ASL 5000 Operating Manual SW 3.1.14 - SBM

ASL 5000 Operating Manual SW 3.1.14 - SBM
ASL 5000™
Active Servo Lung
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Computerized
Breathing Simulator and
Ventilator
Test Instrument
ASL 5000
USER'S MANUAL
User’s Manual
Active Servo Lung
Precision Breathing Simulator
p
Advancing Respiratory Simulation
Software 3.1
(1st Revision, sw 3.1.14)
INGMAR MEDICAL
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Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
2
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Legal Information
Product Warranty
Educational tools and test instruments manufactured or
distributed by IngMar Medical Ltd., are fully warranted,
covering materials and workmanship, for a period of one
year from the date of shipment, except for products with
stated warranties other than one year. IngMar Medical
reserves the right to perform warranty service(s) at its
factory, at an authorized repair station, or at the
customer's installation.
IngMar Medical's obligations under this warranty are
limited to repairs, or at IngMar Medical's option,
replacement of any defective parts of our equipment,
except fuses and batteries, without charge, if said defects
occur during normal service.
Claims for damages during shipment must be filed
promptly with the transportation company. All
correspondence concerning the equipment must specify
both the model name and number, and the serial
number as it appears on the equipment.
Improper use, mishandling, tampering with, or operation
of the equipment without following specific operating
instructions will void this warranty and release IngMar
Medical from any further warranty obligations.
The above is the sole warranty provided by IngMar
Medical, Ltd. No other warranty, expressed or implied, is
intended. Representatives of IngMar Medical are not
authorized to modify the terms of this warranty.
For factory repair service, call:
Toll free:
1-800-583-9910
International:
(412) 441-8228
Facsimile:
(412) 441-8404
or contact us via e-mail at:[email protected]
Our shipping address:
IngMar Medical, Ltd.
5940 Baum Blvd
Pittsburgh, PA 15206
USA
Please note that a valid return merchandise
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sending in any products for repair, calibrations, or
updates.
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IngMar Medical Ltd.'s liability, whether arising out of or
related to manufacture and sale of the goods, their
installation, demonstration, sales representation, use,
performance, or otherwise, including any liability based
upon above defined product warranty, is subject to and
limited to the exclusive terms and conditions as set forth,
whether based upon breach of warranty or any other
cause of action whatsoever, regardless of any fault
attributable to IngMar Medical, and regardless of the
form of action (including, without limitation, breach of
warranty, negligence, strict liability, or otherwise).
THE STATED EXPRESSED WARRANTIES ARE IN LIEU
OF ALL OTHER WARRANTIES, EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING, WITHOUT LIMITATION,
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR
ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR
NONINFRINGEMENT.
IngMar Medical, Ltd. shall not be liable for, nor shall
buyer be entitled to recover, any special incidental or
consequential damages or for any liability incurred by
buyer to any third party in any way arising out of or
relating to the goods.
Patents
The patent pending product concept and portions of the
software is patent pending and used under exclusive
license.
Trademarks
ASL 5000™, RespiSim™, FiRST™, andQuickLung® are
trademarks and registered trademarks of IngMar
Medical, Ltd., respectively
Windows® and MS-DOS® are registered trademarks of
Microsoft Corporation.
LabVIEW™ is a trademark of National Instruments
Corporation.
OxSim™ is a trademark of Pronk Technologies
All other trademarks or registered trademarks are
property of their respective owners.
Copyright
© 1998 - 2013, IngMar Medical, Ltd.
No parts of this document may be reproduced, stored in
a retrieval system, translated, transcribed, or transmitted,
in any form, or by any means, without identifying its
authorship as IngMar Medical, Ltd.
3
Software License Agreement
Acknowledgement of this license agreement is also part
of the host software installation process:
LICENSE AGREEMENT
BY INSTALLING AND USING THE SOFTWARE, YOU INDICATE
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No action, regardless of form, arising out of this Agreement may be
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FreeDOS License
The FreeDOS operating system running on the ASL5000 CPU is
distributed in acccordance with the provisions of the GNU GPL
(General Public License) granted by the FreeDOS Project
(www.freedos.org).
4
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
SOFTWARE AND DOCUMENTATION LICENSE
1. IngMar hereby grants you a non-exclusive, non-transferable license
to use the enclosed computer instrumentation software (the "Software")
and any associated printed documentation (the "Documentation"),
subject to the limitations set forth in this Agreement (the "License"). You
may use the Software only on one central processing unit with one
input terminal at any time. All right, title and interest to the Software
and the Documentation are, and shall remain, in IngMar and/or its
licensor. You have no right of access to the source code of the host
system software (the software running on your PC) or the ASL 5000
firmware (the software running in the ASL 5000 instrument). You are
entitled to updates or upgrades of the Software or Documentation only
as set forth in your purchase agreement for the ASL 5000 instrument.
2. You may not alter, assign, decompile, disassemble, distribute, lease,
modify, reverse engineer, sublicense, transfer or translate in any way
the Software or Documentation except as provided in the following
clauses:
i) You may permanently and simultaneously transfer all of the Software,
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Software and Documentation (including updates and upgrades)
supplied by this Agreement; b) notify IngMar in writing of such transfer;
and c) destroy any archival/backup copy. A transfer immediately
terminates the License. You agree that the transferee must expressly
accept all terms and conditions of this Agreement.
3. YOU MAY NOT COPY THE SOFTWARE OR DOCUMENTATION;
provided, however, that you may make one (1) copy of the Software for
archival/backup purposes.
4. If either the Software or Documentation is used in any way not
expressly and specifically permitted by this License, then the License
shall immediately terminate. Upon the termination of the License, you
shall thereafter make no further use of the Software or Documentation,
and you shall return to IngMar all licensed materials, postage prepaid.
5. THE SOFTWARE IS NOT INTENDED TO BE USED FOR ACTUAL
ANALYSIS AND DIAGNOSIS OF MEDICAL CONDITIONS OF
HUMANS OR ANIMALS.
WARRANTIES
1. LIMITED WARRANTY ON MEDIA. For a period of thirty (30) days
following the date of delivery to you as the original licensee, if
evidenced by your receipt as such, (the "Warranty Period") IngMar
warrants the Fflash memory device on which the Software is embodied
to be free from defects in materials and workmanship under normal
use. The warranty is personal to you, and no warranty is made to your
transferees. THE FOREGOING WARRANTIES ARE THE SOLE
WARRANTIES ON THE DISKETTES AND ARE IN LEIU OF ALL OF
WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, SUCH AS WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
What is New in SW 3.3/3.4
Window Manager.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 0-1 ASL Software Window Manager
Beginning with SW 3.4, all main features of the host PC
software are organized under a unified interface based
on tabs called the Window Manager. Individual windows
can be "un-tabbed" by a simple drag operation.
Figure 0-2 Patient Model Summary View
Patient Model Summary View
Beginning with SW 3.3 a Patient Model Summary view is
now included that can be accessed directly from the
Central RunTime window as well as from the Interactive
Control Panel (and the RespiSim Instructor Dashboard)
to check the currently running patient parameters during
a simulation.
TCP Waveform Broadcast
Traces for the primary analog input and the value of O2
(vol%) have been added to the set of waveforms that can
be pulled from this network broadcast. In addition, there
is now the choice of raw or processed data (the latter
including parameters such as flow, as well as the volume
correction factors for different volume standards).
Additional Breath Parameters
A number of new parameters has been added to the brbfiles generated during a simulation. These are:
ftot (BPM)
PEEP_1 auto
Ext Insp Work
Ext Exp Work
Ext Exp Heat Production
Pbaro
Pmin PmusTP
PEEP_2 autoPEEP_1 tot
PEEP_2 tot
Ext Insp Elastic WorkExt Insp Res Work
Ext Exp Vent WorkExt Exp Res Work
Pmean InspPmean Exp
Ambient TempWall Temp
5
RespiSim-PVI
Software for the ASL 5000 is fully prepared for our
newest option, RespiSim-PVI (Patient Ventilator
Interaction). For more information on RespiSim-PVI,
please visit our website at:
http://ingmarmed.com/RespiSim.htm
or consult this manual’s chapter "RespiSim-PVI", page
87.
RespiSim includes a hardware interface to the most
commonly used ICU ventilators for capturing their data
for the purpose of a true 360-degree view of all
interactions between patient and ventilator. For a list of
compatible ventliator models, please see "RespiSim-PVI
Ventilator Compatibility and Communications Settings",
page 155.
A trial version that allows playback of a recorded
simulation session sample can be accessed via a tab on
the Window Manager.
To facilitate multi-stage simulation scenarios, an
Instructor Dashboard has been added in version 3.4, as
well as a Virtual Vital Signs Monitor to display patient
status to students. This display can also be made visible
on a remote iPad or other computer.
Figure 0-4 RespiSim Vital Signs Monitor
Optical Output for Ogygen Saturation
An interface to supply values of SpO2 to a Pronk
OxSim™ has been added to Software 3.4. This enables
RespiSim-PVI based simulations to realistically interface
with ventilators that take advantage of saturation
readings and/or heart rate for their advanced control
modes.
Figure 0-3 RespiSim Instructor Dashboard
Please contact sales at 412 441-8228 (extension 107) or
at [email protected] for pricing.
6
Test Automation Interface
The TAI enables users to integrate the ASL 5000
Breathing Simulator into their proprietary systems for
automated device testing. The TAI makes programmatic,
remote control of the ASL 5000 a reality. The TAI
specifications for programmers are available upon
request. A functional diagram for TAI can be found on
page 103.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 0-5 Oxygen Saturation Output
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
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7
Contents
Legal Information ....................3
Product Warranty ........................................ 3
Limitation of Liability ................................... 3
Patents ......................................................... 3
Trademarks .................................................. 3
Copyright..................................................... 3
Software License Agreements....................... 4
What is New in Software 3.3/3.4 ................. 5
1
Operator Safety.....................12
1.1
1.1.1
1.1.2
1.1.3
Definitions................................................. 12
Warnings and Caution Statements ............ 12
Nomenclature............................................ 12
Typing Conventions ................................... 12
1.2
1.2.1
1.2.2
Intended Use ............................................. 12
Intended Use of the RespiSim-PVI Option.. 12
Use of the Smart Pump™ Mode ................. 13
1.3
General Precautions
Pneumatic Connections ..............................22
3.3
Starting the ASL 5000 ................................24
4
Operation .............................25
4.0.1
4.0.2
4.0.3
4.0.4
4.0.5
License Keys ...............................................25
Screen Navigation ......................................25
Welcome Window and Window Manager .25
Project File Tool .........................................26
Full Choice Welcome Window. .................28
4.1
Modeling Using the Simulation
Editor Environment ....................................31
Working with the Simulation Script Editor ..31
Manipulating Scripts...................................32
Using Tokens..............................................32
Modeling Using a Scenario Script ...............34
Step-by-Step Script Generation
Without Using a Scenario Script .................34
Step 1. Select Simulation Parameter Set ......35
Lung Model Types ......................................36
Advanced Model Settings
- Compensations.........................................36
Advanced Model Settings
- Time Varying Parameters (TVP) ................37
Advanced Model Settings
- Parabolic/Linear Resistors .........................39
Advanced Model Settings- Independent
Inspiratory and Expiratory Resistor Settings .39
Advanced Model Settings
- Non-Linear Compliances..........................40
Step 3. Choose a Patient Effort Model .........41
Step 4. Save Simulation Parameter Set ........42
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.1.6
4.1.7
4.1.8
4.1.9
4.1.10
2
Introduction .........................14
4.1.11
2.1
Overview .................................................. 14
4.1.12
2.2
Available Options...................................... 14
2.3
System Features......................................... 15
2.4
Host Computer Requirements ................... 16
2.5
2.5.1
2.5.2
2.5.3
Simulator Software.................................... 17
Software Components ................................ 17
Software Structure...................................... 17
Remote Control of the Host Software ......... 17
3
Preparation ...........................18
3.2
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4
3.2.5
Connections .............................................. 20
Electrical Connections ............................... 20
Communication Setup via Ethernet ............ 20
Communication Setup via RS-232 ............. 21
Changing the Default Communications
Port............................................................ 21
Communication Setup for the
RespiSim-PVI Option ................................. 21
4.1.13
4.1.14
4.2
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
Running Simulations From the
Central Run Time Display ..........................43
Initializing the ASL 5000 Simulator.............44
Starting a Simulation...................................44
Pausing a Running Script ............................45
Display Options of the Central
Run Time Window .....................................45
Lung Fill Indicator Window ........................47
Auxiliary Parameter Displays ......................47
Modifying Waveform Displays ...................48
Stopping a Simulation.................................49
4.3
4.3.1
Using the Virtual Ventilator .......................50
Concept of the Virtual Ventilator ................50
4.4
Running Simulations Using the
Interactive Control Panel (ICP) ..................51
Lung Model Parameters Tab .......................53
Spontaneous Breathing Parameters Tab ......54
Closed Loop Vt Tab ....................................55
Closed Loop MV Tab ..................................56
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.4.1
4.4.2
4.4.3
4.4.4
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
.............................. 13
3.1
Software Installation on the
Host PC18
3.1.1 RespiSim-PVI ............................................. 18
8
3.2.6
4.4.5
4.4.6
4.4.7
Trends Tab .................................................57
Closed Loop "CO2Y" Tab ...........................58
Patient Library Tab [New Feature] .............59
4.5
Breath Detection / Real-Time Analysis
Window .....................................................60
4.6
TCP Broadcast Configuration .....................61
4.7
Report Generation .....................................62
4.8
Working With the Analog Inputs ...............63
4.9
Working With the Digital Output ..............64
4.10
Exiting the ASL Software ............................64
5
Data Analysis ........................66
5.1
Post-Run Analysis Main Menu ...................67
5.2
Process Data (Blue Button) ........................69
5.3
Display Data Selections
(Green Buttons) .........................................71
Advanced Graph Analysis Tools:
The Graph and Cursor Palettes ...................71
Breath by Breath Display ............................74
Multi-Parameter Graph ...............................75
Loop Display ..............................................77
Continuous Time-Based Data ....................78
Trend Graph Display ..................................80
5.3.1
5.3.2
5.3.3
5.3.4
5.3.5
5.3.6
5.4
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
5.4.1
5.4.2
5.4.3
Display Performance Analysis Selections
(Yellow Buttons) ........................................82
WOB Analysis Display ..............................82
Trigger Analysis Display .............................83
Servo Control Performance Display ............85
6
RespiSim-PVI ........................87
6.1
6.1.1
6.1.2
6.1.3
6.1.4
6.1.5
RespiSim Main Screen................................87
RespiSim Interface Overview ......................87
Event Graph ...............................................88
Real Time Graphics. ...................................89
Numeric Parameters ...................................90
RespiSim-PVI Interface
Modes of Operation ...................................90
Role of Training Modules Within the
RespiSim Simulation Environment ..............91
6.1.6
6.2
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3
6.2.4
Use of RespiSim-PVI with Dedicated
Educational Modules..................................92
Philosophy of Instructor-Driven
Multi-stage Clinical Simulations .................92
Role of the Instructor ..................................92
Instructor and Student Aids.........................92
Running Simulations from
RespiSim Modules ......................................93
6.2.5
6.2.6
6.2.7
6.2.8
Initial Scenario Setting ................................94
OxSim Pulse Oximeter Simulator................95
Change Event Tabs .....................................96
Virtual Vital Signs Monitor..........................97
6.3
RespiSim Preferences .................................99
6.4
6.4.1
6.4.2
Marking of Events.....................................101
Alarm Events.............................................101
Simulation Event Markers .........................101
6.5
Authoring Training Modules.....................102
7
Test Automation Interface ....103
7.1
TAI Overview...........................................103
8
Using ASL Utilities ...............104
8.1
Using the File Translation Utility..............104
8.2
Using the Pressure Profile
Resampling Utility....................................105
8.3
Using the Patient Flow Data Processor ....106
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.4.3
8.4.4
Using the Extended Input Provider (EIP)
Interfacing Examples ................................107
Using EIP Example 1.................................107
Using EIP Example 2.................................107
Using EIP Example 3.................................108
Using EIP Example 4 (Remote Control) .....108
9
TCP/IP Data Broadcast ........109
9.1
Breath Parameter Broadcast.....................109
9.2
Waveform Broadcast................................109
10
Options ..............................110
10.1
Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve
Module (SBLVM) ......................................110
10.2
Using the Cylinder Temperature
Controller (CTC) ......................................112
10.3
Using the Fast Oxygen
Measurement Option (FOM)....................112
10.4
Using the Auxiliary Gas Exchange
Cylinder (AGEC).......................................113
10.5
Chest Rise Module....................................113
10.6
10.6.1
10.6.2
10.6.3
10.6.4
Preemie Lung Cylinder Kit........................114
Intended Use ............................................114
Assembly ..................................................114
Software Adjustments ...............................114
Firmware Adjustments ..............................115
9
10.6.5 Operation with Attached
Preemie Cylinder ..................................... 115
10.6.6 Unmounting the Preemie Cylinder........... 115
Mobile Cart Option ................................. 116
11
Troubleshooting ..................117
11.1
Common Errors ....................................... 117
12
Maintenance........................118
12.1
Instrument Identification......................... 118
12.2
Service and Calibration Intervals ............ 118
12.3
12.3.1
12.3.2
12.3.3
32-Bit Firmware Upgrade Procedure ...... 119
Background ............................................. 119
Firmware Upgrade Preparation ................ 119
Preparation for 32-bit Firmware ............... 119
12.4
Standard Upgrade of Firmware ............... 121
12.5
Schematic Overview ............................... 123
13
Theory of Operation ............124
13.1
13.1.1
13.1.2
13.1.3
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics ... 124
Normal Lungs .......................................... 124
Abnormal Lungs ...................................... 130
Energetics ................................................ 132
13.2
13.2.1
13.2.2
13.2.3
Introduction to Modeling ........................ 134
Model Background .................................. 134
Limitations of the Model .......................... 134
Realization of the Model.......................... 134
13.3
13.3.1
13.3.2
13.3.3
Ventilatory Model Types ......................... 135
Single-compartment Model...................... 135
Dual-compartment Model ....................... 135
Model Enhancements .............................. 135
13.4
13.4.1
13.4.2
13.4.3
13.4.4
13.4.5
13.4.6
13.4.7
Patient Effort Model ................................ 136
Passive Model.......................................... 136
Flow Trigger ............................................ 137
Sinusoidal Breath Profile .......................... 137
Trapezoidal Breath Profile ....................... 138
Patient Backing Off .................................. 138
User-defined Breath Profile ...................... 139
External Analog Input ............................. 141
13.5
SmartPump™ Mode ................................ 141
14
Parameter Definitions ..........142
14.1
Time Stamps and Parameters .................. 142
14.2
Parameters in the
*.brb-(Breath Parameter) File .................. 143
Data File Parameters ................................151
15
Support Resources ..............152
16
Technical Data ....................153
16.1
Performance Specifications......................153
16.2
Electrical Specifications ...........................156
16.3
Physical Specifications .............................156
16.4
Software Specifications ............................156
16.5
Environmental Specifications ...................156
Index ..................................158
List of Figures .....................161
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
10
10.7
14.3
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
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11
Operator Safety
Definitions
Intended Use
1
Operator Safety
For correct and effective use of the product it is
mandatory to read and to observe all instructions,
WARNINGS, and CAUTION statements in this manual.
If the product is not used as instructed, the safety
protection provided may be impaired.
1.1
Definitions
Items from the drop-down menus of the host software
are indicated by use of a bold font, e.g.:
Open Script
Software windows (or tabs) in the user interface are
designated in italics and bold font, e.g.:
Breath Detection/RT-Analysis
Since tabs on the main Window Manager screen can be
"torn off" and turned into separate windows, the terms
window and tab are used interchangeably at times in
this manual.
1.1.1 Warnings and Caution Statements
WARNING !
Indicates a potentially harmful condition that can
lead to personal injury.
CAUTION !
Indicates a condition that may lead to equipment
damage or malfunction
NOTE: Indicates points of particular interest or
emphasis for more efficient or convenient operation.
1.1.2 Nomenclature
Definitions of breath parameters as they are calculated in
the ASL 5000 Analysis Software can be found under
"Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File", page
143.
1.1.3 Typing Conventions
For easy recognition within a sentence, file names are
typed in italic font, e.g.:
...\ASL5000\vars\example.sct
Buttons (keys) and controls in the software user interface
are designated with <...>, e.g. :
<EXIT>
Drop-down menus are shown as
<File>
12
Intended Use
The IngMar Medical ASL 5000 is a breathing simulator
for ventilator demonstrations and evaluations,
inservices, and respiratory staff training. It enhances the
educational value of patient parameter modeling by
employing computer graphics to visualize patient
ventilator interaction similar to today's advanced
intensive care ventilators.
With appropriate software (test scripts), the ASL 5000
may be used for ventilator performance verification (see
also "Test Automation Interface", page 103). When using
the device for this purpose, one has to bear in mind,
however, that the design of modern ventilators is
complex and these devices incorporate a great variety of
features and performance parameters.
It is therefore mandatory to always follow ventilator
manufacturers' instructions and recommendations
regarding performance verification procedures.
IngMar Medical, Ltd. does not recommend any specific
ventilator test or calibration procedures and no portion
of these instructions shall be construed as doing so.
The purpose of the breathing simulator within the
context of ventilator performance verification is solely to
assist in implementing test procedures mandated or
recommended by the ventilator manufacturer.
WARNING !
Do not use the ASL 5000 as a ventilator. The capability
of moving tidal volumes of gas that is implemented
in the ASL 5000 is not intended to be used for any kind
of treatment of humans or animals.
1.2.1 Intended Use of the RespiSim-PVI Option
RespiSim-PVI is intended to create a fully integrated
respiratory simulation experience for training students in
the subjects of mechanical ventilation and ventilator
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Throughout this manual and in the software, the word
"patient" is used occasionally to describe a simulated
patient as defined by the lung model settings. This will
correspond to the use of "patient" in ventilatory patient
monitoring in that the lung model is a representation of a
patient receiving ventilatory assistance.
1.2
Operator Safety
General Precautions
management. It gives the educator the ability to capture
data from a real ventilator as well as from the ASL 5000
Breathing Simulator and to mark and annotate events as
well as display patient vital signs on a separate monitor.
Replay of simulation recordings assists in debriefing
sessions or can be used for classroom instruction.
As part of IngMar Medical’s FiRST system(Fully
integrated Respiratory Simulation Technology),
RespiSim-PVI is intended to bring the advantages of
medical simulation (accelerated, immersive learning,
training with “permission to fail” ) to respiratory care
education. Preconfigured Training Modules form an
integral part of this new method of instruction.
1.3
CAUTION !
Electrical Supply: Connect instrument only to a
properly grounded wall outlet providing
100 - 240 V AC, 50 - 60 Hz.
WARNING !
Electric Shock Hazard:
Always disconnect from line power
before opening ASL 5000.
WARNING !
- NOT FOR USE ON A PATIENT The ventilator data acquisition and storage system of
RespiSim-PVI is not intended to monitor, chart, or
store data coming from actual patients or for the
purpose of assisting in clinical decisions regarding
actual patient
WARNING !
Electromagnetic Interference: Do NOT use the ASL
5000 in patient rooms or other areas where life
supporting equipment is in use.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
1.2.2 Use of the Smart Pump™ Mode
In addition to the applications of the ASL 5000 as a
breathing simulator (using R, C, patient effort), it may
also be used as a flow or volume waveform generator,
assisting, e.g., in tests peformed in the development of
devices for the delivery of pharmaceutical aerosols.
CAUTION !
Do not allow aerosols to contaminate the cylinder of
the ASL 5000. Equipment malfunction may result. For
applications requiring the "inhalation" of substances,
always use accessory 31 00 600, the "Auxiliary Gas
Exchange Cylinder (AGEC)".
WARNING !
Explosion Hazard: Do NOT use the ASL 5000 in the
presence of flammable anesthetics. Use of this
instrument in such an environment may present an
explosion hazard.
General Precautions
CAUTION !
Do not operate ASL 5000 when it is wet due to spills or
condensation.
Never sterilize or immerse the device in liquids.
CAUTION !
Always use dry air or oxygen with the ASL 5000.
"Rainout" inside the cylinder may impair its function
and may eventually damage the simulator. Please
contact IngMar Medical for the necessary procedures if
operation with humidified gas is intended (requires
heater - CTC option or filter).
CAUTION !
Do not operate the ASL 5000 if it appears to have been
dropped or damaged.
WARNING !
Fire Hazards related to the use of oxygen:
When using the ASL 5000 with elevated concentrations of oxygen (ventilators set to FiO2 > 21%),
observe all precautions applicable to the use of oxygen
indoors.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Always use extreme caution when using oxygen!
Oxygen intensely supports any burning!
No smoking, no open fire in areas where oxygen is
in use!
Always provide adequate ventilation in order to
maintain ambient O2 concentrations < 24 %.
Always secure O2 cylinders against tipping,
do not expose to extreme heat.
Do not use oil or grease on O2 equipment such as
tank valves or pressure regulators.
Do not touch with oily hands. Risk of fire!
Open and close valves slowly, with smooth turns.
Do not use any tools.
13
Introduction
Overview
Available Options
2
Please note that there are no actual springs or orifices in
the system. The simulation is performed very accurately
by executing the necessary calculations at a high rate
(>2000 Hz) and by moving the piston accordingly to
generate the appropriate, even non-linear, response.
Introduction
2.1
Overview
The IngMar Medical ASL 5000 (Active Servo Lung)
represents a revolutionary concept in lung simulation.
Whereas traditional lung simulators have been either
passive or required an external device to provide
spontaneous breathing, this feature is an integral part of
the ASL 5000.
The device is based on a piston moving inside a cylinder
that is computer-controlled to accomplish motion.
The movement of the piston is governed by the basic
equations for gas exchange in a ventilated or
spontaneously breathing patient.
Embedded
Controller
Position Signal
Pressure Signal
Host Computer
DirectDrive
Motor
Figure 2-1 Functional Overview
Resistance is defined by dP = R • dV/dt, so the piston is
moved at a speed of dV/dt = dP/R. Different values for
resistance can be selected for flows in the direction of
inspiration and expiration. Resistor settings for the value
of Rt (resistance of the trachea, or single resistor in the
system, respectively) can additionally be chosen as
linear or parabolic. Parabolic resistors have been the
choice for most physical resistors due to the fact that
implementations of linear resistors require flow to be
laminar over the whole range of flows in use. The
simulator avoids those difficulties and provides you with
a response representing both types, labeled "mixed".
For more details, see
"Advanced Model Settings - Parabolic/ Linear Resistors",
page 39.
14
The simulator is housed in a desktop enclosure, similar
to that of a "tower"-style personal computer. Its functions
are controlled via a host PC that is connected to the
simulator by a Local Area Network (LAN) physically
removed from the host PC, which can also be wirelessly
connected to the LAN (WLAN). This system design
allows users to take advantage of the relatively
inexpensive hardware available today in notebook
computers, with attractive color displays and intuitive
operating systems (included with the system).
Alternatively, the simulator may be operated via a male/
female DB9 RS-232 cable (and a RS-232-to-USB
converter where needed).
2.2
Available Options
Options that can be added to the base system include:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module (SBLVM)
Fast Oxygen Measurement (FOM)
Cylinder Temperature Controller (CTC)
Auxiliary Gas Exchange Cylinder (AGEC)
RespiSim-PVI (Patient-Ventilator Interaction)
Optical Oxygen Saturation Simulator (O2S2)
Please refer to "Technical Data", page 153, for ordering
information and specifications of the options.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Compliance is simulated by moving the piston according
to dV = dP • C. The relationship between pressure and
volume can be made non-linear for the purpose of better
approximation of the model to the S-shaped p/V
response curve encountered in a real patient.
Figure 2-2 ASL 5000 with SBLVM and PC
Introduction
System Features
The Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module is an
externally connected system component. It serves two
functions. For one, it allows ventilation of a simple test
lung (IngMar Medical QuickLung, for example) or
breathing bag while no simulation is running on the
simulator. In this way, nuisance alarms from connected
ventilators are avoided. In addition, the SBLVM also
provides a (manual) setting of system leaks at three
levels.
Fast Oxygen Measurement is based on a paramagnetic
oxygen sensor capable of breath-by-breath oxygen
analysis. It is completely integrated into the simulator
and the data is fully shared with the analysis software.
The Cylinder Temperature Controller allows
temperature of the simulator cylinder walls to be
controlled for calibration-type measurements. The
controller operates independently from the host software
on the PC, but data on cylinder wall temperature is fully
shared with the analysis software.
The Auxiliary Gas Exchange Cylinder is a bag-in-botttle
external accessory and allows the use of the simulator
with aggressive aerosols or anesthetic agents as well as
humidifed gas.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Via the new Virtual Ventilator™ feature, the software
can be used to demonstrate and evaluate the interaction
between a ventilator and a patient without involving
hardware (either ASL 5000 or actual ventilator). In this
fashion, online training can be performed with students
primarily for the benefit of understanding basic concepts
of ventilation before they are exposed to a clinical
scenario in a realistic scenario setting.
RespiSim-PVI (new feature as of SW 3.3) creates a fully
integrated respiratory simulation experience for training
students in the subjects of mechanical ventilation and
ventilator management.
It gives the educator the ability...
— to control a structured, multi-phase simulation
scenario from a dedicated Instructor Dashboard.
— to capture data from a real ventilator1 as well as from
the ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator
— to mark and annotate events, and
— to replay the compiled recording during debriefing
sessions or for classroom instruction.
1
IngMar Medical has partnered with Bridgetech Medical, a
specialist in electronic charting systems for respiratory care environments, to integrate data from a wide range of ventilator manufacturers. For more information on Bridgetech Medical solutions
for electronic charting, please visit www.bridgetechmedical.com.
As part of IngMar Medical’s FiRST system, RespiSim-PVI
is intended to bring the advantages of medical
simulation (accelerated, immersive learning, training
with “permission to fail” ) to respiratory care education.
Preconfigured Training Modules form an integral part of
this new method of instruction. Please see the dedicated
section "RespiSim-PVI" in this manual for more details.
Oxygen Saturation (SpO2) Simulation generates optical
signals corresponding to the level of oxygen saturation in
the patient model to be fed into an SpO2 monitor or
ventilator. The third-party device (OxSim) used for this
purpose is connected via RS232/USB directly to the host
PC.
2.3
System Features
The ASL 5000 features control of the following
parameters:
— Compliance (linear, non-linear)
— Resistance (linear, parabolic, mixed, inspiratory and
expiratory)
— Muscle pressure (for defining spontaneous breaths)
as:
—pressure trigger (rectangular pressure waveform)
—flow trigger (rectangular flow waveform)
—sinusoidal breath waveform (with individually adjustable rise, hold, and fall, as well as expiratory effort). Hering-Breuer Effect of breath suppression
selectable.
—trapezoidal waveform (with individually adjustable
rise, hold, and fall, as well as expiratory effort).
Hering-Breuer Effect of breath suppression selectable.
—externally defined waveform, e.g. using tracings of a
patient’s esophageal pressure or patient flow, (when
using the ASL 5000 as a flow waveform generator,
see below).
In the alternative SmartPump™ mode of operation, the
simulator operates as a flow pattern generator, with the
pressure feedback control switched off (but not the
measurement). Sinusoidal, trapezoidal, and user-defined
flow waveforms are possible (see above).
Parameter sets for simulations are defined using a
convenient graphical user interface and may be
sequenced together as a script of consecutive models to
be run for a predefined number of breaths, chosen at will
within the context of patient and disease state scenarios,
or modified by a user in real time (interactive control).
Simulation runs performed using these parameter sets
initially generate binary data files. These can be
analyzed in real-time, generating 80-plus breath
15
Introduction
Host Computer Requirements
parameters that may be displayed during the simulation
(see "Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File",
page 143). Alternatively, the raw data collected may be
(re)analyzed off-line using the ASL 5000 Post-Run
Analysis software component described in more detail in
the chapter "Data Analysis", page 66, of this manual.
Using a binary/ASCII file translation routine (included),
the files can also be viewed with a general spreadsheet
application. Raw data files contain a data stream of up to
512 data points per second (may be scaled down) for
pressure and piston position (volume, flow), as well as
parameters calculated from the model in use.
Lower frequency data on oxygen concentration (if option
is installed), barometric pressure, gas and wall
temperature will also be saved to the captured breath
parameter file.
Gas Temperature Measurement is a standard feature
installed independent of the Cylinder Temperature
Controller (CTC). It provides a way for added accuracy in
gas volume calculations. Corrections for fluctuations in
gas temperature can thus be made automatically in the
data analysis package, as opposed to manually entering
gas temperature from an independently reading
instrument.
Automatic Barometric Correction employs a second
pressure transducer for the added convenience of having
barometric pressure entered automatically into the host
analysis software for volume corrections.
2.4
Host Computer Requirements
The controlling host PC should be at least a 1.5 GHz
dual-core or i3-class computer running Windows XP or
Windows 7, or Windows 8 operating system software
(both 32bit and 64bit versions are compatible). A higher
CPU performance is recommended when handling large
data sets (TDMS-files generated by RespiSim-PVI). Users
should also take into account concurrent applications
taking up some of the PC’s computing resources.
The recommended PC operating systems’ minimum
RAM requirements should be met or exceeded.
Increasing memory to a level beyond the recommended
minimum (to 4GB or 8GB) is typically an inexpensive
16
A color screen with at least XGA (1024 x 768) pixel
resolution is required for the host PC (higher screen
resolutions are recommended). Due to the amount of
information to be displayed on screen, a smaller screen
size would yield unacceptable results and is therefore
not supported.
Approximately 250 MB of free hard drive space is
required for installation of all software components.
Data file sets take up approximately 3.5 to 4 MB per
minute of simulation at highest resolution waveform
capture. TDM-files generated with the RespiSim-PVI
option use about 15 MB per minute.
As with most software applications, a disk that has
ample space for recording files will improve application
speed and avoid delays that might not be acceptable for
real-time calculations by the software.
NOTE: LabVIEW allows you to not use the localized
operating system’s setting for decimal points, and to
override the PC’s settings, always using a decimal point.
This setting is used for our compiled host software.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Test Automation Interface (TAI).
For software 3.4, IngMar Medical has created an API
(application programming interface) that allows remote
control commands to be embedded in third party
software applications for testing and validation of
respiratory care devices. For specifications of this
interface, please contact IngMar Medical.
way to boost performance of a PC as it ensures avoiding
time-intensive disk operations which could lead to
unacceptable time delays in the real-time operations.
The host computer must either feature network
connectivity (i.e. an Ethernet network card) or a serial
port (default COM1). If the PC is not equipped with a
serial port, a USB-to-serial converter (included) may be
used. We recommend always using the included
adapter, since its performance has been verified. Not all
such adapters reliably support the high data throughput
required.
NOTE: Settings in the Project File need to be adjusted
from the host software when using a COM-port different
from COM1.
Introduction
Simulator Software
2.5
Simulator Software
2.5.1 Software Components
The complete software package (including optional
components) for the ASL 5000 host computer contains:
• System software (Windows DLL)
• Virtual instrumentation software (host software) for
controlling the simulation, defining its parameters, as
well as analyzing the results, comprising a main
screen with detachble tabs for:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
•
Central Run Time Controller (the simulation controller
interface), with Virtual Vantilator capabilities
(if licensed)
Simulation Editor (including the Script Editor and nonlinear C editor as well as editors for time-varying
parameters)
Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
Real-Time Breath Analysis Interface
Post-Run Data Analysis Interface
Utilities Selector for the following components:
—Data File Translation utility
—Pressure Profile Resampling utility
—Patient Flow Data Processing utility
—XML Breath Parameter Client example
—XML Waveform Parameter Client example
—Examples for remote control
RespiSim-PVI main (debriefing) Panel
RespiSim-PVI Instructor Dashboard
(Embedded) service software and parameter files performing tests and verification procedures as well as
troubleshooting on the Embedded Controller PC according to the instructions in the Service Manual.
Software license keys (supplied separately), required
for accessing full functionality of the software beyond
demo mode.
NOTE: For firmware upgrades on the ASL 5000
Embedded Controller, please refer to the specific
instructions that are delivered with the upgrade and the
instructions in section "Preparation for 32-bit Firmware",
page 119. This will assure that the correct procedure is
followed for the different versions of firmware currently
installed in a unit.
essential data to the host running the Windows DLL, for
displaying parameters during simulation. Data is also
passed to the Real Time Analysis routines for storage and
breath parameter calculation.
