposure of 96 dB (A), the hearing protectors should be rated 6
NR or better to be effective.
If a threshold shift has occurred, use of hearing protection shall be re-evaluated and/or
refitted and if necessary a medical evaluation may be required.
According to OSHA Regulations, each location with noise exposures of 85 to 89 dB (A)
will provide hearing protectors for the Employee's optional use. Noise exposures at 90 dB
(A) or above require the mandatory use of hearing protection. Further, OSHA requires
that a variety of hearing protectors be available for Employees to choose (both a variety
of plug and muff type hearing protectors).
Types of Hearing Protectors:
Hearing protection devices are the first line of defense against noise in environments
where engineering controls have not reduced employee exposure to safe levels. Hearing
protective devices can prevent significant hearing loss, but only if they are used properly.
The most popular hearing protection devices are earplugs which are inserted into the ear
canal to provide a seal against the canal walls. Earmuffs enclose the entire external ears
inside rigid cups. The inside of the muff cup is lined with acoustic foam and the
perimeter of the cup is fitted with a cushion that seals against the head around the ear by
the force of the headband.
Use of Hearing Protectors:
Management, Supervision and Employees shall properly wear the prescribed hearing
protectors while working in or traveling through any section of a Location that is
designated a High Noise Area (excluding offices, break rooms, and rest facilities). The
following rules will be enforced:
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
Personal stereos, such as Walkman’s, etc., will not be permitted in any operating
area of company property.

Hearing protectors, at least two types of plugs and one type of muffs, will be
provided and maintained by Company

Hearing protectors and replacements will be provided free of charge

Hearing protectors will be properly worn at all times, except in offices, break
rooms, and rest facilities.
Preformed earplugs and earmuffs should be washed periodically and stored in a clean
area, and foam inserts should be discarded after each use. It is important to wash hands
before handling pre-formed earplugs and foam inserts to prevent contaminants from
being placed in the ear which may increase your risk of developing infections.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Purpose:
The Company provides all Employees with required PPE to suit the task and known
hazards. This Chapter covers the requirements for Personal Protective Equipment with
the exception of PPE used for hearing conservation and respiratory protection or PPE
required for hazardous material response to spills or releases, which are covered under
separate programs.
General Policy:
Engineering controls shall be the primary methods used to eliminate or minimize hazard
exposure in the workplace. When such controls are not practical or applicable, personal
protective equipment shall be employed to reduce or eliminate personnel exposure to
hazards. Personal protective equipment (PPE) will be provided, used, and maintained
when it has been determined that its use is required and that such use will lessen the
likelihood of occupational injuries and/or illnesses.
Responsibilities:
Management:
* Conduct hazard assessments to identify specific PPE for specific tasks
*
Train employees in the selection, use, inspection, storage, cleaning, and
limitations of specific PPE
Supervisors:
*
Monitor use of PPE
*
Provide replacement PPE when needed
*
Identify any new hazards that would require the use of PPE
Employees:
*
Properly use and care for assigned PPE
*
Immediately inform supervisor if PPE is damaged or not effective
General Rules
Design:
All personal protective clothing and equipment will be of safe design and construction for
the work to be performed. Only those items of protective clothing and equipment that
meet National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or American
National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards will be procured or accepted for use.
Hazard assessment and equipment selection:
Hazard analysis procedures shall be used to assess the workplace to determine if hazards
are present, or are likely to be present, which necessitate the use of personal protective
equipment (PPE). If such hazards are present, or likely to be present, the following
actions will be taken:
108
*
Select, and have each affected Employee use, the proper PPE
*
Communicate selection decisions to each affected Employee
*
Select PPE that properly fits each affected employee.
Defective and damaged equipment:
Defective or damaged personal protective equipment shall not be used.
Training:
All Employees who are required to use PPE shall be trained to know at least the
following:
*
When PPE is necessary;
*
What PPE is necessary;
*
How to properly don, remove, adjust, and wear PPE;
*
The limitations of the PPE
*
The proper care, maintenance, useful life and disposal of the PPE.
Each affected Employee shall demonstrate an understanding of the training and the
ability to use PPE properly, before being allowed to perform work requiring the use of
PPE.
Certification of training for PPE is required by OSHA and shall be accomplished by
using the Job Safety Checklist to verify that each affected Employee has received and
understood the required PPE training.
PPE Selection:
Controlling hazards:
PPE devices alone should not be relied on to provide protection against hazards, but
should be used in conjunction with guards, engineering controls, and sound
manufacturing practices.
Selection guidelines:
The general procedure for selection of protective equipment is to:
A) Become familiar with the potential hazards and the type of protective
equipment that is available, and what it can do; i.e., splash protection, impact
protection, etc.
B) Compare the hazards associated with the environment; i.e., impact
velocities, masses, projectile shape, radiation intensities, with the capabilities
of the available protective equipment;
C) Select the protective equipment which ensures a level of protection greater
than the minimum required to protect employees from the hazards
D) Fit the user with the protective device and give instructions on care and use
of the PPE. It is very important that end users be made aware of all warning
labels for and limitations of their PPE.
Fitting the Device:
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Careful consideration must be given to comfort and fit. PPE that fits poorly will not
afford the necessary protection. Continued wearing of the device is more likely if it fits
the wearer comfortably. Protective devices are generally available in a variety of sizes.
Care should be taken to ensure that the right size is selected.
Devices with adjustable features:
Adjustments should be made on an individual basis for a comfortable fit that will
maintain the protective device in the proper position. Particular care should be taken in
fitting devices for eye protection against dust and chemical splash to ensure that the
devices are sealed to the face. In addition, proper fitting of helmets is important to ensure
that it will not fall off during work operations. In some cases a chin strap may be
necessary to keep the helmet on an employee's head. (Chin straps should break at a
reasonably low force, however, so as to prevent a strangulation hazard). Where
manufacturer's instructions are available, they should be followed carefully.
Eye and Face Protection:
The majority of occupational eye injuries can be prevented by the use of
suitable/approved safety spectacles, goggles, or shields. Approved eye and face
protection shall be worn when there is a reasonable possibility of personal injury.
* Each employee shall use appropriate eye or face protection when exposed to eye
or face hazards from flying particles, molten metal, liquid chemicals, acids or
caustic liquids, chemical gases or vapors, or potentially injurious light radiation.
* Each employee shall use eye protection that provides side protection when there is
a hazard from flying objects. Detachable side protectors are acceptable.
* Each employee who wears prescription lenses while engaged in operations that
involve eye hazards shall wear eye protection that incorporates the prescription in
its design, or shall wear eye protection that can be worn over the prescription
lenses without disturbing the proper position of the prescription lenses or the
protective lenses.
* Eye and face PPE shall be distinctly marked to facilitate identification of the
manufacturer.
* Each employee shall use equipment with filter lenses that have a shade number
appropriate for the work being performed for protection from injurious light
radiation.
Typical hazards that can cause eye and face injury are:
*
Splashes of toxic or corrosive chemicals, hot liquids, and molten metals;
*
Flying objects, such as chips of wood, metal, and stone dust;
*
Fumes, gases, and mists of toxic or corrosive chemicals; and
*
Aerosols of biological substances.
Prevention of eye accidents requires that all persons who may be in eye hazard areas
wear protective eyewear. This includes employees, visitors, contractors, or others passing
through an identified eye hazardous area. To provide protection for these personnel,
activities shall procure a sufficient quantity of heavy duty goggles and/or plastic eye
110
protectors which afford the maximum amount of protection possible. If these personnel
wear personal glasses, they shall be provided with a suitable eye protector to wear over
them.
Eye / Face Protection Specifications:
Eye and face protectors procured, issued to, and used by employees, contractors and
visitors must conform to the following design and performance standards:
A) Provide adequate protection against the particular hazards for which they are
designed
B) Fit properly and offer the least possible resistance to movement and cause
minimal discomfort while in use.
C) Be durable
D) Be easily cleaned or disinfected for or by the wearer
E) Be clearly marked to identify the manufacturer
F) Persons who require corrective lenses for normal vision, and who are required
to wear eye protection, must wear goggles or spectacles of one of the following
types:
1) Spectacles with protective lenses which provide optical correction.
2) Goggles that can be worn over spectacles without disturbing the adjustment of
the spectacles.
3) Goggles that incorporate corrective lenses mounted behind the protective
lenses.
Eye & Face Protector Use:
Safety Spectacles - Protective eye glasses are made with safety frames, tempered glass or plastic
lenses, temples and side shields which provide eye protection from moderate impact and
particles encountered in job tasks such as carpentry, woodworking, grinding, scaling, etc.
Single Lens Goggles - Vinyl framed goggles of soft pliable body design provide adequate eye
protection from many hazards. These goggles are available with clear or tinted lenses, perforated,
port vented, or non-vented frames. Single lens goggles provide similar protection to spectacles
and may be worn in combination with spectacles or corrective lenses to insure protection along
with proper vision.
Welders/Chippers Goggles - These goggles are available in rigid and soft frames to
accommodate single or two eye piece lenses.
111
1) Welders goggles provide protection from sparking, scaling or splashing metals and
harmful light rays. Lenses are impact resistant and are available in graduated shades of
filtration.
2) Chippers/grinders goggles provide eye protection from flying particles. The dual
protective eye cups house impact resistant clear lenses with individual cover plates.
Face Shields - These normally consist of an adjustable headgear and face shield of
tinted/transparent acetate or polycarbonate materials, or wire screen. Face shields are available in
various sizes, tensile strength, impact/heat resistance and light ray filtering capacity. Face shields
will be used in operations when the entire face needs protection and should be worn to protect
eyes and face against flying particles, metal sparks, and chemical/ biological splash.
Welding Shields - These shield assemblies consist of vulcanized fiber or glass fiber body, a
ratchet/button type adjustable headgear or cap attachment and a filter and cover plate holder.
These shields will be provided to protect workers' eyes and face from infrared or radiant light
burns, flying sparks, metal spatter and slag chips encountered during welding, brazing, soldering,
resistance welding, bare or shielded electric arc welding and oxyacetylene welding and cutting
operations.
Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy
Operations
Shielded metal arc
welding
Electrode Size 1/32
in
Arc Current
Protective Shade
Less than 3
Less than 60
7
3-5
60-160
8
5-8
160-250
10
More than 8
250-550
11
112
Torch brazing
3
Torch soldering
2
Note: as a rule of thumb, start with a shade that is too dark to see the weld zone. Then go to a
lighter shade which gives sufficient view of the weld zone without going below the minimum.
In oxyfuel gas welding or cutting where the torch produces a high yellow light, it is desirable
to use a filter lens that absorbs the yellow or sodium line in the visible light of the (spectrum)
operation.
Selection chart guidelines for eye and face protection
The following chart provides general guidance for the proper selection of eye and face
protection to protect against hazards associated with the listed hazard "source" operations.
Source
IMPACT - Chipping,
grinding machining, masonry
work, woodworking, sawing,
drilling, chiseling, powered
fastening, riveting, and
sanding
Hazard
Flying fragments, objects,
large chips, particles, sand,
dirt, etc.
Protection
Spectacles with side
protection, goggles, face
shield
For severe exposure, use face
shield
Hot sparks
Faceshields,, spectacles with
side. For severe exposure use
faceshield.
CHEMICALS-Acid and
chemical handling,
degreasing, plating
Splash
Goggles, eyecup and cover
types. For severe exposure,
use face shield.
DUST - Woodworking,
buffing, general buffing,
general dusty conditions.
Nuisance dust
Goggles, eye cup and cover
type
HEAT-Furnace operation
and arc welding
Head Protection
Hats and caps have been designed and manufactured to provide workers protection from
impact, heat, electrical and fire hazards. These protectors consist of the shell and the
suspension combined as a protective system. Safety hats and caps will be of
nonconductive, fire and water resistant materials. Bump caps or skull guards are
113
constructed of lightweight materials and are designed to provide minimal protection
against hazards when working in congested areas.
Head protection will be furnished to, and used by, all employees and contractors engaged
in construction and other miscellaneous work in head-hazard areas. Head protection will
also be required to be worn by engineers, inspectors, and visitors at construction sites.
Bump caps/skull guards will be issued to and worn for protection against scalp
lacerations from contact with sharp objects. They will not be worn as substitutes for
safety caps/hats because they do not afford protection from high impact forces or
penetration by falling objects.
Selection guidelines for head protection:
All head protection is designed to provide protection from impact and penetration hazards
caused by falling objects. Head protection is also available which provides protection
from electric shock and burn. When selecting head protection, knowledge of potential
electrical hazards is important. Class A helmets, in addition to impact and penetration
resistance, provide electrical protection from low-voltage conductors (they are proof
tested to 2,200 volts). Class B helmets, in addition to impact and penetration resistance,
provide electrical protection from high-voltage conductors (they are proof tested to
20,000 volts). Class C helmets provide impact and penetration resistance (they are
usually made of aluminum which conducts electricity), and should not be used around
electrical hazards.
Where falling object hazards are present, helmets must be worn. Some examples include:
working below other workers who are using tools and materials which could fall;
working around or under conveyor belts which are carrying parts or materials; working
below machinery or processes which might cause material or objects to fall; and working
on exposed energized conductors.
Foot Protection:
General requirements:
Each affected employee shall wear protective footwear when working in areas where
there is a danger of foot injuries due to falling or rolling objects, or objects piercing the
sole, and where employee's feet are exposed to electrical hazards.
Selection guidelines for foot protection:
Safety shoes and boots provide both impact and compression protection. Where
necessary, safety shoes can be obtained which provide puncture protection. In some work
situations, metatarsal protection should be provided, and in other special situations
electrical conductive or insulating safety shoes would be appropriate. Safety shoes or
boots with impact protection would be required for carrying or handling materials such as
packages, objects, parts or heavy tools, which could be dropped; and, for other activities
where objects might fall onto the feet. Safety shoes or boots with compression protection
would be required for work activities involving skid trucks (manual material handling
carts) around bulk rolls (such as paper rolls) and around heavy pipes, all of which could
potentially roll over an employee's feet. Safety shoes or boots with puncture protection
would be required where sharp objects such as nails, wire, tacks, screws, large staples,
scrap metal etc., could be stepped on by employees causing a foot injury.
114
Hand Protection:
General Requirements:
Hand protection is required when employees' hands are exposed to hazards such as those
from skin absorption of harmful substances; severe cuts or lacerations; severe abrasions;
punctures; chemical burns; thermal burns; and harmful temperature extremes.
Skin contact is a potential source of exposure to toxic materials; it is important that the
proper steps be taken to prevent such contact. Gloves should be selected on the basis of
the material being handled, the particular hazard involved, and their suitability for the
operation being conducted. One type of glove will not work in all situations.
Most accidents involving hands and arms can be classified under four main hazard
categories: chemicals, abrasions, cutting, and heat. There are gloves available that can
protect workers from any of these individual hazards or combination of hazards.
Gloves should be replaced periodically, depending on frequency of use and permeability
to the substance(s) handled. Gloves overtly contaminated should be rinsed and then
carefully removed after use.
Gloves should also be worn whenever it is necessary to handle rough or sharp-edged
objects, and very hot or very cold materials. The types of glove materials to be used in
these situations include leather, welder's gloves, aluminum-backed gloves, and other
types of insulated glove materials.
Careful attention must be given to protecting your hands when working with tools and
machinery. Power tools and machinery must have guards installed or incorporated into
their design that prevent the hands from contacting the point of operation, power train, or
other moving parts. To protect the hands from injury due to contact with moving parts, it
is important to:
*
Ensure that guards are always in place and used.
*
Always lock out machines or tools and disconnect the power before making
repairs.
*
Treat a machine without a guard as inoperative; and
*
Do not wear gloves around moving machinery, such as drill presses, mills, lathes,
and grinders.
Selection guidelines for hand protection:
Selection of hand PPE shall be based on an evaluation of the performance characteristics
of the hand protection relative to the task(s) to be performed, conditions present, duration
of use, and the hazards and potential hazards identified. Gloves are often relied upon to
prevent cuts, abrasions, burns, and skin contact with chemicals that are capable of
causing local or systemic effects following dermal exposure. There is no glove that
provides protection against all potential hand hazards, and commonly available glove
materials provide only limited protection against many chemicals. Therefore, it is
important to select the most appropriate glove for a particular application and to
determine how long it can be worn, and whether it can be reused. It is also important to
know the performance characteristics of gloves relative to the specific hazard anticipated;
e.g., chemical hazards, cut hazards, flame hazards, etc. Before purchasing gloves, request
115
documentation from the manufacturer that the gloves meet the appropriate test
standard(s) for the hazard(s) anticipated. Other factors to be considered for glove
selection in general include:
A) As long as the performance characteristics are acceptable, in certain
circumstances, it may be more cost effective to regularly change cheaper
gloves than to reuse more expensive types.
B) The work activities of the employee should be studied to determine the
degree of dexterity required, the duration, frequency, and degree of exposure
of the hazard, and the physical stresses that will be applied.
Selection of gloves for chemical hazards
The first consideration in the selection of gloves for use against chemicals is to
determine, if possible, the exact nature of the substances to be encountered. Read
instructions and warnings on chemical container labels and MSDSs before working with
any chemical. Recommended glove types are often listed in the section for personal
protective equipment.
All glove materials are eventually permeated by chemicals. However, they can be used
safely for limited time periods if specific use and glove characteristics (i.e., thickness and
permeation rate and time) are known. The safety office can assist is determining the
specific type of glove material that should be worn for a particular chemical.
A) The toxic properties of the chemical(s) must be determined; in particular,
the ability of the chemical to cause local effects on the skin and/or to pass
through the skin and cause systemic effects.
B) Generally, any "chemical resistant" glove can be used for dry powders;
C) For mixtures and formulated products (unless specific test data are
available), a glove should be selected on the basis of the chemical component
with the shortest breakthrough time, since it is possible for solvents to carry
active ingredients through polymeric materials.
D) Employees must be able to remove the gloves in such a manner as to
prevent skin contamination.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Respiratory Protection
General:
In the Respiratory Protection program, hazard assessment and selection of proper
respiratory protective equipment (RPE) is conducted in the same manner as for other
types of personal protective equipment (PPE). In the control of those occupational
diseases caused by breathing air contaminated with harmful dusts, fogs, fumes, mists,
gases, smokes, sprays, or vapors, the primary objective shall be to prevent atmospheric
contamination. This shall be accomplished as far as feasible by accepted engineering
control measures (for example, enclosure or confinement of the operation, general and
local ventilation, and substitution of less toxic materials). When effective engineering
controls are not feasible, or while they are being instituted, appropriate respirators shall
be used. References: OSHA Standards Respiratory Protection (29 CFR 1910.134)
Responsibilities:
All Employees shall follow the requirements of the Respiratory Protection Program.
Management:

implement the requirements of this program

provide a selection of respirators as required

enforce all provisions of this program

appoint a specific designated individual to conduct the respiratory protection
program

respiratory equipment will be provided at no cost to all affected employees
Program Administrator:

review sanitation/storage procedures

ensure respirators are properly, stored, inspected and maintained

monitor compliance for this program

provide training for affected employees

review compliance and ensure monthly inspection of all respirators

provide respirator fit testing
Designated Occupational Health care Provider:

conduct medical aspects of program
Program Administrator:
Each Facility will designate a program administrator who is qualified by appropriate
training or experience that is commensurate with the complexity of the program to
117
administer or oversee the respiratory protection program and conduct the required
evaluations of program effectiveness.
Voluntary Use of Respirators is Prohibited:
OSHA requires that voluntary use of respirators, when not required by the company,
must be controlled as strictly as under required circumstances. To prevent violations of
the Respiratory Protection Standard Employees are not allowed voluntary use of their
own or company supplied respirators of any type. Exception: Employees whose only use
of respirators involves the voluntary use of filtering (non-sealing) face pieces (dust
masks).
Program Evaluation:
Evaluations of the workplace are necessary to ensure that the written respiratory
protection program is being properly implemented; this includes consulting with
employees to ensure that they are using the respirators properly. Evaluations shall be
conducted as necessary to ensure that the provisions of the current written program are
being effectively implemented and that it continues to be effective Program evaluation
will include discussions with employees required to use respirators to assess the
employees' views on program effectiveness and to identify any problems. Any problems
that are identified during this assessment shall be corrected. Factors to be assessed
include, but are not limited to:

Respirator fit (including the ability to use the respirator without interfering with
effective workplace performance)

Appropriate respirator selection for the hazards to which the employee is exposed

Proper respirator use under the workplace conditions the employee encounters
and

Proper respirator maintenance
Record Keeping:
The Company will retain written information regarding medical evaluations, fit testing,
and the respirator program. This information will facilitate employee involvement in the
respirator program, assist the Company in auditing the adequacy of the program, and
provide a record for compliance determinations by OSHA.
Training and Information:
Effective training for employees who are required to use respirators is essential. The
training must be comprehensive, understandable, and recur annually and more often if
necessary. Training will be provided prior to requiring the employee to use a respirator in
the workplace. The training shall ensure that each employee can demonstrate knowledge
of at least the following:

Why the respirator is necessary and how improper fit, usage, or maintenance can
compromise the protective effect of the respirator

Limitations and capabilities of the respirator

How to use the respirator effectively in emergency situations, including situations
in which the respirator malfunctions
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
How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check the seals of the respirator

What the procedures are for maintenance and storage of the respirator

How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent the
effective use of respirators

The general requirements of this program
Retraining shall be conducted annually and when:

changes in the workplace or the type of respirator render previous training
obsolete

inadequacies in the employee's knowledge or use of the respirator indicate that the
employee has not retained the requisite understanding or skill

other situation arises in which retraining appears necessary to ensure safe
respirator use
Training will be conducted by instructors certified by _________________________.
Training is divided into the following sections:
Classroom Instruction
10. Overview of the Company Respiratory Protection Program & OSHA Standard
11. Respiratory Protection Safety Procedures
12. Respirator Selection
13. Respirator Operation and Use
14. Why the respirator is necessary
15. How improper fit, usage, or maintenance can compromise the protective effect.
16. Limitations and capabilities of the respirator.
17. How to use the respirator effectively in emergency situations, including respirator
malfunctions
18. How to inspect, put on and remove, use, and check the seals of the respirator.
19. What the procedures are for maintenance and storage of the respirator.
20. How to recognize medical signs and symptoms that may limit or prevent the effective
use of respirators.
21. Change out schedule and procedure for air purifying respirators.
Fit Testing:
Hands-on respirator Training:
6. Respirator Inspection
7. Respirator cleaning and sanitizing
8. Record Keeping
9. Respirator Storage
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10. Respirator Fit Check
11. Emergencies
Basic Respiratory Protection Safety Procedures:
6. Only authorized and trained Employees may use Respirators. Those Employees may
use only the Respirator that they have been trained on and properly fitted to use.
7. Only Physically Qualified Employees may be trained and authorized to use
Respirators. A pre-authorization and annual certification by a qualified physician will
be required and maintained. Any changes in an Employees health or physical
characteristics will be reported to the Occupational Health Department and will be
evaluated by a qualified physician.
8. Only the proper prescribed respirator or self contained breathing apparatus (SCBA)
may be used for the job or work environment. Air cleansing respirators may be worn
in work environments when oxygen levels are between 19.5 percent to 23.5 percent
and when the appropriate air cleansing canister, as determined by the Manufacturer
and approved by the National Institute for Occupational Health (NIOSH) or the Mine
Safety & Health Administration (MSHA), for the known hazardous substance is used.
SCBAs will be worn in oxygen deficient and oxygen rich environments (below 19.5
percent or above 23.5 percent oxygen).
9. Employees working in environments where a sudden release of a hazardous substance
is likely will wear an appropriate respirator for that hazardous substance (example:
Employees working in an ammonia compressor room will have an ammonia APR
respirator on their person.).
10. Only SCBAs will be used in oxygen deficient environments, environments with an
unknown hazardous substance or unknown quantity of a known hazardous substance
or any environment that is determined "Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health"
(IDLH).
11. Employees with respirators loaned on "permanent check out" will be responsible for
the sanitation, proper storage and security. Respirators damaged by normal wear will
be repaired or replaced by the Company when returned.
12. The last Employee using a respirator and/or SCBA that are available for general use
will be responsible for proper storage and sanitation. Monthly and after each use, all
respirators will be inspected with documentation to assure its availability for use.
13. All respirators will be located in a clean, convenient and sanitary location.
14. In the event that Employees must enter a confined space, work in environments with
hazardous substances that would be dangerous to life or health should an RPE fail (a
SCBA is required in this environment), and/or conduct a hazardous material
(HAZMAT) entry, a "buddy system" detail will be used with a Safety Watchman with
constant voice, visual or signal line communication. Employees will follow the
established Emergency Response Program and/or Confined Space Entry Program
when applicable.
120
15. Management will establish and maintain surveillance of jobs and work place
conditions and degree of Employee exposure or stress to maintain the proper
procedures and to provide the necessary RPE.
16. Management will establish and maintain safe operation procedures for the safe use of
RPE with strict enforcement and disciplinary action for failure to follow all general
and specific safety rules. Standard Operation Procedures for General RPE use will be
maintained as an attachment to the Respiratory Protection Program and Standard
Operation Procedures for RPE use under emergency response situations will be
maintained as an attachment to the Emergency Response Program.
Respirator User Policies:
Adherence to the following guidelines will help ensure the proper and safe use of
respiratory equipment:

Wear only the respirator you have been instructed to use. For example, do not
wear a self-containing breathing apparatus if you have been assigned and fitted
for a half-mask respirator.

Wear the correct respirator for the particular hazard. For example, some
situations, such as chemical spills or other emergencies, may require a higher
level of protection than your respirator can handle. Also, the proper cartridge must
be matched to the hazard ( a cartridge designed for dusts and mists will not
provide protection for chemical vapors)

Check the respirator for a good fit before each use. Positive and negative fit
checks should be conducted.

Check the respirator for deterioration before and after use. Do not use a defective
respirator.

Recognize indications that cartridges and canisters are at their end of service. If in
doubt, change the cartridges or canisters before using the respirator.

Practice moving and working while wearing the respirator so that you can get
used to it.

Clean the respirator after each use, thoroughly dry it and place the cleaned
respirator in a sealable plastic bag.

Store respirators carefully in a protected location away from excessive heat, light,
and chemicals.
Selection of Respirators:
The Company has evaluated the respiratory hazard(s) in each workplace, identified
relevant workplace and user factors and has based respirator selection on these factors.
Also included are estimates of employee exposures to respiratory hazard(s) and an
identification of the contaminant's chemical state and physical form. This selection has
included appropriate protective respirators for use in IDLH atmospheres, and has limited
the selection and use of air-purifying respirators. All selected respirators are NIOSHcertified.
Filter Classifications - These classifications are marked on the filter or filter package
121
N-Series: Not Oil Resistant

Approved for non-oil particulate contaminants

Examples: dust, fumes, mists not containing oil
R-Series: Oil Resistant

Approved for all particulate contaminants, including those containing oil

Examples: dusts, mists, fumes

Time restriction of 8 hours when oils are present
P-Series: Oil Proof

Approved for all particulate contaminants including those containing oil

Examples: dust, fumes, mists

See Manufacturer's time use restrictions on packaging
Respirators for IDLH atmospheres:

The following respirators will be used in IDLH atmospheres:

A full face piece pressure demand SCBA certified by NIOSH for a minimum
service life of thirty minutes, or

A combination full face piece pressure demand supplied-air respirator (SAR) with
auxiliary self-contained air supply.