An important task of the host software is to initialize the
simulator at the beginning of each simulation and to
synchronize the instrument and host PC properly before
each simulation run. The runtime software module also
checks the embedded controller’s resident firmware in
the instrument and alerts the user to update if a newer
version is found on the host.
NOTE: An update is not usually mandatory to run
newer host software as long as the installed firmware in
the simulator supports version 3.4 of the ASL host
software (choose "Ignore" when the update alert pops
up). Certain features for which firmware support from a
newer version would be required, might not work in this
case.
NOTE: Beginning with SW release 3.1, the system uses
32-bit firmware in the ASL simulator (firmware 4.6.xx or
higher) which requires a special preparation as part of
the upgrade process when applied to an older system
with 16-bit firmware. See "Preparation for 32-bit
Firmware", page 119
2.5.3 Remote Control of the Host Software
The Virtual Instrumentation Software is a stand-alone
LabVIEW™ application. For users who would like to use
the device under the control of other test
instrumentation software (LabVIEW-based or otherwise),
we include the Test Automation Interface API as part of
this package. It is automatically installed as a separate
executable in a folder \ASL Test Automation Interface
1.0 under the \Program Files (x86) directory. Please refer
to the command definitions in the TAI specifications or
contact IngMar Medical for details.
NOTE: Serial no’s up to and including 0799 cannot be
upgraded to the current firmware level and should first
receive a hardware upgrade to the most current CPU.
2.5.2 Software Structure
The system software running on the Embedded
Controller PC in the instrument is assigned the task of
calculating the model and giving the appropriate
commands for piston movement in real time at the
internal control frequency (2 kHz). It also sends the
17
Preparation
Software Installation on the Host PC
3
Preparation
3.1
Software Installation on the
Host PC
Installation is performed by simply running the installer
program setup.exe from your USB flash drive on which
the software was delivered or from the unzipped file that
was downloaded from the cloud. By default, your
applications will be created in a folder C:\Program
Files\ASL Software 3.4 in the Program Files subdirectory
on your C: drive (C:\Program Files (x86) in 64-bit Win7
or Win8).
NOTE: The default installation location has changed
from previous versions. Existing parameter files moved
from older installations require their (static) scripts to be
adjusted to reflect the correct subdirectories. They can
either be adjusted manually (using NotePad) or be
converted to use tokens. (See "Using Tokens", page 32)
NOTE: Throughout this manual, it is assumed that
installation has been to the default location. Wherever
file paths are indicated, your installation directory may
be substituted for the directory name \ASL Software 3.4.
Please read the Software License Agreement carefully.
Installation of the software indicates your acceptance of
the terms of the IngMar Medical and National
Instruments End User License Agreements (EULAs) as
displayed during the installation of the software.
After installation, please launch the software and check
that it has been installed properly.
NOTE: License keys can be purchased separately (for
the Virtual Ventilator option) or are part of the delivery
of the RespiSim-PVI option. When software is updated
through a new download, it is necessary to replace the
key after the installation is complete as the key will be
reset during a standard installation
From the Welcome-tab presented at startup you can make
the selection of how to connect to an ASL simulator,
either via Etehrnet (preferred method) or via RS-232
serial connection (see "Starting the ASL 5000", page 24).
NOTE: If you are upgrading from a 1.n.n-, 2.n.n or
3.0.n-version of the ASL 5000 software, you will need to
first upgrade the firmware on the embedded controller of
the simulator to a 32-bit version. Please follow the
instructions in section "Preparation for 32-bit Firmware",
page 119, in order to ensure a smooth upgrade process.
As long as the installed firmware in the simulator is a 32bit version (version 3.1 of the ASL host software or
higher), you may use it with the 3.4 release of the host
program to perform a direct upgrade of the firmware (no
32-bit prep necessary). For details, please consult the
documentation files that are part of the installation
package. (See also the NOTE on page 17).
3.1.1 RespiSim-PVI
This software for the ASL 5000 (SW 3.4) is fully
compatible with the RespiSim-PVI (Patient Ventilator
Interaction) option. For more information on RespiSimPVI, please visit our website at
http://ingmarmed.com/RespiSim.htm
A trial version that allows playback of a recorded
simulation session sample can be accessed via the
RespiSim tab or the Instructor Dashboard on the
WindowManager window. The operation of RespiSim is
detailed in a separate chapter in this manual ("RespiSimPVI", page 87).
Please contact sales at 1-800 583-9910 or 412 441-8228
([email protected]) for pricing, if you would like to
use RespiSim-PVI functionality.
18
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
NOTE: If you intend to launch the software from the
Windows Start Menu, you must first specify the directory
from which Windows is to start the program as the
installation directory (by default C:\Program Files\ASL
Software 3.4 or C:\Program Files (x86) in 64-bit Win7 or
Win8). To do this, right-click the shortcut that the
installation created in the program list under the program
group "IngMar Medical". Click on "Properties". On the
"Shortcut" tab, enter the file path C:\Program Files\ASL
Software 3.4 or C:\Program Files (x86) in 64-bit Win7or
Win8 (or the actual installation directory) for the "Start
in:" item.
The software, as installed, will run, without applying any
license keys, in a stand-alone Demo Mode, without the
ability to communicate with an ASL 5000 device or the
Virtual Ventilator option. These additional capabilities
are accessed by placing a license key into the main
installation folder.
Preparation
Software Installation on the Host PC
NOTE: If you purchased the PC together with the
RespiSim-PVI option for the ASL 5000, the installation of
the database for RespiSim has already been performed
and the system is ready to go.
If you need to perform an installation on a new PC or if
the option was purchased at a later time, set the
Bridgetech database up on the PC that is running the ASL
5000 host software from the USB storage device
supplied with the RespiSim.
NOTE: The installation of the RespiSim database
requires Windows XP or Windows 7 on the PC.
Launch the setup.exe file and follow the online
instructions as requested by the wizard.
The AutoScan application performs, as it’s name implies,
the frequent automatic scans of ventilator data that
populate the database for ventilator parameters to be
included into the simulation data sets. The Autoscan
application should be launched separately before the
RespiSim panel in the ASL host software is opened the
first time. It may also be launched manually at any time
for checking the proper data connection between a
ventilator and the Bridgetech database at any time (see
next page).The StudentScan application is a PC version
of the ventilator scanning application for “student” scans
that would be loaded onto a personal digital assistant
(PDA or tablet device with infrared capabilities) when
used in a real ICU environment. These scans of
ventilator data can also include annotations by the
caregiver that are required for proper charting of patient
status. The primary mode of use in the context of
simulation training is via a log-in to the PC from a
tablet-style mobile device. With the appropriate VNC
viewer application, the tablet can be enabled to enter
data into the window that it controls on the PC (the
StudentScan application window). For obvious reasons,
control from the remote device should be kept limited to
the StudentScan application window in applications
where student evaluation is the goal.
Figure 3-1 Bridgetech Installer
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
NOTE: The installation process for the Microsoft SQL
environment might take a few minutes. Do not interrupt
the process. At the end of a successful installation, you
will see the following screen:
Figure 3-1 Completed SQL Installation
With this installation, you now have two applications on
your desktop, and in the Start Menu, respectively. One is
called the Autoscan application, with its own distinct
icon
the other one the StudentScan application, with a
different icon.
19
Preparation
Connections
3.2
Connections
3.2.1 Electrical Connections
The ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator must be connected to
line power supplying 100 - 240 V AC, 50/60 Hz.
NOTE: The heater of the cylinder temperature controller
option (CTC) should be configured for either
100 - 120 V or 200 - 240 V range for best performance.
Please contact IngMar Medical if your ASL 5000 is
equipped with this option and you require a change to
its configuration.
CAUTION !
Electrical Supply: Connect instrument only to a
properly grounded wall outlet providing
100 - 240 V AC, 50 - 60 Hz.
WARNING !
Electric Shock Hazard: Always disconnect from line
power before opening ASL 5000.
Connect the SBLVM (Simulator Bypass and Leak
Module, available option) to the instrument by plugging
its 1/4" audio-style plug into the labeled receptacle at the
front of the instrument (see Figure 3-1).
CAUTION !
As of sw 2.2, one of the available methods for
connecting the ASL Breathing Simulator to the host PC is
via Ethernet networking. Advantages to this approach
include flexibility as to the relative locations of PC and
Breathing Simulator. It also provides the option to
connect the system wirelessly via a 802.11b/g/n WiFiequipped PC. The communication protocol is the
ubiquitous TCP/IP, and given a high-speed internet
connection, a PC connected via a VPN (virtual private
network) may even host an ASL 5000 from a remote
location.
The system is set up for DHCP server-issued IP
addresses. If you just want to connect the PC and
Breathing Simulator (creating an "ad-hoc" network) you
can use the included wireless router as a DHCP server to
assign IP addresses to both the PC and the ASL 5000.
If a fixed IP address is intended, this can be
accomplished as part of the firmware update (see
"Preparation for 32-bit Firmware" on page 119). Before
the update, make the desired change in the
WATTCP.CFG-file that is part of the upload package
(C:\program files\ASL Software
3.2\Firmwares\Current\lung.zip). A line such as:
my_ip = 192.168.168.47
should replace the default
my_ip = DHCP
(using "Notepad" on the host).
NOTE: The host PC and the ASL 5000 Breathing
Simulator must have compatible IP addresses in order to
establish a proper connection via UDP broadcast, the
method used by the ASL 5000. This means that the first
three sets of digits in the IP address have to match (both
devices on the same subnet). For a network where your
PC is typically assigned its address by a DHCP server,
verify that the range is compatible.
With more recent firmware versions (4.7.nn), it is now
possible to use fixed IP addresses beyond subnet
boundaries without the services of a UDP broadcast.
Accessing a device with a fixed IP address can be made
the default via the Project File Tool (see page 26).
For questions related to assigning IP addresses to
networked devices, please consult with your network
administrator.
Figure 3-1 SBLVM Connection
20
The physical Ethernet connectioncan be made using the
two networking patch cables provided (blue, no crossover). The notebook PC may alternatively be connected
to the router via WiFi.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Compatiblity of SBLVM
Please use only SBLVMs equipped with "Neutrik"-brand
shielded plugs on simulators which have their
respective receptable labeled:
"Use only with rev.1 SBLVM (Neutrik plug)".
Always fully insert plug. Do not leave plug in a
partially inserted position.
3.2.2 Communication Setup via Ethernet
Preparation
Connections
NOTE: The Breathing Simulator will always attempt to
synchronize with the method specified in your selection
in the Welcome screen or the last settings. Please make
sure that the connection you attempt to use is physically
available.
3.2.3 Communication Setup via RS-232
The RS-232 data connection between instrument and
host is via a male/female DB9 serial cable (extensionstyle). It must be connected to COM1 on the ASL 50001
and to COM1 on the host computer (default). If your PC
does not feature a serial COM-port, you may use the
included USB-Serial adapter. Please follow
manufacturer’s instructions regarding installation of
driver software when installing on a PC (the driver is preinstalled on the included laptop PC). It is important to
assign the correct COM-port (COM1) using the software
included with the adapter or the Windows Device
Manager. For changing the default COM-port used by
the ASL 5000 software , please see instructions below
("Changing the Default Communications Port"). Please
note that IngMar Medical, Ltd. cannot endorse other
than the included model of adapters for their feasibility
for the specific requirements of the real-time
communication of the ASL 5000 software. Please contact
IngMar Medical with questions you may have setting up
this type of serial communication.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
NOTE: You may replace the serial cable for the ASL
5000 with any commercially available, shielded RS-232
extension cable featuring male/female DB9 connectors
and no crossover lines.
3.2.4 Changing the Default Communications
Port
Depending on your PC hardware and other applications
installed on your PC, it might become necessary to
assign a different COM-port to connect the ASL 5000
when using communication via RS-232. In order to do
so, you simply need to make this change in the ASL
Project File Tool accessible from the Full Choice Welcome
window.
After saving your change on the PC, the host software
will store the assigned COM-port for communicating
with the ASL 5000 instrument. in the Project File.
NOTE: Please make sure that the communication port
selected actually exists on the PC, either as a standard
COM port or by assignment from the USB/RS-232
converter.
3.2.5 Communication Setup for the RespiSimPVI Option
RespiSim-PVI comprises a hardware component, the
RespiSim Wireless Adapter (“Bridge”), that connects
directly to a ventilator’s serial (RS-232) data port (please
see specifications for a list of compatible ventilators).
NOTE: Please note that some ventilators require more
than one connector from the kit.
There are two types of adapters, the original Bluetoothbased version (left) and the second generation WiFi
Bridge (right).
The COM-port labeled "Terminal"on the ASL 5000 is
used for connecting a PC for service and troubleshooting
purposes as a terminal (using, for example,
"Hyperterminal", which is part of MS Windows
Accessories under Windows XP or the freeware program
PuTTY). Using a terminal program allows a technician to
directly interface with the embedded PC in the ASL 5000
for troubleshooting or other service purposes.
Figure 3-2 RespiSim Wireless Adapters
Included in the kits are a few pieces of adhesive hookand-loop mounting strips for the purpose of
conveniently attaching the Bridge to any of the
ventilators.
An optional electronic charting device (handheld
device, Tablet PC with screen sharing software installed,
not included in the RespiSim package) may be used to
1
the connection labeled "Host"
21
Preparation
Connections
practice proper documentation of a respiratory patient’s
treatment. Please contact IngMar Medical for details if
this configuration is desired.
Plug in the 5V wall-mount power adapter to power the
Bridge.
After you have made the required pneumatic
connections, you can switch on the ASL 5000 instrument
and your connected ventilator (if applicable) should now
be ventilating the test lung if installed together with the
SBLVM module.
For adjusting the cylinder wall temperature (CTC,
available option), please refer to "Using the Cylinder
Temperature Controller (CTC)", page 112.
3.2.6 Pneumatic Connections
The system is designed to be connected with regular
patient circuits using 22mm ISO-fittings. The Simulator
Bypass and Leak Valve Module (SBLVM, available
option) connectors are female 15 mm ISO ports. The test
lung and the connecting circuit piece are attached to the
SBLVM with 22/15 mm adapters.
Please refer to the diagram below for the proper
connections.
NOTE: For the individual setup steps, you may also
refer to the QuickReference Startup Guide printed on the
next pages. A copy of this document is also located in
the \documentation\ subdirectory under the installation
folder on your PC.
Ventilator bypass connection
QuickLung or other testlung
SBLVM
Figure 3-3 Pneumatic Connections Overview
22
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Ventilator
Preparation
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Connections
Figure 3-4 Quick Reference Startup, Steps 1 and 2
23
Preparation
Starting the ASL 5000
3.3
Starting the ASL 5000
24
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 3-5 Quick Reference Startup, Steps 3 and 4
Operation
Starting the ASL 5000
4
Operation
Launching the software on your host PC after all
connections have been made and the simulator has been
turned on, will allow you to edit simulation models, to
run them, and to analyze the results.
4.0.3 Welcome Window and Window Manager
After launching the software, a software loading screen
is presented.
4.0.1 License Keys
Beginning with version 3.3, the operation of the ASL host
software is controlled by license keys that are coded into
the initialization file of the software, ASL5000_SW3.4.ini
(see also page 18). The default (demo) installation will
not have access to the Virtual Ventilator, or connect to
the ASL simulator. RespiSim-PVI is restricted to playback
of a demonstration data file, RespiSim_Demo.tdms,
located in .../RespiSim_Modules/RespiSim_Demo. To
gain access to additional features, a new file
ASL5000_SW3.4.ini is supplied as a license key and
should be copied into the main installation folder after
the original (demo) software installation.
NOTE: When an update is made available to your ASL
host software, it will be necessary to copy the existing
file ASL5000_SW3.4.ini with the licensing information
into your updated installation folder in order to have
again access to the full, licensed functionality of the
software. A new license key file will only be necessary
and supplied for upgrades to a newer version of the
software (3.5 or higher).
Figure 4-1 ASL Software Loading
When the software has been loaded, a Welcome
window will appear that allows you to quick-launch
with the last settings used (saved in a "Project File").
Alternatively, you can use a Full Choice Menu for more
options. Additionally, you may also launch the software
in Demo-Mode (PC only, no ASL hardware attached),
which will include the Virtual Ventilator feature if this
option is licensed for your installation.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
4.0.2 Screen Navigation
Navigation within the software has been completely
overhauled in version 3.4 of the ASL host software.
Individual panels are, by default, attached to the Window
Manager as tabs, but they can also be detached (dragged
off), for example when different panels need to be visible
simultaneously. This new structure gives the user
interface a cleaner look and enhances user interactions.
Figure 4-2 ASL Quick Launch Menu
25
Operation
Starting the ASL 5000
4.0.4 Project File Tool
A new feature in software 3.4 is the ability to store and
recall basic settings for your work environment in a
Project File. Clicking on the <Modify/Load ASL Project
File> key will open a window for loading and editing
project files.
From the Appearance/General Settings tab color choices
for graphs can be pre-set as well as descriptive notes
entered for the project file.
Figure 4-4 Project File Tool - Graph Colors
Output data settings will define the defaults for standard
report headers as well as the output data path.
The Connection Settings tab lets you default to either
Demo mode (stand-alone, no ASL hardware), Ethernet,
or a specific COM port (1...8) on your PC. When
Ethernet is selected, you can also force the software to
connect to a specific ASL simulator identified by its serial
number in the format "ASL_nnnn" where nnnn is the
four-digit serial number of the device. This is helpful
when working in environments where more than one
ASL are in use. In the Project File, this serial number is
stored for reference when starting the software later on.
NOTE: If your ASL 5000 is operated with a fixed IP
address (see page 20), identification via serial number
becomes unnecessary. Leaving the entries blank or
entering 0000 will cancel selective connecting by serial
number.
26
Figure 4-5 Project File Tool - Output Settings
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-3 Project File Tool - Device Identification
Operation
Starting the ASL 5000
Relative paths (or path segments) can be configured as
tokens from the Script Editor Preferences tab when you
invoke the Relative Paths Configuration Tool. For details
on this tool, please see "Using Tokens", page 32.
From the tab Default Analysis Parameters you can preselect the 8 parameters showing in the Breath
Detectioin/Real Time Analysis window as well as those
for the Post Run Trends.
Figure 4-6 Project File Tool - Relative Path Tokens
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Events as they are used in RespiSim-PVI (see also
"Marking of Events", page 101) can also be pre-labeled
directly from within the Project File Tool.
Figure 4-8 Project File Tool - Default Anal. Parameters
After making all edits for a desired project file, you can
save this file with the <Save As> key on the bottom of
the Project File Tool window..
Figure 4-9 Project File Tool - Saving Settings
NOTE: You will need to close the Project File Tool in
order to proceed with launching the ASL software.
Figure 4-7 Project File Tool - Event Labels
27
Operation
Starting the ASL 5000
,
4.0.5 Full Choice Welcome Window.
Figure 4-10 Quick Launch Menu Options
After making the selection, the Welcome window will
either disappear or you will see more options if <Full
Choice> had been selected
Figure 4-11 Full Choice Menu Connection Options
Here you can pick the method of connectivity as well as
opting for customization and other maintenance links.
28
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
When opting for launch of the ASL Host Software either
through Ethernet or RS-232 connectiviy or in demomode (see
), the Window Manager will present itself
with the tab for the Central Run Time window selected. If
your installation folder contains a file aslident.txt (and
you are using Ethernet connectivity), a reminder will
appear that you are attempting to connect to an ASL with
a specific serial no. only (see also "Project File Tool",
page 26). At that time, you can change the content of
aslident.txt to reflect the serial number of the simulator
you actually want to connect to (useful when more than
one ASL 5000 are on the network) or you can opt to
delete this filter and to connect simply to the first ASL
that is "seen" on the network. This feature allows to
specify a particular ASL to be paired with a host software
installation on a PC.
Operation
Starting the ASL 5000
.
Alternatively, opening the Script Editor tab allows to
select a script to run or to edit its model parameter files
from its Patient Model Editor tab (see "Working with the
Simulation Script Editor", page 31).
Figure 4-12 ASL Identification Edit
NOTE: It is not necessary to have the simulator turned
on before you launch the software. However, the
runtime module of the software will attempt to
synchronize with the instrument and show an error
message if synchronization was not possible within 10
seconds. You then have the opportunity to make the
necessary cable connections or switch the simulator on
before proceeding. If no communication is occurring
after this step has been taken, you may continue to reattempt connection or cancel the operation.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The status line on the Central Run Time window will tell
when the simulator has successfully synchronized with
the PC and a simulation may be started, executing the
current script (see "Running Simulations From the
Central Run Time Display" on page 43).
Figure 4-14 Script Editor Tab - Scenario Scripts
NOTE: You can always select the Script/Simulation Editor
or the Central Run Time window from the Windows
desktop task bar (usually kept at the bottom of the PC
screen) or from the Windows tab on the menu bar of any
of the ASL host software windows when they are
"floating".
The Interactive Control tab allows parameter changes of
a simulated patient "on the fly". Editing capabilities are
somewhat more limited than with the full Simulation
Editor, but you can also invoke autonomously adjusting
effort models (constant Vt or MV) from here. Interactive
control represents an overriding mode that can be used
during scripted simulation sessions as well as when
running RespiSim Training Modules.
Figure 4-13 Central Run Time Sync Message
Figure 4-15 Interactive Control Panel
29
Operation
Starting the ASL 5000
NOTE: The Interactive Control Panel is, by default, not
active and needs to be started first because it supersedes
script control or RespiSim-based control of a simulation.
The Post-Run Analysis tab gives access to all data analysis
functionalities that are built into the ASL software.
Details of the wide range of analysis modalities can be
found beginning page 67 in this manual.
Finally, the UtilitiesSelector tab gives access to a number
of auxiliary software features regarding data input and
output. For details on this topic, see "Using ASL
Utilities", page 104).
Figure 4-16 Start Interactive Control
The Breath Detection / RT Analysis tab is used to view the
breath parameters as they are entered into the data
stream and to verify proper breath detection. More
details are given under "Breath Detection / Real-Time
Analysis Window", page 60.
Figure 4-19 Utilities Selector Tab
Figure 4-17 Breath Detection/RT Analysis
Detailed coverage on this topic can be found beginning
page 67, "Post-Run Analysis Main Menu".
Figure 4-18 Post Run Analysis Tab
30
Figure 4-20 RespiSim Tab
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The RespiSim-PVI main interface panel is the last tab on
the right. Again, it is not active by default and needs to
be activated with the <Start RespiSim-PVI> key. Please
note that only playback of a demo recording is possible
without a proper license key. The RespiSim-PVI option is
covered in much detail starting on page 87.
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
4.1Modeling Using the Simulation
Editor Environment
Full-featued modeling is performed from the Simulation
Script Editor tab on the Window Manager. The following
paragraphs explain how parameters are set and their
significance in the modeling process. For an introduction
into the background of the modeling process, please
refer to "Introduction to Modeling", page 134 as well as
"Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics", page 124.
NOTE: In addition, the Interactive Control Panel provides
an alternative method of "patient" parameter
manipulation in an interactive fashion (see "Running
Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)",
page 51).
When the software is first launched, the Simulation Script
Editor will appear as in Figure 4-14, with the Scenario
Scripts tab as the default selection. Choosing a specific
scenario will allow you to quickly pre-load scripts.
You may also open a stored script file by using the
<Open Script> selection from the <Script File> menu (see
Figure 4-22) and selecting a *.sct-file by browsing the
Open-File Dialog window.
NOTE: To familiarize yourself with the Simulation
Editor, you may want to open a ready-made script, such
as example.sct provided in the ...\ASL Software 3.2\vars\
subdirectory.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The different screens of the Simulation Editor and the
associated parameter editors (for non-linear compliance,
time-varying parameters, etc.) present a structured
environment for all parameter settings available for a
simulated patient. Parameter files as well as script files
may be called and saved from the Simulation Editor. The
steps necessary to generate a valid model are presented
as individual screens STEP 1 through STEP 4.
4.1.1 Working with the Simulation Script Editor
Figure 4-22 Script File Editor - ScriptFile Menu Items
The ASL 5000 Simulation Script Editor is based on the
paradigm of a script file that allows you to use a
sequence of parameter sets (referred to as segments) for a
complete simulation run. The Script Editor is also the
place where different simulation segments are assigned a
number of repetitions for which specific parameter files
are in effect.
Alternatively, a brand new script can be generated by
using New Script from the <Script File> menu on the
Script Editor window. The default parameter file
pause.vr3 will be inserted as a first script segment entry,
(assigned one repetition only).
Figure 4-23 Script File Editor - Manual Scripting
Figure 4-21 Script File Editor - Scenario Scripts
You may then edit this parameter file and store the
resulting vr3-file under a different name. The software
uses a color scheme for the script path name box in the
31
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
top of the Script Editor reminding the user of the saving
status of a script. It will be yellow when a new or
changed (and yet unsaved) script is shown. After a script
has been saved under its own file name, the box
background will be orange, whereas it will turn purple
when the script has been saved as just current.sct. When
a script has been saved both as current.sct and under its
own file name, the box background will appear green.
For a script to be active in a simulation, it must be saved
as ..\vars\current.sct, using the Save as current.sct menu
item from the <Script File> menu.
NOTE: Any changes made to the parameter file
currently in use during a simulation will go into effect
immediately upon saving the *.vr3-file, accomplishing a
quasi interactive operating mode of the simulator (in
addition to using the Interactive Control Panel).
NOTE: You cannot save a parameter file under the file
name current.vr3. This name is reserved for an internally
used version of the model parameter file when sending
parameters to the simulator.
Figure 4-25 Script File Editor - Editing Techniques
For this, you must first identify the script to paste from
via the blue <Select Script> key in the Script Merge
window.
NOTE: Non-contiguous selections will be dropped into
the script under construction as contiguous sequences.
4.1.3 Using Tokens
4.1.2 Manipulating Scripts
Whenever a script is opened, the Script Editor will
evaluate its content and verify that any parameter files
referenced actually exist. If that is not the case, those
segments of a script that cannot be found will be
highlighted in red (see also Figure 4-31). Segments in a
script can be highlighted, copied, and pasted by rightclicking and selecting from the pop-up menu or using
the <ParameterFile> menu.
A system of relative path designations is available based
on the use of tokens representing file path names (or file
path segments). This facilitates moving scripts to
different locations. Token operations are performed via
the keys on the left of the Script Editor window.
NOTE: Access to the Relative Path Configuration Tool is
also available from the Project File Tool (Script Editor
Preferences tab).
There are two additional script saving options on the
<ParameterFile> menu. Save Selected as NewScript allows
users to directly create a new script from a highlighted
selection and to give it a unique name. You may also
import highlighted segments from another script via
Merge Scripts with a simple "drag and drop"-operation.
32
Figure 4-26 Script File Editor - Tokens
A token is a "friendly name" given to a file path, in Figure
4-26, it is <ASLDefaultInstallDir>.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-24 Script File Editor - Script Errors
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
With the <Configure Token/Paths> key, you can assign
actual file paths (or file path segments) to tokens. The
other keys on the left of the Script Editor window are used
to switch between tokens and original file paths either
individually (for the highlighted script segment) or as a
whole.
Configuring tokens is easily done with the Relative Path
Configuration Tool that opens after clicking the
<Configure Token/Paths> key.
Alternatively, you can also write directly into the
"ActualPath" space, e.g. when a folder to be assigned a
token has not yet been created (you would not be able to
browse to it).
NOTE: The tokens <ASLVarsDirectory> and
<ASLDefaultInstallDir> are protected and cannot be
edited.
Figure 4-29 New Token Definitions
Figure 4-27 Tokens - Relative Path Configuration Tool
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Clicking <New> will let you select a folder location that
you may want to give a friendly name to.
From the Add/Edit Relative Path window you can browse
to an existing folder that you wish to select. The path is
entered into the "Actual Path" space and you can then
name the token for this path.
After your configurations are complete, click on the
<Done> key to return to the main Simulation Script
Editor.
Using the <Exchange with Configured Token> key now
allows to switch between tokens, for example to
accommodate a new file location for parameter files.
Figure 4-30 Tokens - Exchange with Configured Token
Figure 4-28 Tokens - Relative Path Editing
33
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
If a token is used that does not refer to an existing file
path, the script segment will be highlighted in red.
WARNING !
Due to the wide variety of clinical conditions
associated with different lung diseases, it is not always
possible for specific patient parameter settings to be
representative of such disease states. Scenarios in the
ASL 5000 software are therefore intended as
suggestions only. The user is advised to apply his or
her own clinical expertise to use and edit the scenario
scripts.
Figure 4-31 Token Configuration Errors
In this case, you can still double-click on the script
segment and then navigate to an actually existing
parameter file.
Generally, scripts can be generated in one of two ways.
After you have finished making your selections, click
"Choose". This will open a window that says: Replace
existing: "C:\\Program Files\ASL Software 3.4\vars\
current.sct?" To choose the selected script for immediate
execution with the simulator, click "Replace". This will
also open the Manual Scripting tab on the Simulation
Script Editor and allow you to further add details to the
script, using the methods described below.
4.1.4 Modeling Using a Scenario Script
4.1.5 Step-by-Step Script Generation Without
Using a Scenario Script
The first method is to select the preferred patient
parameters by making a choice from the list, specifying
different patient types and disease states in the "Scenario
Scripts" tab of the Simulation Script Editor.
For the alternate method of selecting different simulation
parameter sets and to assemble a script sequence, use
the "Manual Scripting" tab directly, following the
procedure described below.
There are three patient types (neonatal, pediatric, and
adult) and four patient conditions to choose from. The
patients can be:
— normal (no disease state)
— apneic (infrequent)
— apneic (frequent)
— asthmatic (severe)
— COPD/obstructive
34
Figure 4-33 Script Editor - Manual Scripting
Double-click the highlighted script line in the Manual
Scripting tab to edit the model. This will open the
window in Figure 4-34.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-32 Script Editor - Scenario Scripts
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
4.1.6 Step 1. Select Simulation Parameter Set
Here you can
—browse for a different parameter file (*.vr3-file),
—change the number of repetitions that a particular
parameter set will run, or
—enter the simulation editor to modify the selected
*.vr3-file by clicking <Edit>.
In the simulation editor, several advanced model settings
can be selected for the lung models. They are:
—compensations (see page 36)
—time varying parameters (see page 37)
—parabolic/linear/mixed resistors (see page 39)
—independent inspiratory and expiratory resistor settings (see page 39)
—non-linear compliance (see page 40)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-34 Select Simulation Parameter Set
In addition, you can also select the waveform sampling
rate, which is set to its highest value, 512Hz, by default.
NOTE: Please note that the advanced model settings, of
course, do not apply to waveform generation in the form
of SmartPumpTM models
Figure 4-35 Simulation Parameters - Lung Model
35
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
4.1.7 Lung Model Types
The simplest, single compartment model requires just 3
parameters.
—The value for "URC"
(URC = Uncompensated Residual Capacity, i.e. the
baseline volume used as measured from the simulator piston home position, not counting the safety
zone in the very front of the cylinder), if the independent expiratory resistance switch in the lower
half of the screeen has been activated).
—One value for Resistance (with the additional
choice of a second, independent value Rout. (for independent setting of resistance during expiration).
—The value for Compliance, which represents a compound patient compliance combining chestwall
and lung compliance.
Alternatively, the basic two compartment model
consisting of 6 parameters, may be used, setting:
For additional information on the single and dual
compartment lung model, please refer to "Introduction
to Modeling", page 134.
The alternative to setting a "lung model", i.e., flow or
volume waveform generation in SmartPump™ mode, is
described in a separate chapter of this manual. (See page
141).
Parameter values are directly entered into their
respective control fields or may be increased or
decreased by using the scroll controls next to the
number entries
.
4.1.8 Advanced Model Settings Compensations
Compensations for parasitary volumes (i.e. compliances)
and resistances may be selected for lung models (single
or dual compartments) and are disabled when using
SmartPump™ mode.
1. The value for "URC"
2. The value for tracheal resistor Rt (which can either
be linear, parabolic, or mixed, depending on the
respective switch setting in the lower half of the
screen),
3. The values for R1 and R2, the respective bronchial
resistors leading to compartments 1 and 2 (with the
additional, independent values Rout, R1out and
R2out (for independent setting of resistance during
expiration) if the switch in the lower half of the
screen has been activated)
It should be noted that the value of the simulator "URC"
does not need to correspond to a patient’s true FRC
(Functional Residual Capacity) for the typical simulations
performed. The calculations for model response do not
depend on the value of FRC and, therefore, a value for
URC may be chosen that is practical for purposes other
than those of matching real FRCs. For example, a
sufficient baseline volume allows the simulator to follow
excursions required by negative pressures applied to the
port (forced exhalation) without running into the forward
piston position limits imposed. Also, stability of the
system in the range of low R-values might be enhanced
with a larger value of URC. On the other hand, URCs
should be chosen that still allow for the expected tidal
volumes within the capacity limit of the simulator
(Vt+URC+0.2L < 2.8L required1).
1
36
0.2 L is the value of the home position volume that is always maintained as a safety zone against any piston overruns at the forward
position. This value is 0.025 L when using the Preemie Cyllinder
Add-On option.
Figure 4-36 Lung Model Settings - Compensations
The purpose of entering values into the compensations
fields is to allow the Simulation Editor to consider the
effect of parasitary volumes (volume of the URC and the
tubing system) and resistances (the resistance of the
connector port and other connected accessories) that
would otherwise render the response of the overall
simulator system slightly different from the behavior
expected from the selected parameters. The simulation
editor will enter values into the *.vr3-file that are
correcting for these effects so that, looking at the system
from the outside, it accurately shows the behavior
associated with the set model parameters.
When using the SmartPump™ mode, compensations are
always set to 0; the same is true when using non-linear
compliance models.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
4. The values for C1 and C2, i.e. the respective (compound) compliances of compartments 1 and 2.
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
Please remember that compensations entered in the
Simulation Editor serve to better match the physical
simulator behavior with the theoretical model.
Compensation settings offered in both the RealTimeAnalysis or the Post-Run Analysis (see page 61), on the
other hand, are used to more accurately determine
volumes as they would be reported by a ventilator versus
"patient" volumes, taking into account tidal volume
"absorbed" in the patient circuit.
Double-clicking a parameter opens the Variable
Parameters Editor window. The concept is similar to the
Simulation Script Editor. Here you can shape a
parameter’s variation over time in individual segments
that will apply to a predefined number of breaths (see
Figure 4-38, page 37).
NOTE: For the purpose of calculating tidal volumes, the
gas compressed in the URC and "safety zone" are always
considered in the ASL analysis, and these values of Vt
are, therefore, not just a reflection of the piston
excursion.
4.1.9 Advanced Model Settings Time Varying Parameters (TVP)
For editing parameters
when time-varying
parameters (TVP) is
switched on, click on
the <Edit> button below
the switch (it will be
visible only when TVP
has been switched on).
Figure 4-38 Time Varying Parameters Editor
The Variable Parameters Editor graphs show the total
sequence of parameter segments with the currently
selected segment highlighted by bold dots (lighter dots
are used for all other segments in the sequence). The
segment entries show the number of repeats for each
segment as well as details of the parameter equation
defining the transient.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
This opens a dialog box
(Time Varying Parameter
Menu) from which to
choose parameters to
edit.
Editing individual segments of breath parameters is
initiated by double-clicking on the respective segment.
This will open the Parameter Curve Segment Editor.
Figure 4-37 TVP Menu
The concept of time-varying parameters means that
within each parameter segment in your script, certain
variables can be made to change gradually from breath
to breath, providing a much more realistic rendering of a
patient’s behavior over time.
Besides the (passive) lung model parameters R and C
(including the optional Rin<>Rout and non-linear C), the
parameters of the spontaneous breathing effort (i.e., the
muscle pressure profile), may also vary over time.
NOTE: Making the selection of "Time-Varying
Parameters" (TVP) requires that all applicable parameters
are now set via the Time-Varying Parameters Editor.
Parameters that are meant to remain static can easily be
made so by using appropriate selections.
Figure 4-39 TVP Curve Segment Editor
37
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
The curve types for defining
the time-varying
characteristics of a lung
model parameter can be
selected from the depicted
choices:
Figure 4-40 TVP Curve Types
Depending on the curve type selected, different
parameters needed to describe a transient lung model
are then presented for editing.
Exponential
Figure 4-43 TVP Curve Editing - Exponential
Sinusoidal
The following choices are possible:
Linear (defined by Slope or by Endpoint)
Figure 4-44 TVP Curve Editing - Sinusoidal
User-supplied Profile (from File)
Figure 4-45 TVP Curve Editing - From File
Power
NOTE: When sequencing parameter curve segments, it
is the user’s responsibility to match up parameter values
at intersections between segments, if smooth parameter
transitions are desired.
Uniform Random Distribution with Thresholds
Figure 4-42 TVP Curve Editing - Power
Figure 4-46 TVP Curve Editing - Uniform Distribution
38
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-41 TVP Curve Editing - Linear
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
Gaussian Distribution with Thresholds
4.1.10 Advanced Model Settings - Parabolic/
Linear Resistors
Parabolic resistor response according to the definitions
used in ASTM F1100 may be selected with this switch.
In the case of a two-compartment model, this choice
applies only to the "tracheal" resistor Rt. In the singlecompartment configuration, the switch setting
determines behavior of the single resistor R.
Figure 4-47 TVP Curve Editing - Gaussian Distribution
The number of repeats in a sequence of parameter
segments in the TVP-Editor does not necessarily have to
match the number of breaths assigned to the lung model
*.vr3-file segment in the Script Editor. In case of
diverging breath numbers, either the transient described
for the particular parameter in the Parameter Curve
Segment Editor will be curtailed or the parameter will be
continued with the last value of the transient curve
definition (if the number of repeats in the Script Editor is
higher than that for the curve segment)1.
The TVP environment also allows a simple method to
generate static model parameters. Choosing a number of
repeats of one and the appropriate start value for a
"Linear"-type segment in the Parameter Curve Segment
Editor will continue that value for any number of
repetitions.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Once you have defined the desired parameter curve
segment in the Parameter Curve Segment Editor, click
<OK>.
When you have completed setting the time varying
behavior for an individual parameter, click <OK> in the
TVP window, and move on to the next model parameter.
When finished editing the desired time-varying
parameters, click <Done> in the Time Varying Parameter
Menu dialog box. This will return you to the Lung Model
screen.
NOTE: Model parameters pertaining to the Patient Effort
Model (spontaneous beathing definitions) are set in the
same fashion in Step 3 of modeling process when TVP
has been chosen (see page 41).
NOTE: TVP patient parameter files cannot be used in
conjunction with the Interactive Control Panel (ICP). The
concepts of TVP and Interactive Control would create a
conflict.
1
Parabolic response is the
"natural" behavior of an
orifice resistor, with turbulent
flow. Linear response
assumes laminar flow which
means that flow through the
resistor increases relative to
the driving pressure in a
strictly proportional fashion.
Figure 4-48 R-Types
NOTE: There are two implementations of the parabolic
resistor response, a purely parabolic or the mixed case.
For the latter, resistance is calculated in such a way that
always the larger of the linear or parabolic resistance
values applies. For very low flows this means that the
linear value is used (which, in this case, has the higher
P/Flow ratio). This approach avoids the value for
Resistance being very close to 0 for small flows,
enhancing overall system stability.
4.1.11 Advanced Model Settings - Independent
Inspiratory and Expiratory Resistor
Settings
A second switch related to
resistor behavior allows the
selection of independent
values of resistance during
times of expiratory flow.
Figure 4-49 Independ. R
Choosing Rin<>Rout implies that all resistor values in the
model need to be defined both for inspiratory and
expiratory flow conditions. The respective parameter
controls will appear at the tops of the screen when the
switch is operated.
Please note that as of SW 3.2, any transients are defined relative to
the beginning of the segment. Previously, they were referrring to
the beginning of the whole script
39
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
You also have the option to check C1=C2, which will
turn the model you define in effect into a uniform model,
where compartments C1 and C2 represent half of the
overall compliance.
Figure 4-50 Independent R Settings Rin<>Rout
4.1.12 Advanced Model Settings - Non-Linear
Compliances
If a two compartment lung
model has been selected,
the non-linear compliance
switch becomes available.
(Otherwise, it is grayed out
and, therefore, inactive.)
Switching non-linear
compliance on will add an
<Edit C1> and <Edit C2>
button to the screen. The
original screen control(s) for
compliance are grayed out
and the settings made there
become invalidated.
NOTE: Internally, the ASL 5000 always operates a twocompartment model. So, even in the 1-compartment
case, you are manipulating two chambers (which, in this
case, are maintained identical). To help the user keeping
this in mind when shaping the pressure/volume
relationship, a second volume scale for the combined
compartments is shown on the right side of the NonLinear Compliance Editor graph whenever the C1=C2
option had been selected.
The compliance curve is modeled in three segments,
with a linear middle segment (for volumes between
"intercept 1" and "intercept 2") and lower and upper
portions of the curve, shaped by a polynomial.
Inflections points 1 and 2 are the equivalent of what is
commonly referred to as the lower and upper inflecion
point in P/V graphs.
In the red control lines, the links (indicated by dots in the
curve) may be "grabbed" with the cursor (click and hold)
and moved around. Similarly, the horizontal intercept
lines may be moved to increase or decrease the linear,
middle portion of the compliance response curve.
Clicking on the <Edit C1> or <Edit C2> button opens the
Non-Linear Compliance Editor window, where the shape of
the compliance response can be modeled by entering
numbers in fields or directly into the graph.
NOTE: It is important to ensure that the compliance
response created covers the whole range of pressures
expected to occur in a simulation run. Otherwise,
undefined behavior of the simulator may result.
The straight green line pointing to the middle of the
linear portion of the curve indicates the compliance
value that would be used if you switched back to linear
compliance from the current non-linear selections.
Figure 4-52 Non-Linear C Editing
40
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-51 Non-Linear C
In cases where it is difficult to discern the individual
curve segments (because the red control lines are at the
edge of the graph, for example), it is a good idea to start
editing by using the numerical parameter fields first, and
to begin moving the control lines directly from within
the graph only afterwards.
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
4.1.13 Step 3. Choose a Patient Effort Model
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The spontaneous breathing pattern of a model, including
the use of muscle pressure profiles from user-defined
files, is selected as Step 3 in the "Patient Effort Model"
window.
NOTE: Expiratory effort profiles in the sinusoidal and
trapezoidal waveforms are not available in the TVPmodels before software version 3.3.
Figure 4-53 Simulation Editor - Patient Effort Model
For a detailed description of the different pressure profile
configurations, including the use of profiles from userdefined files, see "Patient Effort Model", page 136. Please
note that only the sinusoidal and trapezoidal profiles and
user-defined profiles are accessible in the SmartPump™
mode (plus analog input of a profile). Parameters
defining spontaneous breaths such as the Pmax and
bpm-settings are all subject to the time varying
parameters choices made in Step 2.
If time varying parameters have been selected in Step 2,
the "Edit" button below the pressure profile graph will be
visible and the parameter selections to the right will be
grayed out. All selections will then have to be made via
the <Time Varying Parameters Menu> key from the Time
Varying Parameters Editor window. In this fashion, a
varying spontaneous breath rate may be set, or the depth
of the breath (Pmax) can be varied over time.
41
Operation
Modeling Using the Simulation Editor Environment
4.1.14 Step 4. Save Simulation Parameter Set
After all parameter selections have been made, you are
ready to save the parameter set for the current segment.
You may pick any name that is a valid Windows file
name. The use of the .vr3 file extension, which identifies
ASL patient parameter files, is automatically appended.
Figure 4-54 Simulation Editor - Saving a Parameter Set
After Saving the parameter set, you will be returned to
the Script Editor, from which you can edit other
segments or directly run your assembled script.
If you want to save a script for later use, you may use any
name and directory (<Save as ... from the <Script File>
drop-down menu). When it is time to use the script,
simply load it into the editor (see Step 1) and save again,
this time with the default name of current.sct into ...
\ASL Software 3.4\vars.
For moving script files to a different location in your PC’s
file structure, see also "Using Tokens", page 32, and
"Manipulating Scripts", page 32.
42
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
NOTE: If a script is intended to be used immediately for
a simulation run, it needs to be saved as current.sct in
the ...\ASL Software 3.4\vars subdirectory (Save as
current.sct from the <Script File> drop-down menu). The
simulator always looks for this file as the current
simulation script file and uses the parameter files
indicated there for its next simulation run.
Operation
Running Simulations From the Central Run Time Display
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
4.2
Running Simulations From the
Central Run Time Display
Figure 4-55, Waveform Window
When launching the ASL5000 application, the Central
Run Time tab is made active. It features a comprehensive
user interface to take control of your simulation runs,
specifically to:
—start and stop simulations,
—select display options, such as the FillBar
—select and view waveforms and loops,
—enable additional parameters,
—print reports, and
—launch the Interactive Control Panel
or RespiSim-PVI.
43
Operation
Running Simulations From the Central Run Time Display
4.2.1 Initializing the ASL 5000 Simulator
4.2.2 Starting a Simulation
Upon launching the host software and selecting "Use
Software with ASL" or "Use with Last Settings" from the
respective Welcome window, the host computer will
attempt to synchronize with the ASL 5000. The software
will initially keep sending its sync-message. If no ASL
5000 can be found on the specified communication port
(either COM-port or Ethernet port), a dialog box opens
indicating that no communication is possible with the
simulator. (See also "Changing the Default
Communications Port", page 21, for making a change to
the assigned COM port when operating a RS-232
connection). At this time, the user may still switch on or
re-start the simulator. It is recommended to wait until the
red light in the "Motor Enable/Disable" switch is off
before acknowledging the message by clicking OK. In
this fashion you will ensure that the simulator is properly
initialized first. If still no synchronization is achieved
after another 20 seconds, the user will first need to
remedy the situation (plug in the serial or Ethernet cable
into the correct port, etc.) and then click the <Retry>
button, in order to use the ASL 5000 Run Time
environment.
With the Central Run Time screen active,
operating the
<Simulation>
"slide switch" from
the OFF to the ON
position will start a
simulation.
NOTE: It is still possible to use the modeling
environment of the software even under these
circumstances and to cancel the connection attempt
without re-start of the software, if necessary.
After successful synchronization, default files are
transmitted and you will hear the simulator move the
piston to its home position.
"Ready. Use the Simulation switch to begin or the Exit
button to stop."
You are now ready to run a simulation.
This switch is also duplicated on the Interactive Control
Panel as well as on the RespiSim-PVI main panel and
Instructor Dashboard.
If the "ASL Central Runtime" screen is not the active
window (when "floating" windows), to access it you can
simply click on a visible part of the window itself or
select it from either the <Windows> drop-down menu or
from the Windows task bar.
The simulator will be now be loaded sequentially with
parameter sets stored in the segments of current.sct on a
breath-by-breath basis to perform the programmed
simulation script. The script is also evaluated, at this
time, again for errors (for example, script segments that
cannot be located on disk).
Before the simulation starts, the user has the choice of
naming a data file and path for storing breath parameters
(file *.brb) as well as, optionally, waveform data. No file
name extensions need to be used for the destination,
since these are assigned automatically, as yourname.rwb
for the raw data file, yourname.dtb for the processed
waveform data file and yourname.brb for the breath
parameter file (for data saving options, see chapter "Data
Analysis", page 66).
NOTE: The default root filename is data in the
...\ASLdata subdirectory. Files in this default location
will be overwritten by the next simulation unless you
save them under a different name. A personalized
default location for the data files can be assigned with
the Project File Tool (see page 26).
After closing the data file selection dialog, the first breath
profile is calculated and loaded, and the simulation will
begin.
At this time, the simulator bypass valve in the SBLVM (if
this option is connected) will audibly close and a
ventilator connected to the system will now be
ventilating the simulator instead of the auxiliary test lung
attached to the SBLVM.
44
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
At the completion of the initialization procedure, on the
Central Run Time screen status line, you will see the
message:
Figure 4-56 Simulation ON/OFF
Operation
Running Simulations From the Central Run Time Display
4.2.3 Pausing a Running Script
Besides intervention into a running script via the
Interactive Control Panel, it is also possible to simply
invoke a specific parameter set named pause.vr3 via the
PAUSE-switch on the Central Run Time Display.
To apply PAUSE,
— click the <PAUSE>
switch in the top
right of the Central
Run Time Display.
Figure 4-57 PAUSE Switch
The indicator will show "PAUSE". Click the <PAUSE>
switch again to return to the script. The indicator will
now show "RUN" again.With this switch in the PAUSEposition, a simulation script can be interrupted, for
example to adjust the experimental setup or to provide
additional information to students in an educational
setting. After returning the switch to the RUN-position,
the script will be reactivated and continue from where it
had been left. The patient parameter file pause.vr3 is
active while this switch is in the PAUSE position. Users
may edit the content of pause.vr3 located in
..\ASL Software 3.4\vars\ just like any other patient
model parameter file.
4.2.4 Display Options of the Central Run Time
Window
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The Central Run Time window features two graphical
views, waveform plots and loop displays.
In the Waveform View (see Figure 4-55, page 43), three
individual plot areas show flows, pressures, and
volumes. The number of traces for each plot will depend
on the model chosen and may include:
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
calculated model flow for compartment 1
calculated model flow for compartment 2
calculated total model flow
simulator (piston) flow
airway pressure (this is the actual pressure measured
inside the simulator cylinder)
calculated tracheal pressure
calculated alveolar pressure for compartment 1
calculated alveolar pressure for compartment 2
negative muscle pressure (the programmed pressure
profile from Step 3 of the simulation editing process)
calculated model volume for compartment 1
calculated model volume for compartment 2
calculated total model volume
simulator (piston) volume
NOTE: No corrections for barometric pressure,
temperature, etc., are made at this time to render true
BTPS or other standard gas values in the Central Run Time
window waveform or loop displays. Volumes and flows
displayed are geometric values at the existing gas
temperature (shown in the digital display to the right of
the plots, see also "Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath
Parameter) File", page 143) and represent piston
movement only.
NOTE: Please note that "autoscaling" is the default in
the waveform view. If you prefer to have autoscaling
turned off, right-click on the respective graph and
uncheck "Autoscale Y" in the pop-up menu. Do NOT
uncheck "Autoscale X" as this will render your graphs
invisible.
It is quite feasible, depending on the level of detail and
accuracy desired, to use the graphs of the Central Run
Time window for quantitative evaluations. The purpose
of the graphs, however, is to check, in a general fashion,
selected model parameters, to obtain an understanding
of the parameter ranges, and to judge the overall
interaction of a simulation with external devices, such as
ventilators. True breath-by-breath data waveform
analysis should be performed off-line with the ASL
5000’s comprehensive Post Run Analysis software (see
"Data Analysis", page 66).
From the Central Run
Time screen, you may
control the chart length
(entered in seconds)
with the respective
control in the "Display"
field.
Figure 4-58 Freeze Switch
The selector switch for Waveform/Loops view may be
operated at any time to toggle between these views.
Screen plots may be frozen at any time for better viewing
using the <Freeze/Run> control in the upper right hand
corner of the Central Run Time tab.
The number of breaths
displayed in the status line will
continue to update, as will the
<Script Time Remaining> display, in this case. The plot
itself will stop updating at the time of the Freeze. It is
helpful in this case to closely observe the status line
displaying the currently active model parameter file (vr3file) or to go to the Script Progress window.
45
Operation
Running Simulations From the Central Run Time Display
In the Loop View, two separate plot areas show the flow/
volume loop and the pressure/volume loop for the chart
length selected (i.e., several loops may be seen
superimposed at any given time).
NOTE: Please note that "no autoscaling" is the default in
the loop view. If you prefer to have autoscaling turned
on, right-click on the graph and check "Autoscale X" and
"Autoscale Y" in the pop-up menu as needed.
The flow/volume loops are displayed for calculated
model volume for compartment 1 and 2 versus
calculated model flows for these compartments (or just
the total model flow versus volume in case of the single
compartment model).
Loops also may be frozen at any time for better viewing
using the <Freeze/Run> control in the upper right hand
corner of the Central Run Time Display.
The pressure/volume loops are plotted for airway
pressure versus the respective volumes (compartment 1
and 2 or total calculated model volume).
46
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-59, Loop View
Operation
Running Simulations From the Central Run Time Display
4.2.5 Lung Fill Indicator Window
Clicking the checkbox for the
<FillBar> indicator next to the
<Freeze/Run> switch (see
Figure 4-56, page 44) opens an
additional window indicating
delivered volume as a colored bar
graph. This window will stay on top
as long as the <FillBar> checkbox is
checked.
Figure 4-60
To close the Lung Fill Indicator window, use the
<Close Window> key.
with a manual resuscitator or manipulating the controls
of a ventilator can judge, at a glance, the success of his
or her treatment of the "patient".
Threshold settings control the coloring of the Lung Fill
Indicator:
For volumes less than "Low", the bar will appear black,
above "High", they will show as red. In between the
thresholds, green is used to indicate that the desired
range of volumes is applied. These settings can be edited
by the user in the the Lung Fill Indicator window.The
overall volume scale adjusts automatically with the
upper threshold.
4.2.6 Auxiliary Parameter Displays
In addition to the data plots, additional analog
parameters are collected from the simulator as follows:
— Barometric pressure:
Barometric pressure is displayed in units of kPa.
— Gas temperature:
Gas temperature is displayed in degrees Celsius.
Please note that the gas temperature sensor, with its
time constant of several seconds, measures an averaged temperature for the purpose of normalizing to
standardized conditions of volume measurement.1
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
— Oxygen concentration
(default setting: numerical display off):
O2 concentration is displayed as vol% O2.
Values are from partial O2-pressure oxygen
transducer (available option), corrected for
barometric pressure.
— Wall temperature
(default setting: numerical display off):
Wall temperature is displayed in degrees Celsius.
The wall temperature is read from the RTD2 of the optional Cylinder Temperature Controller (CTC).
Figure 4-61 Lung Fill Indicator
— Auxiliary data
(default setting: numerical display off):
AUX1 and AUX2 may be used for displaying externally collected analog data (via the 2-channel analog
port located on the back of the simulator). See also
"Working With the Analog Inputs", page 63. The display indicates the input voltage to these channels
(range of 0 to 10 V).
The purpose of this display is to assist users who are
using the ASL 5000 for educational purposes. The boldly
colored bar graph allows to see the filling condition of
the simulated patient lung from a good distance, for
example when having a resuscitation trainer head
attached to the breathing simulator. A student practicing
1
2
Temperature fluctuations induced by the pressure changes in the
cylinder are not considered
RTD = Resistive Thermistor Device
47
Operation
Running Simulations From the Central Run Time Display
4.2.7 Modifying Waveform Displays
The parameters O2
concentration, wall
temperature, AUX1,
and AUX2 will be
visible only after the
respective check box
to the left of the digital
displays has been
checked.
The ASL5000 software also allows you to modify the
appearance of waveform displays.
By default, each trace in a
waveform plot is labeled with a
name. To the right of the plot
label is the plot sample. Each
plot sample has its own pop-up
menu to change the plot, line,
color, and point styles of the
plot. From among all the
possibilities to alter the
appearance, the color and line
style selections are the most
relevant selections for the ASL
waveform plots.
Optionally, the analog
channels may be
recorded (see
"Working With the
Analog Inputs", page
63).
Figure 4-63 Trace Colors
Figure 4-62 Analog Parameters
NOTE: TCP/IP data broadcast for both breath
parameters and waveforms is also supported with the
ASL software acting as a server. For details, see "TCP/IP
Data Broadcast", page 109.
First, right-click the sample that you want to modify.
The Color item displays the
palette for selecting the plot color.
Figure 4-64
Graph Modifications
The Fill Baseline item indicates a fill setting for the
baseline. Zero fills from your plot to a baseline
generated at 0. Infinity fills from your plot to the positive
edge of the graph. -Infinity fills from your plot to the
negative edge of the graph. By using the bottom portion
of this menu, you can fill to a specific plot of the graph.
NOTE: It is recommended to carefully experiment with
these display options to obtain the optimum view for a
particular purpose. It is helpul to keep in mind that
certain setting combinations, especially those for color,
can render traces invisible, which may or may not be
intended.
48
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The Line Style, Line Width and,
further down in the menu, the
Point Style, items display styles
you can use to distinguish a plot.
The line width subpalette contains
widths thicker than the default 1
pixel, which is helpful for
emphasis of plot lines, particularly
in printouts of screenshots.
Operation
Running Simulations From the Central Run Time Display
4.2.8 Stopping a Simulation
A simulation can be stopped
by clicking the simulation
ON/OFF slide switch in the
top right corner of the screen.
Figure 4-65
Simulation ON/OFF
At that time, you will hear the electromagnetic valve in
the SBLVM (if connected) being activated. This will
switch a connected ventilator back to the auxiliary test
lung attached to the SBLVM.
Simultaneously, the green SIM indicator light on the
simulator will extinguish and the simulator piston will
move back to its home position at the last URC setting.
With the simulation ON/OFF switch on the simulated
instrument panel in the OFF position, changes to the
simulation parameter script will be accepted for the next
simulation run as described in "Working with the
Simulation Script Editor", page 31.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
After saving the new script as current.sct in the ...\ASL
Software 3.2\vars subdirectory, the Run Time Module
will use this script as its new source for locating
parameter sets and assigning durations (numbers of
repetitions) for the sets.
Immediate ("quasi interactive") changes of parameters
are possible (without stopping a simulation) by applying
the standard method of editing simulation models on the
currently running parameter set and saving the set
without changing its name. The preferred method,
however, is to use the Interactive Control Panel described
in 4.4 below, which gives the user control over most of
the patient model parameters.
NOTE: Some parameters, such as the URC setting, will
only be applied as defined in the first *.vr3-file in a
script. Changes made to these parameters after a
simulation has been started will not be considered for a
simulation already running.
49
Operation
Using the Virtual Ventilator
4.3
Using the Virtual Ventilator
4.3.1 Concept of the Virtual Ventilator
The Virtual Ventilator (VV) is a new feature introduced
with software 3.3. With it, realistic simulations may be
performed that include positive pressure traces in
waveform graphs, as they would be generated by an
actual ventilator. This makes the ASL 5000 software an
even better tool for classroom instruction, long distance
learning, and learning managements systems (LMS).
The Virtual Ventilator feature is included in the license
for software accompanying ASL 5000 simulators. It can
be made available separately as a purchase of the standalone version of the ASL software 3.4. Please contact
IngMar Medical, if you are interested in this option.
WARNING !
Intensive care ventilators are complex therapy devices
with many features and modes. The Virtual Ventilator
is not intended to be an exact rendering of an actual
ventilator and its behavior.
The user should use care when interpreting results
from the Virtual Ventilator and always take into
account that the modes implemented are a significant
simplification.1
1
The Virtual Ventilator may be operated in either Pressure
Control (PC) or Volume Control (VC) mode. When used
in VC, flow is going to be a dependent variable, derived
from the set volume and insp. flow time. It will be
indicated on the bottom of the VV panel. In PC mode,
volume will be a function of the <Peak Pressure> setting
and, again, timing.
1
50
For further reading on the topic of ventilator mode classifications,
please see Chatburn, Respiratory Care 2007; 52(3):301–323.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-66, Virtual Ventilator Panel
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
4.4
Running Simulations Using the
Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
Figure 4-67,
Interactive Control Panel, Lung Model
Parameters (R and C) tab
"Patient" parameters are usually prepared and altered
using the Script and Simulation Editor windows.
However, for a more interactive style of modeling, the
Interactive Control Panel (ICP) may be invoked from the
Central Run Time tab.
The ICP allows the user to choose the parameters of a
patient model
— interactively (manually)
— via automatic parameter adjustment mode for muscle
pressure and breath rate based on tidal volume or
minute ventilation targets.
— by invoking prepared patient model files at will
Additional functionality of the ICP includes the ability to
start and stop simulations and to save parameter sets that
have been adjusted from within the ICP.
Instead of the step-through approach with multiple
windows for model parameter settings, the ICP uses a
number of tabs across the top of the window to access its
different funtions. The left side of the window is reserved
for general controls and settings.
To enter Interactive Control,
you should
— click the square
button in the top left of the
Central Run Time window,
Figure 4-68 Go To ICP
51
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
The typical use of the ICP would be for adjusting a
parameter set in a running script. While the ICP is active,
a parameter set called interactive.vr3 is inserted into the
running script. This parameter set is a duplicate (work
copy) of the *.vr3-file currently processed from the script
at the time the ICP was activated.
In the Central Run Time window, this is indicated in the
parameter file path box (Status Line) above the graphs.
The name of the the *.vr3file currently being applied
and edited in the ICP out
of a running script
("Original Model") can be
accessed by clicking on
the < View Original Model
Settings> key in the left of
the ICP window.
Figure 4-69 View Original
After editing from within the ICP is complete, you may
save the resulting parameter set (*.vr3-file) either under
its old name, or, if preferred, under a new name for later
use.
NOTE: Please note that for the reasons illustrated above,
the name interactive.vr3 is reserved and cannot not be
used when saving parameter files.
The left side of the Interactive Control Panel is divided into
three sections.
From the middle section of the control strip, you can
select to call in a "Default Patient" that has been defined
in a parameter set default.vr3. This patient setting may be
changed in the same way as any other *.vr3-file to suit a
user’s special needs
NOTE: The Interactive Control Panel is, by default, not
active and needs to be started first, because it supersedes
script control or RespiSim-based control of a simulation.
Figure 4-70 Start Interactive Control
52
The middle third of the
control strip will allow
you to make basic
decisions about setting up
a patient model.
The bottom third contains
the controls for starting
and stopping, the
simulation, as well as a
button for recording
waveforms (same
functionality as the <Save
Waveforms> checkbox in
the Breath Detection/Real
Time Analysis tab).
Figure 4-71 ICP Controls
"Const. Vt" and "Const. MV" refer to two additional
automatic modes available to control muscle pressure
(and breath rate) in order to achieve a Vt or MV target,
respectively. They are accessed via tabs Closed Loop Vt
and Closed Loop MV and will make automatic
adjustments to the Pmax (and breath rate) parameters in
order to achieve a Vt or MV target, respectively. In
manual mode (No Loop), the parameters are used as
they are set by the user on the tab-accessed panels Lung
Model Parameters and Spont. Breath Parameters to the
right.
The automatic parameter adjustment modes are a
convenient way to add realism to the model when a
ventilator is attached. The work of breathing performed
by the ventilator is thus taken into account for setting
patient effort. It is not simply superimposed, resulting in
a larger tidal volume or minute ventilation. Instead, the
ventilator intervention will result in a reduced patient
effort.
The leftmost tabs of the ICP will set "Lung Model
Parameters" and "Spont. Breath Parameters".
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
With this approach of using a working copy of the
current parameter file, you can always return to your
running script (by clicking <End Interactive>) if editing
was not satisfactory, and no changes to the original
*.vr3-file will occur.
The top third of the
control strip shows the
file name of the currently
edited parameter file and
basic information about
the currently running
simulation.
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
4.4.1 Lung Model Parameters Tab
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The lung model parameters are displayed as screen
images of dial knobs (Figure 4-72). Only those
parameters that are part of the current model type (single
versus two compartment, etc.) will show.
Figure 4-72,
Interactive Control Panel,
Lung Model Parameters (R and C) tab
Setting the parameters of the R and C values may be
performed by clicking and positioning ("dragging") the
red pointer on the knobs to the desired setting, or by
entering numerical values into the field below the knob.
The fields to the left of each knob labeled "current ..."
will indicate when the new parameter setting has
become active, usually after a breath cycle or two.
NOTE: When working with the Interactive Control Panel,
please note that you may only work with model sets that
do not employ time-varying parameters.
A message to this effect will be shown when you attempt
to open the ICP while a tvp-parameter set is running in
the simulator.
Figure 4-73 TVP files cannot be used for ICP
53
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
4.4.2 Spontaneous Breathing Parameters Tab
Interactive Control Panel,
Spontaneous Breathing Parameters tab
Setting the parameters of the interactive patient model
may be performed by clicking and positioning
("dragging") the red pointer on the knobs to the desired
setting, or by entering numerical values into the field
below the knob. The fields to the left of each knob
labeled "current ..." will indicate when the new
parameter setting has become active, usually after a
breath cycle or two.
54
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-74
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
4.4.3 Closed Loop Vt Tab
Figure 4-75, Closed Loop Vt tab
From the Closed Loop Vt tab, a target of tidal volume (Vt)
may be set directly, in servo-control fashion. This means
that the simulator will try to maintain the desired Vt by
making adjustments to the muscle pressure profile,
specifically by adjusting the maximum (negative)
pressure of the excursion (Pmax).
Before opening this tab, please make
sure that the slide switch on the left of
the ICP window is set to "Const. Vt",
otherwise a reminder will show up on
the tab stating that:
Setting the Vt target for the interactive patient model
and the adjustment thresholds may be performed by
clicking and positioning ("dragging") the red pointer on
the knobs to the desired setting, or by entering numerical
values into the field below a knob. The fields to the left
of each knob labeled "current ..." will indicate when the
new parameter setting has become active, usually after a
breath cycle or two.
Please note that there is no automatic adjustment of the
breath rate in this mode. Depending on the external
conditions (ventilator settings, etc.) the model may or
may not be able to reach the desired, preset Vt. Both
actual and set values for Vt are displayed in the trend
diagram on this tab.
Lung is passive
or
Closed Loop Vt is not active
Figure 4-76
Constant Vt
55
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
4.4.4 Closed Loop MV Tab
Figure 4-77,
Interactive Control Panel,
Closed Loop MV Tab
Before opening this tab, please make
sure that the slide switch on the left of
the ICP window is set to "Const. Vt",
otherwise a reminder will show up on
the tab stating that:
Setting the MV target for the interactive patient model
and the adjustment thresholds may be performed by
clicking and positioning ("dragging") the red pointer on
the knobs to the desired setting, or by entering numerical
values into the field below a knob.
Please note that the algorithm does not represent a
model of respiratory control based, for example, on CO2
elimination. It is furthermore important to keep in mind
that, depending on the restrictions imposed by limit
thresholds, as well as by external conditions, it will not
always be possible to actually reach the set value of
minute ventlation.
Lung is passive
or
Closed Loop MV is not active
Figure 4-78
Constant Vt
56
Also in this mode, a trend window is displayed that
shows the approximation towards the set value (MV). As
in Vt Loop mode, external conditions such as ventilator
support will cause adjustments automatically.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
In this mode, both Vt and bpm settings are manipulated
automatically with the goal to accomplish a preset level
of minute ventilation. Upper and lower limits may be set
for both parameters to keep adjustments within a
physiologically relevant range. The algorithm used
adjusts both parameters (Vt and breath rate)
simultaneously, i.e larger tidal volumes are associated
with faster breath rate and vice versa.
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
4.4.5 Trends Tab
Figure 4-79, Interactive Control Panel, Trends Tab
In this tab, historical trends are displayed for three
parameters:
— Inspiratory tidal volume Vtin
— Pmus (spontaneous profile) maximum Pmax
— Breath Rate
If additional trends from a simulation are needed, please
go to the Post-Run Analysis Menu and select a saved data
set (by the name you gave it when the simulation was
started). For further reference, see "Trend Graph
Display", page 80.
57
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
4.4.6 Closed Loop "CO2Y" Tab
In this mode, Pmax and bpm settings are manipulated
automatically. Upper and lower limits may be set for
both parameters to keep adjustments within a
physiologically relevant range.
Before opening this tab, please make
sure that the slide switch on the left of
the ICP window is set to "CO2Y",
otherwise a reminder will show up on
the tab stating that:
Lung is passive
or
CO2Y is not active
Figure 4-81
No Loop
58
NOTE: It is important to keep in mind that, depending
on the restrictions imposed by limit thresholds, as well
as by external conditions, it will not always be possible
to actually reach the set value of minute ventlation.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-80, Interactive Control Panel,
Closed Loop CO2Y Tab
Operation
Running Simulations Using the Interactive Control Panel (ICP)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
4.4.7 Patient Library Tab [New Feature]
Figure 4-82, Interactive Control Panel,
Patient Library Tab
From the Patient Library tab, pre-configured patient
parameter sets can be invoked at any time by selecting a
file name and clicking the <Change Patient Parameter
(.vr3) File> key (or double-clicking the file name in the
list). This is particularly useful in situations where certain
disease states (scenarios) are being simulated and
transitions from one to the other state would require
changing multiple parameters at once. Using a
preconfigured set of patient parameters forces all
transitions to be well defined at all times. The default
directory for such scenario-related parameter files is
..\vars\scenarios. Patient files saved in this directory will
show up in the listing on this tab. Alternatively, you can
also browse to a different directory where a user has
stored special scenarios.
NOTE: Please note the difference between scenario
scripts and creating flexible scenarios via the Patient
Library tab in the Interactive Control Panel. In the case of
scenario scripts (from the Simulation Script Editor
Scenario Script tab), you not only invoke a particular
patient parameter file. In this case, the sequencing (and
duration) is also part of the scenario and not instructordriven.
59
Operation
Breath Detection / Real-Time Analysis Window
4.5
Breath Detection / Real-Time
Analysis Window
The Breath Detection/Real Time Analysis (RTA) tab is
accessible from the Window Manager.
From the RTA tab, the user has control over the analysis
and capture of data from a simulation run. The selection
of parameters to be displayed (2 x 4) may be changed at
any time. Selections made here are stored in the Project
File and may also be changed at the start or close of the
software from the Project File Tool. The four parameters
chosen for the left column are shared with the parameter
selections in the Trend Graph Display. Vice versa,
changes made there are also reflected in the RTA tab (see
page 80).
60
In the upper half of the window, parameters relevant for
the breath detection algorithm and for the ventilatorvolume-related compensations are set. You can control
the saving of waveform data with a checkbox.
You can also choose to have a digital filter applied to the
airway pressure data (default setting is a 10-point
moving average).
Figure 4-84 Pressure Filter Choices
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-83, Breath Detection/Real-Time Analysis Tab
Operation
TCP Broadcast Configuration
A 5Hz 2nd-order Butterworth filter may be chosen to
prepare data during pressure stability tests for CPAP
devices (ISO 17510). Alternatively, filters may be turned
off if desired. Click the up or down arrow to scroll
through the options.
Breath detection parameters (right side of the RTAwindow) should not be modified from their default
settings unless you notice that the volume plot in the
bottom half of the RTA-window does not show properly
identified individual breaths.
4.6
TCP Broadcast Configuration
While a simulation is running, both waveform and
breath parameters are being "broadcast" on the network,
which allows third-party applications to connect via
TCP/IP and to use the data. The configuration for this
broadcast can be set from the menu bar of the Breath
Detection/Real Time Analysis window. Clicking
Configuration and TCP Broadcast Configuration brings
up this dialog window:
For neonatal applications, on the other hand, threshold
values should routinely be changed from their value of 5
mL to a smaller setting, typically 0.5 mL.
NOTE: As of software 3.2, an adjustment is applied for
the amount of both inspiratory and expiratory threshold
volume. Volumes up to the threshold are added back
into the calculation for tidal volumes.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Compensations ("Auxiliary Compensation Parameters")
set in the RTA-window are for properly adjusting
calculations with regard to the compressible volume and
external resistances introduced to the system via
connectors and external circuits. The effect of the
compensations will be that volumes indicated as
ventilator volumes will more closely match the
measurements made by a ventilator. Especially when
using the simulator in neonatal applications, careful
adjustments will be helpful in eliminating unwanted
biases in this regard.
NOTE: The tidal volumes displayed as Insp. Vt and Exp.
Vt already take into account volume compressibility in
the cylinder, which is why you will see small deviations
of these numbers from the volume tracings in the Central
Run Time display.
Volumes with corrections towards different standard gas
conditions (BTPS, ATPD, STPD ...) may be viewed by
clicking on the <Conditions> indicator. "As measured"
(no correction) is the default setting. Data written to file
is not affected by this choice.
Real-Time Analysis operates with the same core software
modules as does the Post-Run Analysis, but performs
data analysis concurrently. By observing the breath
identification markers (start of breath, begin of
expiration, etc.) you can make adjustments to the breath
detection algorithm parameters as needed before data is
saved. In this way you can assure that breath parameters
are valid when you finally use the "Save Data" checkbox.
The breath parameters displayed in the middle of the
window (2 x 4 parameters) may be selected from a total
of more than 80 parameters. The parameters selected
here will also be used in the Reports generated from the
Central Run Time display (see below).