Respirators provided only for escape from IDLH atmospheres shall be NIOSHcertified for escape from the atmosphere in which they will be used.
Respirators for atmospheres that are not IDLH:
The respirators selected shall be adequate to protect the health of the employee and
ensure compliance with all other OSHA statutory and regulatory requirements, under
routine and reasonably foreseeable emergency situations. The respirator selected shall
be appropriate for the chemical state and physical form of the contaminant.
Identification of Filters & Cartridges:
All filters and cartridges shall be labeled and color coded with the NIOSH approval label
and that the label is not removed and remains legible. A change out schedule for filters
and canisters has been developed to ensure these elements of the respirators remain
effective.
Respirator Filter & Canister Replacement:
An important part of the Respiratory Protection Program includes identifying the useful
life of canisters and filters used on air-purifying respirators. Each filter and canister shall
be equipped with an end-of-service-life indicator (ESLI) certified by NIOSH for the
contaminant; or
If there is no ESLI appropriate for conditions a change schedule for canisters and
cartridges that is based on objective information or data that will ensure that canisters and
cartridges are changed before the end of their service life.
122
Filter & Cartridge Change Schedule:
Stock of spare filers and cartridges shall be maintained to allow immediate change when
required or desired by the employee
Cartridges shall be changed based on the most limiting factor below:

Prior to expiration date

Manufacturer's recommendations for use and environment

After each use

When requested by employee

When contaminate odor is detected

When restriction to air flow has occurred as evidenced by increase effort by user
to breathe normally

Cartridges shall remain in their original sealed packages until needed for
immediate use
Filters shall be changed based on the most limiting factor below:

Prior to expiration date

Manufactures recommendations for the specific use and environment

When requested by employee

When contaminate odor is detected

When restriction to air flow has occurred as evidenced by increase effort by user
to breathe normally

When discoloring of the filter media is evident

Filters shall remain in their original sealed package until needed for immediate
use.
Respiratory Protection Schedule by Job and Working Condition:
The Company maintains a Respiratory Protection Schedule by Job and Working
Condition. This schedule is provided to each authorized and trained Employee. The
Schedule provides the following information:
1. Job/Working Conditions
2. Work Location
3. Hazards Present
4. Type of Respirator or SCBA Required
5. Type of Filter/Canister Required
6. Location of Respirator or SCBA
7. Filter/Cartridge change out schedule
123
The schedule will be reviewed and updated at least annually and whenever any changes are
made in the work environments, machinery, equipment, or processes or if respirator
different respirator models are introduced or existing models are removed.
Permanent respirator schedule assignments are:
Each person who engages in welding will have their own company provided dust-mistfume filter APR. This respirator will be worn during all welding operations.
Assigned Protection Factors:
No respirator can provide 100% effectiveness. OSHA has implemented Assigned Protection
Factors (APFs) for various types of respirators. The purpose of APFs is to ensure use of
respirators does not cause over-exposure to specific contaminants. Maximum permissible
exposure levels (PEL) are generally based on specific concentrations over an 8 hour daily period
without using a respirator. As an example if a respirator has 90% effectiveness, then a respirator
wearer would reach the maximum permissible exposure level in 10 hours IF the atmospheric
conditions were 10 times the PEL.
Our company selects respirators by comparing the exposure level and the maximum
concentration of the contaminant in which a particular type of respirator can be used. Known as
the Maximum Use Concentration or MUC, this is generally determined by multiplying the
respirator's APF by the contaminant's exposure limit. If the level of contaminant is expected to
exceed the MUC, the company will select a respirator with a higher APF.
Table of Assigned Protection Factors
Operating mode
Assigned
Protection
Factors
I. Air Purifying Respirators [Particulateb only]c:
Filtering facepiece disposabled
Negative Pressure
(d)
Facepiece, half e
Negative Pressure
10
Facepiece, full
Negative Pressure
100
Facepiece, half
Powered air-purifying
respirators
50
Facepiece, full
Powered air-purifying
respirators
1000
Helmet/hood
Powered air-purifying
respirators
1000
Facepiece, loose-fitting
Powered air-purifying
respirators
25
II. Atmosphere supplying respirators [particulate,
gases and vaporsf]:
1. Air-line respirator:
124
Facepiece, half
Demand
10
Facepiece, half
Continuous Flow
50
Facepiece, half
Pressure Demand
50
Facepiece, full
Demand
100
Facepiece, full
Continuous Flow
1000
Facepiece, full
Pressure Demand
1000
Helmet/hood
Continuous Flow
1000
Facepiece, loose-fitting
Continuous Flow
25
Suit
Continuous Flow
(g)
Demand
h
Facepiece, full
Pressure Demand
i
Facepiece, full
Demand, Recirculating
h
Facepiece, full
Positive Pressure
Recirculating
i
2. Self-contained breathing Apparatus (SCBA):
Facepiece, full
100
10,000
100
10,000
III. Combination Respirators:
Any combination of air-purifying and atmosphere- Assigned protection factor for type and
supplying respirators
mode of operation as listed above.
b
Air purifying respirators with APF <100 must be equipped with particulate filters that are at
least 95 percent efficient. Air purifying respirators with APF = 100 must be equipped with
particulate filters that are at least 99 percent efficient. Air purifying respirators with APFs >100
must be equipped with particulate filters that are at least 99.97 percent efficient.
c
The licensee may apply to the Commission for the use of an APF greater than 1 for sorbent
cartridges as protection against airborne radioactive gases and vapors (e.g., radioiodine).
d
Licensees may permit individuals to use this type of respirator who have not been medically
screened or fit tested on the device provided that no credit be taken for their use in estimating
intake or dose. It is also recognized that it is difficult to perform an effective positive or negative
pressure pre-use user seal check on this type of device. All other respiratory protection program
requirements listed in § 20.1703 apply. An assigned protection factor has not been assigned for
these devices. However, an APF equal to 10 may be used if the licensee can demonstrate a fit
factor of at least 100 by use of a validated or evaluated, qualitative or quantitative fit test.
e
Under-chin type only. No distinction is made in this Appendix between elastomeric half-masks
with replaceable cartridges and those designed with the filter medium as an integral part of the
facepiece (e.g., disposable or reusable disposable). Both types are acceptable so long as the seal
area of the latter contains some substantial type of seal-enhancing material such as rubber or
plastic, the two or more suspension straps are adjustable, the filter medium is at least 95 percent
125
efficient and all other requirements of this Part are met.
f
The assigned protection factors for gases and vapors are not applicable to radioactive
contaminants that present an absorption or submersion hazard. For tritium oxide vapor,
approximately one-third of the intake occurs by absorption through the skin so that an overall
protection factor of 3 is appropriate when atmosphere-supplying respirators are used to protect
against tritium oxide. Exposure to radioactive noble gases is not considered a significant
respiratory hazard, and protective actions for these contaminants should be based on external
(submersion) dose considerations.
g
No NIOSH approval schedule is currently available for atmosphere supplying suits. This
equipment may be used in an acceptable respiratory protection program as long as all the other
minimum program requirements, with the exception of fit testing, are met (i.e., § 20.1703).
h
The licensee should implement institutional controls to assure that these devices are not used in
areas immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH).
i
This type of respirator may be used as an emergency device in unknown concentrations for
protection against inhalation hazards. External radiation hazards and other limitations to
permitted exposure such as skin absorption shall be taken into account in these circumstances.
This device may not be used by any individual who experiences perceptible outward leakage of
breathing gas while wearing the device.
Physical and Medical Qualifications:
Records of medical evaluations must be retained and made available in accordance with
29 CFR 1910.1020.
Medical evaluation required:
Using a respirator may place a physiological burden on employees that varies with the
type of respirator worn, the job and workplace conditions in which the respirator is used,
and the medical status of the employee. The company provides a medical evaluation to
determine the employee's ability to use a respirator, before the employee is fit tested or
required to use the respirator in the workplace.
Medical evaluation procedures:
The employee will be provided a medical questionnaire by the designated Occupational
Health Care Provider
Follow-up medical examination:
The company shall ensure that a follow-up medical examination is provided for an
employee who gives a positive response to any question among questions in Part B of the
questionnaire or whose initial medical examination demonstrates the need for a follow-up
medical examination. The follow-up medical examination shall include any medical tests,
126
consultations, or diagnostic procedures that the Physician deems necessary to make a
final determination.
Administration of the medical questionnaire and examinations:
The medical questionnaire and examinations shall be administered confidentially during
the employee's normal working hours or at a time and place convenient to the employee.
The medical questionnaire shall be administered in a manner that ensures that the
employee understands its content. The company shall provide the employee with an
opportunity to discuss the questionnaire and examination results with the Physician.
Supplemental information for the Physician:
The following information must be provided to the Physician before the Physician makes
a recommendation concerning an employee's ability to use a respirator

The type and weight of the respirator to be used by the employee

The duration and frequency of respirator use (including use for rescue and escape)

The expected physical work effort

Additional protective clothing and equipment to be worn

Temperature and humidity extremes that may be encountered

Any supplemental information provided previously to the Physician regarding an
employee need not be provided for a subsequent medical evaluation if the
information and the Physician remain the same
The Company has provided the Physician with a copy of the written respiratory
protection program and a copy of the OSHA Standard 1910.134
Medical determination:
In determining the employee's ability to use a respirator, the Company shall

Obtain a written recommendation regarding the employee's ability to use the
respirator from the Physician. The recommendation shall provide only the
following information

Any limitations on respirator use related to the medical condition of the
employee, or relating to the workplace conditions in which the respirator will be
used, including whether or not the employee is medically able to use the respirator

The need, if any, for follow-up medical evaluations

A statement that the Physician has provided the employee with a copy of the
Physician's written recommendation

If the respirator is a negative pressure respirator and the Physician finds a medical
condition that may place the employee's health at increased risk if the respirator is
used, the Company shall provide a APR if the Physician's medical evaluation
finds that the employee can use such a respirator; if a subsequent medical
evaluation finds that the employee is medically able to use a negative pressure
respirator, then the Company is no longer required to provide a APR
127
Additional Medical Evaluations:
At a minimum, the Company shall provide additional medical evaluations that
comply with the requirements of this section if:

An employee reports medical signs or symptoms that are related to ability to use a
respirator

A Physician, supervisor, or the respirator program administrator informs the
Company that an employee needs to be reevaluated

Information from the respiratory protection program, including observations made
during fit testing and program evaluation, indicates a need for employee
reevaluation

A change occurs in workplace conditions (e.g., physical work effort, protective
clothing, and temperature) that may result in a substantial increase in the
physiological burden placed on an employee.
Respirator Fit Testing:
Before an employee is required to use any respirator with a negative or positive pressure
tight-fitting face piece, the employee must be fit tested with the same make, model, style,
and size of respirator that will be used. The Company shall ensure that an employee using
a tight-fitting face piece respirator is fit tested prior to initial use of the respirator,
whenever a different respirator face piece (size, style, model or make) is used, and at least
annually thereafter
The Company has established a record of the qualitative and quantitative fit tests
administered to employees including:

The name or identification of the employee tested

Type of fit test performed

Specific make, model, style, and size of respirator tested

Date of test

The pass/fail results for Qualitative Fit Test (QLFT) or the fit factor and strip
chart recording or other recording of the test results for Quantitative Fit Test
(QNFT)
Additional fit tests will be conducted whenever the employee reports, or the Company,
Physician, supervisor, or program administrator makes visual observations of, changes in
the employee's physical condition that could affect respirator fit. Such conditions include,
but are not limited to, facial scarring, dental changes, cosmetic surgery, or an obvious
change in body weight.
If after passing a QLFT or QNFT, the employee notifies the Company, program
administrator, supervisor, or Physician that the fit of the respirator is unacceptable, the
employee shall be given a reasonable opportunity to select a different respirator face
piece and to be retested.
Types of Fit Tests:
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The fit test shall be administered using an OSHA-accepted QLFT or QNFT protocol. The
OSHA-accepted QLFT and QNFT protocols and procedures are contained in Appendix A
of OSHA Standard 1910.134.

QLFT may only be used to fit test negative pressure air-purifying respirators that
must achieve a fit factor of 100 or less.

If the fit factor, as determined through an OSHA-accepted QNFT protocol, is
equal to or greater than 100 for tight-fitting half face pieces, or equal to or greater
than 500 for tight-fitting full face pieces, the QNFT has been passed with that
respirator.

Fit testing of tight-fitting atmosphere-supplying respirators and tight-fitting
powered air-purifying respirators shall be accomplished by performing
quantitative or qualitative fit testing in the negative pressure mode, regardless of
the mode of operation (negative or positive pressure) that is used for respiratory
protection.

Qualitative fit testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by temporarily
converting the respirator user's actual face piece into a negative pressure
respirator with appropriate filters, or by using an identical negative pressure airpurifying respirator face piece with the same sealing surfaces as a surrogate for
the atmosphere-supplying or powered air-purifying respirator face piece.

Quantitative fit testing of these respirators shall be accomplished by modifying
the face piece to allow sampling inside the face piece in the breathing zone of the
user, midway between the nose and mouth. This requirement shall be
accomplished by installing a permanent sampling probe onto a surrogate face
piece, or by using a sampling adapter designed to temporarily provide a means of
sampling air from inside the face piece.

Any modifications to the respirator face piece for fit testing shall be completely
removed, and the face piece restored to NIOSH approved configuration, before
that face piece can be used in the workplace.
Fit test records shall be retained for respirator users until the next fit test is administered.
Written materials required to be retained shall be made available upon request to affected
employees.
Respirator Operation and Use:
Respirators will only be used following the respiratory protection safety procedures
established in this program. The Operations and Use Manuals for each type of respirator
will be maintained by the Program Administrator and be available to all qualified users.
Surveillance by the direct supervisor shall be maintained of work area conditions and
degree of employee exposure or stress. When there is a change in work area conditions or
degree of employee exposure or stress that may affect respirator effectiveness, the
Company shall reevaluate the continued effectiveness of the respirator.
For continued protection of respirator users, the following general use rules apply:

Users shall not remove respirators while in a hazardous environment
129

Respirators are to be stored in sealed containers out of harmful atmospheres

Store respirators away from heat and moisture

Store respirators such that the sealing area does not become distorted or warped

Store respirator such that the face piece is protected
Face piece seal protection:
The Company does not permit respirators with tight-fitting face pieces to be worn by
employees who have:

Facial hair that comes between the sealing surface of the face piece and the face
or that interferes with valve function; or

Any condition that interferes with the face-to-face piece seal or valve function.
If an employee wears corrective glasses or goggles or other personal protective
equipment, the Company shall ensure that such equipment is worn in a manner that does
not interfere with the seal of the face piece to the face of the user.
Continuing Effectiveness of Respirators:
The Company shall ensure the following that employees leave the respirator use area:

To wash their faces and respirator face pieces as necessary to prevent eye or skin
irritation associated with respirator use

If they detect vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or
leakage of the face piece

To replace the respirator or the filter, cartridge, or canister elements.
If the employee detects vapor or gas breakthrough, changes in breathing resistance, or
leakage of the face piece, the Company will replace or repair the respirator before
allowing the employee to return to the work area.
Procedures for IDLH atmospheres:
For all IDLH atmospheres, the Company shall ensure that:

One employee or, when needed, more than one employee is located outside the
IDLH atmosphere

Visual, voice, or signal line communication is maintained between the
employee(s) in the IDLH atmosphere and the employee(s) located outside the
IDLH atmosphere

The employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmosphere are trained and equipped
to provide effective emergency rescue

The Company or designee is notified before the employee(s) located outside the
IDLH atmosphere enter the IDLH atmosphere to provide emergency rescue

The Company or designee authorized to do so by the Company, once notified,
provides necessary assistance appropriate to the situation
Employee(s) located outside the IDLH atmospheres will be equipped with:
130

Pressure demand or other positive pressure SCBAs, or a pressure demand or other
positive pressure supplied-air respirator with auxiliary SCBA; and either

Appropriate retrieval equipment for removing the employee(s) who enter(s) these
hazardous atmospheres where retrieval equipment would contribute to the rescue
of the employee(s) and would not increase the overall risk resulting from entry; or

Equivalent means for rescue where retrieval equipment is not required.
Cleaning and Disinfecting:
The Company shall provide each respirator user with a respirator that is clean, sanitary,
and in good working order. The Company shall ensure that respirators are cleaned and
disinfected using the Standard Operating Procedure SOP: Cleaning and Disinfecting.
The respirators shall be cleaned and disinfected when:

Respirators issued for the exclusive use of an employee shall be cleaned and
disinfected as often as necessary to be maintained in a sanitary condition

Respirators issued to more than one employee shall be cleaned and disinfected
before being worn by different individuals

Respirators maintained for emergency use shall be cleaned and disinfected after
each use

Respirators used in fit testing and training shall be cleaned and disinfected after
each use.
Cleaning and Storage of respirators assigned to specific employees is the responsibility of
that Employee.
Procedures for Cleaning Respirators:
A. Remove filters, cartridges, or canisters. Disassemble facepieces by removing speaking
diaphragms, demand and pressure-demand valve assemblies, hoses, or any components
recommended by the manufacturer. Discard or repair any defective parts.
B. Wash components in warm (43ºC [110ºF] maximum) water with a mild detergent or with a
cleaner recommended by the manufacturer. A stiff bristle (not wire) brush may be used to
facilitate the removal of dirt.
C. Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43ºC [110ºF] maximum), preferably running
water. Drain.
D. When the cleaner used does not contain a disinfecting agent, respirator components should be
immersed for two minutes in one of the following:
1. Hypochlorite solution (50 ppm of chlorine) made by adding approximately one milliliter of
laundry bleach to one liter of water at 43ºC (110ºF); or,
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2. Aqueous solution of iodine (50 ppm iodine) made by adding approximately 0.8 milliliters of
tincture of iodine (6-8 grams ammonium and/or potassium iodide/100 cc of 45% alcohol) to one
liter of water at 43ºC (110ºF); or,
3. Other commercially available cleansers of equivalent disinfectant quality when used as
directed, if their use is recommended or approved by the respirator manufacturer.
E. Rinse components thoroughly in clean, warm (43ºC [110ºF] maximum), preferably running
water. Drain. The importance of thorough rinsing cannot be overemphasized. Detergents or
disinfectants that dry on facepieces may result in dermatitis. In addition, some disinfectants may
cause deterioration of rubber or corrosion of metal parts if not completely removed.
F. Components should be hand-dried with a clean lint-free cloth or air-dried.
G. Reassemble facepiece, replacing filters, cartridges, and canisters where necessary.
H. Test the respirator to ensure that all components work properly.
Respirator Inspection:
All respirators/SCBAs, both available for "General Use" and those on "Permanent Checkout", will be inspected after each use and at least monthly. Should any defects be noted,
the respirator/SCBA will be taken to the program Administrator. Damaged Respirators
will be either repaired or replaced. The inspection of respirators loaned on "Permanent
Check-out" is the responsibility of that trained Employee.
Respirators shall be inspected as follows:

All respirators used in routine situations shall be inspected before each use and
during cleaning

All respirators maintained for use in emergency situations shall be inspected at
least monthly and in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, and
shall be checked for proper function before and after each use

Emergency escape-only respirators shall be inspected before being carried into the
workplace for use
Respirator inspections include the following:

A check of respirator function, tightness of connections, and the condition of the
various parts including, but not limited to, the face piece, head straps, valves,
connecting tube, and cartridges, canisters or filters

Check of elastomeric parts for pliability and signs of deterioration.

Self-contained breathing apparatus shall be inspected monthly. Air and oxygen
cylinders shall be maintained in a fully charged state and shall be recharged when
132
the pressure falls to 90% of the manufacturer's recommended pressure level. The
Company shall determine that the regulator and warning devices function
properly
For Emergency Use Respirators the additional requirements apply:

Certify the respirator by documenting the date the inspection was performed, the
name (or signature) of the person who made the inspection, the findings, required
remedial action, and a serial number or other means of identifying the inspected
respirator.

Provide this information on a tag or label that is attached to the storage
compartment for the respirator, is kept with the respirator, or is included in
inspection reports stored as paper or electronic files. This information shall be
maintained until replaced following a subsequent certification.
Respirator Storage:
Respirators are to be stored as follows:

All respirators shall be stored to protect them from damage, contamination, dust,
sunlight, extreme temperatures, excessive moisture, and damaging chemicals, and
they shall be packed or stored to prevent deformation of the face piece and
exhalation valve.
Emergency Respirators shall be:

Kept accessible to the work area

Stored in compartments or in covers that are clearly marked as containing
emergency respirators

Stored in accordance with any applicable manufacturer instructions
Repair of Respirators:
Respirators that fail an inspection or are otherwise found to be defective will be removed
from service to be discarded, repaired or adjusted in accordance with the following
procedures:

Repairs or adjustments to respirators are to be made only by persons appropriately
trained to perform such operations and shall use only the respirator manufacturer's
NIOSH-approved parts designed for the respirator;

Repairs shall be made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and
specifications for the type and extent of repairs to be performed; and

Reducing and admission valves, regulators, and alarms shall be adjusted or
repaired only by the manufacturer or a technician trained by the manufacturer.
Breathing Air Quality and Use:
The Company shall ensure that compressed air, compressed oxygen, liquid air, and liquid
oxygen used for respiration accords with the following specifications:

Compressed and liquid oxygen shall meet the United States Pharmacopoeia
requirements for medical or breathing oxygen; and
133

Compressed breathing air shall meet at least the requirements for Grade D
breathing air described in ANSI/Compressed Gas Association Commodity
Specification for Air, G-7.1-1989, to include:
1. Oxygen content (v/v) of 19.5-23.5%;
2. Hydrocarbon (condensed) content of 5 milligrams per cubic meter of air or less;
3. Carbon monoxide (CO) content of 10 ppm or less;
4. Carbon dioxide content of 1,000 ppm or less; and
5. Lack of noticeable odor.

compressed oxygen will not be used in atmosphere-supplying respirators that
have previously used compressed air

oxygen concentrations greater than 23.5% are used only in equipment designed
for oxygen service or distribution

cylinders used to supply breathing air to respirators meet the following
requirements

cylinders are tested and maintained as prescribed in the Shipping Container
Specification Regulations of the Department of Transportation (49 CFR part 173
and part 178)

cylinders of purchased breathing air have a certificate of analysis from the
supplier that the breathing air meets the requirements for Grade D breathing air

moisture content in breathing air cylinders does not exceed a dew point of -50
deg.F (-45.6 deg.C) at 1 atmosphere pressure

breathing air couplings are incompatible with outlets for non-respirable worksite
air or other gas systems. No asphyxiating substance shall be introduced into
breathing air lines.