Figure 4-85 TCP Broadcast Configuration
You can broadcast either raw waveforms or processed
waveforms (includes flow, which is not part of the raw
data set). The The waveforms use port 6343 as the
default and breath prameters are communicated via port
6342. The port settings may be changed as needed in a
particular network to avoid conflicts. The settings from
standard gas conditions (BTPS, ATPD, STPD ...) as they
are made in the Breath Detection/Real Time Analysis
window also apply to the broadcasts. Thus a convenient
way is provided to make these adjusted parameters and
waveforms available to other applications
The software installation includes two separate client
applications, TCP Waveform Client.exe and TCP Breath
Client.exe for demonstrating and monitoring the
broadcast. They are helpful when developing third-party
applications that are using the data streams from the
ASL application. They can also be used as a remote
monitoring tool to verify that a simulation is running
properly when installed on a separate PC. Please refer to
"TCP/IP Data Broadcast" on page 109 for more
information.
61
Operation
Report Generation
4.7
Report Generation
A typical report might look like this
From the Central Run Time window, you can directly
produce simple simulation reports, either formatted for
printing or as HTML (select "Save Report").
Figure 4-86 Create Report Key
The number of breaths (repetitions) saved as waveforms
depends on the setting in the numerical box shown in
Figure 4-86. The parameter selection is taken from the
parameters displayed in the Breath Detection/Real Time
Analysis window.
A file header.txt located in ..\ASL Software 3.4\ASL
Reports\ is used as a container for a institution-specific
header. You can place text in there that you would like
to always appear at the top of the report. Editing of this
header is done via the Project File Tool (Output Data
Settings tab), see Figure 4-5, page 26.
NOTE: The <Create Report> button will only be
available after the number of breaths to be included in
the report have actually elapsed in the simulation.
Figure 4-87 Sample Report
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
62
Operation
Working With the Analog Inputs
4.8
Working With the Analog Inputs
Your ASL 5000 is equipped with inputs for two analog
channels AUX1 and AUX2.
The specifications for these inputs are as follows:
Input range
Resolution
Over voltage
protection
Max. sampling rate
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Connector
0 to 10 V, differential input
2.44 mV, 16 bit A/D
up to 30 V
inputs not opto-isolated!
1024 Hz -primary control analog
input channel
512 Hz -secondary analog
input
Hypertronics
mates with Hypertronics D01
circular 4 pin D01PB406MST
Figure 4-88 Data Recording Checkboxes
Data from the analog channels is retrieved while the
simulator is running. A separate data file data.aux may
be written which contains the readings for both channels
as well as vol% of oxygen (when checked), in addition to
a time stamp. This feature is activated by checking the
<Record AUX> checkbox. Updates to this file are written
approximately 4 to 5 times a second.
Recorded values of other analog signals retrieved by the
ASL 5000 are also provided in the standard data file set
as follows:
Data File
Parameter
Update rate
xxx.brb / xxx.bra O2
once per breath
xxx.avb / xxx.ava Gas temp.
once per breath
xxx.avb / xxx.ava Cyl. wall temp. once per breath
xxx.avb / xxx.ava Barom. pressure once per breath
63
Operation
Working With the Digital Output
4.9
Working With the Digital Output
The digital output of the ASL 5000 provides two TTL1signals.
The first channel can be either used to provide a high/
low signal switched with the direction of flow (high for
inspiration, low for expiration), or a pulse-width
modulated signal (PWM) proportional to the inspiratory
flow. This signal type is used for controlling the chest rise
of an attached Laerdal SimMan (Human Interface
Module accessory, part no. 31 00 730, see "Chest Rise
Module", page 113). By default, Channel 1 is set to
generate the PWM signal. In order to change the
behavior, the file L.bat in the firmware’s c:\batch
directory will need to be replaced wih the file
L_no_PWM.bat.
4.10 Exiting the ASL Software
Clicking on the
<EXIT ASL Software>
button on the Central Run
Time window or tab will
shut down all LabVIEW
program modules.
Figure 4-89 Software Exit
NOTE: A window indicating that the software is closing
will appear.
The second signal provides a 50 ms TTL pulse at the time
of the beginning of a pressure profile excursion (start of
the spontaneous effort). This signals provides an easy
means of triggering/synchronizing external instruments
with breaths from the ASL.
Output
Short circuit protection
Signal delay
Connector
TTL
yes, outputs not opto-isolated
2 ms
Hypertronics
mates with Hypertronics D01
circular 3 pin D01PB306MST
Figure 4-90 Project File Dialog
Users are given the opportunity to save settings in the
Project File and also to return to the Welcome window
to start a new session with the simulator.
Data that was written to a raw data file (*.rwb) will not
be erased. Restarting the software, you may still analyze
data from this last simulation run by loading its data file
(or, of course, from other saved simulations), even if not
running a new simulation.
NOTE: If you start a simulation without assigning a new
name for the new data set to be saved, the previous data
will be overwritten at that time
1
64
TTL = Transistor-Transistor Logic, referring to a logic signal that
has nominal voltage levels of 5 V (high) and 0 V (low)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 4-91 Welcome Window Return Option
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
This page intentionally left blank
65
Data Analysis
5
Data Analysis
The ASL 5000 software package contains modules for
data analysis both in real-time (while the simulation is
running, see ", Breath Detection/Real-Time Analysis
Tab", page 60), and "post-run". The purpose of the data
analysis package of the ASL 5000 is to provide the user
with the tools for an in-depth review of data generated
by a simulation run and to supply a host of automatically
generated breath parameters that characterize each
breath.
When collecting data at high speed ( 512 Hz maximum),
you will have waveforms available for an in-depth look
at the characteristics of each breath as it develops. You
may want to scale down the data rate or limit the time
data is collected because of the significant amount of
data stored. However, breath parameters may be
collected without limitations from simulation runs that
may extend over several hours or even days. An
important tool for this type of data is the trend view (see
page 80), where you have an instant overview of a
prolonged simulation run.
Thus, it is possible to display a trend view of calculated
breath parameters that have been obtained using the raw
data and the known modeling parameters associated
with the data file. The Post-Run Analysis module enables
the user to store analysis results in two types of files, a
breath parameter file and a time-based (waveform) file.
The module allows printing and viewing of analysis
results in several task-specific screen windows.
NOTE: The Real-Time Analysis tab is always available
as an adjunct to the Run-Time module of the ASL 5000
software. Its operation is controlled via the <Start
Analysis> and <Save Data> checkboxes (see ", Breath
Detection/Real-Time Analysis Tab", page 60).
NOTE: The structure and performance of the Breath
Detection / Real-Time Analysis is very similar to the PostProcessing window opened by clicking on the blue
<Process Data> button in the Post-Run Analysis Menu
which is used to perform a re-analysis of previously
collected waveform data.
66
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The Post-Run Analysis Module is automatically loaded
and started when the main LabVIEW application is
launched. To access the Post-Run Analysis Main Menu
screen, click on its tab in the Window Manager.
Data Analysis
Post-Run Analysis Main Menu
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
5.1
Post-Run Analysis Main Menu
Figure 5-1 Post-Run Analysis Menu
As a first step in the standard procedure, a data file
(*.rwb) needs to be loaded for analysis. By graying all
other menu selections in the window (except for the
<Select a Simulation> button), the user is guided
automatically to perform this step. You can also open a
data file from the <File> drop down menu
Figure 5-2 Post-Run Analysis, Select Data File
Loading a data file set (with the rwb-extension, raw
binary type) will also automatically load the breath
parameter file belonging to the same simulation run that
was generated by the Real-Time analysis.
Therefore, you do not necessarily have to go to the
"Process Data" step if you do not intend to re-process
data for the purpose of optimizing breath detection
performed by the software. You may, however, perform
that step at any time for data sets that included
waveforms and in this way check the breath detection
performed by the ASL 5000 Post-Run data analysis
processing.
Once a raw data file has been loaded, all analysis menu
options become accessible and you can freely pick and
choose between them, provided that the data set
contained waveform (high resolution) information.
Very large data files may require you to allocate more
memory to the LabVIEW application (depending on the
Windows OS version). Do so if you receive the
respective message from LabVIEW. Alternatively, for
very long runs, you may want to reduce the waveform
data sample rate (see page 35.
67
Data Analysis
Post-Run Analysis Main Menu
Pressing the <RETURN> button provided on each
analysis screen will return the user to the Post Run
Analysis Menu screen for further selections.
NOTE: Please note that only one of the analysis
windows may be open at any time. If you have not
closed a window with its <RETURN> button and
manually brought forward the Post Run Analysis Menu,
you will not be able to open any of the other windows
from the Main Menu.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
68
Data Analysis
Process Data (Blue Button)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
5.2
Process Data (Blue Button)
Figure 5-3 Post-Run Data Re-Processing Window
The functionality of the Post-Run Data Re-Processing
window (PRDRP-window) is, as mentioned before, very
similar to that of the Real-Time Analysis window. This
interface is used to check and re-perform breath
detection and the associated calculation of breath
parameters.
Breath detection parameters (right side of the PRDRPwindow) should only be modified from their default
settings if you notice that the volume plot (in the bottom
half of the window) does show improperly identified
individual breaths. For neonatal applications, as already
stated for Real-Time Analysis, threshold values should
routinely be changed from their default value of 5 mL to
a smaller setting, typically 0.5 mL, to assure that small
tidal volumes are interpreted as individual breaths.
Airway pressure filtering (<Pressure Filter>) may be
applied in the same way as from the Breath Detection/
Real-Time Analysis window (see page 60). The setting
<Fraction of Target for Steady State> determines a range
of "steadiness" for the algorithm to use when determining
whether a ventilator breath is a pressure-targeted
(constant pressure) or flow-targeted (constant flow)
breath (see also "Servo Control Performance Display",
page 85). If these targets are known up front, they may
be entered into the fields <Inspiratory Target Override or
<Expiratory Target Override>. The default value of -1 is
used for automatic calculation with the steady state
criterium.
Compensations set in the PRDRP window will allow, as
in the Breath Detection/Real-Time Analysis window, for
properly adjusting calculations with regard to the
compressible volume and external resistances which
69
Data Analysis
Process Data (Blue Button)
may be introduced into the system via connectors and
external circuits. The effect of the compensations will be
that volumes indicated as "ventilator volumes" will more
closely match the measurements from a ventilator itself
when its calculations do not already include any
compensations for these effects. Especially when using
the simulator in neonatal applications, where parasitary
effects can be significant, careful adjustments will be
helpful in eliminating unwanted biases in this regard.
NOTE: If, on the other hand, compensations of this kind
are performed by a ventilator (and most ventilators do,
for example by calibrating a patient circuit at startup),
leaving these values at zero would be appropriate.
Please be aware that it will not be possible for the breath
detection algorithm to successfully identify breaths
under all circumstances. It is therefore recommended to
always perform a plausibility check. A higher-thanexpected number of breaths for the total time period of
recorded data (viewed in the Breath Data display), for
example, will normally indicate a failed identification. In
this case, small fluctuations most likely have been
incorrectly separated into individual breaths, and an
increase in the breath detection threshold is indicated.
An example would be a situation where high frequency
oscillations are superimposed on a bi-level regular
breath pattern.
unchanged, which means that further reprocessing may
be performed, for example with changed threshold
parameters, if needed.
The data file sets are written in binary file format with
column headers but they can easily be converted into
tab-delimited ASCII files using the File Translation Utility
enclosed with the ASL 5000 software package (see page
104). After conversion, files are ready for direct import
into Excel, MATLAB, or any other data analysis/graphics
program.
Lower frequency analog data, such as O2-concentration
(if the FOM1 option is installed), AUX1 and AUX2
signals, are saved in the *.brb-file (at a rate of one value
per breath). A separate waveform data file data.aux is
written when the <Record AUX> box is checked on the
Central Run Time display. This file then contains readings
for both analog channels as well as vol% of oxygen
(when checked), in addition to a time stamp. For update
frequencies for these recordings, please see "Working
With the Analog Inputs", page 63.
NOTE: Beginning with software 3.4, O2 and the
primary AUX signal are also included in the waveform
files and TCP broadcasts.
<Insp. Waveform SD Threshold> is a setting to be used
by the algorithm for determining the type of the
inspiratory waveform (primary control variable pressure
or flow). It is the fraction of the mean below which the
standard deviation of pressure must fall to consider it the
primary control variable. This setting does normally not
require adjustment.
When clicking <Start>, new *.brb and *.dtb data files are
produced. Whereas the *.brb file contains the updated
breath parameters, the *.dtb file is a real-time data
format (waveforms) that contains the processed raw data
with additional calculations for flow, etc. The already
existing files in the data set of the same name will be
overwritten, however, the raw data in the set remains
1
70
FOM = Fast Oxygen Measurement
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
In the post-run analysis, you can further fine-tune aspects
of the analysis algorithm. For example, you can
introduce a manually selected threshold for "start of
effort", in effect delaying the assumed start of the patient
effort. In addition, it is possible to manually override the
simulator-side calculation of a target flow or volume
during inspiration or expiration (a parameter related to
the ventilator performance parameters). This target is
effectively known a priori in many cases, for example by
the ventilator settings.
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
5.3
Display Data Selections
(Green Buttons)
The column of options regarding display of breath data
is colored in green and offers 5 different views (see
Figure 5-4 below):
— Breath by breath data,
3 graphs
— Multi-parameter graph,
a simultaneous display of
4 different variables versus
time, breath by breath
— Two-parameter loops,
Y versus X plots,
breath by breath
— Multiple breath view,
a timeline graph of
4 parameters
5.3.1 Advanced Graph Analysis Tools:
The Graph and Cursor Palettes
The ASL5000 software offers considerable flexibility in
terms of the appearance of the graphs displayed in both
the simulation model set-up and the post-run analysis.
.
n all graph displays (except the
1
2
Central Run Time screen), you
should notice one or two small
grids, depending on which graph
is being displayed. They are
called the Scale Legend (1) and
Graph Palette (2)
Figure 5-5 Legends/ Palettes
In the Central Run Time graphs, you can make the Graph
Palette and Scale Legend visible by right-clicking in each
of the three plot areas themselves and selecing Graph
Palette from Visible Items (see Figure 5-6 below). The
Cursor Legend (3) is already visible by default
.
2
3
1
and:
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
— Trend graph of breath
parameters, from a
breath parameter *.brb file.
Figure 5-4 Display Data Selections
Figure 5-6 Graphs- Visible Items
If you uncheck autoscale X in the pop-up menu, (click on
<Y.YY>), the graph will stop autoscaling the Y data,
which is sometimes useful for the purpose of comparing
different graphs.
In the legends a palettes, different icons represent
specialized graphing tools. From the graph palette (2),
the panning tool and the zoom function are used to get
more detail of a specific part of a graph. The cursor
legend (3), is described with Figure 5-8, page 72.
Although these graphing tools appears on all but the
Central RunTime graphs, the cursor palette is available
only in the Display Data and Display Performance screens
of the ASL 5000 Post Run Analysis Menu.
71
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
If you want the graph to autoscale either of the scales
continuously, click on the lock switch to lock
autoscaling on.
By using the scale format keys, you can maintain runtime control over the format of the X and Y scale markers
respectively.
You use the three buttons on the right side of the Graph
Palette to control the operation mode for the graph
cursor.
Normally, you are in standard operating mode, indicated
by the plus or crosshatch appearance of the cursor. In
standard operating mode, you can click in a graph to
move cursors around.
If you press the Panning tool (the hand symbol), you
switch to a mode in which you can scroll the visible data
by clicking on and dragging sections of the graph.
.
If you press the Zoom
tool (the magnifying
glass symbol), it opens
a submenu from which
to choose ways to
zoom in on a section of
the graph by dragging a
selection rectangle
around that section.
Figure 5-7 Zoom Tool
The options are as follows:
NOTE: For the last two modes, zoom in and zoom out
about a point, <Shift>-clicking will zoom in the opposite
direction.
Figure 5-8 Cursor Legend
As indicated in the above figure, each cursor for a graph
has the following parts:
— A label
— X and Y coordinates
— A button that enables cursor movement with the cursor movement control pad
— A button that controls the look of the cursor
— A button that determines if the cursor is locked to a
plot or able to be moved freely
To label the cursor, click on the highlighted word in the
Cursor Legend, ("Flow" in the example in Figure 5-8).
Replace the word with any label of your choice.
To assign coordinates to the cursor, highlight and
replace the numbers currently showing in the two boxes
to the right of the cursor label. The first immediately to
the right of the label identifies the X-coordinate. The
second box contains the value for the Y-coordinate.
You can move a cursor on a graph by dragging it with
the mouse, or by using the cursor movement control
pad. To drag a cursor, make sure the graph does not
have the panning or zooming tool selected. Click and
drag the cursor to the desired location. Alternatively, to
enable the cursor movement control pad, click on the
cursor movement select button. Clicking the arrows on
the cursor movement control causes the cursor to move
in the specified direction, i.e., up, down, right, left.
Clicking on the cursor
display control displays a
pop-up menu to control
the look of the cursor and
the visibility of the cursor
name on the plot. Select
Attributes -> Show Name
to make the cursor name
visible on the plot.
Selecting Bring to Center
moves the cursor to the
center area of the graph.
Selecting this item
changes the X,Y
coordinate position of the
cursor.
Figure 5-9 Cursor Legend Options
72
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
— Zoom by rectangle.
— Zoom by rectangle, with zooming restricted to X data
(the Y scale remains unchanged).
— Zoom by rectangle, with zooming restricted to Y data
(the X scale remains unchanged).
— Undo last zoom, (resets the graph to its previous setting).
— Zoom in about a point, (if you hold down the mouse
on a specific point, the graph continuously zooms in
until you release the mouse button).
— Zoom out about a point, (if you hold down the mouse
on a specific point, the graph continuously zooms out
until you release the mouse button).
The Cursor Legend
.
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
Selecting Go to Cursor moves the displayed region of the
graph so the cursor is visible. The cursor position
remains constant, but the scales change to include the
cursor selected. The size of the displayed region also
stays constant. This feature is helpful when the cursor is
used to mark a point of interest in the graph, such as a
minimum or a maximum, and you want to see that point.
You can use the last button to
lock the cursor onto a particular
plot. By clicking the lock button,
you can see a pop-up menu that
can be used to lock the cursor to
a specific plot. If you lock the
cursor onto a plot, the button
changes to a closed lock.
Select Free if you want to place or
move the cursor anywhere on the
graph. Select Snap to Point if you
want the cursor to always attach
itself to the nearest point on any
plot.
Figure 5-10 Cursor Lock
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Select Lock to Plot to attach the cursor to a specific plot.
The first time you select Lock to Plot, the cursor attaches
itself to the first point on the plot. After freeing the
locked cursor and moving it to any new position,
selecting Lock to Plot moves the cursor to the last location
of the locked cursor.
73
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
5.3.2 Breath by Breath Display
In this view, data is displayed one breath at a time.
Scrolling through or selecting single breaths is easily
performed with the (fast) forward/reverse arrows.
You can also see the
current breath high-lighted
in the graph at the bottom
of the window. Parameters
displayed are grouped into separate fields for
— timing
— inspiratory flow
— pressure
— volume
You may zoom into a detail area at any time by clicking
into the display and dragging open (holding mouse
button down while moving cursor) a detail window. To
return to the normal view, go to the slide-rulers for X-
74
and Y-scaling (X and Y in the graph manipulation
palettes to the right of the graphic display areas) and
double click there.
By clicking the X- and Y-resolution buttons (identified as
<X.XX> and <Y.YY> in the Graph Palettes), you may also
change the labeling of the X- and Y-axis to suit your
needs.
The Cursor Palettes below each graph may be used to
change the visual appearance of the cursor and to
position the cursor lines (see also page 71).
Parameters for each graph can be freely selected from
the drop-down list of available parameters (click on the
symbol next to the parameter name to the right of
each waveform graph). Please refer to "Parameters in the
*.brb-(Breath Parameter) File", page 143 for details on
the individual parameters displayed in this data view.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 5-11 Analysis: Breath-by-Breath Display
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
Volume corrections may be performed towards different
standard gas conditions. (BTPS, ATPD, STPD ...) by
clicking on the
symbol next to the "Conditions of
Volume Measurement" label. "As measured" (no
correction) is the default setting.
5.3.3 Multi-Parameter Graph
"Breath Type" refers to the distinction between
mechanical breaths (no patient contribution) and
spontaneous breaths (patient makes effort).
Data is displayed breath by
breath. Scrolling through or
selecting single breaths is
easily performed with the (fast)
forward/reverse arrows or by
entering the desired breath number into the <Breath>
field.
You can also see the current breath highlighted in the
graph at the bottom of the window.
You may change the background color of the graphs
using Graph Colors from the <Help/Customize> menu in
the menu bar of each of the analysis windows. Use a
light color when printing the screen.
The <RETURN> button will bring you back to the Post-
Run Analysis Menu screen.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
NOTE: Please note that you always need to close
dedicated analysis windows (using the <RETURN>
button) before you can open any other view from the
Post-Run Analysis Menu window.
The multi-parameter graph display uses more screen
area for the graph and allows the overlay of parameters
so that you can view them in a synchronized fashion.
You may zoom into a detail area at any time by clicking
into the display and dragging open a detail window
(holding mouse button down while moving cursor).
To return to the normal view, go to the slide-rulers for Xand Y-scaling in the graph manipulation palette on the
right of the screen just above the graphic display area
and double click there.
Figure 5-12 Analysis: Multi-Parameter Graph
75
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
By clicking the X- and Y-resolution buttons (identified as
<X.XX> and <Y.YY> in the Graph Palette), you may also
change the labeling of the X- and Y-axis to suit your
needs.
Clicking on the + symbol in the graph manipulation
palettes will allow the pointer to take hold of the green
cursor lines and move them about. In this view, the
cursors are, by default, not locked to a parameter. You
may lock them, however, by clicking on the padlock
symbol in the graph palette in the upper right corner of
the graph. A little pop-up menu will allow you to check
the parameter that you want your cursor to be locked to.
After doing this, the parameter value at the intersection
of the X and Y cursors is always displayed in the cursor
palette indicators. You may change your selection at any
time.
Parameters for each graph can be freely selected from
the drop-down list of available parameters (click on the
arrow symbol next to the parameter name). Please refer
to "Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File", page
143 for details on the individual parameters displayed in
this data view.
Volume corrections are performed towards different
standard gas conditions. (BTPS, ATPD, STPD ...) by
clicking on the arrow symbols next to the "Conditions"
label.
"As measured" (no correction) is the
default setting.
Figure 5-13 Parameter Gains
You may change the background color of the graphs
using Graph Colors from the <Help/Customize> menu in
the menu bar of each of the analysis windows. Use a
light color when printing the screen.
When you are done with data analysis in this view, the
<RETURN> button will bring you back to the Main
Analysis Menu screen.
NOTE: Please note that you always need to close
dedicated analysis windows (using the <RETURN>
button) before you can open any other view from the
Post-Run Analysis Menu window.
76
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
In this view, gains for
each parameter can be
adjusted individually to
adjust the view of
multiple graphs (click on
the
symbol next to the
gain factors to view dropdown menus for available choices).
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
5.3.4 Loop Display
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 5-14 Analysis: Loop Display
The Loop Display allows you to freely define X versus Y
plots for each breath, in order to generate the familiar
pressure/volume and flow/volume loops. A dividing line
separates the inspiratory and expiratory portions of each
loop. Data is displayed breath by breath.
Scrolling through or selecting
single breaths is easily
performed with the (fast)
forward/reverse arrows or by
entering the desired breath
number into the <Breath>
field.
You can also see the current breath highlighted in the
graph at the bottom of the window.
You may zoom into a detail area at any time by clicking
into the display and dragging open (holding mouse
button down) a detail window. To return to the normal
view, go to the slide-rulers for X- and Y-scaling in the
graph manipulation palette on the right of the screen just
above the graphic display area and double click there.
By clicking the X- and Y-resolution buttons (identified as
<X.XX> and <Y.YY> in the graph palette), you may also
change the labeling of the X- and Y-axis.
Clicking on the + symbol in the graph manipulation
palette will allow the pointer to take hold of the yellow
cursor line and move it about.The parameter value at the
intersection of the X and Y cursors with a trace is
continuously displayed in the cursor palette indicators at
the bottom of the graph; the default is Inspiration.
Parameters for displaying loops may be freely selected
for each axis from the drop-down list of available
parameters. Click on the parameter name currently
displayed next to the + symbol, on the right hand side of
the screen. Please refer to "Parameters in the *.brb(Breath Parameter) File", page 143 for details on the
individual parameters displayed in this data view.
You may change the background color of the graphs
using Graph Colors from the <Help/Customize> menu in
the menu bar of each of the analysis windows. Use a
light color when printing the screen.
The <RETURN> button will bring you back to the Main
Analysis Menu screen.
NOTE: Please note that you always need to close
dedicated analysis windows (using the <RETURN>
button) before you can open any other view from the
Post-Run Analysis Menu window.
77
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
5.3.5 Continuous Time-Based Data
Figure 5-15 Analysis: Continuous Time-Based Data
Scrolling through or selecting a group of breaths is easily
performed with the (fast) forward/reverse arrows.
You can also see the
current group of breaths
highlighted in the graph at
the bottom of the window.
You may zoom into a detail area at any time by clicking
into the display and dragging open (holding mouse
button down) a detail window. To return to the normal
78
view, go to the slide-rulers for X- and Y-scaling in the
graph manipulation palette on the right of the screen just
above the graphic display area and double click there.
By clicking the X- and Y- resolution buttons (identified as
<X.XX> and <Y.YY> in the graph palette), you may also
change the labeling of the X- and Y-axis to suit your
needs.
Clicking on the + symbol in the graph manipulation
palette will allow the pointer to take hold of the yellow
cursor lines and move them about.
The parameter value at the intersection of the X and Y
cursors is always displayed in the cursor palette
indicators in the upper right-hand corner of the graph. In
this view, the cursors are locked to trace one of the plots,
by default. You may change this setting by clicking on
the padlock symbol in the graph palette and creating a
different link.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
This option provides a real-time chart of up to 4
parameters, displaying multiple breaths without breaking
data into individual breaths. This view is helpful in cases
where the breath detection algorithm was not able to
detect breaths properly, while data still can be explored
in this view.
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
A drop-down menu will allow you to check the
parameter that you want your cursor to be locked to.
After doing this, the parameter value at the intersection
of the X and Y cursors is always displayed in the cursor
palette indicators. You may change your selection at any
time. Parameters for each trace of the plot can be freely
selected from the drop-down list of available parameters
(click on the parameter name next to the arrow symbol
in the list displayed above the graph area). Please refer to
"Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File", page
143 for details on the individual parameters displayed.
In this view, gains for
each parameter can be
adjusted individually to
adjust the view of
multiple graphs (click on
the
symbol next to the
gain factors to view dropdown menus of available
choices).
Figure 5-16 Parameter Gains
You may change the background color of the graphs
using Graph Colors from the <Help/Customize> menu in
the menu bar of each of the analysis windows. Use a
light color when printing the screen.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The <RETURN> button will bring you back to the Main
Analysis Menu screen.
NOTE: Please note that you always need to close
dedicated analysis windows (using the <RETURN>
button) before you can open any other view from the
Post-Run Analysis Menu window.
79
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
5.3.6 Trend Graph Display
In trend view, gains can be adjusted individually for
each parameter to adjust the view of multiple graphs
(click the boxes with gain factors to view drop-down
menus of available choices).
Volume corrections may be performed for different
standard gas conditions. (BTPS, ATPD, STPD ...), by
clicking inside the control labeled <Conditions>. "As
measured" (no correction) is the default setting.
The trend view then allows you to select parameters
from the drop-down list of available parameters (click on
the
symbol next to the parameter names in the list
above the graph area). Please refer to "Parameters in the
*.brb-(Breath Parameter) File", page 143 for details on
the individual parameters displayed in this data view.
80
The defaults for the four parameters may be selected in
the Project File Tool at the beginning or at the end of a
simulation session.
NOTE: Changes you make to selections here are also
reflected in the left column of parameters in the Breath
Detection/Real Time Analysis tab parameters (see page 60).
Scrolling through or selecting a group of breaths is easily
performed with the (fast) forward/reverse arrows.
You can also see the
current group of breaths
highlighted in the graph at
the bottom of the window.
The number of breaths for which the breath parameters
are displayed may be selected by directly entering the
number into the control field labeled <Display width>.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 5-17 Analysis: Trend View
Data Analysis
Display Data Selections (Green Buttons)
With the (Fast) Forward /Reverse buttons in the left top
corner of the screen you may position the viewed
breaths window to the range of interest.
Two vertical cursors may be adjusted to qualify a range
of breaths for the calculation of mean and standard
deviation. These statistics are then immediately updated.
Click the cursor on one of the green vertical lines and
drag it to the desired position in the graph. The graph
additionally features a second vertical cursor. It is used
to create a defined range of breaths for the calculations
of mean and standard deviation.
You may change the background color of the graphs
using Graph Colors from the <Help/Customize> menu in
the menu bar of each of the analysis windows. Use a
light color when printing the screen.
The <RETURN> button will bring you back to the Main
Analysis Menu screen.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
NOTE: Please note that you always need to close
dedicated analysis windows (using the <RETURN>
button) before you can open any other view from the
Post-Run Analysis Menu window.
81
Data Analysis
Display Performance Analysis Selections (Yellow Buttons)
5.4
5.4.1
Display Performance Analysis
Selections (Yellow Buttons)
WOB Analysis Display
The WOB-analysis allows for separation between patient
(i.e. simulator) and ventilator work components. WOBanalysis is performed on a breath-by-breath basis. To
obtain meaningful results, it is important to verify that the
breath to be considered for analysis has been identified
properly (see also page 60).
Individual breaths are selected in the same way as in the
breath data screens by clicking on the (Fast) Forward /
Reverse buttons until you arrive at the desired breath
number position.
Alternatively, you may click on
the up or down arrow next to
the breath number to go to a
specific breath.
82
You can also see the current breath highlighted in the
graph representing the full length of the simulation at the
bottom of the window.
WOB parameters are displayed either as "Total System
Work", "External Work" or as "Patient Work" parameters
(looking at the muscle pressure and condition in the
patient’s lungs). Click on the box which displays either
one of these three terms for a drop-down menu that
allows you to make a new selection (see
above.
The volume referenced work parameters in the rightmost
column on the screen use the expiratory volume as
reference. Please refer to "Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath
Parameter) File", page 143 for details on the individual
parameters displayed in this data view.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 5-18 Analysis: Work of Breathing Display
Data Analysis
Display Performance Analysis Selections (Yellow Buttons)
Total System Work is the combination of Patient Work
and External (imposed) Work. Please also refer to an indepth section on WOB in "Introduction to Ventilatory
Mechanics", page 124.
Volume corrections are performed for different standard
gas conditions. (BTPS, ATPD, STPD ...), by clicking
inside the control labeled <Conditions>. "As measured"
(i.e. no correction) is the default setting.
You may change the background color of the graphs
using Graph Colors from the <Help/Customize> menu in
the menu bar of each of the analysis windows. Use a
light color when printing the screen.
The <RETURN> button will bring you back to the main
analysis menu screen.
NOTE: Please note that you always need to close
dedicated analysis windows (using the <RETURN>
button) before you can open any other view from the
Post-Run Analysis Menu window.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
5.4.2 Trigger Analysis Display
Figure 5-19 Trigger Analysis Display
Trigger Analysis shows breath-by-breath plots of the
critical time period for triggering after a patient breath
was initiated by the simulator with parameters flow,
pressure, and volume, as well as calculations for trigger
response time and other trigger performance
characteristics. Trigger analysis is performed on a breathby-breath basis.
Individual breaths are selected in the same way as in the
breath data screens by clicking on the (Fast) Forward /
Reverse buttons until you arrive at the desired breath
number position.
Alternatively, you may click on
the up or down arrow next to
the breath number to go to a
specific breath.
83
Data Analysis
Display Performance Analysis Selections (Yellow Buttons)
You can also see the current breath highlighted in the
graph representing the full length of the simulation at the
bottom of the window.
To obtain meaningful results, it is important to verify that
the breath to be considered for analysis has been
properly identified (see page 74). In particular, it is
important to recognize that the lowest point in the
volume excursion is used to determine the begin of a
breath. Depending on the circumstances, this might not
always be appropriate.
In both the Real-Time and the Post-Run Analysis
windows, the user should visually inspect the placement
of the markers at the beginning of breaths (Figure 4-83,
page 60, and page 69) to verify that the trigger analysis
will be able to yield meaningful results.
You may change the background color of the graphs
using Graph Colors from the <Help/Customize> menu in
the menu bar of each of the analysis windows. Use a
light color when printing the screen.
The <RETURN> button will bring you back to the main
analysis menu screen.
NOTE: Please note that you always need to close
dedicated analysis windows (using the <RETURN>
button) before you can open any other view from the
Post-Run Analysis Menu window.
There is also a vertical cursor in order to manually
determine the point of trigger. Simply drag (click and
hold mouse button during cursor movement) to the
desired position. Clicking on the "Recalculate Work
Parameters" button will perform a recalculation of
trigger-related work parameters for the updated trigger
point.
Trigger time is calculated as the time from the beginning
of the inspiratory effort ( i.e. start of the patient effort
pressure profile) to the time of return of pressure to
baseline1. See also "Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath
Parameter) File", page 143.
By clicking the X- and Y- resolution buttons (identified as
<X.XX> and <Y.YY> in the graph palette), you may also
change the labeling of the X- and Y-axis to suit your
needs.
Clicking on the + symbol in the Graph Palette will allow
the pointer to take hold of the yellow cursor lines and
move them about.
Volume corrections are performed for different standard
gas conditions. (BTPS, ATPD, STPD ...), by clicking
inside the control labeled "Conditions". "As measured"
(no correction) is the default setting.
1
84
Please note that this definition has changed from sw versions prior
to 3.0, where trigger time was determined as the time to the volume threshold (default: 5 mL).
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
You may zoom into a detail area at any time by clicking
into the display and dragging open (holding mouse
button down) a detail window. To return to the normal
view, go to the slide-rulers for X- and Y-scaling in the
graph manipulation palette on the right of the screen just
above the graphic display area and double click there.
Data Analysis
Display Performance Analysis Selections (Yellow Buttons)
5.4.3 Servo Control Performance Display
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 5-20 Servo Control Performance Display
The ventilator servo control performance window
analyzes pressure adjustments made by a ventilator
connected to the simulator. It attempts to detect both the
inspiratory and expiratory target pressures and calculates
parameters that describe the transition between these
pressure levels.
Please refer to "Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath
Parameter) File", page 143 for details on the individual
parameters displayed in this data view.
Servo analysis is performed on a breath-by-breath basis.
Individual breaths are selected in the same way as in the
breath data screens by clicking on the (Fast) Forward /
Reverse buttons until you arrive at the desired breath
number position.
Alternatively, you may click
on the up or down arrow next
to the breath number to go to a
specific breath.
To obtain meaningful results, it is important to verify that
the breath to be considered for analysis has been
identified properly (see page 74).
You may zoom into a detail area at any time by clicking
into the display and dragging open (holding mouse
button down) a detail window. To return to the normal
view, go to the slide-rulers for X- and Y-scaling in the
graph manipulation palette on the right of the screen just
above the graphic display area and double click there.
Occasionally, the target values for pressure or flow
might be known independently (pressure limited
ventilation or flow limited ventilation). In this case, the
target override may be entered in the Data Re-Processing
window when re-processing waveform data (see page
70).
Volume corrections are performed for different standard
gas conditions. (BTPS, ATPD, STPD ...), by clicking
inside the control labeled "Conditions". "As measured"
(no correction) is the default setting.
85
Data Analysis
Display Performance Analysis Selections (Yellow Buttons)
You may change the background color of the graphs
using Graph Colors from the <Help/Customize> menu in
the menu bar of each of the analysis windows. Use a
light color when printing the screen.
The <RETURN> button will bring you back to the main
analysis menu screen.
NOTE: Please note that you always need to close
dedicated analysis windows (using the <RETURN>
button) before you can open any other view from the
Post-Run Analysis Menu window.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
86
RespiSim-PVI
RespiSim Main Screen
6
RespiSim-PVI
6.1
RespiSim Main Screen
6.1.1 RespiSim Interface Overview
RespiSim-PVI (PVI = Patient Ventilator Interaction) for
the ASL 5000 is accessed via its own tab on the Window
Manager. Clicking on the tab brings forward the
RespiSim-PVI main screen, which provides a unified
view of data during a simulation debriefing. Since an
active RespiSim screen takes precedence over standard
script-based simulation (but not over Interactive
Control!), the RespiSim option first needs to be activated
by clicking <Start RespiSim-PVI>
..