breathing gas containers shall be marked in accordance with the NIOSH respirator
certification standard, 42 CFR part 84.
134
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Hot Work/Welding Safety Procedures
Purpose:
Welding and Hot Work, such as brazing or grinding present a significant opportunity for
fire and injury. All precautions of this program must be applied prior to commencing any
welding or hot work by company employees or contractors. Reference: OSHA 29 CFR
1910.252
Responsibilities
Management:
* Provide training for all employees whose task include heat, spark or flame producing
operations such as welding, brazing, or grinding.
* Develop and monitor effective hot work procedures
* Provide safe equipment for hot work
* Provide proper and effective PPE for all hot work
Supervisors:
* Monitor all hot work operations
* Ensure all hot work equipment and PPE are in safe working order
* Allow only trained and authorized employees to conduct hot work
* Ensure permits are used for all hot work outside authorized areas
Employees:
* Follow all hot work procedures
* Properly use appropriate hot work PPE
* Inspect all hot work equipment before use
* Report any equipment problems
* Not use damaged hot work equipment
Definitions:
Welding/Hot Works Procedures - any activity which results in sparks, fire, molten slag,
or hot material which has the potential to cause fires or explosions.
Examples of Hot Works - Cutting, Brazing, Soldering, Thawing Pipes, Torch Applied
Roofing, Grinding and Welding.
Special Hazard Occupancies - Any area containing Flammable Liquids, Dust
Accumulation, Gases, Plastics, Rubber and Paper Products.
Hazards:
* Fires & Explosions
* Skin burns
* Welding "blindness"
135
* Respiratory hazards from fumes & smoke
Training
Training shall include:
* Review of requirements listed in OSHA 1910.252
* Use of Hot Works Permit System
* Supervisor Responsibilities
* Fire Watch Responsibilities - specifically, the fire watch must know:
1. That their ONLY duty is Fire Watch
2. When they can terminate the watch
3. How to use the provided fire extinguisher
4. How to activate fire alarm if fire is beyond the incipient stage
* Operator Responsibilities
* Contractors Responsibilities
* Documentation requirements
* Respirator Usage requirements
* Fire Extinguisher training
Hot Works Procedures:
OSHA 29 CFR 1910.252 required fire prevention actions for welding/hot
works.
Where practicable all combustibles shall be relocated at least 35 feet from
the work site. Where relocation is impractical, combustibles shall be
protected with flame proof covers, shielded with metal, guards,
curtains, or wet down material to help prevent ignition of material.
Ducts, conveyor systems, and augers that might carry sparks to distant
combustibles shall be protected or shut down.
Where cutting or welding is done near walls, partitions, ceilings, or a roof
of combustible construction, fire-resistant shields or guards shall be
provided to prevent ignition.
If welding is to be done on a metal wall, partition, ceiling, or roof,
precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition of combustibles on the other
side, due to conduction or radiation of heat. Where combustibles cannot
be relocated on the opposite side of the work, a fire watch person shall
be provided on the opposite side of the work.
Welding shall not be attempted on a metal partition, wall, ceiling or roof
having a covering or on walls having combustible sandwich panel
construction.
If the object to be welded or cut cannot readily be moved, all moveable
fire hazards should be removed.
136
Operators of equipment should report any equipment defect or safety
hazards and discontinue use of equipment until its safety has been assured.
Repairs shall be made only by qualified personnel.
Cutting or welding on pipes or other metal in contact with combustible
walls, partitions, ceilings, or roofs shall not be undertaken if the work is
close enough to cause ignition by combustion.
Any welding, cutting or burning of lead base metals, zinc, cadmium,
mercury, beryllium or exotic metals or paints not listed here shall have
proper ventilation or respiratory protection. This includes, and not limited
to, wearing proper respiratory protection and proper ventilation when
hazardous gases and/or dust is a factor.
Cutting or welding shall not be permitted in the following situations:
*
In areas not authorized by management.
*
In sprinkled buildings while such protection is impaired.
*
In the presence of potentially explosive atmospheres, e.g. a
flammable
*
In areas near the storage of large quantities of exposed,
readily ignitable materials.
*
In areas where there is dust accumulation of greater than
1/16 inch within 35 feet of the area where welding/hot
works will be conducted. All dust accumulation should be
cleaned up following the housekeeping program of the
facility before welding/hot works are permitted.
Suitable extinguishers shall be provided and maintained ready for instant
use.
A fire watch person shall be provided during and for 2 hours past the
completion of the welding project.
A cutting/welding permit will be issued on all welding or cutting outside
of the designated welding area.
Welding & Hot Work fire prevention measures:
A designated welding area should be established to meet them following requirements:.
a. Floors swept and clean of combustibles within 35 ft. of work area.
b. Flammable and combustible liquids and material will be kept 35 ft. from work
area.
c. Adequate ventilation providing 20 air changes per hour, such as a suction hood
system should be provided to the work area.
d. At least one 10 lb. dry chemical fire extinguisher should be within access of the
35 ft. of work area.
137
e. Protective dividers such as welding curtains or non-combustible walls will be
provided to contain sparks and slag to the combustible free area.
Requirements for welding conducted outside the designated welding area.
a. Portable welding curtains or shields must be used to protect other workers in
the welding area.
b. A hot works permit must be completed and complied with prior to welding
operation.
c. Respiratory protection is mandatory unless an adequate monitored air flow
away from the welder and others present can be established and maintained.
d. Plastic materials be covered with welding tarps during welding procedures
e. Fire Watch must be provided for all hot work operations.
Welding Standard Operating Procedures:
The following pages list the Welding Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) and are
applicable for all electric and gas welding. These SOPs are to be posted at each
Designated Welding & Hot Work Area for quick reference and review.
SOP - Electric Welding:
Perform Safety Check on all equipment:
Ensure fire extinguisher is charged and available
Ensure electrical cord, electrode holder and cables are free from defects
(no cable splices are allowed within 10 feet of the electrode holder.
Ensure PPE (welding hood, gloves, rubber boots/soled shoes, aprons) are
available and have no defects.
Ensure the welding unit is properly grounded.
All defective equipment must be repaired or replaced before use.
Remove flammables and combustibles:
No welding is permitted on or near containers of flammable material,
combustible material or unprotected flammable structures.
Place welding screen or suitable barricade around work area to provide a
fire safety zone and prevent injuries to passersby (Do not block emergency
exits or restrict ventilation)
Ensure Adequate Ventilation and Lighting
Execute Hot Work Permit procedures
Set Voltage Regulator:
No higher than the following for:
Manual Alternating Current Welders - 80 volts
Automatic Alternating Current Welders - 100 volts
Manual or automatic Direct Current Welders -100 volts
138
Uncoil and spread out welding cable:
To avoid overheating, ensure proper contact of work leads and
connections, remove any metal fragments from magnetic work clamps (to
avoid electric shock do not wrap welding cables around a body part and
avoid welding in wet conditions)
Fire watch for one hour after welding & until all welds have cooled
Perform final fire watch and terminate permit.
--------------------------------------------SOP: Gas Welding:
Perform Safety Check on all equipment
Ensure tanks have gas and fittings are tight
Ensure fire extinguisher is charged and available
Ensure hoses have no defects
Ensure PPE (welding hood, gloves, rubber boots/soled shoes, aprons) are
available and have no defects.
All defective equipment must be repaired or replace before uses.
Remove flammables and combustibles:
No welding is permitted on or near containers of flammable material,
combustible material or unprotected flammable structures.
Place welding screen or suitable barricade around work area to provide a
fire safety zone and prevent injuries to passersby (Do not block emergency
exits or restrict ventilation)
Ensure Adequate Ventilation and Lighting
Execute Hot Work Permit procedures
Open Valves on Oxygen and Gas tanks to desired flow
Shut Tank Valves & relieve hose pressure. Store hoses
Fire watch for one hour after welding & until all welds have cooled
Perform final fire watch and terminate permit.
139
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Asbestos Safety Program
Purpose:
The purpose of this program is to establish guidelines and procedures in the operations
and maintenance of asbestos containing materials at Don-Nan Pump & Supply to protect
all employees, contractors, visitors and vendors from potential health hazards of asbestos
related diseases.
This Program applies to all buildings and structures owned by Don-Nan Pump & Supply,
to all employees and sub-contractors of Don-Nan Pump & Supply, to occupants of DonNan Pump & Supply buildings and to external organizations who may come into contact
with or disturb asbestos-containing material in Don-Nan Pump & Supply buildings. The
Program applies to routine work during which an employee might encounter asbestos as
well as work undertaken to repair or remove asbestos-containing material.
Policy:
It is the policy of Don-Nan Pump & Supply that only qualified employees shall be
involved in any asbestos repairs, maintenance or removal. All unqualified employees
shall be protected from exposure to asbestos fibers by isolating and controlling access to
all affected areas during asbestos work. All tasks involving the disturbance of asbestos
containing material will be conducted only after appropriate work controls have been
identified and implemented. A qualified supervisor shall be available at asbestos
controlled work sites during all activities. Proper personal protective equipment, vacuums
and HEPA filters shall be used and properly maintained. If outside contractors are used,
the company shall ensure all contractor employees have been properly trained and have
been issued proper equipment and protective gear.
Responsibilities
Management:
* Ensure all Asbestos Containing Material is identified and labeled
*
Ensure training is effective for authorized employees
*
Conduct medical surveillance of affected employees
*
Establish engineering controls for all work with asbestos containing material
*
Provide adequate and proper equipment and personal protective gear
*
Ensure proper disposal of all asbestos containing material
Supervisors:
*
Qualified supervisors shall provide effective on-site management during work
with asbestos containing material
140
*
Supervisors will notify the Safety Coordinator immediately upon discovering
damaged asbestos material
Employees:
*
Qualified employees must follow the exact procedures for repair or removal of
asbestos containing material, including proper use of containment equipment,
clean up equipment and personal protective gear.
*
Unqualified employees are to stay clear of all asbestos work areas and report any
damaged asbestos containing material to their supervisor
Hazards:
Asbestos is a common, naturally occurring group of fibrous minerals. Asbestos fibers
have been used in a variety of building materials; however, Don-Nan Pump & Supply
takes an aggressive effort to use non-asbestos containing materials in new construction
and renovation projects. Generally, most asbestos is found in pipe insulation, doors,
textured paints and plasters, structural fireproofing, and floor tiles. Friable asbestos (that
is, material that contains more than 0.1% asbestos by weight and can be crumbled by
hand) is a potential hazard because it can release fibers into the air if damaged. Long term
exposure to airborne asbestos is necessary for chronic lung disease. Significant and longterm exposure to asbestos from activities that directly disturb asbestos-containing
materials (such as asbestos mining) can lead to a variety of respiratory diseases, including
asbestosis and mesothelioma (cancer of the lung lining). Asbestosis is a non-malignant,
irreversible disease resulting in fibrosis of the lung. Asbestos-related cancers tend also to
result from substantial long-term exposure; however, mesothelioma may result from
much smaller exposures to asbestos.
Hazard Control
Engineering Controls:
Engineering controls include the use of enclosures such as monitoring equipment, glove
bags, tenting, negative pressure work areas, HEPA filters, controlled vacuums, water
misters and other equipment to ensure containment and clean up of asbestos work areas.
Administrative Controls:
All qualified workers shall be issued proper personal protective equipment, such as
respirators, disposable coveralls, gloves, etc. Written procedures and management
authorizations are required for all work involving asbestos containing material
Training Controls:
All qualified employees, supervisors and managers shall received the proper level of
training, as outlined in this programs
Definitions
Asbestos - Asbestos is a generic term describing a family of naturally occurring
fibrous silicate minerals. As a group, the minerals are noncombustible, do not
conduct heat or electricity and are resistant to many chemicals. Although there are
several other varieties that have been used commercially, the most common
141
asbestos mineral types likely to be encountered in Don-Nan Pump & Supply
buildings are chrysotile (white asbestos), amosite (brown asbestos), and
crocidolite (blue asbestos). Among these, white asbestos is by far the most
common asbestos mineral present in Don-Nan Pump & Supply buildings.
Friable Asbestos - Friable asbestos material means finely divided asbestos or
asbestos-containing material or any asbestos-containing material that can be
crumbled, pulverized or powdered by hand pressure. Individual fibers in friable
asbestos-containing material can potentially become airborne and can then present
a health hazard. Three types of friable material commonly used in buildings are:
Sprayed fibrous fireproofing
Decorative or acoustic texture coatings
Thermal insulation
Non-friable Asbestos - Non-friable asbestos includes a range of products in
which asbestos fiber is effectively bound in a solid matrix from which asbestos
fiber cannot normally escape. Non-friable asbestos includes a variety of products
including asbestos cement tiles and boards and asbestos reinforced vinyl floor
tiles. Cutting, braking, sanding, drilling of similar activities can release asbestos
fiber from even non-friable asbestos materials.
Asbestos Work Categories Category 1:
Work includes the installation or removal of non-friable asbestos in which the
asbestos fiber is locked in a binder such as cement, vinyl or asphalt which holds
the material together.
Category 2:
Work involves work with friable asbestos that is of short duration in situations
which create low levels of airborne asbestos. Example of category 2 work are
enclosure of friable asbestos, application of tape or sealant to asbestos containing
pipe insulation and minor removal of friable asbestos and minor installation,
maintenance or repair work above false ceilings where sprayed asbestos
fireproofing is present on beams.
Category 3:
Work involves possible exposure to friable asbestos over long periods of time or
work that generates high levels of asbestos. Included in category 3 work are
removal projects where relatively large amounts of asbestos are removed from a
building including removal of friable asbestos from structural material, cleaning
or removal of heating or air handling equipment that has been insulated with
asbestos. Also included in category 3 work are cuttings or grinding of asbestoscontaining materials using power tools.
General Rules:
When in doubt, treat all material as containing asbestos and comply with all
applicable rules and regulations and protective measures.
142
All Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) will be handled by certified and
licensed asbestos abatement personnel. The friability of the ACM will dictate the
type of removal/maintenance required.
Employees who are uncertified and unlicensed will not handle any ACM >1%.
This will include encapsulation projects, renovation/removal and/or demolition of
any type of structure. This will prevent the potential for accidental exposure from
the mishandling of any ACM.
When an uncertified, unlicensed employee questions whether they may be
handling suspect ACM, the employee will immediately contact their supervisor.
The employee shall not resume working at the site until the area has been checked
to verify the material is not ACM.
Uncertified, unlicensed employees will not cross over a barrier/containment area
where asbestos projects are in progress.
Any employee who discovers ACM or suspect ACM in damaged or poor
condition should report it to their supervisor so the identified material is repaired.
Medical Examinations
Employees assigned to asbestos removal will be given medical examinations at Company
expense in compliance with 29 CFR 1926.1101 and 40 CFR 763 - Subpart G.
Within 30 days of first employment or assignment to a job exposing the employee
to asbestos containing material
Annually
Within 30 days of termination of employment
Medical examination for employees assigned to asbestos removal will include:
Medical and work history with special emphasis directed to symptoms of the
respiratory system, cardiovascular system and digestive tract
Medical questionnaire contained in 29 CFR 1926.1101
A physical examination including a chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function
test that includes measurement of the employee's forced vital capacity and
expiratory volume
No employee shall be assigned to tasks requiring the use of respirators if an
examining physician determines the employee will be unable to function normally
while using it or that the employee might otherwise be impaired
Records of all physical examinations performed for asbestos work related
activities will be maintained permanently by the Company
Asbestos Inventory
Don-Nan Pump & Supply has conducted surveys and prepared a written inventory
of the type and locations of asbestos-containing material to:
Allow for periodic condition inspections
Allow for maintenance and repair of damaged asbestos
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For each building the inventory contains the following information
Type of asbestos-containing material (sprayed fireproofing, texture
coating, or thermal insulation)
The location of the material
When it has been sampled, the type and percentage of asbestos present
Also included in the survey information is sampling results showing the absence
of asbestos in material which might be mistaken for an asbestos-containing
material.
Asbestos Identification
Asbestos identification system is used to alert people to the presence of asbestos.
Asbestos is identified by tags, stickers, pipe labels, signs and other high visibility
means. Where feasible, stickers indicate the presence of asbestos in thermal
insulation, in asbestos board and tiles and in other locations. Warnings may also
be placed near the entrances of rooms -particularly mechanical rooms where
unusually large amounts of asbestos may be present.
Inspection:
Inspection of the condition of friable asbestos is integrated into the Maintenance
Department routine inspection program. Periodic inspections and reports on the
status of facilities and equipment in Don-Nan Pump & Supply buildings are
produced to note damage to asbestos that might result in release of asbestos.
When damaged ACM is discovered a work order will be issued to initiate the
assessment/remediation as required.
Access Control:
Access to mechanical and electrical rooms, service shafts, tunnels and other
locations is to be restricted where asbestos may be present in unusually large
amounts and where other hazards may also be present. Such areas are locked and
accessible only to authorized personnel. Where sprayed asbestos-containing
fireproofing is present in a building above a false ceiling, access to the space is
restricted to Maintenance Department employees, Communications Services or
authorized contractors.
Repair and Maintenance of ACM:
Should an employee or a contractor encounter material which is not identified and
is not listed in the Asbestos Inventory and which might reasonably be expected to
be asbestos, the person will stop any work which could create airborne asbestos
and report the discovery to a supervisor. Where it is determined that friable
asbestos-containing material is in a condition that could likely lead to inhalation
exposure, the supervisor will immediately limit access to the location and initiate
repairs, removal or encapsulation. Where there is reasonable doubt about the
composition of a friable material, it will be treated as asbestos until testing
demonstrates that asbestos is present at levels below 1%. Cleanup and repair of
asbestos-containing material will only be carried out by the appropriate clean up
procedure by employees or contractors who have been properly trained.
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When routine work is to take place in an area where asbestos is present or when
the work might disturb friable asbestos, employees will be informed of the
potential for exposure through a notation on the work order. If upon reviewing the
work situation, the employee believes that normal work practices do not provide
an adequate measure of safety, the employee will report these concerns to the
supervisor. The supervisor will review the work situation and authorize any
required additional precautions. All employees, visitors, vendors and contractors
will be notified in advance when work involving asbestos is to be carried out in
any area of Don-Nan Pump & Supply buildings which they occupy.
Training:
All Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees who remove, repair or work around
friable asbestos and those whose work might disturb friable asbestos-containing
material will be trained to carry out their work without endangering themselves,
their coworkers or other building occupants.
Level 1 Training:
All affected Maintenance Department employees who do not receive levels 2 or 3
training will receive Level 1 training which will acquaint them with:
The types, properties and uses of asbestos
Ways to recognize asbestos
The hazards of asbestos fiber inhalation
Types of activities which could release asbestos fibers
The Don-Nan Pump & Supply Asbestos Inventory and Asbestos
Identification
State and Federal regulations regarding work with asbestos and disposal of
asbestos-containing waste
Refresher training will be provided every second year. Only those with Level 1
training will be allowed to carry out or supervise Category 1 asbestos work.
Level 2 Training:
All Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees who conduct or may be expected to
conduct Category 2 or 3 work will receive training in:
All Level 1 topics
Ways to recognize and avoid damage to asbestos-containing material
The use, fitting, limitations, care and disposal of protective equipment
Asbestos containment and ventilation during removal
Wet and dry clean up procedures
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Refresher training will be provided every second year. Except for actual asbestos
removal, only those with Level 2 training will be allowed to carry out or supervise
Category 2 asbestos work.
Level 3 Training:
Level 3 training will be provided for insulators and others who are authorized to
remove friable asbestos and for those who supervise asbestos removal work that is
performed by either Don-Nan Pump & Supply Employees or external contractors.
Level 3 training provides practical hands-on experience in all phases of
small and medium scale asbestos removal. Those who will carry out small
scale asbestos removal work will receive additional on-the-job training
working with experienced asbestos workers.
Contracted Work
Asbestos Removal Work:
Major asbestos removal is normally contracted to external firms who specialize in
asbestos removal work. Don-Nan Pump & Supply requires that all such work be
carried out in accord with the requirements established by Texas regulations. At
all such projects the contractor will ensure that cleanup is properly completed and
that all asbestos and asbestos contaminated material is collected, and disposed of
in accord with the Texas regulations. The contractor will be required to submit air
testing results to demonstrate that the cleanup has been carried out properly and
the area can be reoccupied safely.
Other Work:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply often employs contractors to service equipment such
as, telephones, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment and to carry out other
construction and renovation projects. When contractors are required to work in
areas where asbestos is present or there is a possibility of disrupting friable
asbestos Don-Nan Pump & Supply will provide:
Notification of the known locations and types of asbestos present (or
suspected to be present) in the area where the contractor will work
Information on Don-Nan Pump & Supply asbestos labeling system
Don-Nan Pump & Supply requires that contractors:
Carrying out tasks which could potentially create asbestos-containing dust
Follow work practices that reduce to the extent practical the creation of
airborne asbestos dust and which meet the asbestos safety standards set by
Texas
Immediately report to Maintenance Department when damage occurs to
asbestos-containing materials
Employ only workers who have been trained in asbestos safety
ASBESTOS WORK PROCEDURES
Discovering Damaged Asbestos:
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When asbestos is discovered the following steps describe the actions to be taken
by trades Employees and their supervisors. The steps comply with Don-Nan
Pump & Supply Asbestos Policy, which states the long term goal is to remove all
asbestos and the short term goal is to manage asbestos to minimize exposure to
airborne asbestos. It is important to note that all asbestos is to be logged in the
inventory, regardless of its state of repair.
1) Complete the Asbestos Inventory Form - The employee is to complete the
FIRST SECTION of the Asbestos Inventory Form and submit it to his Supervisor.
2) Sampling - The Supervisor will determine if samples are required to confirm
the existence of asbestos. This will be done by checking the inventory to see if
asbestos in that location has already been tested. If necessary, the Supervisor will
close off an area (mechanical spaces) or shut down equipment (air handling units)
pending test results and remedial action.
3) Repair/Removal and Cleanup - If the asbestos is damaged, it is certain a clean
up will be required. The clean up and repair should happen together. The repair
and clean up will be charged to a work order and the number recorded on the
Inventory Form. If removal is required, the supervisor will determine whether the
removal will be carried out by a contractor or by Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Employees. The work order number must be logged on the Inventory Form.
4) Labeling - All known asbestos containing material should be labeled. For
asbestos-pipe insulation, yellow paint will be applied directly to the insulation. In
areas where asbestos is present in multiple locations it will be sufficient to
provide warning signage at each entry point into a room. Blue paint will be
applied to any new insulation which is not readily obvious to be asbestos free.
5) Logging in Database - After completing the Asbestos Inventory Form, it will
be given to the Safety Coordinator for logging into the Asbestos Inventory.
Clean up of Asbestos Containing Material:
Asbestos only poses a health hazard when it becomes airborne and people inhale the
fiber. When asbestos-containing material has been disturbed, effective clean up will
ensure that asbestos does not present a health hazard. Clean up of dust which might
contain traces of asbestos, such as a custodian might encounter in routine cleaning in
buildings where asbestos is present, will not require special precautions. To ensure that
clean up of significant quantities of asbestos will not cause a health hazard, the following
procedure will be followed:
Clean up of significant amounts of asbestos containing material will be only be
done by Employees who have been trained and who are wearing appropriate
protective clothing and a fitted, air-purifying respirator.
Dry sweeping of asbestos-containing waste or other clean up activities which will
create airborne dust are not permitted
Large pieces of asbestos containing material will be collected by hand and
properly bagged in accord with the disposal procedure.
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When ever possible, asbestos dust will be thoroughly wetted and clean up with a
wet mop or a wet vac. Contaminated water will be discharged to a sewer.
Containers, mops and other equipment which might be contaminated with
asbestos will be rinsed with water and the rinse water discharged to a sewer.
If additional clean up is need it will be carried out using a vacuum equipped with
a HEPA filter. Within Maintenance Department there is one vacuum assigned for
asbestos clean up.
Non-friable ACM Work:
Asbestos that is effectively bonded in a non-asbestos matrix cannot easily become
airborne. As such, provided the material is not broken or abraded, there is little risk of
inhalation exposure to asbestos. To ensure that minor work involving non-friable asbestos
(including vinyl asbestos tile, asbestos asphalt roofing, and asbestos ceiling and wall tile)
the following procedure will be followed.
Procedure:
Before beginning the work the worker will carefully inspect the asbestoscontaining material to ensure that the planned work will not create airborne
asbestos dust.
Where dust that might contain asbestos fiber is present, the worker will clean the
material using a wet method or a HEPA filtered vacuum.
Following completion of the task the worker will carry out any required clean wet
methods or a HEPA filtered vacuum and will then carefully bag for disposal all
asbestos containing waste.
Note:
Cutting, drilling, sanding or breaking the material are likely to create airborne asbestos
dusts and will require additional precautions
Work above false ceilings
Only workers who have successfully completed Level 2 Asbestos Safety Training and
who are authorized to do so by Maintenance Department may move ceiling tiles or
perform work above the dropped ceilings where asbestos insulation is present on building
structure. The following procedure shall be used whenever minor work such as
installation of telephone or computer lines, or servicing of ventilation or lighting system
components requires work above the suspended ceiling
Procedure:
Before removing a ceiling tile, the area around the tile shall be isolated by
creating an enclosure of 4 ml or heavier polyethylene sheeting. The sheeting shall
be taped to the ceiling t-bar and the floor using duct tape.
Those working within the enclosure shall wear a properly fitted, air purifying
respirator equipped with a particulate filter designed to remove asbestos fibers
from inhaled air and a pair of coveralls.
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Air supply or return grills located within the enclosure shall be sealed with 4 mil
or thicker polyethylene sheeting to prevent contamination of the ventilation
system.
The ceiling tile shall be carefully removed and the upper surface vacuumed with a
vacuum fitted with a HEPA filter.
The worker shall then carefully vacuum the upper surface of surrounding tiles
before carrying out the assigned task.
Following completion of the above-the-ceiling work, the removed ceiling tile
shall be replaced and the interior of the enclosure carefully cleaned using wet
cleaning techniques or a HEPA filtered vacuum.
Note:
Additional precautions may be required depending upon the specific tasks to be
undertaken. Any task, which is likely to disrupt the sprayed-on insulation, will require
additional precautions.
Repairs to ACM:
Where asbestos is known or believed to be present in damaged insulation, repairs or
removal are needed to prevent asbestos fiber from becoming airborne. Only workers who
have successfully completed Level 3 Asbestos Safety training and who are authorized to
do so may undertake such repairs or removal. The following procedure will be used
whenever minor repairs to asbestos containing insulation are undertaken:
Procedure:
Access to areas where minor repair is to be carried out will be restricted to
authorized people only. When necessary, signs will be posted advising of access
restrictions.
Workers repairing asbestos containing insulation will wear coveralls and a
properly fitted, air purifying respirator equipped with a particulate filter designed
to remove asbestos fibers from inhaled air.
Before beginning the repair, the area will be carefully cleaned using the Clean up
of Asbestos-Containing Material Procedure
When feasible a drop cloth shall then be placed beneath the insulation to be
repaired.
Before beginning the repair, all feasible steps (wetting with amended water,
encapsulating adjacent asbestos-containing material, etc.) will be taken to prevent
the release of asbestos fibers.
Following the repair the worker will carefully bag for disposal all asbestoscontaining waste and clean the surrounding area using wet cleaning techniques or
a HEPA filtered vacuum.
Single Use Glove Bag Procedure:
The following procedure will be followed when single-use asbestos removal glove bags
are used. The procedure may only be used on tasks that are small enough to be
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completely enclosed in the glove bag and which do not leave exposed asbestos in place
when the bag is removed.
Preparation:
Only a Employee who has completed level 3 training and who is wearing
appropriate coverall and an air purifying respirator (3M 6000 Series with a purple,
6240 particulate filter or equivalent) will carry out glove bag removal of asbestos.
Before beginning removal work, access to the area will be restricted. If the work
site is located in areas where other Maintenance Department Employees might be
exposed to asbestos and in all work sites located in publicly accessible areas,
warning notices will be posted.
Steps will be taken to prevent accidental movement, contact with heat, cold or
electricity, or release of chemicals.
The work area will be cleaned using a HEPA filtered vacuum or wet cleaning to
remove asbestos-containing material contaminating the immediate work area.
Where possible a plastic sheet will then be placed beneath the pipe or fitting from
which the asbestos is to be removed.
Steps will be taken to prevent exposure where damage to the insulation might
allow release of fibers. Steps include making temporary repairs using duck tape or
wetting the exposed fiber using amended water.
Glove Bag Removal:
The asbestos-containing material will be thoroughly wetted using amended water.
With tools in bag, the single-use bag will be positioned and secured using
adhesive and tape as necessary.
Working through the gloves, the asbestos will be removed exercising care to
avoid puncturing the bag.
When removal is compete or bag is full, sprayer (containing amended water) will
be inserted into the bag and the pipe or fitting, tools and the bag interior will be
washed. Tools will then be placed in an inverted glove withdrawn from bag and
the glove sealed from the bag using duct tape.
The tools will then be removed by cutting through the duct tape ensuring that both
the bag and the glove remain sealed.
The tools will then be submerged in water and the glove opened. Tools will be
cleaned under water.
The glove bag will then be carefully removed, sealed and placed in a sealed
container pending packaging for disposal.
Clean Up:
The surface of the pipe or fitting will be carefully wet wiped and treated with
sealer.
The plastic sheet will then be carefully wet wiped and rolled up.
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All solid waste created during removal jobs including glove bags, disposable
coveralls, wipe rags and plastic sheeting will be treated as asbestos containing
waste and handled as detailed in the disposal procedure.
Multiple-Use Glove Bag Procedure:
This procedure describes the use of multiple use glove bags. It may be used on tasks that
require the bag to be repositioned to complete the entire job.
Preparation:
Only a Employee who has completed level 3 training and who is wearing
appropriate coverall and an air purifying respirator (3M 6000 Series with a purple,
6240 particulate filter or equivalent) will carry out glove bag removal of asbestos.
Before beginning removal work, access to the area will be restricted. If the work
site is located in areas where other Maintenance Department Employees might be
exposed to asbestos and in all work sites located in publicly accessible areas,
warning notices will be posted.
Steps will be taken to prevent accidental movement, contact with heat, cold or
electricity, or release of chemicals.
The work area will be cleaned using a HEPA filtered vacuum or wet cleaning to
remove asbestos-containing material contaminating the immediate work area.
Where possible a plastic sheet will then be placed beneath the pipe or fitting from
which the asbestos is to be removed.
Steps will be taken to prevent exposure where damage to the insulation might
allow release of fibers. Steps include making temporary repairs using duck tape or
wetting the exposed fiber using amended water.
Glove Bag Removal:
The asbestos containing material will be thoroughly wetted using amended water.
With tools in bag, the bag will be positioned and secured using adhesive and tape
as necessary.
Working through the gloves, the asbestos will be removed exercising care to
avoid puncturing the bag.
When removal is compete or bag is full, sprayer (containing amended water) will
be connected to the valve and the pipe or fitting, tools and the bag interior will be
washed. If the bag is to repositioned to remove additional asbestos, remaining
exposed ends of asbestos will be thoroughly damped.
Tools will then be placed in an inverted glove withdrawn from bag and the glove
sealed from the bag using duct tape.
The tools will then be removed by cutting through the duct tape ensuring that both
the bag and the glove remain sealed.
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The tools will then be submerged in water and the glove opened. Tools will be
cleaned under water.
The glove bag will then be removed and placed in a sealed container pending
packaging for disposal.
Clean Up:
The surface of the pipe or fitting will be carefully wet wiped and treated with
sealer.
The plastic sheet will then be carefully wet wiped and rolled up.
All solid waste created during removal jobs including glove bags, disposable
coveralls, wipe rags and plastic sheeting will be treated as asbestos containing
waste and handled as detailed in the disposal procedure.
Modified Enclosure Procedure:
The following Modified Enclosure Method my be used for removal of asbestos from
ceilings, walls, beams pipes or other equipment providing that the job is small enough
that it can be completed within one shift without the need for repeated entry into the work
area.
The method may not be used for jobs involving:
Amosite
Crocidolite
Friable asbestos of any type
Additional precautions will be required if the exhaust air cannot be discharged outdoors.
Modified enclosure removals may only be undertaken by Employees who have
completed level three training and who have received modified enclosure removal
training.
Preparation:
If dust which might contain asbestos is present, pre clean the work site using wet
cleaning or HEPA vacuum cleaning.
Protect floor, walls equipment within the work area which might be damaged by
water.
Ensure that steps are taken to protect workers from any energized equipment or
systems located within the work area.
Post signs and restrict access to work area.
Seal area to prevent air leakage into adjacent areas or air handling system using
framing as necessary, 150 ml plastic sheeting, tape, sealants and caulking as
required. Construct an overlapping, double curtained entrance to work area.
Install HEPA filtered negative air unit in work area. Unit must provide 4 air
changes per hour while maintaining a pressure difference of -0.02 inches of water.
Direct filtered exhaust air outdoors.
Removal:
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Employees entering the work are shall wear a disposable Tyvek type suit
including a head cover and an air purifying respirator (3M 6000 Series with a
purple, 6240 particulate filter or equivalent).
With the area sealed and negative air unit in operation, saturate asbestoscontaining material with amended water using airless sprayer.
Remove asbestos using additional amended water as needed being careful not to
create airborne dust
Brush the area from which asbestos has been removed and then wet wipe or
vacuum to remove final traces of asbestos. Following removal of asbestos, treat
the area with slow dry sealer.
Clean up:
Place all waste in specially marked heavy duty asbestos waste disposal bags. Seal
waste bags securely using duct tape before removing from the enclosure. Wipe all
tools with a damp cloth to remove traces of asbestos contamination before
removing them from the enclosure.
Wet wipe or vacuum (using the designated shopvac marked ASBESTOS ONLY)
all areas within the enclosure not covered by plastic to remove traces of asbestos.
If a HEPA filtered shopvac was used, it shall be wiped with a damp cloth and the
hose end covered with tape before being removed from the enclosure. If the vac is
to be opened to change a filter or bag, the work will be carried out in an enclosure
under negative pressure with HEPA filtered air exhausted outdoors.
Wet wipe the interior of plastic sheeting used to form the enclosure. Remove
plastic by rolling, wet wiping any visible particulate matter that make be visible.
Wet wipe the disposable Tyvek suit and remove. Place the plastic sheeting, the
suit and the used respirator cartridges in an asbestos waste bag along with other
remaining contaminated material.
Arrange for reconnection of any services running through the work area which
were disconnected to accommodate removal work.
Dispose of waste as per waste disposal procedure.
Disposal of Asbestos Containing Waste Materials
Handling and disposal of asbestos containing waste is regulated by both State and
Federal regulations. To ensure compliance with these regulations and to ensure
that no-one is exposed to asbestos the following procedure is to be followed:
Only a Employee who has completed Level 2 training and who is wearing
appropriate air purifying respirator will package asbestos waste.
Waste asbestos will be thoroughly wetted and then placed in specially
labeled 6 mil plastic bags. The bag will be securely sealed using duct tape.
The bagged asbestos will then be placed in a second, labeled 6 mil plastic
gab which is again taped closed
Asbestos waste may be transported from the location where it was
produced to an interim storage location if the bags are free from punctures
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or tears and if the outside of the bag is free of asbestos. Asbestos waste
will be transported in an enclosed vehicle or beneath a secured tarpaulin.
No other cargo may be carried while the waste asbestos is being moved.
After the waste asbestos is moved to an interim storage site, the driver
will, if necessary clean the vehicle to remove asbestos contamination.
Asbestos waste must be disposed of at a waste disposal site which is
approved to receive asbestos by the State Department of Texas.
Shipment of waste asbestos must be coordinated with the waste disposal
site which is to receive the waste. Asbestos disposal will normally be
carried out by external contractors.
Shipments for disposal must be done in accord with Texas and Federal
DOT regulations and must be accompanied by a properly completed
shipping document.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Abrasive Blasting Standard
Purpose:
The purpose of this standard is to define the use of abrasive media for paint removal
and/or surface preparation in the Don-Nan Pump & Supply operations.
Proper personal protective equipment (PPE) as determined by hazard assessment shall be
provided and worn.

The hazard is inhalation of toxic dusts, such as lead from the paint or silica from
the blasting media.

Silica sand and abrasive blasting media containing > 1% crystalline silica is
prohibited. The type of blasting media is to be approved by the General Manager.

Coatings should be considered as lead containing until proven otherwise. If lead
or lead containing materials are being removed, a competent person shall be
designated to complete the removal.

If Don-Nan Pump & Supply personnel are involved in lead removal on a
customer’s property, the customer should be the competent person. If the removal
is on Don-Nan Pump & Supply property/equipment the General Manager shall be
informed on the removal prior to starting project.

Where not effectively grounded and or bonded by contact or connection,
provisions shall be made to prevent accumulation of static electrical charges
which may create a source of ignition in the presence of flammable vapors or
gases.

The work area will be kept clean of dust collecting on floor and equipment.

Abrasive blasting nozzles will be equipment with a manual shut off valve. The air
pressure will not be more than 30lbs. for cleaning of clothing.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Forklift & Motorized Pallet Jack Safety
Purpose:
Material handling is a significant safety concern. During the movement of products and
materials there are numerous opportunities for personal injury and property damage if
proper procedures and caution are not used. This chapter applies to all powered industrial
tucks, hoists & lifting gear. The information in this chapter shall be used to train
prospective industrial truck operators and provide the basis for refresher and annual
retraining. OSHA reference for Powered Industrial Trucks is 1910.178.
Responsibilities
Management:

Provide adequate training in safe operation of all equipment used to move or
access materials

Provide equipment that is safe to operate

Implement an "Out of Service" program for damaged equipment

Not allow modification to equipment except those authorized in writing by the
equipment manufacturer

Establish safe operating rules and procedures
Supervisors:

Monitor safe operations of material handling equipment

Ensure all equipment is safety checked daily

Tag "Out of Service" any damaged equipment
Employees:

Operate only that equipment for which they have been specifically trained and
authorized

Conduct required daily pre-use inspections

Report any equipment damage of missing safety gear

Follow all safety rules and operating procedures
Hazards:

Falling loads

Overloading of equipment

Impact with equipment

Piercing of containers
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
Loading dock roll off

Chemical contact - battery acid

Fires during refueling
Hazard Controls:

Control of equipment keys

Authorized fueling & recharge areas

Proper palletizing of material

Marked travel lanes

Equipment warning lights

Seat belts

Mounted fire extinguishers
Pre-Qualification:
All candidates for Powered Industrial Truck (PIT) operators must meet the following
basic requirements prior to starting initial or annual refresher training:

Must have no adverse vision problems that cannot be corrected by glasses or
contacts

No adverse hearing loss that cannot be corrected with hearing aids

No physical impairments that would impair safe operation of the PIT

No neurological disorders that affect balance or consciousness

Not taking any medication that affects perception, vision, or physical abilities
Training:
Training for Powered Industrial Truck (PIT) Operators shall be conducted by an
experienced operator, selected by Management. All operational training shall be
conducted under close supervision. All training and evaluation must be completed before
an operator is permitted to use a Powered Industrial Truck (forklift, etc) without continual
& close supervision. Training consists of:
Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only:

Under the direct supervision of persons, selected by management, who have the
knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their
competence; and

Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees.
Training Content:
Training consists of a combination of formal instruction, practical training
(demonstrations performed by the trainer and practical exercises performed by the
trainee), and evaluation of the operator's performance in the workplace.
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Initial Training: Powered industrial truck operators shall receive initial training
in the following topics:
Truck-related training topics:
24. Operating instructions, warnings, and precautions for the types of truck the
operator will be authorized to operate
25. Differences between the truck and the automobile
26. Truck controls and instrumentation: where they are located, what they do, and
how they work
27. Engine or motor operation
28. Steering and maneuvering
29. Visibility (including restrictions due to loading)
30. Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, and use limitations
31. Vehicle capacity
32. Vehicle stability
33. Any vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to
perform
34. Refueling and/or charging and recharging of batteries
35. Operating limitations
36. Any other operating instructions, warnings, or precautions listed in the operator's
manual for the types of vehicle that the employee is being trained to operate.
Workplace-related topics:
22. Surface conditions where the vehicle will be operated
23. Composition of loads to be carried and load stability
24. Load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking
25. Pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle will be operated
26. Narrow aisles and other restricted places where the vehicle will be operated
27. Hazardous (classified) locations where the vehicle will be operated
28. Ramps and other sloped surfaces that could affect the vehicle's stability
29. Closed environments and other areas where insufficient ventilation or poor
vehicle maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust
30. Other unique or potentially hazardous environmental conditions in the workplace
that could affect safe operation
Refresher training and evaluation. Refresher training, including an evaluation of the
effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted to ensure that the operator has
the knowledge and skills needed to operate the powered industrial truck safely.
Refresher training in relevant topics shall be provided to the operator when:
12. The operator has been observed to operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner
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13. The operator has been involved in an accident or near-miss incident
14. The operator has received an evaluation that reveals that the operator is not
operating the truck safely
15. The operator is assigned to drive a different type of truck
16. A condition in the workplace changes in a manner that could affect safe operation
of the truck
17. Once every 3 years an evaluation will be conducted of each powered industrial
truck operator's performance.
Safe Operating Procedures (SOP) & Rules:

Only authorized and trained personnel will operate PITs.

All PITs will be equipped with a headache rack, fire extinguisher, rotating
beacon, back-up alarm and seat belts. Seat belts will be worn at all times by the
Operator.

The operator will perform daily pre- and post-trip inspections.

Any safety defects (such as hydraulic fluid leaks; defective brakes, steering,
lights, or horn; and/or missing fire extinguisher, lights, seat belt, or back-up
alarm) will be reported for immediate repair or have the PIT taken "Out of
Service".

Operators will follow the proper recharging or refueling safety procedures.

Loads will be tilted back and carried no more than 6 inches from the ground.
Loads that restrict the operator's vision will be transported backwards.

PITs will travel no faster than 5 mph or faster than a normal walk.

Hard hats will be worn by PIT Operators in high lift areas. .

Operator will sound horn and use extreme caution when meeting pedestrians,
making turns and cornering.

Passengers may not ride on any portion of a PIT. Only the operator will ride PITs.
"NO PASSENGERS" decals will be affixed on all PITs.

If PITs are used as a man lift, an appropriate man lift platform (cage with standard
rails and toe-boards) will be used.

Aisle will be maintained free from obstructions, marked and wide enough (six
foot minimum) for vehicle operation.

Lift capacity will be marked on all PITs. Operator will assure load does not
exceed rated weight limits.

When un-attended, PITs will be turned off, forks lowered to the ground and
parking brake applied.

All PITs (with exception of pallet jacks) will be equipped with a multi-purpose
dry chemical fire extinguisher. (Minimum rating; 2A:10B:C)
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
Operators are instructed to report all accidents, regardless of fault and severity, to
Management. Management will conduct an accident investigation.

When loading rail cars and trailers, dock plates will be used. Operators will assure
dock plates are in good condition and will store on edge when not in use.

Rail cars and trailers will be parked squarely to the loading area and have wheels
chocked in place. Operators will follow established Docking/Un-Docking
Procedures.
Changing and Charging Storage Batteries:

Battery charging installations shall be located in areas designated for that purpose.

Facilities shall be provided for flushing and neutralizing spilled electrolyte, for
fire protection, for protecting charging apparatus from damage by trucks, and for
adequate ventilation for dispersal of fumes from gassing batteries.

A conveyor, overhead hoist, or equivalent material handling equipment shall be
provided for handling batteries.

Reinstalled batteries shall be properly positioned and secured in the truck.

A carboy tilter or siphon shall be provided for handling electrolyte.

When charging batteries, acid shall be poured into water; water shall not be
poured into acid.

Trucks shall be properly positioned and brake applied before attempting to change
or charge batteries.

Care shall be taken to assure that vent caps are functioning. The battery (or
compartment) cover(s) shall be open to dissipate heat.

Smoking is prohibited in the charging area.

Precautions shall be taken to prevent open flames, sparks, or electric arcs in
battery charging areas.

Tools and other metallic objects shall be kept away from the top of uncovered
batteries.
Trucks and Railroad cars:

The flooring of trucks, trailers, and railroad cars shall be checked for breaks and
weakness before they are driven onto.

The brakes of highway trucks shall be set and wheel chocks placed under the rear
wheels to prevent the trucks from rolling while they are boarded with powered
industrial trucks.

Wheel stops or other recognized positive protection shall be provided to prevent
railroad cars from moving during loading or unloading operations.

Fixed jacks may be necessary to support a semitrailer and prevent upending
during the loading or unloading when the trailer is not coupled to a tractor.
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
Positive protection shall be provided to prevent railroad cars from being moved
while dockboards or bridge plates are in position.
Operations:

If at any time a powered industrial truck is found to be in need of repair,
defective, or in any way unsafe, the truck shall be taken out of service until it has
been restored to safe operating condition.

Trucks shall not be driven up to anyone standing in front of a bench or other fixed
object.

No person shall be allowed to stand or pass under the elevated portion of any
truck, whether loaded or empty.

Unauthorized personnel shall not be permitted to ride on powered industrial
trucks.

Arms or Legs shall not be placed between the uprights of the mast or outside the
running lines of the truck.

When a powered industrial truck is left unattended, load engaging means shall be
fully lowered, controls shall be neutralized, power shall be shut off, and brakes
set. Wheels shall be blocked if the truck is parked on an incline.

A safe distance shall be maintained from the edge of ramps or platforms while on
any elevated dock, or platform or freight car. Trucks shall not be used for opening
or closing freight doors.

There shall be sufficient headroom under overhead installations, lights, pipes,
sprinkler system, etc.

An overhead guard shall be used as protection against falling objects. It should be
noted that an overhead guard is intended to offer protection from the impact of
small packages, boxes, bagged material, etc., representative of the job application,
but not to withstand the impact of a falling capacity load.

A load backrest extension shall be used whenever necessary to minimize the
possibility of the load or part of it from falling rearward.

Trucks shall not be parked so as to block fire aisles, access to stairways, or fire
equipment.
Traveling:

All traffic regulations shall be observed, including authorized speed limits. A safe
distance shall be maintained approximately three truck lengths from the truck
ahead, and the truck shall be kept under control at all times.

The right of way shall be yielded to ambulances, fire trucks, or other vehicles in
emergency situations.
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
Other trucks traveling in the same direction at intersections, blind spots, or other
dangerous locations shall not be passed.

The driver shall be required to slow down and sound the horn at cross aisles and
other locations where vision is obstructed. If the load being carried obstructs
forward view, the driver shall be required to travel with the load trailing.

Railroad tracks shall be crossed diagonally wherever possible. Parking closer than
8 feet from the center of railroad tracks is prohibited.

The driver shall be required to look in the direction of, and keep a clear view of
the path of travel.

Grades shall be ascended or descended slowly. When ascending or descending
grades in excess of 10 percent, loaded trucks shall be driven with the load
upgrade. On all grades the load and load engaging means shall be tilted back if
applicable, and raised only as far as necessary to clear the road surface.

Under all travel conditions the truck shall be operated at a speed that will permit it
to be brought to a stop in a safe manner.

Stunt driving and horseplay shall not be permitted.

The driver shall be required to slow down for wet and slippery floors.

Dockboard or bridgeplates shall be properly secured before they are driven over.
Dockboard or bridgeplates shall be driven over carefully and slowly and their
rated capacity never exceeded.

Running over loose objects on the roadway surface shall be avoided.

While negotiating turns, speed shall be reduced to a safe level by means of
turning the hand steering wheel in a smooth, sweeping motion. Except when
maneuvering at a very low speed, the hand steering wheel shall be turned at a
moderate, even rate.
Loading:

Only stable or safely arranged loads shall be handled. Caution shall be exercised
when handling off-center loads which cannot be centered.

Only loads within the rated capacity of the truck shall be handled.

The long or high (including multiple-tiered) loads which may affect capacity shall
be adjusted.

Trucks equipped with attachments shall be operated as partially loaded trucks
when not handling a load.

A load engaging means shall be placed under the load as far as possible; the mast
shall be carefully tilted backward to stabilize the load.

Extreme care shall be used when tilting the load forward or backward, particularly
when high tiering. Tilting forward with load engaging means elevated shall be
prohibited except to pick up a load. An elevated load shall not be tilted forward
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except when the load is in a deposit position over a rack or stack. When stacking
or tiering, only enough backward tilt to stabilize the load shall be used.
Fueling Safety:

Fuel tanks shall not be filled while the engine is running. Spillage shall be
avoided.

Spillage of oil or fuel shall be carefully washed away or completely evaporated
and the fuel tank cap replaced before restarting engine.

No truck shall be operated with a leak in the fuel system until the leak has been
corrected.

Open flames shall not be used for checking electrolyte level in storage batteries or
gasoline level in fuel tanks.
Maintenance of Powered Industrial Trucks:

Any power-operated industrial truck not in safe operating condition shall be
removed from service. All repairs shall be made by authorized personnel.

Those repairs to the fuel and ignition systems of industrial trucks which involve
fire hazards shall be conducted only in locations designated for such repairs.

Trucks in need of repairs to the electrical system shall have the battery
disconnected prior to such repairs.

All parts of any such industrial truck requiring replacement shall be replaced only
by parts equivalent as to safety with those used in the original design.

Industrial trucks shall not be altered so that the relative positions of the various
parts are different from what they were when originally received from the
manufacturer, nor shall they be altered either by the addition of extra parts not
provided by the manufacturer or by the elimination of any parts. Additional
counter-weighting of fork trucks shall not be done unless approved by the truck
manufacturer.

Industrial trucks shall be examined before being placed in service, and shall not
be placed in service if the examination shows any condition adversely affecting
the safety of the vehicle. Such examination shall be made at least daily. Where
industrial trucks are used on a round-the-clock basis, they shall be examined prior
to use each shift. Defects when found shall be immediately reported and
corrected.

When the temperature of any part of any truck is found to be in excess of its
normal operating temperature, thus creating a hazardous condition, the vehicle
shall be removed from service and not returned to service until the cause for such
overheating has been eliminated.