Figure 6-1 Starting RespiSim-PVI
This RespiSim interface has distinct regions as shown in
Figure 6-2. A history plot (Event Graph) shows significant
events on a timeline during the simulation such as
alarms or instructor comments. An area for graphical
data may show waveforms, loops, or trend lines for
select breath parameters. The field for numerical data
can be preset with up to 18 different breath-by-breath
readings from the ASL simulator, the ventilator, and a
virtual Patient Vital Signs Monitor. While the simulation
is running under control of RespiSim, all values are
updated continuously. For debriefing of a simulation
session, a Playback Mode gives convenient access to all
data collected during the session. In Run Mode, an
instructor can invoke patient models at will from an
inventory that is displayed in the control area of this
screen. For a true plug-and-play experience, the
RespiSim-PVI option now also includes a special
Instructor Dashboard from which to load all elements of
dedicated RespiSim training modules. This dashboard is
automatically opened as a separate window when
RespiSim-PVI is started ("Use of RespiSim-PVI with
Dedicated Educational Modules", page 92).
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Clinical Events (Alarms)
Instructor-entered Events
Control
Real-time
Graphical Data
(Waveforms, Loops,
or Trends) from
Breathing Simulator
Numerical Data
from
Breathing
Simulator
Figure 6-2 RespiSim-PVI, Main Interface
87
RespiSim-PVI
RespiSim Main Screen
6.1.2 Event Graph
The Event Graph is intended to give a timeline of the
simulation scenario as it occurrs, marked up
automatically or manually with significant milestones.
This data is significant for the time of debriefing
Each breath is represented by a vertical bar at the bottom
of the graph the height of which is proportional to the
volume of the breath. This allows to quickly visualize
Figure 6-3 Event Graph, Collapsed
Event Markers are configured to show when alarms or
other significant events occurred. Notes can be attached
to a select grouping of markers for debriefing. changes in
patient treatment or response. Ventilator data "scans" are
indicated at the top with separate small marks.
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Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 6-4 Event Graph, Expanded
Clicking on the
key opens the Extended Event
Graph View. In this view, more detail about the events
becomes visible and "hovering" over individual graph
elements shows additional underlying information.
RespiSim-PVI
RespiSim Main Screen
In playback mode, a bright green vertical cursor is used
for navigation (see Figure 6-5). The Event Graph will
always show the full length of the recorded simulation
session, but the Real Time Graphics (waveforms and
loops, see below) are limited to the 20 seconds before
the location of this cursor on the time line. Similarly, the
numeric parameters shown are those from the time
associated with the cursor position.
Real time graphics are provided in the RespiSim-PVI
panel as either
—a complement of waveforms for flow, pressure, and
volume
—flow/volume and pressure/volume loops
—trends of a selection of the numerically displayed
parameters.
In playback mode, you will always see the data in the
format it was collected in (either waveform, loops, or
trends). The time window for waveforms is determined
by the choice made in the Central Run Time window
(default at 20 s). Loops are not autoscaling, similar to the
loops found in the Central Run Time Window. The trend
view is configurable from the graphics field itself, by
clicking on the <Configuration> key at the bottom. The
traces of any of the numeric parameters displayed to the
right of the graphics field may be switched on or off,
including a choice for “all off” or “all on”. The choice of
hiding or showing a parameter, along with the colors
used may also be set in the Preferences window.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 6-5 RespiSim Event Graph Cursor
Moving the cursor to different positions based on visual
clues in the Event Graph will thus reveal the associated
parameters, waveforms, and loops from that time.
6.1.3 Real Time Graphics.
Figure 6-6 RespiSim Real Time Graphic Views
89
RespiSim-PVI
RespiSim Main Screen
6.1.4 Numeric Parameters
retrieved more frequently than every 15 or 30 seconds,
these numbers might not exactly reflect the values for
the specific cursor time. For this reason, it is
recommended to always give priority to parameters from
the ASL simulator, which are collected for every breath,
in cases where a particular parameter is available from
both the simulator or the ventilator.
The color background of the numeric fields can be
chosen in the respective panel of the Preferences
window. Again, colors should be used to group
parameters of similar kind together.
6.1.5 RespiSim-PVI Interface
Modes of Operation
RespiSim can be used both for running an actual
simulation as well as for playing back such a simulation
for purposes of debriefing, etc. The latter aspect is of
critical importance for enhanced instruction
methodology since the debriefing process is where a
significant portion of the learning actually occurs.
Figure 6-7 RespiSim Graphic Trend Select
Figure 6-8 RespiSim Numeric Parameter Field
Hovering over the label fields, however, will reveal the
full name and physical unit of parameters in a “bubble”.
Since ventilator parameters cannot, in most cases, be
90
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The field on the bottom right of the RespiSim interface
allows the display of up to 18 parameters collected from
the ASL 5000, the simulated Vital Signs Monitor and the
attached ventilator. Significantly, these parameters
include not only breath parameters such as tidal volume
or peak pressure, but also ventilator mode and alarm
settings as well as alarms themselves. Because of space
constraints, the label text of the parameters might exceed
what is visible in the respective field under the numeric
value.
When the key <Open Playback Mode> in the control
area of the RespiSim window is clicked, the visual
appearance of the left portion of the window changes
and all the pertinent information for the recorded
simulation is displayed, together with a play/end-oftrack/beginning-of-track set of buttons.
RespiSim-PVI
RespiSim Main Screen
While the Event Graph is expanded (see Figure 6-4, page
88), hovering with the mouse cursor over the Instructor
Events marked in the file will bring up any comments
that had been recorded with the specific event.
The Event Graph shows a bright yellow vertical cursor
line that is used to navigate inside of a selected
recording. This is the primary method of accessing a
particular point in time of a recording. The play button
on the top left also has a step back/forward feature.
Clicking on these elements forwards the starting point of
the playback to the next (or previous) change of patient
parameter file. Clicking the play button
starts a
playback of recorded data from the point of the cursor.
The numeric parameters in the field on the bottom right
change as the recording moves along, and so do the
waveforms/loops in the Graphics field. The cursor
position represents the right edge of the waveform
display. On the left, the currently playing patient
parameter file is indicated as well as the Preferences file
associated with the recording.
Playback provides a superb way for viewing data for the
purpose of debriefing after a a simulation session or to
demonstrate effects in the context of e-learning, as a
stand-alone.
6.1.6 Role of Training Modules Within the
RespiSim Simulation Environment
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 6-9 RespiSim Control Field
Initially, you will need to select a TDMS file1 for replay.
Click the folder icon
under “Recorded Simulation
to Load”. After you have chosen such a file, you will see
information about the training module to which this data
file belongs, a brief description, and the associated
preferences file.
The function of the end-of-track/beginning-of-track
buttons
is to allow easy navigation to the first or
last use of a specific patient parameter set during a
simulation. The cursor in the Event Graph will be placed
in this location so that waveforms and numeric values
can be read off at transitions between different patient
states with ease.
1
The RespiSim-PVI system is capable of providing
training in many aspects of tasks related to patients
treated with ventilator support. The mechanical
ventilation curriculum in respiratory care programs has,
of course, the most tasks with a need for such training.
On the other hand, however, other caregivers, such as
nurses, also have to be trained in the basic handling of
ventilators, as well as in recognizing potentially
dangerous or challenging patient conditions. Scenarios
for teaching those skills are also easily within the scope
of the RespiSim system and it will require only a creative
instructor to implement exercises that will greatly
enhance the depth and speed with which such skills can
be learned. Since the ventilators report alarm limit
settings and alarms, training modules around these
subjects are expected to play an important role already
in the near future.
A TDMS file contains all data to be displayed in RespiSim playback
mode. It is a file in the set of saved files from each simulation, provided the simulation was performed while RespiSim-PVI was
active. The regular waveform files are also saved as usual for a
more detailed look at pressure, volume and flow.
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RespiSim-PVI
Use of RespiSim-PVI with Dedicated Educational Modules
6.2
Use of RespiSim-PVI with
Dedicated Educational Modules
6.2.1 Philosophy of Instructor-Driven Multistage Clinical Simulations
RespiSim-PVI is a component of IngMar Medical’s FiRST
system (Fully integrated Respiratory Simulation
Technology). It employs a specific approach to
immersive simulation described below.
High-level clinical simulations generally have to
accomplish two things simultaneously. While they are
meant to create situations that trainees perceive as
realistic (at least as far as their task-critical aspects are
concerned), they also need to "reign-in" realism to a
degree, in order to make a simulation successful. An
instructor has to be enabled to impart, where needed,
information that the learner needs in order to complete
the challenges successfully. Except for in high-stakes
testing, trainees are not usually left to their own devices
to figure out the solutions to all problems that arise in the
course of the simulation. Particularly in what is called
multi-stage simulations, a mostly successful completion
of each individual stage is necessary for moving on to
the next stage in a meaningful way. RespiSim modules
therefore are structured in such a way as to strike a
balance between the flexibility of conducting the
simulation and this need for controlled outcomes at each
stage.
6.2.2 Role of the Instructor
92
In order to facilitate this type of simulation philosophy,
RespiSim-PVI offers a number of tools for instructors and
students.
The introductory (cognitive learning) component of each
RespiSim module is intended to provide educators with
a ready-made, learning management system-compatible
presentation of basic concepts. It is called the Scenario
Concept Presentation. The presentation can take the
form of a PowerPoint presentation, an animationenhanced lecture or similar forms, that can be enhanced
by instructors to include specific quizzes or the like. It is
expected that students are exposed to the material before
being admitted to the simulation class itself. This
material is provided to optimize the efficacy of the
valuable time spent in the simulation lab.
There is, with each RespiSim module, also an Instructor
Scenario Guide, a pdf worksheet outlining the learning
objectives, a case description, the rationale for the
separate stages, and details on the settings for ventilator
and patient model, similar to what is found in the
software module itself (Instructor Dashboard). This
instructor worksheet might also contain suggestions for
debriefing questions
As part of the module package included are also files for
x-rays as well as lung and heart sounds (where
applicable). Also loaded with the each module are
compilations of ABG results and lab results for each
stage. These file can be played/presented as part of the
Vital Signs Monitor by student request and under
instructor control.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Specifically, RespiSim modules are "instructor-driven".
The educator stays in control of the unfolding events at
all times. Each stage of a simulation (labeled "Change
Event" in the Instructor Dashboard) is divided into a set of
possible scenarios which are based on likely choices
made by the student. Associated with these choices of
ventilatory treatment are patient vital signs that could be
expected given the ventilation that this patient now
receives (manifest in the columns on an Instructor
Dashboard page). The instructor has the responsibility to
classify the student choices and to adjust, when needed,
a patient parameter to perhaps emphasize a particular
effect that might be critical to get across as a significant
learning objective. The patient responses are thus not
based on physiological modeling, but rather expose the
medical expertise of the instructor and the authors of the
training modules.
As far as the progression of a simulation is concerned,
the instructor is not relegated to a passive role, leaving
everything to physiological models that work out the
patient’s response. Rather, he or she has an active role as
educator at all times, with the ability to make changes to
patient response "on-the-fly".
6.2.3 Instructor and Student Aids
RespiSim-PVI
Use of RespiSim-PVI with Dedicated Educational Modules
6.2.4 Running Simulations from RespiSim
Modules
When starting RespiSim on its main interface (see Figure
6-1, page 87), an Instructor Dashboard is
simultaneously opened as an independently floating
window. From the Instructor Dashboard, you can then
load a RespiSim module by clicking on the <Load> key
in the left control area..
Figure 6-10 Load Settings into Instructor Dashboard
NOTE: If RespiSim is not fully licensed in an
installation, you will see the message:
Figure 6-11 License Warning Message
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
In a fully licensed version, an XML-file containing all
pertinent information of the particular RespiSim module,
is loaded.
NOTE: The Instructor Dashboard is the main interface for
an educator from which to control all relevant aspects of
the simulation scenario while the simulation is in
progress.
The Initial Settings tab that is showing first contains
general information about the training module, such as
the location of the training module dashboard file itself,
the file location for the Instructor Scenario Guide and
the Preferences file that is associated with the module.
Additionally, it allows to set and enable the
communications port for attaching an optional OxSim
pulse oximeter simulator.
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RespiSim-PVI
Use of RespiSim-PVI with Dedicated Educational Modules
Figure 6-12 Instructor Dashboard, Initial Settings
The starting patient conditions are listed in a data
column identical to all data for scenario states on the
subsequent Change Event tabs. They are grouped as
follows:
—Ventilator Reference Settings (A)
—Vital Signs Values (B)
—ABG Values (C)
(see Figure 6-13 on the next page)
All parameters are preset in each module but remain
editable, with the exception of RR (respiratory rate),.
Respiratory rate is a function of the patient parameter file
and, where applicable, the ventilator rate.
94
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
6.2.5 Initial Scenario Setting
RespiSim-PVI
Use of RespiSim-PVI with Dedicated Educational Modules
.
At the top of each such column
you can identify the patient
parameter file assigned to the
patient status. The lung model in
use by this patient parameter file
may also be viewed by clicking
on <Show Lung Model>.
Additionally, suggested instructor
actions are accessible via the key
<Show Instructor Actions>.
EKG patterns are selectable from
a drop-down menu in the Vital
Signs Values area.
The purpose of the Ventilator
Reference Settings is to associate
ventilatory treatment specifics
with patient response patterns as
they are laid down in the lung
model, the vital signs, and ABG
and lab values. It is important to
remember that these reference
settings are not controlling the
ventilator but are just intended as
a guide for making it easy to preconfigure a patient response that
involves multiple parameters.
6.2.6 OxSim Pulse Oximeter Simulator
At the bottom of the Initial Setting tab you will see a
control strip for <Pulse OxSim Settings>.
A
B
Figure 6-14 Pulse Oximetry Simulator
C
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 6-13
Dashboard Parameters
NOTE: In the instructor-driven scenario philosophy
implemented in RespiSim (see page 92) it remains the
responsibility of the instructor to identify the clinically
correct patient response and to adjust parameters, where
necessary.
On the Initial Setting tab, you will also find two keys to
make the connection to module-specific preferences,
<Open RespiSim Preferences> and <Load RespiSim
Preferences File>. Each module comes with pre-set
configurations for parameters to be dispayed in the
RespiSim-PVI main window as well as other specifics.
These are set in the Preferences module of RespiSim,
which is covered in "RespiSim Preferences", page 99.
Notably, preferences also control which six parameters
are being displayed in the leftmost area of the Instructor
Dashboard. This selection may be made independently
from the numeric parameters on the main RespiSim-PVI
window.
As part of the RespiSim-PVI system, an optional OxSim®
OX-1Pulse Oximeter Simulator1 can be used. With this
device, the patient response settings for oxygen
saturation (SpO2) that are part of each module stage can
be represented as an optical output and therefore serve
as a ventilator input where this is necessary for a
ventilator’s control and monitoring strategy. The OxSim
communicates directly with the PC via RS-232 (or USB
through the use of an adapter). In the Initial Settings tab
you will select the COM-port to be used on the PC (or
that is assigned to the Serial-to-USB adapter). This setting
is also remembered in each training module file and may
need to be adjusted from its default value depending on
the computer hardware used.
All settings will become active when the <Enable Initial
Setting> key on top of the settings column is clicked.
When a simulation is started, the respective patient
parameter file (vr3-file, -symbol) is used.
In the control area on the left of
the Instructor Dashboard, a
number of keys allow direct
access to frequently used
functions of the system. Please
note that activating the Interactive
Control Panel allows you to
override the patient parameter file
settings so that adjustments can be
made to fine-tune settings as needed. This is also a
1
OxSim is a registered trademark of Pronk Technologies
95
RespiSim-PVI
Use of RespiSim-PVI with Dedicated Educational Modules
convenient way to adjust settings when authoring
RespiSim Modules (see "Virtual Vital Signs Monitor",
page 97). Closing the Instructor Dashboard with the
<Close Panel> key will also close the Vital Signs
Monitor window.
Before closing, you can save any changes you have
made to the multi-stage RespiSim scenario xml-file by
clicking the <Save Settings> key.
6.2.7 Change Event Tabs
The additional tabs on the Instructor Dashboard are
associated with each of the scenario stages, called
"Change Events". After the Intial Settings, four more
stages are possible within a scenario. The columns for
each of the six referenced states are structured in the
same way as in the Initial Settings tab (see Figure 6-13,
page 95).
In addition, Change Events feature a row of keys at the
bottom which allow interaction with complimentary
information, such as sounds, x-rays, and lab results. The
color scheme used (from red to green) is intended to
remind the instructor that the desired state is indicated
by the rightmost column, which is labeled "Optimum
Setting". Please note that not all columns are always
filled in for all RespiSim modules, rather only those are
used that are deemed necessary for covering likely
student responses (manifest in choices for ventilator
settings) .
Of special significance is the <Change Rationale> key in
the right bottom corner of the Instructor Dashboard.
Clicking on this key will present information to the
instructor as to what constitutes sufficient success on a
current Change Event (scenario stage) to move on to the
next Change Event.
The <Show Instructor Actions> key, again, is used to
place contextual help information for instructors within
easy reach.
96
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 6-15 RespiSim Change Events
RespiSim-PVI
Use of RespiSim-PVI with Dedicated Educational Modules
Activation of Change Events and enabling of Instructor
Settings occurs in such a way that it is possible to make
changes to a non-active set of parameters while an
Instructor Setting on a different Change Event is actually
active.
Figure 6-16 Activating Change Events
6.2.8 Virtual Vital Signs Monitor
While the Instructor Dashboard is designed to be viewd
only by instructors, information about patient status is
rendered to students via the virtual Vital Signs Monitor
window (VSM), preferably displayed on a secondary
monitor as a stand-in for a real patient monitor and
visible to the students. The display may also occur
through a "webserver" functionality built into the
application, where the image of the VSM is rendered on
another computer’s screen, an iPad or other tablet
device. The only prerequisite for this feature is that all
devices have to be on the same network
A highlighting band above a Change Event tab
will indicate that this Change Event is
active. The change Event that is open for viewing and
editing will have its tab "highlighted" in white (see Figure
6-16).
NOTE: The active state of a Change Event does not
mean that the lung simulator is running. The start of a
simulation is exclusively controlled by the <Simulation
ON/OFF> switch which is also replicated on the
Instructor Dashboard for convenience.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
You can still use <Pause> at any time to interrupt the use
of the patient parameter file assigned by Change Event
and Instructor Settings and to override with the settings of
the file pause.vr3 (see also "Pausing a Running Script",
page 45).
It is also still possible to use the Interactive Control Panel
(ICP) to adjust the patient’s respiratory behavior.
Changes to settings made via the ICP override the
original patient parameters from the respective Instructor
Settings on the Instructor Dashboard while the ICP is
active. However, these changes are not permanent and
the vr3-file called from within the Instructor Dashboard
does not change. For more information on the use of the
ICP, please see "Running Simulations Using the
Interactive Control Panel (ICP)", page 51).
Figure 6-17 Virtual Vital Signs Monitor
This monitor display shows a single waveform (for EKG)
and the 5 parameters:
—Heart Rate
—Blood Pressure
—Respiratory Rate
—Oxygen Saturation
—end-tidal CO2
This display can be enhanced by the instructor based on
student requests for more information. A pop-out on the
right side of the VSM may show either lab-results, ABG
results, x-rays, or descriptions of lung or heart sounds,
with the ability to play these sounds if there are audio
files associated with the training module.
97
RespiSim-PVI
Use of RespiSim-PVI with Dedicated Educational Modules
Figure 6-18 Vital Signs Monitor: Lab Results
Figure 6-21 Vital Signs Monitor: Playing Lung Sounds
Figure 6-19 Vital Signs Monitor: ABG Values
Figure 6-22 Vital Signs Monitor: X-Rays
The audio files can be associated and pre-screened
before playing from the Instructor Dashboard when
clicking on the <Lung Sounds> or <Heart Sounds> keys.
They are accessed via a standard WindowsMediaPlayer
interface.
98
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 6-20 Vital Signs Monitor: Lung Sounds
RespiSim-PVI
RespiSim Preferences
X-rays may also be displayed in higher resolution ( 600 x
600 pixel) for better image detail.
6.3
RespiSim Preferences
Certain aspects of any RespiSim simulation are
controlled by preference settings that may conveniently
be adjusted througha dedicated Preferences window.
Preferences can be accessed either via a <File> menu
item on the RespiSim main screen, or from the Instructor
Dashboard (Initial Settings) when RespiSim Training
Modules are in use.
Figure 6-23 Vital Signs Monitor: Full Size X-Rays
NOTE: While students have the ability to close the popouts, it is the privilege of the insructor to make them
available to the students. A verbal request for additional
information is usually the trigger for making the pop-outs
visible.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Students have the ability to close the VSM via the
extended orange <Close Vital Signs Monitor> key on the
bottom of the window.
Figure 6-24 RespiSim: Open Preferences
Each RespiSim module has its own set of preferences,
but such preferences can also be invoked for simulations
that are not based on a RespiSim Module but rather
represent an ad-hoc training configuration. Aside from
defining parameters to be displayed, colors of the
numerical display fields and the location of the RespiSim
patient model file inventory are captured here.
The RespiSim Preferences window has three tabs for
creating settings.
—Parameters
—Event Graph
—Module
In addition, it also features a shortcut to load the
associated Instructor Dashboard if the set of preferences
was a part of a RespiSim Training Module (purple <Load
RespiSim Instructor Dashboard>. key, see Figure 6-25).
99
RespiSim-PVI
RespiSim Preferences
.
The Event Graphs preferences are managed by checking
boxes in front of selected breath parameters grouped as
Alarm Events, Scans, and Simulation Markers.
Under the heading "Alarm Events" you typically find
ventilator generated parameters that will leave an
extended (latched) mark in the upper part of the Event
Graph while the alarm is activate.
"Scans" are marked for both the automatic retrieval of
ventilator data, which occurs every 20 or 30 s during a
simulation, and the "manual" or student scans that occur
during a simulation incorporating training of charting.
"Simulation Markers" can be freely assigned a label and
also provide the opportunity of text entry during the
simulation from the Event Markers window (see
"Simulation Event Markers", page 101).
Figure 6-25 RespiSim: Module Preferences
In the Module tab, you can find or enter information
about the file location for "Module Inventory", a field for
a description of the educational module, and the
location of the preferences file itself (*.rsp) (see Figure 625, page 100).
100
Figure 6-27 RespiSim: Numeric Parameters Preferences
NOTE: It is always possible to display an additional
parameter even after the simulation has taken place,
since all parameters from the ventilator and the ASL are
recorded during a simulation, even if they are not
included in the list of parameteres from the preferences.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 6-26 RespiSim: Event Graph Preferences
The "Parameters" selection allows to assign up to 18
individual parameters for display on the main RespiSim
screen. They can be color-coded to suit the needs of
specific training modules or, for example, based on the
origin of the data (ASL, ventilator, Vital Signs Monitor). It
is recommended to limit the display of numerical
parameters to those essential to the learning objectives
of the simulation.
RespiSim-PVI
Marking of Events
6.4
Marking of Events
Events are used to highlight special points in time or
blocks of time, and assist an instructor in debriefing a
simulation session. Three different types of markers are
distinguished in the RespiSim environment, Alarm
Events, Scans, and Simulation Event Markers.
Alarm Events are typically defined as latching markers,
and the mark becomes an extended bar across the graph
for the duration of the event being active.
6.4.1 Alarm Events
Figure 6-29 RespiSim: Marking of Simulation Events
The text entered into the fields in the preferences will be
used as the EventMarker key designation (name of the
event). In addition, an instructor may enter notes
associated with the simulation marks during the course
of the simulation scenario.
Figure 6-28 RespiSim: Marking of Alarm Events
Alarm Events are associated with the respective data
channels from ventilators that indicate the presence of a
specific alarm during a simulation.
For this purpose, a small "floating" window can be
opened from the control area of the RespiSim screen
using the <Open Event Markers> key. It will stay on top
on the instructor’s screen as long as it is open.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
NOTE: The timing accuracy for ventilator data is limited
to the frequency of autoscans, which has to take into
account the data transmission capabillities of the specific
ventilator. A new update usually occurs approximately
every 20 to 30 seconds.
It is the responsibility of the user to verify that the
channel parameters sused for specific alarms are chosen
appropriately for the ventilator used in the simulation,
and that it will be triggered under the alarm conditions
designed for the scenario.
All events of the "Alarms" category are latching alarms,
which means that they will create a colored line in the
Event Graph as long as the alarm condition persists.
6.4.2 Simulation Event Markers
Manually invoked event markers can be defined either
as latching or as non-latching marks, depending on the
assigned meaning of an event. Momentary (nonlatching) markers are used for things like “intubation
completed” or “student noticed high pressure alarm”.
A latching event has a duration, where the first click on
the button on the Event Markers window activates the
marker, and a second click deactivates it again.
Figure 6-30 Comments for Simulation Events
Texts must be entered before a specific key is pressed to
make the comment part of the entry. During debriefing,
these entries become visible when "hovering" with the
cursor over the line that represents the entry in the Event
Graph (Event graph zoomed in). A latching mark is
indicated by a green highlighted field on the right.
It is recommended to follow a consistent scheme for
colors of the individual marks. Examples of such a
scheme can be found in the preferneces for the initial
training odules supplied with the RespiSim system.
RespiSim-PVI
Authoring Training Modules
6.5
Authoring Training Modules
A special bulletin and other information (style guides
and templates) can be made available for individuals
who are interested in authoring RespiSim training
modules. Please contact IngMar Medical for details.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
102
Test Automation Interface
TAI Overview
7
Test Automation Interface
IngMar Medical Ltd. has developed an interface for the
ASL5000 Breathing Simulator, which will provide the
end user with the capacity to incorporate the ASL 5000
into automation testing. This server software will run
independently from the ASL software and provides a
command-based interface for the ASL control. The
server will run in the background with a visible icon in
the Windows task bar notification area. It can be
accessed remotely or locally by connecting to a TCP/IP
port and sending ASCII formatted commands. For
controlling the ASL(s) the server will open the ASL
software in “hidden mode” which prevents unwanted
user interference through the graphical interface (GUI) of
the ASL software.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
7.1
TAI Overview
Figure 7-1 Test Automation Interface
The GUI can still be made visible if needed. The TAI
server also has the capacity to run multiple instances of
ASL systems through additional copies of the ASL
Software package on the same CPU running the
server.The remote interface will directly communicate
with the ASL software. Third party users can create
external applications in any independent language (C#,
C++, VB, LabVIEW, etc.) to communicate with the
server protocol via TCP connection. It is also possible to
use an existing Telnet client (e.g. PuTTY) to connect to
the server. Furthermore, a server internal terminal with
script editor will be developed (future) for the creation
and execution of predefined command scripts. For more
information or the full specification of this API, please
contact IngMar Medical.
Using ASL Utilities
Using the File Translation Utility
8
Using ASL Utilities
The Utilities Selector, or UtiliChoice window provides
access to a number of file translation and processing
modules as well as to examples for the External Input
Provider (EIP) interfacing that has been further developed
into our Test Automation Interface debuting in software
3.4.
8.1
Using the File Translation Utility
For reasons of speed and reduced file size, data
generated with the ASL host software is saved in binary
format.
To make this data available to other software
(spreadsheets, etc), a file translation utility is provided. It
opens by clicking the <Initialize File Translation> button
(top green key)and performs a summary translation of
either a single data set or, alternatively, of a whole
directory of captured data. You may also choose to
manually select an individual file (as opposed to a
complete data set).
The following file extensions are used in the ASL data
files and will be processed with this utility (the last letter
of the extension is used to label either binary (b) or ASCII
(a) files).
binary
*.brb÷
*.dtb ÷
*.rwb÷
*.avb÷
*.ain ÷
ASCII
*.brabreath parameter data file
*.dta processed breath waveform data file
*.rwahigh resolution raw waveform data file
*.avamodel parameter file
*.ain log file
Figure 8-2 Utilities: File Conversion
Clicking on any of the blue keys on the top of the
window opens a file dialog for choosing the file (set) or
directory to be processed.
When translating files using the <Advanced> option, it is
the responsibility of the user to properly assign
extensions. In this case, it is strongly recommended to
follow the file naming convention for the ASCII-files
generated shown in the list above with respect to their
extensions.
104
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 8-1 Utilities Selector
Using ASL Utilities
Using the Pressure Profile Resampling Utility
8.2
Using the Pressure Profile
Resampling Utility
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The Chest Wall Modeling option of "user defined"
muscle pressure profile (or "user defined" flow profile in
SmartPump mode, see page 141) often requires a
reprocessing of available profiles (e.g. from a patient
flow profile). Data to be used has to be presented at a
512 Hz sample rate, which is typically a higher rate than
that used by patient monitors, for example. The Pressure
Profile Resampling Utility allows you to manipulate such
data sets in the time domain as well as multiplying them
with a gain factor. The utility includes a batch processing
feature that allows efficient processing of a large number
of these files at once.
Figure 8-3 Pressure Flow Resampling Utility
First, the profile(s) to be processed is/are selected from an
input directory, to which you can navigate from a
standard browse dialog window. There, assumed
original and desired new sample rates are entered (512
Hz as default). Data sample rates of flow measuring
devices typically sample at much lower rates and
entering the actual value of sampling as "Original
SampleFrequency" will preserve the time-domain
characteristics of the data by interpolating up to the 512
Hz needed for operating the simulator at its highest
fidelity. Additionally, a gain factor other than 1 may be
chosen. This allows for scaling of patient efforts or
tuning of flow profiles to meet a specific tidal volume
requirement
If, for example, data for a patient flow profile was
collected in L/s, then a gain factor of 60 must be used to
obtain the correct flow rate from the simulator (L/min). If
data needs to be inverted, a negative gain factor may
also be used.
The new profile may then be saved under a new name
via the dialog box that opens once the "Resample" key
has been clicked.
105
Using ASL Utilities
Using the Patient Flow Data Processor
8.3
Using the Patient Flow Data
Processor
This utility is essentially an extension of the Pressure
Profile Resampling Utility. Whenever a long patient flow
data set needs to be played back in SmartPump mode,
this utility can automatically create a script of vr3-files
using segments of the flow data, each of which is a few
seconds in length.
The utility allows to extract the flow data from ASCII
files, as well as files saved as EDF (European Data
Format).
EDF files typically will contain several parameter traces
as well as headers (column labels). It is the user’s
responsibility to properly select the column of data
representing flow. The user must also determine the
number of rows to be skipped at the beginning of a data
file for the purpose of excluding headers included with
the file.
106
"Offset" is used to compensate for bias in the original
data. Flow sensors typically will not produce a signal
that, when integrated over a longer period of time,
would produce a perfectly neutral volume. Over time,
this would lead to an unacceptable "out-of-bounds"
volume condition for the simulator. TEsting a script in
Demo Mode (no physical simulator attached) will allow
to determine the amount of that bias (as L/min). With the
proper offset in place, simulation runs over extended
periods of time should show a volume that returns to
baseline
The file naming process assigns to the var-files names
that use the base file name of the flow data file, extended
with the number of the segment in the script. The
resulting script may be inspected using the Script Editor
and Simulation Editor.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 8-4 Patient Flow Data Processor
Using ASL Utilities
Using the Extended Input Provider (EIP) Interfacing Examples
8.4
Using the Extended Input Provider
(EIP) Interfacing Examples
The Extended Input Provider (EIP) interfacing concept is
intended to provide users with easy methods for adding
functionality to the ASL 5000 host software. Specifically,
when using external data collection and testing systems,
it might become desirable to manipulate a running
simulation model via external software.
8.4.2 Using EIP Example 2
The second example of the EIP duplicates the
functionality of Example 1, however with two
independent *.vr3-files that may be used alternately.
The examples included with the compiled ASL 5000
software and described below can be used to explore
some of the possibilities provided with the EIP concept,
which is more fully developed in the Test Automation
Interface (see "Test Automation Interface", page 103).
8.4.1 Using EIP Example 1
The first example of the EIP provides you with an easy
way to insert an individual breath out of a script
sequence.
Figure 8-6 EIP: Alternate Breath Insertion
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Two separate *.vr3-files may be selected using the
"Browse" keys on the window. The breaths defined by
the *.vr3-files A and B can be inserted into a running
script (<Insert Breath>) at will or appended to a script
with "Add Breath". In addition, the simulation may be
started and stopped from this window, as in Example 1.
Figure 8-5 EIP: Simple Breath Insertion
A *.var or *.vr3-file is selected using the <Browse>
button in the window. The breath defined by the *.vr3file showing in the box "Path to .vr3 File" can be inserted
into a running script ("Insert Breath") or be appended to a
script with "Add Breath". In addition, the simulation may
be started and stopped from this window, duplicating
functionality from the Central Run Time Window.
NOTE: "End EIP" will close the window and end the EIP
module, but will not otherwise affect a running
simulation.
107
Using ASL Utilities
Using the Extended Input Provider (EIP) Interfacing Examples
8.4.3 Using EIP Example 3
Example 3 introduces the concept of closed-loop control
of breath activity. The value Pmax of a simulation
parameter file (which will need to include spontaneous
breathing) is manipulated by this module in such a way
as to maintain a target tidal volume Vt.
The two history windows provide information on the
values of Vt and Pmax values, respectively, over the
course of the entire simulation.
When determining a new value for Pmax, the control
will not exceed the thresholds set in "Upper Limit" and
"Lower Limit".
The proportional gain factor of the PID-control loop may
also be set to a different value by the user in order to
improve performance of the controller.
NOTE: The functionality of EIP Example 3 is essentially
the same as that accessible in the Interactive Control
Panel, (see "Closed Loop Vt Tab", page 55.
8.4.4 Using EIP Example 4 (Remote Control)
EIP example 4 demonstrates how an ASL 5000 can be
remotely controlled via the TCP/IP connection.
The respective IP address and port number for the
remote LabVIEW process are entered into the dialog box
that opens. The port number is defined in the lines of the
initialization file
ASL Software 3.2.0.ini,
for example: server.tcp.port=3364
Figure 8-7 EIP: Closed-Loop Vt
This can be used beneficially in a situation where the
task is to demonstrate the change in patient respiratory
work, for example when ventilator support is added.
Assume that, after running a simulation in steady state
(with Vt matching the Vt target), Vt is increased via
ventilatory support. Now the EIP module will attempt to
control Pmax down so that the resulting Vt will again
match the target Vt. For the purpose of the control, a
PID-loop is used.
In the file selection ("Browse" key in the upper part of the
window), you need to enter the currently running *.var
or *.vr3-file.
NOTE: Do not use a *.var or *.vr3-file with time-varying
parameters, where Pmax is actually varied over time.
This would cause a conflict of control.
108
Figure 8-8 EIP: Remote Control
For more detailed instructions on this topic, please see
also the respective ASL 5000 Application Note and "Test
Automation Interface", page 103.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
"Localhost" means that the "remote" ASL host process is
actually running locally, i.e. on the same PC as the
caller. In the subsequent window, the connection that
has been established will be showing and start and stop
commands can be issued to synchronize, for example,
two ASL Breathing Simulators.
TCP/IP Data Broadcast
Breath Parameter Broadcast
9
TCP/IP Data Broadcast
9.1
Breath Parameter Broadcast
It is possible to "broadcast" or stream the breath
parameter data (the content of the brb-file) to a listening
client on the network.
A demonstration application1 (TCP Breath Client.exe) is
included with the host software as a separate executable.
In order to establish a connection, you need to launch
this application (after copying it to the PC you want to
act as a client or "listener"), and then enter the correct
server name (the network address of the PC running the
ASL host software). The port used to connect to the
server (the PC running the ASL host software) is port
6342.
Figure 9-1 TCP Breath Client
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
9.2
Waveform Broadcast
Similarly, waveforms are made available on the network
via port 6343 for all raw volume and pressure data. The
demonstration application for a listening client is TCP
Waveform Client.exe, also included in the ASL host
software installation. Copy this executable to the PC on
which you plan to observe the waveforms and you can
see the plots for all parameters listed (see Figure 9-2).
For pre-configuration of the TCP clients, please refer to
"TCP Broadcast Configuration" on page 61.
1
Other TCP/IP listening applications may be developed by users in
different programming environments.
Figure 9-2 TCP Waveform Client
109
Options
Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module (SBLVM)
10 Options
10.1 Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve
Module (SBLVM)
The Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module (SBLVM)
is an accessory intended to be used when connecting
ventilators to the ASL 5000.
A typical problem of using a simulator with most
ventilators is that various alarms are likely to be triggered
on the ventilator when no simulation is running.
With the SBLVM connected (see diagram below), an
electromagnetic valve bypasses the simulator while no
simulation is running and allows the ventilator to use the
attached breathing bag or test lung. At the beginning of a
simulation, the valve shuts off so that only the ventilator
and simulator are connected.
The SBLVM connections are female 15 mm ISO ports.
The test lung and the connecting circuit piece are
attached with 22/15 mm adapters to the SBLVM.
Please refer to the diagram below for the proper
connections.
Figure 10-1 Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module
110
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 10-2 SBLVM Schematics
Options
Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module (SBLVM)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The second feature of the SBLVM is that it allows you to
set 3 different sizes of leaks. This feature can be used to
simulate particular patient conditions, such as an ETtube leak. The leak orifices for these settings may be
exchanged for differently sized leak rates. The diagram
below shows the characteristics of leak flow versus
pressure for the standard orifices.
Figure 10-3 SBLVM Orifice Characteristics
111
Options
Using the Cylinder Temperature Controller (CTC)
10.2 Using the Cylinder Temperature
Controller (CTC)
10.3 Using the Fast Oxygen
Measurement Option (FOM)
The PID controller for maintaining wall temperature
inside the cylinder is a unit that operates independently
from the host computer. Therefore, all settings are made
directly on the controller interface on the ASL 5000 and
not in the PC host software.
Figure 10-5Paramagnetic Oxygen Transducer
The FOM-Option consists of a paramagnetic oxygen
sensor with a miniature vane pump for sidestream
measurement of oxygen.
Figure 10-4 Cylinder Temp. Controller Front Panel
As part of the instrument documentation, a separate
Operator's Manual for the temperature PID controller is
enclosed for further reference. You may also contact
IngMar Medical for additional setup documentation, in
case the basic settings of the controller become
inadvertently changed.
112
Figure 10-6 O2 Data at Run Time
NOTE: Please note that no corrections are made in the
breath analysis to adjust for O2-values other than 21%.
Ventilators always include that type of correction for
their flow sensors and should report accurate volumes
independent from the oxygen concentration.
For specifications of the FOM, please see "Technical
Data", page 153..
WARNING !
Fire Hazards related to the use of oxygen:
When using the ASL 5000 with elevated concentrations of oxygen (ventilators set to FiO2 > 21%),
observe all precautions applicable to the use of oxygen
indoors. See also "General Precautions", page 13.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
To change the temperature setting, simply press the
<MENU>-key on the controller, until "SP1" starts
blinking to the left of the set temperature display. To
enter a new temperature value, press the <^/MAX>-key
for changing digits, the <>/MIN>-key for proceeding to
the next digit. After you have finished, press <ENTER>
and the controller will acknowledge that the new value
has been stored.
When decreasing the temperature setting, keep in mind
that the CTC unit cannot actively cool and the decrease
in temperature, therefore, will depend on heat diffusion
to the environment. For this reason, factors such as gas
exchange of the simulator, room temperature, etc. will
determine the lowest possible temperature and the time
it takes to reach a lower temperature.
If this option is installed in
your ASL 5000, simply
click the checkbox in the
ASL Central Run Time tab
window to see the value
of O2 readings.
Options
Using the Auxiliary Gas Exchange Cylinder (AGEC)
Chest Rise Module
10.4 Using the Auxiliary Gas Exchange
Cylinder (AGEC)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The Auxiliary Gas Exchange Cylinder (AGEC) is intended
for situations where it is necessary to work with
substances (aerosols, anesthetic agents, etc.) that are
incompatible with the simulator. It consists of a clear
acrylic cylinder with openings at the top and bottom that
allow it to be used as a "bag-in-bottle" device.
Figure 10-7 Auxiliary Gas Exchange Cylinder
10.5 Chest Rise Module
The ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator can be combined
with Full Scale Patient Simulators, improving the
pulmonary mechanics provided by these simulators for
use with ventilators.
Specifically, an option (Chest Rise Module) has been
developed for use with Laerdal’s SimManTM. The kit
consists of a valve module that can take over the
SimMan’s chest rise, reflecting the amount of volume
that has been applied to the ASL 5000 and making the
movement synchronous with the inhalation/exhalation
effort of the patient model. Please refer to the special
Application Note for details of this setup for both the
classic SimMan as well as SimMan 3G.
Figure 10-8 Setup withManikin
The simulator connects to the female 22mm ISO port at
the base of the AGEC, a second 22 mm port is located on
the top and would normally be routing gas into a bellow
or bag placed inside the AGEC. Inspiration by the
simulator will start to evacuate the space surrounding the
bag or bellow and therefore inflate it. Expiration will
press gas out of the bellow or bag again.
The additional (compressible) volume of the AGEC is
approximately 3 L, therefore adding a parasitary
compliance of 3 mL/cmH2O. This may be compensated
by entering the 3 L as a tubing volume in the simulation
editor compensation settings (see page 36).
Please see also a special Application Note regarding the
AGEC for further details
113
Options
Preemie Lung Cylinder Kit
10.6 Preemie Lung Cylinder Kit
10.6.1 Intended Use
The preemie range cylinder improves volume resolution
of the ASL 5000 by approximately a factor 8 to
approximately 0.2 μL. It is used when simulations are
fully within the range of 200 mL maximum volume and
flow rates below 40 L/min.
CAUTION !
Misalignment of the threads could cause damage to
either the Preemie Cylinder or the ASL main unit!
Fully thread the piston in (until the shoulder ring sits
directly against the brass receptacle). Gently tighten.
Figure 10-10 Installation of Preemie Cylinder
10.6.2 Assembly
10.6.3 Software Adjustments
The piston for the 2.5” cylinder is first attached with its
extension rod to the regular (7”, adult size) piston plate.
Gently screw the assembly into the threaded adapter on
the large piston plate, taking care not to damage the seal
on the small piston. Take the preemie cylinder and slide
it over the 2.5” piston plate from a slight angle, so that
no sharp edge cuts into the seal on the piston. Pull
cylinder all the way towards the threaded inlet of the
ASL and turn clockwise to engage the threads. Be careful
that the threads mate as intended. When turning the
cylinder, only the friction from the kapseal should inhibit
the motion.
After the initial installation of the ASL software on the
host PC, the following adjustments need to be made for
proper functioning of the unit with a neonatal external
cylinder.
— The file ASL5000.vr3 in the \vars\-subdirectory requires a change of the value of URC to 0.10 (instead
of 0.500).
(lung_model) function_residual_capacity (float)
function_residual_capacity =
0.10 ( liters )
NOTE: This change may stay in effect while the
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
114
Figure 10-9 ASL 5000 with Preemie Option Installed
Connect 3-pole Hypertronics plug into the receptacle
marked “External Cylinder Temp.” on top of the ASL
5000. The short cable connecting the internal
temperature sensor (regular "adult/neonatal" cylinder) to
the measuring circuit, should be removed. This will
connect the temperature measurement system to the gas
temperature sensor of the preemie cylinder instead of the
regular sensor on the adult cylinder.
Options
Preemie Lung Cylinder Kit
7” Adult Cylinder is being used.
— Patient parameter files (vr3-files) for use with the Preemie Cylinder should have the value for parasitic dead
space adjusted to 25 mL (instead of 200 mL). Use
Notepad or similar text editor to make the change in
all vr3-files that are going to be used with the Preemie
Cylinder.
physical characteristics of the altered system. As a
general rule, it is the relative size of the piston (area)
rN2/rA2 = 0.12755 that is responsible for the differences.
Please make sure that the line for pressure measurement
is properly reading the pressure from the cylinder that is
in use. Use the stopcock orientation as it is indicated on
the label on the front of the ASL.
(parasitic_constants) cylinder_dead_space (float)
cylinder_dead_space = 0.025 (liters)
10.6.4 Firmware Adjustments
For the proper functioning of the device it is important to
invoke the correct mechanical parameters from an
initialization file in the ASL 5000 CPU. In the directory
c:\lung of the embedded CPU, a file named
ASL5000.DOS is responsible for setting those
parameters. With the two sets of cylinder hardware, two
different files will be used for this purpose.
For use with the 2.5” Preemie Cylinder, the file
c:\lung\ASLNEO25.40
needs to be copied into ASL5000.DOS
Using PuTTY or a similar terminal program on the
COM2 serial port of the ASL 5000 (labeled “Terminal”,
9600-8-N-1), interrupt the program flow with the key
combination Ctrl/C. Switch to the c:\ prompt (type: c:)
and change directories to c:\lung
(type: cd c:\lung)1
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Then execute the command:
copy ASLNEO25.40 ASL5000.DOS
Before use of the ASL 5000 with the standard 7” Adult
Cylinder, perform the copy command using the file
ASLADL70.40 to return to the standard setting:
copy ASLADL70.40 ASL5000.DOS
10.6.5 Operation with Attached
Preemie Cylinder
Please keep in mind that maximum flow rates and
volumes are reduced by approximately a factor of 8
when using the Preemie Cylinder. Patient parameter files
(vr3-files) require settings that are compatible with the
Figure 10-11 Preemie Cylinder: Pressure Line Manifold
CAUTION !
Do not block port of main cylinder while operating the
ASL 5000 with the Preemie cylinder attached. It would
prevent piston motion and could damage the unit!
10.6.6 Unmounting the Preemie Cylinder
Follow the steps of assembly in reverse order.
Before unscrewing the cylinder from the ASL 5000,
detach all lines and cables.
Place all components into the protective case provided
with the kit. Take special care to not damage the piston
seal when handling the parts.
Close the front of the unit with the large aluminum lid
that had to be removed when installing the Preemie
Cylinder. Tighten gently.
CAUTION !
1
When using an ASL 5a000 equipped with the most recent CPU
(Helios), user interface (cosole) redirection first needs to be turned
on. For this purpose, immediately use the <Esc> key to enter BIOS
mode.
Misalignment of the threads could cause damage to
both the lid and/or the ASL main unit!
115
Options
Mobile Cart Option
10.7 Mobile Cart Option
.
Frequently, it is easier to move the simulation to a
location where a ventilator is avilable that students need
to be trained on. A height-adjustable cart for placing the
entire ASL 5000 system is available as an option that will
create a mobile simulation station. The ASL 5000 is
mounted to a tray on the cart, the notebook computer
sits on a shelf with a lockable compartment underneath.
The cart also facilitates mounting a screen (up to a 40"
diagonal or 30 lbs, not included with the cart option)
and is the ideal platform for in situ training, where the
complete training station is brought right into an ICU or
NICU for training staff in small groups or one-on-one.
A screen can be mounted using a standard VESA-mount
100 x 100 mm adapter that is supplied with the cart. For
larger screens an additional adapter may be used that
provides the VESA 200 x 100 mm pattern.
NOTE: Before purchasing a screen, make sure the
model you are selecting supports one of these commonly
used wall-mount standards.
WARNING !
Always observe the load limit of 20 lbs (9 kg) for a monitor
mounted on the cart. An overly top-heavy assembly would
present a risk of tipping and bodily injury.
A surge-protected, 6-outlet power strip for powering all
items on the cart is included in the package.
The two front casters are lockable to prevent inadvertent
roll-away.
CAUTION !
l
l
l
116
Always secure all loose items when moving the
loaded cart.
Make sure simulator is clamped tightly in its tray.
Use special care when rolling over bumps or uneven
surfaces, such as going through elevator doors.
Figure 10-12 ASL Mobile Cart
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The height adjustability allows for a sitting position with
the appropriate height for the notebook keyboard, or a
standing position. The adjustment is operated with a foot
pedal at the front of the base of the cart releasing the
column lock.
Troubleshooting
Common Errors
11 Troubleshooting
11.1 Common Errors
The following conditions are problems that can be easily
identified and remedied by the user.
NOTE: Please also check IngMar Medical’s website
-> FAQ for an expanding list of frequently asked
questions.
Simulator piston does not move:
— At the simulator power entry module, check that power is switched on (light in switch must be lit).
— Verify that the Motor enable/disable switch on the
front panel is not in the disable position (red light must
be OFF after the initial bootup of the system, approximately 15-20s).
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
If light stays on, even after switch is pressed down, this
indicates a software motor disable. The simulator might
have disabled the motor because the simulation
requested a piston position that resulted in an
unacceptable position error (tidal volume too large,
considerable negative pressure applied at the ventilator
connection, acceleration demands exceeding simulator
capabilities, etc.). In order to reset the ASL 5000 in this
case, switch power off, wait a few seconds, then switch
power back on again. The software will also not enable
the motor in case of a failed boot procedure.
Host does not sync up with simulator:
— Check that power is switched on at the simulator
power entry module (switch must light green).
— Power cycle simulator (turn power off, then back on
again), wait until simulator has initialized (approximately 20 seconds after power-up, red light OFF),
then re-try synchronizing the LabVIEW software.
— Check serial cable connection (DB9 connector must
be connected to the COM-port labeled "host" on the
ASL 5000.
— Check that the serial port of the host computer is not
engaged by another application (for example, Hyperterminal). You may also try disabling and re-enabling
the serial port of the PC in the Windows Device Manager. Restart the LabVIEW application
(ASL5000_SW3.2.exe). Restart computer, if necessary,
to free up serial port.
— Verify network connection (Ethernet cable connected
to a "live" network outlet)
Discrepancies between traces for "Lung Model" and
"Piston" in Runtime Flow and Volume charts:
Situations that exceed the dynamic capabilities of the
simulator can be identified by the fact that noticeable
differences exist between the two traces for "Piston" and
"Lung Model" (in a one compartment model) for flow
and volume charts.
Charts do not seem representative of the simulator
behavior (e.g. during HF ventilation):
The screen updating of the chart in the ASL Run Time
module is considerably less detailed than the data
collection rate for the raw data file. Only every 10th to
60th data point is actually displayed (dependent on the
choice of <Chart Length>, see "Display Options of the
Central Run Time Window" on page 45). It is intended
for general orientation only and not for strict data
analysis. Looking at the Data Display views accessed
from the ASL Analysis Module (with waveform data
saving turned on) will show any details that might not
have been visible in the real-time charts of the ASL Run
Time Module.
Dissynchrony between calculated and "piston" flows
and volumes in Runtime charts:
Serial communication is not able to download the new
pressure profile for a breath in the time it had available.
This might happen if you switch from a faster to a
significantly slower breath rate. To prevent time
constraints at higher bpm, the simulator actually places
several breath profiles into one "breath", (see page 138).
However, when a longer profile needs to be
downloaded for an upcoming slow rate while the
simulator is still operating at a higher rate, dissynchrony
is possible. Inserting a parameter file segment containing
just one breath of an in-between rate can be used to
prevent this.
SmartPump models result in motor disable
(red light ON):
When using SmartPump mode, the pressure profile acts
as a flow or volume profile, calibrated in L/min or L,
respectively. For volume pumps, numerical values have
to be very small compared to regular models. Excessive
volumes will exceed the physical capabilities of the
simulator and therefore might cause a motor disable.
Use values < 2.1 L when operating with a residual
volume of 0.5 L (the default setting for URC).
In this case, the piston was not able to follow the
required movement fast enough and maintained a higher
speed for a longer time to compensate for the effect.
In such situations, it will be necessary to return to model
parameters and/or conditions that are within the
dynamic range of the simulator system.
117
Maintenance
Instrument Identification
12 Maintenance
12.1 Instrument Identification
Please refer to the separate maintenance manual for
details about maintenance for the ASL 5000.
When inquiring about maintenance, please have the
following reference information available. This label can
also be found on the bottom of the instrument as well as
in the maintenance manual.
12.2 Service and Calibration Intervals
While it is not always necessary, depending on the type
of use of the instrument, to mandate specific calibration
intervals, users in research and development facilities,
especially those operating under some regulatory
framework, will find the following guidelines helpful
Service
Interval
Leak Test
=
every month*
Calibration
Check
=
yearly
Recalibration
=
if Calibration Check determines
that sensor is out of spec.
Seal Exchange
=
based on leakage rate
determined by Leak Test
=
*more frequently if indicated by continuous
use of the instrument or by good scientific
practice
For details about avaiIable service subscriptions or
extended warranty plans, please contact IngMar Medical
Customer Care at
1-800-683-9910, or
+1 (412) 441-8228 ext. 107
or e-mail to
[email protected]
Figure 12-1 ASL 5000 Component Serial Numbers
From the file e_log.txt (to be found in the main
installation directory), as well as via the <Maintenance>
key on the Full Choice Welcome window, the user can
check the status between service intervals.
Example:
odometer.install_date = 09-09-11
odometer.leadscrew_revs = 170749
odometer.simulation_secs = 101807
odometer.piston_cycles = 12520
As a reference, 250,000 revolutions of the spindle equal
1 km of piston travel (relevant for the life of the piston
seal). 1000 hrs of operation equals 3.6 x 106 seconds.
Ventilation at a rate of 15 bpm, with 500 mL tidal
volume (that is, a MV of 7.5 L/min) generates
approximately 18 km of piston travel in 1000 hours or
4.5 x 108 leadscrew revolutions.
118
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Newer versions of firmware in the ASL 5000 instrument
(4.6.n and higher) also keep track of spindle revolutions,
accumulated time of simulation runs, and breath cycles,
like the odometer in a car.
Maintenance
32-Bit Firmware Upgrade Procedure
12.3 32-Bit Firmware Upgrade
Procedure
For ASL 5000 units with firmware prior to 4.6.nn
(software versions up to SW 3.0) the embedded
controller software in the instrument will need to be
upgraded. The following instructions do not apply to
devices that have been delivered with or have been
already upgraded to a version of SW 3.1 or higher, i.e., a
firmware of 4.6.nn or higher. For upgrading firmware on
these units you may directly proceed to "Standard
Upgrade of Firmware", page 121.
NOTE: The information in this section is also duplicated
as a separate file Firmware Update.pdf in the ..\ASL
Software 3.4\documentation\ subdirectory after
installation of the software on the PC.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
12.3.1 Background
Since newer firmware uses 32-bit code (as opposed to
the older 16-bit variety) and in order to allow end-users
themselves to perform the upgrade, a two-step process is
being used. In an initial step, a 32-bit service version of
the firmware is installed that then can reliably load the
full new installation of current firmware after a restart of
the ASL. For the purpose of upgrading the firmware, a
connection needs to be established to an ASL with older
firmware first. Therefore, it is mandatory that a file
lungdll.dll (dynamic link library) is used that is
compatible with the older protocol of communication.
Different versions are included for the upgrade
procedure and can be chosen during the 32-bit prep
step, based on the version known to be installed in the
device. Other details of communication settings
adjustments are automatically managed during the 32bit upgrade preparation.The firmware upgrade includes
also an hours and revolution counter for the motor drive
of the ASL that can be used to better estimate the
required service intervals (see "Service and Calibration
Intervals", page 118).
The ball screw pitch can be read from the label on the
bottom of the ASL. In machines ser. no. < 0900 the pitch
was 2.5 mm, in machines with ser. no. > 0900, the pitch
is indicated as 4 mm or 2.5 mm with 4 mm the standard.
NOTE: Please note that this upgrade is limited to
devices with serial numbers above 0800, which use a
newer CPU. Please contact IngMar Medical about CPU
hardware upgrade options for older devices.
NOTE: The versions of the embedded and host
executables can be obtained from the entries in a log.txtfile after a run of the previously installed simulation
software (3.0, 2.0)
12.3.3 Preparation for 32-bit Firmware
When launching the newly installed software 3.2 on the
host PC, you have the option to launch the 32-bit
preparation both via Ethernet or serial (RS-232)
connection. Click on the type of connection you have.
12.3.2 Firmware Upgrade Preparation
Before performing the full upgrade (starting with the 32bit prep), please make sure you have the following
important pieces of information available:
— ballscrew pitch (4 mm, current default, or 2.5 mm).
— ball screw length (4.3” standard, 7.3” for longer 5 or
6L models)
— cylinder diameter (7” standard)
— lungdll.dll -version used with the device
Figure 12-2 32-bit Firmware Prep. - Startup
119
Maintenance
32-Bit Firmware Upgrade Procedure
The window that opens will allow you to adjust some of
the parameters in the configuration file of the firmware
so that they match the mechanical properties of the lung
simulator that you are upgrading. In most cases, no
adjustments will be necessary. Exceptions are units that
have been custom-configured, for example with a nonstandard cylinder assembly (5 or 6 L units). Use the
information that you had prepared before you began the
upgrade procedure.
When finished, press the OK-button to proceed.
The next window (Upload Software Verification) will
confirm that communication has been established and
indicate the firmware version currently installed and dll
version being used on the host:
Figure 12-5 32-bit Firmware Prep. - Revision Info
Figure 12-3 32-bit Firmware Prep. - ASL Configuration
Continue by clicking the “PREP for 32-bit” button and
choose “Upload” in the subsequent window.
CAUTION !
The choices of dll to use for communicating with the
ASL 5000 should accommodate most units in the field. If
your ASL has a firmware that is older than May of 2006
(4.4.14), you can still try to use that dll for
communication. If that remains unsuccessful, please
contact IngMar Medical for assistance with the upgrade .
Figure 12-4 32-bit Firmware Prep. - Selecting DLL
120
Figure 12-6 32-bit Firmware Prep. - Upload Prep Fware
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The values you enter at this point will be transferred to
the ASL 5000 firmware and be used for all operations of
the system. Incorrect choices of these parameters will
lead to inaccurate data and/or malfunction of the
device.
Maintenance
Standard Upgrade of Firmware
Confirm the reminder:
12.4 Standard Upgrade of Firmware
Switch power to simulator off, and, after waiting a few
seconds, back on.
NOTE: If the unit had just been prepared for 32-bit
firmware, the red motor enable/disable switch on the
front of the ASL will not go off after 20 seconds, as it
usually would. This may be used as an indication that
the unit is under control of the service firmware.
Figure 12-7 32-bit Firmware Prep. - Disconnect Warning
In some cases, you might see an error message even after
the upload has been successfullly completed. You may
ignore this message and confirm with OK.
(Re-)launch the host software 3.4 on your PC and select
operation with the simulator via Ethernet or
RS-232 from the full choice menu.
Close the ASL software application on the host PC, if
necessary, exit the ASL application manually.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
This completes the 32-bit preparation. The ASL simulator
has now been loaded with a 32-bit service firmware that
will enable a standard load/upgrade in the next step.
Figure 12-8 Standard Firmware Upgrade
121
Maintenance
Standard Upgrade of Firmware
The following window will appear (again)..
NOTE: After having performed a 32-bit prep, this is an
indication that the service firmware has now been
replaced by regular firmware. If the "Upload New
Software" window appears again, the firmware upgrade
was not successful and you will have to repeat the last
procedure.
Figure 12-9 Standard Firmware Upgrade - Confirm
Select the “Upload...” option, and confirm the next
window.
Figure 12-10 Standard Firmware Upgrade - Disconnect
Warning
Confirm the final message:
Figure 12-11Standard Firmware Upgrade - Restart Notice
The software will close automatically.
Switch power to simulator off, and, after waiting a few
seconds, back on. Verify that the red motor enable/
disable switch on the front of the ASL will now go off
again after 20 seconds, as it usually would.
122
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
The upload process is completed after less than a minute
using RS-232, Ethernet is considerably faster.
Maintenance
Schematic Overview
12.5 Schematic Overview
SBLVM
(Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module)
One-way
valve
Test lung
Solenoid
valve
Mech.
leak valve
2
1
3
0
Optical limit switches
Brushless DC Motor
w/ encoder
Ventilator
PWM power
Hall signals
COM1 COM1
COM2
COM2
(Host) (Terminal)
Ethernet
Press. cal.
switch valve
SIM
ON
gr
Differential
press. transducer
-40...110 cm H2O
Brushless
motor amplifier
5/10 A, 55V
Motor
Control
Signal
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Barometric
press. transducer
yl
Enc.
signal
486 133 MHz CPU
16-bit A/D converter
2kHz motion
controller
O2 sample
pump
Fast
paramagnetic
O2 transducer
CAL
ON
Press. transducer
CAL signal
Simulation ON
signal
Thermolinear network thermistor
Universal input
switching power supply
+ 5V, ± 12 V
I/O
Mod.
Systems
interconnect
board
Universal input
switching power supply
+48 V
Figure 12-12 Schematic Overview ASL 5000 System
123
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
13 Theory of Operation
For the airway:
(pAO – pPL) = υL/CL + RAW ύL
13.1 Introduction to Ventilatory
Mechanics1
For the purposes of this discussion, the ventilatory system
is subdivided into the pulmonary system and the chest
wall. The pulmonary system comprises the lungs, usually
two, and their associated airways leading to the airway
opening – the mouth and nares. The chest wall
comprises all of the passive extrapulmonary mechanical
structures that participate in the production of a breath.
These include the rib cage – the ribs, sternum, and spinal
column – and the respiratory muscles – among them, the
diaphragm, intercostals, abdominals, and scalene – in
their tonic state. Thus, as used here, the ventilatory
system encompasses all the passive mechanical
properties involved in breathing, e.g., compliances,
resistances, and so forth.
On the other hand, there are two prime movers that
drive the ventilatory system, and its components. The
first are the forces produced by the active contraction of
the respiratory muscles in support of ventilation. (These
do not include the forces produced by these muscles in
support of posture or mobility etc.) The second prime
mover is the pressure difference between airway opening
and the body surface, (pAO – pBS). This can be controlled
by a mechanical ventilator.
The mechanical behavior of the ventilatory system in
response to these driving forces can be described
mathematically by relations among pressure differences
across the system, volume changes of the system, and
their respective rates of change.
(1)2
For the chest wall:
(pPL – pBS) + Δpmus = υL/ CW
(2)1
We follow the convention that a positive pressure
difference produces expansion of the lungs. Likewise,
expansion of the lungs is positive; deflation is negative.
Changes in esophageal pressure, pES, that can be
measured clinically, are considered equivalent to
changes in pleural pressure, and are substituted for
them.
NOTE: The patient effort as used in the ASL software
environment (plots and pressure profiles) is pictured as
the negative value of Δpmus with the intention of creating
more clearly distinguishable plots.
Governing Equation
Normal lungs, together, act, primarily, as a single,
pneumatic, visco-elastic compartment. This implies their
mechanical properties are uniformly distributed across
both lungs. Figure 13-1 shows a flow-resistive airway
leading to a single, representative, elastic lung
compartment, contained within a distensible shell
representing the chest wall. The lung and chest wall are
separated by a thin intrapleural space.
The governing equation for this configuration can be
developed by considering each component individually.
2
1
124
This section authored by Frank P. Primiano, Jr.,
Even in normal lungs, these relations may be more accurately
portrayed as non-linear. However, a first approximation as a linear
system has been found to be extremely useful, clinically.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
13.1.1 Normal Lungs
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
Besides the airway resistance, RAW, and the total
compliance, Ctot, another mechanical property of
importance is their product, called the time constant,
τtot :
τtot = RAW Ctot
(6)
pAO
RAW
CW
CL
The time constant is a measure of how long it takes the
lungs to deflate to FRC after the total effective pressure
difference that is maintaining an inspiratory hold is
instantaneously reduced to zero.
pBS
(+) L
L
mus
pBS
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 13-1
A one-compartment ventilatory system
in which...
pAO
is the change in pressure at the airway opening
pBS
is the change in pressure on the body surface
is the change in pressure within the intrapleural
pPL
space
∆pmus is the change in the net force produced by the
respiratory muscles expressed as an equivalent
pressure difference; often called muscle pressure
difference
υL
is change in lung volume
ύL
is rate of change in lung volume, interchangeably
referred to as flow
CL, CW is lung compliance, and chest wall compliance,
respectively
R
is resistance of the pulmonary system; sometimes
called airway resistance or RAW
Thus, equation (2) can be rearranged, and written:
(3)
Δpmus = – [(pES – pBS) – υL/ CW]
Combining equations (1) and (2), we obtain the
governing equation for a single compartment ventilatory
system:
Δptot = (pAO – pBS) + Δpmus = υL/Ctot + RAW ύL
4)
in which ∆ptot is the total effective pressure difference
driving the ventilatory system, and, Ctot, the total system
compliance, is given by
Ctot = CLCW/(CL + CW)
(5)
Equation (4) describes a single-compartment system with
a single degree of freedom. The salient characteristic of a
single-degree-of-freedom system is that it can be
characterized by a single time constant. Clinically, this
implies that both lungs, when simultaneously subjected
to the same pressure difference, will inflate and deflate
in unison.
Normal lungs exhibit age- and stature-appropriate values
for RAW, Ctot and ?tot. For a non-apneic patient on a
ventilator, equation (4) shows that the pressure
difference driving the system has two components, as
previously described: the physical pressure difference
across the system that can be manipulated by the
ventilator, and the equivalent pressure difference
produced by active contraction of the respiratory
muscles.
Figure 13-2 shows example wave shapes that could
result from a normal ventilatory system driven by a
ventilator (assisted breaths) and the respiratory muscles.
The Work of Breathing
The work done on a pneumatic system as its
components are moved relative to one another is the
product of the pressure difference driving the
movements, and the change of volume resulting from
the movements. This can be written as
wAB = ∫Δpmus dυ
(7)
where wAB is the work done going from volume A to
volume B
∆p is the pressure difference across the system
dυ is the differential volume
and the integral along the path from A to B on the
Δp-υ plane.
For the ventilatory system, for an entire breath numbered
N, this can be written:
Vee(N)⌠
| Δptot dυL
wBR(N) =
(8)
Vee(N-1) ⌡
125
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
where Vee(N)and Vee(N-1) are the end-expiratory
volumes for breaths N and N-1, respectively.
where Vei is end-inspiratory volume, and VT is tidal
volume. In this way, we can separately compute the
work of the ventilator, wventI(N), and the work of the
respiratory muscles, wmusI(N), during inspiration.
We can also substitute the extreme right hand terms of
equation (4) into equation (7) to yield:
wI(N) = ∫(υL/CL + RAW ύL)dυL
=∫ υLL/CL)dυL + ∫RAW ύLdυL
= welI(N) + wresI(N)
(10)
Thus, the work stored in the elastic components of the
ventilatory system, welI(N), can be separated from the work
dissipated, or lost, in the resistive components, wresI(N).
These ideas are illustrated graphically on Figure 13-3, a
∆p-υL plot of the data of Figure 13-2. We can see that,
except for the initial pressure drop in curve (a), required
to trigger the ventilator, the pressure differences and
volume changes are both positive on all the curves.
Thus, the calculated work is positive in these regions.
Positive work corresponds to work done on the
ventilatory system by the various pressure differences.
Negative work corresponds to work done by the
ventilatory system on the components producing the
pressure differences. The negative area in the initial
portion of Figure 13-3(a) represents work done by the
respiratory muscles on the ventilator to cause it to
trigger.
Inspiratory Work
In practice, work of breathing is routinely calculated for
segments of the breath, e.g., inspiration and/or
expiration, separately. Let us begin with inspiration. We
can rewrite equation (7), after substituting the middle
terms of equation (4), as:
⌠
wI(N) = |[(pAO – pBS) + Δpmus]dυL
Vei ⌡
VT
⌠
VT
=
Vei
⌠
| (pAO – pBS) dυL+ | Δpmus dυL
⌡
= wventI(N) + wmusI(N)
126
VT
(8)
Vei
⌡
(9)
The work under the total driving pressure differencevolume curve is divided into two regions: elastic work to
the left of the total compliance curve, and resistive work
to the right of it. Elastic work is stored and can be used
by the system to compress the volume back to endexpiratory volume. Resistive work is dissipated as heat
and cannot be reclaimed or reused by the system.
It should be noted that, although Figure 13-3 is
reminiscent of a Campbell diagram, it is not a Campbell
diagram. In a Campbell diagram, esophageal pressure
change minus body surface pressure change, (pes– pBS), is
plotted against lung volume change, vL, along with the
static ∆p-?L characteristic of the chest wall, the chest wall
compliance, CW, curve. These two curves are then used
to graphically solve equation (3) for ∆pmus, and depict the
components of work given in equation (10)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 13-2 Normal ventilatory system responses
during assisted inspiration (with expiratory
muscular forcing).
Vei and Vee are end-inspiratory, and endexpiratory volumes, respectively. VT is tidal
volume.
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
.
Figure 13-4 (c) ∆p-υL plot for
(c) total driving pressure difference
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
However, because a simulation permits the calculation
of variables that may be unobservable in real life, we
have the effective muscle pressure difference available
here, and can plot it directly, as in Figure 13-3(b). There
is no need to resort to plotting (pES – pBS). This makes
visualization of the various driving pressure differences
much clearer.
Expiratory Work
During quiet breathing, both spontaneous and assisted,
the prime mover of expiratory flow is the energy stored
in the expanded elastic components of the ventilatory
system. Complementing this are effective pressure
differences, if any, produced by the respiratory muscles,
∆pmus, and the ventilator, (pAO – pBS). These two pressure
differences can be positive, in which case they retard, or
act as a brake on expiratory flow. Or, they can be
negative and compress the system, and assist expiratory
flow.
Figure 13-3 ∆p-υL plots for...
(a) airway-body surface pressure difference,
(b) effective muscle pressure difference, and
(c) total driving pressure difference,
each versus ventilatory system (lung) volume change
during inspiration (for data in Figure 13-2).
Cg is the compressibility of the gas in the ventilatory
system; PEEP is positive end-expiratory pressure.
127
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
Again, using Figure 13-2, we can construct a ∆p-υL plot
for the expiratory portion of the breath, Figure 13-5.
Figure 13-6 ∆p-υL plots for data in Figure 13-2
with expiration included.
Rewriting equation (7) for expiration, we obtain:
Vee⌠
wE(N)= |(pAO – pBS) dυL + ΔpmusdυL
VT ⌡
= wventE(N) + wmusE(N)
Figure 13-5 ∆p-υL plots for data in Figure 13-2
with expiration included.
128
(11)
These integrals represent the area between the expiratory
curves and the υL-axis. In the upper portions of Figure 4,
just below the end-tidal volume, the change in υL is
negative, i.e., the lung volume is decreasing, while the
∆p is positive. Therefore, the product ∆pdυL is negative.
Negative work indicates work is being done by the
system on its surroundings. In Figure 13-5(a), the work is
done on the ventilator since the (pAO – pPL) component of
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
As the lung volume decreases, the expiratory pathway
on the total pressure difference-volume plot continues
counterclockwise from the end-inspiration (Vei = Vee+VT)
point on the total compliance curve. It eventually meets
the υL axis, at which point ∆ptot is zero and both the
ventilator and the respiratory muscles are passive. The
ventilatory system continues to deflate, driven by its
internal elastic forces. However, before end-expiratory
volume is reached, in this example, the patient
momentarily contracts his expiratory muscles to increase
the expiratory flow. Then, he fully relaxes again just
above end-expiratory volume.
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
∆ptot is non-zero. In Figure 13-5(b), the work is done on
the inspiratory muscles as they lengthen while actively
contracting before they completely relax to ∆pmus = 0.
However, further down the expired volume, in this
example, the expiratory muscles are momentarily
activated, and ∆pmus becomes negative, assisting
expiration. Since both ∆pmus and υL are negative, their
product is positive, and this portion of the expiratory
work is positive. Thus, work in this region of volume
change is done on the ventilatory system by the
expiratory muscles as they shorten while contracting
during expiration.
Work of the Breathing Cycle
Figure 5 shows an alternative way of plotting the ∆p-υL
relation for a complete breathing cycle that might help
visualize the work involved. Inspiration is plotted as in
Figure 13-3. However, expiration, i.e., negative changes
in lung volume, is plotted upward from Vei, the endinspiration point. Thus, the expiratory curve is the
upward reflection of the expiratory portion of
Figure 13-5.
All area to the right of the υL-axis in the lower
(inspiratory) curve is positive work, done on the system.
In the upper (expiratory) curve, the opposite holds. Area
between ∆p and the lung volume axis, to the right of the
lung volume axis, is negative, and represents work done
by the system. Area to the left of the υL-axis is positive,
and represents work done on the system.
The same type of plot can be constructed for (pAO – pPL)
and ∆pmus. Using all three curves we could examine the
work done by these pressure difference components for
the various segments of the breath. Work can be done
on the ventilatory system by the respiratory muscles, or
the ventilator, or both, and vice versa. If the work done
on or by the respiratory muscles is to be evaluated, then
the ∆pmus-υL curve is used. If the work done on or by the
ventilator is of interest, then the plot of (pAO – pPL) versus
υL is required. If the entire load represented by the
ventilatory system is desired, then ∆ptot-υL is needed.