Industrial trucks shall be kept in a clean condition, free of lint, excess oil, and
grease. Noncombustible agents should be used for cleaning trucks. Low flash
point (below 100 deg. F.) solvents shall not be used. High flash point (at or above
100 deg. F.) solvents may be used.
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Safe Operation Procedure for Charging LPG Tank:
1. No Smoking.
2. Move LPG PIT outside for refueling.
3. Turn off PIT.
4. LPG tanks will be removed in the following order:
-shut off service valve
-disconnect tank from hose
-unbuckle and remove tank from bracket
5. LPG tanks will be replaced in to following order:
-place tank in bracket and re-buckle
-reconnect hose to tank and tighten firmly
-open valve slowly and assure proper seal
NOTE: Federal Law Prohibits dispensing an improper fuel type into any Vehicle or into
a non-approved fuel container.
In Case of LPG Leaks or Tank Rupture
1. DO NOT start or move the PIT.
2. If fuel hose is leaking, close valve immediately and place PIT "Out of Service" until
repaired.
3. If tank ruptures, warn other, immediately leave the area (at least 50 feet) and notify
Management. Do not re-enter the area until cleared by Management.
Powered Industrial Truck Pre-Use Checklist:
A check of the following items (as applicable) is to be conducted by the operator
prior to use each shift.
Lights
Horn
Brakes
Leaks
Warning Beacon
Backup Warning Alarm
Fire Extinguisher
If any deficiencies are noted, the unit is to be placed OUT OF SERVICE until the
problem has been corrected. Additionally, it is the operator’s responsibility to notify the
immediate supervisor and fill out a maintenance request.
164
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Drug-Free Workplace Program
Purpose:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply strives to ensure a workplace that is free of illegal drugs and to
eliminate illegal drug use by all employees in the Don-Nan Pump & Supply workplace. This
document establishes the responsibilities, procedures, and guidelines for a comprehensive
companywide Drug-Free Workplace Program. It provides direction, which should be used in
conjunction with other statutory and regulatory requirements. Human Resources Manager should
be consulted for further information and guidance.
Policy:
It is a well-established fact that employees who use illegal drugs, on or off duty, tend to be less
productive, less reliable, and prone to greater absenteeism, thereby impairing their ability to
perform tasks that are critical to the company’s focus and resulting in the potential for accidents
on duty and failures that can pose serious threats to health, safety, and the protection of property.
Illegal drug use is detrimental to the operations and functioning of Don-Nan Pump & Supply
employees. Therefore, it is the policy of Don-Nan Pump & Supply Gas Services LLC to ensure
a workplace that is free of illegal drugs and to eliminate illegal drug use by all employees in the
Don-Nan Pump & Supply workplace, including, to the extent possible, contractor employees. To
achieve this policy and as deterrence to illegal drug use, Don-Nan Pump & Supply established a
comprehensive drug-prevention program that emphasizes the following:
o Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees who are using illegal drugs should be offered the
opportunity for rehabilitation.
o Don-Nan Pump & Supply Gas Services LLC provides drug education and training,
employee counseling and assistance, and voluntary drug testing for all employees.
o Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees will be treated with personal dignity, and their
privacy will be respected in reaching Don-Nan Pump & Supply's goal of a drug-free
workplace.
o Don-Nan Pump & Supply guarantees that disciplinary action will not be taken against
employees who voluntarily identify themselves as users of illegal drugs and who
otherwise comply with the provisions of this Plan.
o While it is Don-Nan Pump & Supply's intent to help employees overcome their drugrelated problems, it must be clear to all that entire illegal drug use by employees will not
be tolerated.
Active participation and support of labor organizations can contribute to the success of this
program. Don-Nan Pump & Supply will seek ways in which recognized bargaining unit
representatives might assist in program implementation, such as in acquainting employees with
rehabilitation facilities and by enhancing employee confidence in the program. Don-Nan Pump
& Supply will include union representatives in general employee orientation programs.
It is the policy of Don-Nan Pump & Supply that its workplace be free from the illegal use,
possession of, or distribution of controlled substances, by the officers and employees of DonNan Pump & Supply. The possession and distribution of controlled substances will be dealt with
promptly in accordance with legal and administrative disciplinary procedures. However, the
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policy's primary goal is to ensure that illegal drug use is eliminated and that Don-Nan Pump &
Supply's workplace be safe, healthful, productive, and secure.
Nature, Frequency, And Type of Drug Testing:
The Don-Nan Pump & Supply Plan includes the following types of drug testing:
o Pre-employment testing.
o Reasonable-suspicion testing.
o Involvement in accidents or unsafe-practices.
o Voluntary testing.
o Testing as part of and as a follow-up to counseling or rehabilitation.
The frequency of testing will depend on the type of testing to be conducted. Generally, 10
percent of the pool shall be subject to random testing each year. However, Don-Nan Pump &
Supply management reserves the right to increase or decrease the frequency and testing
percentage of any category of drug testing, consistent with the duty to achieve a drug-free
workplace.
Responsibilities
Human Resources Manager:
o Ensuring the implementation of this program
o Establishing the processes and procedures necessary to carry out this program
o Designating the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Drug Program Manager (DPM).
Drug Program Manager (DPM):
o Reporting to the Human Resources Manager on the status of the Drug-Free
Workplace Program.
o Overseeing implementation of this program on a company-wide basis.
o Coordinating all Drug-Free Workplace Program activities wherever possible to
conserve resources and to accomplish reliable and accurate testing efficiently.
o Arrange for all testing authorized under this Plan.
o Ensure that all employees, subject to random testing, receive individual notice and
that such employees return a signed acknowledgment of receipt.
o Coordinate administrative actions with management when a finding of illegal
drug use occurs under this Plan.
o Provide educational materials and training to managers, supervisors, and
employees on illegal drugs in the workplace to include the recognition and
documentation of facts and circumstances that support a reasonable suspicion that
an employee may be using illegal drugs.
o Assist supervisors whose employees have performance and/or personal problems
that may be related to illegal drug use.
o Monitor the progress of referred employees during and after the rehabilitation
period.
o Maintain a list of rehabilitative and treatment organizations that provide
counseling and rehabilitative programs.
Employee Assistance Program (EAP) Administrator:
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o Perform the lead role in the development, implementation, and evaluation of the
EAP.
o Assist the EAP Coordinator and counselors in establishing their local EAP's.
o Advising on and preparing statistical reports.
Medical Review Officer (MRO):
MRO is responsible for receiving laboratory results generated from the Don-Nan Pump &
Supply Drug-Free Workplace Program and for consulting with the Agency MRO, as needed.
Each MRO must be a licensed physician with knowledge of substance abuse disorders and
the appropriate medical training to interpret and evaluate all positive test results together with
an individual's medical history and any other relevant biomedical information. The MRO is
responsible for the following:
o Reviewing laboratory test results of employees.
o Ensuring that an individual who has tested positive has been afforded an
opportunity to justify the test result.
o Evaluating and determining if the positive test result is justified or unjustified,
based on an assessment
o Consistent with confidentiality requirements, referring written determinations
regarding all verified positive test results
Supervisors:
Supervisors will become familiar with the requirements of this program, especially the
provisions concerning ensuring employees that their personal dignity and privacy will be
respected.
Except as modified by Don-Nan Pump & Supply management to suit specific program
responsibilities, all supervisors will attend a training session on illegal drug use in the
workplace.
Supervisors may recommend a reasonable suspicion test, after first making appropriate
factual observations and documenting those observations and obtaining approval from the
appropriate management officials.
Upon a finding of illegal drug use, supervisors will refer employees to an EAP
Administrator for assistance in obtaining counseling and rehabilitation.
Upon a finding of illegal drug use, supervisors will initiate appropriate disciplinary action
Supervisors will assist management and the EAP Administrator in evaluating employee
performance and/or personnel problems that may be related to the use of illegal drugs.
Training and Education
Supervisory Training:
Since supervisors have a key role in establishing and monitoring a drug-free workplace,
Don-Nan Pump & Supply shall provide training to assist supervisors in recognizing and
167
addressing illegal drug use by Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees. Supervisory training
will be required of all supervisors and may be presented as a separate course or be
included as part of an ongoing supervisory training program. Training will be provided as
soon as possible after a person assumes supervisory responsibility; however, failure to
receive such training will not invalidate otherwise proper management decisions relating
to this program. The purpose of supervisory training is to provide the following
information:
o Don-Nan Pump & Supply policies relevant to work-performance problems,
drug use, and the Don-Nan Pump & Supply EAP.
o The rights of employees.
o The responsibilities of offering EAP services.
o The ways that performance and behavioral changes should be recognized and
documented.
o The roles of the medical staff, supervisors, personnel, and EAP Administrator
o How to use the Don-Nan Pump & Supply EAP.
o How EAP relates to the performance appraisal and the disciplinary process.
o The process of reintegrating employees into the workforce who have
successfully completed a rehabilitative program.
Employee Education:
o Drug education for all employees includes the following:
o Objectives of the program
o Types and effects of drugs.
o Rights of the employee.
o Symptoms of drug use and the effects on performance and conduct.
o The relationship of the EAP to the Drug-Free Workplace Program.
o Other relevant treatment, rehabilitative, and confidentiality issues.
o Means of Education
Drug education activities may include the following:
o Distribution of written materials.
o Videotapes.
o Lunchtime employee forums.
Testing For Illegal Drugs
Technical Guidelines for Drug Testing:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply's Drug-Free Workplace Program shall have trained collection
personnel, a laboratory certification program, analytical standards and quality assurance
requirements for urinalysis procedures, and strict confidentiality requirements.
All laboratories designated for analyzing drug tests must be approved by the MRO.
All tested employees will receive written notification of their test results.
If the verification test indicates the presence of an illegal drug, the MRO will contact the
employee and provide him/her the opportunity to justify the positive test result. If the
employee chooses to offer an explanation for the positive test result, he/she may present to
168
the MRO any information and/or declare any condition he/she believes might have affected
the test result (e.g., prescribed medication). The MRO will consider all information provided.
Employees are not entitled to present evidence to the MRO in a trial-type administrative
proceeding, although the MRO has the discretion to accept evidence in any manner he/she
deems most efficient or necessary.
If the MRO determines that the employee's justification for the positive test result is
adequate, the employee will be so notified, in writing, by the DPM, and the testing procedure
is concluded at this point.
If the MRO determines that the employee's justification for the positive test result is not
sufficient, the findings are forwarded to the DPM for further action. Upon receipt of MRO
findings the DPM shall advise the employee that he/she may request a second test of the
specimen and will arrange contact with the MRO, if desired. The second test will be
conducted at the same Don-Nan Pump & Supply-contracted laboratory, at Don-Nan Pump &
Supply expense. The employee can also request a second test at another certified laboratory.
In such instances, the contracted laboratory used by Don-Nan Pump & Supply will send a
portion of the original sample to the laboratory designated by the employee. The cost of this
test shall be paid by the employee.
Privacy Provision:
Any individual, subject to testing under this program, shall be permitted to provide urine
specimens in private and in a rest room stall or similar enclosure so that the employee is not
observed while providing the sample, except in those cases where collection-site personnel,
with the approval of the DPM, have reason to believe the individual may alter or substitute
the specimen to be provided. Such belief should be supported by one of the following:
o The individual's behavior suggests that he/she is under the influence of drugs at
the time of the test.
o The individual has previously been found by Don-Nan Pump & Supply to be an
illegal-drug user.
o At the time of testing, the individual is found to possess the means of tampering
or altering urine samples.
o The individual has previously tampered with a sample.
Notice to Employees:
A general notice announcing the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Drug-Free Workplace Program was
provided to all employees at least 60 days prior to the implementation date of this Plan which
explained:
o The purpose of the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Drug-Free Workplace Program.
o That the Program included both voluntary and mandatory testing.
o That those who held positions selected for random testing would also receive an
individual notice, prior to the commencement of testing, indicating that their position
had been designated a .
o The availability and procedures necessary to obtain counseling or rehabilitation
through the EAP.
o The circumstances under which testing may occur.
169
o That opportunity will be afforded to submit medical documentation of lawful use of
an otherwise illegal drug.
o That the laboratory assessment is a series of tests which are highly accurate and
reliable and that, as an added safeguard, laboratory results are reviewed by the MRO.
o That all medical and rehabilitative records will be deemed confidential "patient"
records and may not be disclosed without the prior written consent of the patient,
except for the conditions or situations required by law. .
o That a verified positive test result may only be disclosed to:
a. The employee.
b. The appropriate EAP Coordinator.
c. Any management employee whose duties necessitate review of the test result in
order to process an adverse personnel action against the employee.
d. A court of competent jurisdiction or where required by the U.S. Government to
defend against any adverse personnel action.
o That Don-Nan Pump & Supply may conduct reasonable-suspicion, accident, or
unsafe-practice testing without regard to the 60-day notice requirement.
Types of Testing
Individual Notice - In addition to the general notice, an individual notice will be distributed
to all employees subject to testing, explaining, in addition to the information provided in the
general notice, the following:
(1) The employee's position has been designated a safety sensitive position.
(2) The employee has the opportunity to identify himself/herself voluntarily as a user of
an illegal drug and to receive counseling or rehabilitation.
(3) It is Don-Nan Pump & Supply policy that disciplinary action will not be taken against
employees who are found to be using an illegal drug, if the employee accomplishes the
following:
(a) Voluntarily identifies himself/herself as a user of an illegal drug.
(b) Successfully completes counseling and rehabilitation.
(c) Thereafter refrains from using illegal drugs.
(d) The employee will be subject to random testing no sooner than 30 days after the
date of this notice.
Each employee in a safety sensitive position shall be asked to acknowledge, in writing,
that the employee has received and read the notice that states that the employee's position
has been designated for random drug testing, and that refusal to submit to testing will
result in initiation of disciplinary action, up to and including removal.
If the employee refuses to sign the acknowledgment, the employee's supervisor shall note
on the acknowledgment form that the employee received the notice. This
acknowledgment shall be collected and maintained by the DPM.
An employee's failure to sign the notice shall not preclude testing that employee or
otherwise affect the implementation of the program since the general 60-day notice will
have previously notified all employees of the requirement to be drug free.
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Notification of Selection - An individual selected for random testing, as well as, the firstlevel supervisor, will be notified, preferably, on the same day that the test is scheduled and
within 2 hours of the scheduled testing. The supervisor will explain to the employee that the
employee is under no suspicion of taking drugs, and that the employee's name was selected
randomly.
Deferral of Testing - If the first- and second-level supervisors agree, an employee's test may
be deferred, if a compelling need necessitates a deferral on the following grounds:
(1) The employee is in an approved leave status (administrative, annual, sick, or leavewithout-pay status);
(2) The employee is in official travel status or is about to embark on official travel; or
(3) The employee needs to perform a task or function that is time critical and for which
no other employee can be substituted.
An employee whose test is deferred will be subject to an unannounced test within the 60 days
following the deferral.
Employee Counseling and Assistance:
While participating in counseling or rehabilitative program, the employee may be exempted
from the random testing for a period not to exceed 60 days or for a time period specified in
an abeyance contract or rehabilitative plan approved by Don-Nan Pump & Supply
management.
Upon successful completion of the counseling or rehabilitative program, the employee will
immediately be returned to the random test pool and will be subject to follow-up testing.
Reasonable-Suspicion Testing:
Individuals Subject to Reasonable-Suspicion Testing - Reasonable-suspicion testing may be
required of any employee in a position that is designated for random testing when there is a
reasonable suspicion that the employee uses illegal drugs whether on or off duty.
Reasonable-suspicion testing may also be required of any employee in any position when
there is reasonable suspicion of on-duty drug use or on-duty drug impairment.
Reasonable-suspicion testing does not require certainty; however, undocumented "hunches"
are not sufficient to warrant such testing. Among other things, reasonable-suspicion testing
may be based upon the following:
(1) Observable phenomena, such as direct observation of drug use or possession and/or
the physical symptoms of being under the influence of a drug;
(2) Arrest or conviction in the last year for a drug-related offense or the identification of
an employee as the focus of a criminal investigation into illegal-drug possession, use, or
trafficking (e.g., distribution of a controlled substance);
(3) Information provided either by reliable and credible sources or by independent
corroboration; or
(4) Newly discovered evidence that the employee has tampered with a previous test
result.
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Testing Procedures:
If an employee is suspected of using illegal drugs, the supervisor will document, in
writing, the information, facts, and circumstances that form the basis to recommend
reasonable-suspicion testing. The written report will include, at a minimum, the
appropriate dates and times of the drug-related incidents, reliable (credible) sources of
information, and the rationale leading to the recommendation for the test. If reasonablesuspicion testing is conducted, the documentation will be appended to include the
findings of the test and the action taken. Concurrence by a higher level supervisor is
required, in advance, for all reasonable-suspicion tests.
Upon determination of reasonable suspicion, and after approval from the appropriate
management official, the supervisor will contact the DPM, who will normally schedule
the test within 2 hours of being notified.
Any employee with a verified positive test result will be subject to the same conditions
and procedures as an employee found to use illegal drugs through any other means.
Accident or Unsafe Practice Testing:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply is committed to providing a safe and secure working
environment. It also has a legitimate interest in determining the cause of serious accidents
so that it can undertake appropriate corrective measures. Post-accident drug testing can
provide invaluable information in furtherance of that interest. Accordingly, an employee
may be subject to testing when, based upon the circumstances of the accident, their
actions are reasonably suspected of having caused or contributed to an accident that
meets the following criteria:
a. The accident results in a death or personal injury requiring immediate
hospitalization, or
b. The accident results in damage estimated to be in excess of $5,000 to company or
private property.
If an employee is suspected of having caused or contributed to an accident meeting either
of the above criteria, the appropriate supervisor will present the facts leading to this
suspicion to the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Administrator (or designee) for approval.
Once approval has been obtained and arrangements have been made with the DPM for
testing, the supervisor will prepare a written report detailing the facts and circumstances
that warranted the testing. A test should be scheduled as expeditiously as possible.
Voluntary Testing:
Employees not in safety sensitive positions may volunteer for unannounced random
testing by notifying the DPM. These employees will then be subject to random testing
and will be subject to the same conditions and procedures for finding of illegal drug use
as those employees found to use illegal drugs through any other means.
Follow-up Testing:
All employees who have been referred through administrative channels and who
successfully complete rehabilitation for illegal drug use will be subject to unannounced
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drug testing for a period of 1 year, at an increased frequency of no less than four times
per year, or as agreed to in the abeyance contract. Follow-up testing is distinct from
testing that may be imposed as a component of the EAP.
Illegal Drug Use and Disciplinary Consequences:
An employee may be found to use illegal drugs on the basis of any appropriate evidence
including, but not limited to, direct observation, evidence obtained from an arrest or criminal
conviction, a verified positive test result, or an employee's voluntary admission.
Mandatory Administrative Actions:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply shall refer an employee found to use illegal drugs to the EAP.
If an employee found to use illegal drugs occupies a safety sensitive position, Don-Nan
Pump & Supply management will immediately take the employee out of that position.
At the discretion of the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Administrator (or designee) and as part
of an EAP, an employee may be permitted to return to duty in a if the employee's return
would not endanger public health or safety or national security.
Range of Consequences:
The severity of the disciplinary action taken against an employee found to use illegal
drugs will depend on the circumstances of each case, will be consistent with the Order,
and will include the full range of disciplinary actions, including removal. Don-Nan Pump
& Supply shall initiate disciplinary action against any employee found to use illegal
drugs but shall not discipline an employee who voluntarily admits to illegal drug use.
Disciplinary action, consistent with any collective-bargaining agreement and employment
laws and other statutes, Don-Nan Pump & Supply orders, and regulations, may include
any of the following measures, but some disciplinary action must be initiated:
o
o
o
o
o
Reprimanding the employee in writing.
Placing the employee in an enforced leave status.
Suspending the employee for 14 days or less.
Suspending the employee for 15 days or more.
Suspending the employee until the employee successfully completes the EAP
or until Don-Nan Pump & Supply determines that action other than
suspension is more appropriate.
o Reducing the employee in pay or grade.
o Removing the employee from employment with the company.
Voluntary Referral:
Under the program, Don-Nan Pump & Supply is required to initiate action to discipline
any employee found to use illegal drugs in every circumstance, except one. If an
employee (1) voluntarily admits his or her drug use; (2) completes counseling or an EAP;
and (3) thereafter refrains from drug use, such discipline "is not required."
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A fundamental purpose of Don-Nan Pump & Supply's Drug-Free Workplace Program is
to assist employees who, themselves, are seeking treatment for drug use. For this reason,
Don-Nan Pump & Supply will not initiate disciplinary action against any employee who
meets all three of the following conditions:
o Voluntarily identifies himself/herself as a user of illegal drugs, prior to being
identified through other means.
o Successfully completes counseling or rehabilitation through an EAP, including
follow-up testing.
o Thereafter refrains from using illegal drugs.
o This self-referral option allows any employee to step forward and identify
himself/herself as an illegal drug user for the purpose of entering a drug-treatment
program under the EAP.
Since the key to this provision's rehabilitative effectiveness is an employee's willingness
to overcome "denial" by means of a voluntary self-identification--a decision on the
employee's part to admit his or her problem to himself/herself and to others--this
provision will not be available to an employee who is asked to provide a urine sample
under random, reasonable suspicion, accident or unsafe practice testing, and who
thereafter (i.e., just before or after the sample is collected) "admits" his or her drug use.
Initiation of Mandatory Removal from Employment:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply will initiate action to remove an employee for the following:
o Refusing to obtain counseling or rehabilitation through an EAP, as required after
having been found using illegal drugs.
o Having been found to have used illegal drugs following a first finding of illegal
drug use.
Failure to Appear for Testing:
Failure to appear for testing without justification acceptable to Don-Nan Pump & Supply
management will be considered refusal to participate in testing and will subject an
employee to the full range of disciplinary actions, including removal.
If an individual fails to appear at the collection site at the assigned time, the collector will
contact the Center DPC who will initiate appropriate action.
Refusal to Take a Drug Test:
An employee who refuses to be tested when so required will be subject to the full range
of disciplinary action, including removal.
Attempts to alter, substitute, or tamper with the collection of the specimen will be
deemed a refusal to take the drug test.
Rehabilitation
Employee Assistance Program (EAP) has been established to:
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Assist supervisors who have employees with performance and/or conduct problems and make
referrals to treatment and rehabilitative facilities.
Provide counseling and assistance to employees who refer themselves for treatment or who have
been found to be illegal drug users and monitor their progress through treatment/rehabilitation.
Make available to all Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees, education and training on the types
and effects of drugs, symptoms of drug use, and impact of drugs on performance and conduct,
relationship of the EAP with the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Drug-Free Workplace Program, and
related treatment, rehabilitative, and confidentiality issues.
The EAP is administered separately from the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Drug-Free Workplace
Program.
Referral and Availability:
The EAP shall provide counseling and rehabilitative services for all referrals, as well as
education and training for all employees regarding use of illegal drugs. Any employee found to
be using illegal drugs will be referred to the EAP; however, the EAP will be available to all
employees without regard to a finding of illegal drug use. When feasible, the EAP is also
available to Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees with family members who have drug
problems.
In the event that the employee is not satisfied with the program of treatment or rehabilitation,
such employee may seek review of the EAP Coordinator's referral by notifying the EAP
Administrator prior to completion of the program. The decision of the EAP Administrator shall
be final and shall not be subject to further administrative review. Regardless of the treatment
program chosen, the employee remains responsible for successful completion of the treatment,
and assertions that the counselor failed to consider one or more of the factors in making a referral
shall constitute neither an excuse for continuing to use illegal drugs nor a defense against
disciplinary action if the employee does not complete treatment.
Leave Allowance:
During the assessment/referral phase of rehabilitation, an employee shall be allowed up to 1 hour
(or more as necessitated by travel time) of excused absence for each counseling session up to a
maximum to be determined by the supervisor according to workload requirements and leaveusage law, regulations, and Don-Nan Pump & Supply policy.
Absences during duty hours for rehabilitation/treatment after the assessment/referral phase must
be charged to the appropriate leave category (annual, sick, or leave without pay) in accordance
with law and leave regulations.
Records and Reports
Confidentiality of Test Results:
The laboratory may disclose confirmed laboratory test results only to the MRO. Any positive
result that the MRO justifies by licit and appropriate medical or scientific documentation to
account for the results as other than the intentional ingestion of an illegal drug, will be treated as
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a negative test result and may not be released for purposes of identifying illegal drug use. Test
results will be protected and may not be released to other persons. The MRO may maintain only
those records necessary for compliance with the program. Any records of the MRO, including
drug-test results, may be released to any supervisor or management official(s) having authority to
take adverse personnel actions for purposes of auditing the activities of the MRO, except that the
disclosure of the results of any audit may not include personal identifying information on any
employee.
The results of a drug test of a Don-Nan Pump & Supply Gas Services LLC employee may not be
disclosed without the prior written consent of such employee, unless the disclosure would be to
any of the following:
The MRO;
The EAP Administrator, when the employee is receiving counseling or treatment;
Any supervisor or management official(s) within Don-Nan Pump & Supply having authority
to take or recommend adverse personnel action against such employee; or
Pursuant to the order of a court of competent jurisdiction where required by the United States
Government to defend against any adverse personnel action.
Test results with all identifying information removed shall also be made available to DonNan Pump & Supply personnel, including the DPM, for data collection and other activities
necessary to comply with this program.
Employee Access to Records:
Any employee who is the subject of a drug test will, upon written request, have access to any
records relating to the following:
Such individual's drug test
The results of any relevant certification, review, or revocation of proceedings
Confidentiality of Records:
All drug-testing information, specifically relating to individuals, is confidential and should be
treated as such by anyone authorized to review or compile program records. In order to
implement the program efficiently and to make information readily retrievable, the DPM shall
maintain all records relating to reasonable-suspicion testing, suspicion of tampering evidence,
and any other authorized documentation necessary.
All records and information of the personnel actions taken on employees with verified positive
test results should be forwarded to the appropriate personnel office representative. Such shall
remain confidential, appropriately safeguarded, allowing access only to authorized individuals
who have a "need-to-know."
Maintenance of Records:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply has established a record keeping system to maintain the records of this
program, consistent with the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Privacy Act requirements and with all
applicable Federal laws, rules, and regulations on confidentiality of records. If necessary,
records may be maintained as required by subsequent administrative or judicial proceedings or at
the discretion of the Don-Nan Pump & Supply DPM.
o Notices of verified positive test results referred by the MRO.
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o Written materials justifying reasonable-suspicion testing or evidence that an individual
may have altered or tampered with a specimen.
o Other documents that the DPM, MRO, or EAP Administrator deem necessary for
compliance with this program.
Employee Assistance Program (EAP) Records:
The EAP Administrator shall maintain only those records necessary to comply with this program
After a management official refers an employee, the EAP Administrator will maintain all records
necessary to carry out his/her duties.
All medical and/or rehabilitative records concerning the employee's drug abuse, including EAP
records of the identity, diagnosis, prognosis, or treatment are confidential and may be disclosed
only as authorized by law.
With written consent, the patient may authorize the disclosure of those records to the patient's
employer for verification of treatment or for a general evaluation of treatment progress.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Scaffold Safety Program
Purpose:
The purpose of this safety policy and procedure is to establish guidelines for the protection of
Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees who work on scaffold work surfaces.
Applicability:
Scaffolding has a variety of applications. It is used in new construction, alteration, routine
maintenance, renovation, painting, repairing, and removal activities. Scaffolding offers a safer
and more comfortable work arrangement compared to leaning over edges, stretching overhead,
and working from ladders. Scaffolding provides employees safe access to work locations, level
and stable working platforms, and temporary storage for tools and materials for performing
immediate tasks. Scaffolding accidents mainly involve personnel falls and falling materials
caused by equipment failure, incorrect operating procedures, and environmental conditions.
Additionally, scaffolding overloading is a frequent single cause of major scaffold failure. This
safety policy and procedure provides guidelines for the safe use of scaffolds. It includes training
provisions and guidelines for scaffold erection and use.
Reference:
This safety policy and procedure is established in accordance with Occupational
Safety and Health Standards for General Industry (29 CFR 1910.28) and
Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Construction Industry (29 CFR
1926.451).
Policy:
Scaffolds shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered only under the supervision of a
competent person and will have guardrails and toeboards installed. When scaffolding hazards
exist that cannot be eliminated, then engineering practices, administrative practices, safe work
practices, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and proper training regarding Scaffolds will be
implemented. These measures will be implemented to minimize those hazards to ensure the
safety of employees and the public.
Responsibilities:
It is the responsibility of each manager/unit head, supervisor, and employee to ensure
implementation of Don-Nan Pump & Supply’s safety policy and procedure on Scaffolds. It is
also the responsibility of each Don-Nan Pump & Supply employee to report immediately any
unsafe act or condition to his or her supervisor. Specific responsibilities are found in Section 6.3.
Procedure:
This section provides applicable definitions, establishes general provisions, and identifies
specific responsibilities required by Don-Nan Pump & Supply’s safety policy and procedure on
Scaffolds.
Definitions
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Brace - A tie that holds one scaffold member in a fixed position with respect to another member.
Brace also means a rigid type of connection holding a scaffold to a building or structure.
Coupler - A device for locking together the component tubes of a tube and coupler scaffold.
Harness - A design of straps which is secured about the employee in a manner to distribute the
arresting forces over at least the thighs, shoulders, and pelvis, with provisions for attaching a
lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.
Hoist - A mechanical device to raise or lower a suspended scaffold. It can be mechanically
powered or manually operated.
Maximum Intended Load: The total load of all employee, equipment, tool, materials,
transmitted, wind, and other loads reasonably anticipated to be applied to a scaffold or scaffold
component at any one time.
Mechanically Powered Hoist - A hoist which is powered by other than human energy.
Outriggers - The structural member of a supported scaffold used to increase the base width of a
scaffold in order to provide greater stability for the scaffold.
Platform - The horizontal working surface of a scaffold.
Safety Belt - A strap with means for securing about the waist or body and for attaching to a
lanyard, lifeline, or deceleration device.
Scaffold - Any temporary elevated or suspended platform and its supporting structure used for
supporting employees or materials or both, except this term does not include crane or derrick
suspended personnel platforms.
Training:
Affected employees will receive instruction on the particular types of scaffolds which they are to
use. Training should focus on proper erection, handling, use, inspection, and care of the
scaffolds. Training must also include the installation of fall protection, guardrails, and the proper
use and care of fall arrest equipment.
This training should be done upon initial job assignment. Retraining shall be done when job
conditions change. Periodic refresher training shall be done at the discretion of the supervisor.
Company designated “competent person(s)” will receive additional training regarding the
selection of scaffolds, recognition of site conditions, recognition of scaffold hazards, protection
of exposed personnel and public, repair and replacement options, and requirements of standards.
Safe Scaffold Erection and Use:
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Safe scaffold erection and use is important in minimizing and controlling the hazards associated
with their use. Scaffold work practices and rules should be based on:
• Sound design
• Selecting the right scaffold for the job
• Assigning personnel
• Fall protection
• Guidelines for proper erection
• Guidelines for use
• Guidelines for alteration and dismantling
• Inspections
• Maintenance and storage
Types of Scaffolds:
There are many different types of scaffolds used in Don-Nan Pump & Supply. The three major
categories are:
• Self-supporting scaffolds
• Suspension scaffolds
• Special use scaffolds
Self-supporting scaffolds - are one or more working platforms supported from below by
outriggers, brackets, poles, legs, uprights, posts, frames, or similar supports. The types of selfsupporting scaffolds include:
• Fabricated Frame
• Tube and Coupler
• Mobile
• Pole
Suspension scaffolds - are one or more working platforms suspended by ropes or other means
from an overhead structure(s). The types of suspension scaffolds include:
• Single-Point Adjustable (Boatswain’s Chairs)
• Two-Point Adjustable (Swing Stage)
• Multiple-Point Adjustable
• Multi-Lend
• Category
• Float (Ship)
• Interior Hung
• Needle Beam
Special use scaffolds - and assemblies are capable of supporting their own weight and at least 4
times the maximum intended load. The types of special use scaffolds include:
• Form and Carpenter Bracket
• Roof Bracket
• Outrigger
• Pump Jack
• Ladder Jack
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• Window Jack
• Horse
• Crawling Boards
• Step, Platforms, and Trestle Ladder
Responsibilities
Managers/Unit Heads:
Managers/Unit Heads will ensure adequate funds are available and budgeted for the purchase of
scaffolds in their areas. They will also identify the employees affected by this safety policy and
procedure. Managers/Unit Heads will obtain and coordinate the required training for the affected
employees. Managers/Unit Heads will also ensure compliance with this safety policy and
procedure through their auditing process.
Supervisors:
Supervisors will not allow any employee who has not received the required training to perform
any of the tasks or activities related to scaffold erection and/or dismantling.
Supervisors will communicate appropriate needs to managers/unit heads and/or supervisors.
Supervisors will ensure that employees are provided with PPE as necessary for their job.
Supervisors will ensure that a competent person is in charge of scaffold erection according to the
manufacturer's specifications.
Competent Person:
The competent person will oversee the scaffold selection, erection, use, movement, alteration,
dismantling, maintenance, and inspection. The competent person will be knowledgeable about
proper selection, care, and use of the fall protection equipment. Additionally, the competent
person shall assess hazards.
Employees:
Employees shall comply with all applicable guidelines contained in this safety policy and
procedure. Employees will report damaged scaffolds, accessories, and missing or lost
components. Employees will assist with inspections as requested.
Safety Department:
Safety and Loss Control will provide prompt assistance to managers/unit heads, supervisors, or
others as necessary on any matter concerning this safety policy and procedure. Safety and Loss
Control will assist in developing or securing required training. Safety and Loss Control will also
work with Purchasing and Central Equipment Unit to ensure that all newly purchased scaffolds
comply with current safety regulations and this safety policy and procedure. Safety Engineers
will provide consultative and audit assistance to ensure effective implementation of this safety
policy and procedure.
Purchasing Department:
Purchasing Department is responsible for ensuring that purchased scaffolds and related material
and equipment meet or exceed current safety regulations.
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Safety Requirements for Scaffolds:
• The footing or anchorage for scaffolds shall be sound, rigid, and capable of carrying the
maximum intended load without settling or displacement. Unstable objects such as barrels,
boxes, loose brick, or concrete blocks shall not be used to support scaffolds or planks.
• No scaffold shall be erected, moved, dismantled, or altered except under the supervision of
competent persons or as requested for corrective reasons by Safety and Loss Control Personnel.
• Guardrails and toeboards shall be installed on all open sides and ends of platforms more than
10 feet above the ground or floor, except needle beam scaffolds and floats. Scaffolds 4 feet to 10
feet in height having a minimum horizontal dimension in either direction of less than 45 inches
shall have standard guardrails installed on all open sides and ends of the platform.
• Guardrails must be 2 X 4 inches, or the equivalent, not less than 36 inches or more than
approximately 42 inches high, with a midrail when required, of 1 X 4 inch lumber, or the
equivalent. Supports must be at intervals not to exceed 8 feet. Toeboard and the guardrail shall
extend along the entire opening.
• Scaffolds and their components must be capable of supporting without failure at least 4 times
the maximum intended load.
• Any scaffold, including accessories such as braces, brackets, trusses, screw legs, ladders,
couplers, etc., damaged or weakened from any cause must be repaired or replaced immediately,
and shall not be used until repairs have been completed.
• All load-carrying timber members of scaffold framing shall be a minimum of 1,500 fiber
(Stress Grade) construction grade lumber
• All planking must be Scaffold Grades, or equivalent, as recognized by approved grading rules
for the species of wood used. The maximum permissible span for 2 X 9 inch or wider planks is
shown in the following:
• The maximum permissible span for 1-1/4 X 9 inches or wider plank of full thickness shall be 4
feet with medium duty loading of 50 psf.
• All planking or platforms must be overlapped (minimum 12 inches) or secured from
movement.
• An access ladder or equivalent safe access must be provided.
• Scaffold plank must extend over their end supports not less than 6 inches nor more than 18
inches.
• The poles, legs, or uprights of scaffolds must be plumb and securely and rigidly braced to
prevent swaying and displacement.
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• Overhead protection must be provided for men on a scaffold exposed to overhead hazards.
• Slippery conditions on scaffolds shall be eliminated immediately after they occur.
• No welding, burning, riveting, or open flame work shall be performed on any staging
suspended by means or fiber of synthetic rope. Only treated or protected fiber or synthetic ropes
shall be used for or near any work involving the use of corrosive substances or chemicals.
• Wire, synthetic, or fiber rope used for scaffold suspension shall be capable of supporting at
least 6 times the intended load.
• Scaffolds shall be provided with a screen between the toeboard and guardrail, extending
along the entire opening, consisting of No. 18 gauge U.S. Standard wire one-half inch mesh or
the equivalent, when personnel are required to work or pass underneath the scaffolds.
• A safe distance from energized power lines shall be maintained.
• Tag lines shall be used to hoist materials to prevent contact.
• Suspension ropes shall be protected from contact with heat sources (welding, cutting, etc.) and
from acids or other corrosive substances.
• Scaffolds shall not be used during high wind and storms.
• Ladders and other devices shall not be used to increase working heights on scaffold platforms.
• Scaffolds shall not be moved while employees are on them.
• Loose materials, debris, and/or tools shall not be accumulated to cause a hazard.
• Employees working on suspended scaffolds shall employ a fall-arrest system.
• Scaffold components shall not be mixed or forced to fit which may reduce design strength.
• Scaffolds and components shall be inspected at the erection location. Scaffolds shall be
inspected before each work shift, after changing weather conditions, or after prolonged work
interruptions.
• Casters and wheel stems shall be pinned or otherwise secured in scaffold legs. Casters and
wheels must be positively locked if in a stationary position.
• Tube and coupler scaffolds shall be tied to and securely braced against the building at intervals
not to exceed 30 feet horizontally and 26 feet vertically.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Back Protection Program
Purpose:
The purpose of this safety policy and procedure is to establish guidelines and procedures for
implementing the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Back Protection Program. Back injuries represent
the most common type of workers’ compensation claim. Jobs within our company with high
rates of back injuries tend to be those requiring a great amount of manual load handling.
Eliminating and/or minimizing back injuries can result in lower workers’ compensation costs and
promote the well-being of employees. It is the policy of our company to provide a place of
employment that is free from recognized hazards that cause or are likely to cause death or serious
physical harm to employees or the public. Therefore, management will administer a back
protection program and at risk employees will receive the required training. When lifting hazards
exist that cannot be eliminated, then engineering practices, administrative practices, safe work
practices, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and additional training regarding Back
Protection will be implemented. These measures will be implemented to minimize those hazards
to ensure the safety of employees and the public.
Definitions:
Behavior Modification - Changing an employee’s action or motions from a negative,
accident/injury prone behavior to a positive, safe action or motion.
Mechanical Equipment - Any device designed to aid in moving material including cranes, hand
trucks, pallet jacks, forklifts, etc.
Lifting Belt - A support designed for the lumbar area of the lower back to provide additional
support when lifting.
Risk Factors - Exposures and personal characteristics that affect an individual’s chances of
experiencing pain associated with lifting related injuries to the back.
Responsibilities:
Managers/Unit Heads - Managers/Unit Heads are responsible for ensuring that adequate funds
are available and budgeted for the purchase of equipment and supplies to aid in minimizing
lifting related back injuries. They will also be responsible for identifying the employees affected
by this safety policy and procedure. Managers/Unit Heads will obtain and coordinate the
required training for the affected employees. Managers/Unit Heads will also ensure compliance
through their auditing process.
Supervisors - Supervisors will be responsible for communicating appropriate needs to
managers/unit heads and/or supervisors. Supervisors will ensure that employees are properly
trained before using lifting belts and that they are being worn properly. Supervisors will ensure
that no employee is required to lift beyond his or her capabilities. Upon request, employees are to
receive assistance in lifting.
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Employees - Employees are to report any unsafe act associated with this policy to their
supervisors. Employees are to report any injury to their immediate supervisors. Employees that
are assigned lifting belts are to maintain them and have them replaced when torn or frayed.
Employees must attend the company Back Safety Training program before being authorized to
use lifting belts or related personal protective equipment.
Safety Department - Safety Department will provide prompt assistance to managers/unit heads,
supervisors, or others as applicable on any matter concerning this safety policy and procedure.
Safety will assist in developing or securing the required training and will provide Back Safety
training at the request of managers/unit heads. Safety will also work with Purchasing
Departments ensure that all newly purchased lifting related equipment and supplies comply with
current safety regulations. Additionally, Safety will provide consultative and audit assistance to
ensure effective implementation of this safety policy and procedure.
Training:
Employees who perform manual lifting shall attend Back Safety training on proper lifting
techniques. Back belts are not to be used or assigned to employees until they complete the Back
Safety training. Training shall be provided upon initial employment and/or new job assignment.
Periodic refresher training shall be conducted at the discretion of the supervisor. Training will
include, but is not limited to, proper lifting techniques, proper use of the back belt, injury
prevention, and behavior modification.
Risk Factors:
There are major differences in the ability of individuals to withstand lifting and other demanding
physical labor. Because back pain results from different circumstances, an individual’s exposure
and personal characteristics affect his or her chances of experiencing lifting related back injuries.
Work related risk factors have been identified from various studies and include:
• Heavy lifting and heavy work
• Frequent lifting
• Lifting loads near one’s strength capacity
• Occasional very stressful load handling
• Sudden unforeseen events (accidents)
• Prolonged standing or sitting
• Other suspected risk factors, including whole body vibration, pushing, pulling, carrying,
twisting, and bending
• Employee’s physical condition
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Other personal factors that make certain individuals more susceptible to back injury are not
included in the above list. Those jobs and tasks that have several or many of the above risk
factors should receive a higher priority in assessing your operation’s back injury risks.
Identifying Jobs with Risk Factors:
Focusing on the more significant problem areas of back injury potential is the most cost-effective
approach in examining the jobs and tasks in your operation. A two-stage prioritizing scheme is
recommended when examining your manual lifting operations. First, identify those jobs that
involve many of the risk factors. Second, for those identified jobs, specific lifting tasks should be
singled out for further analysis. This program includes forms to identify jobs and specific lifting
tasks at higher risk levels of lifting related back injuries. Once these specific lifting tasks are
identified, the Lifting Task Analysis should be used to quantitatively assess those lifting tasks.
Minimizing Lifting Related Back Injuries:
Once specific lifting tasks are identified and assessed, if required, examine options to eliminate
or minimize those lifting related back injuries. Look at:
• Elimination of the lifting
• Substitution of the nature of task, if elimination is not possible
• Control stress level imposed on the back when lifting if the two previous approaches do not
work.
Back Protection Flow Chart
186
187
Back Injury Risk Factor Assessment
Facility/Jobsite: ________________________________
Location: _____________________________________
Person Performing Assessment____________________
Date: _________________________________________
Instructions:
The following guide is to be used to perform the Back Injury Risk Factor Assessment:
• Identify and list all the jobs in your facility or operation with frequent reports of back injuries
(examine accident/injury data as needed).
• Indicate the risk factors that are present for each of those previously identified and listed jobs.
• Note the jobs that require frequent lifting and occasional very stressful lifting. Jobs with
frequent lifting and occasional very stressful lifting should be ranked high.
• Make comparative assessments as to which jobs are the most physically stressful to the least
physically stressful. (Obtain input as needed from employees experienced in performing several
of the jobs.)
• Note the jobs which are the most physically stressful for further examination.
• List the lifting tasks for the highest priority jobs.
• Rank each lifting task, with input from employees, against each other in how stressful the task
is to their backs. For example, if there are three lifting tasks, rank them as the most stressful,
second most stressful, and least stressful.
Job
Heavy Frequent
Lifting & Lifting
Heavy
Work
Lifting Occasional Sudden Prolonged Other Risk
Loads
Very
Unforeseen Standing
Factors
Near
Stressful
Events
or Sitting
One's
Load
(Accidents)
Strength Handling
Capacity
Risk factors above include whole body vibration, pushing, pulling, carrying, twisting, and
bending. A check mark indicates a confirmatory condition.
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Back Injury Risk Factor Assessment (page 2)
Job Title ___________________________________________________
Lifting Tasks Associated with Job
Stress Risk Factor
Once the lifting tasks are identified, perform a lifting task analysis for each task.
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Lifting Task Analysis
General: The lifting tasks that were identified as being the most stressful from the back injury
risk factor assessment in Appendix A probably are exceeding the safe lifting weight for that
particular situation. The most stressful lifting tasks should be evaluated to determine if the
recommended weight for that particular lifting situation is being exceeded.
Lifting Analysis: A lifting task is considered to be the act of manually grasping and raising an
object of definable size without mechanical aids. The National Institute of Occupational Health
(NIOSH) developed a lifting equation which quantifies the variables involved in lifting. This
equation is:
AL = 90 (6/H) (1-0.01| V-30|) (0.7+3/D) (1-F/Fmax )
Where:
AL = Action level, in lbs, that over 75 percent of women and 99 percent of men can safely lift
H = Horizontal location forward of the ankles at origin of lift (inches)
V = Vertical location at origin of lift (inches)
D = Vertical travel distance, either up or down, between origin and destination of lift
F = Average frequency of lifts (lifts/minute)
F max = Maximum frequency which can be sustained
These variables are assumed to have the following limits:
• H is between 6 inches and 32 inches.
• V is assumed between 0 inch and 70 inches representing the range of vertical reach for most
people.
• D is assumed between 10 inches and (80-V) inches. For travel less than 10 inches, set D = 10.
• F is assumed between 0.2 (one lift every five minutes) and F max (see Table B-1). For lifting
less frequently than once per five minutes, set F = 0.
The following Table presents the maximum frequency (F max ) which can be sustained for either
a standing or stooped position for a 1 hour (occasional) or 8 hour (continuous) period. Select the
appropriate F max value for the particular lifting task being analyzed.
Period
Average Vertical Locations (inches)
V>30 Standing
V<30 Stooped
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1 Hour
8 Hours
18
15
15
12
Example: Given a continuous stooped lifting situation for an 8 hour period with:
H = 8 inches
V = 16 inches
D = 40 inches (average distance)
F = 6 lifts/minute
F max = 12; From 8 hours for V < 30 in a stooped position
Then: AL = 90 (6/8) (1-0.01|16-30|) (0.7+3/40) (1-6/12) = 90 (0.75) (0.86) (0.78) (0.5) = 22.5
lbs
Comparison of Lifting Analysis to Actual Lifting: If the actual weight for the lifting task
exceeds the calculated action level for that task, then that lifting task either needs to be
eliminated, substituted, or controlled.
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Lifting Task Re-design Checklist
Lifting Task: _____________________________________
Yes No
Elimination Questions
Is there really a need for the lifting task?
Can the need for lifting the load be eliminated?
Substitution Questions
Could lift equipment be used instead of the worker’s arm and back muscles?
Could the weight of the load be reduced?
Control Questions
Could the load be packaged differently so that the natural way to grasp it would
place it closer to the body?
Could the load be stored differently to reduce the horizontal distance from the body
at both pickup and set down points?
Could the load be packaged differently so that the vertical distance above the floor
during both pickup and set down is above knee height and below shoulder height?
Could the load be stored differently so that the vertical distance above the floor
during both pickup and set down is above knee height and below shoulder height?
Could the vertical distance between the pickup point and set down point be
reduced?
Could the frequency rate of lifting be reduced?
Could the duration of a lifting session be shortened?
Could handles or another type of grasping point be made available to improve
comfort and control during the lift?
Could the need to rotate from left to right, or right to left, be reduced?
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Lead Safety Program
Purpose:
The purpose of the Company's Lead Safety Program is to protect both our employees and the
environment from lead contamination from our operations. The intent of our program is to be in
full, continuous compliance with OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.1025 and all other local, State
and Federal requirements for our industry.
Responsibilities
Management will implement, maintain & monitor effectiveness of:
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

entire lead safety program, including semi-annual revisions and updates to reflect the
current status of the program
engineering & administrative controls for lead exposure
employee training and awareness
medical surveillance program
respiratory protection program
lead disposal program
housekeeping program
protective clothing issue, storage and disposal
Supervisors will:


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

provide effective and continuous control of all lead operations
immediately inform management of any deficiencies in engineering or administrative
controls
conduct routine assigned inspections and monitoring
immediate correct any deviation from operational safety requirements
provide immediate on-the-spot training for any employee who shows lack of knowledge
or application of required operational lead safety requirements
ensure all employees are properly trained before commencing any operation that may
contribute to lead exposure
Employees will:






follow all operational and lead safety procedures
Seek immediate supervisor guidance to resolve questions
Conduct operations in accordance with company provided training
immediately report to a supervisor any deficiency in engineering or administrative
controls
Properly use, store and dispose of issued and assigned personal protective clothing.
Maintain change and shower areas neat and orderly
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Process, Control & Technical Information:
The following information that describes facility specific information concerning processes and
controls are maintained as an addendum to this written program:
A. Description of each operation in which lead is emitted; e.g. machinery used,
material processed, controls in place, crew size, employee job responsibilities,
operating procedures and maintenance practices.
B. Description of the specific means used to achieve compliance, including
engineering plans and studies used to determine methods selected for controlling
exposure to lead.
C. Report of the technology considered in meeting the permissible exposure limit;
D. Air monitoring data which documents the source of lead emissions;
E. A detailed schedule for implementation of this program, including
documentation such as copies of purchase orders for equipment, construction
contracts, etc.
F. Records of Employee Training and Notifications
G. Specific work practice program and controls for each operation involving lead
exposure
H. Administrative control schedule
I. All other relevant information
Hazards:
Pure lead (Pb) is a heavy metal at room temperature and pressure and is a basic chemical
element. It can combine with various other substances to form numerous lead compounds. The
Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) set by OSHA is 50 micrograms of lead per cubic meter of air
(50 ug/m (3), averaged over an 8-hour workday.
Lead can be absorbed by inhalation (breathing) and ingestion (eating). Lead is not absorbed
through your skin. When lead is scattered in the air as a dust, fume or mist it can be inhaled and
absorbed through the lungs and upper respiratory tract. Lead can also be absorbed through the
digestive system if swallowed. Handling food, cigarettes, chewing tobacco, or make-up which
has lead contamination or handling them with hands contaminated with lead, will contribute to
ingestion.
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A significant portion of inhaled or ingested lead goes into the blood stream. Once in the blood
stream, lead is circulated throughout the body and stored in various organs and body tissues.
Some of this lead is quickly filtered out of the body and excreted, but some remains in the blood
and other tissues. As exposure to lead continues, the amount stored in the body will
increase. Lead stored in body tissues can cause irreversible damage, first to individual cells, then
to organs and whole body systems.
Short-term (acute) effects of overexposure to lead:
Lead is a potent, systemic poison. Taken in large enough doses, lead can kill in a matter of days.
A condition affecting the brain called acute encephalopathy may arise which develops quickly to
seizures, coma, and death from cardio respiratory arrest. There is no sharp dividing line between
rapidly developing acute effects of lead, and chronic effects which take longer to acquire. Lead
adversely affects numerous body systems, and causes forms of health impairment and disease
which arise after periods of exposure as short as days or as long as several years.
Long-term (chronic) effective of overexposure to lead:
Chronic overexposure to lead may result in severe damage to blood-forming, nervous, urinary
and reproductive systems. Some common symptoms of chronic overexposure include loss of
appetite, metallic taste in the mouth, anxiety, constipation, nausea, pallor, excessive tiredness,
weakness, insomnia, headache, nervous irritability, muscle and joint pain or soreness, fine
tremors, numbness, dizziness, hyperactivity and colic. In lead colic there may be severe
abdominal pain.
Monitoring
Initial determination - The company has made an initial determination of lead work areas and
exposure levels and will conduct subsequent "initial determinations" in the event of changes to
hazard control methods or operational processes that affect employee or environmental
exposure. Initial determinations are conducted to determine if any employee may be exposed to
lead at or above the action level of 30 micrograms per cubic meter of air (30 ug/m) (3) averaged
over an 8-hour period.
Where a determination is made that no employee is exposed to airborne concentrations of lead at
or above the action level, the company shall maintain a written record. The record shall include
quantitative sampling data, date of determination, location within the worksite, and the name and
social security number of each employee monitored.
Monitoring requirements:
Monitoring and analysis methods shall have an accuracy (to a confidence level of
95%) of not less than plus or minus 20 percent for airborne concentrations of lead
equal to or greater than 30 ug/m (3).
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Where a determination shows the possibility of any employee exposure at or
above the action level, the company shall conduct monitoring which is
representative of the exposure for each employee in the workplace or process area
who is exposed to lead.
For the purposes of monitoring requirements, employee exposure is that exposure
which would occur if the employee were not using a respirator.
Monitoring and sample collection shall cover full shift (for at least 7 continuous
hours) personal samples including at least one sample for each shift for each job
classification in each work area.
Full shift personal samples must be representative of the monitored employee's
regular, daily exposure to lead.
Monitoring Frequency:
At or Above Action Level and Below PEL - Every 6 months ff the initial
determination or subsequent monitoring reveals employee exposure to be at or
above the action level but below the permissible exposure limit. This monitoring
(6 month frequency) will continue until at least two consecutive measurements,
taken at least 7 days apart, are below the action level.
Above PEL - If the initial monitoring reveals that employee exposure is above the
permissible exposure limit the company will repeat monitoring quarterly.
Quarterly monitoring will continue until at least two consecutive measurements,
taken at least 7 days apart, are below the PEL but at or above the action level.
Additional monitoring - Whenever there has been a production, process, control
or personnel change which may result in new or additional exposure to lead, or
whenever any other reason to suspect a change which may result in new or
additional exposures to lead, additional monitoring will be conducted.
Employee Notification of Monitoring Results:
Within 5 working days after the receipt of monitoring results, each employee will
be notified in writing of the results which represent that employee's exposure.
Whenever the results indicate that the representative employee exposure, without
regard to respirators, exceeds the permissible exposure limit, the written notice
will include a statement that the permissible exposure limit was exceeded and a
description of the corrective action taken or to be taken to reduce exposure to or
below the permissible exposure limit.
Observation of monitoring:
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The company provides affected employees or their designated representatives an opportunity to
observe any monitoring of employee exposure to lead.
Observation procedures - Whenever observation of the monitoring of employee
exposure to lead requires entry into an area where the use of respirators,
protective clothing or equipment is required, the company will provide the
observer with and assure the use of respirators, clothing and equipment required,
and will require the observer to comply with all other applicable safety and health
procedures.
Without interfering with the monitoring, an observer is entitled to:

Receive an explanation of the measurement procedures

Observe all steps related to the monitoring of lead performed at the place
of exposure

Record the results obtained or receive copies of the results when returned
by the laboratory
Engineering Controls:
Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit for more than 30
days per year, the company will implement feasible engineering and work practice controls
(including administrative controls) to reduce and maintain employee exposure to lead. Wherever
the engineering and work practice controls which can be instituted are not sufficient to reduce
employee exposure to or below the permissible exposure limit, the company will still use them to
reduce exposures to the lowest feasible level and shall supplement them by the use of respiratory
protection.
Where any employee is exposed to lead above the permissible exposure limit, but for 30 days or
less per year, the company will implement engineering controls to reduce exposures to 200 ug/m
(3), but thereafter may implement any combination of engineering, work practice (including
administrative controls), and respiratory controls to reduce and maintain employee exposure to
lead to or below 50 ug/m (3).
Mechanical ventilation:
When ventilation is used to control exposure, measurements which demonstrate the effectiveness
of the system in controlling exposure, such as capture velocity, duct velocity, or static pressure
197
shall be made at least every 3 months. Measurements of the system's effectiveness in controlling
exposure shall be made within 5 days of any change in production, process, or control which
might result in a change in employee exposure to lead.
Recirculation of air - If air from exhaust ventilation is recirculated into the
workplace, the system must include:


A high efficiency filter with reliable back-up filter
Controls to monitor the concentration of lead in the return air and to bypass the
recirculation system automatically if it fails are installed, operating, and
maintained.
Administrative Controls:
If administrative controls are used as a means of reducing employees TWA exposure to lead, the
company shall establish and implement a job rotation schedule which includes:

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
Name or identification number of each affected employee
Duration and exposure levels at each job or work station where each affected employee is
located
Other information which may be useful in assessing the reliability of administrative
controls to reduce exposure to lead
Administrative control information and records will be maintained as an addendum to this
written program
Respirators:
When respirators are used to supplement engineering and work practice controls to comply with
the PEL and all other requirements have been met, employee exposure, for the purpose of
determining compliance with the PEL, may be considered to be at the level provided by the
protection factor of the respirator for those periods the respirator is worn. Those periods may be
averaged with exposure levels during periods when respirators are not worn to determine the
employee's daily TWA exposure. The respiratory protection program will be conducted in
accordance with 29 CFR 1910.134 (b) through (d) (except (d) (1) (iii)), and (f) through (m). The
company will provide a powered air-purifying respirator when an employee chooses to use this
type of respirator and such a respirator provides adequate protection to the employee.
Respirators must be used during:

Periods necessary to install or implement engineering or work-practice
controls.
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

Work operations for which engineering and work-practice controls are not
sufficient to reduce employee exposures to or below the permissible
exposure limit.
Periods when an employee requests a respirator
Protective Clothing & Equipment:
If an employee is exposed to lead above the PEL, without regard to the use of respirators or
where the possibility of skin or eye irritation exists, the company will provide at no cost to the
employee appropriate protective work clothing and equipment such as, but not limited to:

Coveralls or similar full-body work clothing;

Gloves, hats, and shoes or disposable shoe coverlets; and

Face shields, vented goggles, or other appropriate protective equipment
Cleaning and replacement - the company will:

Provide the protective clothing in a clean and dry condition at least weekly, and daily to
employees whose exposure levels without regard to a respirator are over 200 ug/m(3) of
lead as an 8-hour TWA.

Provide for the cleaning, laundering, or disposal of protective clothing and equipment

Repair or replace required protective clothing and equipment as needed to maintain their
effectiveness.

Assure that all protective clothing is removed at the completion of a work shift only in
change rooms provided for that purpose

Assure that contaminated protective clothing which is to be cleaned, laundered, or
disposed of, is placed in a closed container in the change-room which prevents dispersion
of lead outside the container.

Inform in writing any person who cleans or launders protective clothing or equipment of
the potentially harmful effects of exposure to lead.

Assure that the containers of contaminated protective clothing and equipment required by
paragraph (g) (2) (v) are labeled as follows: CAUTION: CLOTHING
CONTAMINATED WITH LEAD. DO NOT REMOVE DUST BY BLOWING OR
SHAKING. DISPOSE OF LEAD CONTAMINATED WASH WATER IN
ACCORDANCE WITH APPLICABLE LOCAL, STATE, OR FEDERAL
REGULATIONS.
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
Prohibit the removal of lead from protective clothing or equipment by blowing, shaking,
or any other means which disperses lead into the air.
Housekeeping:

All surfaces shall be maintained as free as practicable of accumulations of lead.

Floors and other surfaces where lead accumulates may not be cleaned by the use of
compressed air.

Shoveling, dry or wet sweeping, and brushing may be used only where vacuuming or
other equally effective methods have been tried and found not to be effective.

Where vacuuming methods are used, the vacuums shall be used and emptied in a manner
which minimizes the reentry of lead into the workplace.
Hygiene Facilities & Practices:
The following is requirements pertain to all areas where employees are exposed to lead above the
PEL, without regard to the use of respirators:

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

No storage or consumption of food or beverages
No tobacco product storage or use
No cosmetics stored or used
No personal clothing or articles, except in authorized change areas
Change rooms:
Clean change rooms are provided for employees who work in areas where their airborne
exposure to lead is above the PEL. Change rooms are equipped with separate storage facilities
for protective work clothing and equipment and for street clothes which prevent crosscontamination. Employees who are required to shower after work shifts are not allowed to leave
the workplace wearing any clothing or equipment worn during the work shift.
Showers:
Employees who work in areas where their airborne exposure to lead is above the PEL must
shower at the end of the each work shift.
Lunchrooms:
Separate lunchroom facilities are provided for employees who work in areas where their airborne
exposure to lead is above the PEL. These facilities are temperature controlled, have positive
pressure and filtered air supply, and are readily accessible to employees. All affected employees
must wash their hands and face prior to eating, drinking, smoking or applying cosmetics in the
lunchroom area. Employees may not enter lunchroom facilities with protective work clothing or
200
equipment unless surface lead dust has been removed by vacuuming, down draft booth, or other
cleaning method.
Lavatories:
An adequate number of separate lavatory facilities are maintained for employees who work in
lead controlled process areas.
Signs:
Proper signs will be posted at the entrance and exits to all lead hazard areas, No other signs or
statements may appear on or near any lead hazard sign which contradicts or detracts from the
meaning of the required sign. All lead hazard signs will be kept illuminated and cleaned as
necessary so that the legend is readily visible. The signs will contain the following or other
appropriate wording/warning:
WARNING
LEAD WORK AREA
POISON
NO SMOKING OR EATING
Employee Training:
All affected employees will participate in the company Lead Safety Training program. All
affected employees will be trained prior to the time of initial job assignment and at least
annually.
Employee training will consist of:
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specific OSHA requirements contained in
o 1910.1025 - OSHA Lead Standard
o 1910.1025 App A - Substance data sheet for occupational exposure to lead
o 1910.1025 App B - Employee standard summary
specific nature of the operations which could result in exposure to lead above the action
level
purpose, proper selection, fitting, use, and limitations of respirators;
purpose and a description of the medical surveillance program, and the medical removal
protection program including information concerning the adverse health effects
associated with excessive exposure to lead (with particular attention to the adverse
reproductive effects on both males and females);
engineering controls and work practices associated with the employee's job assignment;
contents of the company compliance plan
instructions that chelating agents should not routinely be used to remove lead from their
bodies and should not be used at all except under the direction of a licensed physician
materials pertaining to the Occupational Safety and Health Act
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A copy of the OSHA standard 1910.1025 and its appendices will be readily available to all
affected employees.
Medical Surveillance:
The company has instituted a medical surveillance program for all employees who are or may be
exposed above the action level for more than 30 days per year. This medical surveillance
program and all medical examinations and procedures are performed by or under the supervision
of a licensed physician. The program functions under the requirements of OSHA Standard
1910.1025. Elements of the program include:
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Biological monitoring
Employee notification
Medical examinations and consultations
Medical removal protection
Medical removal protection benefits
Recordkeeping:
All records relating to the company lead safety program are to be maintained for at least 40 years
or for the duration of employment plus 20 years, whichever is longer. The following records will
be established and maintained:
Exposure monitoring:

Date(s), number, duration, location and results of each of the samples taken, including a
description of the sampling procedure used to determine representative employee
exposure where applicable

Description of the sampling and analytical methods used and evidence of their accuracy

Type of respiratory protective devices worn, if any

Name, social security number, and job classification of the employee monitored and of
all other employees whose exposure the measurement is intended to represent

Environmental variables that could affect the measurement of employee exposure
Medical surveillance:

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

The name, social security number, and description of the duties of the employee;
A copy of the physician's written opinions;
Results of any airborne exposure monitoring done for that employee and the
representative exposure levels supplied to the physician
Any employee medical complaints related to exposure to lead.
A copy of the medical examination results including medical and work history
202


A description of the laboratory procedures and a copy of any standards or guidelines used
to interpret the test results or references to that information;
A copy of the results of biological monitoring.
Medical removals:




Name and social security number of the employee;
Date on each occasion that the employee was removed from current exposure to lead as
well as the corresponding date on which the employee was returned to his or her former
job status;
Brief explanation of how each removal was or is being accomplished; and
Statements with respect to each removal indicating whether or not the reason for the
removal was an elevated blood lead level.
Lead Health Hazard Information for Employees:
Prevention of adverse health effects for most workers from exposure to lead throughout a
working lifetime requires that worker blood lead (PbB) levels be maintained at or below forty
micrograms per one hundred grams of whole blood (40 ug/100g). The blood lead levels of
workers (both male and female workers) who intend to have children should be maintained
below 30 ug/100g to minimize adverse reproductive health effects to the parents and to the
developing fetus.
The measurement of your blood lead level is the most useful indicator of the amount of lead
being absorbed by your body. Blood lead levels (PbB) are most often reported in units of
milligrams (mg) or micrograms (ug) of lead (1 mg=1000 ug) per 100 grams (100g), 100 milliters
(100 ml) or deciliter (dl) of blood. These three units are essentially the same. Sometime PbB's
are expressed in the form of mg% or ug%. This is a shorthand notation for 100g, 100 ml, or dl.
PbB measurements show the amount of lead circulating in your blood stream, but do not give
any information about the amount of lead stored in your various tissues. PbB measurements
merely show current absorption of lead, not the effect that lead is having on your body or the
effects that past lead exposure may have already caused. Past research into lead-related diseases,
however, has focused heavily on associations between PbBs and various diseases. As a result,
your PbB is an important indicator of the likelihood that you will gradually acquire a lead-related
health impairment or disease.
Once your blood lead level climbs above 40 ug/100g, your risk of disease increases. There is a
wide variability of individual response to lead, thus it is difficult to say that a particular PbB in a
given person will cause a particular effect. Studies have associated fatal encephalopathy with
PbBs as low as 150 ug/100g. Other studies have shown other forms of diseases in some workers
with PbBs well below 80 ug/100g. Your PbB is a crucial indicator of the risks to your health, but
one other factor is also extremely important. This factor is the length of time you have had
elevated PbBs. The longer you have an elevated PbB, the greater the risk that large quantities of
lead are being gradually stored in your organs and tissues (body burden). The greater your
overall body burden, the greater the chances of substantial permanent damage.
203
The best way to prevent all forms of lead-related impairments and diseases-both short term and
long term- is to maintain your PbB below 40 ug/100g. The company lead safety program is
designed with this end in mind. You as a worker have a responsibility to assist in complying
with the company program. You play a key role in protecting your own health by learning about
the lead hazards and their control, learning what the company program requires and following
management and supervisor requirements where they govern your own actions.
Reporting signs and symptoms of health problems - You should immediately notify your
supervisor if you develop signs or symptoms associated with lead poisoning or if you desire
medical advice concerning the effects of current or past exposure to lead on your ability to have
a healthy child. You should also notify your supervisor if you have difficulty breathing during a
respirator fit test or while wearing a respirator. In each of these cases the company will make
available to you appropriate medical examinations or consultations. These must be provided at
no cost to you and at a reasonable time and place.
Exposure Levels:
The company program sets a permissible exposure limit (PEL) of fifty micrograms of lead per
cubic meter of air (50 ug/m (3)), averaged over an 8-hour work-day. This is the highest level of
lead in air to which you may be permissibly exposed over an 8-hour workday. Since it is an 8hour average it permits short exposures above the PEL so long as for each 8-hour work day your
average exposure does not exceed the PEL.
This company recognizes that your daily exposure to lead can extend beyond a typical 8-hour
workday as the result of overtime or other alterations in your work schedule. To deal with this,
our program contains the below formula which reduces your permissible exposure when you are
exposed more than 8 hours. For example, if you are exposed to lead for 10 hours a day, the
maximum permitted average exposure would be 40 ug/m (3).
Formula: Maximum permissible limit (in ug/m (3)) =400 divided by hours
worked in the day.
204
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Aerial & Scissors Lift Safety Program
Purpose:
The purpose of this section is to outline policies and procedures for the safe operations of
scissors lift and aerial lifts operated by Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees. It applies to all
operations, programs and locations that require employees to access elevated locations and/or
use aerial work platforms; in particular steel erection and inspection.
Definitions:
Aerial Lift – A piece of equipment, extendable and/or articulating, designed to position
personnel and/or materials in elevated locations.
ANSI – American National Standards Institute.
Lanyard – ANSI approved line designed for supporting one person, with one end connected to a
safety harness and the other end attached to a suitable anchorage able to support 5,400 pounds of
force. The anchorage can be a structural steel member, an approved lifeline, or other approved
anchorage points.
Full Body Harness – ANSI approved body device designed for fall protection, which by reason
of it’s attachment to a lanyard and safety line or an approved anchorage point, which will limit a
fall to six (6) feet or less.
Fall Protection:
Full body harnesses and lanyards shall only be used, as intended by the manufacturer, for
employee fall protection. Appropriate devices shall be used to provide 100% fall protection. The
"D" ring on the body harness shall be positioned in the back up between the shoulder blades to
minimize impact forces of the body in the event of a fall.
All fall protection equipment shall be carefully inspected prior to each use and periodically
throughout the day. Safety equipment showing any signs of mildew, torn or frayed fabric or
fiber, burns, excessive wear, or other damage or deterioration which could cause failure shall be
permanently removed from service. All fall protection equipment shall be properly maintained
and stored when not in use. This includes keeping dry and out of sunlight, away from caustics,
corrosives or other materials that could cause defects.
Hard hats and safety harnesses shall be worn by employees in the bucket or platform of any
aerial lift device. Other safety personal protective items may be required by either company or
client safety policies. High visibility clothing is NOT required for employees, but it is
recommended while working in the air.
Consideration must be given to water hazards and appropriate precautions. When 100% fall
protection is employed, OSHA water safety standards are not mandated. However it is advisable
to take minimum precautions such as readily available buoy and safety line, and a rescue boat.
205
Equipment:
Aerial lift devices shall conform to ANSI Standards applicable to the type of equipment being
used – bucket truck, under-bridge inspection vehicle, portable and/or self-propelled personnel
lift. Aerial lift devices shall only be used for the purpose(s) intended by the manufacturer. All
manufacturer and maintenance department recommendations and warnings regarding operation,
capacity and safety precautions shall be strictly followed. Permanent labeling must be
conspicuously posted to indicate lifting capacity and travel height.
Only devices approved for lifting personnel shall be used as aerial lifts. Loaders, forklifts or
other material lift devices shall NOT be used to transport employees to elevated locations nor as
work platforms. Forklifts and cranes may ONLY be used as a last resort, and then only with
approved personnel baskets.
Modifications shall not be made to any aerial lift device without the expressed written
authorization from the manufacturer. Buckets and bucket liners shall not be drilled, cut, welded
on, etc.
Procedures:
Lift equipment shall be inspected upon delivery to the jobsite, and daily prior to use. The daily
inspection will include testing the controls prior to use and all inspections shall be documented
on the Aerial Lift Daily Inspection form.
Before extending or raising the boom or platform, outriggers (if so equipped), shall be positioned
properly and the lift will be level. Outriggers shall be placed on mud mats or other SOLID
surface, and shall not be used to level the vehicle. If the lift is on unleveled ground, the wheels
shall be chocked and the parking brake set. Sufficient clearance shall be checked before raising
the lift. For under-bridge units, adequate clearance beneath the boom shall be assured.
Employees shall keep both feet on the floor of the bucket or platform at all times. When the lift
has to be moved, it shall only be moved when the bucket or platform is at the lowered position.
For scissorslifts, this is lowered all the way down, and for aerial lifts, this is lowered to the
lowest point that the operator can safely see to drive the vehicle.
Employees are required to wear full body safety harnesses with lanyards. The lanyards shall be
attached to an engineered anchorage point inside the lift. Do not wrap the lanyard around a rail
and tie back onto itself. Employees are not to anchor on structural members outside of the lift,
unless exiting the lift to get on the structural members.
Platform lifts (scissorslifts) shall have a top and mid rail and a kick plate (toe board), along with
an engineered anchorage point to tie off. Employees shall not climb nor stand on the mid or top
rails, keeping both feet on the floor of the platform.
Tools, parts or any materials shall not be dropped or thrown from the bucket or platform. When
using welding or heating equipment from the bucket or platform, the vehicle shall be protected
from sparks and slag and special care shall be taken to remove flammable objects away from the
lifts.
206
Electrical Safety:
When working near electrical lines or equipment, avoid direct or indirect contact. Direct contact
is body contact. Indirect contact is when the body touches or is in dangerous proximity to any
object that is in contact with energized systems. Always assume lines are "live" and carry high
voltage. Electrical lines can only be considered "dead" when verified by licensed electricians
from the utilities department, and proper lockout and tagout has been performed.
Employees shall not position any aerial lifts closer than ten (10) feet to a power line that carries
up to fifty (50) kilovolts. For each kilovolt over 50, add four (4) inches.
Employees are to be trained concerning the hazards and precautions of working near power lines.
Ensure posted warning placards are in place concerning electrical lines.
If the operator is unable to assess the clearances while operating the aerial lift, then a "spotter"
must be used to observe the clearances and warn the operator.
Training:
Aerial lift operators shall be trained and certified to use the various lifts on the jobsites.
Training may be obtained from the rental companies supplying the lifts. If not available from the
rental companies, contact the Safety Director for training options.
All employees operating lifts shall be issued a Don-Nan Pump & Supply operator’s card, to be
carried at all times on their person, when working on a Don-Nan Pump & Supply jobsite.
Retraining shall be accomplished annually or when an employee shows a lack of understanding
of aerial lift safe operating procedures.
207
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Access to Employee Medical and Exposure Record
Purpose
Access to employee medical and exposure records are to be taken very seriously. All
guidelines must be followed.
Responsibilities

Employee medical records are records that concern the health status of an employee
and are made or maintained by a physician, nurse, or other health care personnel, or
technician.

"Employee medical record" means a record concerning the health status of an
employee which is made or maintained by a physician, nurse, or other health care
personnel, or technician.

medical records must be preserved for the duration of employment plus 30 years

employee exposure records could include any of the types of information listed below
* Environmental (workplace) monitoring or measuring of a toxic substance or
harmful physical agent, including personal, area, grab, wipe, or other form of
sampling, as well as related collection and analytical methodologies, calculations, and
other background data relevant to interpretation of the results obtained;
* Biological monitoring results which directly assess the absorption of a toxic
substance or harmful physical agent by body systems (e.g., the level of a chemical in
the blood, urine, breath, hair, fingernails, etc.) but not including results which assess
the biological effect of a substance or agent or which assess an employee's use of
alcohol or drugs;
* Material safety data sheets indicating that the material may pose a hazard to human
health; or in the absence, a chemical inventory or any other record which reveals
where and when used and the identity (e.g., chemical, common, or trade name) of a
toxic substance or harmful physical agent.

Employee exposure records must be retained for 30 years

Access to records must be provided in a reasonable time, place, and manner. If access
to records cannot reasonably be provided within fifteen (15) working days, the
employer shall within the fifteen (15) working days apprise the employee or
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designated representative requesting the record of the reason for the delay and the
earliest date when the record can be made available.

Whenever an employee or designated representative requests a copy of a record, that
record must be provided at no cost.

Whenever access is requested to an analysis which reports the contents of employee
medical records by either direct identifier (name, address, social security number,
payroll number, etc.) or by information which could reasonably be used under the
circumstances indirectly to identify specific employees (exact age, height, weight,
race, sex, date of initial employment, job title, etc.), personal identifiers must be
removed before access is provided.

Upon an employee's first entering into employment, and at least annually thereafter,
information must be given to current employees of the existence, location, availability
and the person responsible for maintaining and providing access to records and each
employee's rights of access to these records.

Whenever an employer is ceasing to do business, the employer shall transfer all
records subject to this section to the successor employer. Whenever an employer
either is ceasing to do business and there is no successor employer to receive and
maintain the records, or intends to dispose of any records required to be preserved for
at least thirty (30) years, the employer shall transfer the records to the Director of the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) if so required by a
specific occupational safety and health standard.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Behavior Based Safety
Purpose
Informing on what type of conduct is expected along with the safety and consequences.
Responsibility

Observing employees’ conduct and provide direct, measurable information on
employees' work practices identifying both safe and unsafe behaviors.