When analyzing the work of the breathing cycle and its
subdivisions, one must include both the (positive) work
done on the system, and the (negative) work done by the
system.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
An alternative way of viewing Figure 13-5 and Figure
13-7 is to consider the fate of the work done on the
ventilatory system during inspiration. For expiration to
occur, i.e., υL to decrease from Vei toward Vee, work
(energy) is required. This is supplied by the stretched
elastic components of the chest wall and lungs. Work
was stored in them as potential energy when the system
was expanded during inspiration (welI in Figure 3). This
energy is used to compress the ventilatory system during
expiration.
Figure 13-5(c) shows that the potential (elastic) energy,
i.e., the area between the Ctot line and the υL-axis, is
divided into two regions by the expiratory ∆ptot-υL curve.
The area [1], between the ∆ptot-υL curve and the υL-axis,
represents the work done on the ventilator and the
respiratory muscles by the ventilatory system’s elastic
elements as they decrease in length. The energy this
represents is lost as heat to the atmosphere. The area [2],
between the ∆ptot-?L curve and the Ctot line, is work
(energy) dissipated (lost) during expiration in the passive
resistive components of the ventilatory system, i.e.,
airway and tissue resistances. This process is the same as
occurs during inspiration when work (energy),
represented by area [3], is dissipated (lost) in the
system’s resistive elements. Over the complete breathing
cycle, all of the work invested in the breath is ultimately
lost as heat.
Figure 13-7 ∆ptot- υL curve for an entire breath with expiratory volume change plotted upward
from end inspiration on the υL-axis
129
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
13.1.2 Abnormal Lungs
:
Uniform Lungs
Ventilatory mechanical abnormalities can manifest
themselves in various ways. We will consider a few of
them here.
As previously stated, the normal ventilatory system acts
as a single unit with approximately constant (linear)
mechanical properties, C and R. It exhibits a single time
constant (τ =RC). Each of these parameters in a normal
system has a value within its respective “normal” range.
Abnormality can be inferred by an R, C, or τ either above
or below this range.
Figure 13-9 (b) The ∆ptot- υL for the three cases.
Note that, in the time allotted, the obstructed system’s
volume does not return to the same Vee as the other
systems.
Figure 13-8(a) Volume and flow responses to the same
∆ptot forcing function, for ventilatory systems with different time constants.
The time constant of the restricted system, τR, is less than
that of a normal system, τN. The obstructed system’s time
constant, τO, is larger than normal: τR < τN < τO.
130
Some “obstructive” diseases may be characterized by a
single compartment model with either an increased
resistance, e.g., asthma, tracheal tumor, and/or
increased compliance, e.g., early emphysema. In these
cases, inspiration may be harder (increased R) or easier
(increased C), and the lungs may expand to a larger than
normal volume for the same effort (increased C).
Expiration, in contrast, because the time constant is
increased (increased R and/or increased C), can be much
longer than normal, requiring an extended expiratory
time for the lungs to deflate. In many cases, they do not
reach the normal FRC before the next breath begins, and
gas is trapped in the lungs.
From it can be appreciated that the “intrinsic PEEP” that
accompanies gas trapping is not seen on a plot of ∆ptot
versus υL. However, this residual pressure would appear
on the plot of (pes–pBS) versus υL.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
“Restrictive” diseases, such as chest wall paralysis,
pulmonary fibrosis or pneumonia, typically may be
represented by a single compartment model with a
decreased compliance (stiffer system) and approximately
normal resistance. Although the system would be harder
to expand, the product of R and C would be smaller than
normal, and the system would be able to empty faster
than normal.
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
In some disease processes, even for tidal volumes and
breathing rates in the quiet range, the ventilatory system,
while still acting as a single compartment, exhibits
nonlinear relations for the terms in the right hand side of
equation (4). Thus,
The parameters and variables are as in Figure 1, except
that here a distinction is made between the resistance,
compliance, and volume of the two compartments, and
Rt represents the resistance of the larger, upper airways
leading from the carina, (tracheal resistance).
∆ptot = (pAO – pBS) + ∆pmus = f1(υL) + f2(ύL)
(pAO – pC) = RtύL
(pC – pPL) = υL1/CL1 + R1 ύL1
(pC – pPL) = υL2/CL2 + R2 ύL2
(pPL – pBS) + Δpmus = υL/ CW
υL = υL1 + υL2
(13)
where f1(υL) and f2(ύL) are functions of lung volume
change and flow. These functions can exhibit a variety of
nonlinearities, including hysteresis, power curves,
directional sensitivities, and time variation. In such
cases, the time constant may not be a mathematically
appropriate mechanical parameter. However, in some
situations, an average time constant with its concomitant
average resistance and average compliance, are used –
not necessarily correctly – to approximate the system
behavior.
Non-uniform Lungs
In some disease states, e.g., advanced COPD, tissue loss
and airway obstruction can be distributed in multiple
locations throughout the lungs. Consequently, a singlecompartment model does not describe the system’s
behavior very well. The minimum number of
compartments that will exhibit the essential responses of
such systems is two.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 13-10 shows a two-compartment pulmonary
system within a chest wall compartment. It is important
to note that the two compartments do not necessarily
correspond to the two lungs. Instead, they represent the
aggregation, across both lungs, of all regions that have
time constants sufficiently different from one another.
The governing equations for this configuration are
Figure 13-10 Two compartment pulmonary system
within the chest wall.
a)
b)
c)(14)
d)
e)
Combining these equations, and collecting terms yields:
Δptot + K Δptot = γ0υL + γ1 ύL + γ2ϋL
(15)
Equation (15) has the same form as the equation for an
isolated two-compartment pulmonary system (chest wall
and common airway not included) derived by Otis et al
(1956)1. They showed that, in such a relationship, the
apparent (dynamic) compliance and the apparent
resistance of the system each decrease from their
respective low frequency (static) values as the frequency
(rate) of breathing increases. Equation (15) extends Otis
et al’s work by showing how changes in chest wall
compliance and common airway resistance affects the
system response.
Figure 13-11 illustrates the effect of increasing breath
rate in a two compartment ventilatory system.
Figure 13-11 ∆ptot- υL relation for a two compartment
ventilatory system as breathing frequency
is increased.
1
Otis AB, McKerrow CB, Bartlett RA, Mead J, McElroy MB, Silverstone NJ and Radford EP Jr. Mechanical Factors in Distribution of
Pulmonary Ventilation. J Appl Physiol 8:427, 1956.
131
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
The same amplitude ∆ptot is applied at all breathing
frequencies, but only during inspiration.
The apparent compliance decreases so that, for the same
driving pressure difference – by either the ventilator or
respiratory muscles, or both – the tidal volume
decreases. The peak flow can increase.
13.1.3 Energetics
The mechanical work of inspiration – i.e., the work of
deforming the lungs and chest wall, and of creating a
pressure gradient through which a volume of gas is
moved – is the primary work-related term used to
describe the status of the ventilatory system. However, it
does not necessarily account for all the energy expended
during inspiration.
Whenever a muscle actively contracts, it uses energy –
sometimes expressed in terms of oxygen use, e.g., the
“oxygen cost” of muscle activity. This is over and above
its basal metabolism, which we will disregard. For the
same force produced, the most energy is required when
the muscle shortens during contraction. Less energy is
required when the muscle lengthens during contraction.
The least is used when the muscle does not change
length during (isometric) contractions. When the muscle
changes length under load, work is involved. During
isometric contraction, no work is done, no matter how
much force is produced. Nonetheless, energy (oxygen) is
consumed.
During inspiration, the vast majority of work done by the
respiratory muscles and/or the ventilator is positive, i.e.,
done on the ventilatory system. Depending on the wave
form, breath rate, and system mechanical properties, a
portion of this positive work is stored as potential energy
in the elastic elements of the tissues, and the remainder
is dissipated by the resistive elements, as heat, to the
atmosphere.
Not all inspiratory work may be positive. In those
ventilators that require a drop in airway pressure, or
flow, to initiate an assisted breath, positive work is
performed by the respiratory muscles, and the same
amount of negative work is done on the ventilator, as the
intrapulmonary gas is expanded by the respiratory
muscles at the beginning of the breath. The increase in
∆pmus exceeds the decrease in (pAO – pBS) by the amount
132
In some breathing patterns, prior to the start of
expiration, there is a pause during which the lungs
remain at end-inspiration for a period of time. This has
been called the “inspiratory hold.” If this hold time, TH, is
considered part of inspiration, then the energy required
to maintain the static tidal volume should be accounted
for.
During an isovolumetric “hold”, no work is done since
the volume change is zero. If the ventilator maintains the
hold, depending on its design, energy may, or may not,
be used. In contrast, if the respiratory muscles maintain
the static tidal volume, then they must do this while
contracting isometrically. Energy is used by the muscles
involved.
The so-called pressure-time product (∆pTH) has been
used by various authors as an “index of effort,” or,
interchangeably with work (of breathing). The ∆pTH is
analogous to the impulse in mechanics. It is not a work
term per se. However, in as much as it provides a basis
for comparing ventilators and ventilatory systems, we
will use it as a measure of energy, provided it is scaled
using an appropriate factor to provide it with an
appropriate magnitude and units of energy. The scaling
must also account for the different rates of energy
expenditure by the various components, i.e., the
ventilator and the respiratory muscles.
Thus, the energy expended during inspiration is:
For the ventilator:
EventI = wventI(+) + IwventI(-)I+ αvent (pAO – pBS)HITHI
(16)
For the respiratory muscles:
EmusI = wmusI(+) + αmusΔpmusHITHI
(17)
where α is a factor that relates the pressure-time product
to energy for the different components.
The total inspiratory energy is
EtotI =wtotI(+) + IwventI(-)I +
[αvent (pAO – pBS)HI + αmusΔpmusHI] THI
(18)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
In a similar manner, a ventilator, or other mechanical
device, uses energy to produce the pressure difference
required to assist or support breathing. This energy,
usually, electrical or pneumatic, is above and beyond
that required to maintain the device in an “on” or active
state.
needed to expand the lungs and chest wall sufficiently to
drop the airway pressure to trip the trigger. Thus, the
∆ptot-υL plot shows simultaneous increases in lung
volume and ∆ptot that follow the Ctot curve as the lung
expands prior to triggering. The net work shown on the
∆ptot-υL plot is just that required to expand the chest wall
and lungs, even though the respiratory muscles do
additional work to trigger the assisted breath. This
additional work is shown on the ∆pmus-υL and (pAO – pBS)-υL
plots.
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Ventilatory Mechanics
During expiration, the ventilator and/or the respiratory
muscles may be silent (zero work done), they may retard
exhalation (negative work), or they may aid exhalation
(positive work). (The pressure-time product can be used
to estimate the energy required to maintain an expiratory
hold, e.g., zero volume change at PEEP.) The energy
expended during expiration is:
For the ventilator:
EventE = wventE(+) + IwventE(-)I + αvent(PEEP)THE
(19)
For the respiratory muscles:
EmusE = IwmusE(-)I + wmusE(+)
(20)
The total expiratory energy is
EtotE =IwventE(-) + wmusE(-)I + wventE(+) +
wmusE(+) + αvent(PEEP)THE(21)
For the complete breath cycle:
Etot = EtotI + EtotE
(22)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Many of these terms are zero during most breathing
patterns. Equations (19) – (22) can be evaluated in a
straightforward manner in a simulation in which ∆pmus is
available. Even though it is more complicated,
calculation of the various work terms can be obtained by
substituting equation (3) for ∆pmus. Again, a simulation
can calculate and plot (pes – pBS) versus υL with a
superimposed chest wall compliance curve, if a
Campbell-type diagram is desired, or if intrinsic PEEP is
to be visualized.
133
Theory of Operation
Introduction to Modeling
13.2 Introduction to Modeling
13.2.2 Limitations of the Model
13.2.1 Model Background
Based on the ventilatory mechanics (i.e. the lungs,
airways, diaphragmatic muscle activity, and chest wall
recoil forces) discussed in the previous chapter, a model
of passive and active breathing of a lung simulator was
developed, meeting the challenge of appropriate
simplification and approximation.
A more technical "translation" of the Equation of Motion
for the model (as described in the previous section,
"Normal Lungs", page 124, and "Non-uniform Lungs",
page 131, is shown below
Single Compartment
The model, as implemented in the simulator controller
software, does not take into account any neural response
to external ventilation. Further extensions should allow
implementation of some approximate ventilatory
responses based on patient characteristics and disease
states that would enhance the spontaneously breathing
patient mode.
13.2.3 Realization of the Model
F
Dual Compartment
In
p
(A
ce
Th
ar
yo
sp
lu
Figure 13-12 Simulation Model Electrical Analog
=
=
=
=
=
=
airway pressure (cmH2O)
tracheal pressure (cmH2O), across Rtrach
transalveolar muscle pressure (cmH2O)
total compliance (mL/cmH2O)
Overall airway resistance (cmH2O/(L/s)
flow
1. In the lung model window and graphs, Δpmus is simply called
Pmus, but it still refers to the muscle pressure difference.
Please note that in these model compositions, there is no
distinction made between chestwall compliance and
lung compliance, instead they are lumped together so
that in the simplified case of the single compartment
model, C represents the total Compliance, see page 125
Ctot = CLCW/(CL + CW)
and, similarly, in the case of non-uniform lungs,
C1 = CL1CW/(CL1 + CW)
C2 = CL2CW/(CL2 + CW).
134
(5)
Figure 13-13 Simulator Concept
The hardware implementation of the model works via a
pressure feedback control loop that takes care of moving
the piston inside the simulator cylinder in such a fashion
that the set values of R, C, and chest wall profiles can be
observed externally.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
where:
Paw
Ptrach
Δp1mus
Ctot
R
ύL
U
de
fe
be
p
Theory of Operation
Ventilatory Model Types
13.3 Ventilatory Model Types
13.3.2 Dual-compartment Model
13.3.1 Single-compartment Model
Figure 13-15 Dual Compartment Model
Figure 13-14 Single Compartment Model
The single compartment model consists of a single
(linear or parabolic) resistor and a single (linear)
compliance. The icon of this model symbolizes this
configuration.
The differential equation for this setup is (see page 125,
Equation 4):
Δptot = (pAO – pBS) + Δpmus = υL/Ctot + R ύL
with pAO – pBS = Paw= external (ventilator) pressure at the
airway
and ΔPmus = internal pressure (patient effort)1
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
As an enhancement to the model, the value of R can be
chosen independently for inspiratory and expiratory flow
direction, (see next page).
Compliance and Resistance parameters may also be
modeled as time varying parameters, with small
adjustments being made in a breath-by-breath fashion,
please see "Advanced Model Settings - Time Varying
Parameters (TVP)", page 37.
1
The dual compartment model consists of a single (linear
or parabolic) tracheal resistor, two branch resistors
(always linear) and a dual (linear or non-linear)
compliance. The icon of this model symbolizes the
configuration. For the mathematical description, please
refer to page 131, Equations (14) and (15).
13.3.3 Model Enhancements
In addition to linear or parabolic response of the
respective resistors, the modeling environment also
allows different settings of resistance during inspiratory
and expiratory flows. This is intended to give the user
added flexibility for generating models representing
particular pathologies or "disease states" (e.g. high
expiratory resistance in patients with asthma).
Compliance may be modeled both as a linear
relationship between volume and pressure or as the
familiar sigmosoidal curve representative of actual
patients. For adjusting compliance in this fashion, please
refer to "Advanced Model Settings - Non-Linear
Compliances", page 40.
NOTE: For use of the non-linear compliance feature, a
two-compartment model has to be selected. The user
may choose to have both compartements modeled
identically, by simply checking the C1=C2 checkbox.
Please note that, for better visibility, the trace for "Muscle" in the
Central RunTime pressure waveform plots as well as the graphs in
the Patient Effort Model (Step 3 of the model-editing process) actually represent the negative of muscle pressure (-Pmus). giving you
a picture that resembles that from an oesophageal pressure tracing.
135
Theory of Operation
Patient Effort Model
13.4 Patient Effort Model
Pressure Trigger
The different spontaneous patterns (Δpmus profiles) are
pre-defined through the Patient Effort Model pop-up
menu as:
— passive
— simple pressure trigger
— simple flow trigger
— sinusoidal pressure profile
— trapezoidal pressure profile
— user defined pressure profile
— external analog input.
13.4.1 Passive Model
Figure 13-17 Patient Effort Model: Pressure Trigger
Selecting "Pressure Trigger" shapes the pressure
waveform as a rectangular pressure drop (no ramps),
defined only by amplitude and duration, the set trigger
time. For the condition of an occluded port, this setting
will produce a rectangular pressure profile as mouth
pressure (see Figure 13-18, page 136).
The excursion of the piston is reversed by the recoil
forces programmed into the system as its compliance C
(or C1 and C2 in case of the two-compartment model).
The "passive" setting will not add any spontaneous
breathing to the "Lung Model" defined in step 2. A
passive model will respond just like a spring-loaded
conventional lung model with orifice resistors and one
or two compartments. However, you set a passive cycle
rate, which will be used to indicate the length of the
passive interval, similar to a spontaneously breathing
model.
The repeat rate of this pattern, as in all other types of
profiles generated from within the Simulation Editor, is
determined by the bpm parameter. The small profiling
window always shows the time allowed for one breath,
unless the rate exceeds 24 bpm (see also NOTE on page
138).
Figure 13-18 Pressure Trigger Effort Detail
136
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 13-16 Patient Effort Model: Passive
NOTE: All pressures of the Patient Effort Model are
plotted inversed (negative trace producing an
inspiration). See also the footnote on page 135.
z
Theory of Operation
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Patient Effort Model
13.4.2 Flow Trigger
13.4.3 Sinusoidal Breath Profile
Figure 13-19 Patient Effort Model: Flow Trigger
Figure 13-21 Patient Effort Model: Sinusoidal
"Flow trigger" generates a constant flow defined by
duration and amplitude (where the pressure profile is
calculated internally from the desired flow amplitude).
Please note that the flow profile is generated for a noload situation (open port) and flow levels will be
influenced by negative pressure in the circuit in case of
delayed flow delivery from a ventilator. This is because
of the fact that the system is still operating within the
context of a lung simulation (with feedback pressure),
and the model is therefore designed to respond to
external pressure signals.
The sinusoidal pressure profile can be used to generate
more realistic patient breaths and is defined by a peak
(negative) pressure, the breath frequency (bpm), and the
time percentages for the pressure drop (inspiratory), the
pressure maintaining time (hold), and relaxation
(expiratory). In addition to the inspiratory effort to
produce an inhalation, it is also possible to generate
forced expiration, e.g., to mimic a patient "fighting" a
ventilator1.
If flow patterns independent from pressure changes are
needed, you may use the "SmartPump™ Mode", page
141.
NOTE: All pressures of the Patient Effort Model are
plotted inversed (negative trace producing an
inspiration). See also the footnote on page 135.
.
NOTE: All pressures of the Patient Effort Model are
plotted inversed (negative trace producing an
inspiration). See also the footnote on page 135.
Figure 13-22 Sinusoidal Effort Detail
Figure 13-20 Flow Trigger Effort Detail
1
This feature has been available as of SW 3.1, Hering-Breuer
response has been added with SW 3.4.
137
Theory of Operation
Patient Effort Model
When designing a spontaneous breathing pattern, it is
the responsibility of the user to ensure that the patterns
do not exceed the range of possible volumes (or flow
rates). A simple calculation is that of URC + C/Pmus <
2.5 L, ignoring the resistance to arrive at the maximum
volume. Of course, if there is a ventilator connected, the
external pressure applied will also make a contribution
to tidal volume which has to be taken into account.
Similarly, an "volume undershoot" due to forced
expiration programmed into the ptient effort profile
could lead to a stop at the forward limit switch for the
piston
Please refer to "Trapezoidal Breath Profile" for a
description of the functionality of the Pmus modified by
Paw (%) control parameter.
13.4.4 Trapezoidal Breath Profile
Figure 13-24 Trapezoidal Effort Detail
NOTE: For rates faster than 24 bpm, the diagram
indicating the effort profile will show two (or for
bpm>48, three) breaths. For these faster rates, only every
2nd (or 3rd, respectively) breath is actually updated in
order to allow enough time for the download of the
profile to the simulator, and several breaths are rolled
into one. In this case, "Repeats" in the Script Editor refer
to these multiple breaths. In order to accomplish 10
breaths with a breath rate of 28, the correct setting in the
Script Editor is therefore 5.
13.4.5 Patient Backing Off
The following description of the two control parameters
Pmus modified by Paw (%) applies to both sinusoidal and
trapezoidal patient efforts.
The trapezoidal breath profile is configured in the same
fashion as the sinusoidal setup, with a peak (negative)
pressure, the breath frequency (bpm), and the time
percentages for pressure drop (inspiratory), pressure
maintaining time (hold), and relaxation (expiratory).
The only difference to the sinusoidal profiles is that in
the trapezoidal pattern straight ramps are used for
pressure buildup and release.
NOTE: All pressures of the Patient Effort Model are
plotted inversed (negative trace producing an
inspiration). See also the footnote on page 135.
138
Inspiratory
During inspiration (value of the inspiratory Pmus
modified by Paw set to a percentage other than 0), the
amount of ventilator pressure is subtracted from the
programmed patient effort profile with the percentage
that has been entered into this field.
As an example, assume that the ventilator, after being
triggered, develops a positive pressure of 10 cmH2O to
support the patient effort. If the patient effort had been
set to 13 cmH2O (Pmax), it would now be reduced to a
maximum of just 3 cmH2O if the backoff parameter was
set to 100%, and to 8 cmH2O if the backing off was 50%
(50% of 10 cmH2O = 5, 13 - 5 = 8).
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 13-23 Trapezoidal Breath Profile
Two data entry fields for Pmus modified by Paw (%) in the
sinusoidal and trapezoidal breath profile editor windows
provide a way to let patient efforts be manipulated in
real-time as external (ventilator) pressure works on the
model. This is helpful for added realism in the model
behavior when a ventilator is used with a spontaneously
breathing patient model.
Theory of Operation
Patient Effort Model
It might require some experimentation to optimize the
percentage value for a realistic "backing off" of the
spontaneous breath at the onset of ventilator support. A
value of 30 or 40 % is suggested as a starting point.
Using this feature with larger percentages will reduce the
spontaneous breath to a small trigger effort.
13.4.6 User-defined Breath Profile
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
As an added feature for realistic patient behavior,
beginning with SW 3.4 (firmware 4.7.20 or higher) the
breath inhibition caused by external ventilation has been
modeled into the Patient Effort Model (Hering-Breuer
Effect). When a patient model is scheduled to take a
breath, this spontaneous breath will not occur while a
positive pressure breath is delivered by a ventilator, nor
will it take place during a certain time after the positive
pressure ceased. This time interval is defined as one time
the spontaneous breath cycle.
The activation of this effect is automatic with any value
of backing-off on inspiratory effort being programmed
into the patient model (other than 0%).
Expiratory
Expiratory backing off acts to limit active expiration to
just those cases where a patient would have a need to
push against external pressure to accelerate or even
accomplish expiration. Here, the reduction of patient
expiratory effort is based on the amount of pressure at
the airway the system "sees" during a breath, measured
above baseline pressure (PEEP). In a case where the
expiratory backing off parameter was set to 100%, no
expiratory effort would occur even if it was programmed
into the patient effort profile, as long as no backpressure
at the mouth is detected (Paw = PEEP). A Pmax for
expiratory effort programmed at 10 cmH2O that is
seeing a backpressure of 7 cmH2O, with a 50% setting
of the backoff parameter, would still retain the preprogrammed forced expiration at 3.5 cmH2O. In this
example, the expiratory effort would be allowed to max
out at its pre-programmed level only when the
backpressure reaches 20 cmH2O.
Figure 13-25 File-based Patient Effort
User-defined pressure profiles allow breath
configurations completely independent from the predefined patient effort models.
External data files for defining spontaneous breathing
patterns may be synthesized using a spreadsheet
application or by taking data from esophageal pressure
tracings from actual patients. They must contain a
column of pressure values at the pre-defined sample
rate.
Please see expbr3.in or breath.in files (in the breath
subdirectory) as examples for regarding the required file
format (the time mark listed as a second column in the
examples is for illustration purposes only and does not
need to be filled for functionality).
Time increments of the pressure data are expected by the
software at the same rate as is used internally by the
software i.e. 512 data points per second. The usersynthesized pattern should describe one or more
complete breath cycles which will be repetitively used
during a simulator run until the simulation is stopped.
139
Theory of Operation
Patient Effort Model
Figure 13-26 Flow Profile Resampling
NOTE: Please note that the maximum length of breath
profiles allowed is 20 seconds (or 10240 data points),
equivalent to a breath rate of 3.
140
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
This utility may be selected from the Utilities Selector tab,
which can be accessed from the Window Manager. After
clicking <Pressure/Flow Resampling Utility>, you select
a file to be resampled via a file dialog window. You
must set the "old sample rate" to the value that represents
the time increments of the file you are using for your
pressure profile. After clicking on <Resample>, a file
dialog will ask for a new file name to be used for the
resampled data and the new file is generated. The new
sample frequency is, by default, 512 Hz.
Theory of Operation
SmartPump™ Mode
13.4.7 External Analog Input
13.5 SmartPump™ Mode
As an alternative to breath profiles from files to
determine the muscle pressure of a patient model, the
analog inputs of the ASL may be used for this purpose.
The input range of 0 to 10 V is used with a bias of 5V in
order to allow both positive and negative excursions
(forced exhalation or flow pump with both negative and
positive flows)..
Figure 13-28 Effort Model - Flow Pump
Figure 13-27 Effort Model - Analog Input
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
A gain factor setting makes it convenient to adapt a given
voltage source to the exact model requirements. This
may also be used to invert the signal without having to
invert the voltage applied.
The SmartPump™ Mode covers special cases of a nonfeedback model. Pressure feedback is ignored, motion of
the simulator piston is exclusively controlled by the
programmed breath profile. Calibration of the
configuration is in units of flow (L/min) or volume (L).
Internally, a setting of R=1 is performed so that the
numerical value for peak excursion entered in the “Chest
Wall Model" will act to generate peak flows (calibrated
in L/min). Similarly, a volume waveform can be created
(4th selection in the "Lung Model" choices), where the
peak excursion is directly calibrated in Liters.
In SmartPump™ Mode, only sinusoidal, trapezoidal, and
user-defined waveforms are permitted. When
generating, they are always symmetrical (i.e.
automatically duplicated as positive pressure profile
after the negative pressure (flow) part of the cycle has
been completed).
EXAMPLE: For a continuous sinusoidal flow pump with a
peak flow of 18.78 L/min and a frequency of 12, the
following parameters are entered:
12
18.78
25
0
25
Spontaneous Breathing Rate
Peak Flow
Inspiratory
Hold
Expiratory
BPM
L/min
%
%
%
This model will yield a tidal volume of 500 mL, which is
a result of the chosen peak flow and breath rate.
Similarly, a waveform model entered as a volume
waveform will have a peak flow that is a result of the
volume and breath rate chosen.
141
Parameter Definitions
Time Stamps and Parameters
14 Parameter Definitions
.
Figure 14-1
Timing of Pressure, Flow, and Volume
14.1 Time Stamps and Parameters
(Points A...F refer to Figure 14-1, above)
Label/
Unit
Definition
Comment
Start Insp Effort
[SoE]
End of Expiration (of previous
breath)The time (time stamp
count) at which the inspiratory
pressure profile (patient effort)
begins, i.e. the inverse of Pmus
drops below zero
Point A
Serves as the zero point for each breath in the
time domain. If no spontaneous effort is
detected, Start of Patient Inspiration will default
to point B (SoB, Start of Breath).
Start of Breath
[SoB]
The time stamp for the beginning
of inspiration as determined by
the “Breath Start Volume
Threshold” (the minimum
volume in a breath has been
reached)
Point B
Volume threshold values are: 5 mL for adult size
models as the default, 0.5 mL recommended for
neonatal models.
The time mark for the end of
patient inspiratory effort
As defined by "Hold %" in the simulation editor
End of Hold
142
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Parameter
Parameter Definitions
Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File
Parameter
Label/
Unit
Definition
Comment
Start Expiration
[Start Exp]
The time stamp for the beginning
of expiration as determined by
the "Exp Start Volume Threshold"
.
Point F
Threshold values are: 5 mL for adult size models
as the default, 0.5 mL recommended for
neonatal models (counted down from the
volume maximum in a breath)
Time to Pmin
after SoE
ms
The time interval to the largest
From Point A to Point C
Paw depression below baseline
pressure occurs, calculated from
[SoE]
Trigger Time
[Ttrig]
Point in time at which airway
From Point A to Point D
pressure has returned to baseline
after a downward deflection (i.e.,
the pressure level before the
start of inspiratory effort)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
14.2 Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath
Parameter) File
NOTE: Parameters appear in alphabetical order of
names in the drop-down menus in the analysis windows.
Parameter names are given as they are used in dropdown menus in the analysis windows. [name] and [unit]
indicate parameter names and units in brb-file (where
different). Points A...F refer to Figure 14-1, page 142).
Parameter
Unit
Definition
% of Peak Flow
when exp begins
%
Relative flow at the time of [Start A measure of the rapid opening of an expiratory
Expiration]
valve of a ventilator (at Point F)
Ambient Temp
o
Temperature as measured by the This is always an average temperature
gas temp. sensor in the cylinder Added parameter in sw 3.4
Auto-PEEP 1
cmH2O P_compartment_1 - Paw at [End
of Expiration]
Pcompartment_1 = Alveolar Pressure in
Compartment 1 of the lung model
Added parameter in sw 3.3
cmH2O P_compartment_2 - Paw at [End
of Expiration]
Pcompartment_2 = Alveolar Pressure in
Compartment 2 of the lung model
Added parameter in sw 3.3
[PEEP_1auto]
Auto-PEEP 2
[PEEP_2auto]
C
Comment
143
Parameter Definitions
Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File
Unit
Aux 1
Volt [V] Signal on channel 1 of analog
input (0-10V)
default value, when no source is connected, is 5 V
Aux 2
Volt [V] Signal on channel 2 of analog
input (0-10V)
default value, when no source is connected, is 5 V
Breath Num.
integer
The number of the breath starting
from the beginning of the
simulation, as determined by the
analysis software
Only breaths that exceed the inspiratory and
expiratory volume thresholds are counted,
eliminating “volume noise”. The count is a
posteriori, independent from ventilator or model
settings
Breath Rate
BPM
overall breath ratecalculated
from the time between peak
volumes
Combines mechanical and spontaneous breaths
Added parameter in sw 3.3
Breath Type
flag
Spontaneous (1) or Mechanical
(0)
Based on the presence of spontaneous effort,
End Exp Index
integer
Time stamp for End of expiration Internally used parameter for marking the times of
= Start of a new breath cycle
specific events during a breath cycle. Spacing is (1/
data rate), default at 1/512
E Time
s
Expiratory time, counted from
the start of expiration to the end
of expiration
Between Points F and G
Exp Active Work
mJ
If [Exp Work] is < 0, [Exp Active
Work] = -[Exp Work], zero
otherwise
A Total System Work parameter, Expiratory, Active
Exp Mean
Squared Error
2
Exp Overshoot
%
Relative pressure change from
Pmax to [Exp Target]:
([Exp Target] - Pmin) / (Pmax [Exp Target])
A ventilator performance parameter
Exp Res Work
mJ
[Insp Elastic Work] - [Exp Work]
A Total System Work parameterExpiratory, Resistive
[ftot]
144
Definition
Comment
cmH2O Mean squared pressure deviation A ventilator performance parameter
from [Exp Target] during
expiration
Exp Settling Time ms
Time from t90 to the point where May refer to pressure or to flow
fluctuations of [target] are less
than 10%
Exp T90
The time to accomplish 90% of
the drop from peak pressure to
[Exp Target] (PEEP)
ms
A ventilator performance parameter
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Parameter
Parameter Definitions
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File
Parameter
Unit
Definition
Comment
Exp Target
cmH2O The pressure at steady state
during expiration (where steady
state is derived from median
airway pressure during
expiration), normally equivalent
to PEEP
If known in advance (for example, because it is a
ventilator setting) this parameter may be set via an
override in the Post Analysis Data Re-Processing
window
Exp Vt
mL
Expiratory tidal volume
From start of expiration to end of expiration
Exp Work
mJ
A Total System Work parameter, Expiratory
∫(Pairway - PEEP + Pmus) dV
from [Start Exp] to [End of Exp] Definition changed with sw 3.3
Ext Exp Res Work mJ
[Ext Insp Elastic Work - External
Exp. Work]
Ext Exp Vent
Work
mJ
If [Ext Exp Work] is < 0, [Ext Exp An external (imposed) WOB parameter, Expiratory
Active Work] = -[Ext Exp Work], Added parameter in sw 3.3
zero otherwise
Ext Exp Work
mJ
∫(Pairway - PEEP) dV from
[Start Exp] to [End of Exp]
An external (imposed) WOB parameter, Expiratory
Added parameter in sw 3.3
Ext Insp Res
Work
mJ
[Ext Insp Work] - [Ext Elastic
Work]
An external (imposed) WOB parameter, Inspiratory
Added parameter in sw 3.3
Ext Insp Elastic
Work
mJ
Vmax x (Pairway - PEEP)max Vmin x (Pairway - PEEP)min
where maxima and minima are
taken during the time between
[SoE] and [End of Hold]
An external (imposed) WOB parameter, Inspiratory
Added parameter in sw 3.3
Ext Insp Work
mJ
∫(Pairway - PEEP) dV from
[SoE] to [End of Hold]
An external (imposed) WOB parameter, Inspiratory
Added parameter in sw 3.3
Heat Production
mJ
If [Exp Work] is > 0, [Heat
Production] = [Exp Work], zero
otherwise
A Total System Work parameter, Expiratory
I Time
s
Inspiratory time counted from
Between Points A and E
the start of the patient inspiratory
effort to the maximum volume
(positive flow is detected)
I/E
ratio
([Inspiratory time] + [Pause
time]) / [Expiratory time]
An external (imposed) WOB parameter, Expiratory
Added parameter in sw 3.3
145
Parameter Definitions
Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File
Parameter
Unit
Definition
Ins Settling Time
ms
Time at which inspiratory steady A ventilator performance parameter
state (insp. pressure between 0.9
... 1.1 of target) is reached
Insp
%
[I Time] expressed as %
Between Points A and E
Insp Breath Type
flag
Pressure limited or Flow limited
Based on the behavior of pressure and flow, an
algorithm determines the type of the breath (and the
target and performance parameters are selected
accordingly
Insp Elastic Work mJ
(Vmax x (Pairway + Pmus)max) - A Total System Work parameter, Inspiratory, Elastic
Vmin x (Pairway + Pmusmin)
where maxima and minima are
taken during the time between
[SoE] and [End of Hold]
Insp Mean
Squared Error
cmH2O Mean squared pressure deviation A ventilator performance parameter
**2
from [Insp Target] during
inspiration
Insp Overshoot
%
Pressure overshoot relative to
[Insp Target]
Insp Res Work
mJ
[Insp Work] - [Insp Elastic Work] A Total System Work parameter, Inspiratory,
Resisitive
Insp T90
ms
The time to accomplish 90% of
the rise to [Insp Target] pressure
Insp Target
cmH2O The pressure at steady state
during inspiration (where steady
state is derived from median
pressure during inspiration)
Insp Vt
mL
Tidal volume measured from SoE As of SW 3.1, the threshold volume is added back
to [Peak Volume]
in, so that threshold size does not affect reported
tidal volumes
Insp Work
mJ
∫(Pairway - PEEP + Pmus) dV
from [SoE] to [End of Hold]
Max Flow Acc
L/s**2
Maximum slope of the Insp. flow Parameter may be used as a measure of a
curve.
ventilator’s “flow ramp” setting
Max Pres Drop
During Trig
cmH2O Deflection of pressure from
baseline [PEEP] to [Pmin]
A ventilator performance parameter
A ventilator performance parameter
If known in advance (for example, because it is a
ventilator setting) this parameter may be set via an
override in the Post Analysis Data Re-Processing
window
A Total System Work parameter.
Definition changed with sw 3.3
A parameter that can be used to evaluate the
quality of CPAP or the adequacy of flow settings
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
146
Comment
Parameter Definitions
Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File
Parameter
Mean Flow
Unit
Definition
Comment
L/min
Mean value of flow taken over
entire cycle
taken from the absolute value of flow
[mL/s]
Median Exp Res
Median Flow
cmH2O Median of Pairway (dV/dt) during
/L/s
expiration
L/min
[mL/s]
Min Flow Acc
L/s**2
Maximum (initial, negative)
slope of the Exp. flow curve.
Oxygen
%
Oxygen concentration measured Value will be 20.9 if no oxygen sensor is connected
in the ASL cylinder
Pat Exp Muscle
Work
mJ
If [Pat Exp Work] is < 0, [Pat Exp A Patient Work parameter
Muscle Work] = -[Pat Exp
Work], zero otherwise
Pat Exp Res Work mJ
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Median of flow over the entire
breath cycle
A measure for the level of a patient “cough” (forced
exhalation)
[Pat Insp Elastic Work] - [Pat Exp A Patient Work parameter, Expiratory, Resistive
Work]
Pat Exp Work
mJ
-∫Pmus dV from [Start Exp] to
[End of Exp]
A Patient Work parameter, Expiratory
Pat Heat
Production
mJ
If [Pat Exp Work] is > 0, [Pat
Heat Production] = [Pat Exp
Work], zero otherwise
A Patient Work parameter, Expiratory
Pat Insp Elastic
Work
mJ
(Vmax x (Pmusmax)) - (Vmax x
A Patient Work parameter, Inspiratory, Elastic
(Pmusmin)), where maxima and
minima are taken during the time
between [SoE] and [End of Hold]
Pat Insp Res
Work
mJ
[Pat Insp Work] - [Pat Insp Elastic A Patient Work parameter, Inspiratory, Resistive
Work]
Pat Insp Work
mJ
∫Pmus dV from [SoE] to [End of
Hold]
A Patient Work parameter, Inspiratory, Elastic
Pat Total Res
Work
mJ
[Pat Insp Res Work] + [Pat Exp
Res Work]
A Patient Work parameter, Resistive
Pat Trig Work to
PEEP
mJ
∫Pmus dV from [SoE] to [Trigger
Time] (during Trigger Response
Time)
A Patient Work parameter, Trigger Work,
see also its components:
Work between SoE and Pmin and
WOB Between Pmin and PEEP
Pause
%
[Pause time] expressed as %
147
Parameter Definitions
Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File
Parameter
Unit
Definition
Comment
Pause Time
s
Time counted from the point of
maximum volume to the start of
expiration
Between points C and D
P_awTimeProduct cmH2O ∫(Pairway - PEEP) dt from [SoE] to Frequently used as a substitute for Trigger-WOB
[Pressure Time
*ms
(prior to sw 3.4 labeled: Pressure Time Product also
[Time to PEEP after Pmin]
Product]
in drop-downs)
P_baro
Peak Flow
kPa
Barometric pressure
Reading from a dedicated pressure sensor
Added parameter in sw 3.4
L/min
Maximum flow
highest positive value of flow
[mL/s]
cmH2O Minimum pressure maintained at PEEP = Positive EndExpiratory Pressure
the end of the breath cycle
P_mean
cmH2O Average pressure over the full
breath cycle
Includes any offset due to PEEP/CPAP
(definition has been restored to previous, was
averaged over the inspiratory cycle in sw 3.3 only!)
P_mean Insp
cmH2O Average pressure over the
inspiratory part of the breath
cycle
Includes any offset due to PEEP/CPAP
Added parameter in sw 3.4
P_mean Exp
cmH2O Average pressure over the
expiratory part of the breath
cycle
Includes any offset due to PEEP/CPAP
Added parameter in sw 3.4
P_min
cmH2O Lowest pressure reached during
a breath cycle, typically during
inspiration
P_mus Time
Product
mJ
∫Pmus dt from [SoE] to [Time to
PEEP after Pmin]
Pmus Pressure-Time Product
Added parameter in sw 3.3
[PmusTP]
148
P_pause
cmH2O Pressure at start of expiration
Ppeak
cmH2O Peak pressure
SD Exp Res
cmH2O Standard deviation of Pairway
/L/s
(dV/dt) during expiration
Highest pressure during the breath cycle
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
PEEP
Parameter Definitions
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File
Parameter
Unit
Definition
Start Exp Index
integer
Time stamp for begin of
Internally used parameter for marking the times of
expiration, i.e. the time of
specific events during a breath cycle. Spacing is (1/
crossing the expiratory threshold data rate), default at 1/512
volume
Start Insp Effort
Index
integer
Time stamp for the begin of a
patient effort, usually coincides
with End of Expiration marker
(see below) of the previous
breath
Start Insp Index
integer
Time stamp for the volume
Internally used parameter for marking the times of
threshold crossing at the begin of specific events during a breath cycle. Spacing is (1/
an inspiration
data rate), default at 1/512
Time between
Pmin and PEEP
ms
The time it takes, during a patient see also [Time to Pmin after Start of Effort] and
[Time to Trigger]
effort, to return to baseline
pressure, counting from [Time to
Pmin]
Time to Pmin
after Start of
Effort
ms
Time to Trigger = [Time to Pmin] see also [Time between Pmin and PEEP] and [Time
+ [Time from Pmin to PEEP]
to Trigger]
Time to Trigger
ms
[Time to Pmin after SoE] + [Time This definition means that trigger delays are
between Pmin and PEEP]
measured as the total time it takes for a ventilator to
supply pressure sufficient to restore baseline
pressure, counting from the very beginning of
patient effort, see also [Time to Pmin after Start of
Effort] and [Time between Pmin and PEEP]
Total PEEP 1
cmH2O PEEP + PEEP_1auto
Total PEEP in Compartment 1 of the lung model
Added parameter in sw 3.3
cmH2O PEEP + PEEP_2auto
Total PEEP in Compartment 2 of the lung model
Added parameter in sw 3.3
mJ
A Total System Work parameter
[PEEP_1tot]
Total PEEP 2
[PEEP_2tot]
Total Res Work
[Insp Res Work] + [Exp Res
Work], Resistive Work
Comment
Internally used parameter for marking the times of
specific events during a breath cycle. Spacing is (1/
data rate), default at 1/512
149
Parameter Definitions
Parameters in the *.brb-(Breath Parameter) File
Unit
Definition
Comment
Vent Exp Vt
mL
Expiratory volume as seen by the
ventilator, taking into account
compressible gas volumes in
circuits, as defined in Auxiliary
Compensation Parameters in the
Breath Detection / RT-Analysis
window
Ventilators that actually use corrections to take into
account volume “lost” in circuits would be
expected to report volumes similar to the ASL’s
uncompensated parameter (Vtin), at BTPS
conditions
Vent Insp Vt
mL
Inspiratory volume as seen by the
ventilator, taking into account
compressible gas volumes in
circuits, as defined in Auxiliary
Compensation Parameters in the
Breath Detection / RT-Analysis
window
Ventilators that actually use corrections to take into
account volume “lost” in circuits would be
expected to report volumes similar to the ASL’s
uncompensated parameter (Vtex), at BTPS
conditions
Vol 1 Peak
mL
Total Volume = Vol1peak +
Vol2peak
In a 2-compartment model, volume is
distributedbased on R & C values input into the
Lung Model
Vol 2 Peak
mL
Total Volume = Vol1peak +
Vol2peak
In a 2-compartment model, volume is
distributedbased on R & C values input into the
Lung Model
Vol Max Index
integer
Time stamp for the time of
maximum volume during a
breath cycle
Internally used parameter for marking the times of
specific events during a breath cycle. Spacing is
1/(data rate), default at 1/512
Wall Temp
oC
Temperature as measured on the Added parameter in sw 3.4
aluminum cylinder
WOB Between
Pmin and PEEP
mJ
∫ (Pairway + Pmus) dVfrom [Time A component of Trigger-WOB
of Pmin] to [Paw = PEEP]
Work between
SoE and Pmin
mJ
∫Pmus dV from [SoE] to [Time of A component of Trigger-WOB
Pmin]
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
150
Parameter
Parameter Definitions
Data File Parameters
14.3 Data File Parameters
From the data files in use with SW 2.0 ASCII types can
be generated using the File Translation Utility (see page
104). These are:
binary
*.brb÷
*.dtb ÷
*.rwb÷
ASCII
*.brabreath parameter data file
*.dta high resolution breath data file
*.rwahigh resolution raw data file
The headers of these files contain information on the
different parameters contained in them.
ASL 3.4 .bra ASCII
The format of this file is tab delimited text. Each entry is 12 characters wide and padded with spaces.
Breath Num.
Pause Time
Peak Flow
Trigger Response Time
Insp Res Work(J)
Total Res Work(J)
Pat Exp Res Work(J)
Time to Min Pres after Trig (s)
Breath Type
Pause %Insp Vt
Mean Flow
Vent Exp VT
Exp Work(J)
Pat Insp Work(J)
Pat Exp Muscle Work (J)
Max Pres Drop During Trig
Insp %
Ppeak
Ppause
Insp Work (J)
Exp Active Work(J)
Pat Insp Res Work(J)
Pat Total Res Work(J)
E Time
Pmean
PEEP
Insp Elastic Work(J)
Heat Production(J)
Pat Exp Work(J)
Pat Trig Work(J)
Exp Overshoot (%)
I Time
Exp Vt
Median FlowI/E
Vent Insp Vt
Exp Res Work(J)
Pat Insp Elastic Work(J)
Pat Heat Production(J)
Work between
flow starts after trig to pmin (J)
Exp T90 (ms)
Exp Mean Squared Error
SD Exp Res (cmH2O/l/s)
Exp Target
Insp Overshoot (%)
Exp Settling Time (ms)
Vol Max Index
Oxygen (%)
PawTP
PEEP_2 auto
Ext Insp Res Work
Pmean Insp (cmH2O)
Insp Breath Type
Vol 1 Peak
Start Exp Index
Aux 1 (V)
ftot (BPM)
PEEP_1 tot
Ext Exp Work
Pmean Exp (cmH2O)
Insp T90 (ms)
Vol 2 Peak
End Exp Index
Aux 2 (V)
Pmin
PEEP_2 tot
Ext Exp Vent Work
Pbaro (kPa)
Median Exp Res (cm H2O/l/s)
Percent of Peak Flow
when exp begins
Insp Target
Start Insp Effort Index
Max Flow Acc (mL/s**2)
Time betw. Pmin and PEEP (ms)
PmusTP
Ext Insp Work
Ext Exp Res Work
Ambient Temp (C)
Ins Settling Time (ms)
Insp Mean Sq’d Error
Start Insp Index
Min Flow Acc (mL/s**2)
WOB betw. Pmin and PEEP (mJ)
PEEP_1 auto
Ext Insp Elastic Work
Ext Exp Heat Production (mJ)
Wall Temp (C)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 14-2 Breath Parameter Data File (*.brb, *.bra)
ASL 3.4 .dta ASCII
The format of this file is tab delimited text. Each entry is 12 characters wide and padded with spaces.
Breath Num.Vol Comp In FRCP airwayP chest wallTotal Vol (mL)Total Flow (L/s)P ch1P ch2
Vol2 (mL)Flow1 (L/s)Flow2 (L/s)
P trachVol Vent
Flow Vent
Vol1 (mL)
Press Vent
Figure 14-3 Processed Waveform Data File (*.dtb, *.dta)
ASL 3.4 .rwa ASCII
Time
(sec)
Airway
Pressure
Esophageal
Pressure
Tracheal
Pressure
Breath
Segment
L Breath
File
AUX1
O2conc
(%)
Model
Left vol
Model
Right vol
Piston
Volume
L Model
Pressure
R Model L
Pressure
Figure 14-4 Raw Data File (*.rwb, *.rwa)
151
Support Resources
Data File Parameters
15 Support Resources
Recognizing that the ASL 5000 is a versatile instrument
with users in a large number of fields and applications,
IngMar Medical is dedicated to support its users in many
different ways.
We encourage you to visit our website at
www.ingmarmed.com as the entry point for up-to-date
information on support options. While the primary
source of user information is the Operating Manual,
there are a number of other resources to receive
additional support.
A Virtual Visit (live conversation while the customer
shares his/her screen) is a very effective way of
accelerating the learning curve of a novice user.
3 Hours of this type of support are included wit the
purchase of each ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator
Please contact Customer Care at 1-800-583-9910, ext.
107, about additional support plans that you might be
interested in purchasing.
Updated editions of this Operating Manual can be
downloaded from the IngMar Medical website
A video tutorial is available online and can be accessed
directly through the Help menu item Tutorial
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) are
accessible via our website.
In addition, we can offer live support (Virtual Visit) for
users who have an internet connection for the PC that is
being used as host for the ASL 5000 Breathing Simulator.
Figure 15-2 Online Support Sessions
152
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Figure 15-1 Video Tutorial Access
Technical Data
Performance Specifications
16 Technical Data
16.1 Performance Specifications
Modes of
Operation
Volumes
(Standard 3 L
Cylinder)
Total
Tidal
FRC setting
Deadspace
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Volumes (6 L
Cylinder)
Total
Tidal
FRC setting
Deadspace
Volumes
(Preemie AddOn Cylinder)
Total
Tidal
FRC setting
Deadspace
Frequencies
Spontaneous
breath rate
Small signal
bandwidth
— Passive
— Spontaneous
— Interactive (with adjustable response to ventilator breaths)
— Flow waveform generator
(SmartPump™ mode)
3.1 L
2 to 2500 mL
100 ...1500 mL
200 mL
6.9 L
2 to 6000 mL
100 ...1500 mL
200 mL
0.4 L
0.5 to 200 mL
100 ...150 mL
25 mL
Flow rise
Low flow
Passive Model
Resistance
Compliance
Pressure trigger, flow trigger,
sinusoidal, trapezoidal,
user-file defined
Pressure
Measurement
Airway
Barometric
error < than 1% fso
error < 1% (1 kPa)
Gas
Temperature
error <0.5°C (20 - 45°C)
Servo System
update rate
2048 Hz
O2 Meas. Range
O2Error
Response time
0 to 150/min (infant Vt)
better than 15 Hz (10 cm passive
response to HF ventilation)
3
270 L/min (for units with 4mm,
180 L/min for units with 2.5 mm
pitch ballscrews)
t90flow < 50 ms
< 1 L/min
3 to 500 cmH2O/L/s
linear and parabolic
1 or 2 compartment,
0.5 to 250 mL/cmH2O overall
on SBLVM (avail. option),
approx. 4, 9, 15 L/min
at 20 cmH2O
leak orifices exchangeable
Active Model
Chestwall
pressure
profiles
Fast Oxygen
Module
(FOM Option)
Principle
Flows
Peak flow
Leak
Cylinder
Temperature
Controller
(CTC Option)
Principle
Wall
temperature
setting
Auxiliary
Gas Exchange
Cylinder
(AGEC Option)
Principle
Volume
Part no. 31 00 300
Paramagnetic
(partial pressure measurement)
0 to 100% O2
less than ±0.5% O2
<350 msec
(t90, 21 to 100% O2)
Part no. 31 00 400
PID-controlled foil heater on cylinder
circumference
ambient +5 ºC to 45 ºC
Part no. 31 00 600
Bag-in-bottle external cylinder
approximately 3.0 L (accomodates
bags/bellows up to 4.5 inches)
153
Technical Data
Performance Specifications
Chest Rise
Module
(Human
Patient Interface Option)
Principle
Compatibility
RespiSim-PVI
Principle
Compatibility
Part no. 31 00 730
Pneumatic controller for manikin
simulator chest rise "pillow"
designed for use with Laerdal
SimManTM(Classic and 3G)
Part no. 31
Ventilator data capture via RS-232 to
Bluetooth or WiFi interface
Please see table on the folllowing
page
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
154
Technical Data
Performance Specifications
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
RespiSim-PVI Ventilator Compatibility and Communications Settings
Figure 16-1 Ventilator Settings for RespiSim-PVI Interface
155
Technical Data
Electrical Specifications
Physical Specifications
Software Specifications
16.2 Electrical Specifications
16.4 Software Specifications
Supply Voltage
Interface
to PC host via 10/100 MBit Ethernet
(units with serial no.’s > 0800),
alternatively RS 232 at
57600 Baud, 8 bit, no parity, 1
checkbit
Host Software
LabVIEW modules for:
— modeling
— simulation
— data analysis
Current (120 V)
(230 V)
Fuses
universal input 100 to 240 V AC
(CTC option either 220 to 240 V AC
or
100 to 120 V AC,
please specify at time of ordering)
< 1.0 A typical (2.0 A max)
< 0.5 A typical (1.0 Amax)
3.0 A time delayed (2 x)
(size 5 x 20 mm)
LabVIEW utilities for
— breath profile resampling
— interface module for remote
control via external LabVIEW
software
— TCP/IP Breath Parameter Client
— TCP/IP Waveform Client
16.3 Physical Specifications
Dimensions
ASL 5000
SBLVM
Weight
ASL 5000
SBLVM
156
4.8 x 4.8 x 4.3 inches
(123 x 123 x 108 mm)
(not including cable)
approx. 22 lbs (10 kg)
in standard configuration
16.5 Environmental Specifications
Storage
3.5 lbs (1.6 kg)
Operation
anodized aluminum, silicone sealant
aluminum, closed cell foam pad
Teflon®, Nylon®, rubber
Nylon, brass
Temperature: -10 ºC to 50 ºC
(allow device to reach approximate
room temperature before use)
Humidity: 10 to 95%, noncondensing
Temperature: +10 ºC to 40 ºC
Humidity: 10 to 95%, noncondensing
NOTE: Specifications are subject to
change without notice.
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Materials Used
Inside the
Simulator
Cylinder
Piston plate
Piston seal
Temperature
sensor
8.6 x 16.8 x 12.4 inches
(219 x 425 x 315 mm)
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
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157
Index
A
ABG values ............................................................ 98
AGEC .................................................................. 113
Analog Channel Option ......................................... 63
Analog data ........................................................... 70
Analysis Module, starting ....................................... 66
Anesthetics ............................................................ 13
ASLanalysis.vi ........................................................ 45
Auxiliary Gas Exchange Cylinder ......................... 113
B
Barometric pressure ......................................... 16, 47
Breath Detection / Real-Time Analysis window ..... 60
Breath subdirectory .............................................. 139
C
E
EIP -> see "Extended Input Provider" .....................107
Electrical supply .....................................................13
Enclosure ................................................................14
Equation of motion ...............................................134
Errors, common ....................................................117
Ethernet
communication setup ......................................20
Event Graph .................................................... 87, 88
Event Graph,expanded ...........................................88
Event Markers, Alarm ...........................................101
Event Markers, Simulation ....................................101
Excel ......................................................................70
Exiting software ......................................................64
Explosion hazard ....................................................13
Extended Input Provider .......................................107
F
Fast Oxygen Measurement (FOM) ........................112
Features, system .....................................................15
Flow pattern generator ............................................15
FOM .......................................................................14
FRC ........................................................................36
G
Gains, adjusting ......................................... 76, 79, 80
Gas temperature .....................................................47
H
Hard drive, required space .....................................16
HF ventilation .......................................................117
Host PC, requirements ............................................16
D
Damage ................................................................. 13
Data file types ...................................................... 104
Data file, naming ................................................... 44
Data files, external, for pressure profiles .............. 139
158
I
ICP -> see Interactive Control Panel .......................51
Identification, instrument ......................................118
Initial Settings tab ...................................................93
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Calibration Intervals ............................................. 118
CD-ROM ............................................................... 18
Central runtime module ......................................... 45
Change Events ....................................................... 96
Change Events, activating ...................................... 97
Change Rationale .................................................. 96
Chart length ........................................................... 45
Chest wall model ........................................... 41, 136
Closed Loop MV .............................................. 52, 56
Closed Loop Vt ...................................................... 52
CO2Y .................................................................... 58
COM2, serial port .................................................. 21
Compensations, Real-Time Analysis window ......... 61
Compliance, simulation ......................................... 14
Configuration, voltage for CTC .............................. 20
Connections .......................................................... 20
electrical ......................................................... 20
Connections, pneumatic ........................................ 22
Connector, specification for analog channel .... 63, 64
Control frequency .................................................. 17
CTC ....................................................................... 14
Current.var, parameter file ..................................... 42
Cylinder Temperature Controller ........................... 15
Cylinder Temperature Controller (CTC) ................ 112
Data, auxiliary ........................................................47
Data.raw ................................................................67
DB9, serial cable ....................................................21
Definitions
nomenclature ...................................................12
DHCP server ..........................................................20
Digital filter
pressure ...........................................................60
Disease states .............................................. 134, 135
DLL ........................................................................17
Installation, software ...............................................18
Instructor Dashboard ................................. 87, 92, 93
Instructor Scenario Guide .......................................92
Instructor-Driven ....................................................92
Interactive Control Panel ........................................51
L
Lab results ..............................................................98
Lung Model Parameters, in Interactive Control Panel 53
Lung sounds ...........................................................98
Lungs, non-uniform ..............................................131
Lungs, uniform .....................................................130
M
Maintenance ........................................................118
MATLAB .................................................................70
Measurement, fast oxygen ......................................15
Measurement, gas temperature ...............................16
Model, chest wall .................................................136
Model, dual-compartment ....................................135
Model, limitations of ............................................134
Model, passive .....................................................136
Model, single-compartment ..................................135
Modeling, introduction to .....................................134
Multi-stage Clinical Simulations .............................92
MV target ...............................................................56
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
N
New Script .............................................................31
Non-feedback model (SmartPump mode) .............141
Numeric parameters ...............................................91
O
Odometer, install date ..........................................118
Odometer, piston cycles .......................................118
ON/OFF slide switch ..............................................49
Operator's Manual, for CTC .................................112
Options ......................................................... 14, 110
Oscillations ..........................................................118
Over voltage protection ................................... 63, 64
Overview ...............................................................14
Overview, schematic ............................................123
OX-1Pulse Oximeter Simulator ...............................95
OxSim pulse oximeter ............................................93
Oxygen concentration ............................................47
Oxygen, use with ...................................................13
P
Parameter file .........................................................44
Parameter files ........................................................31
Patient ....................................................................12
patient effort, reducing .........................................138
Patient rooms .........................................................13
Pausing ...................................................................45
Performance analysis, display selections .................82
Performance verification, ventilator ........................12
Playback mode .......................................................89
Pmus, modified by Paw ........................................138
Precautions .............................................................13
Preferences window ...............................................90
Preferences, Event Graph ......................................100
Preferences, module .............................................100
Preferences, numeric parameters ..........................100
Pressure feedback, in control loop ........................134
Pressure trigger, as chest wall activity ...................136
Procedures, ventilator test or calibration .................12
PuTTY ..................................................................103
R
Ramps, pressure profile ........................................138
Real Time Graphics ................................................89
Resampling, pressure profile .................................105
Resistance, definition ..............................................14
Resistor, linear ........................................................14
Resistor, parabolic ..................................................14
Resistors, bronchial ................................................36
RespiSim preferences ..............................................99
RespiSim Preferences File .......................................95
RespiSim-PVI ..........................................................87
Response, neural, to ventilation ............................134
Restarting software .................................................64
RETURN button .... 68, 75, 76, 77, 79, 81, 83, 84, 86
S
Safety, operator ......................................................12
SBLVM .................................................... 14, 44, 110
Scenario Concept Presentation ...............................92
Scenario philosophy ...............................................95
Screen chart, updates ...........................................117
Screen, Multi-Parameter Display ............................75
Screens, analysis trend display ................................80
Screens, Continuous Time-Based Data ...................78
Screens, Post-Run Analysis Loop Display ................77
Screens, servo control performance display ............85
Screens, Trigger Analysis Display ...........................83
Screens, WOB Analysis Display .............................82
Selections, analysis data display .............................71
Show Instructor Actions ......................................... 96
Sidestream measurement, oxygen ........................ 112
Simulation Editor Module ...................................... 31
Simulation, pausing ............................................... 45
Simulation, stopping .............................................. 49
Simulations, running .............................................. 43
Simulations, saved ................................................. 64
Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module ...... 15, 110
Sinusoidal breath profile, as chest wall activity .... 137
SmartPump mode .................................................. 15
SmartPump™ Mode ............................................. 141
SmartPump™ mode ............................................. 141
Specifications
ASL 5000 ...................................................... 153
electrical ....................................................... 156
environmental ............................................... 156
physical ........................................................ 156
software ........................................................ 156
Spills ...................................................................... 13
Stability ................................................................. 36
Step 3, of modeling ................................................ 41
Student Aids .......................................................... 92
Switch, motor enable/disable ............................... 117
Symmetrical profiles, for SmartPump mode ......... 141
Synchronization, problems with .......................... 117
Synchronization, with host-PC ............................... 29
V
Vane pump, for O2 sampling ...............................112
Ventilator ...............................................................12
Ventilator Reference Settings ..................................95
Vital Signs Monitor .................................................90
Vital Signs Monitor, virtual .....................................97
Volume corrections .................75, 76, 80, 83, 84, 85
Volume threshold, for trigger time calculation ........84
Vt target ..................................................................55
W
Wall temperature ............................................. 15, 47
Waveform sampling rate .........................................35
X
X-rays .....................................................................98
Z
Zooming ........................................ 74, 77, 78, 84, 85
T
U
UDP broadcast ...................................................... 20
Update, software ................................................... 17
User breath profile, maximum length ................... 140
User-defined breath profile, as chest wall activity 139
160
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4 © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
TAI (Test Automation Interface) ............................ 103
Target pressure ...................................................... 85
TDMS file .............................................................. 91
Technical data ..................................................... 153
Terminal, connecting PC as ................................... 21
Test lung, ventilating the ........................................ 22
Theory of operation ............................................. 124
Time varying parameters, in chest wall model ....... 41
Training Modules ................................................... 87
Training Modules, authoring ................................ 102
Trapezoidal breath profile, as chest wall activity .. 138
Trends, in Interactive Control Panel ....................... 57
Trigger response time ............................................. 83
Troubleshooting ................................................... 117
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
List of Figures
ASL Software Window Manager ................................5
Patient Model Summary View ...................................5
RespiSim Instructor Dashboard..................................6
RespiSim Vital Signs Monitor.....................................6
Oxygen Saturation Output.........................................6
Functional Overview ...............................................14
ASL 5000 with SBLVM and PC ................................14
Bridgetech Installer..................................................19
Completed SQL Installation .....................................19
SBLVM Connection .................................................20
RespiSim Wireless Adapters.....................................21
Pneumatic Connections Overview...........................22
Quick Reference Startup, Steps 1 and 2 ...................23
Quick Reference Startup, Steps 3 and 4 ...................24
ASL Software Loading..............................................25
ASL Quick Launch Menu.........................................25
Project File Tool - Device Identification...................26
Project File Tool - Graph Colors ..............................26
Project File Tool - Output Settings ...........................26
Project File Tool - Relative Path Tokens...................27
Project File Tool - Event Labels................................27
Project File Tool - Default Anal. Parameters ............27
Project File Tool - Saving Settings ............................27
Quick Launch Menu Options ..................................28
Full Choice Menu Connection Options ...................28
ASL Identification Edit .............................................29
Central Run Time Sync Message..............................29
Script Editor Tab - Scenario Scripts ..........................29
Interactive Control Panel .........................................29
Start Interactive Control ...........................................30
Breath Detection/RT Analysis ..................................30
Post Run Analysis Tab .............................................30
Utilities Selector Tab ...............................................30
RespiSim Tab...........................................................30
Script File Editor - Scenario Scripts ..........................31
Script File Editor - ScriptFile Menu Items .................31
Script File Editor - Manual Scripting.........................31
Script File Editor - Script Errors ................................32
Script File Editor - Editing Techniques......................32
Script File Editor - Tokens ........................................32
Tokens - Relative Path Configuration Tool ...............33
Tokens - Relative Path Editing..................................33
New Token Definitions............................................33
Tokens - Exchange with Configured Token ..............33
Token Configuration Errors ......................................34
Script Editor - Scenario Scripts .................................34
Script Editor - Manual Scripting ...............................34
Select Simulation Parameter Set...............................35
Simulation Parameters - Lung Model .......................35
Lung Model Settings - Compensations .....................36
TVP Menu ...............................................................37
Time Varying Parameters Editor ...............................37
TVP Curve Segment Editor .......................................37
TVP Curve Types .....................................................38
TVP Curve Editing - Linear.......................................38
TVP Curve Editing - Power ......................................38
TVP Curve Editing - Exponential ..............................38
TVP Curve Editing - Sinusoidal ................................38
TVP Curve Editing - From File..................................38
TVP Curve Editing - Uniform Distribution ................38
TVP Curve Editing - Gaussian Distribution...............39
R-Types ...................................................................39
Independ. R.............................................................39
Independent R Settings Rin<>Rout...........................40
Non-Linear C...........................................................40
Non-Linear C Editing ...............................................40
Simulation Editor - Patient Effort Model ...................41
Simulation Editor - Saving a Parameter Set...............42
Waveform Window .................................................43
Simulation ON/OFF.................................................44
PAUSE Switch .........................................................45
Freeze Switch ..........................................................45
Loop View ...............................................................46
Lung Fill Indicator ...................................................47
Analog Parameters..................................................48
Trace Colors ............................................................48
Graph Modifications................................................48
Simulation ON/OFF.................................................49
Virtual Ventilator Panel ...........................................50
Interactive Control Panel, Lung Model
Parameters (R and C) tab .........................................51
Go To ICP ...............................................................51
View Original ..........................................................52
Start Interactive Control ...........................................52
ICP Controls ............................................................52
Interactive Control Panel,
Lung Model Parameters (R and C) tab ......................53
TVP files cannot be used for ICP ..............................53
Interactive Control Panel,
Spontaneous Breathing Parameters tab ....................54
Closed Loop Vt tab ..................................................55
Constant Vt..............................................................55
Interactive Control Panel, Closed Loop MV Tab ......56
Constant Vt..............................................................56
Interactive Control Panel, Trends Tab ......................57
Interactive Control Panel, Closed Loop CO2Y Tab ..58
No Loop ..................................................................58
nteractive Control Panel, Patient Library Tab ...........59
, Breath Detection/Real-Time Analysis Tab ..............60
Pressure Filter Choices.............................................60
TCP Broadcast Configuration...................................61
Create Report Key....................................................62
162
RespiSim: Marking of Alarm Events .......................101
RespiSim: Marking of Simulation Events ................101
Comments for Simulation Events ...........................101
Test Automation Interface ......................................103
Utilities Selector ...................................................104
Utilities: File Conversion .......................................104
Pressure Flow Resampling Utility...........................105
Patient Flow Data Processor ..................................106
EIP: Simple Breath Insertion...................................107
EIP: Alternate Breath Insertion ...............................107
EIP: Closed-Loop Vt...............................................108
EIP: Remote Control ..............................................108
TCP Breath Client ..................................................109
TCP Waveform Client............................................109
Simulator Bypass and Leak Valve Module .............110
SBLVM Schematics................................................110
SBLVM Orifice Characteristics ...............................111
Cylinder Temp. Controller Front Panel ..................112
Paramagnetic Oxygen Transducer .........................112
O2 Data at Run Time ............................................112
Auxiliary Gas Exchange Cylinder...........................113
Setup withManikin ................................................113
ASL 5000 with Preemie Option Installed ...............114
Installation of Preemie Cylinder.............................114
Preemie Cylinder: Pressure Line Manifold .............115
ASL Mobile Cart ....................................................116
ASL 5000 Component Serial Numbers...................118
32-bit Firmware Prep. - Startup..............................119
32-bit Firmware Prep. - ASL Configuration ............120
32-bit Firmware Prep. - Selecting DLL ...................120
32-bit Firmware Prep. - Revision Info ....................120
32-bit Firmware Prep. - Upload Prep Fware...........120
32-bit Firmware Prep. - Disconnect Warning.........121
Standard Firmware Upgrade ..................................121
Standard Firmware Upgrade - Confirm .................122
Standard Firmware Upgrade - Disconnect Warning122
Standard Firmware Upgrade - Restart Notice .........122
Schematic Overview ASL 5000 System..................123
A one-compartment ventilatory system ..................125
Normal ventilatory system responses
during assisted inspiration
(with expiratory muscular forcing). ........................126
∆p-?L plots for... ....................................................127
∆p-?L plots for data in Figure 13-2
with expiration included........................................128
∆ptot- ?L curve for an entire breath with
expiratory volume change .....................................129
(a) Volume and flow responses to the same ∆ptot f
forcing function, ...with different time constants. ...130
(b)The ∆ptot- ?L for the three cases. .......................130
Two compartment pulmonary system
within the chest wall. ............................................131
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
Sample Report ........................................................ 62
Data Recording Checkboxes ................................... 63
Software Exit.......................................................... 64
Project File Dialog .................................................. 64
Welcome Window Return Option .......................... 64
Post-Run Analysis Menu ......................................... 67
Post-Run Analysis, Select Data File ......................... 67
Post-Run Data Re-Processing Window................... 69
Display Data Selections .......................................... 71
Legends/ Palettes .................................................... 71
Graphs- Visible Items.............................................. 71
Zoom Tool.............................................................. 72
Cursor Legend ........................................................ 72
Cursor Legend Options ........................................... 72
Cursor Lock ............................................................ 73
Analysis: Breath-by-Breath Display ......................... 74
Analysis: Multi-Parameter Graph ............................ 75
Parameter Gains ..................................................... 76
Analysis: Loop Display ........................................... 77
Analysis: Continuous Time-Based Data................... 78
Parameter Gains ..................................................... 79
Analysis: Trend View .............................................. 80
Analysis: Work of Breathing Display ...................... 82
Trigger Analysis Display ......................................... 83
Servo Control Performance Display ........................ 85
Starting RespiSim-PVI ............................................. 87
RespiSim-PVI, Main Interface.................................. 87
Event Graph, Collapsed .......................................... 88
Event Graph, Expanded .......................................... 88
RespiSim Event Graph Cursor ................................. 89
RespiSim Real Time Graphic Views ........................ 89
RespiSim Graphic Trend Select............................... 90
RespiSim Numeric Parameter Field ......................... 90
RespiSim Control Field ........................................... 91
Load Settings into Instructor Dashboard.................. 93
License Warning Message....................................... 93
Instructor Dashboard, Initial Settings....................... 94
Dashboard Parameters............................................ 95
Pulse Oximetry Simulator ....................................... 95
RespiSim Change Events ......................................... 96
Activating Change Events........................................ 97
Virtual Vital Signs Monitor...................................... 97
Vital Signs Monitor: Lab Results.............................. 98
Vital Signs Monitor: ABG Values ............................ 98
Vital Signs Monitor: Lung Sounds ........................... 98
Vital Signs Monitor: Playing Lung Sounds ............... 98
Vital Signs Monitor: X-Rays..................................... 98
Vital Signs Monitor: Full Size X-Rays ...................... 99
RespiSim: Open Preferences ................................... 99
RespiSim: Module Preferences.............................. 100
RespiSim: Event Graph Preferences....................... 100
RespiSim: Numeric Parameters Preferences .......... 100
Operating Instructions ASL 5000, SW 3.4, © IngMar Medical, Ltd. 2013
∆ptot- ?L relation for a two compartment ventilatory system as breathing frequency is increased. ...............131
Simulation Model Electrical Analog.......................134
Simulator Concept.................................................134
Single Compartment Model ...................................135
Dual Compartment Model.....................................135
Patient Effort Model: Passive..................................136
Patient Effort Model: Pressure Trigger ....................136
Pressure Trigger Effort Detail..................................136
Patient Effort Model: Flow Trigger..........................137
Flow Trigger Effort Detail.......................................137
Patient Effort Model: Sinusoidal .............................137
Sinusoidal Effort Detail ..........................................137
Trapezoidal Breath Profile .....................................138
Trapezoidal Effort Detail........................................138
File-based Patient Effort .........................................139
Flow Profile Resampling ........................................140
Effort Model - Analog Input ...................................141
Effort Model - Flow Pump......................................141
Timing of Pressure, Flow, and Volume ..................142
Breath Parameter Data File (*.brb, *.bra)................151
Processed Waveform Data File (*.dtb, *.dta) ..........151
Raw Data File (*.rwb, *.rwa)..................................151
Video Tutorial Access...........................................152
Online Support Sessions .......................................152
Raw Data File (*.rwb, *.rwa)..................................155
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