This training will include:
- Program objectives and incident metrics reviewed
- How to conduct the observation
- How to complete the observation form
- What do the behaviors mean
- Feedback training and role play (mentoring and coaching)
- Employees should be aware they may be observed at any time

Upon completion of an observation, the observer is expected to have a discussion
with the observed to get feedback.
The observer will:
- Review the observation with observed employee
- Start with a positive comments
- Reinforce safe behaviors observed first
- Describe and discuss unsafe behaviors observed
- Solicit from observed employee explanation of his/her unsafe behavior with
open-ended questions
- Re-emphasize no consequence to observed employee.

Individual departments, as well as the company as a whole, will compare these
measurements and track these results by an acceptable method so that numerical
and statistical comparisons can be made over time.

Once trend analysis is complete, appropriate action plans must be developed to
address unsafe behaviors.
Action planning will include:
- Evaluate unsafe behaviors from trend analysis and prioritize
- Develop action plan for unsafe behaviors based on comments and feedback from
data sheets
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- Designate responsible parties and timeframes within the action plan
- Define who is responsible for action planning
- Ensure management support
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Confined Space Program
I.
OBJECTIVE
The purpose of Don-Nan Pump & Supply Confined Space Program is to set procedures that will
ensure workers safe entry into confined spaces and permit-required confined spaces to perform
routine tasks associated with their employment. This procedure is designed to provide the
minimum safety requirements in accordance with the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration’s (OSHA) Confined Space Standard, 1910.146.
II.
BACKGROUND
A confined space is defined as any location that has limited openings for entry and egress, is not
intended for continuous employee occupancy, and is so enclosed that natural ventilation may not
reduce air contaminants to levels below the threshold limit value (TLV). Examples of confined
spaces include: manholes, stacks, pipes, storage tanks, trailers, tank cars, pits, sumps, hoppers,
and bins. Entry into confined spaces without proper precautions could result in injury,
impairment, or death due to:
A.
B.
C.
D.
III.
an atmosphere that is flammable or explosive;
lack of sufficient oxygen to support life;
contact with or inhalation of toxic materials; or
general safety or work area hazards such as steam or high pressure materials.
ASSIGNMENT OF RESPONSIBILITY
A. Employer
In administering this Confined Space Program, Don-Nan Pump & Supply will:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Monitor the effectiveness of the program.
Provide atmospheric testing and equipment as needed.
Provide personal protective equipment as needed.
Provide training to affected employees and supervisors.
Provide technical assistance as needed.
Preview and update the program on at least an annual basis or as needed.
Terminating the permit and closing it out after job completion.
B. Program Manager
The Safety Director is responsible for managing the Confined Space Program, and shall:
1. Ensure that a list of confined spaces at all Don-Nan Pump & Supply
worksites is maintained.
2. Ensure that canceled permits are reviewed for lessons learned.
212
3.
4.
5.
6.
Ensure training of personnel is conducted and documented.
Coordinate with outside responders.
Ensure that equipment is in compliance with standards.
Ensure that the Supervisor in charge of confined space work shall:
a. Ensure requirements for entry have been completed before entry is
authorized.
b. Ensure confined space monitoring is performed by personnel qualified
and trained in confined space entry procedures.
c. Ensure a list of monitoring equipment and personnel qualified to
operate the equipment is maintained by the Safety and Occupational
Health Office.
d. Ensure that the rescue team has simulated a rescue in a confined space
within the past twelve (12) months.
e. Know the hazards that may be faced during entry, including the mode
(how the contaminant gets into the body), signs or symptoms, and
consequences of exposure.
f. Fill out a permit.
g. Determine the entry requirements.
h. Require a permit review and signature from the authorized Entry
Supervisor.
i. Notify all involved employees of the permit requirements.
j. Post the permit in a conspicuous location near the job.
k. Renew the permit or have it reissued as needed (a new permit is
required every shift).
l. Determine the number of Attendants required to perform the work.
m. Ensure all Attendant(s) know how to communicate with the entrants
and how to obtain assistance.
n. Post any required barriers and signs.
o. Remain alert to changing conditions that might affect the conditions of
the permits (i.e., require additional atmospheric monitoring or changes
in personal protective equipment).
p. Change and reissue the permit, or issue a new permit as necessary.
q. Ensure periodic atmospheric monitoring is done according to permit
requirements.
r. Ensure that personnel doing the work and all support personnel adhere
to permit requirements.
s. Ensure the permit is canceled with the work is done.
t. Ensure the confined space is safely closed and all workers are cleared
from the area.
u. provisions & procedures for pedestrian, vehicle & other barriers as
necessary to protect entrants from external hazards & a method for
verifying that conditions in the permit space are acceptable for entry
during its duration.
C. Entry Supervisors
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Team Supervisor shall serve as the Entry Supervisor(s), and shall be qualified and
authorized to approve confined space entry permits. The Entry Supervisor(s) shall be
responsible for:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Determining if conditions are acceptable for entry.
Authorizing entry and overseeing entry operations.
Terminating entry procedures as required.
Serving as an Attendant, as long as the person is trained and equipped
appropriately for that role.
Ensuring measures are in place to keep unauthorized personnel clear of the
area.
Checking the work at least twice a shift to verify and document permit
requirements are being observed (more frequent checks shall be made if
operations or conditions are anticipated that could affect permit
requirements).
Ensuring that necessary information on chemical hazards is kept at the
worksite for the employees or rescue team.
Ensuring a rescue team is available and instructed in their rescue duties (i.e.,
an onsite team or a prearranged outside rescue service).
Ensuring the rescue team members have current certification in first aid and
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
D. Attendants
Qualified personnel shall function as an Attendant(s) and shall be stationed outside of the
confined workspace. The Attendant(s) shall:
1. Be knowledgeable of, and be able to recognize potential confined space
hazards.
2. Maintain a sign-in/sign-out log with a count of all persons in the confined
space, and ensure all entrants sign in and out.
3. Monitor surrounding activities to ensure the safety of personnel.
4. Maintain effective and continuous communication with personnel during
confined space entry, work, and exit.
5. Order personnel to evacuate the confined space if he/she:
a. observes a condition which is not allowed on the entry permit;
b. notices the entrants acting strangely, possibly as a result of exposure to
hazardous substances;
c. notices a situation outside the confined space which could endanger
personnel;
d. notices a hazard within the confined space that has not been previously
recognized or taken into consideration;
e. must leave his/her work station; or
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f. must focus attention on the rescue of personnel in some other confined
space that he/she is monitoring.
6. Immediately summon the Rescue Team if crew rescue becomes necessary.
7. Keep unauthorized persons out of the confined space, order them out, or
notify authorized personnel of an unauthorized entry.
8. To make this process as safe as possible, Don-Nan Pump & Supply does
NOT allow a single attendant to monitor more than one (multiple) confined
spaces.
9. The attendant will hold accountability for entrants and keep them in
compliance with entry permits. Permits must identify the permit space to be
entered, the purpose of the entry, date and authorized duration of the permit
and also include name.
Attendants must:
Receive confined space training to safely observe and support entrants from
outside of confined spaces; prevent entry by unauthorized personnel; understand
the hazards or potential hazards of confined spaces; maintain accurate count of
authorized entrant(s) in the space; continually observe and communicate with
entrants to help ensure the safety of entrants, being on the alert for any signs or
symptoms that might indicate hazardous conditions; monitor activities inside and
outside the space to ensure that it is safe for entrants to remain in the area; remain
at the entry of a confined space until relieved by another attendant; order
entrant(s) evacuation if any prohibited or hazardous conditions develop during the
entry:
1. Perform a non-entry rescue and/or summon rescue in the event of entrant
incapacitation.
2. Ensure that at least one attendant is stationed outside the permit space for
the duration of entry operations. Coordinate entry operations when
employees of more than one employer are working in the permit space.
This will help to not endanger our employees or that of an employer.
Typically, the Entry Supervisor does this.
E. Rescue Team
The Rescue Team members shall:
1. Complete a training drill using mannequins or personnel in a simulation of
the confined space prior to the issuance of an entry permit for any confined
space and at least annually thereafter.
2. Respond immediately to rescue calls from the Attendant or any other person
recognizing a need for rescue from the confined space.
3. In addition to emergency response training, receive the same training as that
required of the authorized entrants.
4. Have current certification in first aid and CPR.
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F. Entrants/Affected Employees
Employees who are granted permission to enter a confined space shall:
1. Read and observe the entry permit requirements.
2. Remain alert to the hazards that could be encountered while in the confined
space.
3. Properly use the personal protective equipment that is required by the
permit.
4. Immediately exit the confined space when:
a.
b.
c.
d.
they are ordered to do so by an authorized person;
they notice or recognize signs or symptoms of exposure;
a prohibited condition exists; or
the automatic alarm system sounds.
5. Alert Attendant(s) when a prohibited condition exists and/or when warning
signs or symptoms of exposure exist.
IV.
TRAINING
Don-Nan Pump & Supply shall provide training so that all employees whose work is regulated
by this Confined Space Program acquire the understanding, knowledge, and skills necessary for
the safe performance of their duties in confined spaces.
A. Training Frequency
Responsible Person shall provide training to each affected employee:
1. before the employee is first assigned duties within a confined space;
2. before there is a change in assigned duties;
3. when there is a change in permit space operations that presents a hazard for
which an employee has not been trained; and
4. when Don-Nan Pump & Supply has reason to believe that there are
deviations from the confined space entry procedures required in this
program, or that there are inadequacies in the employee’s knowledge or use
of these procedures.
5. Understand that they are entitled to request additional monitoring at any
time. Employees, or their representatives, are entitled to request the space be
re-evaluated.
The training shall establish employee proficiency in the duties required in this program,
and shall introduce new or revised procedures within one year or, as necessary, for
compliance with this program.
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B. General Training
All employees who will enter confined spaces shall be trained in entry procedures.
Personnel responsible for supervising, planning, entering, or participating in confined
space entry and rescue shall be adequately trained in their functional duties prior to any
confined space entry. Training shall include:
1. Explanation of the general hazards associated with confined spaces.
2. Discussion of specific confined space hazards associated with the facility,
location, or operation.
3. Reason for, proper use, and limitations of personal protective equipment and
other safety equipment required for entry into confined spaces.
4. Explanation of permits and other procedural requirements for conducting a
confined space entry.
5. A clear understanding of what conditions would prohibit entry.
6. Procedures for responding to emergencies.
7. Duties and responsibilities of the confined space entry team.
8. Description of how to recognize symptoms of overexposure to probable air
contaminants in themselves and co-workers, and method(s) for alerting the
Attendant(s).
Refresher training shall be conducted as needed to maintain employee competence in
entry procedures and precautions.
C. Specific Training
1. Training for atmospheric monitoring personnel shall include proper use of
monitoring instruments, including instruction on the following:
a.
b.
c.
d.
proper use of the equipment;
calibration of equipment;
sampling strategies and techniques; and
exposure limits (PELs, TLVs, LELs, UELs, etc.).
2. Training for Attendants shall include the following:
a. procedures for summoning rescue or other emergency services; and
b. proper utilization of equipment used for communicating with entry and
emergency/rescue personnel.
3. Training for Emergency Response Personnel shall include:
a. rescue plan and procedures developed for each type of confined space
that is anticipated to be encountered;
b. use of emergency rescue equipment;
217
c. first aid and CPR techniques; and
d. work location and confined space configuration to minimize response
time.
D. Verification of Training
Periodic assessment of the effectiveness of employee training shall be conducted by the
Safety Director. Training sessions shall be repeated as often as necessary to maintain an
acceptable level of personnel competence.
V.
IDENTIFICATION OF HAZARDS AND EVALUATION OF CONFINED
SPACES
A. Survey
Compliance Manager shall ensure a survey of the worksite is conducted to identify
confined spaces. This survey can be partially completed from initial and continuing site
characterizations, as well as other available data (i.e., blueprints and job safety analyses).
The purpose of the survey is to develop an inventory of those locations and/or equipment
at Don-Nan Pump & Supply that meet the definition of a confined space. This
information shall be communicated to personnel, and appropriate confined space
procedures shall be followed prior to entry. The initial surveys shall include air
monitoring to determine the air quality in the confined spaces. The potential for the
following situations shall be evaluated by Compliance Manager:
1. flammable or explosive potential;
2. oxygen deficiency; and
3. presence of toxic and corrosive material.
B. Hazard Reevaluation
The Compliance Manager shall identify and reevaluate hazards based on possible
changes in activities or other physical or environmental conditions that could adversely
affect work. A master inventory of confined spaces shall be maintained. Any change in
designation of a confined space will be routed to all affected personnel by Compliance
Manager.
C. Pre-Entry Hazard Assessment
A hazard assessment shall be completed by Safety Officer prior to any entry into a
confined space. The hazard assessment should identify:
1. the sequence of work to be performed in the confined space;
2. the specific hazards known or anticipated; and
3. the control measures to be implemented to eliminate or reduce each of the
hazards to an acceptable level.
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No entry shall be permitted until the hazard assessment has been reviewed and discussed
by all persons engaged in the activity. Personnel who are to enter confined spaces shall be
informed of known or potential hazards associated with said confined spaces.
D. Hazard Controls
Hazard controls shall be instituted to address changes in the work processes and/or
working environment. Hazard controls must be able to either control the health hazards
by eliminating the responsible agents, reduce health hazards below harmful levels, or
prevent the contaminants from coming into contact with the workers.
The following order of precedence shall be followed in reducing confined space risks.
1. Engineering Controls
Engineering controls are those controls that eliminate or reduce the hazard
through implementation of sound engineering practices.
Ventilation is one of the most common engineering controls used in confined
spaces. When ventilation is used to remove atmospheric contaminants from a
confined space, the space shall be ventilated until the atmosphere is within the
acceptable ranges. Ventilation shall be maintained during the occupancy if there
is a potential for the atmospheric conditions to move out of the acceptable
range. When ventilation is not possible or feasible, alternate protective
measures or methods to remove air contaminants and protect occupants shall be
determined by Safety Officer prior to authorizing entry.
When conditions necessitate and can accommodate continuous forced air
ventilation, the following precautions shall be followed:
a. Employees shall not enter the space until the forced air ventilation has
eliminated any hazardous atmosphere.
b. Forced air ventilation shall be directed so as to ventilate the immediate
areas where an employee is or will be present within the space.
c. Continuous ventilation shall be maintained until all employees have
left the space.
d. Air supply or forced air ventilation shall originate from a clean source.
e. Testing should be conducted prior to each confined space entry and the
atmosphere should be periodically tested as necessary to determine
that acceptable entry conditions are maintained during entry
operations. Continuous monitoring during entry is the recommended
practice. Monitoring of the space must inform the entrants of potential
hazards and results, they must also participate in the permit review and
signing. Ventilation must be used and testing must be conducted
before entry & during work.
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2. Work Practice (Administrative) Controls
Work practice (administrative) controls are those controls which eliminate or
reduce the hazard through changes in the work practices (i.e., rotating workers,
reducing the amount of worker exposure, and housekeeping).
3. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
If the hazard cannot be eliminated or reduced to a safe level through engineering
and/or work practice controls, PPE should be used. Compliance Manager shall
determine the appropriate PPE needed by all personnel entering the confined
space, including rescue teams. PPE that meets the specifications of applicable
standards shall be selected in accordance with the requirements of the job to be
performed.
VI.
ENTRY PERMITS
The Confined Space Entry Permit is the most essential tool for assuring safety during entry in
confined spaces with known hazards, or with unknown or potentially hazardous atmospheres.
The entry permit process guides the supervisor and workers through a systematic evaluation of
the space to be entered. The permit should be used to establish appropriate conditions. Before
each entry into a confined space, an entry permit will be completed by Safety Officer. The team
supervisor will then communicate the contents of the permit to all employees involved in the
operation, and post the permit conspicuously near the work location. A standard entry permit
shall be used for all entries.
A. Key Elements of Entry Permits
A standard entry permit shall contain the following items:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Space to be entered.
Purpose of entry.
Date and authorized duration of the entry permit.
Name of authorized entrants within the permit space.
Means of identifying authorized entrants inside the permit space (i.e., rosters
or tracking systems).
6. Name(s) of personnel serving as Attendant(s) for the permit duration.
7. Name of individual serving as Entry Supervisor, with a space for the
signature or initials of the Entry Supervisor who originally authorized the
entry.
8. Hazards of the permit space to be entered.
9. Measures used to isolate the permit space and to eliminate or control permit
space hazards before entry (i.e., lockout/tagout of equipment and procedures
for purging, ventilating, and flushing permit spaces).
10. Acceptable entry conditions.
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11. Results of initial and periodic tests performed, accompanied by the names or
initials of the testers and the date(s) when the tests were performed.
12. Rescue and emergency services that can be summoned, and the means of
contacting those services (i.e., equipment to use, phone numbers to call).
13. Communication procedures used by authorized entrants and Attendant(s) to
maintain contact during the entry.
14. Equipment to be provided for compliance with this Confined Space Program
(i.e., PPE, testing, communications, alarm systems, and rescue).
15. Other information necessary for the circumstances of the particular confined
space that will help ensure employee safety.
16. Additional permits, such as for hot work, that has been issued to authorize
work on the permit space.
B. Permit Scope and Duration
A permit is only valid for one shift. For a permit to be renewed, the following conditions
shall be met before each reentry into the confined space:
1. Atmospheric testing shall be conducted and the results should be within
acceptable limits. If atmospheric test results are not within acceptable limits,
precautions to protect entrants against the hazards should be addressed on
the permit and should be in place.
2. Safety Officer shall verify that all precautions and other measures called for
on the permit are still in effect.
3. Only operations or work originally approved on the permit shall be
conducted in the confined space.
A new permit shall be issued, or the original permit will be reissued if possible, whenever
changing work conditions or work activities introduce new hazards into the confined
space. Compliance Manager shall retain each canceled entry permit for at least one (1)
year to facilitate the review of the Confined Space Entry Program. Any problems
encountered during an entry operation shall be noted on the respective permit(s) so that
appropriate revisions to the confined space permit program can be made.
VII.
ENTRY PROCEDURES
When entry into a confined space is necessary, either the Entry Supervisor or Safety Officer may
initiate entry procedures, including the completion of a confined space entry permit. Entry into a
confined space shall follow the standard entry procedure below.
A. Prior to Entry
The entire confined space entry permit shall be completed before a standard entry. Entry
shall be allowed only when all requirements of the permit are met and it is reviewed and
signed by an Entry Supervisor. The following conditions must be met prior to standard
entry:
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1. Affected personnel shall be trained to establish proficiency in the duties that
will be performed within the confined space.
2. The internal atmosphere within the confined space shall be tested by Safety
Officer with a calibrated, direct-reading instrument.
3. Personnel shall be provided with necessary PPE as determined by the Entry
Supervisor.
4. Atmospheric monitoring shall take place during the entry. If a hazardous
atmosphere is detected during entry:
a. personnel within the confined space shall be evacuated by the
Attendant(s) or Entry Supervisor until the space can be evaluated by
Safety Officer to determine how the hazardous atmosphere developed;
and
b. controls shall be put in place to protect employees before reentry.
B. Opening a Confined Space
Any conditions making it unsafe to remove an entrance cover shall be eliminated before
the cover is removed. When entrance covers are removed, the opening shall be promptly
guarded by a railing, temporary cover, or other temporary barrier that will prevent anyone
from falling through the opening. This barrier or cover shall protect each employee
working in the space from foreign objects entering the space. If it is in a traffic area,
adequate barriers shall be erected.
C. Atmospheric Testing
Atmospheric test data is required prior to entry into a confined space. Atmospheric
testing is required for two distinct purposes: (1) evaluation of the hazards of the permit
space, and (2) verification that acceptable conditions exist for entry into that space. If a
person must go into the space to obtain the needed data, then Standard Confined Space
Entry Procedures shall be followed. Before entry into a confined space, Safety Officer
shall conduct testing for hazardous atmospheres. The internal atmosphere shall be tested
with a calibrated, direct-reading instrument for oxygen, flammable gases and vapors, and
potential toxic air contaminants, in that order.
Testing equipment used in specialty areas shall be listed or approved for use in such areas
by Safety Manager. All testing equipment shall be approved by a nationally recognized
laboratory, such as Underwriters Laboratories or Factory Mutual Systems.
1. Evaluation Testing
The atmosphere of a confined space should be analyzed using equipment of
sufficient sensitivity and specificity. The analysis shall identify and evaluate any
hazardous atmospheres that may exist or arise, so that appropriate permit entry
procedures can be developed and acceptable entry conditions stipulated for that
222
space. Evaluation and interpretation of these data and development of the entry
procedure should involve a technically qualified professional (i.e., consultant,
certified industrial hygienist, registered safety engineer, or certified safety
professional).
2. Verification Testing
A confined space that may contain a hazardous atmosphere shall be tested for
residues of all identified or suspected contaminants. The evaluation testing
should be conducted with specified equipment to determine that residual
concentrations at the time or testing and entry are within acceptable limits.
Results of testing shall be recorded by the person performing the tests on the
permit. The atmosphere shall be periodically retested (frequency to be
determined by Safety Officer to verify that atmospheric conditions remain
within acceptable entry parameters.
3. Acceptable Limits
The atmosphere of the confined spaces shall be considered to be within
acceptable limits when the following conditions are maintained:
a. oxygen: 19.5 percent to 23.5 percent;
b. flammability: less than 10 percent of the Lower Flammable Limit
(LFL); and
c. toxicity: less than recognized American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) exposure limits or other published
exposure levels [i.e., OSHA Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs) or
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)
Recommended Exposure Limits (RELs)].
D. Isolation and Lockout/Tagout Safeguards
All energy sources that are potentially hazardous to confined space entrants shall be
secured, relieved, disconnected, and/or restrained before personnel are permitted to enter
the confined space. Equipment systems or processes shall be locked out and/or tagged out
as required by the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Lockout/Tagout Program [which complies
with OSHA’s 29 CFR 1910-147 and American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
Z244.1-1982, Lockout/Tagout of Energy Sources] prior to permitting entry into the
confined space. In confined spaces where complete isolation is not possible, Safety
Manager shall evaluate the situation and make provisions for as rigorous an isolation as
practical. Special precautions shall be taken when entering double-walled, jacketed, or
internally insulated confined spaces that may discharge hazardous material through the
vessel’s internal wall.
Where there is a need to test, position, or activate equipment by temporarily removing the
lock or tag or both, a procedure shall be developed and implemented to control hazards to
223
the occupants. Any removal of locks, tags, or other protective measures shall be done in
accordance with the Don-Nan Pump & Supply Lockout/Tagout Program.
E. Ingress/Egress Safeguards
Means for safe entry and exit shall be provided for confined spaces. Each entry and exit
points shall be evaluated by Safety Officer to determine the most effective methods and
equipment that will enable employees to safely enter and exit the confined space.
Rescue services must be either:
1. Provided by the host facility, or
2. Provided by an outside service which is given an opportunity to examine the entry site,
practice rescue, and decline as appropriate, or
3. Provided by the employer by selecting a rescue team that is equipped and trained to
perform the needed rescue services.
4. Rescue service must be on-site for immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH)
conditions while work is being performed.
Appropriate retrieval equipment or methods shall be used whenever a person enters a
confined space. Use of retrieval equipment may be waived by the Safety Manager if use
of the equipment increases the overall risks of entry or does not contribute to the rescue.
A mechanical device shall be available to retrieve personnel from vertical confined
spaces greater than five (5) feet in depth.
F. Warning Signs and Symbols
All confined spaces that could be inadvertently entered shall have signs identifying them
as confined spaces. Signs shall be maintained in a legible condition. The signs shall
contain a warning that a permit is required before entry. Accesses to all confined spaces
shall be prominently marked.
VIII. EMERGENCY RESPONSE
A. Emergency Response Plan
Compliance Manager shall maintain a written plan of action that has provisions for
conducting a timely rescue of individuals within a confined space, should an emergency
arise. The written plan shall be kept onsite where the confined space work is being
conducted. All affected personnel shall be trained on the Emergency Response Plan.
B. Retrieval Systems and Methods of Non-Entry Rescue
Retrieval systems shall be available and ready when an authorized person enters a permit
space, unless such equipment increases the overall risk of entry, or the equipment would
not contribute to the rescue of the entrant. Retrieval systems shall have a chest or fullbody harness and a retrieval line attached at the center of the back near shoulder level or
224
above the head. If harnesses are not feasible, or would create a greater hazard, wristlets
may be used in lieu of the harness. The retrieval line shall be firmly fastened outside the
space so that rescue can begin as soon as anyone is aware that retrieval is necessary. A
mechanical device shall be available to retrieve personnel from vertical confined spaces
more than five (5) feet deep.
ATTACHMENT
Sample Process Duty Roster
1.
2.
3.
4.
Process: Tank Steam/Wash Rack
Entry Supervisor
Entrants
Upon receipt of a tank for cleaning, do 1. Purge tanks with cold water prior to
a visible check for product. If product
steam cleaning.
is visible in the tank, then the tank will
be refused.
2. Obtain the confined space entry permit
and authorized signature.
Complete and attach certification and
danger tag to tank.
3. Complete a safe entry checklist prior to
entering the confined space.
Provide confined space entry permit for
the tank.
4. Fill out and attach the caution tag after
tank is purged and cleaned.
Verify that entrants have proper
training and knowledge of known
5. Know space hazards, including
hazards, including the mode of
information on the mode of exposure
exposure (how it gets into the body),
(how it gets into the body), signs or
signs or symptoms, and results of
symptoms, and results of exposure.
exposure.
6. Use the correct personal protective
equipment (PPE) properly.
7. Maintain communication with standby
person to enable them to monitor
entrant’s actions and alert the entrant to
evacuate if necessary.
8. Exit from permit space as soon as
possible: when ordered to by authorized
persons; when entrant notices or
recognizes the signs or symptoms of
exposure; when a prohibited condition
exists; and/or when the automatic alarm
system sounds.
9. Alert the standby person when a
prohibited condition exists and/or when
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warning signs or symptoms of exposure
exist.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Process: Tank Maintenance
Entry Supervisor
Entrants
Upon receipt of a tank for maintenance, 1. Prior to moving any tank into the
do a visible check for product. If
maintenance bay, ensure tank has been
product is visible in the tank, then the
cleaned and/or purged per attached
tank will be refused.
caution tag, test atmosphere, and record
results on hot tag. (Tank will not be
Complete and attach certification and
moved into bay until the atmosphere
danger tag to tank.
has been tested and is determined to be
within acceptable limits.)
Provide confined space entry permit for
the tank.
2. In bay, if work will require confined
space entry, obtain confined space entry
Verify that entrants have proper
permit from the Service Writer.
training and knowledge of known
hazards, including the mode of
3. Obtain the confined space entry permit
exposure (how it gets into the body),
and the authorized signatures.
signs or symptoms, and the results of
exposure.
4. Complete the safe entry checklist prior
to confined space entry.
5. Know space hazards, including
information on the mode of exposure
(how it gets into the body), signs or
symptoms, and results of exposure.
6. Use the correct personal protective
equipment (PPE) properly.
7. Maintain communication with standby
person to enable them to monitor the
entrant’s actions and alert the entrant to
evacuate if necessary.
8. Exit from permit space as soon as
possible: when ordered to by authorized
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persons; when entrant notices or
recognizes signs or symptoms of
exposure; when a prohibited condition
exists; and/or when the automatic alarm
system sounds.
9. Alert the standby person when a
prohibited condition exists and/or when
warning signs or symptoms of exposure
exist.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Gas Hazards
Purpose
To inform the employee on the measures needed to be taken concerning gas hazards.
Responsibilities

Gas hazard awareness training must be provided before initial assignment and
annually thereafter.

Gas Hazard Awareness training should include at a minimum:
a. Locations of alarm stations
b. Gas Monitoring Equipment- Portable and Fixed Detection
c. Gas Alarms
d. Gas Hazards- Characteristics of gases, to include oxygen deficiency, oxygen or
nitrogen enrichment, carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide at a minimum.
Hazard training must also include any plant or department specific gases of
concern. Training must include signs and symptoms of overexposure
e. Personnel Rescue Procedures
f. Use and care of Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)- includes donning
and emergency procedures (if applicable)
g. Evacuation Procedures
h. Staging Areas – Primary and Secondary

Gas Hazard Awareness training should be documented and available for review.

Each employee shall use a portable gas detector as required in all high gas hazard
areas.

The gas monitor must be calibrated per manufacturer's recommendations and
contain a current calibration sticker on the monitor providing the date of
calibration.

Bump test are required to be completed at the beginning of each day the monitor
is in use per the requesting owner client and manufacturer's guidelines to ensure
the monitor is functioning correctly.
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
Employees will be aware of the owners contingency plan provisions including
evacuation routes and alarms. Employees should participate in emergency
evacuation drills and practice rescue procedures.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Hazard Identification & Risk Management
Purpose
To inform the employee on how to identify a hazard and risk management.
Responsibilities

Processes are in place to identify potential hazards by the use of JSA's, JHA's,
facility wide or area specific analysis/inspections.

Provides processes to ensure employees and/or sub-contractors are actively
involved in the hazard identification process and hazards are reviewed with all
employees concerned.

The hazard identification process is used for routine and non-routine activities as
well as new processes, changes in operation, products or services as applicable.

Identify hazards as classified/prioritized and addressed based on the risk
associated with the task / (Risk analysis matrix outlining severity and probability).

Identified hazards are addressed and mitigated. This can be accomplished by
dedicated assignment, appropriate documentation of completion, and
implemented controls.

Employees will be trained in the hazard identification process including the use
and care of proper PPE.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Short Service Employee (SSE)
Purpose
Addressing the concerns and rules of a Short Service Employee (SSE).
Responsibilities

The time frame under which an employee is considered a Short Service Employee
is 6 months. This definition should take into account experience in the same job
with his/her present employer rather than total work experience.

A single person crew cannot be an SSE and crew sizes of less than five shall have
no more than one SSE.

Prior to the job mobilization, contractors will communicate/notify the project
coordinator, contractor contact, or on-site supervisor for all jobs containing SSE
personnel. The project coordinator, contractor contact, or on-site supervisor will
determine approval status of the crew makeup.

SSE personnel shall be visibly identified with a Don-Nan Pump & Supply t-shirt
or other clothing that is differentiated.

Contractors shall monitor their employees, including SSE personnel, for HES
awareness. If, at the end of the designated time period, the SSE has worked safely,
adhered to HES policies and has no recordable incident attributed to him/her, the
SSE identifier may be removed at the contractor’s discretion. Contractor shall
require any employee that does not complete the designated time period
recordable free to get operator approval in writing prior to returning to operator
property.

Contractor must have in place some form of mentoring process, acceptable to the
operator, designed to provide guidance and development for SSE personnel. A
mentor can only be assigned one SSE per crew and the mentor must be onsite
with the SSE to be able to monitor the SSE.

If using a subcontractor, contractors will manage their sub-contractors in
alignment with this process.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Excavation & Trenching
PURPOSE
This program outlines procedures and guidelines for the protection of employees
working in and around excavations and trenches. This program requires
compliance with OSHA Standards described in Subpart P (CFR 1926.650) for the
construction industry.
Compliance is mandatory to ensure employee protection when working in or
around excavations. The programs in this manual on confined space, hazard
communication, lock-out/tag-out, respiratory protection, and any other safety
programs or procedures deemed essential for employee protection, are to be used
in conjunction with this program.
SCOPE
This program pertains to all company projects that require any excavations or
trenches.
REFERENCES
* 29 CFR 1926.650, Subpart P - Excavations
* Excavation Equipment Manufacturer Safety Procedures
RESPONSIBILITIES
It is the responsibility of each superintendent and supervisor to implement and
maintain the procedures and steps set forth in this program. Each employee
involved with excavation and trenching work is responsible to comply with all
applicable safety procedures and requirements of this program.
DEFINITIONS
BENCHING - A method of protecting employees from cave-ins by excavating
the sides of an excavation to form one or a series of horizontal levels or steps,
usually with vertical or near vertical surfaces between levels.
CAVE-IN - The separation of a mass of soil or rock material from the side of
an excavation, or the loss of soil from under a trench shield or support system,
and its sudden movement into the excavation, either by failing or sliding, in
sufficient quantity so that it could entrap, bury, or otherwise injure and
immobilize a person.
COMPETENT PERSON - One who is capable of identifying existing and
predictable hazards in the surroundings or working conditions, which are
unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and who has authorization
to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
DURATION OF EXPOSURE - The longer an excavation is open, the longer
the other factors have to work on causing it to collapse.
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EXCAVATION - Any man-made cut, trench, or depression in an earth
surface, formed by earth removal.
HAZARDOUS ATMOSPHERE - An atmosphere which by reason of being
explosive, flammable, poisonous, corrosive, oxidizing, irritating, oxygen
deficient, toxic, or otherwise harmful, may cause death, illness, or injury.
PROTECTIVE SYSTEM - A method of protecting employees from cave-ins,
from material that could fall or roll from an excavation, or from the collapse
of adjacent structures. Protective systems include support systems, sloping
and benching systems, shield systems, and other systems that provide
necessary protection.
SHIELD - A structure that is capable of withstanding the forces imposed on it
by a cave-in and thereby protects employees within the structure. Shields can
be permanent structures or can be designed to be portable and moved along as
work progresses. All shields must be in accordance with 29 CFR
1926.652(c)3 or (c)4.
SLOPING - A method of protecting workers from cave-ins by excavating to
form sides of an excavation that are inclined away from the excavation to
prevent cave-ins. The angle of incline required to prevent a cave-in varies
with differences such as soil type, length of exposure, and application of
surcharge loads.
SURCHARGE LOADS - Generated by the weight of anything in proximity to
the excavation, push starts for a cave-in (anything up top pushing down).
Common surcharge loads:
*
weight of spoil pile
*
weight of nearby buildings, poles, pavement, or other structural objects.
*
weight of material and equipment
TRENCH - A narrow excavation below the surface of the ground, less
than 15 feet wide, with a depth no greater than the width.
UNDERMINING - Undermining can be caused by such things as leaking,
leaching, caving or over-digging. Undermined walls can be very
dangerous.
VIBRATION - A force that is present on construction sites and must be
considered. The vibrations caused by backhoes, dump trucks, compactors
and traffic on job sites can be substantial.
Hazards
One of the reasons the company requires a competent person on-site during
excavation & trenching are the numerous potential hazardous that may be
encountered or created. Hazards include:
Electrocution
Gas Explosion
Entrapment
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Struck by equipment
Suffocation
Hazard Controls
Before any work is performed and before any employees enter the excavation, a
number of items must be checked and insured:
* Before any excavation, underground installations must be determined. This can be
accomplished by either contacting the local utility companies or the local "onecall' center for the area. All underground utility locations must be documented on
the proper forms. All overhead hazards (surface encumbrances) that create a
hazard to employees must be removed or supported to eliminate the hazard.
* If the excavation is to be over 20 feet deep, it must be designed by a registered
professional engineer who is registered in the state where work will be performed.
* Adequate protective systems will be utilized to protect employees. This can be
accomplished through sloping, shoring, or shielding.
* The worksite must be analyzed in order to design adequate protection systems and
prevent cave-ins. There must also be an excavation safety plan developed to
protect employees.
* Workers must be supplied with and wear any personal protective equipment
deemed necessary to assure their protection.
* All spoil piles will be stored a minimum of four (4) feet from the sides of the
excavation. The spoil pile must not block the safe means of egress.
* If a trench or excavation is 4 feet or deeper, stairways, ramps, or ladders will be
used as a safe means of access and egress. For trenches, the employee must not
have to travel any more than 25 feet of lateral travel to reach the stairway, ramp,
or ladder.
* No employee will work in an excavation where water is accumulating unless
adequate measures are used to protect the employees.
* A competent person will inspect all excavations and trenches daily, prior to
employee exposure or entry, and after any rainfall, soil change, or any other time
needed during the shift. The competent person must take prompt measures to
eliminate any and all hazards.
* Excavations and trenches 4 feet or deeper that have the potential for toxic
substances or hazardous atmospheres will be tested at least daily. If the
atmosphere is inadequate, protective systems will be utilized.
* If work is in or around traffic, employees must be supplied with and wear orange
reflective vests. Signs and barricades must be utilized to ensure the safety of
employees, vehicular traffic, and pedestrians.
COMPETENT PERSON RESPONSIBILITIES
The OSHA Standards require that the competent person must be capable of
identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings, or working
conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees, and have
234
authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them and, if
necessary, to stop the work.
A competent person is required to:
* Have a complete understanding of the applicable safety standards and any other
data provided.
* Employees should not work under loads of digging equipment where loads may
fall.
* Assure the proper locations of underground installations or utilities, and that the
proper utility companies have been contacted.
* Conduct soil classification tests and reclassify soil after any condition changes.
* Determine adequate protective systems (sloping, shoring, or shielding systems)
for employee protection.
* Conduct all air monitoring for potential hazardous atmospheres.
* Conduct daily and periodic inspections of excavations and trenches by a
competent person.
* Approve design of structural ramps, if used.
EXCAVATION SAFETY PLAN
An excavation safety plan is required in written form. This plan is to be developed
to the level necessary to insure complete compliance with the OSHA Excavation
Safety Standard and state and local safety standards.
Excavation safety plan factors:
* Utilization of the local one-call system
* Provide handrails and/or guardrails to prevent falls
* Determination of locations of all underground utilities
* Consideration of confined space atmosphere potential
* Proper soil protection systems and personal protective equipment and clothing
* Determination of soil composition and classification
* Determination of surface and subsurface water
* Depth of excavation and length of time it will remain open
* Proper adherence to all OSHA Standards, this excavation and trenching safety
program, and any other coinciding safety programs.
SOIL CLASSIFICATION AND IDENTIFICATION
The OSHA Standards define soil classifications within the Simplified Soil
Classification Systems, which consist of four categories: Stable rock, Type A,
Type B, and Type C. Stability is greatest in stable rock and decreases through
Type A and B to Type C, which is the least stable. Appendix A of the Standard
provides soil mechanics terms and types of field tests used to determine soil
classifications.
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Stable rock is defined as natural solid mineral matter that can be excavated with
vertical sides and remain intact while exposed.
Type A soil is defined as:
* Cohesive soils with an unconfined compressive strength of 1.5 tons per square
foot (TSF) or greater.
* Cemented soils like caliche and hardpan are considered Type A.
Soil is NOT Type A if:
* It is fissured.
* The soil is subject to vibration from heavy traffic, pile driving or similar effects.
* The soil has been previously disturbed.
* The material is subject to other factors that would require it to be classified as a
less stable material.
* The exclusions for Type A most generally eliminate it from most construction
situations.
Type B soil is defined as:
* Cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength greater than .5 TSF, but
less than 1.5 TSF.
* Granular cohesionless soil including angular gravel, silt, silt loam, and sandy
loam.
* The soil has been previously disturbed except that soil classified as Type C soil.
* Soil that meets the unconfined compressive strength requirements of Type A soil,
but is fissured or subject to vibration.
* Dry rock that is unstable.
Type C soil is defined as:
* Cohesive soil with an unconfined compressive strength of .5 TSF or less.
* Granular soils including gravel, sand and loamy sand.
* Submerged soil or soil from which water is freely seeping.
* Submerged rock that is not stable.
Soil Test & Identification
The competent person will classify the soil type in accordance with the definitions
in Appendix A on the basis of at least one visual and one manual analysis. These
tests should be run on freshly excavated samples from the excavation and are
designed to determine stability based on a number of criteria: the cohesiveness,
the presence of fissures, the presence and amount of water, the unconfined
compressive strength, the duration of exposure, undermining, and the presence of
layering, prior excavation and vibration.
The cohesion tests are based on methods to determine the presence of clay. Clay,
silt, and sand are size classifications, with clay being the smallest sized particles,
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silt intermediate and sand the largest. Clay minerals exhibit good cohesion and
plasticity (can be molded). Sand exhibits no elasticity and virtually no cohesion
unless surface wetting is present. The degree of cohesiveness and plasticity
depend on the amounts of all three types and water.
When examining the soil, three questions must be asked: Is the sample granular or
cohesive? Fissured or non-fissured? What is the unconfined compressive strength
measured in TSF?
Methods of testing soils:
* Visual test: If the excavated soil is in clumps, it is cohesive. If it breaks up easily,
not staying in clumps, it is granular.
* Wet manual test: Wet your fingers and work the soil between them. Clay is a slick
paste when wet, meaning it is cohesive. If the clump falls apart in grains, it is
granular.
* Dry strength test: Try to crumble the sample in your hands with your fingers. If it
crumbles into grains, it is granular. Clay will not crumble into grains, only into
smaller chunks.
* Pocket penetrometer test: This instrument is most accurate when soil is nearly
saturated. This instrument will give unconfined compressive strength in tons per
square foot. The spring-operated device uses a piston that is pushed into a coil up
to a calibration groove. An indicator sleeve marks and retains the reading until it
is read. The reading is calibrated in tons per square foot (TSF) or kilograms per
cubic centimeter.
* Thumb penetration teal: The competent person attempts to penetrate a fresh
sample with thumb pressure. If the sample can be dented, but penetrated only with
great effort, it is Type A. If it can be penetrated several inches and molded by
light pressure, it is Type C. Type B can be penetrated with effort and molded.
* Shearvane: Measures the approximate shear strength of saturated cohesive soils.
The blades of the vane are pressed into a flat section of undisturbed soil, and the
knob is turned slowly until soil failure. The dial is read directly when using the
standard vane. The results will be in tons per square foot or kilograms per cubic
centimeter.
The competent person will perform several tests of the excavation to obtain
consistent, supporting data along its depth and length. The soil is subject to
change several times within the scope of an excavation and the moisture content
will vary with weather and job conditions. The competent person must also
determine the level of protection based on what conditions exist at the time of the
test, and allow for changing conditions.
EXCAVATION PROTECTION SYSTEMS
The three basic protective systems for excavations and trenches are sloping and
benching systems, shoring, and shields.
The protective systems shall have the capacity to resist without failure all loads
that are intended or could reasonably be expected to be applied to or transmitted
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to the system. Every employee in an excavation shall be protected from cave-ins
by an adequate protective system.
* Exceptions to using protective system:
* Excavations are made entirely in stable rock
* Excavations are less than 5 feet deep and declared safe by a competent person
SLOPING AND BENCHING SYSTEMS
There are four options for sloping:
* Slope to the angle required by the Standard for Type C, which is the most
unstable soil type.
* The table provided in Appendix B of the Standard may be used to determine the
maximum allowable angle (after determining the soil type).
* Tabulated data prepared by a registered professional engineer can be utilized.
* A registered professional engineer can design a sloping plan for a specific job.
Sloping and benching systems for excavations five (5) to twenty (20) feet in depth
must be constructed under the instruction of a designated competent person.
Sloping and benching systems for excavations greater than twenty (20) feet must
be designed and stamped by a registered professional engineer.
Sloping and benching specifications can be found in Appendix B of the OSHA
Standard (Subpart P).
SHORING SYSTEMS
Shoring is another protective system or support system. Shoring utilizes a
framework of vertical members (uprights), horizontal members (whales), and
cross braces to support the sides of the excavation to prevent a cave-in. Metal
hydraulic, mechanical or timber shoring is common examples.
The different examples of shoring are found in the OSHA Standard under
these appendices:
APPENDIX C - Timber Shoring for Trenches
APPENDIX D - Aluminum Hydraulic Shoring for Trenches
APPENDIX E - Alternatives to Timber Shoring
SHIELD SYSTEMS (Trench Boxes)
Shielding is the third method of providing a safe workplace. Unlike sloping and
shoring, shielding does not prevent a cave-in. Shields are designed to withstand
the soil forces caused by a cave-in and protect the employees inside the structure.
Most shields consist of two flat, parallel metal walls that are held apart by metal
cross braces.
Shielding design and construction is not covered in the OSHA Standards. Shields
must be certified in design by a registered professional engineer and must have
either a registration plate on the shield or registration papers from the
238
manufacturer on file at the jobsite office. ANY REPAIRS OR
MODIFICATIONS MUST BE APPROVED BY THE MANUFACTURER.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS FOR SHIELD SYSTEMS
* Shields must not have any lateral movement when installed.
* Employees will be protected from cave-ins when entering and exiting the shield
(examples - ladder within the shield or a properly sloped ramp at the end).
* Employees are not allowed in the shield during installation, removal, or during
any vertical movement.
* Shields can be 2 ft. above the bottom of an excavation if they are designed to
resist loads at the full depth and if there are no indications of caving under or
behind the shield.
* The shield must extend at least 18 inches above the point where proper sloping
begins (the height of the shield must be greater than the depth of the excavation).
* The open end of the shield must be protected from the exposed excavation wall.
The wall must be sloped, shored, or shielded. Engineer designed end plates can be
mounted on the ends of the shield to prevent cave-ins.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
It is company policy to wear a hard hat, safety glasses, and work boots on the
jobsite. Because of the hazards involved with excavations, other personal
protective equipment may be necessary, depending on the potential hazards
present (examples -goggles, gloves, and respiratory equipment).
INSPECTIONS
Daily inspection of excavations, the adjacent areas and protective systems shall be
made by the competent person for evidence of a situation that could result in a
cave-in, indications of failure of protective systems, hazardous atmospheres or
other hazardous conditions.
* All inspections shall be conducted by the competent person prior to the start of
work and as needed throughout the shift.
* Inspections will be made after every rainstorm or any other increasing hazard.
* All documented inspections will be kept on file in the jobsite safety files and
forwarded to the Safety Director weekly.
* A copy of the Daily Excavation Inspection form is located at the end of this
program.
TRAINING
The competent person(s) must be trained in accordance with the OSHA
Excavation Standard, and all other programs that may apply (examples Hazard
Communication, Confined Space, and Respiratory Protection), and must
demonstrate a thorough understanding and knowledge of the programs and the
hazards associated.
239
All other employees working in and around the excavation must be trained in the
recognition of hazards associated with trenching and excavating.
240
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Fatigue Management
Purpose:
To relieve employees when fatigue sets in and to also prevent as much fatigue as possible.
Responsibility:
When a new employee joins the Don-Nan team, he/she will undergo training that will stress the
importance of fatigue management. As well as initial training, the employee will also undergo
annual training to understand the severities of becoming fatigued. Training includes how to
recognize fatigue, how to control fatigue through appropriate work and personal habits, staying
hydrated, and reporting of fatigue to supervision.
To address fatigue management, Don-Nan Pump & Supply has set work hour limitation. DonNan Pump & Supply also makes breaks mandatory for employees, especially those which are
outside and effected by the weather. We also use job rotation among employees to help control
worker fatigue.
Ergonomic equipment is used for all employee workstations such as lumbar supportive chairs,
anti-fatigue mats for standing employees, proper lighting and control of temperature, lift assist
devices for heavy machinery and objects, as well as other ergonomic devices as deemed
appropriate for each and every employee.
Work tasks are examined of each employee in the company and exactly what their position
entails. This includes JSA’s (job safety analysis) which are analyzed and evaluated periodically.
Fatigue is measured and changes are made due to the findings.
Once the tasks of the employee and the work hour limitations have been analyzed and set, break
times are given to the employee based upon these findings. Chairs are located around each
office and/or building for workers to sit periodically to provide periodic rest breaks. Water is
also located at each station.
Any employee in a supervisory role, such as management, is responsible for their employees’
well-being, to make safety critical decisions and to take appropriate actions to prevent loss.
Supervisors must take responsibility and observe and report employee fatigue/tiredness and lack
of mental acuity.
If an employee is using over-the-counter prescription drugs, prescription drugs, or any other
product which may affect an employee’s ability to perform their work safely, this must be
reported to their supervisor. Employees must not chronically use any of these substances if they
241
decrease their mental alertness. Employees should be discouraged from taking any substance
known to increase fatigue, including fatigue that sets in after the effects of the drug wear off.
242
Don-Nan Pump & Supply
General Waste Management
Purpose:
To inform the employer and employees of how all waste is handled and properly disposed of.
Responsibility:
Prior to each shift, wastes, trash, and/or scrap materials will be taken into consideration and a
plan will be in place to dispose of this waste. Don-Nan Pump & Supply estimates the waste that
will be generated prior to work being performed so that the need for employees, containers and
waste removal can be determined. Depending on how busy our employees are and the demand
of our products for each day determine how much waste and scrap materials will be generated
that day.
Proper handling, organization and storage of each material, chemical, etc… is mandatory and
records are kept accordingly. This is done to make sure proper measures are taken and to also
minimize potential impact that might be placed on the environment. Waste materials should be
properly disposed of as well as properly stored and handled to minimize the potential for a spill
or impact to the environment. During outdoor activities, receptacles are placed accordingly and
must be covered to prevent dispersion of waste materials as well as to control the potential for
run-off.
Employees as well as supervisors must be instructed on the proper disposal method for wastes.
Don-Nan Pump & Supply works closely with a hazardous materials disposal company that
manages these dangerous materials and records are kept current on this process. Don-Nan Pump
& Supply also properly disposes of on-hazardous wastes, trash and scrap materials. Employees
are trained to ensure proper disposal, depending on which material they are dealing with.
All trash and scrap materials are separated and, if possible, recycled. Don-Nan Pump & Supply
encourages proper segregation of waste materials to ensure all opportunities are taken advantage
of to either reuse or recycle.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Job Competency
Purpose:
To list all job titles for each employee in the Don-Nan Pump & Supply organization.
Responsibility:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply keeps an up-to-date organizational list of job titles/roles in the
company. This list is readily available and easily accessible online. As well as including names
and job titles, it also includes direct phone extensions internally in the company and also cell
phone numbers for each employee that currently holds the specified job title.
The minimum qualifications are listed for each job title/role such as work experience and the
required education level. Work experience can be substituted for education, in some roles.
Background checks are performed on each employee to verify all credentials, experience, driving
records and references. Strict procedures are performed to ensure that documentation is acquired
from employees as proof that they are qualified to perform their job duties as specified.
All new or transferred employees are provided training specific to their job/role. All employees
are trained on the tasks they perform on a regular basis. Employees are also evaluated on their
performance.
Before any new employee can perform their job/role independently, a supervisor must approve
this. A competent leader such as a supervisor, department head, etc… must verify that an
employee is competent to perform their roles and responsibilities before being allowed to work
independently.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Manual Lifting
Purpose:
To assess the correct procedures to manual lifting and to also address all hazards accompanied
with manual lifting.
Responsibility:
Before a manual lift of any kind is performed, a hazard assessment must be completed. The
assessment must consider size, bulk, and weight of the object(s). The assessment must also
specify if the lift can be performed by two people if mechanical lifting is necessary. The
assessment must also specify if a person’s vision is obscured while carrying the load as well as if
the walking surface and path are clear of all obstructions. If lifting equipment is not possible or
impractical, two-person lifts must be used.
Training will be provided for all new and current employees on the importance of proper lifting
techniques. Training includes the general principles of ergonomics, recognition of hazards and
injuries, procedures for reporting hazardous conditions, and methods and procedures for early
reporting of injuries. Job specific training will also be given on safe lifting and work practices,
hazards and controls.
Musculoskeletal injuries are often a result of improper lifting techniques. Any musculoskeletal
injuries caused by improper lifting must be investigated and documented. If the results of the
investigation findings prove that find improper lifting techniques, changes must be made
immediately and incorporated to prevent future injuries.
If an injury is caused during manual lifting, that injury must be reported and recorded in
accordance with OSHA regulations. According to 29 CFR Part 1904 –Recording and Reporting
Occupational Injuries and Illnesses; it states in §1904.0 Subpart A – Purpose “The purpose of
this rule (Part 1904) is to require employers to record and report work-related fatalities, injuries,
and illnesses.”
Supervision must periodically evaluate work areas and employees’ work techniques to assess the
potential for and prevention of injuries. New operations should be evaluated to engineer out
hazards before work processes are implemented.
Manual lifting such as dollies, hand trucks, lift-assist devices, jacks, carts, and hoists are
provided by Don-Nan Pump & Supply for employees. Other engineering controls such as
conveyors, lift tables, and work stations are designed for maximum efficiency and designed
ergonomically to benefit the employee.
Don-Nan Pump & Supply provides employees with manual lifting equipment and enforces it to
be used by all supervisors.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Mobile Equipment
Purpose:
To set forth the rules and guidelines pertaining to operating Don-Nan Pump & Supply mobile
equipment.
Responsibility:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply has very strict guidelines where only authorized employees shall be
allowed to operate mobile equipment. Authorization to operate mobile equipment will only be
issued to Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees that have qualified under appropriate training,
proficiency training, and passed their examination.
At the beginning of each shift, the operator shall inspect and check the assigned equipment,
reporting immediately to his/her supervisor any malfunction of the clutch or of the braking
system, steering, lighting, or control system. Also, the operator will make sure that the
equipment has a working signal while it is backing up. If the equipment is not working
correctly, lock out/tagout as necessary.
Don-Nan Pump & Supply has its own rule of when it comes to mobile equipment and it is “one
butt per seat.” This means that unauthorized personnel shall not be permitted to ride on any
equipment unless it is designed for an extra passenger with a seat for that passenger and it is
equipped to accommodate passengers safely.
Don-Nan Pump & Supply trains its employees to fasten seat belts and adjust them to fit properly,
before starting the engine. As a precaution, no operator shall operate mobile equipment without
eye protection, if the cab of the mobile equipment is not enclosed.
Under no circumstance is an employee of Don-Nan Pump & Supply allowed to use, or attempt to
use any vehicle in any manner or for any purpose other than for which it is designed to be used.
Using machinery or equipment for other reasons than its main intention can be dangerous and
even fatal.
The operator shall not load the vehicle/equipment beyond its establishment load limit and shall
not move a load, which because of the length, width, or height that have not been centered and
secured safe transportation.
Don-Nan Pump & Supply requires proper fueling techniques. The operator of a gasoline or
diesel vehicle shall shut off the engine before filling the fuel tank and shall ensure that the nozzle
of the filing hose makes contact with the filling neck of the tank. No one shall be on the vehicle
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during fueling operations except as specifically required by design. There shall be NO
SMOKING or open flames in the area while fueling is occurring.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Natural Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM)
Purpose:
To identify the person in charge of natural occurring radioactive materials on the premises and
the actions taken to dispose of properly.
Responsibility:
The program administrator in charge of natural occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at DonNan Pump & Supply is the EHS Director.
Radioactive materials are found almost everywhere. It is found in the air and in soil, and even in
radioactive potassium in our own bodies. It is found in public water supplies and foods. The
average person in the United States is exposed to about 360 millirems of radiation from natural
sources each year. A millirem, or one one-thousandth of a rem, is a measure of radiation
exposure. More than 80% of this exposure level comes from background radiation sources.
Consumer products contribute 10 millirem/year, while living or working in a brick building can
add another 70 millirem/year.
Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees, which work outdoors, are only exposed to two main
radionuclides (and in very minute amounts which impose no hazards to our employees). These
two radionuclides are Barium Sulfate and Strontium Sulfate. The exposures to these are from the
downhole pumps that we receive from our customers that have us repair and maintain their
pumps.
NORM may be found at any of our locations (since it is a naturally occurring material in the
Earth), which means it can be found anywhere. Don-Nan Pump & Supply tests all of our pumps
and tubing for any radioactive materials with a Geiger counter. A Geiger counter is a type of
particle detector that measures ionizing radiation. They detect the emission of nuclear radiation:
alpha particles, beta particles or gamma rays. A Geiger counter detects radiation by ionization
produced in a low-pressure gas in a Geiger-Muller tube. Each particle detected produces a pulse
of current, but the Geiger counter cannot distinguish the energy of the source particles. If any of
our own supply or a customers’ supply is containing any radiation, we consider this to be “hot”
and dispose of it properly. Don-Nan Pump & Supply takes pride in how it handles anything
relative to the environment.
Don-Nan Pump & Supply provides protection for all employees against any NORM that might
be considered to be too high. Some of the tools that are used are very simple. TWA (or time
weighted average) is the time that the employee is allowed to be around the exposure. The levels
we experience are not relative to this since it is such a small amount. We also consider the PPE
our employees use. Safety glasses, goggles, face shields and respirators are required when
handling anything that is considered to be “hot.” Personal hygiene is also a factor when dealing
with NORM. Clean shaven faces are required when wearing respirators.
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Don-Nan Pump & Supply
Stop Work Authority
Purpose:
To enforce to ALL employees to do their job safely or not at all. There is always time to do it
safe and right.
Responsibility:
Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees receive Stop Work Authority training before their initial
assignment. The training is documented with sign-in sheets which include the employees name,
date and subject of the material covered in the training.
All Don-Nan Pump & Supply employees are responsible and authorized to stop work when the
control of the health, safety and environmental risk is not clearly understood or established.
Employees are encouraged to ask questions if there are concerns regarding the risks involved.
No work will resume until all questions have been answered and all stop work issues and
concerns have been adequately addressed.
Don-Nan Pump & Supply does not use intimidation or retribution if an employee or company
does not feel safe performing a certain job or function. Also, they will not be reprimanded for
issuing a Stop Work Intervention. We want everyone to feel safe and enjoy their job.
Employees are responsible to initiate a Stop Work Intervention when warranted and management
is responsible to create a culture where Stop Work Authority is exercised freely without fear of
negative consequences.
When an unsafe condition is identified, the Stop Work Intervention will be:
1) Initiated
2) Coordinated through management or the supervisor
3) Initiated in a positive manner
4) Notify all affected personnel and supervision of the stop work issue
5) Correct the issue
6) And resume work when it is safe to do so
If Don-Nan Pump & Supply happens to have a Stop Work Intervention, it shall be documented
for lessons learned and corrective measures that are to be put in to place where it is necessary.
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Supervision and/or management will review Stop Work reports to measure participation,
determine quality of interventions and follow-up, trend common issues, identify opportunities for
improvement and facilitate sharing of what was learned through the process.
After the Stop Work Intervention has been initiated and closed, Don-Nan Pump & Supply
supervisors will follow-up to make sure the safety concerns have been addressed and concluded
to the satisfaction of all involved persons prior to the resumption of work. For the most part,
most cases should be adequately resolved in a timely manner at the job site. Occasionally,
additional investigation and corrective actions may be required to identify and address root
causes.
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